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Sample records for warts condyloma acuminata

  1. Genital warts

    MedlinePlus

    Condylomata acuminata; Penile warts; Human papillomavirus (HPV); Venereal warts; Condyloma; HPV DNA test; Sexually transmitted disease (STD) - warts; Sexually transmitted infection (STI) - warts; LSIL-HPV; ...

  2. Anal Warts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions / Anal Warts Anal Warts Anal Warts | ASCRS Alternate Titles: Warts ANAL WARTS Anal warts (condyloma acuminata) ... Facts About Colorectal Cancer Colon Cancer Myths vs. Reality The Colon: What it is, What it Does ...

  3. Condyloma acuminata in child end laser therapy: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Condyloma acuminata are soft, skin colored, fleshy warts that are caused by the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV). The disease is highly contagious, can appear singly or in groups, small or large. The incubation period may be from 1–6 months. Although anogenital warts are considered to be sexually transmitted in adults, this may not be the case for children. Genital warts in children may result from several modes of transmission: from the maternal genital tract autoinoculation, from finger warts and nonsexual transmission from members/careers. Case presentation The presented case is a 13-month-old girl. She was hospitalized at the Clinic of Dermatovenerology in 2001 due to papillomatosis changes on the genital area. The changes had started to appear in the sixth month of life, light purple in color, smooth and combined in a tumorous mass, in the vulva and anal areas. Conclusion From this case we can come to the conclusion that condyloma acuminate are not only transmitted sexually but through nonsexual ways as well, such is this case, from the infected mother to the infant. Laser therapy is preferred when multiple warts are spread over a large area as though in our case. PMID:19193210

  4. Infrared coagulation in the treatment of condyloma acuminata in the female genital tract.

    PubMed

    Bekassy, Z; Weström, L

    1987-01-01

    An infrared contact coagulator was used for the treatment of genital condyloma acuminata in 89 women. After direct application to the condyloma, the device produces a precisely adjustable tissue necrosis without tissue adhesion. Of the 89 women, 74 returned for scheduled follow-up visits after one, three, and six months. Treatment failure, i.e., recurrence of warts in a treated area, was seen in 13 (10.8%) of 120 treated areas, or in 13 (17.6%) of 74 patients. No complications were observed. The physical working principle of infrared coagulation as well as the results in treatment of condyloma are the same as those of the CO2 laser, but the equipment is cheaper, safer, and more easily handled. It can be used in out-patient departments of clinical and general practices.

  5. Treatment of condyloma acuminata in pregnant women with cryotherapy combined with proanthocyanidins: Outcome and safety

    PubMed Central

    YANG, LI-JUAN; ZHU, DONG-NING; DANG, YAN-LING; ZHAO, XIONG

    2016-01-01

    Patients with condyloma acuminata (CA) during pregnancy represent a special risk group. The outcomes of many treatment methods for such cases are not satisfactory. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the treatment outcome and safety of cryotherapy combined with proanthocyanidins (PCs) for CA in pregnant women. In this study, 46 pregnant women with CA were treated with cryotherapy combined with PCs. The lesions were sprayed with liquid nitrogen until the color of the wart changed from flesh colored to purple. A PC-containing formulation was then sprayed onto a non-woven fabric or single-layer gauze and applied to the affected area. The PC treatment was applied for 20 min, 2 or 3 times per day. All patients were followed up at 1 and 3 months. No visible warts remained after the cryotherapy and PC treatment. At the 1-month follow-up, only 1 case of recurrence was identified. At 3 months, 5 cases of recurrence were identified, and the recurrence rate was 10.9%. The satisfaction rate of the patients was 94% at 1 month and 87% at 3 months after treatment. All pregnancies resulted in healthy live births without delivery complications. Cryotherapy combined with PCs is indicated to be a safe and effective procedure and may serve as a treatment option for pregnant women with CA. PMID:27284325

  6. Giant condyloma acuminata: Incidence among cases diagnosed as carcinoma of the penis

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Sylvia W.

    1965-01-01

    Twenty-four cases of giant condyloma acuminata were found among 100 cases diagnosed as carcinoma of the penis. One of the 24 tumours showed early malignant change. The characteristic histological pattern of giant condyloma consists of broad processes composed of prickle cells associated with little keratinization. The malignant condylomas show, in comparison, a loss of prickle cell preponderance, increased basal cell activity and frequent keratinization, or may present as a solid papillary epithelioma forming broad sheets of uniform cells with many mitoses. The incidence of malignant change in the giant condyloma and the relationship between the benign and malignant tumours are discussed. Images PMID:14276146

  7. Reliability and validity of the Chinese CECA10 questionnaire for Chinese patients with condyloma acuminata

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xinying; Wu, Xinjuan; Guo, Aimin; Zhao, Yanwei

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Condyloma acuminata (CA) is a sexually transmitted disease that affects quality of life (QOL). CECA10 is an English-language questionnaire for assessing QOL in patients with CA, but there is no equivalent in China. This study aimed to develop a validated and reliable Chinese version of CECA10. The Chinese CECA10 was developed from the English version by forward translation, back translation, comparison with the original, cultural adjustments, and a pre-test (5 patients). The Chinese CECA10 and EuroQol Five Dimensions Three Level Questionnaire (EQ-5D-3L) was administered to patients with CA. Content validity (item/scale content validity indexes, I-CVI/S-CVI), test–retest reliability (intraclass coefficient, ICC), internal consistency (Cronbach α), criterion validity (comparison with the Dermatology Life Quality Index, DLQL, using Spearman correlation analysis), construct validity (exploratory factor analysis), and discriminant validity (between subgroups based on number of warts, number of recurrences, or number of sites involved) were assessed. The Chinese CECA10 had good test–retest reliability (ICC = 0.98, P < .001), internal consistency (Cronbach α values of 0.88, 0.84, and 0.83 for the total questionnaire, psychological dimension, and sexual dimension, respectively), content validity (I-CVI = 1 for all items), and criterion validity (r = -0.50, P < .001). Exploratory factor analysis extracted 2 factors with a cumulative contribution of 61.75%; the factor loading with each item was >0.4. Discriminant validity was not high. The mean CECA10 and EQ-VAS scores of 211 patients with CA (28.19 ± 7.16 years; 139 males) were 34.56 ± 19.01 and 64.64 ± 19.28, respectively. The Chinese CECA10 has good reliability and validity for evaluating the QOL of Chinese patients with CA. PMID:29489693

  8. Immunoexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor in gingival mucosa with papilloma and condyloma acuminata.

    PubMed

    Scrieciu, Monica; MercuŢ, Veronica; Andrei, Oana Cella; Predescu, Anca Mihaela; Niculescu, Mihaela; Pisoschi, Cătălina Gabriela; BaniŢă, Ileana Monica

    2015-01-01

    The histological changes of the oral mucosa in contact with a metal alloy dentures is one of the current issues widely debated in the literature. To highlight the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in human paraprosthetic gingival mucosa exposed to nickel and copper compounds using the immunohistochemical technique. The selected participants were wearers of fixed dentures made of nickel-based alloys and copper-based alloys. The gingival mucosa fragments were prelevated through excision after removing fixed denture and extraction one of its affected teeth. The gingival mucosa fragments were processed through the histological technique of paraffin inclusion. The paraffin-embedded tissue sections were usually stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin and processed by immunohistochemical technique with VEGF antibody. The gingival mucosa fragments from nickel-based alloys dentures wearers were diagnosed with papilloma and, also, gingival mucosa samples prelevated from copper-based alloys dentures wearers were diagnosed with condyloma acuminata. Immunohistochemical reaction for VEGF was different in the gingival mucosa fragments with papilloma compared with condyloma acuminata samples. In papillomatosis gingival mucosa fragments, VEGF was implicated in principal in vasodilatation and inflammation process, and secondary in angiogenesis. In gingival mucosa fragments with condyloma acuminata, the principal role of VEGF was in angiogenesis and secondary in inflammation.

  9. Condylomata acuminata, giant condyloma acuminatum (Buschke-Loewenstein tumour) and verrucous squamous carcinoma of the perianal and anorectal region: a continuous precancerous spectrum?

    PubMed

    Bogomoletz, W V; Potet, F; Molas, G

    1985-11-01

    Seven patients with perianal and anorectal giant condyloma acuminatum (Buschke-Loewenstein tumour) are presented. In five of these patients histopathological examination of the lesions disclosed varying degrees of dysplasia and/or squamous carcinoma. The clinicopathological features and aetiology of perianal and anorectal condylomata acuminata, giant condyloma acuminatum and verrucous carcinoma are discussed. The viral induction and malignant transformation of these papillomatous squamous lesions are emphasized.

  10. Difficulties in Diagnosing Sexual Abuse in Children with Condyloma Acuminata in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulbul, Selda; Demirceken, Fulya; Cakir, Baris; Cakir, Elif Pinar; Unlu, Erdal; Soyer, Tutku

    2010-01-01

    Human papillomavirus is responsible for anogenital warts and could be regarded as an indicator of possible sexual abuse in children. A genital wart was detected during an investigation of anti-hepatitis C virus positivity in a four-year-old male patient. No pathological findings of another sexually transmitted disease were found except complete…

  11. A Comparative Study of Liquid Nitrogen Cryotherapy as Monotherapy versus in Combination with Podophyllin in the Treatment of Condyloma Acuminata.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Nidhi; Sharma, Sanjeev; Singhal, Chetna

    2017-03-01

    Condyloma Acuminata (CA) is a common viral sexually transmitted disease. Although various treatment modalities are available for treating CA, but none of them can achieve 100% response rate. In a search for better response rate and less recurrence rate, the combination of cytotoxic agent Podophyllin with ablative liquid nitrogen cryotherapy was evaluated over cryotherapy alone. To evaluate the synergistic effect of Podophyllin as a chemotherapeutic adjunct to an ablative therapy of liquid nitrogen cryotherapy versus liquid nitrogen cryotherapy alone in the treatment of CA. Sixty patients with multiple CA were randomly assigned to two groups in the study. Thirty patients in group A received double freeze thaw cycle of 25 seconds of liquid nitrogen cryotherapy. Thirty patients in Group B were subjected to liquid nitrogen cryotherapy in a similar manner followed by application of not more than 0.5 ml of 25% Podophyllin solution. All patients were followed up at 1, 4, 8, 12 and 24 weeks after the treatment to monitor the response to therapy and evaluation for any recurrence. When the number of unresponsive lesions were more than 30% of original lesions at 4 weeks follow-up, then the whole procedure was repeated again. The complete response rate and the recurrence rate in the Group B in our study were comparable to Group A as the difference was statistically insignificant. But the differentiating point was that the similar results were obtained in Group B with an average1.2 sessions per patient in comparison to an average of 1.67 sessions per patient in Group A. Cryotherapy represents a simple, safe and effective regimen for the treatment of multiple CA which in combination with Podophyllin is even more effective as a single session procedure; thereby shortening the treatment regimen.

  12. Warts

    MedlinePlus

    ... form over warts on your foot or around nails. Your provider may recommend the following treatments if your warts do not go away: Stronger (prescription) medicines A blistering solution Freezing the wart ( cryotherapy ) to remove it Burning the wart ( electrocautery ) to ...

  13. Warts

    MedlinePlus

    ... be more susceptible to warts than others. In fact, some people never get them. Doctors aren't really sure why this is and think it may be that some people's immune systems make them less likely to get the viruses ...

  14. Genital Warts

    PubMed Central

    Yanofsky, Valerie R.; Patel, Rita V.

    2012-01-01

    External genital warts, also known as condylomata acuminata, are extremely common, with between 500,000 to one million new cases diagnosed each year in the United States alone. To date, more than 120 distinct subtypes of human papillomavirus have been identified. Human papillomavirus types 6 and 11 rarely give rise to cervical cancers, but are responsible for 90 percent of the cases of genital warts. The current treatment options are largely centered upon removal of the warts rather than elimination of the underlying viral infection. A wide range of therapies are presently in use, which are highly variable and can differ dramatically with respect to cost, side-effect profiles, dosing schedules, duration of treatment, and overall effectiveness. As of yet, no definitive therapy has emerged as the ideal standard of care in the treatment of genital warts, and therapy selection generally occurs in a patient-specific manner. PMID:22768354

  15. Invasive squamous cell carcinoma originating from a giant penile condyloma.

    PubMed

    Sir, Emin; Gungor, Melike; Ucer, Oktay; Kebat, Tulu

    2017-05-01

    In this case study, we present an unusual case with squamous cell carcinoma originating from a giant condyloma acuminata completely surrounding the penis. A 57-year-old circumcised heterosexual male patient presented with a penile lesion existing for 20 years. Incisional biopsy revealed acanthosis of the squamous epithelium. The patient was operated on under spinal anaesthesia. The lesion was resected circumferentially with macroscopic clearance, resulting in complete degloving of the penile shaft. Neurovascular bundles were preserved. The penile skin was constructed with a split thickness skin graft. Histopathological analysis of the lesion revealed an invasive and well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma arising on a condyloma, and the surgical margins were free from tumour. The patient was staged as G2 T1 N0 M0 and was followed for one year. He did not have any erectile dysfunction and could engage in intercourse. Pelvic tomographic and physical examination findings did not reveal any episode of recurrence or metastasis. When encountering patients with giant condyloma acuminata, it should not be forgotten that it may be accompanied by squamous cell carcinoma. In addition, tissue excision should be as extensive as possible while keeping in mind the importance of the function. This is the first case of a penile-degloving surgery for giant penile condyloma, supporting conservative and preserving penile surgery for such tumours.

  16. [Genital warts in HIV-infected individuals].

    PubMed

    Wieland, U; Kreuter, A

    2017-03-01

    Anogenital warts (condylomata acuminata) are much more frequent in human immunodeficiency (HIV)-positive patients compared to HIV-negative individuals. Anogenital warts of HIV-infected patients differ from those of HIV-negative individuals with respect to their spread, occurrence on more unusual anatomical sites, human papillomavirus (HPV)-type spectrum, tendency to recur, and risk of malignant transformation. Between 18 and 56% of anogenital warts of HIV-positive patients harbor high-grade dysplasia. Therefore, anogenital warts of HIV-infected patients should be preferentially treated with ablative methods and should be evaluated histopathologically. Gender-neutral prophylactic HPV vaccination of HPV-naive boys and girls could also lead to a significant reduction of anogenital warts in this patient group in the future.

  17. First Aid: Warts

    MedlinePlus

    ... on this topic for: Parents Kids Teens Warts Genital Warts (HPV) Your Child's Immunizations: Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine ... With Warts? Warts About Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) Genital Warts (HPV) HPV Vaccine Molluscum Contagiosum View more Partner ...

  18. Genital Warts

    MedlinePlus

    ... transmitted disease (STD) caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). The warts usually appear as a small bump ... completely eliminate, the risk of catching or spreading HPV. The most reliable way to avoid infection is ...

  19. Genital Warts

    MedlinePlus

    ... single type of STI. Can women who have sex with women get genital warts? Yes. It is ... Awareness Day National Women's Health Week Supporting Nursing Moms at Work Popular Topics Autoimmune diseases Breastfeeding Carpal ...

  20. Genital Warts

    MedlinePlus

    ... that they can't be seen with the naked eye. Sometimes, however, genital warts may multiply into ... on Immunization Practices recommends routine HPV vaccination for girls and boys ages 11 and 12. If not ...

  1. Crown wart

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Crown wart has been found widely distributed in Australia, New Zealand, and European countries. It has been recorded sporadically in India (Punjab), South Africa, South America (Ecuador, Chile, Peru), Panama, Mexico, and Canada (British Columbia). In the United States, it has been found more frequ...

  2. Warts (genital)

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Introduction External genital warts (EGWs) are sexually transmitted benign epidermal growths caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV), on the anogenital areas of both females and males. About 50-60% of sexually active women aged 18-49 have been exposed to HPV infection, but only 10-15% will have genital warts. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments for external genital warts? What are the effects of interventions to prevent transmission of external genital warts? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to February 2007 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 47 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: bi- and trichloroacetic acid; condoms; cryotherapy; electrosurgery; imiquimod; intralesional, topical, or systemic interferons; laser surgery; podophyllin; podophyllotoxin; surgical excision; and vaccines. PMID:19454104

  3. Condyloma acuminatum of the buccal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Rashmi; Pandey, Manoj; Shukla, Mridula; Kumar, Mohan

    2014-06-01

    Condyloma acuminatum is a human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced disease. It is usually transmitted sexually, and it frequently occurs in the anogenital area. A finding of condyloma acuminatum in the oral cavity is rare. Besides HPV, other risk factors for oral condyloma include chewing betel quid and smoking. We report the case of a 52-year-old man who presented with a 2 × 2-cm verrucous white patch on his buccal mucosa. He was habituated to both betel quid and cigarette smoking. A biopsy of the lesion identified it as a verrucous hyperplasia of the squamous epithelium with HPV-related koilocytic changes. The lesion was excised, and further histopathology identified it as condyloma acuminatum. The patient was disease-free 9 months postoperatively. The possibility of condyloma acuminatum should be considered in the differential diagnosis of an oral white lesion. The most common treatments are surgical excision, cryosurgery, electrocautery, and laser excision. There is no known role for antiviral therapy.

  4. Warts (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Plantar warts. Found on the bottom of the foot, plantar warts can be very uncomfortable — like walking on a small stone. Filiform warts. These have a finger-like shape, are usually flesh-colored, and often grow on ...

  5. Risk of cancer in patients with genital warts: A nationwide, population-based cohort study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Ching-Yi; Lo, Yu-Cheng; Hung, Miao-Chiu; Lai, Chou-Cheng; Chen, Chun-Jen

    2017-01-01

    Background Condyloma acuminata currently affects around 1% of sexually active adults, and its incidence is increasing. The coexistence of genital warts (GW) and certain cancers and an association between human papillomavirus (HPV) and various malignancies have been reported. Therefore, we conducted this large national study to analyze the risk of malignancies among men and women with GW in Taiwan. Methods and findings Between January 2000 and December 2013, approximately 3 million patients were reported to the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan. Of these patients, 21,763 were diagnosed with GW. In the same time period, a total of 213,541 cancer cases were reported to the registry, of which 1002 were recorded among patients with GW. The age-specific incidence rates of GW and standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of malignancies compared to the general population were calculated. Women acquired GW earlier than men, with a mean age at diagnosis of 32.63±12.78 years. The highest incidence rate for both genders peaked at 20–29 years. Of the 1002 patients with GW and malignancies, the SIR was 1.95 (95%CI 1.83–2.07). The most markedly increased risk was found for HPV-related cancers, with a SIR of 9.74 (95%CI 3.70–15.77). Significantly elevated risks were also noted for smoking-related cancers, anogenital cancers, cervix in situ, colon, rectum, lung, kidney, and prostate cancers. Most cancers developed within 10 years after the diagnosis of GW. Conclusions Patients with GW have an increased risk of HPV-related cancers, especially anogenital malignancies in Taiwan. The elevated risk of other cancers highlights differences in exposure and risk factors among patients with GW compared to the general population. Cancer screening and HPV vaccination programs should be emphasized for at-risk patients. PMID:28806741

  6. What are Warts?

    MedlinePlus

    ... about which treatment is right for you. Applying salicylic acid. You can treat warts on places such as the hands, feet or knees by putting salicylic acid (one brand name: Compound W) on the warts. ...

  7. Genital Warts - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Genital Warts URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Genital Warts - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  8. Wilhelm Fabry's 1614 report on a giant condyloma of the penis.

    PubMed

    Marx, F J; Karenberg, A

    2012-02-01

    For many years it has been the work of Buschke and Löwenstein that has justified calling the exophytic, locally destructive tumour of the anogenital mucosal surface 'giant condyloma of Buschke and Löwenstein' or GCBL. In order to investigate the early history of this rare disease we examined the writings of the barber-surgeon Wilhelm Fabry (1560-1634) who had a serious interest in dermatological disorders and their treatment. We analysed Fabry's 600 Latin case reports and identified the case of a 'monstrous penile tumour'. We then translated this text into English and compared it point by point with later publications. This was followed by a cursory review of surgical treatises from the 16th to the 18th centuries. In 1614 Fabry described and depicted a tumour of the penis; the clinical characteristics (gradual formation of a warty lesion, considerable size, invasive growth, absence of metastases) indicated it was a giant condyloma. His mention of the urethral fistulization enables discrimination from 'common' condylomata acuminata, and the survival period of 10 years after amputation allows exclusion of a 'true' carcinoma. This report is singular among 17th-century case histories. The neoplasias described 300 years later are most probably biologically identical. Thus, Fabry's is the first clinical report; the histological classification, however, belongs to Buschke and Löwenstein. From now on the disease should be designated with the eponym giant condyloma of Fabry-Buschke-Löwenstein or GCFBL. © 2011 The Authors. BJD © 2011 British Association of Dermatologists.

  9. Management of peri-anal giant condyloma acuminatum--a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Safi, Farouk; Bekdache, Omar; Al-Salam, Suhail; Alashari, Mouied; Mazen, Taha; El-Salhat, Haytham

    2013-01-01

    Giant condyloma acuminatum (GCA), originally described by Buschke and Loewenstein in 1925 as a lesion of the penis, is more rarely seen in the anorectum and is characterized by clinical malignancy in the face of histologic benignity; however, malignant transformation to frankly invasive squamous-cell carcinoma has been described in about one-third of patients. In addition, malignant transformation has been reported in patients with "ordinary" condylomata acuminata. Human papillomavirus, known to cause condylomata acuminata, is also known to induce these tumors and was found in 96% of 63 cases reviewed in the last 10 years. These lesions have a propensity for recurrence and a likelihood of malignant transformation, and lead to significant mortality. Therefore, early and radical R0 excision, along with vigilant follow-up, provides the hope for cure. Conservative and/or multimodal therapy has been reported in a few cases, but its effect is not yet proved. The authors report one case of GCA; in addition, they reviewed the literature over the last 10 years and compared with previous reviews. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Effectiveness of HPV vaccines against genital warts in women from Valencia, Spain.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Illana, Esther; López-Lacort, Mónica; Navarro-Illana, Pedro; Vilata, Juan José; Diez-Domingo, Javier

    2017-06-05

    To assess the effectiveness of the HPV vaccines in preventing genital warts in young women. Population-based study using health databases. Valencian Community (Spain). All girls and women aged 14-19years who were registered in the Valencian Community between January 2009 and December 2014 (n=279,787). Incident cases of genital warts were defined as the first activation of diagnosis code ICD-9-CM 078.11 (Condyloma acuminatum) in primary care and outpatient clinics during the study period. There were 612 cases of genital warts. The overall incidence rate was 75.8/100,000 person-years (95% CrI 69.7-81.8). There was a decrease in genital warts when female candidates to be vaccinated with quadrivalent HPV vaccine reached the age of 18 (in 2012), compared to previous years. Incidence of genital warts in unvaccinated women and those who received the bivalent vaccine was higher than in girls and women who received the quadrivalent HPV vaccine. The effectiveness of a three-dose regimen of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine was 77% (95 CrI: 66-85%), whereas that of a single dose was 61% (95 CrI: 20-87%). No effectiveness was seen with a full vaccination course with the bivalent HPV vaccine. Three doses of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine were effective against genital warts in our population. Moreover, with low vaccine coverage the incidence of genital warts decreased only in the vaccinated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Polyphenon E 10% ointment: in immunocompetent adults with external genital and perianal warts.

    PubMed

    Hoy, Sheridan M

    2012-08-01

    Polyphenon E 10% ointment, which contains a mixture of green tea catechins, is indicated for the treatment of external genital and perianal warts (Condylomata acuminata) in immunocompetent patients aged ≥18 years. In two double-blind, multinational studies in adults with external genital and perianal warts, polyphenon E 10% ointment for up to 16 weeks was significantly more effective than vehicle with regard to the complete clearance of all warts (i.e. those at baseline and newly appearing during treatment) [primary endpoint]. In gender subgroup analyses, polyphenon E 10% ointment was more effective than vehicle in both men and women in one of two individual studies, and in pooled data from both studies. Polyphenon E 10% ointment was also significantly more effective than vehicle with regard to several secondary endpoints, including the complete clearance of baseline warts and partial clearance of at least 50% of all warts in both studies. Rates of recurrence of any warts or development of new warts were low (<9%) in both treatment arms during a 12-week follow-up period in both studies. Polyphenon E 10% ointment was generally well tolerated in adults with external genital and perianal warts. According to pooled data from the two clinical studies, the majority of adverse events associated with polyphenon E 10% ointment involved application site and local skin reactions at the treatment site.

  12. What's Up with Warts?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Things That Help Feelings Expert Answers Q&A Movies & More for Teens Teens site Sitio para adolescentes ... warts . They're the kind that witches in movies and fairytale books have on their chins or ...

  13. Genital Warts (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... genital warts, it could be a sign of sexual abuse , and parents should be aware of that possibility. However, HPV also can spread through nonsexual contact between a child and a caregiver — for instance, while giving a ...

  14. Genital Warts (HPV)

    MedlinePlus

    ... or growths. They can be flat or raised, single or many, small or large. They tend to ... someone's genitals or having vaginal, oral, or anal sex). In some rare cases, genital warts are transmitted ...

  15. [Anogenital warts in children].

    PubMed

    Traulsen, J B

    1995-01-02

    The incidence of anogenital warts among children seems to be increasing, and the question of route of contagion is often controversial. It has earlier been emphasized that a frequent route of infection of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) is through sexual abuse of the child. However, reports published in recent years have made it more likely that one is often dealing with a non-sexually transmitted HPV infection localized to the anogenital skin and mucous membranes. This paper reviews possible routes of infection of HPV in children as well as suggestions for the investigation and treatment of the warts.

  16. Warts, malnutrition, and sunshine.

    PubMed

    Orozco-Topete, Rocío; Villa, Antonio; Leyva Santiago, Jaime; Scholtes, Christian; Archer-Dubon, Carla; Ysunza, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    Viral warts are common in poor rural settings but their relationship to malnutrition has not been studied. We sought to determine the prevalence of warts in children of two communities in Oaxaca, Mexico, and compared it with their nutritional status. Children from Santa Catarina Yahuio and Santiago Laxopa of the state of Oaxaca were examined. Localization, number, and type of verruca were noted. Date of birth, height, and weight were obtained to determine nutritional status. A total of 213 children (116 girls and 97 boys), 107 in Yahuio and 106 in Laxopa, were studied. Mean age was 10.24 years. Thirty children (14.1%) had warts and 80% (24/30) of these lived in Yahuio (p = 0.0002). Almost half were teenagers. Most lesions were on sun-exposed areas. First degree malnutrition was found in 24.5%; second degree in 23.6% and third degree in 14.2%. A higher frequency of warts than previously reported was found. Malnutrition was prevalent in both groups but did not correlate positively with verruca. Verruca were more frequent in females, adolescents, sun-exposed areas, and higher altitude. We believe that the higher altitude of Yahuio facilitates greater exposure to ultraviolet light-induced immune suppression.

  17. Genital warts treatment: Beyond imiquimod.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jianwei; Ni, Guoying; Wang, Tianfang; Mounsey, Kate; Cavezza, Shelley; Pan, Xuan; Liu, Xiaosong

    2018-03-05

    Genital warts are one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases worldwide. The disease is a result of infection with low-risk types of human papillomaviruses, mostly type 6 and 11. Current therapies for genital warts are mainly ablative, or alternatively topical application of imiquimod cream and sinecatechin (polyphenon E) ointment to the warts. However, low patient compliance and high recurrence rate are significant problems for the treatment of genital warts by imiquimod and ablative therapies. We summarise recent literature in this area and propose combining imiquimod with other therapies to increase the efficacy of imiquimod.

  18. Estimation of the incidence of genital warts and the cost of illness in Germany: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Hillemanns, Peter; Breugelmans, J Gabrielle; Gieseking, Friederike; Bénard, Stève; Lamure, Emilie; Littlewood, Kavi J; Petry, Karl U

    2008-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a necessary cause of cervical cancer. HPV is also responsible for benign condylomata acuminata, also known as genital warts. We assessed the incidence of genital warts in Germany and collected information on their management to estimate the annual cost of disease. Methods This was a multi-centre observational (cross-sectional) study of genital warts in Germany. Data were collected from gynecologists, dermatologists, and urologists seeing patients with genital warts between February and April 2005. The number of patients with new and recurrent genital warts was used to estimate the incidence in Germany. We assessed resource use for patients with genital warts seen during a two-month period as well as retrospective resource use twelve months prior to the inclusion visit through a chart review. The mean costs of treatment of patients with genital warts from third-party payer and societal perspectives were estimated, and the total annual cost of genital warts was then calculated. Results For the incidence calculation 217 specialists provided information on 848 patients and 214 specialists provided resource use data for 617 patients to assess resource consumption. The incidence of new and recurrent cases of genital warts was 113.7 and 34.7 per 100 000, respectively, for women aged 14–65 years consulting gynecologists. The highest incidence was observed in women aged 14–25 years (171.0 per 100 000) for new cases and in women aged 26–45 years (53.1 per 100 000) for recurrent cases. The sample size for males was too small to allow a meaningful estimate of the incidence. The mean direct cost per patient with new genital warts was estimated at 378 euros (95% CI: 310.8–444.9); for recurrent genital warts at 603 euros (95% CI: 436.5–814.5), and for resistant genital warts at 1,142 euros (95% CI: 639.6–1752.3). The overall cost to third-party payers was estimated at 49.0 million euros, and the total societal cost at 54

  19. Warts (non-genital).

    PubMed

    Loo, Steven King-Fan; Tang, William Yuk-Ming

    2014-06-12

    Warts are caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV), of which there are over 100 types. HPV probably infects the skin via areas of minimal trauma. Risk factors include use of communal showers, occupational handling of meat, and immunosuppression. In immunocompetent people, warts are harmless and resolve as a result of natural immunity within months or years. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for warts (non-genital)? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to October 2013 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 17 studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic, review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: intralesional bleomycin; intralesional candida antigen; contact immunotherapy; cryotherapy; duct tape occlusion; photodynamic treatment; pulsed dye laser; surgical procedures; and topical salicylic acid.

  20. Proctoscopy should be mandatory in men that have sex with men with external anogenital warts.

    PubMed

    Mlakar, Bostjan

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate anal pathology in men having sex with men (MSM) seen at our proctology outpatient clinics. The charts of 74 MSM treated by the author between January 2002 and April 2006 were reviewed. Three of 74 patients (4%) had proctitis and 96% had anogenital condylomata acuminata (warts). 49 out of 71 (69%) had external anogenital as well as intra-anal warts and 13 (18%) had only intra-anal warts. In 14 an intra-anal dysplasia and in 2 patients intra-anal verrucous carcinomas were detected. The average duration of disease before referral to our institutions was more than 9 months. Half of the patients were previously treated for anogenital warts with ointments and suppositories at other institutions, including 17 that were "treated" with ointments and/or suppositories for hemorrhoids prescribed by family physicians. The patients mostly had widespread disease and sixty-nine of them required surgery. In the follow-up period there was no recurrence of warts and only itching was observed in 31 (44%) patients. Therapy with imiquimod was introduced for 3 months in twenty-two cases with intra-anal dysplasia. No major side effects were noticed despite intra-anal use. Proctoscopy and histological examination of intra-anal lesions in cases of external anogenital warts should be mandatory in MSM patients. I would like to encourage other physicians to use this approach, which enables detection of intra-anal warts, dysplasia, and even carcinoma in the asymptomatic stage.

  1. [Genital warts and HPV vaccination].

    PubMed

    Pilka, R; Dvorák, V; Fait, T

    2011-12-01

    To present and overview of incidence of, and cost of care for, genital warts. Review. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Palacky University and Faculty University, Olomouc; Office gynecology and primary care centre, Brno; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Charles university in Prague-First Faculty of Medicine and General Faculty Hospital, Prague. Literature review of incidence of, and cost of care for, genital warts in some european countries, North America and Australia. Genital warts exert a considerable impact on health services, a large proportion of which could be prevented through immunisation using the quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine.

  2. Management of external genital warts.

    PubMed

    Karnes, Jonathan B; Usatine, Richard P

    2014-09-01

    Genital warts affect 1% of the sexually active U.S. population and are commonly seen in primary care. Human papillomavirus types 6 and 11 are responsible for most genital warts. Warts vary from small, flat-topped papules to large, cauliflower-like lesions on the anogenital mucosa and surrounding skin. Diagnosis is clinical, but atypical lesions should be confirmed by histology. Treatments may be applied by patients, or by a clinician in the office. Patient-applied treatments include topical imiquimod, podofilox, and sinecatechins, whereas clinician-applied treatments include podophyllin, bichloroacetic acid, and trichloroacetic acid. Surgical treatments include excision, cryotherapy, and electrosurgery. The quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine is active against virus subtypes that cause genital warts in men and women. Additionally, male circumcision may be effective in decreasing the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus, human papillomavirus, and herpes simplex virus.

  3. Clinicoepidemiological Study of Different Types of Warts

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sanjeev; Sharma, Yugal K.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Warts are cutaneous and, sometimes, mucosal lesions caused by one of the several human papilloma viruses. Aim. Assessment of the clinicoepidemiological aspects of warts. Materials and Methods. One hundred consecutive patients of warts presenting to the department of our institution were assigned two broad locational groups: genital and nongenital warts, the latter subdivided into common, plane, palmoplantar, mosaic, and digitate/filiform. Results. Ninety had nongenital and 10 had genital warts in our study; common (42%), palmoplantar (20%), and plane (18%) were the common types of the nongenital warts. All the genital warts were acuminate. In the second decade, the commonest age group, encompassed all patients of mosaic, 40% of palmoplantar, and 20% of genital warts. Overall male (66%) preponderance xisted. All cases of filiform warts were males. Mosaic warts affected females more commonly. Students (32%), laborers (28%), and housewives (16%) were the usual occupations. Cosmetic concern (92%), pain (16%), and itching (15%) were the common complaints. All patients of genital warts sought treatment within 6 months. Conclusions. Common, palmoplantar, and plane warts were the common types of nongenital warts. Overall prevalence peaked during the second decade but one-third of the cases of plane warts occurred during the first. Extremities were the most common sites (66.7%); face was the next commonly (23%) involved. PMID:27047542

  4. Urethroscopy and urethral cytology in men with external genital condyloma.

    PubMed

    Fralick, R A; Malek, R S; Goellner, J R; Hyland, K M

    1994-03-01

    To develop guidelines as to which asymptomatic male patients with genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection need further evaluation of the urethra, we studied two screening methods: urethroscopy and voided urethral cytology. In a four-year period, 135 asymptomatic men underwent complete screening for HPV infection. They were evaluated because of HPV-related genital disease in their female sex partners or visible genital lesions, or both. Of the 135 patients, 21 (16%) had no clinical, subclinical, cytologic, or urethroscopic evidence of disease, and 114 (84%) had biopsy-proven HPV infection. Of these 114 patients, only 14 (12.3%) had intraurethral condyloma. All of these 14 patients had current or historical evidence of meatal or perimeatal "sentinel" lesions. They constituted 29.8 percent of 47 such patients with sentinel lesions. In 5 patients (4%), results of voided urine cytology were positive for condyloma cells, but only 1 of these had visible intraurethral disease. Of the 14 patients with urethral disease, only 1 (7%) had positive results of urine cytology. These observations suggest that any asymptomatic male patient undergoing screening for condyloma acuminatum who has a history of or demonstrable subclinical or grossly visible perimeatal or meatal HPV infection should undergo urethroscopy and that voided urine cytology is not a reliable or cost-effective test for the detection of visible intraurethral disease.

  5. Immunohistochemistry and Polymerase Chain Reaction for Detection Human Papilloma Virus in Warts: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hong Sun; Lee, Ji Hyun; Choo, Ji Yoon; Byun, Hee Jin; Jun, Jin Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Background Immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are the most widely used methods for the detection of viruses. PCR is known to be a more sensitive and specific method than the immunohistochemical method at this time, but PCR has the disadvantages of high cost and skilled work to use widely. With the progress of technology, the immunohistochemical methods used in these days has come to be highly sensitive and actively used in the diagnostic fields. Objective To evaluate and compare the usefulness of immunohistochemistry and PCR for detection human papilloma virus (HPV) in wart lesions. Methods Nine biopsy samples of verruca vulgaris and 10 of condyloma accuminatum were examined. Immunohistochemical staining using monoclonal antibody to HPV L1 capsid protein and PCR were done for the samples. DNA sequencing of the PCR products and HPV genotyping were also done. Results HPV detection rate was 78.9% (88.9% in verruca vulgaris, 70.0% in condyloma accuminatum) on immunohistochemistry and 100.0% for PCR. HPV-6 genotype showed a lower positivity rate on immunohistochemistry (50.0%) as compared to that of the other HPV genotypes. Conclusion Immunohistochemistry for HPV L1 capsid protein showed comparable sensitivity for detection HPV. Considering the high cost and great effort needed for the PCR methods, we can use immunohistochemistry for HPV L1 capsid protein with the advantage of lower cost and simple methods for HPV detection. PMID:27489431

  6. Treatment of urogenital and anal condylomata acuminata with Neodym: YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dann, Thomas; Knipper, Ansgar; Thomas, Stephen; Jocham, Dieter

    1994-02-01

    Condylomata acuminata of the urogenital and anal region are sexually transmitted warts caused by infection of human papilloma virus. In the literature different treatment modalities are reported. We report the treatment of 323 patients (315 male, 8 female) with a mean age of 27.9 years using the Nd:YAG laser. In 65% the lesions were located in the fossa navicularis, in 37% at the glans, in 30% at the foreskin. Thirty-five percent of all patients required endoscopic treatment of the distal urethra. Two-hundred-seventy-nine patients had recurrence after unsuccessful pretreatment with surgical and chemical therapy. After a mean follow-up of 15.5 months (2 - 43 months) of 95 evaluable patients 15 showed recurrences all within the first 6 months. The advantages of Nd:YAG laser treatment of condylomata acuminata, which might be done in local anaesthesia, are a low rate of recurrences and complications, the option of endoscopic treatment and the excellent cosmetic results.

  7. Anogenital warts in pediatric population*

    PubMed Central

    Costa-Silva, Miguel; Fernandes, Inês; Rodrigues, Acácio Gonçalves; Lisboa, Carmen

    2017-01-01

    The approach to children with anogenital warts in the context of sexual abuse is a challenge in clinical practice. This study aims to review the current knowledge of anogenital warts in children, the forms of transmission, and the association with sexual abuse and to propose a cross-sectional approach involving all medical specialties. A systematic review of the literature was conducted in Portuguese and English from January 2000 to June 2016 using the ISI Web of Knowledge and PubMed databases. Children aged 12 years or younger were included. The ethical and legal aspects were consulted in the Declaration and Convention on the Rights of Children and in the World Health Organization. Non-sexual and sexual transmission events of human papillomavirus in children have been well documented. The possibility of sexual transmission appears to be greater in children older than 4 years. In the case of anogenital warts in children younger than 4 years of age, the possibility of non-sexual transmission should be strongly considered in the absence of another sexually transmitted infection, clinical indicators, or history of sexual abuse. The importance of human papillomavirus genotyping in the evaluation of sexual abuse is controversial. A detailed medical history and physical examination of both the child and caregivers are critical during the course of the investigation. The likelihood of an association between human papillomavirus infection and sexual abuse increases directly with age. A multidisciplinary clinical approach improves the ability to identify sexual abuse in children with anogenital warts. PMID:29166505

  8. Condyloma eradication: self-therapy with 0.15-0.5% podophyllotoxin versus 20-25% podophyllin preparations--an integrated safety assessment.

    PubMed

    Longstaff, E; von Krogh, G

    2001-04-01

    Topical application of podophyllin solution, long considered the therapy of first choice against condylomata acuminata, can no longer be recommended due to its low efficacy and gross toxicity. Self-treatment with 0.15-0.5% purified podophyllotoxin preparations, applied twice daily for 3 days, is now advocated as the alternative first-line therapy of choice, when significant improvement is conveniently, and cost-effectively, accomplished within a few weeks. This review provides a summary of the comparative efficacy and utility of podophyllin versus podophyllotoxin as well as a compilation of in vivo and in vitro safety evaluations. In light of overwhelming safety and efficacy data in favor of podophyllotoxin-derived products, it is concluded that podophyllin preparations have no place in the modern treatment portfolio for anogenital warts. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  9. Genital warts in children: what do they mean?

    PubMed Central

    Jayasinghe, Y; Garland, S M

    2006-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are a diverse family of viruses, of which 30–40 genotypes specifically infect the genital tract. Genital HPVs are largely transmitted sexually, with most infections being asymptomatic and transient. In contrast, persistent infection with oncogenic genotypes in a minority is a strong risk factor, for subsequent development of high grade dysplasia, the precursor lesion to cervical neoplasia, which generally occurs after a long latency period. It is unknown whether there is a disease correlate in children chronically infected with oncogenic HPVs. Low risk HPV genotypes 6 and 11 are the primary cause of condylomata acuminata, although in children non‐genital genotypes are also found in a proportion, with the mode of transmission being either perinatal, horizontal, or sexual. The finding of asymptomatic HPV DNA in children, and correlation with live virus, infectivity, or disease is unclear. Long term follow up for children with anogenital warts is recommended, although there are no longitudinal studies available to clarify whether they are at risk of developing carcinoma in young adulthood. PMID:16670117

  10. Topical Sandalwood Oil for Common Warts.

    PubMed

    Haque, Malika; Coury, Daniel L

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of sandalwood oil for cutaneous viral warts caused by human papillomavirus. Sandalwood oil was applied topically twice daily for 12 weeks to cutaneous warts on any area of the body. Data collected at each visit included measurement of wart size, photograph of the warts, and documentation of treatment compliance and any adverse reactions. Ten subjects were enrolled and received treatment. At the end of the study, 8 of 10 (80%) had complete resolution of all treated warts. The remaining 2 subjects had improvement rated as moderate (25% to >90%). There were no complaints of skin irritation, erythema, itching, peeling of skin or scarring, pain or discomfort, or other adverse events reported. Sandalwood oil appears to be effective in the painless treatment of cutaneous warts caused by human papillomavirus.

  11. 9 CFR 113.206 - Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.206... Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.206 Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared... content as prescribed in § 113.200(f). (d) Potency and efficacy. The efficacy of wart vaccine has been...

  12. 9 CFR 113.206 - Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.206... Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.206 Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared... content as prescribed in § 113.200(f). (d) Potency and efficacy. The efficacy of wart vaccine has been...

  13. 9 CFR 113.206 - Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.206... Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.206 Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared... content as prescribed in § 113.200(f). (d) Potency and efficacy. The efficacy of wart vaccine has been...

  14. 9 CFR 113.206 - Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.206... Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.206 Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared... content as prescribed in § 113.200(f). (d) Potency and efficacy. The efficacy of wart vaccine has been...

  15. 9 CFR 113.206 - Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.206... Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.206 Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared... content as prescribed in § 113.200(f). (d) Potency and efficacy. The efficacy of wart vaccine has been...

  16. A practical approach to warts in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Herman, Bruce E; Corneli, Howard M

    2008-04-01

    Although cutaneous warts are one of the most common skin conditions affecting children, their management can be challenging, especially in complex cases and even more so during a single emergency department encounter. Anogenital warts require particular attention because of their possible but nonspecific association with sexual abuse. This review will focus on cutaneous warts and anogenital warts, with a discussion of their recognition and treatment, especially in the emergency department. The medicolegal implications of anogenital warts in children are also reviewed.

  17. Decline in hospitalization for genital warts in the Veneto region after an HPV vaccination program: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Cocchio, Silvia; Baldovin, Tatjana; Bertoncello, Chiara; Buja, Alessandra; Furlan, Patrizia; Saia, Mario; Baldo, Vincenzo

    2017-04-05

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted pathogens. This observational study was conducted to estimate the trend of hospitalization for genital warts (GWs) in the Veneto region (Italy) from 2004 to 2015. All patients with GWs were identified in the hospital discharge records of all public and accredited private hospitals that related to Veneto residents and contained the ICD9-CM code 078.11 associated with a genital surgical procedure (vulval/vaginal warts, penile warts and anal warts). Annual total and sex- and age-specific hospitalization rates and trends were calculated and correlated with the different HPV vaccine coverage over the study period. An annual rate of 11.8 per 100,000 population (8.6 per 100,000 males, and 14.8 per 100,000 females) was found, corresponding to 6076 hospitalizations for condyloma (53.3% vulval/vaginal, 35.8% anal, 8.3% penile, and 2.6% both penile or vulval/vaginal and anal). Among females, the rate of overall GWs remained stable to 2007 (19.1 per 100,000), then dropped significantly, reaching a rate of 11.3 per 100,000 in 2015 (average annual percent changes [AAPC]: -6.1%; 95% CI: -8.4; -3.7). For males, the overall rate increased over the study period (from 6.4 per 100,000 in 2004 to 10.8 per 100,000 in 2015; AAPC: 3.8%; 95% CI: 1.2; 6.4). Among the potentially vaccinated females (12- to 20-year-olds) there was a 62.1% decrease in the number of vulval/vaginal warts from the years 2010-2012 to the years 2013-2015 due to an increase in the HPV coverage rate. A similar reduction among males was observed in the same period and the same age group for penile warts (-68.2%). GWs have an important impact on the health services and data suggest that GW-related hospitalization rates rapidly decline in a population with a high HPV vaccination coverage (about 75%). Further efforts should be made to better clarify the epidemiological picture regarding HPV-related diseases, with particular regard to sexual

  18. A retrospective analysis of the costs and management of genital warts in Italy.

    PubMed

    Gianino, Maria Michela; Delmonte, Sergio; Lovato, Emanuela; Martinese, Morena; Rondoletti, Sabrina; Bernengo, Maria Grazia; Zotti, Carla Maria

    2013-10-09

    In Italy the prevalence of genital warts in women (15-64 years) is approximately 0.6% with an incidence of 0.4% per year. Treatments for GW are usually long, with moderate success and high costs. The aim of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic-therapeutic pathway, duration and setting of treatment, costs of episodes of condyloma in a population attending a regional STI clinic in Piedmont. This was a retrospective observational study conducted using medical records of outpatients who first visited the STI Clinic of San Lazzaro Dermatological Hospital in 2008. The patients' medical histories were analysed for episodes that occurred and were cleared in 18 months following the initial visit. Data on screening methods for STIs, type of diagnosis for condyloma, treatment type, treatment setting, and anatomic lesion site were obtained from medical records. The costs were calculated for each episode. A total of 450 episodes were analysed (297 men,153 women). The most frequently affected anatomic site was the genital area (74%) in both genders. With regard to treatment setting, 78.44% of patients received outpatient treatment at the STI clinic, 4% were treated at home, and 0.22% were hospitalised; 11.11% were treated in multiple settings. The mean number of treatments per episode was 2.03; although many patients received only 1 treatment (n = 207, 46%), exspecially cryotherapy or diathermy coagulation (64.73% versus 28.02% of episodes, respectively). The mean episode duration was 80.74 days. The mean cost (in 2011 euros) for an episode was €158.46 ± 257.77; the mean costs were €79.13 ± 57.40 for diagnosis and €79.33 ± 233.60 for treatment. The mean cost for treatment in a STI-Clinic setting was €111.39 ± 76.72, that for home treatment was €160.88 ± 95.69, and that for hospital care was €2825.94. The treatment of and associated costs for genital warts are significant. Several factors affect the cost, and internal STI clinic

  19. A retrospective analysis of the costs and management of genital warts in Italy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In Italy the prevalence of genital warts in women (15–64 years) is approximately 0.6% with an incidence of 0.4% per year. Treatments for GW are usually long, with moderate success and high costs. The aim of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic-therapeutic pathway, duration and setting of treatment, costs of episodes of condyloma in a population attending a regional STI clinic in Piedmont. Methods This was a retrospective observational study conducted using medical records of outpatients who first visited the STI Clinic of San Lazzaro Dermatological Hospital in 2008. The patients’ medical histories were analysed for episodes that occurred and were cleared in 18 months following the initial visit. Data on screening methods for STIs, type of diagnosis for condyloma, treatment type, treatment setting, and anatomic lesion site were obtained from medical records. The costs were calculated for each episode. Results A total of 450 episodes were analysed (297 men,153 women). The most frequently affected anatomic site was the genital area (74%) in both genders. With regard to treatment setting, 78.44% of patients received outpatient treatment at the STI clinic, 4% were treated at home, and 0.22% were hospitalised; 11.11% were treated in multiple settings. The mean number of treatments per episode was 2.03; although many patients received only 1 treatment (n = 207, 46%), exspecially cryotherapy or diathermy coagulation (64.73% versus 28.02% of episodes, respectively). The mean episode duration was 80.74 days. The mean cost (in 2011 euros) for an episode was €158.46 ± 257.77; the mean costswere €79.13 ± 57.40 for diagnosis and €79.33 ± 233.60 for treatment. The mean cost for treatment in a STI-Clinic setting was €111.39 ± 76.72, that for home treatment was €160.88 ± 95.69, and that for hospital care was €2825.94. Conclusions The treatment of and associated costs for genital warts are significant. Several factors

  20. Genital condyloma virus infection following pelvic radiation therapy: report of seven cases

    SciTech Connect

    Lowell, D.M.; Livolsi, V.A.; Ludwig, M.E.

    1983-01-01

    Six women who underwent radiation therapy for gynecologic malignancies demonstrated cytologic evidence of condyloma virus infection 2 or more years following radiation. Histologic confirmation was obtained in two of the cases. A seventh patient developed in situ and invasive squamous cell carcinoma in a vulvar condyloma acuminatum following radiation therapy for Hodgkin's disease. This venereal infection is found most frequently in sexually active younger women (average age, 27 years). It is felt that depressed cell-mediated immunity consequent to the radiation therapy allowed the development of this infection in the older patients described in this report. The evolution of invasive squamousmore » cell carcinoma in the condyloma acuminatum may indicate a possible oncogenic or cocarcinogenic effect of the virus. The immunologic responses to infection caused by the human papillomavirus group are discussed, as well as its potential for malignant transformation.« less

  1. Microsatellite primers for the endangered aquatic herb, Ottelia acuminata (Hydrocharitaceae).

    PubMed

    Xu, Chao; Du, Zhi-Yuan; Chen, Jin-Ming; Wang, Qing-Feng

    2012-06-01

    Microsatellite primers were developed in the endangered aquatic herb, Ottelia acuminata, to characterize its genetic diversity and understand its population structure. Eight polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed from two populations of O. acuminata in China. The number of alleles per locus ranged from one to 15; the observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0 to 0.885 and from 0 to 0.888, respectively, in the two populations. Selected loci also amplified successfully in O. sinensis. These microsatellite markers will facilitate further studies on the conservation genetics and evolutionary history of O. acuminata.

  2. Warts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us Media contacts Advertising contacts AAD logo Advertising, marketing and sponsorships Legal notice Copyright © 2018 American Academy ... prohibited without prior written permission. AAD logo Advertising, marketing and sponsorships Legal notice Copyright © 2017 American Academy ...

  3. A Clinical and Pathological Overview of Vulvar Condyloma Acuminatum, Intraepithelial Neoplasia, and Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Léonard, Boris; Kridelka, Frederic; Delbecque, Katty; Goffin, Frederic; Demoulin, Stéphanie; Doyen, Jean; Delvenne, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Condyloma acuminatum, intraepithelial neoplasia, and squamous cell carcinoma are three relatively frequent vulvar lesions. Condyloma acuminatum is induced by low risk genotypes of human papillomavirus (HPV). Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) and squamous cell carcinoma have different etiopathogenic pathways and are related or not with high risk HPV types. The goal of this paper is to review the main pathological and clinical features of these lesions. A special attention has been paid also to epidemiological data, pathological classification, and clinical implications of these diseases. PMID:24719870

  4. New approach to managing genital warts.

    PubMed

    Lopaschuk, Catharine C

    2013-07-01

    To summarize and determine the appropriate use for the new and old management tools for genital warts. The following databases were searched: MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, ACP Journal Club, and Trip. The bibliographies of retrieved papers were also reviewed. Clinical trials, qualitative review articles, consensus reports, and clinical practice guidelines were retrieved. Symptomatic warts are prevalent in at least 1% of the population between the ages of 15 and 49, with estimates of up to 50% of the population being infected with human papillomavirus at some point in their lifetime. Imiquimod and podophyllotoxin are 2 new treatments for external genital warts that are less painful and can be applied by patients at home. In addition, the quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine has been shown to be efficacious in preventing genital warts and cervical cancer. There is still a role for the older treatment methods in certain situations, such as intravaginal, urethral, anal, or recalcitrant warts; or for pregnant patients. The new treatments of external genital warts can reduce the pain of treatment and the number of office visits. Other treatment methods are still useful in certain situations.

  5. New approach to managing genital warts

    PubMed Central

    Lopaschuk, Catharine C.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To summarize and determine the appropriate use for the new and old management tools for genital warts. Sources of information The following databases were searched: MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, ACP Journal Club, and Trip. The bibliographies of retrieved papers were also reviewed. Clinical trials, qualitative review articles, consensus reports, and clinical practice guidelines were retrieved. Main message Symptomatic warts are prevalent in at least 1% of the population between the ages of 15 and 49, with estimates of up to 50% of the population being infected with human papillomavirus at some point in their lifetime. Imiquimod and podophyllotoxin are 2 new treatments for external genital warts that are less painful and can be applied by patients at home. In addition, the quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine has been shown to be efficacious in preventing genital warts and cervical cancer. There is still a role for the older treatment methods in certain situations, such as intravaginal, urethral, anal, or recalcitrant warts; or for pregnant patients. Conclusion The new treatments of external genital warts can reduce the pain of treatment and the number of office visits. Other treatment methods are still useful in certain situations. PMID:23851535

  6. KIRKIA ACUMINATA OLIV.: A REVIEW OF ITS ETHNOBOTANY AND PHARMACOLOGY

    PubMed Central

    Maroyi, Alfred

    2017-01-01

    Background: Local communities in sub-Saharan Africa have a long history of medicinal plant usage. Like in other parts of the developing world, rural and urban communities are still dependent on herbal medicines for primary health care, and the use of herbal medicines is still an integral part of their daily life and socio-cultural life style. The objective of this paper is to summarise information on the ethnobotany and pharmacology of Kirkia acuminata Oliv. throughout its distributional range. Materials and Methods: The information documented in this article is derived from books, theses, scientific journals and reports obtained from library collections, Scopus, Pubmed, MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science, Google Scholar and Science Direct. Results: Kirkia acuminata is the most known and widely distributed Kirkia species in the genus and is one of the most popular and promising plant resources due to its several beneficial uses. Kirkia acuminata is used to treat abdominal pains, backache, cholera, constipation, cough, diarrhea, dysentery, snake bites, toothache and wounds. Other applications include its use as charcoal; hedge, ornamental or shade; stock feed, timber and source of water during drought periods. Preliminary phytochemical assessment of roots and stem bark of K. acuminata showed presence of lignans, neo-lignans, nor-carotinoids and other compounds. The extracts of K. acuminata exhibited antibacterial and antimycobacterial activities. These phytochemical compounds may be responsible for the medicinal uses and biological activities demonstrated by K. acuminata. Conclusion: Detailed research is required aimed at exploring mode of action of bioactive compounds of Kirkia acuminata that are responsible for the documented pharmacological effects. Kirkia acuminata is an important plant species that has potential to contribute to the primary health care and livelihood improvement of local communities in the geographical areas where it is indigenous and found in

  7. Immune status does not predict high-risk HPV in anal condyloma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Janet T; Goldberg, Stanley M; Madoff, Robert D; Tawadros, Patrick S

    2016-03-01

    More than 90% of anal condyloma is attributed to nonhigh risk strains of human papillomavirus (HPV), thus patients with anal condyloma do not necessarily undergo HPV serotyping unless they are immunocompromised (IC). We hypothesized that IC patients with anal condyloma have a higher risk of high-risk HPV and dysplasia than nonimmunocompromised (NIC) patients. We performed a retrospective chart review of patients who underwent surgical treatment by a single surgeon for anal condyloma from 1/2000 to 1/2012. HPV serotyping was performed on all patient samples. We compared incidence of high-risk HPV and dysplasia in condyloma specimens from IC and NIC patients. High-risk HPV was identified in 14 specimens with serotypes 16, 18, 31, 33, 51, 52, and 67. Twenty-two cases (18.3%) had dysplasia. Invasive carcinoma was identified in one IC patient. The prevalence of dysplasia or high-risk HPV was not significantly different between IC and NIC groups. High-risk HPV was a significant independent predictor of dysplasia (odds ratio [OR] = 5.2; 95% CI = 1.24-21.62). Immune status, however, was not a significant predictor of high-risk HPV (OR = 1.11; 95% CI = 0.16-5.12) nor dysplasia (OR = 0.27; 95% CI = 0.037-1.17). IC patients did not have a significantly higher prevalence or risk of high-risk HPV or dysplasia in our study. HPV typing of all condylomata, regardless of immune status, should be considered as it may help predict risk of neoplastic transformation or identify NIC patients with an increased risk of developing anal intraepithelial neoplasia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Therapeutic management of cutaneous and genital warts.

    PubMed

    Ockenfels, Hans Michael

    2016-09-01

    During their lifetime, at least 10 % of the population will be infected by human papillomaviruses (HPV), clinically characterized by the formation of cutaneous or genital warts. Although warts are ubiquitous, there are no defined treatments. Especially in the first six months, warts frequently resolve without therapeutic intervention. This complicates the interpretation of study data, given that many studies do not differentiate between newly infected patients and those with infections that have persisted for a long time. Similarly, most studies do not take location, size, and thickness of lesions into account, either. The objective of the present review article is to analyze the study data currently available, taking into consideration both subtypes and locations - factors exceedingly crucial in clinical practice. In particular, the distinction between new-onset and chronic recalcitrant warts is reflected in a therapeutic algorithm. In the case of genital warts, the algorithm is more clearly determined by the extent of the area affected rather than the longevity of lesions. In immunocompetent individuals, any therapeutic intervention must be aimed at achieving complete resolution. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia with generalized warts.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soon Jae; Song, Hyun Joo; Boo, Sun-Jin; Na, Soo-Young; Kim, Heung Up; Hyun, Chang Lim

    2015-07-21

    Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (PIL) is a rare protein-losing enteropathy with lymphatic leakage into the small intestine. Dilated lymphatics in the small intestinal wall and mesentery are observed in this disease. Laboratory tests of PIL patients revealed hypoalbuminemia, lymphocytopenia, hypogammaglobulinemia and increased stool α-1 antitrypsin clearance. Cell-mediated immunodeficiency is also present in PIL patients because of loss of lymphocytes. As a result, the patients are vulnerable to chronic viral infection and lymphoma. However, cases of PIL with chronic viral infection, such as human papilloma virus-induced warts, are rarely reported. We report a rare case of PIL with generalized warts in a 36-year-old male patient. PIL was diagnosed by capsule endoscopy and colonoscopic biopsy with histological tissue confirmation. Generalized warts were observed on the head, chest, abdomen, back, anus, and upper and lower extremities, including the hands and feet of the patient.

  10. Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia with generalized warts

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Soon Jae; Song, Hyun Joo; Boo, Sun-Jin; Na, Soo-Young; Kim, Heung Up; Hyun, Chang Lim

    2015-01-01

    Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (PIL) is a rare protein-losing enteropathy with lymphatic leakage into the small intestine. Dilated lymphatics in the small intestinal wall and mesentery are observed in this disease. Laboratory tests of PIL patients revealed hypoalbuminemia, lymphocytopenia, hypogammaglobulinemia and increased stool α-1 antitrypsin clearance. Cell-mediated immunodeficiency is also present in PIL patients because of loss of lymphocytes. As a result, the patients are vulnerable to chronic viral infection and lymphoma. However, cases of PIL with chronic viral infection, such as human papilloma virus-induced warts, are rarely reported. We report a rare case of PIL with generalized warts in a 36-year-old male patient. PIL was diagnosed by capsule endoscopy and colonoscopic biopsy with histological tissue confirmation. Generalized warts were observed on the head, chest, abdomen, back, anus, and upper and lower extremities, including the hands and feet of the patient. PMID:26217101

  11. Prevalence and Burden Related to Genital Warts in India.

    PubMed

    Khopkar, Uday S; Rajagopalan, Murlidhar; Chauhan, Anahita R; Kothari-Talwar, Smita; Singhal, Puneet K; Yee, Karen; Kulkarni, Amit; Lara, Nuria; Roset, Montserrat; Giuliano, Anna R; Garland, Suzanne M

    2018-06-01

    The prevalence of genital warts (GW) and self-reported human papillomavirus (HPV) as well as disease-related psychosocial impact among male and female patients aged 18-60 years in India were assessed. GW prevalence was estimated using a 2-week daily log of patients examined from June 7-September 22, 2011 by 200 participating physicians in 6 regions of India. Psychosocial impact was estimated using one-time, self-administered surveys, including HPV Impact Profile (HIP), Cuestionario Específico para Condiloma Acuminado ([Spanish] CECA; "Specific questionnaire for Condylomata Acuminata") and EuroQol-5 Dimension survey. T-tests or Mann-Whitney U-tests were used for continuous comparisons and Chi-square or Fisher exact tests were applied for categorical comparisons. Overall GW prevalence in India was estimated at 1.07% (95% confidence interval = 0.97-1.17) and was higher among men than women. Regional prevalence ranged from high in Delhi (2.17%) to low in Bangalore (0.40%). Patients aged 25-29 years had the highest GW prevalence (1.42%). GW patients were most often newly diagnosed (74.07%). Among those with existing GW, 56.24% were recurrent, and 43.76% were resistant. According to total HIP scores, 55.4% of male GW patients and 20.0% of those without GW reported moderate psychological impact (p < 0.0001). HIP scores among women revealed that patients with abnormal Papanicolaou (Pap) test results (34.3%), precancerous lesions (46.2%), external GW (48.0%), and those without HPV-related disease (18.5%) reported moderate psychological impact (p = 0.0089) (Psychosocial impact results are reported in the Supplementary Data ). Estimated national GW prevalence, diagnosis, and treatment costs in India were higher for men than for women. GW in men and HPV infection in women had a negative psychosocial impact on well-being and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) scores, especially among women diagnosed with GW and precancerous lesions compared to those with other

  12. Update on the treatment of genital warts.

    PubMed

    Scheinfeld, Noah

    2013-06-15

    This review summarizes new treatments from the last seven years employed for the treatment of genital warts caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). Imquimod 3.75% is a new agent with fewer side effects and perhaps a better dosing schedule than imquimod 5%, but is not more effective. Sinecatechins/Polyphenon E 15%, a novel extract from green tea can be effective against genital warts but requires three times a day dosing and is not more effective than existing treatments; the treatment course is 12-16 weeks. Photodynamic therapy combined with other destructive modalities might increase the cure rate for genital warts. The quadrivalent vaccine against HPV 6, 11, 16, 18 is decreasing the incidence of warts in the western world but the evidence does not support vaccination as a treatment for those already infected by HPV. Hyperthermia and immunomodulators might be positive additions to the armamentarium of clinicians. In sum, there are new tools that physicians can use but none is really a great advance over what was available a decade ago.

  13. Immunomodulators in warts: Unexplored or ineffective?

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Surabhi; Relhan, Vineet; Garg, Vijay K

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous warts are known to be recurrent and often resistant to therapy. Resistant warts may reflect a localized or systemic cell mediated immune (CMI) deficiency to HPV. Many modalities of treatment are in use; most of the provider-administered therapies are destructive and cause scarring, such as cryotherapy, chemical cauterisation, curettage, electrodessication and laser removal. Most patient-applied agents like podophyllotoxin have the risk of application-site reactions and recurrence. Thus immunotherapy is a promising modality which could lead to resolution of warts without any physical changes or scarring and in addition would augment the host response against the causative agent, thereby leading to complete resolution and decreased recurrences. Immunomodulators can be administered systemically, intralesionally or intradermally, and topically. A few agents have been tried and studied extensively such as cimetidine and interferons; others are new on the horizon, such as Echinacea, green tea catechins and quadrivalent HPV vaccine, and their efficacy is yet to be completely established. Though some like levamisole have shown no efficacy as monotherapy and are now used only in combination, other more recent agents require large and long term randomized placebo-controlled trials to clearly establish their efficacy or lack of it. In this review, we focus on the immunomodulators that have been used for the treatment of warts and the studies that have been conducted on them. PMID:25814698

  14. Estimating the burden of genital warts in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Tsen-Fang; Kothari-Talwar, Smita; Yee, Karen; Kulkarni, Amit; Lara, Nuria; Roset, Montserrat; Giuliano, Anna R; Garland, Suzanne M

    2017-11-01

    Background This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of genital warts in Taiwan among those seeking healthcare, as well as genital-warts-related healthcare resource use and costs, and self-reported genital-warts-related psychosocial impact. Genital warts prevalence estimates were extracted from a daily record of patients examined from 31 October 2011 to 4 May 2012 by 67 physicians in Taiwan. Physicians recorded the total number of patients and genital warts patients seen daily for 2 weeks. These physicians also completed a survey regarding healthcare resource use, treatment, follow-up care, and referral patterns. Patient psychosocial impact was estimated using a self-administered survey. The overall prevalence of genital warts in Taiwan was estimated at 1.1%, with a higher prevalence among men. A total of 146 genital warts case patients were included in the study (76 men, 70 women). Median costs for diagnosis and treatment were US$222 for male and US$351.8 for female patients. Male genital warts subjects reported a negative psychosocial impact on their well-being and health-related quality of life - psychosocial impact results are reported in the Supplementary Material file. Genital warts prevalence was higher among male patients; female patients incurred higher costs. Among men, genital warts had a negative psychosocial impact on well-being and health-related quality of life.

  15. [Epidemiology of genital warts in female population of Czech Republic].

    PubMed

    Fait, T; Dvořák, V; Skřivánek, A; Rokyta, Z; Pilka, R

    2012-08-01

    The aim of study was to evaluate prevalence of genital warts in Czech Republic. Multicentric prospective observation study. HPV College. During 6 month (February 2010 - July 2010) 20 private gynaecological centers in all Czech Republic were counting up the number of genital warts cases. Risk factors, therapy and knowledges about genital warts were evaluated. There were 637 patients with genital warts in cohort of 70 980 patients. The prevalence of genital warts was 0.89%. The most frequent risk factor was cigarette smoking in 37%. Main strategy for treatment were podophyllin local application and cold knife excision. The prevalence of genital warts in our study has shown importance for its prevention by rules of safety sex and HPV vaccination against HPV type 6 and 11.

  16. Determining oxidant and antioxidant status in patients with genital warts.

    PubMed

    Cokluk, Erdem; Sekeroglu, Mehmet Ramazan; Aslan, Mehmet; Balahoroglu, Ragip; Bilgili, Serap Gunes; Huyut, Zubeyir

    2015-09-01

    Warts are abnormal skin growths caused by human papilloma virus (HPV) infections within the skin of patients. Genital warts usually appear in the perianal and perigenital regions. Asymptomatic warts may be activated after years and may damage natural immunity. The inflammation that occurs during this process may lead to an imbalance between the prooxidant and the antioxidant systems. The aim of this study was to investigate erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity, serum paraoxonase enzyme levels, and oxidative stress levels in patients with genital warts. In total, 32 patients with genital warts and 35 healthy subjects were included in this study. Erythrocyte GSH-Px activity, serum catalase activity, and paraoxonase enzyme, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were determined. Erythrocyte GSH-Px activity, serum MDA levels, and catalase activity were significantly higher in patients with genital warts than in controls (P < 0.01, P < 0.05, and P < 0.05, respectively). However, serum paraoxonase enzyme levels were not significantly different between groups (P > 0.05). Serum triglyceride levels were significantly lower in patients with genital warts than in controls (P < 0.01). However, there were no statistically significant differences between groups with respect to total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (all P > 0.05). Our data suggest that oxidative stress is increased in genital warts. Increased oxidative stress levels may contribute to the pathogenesis of genital warts, and prolonged HPV infection due to chronic inflammation could also affect oxidative stress.

  17. Development and characterization of EST-SSR markers for Ottelia acuminata var. jingxiensis (Hydrocharitaceae).

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-Zhong; Lu, Meng-Xue; Saina, Josphat K; Gichira, Andrew W; Wang, Qing-Feng; Chen, Jin-Ming

    2017-11-01

    Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were derived from transcriptomic data for Ottelia acuminata (Hydrocharitaceae), a species comprising five endemic and highly endangered varieties in China. Sixteen novel SSR markers were developed for O. acuminata var. jingxiensis . One to eight alleles per locus were found, with a mean of 2.896. The observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.000 to 1.000 and 0.000 to 0.793, respectively. Interestingly, in cross-varietal amplification, 13 out of the 16 loci were successfully amplified in O. acuminata var. acuminata , and 12 amplified in each of the other three varieties of O. acuminata . These newly developed SSR markers will facilitate further study of genetic variation and provide important genetic data needed for appropriate conservation of natural populations of all varieties of O. acuminata .

  18. Eruptive Condyloma Accuminata after Initiation of Infliximab Treatment for Folliculitis Decalvans

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Douglas C.; Salopek, Thomas G.

    2013-01-01

    We report a patient with recalcitrant folliculitis decalvans who was placed on infliximab due to failure to respond to numerous immunosuppressive drugs and antibiotics. After the second infusion of infliximab the patient reported a cutaneous eruption to the bilateral groin, penis, scrotum, perineum, and perianal region consistent with genital warts. The case highlights the need to inquire about a past or current history of genital or anal warts prior to the initiation of anti-TNF therapy, particularly with infliximab. If present, consideration should be given to concurrent antiwart therapy. PMID:24368947

  19. Which plant for which skin disease? Part 1: Atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, acne, condyloma and herpes simplex.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Juliane; Wölfle, Ute; Weckesser, Steffi; Schempp, Christoph

    2010-10-01

    Plant extracts and isolated compounds are increasingly used in cosmetics and food supplements to improve skin conditions. We first introduce the positive plant monographs with dermatological relevance of the former German Commission E. Subsequently clinical studies with botanicals for atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, acne, condylomata acuminata and herpes simplex are discussed. The best studies have been conducted with atopic dermatitis and psoriasis patients. Mahonia aquifolium, Hypericum perforatum, Glycyrrhiza glabra and certain traditional Chinese therapies have been shown to be effective in the treatment of atopic dermatitis. Mahonia aquifolium, Indigo naturalis and Capsicum frutescens are effective treatments for psoriasis. Green tea extract and tea tree oil have been investigated in the treatment of acne. Podophyllin and green tea extract are effective treatments for condylomata acuminata. Balm mint and a combination of sage and rhubarb have been shown to be effective in the treatment of herpes simplex in proof of concept studies. © The Authors • Journal compilation © Blackwell Verlag GmbH, Berlin.

  20. 21 CFR 358.110 - Wart remover active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wart remover active ingredients. 358.110 Section... Remover Drug Products § 358.110 Wart remover active ingredients. The product consists of any of the following active ingredients within the specified concentration and in the dosage form established for each...

  1. 21 CFR 358.110 - Wart remover active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wart remover active ingredients. 358.110 Section... Remover Drug Products § 358.110 Wart remover active ingredients. The product consists of any of the following active ingredients within the specified concentration and in the dosage form established for each...

  2. 21 CFR 358.110 - Wart remover active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wart remover active ingredients. 358.110 Section... Remover Drug Products § 358.110 Wart remover active ingredients. The product consists of any of the following active ingredients within the specified concentration and in the dosage form established for each...

  3. 21 CFR 358.110 - Wart remover active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wart remover active ingredients. 358.110 Section... Remover Drug Products § 358.110 Wart remover active ingredients. The product consists of any of the following active ingredients within the specified concentration and in the dosage form established for each...

  4. 21 CFR 358.110 - Wart remover active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wart remover active ingredients. 358.110 Section... Remover Drug Products § 358.110 Wart remover active ingredients. The product consists of any of the following active ingredients within the specified concentration and in the dosage form established for each...

  5. Propolis as an alternative treatment for cutaneous warts.

    PubMed

    Zedan, Hatem; Hofny, Eman R M; Ismail, Sahar A

    2009-11-01

    Warts are common problems affecting adults and children. Multiple treatment options are available, but no single therapy stands out as uniformly effective. Propolis and Echinacea are relatively safe immunomodulators with antiviral properties. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of Propolis and Echinacea in treating different types of warts. In a single-blind, randomized, 3-months trial, 135 patients with different types of warts received oral Propolis, Echinacea, or placebo. In patients with plane and common warts treated with Propolis, cure was achieved in 75% and 73% of patients, respectively. These results were significantly better than those associated with Echinacea treatment or placebo. We conclude that Propolis is an effective and safe immunomodulating therapy for plane and common warts.

  6. Proximate and phytochemical of Cola nitida and Cola acuminata.

    PubMed

    Dewole, E A; Dewumi, D F A; Alabi, J Y T; Adegoke, A

    2013-11-15

    The aim of the research was to examine Cola nitida and Cola acuminata for their phytochemical and proximate compositions. Presence of secondary metabolites do provide information about the plants for their potentials as a lead candidates for the novel drug discovery. The proximate analysis was done using the method of Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) and the phytochemical analysis was done using methods of Markkar and Goodchild for tannin, Brunner for saponin, Harbone for alkaloid and Bohm and Koupai-Abyazani for flavonoid. The proximate results showed that the moisture content of Cola acuminata and Cola nitida were in the range of 9.73-9.81%, ash 2.72-2.21%, fat 3.02-2.20%, protein 19.14-15.24%, crude fiber 7.30-4.18% and carbohydrate 58.09 66.45%. Cola acuminate has more protein content, ash and fat than Cola nitida. The result of phytochemical analysis showed that Cola acuminata has more alkaloids (2.22%), tannin (6.46%) and saponin (8.06%) than Cola nitida. The phenol contents of the two kola nuts were the same range 0.27%, the flavonoid were in the range of 0.12-0.14%. The presence of secondary metabolites in these plants are indications that if well researched, novel bioactive compounds can be discovered in them as there are worldwide efforts by scientists looking for new bioactive compounds to combat various ailments which have developed high resistant to already known antibiotics.

  7. Traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology of wild banana (Musa acuminata Colla): A review.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Nimisha Sarah; Negi, Pradeep Singh

    2017-01-20

    Musa acuminata, the wild species of banana is a plant of the tropical and subtropical regions. Over the past few decades, the health benefits of M. acuminata have received much attention. All parts of the plant including fruits, peel, pseudostem, corm, flowers, leaves, sap and roots have found their use in the treatment of many diseases in traditional medicine. Literature review have indicated use of M. acuminata in the treatment of various diseases such as fever, cough, bronchitis, dysentery, allergic infections, sexually transmitted infections, and some of the non-communicable diseases. The reported pharmacological activities of M. acuminata include antioxidant, antidiabetic, immunomodulatory, hypolipidemic, anticancer, and antimicrobial especially anti-HIV activity. This review presents information on the phytochemicals and pharmacological studies to validate the traditional use of different parts of M. acuminata in various diseases and ailments. A comprehensive assessment of the biological activities of M. acuminata extracts is included and possible mechanisms and phytochemicals involved have also been correlated to provide effective intervention strategies for preventing or managing diseases. A literature search was performed on M. acuminata using ethnobotanical textbooks, published articles in peer-reviewed journals, local magazines, unpublished materials, and scientific databases such as Pubmed, Scopus, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar. The Plant List, Promusa, Musalit, the Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) databases were used to validate the scientific names and also provide information on the subspecies and cultivars of M. acuminata. The edible part of M. acuminata provides energy, vitamins and minerals. All other parts of the plant have been used in the treatment of many diseases in traditional medicine. The rich diversity of phytochemicals present in them probably contributes to their beneficial effects, and validates the

  8. Resolution of Novel Human Papillomavirus–induced Warts after HPV Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Wieland, Ulrike; Werner, Marko; Pfister, Herbert; Potthoff, Anja; Kreuter, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) XS2 was isolated from warts on an immunosuppressed patient. After HPV vaccination, the warts resolved. HPVXS2 was also found in warts and normal skin of HIV-positive patients and rarely in HIV-negative controls. Further studies should elucidate the mechanisms that lead to wart clearance. PMID:24378072

  9. Therapeutic Effects of Islamic Intercessory Prayer on Warts.

    PubMed

    Hoşrik, Evren M; Cüceloğlu, Aydın E; Erpolat, Seval

    2017-12-01

    The present study aimed to examine the therapeutic effects of Islamic intercessory prayer on warts. Forty-five participants who are mostly Muslims and infected with warts were randomized into three groups: Group-1 (uncertain, with intercessory prayer), Group-2 (uncertain, no intercessory prayer), and control group (informed, no intervention). Stress symptoms were also measured before and after prayer sessions for these three groups. The results revealed that there were no significant differences between the groups in terms of healing. Although participants believed in the therapeutic effects of prayer, when participants did not trust the intercessor, prayer had no effect on warts.

  10. Human papillomavirus and cutaneous warts in meat handlers.

    PubMed Central

    Melchers, W; de Mare, S; Kuitert, E; Galama, J; Walboomers, J; van den Brule, A J

    1993-01-01

    The association of papillomavirus and hand warts in meat handlers was examined. Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA was found in 23 (88%) of 26 cutaneous warts, with HPV 7 (27%) and a yet unidentified HPV (HPV X) (42%) being the predominant types. HPV 2 was found in two (7.5%) patients, and HPV 4 was found in three (11.5%) patients. No bovine papillomavirus sequences were detected. In most patients, the warts developed in less than 2 years after they started working with meat. A possible HPV transmission route by protection gloves and professional equipment is suggested. Images PMID:8408588

  11. Successful treatment of paraneoplastic hypercalcemia in a patient with giant condyloma acuminatum: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction While paraneoplastic syndromes in patients with malignant and metastasizing tumors are common, they are rarely associated with skin tumors showing predominantly local growth patterns. This case report relates to a patient with giant condyloma acuminatum, also called Buschke-Löwenstein tumor, with paraneoplastic hypercalcemia, who was successfully treated with conservative treatment. Case presentation The patient in question is a 48-year-old German man with a giant periscrotal tumor. Before and during the therapy, two episodes of symptomatic hypercalcemia occurred, which were successfully treated by bisphosphonates, intravenous fluids and diuretics. No evidence of lytic bone affection was found. Conclusions Paraneoplastic hypercalcemia may occur in patients who have a Buschke-Löwenstein tumor. For patients, where surgery is not an option, established medical therapies like bisphosphonates may be useful in addition to diuretics and infusions. PMID:24200238

  12. Successful treatment of paraneoplastic hypercalcemia in a patient with giant condyloma acuminatum: a case report.

    PubMed

    Linnemann, Thomas; Müller, Frauke; Löhnert, Mathias; Hirnle, Peter; Görner, Martin

    2013-11-07

    While paraneoplastic syndromes in patients with malignant and metastasizing tumors are common, they are rarely associated with skin tumors showing predominantly local growth patterns. This case report relates to a patient with giant condyloma acuminatum, also called Buschke-Löwenstein tumor, with paraneoplastic hypercalcemia, who was successfully treated with conservative treatment. The patient in question is a 48-year-old German man with a giant periscrotal tumor. Before and during the therapy, two episodes of symptomatic hypercalcemia occurred, which were successfully treated by bisphosphonates, intravenous fluids and diuretics. No evidence of lytic bone affection was found. Paraneoplastic hypercalcemia may occur in patients who have a Buschke-Löwenstein tumor. For patients, where surgery is not an option, established medical therapies like bisphosphonates may be useful in addition to diuretics and infusions.

  13. Late effects of X-ray treatment of warts

    SciTech Connect

    Veien, N.K.; Norholm, A.; Hattel, T.

    1982-04-01

    Five to 22 years after warts on hands and feet were treated by X ray, 1122 patients with a total of 3675 warts were re-examined. X-Ray therapy had been given as one dose of 3000 r using 29 kV with a 0.3-mm Al filter; 19% of the warts had been given two treatments. Sequelae were seen in 4.8% of the sites where warts had been given one X-ray treatment and in 12.2% of the sites after two treatments. These side effects include hyperkeratosis in the pressure areas of palms and soles and atrophy primarily in areas with a thin cutis.more » There was no evidence of malignant transformation in any treatment site, and there were no deep-seated side effects such as ostitis or tendinitis.« less

  14. Cryotherapy versus electrocautery in the treatment of genital warts.

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, P D; Langlet, F; Thin, R N

    1981-01-01

    Forty-two male patients with ano-genital warts were randomly allocated to a single-blind study of cryotherapy versus electrocautery. There was no significant difference in the success rates of these two forms of treatment in patients followed for three months. Cryotherapy was qualitatively much more acceptable to the patients than electrocautery. It seems particularly suited to patients with widely scattered warts who are unable to attend for regular treatment. PMID:7272706

  15. A randomized trial of immunotherapy for persistent genital warts

    PubMed Central

    Jardine, David; Lu, Jieqiang; Pang, James; Palmer, Cheryn; Tu, Quanmei; Chuah, John; Frazer, Ian H.

    2012-01-01

    Aim To determine whether immunotherapy with HPV6 L1 virus like particles (VLPs) without adjuvant (VLP immunotherapy) reduces recurrence of genital warts following destructive therapy. Trial design A randomized placebo controlled blinded study of treatment of recurrent genital warts amenable to destructive therapy, conducted independently in Australia and China. Methods Patients received conventional destructive therapy of all evident warts together with intramuscular administration of 1, 5 or 25 µg of VLP immunotherapy, or of placebo immunotherapy (0.9% NaCl), as immunotherapy at week 0 and week 4. Primary outcome, assessed at week 8, was recurrence of visible warts. Results Of 33 protocol compliant Brisbane recipients of placebo immunotherapy, 11 were disease free at two months, and a further 9 demonstrated reduction of > 50% in total wart area. Wart area reduction following destructive treatment correlated with prior duration of disease. Among 102 protocol compliant Brisbane recipients of VLP immunotherapy, disease reduction was significantly greater than among the placebo immunotherapy (50% ± s.e.m. 7%) recipients for subjects receiving 5 µg or 25 µg of VLP immunotherapy/dose (71% ± s.e.m.7%) but not for those receiving 1 µg VLP immunotherapy/dose (42% ± 7%). Of 52 protocol compliant placebo immunotherapy recipients in Wenzhou, 37 were disease free at two months, and a further 8 had > 50% disease reduction. Prior disease duration was much shorter in Wenzhou subject (8.1 ± 1.1 mo) than in Brisbane subjects (53.7 ± 5.5 mo). No significant reduction in mean wart area was observed for the 168 Wenzhou protocol compliant subjects who also received VLP immunotherapy. Conclusions This study confirms the findings in a previous open label trial that administration of VLP immunotherapy may assist in clearance of recurrent genital warts in patients for whom destructive therapy is unsuccessful and that unsuccessful destructive therapy is more common with increasing

  16. A case of reccuring giant condyloma of vulva in infant without sexual abuse successfully treated with electrocoagulation in Benin.

    PubMed

    Akpadjan, Fabrice; Adégbidi, Hugues; Attinsounon, Cossi Angelo; Koudoukpo, Christiane; Dégboé, Bérénice; Agbessi, Nadège; Atadokpèdé, Félix

    2017-01-01

    We report here a case of giant vulval condyloma in a two-year-old infant infected by her "baby sitter" without sexual abuse. Treated by surgical excision coupled with electrocoagulation, it was noted a rapid recurrence two weeks after treatment requiring a second electrocoagulation session. More than a year later, no lesion was noted, thus demonstrating therapeutic success. The unavailability of imiquimod in our context requires a systematic use of invasive treatment regardless of the age of the patient.

  17. Application of dermoscopy image analysis technique in diagnosing urethral condylomata acuminata.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yunjie; Jiang, Shuang; Lin, Hui; Guo, Xiaojuan; Zou, Xianbiao

    2018-01-01

    In this study, cases with suspected urethral condylomata acuminata were examined by dermoscopy, in order to explore an effective method for clinical. To study the application of dermoscopy image analysis technique in clinical diagnosis of urethral condylomata acuminata. A total of 220 suspected urethral condylomata acuminata were clinically diagnosed first with the naked eyes, and then by using dermoscopy image analysis technique. Afterwards, a comparative analysis was made for the two diagnostic methods. Among the 220 suspected urethral condylomata acuminata, there was a higher positive rate by dermoscopy examination than visual observation. Dermoscopy examination technique is still restricted by its inapplicability in deep urethral orifice and skin wrinkles, and concordance between different clinicians may also vary. Dermoscopy image analysis technique features a high sensitivity, quick and accurate diagnosis and is non-invasive, and we recommend its use.

  18. 21 CFR 358.150 - Labeling of wart remover drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ....” (iv) “Do not use on moles, birthmarks, warts with hair growing from them, genital warts, or warts on... minutes.”) “Dry area thoroughly.” (If appropriate: “Cut plaster to fit wart.”) “Apply medicated plaster... water for 5 minutes.”) “Dry area thoroughly. Apply” (select one of the following, as appropriate: “one...

  19. Isolation of a novel human papillomavirus (type 51) from a cervical condyloma

    SciTech Connect

    Nuovo, G.J.; Crum, C.P.; Levine, R.U.

    1988-04-01

    The authors cloned the DNA from a novel human papillomavirus (HPV) present in a cervical condyloma. When DNA from this isolate was hybridized at high stringency with HPV types 1 through 50 (HPV-1 through HPV-50), it showed weak homology with HPV-6 and -16 and stronger homology with HPV-26. A detailed restriction endonuclease map was prepared which showed marked differences from the maps for other HPVs that have been isolated from the female genital tract. Reassociation kinetic analysis revealed that HPV-26 and this new isolate were less than 10% homologous; hence, the new isolate is a noel strain of HPV. Themore » approximate positions of the open reading frames of the new strain were surmised by hybridization with probes derived from individual open reading frames of HPV-16. In an analysis of 175 genital biopsies from patients with abnormal Papanicolaou smears, sequences hybridizing under highly stringent conditions to probes from this novel HPV type were found in 4.2, 6.1, and 2.4% of biopsies containing normal squamous epithelium, condylomata, and intraepithelial neoplasia, respectively. In addition, sequences homologous to probes from this novel isolate were detected in one of five cervical carcinomas examined.« less

  20. Treatment of vulvar/vaginal condyloma by HPV: developed instrumentation and clinical report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inada, N. M.; Kurachi, C.; Ferreira, J.; Ribeiro, E. S.; Guimarães, O. C. C.; Quintana, S. M.; Lombardi, W.; Bagnato, V. S.

    2009-06-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPVs) are a family of sexually viruses with over 100 different genotypes identified till date. They are associated in 99% of cervical cancers, with HPV16 found in about 50% of cases. They are a cause of the second most common female cancer worldwide. PDT may constitute an alternative treatment for condyloma by HPV. In this work we present the development of a PDT device specifically designed for the treatment of vulvar and vaginal lesions induced by HPV. This equipment has been used in a clinical protocol and it is optically based on 640 nm LED (light emitting diodes) arrays. There are three illumination probes available that were anatomically designed for specific site applications: a 30 mm x 115 mm diffuser cylinder for intravaginal illumination and uniform irradiance of 42 mW/cm2; a 36 mm circular probe with 118 mW/cm2 and a 74 mm circular probe with 57 mW/cm2, both for external illumination. The 10% aminolevulinic acid cream is topically placed over the lesions and 4-6 hours after the application the illumination is performed. The illumination time is set depending on the chosen probe and treatment area to achieve a fluence of 200 J/cm2. In this presentation, the preliminary results of this clinical trial will be presented.

  1. Ano-Genital Warts and HIV Status- A Clinical Study.

    PubMed

    Dhumale, Shashikant Balakrishana; Sharma, Shimpa; Gulbake, Arvind

    2017-01-01

    Ano-Genital Warts (AGW) like other Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) is associated with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. This study of AGW was done in HIV positive and HIV negative patients. To study the risk factors and clinical presentations of ano-genital warts in HIV positive and negative patients. A comparative, cross-sectional, descriptive study of 25 HIV positive and 25 HIV negative (n=50) AGW patients between 15-60 years of both sex was conducted in Dr. D. Y. Patil Hospital and Research Centre from July 2014 to July 2016. Significant association of HIV positivity (p<0.05) was observed between age group of 15-30 years and HIV negative status (p<0.05) in age group of 31-45 years. HIV positive status significantly higher in patients with self-admitted multiple sexual partners (p<0.01), homosexuality (p<0.05) and presentation with anal warts (p<0.01). HIV negative status correlated significantly with single sexual partner admission (p<0.01) and hetero-sexuality (p<0.05). Gender did not show significant association with number of sexual partners or HIV positivity. Extra-genital or only genital warts had no association with HIV status. Co-STDs though more in number in ser-positive group, did not show any significant association with HIV positivity (p>0.05). No patient presented with changes of malignancy. Four were adolescents below 19 years. Two patients had atypical presentations of giant condylomata i.e., Buschke-Lowenstein Tumour (BLT). HIV positivity was significantly associated with the risk factors of age below 30 years, homo sexuality and multiple sexual partners. Anal warts were significantly common in HIV positive patients. Four adolescents with AGW underline the need for high risk behaviour counselling. No patient had malignant ano-genital warts. Follow up of these patients with Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) sub-typing is necessary.

  2. Mucocutaneous warts in Middle Anatolia, Turkey: clinical presentations and therapeutic approaches

    PubMed Central

    Gönül, Müzeyyen; Iyidal, Ayşegül Yalçınkaya; Çakmak, Seray; Kılıç, Arzu; Gul, Ulker; Doner, Pinar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Viral warts are common skin condition caused by the human papilloma virus. Aim To determine the clinical features of warts and therapeutic approaches to warts and compare them with the literature. Material and methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 362 consecutive patients presenting to a dermatology clinic in Ankara, Middle Anatolia, Turkey. Age, gender, anatomic localization, clinical types, number of warts, and medical therapy histories were recorded. Results In our study 139 (38.4%) children and 223 (61.6%) adults had warts. Warts were seen in 191 men, and 171 women. The mean age was 24.7 ±13.5. In all groups the incidence and the number of warts were higher in men. Clinical types of warts were vulgar, anogenital, plantar, verruca plana, filiform, and mosaic. Thirty-six (9.9%) of 362 cases had more than one type. The locations of warts were as follows extremities (n = 233, 64.4%), anogenital (n = 86, 23.7%) and head and neck (n = 73, 20.2%). The incidence of anogenital warts was statistically higher in men than women (p < 0.05). Topical medical treatment was the first choice (n = 60, 57.1%). Conclusions In our study, the incidence and the number of warts were higher in men, which is different than in previous reports. The anogenital wart (AW) was ranked second in all types of warts. According to this finding, we can say that the frequency of AW has been increased in Turkey. To our knowledge recently there have been no studies investigating the clinical features of viral warts in all ages in the literature. PMID:26161058

  3. A review on management of warts in Ayurveda.

    PubMed

    Sekhar Namburi, U R; Omprakash; Babu, G

    2011-01-01

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) is one of the common causes for the warts and most people will experience with this infection at some point in their life. In Ayurveda, warts can be compared with Charmakeela. The diagnosis is based on clinical examination and usually straight forward by visual inspection. The treatment of warts has to be done with endurance and careful selection of procedure according to the type and site of the disease; otherwise, it may lead to cosmetic derangement or recurrence of the ailment. Indications for treatment include pain, interference with function, cosmetic embarrassment, and risk of malignancy. Regarding the management of this disease, different types of treatment procedures are explained in contemporary science. In Ayurveda also, various treatment principles explained like administration of drugs internally, external application of drugs and parasurgical procedures [i.e. Raktamokshana (blood letting), Ksharakarma (chemical cauterization) and Agnikarma (thermal cauterization)]. These indigenous treatment methods are minimal invasive procedures which do not cause the scar formation, no recurrence and found to be more beneficial in the treatment of warts.

  4. [Anogenital warts and suspicion of child sexual abuse].

    PubMed

    Mouesca, Juan Pablo; Indart de Arza, Miguel Javier; Stabilito, Luis

    2012-10-01

    This article deals with anogenital warts (AGW) injuries caused by human papiloma virus (HPV) in children. Diagnosis, epidemiology, modes of transmission, differential diagnosis, relationship between AGW and cancer are descript. Also, it remarks the presence of AGW as indicator of child sexual abuse. Finally, it includes suggestions for the management of patients and their families by the paediatrician.

  5. Staff - Marwan A. Wartes | Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical

    Science.gov Websites

    programs, offering expertise in sedimentary geology and tectonics. My background is primarily in outcrop : Archives of coupled structural and sedimentary processes (GSA/AAPG) FIELD TRIP LEADERSHIP 2017, Field trip China: Journal of Sedimentary Research, v. 75, no. 2, p. 268-279. Carroll, A.R., and Wartes, M.A., 2003

  6. Human papillomavirus DNA detection in menstrual blood from patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and condyloma acuminatum.

    PubMed

    Wong, Sze Chuen Cesar; Au, Thomas Chi Chuen; Chan, Sammy Chung Sum; Chan, Charles Ming Lok; Lam, Money Yan Yee; Zee, Benny Chung Ying; Pong, Wei Mei; Chan, Anthony Tak Cheung

    2010-03-01

    The Papanicolaou test generates pain and embarrassment, and cytology screening has limited sensitivity for detection of cervical neoplasia. These factors urge the use of another screening test that can overcome these limitations. We explore a completely noninvasive method using detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in women's menstrual blood (MB). The participants were divided into 3 cohorts: (i) 235 patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3 (CIN 3) (n = 48), CIN 2 (n = 60), CIN 1 (n = 58), or condyloma acuminatum (CAC) (n = 69) before treatment or remission; (ii) from the first cohort of patients, 108 CIN 3 or CIN 2 patients after treatment and 62 CIN 1 or CAC patients after remission; and (iii) 323 apparently normal subjects (ANS) without any cervical disease. The HPV genotypes of the infected patients were confirmed by direct sequencing. Quantitative real-time PCR (QRT-PCR) was used to measure the MB HPV16 load for 15 infected patients. Results showed that the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for detection of MB HPV DNA in samples from patients with CIN or CAC were 82.8%, 93.1%, 90.0%, and 87.9%, respectively. Moreover, MB HPV DNA was found in samples from 22.2% of CIN 3 or CIN 2 patients after treatment, 0.0% of CIN 1 or CAC patients after remission, and 8.1% of ANS, 4 of whom were found to have CIN 1 or CAC. Furthermore, QRT-PCR showed that the normalized MB HPV16 DNA copy numbers in samples from patients with CIN 1 to CIN 3 were significantly increased. These preliminary results suggested that MB HPV DNA is a potential noninvasive marker for these premalignant cervical diseases.

  7. A case of reccuring giant condyloma of vulva in infant without sexual abuse successfully treated with electrocoagulation in Benin

    PubMed Central

    Akpadjan, Fabrice; Adégbidi, Hugues; Attinsounon, Cossi Angelo; Koudoukpo, Christiane; Dégboé, Bérénice; Agbessi, Nadège; Atadokpèdé, Félix

    2017-01-01

    We report here a case of giant vulval condyloma in a two-year-old infant infected by her “baby sitter” without sexual abuse. Treated by surgical excision coupled with electrocoagulation, it was noted a rapid recurrence two weeks after treatment requiring a second electrocoagulation session. More than a year later, no lesion was noted, thus demonstrating therapeutic success. The unavailability of imiquimod in our context requires a systematic use of invasive treatment regardless of the age of the patient. PMID:28904687

  8. Modelling bloom formation of the toxic dinoflagellates Dinophysis acuminata and Dinophysis caudata in a highly modified estuary, south eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajani, Penelope; Larsson, Michaela E.; Rubio, Ana; Bush, Stephen; Brett, Steve; Farrell, Hazel

    2016-12-01

    Dinoflagellates belonging to the toxigenic genus Dinophysis are increasing in abundance in the Hawkesbury River, south-eastern Australia. This study investigates a twelve year time series of abundance and physico-chemical data to model these blooms. Four species were reported over the sampling campaign - Dinophysis acuminata, Dinophysis caudata, Dinophysis fortii and Dinophysis tripos-with D. acuminata and D. caudata being most abundant. Highest abundance of D. acuminata occurred in the austral spring (max. abundance 4500 cells l-1), whilst highest D. caudata occurred in the summer to autumn (max. 12,000 cells l-1). Generalised additive models revealed abundance of D. acuminata was significantly linked to season, thermal stratification and nutrients, whilst D. caudata was associated with nutrients, salinity and dissolved oxygen. The models' predictive capability was up to 60% for D. acuminata and 53% for D. caudata. Altering sampling strategies during blooms accompanied with in situ high resolution monitoring will further improve Dinophysis bloom prediction capability.

  9. Needling versus liquid nitrogen cryotherapy for the treatment of pedal warts a randomized controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Daniel J; Brimage, Jessica T; Naraghi, Reza N; Bower, Virginia M

    2014-07-01

    We hypothesized that needling of a pedal wart creates local inflammation and a subsequent cell-mediated immune response (CMIR) against human papillomavirus. The primary objective of this study was to investigate whether needling to induce a CMIR against human papillomavirus is an effective treatment for pedal warts compared with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy. A secondary objective was to investigate whether the CMIR induced by needling is effective against satellite pedal warts. Eligible patients with pedal warts were randomly allocated to receive either needling or liquid nitrogen cryotherapy. Only the primary pedal wart was treated during the study. Follow-up was 12 weeks, with outcome assessments made independently under blinded circumstances. Of 37 patients enrolled in the study, 18 were allocated to receive needling and 19 to receive liquid nitrogen cryotherapy. Regression of the primary pedal wart occurred in 64.7% of the needling group (11 of 17) and in 6.2% of the liquid nitrogen cryotherapy group (1 of 16) (P =  .001). No significant relationship was found between needling of the primary pedal wart and regression of satellite pedal warts (P = .615) or complete pedal wart regression (P = .175). There was no significant difference in pain, satisfaction, or cosmesis between the two groups. The regression rate of the primary pedal wart was significantly higher in the needling group compared with the liquid nitrogen cryotherapy group.

  10. The ectomycorrhizas of Lactarius cuspidoaurantiacus and Lactarius herrerae associated with Alnus acuminata in Central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Leticia; Bandala, Victor M; Garay-Serrano, Edith

    2015-08-01

    Two pure Alnus acuminata stands established in a montane forest in central Mexico (Puebla State) were monitored between 2010 and 2013 to confirm and recognize the ectomycorrhizal (EcM) systems of A. acuminata with Lactarius cuspidoaurantiacus and Lactarius herrerae, two recently described species. Through comparison of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences from basidiomes and ectomycorrhizas sampled in the forest stands, we confirmed their ectomycorrhizal association. The phytobiont was corroborated by comparing ITS sequences obtained from EcM root tips and leaves collected in the study site and from other sequences of A. acuminata available in Genbank. Detailed morphological and anatomical descriptions of the ectomycorrhizal systems are presented and complemented with photographs.

  11. Novel Treatment Approach for Deep Palmoplantar Warts Using Long-Pulsed 1064-nm Nd:YAG Laser and a Moisturizing Cream Without Prior Paring of the Wart Surface.

    PubMed

    Alshami, Mohammad Ali; Mohana, Mona Jameel

    2016-10-01

    The present study aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of palmoplantar wart removal using long-pulsed 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser after application of a moisturizing cream. Previously described laser treatments for wart removal are associated with negative side effects and need to pare the warts before laser treatment. Two hundred forty patients (142 males, 98 females) were treated for 1-40 palmoplantar warts by long-pulsed 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser (spot size 4-6 mm, pulse duration 20 msec, fluence 200 J/cm 2 ) after covering the wart surface with a thin film of a moisturizing cream. The endpoint was lesion graying or whitening with or without development of a hemorrhagic bulla beneath the treated wart. Color photographs were taken before and immediately after each laser session and at 1, 4, and 16 weeks after the last session. The overall clearance rate was 97%, with 90% of treated patients cured after one session, 4% after two, and 3% after three. Clearance rate after three laser sessions decreased linearly with the number of warts from 100% to 95%. Less accessible wart location in interdigital spaces also decreased the cure rate after three sessions from 100% to 95%. Additionally, warts became more difficult to eradicate as they aged. Remission lasted up to 6 years, and complications were mild and infrequent (17.5%). This novel method is effective in removing palmoplantar warts. It is easier, time-saving, and safer than other methods described in previous studies conducted with ablative or nonablative lasers.

  12. Subcutaneous intralesional Ksharodaka injection: A novel treatment for the management of Warts: A case series.

    PubMed

    Gundeti, Manohar S; Reddy, R Govind; Muralidhar, Jangle Vidya

    2014-01-01

    Warts are generally managed using cryosurgery, keratolytic ointments, curettage and electrodessication. Warts, vis-a-vis Charmakila, in Ayurvedic classical texts are classified into different types depending on the dominance of dosha. Ayurveda prescribes oral medications, topical use of Kshara (alkaline ash of herbs), Agni (thermal cautery) and Shastrakarma (surgery) for removal of Charmakila. Use of topical Kshara in the form of powder, aqueous solution i.e. Ksharodaka and Ksharasutra (thread smeared with Kshara) for warts has been reported. However, these methods necessitate multiple sittings and takea longer duration for removal of the warts. Herewith, we report a case series of different types of warts treated with intralesional infiltration of Apamarga Ksharodaka (AK), i.e. aqueous solution of Apamarga (Achyranthes aspera) Kshara. We observed that all these warts took a minimum of 2-6 days to shed off, leaving minor scars. There were no adverse reactions reported in any of these cases.

  13. Subcutaneous intralesional Ksharodaka injection: A novel treatment for the management of Warts: A case series

    PubMed Central

    Gundeti, Manohar S.; Reddy, R. Govind; Muralidhar, Jangle Vidya

    2014-01-01

    Warts are generally managed using cryosurgery, keratolytic ointments, curettage and electrodessication. Warts, vis-a-vis Charmakila, in Ayurvedic classical texts are classified into different types depending on the dominance of dosha. Ayurveda prescribes oral medications, topical use of Kshara (alkaline ash of herbs), Agni (thermal cautery) and Shastrakarma (surgery) for removal of Charmakila. Use of topical Kshara in the form of powder, aqueous solution i.e. Ksharodaka and Ksharasutra (thread smeared with Kshara) for warts has been reported. However, these methods necessitate multiple sittings and takea longer duration for removal of the warts. Herewith, we report a case series of different types of warts treated with intralesional infiltration of Apamarga Ksharodaka (AK), i.e. aqueous solution of Apamarga (Achyranthes aspera) Kshara. We observed that all these warts took a minimum of 2-6 days to shed off, leaving minor scars. There were no adverse reactions reported in any of these cases. PMID:25624698

  14. Association Between Smoking and Size of Anal Warts in HIV-infected Women

    PubMed Central

    Luu, HN; Amirian, ES; Beasley, RP; Piller, L; Chan, W; Scheurer, ME

    2015-01-01

    While the association between smoking and HPV infection, cervical cancer, and anal cancer has been well studied, evidence on the association between cigarette smoking and anal warts is limited. The purpose of this study was to investigate if cigarette smoking status influences the size of anal warts over time in HIV-infected women in a sample of 976 HIV-infected women from the Women’s Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). A linear mixed model was used to determine the effect of smoking on anal wart size. Even though women who were currently smokers had larger anal warts at baseline and slower growth rate of anal wart size after each visit than women who were not current smokers, there was no association between size of anal wart and current smoking status over time. Further studies on the role of smoking and interaction between smoking and other risk factors, however, should be explored. PMID:23155099

  15. Pulsed Dye Laser Therapy in the Treatment of Warts: A Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Veitch, David; Kravvas, Georgios; Al-Niaimi, Firas

    2017-04-01

    Warts or verrucae vulgaris are common cutaneous infections with currently no definitive curative treatments available. To determine the efficacy of pulsed dye laser (PDL) in the treatment of warts. A literature search was performed using the PubMed and MEDLINE databases. A search using {(Wart[s], verruca or condylomata)} AND [(Pulsed dye laser)] was used. Forty-four articles were identified as relevant to this review. Simple warts were very responsive to PDL, being treated successfully in over 95% of patients. Facial and anogenital warts also demonstrated excellent outcomes. Recalcitrant warts, displayed significant variability in their response, ranging between 50% and 100% across all articles. The response rates seen in peripheral warts (involving the hands and feet) were also very variable, ranging between 48% and 95%. Recurrence rates at 4 months of follow-up were documented as 0% to 15%. Complications have been described as very few and rare, the main ones being topical discomfort and erythema. Pulsed dye laser is a safe and effective modality in the treatment of warts that can be applied to most body parts. Cost and availability remain a limitation to the use of PDL; however, this modality can be used when other more traditional and accessible treatments have failed.

  16. Impact of genital warts on emotional and sexual well-being differs by gender.

    PubMed

    Vriend, Henrike J; Nieuwkerk, Pythia T; van der Sande, Marianne A B

    2014-11-01

    To assess gender-specific impact of genital warts on health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and to explore to what extent sexual characteristics and clinical symptoms influenced the impact on emotional and sexual well-being of both sexes. We conducted a survey of sexual and clinical characteristics from persons diagnosed with genital warts at STI clinics. HRQoL was measured using two measurement tools: 1) the generic EQ-5D; and 2) the genital warts-specific CECA-10 including an emotional well-being and a sexual activity dimension. The EQ-5D scores were compared with scores of the general population. Descriptive analyses were used to explore characteristics associated with HRQoL scores stratified for gender. The HRQoL-measurement tools showed that genital warts have especially an emotional impact. The impact of genital warts on HRQoL was greater for women than for men. In addition, the CECA-10 showed that in women the impact of genital warts on sexual activity was influenced by age, relationship status and number of warts. No related factors were seen in men. Genital warts have a greater impact on women than on men. In women, sexual and clinical factors influenced the impact of genital warts on well-being, whereas in men no such factors were found. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  17. Anogenital warts contain several distinct species of human papillomavirus.

    PubMed Central

    Krzyzek, R A; Watts, S L; Anderson, D L; Faras, A J; Pass, F

    1980-01-01

    Anogenital warts from 26 patients were examined for the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV). Although no whole, intact virus could be identified, varying amounts of nonintegrated HPV DNA were detected in 18 tissue specimens (70%) by employing both an agarose gel-ethidium bromide staining method and the Southern blot hybridization procedure. When hybridization analysis was performed under stringent conditions, six anogenital warts were observed to contain HPV genomic sequences related to either of the cutaneous viruses HPV type 1 (HPV-1) or HPV-2. In 12 tissue samples lacking sequence homology to either HPV-1 or HPV-2 under stringent conditions, HPV-related sequences were detected when the hybridization was performed under less stringent conditions, indicating that an HPV distinct from both HPV-1 and HPV-2 is also associated with these lesions. This anogenital HPV also appeared to be distinct from the other characterized types of HPV. These data indicate that at least three HPVs are associated with anogenital wart disease. Images PMID:6255208

  18. How I treat warts, hypogammaglobulinemia, infections, and myelokathexis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Badolato, Raffaele; Donadieu, Jean

    2017-12-07

    Warts, hypogammaglobulinemia, infections, and myelokathexis (WHIM) syndrome is a genetic disease characterized by neutropenia, lymphopenia, susceptibility to infections, and myelokathexis, which describes degenerative changes of mature neutrophils and hyperplasia of bone marrow myeloid cells. Some patients present with hypogammaglobulinemia and/or refractory warts of skin and genitalia. Congenital cardiac defects constitute uncommon manifestations of the disease. The disorder, which is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait, is caused by heterozygous mutations of the chemokine receptor CXCR4. These mutations lead to an increased sensitivity of neutrophils and lymphocytes to the unique ligand CXCL12 and to an increased accumulation of mature neutrophils in the bone marrow. Despite greatly improved knowledge of the disease, therapeutic choices are insufficient to prevent some of the disease outcomes, such as development of bronchiectasis, anogenital dysplasia, or invasive cancer. The available therapeutic measures aimed at preventing the risk for infection in WHIM patients are discussed. We critically evaluate the diagnostic criteria of WHIM syndrome, particularly when WHIM syndrome should be suspected in patients with congenital neutropenia and lymphopenia despite the absence of hypogammaglobulinemia and/or warts. Finally, we discuss recent results of trials evaluating plerixafor, a selective antagonist of CXCR4, as a mechanism-oriented strategy for treatment of WHIM patients. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  19. Evolution of the Banana Genome (Musa acuminata) Is Impacted by Large Chromosomal Translocations.

    PubMed

    Martin, Guillaume; Carreel, Françoise; Coriton, Olivier; Hervouet, Catherine; Cardi, Céline; Derouault, Paco; Roques, Danièle; Salmon, Frédéric; Rouard, Mathieu; Sardos, Julie; Labadie, Karine; Baurens, Franc-Christophe; D'Hont, Angélique

    2017-09-01

    Most banana cultivars are triploid seedless parthenocarpic clones derived from hybridization between Musa acuminata subspecies and sometimes M. balbisiana. M. acuminata subspecies were suggested to differ by a few large chromosomal rearrangements based on chromosome pairing configurations in intersubspecies hybrids. We searched for large chromosomal rearrangements in a seedy M. acuminata ssp. malaccensis banana accession through mate-pair sequencing, BAC-FISH, targeted PCR and marker (DArTseq) segregation in its progeny. We identified a heterozygous reciprocal translocation involving two distal 3 and 10 Mb segments from chromosomes 01 and 04, respectively, and showed that it generated high segregation distortion, reduced recombination and linkage between chromosomes 01 and 04 in its progeny. The two chromosome structures were found to be mutually exclusive in gametes and the rearranged structure was preferentially transmitted to the progeny. The rearranged chromosome structure was frequently found in triploid cultivars but present only in wild malaccensis ssp. accessions, thus suggesting that this rearrangement occurred in M. acuminata ssp. malaccensis. We propose a mechanism for the spread of this rearrangement in Musa diversity and suggest that this rearrangement could have played a role in the emergence of triploid cultivars. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  20. Evolution of the Banana Genome (Musa acuminata) Is Impacted by Large Chromosomal Translocations

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Guillaume; Carreel, Françoise; Coriton, Olivier; Hervouet, Catherine; Cardi, Céline; Derouault, Paco; Roques, Danièle; Salmon, Frédéric; Rouard, Mathieu; Sardos, Julie; Labadie, Karine; Baurens, Franc-Christophe; D’Hont, Angélique

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Most banana cultivars are triploid seedless parthenocarpic clones derived from hybridization between Musa acuminata subspecies and sometimes M. balbisiana. M. acuminata subspecies were suggested to differ by a few large chromosomal rearrangements based on chromosome pairing configurations in intersubspecies hybrids. We searched for large chromosomal rearrangements in a seedy M. acuminata ssp. malaccensis banana accession through mate-pair sequencing, BAC-FISH, targeted PCR and marker (DArTseq) segregation in its progeny. We identified a heterozygous reciprocal translocation involving two distal 3 and 10 Mb segments from chromosomes 01 and 04, respectively, and showed that it generated high segregation distortion, reduced recombination and linkage between chromosomes 01 and 04 in its progeny. The two chromosome structures were found to be mutually exclusive in gametes and the rearranged structure was preferentially transmitted to the progeny. The rearranged chromosome structure was frequently found in triploid cultivars but present only in wild malaccensis ssp. accessions, thus suggesting that this rearrangement occurred in M. acuminata ssp. malaccensis. We propose a mechanism for the spread of this rearrangement in Musa diversity and suggest that this rearrangement could have played a role in the emergence of triploid cultivars. PMID:28575404

  1. Potential roles of fish, birds, and water in swamp privet (Forestiera acuminata) seed dispersal

    Treesearch

    Susan B. Adams; Paul B. Hamel; Kristina Connor; Bryce Burke; Emile S. Gardiner; David Wise

    2007-01-01

    Forestiera acuminata (swamp privet) is a common wetland shrub/small tree native to the southeastern United States. We examined several possible dispersal avenues for the plant. We tested germination of seeds exposed to various treatments, including passage through Ictalurus punctatus (Channel Catfi sh) guts, and conducted other...

  2. Interferon for the treatment of genital warts: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Interferon has been widely used in the treatment of genital warts for its immunomodulatory, antiproliferative and antiviral properties. Currently, no evidence that interferon improves the complete response rate or reduces the recurrence rate of genital warts has been generally provided. The aim of this review is to assess, from randomized control trials (RCTs), the efficacy and safety of interferon in curing genital warts. Methods We searched Cochrane Sexually Transmitted Diseases Group's Trials Register (January, 2009), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (2009, issue 1), PubMed (1950-2009), EMBASE (1974-2009), Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM) (1975-2009), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) (1979-2009), VIP database (1989-2009), as well as reference lists of relevant studies. Two reviewers independently screened searched studies, extracted data and evaluated their methodological qualities. RevMan 4.2.8 software was used for meta-analysis Results 12 RCTs involving 1445 people were included. Among them, 7 studies demonstrated the complete response rate of locally-used interferon as compared to placebo for treating genital warts. Based on meta-analysis, the rate of Complete response of the two interventions differed significantly (locally-used interferon:44.4%; placebo:16.1%). The difference between the two groups had statistical significance (RR 2.68, 95% CI 1.79 to 4.02, P < 0.00001). 5 studies demonstrated the complete response rate of systemically-used interferon as compared to placebo for treating genital warts. Based on meta-analysis, the rate of Complete response of the two interventions had no perceivable discrepancy (systemically-used interferon:27.4%; placebo:26.4%). The difference between the two groups had no statistical significance (RR1.25, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.95, P > 0.05). 7 studies demonstrated the recurrence rate of interferon as compared to placebo for treating genital warts. Based on meta-analysis, the

  3. Interferon for the treatment of genital warts: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin; Pu, Yu-Guo; Zeng, Zhong-Ming; Yu, Zhi-Jian; Huang, Na; Deng, Qi-Wen

    2009-09-21

    Interferon has been widely used in the treatment of genital warts for its immunomodulatory, antiproliferative and antiviral properties. Currently, no evidence that interferon improves the complete response rate or reduces the recurrence rate of genital warts has been generally provided. The aim of this review is to assess, from randomized control trials (RCTs), the efficacy and safety of interferon in curing genital warts. We searched Cochrane Sexually Transmitted Diseases Group's Trials Register (January, 2009), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (2009, issue 1), PubMed (1950-2009), EMBASE (1974-2009), Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM) (1975-2009), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) (1979-2009), VIP database (1989-2009), as well as reference lists of relevant studies. Two reviewers independently screened searched studies, extracted data and evaluated their methodological qualities. RevMan 4.2.8 software was used for meta-analysis 12 RCTs involving 1445 people were included. Among them, 7 studies demonstrated the complete response rate of locally-used interferon as compared to placebo for treating genital warts. Based on meta-analysis, the rate of Complete response of the two interventions differed significantly (locally-used interferon:44.4%; placebo:16.1%). The difference between the two groups had statistical significance (RR 2.68, 95% CI 1.79 to 4.02, P < 0.00001). 5 studies demonstrated the complete response rate of systemically-used interferon as compared to placebo for treating genital warts. Based on meta-analysis, the rate of Complete response of the two interventions had no perceivable discrepancy (systemically-used interferon:27.4%; placebo:26.4%). The difference between the two groups had no statistical significance (RR1.25, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.95, P > 0.05). 7 studies demonstrated the recurrence rate of interferon as compared to placebo for treating genital warts. Based on meta-analysis, the recurrence rate of the two

  4. Cryotherapy versus salicylic acid for the treatment of plantar warts (verrucae): a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Hewitt, Catherine; Hicks, Kate; Jayakody, Shalmini; Kang’ombe, Arthur Ricky; Stamuli, Eugena; Turner, Gwen; Thomas, Kim; Curran, Mike; Denby, Gary; Hashmi, Farina; McIntosh, Caroline; McLarnon, Nichola; Torgerson, David; Watt, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the clinical effectiveness of cryotherapy versus salicylic acid for the treatment of plantar warts. Design A multicentre, open, two arm randomised controlled trial. Setting University podiatry school clinics, NHS podiatry clinics, and primary care in England, Scotland, and Ireland. Participants 240 patients aged 12 years and over, with a plantar wart that in the opinion of the healthcare professional was suitable for treatment with both cryotherapy and salicylic acid. Interventions Cryotherapy with liquid nitrogen delivered by a healthcare professional, up to four treatments two to three weeks apart. Patient self treatment with 50% salicylic acid (Verrugon) daily up to a maximum of eight weeks. Main outcome measures Complete clearance of all plantar warts at 12 weeks. Secondary outcomes were (a) complete clearance of all plantar warts at 12 weeks controlling for age, whether the wart had been treated previously, and type of wart, (b) patient self reported clearance of plantar warts at six months, (c) time to clearance of plantar wart, (d) number of plantar warts at 12 weeks, and (e) patient satisfaction with the treatment. Results There was no evidence of a difference between the salicylic acid and cryotherapy groups in the proportions of participants with complete clearance of all plantar warts at 12 weeks (17/119 (14%) v 15/110 (14%), difference 0.65% (95% CI –8.33 to 9.63), P=0.89). The results did not change when the analysis was repeated but with adjustment for age, whether the wart had been treated previously, and type of plantar wart or for patients’ preferences at baseline. There was no evidence of a difference between the salicylic acid and cryotherapy groups in self reported clearance of plantar warts at six months (29/95 (31%) v 33/98 (34%), difference –3.15% (–16.31 to 10.02), P=0.64) or in time to clearance (hazard ratio 0.80 (95% CI 0.51 to 1.25), P=0.33). There was also no evidence of a difference in the number of plantar

  5. Molecular analysis of the effect of topical imiquimod treatment of HPV 2/27/57-induced common warts.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, S; Grussendorf-Conen, E-I; Rösener, I; Rübben, A

    2004-01-01

    Imiquimod is effective in the treatment of genital warts and clinical studies suggest activity against common warts as well. We have analyzed the effect of topical imiquimod on gene expression and virus load in human papilloma virus (HPV) 2/27/57-induced common warts. mRNA was extracted from keratinocyte culture, from normal skin, from three untreated common warts and from three common warts treated topically with 5% imiquimod cream twice daily. Differential gene expression was demonstrated by RT-PCR and by cDNA microarray hybridization. We further analyzed viral DNA content in scales from three superficially pared imiquimod-treated warts by real-time PCR. Comparison of normal skin with wart tissue revealed that HPV 2/27/57 infection led to an induction of IL-6, IL-10 and interferon-gamma inducible protein (IP10) and to an up-regulation of TGF-beta. We could further detect expression of PCTAIRE-3, WNT2B, frizzled-3, notch-2, notch-4 and BRCA2 in normal skin and common warts. Analysis of imiquimod-treated warts demonstrated that imiquimod enhanced IL-6 expression and induced IL-8, GM-CSF, MRP-8 and MRP-14. It could also be shown that imiquimod led to an infiltration of wart tissue with macrophages and to a strong decrease of viral copy number in warts within 3 months of treatment. Our data thus provide molecular proof of principle for imiquimod treatment of cutaneous common warts. 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  6. Incidence of genital warts among the Hong Kong general adult population

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The objective of this study is to estimate the incidence of genital warts in Hong Kong and explore a way to establish a surveillance system for genital warts among the Hong Kong general population. Methods A total of 170 private doctors and all doctors working in the 5 local Social Hygiene Clinics (SHC) participated in this study. During the 14-day data collection period (January 5 through18, 2009), the participating doctors filled out a log-form on a daily basis to record the number of patients with genital warts. The total number of new cases of genital warts presented to private and public doctors in Hong Kong was projected using the stratification sampling method. Results A total of 721 (0.94%) adults presented with genital warts to the participating doctors during the two-week study period, amongst them 73 (10.1%) were new cases. The projected number of new cases of genital warts among Hong Kong adults was 442 (297 male and 144 female) during the study period. The incidence of genital warts in Hong Kong was estimated to be 203.7 per 100,000 person-years (respectively 292.2 and 124.9 per 100,000 person-years for males and females). Conclusions The incidence of genital warts is high among adults in Hong Kong. The study demonstrates the importance of collecting surveillance data from both private and public sectors. PMID:20849578

  7. Incidence of genital warts among the Hong Kong general adult population.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chunqing; Lau, Joseph T F; Ho, King-Man; Lau, Man-Chun; Tsui, Hi-Yi; Lo, Kuen-Kong

    2010-09-17

    The objective of this study is to estimate the incidence of genital warts in Hong Kong and explore a way to establish a surveillance system for genital warts among the Hong Kong general population. A total of 170 private doctors and all doctors working in the 5 local Social Hygiene Clinics (SHC) participated in this study. During the 14-day data collection period (January 5 through 18, 2009), the participating doctors filled out a log-form on a daily basis to record the number of patients with genital warts. The total number of new cases of genital warts presented to private and public doctors in Hong Kong was projected using the stratification sampling method. A total of 721 (0.94%) adults presented with genital warts to the participating doctors during the two-week study period, amongst them 73 (10.1%) were new cases. The projected number of new cases of genital warts among Hong Kong adults was 442 (297 male and 144 female) during the study period. The incidence of genital warts in Hong Kong was estimated to be 203.7 per 100,000 person-years (respectively 292.2 and 124.9 per 100,000 person-years for males and females). The incidence of genital warts is high among adults in Hong Kong. The study demonstrates the importance of collecting surveillance data from both private and public sectors.

  8. Prevalence and Correlates of Genital Warts in Kenyan Female Sex Workers

    PubMed Central

    Kavanaugh, Barbara E.; Odem-Davis, Katherine; Jaoko, Walter; Estambale, Benson; Kiarie, James N.; Masese, Linnet N.; Deya, Ruth; Manhart, Lisa E.; Graham, Susan M.; McClelland, R. Scott

    2012-01-01

    Background Our goal in the present study was to investigate the prevalence and correlates of genital warts in a population of female sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya. Because of the high prevalence of HIV-1 in this population, we were particularly interested in the association between HIV-1 infection and genital warts. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of the prevalence and correlates of genital warts among high-risk women in Mombasa, Kenya. Between 2001 and 2007, 1182 women were enrolled, of whom 613 (51.4%) were HIV-1-seropositive. Chi square tests and logistic regression were used to examine the associations between genital warts and potential correlates. Results Genital warts were identified on clinical examination in 27 (2.3%) women. Women who were HIV-1-seropositive were nearly 8 times as likely to have genital warts compared to HIV-1-seronegative women (OR 7.69, 95% CI 2.30–25.6). Conclusion Understanding the prevalence and correlates of genital warts will help to determine whether coverage for the wart-inducing subtypes 6 and 11 in an HPV vaccine is an important consideration in resource-limited countries. PMID:23060082

  9. Prevalence and correlates of genital warts in Kenyan female sex workers.

    PubMed

    Kavanaugh, Barbara E; Odem-Davis, Katherine; Jaoko, Walter; Estambale, Benson; Kiarie, James N; Masese, Linnet N; Deya, Ruth; Manhart, Lisa E; Graham, Susan M; McClelland, Raymond Scott

    2012-11-01

    Our goal in the present study was to investigate the prevalence and correlates of genital warts in a population of female sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya. Because of the high prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in this population, we were particularly interested in the association between HIV-1 infection and genital warts. We conducted a cross-sectional study of the prevalence and correlates of genital warts among high-risk women in Mombasa, Kenya. Between 2001 and 2007, 1182 women were enrolled, of whom 613 (51.4%) were HIV-1 seropositive. Chi square tests and logistic regression were used to examine the associations between genital warts and potential correlates. Genital warts were identified on clinical examination in 27 (2.3%) women. Women who were HIV-1 seropositive were nearly 8 times as likely to have genital warts compared with HIV-1-seronegative women (odds ratio, 7.69; 95% confidence interval, 2.30-25.6). Understanding the prevalence and correlates of genital warts will help to determine whether coverage for the wart-inducing subtypes 6 and 11 in a human papillomavirus vaccine is an important consideration in resource-limited countries.

  10. Genital warts in men: a large population-based cross-sectional survey of Danish men.

    PubMed

    Munk, Christian; Nielsen, Ann; Liaw, Kai-Li; Kjaer, Susanne Krüger

    2012-12-01

    To estimate the occurrence of and risk factors associated with genital warts in Danish men We conducted a cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study among almost 23 000 men aged 18-45 years, randomly sampled from the general population of Denmark. Data was collected on self-reported clinically diagnosed genital warts, and various lifestyle habits. Ever having had clinically diagnosed genital warts was reported by 7.9% of the men. The median age at first occurrence was 22 years. Genital warts within the previous 12 months were reported by 0.92% of the men, with a peak of 1.83% among men aged 21-24 years. The likelihood of reporting genital warts was strongly correlated with the lifetime number of sex partners (OR 8.0; 95% CI 6.0 to 10.8 for ≥15 partners vs 1-2 partners). Other factors associated with an increased risk for genital warts included ever having smoked and having had other sexually transmitted infections. Almost 8% of Danish men aged 18-45 years reported having had a diagnosis of genital warts. The results provide baseline information for developing and monitoring prevention strategies against genital warts, such as vaccination against human papillomavirus types 6 and 11.

  11. Amino acid composition of two masticatory nuts (Cola acuminata and Garcinia kola) and a snack nut (Anacardium occidentale).

    PubMed

    Adeyeye, E I; Asaolu, S S; Aluko, A O

    2007-06-01

    The amino acid compositions of Cola acuminata, Garcinia kola and Anacardium occidentale were evaluated by ion-exchange chromatography. Glutamic acid was the most concentrated acid in the samples. In all the amino acids determined, A. occidentale had the most concentrated acid on a pairwise basis. The total amino acids were 356.24 mg/g protein, 112.90 mg/g protein and 659.17 mg/g protein for C. acuminata, G. kola and A. occidentale, respectively. The percentage total essential amino acids were 38.39% (C. acuminata), 47.05% (G. kola) and 51.04% (A. occidentale). Also the percentage total acidic amino acids were 38.16% (C. acuminata), 30.61% (G. kola) and 30.35% (A. occidentale). The calculated isoelectric points were 2.0 (C. acuminata), 0.7 (G. kola) and 3.9 (A. occidentale), showing they can all be precipitated at acidic pH. While threonine was the limiting amino acid in A. occidentale, it was valine in both C. acuminata and G. kola. The percentage cystine (Cys) levels in the total sulphur amino acid were 44.27% (C. acuminata), 37.75% (G. kola) and 50.51% (A. occidentale). The aim of this work was to compare the amino acid profile of the samples. It is recommended that C. acuminata and G. kola consumption be avoided by ulcer patients because of their high levels of acidic amino acids. A. occidentale amino acid scores ranged from 42% to 127%, suggesting that it could be used to enhance the protein quality of cereals through food complementation.

  12. Quality of life in men diagnosed with anogenital warts*

    PubMed Central

    de Camargo, Caio Cavassan; D'Elia, Maria Paula Barbieri; Miot, Helio Amante

    2017-01-01

    Anogenital warts are a worldwide public health problem. They consist of epithelial proliferations caused by HPV, whose transmission occurs mainly through sexual intercourse. In this study, we evaluated their impact on the quality of life of adult males. We interviewed 88 men in an outpatient clinic for sexually transmitted diseases at a Brazilian public institution, using the DLQI-BRA questionnaire. Most patients (81%) presented mild or no impairment of quality of life. The main dimensions affected were sex life, symptoms, and embarrassment. The low impact on quality of life may well justify the delay in seeking medical treatment, favoring the spread of the disease. PMID:29186268

  13. Clearance of human papillomavirus related anal condylomas after oral and endorectal multistrain probiotic supplementation in an HIV positive male: A case report.

    PubMed

    Ceccarelli, Giancarlo; Cavallari, Eugenio Nelson; Savinelli, Stefano; Bianchi, Luigi; Pierangeli, Alessandra; Vullo, Francesco; Ciardi, Antonio; D'ettorre, Gabriella

    2018-04-01

    Here we present the case of a 56-year-old human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected man with multiple anal condylomas and positivity for human papilloma virus (HPV) 18 on anal brushing. Biopsies of the anal mucosa led to the diagnosis of Bowen's disease and a subsequent pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan evidenced multiple reactive lymphoadenopathies and large intra-anal condylomas. The patient was treated with a complete excision of Bowen's lesion and with a 4 months course of supplementation with a high concentration multistrain probiotic formulation administered orally and by rectal instillation with the purpose to reduce local inflammation and to enhance local mucosal immunity. An MRI performed at the end of the supplementation period evidenced the clearance of the anal condylomas previously described and no evidence of residual lymphadenopathies. Trials are therefore required to confirm this therapeutic possibility and for a better understanding of the mechanisms by which this specific probiotic formulation interacts with local epithelium when administered by the anal route.

  14. Efficacy and tolerability of a new topical nitric-zinc preparation for "difficult-to-treat" warts.

    PubMed

    Janniger, Camila K; Schwartz, Robert A

    2017-03-01

    Treating plantar, periungual, and external genital warts can be challenging. A prospective study from four centers in Italy evaluated 37 immunocompetent patients with single or multiple warts and treated each lesion with a nitric-zinc topical solution composed of organic and inorganic acids meant to devitalize tissue and destroy HPV DNA in infected keratinocytes. Thirty of the 37 patients had external genital warts, two had plantar warts, two had palm and finger warts, and three had subungual warts for a total of 55 lesions treated. Nitric-zinc aqueous solution was applied over each wart utilizing a 30 µL capillary tube until a whitening response was observed. Additional applications as needed were accomplished at 2-week intervals until the wart was gone. In those with hand, plantar, and subungual warts, there was a 100% clearance after two to three sessions. Three with external genital warts had only a partial response and one no benefit after four applications. Thus, this approach was effective in external genital and other "difficult-to-treat" warts in 90% of patients after one to four applications. It also was easy to use with no adverse events noted. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Evolving role of immunotherapy in the treatment of refractory warts

    PubMed Central

    Thappa, Devinder M; Chiramel, Minu J

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous and genital warts are common dermatological conditions caused by the human papilloma virus (HPV). Although it is a benign condition, it causes disfigurement, has a tendency to koebnerize, and can be transmitted to others. This makes adequate and timely treatment important. There are several conventional treatments available with variable response. Topical and systemic immunotherapy has now found a significant place in the treatment of warts because of its nondestructive action, ease of use, and promising results. Through this review, we would like to present a brief overview of the various immunotherapeutic agents used. These include more established agents such as imiquimod, Mycobacterium w vaccine, bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine, measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine, Candida antigen, trichophyton antigen, tuberculin, zinc, cimetidine, levamisole, HPV vaccine, and autoimplantation therapy. Other agents such as contact immunotherapy which is sparsely used now than before and newer agents such as Corynebacterium parvum, sinecatechins, echinacea, propolis, glycyrrizinic acid, and Vitamin D have also been discussed. The mechanism of action of these agents, along with their dosage, mode of administration, duration of use, expected outcomes and comparative efficacy, evidence for their use, and expected side effects, if any, are reviewed. PMID:27730031

  16. Treatment of condylomata acuminata with CO2 laser under colposcopic control in pregnant women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wozniak, Jakub; Opala, Tomasz; Pisarska-Krawczyk, Magdalena; Wilczak, Maciej; Pisarski, Tadeusz

    1996-03-01

    The results of treatment of condylomata acuminata of the anogenital region in pregnant women are presented. All patients were treated between the 28th and 35th weeks of gestation. The laser surgery was done in 23 patients. One laser procedure was done in 14 women. In 5 patients we performed two and in 4 women 3 laser therapies. Complete destruction of pathological changes was obtained and no recurrences were diagnosed. There were no clinical signs of HPV infection in all neonates. In the authors' opinion the use of carbon-dioxide laser under colposcopic control is an efficient and safe method in the treatment of condylomata acuminata in pregnant women. Colposcopic control allows us to discover and coagulate the bleeding spots using the defocused laser beam with low power density.

  17. Behavioural responses of the snail Lymnaea acuminata to carbohydrates in snail-attractant pellets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Farindra; Singh, D. K.

    Snail control is one of the most important tools in the campaign to reduce the incidence of fascioliasis. In order to attain this objective, the method of bait formulation in order to contain an attractant and a molluscicide is an expedient approach to lure the target snail population to the molluscicide. This study identifies certain carbohydrates, namely sucrose, maltose, glucose, fructose and starch, for preparing such baits. These were tested on Lymnaea acuminata, an intermediate host of the digenean trematodes Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. The behavioural responses of snails to these carbohydrates were examined. Significant variations in behavioural responses were observed in the snail even when the five carbohydrates were used in low concentrations in snail-attractant pellets. Starch emerged as the strongest attractant for Lymnaea acuminata, followed by maltose.

  18. The natural impact of banana inflorescences (Musa acuminata) on human nutrition.

    PubMed

    Fingolo, Catharina E; Braga, João M A; Vieira, Ana C M; Moura, Mirian R L; Kaplan, Maria Auxiliadora C

    2012-12-01

    Banana inflorescences are popularly known as 'navels,' and they are used in Brazil as nutritional complements. However, the nutritional value of banana inflorescences (male flowers and bracts) has never been studied. Therefore, plant material of Musa acuminata, cultivar "ouro", was collected in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, and then submitted to chemical procedures to determine its nutritional composition. The experiment was arranged a completely randomized design and performed in triplicate. The sample composition analysis showed percentual average value for moisture, protein, fat and ash as 8.21, 14.50, 4.04 and 14.43, respectively. The dehydrated inflorescences were found to contain a significant nutritive complement based on their high content of potassium (5008.26 mg / 100 g) and fiber 49.83% (lignin, cellulose and hemicelluloses) revealing important functional and nutritional properties. In a parallel evaluation, the anatomical study revealed key elements for the recognition of Musa acuminata when reduced to fragments.

  19. Two new species of Lactarius associated with Alnus acuminata subsp. arguta in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Leticia; Bandala, Victor M; Garay, Edith

    2014-01-01

    In pure stands of Alnus acuminata subsp. arguta trees from Sierra Norte de Puebla (central Mexico) two undescribed ectomycorrhizal species of Lactarius were discovered. Distinction of the two new species is based on morphological characters and supported with phylogenetic analyses of the nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS region and part of the gene that encodes for the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (rpb2). The phylogenies inferred recovered the two species in different clades strongly supported by posterior probabilities and bootstrap values. The new Lactarius species are recognized as part of the assemblage of ectomycorrhizal fungi associated with Alnus acuminata. Information about these taxa includes the morphological variation achieved along 16 monitories 2010-2013. Descriptions are provided. They are accompanied by photos including SEM photomicrographs of basidiospores and information on differences between them and other related taxa from Europe and the United States. © 2014 by The Mycological Society of America.

  20. Prevalence of human papillomavirus in anal and oral sites among patients with genital warts.

    PubMed

    Kofoed, Kristian; Sand, Carsten; Forslund, Ola; Madsen, Klaus

    2014-03-01

    Genital warts are caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). HPV is a leading cause of anogenital malignancies and a role of HPV in the aetiology of oro-pharyngeal cancers has been demonstrated. The frequency of oral HPV infection in patients with genital warts and the association between concomitant genital, anal and oral infection is unclear. A total of 201 men and women with genital wart-like lesions were recruited. Swab samples were obtained from the genital warts and the anal canal and an oral rinse was collected. Anal HPV was found in 46.2% and oral HPV in 10.4% of the participants. Concordance between anal and genital wart HPV types was 78.1%, while concordance between oral and genital wart types was 60.9%. A lower concordance of 21.7% was observed between anal and oral HPV types. Significantly more women than men had multiple HPV types and anal HPV. In conclusion, extra genital HPV is common in patients with genital warts. A gender inequality seems to exist.

  1. Photodynamic therapy of urethral condylomata acuminata using topically 5-aminolevulinic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiuli; Wang, Hongwei; Wang, Haishan; Xu, Shizheng; Liao, Kanghuang; Hillemanns, Peter

    2005-07-01

    Background Electrocoagulation and laser evaporation for urethral condylomata acuminata have high recurrence rates and can be associated with urethral malformations. Objective To investigate the effect of photodynamic therapy (PDT) with topical 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) on urethral condylomata acuminata and to examine the histological changes in lesions of condylomata acuminata after ALA-PDT. Methods One hundred and sixty-four urethral condylomata patients were given topical ALA followed by intraurethral PDT through a cylindrical fiber. Among the cases, 16 penile and vulval condylomatous lesions in 11 patients were treated with topical ALA-PDT at same time. After the treatment, biopsy specimens were collected from the 16 penile and vulval lesions. The histological changes were then evaluated by light microscope and electron microscope. Results The complete response rate for urethral condylomata by topical ALA-PDT was 95.12% and the recurrence rate was 5.13% after 6 to 24 months follow-up. Keratinocytes in middle and upper layers of the epidermis with marked vacuolation and some necrocytosis were detected one and three hours after PDT. Necrosis in all layers of the epidermis was noted five hours after PDT by microscopy. In electron microscopy of kerationcytes, distinct ultrastructural abnormalities of mitochondrion, endoplasmic reticulum and membrane damage were observed. Apoptotic bodies were detected three hours after PDT and a large number of the keratinocytes exhibited necrosis five hours after PDT by electron microscope. Conclusions Results suggests that topical ALA-PDT is a simple, effective, relatively safe, less recurrent and comparatively well tolerated treatment for urethral condylomata acuminata. The mechanisms might be that ALA-PDT could trigger apoptotic process and necrosis in the HPV infected keratinocytes. Key words:

  2. The quality of life of patients with genital warts: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Genital warts, which are caused by infection with human papillomavirus (HPV), are one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases in Europe. Although genital warts are commonly perceived as a non-serious condition, treatment is often long, of varying effectiveness and the recurrence rate is high. Very few studies have been performed on the personal consequences of genital warts. The aim of this qualitative study, set in Denmark, was to examine the ways in which genital warts may affect patients' quality of life. Methods To obtain an in-depth understanding of patients' perceptions of genital warts, we used qualitative focus-group interviews with five men and five women aged between 18 and 30 years who had genital warts. The interview guide was based on a literature review that identified important issues and questions. The data were analysed using a medical anthropological approach. Results Patients' experiences were related to cultural conceptions of venereal diseases and the respective identities and sexuality of the sexes. The disease had negative psychological and social effects both for men and for women and it affected their sex and love lives, in particular. The psychological burden of the disease was increased by the uncertain timeline and the varying effectiveness of treatment. We identified a need for more patient information about the disease and its psycho-sexual aspects. Conclusions The men and women participating in this study considered their quality of life to be significantly lowered because of genital warts. The experiences described by the participants give insights that may be valuable in treatment and counselling. The quadrivalent HPV vaccine that has now been added to the childhood vaccination programme for girls in Denmark for the prevention of cervical cancer can also prevent 90% of cases of genital warts. Our results suggest that HPV vaccination could considerably reduce the largely unacknowledged psychological and social

  3. The quality of life of patients with genital warts: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Gitte Lee; Larsen, Helle K

    2010-03-07

    Genital warts, which are caused by infection with human papillomavirus (HPV), are one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases in Europe. Although genital warts are commonly perceived as a non-serious condition, treatment is often long, of varying effectiveness and the recurrence rate is high. Very few studies have been performed on the personal consequences of genital warts. The aim of this qualitative study, set in Denmark, was to examine the ways in which genital warts may affect patients' quality of life. To obtain an in-depth understanding of patients' perceptions of genital warts, we used qualitative focus-group interviews with five men and five women aged between 18 and 30 years who had genital warts. The interview guide was based on a literature review that identified important issues and questions. The data were analysed using a medical anthropological approach. Patients' experiences were related to cultural conceptions of venereal diseases and the respective identities and sexuality of the sexes. The disease had negative psychological and social effects both for men and for women and it affected their sex and love lives, in particular. The psychological burden of the disease was increased by the uncertain timeline and the varying effectiveness of treatment. We identified a need for more patient information about the disease and its psycho-sexual aspects. The men and women participating in this study considered their quality of life to be significantly lowered because of genital warts. The experiences described by the participants give insights that may be valuable in treatment and counselling.The quadrivalent HPV vaccine that has now been added to the childhood vaccination programme for girls in Denmark for the prevention of cervical cancer can also prevent 90% of cases of genital warts. Our results suggest that HPV vaccination could considerably reduce the largely unacknowledged psychological and social burden associated with genital warts, in

  4. Climate Variability and Oceanographic Settings Associated with Interannual Variability in the Initiation of Dinophysis acuminata Blooms

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Patricio A.; Reguera, Beatriz; Ruiz-Villarreal, Manuel; Pazos, Yolanda; Velo-Suárez, Lourdes; Berger, Henrick; Sourisseau, Marc

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, there were exceptional blooms of D. acuminata in early spring in what appeared to be a mesoscale event affecting Western Iberia and the Bay of Biscay. The objective of this work was to identify common climatic patterns to explain the observed anomalies in two important aquaculture sites, the Galician Rías Baixas (NW Spain) and Arcachon Bay (SW France). Here, we examine climate variability through physical-biological couplings, Sea Surface Temperature (SST) anomalies and time of initiation of the upwelling season and its intensity over several decades. In 2012, the mesoscale features common to the two sites were positive anomalies in SST and unusual wind patterns. These led to an atypical predominance of upwelling in winter in the Galician Rías, and increased haline stratification associated with a southward advection of the Gironde plume in Arcachon Bay. Both scenarios promoted an early phytoplankton growth season and increased stability that enhanced D. acuminata growth. Therefore, a common climate anomaly caused exceptional blooms of D. acuminata in two distant regions through different triggering mechanisms. These results increase our capability to predict intense diarrhetic shellfish poisoning outbreaks in the early spring from observations in the preceding winter. PMID:23959151

  5. Coexisting High-grade Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia (VIN) and Condyloma Acuminatum - Independent Lesions Due to Different HPV Types Occurring in Immunocompromised Patients

    PubMed Central

    Maniar, Kruti P.; Ronnett, Brigitte M.; Vang, Russell; Yemelyanova, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The majority of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) is high-grade and is related to high-risk human papillomavirus (HRHPV) (most commonly HPV16). It is considered to be the precursor of HRHPV-related vulvar squamous cell carcinoma. Vulvar condyloma acuminatum is low-risk HPV (LRHPV)-related (most commonly types 6 and 11) and has virtually no risk of neoplastic progression. While infection with multiple LR- and HRHPV types has been reported for cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions, coexisting vulvar condyloma and adjacent high-grade VIN have not been well characterized. Eleven cases of concurrent condyloma acuminatum and adjacent flat high-grade VIN and three cases of high-grade VIN with prominent condylomatous architecture were analyzed using immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis of p16 expression, in situ hybridization (ISH) for HPV detection (HPV6/11, HPV16, HPV 18, and HPV WS [types 6,11,16,18,31,33,35,45,51,52] probes), and HPV typing by PCR-based method (in select cases). All patients had underlying immunosuppressive conditions (human immunodeficiency virus infection or post-transplant therapy). Among the 11 cases of concurrent high-grade VIN and condyloma, the lesions were directly adjacent to one another in 5 cases (with 2 of these demonstrating an intimate admixture of lesions), and in 6 cases were found in separate tissue sections from the same specimen. Diffuse/strong p16 expression was seen in all high-grade VIN lesions, whereas patchy/weak staining was found in all condylomata. All condylomata contained HPV 6 or 11 as detected by ISH. All of the accompanying high-grade VIN lesions had HRHPV detected. Ten contained HPV 16 (9 by ISH, 1 by PCR), with the remaining case containing multiple HPV types by PCR. All condylomatous high-grade VIN lesions demonstrated diffuse/strong p16 expression and had evidence of HRHPV (one with HPV 16 by ISH, one with HPV 18 by ISH, and one with multiple HPV types by PCR), with no detection of HPV 6 or 11 by ISH. The

  6. Smoking Enhances Risk for New External Genital Warts in Men

    PubMed Central

    Wiley, Dorothy J.; Elashoff, David; Masongsong, Emmanuel V.; Harper, Diane M.; Gylys, Karen H.; Silverberg, Michael J.; Cook, Robert L.; Johnson-Hill, Lisette M.

    2009-01-01

    Repeat episodes of HPV-related external genital warts reflect recurring or new infections. No study before has been sufficiently powered to delineate how tobacco use, prior history of EGWs and HIV infection affect the risk for new EGWs. Behavioral, laboratory and examination data for 2,835 Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study participants examined at 21,519 semi-annual visits were evaluated. Fourteen percent (391/2835) of men reported or were diagnosed with EGWs at 3% (675/21,519) of study visits. Multivariate analyses showed smoking, prior episodes of EGWs, HIV infection and CD4+ T-lymphocyte count among the infected, each differentially influenced the risk for new EGWs. PMID:19440442

  7. Genital Warts -- Initial Visits to Physicians' Offices, United States, 1966 - 2012

    MedlinePlus

    ... 46. Genital Warts — Initial Visits to Physicians’ Offices, United States, 1966 – 2012 Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... OIG 1600 Clifton Road Atlanta , GA 30329-4027 USA 800-CDC-INFO (800-232-4636) , TTY: 888- ...

  8. Genital warts in young Australians five years into national human papillomavirus vaccination programme: national surveillance data.

    PubMed

    Ali, Hammad; Donovan, Basil; Wand, Handan; Read, Tim R H; Regan, David G; Grulich, Andrew E; Fairley, Christopher K; Guy, Rebecca J

    2013-04-18

    To measure the effect on genital warts of the national human papillomavirus vaccination programme in Australia, which started in mid-2007. Trend analysis of national surveillance data. Data collated from eight sexual health services from 2004 to 2011; the two largest clinics also collected self reported human papillomavirus vaccination status from 2009. Between 2004 and 2011, 85,770 Australian born patients were seen for the first time; 7686 (9.0%) were found to have genital warts. Rate ratios comparing trends in proportion of new patients diagnosed as having genital warts in the pre-vaccination period (2004 to mid-2007) and vaccination period (mid-2007 to the end of 2011). Large declines occurred in the proportions of under 21 year old (92.6%) and 21-30 year old (72.6%) women diagnosed as having genital warts in the vaccination period-from 11.5% in 2007 to 0.85% in 2011 (P<0.001) and from 11.3% in 2007 to 3.1% in 2011 (P<0.001), respectively. No significant decline in wart diagnoses was seen in women over 30 years of age. Significant declines occurred in proportions of under 21 year old (81.8%) and 21-30 year old (51.1%) heterosexual men diagnosed as having genital warts in the vaccination period-from 12.1% in 2007 to 2.2% in 2011 (P<0.001) and from 18.2% in 2007 to 8.9% in 2011 (P<0.001), respectively. No significant decline in genital wart diagnoses was seen in heterosexual men over 30 years of age. In 2011 no genital wart diagnoses were made among 235 women under 21 years of age who reported prior human papillomavirus vaccination. The significant declines in the proportion of young women found to have genital warts and the absence of genital warts in vaccinated women in 2011 suggests that the human papillomavirus vaccine has a high efficacy outside of the trial setting. Large declines in diagnoses of genital warts in heterosexual men are probably due to herd immunity.

  9. First detection of bovine papillomavirus type 2 in cutaneous wart lesions from ovines.

    PubMed

    Mazzuchelli-de-Souza, J; de Carvalho, R F; Módolo, D G; Thompson, C E; Araldi, R P; Stocco, R C

    2018-05-03

    This study diagnosed cutaneous wart lesions excised from three rams from a sheep farm in São Paulo State, Brazil. Histopathologically, these cases were diagnosed as papilloma. The amplification by PCR, sequencing and bioinformatics analysis showed that all the lesions presented DNA sequences of bovine papillomavirus type 2. This is the first report confirming the detection of BPV2 in papilloma warts from ovines. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Prevalence and Determinants of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Infection in Male Genital Warts

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung Jin; Seo, Juhyung; Ha, Seong-Heon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the prevalence and type distribution of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in genital warts of Korean men, and for the first time, to describe the risk factors associated with high-risk HPV infection in male genital warts. Materials and Methods In a single private clinic, 150 consecutive male patients with histopathologic-confirmed genital warts who underwent HPV genotyping by use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were included in this study. We detected HPV DNA in male genital warts and evaluated HPV type distribution, especially high-risk HPV types, by use of PCR. The associations between HPV prevalence and various characteristics, such as age, circumcision status, type of genital warts diagnosis (new vs. recurrent), number of lesions, site of lesions, and gross morphology, were assessed by use of unconditional multiple logistic regression. Results High-risk HPV types were detected in 31 cases (23.5%), and of these, 27 cases (20.5%) contained both high-risk and low-risk HPV types. The most frequently detected high-risk HPV types were HPV16 (6.8%), HPV33 (4.5%), HPV18 (2.3%), and HPV68 (2.3%). In particular, the prevalence of infection with HPV16 and/or HPV18 was 8.3% (11 of 132). In the multivariate analysis, lesions located at sites including the base of the penis or the pubic area, papular or mixed genital warts, and lack of circumcision significantly increased the association with high-risk HPV infection in male genital warts. Conclusions The prevalence of high-risk HPV infection was substantial in male genital warts. The site and morphology of lesions and circumcision status were significantly associated with the prevalence of high-risk HPV infection. PMID:24648877

  11. Prevalence and determinants of high-risk human papillomavirus infection in male genital warts.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung Jin; Seo, Juhyung; Ha, Seong-Heon; Jung, Gyung-Woo

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the prevalence and type distribution of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in genital warts of Korean men, and for the first time, to describe the risk factors associated with high-risk HPV infection in male genital warts. In a single private clinic, 150 consecutive male patients with histopathologic-confirmed genital warts who underwent HPV genotyping by use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were included in this study. We detected HPV DNA in male genital warts and evaluated HPV type distribution, especially high-risk HPV types, by use of PCR. The associations between HPV prevalence and various characteristics, such as age, circumcision status, type of genital warts diagnosis (new vs. recurrent), number of lesions, site of lesions, and gross morphology, were assessed by use of unconditional multiple logistic regression. High-risk HPV types were detected in 31 cases (23.5%), and of these, 27 cases (20.5%) contained both high-risk and low-risk HPV types. The most frequently detected high-risk HPV types were HPV16 (6.8%), HPV33 (4.5%), HPV18 (2.3%), and HPV68 (2.3%). In particular, the prevalence of infection with HPV16 and/or HPV18 was 8.3% (11 of 132). In the multivariate analysis, lesions located at sites including the base of the penis or the pubic area, papular or mixed genital warts, and lack of circumcision significantly increased the association with high-risk HPV infection in male genital warts. The prevalence of high-risk HPV infection was substantial in male genital warts. The site and morphology of lesions and circumcision status were significantly associated with the prevalence of high-risk HPV infection.

  12. Loss of quality of life associated with genital warts: baseline analyses from a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Sénécal, Martin; Brisson, Marc; Maunsell, Elizabeth; Ferenczy, Alex; Franco, Eduardo L; Ratnam, Sam; Coutlée, François; Palefsky, Joel M; Mansi, James A

    2011-04-01

    The quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is effective against HPV types responsible for 90% of anogenital warts. This study estimated the quality of life lost to genital warts using the EQ-5D, a generic instrument widely used for applications in economic analyses. The findings are described in terms that are more specific to individuals with genital warts using psychosocial questions adapted from the HPV impact profile, a measure developed for HPV-related conditions. Between September 2006 and February 2008, 42 physicians across Canada recruited 330 consenting patients 18 years and older with genital warts, either at the first or follow-up visit for an initial or recurrent episode. The quality of life lost associated with genital warts was estimated by the difference between participants' EQ-5D scores and age and gender-specific population norms. The study questionnaire was self-completed by 270 participants who were aged 31.5 years (SD 10.4) on average. The majority of participants were women (53.3%), heterosexual (93.5%) and in a stable relationship (66.0%). Genital warts were associated with detriments in the EQ-5D domains of anxiety/depression, pain/discomfort and usual activities. The absolute difference in the EQ-5D utility score and the EQ-VAS health status between genital warts patients and population norms was 9.9 (95% CI 7.3 to 12.5) and 6.0 (95% CI 4.1 to 7.9) percentage points, respectively. These results did not vary significantly according to patient age, gender, time since first episode or number of episodes. The results suggest that genital warts negatively affect the wellbeing of men and women as reflected by poorer quality of life scores compared with population norms.

  13. Appraisal of the burden of genital warts from a healthcare and individual patient perspective.

    PubMed

    Scarbrough Lefebvre, C D; Van Kriekinge, G; Gonçalves, M A; de Sanjose, S

    2011-07-01

    Worldwide, genital warts, caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common, sexually transmitted disease. The overall disease management strategy for genital warts should be determined not only by the prevalence, but also by the impact of the disease on individuals and society. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate the epidemiological, economic and quality of life (QoL) burden of genital warts. A systematic literature review was conducted on the epidemiology, QoL and management cost of genital warts in the USA, UK and France, based on studies published between 1998 and 2008. Due to scarcity of data, all studies reporting standardized QoL assessments among patients with genital warts were utilized, regardless of country of origin. Original studies were preferred over information cited in review articles. Data from three countries suggest that genital warts occur in 0.06-0.23% of the population each year. Despite the fact that spontaneous remissions occur frequently (up to 40%), patients often prefer immediate treatment. While treatment can be costly in absolute terms (€163-510 per treatment episode), these costs are lower compared with other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Modest reductions in QoL have been noted, which may be mitigated through adequate patient education and support. While genital warts are an inconvenience for many patients, the occurrence may be lower than often quoted in the literature, and the economic burden on society is less than for other prominent STIs. However, concerted efforts to establish improved data collection and surveillance systems are needed in order to accurately define the burden of genital warts on individuals and society. Copyright © 2011 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Prevalence of Anogenital Warts in Men with HIV/AIDS and Associated Factors

    PubMed Central

    de Camargo, Caio Cavassan; Tasca, Karen Ingrid; Mendes, Monica Banwart; Miot, Hélio Amante; de Souza, Lenice do Rosário

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Infection with human papilloma virus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted disease in the world. Among the 630 million new cases of HPV that occur each year, 30 million develop anogenital warts. Although subclinical infection with HPV is the most common cause, genital warts are also associated with immunosuppression caused by HIV. In view of the high prevalence of HPV/HIV co-infection particularly among men who have sex with men, the objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of anogenital warts in men with HIV/AIDS and to identify associated factors. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 159 men with HIV/AIDS consecutively selected at a referral service in Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil, in which the association between sociodemographic, behavioral and clinical variables and the presence of anogenital warts was evaluated. After hierarchical analysis of the data, variables presenting a p value ≤ 0.2 were entered into an unconditional multivariate logistic regression model. Results: Forty-nine (31%) of the HIV-positive patients had anogenital warts. The mean age was 44.6 ± 9.6 years. The main factors associated with the presence of anogenital warts were irregular antiretroviral treatment and genital herpes(HSV). Conclusion: The present study demonstrate that anogenital warts occur in almost one-third of the male population infected with HIV and factors associated with a higher risk of being diagnosed with anogenital warts were irregular cART use and co-infection with HSV, other variables could not be associated. PMID:25317220

  15. Topical formic acid puncture technique for the treatment of common warts.

    PubMed

    Bhat, R M; Vidya, K; Kamath, G

    2001-06-01

    Warts are a common chronic skin disorder that can be cosmetically disfiguring and, depending on the location, cause inhibition of function. The presence of dozens of topical and systemic treatments for warts is a testament to the lack of a rapid, simple, uniformly effective, inexpensive, nonscarring, and painless treatment. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy and safety of 85% formic acid application, an inexpensive therapy, for the treatment of warts. A placebo-controlled, nonrandomized, open trial was performed in 100 patients with common warts attending Father Muller's Medical College Hospital, Mangalore. Fifty patients received 85% formic acid application and 50 patients received placebo (water) using a topical application/needle puncture technique every other day. Ninety-two per cent of patients who received formic acid application showed complete disappearance of warts after a 3-4-week treatment period, compared to 6% in the placebo group. The results show that 85% formic acid application is a safe, economical, and effective alternative in the treatment of common warts with few side-effects and good compliance. A multicenter trial is needed to examine the efficacy and safety of this treatment.

  16. Glycolic acid 15% plus salicylic acid 2%: a new therapeutic pearl for facial flat warts.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Cerdeira, Carmen; Sánchez-Blanco, Elena

    2011-09-01

    Facial flat warts are a contagious viral disease that can cause disturbing cosmetic problems. Topical glycolic acid has been reported to be effective in dermatological treatment depending on the exfoliant capacity, but has not often been reported to be effective in the treatment of facial flat warts. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of glycolic acid 15% topical gel plus salicylic acid 2% in the treatment of recalcitrant facial flat warts. A total of 20 consecutive patients 7 to 16 years of age with recalcitrant facial flat warts were enrolled in this study. Patients having warts by the eye and lip regions were excluded from the study. A fine layer of face gel was applied to the treatment area once daily. Most of the participants had tried different treatments with no success. Assessments for the response and the occurrence of side effects were performed every two weeks at Weeks 2, 4, 6, and 8. All the patients were clinically cured within eight weeks. Seven patients cleared in four weeks, and 13 patients cleared in eight weeks. No noticeable adverse events were related to the skin. Topical gel of glycolic acid 15% plus salicylic acid 2% is safe and effective when applied to facial flat warts once daily until clearance and may be considered as first-line treatment.

  17. Impact of Taraxerol in combination with extract of Euphorbia tirucalli plant on biological parameters of Lymnaea acuminata.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Saroj; Singh, Ajay

    2011-01-01

    The present work was carried out to evaluate the molluscicidal activity of active ingredient Taraxerol with the acetone extract of Euphorbia tirucalli against Lymnaea acuminata snail. The (fecundity, hatchability and survivability) of snail L. acuminata exposed to this extract was studied. The effects of the tested extracts on life-history traits of harmful snail L. acuminata have also been evaluated, and this study also expounds the inhibitory effects of these extracts singly as well as in binary combination (1:1 ratio). It concluded that these herbal products act as a potential source of molluscicides, and that they would also have the advantage of easy availability, low cost, biodegradability and greater acceptance amongst users than synthetic pesticide.

  18. Genital and extra-genital warts increase the risk of asymptomatic genital human papillomavirus infection in men

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Brenda Y; Shvetsov, Yurii B; Goodman, Marc T; Wilkens, Lynne R; Thompson, Pamela J; Zhu, Xuemei; Tom, James; Ning, Lily

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the relationship of warts in different parts of the body and the risk of asymptomatic genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in men. Methods We examined the relationship of self-reported genital and extra-genital warts with the subsequent acquisition of asymptomatic genital HPV infection in a cohort of 331 adult men. Participants were followed at 2-month intervals for up to 4 years. Past and current presence of warts was queried at study entry. At each visit, the external genitals were sampled for HPV DNA testing. Results Men who reported a history of genital warts, including current warts, were at increased risk of acquisition of asymptomatic HPV infection of the penis glans/corona, penis shaft and scrotum. The magnitude of these associations was greatest for HPV 6/11 infection. History of warts on the fingers, arms and trunk of the body was also associated with increased risk of genital HPV infection. Current presence of warts on the fingers and trunk specifically increased the risk of acquisition of HPV types not typically found on the genitals. Conclusions Men with a history of warts on the genitals, fingers, arms and trunk may be at increased risk for acquisition of new genital HPV infections. Warts may provide an efficient reservoir for the transmission of virions to the genitals through auto-inoculation. The potential for the spread of HPV throughout the body through auto-inoculation has important implications for prevention and control of HPV infection. PMID:21602516

  19. Genital and extra-genital warts increase the risk of asymptomatic genital human papillomavirus infection in men.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Brenda Y; Shvetsov, Yurii B; Goodman, Marc T; Wilkens, Lynne R; Thompson, Pamela J; Zhu, Xuemei; Tom, James; Ning, Lily

    2011-08-01

    To evaluate the relationship of warts in different parts of the body and the risk of asymptomatic genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in men. We examined the relationship of self-reported genital and extra-genital warts with the subsequent acquisition of asymptomatic genital HPV infection in a cohort of 331 adult men. Participants were followed at 2-month intervals for up to 4 years. Past and current presence of warts was queried at study entry. At each visit, the external genitals were sampled for HPV DNA testing. Men who reported a history of genital warts, including current warts, were at increased risk of acquisition of asymptomatic HPV infection of the penis glans/corona, penis shaft and scrotum. The magnitude of these associations was greatest for HPV 6/11 infection. History of warts on the fingers, arms and trunk of the body was also associated with increased risk of genital HPV infection. Current presence of warts on the fingers and trunk specifically increased the risk of acquisition of HPV types not typically found on the genitals. Men with a history of warts on the genitals, fingers, arms and trunk may be at increased risk for acquisition of new genital HPV infections. Warts may provide an efficient reservoir for the transmission of virions to the genitals through auto-inoculation. The potential for the spread of HPV throughout the body through auto-inoculation has important implications for prevention and control of HPV infection.

  20. Human Papillomavirus DNA Detection in Menstrual Blood from Patients with Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia and Condyloma Acuminatum ▿

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Sze Chuen Cesar; Au, Thomas Chi Chuen; Chan, Sammy Chung Sum; Chan, Charles Ming Lok; Lam, Money Yan Yee; Zee, Benny Chung Ying; Pong, Wei Mei; Chan, Anthony Tak Cheung

    2010-01-01

    The Papanicolaou test generates pain and embarrassment, and cytology screening has limited sensitivity for detection of cervical neoplasia. These factors urge the use of another screening test that can overcome these limitations. We explore a completely noninvasive method using detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in women's menstrual blood (MB). The participants were divided into 3 cohorts: (i) 235 patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3 (CIN 3) (n = 48), CIN 2 (n = 60), CIN 1 (n = 58), or condyloma acuminatum (CAC) (n = 69) before treatment or remission; (ii) from the first cohort of patients, 108 CIN 3 or CIN 2 patients after treatment and 62 CIN 1 or CAC patients after remission; and (iii) 323 apparently normal subjects (ANS) without any cervical disease. The HPV genotypes of the infected patients were confirmed by direct sequencing. Quantitative real-time PCR (QRT-PCR) was used to measure the MB HPV16 load for 15 infected patients. Results showed that the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for detection of MB HPV DNA in samples from patients with CIN or CAC were 82.8%, 93.1%, 90.0%, and 87.9%, respectively. Moreover, MB HPV DNA was found in samples from 22.2% of CIN 3 or CIN 2 patients after treatment, 0.0% of CIN 1 or CAC patients after remission, and 8.1% of ANS, 4 of whom were found to have CIN 1 or CAC. Furthermore, QRT-PCR showed that the normalized MB HPV16 DNA copy numbers in samples from patients with CIN 1 to CIN 3 were significantly increased. These preliminary results suggested that MB HPV DNA is a potential noninvasive marker for these premalignant cervical diseases. PMID:20089764

  1. Timing of two versus three doses of quadrivalent HPV vaccine and associated effectiveness against condyloma in Sweden: a nationwide cohort study

    PubMed Central

    F, Lamb; E, Herweijer; A, Ploner; I, Uhnoo; K, Sundström; P, Sparén; L, Arnheim-Dahlström

    2017-01-01

    Objective To assess incidence of condyloma after two doses of quadrivalent human papillomavirus (qHPV) vaccine, by time since first vaccine dose, in girls and women initiating vaccination before age 20 years. Design Register-based nationwide open cohort study. Setting Sweden. Participants Girls and women initiating qHPV vaccination before age 20 years between 2006 and 2012. The study cohort included 264 498 girls, of whom 72 042 had received two doses of qHPV vaccine and 185 456 had received all three doses. Main outcome measure Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of condyloma estimated by time between first and second doses of qHPV in months (m) and age at vaccination, adjusted for attained age. Results For girls first vaccinated with two doses before the age of 17 years, the IRR of condyloma for 0–3 months between the first and second doses was 1.96 (95% CI 1.43 to 2.68) as compared with the standard three-dose schedule. The IRRs were 1.27 (95% CI 0.63 to 2.58) and 4.36 (95% CI 2.05 to 9.28) after receipt of two doses with 4–7 months and 8+ months between doses, respectively. For women first vaccinated after the age of 17 years, vaccination with two doses of qHPV vaccine and 0–3 months between doses was associated with an IRR of 2.12 (95% CI 1.62 to 2.77). For an interval of 4–7 months between doses, the IRR did not statistically significantly differ to the standard three-dose schedule (IRR=0.81, 95% CI 0.36 to 1.84). For women with 8+ months between dose 1 and dose 2 the IRR was 3.16 (95% CI 1.40 to 7.14). Conclusion A two-dose schedule for qHPV vaccine with 4–7 months between the first and second doses may be as effective against condyloma in girls and women initiating vaccination under 20 years as a three-dose schedule. Results from this nationwide study support immunogenicity data from clinical trials. PMID:28600369

  2. The complete chloroplast genome of banana (Musa acuminata, Zingiberales): insight into plastid monocotyledon evolution.

    PubMed

    Martin, Guillaume; Baurens, Franc-Christophe; Cardi, Céline; Aury, Jean-Marc; D'Hont, Angélique

    2013-01-01

    Banana (genus Musa) is a crop of major economic importance worldwide. It is a monocotyledonous member of the Zingiberales, a sister group of the widely studied Poales. Most cultivated bananas are natural Musa inter-(sub-)specific triploid hybrids. A Musa acuminata reference nuclear genome sequence was recently produced based on sequencing of genomic DNA enriched in nucleus. The Musa acuminata chloroplast genome was assembled with chloroplast reads extracted from whole-genome-shotgun sequence data. The Musa chloroplast genome is a circular molecule of 169,972 bp with a quadripartite structure containing two single copy regions, a Large Single Copy region (LSC, 88,338 bp) and a Small Single Copy region (SSC, 10,768 bp) separated by Inverted Repeat regions (IRs, 35,433 bp). Two forms of the chloroplast genome relative to the orientation of SSC versus LSC were found. The Musa chloroplast genome shows an extreme IR expansion at the IR/SSC boundary relative to the most common structures found in angiosperms. This expansion consists of the integration of three additional complete genes (rps15, ndhH and ycf1) and part of the ndhA gene. No such expansion has been observed in monocots so far. Simple Sequence Repeats were identified in the Musa chloroplast genome and a new set of Musa chloroplastic markers was designed. The complete sequence of M. acuminata ssp malaccensis chloroplast we reported here is the first one for the Zingiberales order. As such it provides new insight in the evolution of the chloroplast of monocotyledons. In particular, it reinforces that IR/SSC expansion has occurred independently several times within monocotyledons. The discovery of new polymorphic markers within Musa chloroplast opens new perspectives to better understand the origin of cultivated triploid bananas.

  3. The Complete Chloroplast Genome of Banana (Musa acuminata, Zingiberales): Insight into Plastid Monocotyledon Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Guillaume; Baurens, Franc-Christophe; Cardi, Céline; Aury, Jean-Marc; D’Hont, Angélique

    2013-01-01

    Background Banana (genus Musa) is a crop of major economic importance worldwide. It is a monocotyledonous member of the Zingiberales, a sister group of the widely studied Poales. Most cultivated bananas are natural Musa inter-(sub-)specific triploid hybrids. A Musa acuminata reference nuclear genome sequence was recently produced based on sequencing of genomic DNA enriched in nucleus. Methodology/Principal Findings The Musa acuminata chloroplast genome was assembled with chloroplast reads extracted from whole-genome-shotgun sequence data. The Musa chloroplast genome is a circular molecule of 169,972 bp with a quadripartite structure containing two single copy regions, a Large Single Copy region (LSC, 88,338 bp) and a Small Single Copy region (SSC, 10,768 bp) separated by Inverted Repeat regions (IRs, 35,433 bp). Two forms of the chloroplast genome relative to the orientation of SSC versus LSC were found. The Musa chloroplast genome shows an extreme IR expansion at the IR/SSC boundary relative to the most common structures found in angiosperms. This expansion consists of the integration of three additional complete genes (rps15, ndhH and ycf1) and part of the ndhA gene. No such expansion has been observed in monocots so far. Simple Sequence Repeats were identified in the Musa chloroplast genome and a new set of Musa chloroplastic markers was designed. Conclusion The complete sequence of M. acuminata ssp malaccensis chloroplast we reported here is the first one for the Zingiberales order. As such it provides new insight in the evolution of the chloroplast of monocotyledons. In particular, it reinforces that IR/SSC expansion has occurred independently several times within monocotyledons. The discovery of new polymorphic markers within Musa chloroplast opens new perspectives to better understand the origin of cultivated triploid bananas. PMID:23840670

  4. CO2 laser in treatment of condylomata acuminata of male reproductive organs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wozniak, Jakub; Opala, Tomasz; Pisarska-Krawczyk, Magdalena; Wilczak, Maciej; Pisarski, Tadeusz

    1996-03-01

    The results of laser therapy in the treatment of condylomata acuminata of male reproductive organs are reported. Between November 1991 and February 1995 in the Department of Reproduction, Institute of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Karol Marcinkowski University School of Medical Sciences, Poznan in 28 patients with condylomatous changes of reproductive organs carbon-dioxide laser therapy under colposcopic control was done. In 24 of them the healing was achieved. In four patients second laser therapy was done. All patients are still under control in the Department of Reproduction and there was no recurrence diagnosed.

  5. A saturated SSR/DArT linkage map of Musa acuminata addressing genome rearrangements among bananas.

    PubMed

    Hippolyte, Isabelle; Bakry, Frederic; Seguin, Marc; Gardes, Laetitia; Rivallan, Ronan; Risterucci, Ange-Marie; Jenny, Christophe; Perrier, Xavier; Carreel, Françoise; Argout, Xavier; Piffanelli, Pietro; Khan, Imtiaz A; Miller, Robert N G; Pappas, Georgios J; Mbéguié-A-Mbéguié, Didier; Matsumoto, Takashi; De Bernardinis, Veronique; Huttner, Eric; Kilian, Andrzej; Baurens, Franc-Christophe; D'Hont, Angélique; Cote, François; Courtois, Brigitte; Glaszmann, Jean-Christophe

    2010-04-13

    The genus Musa is a large species complex which includes cultivars at diploid and triploid levels. These sterile and vegetatively propagated cultivars are based on the A genome from Musa acuminata, exclusively for sweet bananas such as Cavendish, or associated with the B genome (Musa balbisiana) in cooking bananas such as Plantain varieties. In M. acuminata cultivars, structural heterozygosity is thought to be one of the main causes of sterility, which is essential for obtaining seedless fruits but hampers breeding. Only partial genetic maps are presently available due to chromosomal rearrangements within the parents of the mapping populations. This causes large segregation distortions inducing pseudo-linkages and difficulties in ordering markers in the linkage groups. The present study aims at producing a saturated linkage map of M. acuminata, taking into account hypotheses on the structural heterozygosity of the parents. An F1 progeny of 180 individuals was obtained from a cross between two genetically distant accessions of M. acuminata, 'Borneo' and 'Pisang Lilin' (P. Lilin). Based on the gametic recombination of each parent, two parental maps composed of SSR and DArT markers were established. A significant proportion of the markers (21.7%) deviated (p < 0.05) from the expected Mendelian ratios. These skewed markers were distributed in different linkage groups for each parent. To solve some complex ordering of the markers on linkage groups, we associated tools such as tree-like graphic representations, recombination frequency statistics and cytogenetical studies to identify structural rearrangements and build parsimonious linkage group order. An illustration of such an approach is given for the P. Lilin parent. We propose a synthetic map with 11 linkage groups containing 489 markers (167 SSRs and 322 DArTs) covering 1197 cM. This first saturated map is proposed as a "reference Musa map" for further analyses. We also propose two complete parental maps with

  6. Impact of quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine on genital warts in an opportunistic vaccination structure.

    PubMed

    Lurie, Samuel; Mizrachi, Yossi; Chodick, Gabi; Katz, Rachel; Schejter, Eduardo

    2017-08-01

    Genital warts are the most common sexually transmitted disease and have a detrimental impact on quality of life. Genital warts could be prevented by prophylactic HPV vaccination. The objective was to study real-life benefit of opportunistic HPV vaccination on age and gender specific incidence of genital warts. We performed a register-based population cohort study from publicly funded health-care provider in Israel. The incidence of genital warts was assessed during three time frame intervals: 2006-2008 (pre-vaccination effect period) 2009-2012 (early post-vaccination effect period) and 2013-2015 (late post-vaccination effect period), with an average annual number of members of 1,765,481, 1,906,774 and 2,042,678 in the years 2006-2008, 2009-2012 and 2013-2015, respectively. Among females, annual incidence of genital warts per 100,000 women decreased from 210.43 to 161.71 (OR 0.76, 95%CI 0.71-0.82, p<0.001) and to 146.8 (OR 0.69, 95%CI 0.66-0.72, p<0.001) between pre-vaccination period and early and late post-vaccination periods, respectively. Among males, annual incidence of genital warts per 100,000 men decreased from 262.85 to 232.40 (OR 0.88, 95%CI 0.83-0.93, p<0.001) and to 234.01 (OR 0.88, 95%CI 0.86-0.91, p<0.001) between pre-vaccination period and early and late post-vaccination periods, respectively. There is a potential benefit in reducing incidence of genital warts even in opportunistic HPV vaccination structure. This information may be relevant for health-care providers in countries where national immunization programs do not include HPV vaccines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Prevalence and Genotype of Human Papillomavirus from Patients with Genital Warts in Eastern Guangdong Province.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhao-Yun; Chen, Qiang; Yang, Hui; Lin, Min; Chen, Chan-Yu; Yang, Chun; Yang, Li-Ye

    2015-01-01

    Low-risk human papillomavirus (LR-HPV) infection is the main cause of genital warts. LR- HPV genotypes 6 and 11 are associated with genital warts, but there have only been a few published studies about the genotype-specific prevalence of HPV in genital warts in China. The objective of our study was to assess the prevalence of HPV genotypes for clinical cases involving both men and women and to evaluate the potential benefit of a quadrivalent (genotypes 6, 11, 16, and 18) HPV vaccine in eastern Guangdong province of China. A total of 696 eligible patients with genital warts were enrolled during the period Aug 2009 through Oct 2014. Specimens were collected from genital warts, the HPV GenoArray test was used for HPV detection and genotyping, which could detect 21 HPV genotypes, including genotypes 6, 11, 16, and 18. Among the 696 cases, 675 samples were successfully genotyped. The median age of patients was 32.1 years (range, 16-67 years). The most prevalent genotypes were HPV-6 (285/675, 42.2%), HPV-11 (265/675, 39.3%), HPV-52 (52/675, 7.7%), HPV-16 (51/675, 7.56%), HPV-81 (50/675, 7.40%) and HPV-58 (37/675, 5.48%). Low-risk genotypes predominated, with a prevalence of 96.59%. The cumulative prevalence of genotypes 6 and 11 was 78.7% (531/675), the cumulative prevalence of genotypes 16 and 18 was 11.6% (78/675), and the cumulative prevalence of genotypes 6, 11, 16, and 18 was 82.5% (557/675). Our results provide strong evidence that, in eastern Guangdong, different from Western countries, the most prevalent low risk HPV genotypes in patients with genital warts are 6, 11 and 81. The quadrivalent HPV vaccine could prevent 82.5% of genital warts in eastern Guangdong.

  8. Assessing incidence and economic burden of genital warts with data from a US commercially insured population.

    PubMed

    Hoy, Tracey; Singhal, Puneet K; Willey, Vincent J; Insinga, Ralph P

    2009-10-01

    This study examined the incidence of and healthcare costs attributable to genital warts within a large US commercially insured, geographically dispersed population. Using a retrospective cohort study design, this longitudinal analysis assessed administrative claims of integrated medical and pharmacy encounters from five Blue Cross Blue Shield health plans. Genital warts cases were identified using a methodology previously described by Insinga et al. Age- and gender-specific incidence of genital warts per 1000 person-years in 2004, and duration-of-episode attributable direct medical costs (2004 US dollars) and healthcare resource utilization of cases diagnosed in 2002. Overall outcome measures were age- and gender-adjusted to the 2004 US civilian population. Genital warts incidence in 2004 was 1.2/1000 females and 1.1/1000 males. Incidence was highest among females aged 20-24 (4.6/1000) and males aged 25-29 (2.7/1000). Projected overall incidence was over 340,000 cases in 2004. Mean duration-of-episode per incident case in 2002 was 95.4 days (males 116.3 days; females 69.7 days). Mean ambulatory visits per episode were 1.5 for females and 1.9 for males, with <1 drug prescription/episode. Mean costs were $647/episode ($745 males; $528 females). The 2004 estimated economic burden was $760 per 1000 individuals in the general population with the total exceeding $220 million. Only those genital warts cases that sought evaluation or for which the treating provider was covered by the health plan were captured in the study. Genital warts represent a significant health and cost burden in the US. Adoption of novel healthcare technologies such as vaccines along with traditional interventions such as physician education of signs and symptoms, condom use and abstinence or limiting number of sexual partners may significantly help reduce the burden of genital warts.

  9. Human papillomaviruses in anogenital warts in children: typing by in situ hybridisation.

    PubMed Central

    Padel, A F; Venning, V A; Evans, M F; Quantrill, A M; Fleming, K A

    1990-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To identify the types of human papillomaviruses found in anogenital warts in children and to relate these to clinical and social information. DESIGN--In situ hybridisation using biotin labelled DNA probes to 11 types of human papillomavirus was performed on biopsy specimens from 17 children with anogenital warts. SETTING--Nuffield department of pathology and the department of dermatology, Oxford. PATIENTS--Children in one group were referred by general practitioners or paediatricians to the dermatology department, where biopsies were performed. The other children were seen in four different hospitals, and biopsy specimens were submitted to the laboratory at the physician's or pathologist's request. RESULTS--Of the 17 biopsy specimens, 10 contained cells positive with a probe to a genital human papillomavirus type (types 6 or 11), while six were positive with a skin virus type (types 2 or 3). One was negative. The virus type present bore no relation to the site or appearance of the warts. The virus type did, however, appear to correlate with groups of children. Skin types were commoner in older children (over 4 years), in those with a relative who had skin warts, and in children with warts elsewhere; there was no relation with the child's sex and no suspicion of sexual abuse in these children. These circumstances suggested non-sexual transmission, such as autoinoculation. In contrast, genital types were commoner in girls, in children under 3 years, in children with relatives with genital warts, and in those with no warts elsewhere. Nevertheless, there was suspicion or evidence of sexual abuse in only half these children, suggesting that other routes of transmission--for example, perinatal--might have been implicated. CONCLUSION--Anogenital warts in children may contain either skin or genital wart virus type. Although the type of human papillomavirus present may give some indication of the likely mode of transmission, this can be interpreted only in

  10. Near elimination of genital warts in Australia predicted with extension of human papillomavirus vaccination to males.

    PubMed

    Korostil, Igor A; Ali, Hammad; Guy, Rebecca J; Donovan, Basil; Law, Matthew G; Regan, David G

    2013-11-01

    The National Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccination Program for females delivering the quadrivalent vaccine Gardasil has been included in the National Immunisation Program in Australia since 2007. Sentinel surveillance data show that genital wart incidence has been steadily declining since then. The objective of this study was to estimate the additional impact on genital warts as a result of male vaccination, which was approved by the Australian government in 2012 and commenced in 2013. We use a mathematical model of HPV transmission in the Australian heterosexual population to predict the impact of male vaccination on the incidence of genital warts. Our model produced results that are consistent with the actual observed decline in genital warts and predicted a much lower incidence, approaching elimination, in coming decades with the introduction of male vaccination. Results from our model indicate that the planned extension of the National HPV Vaccination Program to males will lead to the near elimination of genital warts in both the female and male heterosexual populations in Australia.

  11. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells and type I interferon in the immunological response against warts.

    PubMed

    Saadeh, D; Kurban, M; Abbas, O

    2017-12-01

    Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are the most potent producers of type I interferons (IFNs), and are involved in the pathogenesis of several cutaneous infectious (especially viral), inflammatory/autoimmune and neoplastic entities. Their role in the pathogenesis and regression of human papilloma virus (HPV)-induced skin lesions has not been well studied. To investigate pDC occurrence and activity in HPV-induced skin lesions, including inflamed and uninflamed warts as well as epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EDV)-associated lesions. In total 20 inflamed and 20 uninflamed HPV-induced skin lesions (including 7 EDV lesions) were retrieved from our database, and the tissue was immunohistochemically tested for pDC occurrence and activity using anti-BDCA-2 and anti-MxA antibodies, respectively. pDCs were present in all 20 inflamed warts and absent from all 20 uninflamed cases. MxA expression was also diffuse and strong in 75% (15/20) inflamed warts, but not in any of the uninflamed warts. pDCs constitute a central component of the inflammatory host response in inflamed warts, possibly contributing to their regression through production of type I interferons. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  12. Cryosurgery of genital warts in cases in which podophyllin treatment failed or was contraindicated.

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, A K

    1977-01-01

    A total of 56 cases with warts in which podophyllin treatment was either contraindicated or a failure, were treated with nitrous oxide using a Keymed 500 cryosurgical appliance. Forty-three patients who completed treatment were followed-up for three months. Thirty-seven of these had received applications of podophyllin twice weekly for an average period of three months before cryosurgery. The remaining cases in whom podophyllin was considered to be contraindicated included five with vulval warts (two were pregnant, two were bronchial asthmatics taking oral prednisolone, and one was taking oral clomiphene citrate), and a diabetic patients with penile warts. Thirty-two were cured and 11 relapsed. The latter were re-treated at the end of the follow-up period with two freezing cycles of 45 seconds at an interval of 30 minutes. Seven were cured and the remaining four men who failed to respond belonged to the podophyllin-resistant group and included three with metal warts and one homosexual with anogenital warts. Cryosurgery gave a cumulative success rate of 91%. A single freezing cycle was free from complications but a double freezing cycle was often followed by severe local reaction. Images PMID:843897

  13. Incidence of genital warts in adolescents and their association with cervical intraepithelial lesions.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Denise L M; Sodré, Danielle C B; Russomano, Fábio B; Trajano, Alexandre J B; Silva, Kátia S

    2013-05-01

    To estimate the incidence of genital warts in adolescents and analyze their relationship with the development of cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL). From 1993 to 2006 we followed 846 adolescents in the gynecology clinic of a public hospital in Rio de Janeiro. They were sexually active, had a normal smear test and no genital warts upon recruitment and completed two years of follow-up. Data were analyzed using EPI-INFO software. The research was approved by the hospital Ethics Committee. The mean age at recruitment was 15.8 ± 1.4 years and at first intercourse was 14.7 ± 1.6. Sixty-three (7.4%) adolescents presented condylomata, 5.6% (48/846) during the first year of sexual activity and 1.8% (15/846) during the second year. Within two years, 20.5% (174/846) of the patients had an abnormal smear test. Seventy percent (44/63) of the patients with genital warts developed a SIL. The association between warts and SIL showed a RR=4.2(3.3-5.3). The incidence of condylomata was one third of the incidence of SIL and was higher during the first than in the second year of sexual activity. Adolescents with genital warts had a fourfold increase in risk of SIL and therefore should be carefully followed up. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Therapeutic Outcome of Intralesional Immunotherapy in Cutaneous Warts Using the Mumps, Measles, and Rubella Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Awal, Guneet

    2018-01-01

    Background: Various treatment modalities have been described in the literature for treating warts, but none thus far have demonstrated optimal results. Recently, the mumps, measles, and rubella (MMR) antigen has gained popularity because of its proven efficacy in the treatment of warts. Aim: The goal was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intralesional MMR antigen in the treatment of cutaneous warts. Methods: Patients were divided into an MMR (study) group and a normal saline (control) group. Injections were administered into the single largest wart on each patient every two weeks. Follow-up was done at six weeks and 16 weeks after the last injection for any side effects and/or recurrence. Results: Out of 150 patients, 72 received the MMR injection and 50 received normal saline injections. Twenty-eight patients did not complete the study. A statistically significant (p<0.00001) difference in results was found between the two groups: 68 percent of patients in the MMR group showed complete response compared to 10 percent in the control group. Pain during injection was the most common side effect and was seen in both groups. Conclusion: MMR injection has shown significant results with almost negligible adverse effects. The MMR antigen vaccine has therapeutic potential as a treatment for warts with its demonstrated efficacy, safety profile, and cost-effectiveness. PMID:29785233

  15. Pi-pi* orbital transitions and photo-degeneracy of C.acuminata sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abodunrin, T.; Boyo, A.; Usikalu, M.; Obafemi, L.; Oladapo, O.; Kotsedi, L.; Yenus, Z.; Maaza, M.

    2017-04-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have acquired great prominence as favourable low-cost photovoltaics due to their ease of fabrication, all- year -availability, ease of obtaining raw materials and adjustable optical properties like transparency and colour. These advantages coupled with the ability to work under poor lighting makes them a suitable candidate for next generation of research. In this research, C.acuminata-sensitized photo anodes play an important role for achieving high performance since the porous metal oxide films provide a large specific surface area for dye loading and the possibility to extend the absorption threshold of past studies of sensitizers. The doctor blade method and high-temperature sintering were some of the methods used in the fabrication of the photo anode. A study of the performance of the C.acuminata-DSSCs with four different electrolyte sensitizers based on iodide redox mediator is determined. The result is DSSCs that exhibit a maximum power output of 39.37 W, fill factor of 0.7 and a power conversion efficiency of 0.6% under unfavourable sunlight intensity conditions and photo-degradation of about 37.5 % in absorbance after 425 suns.

  16. The nucleotide sequences of 5S rRNAs from a fern Dryopteris acuminata and a horsetail Equisetum arvense.

    PubMed Central

    Hori, H; Osawa, S; Takaiwa, F; Sugiura, M

    1984-01-01

    The nucleotide sequences from two Pteridophyta species, a fern Dryopteris acuminata and a horsetail Equisetum arvense have been determined. These two sequences are more related to those of the Bryophyta species (88% identity on average) than to those of seed plants (84% identity on average). PMID:6538332

  17. Screening optimal substrates from Erhai lakeside for Ottelia acuminata (Gagnep.) Dandy, an endangered submerged macrophyte in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuqin; Chu, Zhaosheng; Zhou, Yunqiao; Li, Qifeng; Wang, Tieyu

    2018-05-08

    Because of the unstable hydrodynamic conditions in the wild, the endangered aquatic plant should be cultivated first in constructed wetlands for the protection and expansion of germplasm resources. Ottelia acuminata (Gagnep.) Dandy has become extinct in Erhai Lake, Yunnan province, China. In order to optimize substrates for this species to artificial cultivation, the native substrate (sandy soils) and the other three representative ones (red paddy soils, alluvial paddy soils, and purple paddy soils) collected from Erhai lakeside were applied to cultivate O. acuminata for 50 days. Multi indicators, such as antioxidant enzymes activity, malondialdehyde and chlorophyll-α concentration, and relative growth rate of O. acuminata, were discussed and statistically analyzed to classify the substrates. The results suggested that even disregarding the physiology significance of these indicators, hierarchical clustering analysis had high efficiency on optimizing substrates. Although various single indexes suggested different optimal substrates for macrophyte growth, red paddy soil was never excluded out the optimal substrate classes. Further study is needed to assess the substrates optimization functionalities of these indicators. This study offers amounts of physiology data and an effective method to optimize substrates of O. acuminata. It is helpful for environmental scientists and ecological engineers to conduct the similar study on endangered species.

  18. Infectious papillomavirus in the vapor of warts treated with carbon dioxide laser or electrocoagulation: Detection and protection

    SciTech Connect

    Sawchuk, W.S.; Weber, P.J.; Lowy, D.R.

    1989-07-01

    Papillomavirus DNA has been reported recently in the vapor (smoke plume) derived from warts treated with carbon dioxide laser; this raises concerns for operator safety. We therefore have studied a group of human and bovine warts to define further the potential risk of wart therapy and to test whether a surgical mask could reduce exposure. Half of each wart was treated with carbon dioxide laser and the other half with electrocoagulation. The vapor produced by each form of therapy was collected with a dry filter vacuum apparatus and analyzed for the presence of papillomavirus. Vapor from human plantar warts wasmore » analyzed for the presence of human papillomavirus DNA, because there is no infectivity assay for human papillomavirus. Of plantar warts treated, five of eight laser-derived vapors and four of seven electrocoagulation-derived vapors were positive for human papillomavirus DNA. Greater amounts of papillomavirus DNA were usually recovered in the laser vapor than in the electrocoagulation vapor from the same wart. Bioassay readily detected infectious bovine papillomavirus in the vapor from bovine warts treated with either modality; more virus was present in laser-derived material. A surgical mask was found capable of removing virtually all laser- or electrocoagulation-derived virus, strongly suggesting that such masks can protect operators from potential inhalation exposure to papillomavirus.« less

  19. Treatment of palmoplantar warts with a diphencyprone and salicylic acid ointment.

    PubMed

    Armour, Katherine; Orchard, David

    2006-08-01

    We report on 50 consecutive suitable patients with one or more palmoplantar warts who were treated with a patient-applied ointment comprising 0.1% diphencyprone and 15% salicylic acid in white soft paraffin. All patients sensitized to diphencyprone were followed up clinically and assessed by patient questionnaire. The intention to treat success rate in this series was 88%. The time to wart clearance ranged from less than 4 weeks to 4 months. In our patient group, 90% rated their treatment as 'excellent' or 'good', whereas 10% stated that the reaction induced by diphencyprone was 'too severe'. Our results are compared with those previously published using diphencyprone in the treatment of palmoplantar warts.

  20. Clearance of genital warts in pregnant women by mild local hyperthermia: a pilot report.

    PubMed

    Huo, Wei; Di, Zheng-Hong; Xiao, Bi-Huan; Qi, Rui-Qun; Weiland, Matthew; Gao, Xing-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Genital warts acquired during pregnancy tend to grow fast, and management is challenging. We treated two cases of primipara with extensive genital warts by local hyperthermia at 44°C for 30 minutes a day for 3 consecutive days plus 2 additional days 1 week later, then once a week till there showed signs of clinical regression. The warty lesions in the patients resolved in 5 and 7 weeks, respectively. There was no sign of recurrence during a 6-month follow-up. This suggests that local hyperthermia seems to be a promising method for treating genital warts in pregnant women. © 2013 China Medical University. ; Dermatologic Therapy © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Topical zinc oxide vs. salicylic acid-lactic acid combination in the treatment of warts.

    PubMed

    Khattar, Joe A; Musharrafieh, Umayya M; Tamim, Hala; Hamadeh, Ghassan N

    2007-04-01

    Warts are a common dermatologic problem. Treatment is painful, prolonged, and can cause scarring. To evaluate topical zinc oxide for the treatment of warts. This was a randomized, double-blind controlled trial of 44 patients. Twenty-two patients were given topical zinc oxide 20% ointment, and the other 22 received salicylic acid 15% + lactic acid 15% ointment twice daily. All patients were followed up for 3 months or until cure, whichever occurred first. All patients were observed for side-effects. Sixteen patients in the zinc group and 19 in the salicylic acid-lactic acid group completed the study. In the zinc oxide-treated group, 50% of the patients showed complete cure and 18.7% failed to respond, compared with 42% and 26%, respectively, in the salicylic acid-lactic acid-treated group. No patients developed serious side-effects. Topical zinc oxide is an efficacious, painless, and safe therapeutic option for wart treatment.

  2. Distribution of Genital Wart Human Papillomavirus Genotypes in China: A Multi-Center Study

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Lihong; Ci, Puwa; Shi, Jufang; Zhai, Kan; Feng, Xiaoli; Colombara, Danny; Wang, Wei; Qiao, Youlin; Chen, Wen; Wu, Yuping

    2017-01-01

    Although it is understood that low-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes are associated with genital warts, there have been very few published studies reporting the genotype-specific prevalence of HPV among Chinese population. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of HPV genotypes in genital warts across China, and thus to evaluate the potential benefit of a quadrivalent HPV vaccine in this population. The tissue samples of a total of 1,005 genital warts cases were collected from seven geographical regions of China. HPV genotypes were analyzed using the general primer PCR and sequence-based typing method. Prevalence differences between sexes, geographical regions and age groups were assessed. The overall prevalence of HPV DNA in genital warts patients was 88.7% (891/1,005). Low-risk genotypes predominated, with a prevalence of 78.1% (785/1,005). The most prevalent genotypes were HPV-6 (41.3%), HPV-11 (37.6%) and HPV-16 (10.4%). Among HPV positive patients, single infections were more frequent (866/891, 97.2%) than co-infections (25/891, 2.8%). Both the overall prevalence of HPV DNA and that of HPV-6/-11/-16 (positive for any of the three types) decreased with age (P-trend = 0.010 and P-trend = 0.025, respectively). The prevalence of HPV-6/-11 (positive for either HPV type) and HPV-16 varied by geographic region (P = 0.003 and P ≤ 0.001, respectively). The prevalence of HPV-16 in female patients between urban and rural areas showed a marginally significant difference (P = 0.05). In sum, the results provide strong evidence that, in China, the most prevalent HPV genotypes in genital warts are HPV-6, HPV-11 and HPV-16. This indicates that a quadrivalent HPV vaccine may decrease the incidence of genital warts in the future. PMID:23861100

  3. Human papillomavirus vaccination and genital warts in young Indigenous Australians: national sentinel surveillance data.

    PubMed

    Ali, Hammad; McManus, Hamish; O'Connor, Catherine C; Callander, Denton; Kong, Marlene; Graham, Simon; Saulo, Dina; Fairley, Christopher K; Regan, David G; Grulich, Andrew; Low, Nicola; Guy, Rebecca J; Donovan, Basil

    2017-03-20

    To examine the impact of the national human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination program (available to girls and women [12-26 years] since 2007 and to boys [12-15 years] since 2013) on the number of diagnoses of genital warts in Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous) people. Analysis of routinely collected data from patients attending 39 sexual health clinics (SHCs) in the Genital Warts Surveillance Network for the first time.Major outcome: The average annual proportion of Indigenous and non-Indigenous SHC patients diagnosed with genital warts during the pre-vaccination (2004-2007) and vaccination periods (2008-2014), stratified by age group and sex. 7.3% of the 215 599 Australian-born patients with known Indigenous status and seen for the first time at participating SHCs during 2004-2014 were Indigenous Australians. The average proportion of female Indigenous patients diagnosed with warts was lower during the vaccination period than during the pre-vaccination period (in those under 21, summary rate ratio [SRR], 0.12; 95% CI, 0.07-0.21; P < 0.001); in 21-30-year olds: SRR, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.27-0.61; P < 0.001); there was no significant difference for women over 30 (SRR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.51-1.36; P = 0.47). The proportion of male Indigenous heterosexual SHC patients under 21 diagnosed with warts was also lower during the vaccination period (SRR, 0.25; 95% CI, 0.12-0.49; P < 0.001), with no significant changes among older Indigenous men over 30. There were marked declines in the proportions of diagnoses of genital warts in young Indigenous women and men attending SHCs after the introduction of the HPV vaccination program. If high levels of HPV vaccine coverage are sustained, HPV-related cancer rates should also decline.

  4. Genital warts and infection with human immunodeficiency virus in high-risk women in Burkina Faso: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Human papillomaviruses are the most common sexually transmitted infections, and genital warts, caused by HPV-6 and 11, entail considerable morbidity and cost. The natural history of genital warts in relation to HIV-1 infection has not been described in African women. We examined risk factors for genital warts in a cohort of high-risk women in Burkina Faso, in order to further describe their epidemiology. Methods A prospective study of 765 high-risk women who were followed at 4-monthly intervals for 27 months in Burkina Faso. Logistic and Cox regression were used to identify factors associated with prevalent, incident and persistent genital warts, including HIV-1 serostatus, CD4+ count, and concurrent sexually transmitted infections. In a subset of 306 women, cervical HPV DNA was tested at enrolment. Results Genital wart prevalence at baseline was 1.6% (8/492) among HIV-uninfected and 7.0% (19/273) among HIV-1 seropositive women. Forty women (5.2%) experienced at least one incident GW episode. Incidence was 1.1 per 100 person-years among HIV-uninfected women, 7.4 per 100 person-years among HIV-1 seropositive women with a nadir CD4+ count >200 cells/μL and 14.6 per 100 person-years among HIV-1 seropositive women with a nadir CD4+ count ≤200 cells/μL. Incident genital warts were also associated with concurrent bacterial vaginosis, and genital ulceration. Antiretroviral therapy was not protective against incident or persistent genital warts. Detection of HPV-6 DNA and abnormal cervical cytology were strongly associated with incident genital warts. Conclusions Genital warts occur much more frequently among HIV-1 infected women in Africa, particularly among those with low CD4+ counts. Antiretroviral therapy did not reduce the incidence or persistence of genital warts in this population. PMID:21251265

  5. Genital warts and infection with human immunodeficiency virus in high-risk women in Burkina Faso: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Low, Andrea J; Clayton, Tim; Konate, Issouf; Nagot, Nicolas; Ouedraogo, Abdoulaye; Huet, Charlotte; Didelot-Rousseau, Marie-Noelle; Segondy, Michel; Van de Perre, Philippe; Mayaud, Philippe

    2011-01-20

    Human papillomaviruses are the most common sexually transmitted infections, and genital warts, caused by HPV-6 and 11, entail considerable morbidity and cost. The natural history of genital warts in relation to HIV-1 infection has not been described in African women. We examined risk factors for genital warts in a cohort of high-risk women in Burkina Faso, in order to further describe their epidemiology. A prospective study of 765 high-risk women who were followed at 4-monthly intervals for 27 months in Burkina Faso. Logistic and Cox regression were used to identify factors associated with prevalent, incident and persistent genital warts, including HIV-1 serostatus, CD4+ count, and concurrent sexually transmitted infections. In a subset of 306 women, cervical HPV DNA was tested at enrollment. Genital wart prevalence at baseline was 1.6% (8/492) among HIV-uninfected and 7.0% (19/273) among HIV-1 seropositive women. Forty women (5.2%) experienced at least one incident GW episode. Incidence was 1.1 per 100 person-years among HIV-uninfected women, 7.4 per 100 person-years among HIV-1 seropositive women with a nadir CD4+ count >200 cells/μL and 14.6 per 100 person-years among HIV-1 seropositive women with a nadir CD4+ count ≤ 200 cells/μL. Incident genital warts were also associated with concurrent bacterial vaginosis, and genital ulceration. Antiretroviral therapy was not protective against incident or persistent genital warts. Detection of HPV-6 DNA and abnormal cervical cytology were strongly associated with incident genital warts. Genital warts occur much more frequently among HIV-1 infected women in Africa, particularly among those with low CD4+ counts. Antiretroviral therapy did not reduce the incidence or persistence of genital warts in this population.

  6. Autofluorescence of seborrheic keratosis (warts) and of tissue surrounding malignant tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohmann, Wolfgang; Schill, Wolf-Bernhard; Bohle, Rainer M.; Dreyer, Thomas

    1997-12-01

    Autofluorescence measurements on human tissue have revealed a decrease in intensity in malignant tumors and an increase in the healthy region adjacent to the tumor. This latter event might serve as a protective wall against the invasive tumor cells. The composition of this wall is still unknown. Antioxidants such as NADH might be involved. In the case of seborrheic keratosis (wart), the intensity is increased in the pigmented spots. Care must be taken, therefore, when warts are attached to malignant tumors. The resulting value is, then, not indicative for the condition of the system.

  7. Self-reported genital warts among sexually-active university students: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Cocchio, Silvia; Bertoncello, Chiara; Baldovin, Tatjana; Buja, Alessandra; Majori, Silvia; Baldo, Vincenzo

    2018-01-15

    Genital warts are one of the most common forms of sexually-transmitted disease, but their epidemiology has yet to be thoroughly elucidated. The present study was designed to shed light on the prevalence of clinically-confirmed, self-reported genital warts (GWs) in a representative sample of the university population. In 2015, a cross-sectional survey was conducted on 11,096 individuals approached at the Students Information Bureau where they came to enroll for a university degree course. Participants completed an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire providing information on their sociodemographic characteristics, sexual behavior, and any history of clinically-diagnosed genital warts. Multivariate logistic regression was then used to identify any factors associated with the disease. Our analysis was conducted on 9259 questionnaires (83.4%). Participants were a mean 21.8 ± 4.8 years of age, and 59.6% were female. Overall, 124 individuals (1.3%, 95%CI: 1.0-1.6) reported having been diagnosed with genital warts: 48 men (1.3%, 95%CI: 0.9-1.6), and 76 women (1.4% 95%CI: 1.1-1.7). Overall, 22.5% of the sample were vaccinated (1.3% of the males and 36.8% of the females). The group of respondents aged 30 years or more had the highest incidence of genital warts (males: 5.6%, 95%CI: 2.5-8.6; females: 6.9%, 95%CI: 3.4-10.4). The independent risk factors associated with a history of disease were (for both genders) a history of other sexually-transmitted diseases, and ≥2 sex partners in the previous 24 months. A protective role emerged for routine condom use. Additional risk factors associated with genital warts in males concerned men who have sex with men, bisexuality vis-à-vis heterosexuality, and smoking. The findings emerging from our study help to further clarify the epidemiology of genital warts in young people, and may be useful to public health decision-makers. This study showed that genital warts occur in men as well as women, and suggests that both

  8. Detection of human papillomavirus in urine among heterosexual men in relation to location of genital warts and circumcision status.

    PubMed

    Aung, Ei T; Fairley, Christopher K; Tabrizi, Sepehr N; Danielewski, Jennifer A; Ong, Jason J; Chen, Marcus Y; Bradshaw, Catriona S; Chow, Eric P F

    2017-09-02

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) surveillance is important to monitor the effectiveness of national HPV vaccination programmes. Positivity of HPV in urine in men varies with different sampling methods. We aimed to determine the positivity for detection of HPV-6/11 in urine samples among men in relation to the position of genital warts and circumcision status. We analysed stored chlamydia-positive urine specimens in young heterosexual men aged less than 25 years attending Melbourne Sexual Health Centre, Australia, between 2004 and 2015, for HPV genotypes. Positivity of HPV-6/11 and high-risk genotypes were stratified according to the position of genital warts and circumcision status. Positivity of HPV-6/11 was calculated using diagnosis of warts as the gold standard. Warts were classified as proximal penile warts from suprapubic area to midshaft of penis, and distal penile warts from distal shaft of penis to meatus. Of the 934 specimens, 253 (27.1%) men were positive for any HPV and 82 men (8.8%) had genital warts. The ORs of HPV-6/11 detection in urine were 4.63 (95% CI: 1.68 to 12.78) and 40.20 (95% CI: 19.78 to 81.70) times higher among men who had proximal penile warts and distal penile warts, respectively, compared with men who did not have genital warts. Circumcised men were less likely to have high-risk HPV (OR 0.31; 95% CI: 0.14 to 0.65) than uncircumcised men. Uncircumcised men were more likely to have distal penile warts than circumcised men (OR 8.22; 95% CI: 1.34 to 337.46). Positivity of HPV-6/11 in urine increases greatly in men with distal penile warts. Circumcised men are less likely to have distal penile warts, any HPV or high-risk HPV detected. Urine is likely to be an alternative sampling method for HPV-6/11 surveillance programme in men in countries with low circumcision rates. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise

  9. Efficacy of Myrtus communis L. and Descurainia sophia L. Versus Salicylic Acid for Wart Treatment.

    PubMed

    Ghadami Yazdi, Elham; Minaei, Mohamad Bagher; Hashem Dabaghian, Fataneh; Ebrahim Zadeh Ardakani, Mohamad; Ranjbar, Ali Mohammad; Rastegari, Mohamad; Ghadami Yazdi, Ali

    2014-10-01

    Wart is a skin disease with circular appendages, which is called "suloul" in Iranian traditional medicine (ITM). According to ITM literature, warts have different types and causes. The most important mechanism is excretion of materials (Khelt) from body to skin and mucus; its causative material is often phlegm, black bile or a combination of them. To treat warts, it is necessary to consider the patient's life style, modify his dietary intake and moisturize his temperament. This study aimed to compare Myrtus communis L. and Descurainia sophia L. as a method of ITM, versus salicylic acid in treatment of wart. In this study, conducted in Yazd, Iran, 100 patients were selected and randomly divided into four groups. Group 1) salicylic acid, group 2) salicylic acid and D. sophia L. group 3) M. communis L. group 4) M. communis L. and D. sophia L. Numbers, sizes of lesions and symptoms, on days 0, 20, 40 and 90 were examined and analyzed. The relapse rate was investigated three months after. Changes of sizes and numbers of warts in each period of time in each group, compared to baseline, were assessed by Wilcoxon Signed Rank test. To compare these changes between the groups, Kruskal Wallis test was used. In this study 100 patients participated, 69% of which were female. Compared to baseline, mean ± SD of changes for the number of warts in day 40 were 1.12 ± 4.2, 0.96 ± 2.5, 1.32 ± 5.1 and 0.04 ± 0.2 respectively in the four groups (P = 0.02). Mean ± SD of changes for the number of warts in day 90 were 1.84 ± 4.5, 1.56 ± 2.8, 1.24 ± 5.1 and 0.04 ± 0.6 respectively in the four groups (P = 0.03). In addition mean ± SD of changes for the size of warts in day 40 were 0.96 ± 1.8, 1.03 ± 2.4, 2.47 ± 3.0 and 0.45 ± 1.7 respectively in the four groups (P < 0.001). Mean ± SD of changes for the size of warts in day 90 were 1.24 ± 2.1, 1.3 ± 2.3, 2.45 ± 3.1 and 0.45 ± 1.7 respectively in the four groups (P < 0.001). Relapse was not seen in any groups after three

  10. Controlled green synthesis of silver nanoparticles by Allium cepa and Musa acuminata with strong antimicrobial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahni, Geetika; Panwar, Amit; Kaur, Balpreet

    2015-02-01

    A controlled "green synthesis" approach to synthesize silver nanoparticles by Allium cepa and Musa acuminata plant extract has been reported. The effect of different process parameters, such as pH, temperature and time, on synthesis of Ag nanoparticles from plant extracts has been highlighted. The work reports an easy approach to control the kinetics of interaction of metal ions with reducing agents, stabilized by ammonia to achieve sub-10 nm particles with narrow size distribution. The nanoparticles have been characterized by UV-Visible spectra and TEM analysis. Excellent antimicrobial activity at extremely low concentration of the nanoparticles was observed against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis and Fusarium oxysporum which may allow their exploitation as a new generation nanoproduct in biomedical and agricultural applications.

  11. Analysis of the leaf transcriptome of Musa acuminata during interaction with Mycosphaerella musicola: gene assembly, annotation and marker development

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although banana (Musa sp.) is an important edible crop, contributing towards poverty alleviation and food security, limited transcriptome datasets are available for use in accelerated molecular-based breeding in this genus. 454 GS-FLX Titanium technology was employed to determine the sequence of gene transcripts in genotypes of Musa acuminata ssp. burmannicoides Calcutta 4 and M. acuminata subgroup Cavendish cv. Grande Naine, contrasting in resistance to the fungal pathogen Mycosphaerella musicola, causal organism of Sigatoka leaf spot disease. To enrich for transcripts under biotic stress responses, full length-enriched cDNA libraries were prepared from whole plant leaf materials, both uninfected and artificially challenged with pathogen conidiospores. Results The study generated 846,762 high quality sequence reads, with an average length of 334 bp and totalling 283 Mbp. De novo assembly generated 36,384 and 35,269 unigene sequences for M. acuminata Calcutta 4 and Cavendish Grande Naine, respectively. A total of 64.4% of the unigenes were annotated through Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) similarity analyses against public databases. Assembled sequences were functionally mapped to Gene Ontology (GO) terms, with unigene functions covering a diverse range of molecular functions, biological processes and cellular components. Genes from a number of defense-related pathways were observed in transcripts from each cDNA library. Over 99% of contig unigenes mapped to exon regions in the reference M. acuminata DH Pahang whole genome sequence. A total of 4068 genic-SSR loci were identified in Calcutta 4 and 4095 in Cavendish Grande Naine. A subset of 95 potential defense-related gene-derived simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci were validated for specific amplification and polymorphism across M. acuminata accessions. Fourteen loci were polymorphic, with alleles per polymorphic locus ranging from 3 to 8 and polymorphism information content ranging from 0

  12. A comparative study of pulsed dye laser versus long pulsed Nd:YAG laser treatment in recalcitrant viral warts.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yo Sup; Cho, Eun Byul; Park, Eun Joo; Kim, Kwang Ho; Kim, Kwang Joong

    2017-08-01

    Viral warts are common infectious skin disease induced by human papillomavirus (HPV). But the treatment of recalcitrant warts is still challenging. In this study, we compared the effectiveness of pulsed dye laser (PDL) and long pulsed Nd:YAG (LPNY) laser in the treatment of recalcitrant viral warts. We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of patients with recalcitrant warts treated with laser therapy between January 2013 and February 2016. Seventy-two patients with recalcitrant warts were evaluated. Thirty-nine patients were treated with pulsed dye laser and thirty-three patients were treated with LPNY laser. The following parameters were used: PDL (spot size, 7 mm; pulse duration, 1.5 ms; and fluence, 10-14 J/cm 2 ) and LPNY (spot size, 5 mm; pulse duration, 20 ms; and fluence, 240-300 J/cm 2 ). Complete clearance of two patients (5.1%) in PDL group, and three patients (9.1%) in LPNY group were observed without significant side effects. The patients who achieved at least 50% improvement from baseline were 20 (51.3%) in PDL and 22 (66.7%) in LPNY, respectively. This research is meaningful because we compared the effectiveness of the PDL and LPNY in the recalcitrant warts. Both PDL and LPNY laser could be used as a safe and alternative treatment for recalcitrant warts.

  13. Intralesional Mycobacterium w Vaccine Versus Cryotherapy in Treatment of Refractory Extragenital Warts: A Randomized, Open-Label, Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Dhakar, Ashok K; Dogra, Sunil; Vinay, Keshavamurthy; Sarangal, Rishu; Kanwar, Amrinder J; Singh, Mini P

    2016-01-01

    Initial reports of immunotherapy using intralesional Mycobacterium w (Mw) vaccine have documented its useful role in treatment of genital and extragenital warts. To compare the efficacy and safety of intralesional Mw vaccine versus cryotherapy in the treatment of refractory extragenital warts. This was a prospective, randomized, comparative study of 66 patients. The outcome was assessed in terms of complete clearance of warts and change in Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) score. Complete clearance of treated warts was seen in 66.7% (20/30) and 65.5% (19/29) of patients in the Mw and cryotherapy groups, respectively (P = .769). Clearance of distant warts was significantly (P = .004) high in the Mw group. Improvement in DLQI was greater in the Mw group. Both treatment modalities were well tolerated, and no major side effects occurred. Mw vaccine and cryotherapy are equally efficacious in treatment of refractory extragenital warts. Mw vaccine has an added advantage of clearance of distant warts. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. The costs of managing genital warts in the UK by devolved nation: England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Coles, V A H; Chapman, R; Lanitis, T; Carroll, S M

    2016-01-01

    Genital warts, 90% of which are caused by human papillomavirus types 6 and 11, are a significant problem in the UK. The cost of managing genital warts was previously estimated at £52.4 million for 2010. The objective of this study was to estimate the cost of genital warts management up to 2012 in the UK and by jurisdiction. Population statistics and the number of reported genital warts cases in genito-urinary medicine clinics were obtained and extrapolated to 2012. Cases of genital warts treated in primary care were estimated from The Health Improvement Network database. The number of visits and therapy required were estimated by genito-urinary medicine experts. Costs were obtained from the appropriate national tariffs. The model estimated there were 220,875 genital warts cases in the UK in 2012, costing £58.44 million (£265/patient). It estimated 157,793 cases in England costing £41.74 million; 7468 cases in Scotland costing £1.90 million; 7095 cases in Wales costing £1.87 million; and 3621 cases in Northern Ireland costing £948,000. The full National Health Service costs for the management of genital warts have never previously been estimated separately for each jurisdiction. Findings reveal a significant economic burden, which is important to quantify when understanding the value of quadrivalent human papilloma virus vaccination. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Altered phenotype and function of NK cells infiltrating human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated genital warts during HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Bere, Alfred; Tayib, Shahila; Kriek, Jean-Mari; Masson, Lindi; Jaumdally, Shameem Z; Barnabas, Shaun L; Carr, William H; Allan, Bruce; Williamson, Anna-Lise; Denny, Lynette; Passmore, Jo-Ann S

    2014-02-01

    HIV-infected individuals experience more persistent HPV infections and are less likely to resolve genital warts. This study compared phenotype and functions of NK and T cells from genital warts and blood from 67 women. We compared in vitro functional responses of NK and T cells by multiparametric flow cytometry. HIV+ women had significantly lower frequencies of CD4 T cells in warts (p = 0.001) and blood (p = 0.001). While the distribution of NK cell subsets was similar, HIV+ women tended to have lower frequencies of CD56(Dim) NK cells in both blood (p = 0.0001) and warts (p = 0.006) than HIV- women. Wart NK cells from HIV+ women expressed significantly lower CD107a and produced IFN-γ. HAART status was not associated with differences in NK cell functionality. We conclude that wart NK cells from HIV+ women have defects in their ability to degranulate and/or secrete IFN-γ, which may provide insights into why HIV+ women fail to spontaneously resolve genital warts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A prospective, open, comparative study of 5% potassium hydroxide solution versus cryotherapy in the treatment of genital warts in men.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Caio Lamunier de Abreu; Belda Junior, Walter; Fagundes, Luiz Jorge; Romiti, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Genital warts are caused by human papillomavirus infection and represent one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases. Many infections are transient but the virus may recur, persist, or become latent. To date, there is no effective antiviral treatment to eliminate HPV infection and most therapies are aimed at the destruction of visible lesions. Potassium hydroxide is a strong alkali that has been shown to be safe and effective for the treatment of genital warts and molluscum contagiosum. Cryotherapy is considered one of the most established treatments for genital warts. No comparative trials have been reported to date on the use of potassium hydroxide for genital warts. A prospective, open-label, randomized clinical trial was conducted to compare topical potassium hydroxide versus cryotherapy in the treatment of genital warts affecting immunocompetent, sexually active men. Over a period of 10 months, 48 patients were enrolled. They were randomly divided into two groups and selected on an alternative basis for either potassium hydroxide therapy or cryotherapy. While response to therapy did not differ substantially between both treatment modalities, side effects such as local pain and post-treatment hypopigmentation were considerably more prevalent in the groups treated using cryotherapy. In our study, potassium hydroxide therapy proved to be at least as effective as cryotherapy and offered the benefit of a better safety profile. Topical 5% potassium hydroxide presents an effective, safe, and low-cost treatment modality for genital warts in men and should be included in the spectrum of therapies for genital warts.

  17. Anogenital warts and other HPV-associated anogenital lesions in the HIV-positive patient: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the efficacy and safety of interventions assessed in controlled clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Werner, Ricardo Niklas; Westfechtel, Lukas; Dressler, Corinna; Nast, Alexander

    2017-12-01

    Anogenital warts (AGW, condylomata acuminata) and intraepithelial neoplasia (IEN) do not only impact health and social well-being, they are also associated with considerable costs for the healthcare systems. Immunocompromised and HIV-positive patients carry the highest epidemiological burden of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and comprise a population specifically susceptible to treatment failures and recurrences. This systematic review aimed at identifying and appraising the available evidence from controlled studies of interventions for the treatment of AGW and IEN in immunocompromised patients. We conducted a comprehensive literature search. The Cochrane Collaboration's tool was used to assess risk of bias in included studies. Our confidence in the (pooled) effect-estimates was evaluated according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. All evaluations were based on data independently extracted by two review authors. Nine randomised controlled trials and two controlled studies were eligible, investigating external AGW, intra-anal and/or vaginal warts, and intra-anal and/or perianal IEN. The identified studies assessed imiquimod, cidofovir, fluorouracil, electrocautery, systemic interferon-α and interferon-β, and the combination of intralesional interferon-α and podophyllin. Four studies combined an ablational intervention with either imiquimod, cidofovir, intralesional or systemic interferon-α. One study investigated an experimental therapeutic vaccination (HPV 16 E7) at different concentrations. The quality of the evidence ranged from 'very low' to 'moderate' and was limited by the often small samples. Evidence was available for the efficacy of electrocautery for intra-anal IEN, and imiquimod cream for external AGW. Some further interventions should be subjected to investigations in larger samples. No data on some interventions established for the treatment of AGW in immunocompetent patients such as

  18. Systematic review of the incidence and prevalence of genital warts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Anogenital warts (AGWs) are a common, highly infectious disease caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV), whose high recurrence rates contribute to direct medical costs, productivity loss and increased psychosocial impact. Because of the lack of a systematic review of the epidemiology of AGWs in the literature, this study reviewed the published medical literature on the incidence and prevalence of AGWs. Methods A comprehensive literature search was performed on the worldwide incidence and prevalence of AGWs between 2001 and 2012 using the PubMed and EMBASE databases. An additional screening of abstracts from relevant sexual health and infectious disease conferences from 2009 to 2011 was also conducted. Only original studies with general adult populations (i.e., at least including ages 20 through 40 years) were included. Results The overall (females and males combined) reported annual incidence of any AGWs (including new and recurrent) ranged from 160 to 289 per 100,000, with a median of 194.5 per 100,000. New AGW incidence rates among males ranged from 103 to 168 per 100,000, with a median of 137 per 100,000 and among females from 76 to 191 per 100,000, with a median of 120.5 per 100,000 per annum. The reported incidence of recurrent AGWs was as high as 110 per 100,000 among females and 163 per 100,000 among males. Incidence peaked before 24 years of age in females and between 25 and 29 years of age among males. The overall prevalence of AGWs based on retrospective administrative databases or medical chart reviews or prospectively collected physician reports ranged from 0.13% to 0.56%, whereas it ranged from 0.2% to 5.1% based on genital examinations. Conclusions The literature suggests that AGWs are widespread and the prevalence depends on study methodology as suggested by higher rates reported from routine genital examinations versus those from treatment records. However, there remains a need for more population-based studies from certain regions

  19. Intradermal injection of PPD as a novel approach of immunotherapy in anogenital warts in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Eassa, Bayoumy I; Abou-Bakr, Amany A; El-Khalawany, Mohamed A

    2011-01-01

    Immunotherapy for treatment of recalcitrant warts was used through different modalities including intralesional injection of purified protein derivative (PPD), which is an extract of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, used for testing exposure to tuberculin protein, either from a previous vaccination or from the environment. This method is used to evaluate the efficacy of a new approach of intradermal injection of PPD in the treatment of anogenital warts in pregnant women. A total of 40 pregnant women, aged 20-35 years, and presented with anogenital warts were enrolled in this study. Human papillomavirus (HPV) typing was done using the GP5+/GP6+ PCR assay. The patients were treated with weekly injections of PPD given intradermally in the forearms, and evaluated for the response regularly. HPV type-6 was the predominant genotype (67.5%). Overall, the improvement in this study was 85% and was related to the extent of tuberculin reactivity. Nineteen (47.5%) patients demonstrated complete clearance, 15 (37.5%) had partial response, and three (7.5%) had minimal response. Three (7.5%) cases did not respond to treatment. Side effects were minimal and insignificant. Treatment of anogenital warts in pregnant women with intradermal injection of PPD was found to be a unique, safe, and effective modality of immunotherapy. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. A pharmacokinetic evaluation of 14C-labeled afovirsen sodium in patients with genital warts.

    PubMed

    Crooke, S T; Grillone, L R; Tendolkar, A; Garrett, A; Fratkin, M J; Leeds, J; Barr, W H

    1994-12-01

    Afovirsen sodium is a 20-mer phosphorothioate oligonucleotide designed to be complementary to the messenger ribonucleic acid sequence for the translation initiation codon of the E2 protein vital to replication of human papillomaviruses types 6 and 11. 14C-Labeled afovirsen was given as a single-dose intradermal injection in each of four warts of five patients to determine the time-dependent changes in concentration of intact afovirsen in genital warts and to determine the systemic absorption and elimination of radiolabeled compound. Intact afovirsen in genital warts was determined by high pressure liquid chromatography analysis of protease K digested extracts. Intact afovirsen was present in wart tissue for at least 72 hours at concentrations several times in excess of the estimated minimal inhibitory concentration of 1 mumol/L. Absorption of radiolabeled afovirsen from the injection site was rapid, with a peak plasma concentration achieved within 1 hour. Clearance of afovirsen was primarily attributable to slow metabolism, with about 30% of the radiolabel eliminated as 14C-CO2 in expired air over a 6-day period after dosing. Radioactivity eliminated in urine represented metabolites of afovirsen. From the clinical pharmacokinetic data presented here and from previously published pharmacokinetic data in rats, the disposition of afovirsen in humans appears to be relatively similar to that in rats. These data suggest that once or twice weekly dosing regimen in the clinic may be appropriate.

  1. Human papillomavirus DNA in the urogenital tracts of men with gonorrhoea, penile warts or genital dermatoses.

    PubMed Central

    Hillman, R J; Ryait, B K; Botcherby, M; Taylor-Robinson, D

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in urethral and urine specimens from men with and without sexually transmitted diseases. DESIGN--Prospective study. SETTING--Two London departments of genitourinary medicine PATIENTS--100 men with urethral gonorrhoea, 31 men with penile warts and 37 men with genital dermatoses. METHODS--Urethral and urine specimens were taken, HPV DNA extracted and then amplified using the polymerase chain reaction. HPV types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31 and 33 were identified using Southern blotting followed by hybridisation. RESULTS--HPV DNA was detected in 18-31% of urethral swab specimens and in 0-14% of urine specimens. Men with penile warts had HPV detected in urethral swabs more often than did men in the other two clinical groups. "High risk" HPV types were found in 71-83% of swab specimens and in 73-80% of urine specimens containing HPV DNA. CONCLUSIONS--HPV is present in the urogenital tracts of men with gonorrhoea, penile warts and with genital dermatoses. In men with urethral gonorrhoea, detection of HPV in urethral specimens is not related to the number of sexual partners, condom usage, racial origin or past history of genital warts. HPV DNA in the urethral swab and urine specimens may represent different aspects of the epidemiology of HPV in the male genital tract. The preponderance of HPV types 16 and 18 in all three groups of men may be relevant to the concept of the "high risk male". Images PMID:8392967

  2. Epidemiological, clinical, and virological characteristics of women with genital warts in Greece.

    PubMed

    Loumpardia, P; Bourmpos, K; Loumpardias, G A; Kalampoki, V; Valasoulis, G; Valari, O; Vythoulkasl, D; Deligeoroglou, E; Koliopoulos, G

    2015-01-01

    This is a prospective study of the epidemiological, clinical, and virological characteristics of cases of genital warts in a Greek University Hospital. The women completed a questionnaire regarding their medical and sexual history and underwent cervical cytology, HPV DNA typing, mRNA testing, colposcopy, Chlamydia testing, and proctoscopy. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. The most commonly detected types were type 6 (36.1%) and 16 (24.3%). E6/E7 mRNA testing was positive in 21.5%. Concurrent cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse was found in 11.1% and intra-anal warts in 10.4%. For chlamydial infection the number of sexual partners was a significant predictor. Women with warts infected with types 6 and 11 constituted only 37.5% of the total. This could have a negative effect on the efficacy of vaccination in reducing the incidence of the disease. Based on the present findings the authors recommend cytology and colposcopy for all women with genital warts.

  3. Understanding genital warts: epidemiology, pathogenesis, and burden of disease of human papillomavirus.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Neal; Lynde, Charles; Vender, Ronald; Bourcier, Marc

    2013-12-01

    As the most commonly sexually transmitted disease worldwide, human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. HPV infections most commonly affect young adults, women under 25 in particular. The most common risk factor for HPV infection in both sexes is a high number of lifetime sexual partners, whereas leading protective factors include circumcision, consistent condom use, and abstinence. Over 100 HPV types have been identified to date and are classified according to their level of oncogenic potential. HPV types 6 and 11 are responsible for approximately 90% of genital warts; HPV types 16 and 18 are responsible for 70% of invasive cervical cancers. External genital warts (EGWs) are the most common clinical manifestation of nononcogenic HPV infection. Coinfection with multiple HPV types is possible and may combine both low- and high-risk types, even in cases of genital warts. HPV infections are DNA viruses transmitted through skin-to-skin contact, invading the basal epithelial cells via microtears and evading the host immune response. Although non-life threatening, even low-risk HPV-type infections such as EGW carry a substantial psychosocial and economic burden. Stressors include the shame and embarrassment related to diagnosis, as well as the inconvenience and discomfort of treatment and the fear of recurrence, transmission, and the possible threat of cancer. Costs relate to routine screening for cervical cancer, treatment of genital warts, and the management and follow-up of malignancies.

  4. [Application of cantharidin, podophyllotoxin, and salicylic acid in recalcitrant plantar warts. A preliminary study].

    PubMed

    López-López, Daniel; Agrasar-Cruz, Carlos; Bautista-Casasnovas, Adolfo; Álvarez-Castro, Carlos Javier

    2015-01-01

    Plantar warts often are refractory to any treatment and can last for decades in adults. Recalcitrant warts are defined as those that have persisted for more than two years, or after at least two treatment modalities. A total of 15 consecutive patients with recalcitrant plantar warts were included in this preliminary study. The treatment consisted of applying one to two sessions that comprised compounding 1% cantharidin, 5% of podophyllotoxin, and 30% salicylic acid (CPS), with an interval between applications of four weeks. With treatment and subsequent follow-up for six months, there was complete eradication of lesions in 15 patients, eight (53.3%) required a single application of the solution, and seven (46.7%) two applications, with no side effects. Patient satisfaction related to treatment was measured by a visual analog scale (VAS) of 10 cm in length, with an average score 9.73 ± 0.46, and all said they would proceed with the treatment again if necessary. Topical treatment by compounding is safe, effective, and a promising therapeutic modality when applied in recalcitrant plantar warts.

  5. Comparative Evaluation of Topical 10% Potassium Hydroxide and 30% Trichloroacetic Acid in the Treatment of Plane Warts

    PubMed Central

    Jayaprasad, Sandhaya; Subramaniyan, Radhakrishnan; Devgan, Shalini

    2016-01-01

    Background: Warts are benign proliferations of skin and mucosa caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). Plane warts are caused by HPV types 3, 10, 28, and 41, occurring mostly in children and young adults. Among the treatment modalities, topical application of trichloroacetic acid (TCA) is age old. Potassium hydroxide (KOH) has a keratolytic effect on virus-infected cells. It is less irritating, less painful, less scar forming, and can be safely used in children too. Hence, it could be a better topical agent in the treatment of plane warts. Aims and Objectives: To compare the safety and efficacy of topical 10% KOH with 30% TCA in the treatment of plane warts. Materials and Methods: Sixty consecutive patients with plane warts were randomly assigned into two arms of thirty patients each; arm A received topical 10% KOH and arm B received topical 30% TCA as a once weekly application until the complete clearance of warts or a maximum period of 12 weeks. Results: Statistically no significant difference (P = 0.07) was found between the objective therapeutic response to 10% KOH and 30% TCA at the end of study (12 weeks). However, subjective response to 10% KOH was better and statistically significant (P = 0.03). There was no recurrence of warts seen on follow-up for 3 months of complete responders in both the arms. Conclusion: 10% KOH is found to be equally effective in the treatment of plane warts compared to 30% TCA with the advantage of faster onset of action and tendency of completely clearing warts with fewer side effects. PMID:27904181

  6. Aberrant upregulation of MUC4 mucin expression in cutaneous condyloma acuminatum and squamous cell carcinoma suggests a potential role in the diagnosis and therapy of skin diseases.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Subhankar; Swanson, Benjamin J; Bonthu, Neelima; Batra, Surinder K

    2010-07-01

    Mucins comprise a family of high-molecular-weight glycoproteins. MUC4, a large transmembrane mucin, has recently emerged as a novel marker for diagnosis, prognosis and therapy in several malignancies. However, its role in skin pathologies remains unknown. The aim of this study was to analyse the expression of MUC4 in cutaneous pathologies by immunohistochemistry for potential diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic applications. A total of 330 tissue spots representing the normal skin, and benign and malignant cutaneous diseases, were analysed after staining with the monoclonal antibody to human MUC4 (clone 8G7). While the normal epidermis showed a negative to weak-positive expression of MUC4, its expression was significantly upregulated in squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) where the intensity of staining correlated negatively with tumour grade and positively with age. A moderately strong MUC4 expression was also noted in 2/20 cancer adjacent normal skin and 2/21 chronically inflamed skin tissues, while 10/19 cases of vulval condyloma acuminate, 3/12 of vulval hyperplasia and 2 cases of verruca vulgaris also showed strong MUC4 positivity. Malignant melanoma, basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous cysts were negative. The results indicate that MUC4 expression is aberrantly upregulated in cutaneous SCCs, vulval condylomas and verruca vulgaris. Further, it appears that MUC4 expression in the skin may be modulated by chronic inflammation and the presence of an adjacent cutaneous malignancy in certain cases. These observations suggest a novel role for MUC4 mucin in the pathogenesis of cutaneous SCC and a possible application as a diagnostic and/or prognostic marker in cutaneous pathologies.

  7. Complementary treatment with oral Pidotimod plus vitamin C after laser vaporization for female genital warts: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Iatrakis, G; Peitsidou, A; Papandonopolos, L; Nikolopoulou, MK; Papadopoulos, L; Vladareanu, R

    2010-01-01

    This is a prospective study to assess a complementary treatment for genital warts after laser vaporization. 62 patients were enrolled in two randomized groups: A1: laser vaporization alone. A2: laser vaporization, followed with Pidotimod plus vitamin C for 2 and 1/2 months. The latter treatment shortened the time of warts remission and marginally decreased the rate of the warts' recurrence: 81% versus 67% (N.S.). Despite the non–significant difference, this complementary treatment seems to have some efficiency. PMID:20945819

  8. Phylogenetic placement of two previously described intranuclear bacteria from the ciliate Paramecium bursaria (Protozoa, Ciliophora): 'Holospora acuminata' and 'Holospora curviuscula'.

    PubMed

    Rautian, Maria S; Wackerow-Kouzova, Natalia D

    2013-05-01

    'Holospora acuminata' infects micronuclei of Paramecium bursaria (Protozoa, Ciliophora), whereas 'Holospora curviuscula' infects the macronucleus in other clones of the same host species. Because these micro-organisms have not been cultivated, their description has been based only on some morphological properties and host and nuclear specificities. One16S rRNA gene sequence of 'H. curviuscula' is present in databases. The systematic position of the representative strain of 'H. curviuscula', strain MC-3, was determined in this study. Moreover, for the first time, two strains of 'H. acuminata', KBN10-1 and AC61-10, were investigated. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that all three strains belonged to the genus Holospora, family Holosporaceae, order Rickettsiales within the Alphaproteobacteria.

  9. Metabolite fingerprinting of Camptotheca acuminata and the HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of camptothecin and related alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Montoro, Paola; Maldini, Mariateresa; Piacente, Sonia; Macchia, Mario; Pizza, Cosimo

    2010-01-20

    The major phytochemical constituents, namely, alkaloids, flavonoids and ellagic acid derivatives, of leaves of Camptotheca acuminata were identified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) in extracts of plants cultivated in Italy and collected at different growth stages. Alkaloids related to camptothecin were identified and quantified by HPLC coupled with ESI-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) employing, respectively, an ion trap and a triple quadrupole mass analyser. The fragmentation patterns of alkaloids related to camptothecin were analysed and a specific Multiple Reaction Monitoring HPLC-MS/MS method was developed for the quantitative determination of these constituents. The described method provides high sensitivity and specificity for the characterisation and quantitative determination of the alkaloids in C. acuminata.

  10. Genital warts: Canadians' perception, health-related behaviors, and treatment preferences.

    PubMed

    Steben, Marc; LaBelle, Deborah

    2012-10-01

    The study aimed to gauge the perceptions of Canadians toward genital warts, related health behaviors, and treatment preferences. An online survey supported by an unrestricted grant from Graceway Canada was conducted in February 2011 by Leger Marketing. It included 9 demographic questions and 17 questions relating to genital wart perception (2 multiple-choice, 15 four-point rating from strongly agree to strongly disagree). The survey was completed by 1520 Canadian adults aged 18 to older than 75 years, of whom 52% (786/1520) were female. Fifty-two percent of respondents stated that they would monitor an unrecognized spot on their genitals, and only seek medical assistance if it did not go away. Only 43% (652/1520) said that they would stop having sex until the spots were gone. Although only 10% (158/1520) of respondents stated that they would not inform their partner, this was much higher among men (14%, 103/734) than women (7%, 55/786), with p ≤ .01. Concerns of being judged by friends/family were high (44%, 669/1520), especially among younger (18-34 y) Canadians (60%), with p ≤ .05. Regarding prevention, 32% (493/1520) of respondents believed that monogamy would protect against genital warts and 25% (373/1520) believed they are not at risk if they use a condom. Treatment preference was in favor of a cream rather than an "invasive" treatment (58%, 886/1520), particularly among younger (67%, 283/425, p ≤ .05) and male respondents (63%, 464/734, p ≤ .01). Sixty percent (921/1520) would worry that genital warts could not be resolved; and 44% (668/1520), that they would recur. Among Canadians, genital warts were associated with a fair degree of social stigma and potential negative impact on their psyche, especially for younger Canadians.

  11. Effect of microgravity simulation using 3D clinostat on cavendish banana (Musa acuminata AAA Group) ripening process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwivany, Fenny Martha; Esyanti, Rizkita R.; Prapaisie, Adeline; Puspa Kirana, Listya; Latief, Chunaeni; Ginaldi, Ari

    2016-11-01

    The objective of the research was to determine the effect of microgravity simulation by 3D clinostat on Cavendish banana (Musa acuminata AAA group) ripening process. In this study, physical, physiological changes as well as genes expression were analysed. The result showed that in microgravity simulation condition ripening process in banana was delayed and the MaACOl, MaACSl and MaACS5 gene expression were affected.

  12. Long-pulsed 1064-nm neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser treatment for refractory warts on hands and feet.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Utako; Takeuchi, Kaori; Kinoshita, Ayako; Takamori, Kenji; Suga, Yasushi

    2014-03-01

    Common warts (verruca vulgaris) are the most commonly seen benign cutaneous tumors. However, warts in the hands and feet regions often respond poorly to treatment, some are resistant to more than 6 months of treatment with currently available modalities, including cryotherapy, being defined as refractory warts. We investigated the usefulness of long-pulsed neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (LP-Nd:YAG) treatment for refractory warts. The clinical trial was conducted on 20 subjects (11 male, nine female) with a total of 34 lesions (periungual/subungual areas, plantar areas, fingers and/or toes). All the subjects suffered from refractory warts despite conventional treatments for more than 6 months. The patients were administrated up to six sessions of treatment, at intervals of 4 weeks between sessions, with an LP-Nd:YAG at a spot size of 5 mm, pulse duration of 15 msec and fluence of 150-185 J/cm(2) . Evaluation of the treatment results at 24 weeks after the initial treatment showed complete clearance of the refractory warts in 56% of the patients. Histological evaluation showed separation of the dermis and epidermis at the basement membrane with coagulated necrosis of the wart tissue in the lower epidermis, as well as coagulation and destruction of the blood vessels in the papillary dermis following the laser irradiation. No scarring, post-hyperpigmentary changes or serious adverse events were documented. Our preliminary results show that LP-Nd:YAG treatments are safe and effective for refractory warts of hands and feet, causing minimal discomfort, and is a viable treatment alternative. © 2014 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  13. Intralesional tuberculin (PPD) versus measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) vaccine in treatment of multiple warts: a comparative clinical and immunological study.

    PubMed

    Shaheen, Maha Adel; Salem, Samar Abdallah M; Fouad, Dina Adel; El-Fatah, Abeer Aly Abd

    2015-01-01

    Intralesional purified protein derivative (PPD) or mumps, measles, rubella (MMR) were not previously compared regarding their efficacy or mechanism of action in treatment of warts. We aimed to compare their efficacy in treatment of multiple warts and investigate their effect on serum interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-12. Thirty patients with multiple warts were included (10 treated with PPD, 10 with MMR, and 10 with normal saline (control)). Injection was done every 3 weeks until clearance or maximum of three treatments. Clinical response of target and distant warts was evaluated. Serum ILs-4 and -12 were assessed before and after treatment. A significantly higher rate of complete response was found in target and distant warts with PPD (60% each) and MMR (80%, 40%, respectively) compared with controls (0%), with no significant difference between both treatments. After treatment, the control group showed the lowest serum IL-12 and IL-4 levels compared with the MMR- and PPD-treated groups with statistically significant difference in between. MMR resulted in a significantly higher serum IL-12 than PPD. With PPD, IL-4 was increased with statistically significant change compared with pretreat-ment level. Intralesional PPD and MMR show comparable efficacy and safety in treatment of multiple warts. Serum ILs-4 and-12 increase following antigen injection. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Comparative Clinical Efficacy between Electrodesiccation with Curettage and Application of 80% Phenol Solution in Treatment of Common Warts

    PubMed Central

    Dalimunthe, Dina Arwina; Siregar, Remenda; Tanjung, Chairiyah

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Common warts are skin diseases caused by human papillomavirus. Several treatment modalities available for common warts, two of them are electrodesiccation with curettage and application of 80% phenol solution. AIM: This study aims to compare clinical efficacy between these two modalities. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Open clinical trial was conducted at Dr Pirngadi General Hospital Medan and H. Adam Malik General Hospital Medan from February to June 2013 on 17 patients with multiple common warts. Both treatments began and applied simultaneously on the same day on each patient. RESULTS: Cure rate was higher in electrodesiccation with curettage (76.5%, 100%) compared to the application of 80% phenol solution (11.8%, 64.7%) on three weeks and six weeks of follow up. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference of common warts cure rate between electrodesiccation with curettage and application of 80% phenol solution after three weeks (p < 0.001) and six weeks (p = 0.018) of treatment. CONCLUSION: As a conclusion, electrodesiccation with curettage has higher cure rate than the application of 80% phenol solution on the treatment of common warts. Further study is needed to find out the best concentration and time interval for application of phenol solution to improve its clinical efficacy as an alternative treatment of choice for common warts. PMID:29531597

  15. [Prevalence of human papillomavirus in the pubic hair follicles of healthy men and male patients with genital warts].

    PubMed

    Wang, You-bao; Han, Tao; Zhao, Chun-xiong

    2010-09-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) commonly exists in healthy individuals, but its prevalence in the pubic hair follicles is not yet clear, nor is the relationship between HPV infection in the pubic hair follicles and the recurrence of genital warts in men. This study aimed to investigate HPV infection in the pubic hair follicles of healthy men and patients with genital warts, and to look into the correlation of HPV infection with recurrent genital warts. We included in this study 122 healthy men aged 21-80 years and 86 male patients with genital warts aged 24-61 years, detected HPV in their pubic hair follicles by PCR, and made comparative analysis of the data obtained from the two groups. The positive rate of HPV in the pubic hair follicles of the healthy males was 17.21% (21/122), including 15 cases of HPV6, 4 HPV11, 1 non-HPV6/11 and 1 the mixed type (both HPV6 and HPV11), while that of the genital wart patients was 32.55% (28/86), including 17 cases of HPV6, 7 HPV11, 2 non-HPV6/11 and 2 the mixed type. The incidence of HPV infection is higher in patients with genital warts than in healthy men, while the types of HPV involved are basically the same in the two groups, mainly HPV6 and HPV11.

  16. Efficacy and tolerability of nitric-zinc complex in the treatment of external genital warts and "difficult-to-treat" warts: a "proof of concept", prospective, multicentre, open study.

    PubMed

    Cusini, M; Micali, G; Lacarrubba, F; Puviani, M; Barcella, A; Milani, M

    2015-12-01

    Treatment of plantar and periungueal warts (so called "difficult-to-treat" warts, DTW) and external genital warts (EGW) remains unsatisfactory. Medical or invasive procedures are partially effective and/or painful. Furthermore recurrences rates after treatments are still a relevant problem for all the available therapies. Nitric-zinc complex is a solution for topical application containing nitric acid, zinc, copper and organic acids able to induce a caustic effect of the wart trough mummification and proteins denaturation/coagulation action. Nitric-zinc complex has been shown to be an effective and well tolerated treatment of common warts. We evaluated in a prospective open label 4-centre trial, the efficacy and local tolerability of nitric-zinc complex in the treatment of EGW and DTW. A total of 37 immunocompetent subjects (20 men and 17 women; mean age: 45 years) with single or multiple lesions, were enrolled, after their informed consent. A total of 30 subjects had EGW, 2 subjects had plantar warts, 2 warts of the hand and 3 periungueal lesions. Nitric-zinc aqueous solution was applied topically using a 30 mL capillary tube over the lesions until a whitening/yellowish reaction appeared. A second (or more, if needed) application was performed at two-week interval until a complete clinical cure rate was observed. Primary outcome of the study was the clinical evaluation with picture documentation of the evolution of lesions classified as total cure, partial disappearance or no effect. Topical tolerability was evaluated through patient's reported adverse events. All subjects completed the study. A complete cure of lesions was observed in 31 subjects (90%) after one and up to four applications. Three patients with EGW (8%) showed a partial disappearance of lesions and one (2%) subject was no responder to four nitric-zinc complex applications. The product was well tolerated. No serious adverse events were observed or recorded. Nitric-zinc complex topical solution has

  17. Incidence of genital warts in adolescents and young adults in an integrated health care delivery system in the United States before human papillomavirus vaccine recommendations.

    PubMed

    Camenga, Deepa R; Dunne, Eileen F; Desai, Mayur M; Gee, Julianne; Markowitz, Lauri E; Desiliva, Ajit; Klein, Nicola P

    2013-07-01

    Information on genital wart incidence in adolescents and young adults before human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination is important for understanding the impact of the vaccine on the epidemiology of this early outcome of HPV infection. The study population included 11- to 29-year-old enrollees of Northern California Kaiser Permanente between July 1, 2000, and July 1, 2005, before the availability of the HPV vaccine. We identified genital warts with an algorithm combining genital wart-specific International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes (078.10, 078.11, and 078.19) with physician-recorded anatomic locations. We calculated sex- and age-specific incidence rates of genital warts and described the specific anatomic location of presentation, as well as recurrences of genital warts. We identified 1,682 cases of genital warts among 181,264 individuals. The incidence rate was highest among women (6.3/1000 person-years) and men (2.9/1000 person-years) aged 20 to 24 years old. Among women (n = 96,792), 63.4% of the 1240 incident genital wart cases occurred on the vulva and 21.1% on the cervix. Among men (n = 84,472), 91.6% of the 442 incident genital wart cases did not have a specific anatomic location recorded. Most people with an incident genital wart diagnosis (87.2%) did not have a recurrence during the observation period. Our study found that the incidence of genital warts was highest among persons aged 20 to 24 years using a unique method to identify the location of the wart. Information on incidence of genital warts before vaccine use provides baseline data that can be used to measure HPV vaccine impact.

  18. Efficacy of intralesional injection of mumps-measles-rubella vaccine in patients with wart.

    PubMed

    Zamanian, Abbas; Mobasher, Pezhman; Jazi, Ghazaleh Ahmadi

    2014-01-01

    In the previous studies, it has been shown that mumps-measles-rubella (MMR) vaccine resulted in regression of warts via immunomodulatory effect and induction of immune system. Due to the high prevalence of warts in various populations, we evaluated the efficacy of MMR vaccine injection in the treatment of cutaneous warts. This double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in Hazrat-e-Rasoul Hospital in Tehran in 2011-2012 on 24 patients with warts who were allocated to two groups including MMR group and normal saline group. MMR vaccine was injected intralesionally in the MMR group, whereas normal saline was injected into the lesions in the second group. These injections were repeated every 2 weeks intervals for maximum 3 injections. All patients were followed up every 15-day interval up to 45 days and then up to 6 months regarding relapses and finally, side effects, probable relapse, and therapeutic outcomes were evaluated and compared. At the end of follow-up period, therapeutic outcomes in the MMR group included no cure in 2 cases, relative cure in 4 cases, and complete cure in 18 cases. In normal saline group, these rates included no cure in seven cases, relative cure in nine cases, and complete cure in six cases (P < 0.001). No significant complication occurred in the two groups. MMR vaccine may result in desirable therapeutic response. The hypothesis that is considered here is that MMR vaccine, via induction of cellular and humoral immune system, accelerates the destruction of virus and infected host cells.

  19. 21 CFR 358.150 - Labeling of wart remover drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... any product formulated in a collodion-like vehicle. (i) “If product gets into the eye, flush with... minutes.”) “Dry area thoroughly.” (If appropriate: “Cut plaster to fit wart.”) “Apply medicated plaster... water for 5 minutes.”) “Dry area thoroughly. Apply” (select one of the following, as appropriate: “one...

  20. 21 CFR 358.150 - Labeling of wart remover drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... any product formulated in a collodion-like vehicle. (i) “If product gets into the eye, flush with... minutes.”) “Dry area thoroughly.” (If appropriate: “Cut plaster to fit wart.”) “Apply medicated plaster... water for 5 minutes.”) “Dry area thoroughly. Apply” (select one of the following, as appropriate: “one...

  1. 21 CFR 358.150 - Labeling of wart remover drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... any product formulated in a collodion-like vehicle. (i) “If product gets into the eye, flush with... minutes.”) “Dry area thoroughly.” (If appropriate: “Cut plaster to fit wart.”) “Apply medicated plaster... water for 5 minutes.”) “Dry area thoroughly. Apply” (select one of the following, as appropriate: “one...

  2. 21 CFR 358.150 - Labeling of wart remover drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... any product formulated in a collodion-like vehicle. (i) “If product gets into the eye, flush with... minutes.”) “Dry area thoroughly.” (If appropriate: “Cut plaster to fit wart.”) “Apply medicated plaster... water for 5 minutes.”) “Dry area thoroughly. Apply” (select one of the following, as appropriate: “one...

  3. Epidemiological aspects of genital warts in romania - a 2012 retrospective survey.

    PubMed

    Salavastru, Carmen Maria; Niculescu, Mihaela Cristina; Zota, Alexandra; Nicola, Gheorghe; Morariu, Horia Silviu; Solovan, Caius; Patrascu, Virgil; Popovici, Georgeta; Vladuta, Raluca; Panduru, Mihaela; Tiplica, George-Sorin

    2014-06-01

    Genital infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) has become one of the most frequently viral sexually transmitted diseases. The infection may remain asymptomatic, may take the form of external genital warts and may give raise to cervical cancers. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of the patients with genital warts addressing to five tertiary referral dermato-venereological units in Romania (where patients from several counties are referred) and to compare the results with the out-patient data reported by all Romanian hospitals. Data regarding patients with external genital warts who addressed to the hospital emergency rooms, in five tertiary referral dermato-venerological units in Romania (Bucharest, Timisoara, Craiova, Constanta, Târgu-Mures) were collected for the year 2012. For comparison there have been used data collected by the National School of Public Health, Management and Professional Development, during the same year. Data reported at national level in 2012 included 952 patients (731 women and 221 men) with 26 males under 20 years of age and 251 female patients in the age group 0-20 years. In the overall population (males and females combined) the total number of genital warts cases registered at the hospital emergency rooms in the five centers, in the year 2012, was 266 patients (119 men and 147 women) with 4 girls under 14 years of age and 6 male patients in the age group 0-14 years. The high prevalence of the infection with HPV, the costs of treatment and the psychological impact prove that prevention of the disease is the most important step for decreasing the incidence of this disease. General measures for patients awareness regarding the disease and its complications need to be completed with the recommendation for vaccination. A closer monitoring of patients would provide information for a strategic national approach leading to a better outcome.

  4. Molecular Characterisation of Endophytic Fungi from Roots of Wild Banana (Musa acuminata)

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, Latiffah; Jamil, Muhamad Izham Muhamad; Anuar, Intan Sakinah Mohd

    2016-01-01

    Endophytic fungi inhabit apparently healthy plant tissues and are prevalent in terrestrial plants, especially root tissues, which harbour a wide assemblage of fungal endophytes. Therefore, this study focused on the isolation and characterisation of endophytic fungi from the roots of wild banana (Musa acuminata). A total of 31 isolates of endophytic fungi were isolated from 80 root fragments. The endophytic fungi were initially sorted according to morphological characteristics and identified using the sequences of the translation elongation factor-1α (TEF-1α) gene of Fusarium spp. and the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions of other fungi. The most common fungal isolates were species of the genus Fusarium, which were identified as F. proliferatum, Fusarium sp., F. solani species complex, and F. oxysporum. Other isolated endophytic fungi included Curvularia lunata, Trichoderma atroviride, Calonectria gracilis, Rhizoctonia solani, Bionectria ochroleuca, and Stromatoneurospora phoenix (Xylariceae). Several of the fungal genera, such as Fusarium, Trichoderma, Rhizoctonia, and Xylariceae, are among the common fungal endophytes reported in plants. This study showed that the roots of wild banana harbour a diverse group of endophytic fungi. PMID:27019688

  5. The banana (Musa acuminata) genome and the evolution of monocotyledonous plants.

    PubMed

    D'Hont, Angélique; Denoeud, France; Aury, Jean-Marc; Baurens, Franc-Christophe; Carreel, Françoise; Garsmeur, Olivier; Noel, Benjamin; Bocs, Stéphanie; Droc, Gaëtan; Rouard, Mathieu; Da Silva, Corinne; Jabbari, Kamel; Cardi, Céline; Poulain, Julie; Souquet, Marlène; Labadie, Karine; Jourda, Cyril; Lengellé, Juliette; Rodier-Goud, Marguerite; Alberti, Adriana; Bernard, Maria; Correa, Margot; Ayyampalayam, Saravanaraj; Mckain, Michael R; Leebens-Mack, Jim; Burgess, Diane; Freeling, Mike; Mbéguié-A-Mbéguié, Didier; Chabannes, Matthieu; Wicker, Thomas; Panaud, Olivier; Barbosa, Jose; Hribova, Eva; Heslop-Harrison, Pat; Habas, Rémy; Rivallan, Ronan; Francois, Philippe; Poiron, Claire; Kilian, Andrzej; Burthia, Dheema; Jenny, Christophe; Bakry, Frédéric; Brown, Spencer; Guignon, Valentin; Kema, Gert; Dita, Miguel; Waalwijk, Cees; Joseph, Steeve; Dievart, Anne; Jaillon, Olivier; Leclercq, Julie; Argout, Xavier; Lyons, Eric; Almeida, Ana; Jeridi, Mouna; Dolezel, Jaroslav; Roux, Nicolas; Risterucci, Ange-Marie; Weissenbach, Jean; Ruiz, Manuel; Glaszmann, Jean-Christophe; Quétier, Francis; Yahiaoui, Nabila; Wincker, Patrick

    2012-08-09

    Bananas (Musa spp.), including dessert and cooking types, are giant perennial monocotyledonous herbs of the order Zingiberales, a sister group to the well-studied Poales, which include cereals. Bananas are vital for food security in many tropical and subtropical countries and the most popular fruit in industrialized countries. The Musa domestication process started some 7,000 years ago in Southeast Asia. It involved hybridizations between diverse species and subspecies, fostered by human migrations, and selection of diploid and triploid seedless, parthenocarpic hybrids thereafter widely dispersed by vegetative propagation. Half of the current production relies on somaclones derived from a single triploid genotype (Cavendish). Pests and diseases have gradually become adapted, representing an imminent danger for global banana production. Here we describe the draft sequence of the 523-megabase genome of a Musa acuminata doubled-haploid genotype, providing a crucial stepping-stone for genetic improvement of banana. We detected three rounds of whole-genome duplications in the Musa lineage, independently of those previously described in the Poales lineage and the one we detected in the Arecales lineage. This first monocotyledon high-continuity whole-genome sequence reported outside Poales represents an essential bridge for comparative genome analysis in plants. As such, it clarifies commelinid-monocotyledon phylogenetic relationships, reveals Poaceae-specific features and has led to the discovery of conserved non-coding sequences predating monocotyledon-eudicotyledon divergence.

  6. Chemical composition and nutritional value of unripe banana flour (Musa acuminata, var. Nanicão).

    PubMed

    Menezes, Elizabete Wenzel; Tadini, Carmen Cecília; Tribess, Tatiana Beatris; Zuleta, Angela; Binaghi, Julieta; Pak, Nelly; Vera, Gloria; Dan, Milana Cara Tanasov; Bertolini, Andréa C; Cordenunsi, Beatriz Rosana; Lajolo, Franco M

    2011-09-01

    Banana flour obtained from unripe banana (Musa acuminata, var. Nanicão) under specific drying conditions was evaluated regarding its chemical composition and nutritional value. Results are expressed in dry weight (dw). The unripe banana flour (UBF) presented a high amount of total dietary fiber (DF) (56.24 g/100 g), which consisted of resistant starch (RS) (48.99 g/100 g), fructans (0.05 g/100 g) and DF without RS or fructans (7.2 g/100 g). The contents of available starch (AS) (27.78 g/100 g) and soluble sugars (1.81 g/100 g) were low. The main phytosterols found were campesterol (4.1 mg/100 g), stigmasterol (2.5 mg/100 g) and β-sitosterol (6.2 mg/100 g). The total polyphenol content was 50.65 mg GAE/100 g. Antioxidant activity, by the FRAP and ORAC methods, was moderated, being 358.67 and 261.00 μmol of Trolox equivalent/100 g, respectively. The content of Zn, Ca and Fe and mineral dialyzability were low. The procedure used to obtain UBF resulted in the recovery of undamaged starch granules and in a low-energy product (597 kJ/100 g).

  7. Edge effects on growth and biomass partitioning of an Amazonian understory herb (Heliconia acuminata; Heliconiaceae).

    PubMed

    Bruna, Emilio M; de Andrade, Ana Segalin

    2011-10-01

    After deforestation, environmental changes in the remaining forest fragments are often most intense near the forest edge, but few studies have evaluated plant growth or plasticity of plant growth in response to edge effects. In a 2-year common garden experiment, we compared biomass allocation and growth of Heliconia acuminata with identical genotypes grown in 50 × 35 m common gardens on a 25-year-old edge and in a forest interior site. Genetically identical plants transplanted to the forest edge and understory exhibited different patterns of growth and biomass allocation. However, individuals with identical genotypes in the same garden often had very different responses. Plants on forest edges also had higher growth rates and increased biomass at the end of the experiment, almost certainly due to the increased light on the forest edge. With over 70000 km of forest edge created annually in the Brazilian Amazon, phenotypic plasticity may play an important role in mediating plant responses to these novel environmental conditions.

  8. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Genotypes in Condylomas, Intraepithelial Neoplasia, and Invasive Carcinoma of the Penis Using Laser Capture Microdissection (LCM)-PCR: A Study of 191 Lesions in 43 Patients.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Nestosa, María J; Guimerà, Nuria; Sanchez, Diego F; Cañete-Portillo, Sofía; Velazquez, Elsa F; Jenkins, David; Quint, Wim; Cubilla, Antonio L

    2017-06-01

    Laser capture microdissection-polymerase chain reaction (LCM-PCR) supported by p16 was used for the first time to demonstrate human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in histologically specific penile lesions, which were as follows: squamous hyperplasia (12 lesions, 10 patients), flat lesions (12 lesions, 5 patients), condylomas (26 lesions, 7 patients), penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PeIN) (115 lesions, 43 patients), and invasive squamous cell carcinomas (26 lesions, 26 patients). HPV was detected by whole-tissue section and LCM-PCR. LCM proved to be more precise than whole-tissue section in assigning individual genotypes to specific lesions. HPV was negative or very infrequent in squamous hyperplasia, differentiated PeIN, and low-grade keratinizing variants of carcinomas. HPV was strongly associated with condylomas, warty/basaloid PeIN, adjacent flat lesions, and warty/basaloid carcinomas. A single HPV genotype was found in each lesion. Some condylomas and flat lesions, especially those with atypia, were preferentially associated with high-risk HPV. Unlike invasive carcinoma, in which few genotypes of HPV were involved, there were 18 HPV genotypes in PeIN, usually HPV 16 in basaloid PeIN but marked HPV heterogeneity in warty PeIN (11 different genotypes). Variable and multiple HPV genotypes were found in multicentric PeIN, whereas unicentric PeIN was usually related to a single genotype. There was a correspondence among HPV genotypes in invasive and associated PeIN. p16 was positive in the majority of HPV-positive lesions except condylomas containing LR-HPV. p16 was usually negative in squamous hyperplasia, differentiated PeIN, and low-grade keratinizing variants of squamous cell carcinomas. In summary, we demonstrated that LCM-PCR was a superior research technique for investigating HPV genotypes in intraepithelial lesions. A significant finding was the heterogeneity of HPV genotypes in PeIN and the differential association of HPV genotypes with subtypes of PeIN. The

  9. Random Network Models to Predict the Long-Term Impact of HPV Vaccination on Genital Warts

    PubMed Central

    Díez-Domingo, Javier; Sánchez-Alonso, Víctor; Acedo, Luis; Villanueva-Oller, Javier

    2017-01-01

    The Human papillomaviruses (HPV) vaccine induces a herd immunity effect in genital warts when a large number of the population is vaccinated. This aspect should be taken into account when devising new vaccine strategies, like vaccination at older ages or male vaccination. Therefore, it is important to develop mathematical models with good predictive capacities. We devised a sexual contact network that was calibrated to simulate the Spanish epidemiology of different HPV genotypes. Through this model, we simulated the scenario that occurred in Australia in 2007, where 12–13 year-old girls were vaccinated with a three-dose schedule of a vaccine containing genotypes 6 and 11, which protect against genital warts, and also a catch-up program in women up to 26 years of age. Vaccine coverage were 73% in girls with three doses and with coverage rates decreasing with age until 52% for 20–26 year-olds. A fast 59% reduction in the genital warts diagnoses occurred in the model in the first years after the start of the program, similar to what was described in the literature. PMID:29035332

  10. Random Network Models to Predict the Long-Term Impact of HPV Vaccination on Genital Warts.

    PubMed

    Díez-Domingo, Javier; Sánchez-Alonso, Víctor; Villanueva, Rafael-J; Acedo, Luis; Moraño, José-Antonio; Villanueva-Oller, Javier

    2017-10-16

    The Human papillomaviruses (HPV) vaccine induces a herd immunity effect in genital warts when a large number of the population is vaccinated. This aspect should be taken into account when devising new vaccine strategies, like vaccination at older ages or male vaccination. Therefore, it is important to develop mathematical models with good predictive capacities. We devised a sexual contact network that was calibrated to simulate the Spanish epidemiology of different HPV genotypes. Through this model, we simulated the scenario that occurred in Australia in 2007, where 12-13 year-old girls were vaccinated with a three-dose schedule of a vaccine containing genotypes 6 and 11, which protect against genital warts, and also a catch-up program in women up to 26 years of age. Vaccine coverage were 73 % in girls with three doses and with coverage rates decreasing with age until 52 % for 20-26 year-olds. A fast 59 % reduction in the genital warts diagnoses occurred in the model in the first years after the start of the program, similar to what was described in the literature.

  11. Safety and effectiveness of cantharidin-podophylotoxin-salicylic acid in the treatment of recalcitrant plantar warts.

    PubMed

    López López, Daniel; Vilar Fernández, Juan Manuel; Losa Iglesias, Marta Elena; Álvarez Castro, Carlos; Romero Morales, Carlos; García Sánchez, María Matilde; Becerro de Bengoa Vallejo, Ricardo

    2016-07-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of topical cantharidin-podophylotoxin-salicylic acid (CPS) treatment of recalcitrant plantar warts (RPW). This study was carried out in a health center in the city of A Coruña (Spain) between January and December 2013. A total of 75 patients completed all the stages of the research process. Information related to treatment with CPS and adverse effects was abstracted from medical records. Of 93 potential patients identified, 75 had at least one follow-up visit or telephone call after treatment and were included in this study. Patients experienced an average of 5.4 visits until complete resolution of their plantar wart occurred, although CPS was not applied at every visit. Fifty-four patients required one application to eliminate the wart and 21 patients required two applications/patient. Seventy-seven percent of patients experienced blistering - an expected therapeutic side effect. All patients experienced some form of an adverse event, the most common being pain (81.3%) and significant blistering (15%). Other side effects were rare (18.7%) and included pruritus, possible mild infection, significant irritation, and bleeding. All patients reported treatment, supporting our results that CPS is a safe and efficacious treatment modality for RPW and should be considered when symptomatic infection necessitates treatment. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Degenerate and Nested PCR: a Highly Sensitive and Specific Method for Detection of Human Papillomavirus Infection in Cutaneous Warts

    PubMed Central

    Harwood, Catherine A.; Spink, Patricia J.; Surentheran, T.; Leigh, Irene M.; de Villiers, Ethel-Michele; McGregor, Jane M.; Proby, Charlotte M.; Breuer, Judith

    1999-01-01

    The role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in anogenital carcinogenesis is firmly established, but evidence that supports a similar role in skin remains speculative. Immunosuppressed renal transplant recipients have an increased incidence of viral warts and nonmelanoma skin cancer, and the presence of HPV DNA in these lesions, especially types associated with the condition epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV), has led to suggestions that HPV may play a pathogenic role. However, differences in the specificities and sensitivities of techniques used to detect HPV in skin have led to wide discrepancies in the spectrum of HPV types reported. We describe a degenerate nested PCR technique with the capacity to detect a broad spectrum of cutaneous, mucosal, and EV HPV types. In a series of 51 warts from 23 renal transplant recipients, this method detected HPV DNA in all lesions, representing a significant improvement over many previously published studies. Cutaneous types were found in 84.3% of warts and EV types were found in 80.4% of warts, whereas mucosal types were detected in 27.4% of warts. In addition, the method allowed codetection of two or more distinct HPV types in 94.1% of lesions. In contrast, single HPV types were detected in all but 1 of 20 warts from 15 immunocompetent individuals. In summary, we have established a highly sensitive and comprehensive degenerate PCR methodology for detection and genotyping of HPV from the skin and have demonstrated a diverse spectrum of multiple HPV types in cutaneous warts from transplant recipients. Studies designed to assess the significance of these findings to cutaneous carcinogenesis are under way. PMID:10523550

  13. Clinical Implications of the Cervical Papanicolaou Test Results in the Management of Anal Warts in HIV-Infected Women

    PubMed Central

    Luu, Hung N.; Amirian, E. Susan; Piller, Linda; Chan, Wenyaw; Scheurer, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    The Papanicolaou test (or Pap test) has long been used as a screening tool to detect cervical precancerous/cancerous lesions. However, studies on the use of this test to predict both the presence and change in size of genital warts are limited. We examined whether cervical Papanicolaou test results are associated with the size of the largest anal wart over time in HIV-infected women in an on-going cohort study in the US. A sample of 976 HIV-infected women included in a public dataset obtained from the Women’s Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) was selected for analysis. A linear mixed model was performed to determine the relationship between the size of anal warts and cervical Pap test results. About 32% of participants had abnormal cervical Pap test results at baseline. In the adjusted model, a woman with a result of Atypia Squamous Cell Undetermined Significance/Low-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion (ASCUS/LSIL) had an anal wart, on average, 12.81 mm2 larger than a woman with normal cervical cytology. The growth rate of the largest anal wart after each visit in a woman with ASCUS/LSIL was 1.56 mm2 slower than that of a woman with normal cervical results. However, they were not significant (P = 0.54 and P = 0.82, respectively). This is the first study to examine the relationship between cervical Pap test results and anal wart development in HIV-infected women. Even though no association between the size of anal wart and cervical Pap test results was found, a screening program using anal cytology testing in HIV-infected women should be considered. Further studies in cost-effectiveness and efficacy of an anal cytology test screening program are warranted. PMID:24312348

  14. A prospective, open, comparative study of 5% potassium hydroxide solution versus cryotherapy in the treatment of genital warts in men*

    PubMed Central

    Camargo, Caio Lamunier de Abreu; Belda, Walter; Fagundes, Luiz Jorge; Romiti, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Genital warts are caused by human papillomavirus infection and represent one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases. Many infections are transient but the virus may recur, persist, or become latent. To date, there is no effective antiviral treatment to eliminate HPV infection and most therapies are aimed at the destruction of visible lesions. Potassium hydroxide is a strong alkali that has been shown to be safe and effective for the treatment of genital warts and molluscum contagiosum. Cryotherapy is considered one of the most established treatments for genital warts. No comparative trials have been reported to date on the use of potassium hydroxide for genital warts. OBJECTIVE A prospective, open-label, randomized clinical trial was conducted to compare topical potassium hydroxide versus cryotherapy in the treatment of genital warts affecting immunocompetent, sexually active men. METHODS Over a period of 10 months, 48 patients were enrolled. They were randomly divided into two groups and selected on an alternative basis for either potassium hydroxide therapy or cryotherapy. While response to therapy did not differ substantially between both treatment modalities, side effects such as local pain and post-treatment hypopigmentation were considerably more prevalent in the groups treated using cryotherapy. RESULT In our study, potassium hydroxide therapy proved to be at least as effective as cryotherapy and offered the benefit of a better safety profile. CONCLUSION Topical 5% potassium hydroxide presents an effective, safe, and low-cost treatment modality for genital warts in men and should be included in the spectrum of therapies for genital warts. PMID:24770498

  15. Updates on human papillomavirus and genital warts and counseling messages from the 2010 Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Dunne, Eileen F; Friedman, Allison; Datta, S Deblina; Markowitz, Lauri E; Workowski, Kimberly A

    2011-12-01

    In April 2009, experts on sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were convened to review updates on STD prevention and treatment in preparation for the revision of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) STD Treatment Guidelines. At this meeting, there was a discussion of important updates on human papillomavirus (HPV), genital warts, and cervical cancer screening. Key questions were identified with assistance from an expert panel, and systematic reviews of the literature were conducted searching the English-language literature of the PubMed computerized database (US National Library of Medicine). The available evidence was reviewed, and new information was incorporated in the 2010 CDC STD Treatment Guidelines. Two HPV vaccines are now available, the quadrivalent HPV vaccine and the bivalent HPV vaccine; either vaccine is recommended routinely for girls aged 11 or 12 years. The quadrivalent HPV vaccine may be given to boys and men aged 9-26 years. A new patient-applied treatment option for genital warts, sinecatechins 15% ointment, is available and recommended for treatment of external genital warts. This product is a mixture of active ingredients (catechins) from green tea. Finally, updated counseling guidelines and messages about HPV, genital warts, and cervical cancer are included. This manuscript highlights updates to the 2010 CDC STD Treatment Guidelines for HPV and genital warts. Important additions to the 2010 STD Treatment Guidelines include information on prophylactic HPV vaccine recommendations, new patient-applied treatment options for genital warts, and counseling messages for patients on HPV, genital warts, cervical cancer screening, and HPV tests.

  16. Genital Warts and Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia: Natural History and Effects of Treatment and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Massad, L. Stewart; Xie, Xianhong; Darragh, Teresa; Minkoff, Howard; Levine, Alexandra M.; Watts, D. Heather; Wright, Rodney L.; D’Souza, Gypsyamber; Colie, Christine; Strickler, Howard D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To describe the natural history of genital warts and vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) in women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Methods A cohort of 2,791 HIV infected and 953 uninfected women followed for up to 13 years had genital examinations at 6-month intervals, with biopsy for lesions suspicious for VIN. Results The prevalence of warts was 4.4% (5.3% for HIV seropositive women and 1.9% for seronegative women, P < 0.0001). The cumulative incidence of warts was 33% (95% C.I. 30, 36%) in HIV seropositive and 9% (95% C.I. 6, 12%) in seronegative women (P < 0.0001). In multivariable analysis, lower CD4 lymphocyte count, younger age, and current smoking were strongly associated with risk for incident warts. Among 501 HIV seropositive and 43 seronegative women, warts regressed in 410 (82%) seropositive and 41 (95%) seronegative women (P = 0.02), most in the first year after diagnosis. In multivariable analysis, regression was negatively associated with HIV status and lower CD4 count as well as older age. Incident VIN of any grade occurred more frequently among HIV seropositive than seronegative women: 0.42 (0.33 – 0.53) vs 0.07 (0.02 – 0.18)/100 person-years (P < 0.0001). VIN2+ was found in 58 women (55 with and 3 without HIV, P < 0.001). Two women with HIV developed stage IB squamous cell vulvar cancers. Conclusion While genital warts and VIN are more common among HIV seropositive than seronegative women, wart regression is common even in women with HIV, and cancers are infrequent. PMID:21934446

  17. Cryotherapy with liquid nitrogen versus topical salicylic acid application for cutaneous warts in primary care: randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bruggink, Sjoerd C; Gussekloo, Jacobijn; Berger, Marjolein Y; Zaaijer, Krista; Assendelft, Willem J J; de Waal, Margot W M; Bavinck, Jan Nico Bouwes; Koes, Bart W; Eekhof, Just A H

    2010-10-19

    Cryotherapy is widely used for the treatment of cutaneous warts in primary care. However, evidence favours salicylic acid application. We compared the effectiveness of these treatments as well as a wait-and-see approach. Consecutive patients with new cutaneous warts were recruited in 30 primary care practices in the Netherlands between May 1, 2006, and Jan. 26, 2007. We randomly allocated eligible patients to one of three groups: cryotherapy with liquid nitrogen every two weeks, self-application of salicylic acid daily or a wait-and-see approach. The primary outcome was the proportion of participants whose warts were all cured at 13 weeks. Analysis was on an intention-to-treat basis. Secondary outcomes included treatment adherence, side effects and treatment satisfaction. Research nurses assessed outcomes during home visits at 4, 13 and 26 weeks. Of the 250 participants (age 4 to 79 years), 240 were included in the analysis at 13 weeks (loss to follow-up 4%). Cure rates were 39% (95% confidence interval [CI] 29%-51%) in the cryotherapy group, 24% (95% CI 16%-35%) in the salicylic acid group and 16% (95% CI 9.5%-25%) in the wait-and-see group. Differences in effectiveness were most pronounced among participants with common warts (n = 116): cure rates were 49% (95% CI 34%-64%) in the cryotherapy group, 15% (95% CI 7%-30%) in the salicylic acid group and 8% (95% CI 3%-21%) in the wait-and-see group. Cure rates among the participants with plantar warts (n = 124) did not differ significantly between treatment groups. For common warts, cryotherapy was the most effective therapy in primary care. For plantar warts, we found no clinically relevant difference in effectiveness between cryotherapy, topical application of salicylic acid or a wait-and-see approach after 13 weeks. (ClinicalTrial.gov registration no. ISRCTN42730629).

  18. Cryotherapy with liquid nitrogen versus topical salicylic acid application for cutaneous warts in primary care: randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Bruggink, Sjoerd C.; Gussekloo, Jacobijn; Berger, Marjolein Y.; Zaaijer, Krista; Assendelft, Willem J.J.; de Waal, Margot W.M.; Bavinck, Jan Nico Bouwes; Koes, Bart W.; Eekhof, Just A.H.

    2010-01-01

    Background Cryotherapy is widely used for the treatment of cutaneous warts in primary care. However, evidence favours salicylic acid application. We compared the effectiveness of these treatments as well as a wait-and-see approach. Methods Consecutive patients with new cutaneous warts were recruited in 30 primary care practices in the Netherlands between May 1, 2006, and Jan. 26, 2007. We randomly allocated eligible patients to one of three groups: cryotherapy with liquid nitrogen every two weeks, self-application of salicylic acid daily or a wait-and-see approach. The primary outcome was the proportion of participants whose warts were all cured at 13 weeks. Analysis was on an intention-to-treat basis. Secondary outcomes included treatment adherence, side effects and treatment satisfaction. Research nurses assessed outcomes during home visits at 4, 13 and 26 weeks. Results Of the 250 participants (age 4 to 79 years), 240 were included in the analysis at 13 weeks (loss to follow-up 4%). Cure rates were 39% (95% confidence interval [CI] 29%–51%) in the cryotherapy group, 24% (95% CI 16%–35%) in the salicylic acid group and 16% (95% CI 9.5%–25%) in the wait-and-see group. Differences in effectiveness were most pronounced among participants with common warts (n = 116): cure rates were 49% (95% CI 34%–64%) in the cryotherapy group, 15% (95% CI 7%–30%) in the salicylic acid group and 8% (95% CI 3%–21%) in the wait-and-see group. Cure rates among the participants with plantar warts (n = 124) did not differ significantly between treatment groups. Interpretation For common warts, cryotherapy was the most effective therapy in primary care. For plantar warts, we found no clinically relevant difference in effectiveness between cryotherapy, topical application of salicylic acid or a wait-and-see approach after 13 weeks. (ClinicalTrial.gov registration no. ISRCTN42730629) PMID:20837684

  19. Cost analysis of Human Papillomavirus-related cervical diseases and genital warts in Swaziland.

    PubMed

    Ginindza, Themba G; Sartorius, Benn; Dlamini, Xolisile; Östensson, Ellinor

    2017-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) has proven to be the cause of several severe clinical conditions on the cervix, vulva, vagina, anus, oropharynx and penis. Several studies have assessed the costs of cervical lesions, cervical cancer (CC), and genital warts. However, few have been done in Africa and none in Swaziland. Cost analysis is critical in providing useful information for economic evaluations to guide policymakers concerned with the allocation of resources in order to reduce the disease burden. A prevalence-based cost of illness (COI) methodology was used to investigate the economic burden of HPV-related diseases. We used a top-down approach for the cost associated with hospital care and a bottom-up approach to estimate the cost associated with outpatient and primary care. The current study was conducted from a provider perspective since the state bears the majority of the costs of screening and treatment in Swaziland. All identifiable direct medical costs were considered for cervical lesions, cervical cancer and genital warts, which were primary diagnoses during 2015. A mix of bottom up micro-costing ingredients approach and top-down approaches was used to collect data on costs. All costs were computed at the price level of 2015 and converted to dollars ($). The total annual estimated direct medical cost associated with screening, managing and treating cervical lesions, CC and genital warts in Swaziland was $16 million. The largest cost in the analysis was estimated for treatment of high-grade cervical lesions and cervical cancer representing 80% of the total cost ($12.6 million). Costs for screening only represented 5% of the total cost ($0.9 million). Treatment of genital warts represented 6% of the total cost ($1million). According to the cost estimations in this study, the economic burden of HPV-related cervical diseases and genital warts represents a major public health issue in Swaziland. Prevention of HPV infection with a national HPV immunization programme

  20. Characterization of a New Type of Human Papillomavirus That Causes Skin Warts

    PubMed Central

    Orth, Gérard; Favre, Michel; Croissant, Odile

    1977-01-01

    A human papillomavirus (HPV) was isolated from the lesions of a patient (ML) bearing numerous hand common warts. This virus was compared with the well-characterized HPV found in typical plantar warts (plantar HPV). ML and plantar HPV DNAs have similar molecular weights (5.26 × 106 and 5.23 × 106, respectively) but were shown to be different by restriction enzyme analysis. When the cleavage products of both DNAs by endonuclease EcoRI, BamI, HpaI, or Hind were analyzed by electron microscopy, one, two, one, and four fragments were detected for ML HPV DNA instead of the two, one, two, and six fragments, respectively, detected for plantar HPV DNA. In contrast to plantar HPV DNA, a high proportion of ML HPV DNA molecules were resistant to these restriction enzymes. Most, if not all, of the molecules were either resistant to BamI and sensitive to EcoRI or sensitive to BamI and resistant to EcoRI. After denaturation and renaturation of the cleavage products of ML HPV DNA by a mixture of the two enzymes, the circular “heteroduplexes” formed showed one to three heterology loops corresponding to about 4 to 8% of the genome length. No sequence homology was detected between ML and plantar HPV DNAs by cRNA-DNA filter hybridization, by measuring the reassociation kinetics of an iodinated plantar HPV DNA in the presence of a 25-fold excess of ML HPV DNA, or by the heteroduplex technique. The two viruses had distinct electrophoretic polypeptide patterns and showed no antigenic cross-reaction by immunodiffusion or immunofluorescence techniques. Preliminary cRNA-DNA hybridization experiments, using viral DNAs from single or pooled plantar or hand warts, suggest that hand common warts are associated with viruses similar or related to ML HPV. The existence of at least two distinct types of HPVs that cause skin warts was demonstrated; they were provisionally called HPV type 1 and HPV type 2, with plantar HPV and ML HPV as prototypical viruses, respectively. Images PMID:198572

  1. Cost analysis of Human Papillomavirus-related cervical diseases and genital warts in Swaziland

    PubMed Central

    Sartorius, Benn; Dlamini, Xolisile; Östensson, Ellinor

    2017-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) has proven to be the cause of several severe clinical conditions on the cervix, vulva, vagina, anus, oropharynx and penis. Several studies have assessed the costs of cervical lesions, cervical cancer (CC), and genital warts. However, few have been done in Africa and none in Swaziland. Cost analysis is critical in providing useful information for economic evaluations to guide policymakers concerned with the allocation of resources in order to reduce the disease burden. Materials and methods A prevalence-based cost of illness (COI) methodology was used to investigate the economic burden of HPV-related diseases. We used a top-down approach for the cost associated with hospital care and a bottom-up approach to estimate the cost associated with outpatient and primary care. The current study was conducted from a provider perspective since the state bears the majority of the costs of screening and treatment in Swaziland. All identifiable direct medical costs were considered for cervical lesions, cervical cancer and genital warts, which were primary diagnoses during 2015. A mix of bottom up micro-costing ingredients approach and top-down approaches was used to collect data on costs. All costs were computed at the price level of 2015 and converted to dollars ($). Results The total annual estimated direct medical cost associated with screening, managing and treating cervical lesions, CC and genital warts in Swaziland was $16 million. The largest cost in the analysis was estimated for treatment of high-grade cervical lesions and cervical cancer representing 80% of the total cost ($12.6 million). Costs for screening only represented 5% of the total cost ($0.9 million). Treatment of genital warts represented 6% of the total cost ($1million). Conclusion According to the cost estimations in this study, the economic burden of HPV-related cervical diseases and genital warts represents a major public health issue in Swaziland. Prevention of HPV

  2. Improvement of the banana "Musa acuminata" reference sequence using NGS data and semi-automated bioinformatics methods.

    PubMed

    Martin, Guillaume; Baurens, Franc-Christophe; Droc, Gaëtan; Rouard, Mathieu; Cenci, Alberto; Kilian, Andrzej; Hastie, Alex; Doležel, Jaroslav; Aury, Jean-Marc; Alberti, Adriana; Carreel, Françoise; D'Hont, Angélique

    2016-03-16

    Recent advances in genomics indicate functional significance of a majority of genome sequences and their long range interactions. As a detailed examination of genome organization and function requires very high quality genome sequence, the objective of this study was to improve reference genome assembly of banana (Musa acuminata). We have developed a modular bioinformatics pipeline to improve genome sequence assemblies, which can handle various types of data. The pipeline comprises several semi-automated tools. However, unlike classical automated tools that are based on global parameters, the semi-automated tools proposed an expert mode for a user who can decide on suggested improvements through local compromises. The pipeline was used to improve the draft genome sequence of Musa acuminata. Genotyping by sequencing (GBS) of a segregating population and paired-end sequencing were used to detect and correct scaffold misassemblies. Long insert size paired-end reads identified scaffold junctions and fusions missed by automated assembly methods. GBS markers were used to anchor scaffolds to pseudo-molecules with a new bioinformatics approach that avoids the tedious step of marker ordering during genetic map construction. Furthermore, a genome map was constructed and used to assemble scaffolds into super scaffolds. Finally, a consensus gene annotation was projected on the new assembly from two pre-existing annotations. This approach reduced the total Musa scaffold number from 7513 to 1532 (i.e. by 80%), with an N50 that increased from 1.3 Mb (65 scaffolds) to 3.0 Mb (26 scaffolds). 89.5% of the assembly was anchored to the 11 Musa chromosomes compared to the previous 70%. Unknown sites (N) were reduced from 17.3 to 10.0%. The release of the Musa acuminata reference genome version 2 provides a platform for detailed analysis of banana genome variation, function and evolution. Bioinformatics tools developed in this work can be used to improve genome sequence assemblies in

  3. Prevalence, Incidence, and Clearance of Anogenital Warts in Kenyan Men Reporting High-Risk Sexual Behavior, Including Men Who Have Sex With Men

    PubMed Central

    Neme, Santiago; Wahome, Elizabeth; Mwashigadi, Grace; Thiong'o, Alexander N.; Stekler, Joanne D.; Wald, Anna; Sanders, Eduard J.; Graham, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes a spectrum of disease, ranging from warts to cancer. Prevalence, incidence, and factors associated with anogenital warts in East African men are unknown. Methods. Kenyan men reporting high-risk sexual behavior were inspected for anogenital warts at enrollment and follow-up visits. Logistic regression was performed to identify associations with anogenital warts at baseline. Cox regression was performed to analyze predictors of incident anogenital warts, and Kaplan–Meier curves were used to estimate clearance. Results. Baseline anogenital wart prevalence in 1137 men was 2.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.0%–4.0%) overall, 2.0% in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-uninfected men, and 9.4% in HIV-1-infected men (adjusted odds ratio, 5.43; 95% CI, 2.03–11.29). Over a median of 1.4 years, anogenital wart incidence among 1104 men was 5.3 (95% CI, 4.3–6.5) per 100 person-years. Having HIV-1 infection at baseline (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.66; 95% CI, 1.01–2.72) or a genital syndrome during follow-up (aHR, 4.78; 95% CI, 3.03–7.56) was associated with increased wart incidence. Wart clearance was lower in HIV-1-infected men (log-rank P<.001). Conclusions. Anogenital wart prevalence and incidence were increased in HIV-1-infected men, and anogenital warts co-occurred with other genital syndromes. Quadrivalent HPV vaccination should be recommended for young men in settings with high HIV-1 prevalence. PMID:26110169

  4. Thermal acclimation affects growth and lipophilic toxin production in a strain of cosmopolitan harmful alga Dinophysis acuminata.

    PubMed

    Basti, Leila; Suzuki, Toshiyuki; Uchida, Hajime; Kamiyama, Takashi; Nagai, Satoshi

    2018-03-01

    Species of the harmful algal bloom (HAB) genera Dinophysis are causative of one of the most widespread and expanding HAB events associated with the human intoxication, diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP). The effects of warming temperature on the physiology and toxinology of these mixotrophic species remain intractable due to their low biomass in nature and difficulties in establishing and maintaining them in culture. Hence, the present study investigated the influence of warming temperature, encompassing present and predicted climate scenarios, on growth and toxin production in a strain of the most cosmopolitan DSP-causative species, Dinophysis acuminata. The strain was isolated from western Japan, acclimated, and cultured over extended time spans. The specific growth and toxin production rates were highest at 20-26 °C and 17-29 °C, respectively, and had significant linear relationships during exponential phase. The cellular toxin production of okadaic acid and pectenotoxin-2 were highest during early exponential growth phase at temperatures ≤17 °C but highest during late stationary phase at temperatures ≥20 °C. The cellular toxin production of Dinophysistoxin-1, however, increased from early exponential to late stationary growth phase independently from temperature. The net toxin productions were not affected by acclimation temperature but significantly affected by growth and were highest during early exponential growth phase. Warming water temperatures increase growth and promote toxin production of D. acuminata, potentially increasing incidence of diarrheic shellfish poisoning events and closures of shellfish production. It is likely that D. acuminata is more toxic at low cell densities during bloom initiation in winter, and at high cell densities during bloom termination in spring-autumn. The results of the present research are also of importance for the mass production of D. acuminata for subsequent studies of the toxicological and

  5. Detection of bovine papilloma viruses in wart-like lesions of upper gastrointestinal tract of cattle and buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Kumar, P; Nagarajan, N; Saikumar, G; Arya, R S; Somvanshi, R

    2015-06-01

    In present investigation, etiopathological characterization of upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT) tumours of cattle and buffaloes was undertaken. A total of 27 GIT wart-like lesions in rumen, reticulum, mouth and oesophagus of cattle and buffaloes revealed the presence of small nodular to larger spherical or slender growths with thin base present on mucosa and ruminal pillar. Histopathologically, these cases were diagnosed as fibropapilloma/papilloma. This is the first world record on ruminal papillomatosis in buffaloes. Ruminal warts of cattle and buffaloes revealed the presence of BPV-5, -1 & -2, which is the first report of presence of these BPVs in the ruminal warts from India. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that DNA samples of different GIT wart-like lesions contained varying amount of BPV DNA copy numbers. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the PCNA and Ki67 immunopositivity was present in the basal and spinosum layer of the fibropapilloma/papilloma, indicating these as the cellular proliferation site. In conclusion, the present investigation revealed that BPV-5, -1 & -2 are associated with certain ruminal wart-like lesions/growths in cattle and buffaloes, and the basal and spinosum layer of the ruminal fibropapilloma/papilloma were cellular proliferation sites. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Camptotheca acuminata 10-hydroxycamptothecin O-methyltransferase: an alkaloid biosynthetic enzyme coopted from flavonoid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Salim, Vonny; Jones, A Daniel; DellaPenna, Dean

    2018-04-22

    The medicinal plant Camptotheca acuminata accumulates camptothecin, 10-hydroxycamptothecin, and 10-methoxycamptothecin as its major bioactive monoterpene indole alkaloids. Here, we describe identification and functional characterization of 10-hydroxycamptothecin O-methyltransferase (Ca10OMT), a member of the Diverse subclade of Class II OMTs. Ca10OMT is highly active toward both its alkaloid substrate and a wide range of flavonoids in vitro and in this way contrasts with other alkaloid OMTs in the subclade that only utilize alkaloid substrates. Ca10OMT shows a strong preference for the A-ring 7-OH of flavonoids, which is structurally equivalent to the 10-OH of 10-hydroxycamptothecin. The substrates of other alkaloid OMTs in the subclade bear little similarity to flavonoids, but the 3-D positioning of the 7-OH, A- and C-rings of flavonoids is nearly identical to the 10-OH, A- and B-rings of 10-hydroxycamptothecin. This structural similarity likely explains the retention of flavonoid OMT activity by Ca10OMT and also why kaempferol and quercetin aglycones are potent inhibitors of its 10-hydroxycamptothecin activity. The catalytic promiscuity and strong inhibition of Ca10OMT by flavonoid aglycones in vitro prompted us to investigate the potential physiological roles of the enzyme in vivo. Based on its regioselectivity, kinetic parameters and absence of 7-OMT flavonoids in vivo, we conclude that the major and likely only substrate of Ca10OMT in vivo is 10-hydroxycamptothecin. This is likely accomplished by Ca10OMT being kept spatially separated at the tissue levels from potentially inhibitory flavonoid aglycones, and flavonoid aglycones being rapidly glycosylated to non-inhibitory flavonoid glycosides. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Repetitive part of the banana (Musa acuminata) genome investigated by low-depth 454 sequencing.

    PubMed

    Hribová, Eva; Neumann, Pavel; Matsumoto, Takashi; Roux, Nicolas; Macas, Jirí; Dolezel, Jaroslav

    2010-09-16

    Bananas and plantains (Musa spp.) are grown in more than a hundred tropical and subtropical countries and provide staple food for hundreds of millions of people. They are seed-sterile crops propagated clonally and this makes them vulnerable to a rapid spread of devastating diseases and at the same time hampers breeding improved cultivars. Although the socio-economic importance of bananas and plantains cannot be overestimated, they remain outside the focus of major research programs. This slows down the study of nuclear genome and the development of molecular tools to facilitate banana improvement. In this work, we report on the first thorough characterization of the repeat component of the banana (M. acuminata cv. 'Calcutta 4') genome. Analysis of almost 100 Mb of sequence data (0.15× genome coverage) permitted partial sequence reconstruction and characterization of repetitive DNA, making up about 30% of the genome. The results showed that the banana repeats are predominantly made of various types of Ty1/copia and Ty3/gypsy retroelements representing 16 and 7% of the genome respectively. On the other hand, DNA transposons were found to be rare. In addition to new families of transposable elements, two new satellite repeats were discovered and found useful as cytogenetic markers. To help in banana sequence annotation, a specific Musa repeat database was created, and its utility was demonstrated by analyzing the repeat composition of 62 genomic BAC clones. A low-depth 454 sequencing of banana nuclear genome provided the largest amount of DNA sequence data available until now for Musa and permitted reconstruction of most of the major types of DNA repeats. The information obtained in this study improves the knowledge of the long-range organization of banana chromosomes, and provides sequence resources needed for repeat masking and annotation during the Musa genome sequencing project. It also provides sequence data for isolation of DNA markers to be used in genetic

  8. Repetitive part of the banana (Musa acuminata) genome investigated by low-depth 454 sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Bananas and plantains (Musa spp.) are grown in more than a hundred tropical and subtropical countries and provide staple food for hundreds of millions of people. They are seed-sterile crops propagated clonally and this makes them vulnerable to a rapid spread of devastating diseases and at the same time hampers breeding improved cultivars. Although the socio-economic importance of bananas and plantains cannot be overestimated, they remain outside the focus of major research programs. This slows down the study of nuclear genome and the development of molecular tools to facilitate banana improvement. Results In this work, we report on the first thorough characterization of the repeat component of the banana (M. acuminata cv. 'Calcutta 4') genome. Analysis of almost 100 Mb of sequence data (0.15× genome coverage) permitted partial sequence reconstruction and characterization of repetitive DNA, making up about 30% of the genome. The results showed that the banana repeats are predominantly made of various types of Ty1/copia and Ty3/gypsy retroelements representing 16 and 7% of the genome respectively. On the other hand, DNA transposons were found to be rare. In addition to new families of transposable elements, two new satellite repeats were discovered and found useful as cytogenetic markers. To help in banana sequence annotation, a specific Musa repeat database was created, and its utility was demonstrated by analyzing the repeat composition of 62 genomic BAC clones. Conclusion A low-depth 454 sequencing of banana nuclear genome provided the largest amount of DNA sequence data available until now for Musa and permitted reconstruction of most of the major types of DNA repeats. The information obtained in this study improves the knowledge of the long-range organization of banana chromosomes, and provides sequence resources needed for repeat masking and annotation during the Musa genome sequencing project. It also provides sequence data for isolation of DNA

  9. Decline in genital warts diagnoses among young women and young men since the introduction of the bivalent HPV (16/18) vaccination programme in England: an ecological analysis.

    PubMed

    Canvin, M; Sinka, K; Hughes, G; Mesher, D

    2017-03-01

    For several decades, diagnoses of genital warts at genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinics in England had been increasing. In 2008, a national human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programme was introduced using the bivalent vaccine (types 16 and 18 only). A decrease in genital warts was not anticipated. However, rates of genital warts in GUM clinics have declined significantly since the introduction of the vaccine. Using data from GUM clinics across England, we analysed rates of genital warts by age, gender, sexual orientation and estimated vaccine coverage. The reduction in rates of genital warts diagnoses at GUM clinics between 2009 and 2014 was 30.6% among young women aged 15-19 years and 25.4% among same age heterosexual young men. Overall there was an association showing higher warts reduction with increasing vaccination coverage with the largest declines in warts diagnoses observed in young women aged 15 years (50.9%) with the highest vaccination coverage. No such declines were observed in men who have sex with men (MSM) of the same age. The results of these ecological analyses are strongly in keeping with the bivalent HPV vaccine providing modest protection against genital warts. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. Time-lapse imaging points towards a non-toxic, mainly immune-driven mode of action of ingenol mebutate in the treatment of anogenital warts.

    PubMed

    Braun, Stephan Alexander; Bünemann, Erich; Baran, Julia; Homey, Bernhard; Gerber, Peter Arne

    2018-02-20

    Recently, it has been reported that ingenol mebutate (IM) is an effective treatment option for anogenital warts (AGW), inducing fast wart necrosis within 24 hours in vivo. With regard to its mode of action, IM is thought to act both as an inducer of direct cytotoxic effects and immunologic mechanisms. To distinguish whether the wart necrosis is mainly caused by cytotoxic effects, or whether immune mechanisms are leading, we used time-lapse imaging to analyse IM-treated warts ex vivo over 24 hours. Ex vivo IM-treated warts, which have been detached from the immune system, did not show destructive necrosis, pointing towards a primarily immune-driven mode of action of IM in the treatment of AGW. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The development of a μ-biomimetic uncooled IR-Sensor inspired by the infrared receptors of Melanophila acuminata.

    PubMed

    Siebke, Georg; Holik, Peter; Schmitz, Sam; Tätzner, Simon; Thiesler, Jan; Steltenkamp, Siegfried

    2015-03-30

    The beetle Melanophila acuminata uses a specialized organ to detect infrared radiation. The organ consists of about 100 individual sensilla. The main component of the sensillum is a pressure chamber. Upon absorption of radiation, the pressure increases, and the tip of a dendrite is deformed. A unique feature of the organ is a compensation mechanism that prevents large pressures. The beetle uses this organ to detect forest fires and to navigate inside burning woods. However, the sensitivity is part of a long-lasting discussion, providing thresholds between [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]. To end the decade-long discussion and to provide a novel type of infrared sensor, we are developing an uncooled μ-biomimetic infrared (IR) sensor inspired by Melanophila acuminata using MEMS technology. Here, we present the development of a μ-capacitor that is used to detect pressure changes and the characterization of the compensation mechanism. We describe the microtechnological fabrication process for air-filled capacitors with a ratio of diameter-to-electrode distance of 1000 and a technique to fill the sensor bubble-free with water. Finally, we estimate the sensitivity of the beetle using a theoretical model of the sensillum.

  12. Genomic analysis of NAC transcription factors in banana (Musa acuminata) and definition of NAC orthologous groups for monocots and dicots.

    PubMed

    Cenci, Albero; Guignon, Valentin; Roux, Nicolas; Rouard, Mathieu

    2014-05-01

    Identifying the molecular mechanisms underlying tolerance to abiotic stresses is important in crop breeding. A comprehensive understanding of the gene families associated with drought tolerance is therefore highly relevant. NAC transcription factors form a large plant-specific gene family involved in the regulation of tissue development and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. The main goal of this study was to set up a framework of orthologous groups determined by an expert sequence comparison of NAC genes from both monocots and dicots. In order to clarify the orthologous relationships among NAC genes of different species, we performed an in-depth comparative study of four divergent taxa, in dicots and monocots, whose genomes have already been completely sequenced: Arabidopsis thaliana, Vitis vinifera, Musa acuminata and Oryza sativa. Due to independent evolution, NAC copy number is highly variable in these plant genomes. Based on an expert NAC sequence comparison, we propose forty orthologous groups of NAC sequences that were probably derived from an ancestor gene present in the most recent common ancestor of dicots and monocots. These orthologous groups provide a curated resource for large-scale protein sequence annotation of NAC transcription factors. The established orthology relationships also provide a useful reference for NAC function studies in newly sequenced genomes such as M. acuminata and other plant species.

  13. Metabolomic Profiles of Dinophysis acuminata and Dinophysis acuta Using Non-Targeted High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry: Effect of Nutritional Status and Prey.

    PubMed

    García-Portela, María; Reguera, Beatriz; Sibat, Manoella; Altenburger, Andreas; Rodríguez, Francisco; Hess, Philipp

    2018-04-26

    Photosynthetic species of the genus Dinophysis are obligate mixotrophs with temporary plastids (kleptoplastids) that are acquired from the ciliate Mesodinium rubrum , which feeds on cryptophytes of the Teleaulax-Plagioselmis-Geminigera clade. A metabolomic study of the three-species food chain Dinophysis-Mesodinium-Teleaulax was carried out using mass spectrometric analysis of extracts of batch-cultured cells of each level of that food chain. The main goal was to compare the metabolomic expression of Galician strains of Dinophysis acuminata and D. acuta that were subjected to different feeding regimes (well-fed and prey-limited) and feeding on two Mesodinium (Spanish and Danish) strains. Both Dinophysis species were able to grow while feeding on both Mesodinium strains, although differences in growth rates were observed. Toxin and metabolomic profiles of the two Dinophysis species were significantly different, and also varied between different feeding regimes and different prey organisms. Furthermore, significantly different metabolomes were expressed by a strain of D. acuminata that was feeding on different strains of the ciliate Mesodinium rubrum . Both species-specific metabolites and those common to D. acuminata and D. acuta were tentatively identified by screening of METLIN and Marine Natural Products Dictionary databases. This first metabolomic study applied to Dinophysis acuminata and D.acuta in culture establishes a basis for the chemical inventory of these species.

  14. Alnus acuminata in dual symbiosis with Frankia and two different ectomycorrhizal fungi (Alpova austroalnicola and Alpova diplophloeus) growing in soilless growth medium

    Treesearch

    Alejandra G. Becerra; Euginia Menoyo; Irene Lett; Ching Y. Li

    2009-01-01

    In this study we investigated the capacity of Andean alder (Alnus acuminata Kunth), inoculated with Frankia and two ectomycorrhizal fungi (Alpova austroalnicola Dominguez and Alpova diplophloeus [Zeller and Dodge] Trappe and Smith), for nodulation and growth in pots of a soilless medium...

  15. HPV knowledge and impact of genital warts on self esteem and sexual life in Colombian patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Information on HPV knowledge in patients with genital warts is scarse as is the information on factors related to the impact on self-esteem and sex life among them. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study in adult patients with a clinical diagnosis of genital warts (GW) attending a major private out-patient clinic in Bogotá, Colombia. Patients underwent biopsy for pathological diagnosis, HPV-DNA testing and completed a questionnaire assessing HPV knowledge, and the consequences of GW on self-esteem and sexual life. Differences in proportions were assessed with a chi2 test. Results 106 men and 155 women had pathologic confirmation of GW. 51% of subjects had heard of HPV before consultation coming mainly from the media (82%). Less than half of the participants knew that HPV could be transmitted through non-penetrant sexual intercourse and only two thirds acknowledged HPV vaccine as a preventive measure against HPV infection. Impact on self-esteem was higher among women than men (90.3% vs 60.4%, [p < 0.01]). In men, factors related to a higher impact on sexual life were HPV awareness and age; in women they were higher education and anatomic location; external GW had a higher impact on sexual life in women (83% vs. 66%; [p = 0.05]). Conclusions We found a low awareness of HPV and low knowledge on the vaccine as a preventive measure for associated diseases even in patients suffering from genital warts, highlighting the need for communication and education on HPV. Greater impact on self-esteem in women might reflect higher health consciousness among Latin American women. PMID:23530591

  16. Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Effectiveness Against Incident Genital Warts Among Female Health-Plan Enrollees, United States.

    PubMed

    Hariri, Susan; Schuler, Megan S; Naleway, Allison L; Daley, Matthew F; Weinmann, Sheila; Crane, Bradley; Newcomer, Sophia R; Tolsma, Dennis; Markowitz, Lauri E

    2018-02-01

    We examined the effectiveness of human papillomavirus vaccination by dose number and spacing against incident genital warts in a cohort of 64,517 female health-plan enrollees in the United States during 2006-2012. Eligible recipients were classified into groups by regimen: 0, 1, 2 (<6 months apart), 2 (≥6 months apart), or 3 doses. They were followed until a genital wart diagnosis, loss to follow-up, or the end of study. Propensity score weights were used to balance baseline differences across groups. To account for latent genital warts before vaccination, we applied 6- and 12-month buffer periods from last and first vaccine dose, respectively. Incidence rates and hazard ratios were calculated using Poisson regression and Cox models. The propensity score-weighted incidence rate per 100,000 person-years was 762 among unvaccinated participants. Using 6- and 12-month buffer periods, respectively, incidence rates were 641 and 257 for 1 dose, 760 and 577 for the 2-dose (<6-month interval) regimen, 313 and 194 for the 2-dose (≥6-month interval) regimen, and 199 and 162 among 3-dose vaccinees; vaccine effectiveness was 68% and 76% for the 2-dose (≥6-month interval) regimen and 77% and 80% in 3-dose vaccinees compared with unvaccinated participants. Vaccine effectiveness was not significant among vaccinees receiving 1-dose and 2-dose (<6-month interval) regimens compared with unvaccinated participants. Our findings contribute to a better understanding of the real-world effectiveness of HPV vaccination. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  17. Treatment of Athlete's Plantar Warts Using a Botanical Blend: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Erik O; Kozin, Adam F; Ruiz, Guillermo; Lasku, Arben; Langland, Jeffrey O

    2017-05-01

    Context • Viral plantar warts, or verruca plantaris, are a benign epithelial tumor caused by various strains of the human papilloma virus (HPV). Current treatments have had mixed degrees of success, are moderately invasive, and are often incompatible with participation in sports. Objective • The study intended to examine the benefits of treating plantar warts with a topical, botanical blend that has had clinical success treating herpes simplex virus cold sores. Methods • A synergistic botanical blend was applied topically. Setting • The case report was completed at the Southwest College of Naturopathic Medicine (Tempe, Arizona, USA). Participant • The participant was a 24-y-old male soccer player, 177.8 cm tall, and weighing 69 kg with previously diagnosed, viral mosaic warts. Intervention • The patient used a pumice stone during bathing for the first week to remove dead tissue and ensure sufficient contact and entry of the botanical gel into infected tissue. After drying the area, the patient applied the botanical gel blend 1 to 2 times daily postshower, spreading it evenly across the surface of the entire lesion. The patient discontinued the exfoliation technique after the first week. Results • Within the first week of treatment, the patient noted changes to the infected area of the hallux epidermal tissue. The combination of exfoliation and application of the gel caused marked, visible differences in presentation by the fifth day of treatment. At 1-mo postintervention, or day 90, the epidermal tissue was asymptomatic and devoid of petechiae, malformations, or visible infection. Conclusions • The results of the current case study directly contrast with the drawbacks of commonly accepted, first-line interventions in the treatment of viral plantar warts and, in many respects, demonstrate better efficacy and fewer side effects than the standard of care. The positive results also highlight the necessity for additional study in the fields of sports

  18. Pharmacognostic Studies of Thuja Occidentalis Linn. – A Good remedy for warts & tumours, used in Homeopathy

    PubMed Central

    Rajatrashmi; Sarkar, Manisha; Vikramaditya

    1999-01-01

    Thuja occidentalis Linn. (Family cupressaceae), commonly known as American Arbore Vitae, is an evergreen tree and native of North America. Leaves & twigs, which contains essential oil, condylomatous growth, spongy tumours, warts, ill effects of vaccination etc. Twigs fan-shaped; leaves ovate, obtuse, having resin ducts & parenchymatous mesophyll; stem shows resins ducts in parenchymatous cortex and alternate bands of phloem parenchyma & phloem fibres. TLC of alcoholic extract in chloroform: Methanol (9:1) shows 8 spots under UV light, and UV absorbance shows peak at 260nm. PMID:22556920

  19. Cryosurgical treatment of warts: dimethyl ether and propane versus liquid nitrogen - case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Nicholas V; Burkhart, Craig G

    2011-10-01

    For years, dermatologists have relied on cryotherapy with liquid nitrogen as a safe and effective treatment for warts. More recently, several over-the-counter (OTC) wart-freezing therapies have become available. Manufacturers have substituted liquid nitrogen with dimethyl ether and propane (DMEP), and marketed these new preparations to be safe and effective alternatives to in-office cryotherapy with liquid nitrogen. However, data from in vitro studies and comparative studies in humans refute manufacturers' claims that these products reproduce in-office cryotherapy.

  20. Ongoing decline in genital warts among young heterosexuals 7 years after the Australian human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programme.

    PubMed

    Chow, Eric P F; Read, Tim R H; Wigan, Rebecca; Donovan, Basil; Chen, Marcus Y; Bradshaw, Catriona S; Fairley, Christopher K

    2015-05-01

    Australia has provided free quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines to school girls since mid-2007 and a catch-up programme in the community to women aged up to 26 years in 2007-2009. We describe the temporal trend of genital warts in different populations in Melbourne. We analysed the proportion diagnosed with genital warts for all new patients attending Melbourne Sexual Health Centre from July 2004 to June 2014, stratified by different risk groups and age. Adjusted ORs were calculated to compare the annual trend in the proportion of patients with genital warts in different risk groups in the prevaccination period (before June 2007) and the vaccination period (after July 2007). The proportion with genital warts decreased in women aged <21 years, from 18.4% in 2004/2005 to 1.1% in 2013/2014 (p<0.001), but increased in women aged >32 years, from 4.0% to 8.5% (p=0.037). The odds per year for diagnosis of genital warts adjusted for number of sexual partners in the vaccination period were 0.55 (95% CI 0.47 to 0.65) and 0.63 (95% CI 0.54 to 0.74) in women and heterosexual men aged <21 years, respectively. There was no change in adjusted odds of genital warts in both women and men aged >32 years. A small annual decline in genital warts was observed in men who have sex with men (aOR=0.92; 95% CI 0.88 to 0.97). Genital warts have now become rare in young Australian women and heterosexual men 7 years after the launch of the national HPV vaccination programme but in stark contrast, remain common in men who have sex with men. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccination and trends in genital warts in Australia: analysis of national sentinel surveillance data.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Basil; Franklin, Neil; Guy, Rebecca; Grulich, Andrew E; Regan, David G; Ali, Hammad; Wand, Handan; Fairley, Christopher K

    2011-01-01

    Quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine has high efficacy in clinical trials but no reports describe its effects at a population level. From July, 2007, Australia was the first country to fund a vaccination programme for all women aged 12-26 years. We established a national surveillance network in Australia and aimed to identify trends in diagnoses of genital warts in 2004-09. We obtained standardised data for demographic factors, frequency of genital warts, HPV vaccination status, and sexual behaviour for new patients attending eight sexual health services in Australia between January, 2004, and December, 2009. We used χ² analysis to identify significant trends in proportions of patients diagnosed with warts in periods before and after vaccination began. Our primary group of interest was female Australian residents who were eligible for free vaccination, although data were assessed for patients ineligible for free vaccination, including women older than 26 years of age, non-resident women, and men. Among 112 083 new patients attending sexual health services, we identified 9867 (9%) cases of genital warts. Before the vaccine programme started, there was no change in proportion of women or heterosexual men diagnosed with genital warts. After vaccination began, a decline in number of diagnoses of genital warts was noted for young female residents (59%, p(trend)<0·0001). No significant decline was noted in female non-residents, women older than 26 years in July, 2007, or in men who have sex with men. However, proportionally fewer heterosexual men were diagnosed with genital warts during the vaccine period (28%, p(trend)<0·0001), and this effect was more pronounced in young men. By 2009, 65·1% of female Australian residents who were eligible for free vaccine reported receipt of quadrivalent or unknown HPV vaccine. The decrease in frequency of genital warts in young Australian women resulting from the high coverage of HPV vaccination might provide

  2. EIN3-like gene expression during fruit ripening of Cavendish banana (Musa acuminata cv. Grande naine).

    PubMed

    Mbéguié-A-Mbéguié, Didier; Hubert, Olivier; Fils-Lycaon, Bernard; Chillet, Marc; Baurens, Franc-Christophe

    2008-06-01

    Ethylene signal transduction initiates with ethylene binding at receptor proteins and terminates in a transcription cascade involving the EIN3/EIL transcription factors. Here, we have isolated four cDNAs homologs of the Arabidopsis EIN3/EIN3-like gene, MA-EILs (Musa acuminata ethylene insensitive 3-like) from banana fruit. Sequence comparison with other banana EIL gene already registered in the database led us to conclude that, at this day, at least five different genes namely MA-EIL1, MA-EIL2/AB266318, MA-EIL3/AB266319, MA-EIL4/AB266320 and AB266321 exist in banana. Phylogenetic analyses included all banana EIL genes within a same cluster consisting of rice OsEILs, a monocotyledonous plant as banana. However, MA-EIL1, MA-EIL2/AB266318, MA-EIL4/AB266320 and AB266321 on one side, and MA-EIL3/AB266319 on the other side, belong to two distant subclusters. MA-EIL mRNAs were detected in all examined banana tissues but at lower level in peel than in pulp. According to tissues, MA-EIL genes were differentially regulated by ripening and ethylene in mature green fruit and wounding in old and young leaves. MA-EIL2/AB266318 was the unique ripening- and ethylene-induced gene; MA-EIL1, MA-EIL4/Ab266320 and AB266321 genes were downregulated, while MA-EIL3/AB266319 presented an unusual pattern of expression. Interestingly, a marked change was observed mainly in MA-EIL1 and MA-EIL3/Ab266319 mRNA accumulation concomitantly with changes in ethylene responsiveness of fruit. Upon wounding, the main effect was observed in MA-EIL4/AB266320 and AB266321 mRNA levels, which presented a markedly increase in both young and old leaves, respectively. Data presented in this study suggest the importance of a transcriptionally step control in the regulation of EIL genes during banana fruit ripening.

  3. Adverse Psychosexual Impact Related to the Treatment of Genital Warts and Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Campaner, Adriana Bittencourt; Vespa Junior, Nelson; Giraldo, Paulo César; Leal Passos, Mauro Romero

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To compare the psychosexual impact related to the treatment of genital warts and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in women. Methods. 75 patients presenting with HPV-induced genital lesions, belonging to one of two patient groups, were included in the study: 29 individuals with genital warts (GWs) and 46 individuals with CIN grades 2 or 3 (CIN 2/3). Initially, medical charts of each woman were examined for extraction of data on the type of HPV-induced infection and treatment administered. Subjects were interviewed to collect sociodemographic data as well as personal, gynecologic, obstetric, and sexual history. After this initial anamnesis, the Sexual Quotient-Female Version (SQ-F) questionnaire was applied to assess sexual function. After application of the questionnaire, patients answered specific questions produced by the researchers, aimed at assessing the impact of the disease and its treatment on their sexual lives. Results. It is noteworthy that patients with CIN 2/3 had statistically similar classification of sexual quotient to patients with GWs (P = 0.115). However, patients with GWs more frequently gave positive answers to the specific questions compared to patients with CIN 2/3. Conclusion. Based on these findings, it is clear that GWs have a greater impact on sexual behavior compared to CIN 2/3. PMID:26316956

  4. Human papillomavirus type 2 associated with pyogenic granuloma in patients without clinical evidence of warts.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Martínez, Osvaldo T; González-Betancourt, Anajulia; Barboza-Cerda, María Carmen; González-González, Sergio E; Lugo-Trampe, Ángel; Welsh, Oliverio; Rojas-Martínez, Augusto; Martínez-Rodríguez, Herminia G; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge; Ortiz-López, Rocío

    2016-07-01

    Pyogenic granuloma is a non-neoplastic lesion that frequently occurs in the skin and mucous membranes of children and pregnant women. The anatomical sites of pyogenic granulomas overlap with those of wart infections caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). This study assessed the presence of HPV DNA in pyogenic granuloma samples by polymerase chain reaction. Eighteen pyogenic granuloma biopsies from patients without a clinical history or evidence of verruca in the studied area were tested for the presence of the HPV genome. The presence of HPV DNA was screened by three independent polymerase chain reaction reactions using standard consensus primer sets targeted to the L1 or E1 consensus regions of HPV genome. The HPV DNA-positive samples were genotyped using methodologies enabling the identification of up to 30 HPVs, including oncogenic, nononcogenic, and cutaneous viral types. The HPV DNA was detected in 44.4% (eight of 18) of the samples, with HPV-2 being the only type in the eight HPV DNA-positive samples. Contamination with HPV-2 sequences throughout the entire process was reliably eliminated. This report is the first to suggest an association between HPV-2 and pyogenic granuloma. This relationship is similar to that observed between HPV-2 and nongenital warts. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  5. HPV strain distribution in patients with genital warts in a female population sample.

    PubMed

    Boda, Daniel; Neagu, Monica; Constantin, Carolina; Voinescu, Razvan Nicolae; Caruntu, Constantin; Zurac, Sabina; Spandidos, Demetrios A; Drakoulis, Nikolaos; Tsoukalas, Dimitrios; Tsatsakis, Aristides M

    2016-09-01

    The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the human cancer domain is still a subject of intensive study. In this study, we examined cervical swab samples from 713 females with genital warts, and tested the samples for high- and low-risk genital HPV. HPV genotyping was assessed using a Genotyping test that detects HPV by the amplification of target DNA using polymerase chain reaction and nucleic acid hybridization. In total, we detected 37 anogenital HPV DNA genotypes [6, 11, 16, 18, 26, 31, 33, 35, 39, 40, 42, 45, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 58, 59, 61, 62, 64, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73 (MM9), 81, 82 (MM4), 83 (MM7), 84 (MM8), IS39 and CP6108] and investigated the incidence of these genotypes in the patients with genital warts. We found differences in the distribution of high-/low-risk strains and the incidence of high-risk strains was found to occur mainly in females under 35 years of age. The data from our study suggest that a detailed oral, rectal and genital identification of high-risk strains should be performed to visualize the entire pattern of possible triggers of carcinogenesis.

  6. CD4+ Cell Count and HIV Load as Predictors of Size of Anal Warts Over Time in HIV-Infected Women

    PubMed Central

    Luu, Hung N.; Amirian, E. Susan; Chan, Wenyaw; Beasley, R. Palmer; Piller, Linda B.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Little is known about the associations between CD4+ cell counts, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) load, and human papillomavirus “low-risk” types in noncancerous clinical outcomes. This study examined whether CD4+ count and HIV load predict the size of the largest anal warts in 976 HIV-infected women in an ongoing cohort. Methods. A linear mixed model was used to determine the association between size of anal wart and CD4+ count and HIV load. Results. The incidence of anal warts was 4.15 cases per 100 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.83–4.77) and 1.30 cases per 100 person-years (95% CI, 1.00–1.58) in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women, respectively. There appeared to be an inverse association between size of the largest anal warts and CD4+ count at baseline; however, this was not statistically significant. There was no association between size of the largest anal warts and CD4+ count or HIV load over time. Conclusions. There was no evidence for an association between size of the largest anal warts and CD4+ count or HIV load over time. Further exploration on the role of immune response on the development of anal warts is warranted in a larger study. PMID:22246682

  7. A new surveillance gynecological network to assess the incidence and prevalence of genital warts in the Italian female population: lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Suligoi, B; Salfa, M C; Mariani, L; Corsini, D; Timelli, L; Fattorini, G; Vittori, G

    2013-10-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the etiologic agent of genital warts. Genital warts are transmitted through sexual contacts and caused in about 90% of the cases by HPV types 6 and 11. Worldwide, several million cases of genital warts occur each year both in females and males. In Italy, genital warts are not subject to mandatory notification; the only available data come from the sentinel surveillance system for sexually transmitted infections (STI), which show that external genital warts represent the most frequent STI in Italy. However, these data are not suitable for estimates of incidence and prevalence of single STI in the general population. To obtain more reliable data on the epidemiology of genital warts in the female population at large, we implemented a network of local gynecologists reporting essential data on all women visited throughout one year and detailed data on women who were diagnosed with genital warts. In order to organize and create this network, a partnership between the Italian National Institute of Health and the Italian Society of Gynecology and Obstetrics was constituted to implement the start-up and management of this pilot and unique project in Europe. The present paper intends to present the methods used to build and implement this surveillance network of local gynecologists.

  8. Detection of Human Papillomavirus Types 6 and 11 in Pubic and Perianal Hair from Patients with Genital Warts

    PubMed Central

    Boxman, Ingeborg L. A.; Hogewoning, Arjan; Mulder, Linda H. C.; Bavinck, Jan Nico Bouwes; ter Schegget, Jan

    1999-01-01

    Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6 and 11 are of clinical importance due to their role in the development of anogenital warts. A pilot study was performed to investigate whether DNAs from HPV types 6 and 11 are present in hairs plucked from the pubic and perianal regions and eyebrows of patients with genital warts at present and patients with a recent history of genital warts. Genital HPV DNA was detected in 9 of 25 (36%) pubic hair samples and in 11 of 22 (50%) perianal hair samples by the CPI/CPIIg PCR. After sequencing of 17 of 20 samples, HPV type 6 or 11 was detected in 6 of 25 (24%) hair samples from the pubis and 8 of 22 (36%) hair samples from the perianal region. These types were not detected in plucked eyebrow hairs. In contrast, the HPV types associated with epidermodysplasia verruciformis were detected in similar proportions (62%) in both samples of pubic and eyebrow hairs. Moreover, HPV type 6 and 11 DNAs were detected in pubic hairs plucked from two patients who had been successfully treated and who did not show any lesion at the time of hair collection; this finding is an argument that HPV DNA may persist in this region. The presence of genital HPV types in plucked pubic and perianal hair suggests that there is an endogenous reservoir for HPV which may play a role in the recurrences of genital warts. PMID:10364596

  9. Comparison of clinical efficacy and safety of thermotherapy versus cryotherapy in treatment of skin warts: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Izadi Firouzabadi, Leila; Khamesipour, Ali; Ghandi, Narges; Hosseini, Hamed; Teymourpour, Amir; Firooz, Alireza

    2018-01-01

    The effect of thermotherapy in the treatment of skin warts in comparison to cryotherapy, as the standard conventional method, has remained uncertain. This study aimed to assess the clinical efficacy and safety of thermotherapy and cryotherapy in removing skin warts. This randomized controlled trial was conducted on 52 patients aged 18 years and over with ≤ 10 skin warts. The participants were randomly assigned into two groups to receive cryotherapy (every 2 to 3 weeks up to six sessions if required) or thermotherapy (one session). The patients in both groups were followed every 2 to 3 weeks for the first three months, and then three months after the last treatment session. The clearance rate was 79.2% in the thermotherapy group and 58.3% in the cryotherapy group with no significant difference (p = 0.212). The rate of scarring in the thermotherapy group was 20% (p = .018). A higher clearance rate was achieved in the thermotherapy group. However, this result was not statistically significant. There were some minimal post-treatment complications. Patients needed only one session of thermotherapy. Due to the risk of scarring, we suggest thermotherapy only as a suitable treatment method for palmoplantar warts. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Detection of human papillomavirus types 6 and 11 in pubic and perianal hair from patients with genital warts.

    PubMed

    Boxman, I L; Hogewoning, A; Mulder, L H; Bouwes Bavinck, J N; ter Schegget, J

    1999-07-01

    Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6 and 11 are of clinical importance due to their role in the development of anogenital warts. A pilot study was performed to investigate whether DNAs from HPV types 6 and 11 are present in hairs plucked from the pubic and perianal regions and eyebrows of patients with genital warts at present and patients with a recent history of genital warts. Genital HPV DNA was detected in 9 of 25 (36%) pubic hair samples and in 11 of 22 (50%) perianal hair samples by the CPI/CPIIg PCR. After sequencing of 17 of 20 samples, HPV type 6 or 11 was detected in 6 of 25 (24%) hair samples from the pubis and 8 of 22 (36%) hair samples from the perianal region. These types were not detected in plucked eyebrow hairs. In contrast, the HPV types associated with epidermodysplasia verruciformis were detected in similar proportions (62%) in both samples of pubic and eyebrow hairs. Moreover, HPV type 6 and 11 DNAs were detected in pubic hairs plucked from two patients who had been successfully treated and who did not show any lesion at the time of hair collection; this finding is an argument that HPV DNA may persist in this region. The presence of genital HPV types in plucked pubic and perianal hair suggests that there is an endogenous reservoir for HPV which may play a role in the recurrences of genital warts.

  11. Sinecatechins 10% ointment for genital warts: Case report of a beneficial reaction in an HIV-positive woman.

    PubMed

    Bilenchi, Roberta; Campoli, Marco; Trovato, Emanuele; Cinotti, Elisa; Rubegni, Pietro; Fimiani, Michele

    2018-01-01

    Patients with HIV infection are more likely to develop anogenital warts compared to HIV-negative people and are susceptible to treatment failures and recurrences. We report a case of extensive vulvar warts in an HIV-positive woman successfully treated with sinecatechins ointment. After the failure of a combination of cryotherapy and imiquimod 5% cream, we started therapy with sinecatechins 10% ointment. The patient developed an intense local inflammatory reaction after three weeks that induced the discontinuation of the therapy. After two weeks, we observed a complete regression of inflammation and a reduction of genital warts. The lesions completely regressed within a few weeks, with no relapse after eight months. Sinecatechins is a standardized extract of green tea leaves, effective in the treatment of external genital and perianal warts in immunocompetent patients, but their role has not been yet studied for immunocompromised people. Our case may represent a starting point for further studies, in order to evaluate the relation between treatment dosage, side effects, and drug response in immunocompromised patients.

  12. Impact of Number of Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Doses on Genital Warts Diagnoses Among a National Cohort of U.S. Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Rebecca B; Lin, Mengyun; Wallington, Sherrie F; Hanchate, Amresh

    2017-06-01

    The impact of fewer than 3 doses of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine on genital warts is uncertain. Using the Truven Health Analytics Marketscan administrative database, we compared rates of genital warts among women receiving 0, 1, 2, or 3 doses of HPV vaccine. Females aged 9 to 18 years on January 1, 2007, who were continuously enrolled in the database through December 31, 2013, were included. Patients were assigned an HPV dose state (0, 1, 2, or 3) based on the last recorded dose. The exposure period began on January 1, 2007, or the date of the final HPV dose, and lasted until the first diagnosis of genital warts or December 31, 2013. Multivariable Poisson regression was performed to determine the risk of genital warts associated with vaccine doses. Among 387,906 subjects, mean age and exposure period were 14.73 and 5.64 years, respectively. The proportions of doses received were: 52.1%, 7.8%, 9.4%, and 30.7% for 0, 1, 2, and 3 doses, respectively. The rate of genital warts was 1.97/1000 person-years. Receipt of 0 or 1 dose was associated with more genital warts than 3 doses. The effectiveness of 2 doses following current Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines was similar to 3 doses. The risk of genital warts rose with age. Prevention of genital warts is higher with completion of 3 vaccine doses than with 1 dose, though 2-dose recommendations appear to provide similar protection. Prospective effectiveness studies of recommended 2-dose schedules against clinical endpoints including persistent infection, genital warts, and cervical dysplasia are necessary to ensure long-term protection of vaccinated cohorts.

  13. Human papillomavirus genotypes and clinical management of genital warts in women attending a colposcopy clinic in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Tayib, Shahila; Allan, Bruce; Williamson, Anna-Lise; Denny, Lynette

    2015-09-21

    Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted viral disease in the world. HPV infection of the genital epithelium is associated with genital warts and malignancies of the lower genital tract. To describe the distribution, phenotypic appearance and HPV type associated with genital warts in women. This was a prospective observational study of all women with genital warts who attended the Colposcopy Clinic, Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa, during 2010 and fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria. One hundred and thirteen women were tested for HPV using the Roche Linear Array HPV genotyping kit to determine the HPV genotypes causing genital warts. The median age of the women was 27 years (range 15 - 53); 90 (79.6%) were HIV-positive, and two-thirds were on antiretroviral treatment. Treatment involved ablation with topical agents, cauterisation or carbon dioxide laser. At 3 months' follow-up after treatment, 56.6% of the women, the majority of whom were HIV-positive, had recurrent/persistent disease. In both HIV-positive and HIV-negative women, HPV was detected in over 90% of cases. However, over half the HIV-positive women as opposed to 2/18 of the HIV-negative women were infected with multiple HPV genotypes. The commonest HPV genotypes in HIV-positive and HIV-negative women were types 11, 6, 89, 61, 55 and 62 and types 11 and 6, respectively. The majority of the patients were HIV-positive and had multiple HPV infections. While this did not alter the phenotypic appearance of the warts, recurrence/persistence after treatment was more common.

  14. Therapeutic value of trichloroacetic acid in the treatment of isolated genital warts on the external female genitalia.

    PubMed

    Taner, Zeki M; Taskiran, Cagatay; Onan, Anil M; Gursoy, Rifat; Himmetoglu, Ozdemir

    2007-06-01

    To evaluate the value of 85% trichloroacetic acid (TCA) in the treatment of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated genital warts of the external genitalia and to detect the recurrence rate and side effects of this therapeutic regimen. All patients with a suspected HPV-related papillary vulvar lesion after initial examination underwent vulvoscopic evaluation with a magnification of 8-20x using acetic acid and toluidine blue. Under local anesthesia, biopsies were taken from acuminate or papillary warts for histopathologic confirmation and from suspicious areas to exclude preinvasive or invasive diseases. Following histopathologic diagnosis, patients were treated with 85% TCA. Overall, 51 patients with isolated vulvar and/or perianal genital warts were included. Of those patients, 11 (21.5%) had acuminate and 40 (78.5%) had papular genital warts. All the women had lesions of the labia minora. The other localizations were as follows: labia majora, 18 (35.3%); lateral vulva, 5 (9.8%); clitoris, 9 (17.6%); fourchette, 16 (31.3%); and perianal area, 7 (13.7%). All lesions were successfully treated by the end of the treatment period (median, 4; range 2-5). None of the patients had recurrence or new lesions during the 6-month follow-up period. In the second 6 months, 9 patients (17.6%) were diagnosed with recurrent lesions. Although all the patients experienced transient burning pain during therapy, none of them discontinued the therapy. Ulceration was observed in 8 patients (15.6%). Of those patients only 3 had permanent scarring (5.8%). We recommend the use of TCA in patients with external genital warts, especially for mild to moderate cases. It is associated with a high success rate and low morbidity if sufficient care is taken during application.

  15. In vitro propagation and assessment of the genetic fidelity of Musa acuminata (AAA) cv. Vaibalhla derived from immature male flowers.

    PubMed

    Hrahsel, Lalremsiami; Basu, Adreeja; Sahoo, Lingaraj; Thangjam, Robert

    2014-02-01

    An efficient in vitro propagation method has been developed for the first time for Musa acuminata (AAA) cv. Vaibalhla, an economically important banana cultivar of Mizoram, India. Immature male flowers were used as explants. Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium supplemented with plant growth regulators (PGRs) were used for the regeneration process. Out of different PGR combinations, MS medium supplemented with 2 mg L(-1) 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) + 0.5 mg L(-1) α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) was optimal for production of white bud-like structures (WBLS). On this medium, explants produced the highest number of buds per explant (4.30). The highest percentage (77.77) and number (3.51) of shoot formation from each explants was observed in MS medium supplemented with 2 mg L(-1) kinetin + 0.5 mg L(-1) NAA. While MS medium supplemented with a combination of 2 mg L(-1) BAP + 0.5 mg L(-1) NAA showed the maximum shoot length (14.44 cm). Rooting efficiency of the shoots was highest in the MS basal medium without any PGRs. The plantlets were hardened successfully in the greenhouse with 96% survival rate. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers were employed to assess the genetic stability of in vitro regenerated plantlets of M. acuminata (AAA) cv. Vaibalhla. Eight RAPD and 8 ISSR primers were successfully used for the analysis from the 40 RAPD and 30 ISSR primers screened initially. The amplified products were monomorphic across all the regenerated plants and were similar to the mother plant. The present standardised protocol will find application in mass production, conservation and genetic transformation studies of this commercially important banana.

  16. Genital Warts

    MedlinePlus

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  17. Preventing the spread of genital warts: using fear appeals to promote self-protective behaviors.

    PubMed

    Witte, K; Berkowitz, J M; Cameron, K A; McKeon, J K

    1998-10-01

    A fear appeal campaign to decrease the spread of genital warts was conducted and evaluated. Theoretically guided by the Extended Parallel Process Model, this field study illustrated why fear appeal campaigns often appear to fail in public health arenas. Five hypotheses, which predicted when and under what conditions fear appeal campaigns would fail or succeed, were tested and supported. The results demonstrated that fear appeals can be powerful persuasive devices if they induce strong perceptions of threat and fear (which motivate action) and if they induce strong perceptions of efficacy with regard to a recommended response (which channels the action in a health protective direction). Recommendations to researchers and public health practitioners are offered.

  18. Macular pigmentation complicating irritant contact dermatitis and viral warts in Laugier-Hunziker syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bhoyrul, B; Paulus, J

    2016-04-01

    Laugier-Hunziker syndrome (LHS) is a rare acquired disorder characterized by macu-lar pigmentation of the lips and oral mucosa, with frequent longitudinal melanonychia. Involvement of other areas, such as the genitalia and fingers, has rarely been described. LHS is a benign condition with no known systemic manifestations. We report the case of a woman who developed melanotic macules on her fingers and elbow 16 years after the onset of pigmentation of her lips. This unusual feature of LHS in our patient was associated with irritant contact dermatitis and viral warts. Only two cases of an association with an inflammatory dermatosis have been reported previously in the literature. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  19. Sinecatechins and imiquimod as proactive sequential therapy of external genital and perianal warts in adults.

    PubMed

    Schöfer, Helmut; Tatti, Silvio; Lynde, Charles W; Skerlev, Mihael; Hercogová, Jana; Rotaru, Maria; Ballesteros, Juan; Calzavara-Pinton, Piergiacomo

    2017-12-01

    This review about the proactive sequential therapy (PST) of external genital and perianal warts (EGW) is based on the most current available clinical literature and on the broad clinical experience of a group of international experts, physicians who are well versed in the treatment of human papillomavirus-associated diseases. It provides a practical guide for the treatment of EGW, including epidemiology, etiology, clinical appearance, and diagnostic procedures for these viral infections. Furthermore, the treatment goals and current treatment options, elucidating provider- and patient-applied therapies, and the parameters driving treatment decisions are summarized. Specifically, the mode of action of the topical treatments sinecatechins and imiquimod, as well as the PST for EGW to achieve rapid and sustained clearance is discussed. The group of experts has developed a treatment algorithm giving healthcare providers a practical tool for the treatment of EGW which is very valuable in the presence of many different treatment options.

  20. HPV-11 variability, persistence and progression to genital warts in men: the HIM study.

    PubMed

    Flores-Díaz, Ema; Sereday, Karen A; Ferreira, Silvaneide; Sirak, Bradley; Sobrinho, João Simão; Baggio, Maria Luiza; Galan, Lenice; Silva, Roberto C; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R; Villa, Luisa L; Sichero, Laura

    2017-09-01

    HPV-11 and HPV-6 are the etiological agents of about 90 % of genital warts (GWs). The intra-typic variability of HPV-11 and its association with infection persistence and GW development remains undetermined. Here, HPV infection in men (HIM) participants who had an HPV-11 genital swab and/or GW, preceded or not by a normal skin genital swab were analysed. Genomic variants were characterized by PCR-sequencing and classified within lineages (A, B) and sublineages (A1, A2, A3, A4). HPV-11 A2 variants were the most frequently detected in the genital swab samples from controls and in both genital swabs and GW samples from cases. The same HPV-11 variant was detected in the GW sample and its preceding genital swab. There was a lack of association between any particular HPV-11 variant and the increased risk for GW development.

  1. Decline in in-patient treatments of genital warts among young Australians following the national HPV vaccination program

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There has been a rapid decline in the number of young heterosexuals diagnosed with genital warts at outpatient sexual health services since the national human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination program started in Australia in 2007. We assessed the impact of the vaccination program on the number of in-patient treatments for genital warts. Methods Data on in-patient treatments of genital warts in all private hospitals were extracted from the Medicare website. Medicare is the universal health insurance scheme of Australia. In the vaccine period (2007–2011) and pre-vaccine period (2000–2007) we calculated the percentage change in treatment numbers and trends in annual treatment rates in private hospitals. Australian population data were used to calculate rates. Summary rate ratios of average annual trends were determined. Results Between 2000 and 2011, 6,014 women and 936 men aged 15–44 years underwent in-patient treatment for genital warts in private hospitals. In 15–24 year old women, there was a significant decreasing trend in annual treatment rates of vulval/vaginal warts in the vaccine period (overall decrease of 85.3% in treatment numbers from 2007 to 2011) compared to no significant trend in the pre-vaccine period (summary rate ratio (SRR) = 0.33, p < 0.001). In 25–34 year old women, declining trends were seen in both vaccine and pre-vaccine periods (overall decrease of 33% vs. 24.3%), but the rate of change was greater in the vaccine period (SRR = 0.60, p < 0.001). In 35–44 year old women, there was no significant change in both periods (SRR = 0.91, p = 0.14). In 15–24 year old men, there was a significant decreasing trend in annual treatment rates of penile warts in the vaccine period (decrease of 70.6%) compared to an increasing trend in the pre-vaccine period (SRR = 0.76, p = 0.02). In 25–34 year old men there was a significant decreasing trend in the vaccine period compared to no change in

  2. Decline in in-patient treatments of genital warts among young Australians following the national HPV vaccination program.

    PubMed

    Ali, Hammad; Guy, Rebecca J; Wand, Handan; Read, Tim Rh; Regan, David G; Grulich, Andrew E; Fairley, Christopher K; Donovan, Basil

    2013-03-18

    There has been a rapid decline in the number of young heterosexuals diagnosed with genital warts at outpatient sexual health services since the national human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination program started in Australia in 2007. We assessed the impact of the vaccination program on the number of in-patient treatments for genital warts. Data on in-patient treatments of genital warts in all private hospitals were extracted from the Medicare website. Medicare is the universal health insurance scheme of Australia. In the vaccine period (2007-2011) and pre-vaccine period (2000-2007) we calculated the percentage change in treatment numbers and trends in annual treatment rates in private hospitals. Australian population data were used to calculate rates. Summary rate ratios of average annual trends were determined. Between 2000 and 2011, 6,014 women and 936 men aged 15-44 years underwent in-patient treatment for genital warts in private hospitals. In 15-24 year old women, there was a significant decreasing trend in annual treatment rates of vulval/vaginal warts in the vaccine period (overall decrease of 85.3% in treatment numbers from 2007 to 2011) compared to no significant trend in the pre-vaccine period (summary rate ratio (SRR) = 0.33, p < 0.001). In 25-34 year old women, declining trends were seen in both vaccine and pre-vaccine periods (overall decrease of 33% vs. 24.3%), but the rate of change was greater in the vaccine period (SRR = 0.60, p < 0.001). In 35-44 year old women, there was no significant change in both periods (SRR = 0.91, p = 0.14). In 15-24 year old men, there was a significant decreasing trend in annual treatment rates of penile warts in the vaccine period (decrease of 70.6%) compared to an increasing trend in the pre-vaccine period (SRR = 0.76, p = 0.02). In 25-34 year old men there was a significant decreasing trend in the vaccine period compared to no change in the pre-vaccine period (SRR = 0.81, p = 0

  3. Effects of Aqueous Extract of Three Cultivars of Banana (Musa acuminata) Fruit Peel on Kidney and Liver Function Indices in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Edenta, Chidi; Okoduwa, Stanley I R; Okpe, Oche

    2017-10-23

    Background: Musa acuminata fruit peels are used in the northern part of Nigeria for the treatment of hypertension and other cardiovascular related diseases. The effects of aqueous extracts of ripped fruit peel of three cultivars of Musa acuminata ( Saro, Ominni and Oranta ) on the hepatic and renal parameters of normal rats were examined. Methods: Fruit peel aqueous extracts (FPAE) of the 3 cultivars of Bananas (100 mg/kg b.w.) were administered by oral intubation (that is through esophageal cannula) to normal rats (140-180 g) for a period of 28 days. Blood samples were collected for determination of plasma aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase ALK-P), total protein, albumin, creatinine as well as urea. Results: From the results obtained, there were no significant ( p < 0.05) changes in the ALK-P, AST, ALT, total protein and albumin among the experimental rats administered FPAE of the 3 cultivars of Musa acuminata when compared with the normal control group. There was a significant ( p < 0.05) increase in the level of serum creatinine (in mg/dL) (1.53 ± 0.23) when compared to the normal control (0.72 ± 0.15), Ominni (0.92 ± 0.39) and Oranta (0.74 ± 0.22). Similarly, there was a significant ( p < 0.05) increase in the level of serum urea (in mg/dL) of Saro (41.56 ± 4.68) when compared to the normal control (26.05 ± 0.73), Ommini (28.44 ± 2.43) and Oranta (26.10 ± 2.94). Conclusion: The findings reveal the Saro cultivar of Musa acuminata to be nephrotoxic and not a good potential drug candidate among the cultivars studied hence should be discouraged in the treatment of hypertension and other cardiovascular related diseases.

  4. Effects of Aqueous Extract of Three Cultivars of Banana (Musa acuminata) Fruit Peel on Kidney and Liver Function Indices in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Edenta, Chidi; Okpe, Oche

    2017-01-01

    Background: Musa acuminata fruit peels are used in the northern part of Nigeria for the treatment of hypertension and other cardiovascular related diseases. The effects of aqueous extracts of ripped fruit peel of three cultivars of Musa acuminata (Saro, Ominni and Oranta) on the hepatic and renal parameters of normal rats were examined. Methods: Fruit peel aqueous extracts (FPAE) of the 3 cultivars of Bananas (100 mg/kg b.w.) were administered by oral intubation (that is through esophageal cannula) to normal rats (140–180 g) for a period of 28 days. Blood samples were collected for determination of plasma aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase ALK-P), total protein, albumin, creatinine as well as urea. Results: From the results obtained, there were no significant (p < 0.05) changes in the ALK-P, AST, ALT, total protein and albumin among the experimental rats administered FPAE of the 3 cultivars of Musa acuminata when compared with the normal control group. There was a significant (p < 0.05) increase in the level of serum creatinine (in mg/dL) (1.53 ± 0.23) when compared to the normal control (0.72 ± 0.15), Ominni (0.92 ± 0.39) and Oranta (0.74 ± 0.22). Similarly, there was a significant (p < 0.05) increase in the level of serum urea (in mg/dL) of Saro (41.56 ± 4.68) when compared to the normal control (26.05 ± 0.73), Ommini (28.44 ± 2.43) and Oranta (26.10 ± 2.94). Conclusion: The findings reveal the Saro cultivar of Musa acuminata to be nephrotoxic and not a good potential drug candidate among the cultivars studied hence should be discouraged in the treatment of hypertension and other cardiovascular related diseases. PMID:29065553

  5. Vaccines against human papillomavirus infections: protection against cancer, genital warts or both?

    PubMed

    Joura, E A; Pils, S

    2016-12-01

    Since 2006, three vaccines against infections and disease caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) became available in Europe-in 2006 a quadrivalent HPV 6/11/16/18 vaccine, in 2007 a bivalent HPV 16/18 vaccine and in 2015 a nonavalent HPV 6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58 vaccine. HPV 16 and 18 are the most oncogenic HPV strains, causing about 70% of cervical and other HPV-related cancers, HPV 6 and 11 cause 85% of all genital warts. The additional types of the polyvalent vaccine account for about 20% of invasive cervical cancer and >35% of pre-cancer. The potential differences between these vaccines caused some debate. All three vaccines give a robust and long-lasting protection against the strains in the various vaccines. The promise of cross-protection against other types (i.e. HPV 31/33/45) and hence a broader cancer protection was not fulfilled because these observations were confounded by the vaccine efficacy against the vaccine types. Furthermore, cross-protection was not consistent over various studies, not durable and not consistently seen in the real world experience. The protection against disease caused by oncogenic HPV strains was not compromised by the protection against low-risk types causing genital warts. The most effective cancer protection to date can be expected by the nonavalent vaccine, data indicate a 97% efficacy against cervical and vulvovaginal pre-cancer caused by these nine HPV types. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Characteristics of human papillomaviruses infection in men with genital warts in Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaogang; Li, Liang; Lai, Yongxian; Liu, Qinxiu; Yan, Jianna; Tang, Yichen

    2016-08-16

    Human papillomaviruses (HPV) infected men causes continued transmission of HPV to women. The prevalence of 15 high-risk HPV strains (HPV16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 53, 56, 58, 59, 66 and 68) and 6 low-risk HPV strains (HPV6, 11, 42, 43, 44 and CP8304) were evaluated in 935 males with genital warts. Of the 447 (447/935, 47.8%) HPV DNA positive subjects, 230 (24.6%), 356 (38.1%) and 139 (14.9%) were infected by high-risk, low-risk and both high and low-risk HPV respectively. Of the 356 low-risk HPV infected subjects, 333(93.5%) were infected by single HPV strain; 203 (57.0%), 147 (41.3%), 24 (6.7%) and 5 (1.4%) were infected with HPV genotype 6, 11, CP8304 and 44 respectively; population with age ≤ 20 showed the highest infection rate. High-risk HPV are also highly prevalent in our patients, genotype 16, 58, 51, 39, 52 and 53 are the top five prevalent genotypes with infection rates of 27.4%, 18.7%, 14.3%, 13.9%, 12.6% and 12.6% respectively; only 68.3% subjects were sole infection; subjects with 41 ≤ age ≤ 50 showed the highest infection rate. Both high and low-risk HPV are highly prevalent in men with genital warts, its impact on women HPV control and prevention need further evaluation.

  7. Real versus sham proximal biofield therapy in the treatment of warts of the hands and feet in adults: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial (MAGNETIK study).

    PubMed

    Gaillard, Cathy; Allain, Laure; Legros, Hélène; Brucato, Sylvie; Desgue, Yohann; Rouillon, Christophe; Peyro-Saint-Paul, Laure; Dompmartin, Anne

    2017-06-07

    Despite the lack of scientific studies on biofield therapies, they are widely acclaimed by patients. The mechanisms of action are not explained by current allopathic medical approaches. Warts are common and contagious viral lesions that may be refractory to standard dermatologic treatments such as cryotherapy, laser therapy, and keratolytic ointments. Biofield therapies are efficient in various pathologies. Their ability to treat warts has never been demonstrated in a scientific study with a robust methodology. Patients with refractory warts often place their trust in these alternative therapies because of the poor results obtained from traditional medicine. We propose a prospective, randomized, single-blind, assessor-blind trial to evaluate the efficacy of treatment of warts by biofield therapy. Subjects with warts on their feet or hands will be randomized into two groups: real biofield therapy versus sham therapy. The diagnosis will be made at the time of inclusion, and follow-up will take place in week 3. Comparison of pictures of the warts at baseline and after 3 weeks will be used as the primary outcome measure. The hypothesis is that the extent of the disappearance of the original wart in the group treated by real biofield therapy will be 70% and that it will be 30% in the group treated by sham therapy. Using 90% power and an alpha risk of 5%, 31 subjects are required in each group for a two-tailed proportion comparison test. To our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate the efficacy of biofield therapy on warts. Therefore, the aim of this study is to extend knowledge of biofield therapy to another area of medicine such as dermatology and to propose complementary or alternative practices to improve patient well-being. The main strength of the study is that it is a randomized, single-blind, assessor-blind, placebo-controlled study. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02773719 . Registered on 22 April 2016.

  8. Functional characterization of CD4 and CD8 T cell responses among human papillomavirus infected patients with ano-genital warts.

    PubMed

    Singh, Manjula; Thakral, Deepshi; Rishi, Narayan; Kar, Hemanta Kumar; Mitra, Dipendra Kumar

    2017-06-01

    Ano-genital warts are considered one of the commonest and highly infectious sexually transmitted infections. These warts are primarily caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV) of the family Papillomaviridae , genus alpha - papillomavirus , species 10 and types 6 and 11. However the high recurrence rate of warts is a matter of serious concern to the patients and a challenge for the treating physician. The conventional treatment options are targeted only to the local site of warts. There is no systemic treatment modality as there is limited understanding of the disease immune-pathogenesis. The role of cell-mediated immunity in combating HPV infection is not clearly defined. Hence the present study is aimed at investigating the CD4 + T helper (Th1 and Th2) and CD8 + T cell responses among wart patients. In this study, we compared HPV6 and HPV11 antigen-specific T cell responses among venereal wart patients relative to healthy controls. Significant decrease in percent frequencies of IFN-γ producing CD4 + and CD8 + T cells were observed in HPV infected wart patients. On the other hand, the frequency of CD4 + T cells expressing IL-4 was significantly increased in these patients as compared to healthy controls. The observed functional skewing of HPV specific T cells from Th1 to Th2 response in patients indicated suppressed immunity against the HPV. Moreover, decrease in CD8 T cell function correlated with poor wart clearance. Our findings open future avenues for exploring potential immunomodulation strategies as an adjunct to standard treatment for better management of these patients and prevention of recurrence.

  9. Genital warts and chlamydia in Australian women: comparison of national population-based surveys in 2001 and 2011.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bette; Donovan, Basil; Brotherton, Julia M L; Saville, Marion; Kaldor, John M

    2014-11-01

    Australia introduced a nationwide human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programme for women aged 12-26 years in 2007 and has implemented various chlamydia control strategies over the last 10 years. We compared reported diagnoses of warts and chlamydia in two national population-based samples surveyed 10 years apart. An Australia-wide survey of women aged 18-39 years was conducted by random-digit dialling mobile phone numbers in 2011. The proportion of women self-reporting genital warts and chlamydia was compared with that in equivalent-aged women interviewed in another national telephone survey conducted 10 years earlier using logistic regression adjusting for age, and other factors. 2394 women were included in the 2011 survey. 88 (3.7%) reported a genital warts diagnosis, and 127 (5.3%) had at least one chlamydia diagnosis. For women with warts and chlamydia, the majority were seen in general practice (63.3% and 70.0%, respectively). Comparing women surveyed in 2011 to 4874 women surveyed in 2001, among women eligible for free HPV vaccine through the national programme (women aged 18-30 years), there was a 41% decrease in warts (adjusted OR 0.59, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.89) but among ineligible women (31-39 years) there was a 64% increase (aOR 1.64, 95% CI 1.05 to 2.54). Over the same period chlamydia diagnoses increased by 97% (aOR 1.97, 95% CI 1.15 to 3.37) in women aged 18-24 years. Our results add to evidence from clinic-based studies showing a significant reduction in genital warts among HPV vaccine-eligible women in the general community and increases in the proportion of Australian women diagnosed with chlamydia. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Efficacy and Safety of Three Cryotherapy Devices for Wart Treatment: A Randomized, Controlled, Investigator-Blinded, Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Walczuk, Imko; Eertmans, Frank; Rossel, Bart; Cegielska, Agnieszka; Stockfleth, Eggert; Antunes, Andre; Adriaens, Els

    2018-06-01

    Cutaneous warts are common skin lesions, caused by human papillomavirus. For years, liquid nitrogen is the cryogen of choice for wart treatment. Alternatively, several cryogenic devices for home treatment are commercially available. The present trial assessed efficacy and safety of a novel nitrous oxide-based cryogenic device for home use (EndWarts Freeze ® in Europe, Compound W ® Nitro-Freeze in the USA). This investigator-blinded, controlled, randomized study compared the nitrous oxide device (test product) with a dimethylether propane-based product (Wartner ® ; comparator 1). Subjects with common or plantar warts (50/50 ratio) were randomized into two groups (n = 58, test product; n = 40, comparator 1). Sequentially, an extra treatment arm (n = 40) was added to compare with a dimethylether-based product with metal nib (Wortie ® ; comparator 2). Main objective implied comparison of the percentage cured subjects after one to maximum three treatments. Efficacy and safety was evaluated by a blinded investigator. After a maximum of three applications, a significantly (p = 0.001) higher cure rate of 70.7% (Intention-to-Treat analysis) was observed with test product versus 46.2% (comparator 1) and 47.5% (comparator 2). Almost three times more subjects were cured after 1 test product application (29.3%), versus comparator 1 (10.4%) and comparator 2 (12.5%). Reported side effects were transient and typical of cryotherapy. All treatments were well-tolerated. The superior cure rates for the test product versus two comparators can be explained by its design. Combination of nitrous oxide (cooling agent), the specific activation method (holding the liquid coolant in the cap), and skin-conforming polyurethane foam, results in higher cooling efficiency (- 80 °C) and more effective wart freezing. This trial demonstrated that the nitrous oxide device is a safe, user-friendly and effective wart treatment for home use, comparing favourably to dimethylether (propane

  11. Two-step irradiance schedule versus single-dose tramadol sustained-release tablets for pain control during topical 5-aminolevulinic acid-photodynamic therapy of condyloma acuminatum in Chinese patients: a randomized comparative study.

    PubMed

    Mchepange, Uwesu O; Huang, Chun-Yan; Sun, Yi; Tu, Ya-Ting; Tao, Juan

    2014-07-01

    Photodynamic therapy with 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA-PDT) offers promising results for the treatment of condyloma acuminatum. However, patients have to dwell with pain to benefit from this otherwise effective and safe "off-label" treatment modality. Several techniques have been explored to control ALA-PDT-induced pain, but the desperate search for a universally accepted method is still ongoing. This study compares the two-step irradiance approach with single-dose administration of 100 mg tramadol sustained-release tablets for pain induced by ALA-PDT of condyloma acuminatum in Chinese patients. Adult Chinese patients with condyloma acuminatum were enrolled in a randomized comparative study. Pain levels were compared using the Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) at pre-defined assessment points during and after irradiation. The pain was dominated by characteristics such as burning and pricking and was almost always local and superficial. The median pain scores were lower in the two-step irradiance group at 1 minute (U = 621.5, P = 0.002) but higher at 20 minutes (U = 585.5, P = 0.002). The median pain scores between the two groups did not differ significantly at other assessment points. The pain was moderate in both groups and peaked earlier in the analgesics group (median: 5 minutes) but later in the two-step irradiance group (median: 15 minutes). The pain was generally mild. The median pain scores were equal at each assessment point, except at 3 hours where the median was lower in the analgesics group (1.0) as compared with the two-step irradiance group (2.0) (U = 725.0, P = 0.056). Pain in the two-step irradiance protocol is irradiance-dependent. The two-step irradiance approach produces significant benefits over analgesics during the initial stages of therapy but analgesics offer significant benefits thereafter. There are potential benefits of combining the two approaches in minimizing ALA-PDT-induced pain. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals

  12. Human papillomavirus types detected in skin warts and cancer differ in their transforming properties but commonly counteract UVB induced protective responses in human keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Shterzer, Naama; Heyman, Dariya; Shapiro, Beny

    In the present study, E6E7 and E6 proteins of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) associated with skin warts and cancer were compared for their transforming and carcinogenic abilities in primary human keratinocytes (PHKs). We show that E6E7 of cancer associated beta HPV types, notably 49 and 24, were able to extend the life span and enhance the clonogenic efficiency of PHKs when maintained in serum free/low calcium medium. Activities of the beta HPV E6E7 were lower than those of HPV16 E6E7. In contrast, E6 proteins from HPV types detected in skin warts or cancer, notably 10, 49 and 38, attenuated UVB inducedmore » protective responses in PHKs including cell death, proliferation arrest and accumulation of the proapoptotic proteins, p53, bax or bak. Together, this investigation revealed functional differences and commonalities between HPVs associated with skin warts and cancer, and allowed the identification of specific properties of beta HPVs supporting their involvement in skin carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • Primary keratinocytes were used to evaluate transforming and carcinogenic abilities of cutaneous HPVs. • E6E7 of cancer associated β HPV types transform primary human keratinocytes. • E6 proteins of cancer and wart associated HPVs inhibit UVB induced cell death. • E6s of cancer and wart associated HPVs attenuate UVB induced proliferation arrest. • E6s of cancer and wart associated HPVs attenuate UVB induced apoptosis signaling.« less

  13. Trends in genital warts diagnoses in New Zealand five years following the quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine introduction.

    PubMed

    Oliphant, Jeannie; Stewart, Joanna; Saxton, Peter; Lo, Min; Perkins, Nicky; Ward, Daniel

    2017-03-24

    To investigate whether changes in rates of genital warts diagnosis at Auckland Sexual Health Service (ASHS), pre and post the quadrivalent human papillomavirus (4vHPV) vaccine introduction in late 2008, differed between clients vaccine-eligible and not eligible. All new clients attending ASHS from 2007 to 2013 were categorised as having genital warts or not. Generalised linear mixed models were used to compare differences in rates of change in diagnoses. Overall, 43,480 were seen with genital warts diagnosed in 13.1%. The difference in rate of change over time in diagnosis pre- to post-vaccine differed in females vaccine-eligible to not (p=0.004). The relative risk of diagnosis per year pre-vaccine was 0.98 (0.84, 1.13) and post-vaccine 0.77 (0.74, 0.81) in those eligible compared to 0.87 (0.80, 0.95) and 0.95 (0.91, 0.98), respectively, in those not eligible. This difference in change, between vaccine eligible or not, differed between males and females (p=0.02), with males considered eligible if the same aged female would have been. In males, no difference in rate change pre- to post-vaccine could be shown in those eligible or not (p=0.53). In this study a population effect for women of the 4vHPV vaccine was demonstrated.

  14. Prevalence and incidence of external genital warts in a sample of Italian general female population.

    PubMed

    Suligoi, Barbara; Vittori, Giorgio; Salfa, Maria Cristina; Timelli, Laura; Corsini, Dario; Fattorini, Giovanni; Mariani, Luciano

    2017-02-06

    The Human papillomavirus is the most common sexually transmitted virus worldwide. The objective of this study was to estimate: 1) the prevalence and the incidence of external genital warts (eGW) in a sample of women attending community outpatient clinics and 2) the total number of eGW cases in the Italian female population aged 15-64 years. A prospective study was performed for a 12-month period between 2009 and 2010, among a sample of women attending community gynecological outpatient clinics located throughout Italy. Demographic data, for every woman aged 15-64 years, were collected. For women diagnosed with eGW, behavioral and clinical data were recorded. Prevalence of eGW was calculated as the proportion between the number of women with eGW and that of women visiting any of the participating gynecologists; incidence of eGW was calculated as the proportion between the number of women with a new diagnosis of eGW and that of women visiting any of the participating gynecologists. Standardized prevalence by age was used to estimate the number of eGW cases occurring in the Italian female population aged 15-64 years. In 2009-2010, 44 community gynecologists were included in the network. In one-year period, 16,410 women visited any of the participating gynecologists; 63 women were diagnosed with eGW, corresponding to a prevalence of 3.8 cases per 1,000 women per year (95%CI: 2.9-4.9). The incidence of eGW was 3.0 cases per 1,000 women per year (95%CI: 2.2-3.9). Women aged 15-24 years showed both the highest prevalence and incidence. Prevalence and incidence significantly decreased by increasing age group (p <0.001), and were higher in Southern Italy compared to Central-Northern Italy. The estimated number of women with eGW among women aged 15-64 years in Italy, in 2010, was approximately 69,000. These data show a high prevalence and incidence of eGW among young women in Italy, stress the effectiveness of community clinical networks in investigating STI epidemiology

  15. Local phytochemical response of Musa acuminata × balbisiana Colla cv. 'Bluggoe' (ABB) to colonization by Sternorrhyncha.

    PubMed

    Hölscher, Dirk; Vollrath, Antje; Kai, Marco; Dhakshinamoorthy, Suganthaguntalam; Menezes, Riya C; Svatoš, Aleš; Schubert, Ulrich S; Buerkert, Andreas; Schneider, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    The interaction of two Sternorrhyncha species, the banana aphid (Pentalonia nigronervosa Coquerel (Hemiptera: Aphididae, Aphidinae)), vector of the banana bunchy top virus (BBTV), and the latania scale (Hemiberlesia lataniae Signoret (Hemiptera: Diaspididae, Diaspidinae)) with Musa acuminata × balbisiana Colla (ABB Group) 'Bluggoe' (Musaceae) was investigated by a combination of conventional and spatially resolved analytical techniques, 1 H NMR, UHPLC-MS, and matrix-free UV-laser desorption/ionization MS imaging. After infestation, the feeding sites of P. nigronervosa on the pseudostem and the exocarp of banana fruit developed a red tinge, in which tissue-specific accumulations of phenylphenalenones were discovered. Phenylphenalenones were also detected in the black mats of sooty molds growing on the banana aphid exudates and in the dorsal scales of H. lataniae. This suggests that although these secondary metabolites play a role in the reaction of banana plants towards attack by sucking insects, an aphid and an armored scale have established mechanisms to exude these metabolites before they deploy their deleterious effect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Characterization of the molluscicidal activity of Bauhinia variegata and Mimusops elengi plant extracts against the fasciola vector Lymnaea acuminata.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kanchan Lata; Singh, D K; Singh, Vinay Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The molluscicidal activity of Bauhinia variegata leaf and Mimusops elengi bark was studied against vector snail Lymnaea acuminata. The toxicity of both plants was time and concentration-dependent. Among organic extracts, ethanol extracts of both plants were more toxic. Toxicity of B. variegata leaf ethanolic extract (96h LC50- 14.4 mg/L) was more pronounced than M. elengi bark ethanolic extract (96h LC50-15.0 mg/L). The 24h LC50 of column purified fraction of B. variegata and M. elengi bark were 20.3 mg/L and 18.3 mg/L, respectively. Saponin and quercetin were characterized and identified as active molluscicidal component. Co-migration of saponin (Rf 0.48) and quercetin (Rf 0.52) with column purified bark of M. elengi and leaf of B. variegata on thin layer chromatography demonstrate same Rf value i.e. 0.48 and 0.52, respectively. The present study clearly indicates the possibility of using M. elengi and/or B. variegata as potent molluscicide.

  17. Further insights into the metal ion binding abilities and the metalation pathway of a plant metallothionein from Musa acuminata

    PubMed Central

    Cabral, Augusto C. S.; Jakovleska, Jovana; Deb, Aniruddha; Penner-Hahn, James E.; Pecoraro, Vincent L.

    2017-01-01

    The superfamily of metallothioneins (MTs) combines a diverse group of metalloproteins, sharing the characteristics of rather low molecular weight and high cysteine content. The latter provides MTs with the capability to coordinate thiophilic metal ions, in particular those with a d10 electron configuration. The sub-family of plant MT3 proteins is only poorly characterized and there is a complete lack of three-dimensional structure information. Building upon our previous results on the Musa acuminata MT3 (musMT3) protein, the focus of the present work is to understand the metal cluster formation process, the role of the single histidine residue present in musMT3, and the metal ion binding affinity. We concentrate our efforts on the coordination of ZnII and CdII ions, using CoII as a spectroscopic probe for ZnII binding. The overall protein-fold is analysed with a combination of limited proteolytic digestion, mass spectrometry, and dynamic light scattering. Histidine coordination of metal ions is probed with extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy and CoII titration experiments. Initial experiments with isothermal titration calorimetry provide insights into the thermodynamics of metal ion binding. PMID:29218632

  18. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of salicylic acid and cryotherapy for cutaneous warts. An economic decision model.

    PubMed

    Thomas, K S; Keogh-Brown, M R; Chalmers, J R; Fordham, R J; Holland, R C; Armstrong, S J; Bachmann, M O; Howe, A H; Rodgers, S; Avery, A J; Harvey, I; Williams, H C

    2006-08-01

    To estimate the costs of commonly used treatments for cutaneous warts, as well as their health benefits and risk. To create an economic decision model to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of these treatments, and, as a result, assess whether a randomised controlled trial (RCT) would be feasible and cost-effective. Focus groups, structured interviews and observation of practice. Postal survey sent to 723 patients. A recently updated Cochrane systematic review and published cost and prescribing data. Primary and secondary data collection methods were used to inform the development of an economic decision model. Data from the postal survey provided estimates of the effectiveness of wart treatments in a primary care setting. These estimates were compared with outcomes reported in the Cochrane review of wart treatment, which were largely obtained from RCTs conducted in secondary care. A decision model was developed including a variety of over-the-counter (OTC) and GP-prescribed treatments. The model simulated 10,000 patients and adopted a societal perspective. OTC treatments were used by a substantial number of patients (57%) before attending the GP surgery. By far the most commonly used OTC preparation was salicylic acid (SA). The results of the economic model suggested that of the treatments prescribed by a GP, the most cost-effective treatment was SA, with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of 2.20 pound/% cured. The ICERs for cryotherapy varied widely (from 1.95 to 7.06 pound/% cured) depending on the frequency of applications and the mode of delivery. The most cost-effective mode of delivery was through nurse-led cryotherapy clinics (ICER = 1.95 pound/% cured) and this could be a cost-effective alternative to GP-prescribed SA. Overall, the OTC therapies were the most cost-effective treatment options. ICERs ranged from 0.22 pound/% cured for OTC duct tape and 0.76 pound/% cured for OTC cryotherapy to 1.12 pound/% cured for OTC SA. However, evidence in

  19. Dynamics of HPV viral loads reflect the treatment effect of photodynamic therapy in genital warts.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhili; Liu, Lishi; Zhang, Wenjing; Liu, Hui; Li, Junpeng; Jiang, Lifen; Zeng, Kang

    2018-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has demonstrated good clinical cure rates and low recurrence rates in the treatment of genital warts. Human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes and viral load assays can reflect the status of persistent or latent infection and serve as a predictor of infection clearance. Specimens from 41 patients with HPV infection were obtained, and the HPV genotypes and viral load were analyzed using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. Traditional treatment, such as radiofrequency, microwave, or surgical therapy, was used to remove the visible lesions, and then PDT treatment was performed every week. HPV DNA testing was performed at every patient visit and the frequency of PDT treatment was determined by changes in HPV viral loads. HPV viral loads decreased significantly after PDT treatment. There were significant differences in HPV viral loads between pretherapy and three or six rounds of PDT treatment. Significant differences were also observed between single and multiple type HPV infection after six rounds of PDT treatment. Patients with single type HPV infection had significantly higher rates of negative HPV DNA test results, as compared with patients with multiple infections after six rounds of PDT treatment; however, there was no difference in recurrence rates between the two groups. Dynamic monitoring of HPV genotypes and viral loads can be used to guide PDT treatment and indicate PDT treatment efficacy in eliminating HPV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Verrucous carcinoma of the foot, not your typical plantar wart: a case study.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Diandra K; Ponder, Erinn N; Berrey, B Hudson; Kubik, Melanie J; Sindone, Joseph

    2014-06-01

    Verrucous carcinoma of the foot is often misdiagnosed initially as plantar warts. Delayed diagnostic treatments with the use of optimal biopsy techniques may result in significant hindrances for patient care and may often result in detrimental outcomes to the patient. With the use of various epidermal biopsy methods, early diagnostic treatment can be implemented to a slow-growing lesion unresponsive to topical agents preventing unfavorable pedal amputations. A case study of verrucous carcinoma of the foot with surgical resection was conducted along with a literature review. Verrucous carcinoma (VC) of the foot is known to be a rare, locally invasive, well-differentiated low-grade squamous cell carcinoma that may evolve from the human papilloma virus. This localized tumor of the foot often has low metastatic potential, however can be quite invasive. It is therefore pertinent to obtain adequate radiological studies when planning for surgical resection of this tumor. When localized to the foot, it often involves deep structures such as tendons, muscle & bone. Complete wide local excision of the tumor is essential to avoid recurrence. We present a case of verrucous carcinoma of the foot in a 46-year-old African American male with a past medical history of Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Human papilloma virus (HPV). The patient refused a Transmetatarsal amputation. The loss of the third digit was a result of tissue loss following resection and an attempt to relocate a severely laterally dislocated 3rd digit, not PVD. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Development of Polymorphic Microsatellite Loci for Potato Wart from Next-Generation Sequence Data.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Marie-Claude; van der Lee, Theo A J; Bonants, Peter J M; Smith, Donna S; Li, Xiang; Lévesque, C André; Bilodeau, Guillaume J

    2016-06-01

    Synchytrium endobioticum is the fungal agent causing potato wart disease. Because of its severity and persistence, quarantine measures are enforced worldwide to avoid the spread of this disease. Molecular markers exist for species-specific detection of this pathogen, yet markers to study the intraspecific genetic diversity of S. endobioticum were not available. Whole-genome sequence data from Dutch pathotype 1 isolate MB42 of S. endobioticum were mined for perfect microsatellite motifs. Of the 62 selected microsatellites, 21 could be amplified successfully and displayed moderate levels of polymorphism in 22 S. endobioticum isolates from different countries. Nineteen multilocus genotypes were observed, with only three isolates from Canada displaying identical profiles. The majority of isolates from Canada clustered genetically. In contrast, most isolates collected in Europe show no genetic clustering associated with their geographic origin. S. endobioticum isolates with the same pathotype displayed highly variable genotypes and none of the microsatellite markers correlated with a specific pathotype. The markers developed in this study can be used to assess intraspecific genetic diversity of S. endobioticum and allow track and trace of genotypes that will generate a better understanding of the migration and spread of this important fungal pathogen and support management of this disease.

  2. CXCL12 Mediates Aberrant Costimulation of B Lymphocytes in Warts, Hypogammaglobulinemia, Infections, Myelokathexis Immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    Roselli, Giuliana; Martini, Elisa; Lougaris, Vassilios; Badolato, Raffaele; Viola, Antonella; Kallikourdis, Marinos

    2017-01-01

    The Warts, Hypogammaglobulinemia, Infections, Myelokathexis (WHIM) syndrome is an immunodeficiency caused by mutations in chemokine receptor CXCR4. WHIM patient adaptive immunity defects remain largely unexplained. We have previously shown that WHIM-mutant T cells form unstable immunological synapses, affecting T cell activation. Here, we show that, in WHIM patients and WHIM CXCR4 knock-in mice, B cells are more apoptosis prone. Intriguingly, WHIM-mutant B cells were also characterized by spontaneous activation. Searching for a mechanistic explanation for these observations, we uncovered a novel costimulatory effect of CXCL12, the CXCR4 ligand, on WHIM-mutant but not wild-type B cells. The WHIM CXCR4-mediated costimulation led to increased B-cell activation, possibly involving mTOR, albeit without concurrently promoting survival. A reduction in antigenic load during immunization in the mouse was able to circumvent the adaptive immunity defects. These results suggest that WHIM-mutant CXCR4 may lead to spontaneous aberrant B-cell activation, via CXCL12-mediated costimulation, impairing B-cell survival and thus possibly contributing to the WHIM syndrome defects in adaptive immunity. PMID:28928741

  3. Evaluation of a surveillance case definition for anogenital warts, Kaiser Permanente northwest.

    PubMed

    Naleway, Allison L; Weinmann, Sheila; Crane, Brad; Gee, Julianne; Markowitz, Lauri E; Dunne, Eileen F

    2014-08-01

    Most studies of anogenital wart (AGW) epidemiology have used large clinical or administrative databases and unconfirmed case definitions based on combinations of diagnosis and procedure codes. We developed and validated an AGW case definition using a combination of diagnosis codes and other information available in the electronic medical record (provider type, laboratory testing). We calculated the positive predictive value (PPV) of this case definition compared with manual medical record review in a random sample of 250 cases. Using this case definition, we calculated the annual age- and sex-stratified prevalence of AGW among individuals 11 through 30 years of age from 2000 through 2005. We identified 2730 individuals who met the case definition. The PPV of the case definition was 82%, and the average annual prevalence was 4.16 per 1000. Prevalence of AGW was higher in females compared with males in every age group, with the exception of the 27- to 30-year-olds. Among females, prevalence peaked in the 19- to 22-year-olds, and among males, the peak was observed in 23- to 26-year-olds. The case definition developed in this study is the first to be validated with medical record review and has a good PPV for the detection of AGW. The prevalence rates observed in this study were higher than other published rates, but the age- and sex-specific patterns observed were consistent with previous reports.

  4. Detection and phylogenetic analysis of bovine papillomavirus in cutaneous warts in cattle in Tamaulipas, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Rojas-Anaya, Edith; Cantú-Covarrubias, Antonio; Álvarez, José Francisco Morales; Loza-Rubio, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Papillomas occur more frequently in cattle than other domestic animals. The causal agent of bovine papillomatosis is a virus that belongs to the family Papillomaviridae. In Tamaulipas, Mexico, the virus is considered a serious problem and has impeded the export of cattle to the United States, resulting in serious economic losses. Owing to the lack of information regarding the subtypes of papillomaviruses that infect cattle in Mexico, the aim of this study was to determine the subtypes in Tamaulipas. Fifty-two warts were analyzed with the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) involving primers that amplify the E7 gene of bovine papillomavirus (BPV). The PCR products were sequenced to differentiate the BPV-1 and BPV-2 subtypes. The sequencing quality was determined with the use of MEGA 6.0 software. Comparison of the Tamaulipas sequences with those of known BPV types by means of the MUSCLE algorithm showed that 53% of the former were BPV-1 and 47% were BPV-2. The distribution of the 2 subtypes in the cattle was homogeneous. This study demonstrated the presence of BPV-1 and BPV-2 in cattle from Tamaulipas and constitutes the first molecular characterization of papillomas in Mexico. PMID:27733780

  5. Quality of life of homosexual males with genital warts: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A recent qualitative study in Denmark showed that genital warts (GWs) can considerably lower the quality of life of heterosexual patients. In this follow-up study, we interviewed men having sex with men (MSM) suffering from GWs to obtain an in-depth understanding of their perception of GWs and determine the extent to which minority (homosexual) cultural issues affect these patients' experiences. Qualitative interviews with six MSM were performed using a semi-structured interview guide. Questions were formulated on the basis of the earlier qualitative study in heterosexual patients with GWs along with a literature review. Data were analysed using a medical anthropological approach. Findings Many MSM worried about being stigmatised and excluded from the small homosexual 'scene', their key social group, thereby lowering their chances of finding sex and love. Most participants had suffered from GWs for several years which added to the negative psycho-sexual and social effects of the disease. Participants' fears of developing anal cancer were similar to those expressed about cervical cancer by females with GWs. Conclusions Ano-genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is common and has a serious psychological and sexual impact among MSM. However, they do not benefit to the same extent as heterosexual men from the herd immunity effect of HPV vaccination of girls. The pathological profile and concerns specific to MSM should be addressed when communicating with these patients, and should be taken into account when considering HPV vaccination of boys. PMID:21050431

  6. HPV-6 Molecular Variants Association With the Development of Genital Warts in Men: The HIM Study

    PubMed Central

    Flores-Díaz, Ema; Sereday, Karen A.; Ferreira, Silvaneide; Sirak, Bradley; Sobrinho, João Simão; Baggio, Maria Luiza; Galan, Lenice; Silva, Roberto C.; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R.; Villa, Luisa L.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background. Human papillomavirus type 6 (HPV-6) and HPV-11 are the etiological agents of approximately 90% of genital warts (GWs). The impact of HPV-6 genetic heterogeneity on persistence and progression to GWs remains undetermined. Methods. HPV Infection in Men (HIM) Study participants who had HPV-6 genital swabs and/or GWs preceded by a viable normal genital swab were analyzed. Variants characterization was performed by polymerase chain reaction sequencing and samples classified within lineages (A, B) and sublineages (B1, B2, B3, B4, B5). Country- and age-specific analyses were conducted for individual variants; odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the risk of GWs according to HPV-6 variants were calculated. Results. B3 variants were most prevalent. HPV-6 variants distribution differed between countries and case status. HPV-6 B1 variants prevalence was increased in GWs and genital swabs of cases compared to controls. There was difference in B1 and B3 variants detection in GW and the preceding genital swab. We observed significant association of HPV-6 B1 variants detection with GW development. Conclusions. HPV-6 B1 variants are more prevalent in genital swabs that precede GW development, and confer an increased risk for GW. Further research is warranted to understand the possible involvement of B1 variants in the progression to clinically relevant lesions. PMID:28011919

  7. HPV-6 Molecular Variants Association With the Development of Genital Warts in Men: The HIM Study.

    PubMed

    Flores-Díaz, Ema; Sereday, Karen A; Ferreira, Silvaneide; Sirak, Bradley; Sobrinho, João Simão; Baggio, Maria Luiza; Galan, Lenice; Silva, Roberto C; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R; Villa, Luisa L; Sichero, Laura

    2017-02-15

    Human papillomavirus type 6 (HPV-6) and HPV-11 are the etiological agents of approximately 90% of genital warts (GWs). The impact of HPV-6 genetic heterogeneity on persistence and progression to GWs remains undetermined. HPV Infection in Men (HIM) Study participants who had HPV-6 genital swabs and/or GWs preceded by a viable normal genital swab were analyzed. Variants characterization was performed by polymerase chain reaction sequencing and samples classified within lineages (A, B) and sublineages (B1, B2, B3, B4, B5). Country- and age-specific analyses were conducted for individual variants; odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the risk of GWs according to HPV-6 variants were calculated. B3 variants were most prevalent. HPV-6 variants distribution differed between countries and case status. HPV-6 B1 variants prevalence was increased in GWs and genital swabs of cases compared to controls. There was difference in B1 and B3 variants detection in GW and the preceding genital swab. We observed significant association of HPV-6 B1 variants detection with GW development. HPV-6 B1 variants are more prevalent in genital swabs that precede GW development, and confer an increased risk for GW. Further research is warranted to understand the possible involvement of B1 variants in the progression to clinically relevant lesions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. A study of HPV 1, 2 and 4 antibody prevalence in patients presenting for treatment with cutaneous warts to general practitioners in N. Ireland.

    PubMed Central

    Steele, K.; Shirodaria, P. V.; Pfister, H.; Pollock, B.; Fuchs, P.; Merrett, J. D.; Irwin, W. G.; Simpson, D. I.

    1988-01-01

    Three hundred and seventy-six patients attending their general practitioner with cutaneous warts at five health centres in Northern Ireland were screened for human papilloma virus (HPV) types 1 and 2 IgM antibody using an indirect immunofluorescence test. Eight-eight (23.4%) patients were positive for HPV type 1 IgM and 156 (41.5%) for HPV type 2 IgM. HPV 1 IgM antibody was significantly more likely to be associated with plantar warts than warts elsewhere (P less than 0.0001). HPV 2 IgM was present in 45 (34.1%) patients with plantar warts and 99 (45.6%) patients with warts at other sites (P = 0.1). Evidence of multiple infection by HPV types 1 and 2 was demonstrated by the finding of HPV 1 and 2 IgM antibodies in the sera of 16 (4.3%). HPV 4 was found in only 1 out of 30 biopsies and HPV 4 IgM was undetectable in 50 randomly chosen sera. Images Fig. 1 PMID:2850937

  9. Pre-vaccination incidence of genital warts in 15-23-year-old women and men attending youth clinics in Stockholm, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Wikström, Arne; Brönnegård, Mikael; Cassel, Tobias; Young, Cecilia

    2012-09-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines were introduced to the market in 2006 and 2007. The present pilot study was designed to examine the incidence of genital warts in the population up to 23 y of age in the county of Stockholm before the start of mass HPV vaccination. Data from the electronic health records of 9 youth clinics in the county of Stockholm were collected retrospectively for the y 2006-2008. In total, 49,985 patients visited the study youth clinics during 2006-2008. Of these, 1817 were denoted genital warts patients. An extrapolation of the study data was done in an attempt to estimate the annual number of genital warts cases in the full Stockholm County population aged 15-23 y. Results showed that there were approximately 1792 genital warts patients in the age group 15-23 y each year in Stockholm County. Female cases represented approximately 62% of all cases in the age group 15-23 y. The peak incidence was at around 20 y of age for females, while males had a more flattened peak incidence around 19-23 y of age. This pilot study demonstrates that, compared to other reported data, genital warts are at least as common in Sweden as in other countries among 15-23 y old females and males.

  10. Low prevalence of oral and nasal human papillomavirus in employees performing CO2-laser evaporation of genital warts or loop electrode excision procedure of cervical dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Kofoed, Kristian; Norrbom, Christina; Forslund, Ola; Møller, Charlotte; Frøding, Ligita P; Pedersen, Anders Elm; Markauskas, Algirdas; Blomberg, Maria; Baumgartner-Nielsen, Jane; Madsen, Jakob Torp; Strauss, Gitte; Madsen, Klaus G; Sand, Carsten

    2015-02-01

    Risk of human papillomavirus (HPV) transmission during laser vaporisation of genital warts or loop electrode excision procedure is controversial. An oral rinse, a nasal swabs, history of HPV related diseases and data on HPV exposure were collected from 287 employees at departments of dermato-venerology and gynaecology in Denmark. A mucosal HPV type was found among 5.8% of employees with experience of laser treatment of genital warts as compared to 1.7% of those with no experience (p = 0.12). HPV prevalence was not higher in employees participating in electrosurgical treatment or cryotherapy of genital warts, or loop electrode excision procedure compared with those who did not. HPV 6 or 11 were not detected in any samples. Hand warts after the age of 24 years was more common among dermatology than among non-dermatology personnel (18% vs. 8.0%, p = 0.03). Mucosal HPV types are infrequent in the oral and nasal cavity of health care personnel, however, employees at departments of dermato-venereology are at risk of acquiring hand warts.

  11. Clinical and immunologic results of local hyperthermia at 44 °C for extensive genital warts in patients with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Huo, Wei; Li, Gui-Hua; Qi, Rui-Qun; Zhang, Li; Yan, Xiao-Xia; Chen, Hong-Duo; Gao, Xing-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Genital warts are more extensive and difficult to treat in patients with diabetes mellitus due to defective immune responses. Our aim was to confirm the suitability of local hyperthermia for the treatment of genital warts in patients with diabetes mellitus and to investigate the immune cells in lesional areas at different time intervals after treatment. We treated three diabetic patients with extensive genital warts by local hyperthermia at 44 °C for 30 min a day for 3 consecutive days plus 2 additional days 1 week later, then once a week till there showed signs of clinical clearance. Immunohistochemical profile was described on serial biopsies from a patient with confluent plaques. The warty lesions in the patients resolved in 6, 4 and 9 weeks, respectively. Immunohistochemical staining in the regressing warts revealed abundant infiltrating CD4+ T and CD8+ T lymphocytes (P < 0.01), as well as macrophages and CD1a+ dendritic cells. This preliminary study suggested that local hyperthermia was a safe and effective single modality in the treatment of genital warts in diabetic patients and could induce a rapid immune response in lesional skin.

  12. Structures of chlorophyll catabolites in bananas (Musa acuminata) reveal a split path of chlorophyll breakdown in a ripening fruit.

    PubMed

    Moser, Simone; Müller, Thomas; Holzinger, Andreas; Lütz, Cornelius; Kräutler, Bernhard

    2012-08-27

    The disappearance of chlorophyll is a visual sign of fruit ripening. Yet, chlorophyll breakdown in fruit has hardly been explored; its non-green degradation products are largely unknown. Here we report the analysis and structure elucidation of colorless tetrapyrrolic chlorophyll breakdown products in commercially available, ripening bananas (Musa acuminata, Cavendish cultivar). In banana peels, chlorophyll catabolites were found in an unprecedented structural richness: a variety of new fluorescent chlorophyll catabolites (FCCs) and nonfluorescent chlorophyll catabolites (NCCs) were detected. As a rule, FCCs exist only "fleetingly" and are hard to observe. However, in bananas several of the FCCs (named Mc-FCCs) were persistent and carried an ester function at the propionate side-chain. NCCs were less abundant, and exhibited a free propionic acid group, but functional modifications elsewhere. The modifications of NCCs in banana peels were similar to those found in NCCs from senescent leaves. They are presumed to be introduced by enzymatic transformations at the stage of the mostly unobserved, direct FCC-precursors. The observed divergent functional group characteristics of the Mc-FCCs versus those of the Mc-NCCs indicated two major "late" processing lines of chlorophyll breakdown in ripening bananas. The "last common precursor" at the branching point to either the persistent FCCs, or towards the NCCs, was identified as a temporarily abundant "secondary" FCC. The existence of two "downstream" branches of chlorophyll breakdown in banana peels, and the striking accumulation of persistent Mc-FCCs call for attention as to the still-elusive biological roles of the resulting colorless linear tetrapyrroles. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Structures of Chlorophyll Catabolites in Bananas (Musa acuminata) Reveal a Split Path of Chlorophyll Breakdown in a Ripening Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Moser, Simone; Müller, Thomas; Holzinger, Andreas; Lütz, Cornelius; Kräutler, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The disappearance of chlorophyll is a visual sign of fruit ripening. Yet, chlorophyll breakdown in fruit has hardly been explored; its non-green degradation products are largely unknown. Here we report the analysis and structure elucidation of colorless tetrapyrrolic chlorophyll breakdown products in commercially available, ripening bananas (Musa acuminata, Cavendish cultivar). In banana peels, chlorophyll catabolites were found in an unprecedented structural richness: a variety of new fluorescent chlorophyll catabolites (FCCs) and nonfluorescent chlorophyll catabolites (NCCs) were detected. As a rule, FCCs exist only "fleetingly" and are hard to observe. However, in bananas several of the FCCs (named Mc-FCCs) were persistent and carried an ester function at the propionate side-chain. NCCs were less abundant, and exhibited a free propionic acid group, but functional modifications elsewhere. The modifications of NCCs in banana peels were similar to those found in NCCs from senescent leaves. They are presumed to be introduced by enzymatic transformations at the stage of the mostly unobserved, direct FCC-precursors. The observed divergent functional group characteristics of the Mc-FCCs versus those of the Mc-NCCs indicated two major "late" processing lines of chlorophyll breakdown in ripening bananas. The "last common precursor" at the branching point to either the persistent FCCs, or towards the NCCs, was identified as a temporarily abundant "secondary" FCC. The existence of two "downstream" branches of chlorophyll breakdown in banana peels, and the striking accumulation of persistent Mc-FCCs call for attention as to the still-elusive biological roles of the resulting colorless linear tetrapyrroles. PMID:22807397

  14. Cloning of an ADP-ribosylation factor gene from banana (Musa acuminata) and its expression patterns in postharvest ripening fruit.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan; Wu, Jing; Xu, Bi-Yu; Liu, Ju-Hua; Zhang, Jian-Bin; Jia, Cai-Hong; Jin, Zhi-Qiang

    2010-08-15

    A full-length cDNA encoding an ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) from banana (Musa acuminata) fruit was cloned and named MaArf. It contains an open reading frame encoding a 181-amino-acid polypeptide. Sequence analysis showed that MaArf shared high similarity with ARF of other plant species. The genomic sequence of MaArf was also obtained using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Sequence analysis showed that MaArf was a split gene containing five exons and four introns in genomic DNA. Reverse-transcriptase PCR was used to analyze the spatial expression of MaArf. The results showed that MaArf was expressed in all the organs examined: root, rhizome, leaf, flower and fruit. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to explore expression patterns of MaArf in postharvest banana. There was differential expression of MaArf associated with ethylene biosynthesis. In naturally ripened banana, expression of MaArf was in accordance with ethylene biosynthesis. However, in 1-methylcyclopropene-treated banana, the expression of MaArf was inhibited and changed little. When treated with ethylene, MaArf expression in banana fruit significantly increased in accordance with ethylene biosynthesis; the peak of MaArf was 3 d after harvest, 11 d earlier than for naturally ripened banana fruits. These results suggest that MaArf is induced by ethylene in regulating postharvest banana ripening. Finally, subcellular localization assays showed the MaArf protein in the cytoplasm. Copyright 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. The impact of genital warts: loss of quality of life and cost of treatment in eight sexual health clinics in the UK.

    PubMed

    Woodhall, S C; Jit, M; Soldan, K; Kinghorn, G; Gilson, R; Nathan, M; Ross, J D; Lacey, C J N

    2011-10-01

    To estimate the loss of quality of life and cost of treatment associated with genital warts seen in sexual health clinics. A cross-sectional questionnaire study and case note review of individuals with genital warts, carried out in eight sexual health clinics in England and Northern Ireland. Individuals with genital warts attending the participating clinics were invited to take part in the questionnaire study. 895 participants were recruited. A separate sample of 370 participants who had attended a participating clinic with a first visit for a first or recurrent episode of genital warts between April and June 2007 was included in the case note review. Quality of life was measured using the EQ-5D questionnaire and the cost of an episode of care was derived from the case note review. The weighted mean EQ-5D index score was 0.87 (95% CI 0.85 to 0.89). The weighted mean disutility was 0.056 (95% CI 0.038 to 0.074). The estimated mean loss of quality-adjusted life-years associated with an episode of genital warts was 0.018 (95% CI 0.0079 to 0.031), equivalent to 6.6 days of healthy life lost per episode. The weighted mean cost per episode of care was £94 (95% CI £84 to £104), not including the cost of a sexually transmitted infection screen. Genital warts have a substantial impact on the health service and the individual. This information can be utilised for economic evaluation of human papillomavirus vaccination.

  16. The impact of genital warts: loss of quality of life and cost of treatment in eight sexual health clinics in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Jit, M; Soldan, K; Kinghorn, G; Gilson, R; Nathan, M; Ross, J D; Lacey, C J N

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the loss of quality of life and cost of treatment associated with genital warts seen in sexual health clinics. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire study and case note review of individuals with genital warts, carried out in eight sexual health clinics in England and Northern Ireland. Individuals with genital warts attending the participating clinics were invited to take part in the questionnaire study. 895 participants were recruited. A separate sample of 370 participants who had attended a participating clinic with a first visit for a first or recurrent episode of genital warts between April and June 2007 was included in the case note review. Quality of life was measured using the EQ-5D questionnaire and the cost of an episode of care was derived from the case note review. Results The weighted mean EQ-5D index score was 0.87 (95% CI 0.85 to 0.89). The weighted mean disutility was 0.056 (95% CI 0.038 to 0.074). The estimated mean loss of quality-adjusted life-years associated with an episode of genital warts was 0.018 (95% CI 0.0079 to 0.031), equivalent to 6.6 days of healthy life lost per episode. The weighted mean cost per episode of care was £94 (95% CI £84 to £104), not including the cost of a sexually transmitted infection screen. Conclusions Genital warts have a substantial impact on the health service and the individual. This information can be utilised for economic evaluation of human papillomavirus vaccination. PMID:21636616

  17. Estimates of the timing of reductions in genital warts and high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia after onset of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in the United States.

    PubMed

    Chesson, Harrell W; Ekwueme, Donatus U; Saraiya, Mona; Dunne, Eileen F; Markowitz, Lauri E

    2013-08-20

    The objective of this study was to estimate the number of years after onset of a quadrivalent HPV vaccination program before notable reductions in genital warts and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) will occur in teenagers and young adults in the United States. We applied a previously published model of HPV vaccination in the United States and focused on the timing of reductions in genital warts among both sexes and reductions in CIN 2/3 among females. Using different coverage scenarios, the lowest being consistent with current 3-dose coverage in the United States, we estimated the number of years before reductions of 10%, 25%, and 50% would be observed after onset of an HPV vaccination program for ages 12-26 years. The model suggested female-only HPV vaccination in the intermediate coverage scenario will result in a 10% reduction in genital warts within 2-4 years for females aged 15-19 years and a 10% reduction in CIN 2/3 among females aged 20-29 years within 7-11 years. Coverage had a major impact on when reductions would be observed. For example, in the higher coverage scenario a 25% reduction in CIN2/3 would be observed with 8 years compared with 15 years in the lower coverage scenario. Our model provides estimates of the potential timing and magnitude of the impact of HPV vaccination on genital warts and CIN 2/3 at the population level in the United States. Notable, population-level impacts of HPV vaccination on genital warts and CIN 2/3 can occur within a few years after onset of vaccination, particularly among younger age groups. Our results are generally consistent with early reports of declines in genital warts among youth. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Multiple Human Papillomavirus Infection Is Associated with High-Risk Infection in Male Genital Warts in Ulsan, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Kyung Hyun; Yang, Sung-Hak; Roh, Min Cheol; Lee, Sang Hoon; Kim, Je Won; Kim, In Kyu; Roh, Kyoung Ho

    2016-01-01

    Further understanding of male human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is necessary to prevent infection in men, as well as transmission to women. In our current study, we investigated patterns of HPV infection and genotype distributions in male genital warts using the Anyplex II HPV28 Detection kit. We reviewed the medical records of 80 male patients who presented to 5 neighborhood clinics in Ulsan, Korea, for the treatment of genital warts between April 2014 and January 2015. All patients underwent HPV genotyping. The prevalence and characteristics of HPV infection were analyzed, and the patterns of HPV infection according to age were assessed. Among the study patients, 13 (16.3%) were negative for HPV infection, 46 (57.3%) were infected with low-risk HPV, and 21 (26.3%) were infected with high-risk HPV. Patients with multiple HPV infection were more likely to have high-risk HPV infection (P = 0.001). The prevalence of HPV infection was much higher in samples obtained by tissue excision due to a definite lesion (P = 0.001). There were no differences in high-risk HPV infection (P = 0.459), multiple HPV infection (P = 0.185), and recurrence at diagnosis (P = 0.178) according to age. HPV-6 and HPV-11 were the most common type overall (39.7% and 13.8%, respectively). HPV-16 and HPV-18 were the most common high-risk infections (both 3.4%). HPV infection is not only commonly encountered in male genital warts, but is also accompanied by high-risk HPV and multiple infections. PMID:26955236

  19. Multiple Human Papillomavirus Infection Is Associated with High-Risk Infection in Male Genital Warts in Ulsan, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Taekmin; Moon, Kyung Hyun; Yang, Sung-Hak; Roh, Min Cheol; Lee, Sang Hoon; Kim, Je Won; Kim, In Kyu; Roh, Kyoung Ho; Park, Sungchan

    2016-03-01

    Further understanding of male human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is necessary to prevent infection in men, as well as transmission to women. In our current study, we investigated patterns of HPV infection and genotype distributions in male genital warts using the Anyplex II HPV28 Detection kit. We reviewed the medical records of 80 male patients who presented to 5 neighborhood clinics in Ulsan, Korea, for the treatment of genital warts between April 2014 and January 2015. All patients underwent HPV genotyping. The prevalence and characteristics of HPV infection were analyzed, and the patterns of HPV infection according to age were assessed. Among the study patients, 13 (16.3%) were negative for HPV infection, 46 (57.3%) were infected with low-risk HPV, and 21 (26.3%) were infected with high-risk HPV. Patients with multiple HPV infection were more likely to have high-risk HPV infection (P = 0.001). The prevalence of HPV infection was much higher in samples obtained by tissue excision due to a definite lesion (P = 0.001). There were no differences in high-risk HPV infection (P = 0.459), multiple HPV infection (P = 0.185), and recurrence at diagnosis (P = 0.178) according to age. HPV-6 and HPV-11 were the most common type overall (39.7% and 13.8%, respectively). HPV-16 and HPV-18 were the most common high-risk infections (both 3.4%). HPV infection is not only commonly encountered in male genital warts, but is also accompanied by high-risk HPV and multiple infections.

  20. The value of male human papillomavirus vaccination in preventing cervical cancer and genital warts in a low-resource setting.

    PubMed

    Sharma, M; Sy, S; Kim, J J

    2016-05-01

    To estimate health benefits and incremental cost-effectiveness of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination of pre-adolescent boys and girls compared with girls alone for preventing cervical cancer and genital warts. Model-based economic evaluation. Southern Vietnam. Males and females aged ≥9 years. We simulated dynamic HPV transmission to estimate cervical cancer and genital warts cases. Models were calibrated to epidemiological data from south Vietnam. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs): cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY). Vaccinating girls alone was associated with reductions in lifetime cervical cancer risk ranging from 20 to 56.9% as coverage varied from 25 to 90%. Adding boys to the vaccination programme yielded marginal incremental benefits (≤3.6% higher absolute cervical cancer risk reduction), compared with vaccinating girls alone at all coverages. At ≤25 international dollars (I$) per vaccinated adolescent (I$5 per dose), HPV vaccination of boys was below the threshold of Vietnam's per-capita GDP (I$2800), with ICERs ranging from I$734 per QALY at 25% coverage to I$2064 per QALY for 90% coverage. Including health benefits from averting genital warts yielded more favourable ICERs, and vaccination of boys at I$10/dose became cost-effective at or below 75% coverage. Using a lower cost-effectiveness threshold of 50% of Vietnam's GDP (I$1400), vaccinating boys was no longer attractive at costs above I$5 per dose regardless of coverage. Vaccination of boys may be cost-effective at low vaccine costs, but provides little benefit over vaccinating girls only. Focusing on achieving high vaccine coverage of girls may be more efficient for southern Vietnam and similar low-resource settings. Limited cervical cancer reduction from including boys in HPV vaccination of girls in low-resource settings. © 2015 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  1. Twenty-year trends in the incidence and prevalence of diagnosed anogenital warts in Canada.

    PubMed

    Kliewer, Erich V; Demers, Alain A; Elliott, Lawrence; Lotocki, Robert; Butler, James R G; Brisson, Marc

    2009-06-01

    A vaccine has recently been licensed in many countries that protects against the human papillomavirus types 6, 11, 16, and 18. Types 6 and 11 account for approximately 90% of anogenital warts (AGWs). We describe the 20-year trends in the incidence and prevalence of AGWs in Manitoba, Canada. We used linked population-based hospital and physician databases for Manitoba for 1984 to 2004. Cases were identified using tariff (billing) and ICD codes. A case was considered to be incident if it was preceded by a 12-month interval free period of AGWs care. Otherwise, it was deemed to be prevalent. An episode was considered over once a 12-month interval had elapsed without an AGW claim. Approximately 25,000 Manitobans were diagnosed with AGWs between 1985 and 2004. The annual age-standardized incidence rates peaked in 1992 (men, 149.9/100,000; women 170.8/100,000). In recent years, the rates have been increasing again, particularly for men. The male:female incidence rate ratio increased from 0.76 in 1985 to 1.25 in 2004. The highest incidence rate tended to be in those aged 20 to 24 years. Trends in prevalence were similar. Prevalence in 2004 was 165.2/100,000 for men and 128.4/100,000 for women. These population-based findings suggest that AGWs are a substantial burden to Manitobans and that their pattern has changed over time, with incidence and prevalence becoming higher in men than women. Monitoring the future trends in AGWs will provide an early marker of the effectiveness and duration of protection of human papillomavirus vaccination at a population level.

  2. Warts phosphorylates Mud to promote Pins-mediated mitotic spindle orientation in Drosophila independent of Yorkie

    PubMed Central

    Dewey, Evan B.; Sanchez, Desiree; Johnston, Christopher A.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Multicellular animals have evolved conserved signaling pathways that translate cell polarity cues into mitotic spindle positioning to control the orientation of cell division within complex tissue structures. These oriented cell divisions are essential for the development of cell diversity and the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. Despite intense efforts, the molecular mechanisms that control spindle orientation remain incompletely defined. Here we describe a role for the Hippo (Hpo) kinase complex in promoting Partner of Inscuteable (Pins)-mediated spindle orientation. Knockdown of Hpo, Salvador (Sav), or Warts (Wts) each result in a partial loss of spindle orientation, a phenotype previously described following loss of the Pins-binding protein Mushroom body defect (Mud). Similar to orthologs spanning yeast to mammals, Wts kinase localizes to mitotic spindle poles, a prominent site of Mud localization. Wts directly phosphorylates Mud in vitro within its C-terminal coiled-coil domain. This Mud coiled-coil domain directly binds the adjacent Pins-binding domain to dampen the Pins/Mud interaction, and Wts-mediated phosphorylation uncouples this intramolecular Mud interaction. Loss of Wts prevents cortical Pins/Mud association without affecting Mud accumulation at spindle poles, suggesting phosphorylation acts as a molecular switch to specifically activate cortical Mud function. Finally, loss of Wts in Drosophila imaginal disc epithelial cells results in diminished cortical Mud and defective planar spindle orientation. Our results provide new insights into the molecular basis for dynamic regulation of the cortical Pins/Mud spindle positioning complex and highlight a novel link with an essential, evolutionarily-conserved cell proliferation pathway. PMID:26592339

  3. [CONDYDAV: A multicentre observational study of patients presenting external genital warts in France].

    PubMed

    Chanal, J; Fouéré, S; Yassir-Oria, F; Spenatto, N; Bouscarat, F; Picot, E; Martinet, P; Vernay-Vaisse, C; Pelletier, F; Courtieu, C; Baclet, V; Bernier, C; Aymar-Moulene, D; Dupuis-Fourdan, F; Passeron, A; Bara-Passot, C; Pinault, A-L; Misery, L; Janier, M; Dupin, N

    2016-11-01

    Since 2007 in France, human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination has been licensed for use as a vaccine against HPV 6, 11, 16 and 18. The impact on the epidemiology of external genital warts (EGWs) in a large population remains unclear. To determine epidemiologic and clinical features of patients presenting EGWs in France in the era of HPV vaccination. In this prospective, observational study, we analyzed clinical features and treatments between January 1st, 2012 and March 31, 2012 for patients consulting for EGWs at 15 STI clinics throughout France. A total of 372 men and 111 women were included; mean age 31.2 years. The women were younger than the men (31.7 and 28.9 years respectively P<0.05). Among the patients, 416 (85.7%) were heterosexual, 13 bisexual and 54 (11.2%) homosexual, including one female. Males reported more sexual partners in the last 12 months (more than 3 partners in 32.6% versus 11.9%, P<0.01). Among the men, 230 had involvement of the penis alone and 46 had involvement of the anus alone. Seventy-six patients had EGWs of the anus, and of these 26 were MSM. In females, 76 had an infection of the vulva alone and 22 co-infection of the vulva and anus. MSM and females were at higher risk than heterosexual males for anal involvement (P<0.0001 and P=0.004, respectively). Three women had been vaccinated: two with Gardasil ® and one with Cervarix ® . Cryotherapy was the preferred treatment. With the advent of HPV vaccination, a global strategy for the prevention and treatment of EGW should be implemented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Warts phosphorylates mud to promote pins-mediated mitotic spindle orientation in Drosophila, independent of Yorkie.

    PubMed

    Dewey, Evan B; Sanchez, Desiree; Johnston, Christopher A

    2015-11-02

    Multicellular animals have evolved conserved signaling pathways that translate cell polarity cues into mitotic spindle positioning to control the orientation of cell division within complex tissue structures. These oriented cell divisions are essential for the development of cell diversity and the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. Despite intense efforts, the molecular mechanisms that control spindle orientation remain incompletely defined. Here, we describe a role for the Hippo (Hpo) kinase complex in promoting Partner of Inscuteable (Pins)-mediated spindle orientation. Knockdown of Hpo, Salvador (Sav), or Warts (Wts) each result in a partial loss of spindle orientation, a phenotype previously described following loss of the Pins-binding protein Mushroom body defect (Mud). Similar to orthologs spanning yeast to mammals, Wts kinase localizes to mitotic spindle poles, a prominent site of Mud localization. Wts directly phosphorylates Mud in vitro within its C-terminal coiled-coil domain. This Mud coiled-coil domain directly binds the adjacent Pins-binding domain to dampen the Pins/Mud interaction, and Wts-mediated phosphorylation uncouples this intramolecular Mud interaction. Loss of Wts prevents cortical Pins/Mud association without affecting Mud accumulation at spindle poles, suggesting phosphorylation acts as a molecular switch to specifically activate cortical Mud function. Finally, loss of Wts in Drosophila imaginal disc epithelial cells results in diminished cortical Mud and defective planar spindle orientation. Our results provide new insights into the molecular basis for dynamic regulation of the cortical Pins/Mud spindle positioning complex and highlight a novel link with an essential, evolutionarily conserved cell proliferation pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Alterations in carbohydrates and the protein metabolism of the harmful freshwater vector snail Lymnaea acuminata induced by the Euphorbia tirucalli latex extract.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Sudhanshu; Singh, A

    2005-11-01

    To know the short- as well as long-term effect of aqueous latex extracts of Euphorbia tirucalli on carbohydrate and protein metabolism, the snail Lymnaea acuminata was exposed to sublethal doses of 0.37 and 0.55 mg/L for a 24-h and 0.20 and 0.31 mg/L for a 96-h exposure period. Significant (P<0.05) alterations in the glycogen, pyruvate, lactate, total protein, and free amino acid level, as well as in the activity of enzyme lactic dehydrogenase, succinic dehydrogenase, cytochrome oxidase, protease, aspartate aminotransaminase, and alanine aminotransaminase were observed in the nervous, hepatopancreatic, and ovotestis tissues of the freshwater vector snail L. acuminata exposed to sublethal doses of E. tirucalli latex extract. The alterations in all biochemical parameters were significantly (P<0.05) time and dose dependent. After the 7th day of the withdrawal of treatment, there was significant (P<0.05) recovery in glycogen, pyruvate, lactate, total protein, and the free amino acid level and in the activity of the lactic dehydrogenase, succinic dehydrogenase, cytochrome oxidase, protease, aspartate aminotransaminase and alanine aminotransaminase enzymes in all three of the studied tissues of the snail, which supports the view that the plant product is safe for use as a molluscicide for the control of harmful freshwater vector snails in the aquatic environment.

  6. Microclimatic variation in UV perception and related disparity in tropane and quinolizidine alkaloid composition of Atropa acuminata, Lupinus polyphyllus and Hyoscyamus niger.

    PubMed

    Jan, Sumira; Kamili, Azra N; Parray, Javid A; Bedi, Yashbir S; Ahmad, Parvaiz

    2016-08-01

    The aim of current research was to evaluate the physiological adjustment in three medicinal herbs viz., Atropa acuminata, Lupinus polyphyllus and Hyoscyamus niger to the winter period characterised by intense UV flux in Kashmir valley across the North Western Himalaya. Quinolizidine (QA) and tropane alkaloid (TA) concentrations were analysed in these herbs thriving at two different altitudes via GC-MS and correlated by PCA analysis. This study investigated the hypothesis that UV reflectance and absorbance at low temperatures are directly related to disparity in alkaloid accumulation. Among QAs in L. polyphyllus, ammodendrine and lupanine accumulated at higher concentration and exhibited significant variation of 186.36% and 95.91% in ammodendrine and lupanine respectively in both sites. Tetrahydrohombifoline displayed non-significant variation of about 9.60% irrespective of sites. Among tropane alkaloid (TA), hyoscyamine was recorded as the most abundant constituent irrespective of the plant and site while apotropine accumulated in lesser quantity in A. acuminata than H. niger. However, apotropine demonstrated significant variation of 175% among both sites. The final concentration of quinolizidine (QA) and tropane alkaloid (TA) reflects the interplay between reflectance and absorbance of UV radiation response field. These findings suggest that spectral response of UV light contributes directly to alkaloid biosynthesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Pollen limitation and Allee effect related to population size and sex ratio in the endangered Ottelia acuminata (Hydrocharitaceae): implications for conservation and reintroduction.

    PubMed

    Xia, J; Lu, J; Wang, Z X; Hao, B B; Wang, H B; Liu, G H

    2013-03-01

    Small populations may suffer more severe pollen limitation and result in Allee effects. Sex ratio may also affect pollination and reproduction success in dioecious species, which is always overlooked when performing conservation and reintroduction tasks. In this study, we investigated whether and how population size and sex ratio affected pollen limitation and reproduction in the endangered Ottelia acuminata, a dioecious submerged species. We established experimental plots with increasing population size and male sex ratio. We observed insect visitation, estimated pollen limitation by hand-pollinations and counted fruit set and seed production per fruit. Fruit set and seed production decreased significantly in small populations due to pollinator scarcity and thus suffered more severe pollen limitation. Although frequently visited, female-biased larger populations also suffered severe pollen limitation due to few effective visits and insufficient pollen availability. Rising male ratio enhanced pollination service and hence reproduction. Unexpectedly, pollinator preferences did not cause reduced reproduction in male-biased populations because of high pollen availability. However, reproductive outputs showed more variability in severe male-biased populations. Our results revealed two component Allee effects in fruit set and seed production, mediated by pollen limitation in O. acuminata. Moreover, reproduction decreased significantly in larger female-biased populations, increasing the risk of an Allee effect. © 2012 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  8. Evaluation of TNF-α serum level in patients with recalcitrant multiple common warts, treated by lipid garlic extract.

    PubMed

    Kenawy, Soha; Mohammed, Ghada Farouk; Younes, Soha; Elakhras, Atef Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    No universal consensus about optimal modality for treating the recalcitrant multiple common warts (RMCW). The objective of the study was to evaluate the immunological mechanisms and clinical therapeutic effect of using lipid garlic extract (LGE) in the treatment of RMCW. The study included 50 patients with RMCW. They were randomly assigned into two groups: the first group (25 patients) received LGE, and the second group (25 patients) received saline as a control group. In both groups, treatments were made to single lesions, or largest wart in case of multiple lesions, until complete clearance of lesions or for a maximum of 4 weeks. Blood serum was taken at pre-study and at the fourth week to measure tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) level. A significant difference was found between the therapeutic responses of RMCW to LGE antigen and saline control group (p < 0.001). In the LGE group, complete response was achieved in 96% of patients presenting with RMCW. There was a statistically nonsignificant increase in TNF-α of LGE group versus saline group. No recurrence was observed in the LGE group. LGE as an immunotherapy is an inexpensive, effective, and safe modality with good cure rates for treatment of RMCWs, when other topical or physical therapies have failed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Daylight photodynamic therapy with methylene blue in plane warts: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Fathy, Ghada; Asaad, Marwa Kamal; Rasheed, Haval Mohamad

    2017-07-01

    Conventional photodynamic therapy is associated with inconveniently long clinic visits and discomfort during therapy. Daylight-photodynamic therapy (DL-PDT) is an effective treatment, nearly pain free and more convenient for both the clinics and patients. There are no published studies of methylene blue (MB) as a photosensitizer (PS) used in DL-PDT. Forty patients had multiple plane warts; 20 patients were subjected to DL-PDT with topical 10% methylene blue gel, and 20 patients were subjected to DL-PDT with hematoxylin (placebo). Improvement was evaluated by change of the number of warts and the dermoscope picture. A total of 20 (100%) patients in group II showed no response to placebo, 13 patients (65%) in group I showed complete clearance, 2 (10%) patients showed a good response, and 5 (25%) patients had poor response to treatment (P < 0.01). No serious side effects and patients tolerated the pain well. No relapse was detected during the follow-up period (12 months). Daylight exposure was not monitored with a dosimeter. Daylight-PDT using MB is safe, easy to carry out, economic, effective, acceptable cosmetic results with no recurrence, convenient especially for children and nearly painless treatment. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Papillomavirus E7 protein binding to the retinoblastoma protein is not required for viral induction of warts.

    PubMed Central

    Defeo-Jones, D; Vuocolo, G A; Haskell, K M; Hanobik, M G; Kiefer, D M; McAvoy, E M; Ivey-Hoyle, M; Brandsma, J L; Oliff, A; Jones, R E

    1993-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the etiologic agents responsible for benign epithelial proliferative disorders including genital warts and are a contributory factor in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer. HPVs demonstrate strict species and cell-type specificity, which is manifested by the inability of these viruses to induce disease in any species other than humans. The natural history of HPV infection in humans is closely mimicked by cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV) infection in domestic laboratory rabbits. The CRPV E7 gene is known to play an essential role in virus-mediated induction of papillomas. We now show by mutational analysis that the CRPV E7 protein's biochemical and biological properties, including binding to the retinoblastoma suppressor protein (pRB), transcription factor E2F transactivation of the adenovirus E2 promoter, disruption of pRB-E2F complexes, and cellular transformation as measured by growth in soft agar, mimic those of the HPV E7 protein. Intradermal injection of CRPV DNA lacking E7 gene sequences critical for the binding of the CRPV E7 protein to pRB induced papillomas in rabbits. These studies indicate that E7 protein binding to pRB is not required in the molecular pathogenesis of virally induced warts and suggest that other properties intrinsic to the E7 protein are necessary for papilloma formation. Images PMID:8380462

  11. Evasion of short interfering RNA-directed antiviral silencing in Musa acuminata persistently infected with six distinct banana streak pararetroviruses.

    PubMed

    Rajeswaran, Rajendran; Seguin, Jonathan; Chabannes, Matthieu; Duroy, Pierre-Olivier; Laboureau, Nathalie; Farinelli, Laurent; Iskra-Caruana, Marie-Line; Pooggin, Mikhail M

    2014-10-01

    Vegetatively propagated crop plants often suffer from infections with persistent RNA and DNA viruses. Such viruses appear to evade the plant defenses that normally restrict viral replication and spread. The major antiviral defense mechanism is based on RNA silencing generating viral short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that can potentially repress viral genes posttranscriptionally through RNA cleavage and transcriptionally through DNA cytosine methylation. Here we examined the RNA silencing machinery of banana plants persistently infected with six pararetroviruses after many years of vegetative propagation. Using deep sequencing, we reconstructed consensus master genomes of the viruses and characterized virus-derived and endogenous small RNAs. Consistent with the presence of endogenous siRNAs that can potentially establish and maintain DNA methylation, the banana genomic DNA was extensively methylated in both healthy and virus-infected plants. A novel class of abundant 20-nucleotide (nt) endogenous small RNAs with 5'-terminal guanosine was identified. In all virus-infected plants, 21- to 24-nt viral siRNAs accumulated at relatively high levels (up to 22% of the total small RNA population) and covered the entire circular viral DNA genomes in both orientations. The hotspots of 21-nt and 22-nt siRNAs occurred within open reading frame (ORF) I and II and the 5' portion of ORF III, while 24-nt siRNAs were more evenly distributed along the viral genome. Despite the presence of abundant viral siRNAs of different size classes, the viral DNA was largely free of cytosine methylation. Thus, the virus is able to evade siRNA-directed DNA methylation and thereby avoid transcriptional silencing. This evasion of silencing likely contributes to the persistence of pararetroviruses in banana plants. We report that DNA pararetroviruses in Musa acuminata banana plants are able to evade DNA cytosine methylation and transcriptional gene silencing, despite being targeted by the host silencing

  12. Evasion of Short Interfering RNA-Directed Antiviral Silencing in Musa acuminata Persistently Infected with Six Distinct Banana Streak Pararetroviruses

    PubMed Central

    Rajeswaran, Rajendran; Seguin, Jonathan; Chabannes, Matthieu; Duroy, Pierre-Olivier; Laboureau, Nathalie; Farinelli, Laurent; Iskra-Caruana, Marie-Line

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vegetatively propagated crop plants often suffer from infections with persistent RNA and DNA viruses. Such viruses appear to evade the plant defenses that normally restrict viral replication and spread. The major antiviral defense mechanism is based on RNA silencing generating viral short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that can potentially repress viral genes posttranscriptionally through RNA cleavage and transcriptionally through DNA cytosine methylation. Here we examined the RNA silencing machinery of banana plants persistently infected with six pararetroviruses after many years of vegetative propagation. Using deep sequencing, we reconstructed consensus master genomes of the viruses and characterized virus-derived and endogenous small RNAs. Consistent with the presence of endogenous siRNAs that can potentially establish and maintain DNA methylation, the banana genomic DNA was extensively methylated in both healthy and virus-infected plants. A novel class of abundant 20-nucleotide (nt) endogenous small RNAs with 5′-terminal guanosine was identified. In all virus-infected plants, 21- to 24-nt viral siRNAs accumulated at relatively high levels (up to 22% of the total small RNA population) and covered the entire circular viral DNA genomes in both orientations. The hotspots of 21-nt and 22-nt siRNAs occurred within open reading frame (ORF) I and II and the 5′ portion of ORF III, while 24-nt siRNAs were more evenly distributed along the viral genome. Despite the presence of abundant viral siRNAs of different size classes, the viral DNA was largely free of cytosine methylation. Thus, the virus is able to evade siRNA-directed DNA methylation and thereby avoid transcriptional silencing. This evasion of silencing likely contributes to the persistence of pararetroviruses in banana plants. IMPORTANCE We report that DNA pararetroviruses in Musa acuminata banana plants are able to evade DNA cytosine methylation and transcriptional gene silencing, despite being

  13. Evaluating the Early Benefit of Quadrivalent HPV Vaccine on Genital Warts in Belgium: A Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Dominiak-Felden, Geraldine; Gobbo, Corrado; Simondon, François

    2015-01-01

    Genital warts (GWs) are common, with about 5% to 10% of people having at least one episode in their lifetime. They develop about 2-3 months after infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes 6 and 11. The prophylactic quadrivalent HPV vaccine (qHPV), protects against HPV6/11 infections and diseases. In Belgium, HPV vaccines started to be reimbursed in 2007 and have been fully reimbursed since December 2008 for women 12 to 18 years old. This study aimed at evaluating the real-life benefit of qHPV vaccine introduction in Belgium on GWs by measuring both vaccine impact (VI) at a population level and the direct effect of the qHPV vaccine at an individual level (vaccine effectiveness (VE)), using data from a large sick-fund (MLOZ) reimbursement database. A first reimbursement for imiquimod (most common first-line GWs treatment in Belgium) was used as a surrogate for a first GWs episode; reimbursement of qHPV vaccine was used as surrogate for vaccination. VI was estimated by comparing the incidence of GWs before and after qHPV vaccine introduction in Belgium (ecologic evaluation). VE was assessed by comparing GWs incidences in vaccinated vs. unvaccinated women, among women eligible for HPV vaccination. VI was evaluated in 9,223,384 person-years. Overall, GWs incidence rates decreased significantly between the pre- and post-vaccination periods (-8.1% (95% CI: -15.3; -0.3) for men and women aged 18-59 years. This decrease was highest in women targeted by the HPV vaccination programme (-72.1% (95% CI: -77.9; -64.7) in women aged 16-22 years, with a 43% vaccine uptake in 2013). A significant decrease was also observed in men aged 16-22 years (-51.1%, 95%CI: -67.6; -26.2), suggesting herd-protection. VE was evaluated in 369,881 person-years. Age-adjusted VE for fully vaccinated women was 88.0% (95% CI: 79.4; 93.0). VE was higher when the first dose was given younger and remained high for over 4 years post-vaccination in all ages. High VI and VE of the qHPV vaccine were

  14. Evaluating the Early Benefit of Quadrivalent HPV Vaccine on Genital Warts in Belgium: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Dominiak-Felden, Geraldine; Gobbo, Corrado; Simondon, François

    2015-01-01

    Genital warts (GWs) are common, with about 5% to 10% of people having at least one episode in their lifetime. They develop about 2–3 months after infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes 6 and 11. The prophylactic quadrivalent HPV vaccine (qHPV), protects against HPV6/11 infections and diseases. In Belgium, HPV vaccines started to be reimbursed in 2007 and have been fully reimbursed since December 2008 for women 12 to 18 years old. This study aimed at evaluating the real-life benefit of qHPV vaccine introduction in Belgium on GWs by measuring both vaccine impact (VI) at a population level and the direct effect of the qHPV vaccine at an individual level (vaccine effectiveness (VE)), using data from a large sick-fund (MLOZ) reimbursement database. A first reimbursement for imiquimod (most common first-line GWs treatment in Belgium) was used as a surrogate for a first GWs episode; reimbursement of qHPV vaccine was used as surrogate for vaccination. VI was estimated by comparing the incidence of GWs before and after qHPV vaccine introduction in Belgium (ecologic evaluation). VE was assessed by comparing GWs incidences in vaccinated vs. unvaccinated women, among women eligible for HPV vaccination. VI was evaluated in 9,223,384 person-years. Overall, GWs incidence rates decreased significantly between the pre- and post-vaccination periods (-8.1% (95% CI: -15.3; -0.3) for men and women aged 18–59 years. This decrease was highest in women targeted by the HPV vaccination programme (-72.1% (95% CI: -77.9; -64.7) in women aged 16–22 years, with a 43% vaccine uptake in 2013). A significant decrease was also observed in men aged 16-22 years (-51.1%, 95%CI: -67.6; -26.2), suggesting herd-protection. VE was evaluated in 369,881 person-years. Age-adjusted VE for fully vaccinated women was 88.0% (95% CI: 79.4; 93.0). VE was higher when the first dose was given younger and remained high for over 4 years post-vaccination in all ages. High VI and VE of the q

  15. El Pediatra, el Abuso Sexual y Las Verrugas Anogenitales en Edad Prepuberal (The Pediatrician, Sexual Abuse, and Anogenital Warts in the Prepubertal Stage).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez-Roig, A.; Sanchez, X.

    1996-01-01

    This article notes that the increase of incidence in human papillomavirus infection has resulted in more frequent anogenital warts in children. Pediatricians are urged to exclude sexual abuse as a source of infection in all cases since sexual transmission is commonly, but not always, the cause. (Author/DB)

  16. Long-Pulsed 532-Nm Neodymium-Doped Yttrium Aluminium Garnet Laser for Treatment of Facial Plane Warts in 160 Yemeni Patients.

    PubMed

    Alshami, Mohammad Ali; Mohana, Mona Jameel; Alshami, Ahlam Mohammad

    2016-11-01

    Warts in general and plane warts in particular pose a therapeutic challenge for dermatologists. Many treatment modalities exist, with variable success rates, side effect profiles, and precautions. The long-pulsed 532-nm neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (LP Nd:YAG) laser has not been previously used for this indication. This study was conducted to assess the efficacy and safety of the LP Nd:YAG laser for treating facial plane warts. A total of 160 Yemeni patients (62 women, 98 men; age range, 5-55 years) were exposed to 1 laser treatment session with the following parameters: wavelength, 532 nm; pulse duration, 20 millisecond; spot size, 2 to 3 mm; and fluence, 25 J/cm. The end point was graying or whitening of the lesion. Color photographs were taken before and immediately after treatment and at follow-up visits 1, 4, and 16 weeks after the laser session. An overall clearance rate of 92% after only one session was achieved, with minimal and transient side effects. The LP Nd:YAG laser is safe and effective for treating facial plane warts, with a success rate of 92% after only one session.

  17. Cost-effectiveness of cryotherapy versus salicylic acid for the treatment of plantar warts: economic evaluation alongside a randomised controlled trial (EVerT trial)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Plantar warts (verrucae) are extremely common. Although many will spontaneously disappear without treatment, treatment may be sought for a variety of reasons such as discomfort. There are a number of different treatments for cutaneous warts, with salicylic acid and cryotherapy using liquid nitrogen being two of the most common forms of treatment. To date, no full economic evaluation of either salicylic acid or cryotherapy has been conducted based on the use of primary data in a pragmatic setting. This paper describes the cost-effectiveness analysis which was conducted alongside a pragmatic multicentre, randomised trial evaluating the clinical effectiveness of cryotherapy versus 50% salicylic acid of the treatment of plantar warts. Methods A cost-effectiveness analysis was undertaken alongside a pragmatic multicentre, randomised controlled trial assessing the clinical effectiveness of 50% salicylic acid and cryotherapy using liquid nitrogen at 12 weeks after randomisation of patients. Cost-effectiveness outcomes were expressed as the additional cost required to completely cure the plantar warts of one additional patient. A NHS perspective was taken for the analysis. Results Cryotherapy costs on average £101.17 (bias corrected and accelerated (BCA) 95% CI: 85.09-117.26) more per participant over the 12 week time-frame, while there is no additional benefit, in terms of proportion of patients healed compared with salicylic acid. Conclusions Cryotherapy is more costly and no more effective than salicylic acid. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN18994246 [controlled-trials.com] and National Research Register N0484189151. PMID:22369511

  18. Molecular characterisation of resistance against potato wart races 1, 2, 6 and 18 in a tetraploid population of potato (Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum).

    PubMed

    Groth, Jennifer; Song, Yesu; Kellermann, Adolf; Schwarzfischer, Andrea

    2013-05-01

    Potato wart is caused by the obligate biotrophic fungus Synchytrium endobioticum, which is subject to quarantine regulations due to the production of long persisting spores in the soil and the lack of effective fungicides. The objective of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance against potato wart races (R) 1, 2, 6 and 18 in a tetraploid potato population developed by crossing cv. Saturna (resistant to R1) with cv. Panda (resistant to R1, R2, R6, R18). A total of 92 progenies were used for phenotyping and genotyping. Resistance tests were performed for races 1 and 18 in 2 years and for races 2 and 6 in 1 year on 10 to 20 eyepieces per genotype. Based on amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, linkage maps were established for the female and male parent, respectively. Single marker analysis followed by a multiple regression analysis revealed initial marker-trait associations. The interval mapping routine of TetraploidMap was applied for QTL analysis. A major QTL for resistance against race 1 explaining between 46 % and 56 % of the phenotypic variation was identified near Sen1, a known resistance locus for potato wart race 1 on chromosome XI. Other resistance QTL were detected on chromosomes I (to R2), II (to R6, 18), VI (to R1, 2, 6, 18), VII (to R2, 6, 18), VIII (to R1, 2, 6, 18), X (to R2, 6, 18), XI (to R2, 6, 18) and on an unknown linkage group (to R18) explaining minor to moderate effects of the phenotypic variation. Resistance QTL against different potato wart races often overlapped, particularly concerning races 2, 6 and 18. Overall, this study gives a valuable insight into the complex inheritance of resistance against potato wart.

  19. Variation in the Nucleotide Sequence of Cottontail Rabbit Papillomavirus a and b Subtypes Affects Wart Regression and Malignant Transformation and Level of Viral Replication in Domestic Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Salmon, Jérôme; Nonnenmacher, Mathieu; Cazé, Sandrine; Flamant, Patricia; Croissant, Odile; Orth, Gérard; Breitburd, Françoise

    2000-01-01

    We previously reported the partial characterization of two cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV) subtypes with strikingly divergent E6 and E7 oncoproteins. We report now the complete nucleotide sequences of these subtypes, referred to as CRPVa4 (7,868 nucleotides) and CRPVb (7,867 nucleotides). The CRPVa4 and CRPVb genomes differed at 238 (3%) nucleotide positions, whereas CRPVa4 and the prototype CRPV differed by only 5 nucleotides. The most variable region (7% nucleotide divergence) included the long regulatory region (LRR) and the E6 and E7 genes. A mutation in the stop codon resulted in an 8-amino-acid-longer CRPVb E4 protein, and a nucleotide deletion reduced the coding capacity of the E5 gene from 101 to 25 amino acids. In domestic rabbits homozygous for a specific haplotype of the DRA and DQA genes of the major histocompatibility complex, warts induced by CRPVb DNA or a chimeric genome containing the CRPVb LRR/E6/E7 region showed an early regression, whereas warts induced by CRPVa4 or a chimeric genome containing the CRPVa4 LRR/E6/E7 region persisted and evolved into carcinomas. In contrast, most CRPVa, CRPVb, and chimeric CRPV DNA-induced warts showed no early regression in rabbits homozygous for another DRA-DQA haplotype. Little, if any, viral replication is usually observed in domestic rabbit warts. When warts induced by CRPVa and CRPVb virions and DNA were compared, the number of cells positive for viral DNA or capsid antigens was found to be greater by 1 order of magnitude for specimens induced by CRPVb. Thus, both sequence variation in the LRR/E6/E7 region and the genetic constitution of the host influence the expression of the oncogenic potential of CRPV. Furthermore, intratype variation may overcome to some extent the host restriction of CRPV replication in domestic rabbits. PMID:11044121

  20. Concordance of HPV-DNA in cervical dysplasia or genital warts in women and their monogamous long-term male partners.

    PubMed

    Rob, Filip; Tachezy, Ruth; Pichlík, Tomáš; Škapa, Petr; Rob, Lukáš; Hamšíková, Eva; Šmahelová, Jana; Hercogová, Jana

    2017-09-01

    Transmission of human papillomavirus (HPV) is a premise for development of cervical dysplasia and genital warts (GWs). This cross-sectional study assesses concordance of HPV types present in GWs or cervical dysplasia in women and genital infection of their monogamous male partners in conjunction with seroprevalence of HPV-6, -11, -16, and -18 antibodies. Blood was taken from both women and men, as well a smear of the urogenital area of men. HPV DNA detection in women was done in fixed paraffin embedded tissues under histological control. Of 143 couples who agreed to participate in the study, 68 met inclusion criteria. Type-specific concordance was observed in 32.5% (13/40) of couples in which women had genital warts and in 32.1% (9/28) of couples in which women had cervical dysplasia. In multivariate analysis only smoking in women was associated with concordance (P < 0.05). Prevalence of HPV-specific antibodies was high in male partners, but was not associated with presence of the same HPV type on their genitals. The same type-specific HPV antibodies were detected in 81.8% of men in couples with HPV-6 concordant genital warts, but only in 14.3% of men in couples with HPV-16 concordant cervical dysplasia (P < 0.01). These results suggest that type-specific HPV concordance in genital warts and cervical dysplasia lesions of women and genital infection of their male partners is common and similar. Higher seroconversion in couples with HPV-6 concordant genital warts compared with couples with HPV-16 concordant cervical dysplasia may be explained by viral load exposure. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Characterization of Two Novel Gammapapillomaviruses, HPV179 and HPV184, Isolated from Common Warts of a Renal-Transplant Recipient

    PubMed Central

    Hošnjak, Lea; Kocjan, Boštjan J.; Pirš, Branko; Seme, Katja; Poljak, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Gammapapillomavirus (Gamma-PV) is a diverse and rapidly expanding PV-genus, currently consisting of 76 fully characterized human papillomavirus (HPV) types. In this study, DNA genomes of two novel HPV types, HPV179 and HPV184, obtained from two distinct facial verrucae vulgares specimens of a 64 year-old renal-transplant recipient, were fully cloned, sequenced and characterized. HPV179 and HPV184 genomes comprise 7,228-bp and 7,324-bp, respectively, and contain four early (E1, E2, E6 and E7) and two late genes (L1 and L2); the non-coding region is typically positioned between L1 and E6 genes. Phylogenetic analysis of the L1 nucleotide sequence placed both novel types within the Gamma-PV genus: HPV179 was classified as a novel member of species Gamma-15, additionally containing HPV135 and HPV146, while HPV184 was classified as a single member of a novel species Gamma-25. HPV179 and HPV184 type-specific quantitative real-time PCRs were further developed and used in combination with human beta-globin gene quantitative real-time PCR to determine the prevalence and viral load of the novel types in the patient’s facial warts and several follow-up skin specimens, and in a representative collection, a total of 569 samples, of HPV-associated benign and malignant neoplasms, hair follicles and anal and oral mucosa specimens obtained from immunocompetent individuals. HPV179 and HPV184 viral loads in patients’ facial warts were estimated to be 2,463 and 3,200 genome copies per single cell, respectively, suggesting their active role in the development of common warts in organ-transplant recipients. In addition, in this particular patient, both novel types had established a persistent infection of the skin for more than four years. Among immunocompetent individuals, HPV179 was further detected in low-copy numbers in a few skin specimens, indicating its cutaneous tissue tropism, while HPV184 was further detected in low-copy numbers in one mucosal and a few skin specimens

  2. Human papilloma virus vaccines: Current scenario

    PubMed Central

    Pandhi, Deepika; Sonthalia, Sidharth

    2011-01-01

    Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted infection with an estimated worldwide prevalence of 9–13% and approximately 6 million people being infected each year. Mostly acquired during adolescence or young adulthood, HPV presents clinically as anogenital warts and may progress to precancerous lesions and cancers of the cervix, vagina, vulva, penis and anus, and oropharynx. HPV infection is considered to contribute to almost 100% cervical cancers and at least 80% of anal and 40–60% of vulvar, vaginal, and penile cancers. At present, two prophylactic HPV vaccines are commercially available and both are prepared from purified L1 structural proteins. These proteins self-assemble to form virus-like particles that induce a protective immunity. Gardasil® is a quadrivalent vaccine against HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18 and is recommended for use in females 9–26 years of age, for the prevention of cervical, vulvar, and vaginal cancers and intraepithelial neoplasia and condyloma acuminata and recently for vaccination in boys and men 9–26 years of age for the prevention of genital warts. Cervarix™ is a bivalent vaccine approved for the prevention of cervical cancer and precancerous lesions caused by HPV 16 and 18, in females 10–25 years. HPV vaccines are safe and efficacious against type-specific HPV-induced anogenital warts, precancerous lesions, and cervical cancer. The vaccines are most effective when given before the onset of sexual activity and provide long-term protection. Effective vaccination coverage in young adolescent females will substantially reduce the incidence of these anogenital malignancy-related morbidity and mortality. There is need to generate India-specific data on HPV epidemiology and HPV vaccination efficacy as well as continue worldwide surveillance and development of newer vaccines. PMID:22021967

  3. EFFECTS OF SINGLE, BINARY AND TERTIARY COMBINATIONS WITH Jatropha gossypifolia AND OTHER PLANT-DERIVED MOLLUSCICIDES ON REPRODUCTION AND SURVIVAL OF THE SNAIL Lymnaea acuminata

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Ram P.; Singh, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    The effect of sub-lethal doses (40% and 80% of LC50/24h) of plant derived molluscicides of singly, binary (1:1) and tertiary (1:1:1) combinations of the Rutin, Ellagic acid, Betulin and taraxerol with J. gossypifolia latex, leaf and stem bark powder extracts and their active component on the reproduction of freshwater snail Lymnaea acuminata have been studied. It was observed that the J. gossypifolia latex, stem bark, individual leaf and their combinations with other plant derived active molluscicidal components caused a significant reduction in fecundity, hatchability and survival of young snails. It is believed that sub-lethal exposure of these molluscicides on snail reproduction is a complex process involving more than one factor in reducing the reproductive capacity. PMID:25229223

  4. A combined spectroscopic and TDDFT study of natural dyes extracted from fruit peels of Citrus reticulata and Musa acuminata for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prima, Eka Cahya; Hidayat, Novianto Nur; Yuliarto, Brian; Suyatman; Dipojono, Hermawan Kresno

    2017-01-01

    This study reports the novel spectroscopic investigations and enhanced the electron transfers of Citrus reticulata and Musa acuminata fruit peels as the photosensitizers for the dye-sensitized solar cells. The calculated TD-DFT-UB3LYP/6-31 + G(d,p)-IEFPCM(UAKS), experiment spectra of ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies indicate the main flavonoid (hesperidin and gallocatechin) structures of the dye extracts. The optimized flavonoid structures are calculated using Density functional theory (DFT) at 6-31 + G(d,p) level. The rutinosyl group of the hesperidin pigment (Citrus reticulata) will be further investigated compared to the gallocatechin (Musa acuminata) pigment. The acidity of the dye extract is treated by adding 2% acetic acid. The energy levels of the HOMO-LUMO dyes are measured by a combined Tauc plot and cyclic voltammetry contrasted with the DFT data. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy will be performed to model the dye electron transfer. As for the rutinosyl group presence and the acidic treatment, the acidified Citrus reticulata cell under continuous light exposure of 100 mW·cm- 2 yields a short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 3.23 mA/cm2, a photovoltage (Voc) of 0.48 V, and a fill factor of 0.45 corresponding to an energy conversion efficiency (η) of 0.71% because the shifting down HOMO-LUMO edges and the broadening dye's absorbance evaluated by a combined spectroscopic and TD-DFT method. The result also leads to the longest diffusion length of 32.2 μm, the fastest electron transit of 0.22 ms, and the longest electron lifetime of 4.29 ms.

  5. A combined spectroscopic and TDDFT study of natural dyes extracted from fruit peels of Citrus reticulata and Musa acuminata for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Prima, Eka Cahya; Hidayat, Novianto Nur; Yuliarto, Brian; Suyatman; Dipojono, Hermawan Kresno

    2017-01-15

    This study reports the novel spectroscopic investigations and enhanced the electron transfers of Citrus reticulata and Musa acuminata fruit peels as the photosensitizers for the dye-sensitized solar cells. The calculated TD-DFT-UB3LYP/6-31+G(d,p)-IEFPCM(UAKS), experiment spectra of ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies indicate the main flavonoid (hesperidin and gallocatechin) structures of the dye extracts. The optimized flavonoid structures are calculated using Density functional theory (DFT) at 6-31+G(d,p) level. The rutinosyl group of the hesperidin pigment (Citrus reticulata) will be further investigated compared to the gallocatechin (Musa acuminata) pigment. The acidity of the dye extract is treated by adding 2% acetic acid. The energy levels of the HOMO-LUMO dyes are measured by a combined Tauc plot and cyclic voltammetry contrasted with the DFT data. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy will be performed to model the dye electron transfer. As for the rutinosyl group presence and the acidic treatment, the acidified Citrus reticulata cell under continuous light exposure of 100mW·cm -2 yields a short-circuit current density (J sc ) of 3.23mA/cm 2 , a photovoltage (V oc ) of 0.48V, and a fill factor of 0.45 corresponding to an energy conversion efficiency (η) of 0.71% because the shifting down HOMO-LUMO edges and the broadening dye's absorbance evaluated by a combined spectroscopic and TD-DFT method. The result also leads to the longest diffusion length of 32.2μm, the fastest electron transit of 0.22ms, and the longest electron lifetime of 4.29ms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Cell-specific expression of tryptophan decarboxylase and 10-hydroxygeraniol oxidoreductase, key genes involved in camptothecin biosynthesis in Camptotheca acuminata Decne (Nyssaceae)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Camptotheca acuminata is a major natural source of the terpenoid indole alkaloid camptothecin (CPT). At present, little is known about the cellular distribution of the biosynthesis of CPT, which would be useful knowledge for developing new strategies and technologies for improving alkaloid production. Results The pattern of CPT accumulation was compared with the expression pattern of some genes involved in CPT biosynthesis in C. acuminata [i.e., Ca-TDC1 and Ca-TDC2 (encoding for tryptophan decarboxylase) and Ca-HGO (encoding for 10-hydroxygeraniol oxidoreductase)]. Both CPT accumulation and gene expression were investigated in plants at different degrees of development and in plantlets subjected to drought-stress. In all organs, CPT accumulation was detected in epidermal idioblasts, in some glandular trichomes, and in groups of idioblast cells localized in parenchyma tissues. Drought-stress caused an increase in CPT accumulation and in the number of glandular trichomes containing CPT, whereas no increase in epidermal or parenchymatous idioblasts was observed. In the leaf, Ca-TDC1 expression was detected in some epidermal cells and in groups of mesophyll cells but not in glandular trichomes; in the stem, it was observed in parenchyma cells of the vascular tissue; in the root, no expression was detected. Ca-TDC2 expression was observed exclusively in leaves of plantlets subjected to drought-stress, in the same sites described for Ca-TDC1. In the leaf, Ca-HGO was detected in all chlorenchyma cells; in the stem, it was observed in the same sites described for Ca-TDC1; in the root, no expression was detected. Conclusions The finding that the sites of CPT accumulation are not consistently the same as those in which the studied genes are expressed demonstrates an organ-to-organ and cell-to-cell translocation of CPT or its precursors. PMID:20403175

  7. Cell-specific expression of tryptophan decarboxylase and 10-hydroxygeraniol oxidoreductase, key genes involved in camptothecin biosynthesis in Camptotheca acuminata Decne (Nyssaceae).

    PubMed

    Valletta, Alessio; Trainotti, Livio; Santamaria, Anna Rita; Pasqua, Gabriella

    2010-04-19

    Camptotheca acuminata is a major natural source of the terpenoid indole alkaloid camptothecin (CPT). At present, little is known about the cellular distribution of the biosynthesis of CPT, which would be useful knowledge for developing new strategies and technologies for improving alkaloid production. The pattern of CPT accumulation was compared with the expression pattern of some genes involved in CPT biosynthesis in C. acuminata [i.e., Ca-TDC1 and Ca-TDC2 (encoding for tryptophan decarboxylase) and Ca-HGO (encoding for 10-hydroxygeraniol oxidoreductase)]. Both CPT accumulation and gene expression were investigated in plants at different degrees of development and in plantlets subjected to drought-stress. In all organs, CPT accumulation was detected in epidermal idioblasts, in some glandular trichomes, and in groups of idioblast cells localized in parenchyma tissues. Drought-stress caused an increase in CPT accumulation and in the number of glandular trichomes containing CPT, whereas no increase in epidermal or parenchymatous idioblasts was observed. In the leaf, Ca-TDC1 expression was detected in some epidermal cells and in groups of mesophyll cells but not in glandular trichomes; in the stem, it was observed in parenchyma cells of the vascular tissue; in the root, no expression was detected. Ca-TDC2 expression was observed exclusively in leaves of plantlets subjected to drought-stress, in the same sites described for Ca-TDC1. In the leaf, Ca-HGO was detected in all chlorenchyma cells; in the stem, it was observed in the same sites described for Ca-TDC1; in the root, no expression was detected. The finding that the sites of CPT accumulation are not consistently the same as those in which the studied genes are expressed demonstrates an organ-to-organ and cell-to-cell translocation of CPT or its precursors.

  8. Distribution of Human Papillomavirus Genotype in Anal Condyloma Acuminatum Among Japanese Men: The Higher Prevalence of High Risk Human Papillomavirus in Men Who Have Sex with Men with HIV Infection.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Satomi; Uota, Shin; Yamana, Tetsuo; Sahara, Rikisaburo; Iihara, Kuniko; Yokomaku, Yoshiyuki; Iwatani, Yasumasa; Sugiura, Wataru

    2018-04-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is known to cause anal condyloma acuminatum (CA) and squamous cell carcinoma. Men who have sex with men (MSM) with HIV infection are frequently co-infected with HPV, especially high risk HPV (HR-HPV) that causes anal squamous cell carcinoma. However, there are few reports of HPV genotype studies in anal lesion of Japanese men. We tried to estimate the distribution of HPV genotypes in anal CA tissue specimens from the Japanese men to elucidate the risk of anal cancer. A total of 62 patients who had anal CA surgically excised were enrolled. They included 27 HIV-positive MSM, 18 HIV-negative MSM, 1 HIV-positive man who have sex with women (MSW), and 16 HIV-negative MSW. HPV genotypes in anal CA tissue were determined by the polymerase chain reaction technique with reverse line blot hybridization. HR-HPV was detected in 45.2% of the CA tissue specimens and high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) was observed in 15.3%. Moreover, the prevalence of HR-HPV in the HIV-positive MSM (70.4%) was higher than the HIV-negative MSM (33.3%, p = .0311) or the HIV-negative MSW (18.8%, p = .0016). The conditional logistic regression analysis suggested HIV positivity as the primary risk factor for the HR-HPV infection in CA. In addition, HSIL was detected in higher frequency in CA tissues from HIV-positive MSM (25.9%) than HIV-negative MSW (0.0%, p = .0346). HR-HPV and HSIL were frequently detected in anal CA tissues from Japanese MSM patients with HIV infection, suggesting the necessity of surveillance for this population.

  9. [Establishment of embryogenic cell suspension culture and plant regeneration of edible banana Musa acuminata cv. Mas (AA)].

    PubMed

    Wei, Yue-Rong; Huang, Xue-Lin; Li, Jia; Huang, Xia; Li, Zhe; Li, Xiao-Ju

    2005-01-01

    Conventional breeding for dual resistance of disease and pest of Musa cultivars remains a difficult endeavor, as the plant is polyploidic and high in sterility. Biotechnological techniques, eg., genetic engineering, in vitro mutation breeding, or protoplast fusion, may overcome the difficulties and improve the germplasm. Establishment of a stable embryogenic cell suspension (ECS) is a prerequisite for any of the biotechnological breeding methods. In this study an embryogenic cell suspension was established from immature male flower of Musa acuminata cv. Mas (AA), a popular commercial variety of banana in the South-East Asian region. After culture for 5-6 months on callus induction media, which consisted of MS salts, different concentrations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 4.1 micromol/L biotin, 5.7 micromol/L indoleacetic acid (IAA), 5.4 micromol/L naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), other vitamins, 87 mmol/L sucrose, and solidified with 7 g/L agarose, meristematic globules and yellow, friable embryogenic cultures were induced from the explants of 1-15th row young floral hands of immature male flowers. Of the four treatments of 2,4-D, 9 micromol/L was the most effective on the callus induction, it transformed 40.96% and 7.45% of the cultivated male floral hands into callus and embryogenic callus respectively. The explants to produce highest frequency of the embryogenic calli were floral hands of 6 to 12th rows, which generated 5.79% of the embryogenic calli. Suspension cultures were initiated from these embryogenic calli in liquid medium supplemented with 4.5 micromol/L 2, 4-D. After sieving selection of the cultures using a stainless steel metallic strainer with pore sizes of 154 microm at 15 day intervals for 3 months, homogeneous and yellow embryogenic cell suspensions, composed of single cells and small cell aggregates, were established. Based upon the growth quantity and growth rate of ECS, it was determined that the appropriate inoculum was 2.0 mL PCV

  10. Trends in Male and Female Genital Warts Among Adolescents in a Safety-Net Health Care System 2004-2013: Correlation With Introduction of Female and Male Human Papillomavirus Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Rebecca B; Legler, Aaron; Hanchate, Amresh

    2015-12-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination remains underused in the United States, and few population-level studies on effectiveness exist. We examined trends in rates of genital warts diagnoses and HPV vaccination rates (defined as receipt of 1 or more vaccine doses) among low-income and minority adolescents between 2004 and 2013. Data were obtained from a database containing de-identified medical record information including all outpatient visits to an urban medical center and 6 affiliated community health centers. International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes were used to determine genital warts diagnoses. We estimated annual rates of genital warts for each period for females and males using an interrupted time-series Poisson regression model. As HPV vaccination rates in low-income, minority adolescents rose from 0% to 59% (females) and 0 to 41% (males) between 2004 and 2013, genital warts rates decreased from 3.5% (females) and 3.6% (males) to 1.5% (females) and 2.9% (males). Rates of genital warts decreased significantly for both females and males from the prevaccination to the postvaccination periods (P < 0.05 for both comparisons). Genital warts rates for males began to decrease after the introduction of female vaccination and continued to decrease after male vaccination was introduced. Introduction of HPV vaccination correlated with lower rates of genital warts among a cohort of low-income and minority adolescents. Rates of genital warts began to decrease in females and males following the introduction of female vaccination and continued to fall after the introduction of male vaccination, indicating that male vaccination may confer additional benefit to both males and females over herd immunity alone, especially when vaccination rates are suboptimal.

  11. Evaluation of the Efficacy, Safety, and Tolerability of 3 Dose Regimens of Topical Sodium Nitrite With Citric Acid in Patients With Anogenital Warts: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Ormerod, Anthony D; van Voorst Vader, Pieter C; Majewski, Slovomir; Vanscheidt, Wolfgang; Benjamin, Nigel; van der Meijden, Willem

    2015-08-01

    Anogenital warts are a common disorder associated with significant physical and mental distress and a substantial cause of health care costs. To assess the efficacy of the topical application of nitric oxide delivered using acidified nitrite. A multicenter, randomized, controlled, dose-ranging clinical trial was conducted in European genitourinary medicine clinics between December 20, 2001, and January 14, 2003. Analysis was by intent to treat for all individuals initiating therapy. Participants included male and female volunteers older than 18 years with between 2 and 50 external anogenital warts. A total of 299 individuals from 40 centers were randomized to a control arm and a treatment arm that received 3 doses of acidified nitrite applied topically for 12 weeks with an additional 12 weeks of follow-up, with the final follow-up visit on January 14, 2003. Placebo nitrite cream and placebo citric acid cream were applied twice daily. Active treatment was divided as low dose (sodium nitrite, 3%, with citric acid, 4.5%, creams applied twice daily), middle dose (sodium nitrite, 6%, with citric acid, 9%, creams applied once daily at night, with placebo applied in the morning), and high dose (sodium nitrite, 6%, with citric acid, 9%, creams applied twice daily). The primary outcome was proportion of patients with complete clinical clearance of target warts; secondary outcomes were reduction in target wart area and safety. Complete clinical clearance at 12 weeks occurred in 10 of 74 patients (14%; 95% CI, 6%-21%) with placebo; 11 of 72 (15%; 95% CI, 7%-24%) with low-dose treatment; 17 of 74 (23%; 95% CI, 13%-33%) with middle-dose treatment; and 22 of 70 (31%; 95% CI, 21%-42%) with high-dose treatment (P = .01). Reduction in target wart area, time to clearance, and patient and investigator assessments supported the superiority of the high-dose therapy vs placebo. There were no systemic or serious adverse events associated with treatment. However, there was a dose

  12. Forestiera acuminata (Michx.)

    Treesearch

    K.F. Connor

    2004-01-01

    Swamp privet is a deciduous shrub or small, open-crowned tree, occasionally reaching 10 m in height but more often averaging 1.5 to 2.5 m. It is commonly multi-trunked. The bark ranges from gray to dark brown in color and is either smooth or ridged. Twigs are light brown, glabrous, and have conspicuous lenticels. Leaves are simple, opposite, and a dull, yellowish green...

  13. A Comparative Study of Potassium Hydroxide versus CO2 Laser Vaporization in The Treatment of Female Genital Warts: A Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Asadi, Nasrin; Hemmati, Ensie; Namazi, Golnaz; Jahromi, Mahnaz Pakniat; Sarraf, Zahra; Pazyar, Nader; Salehi, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Genital warts are the most common viral sexually transmitted disease affecting 1% of the population. A prospective, open-label controlled trial was performed to compare topical 5% potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution with CO2 laser in the treatment of female genital warts. Methods: Seventy patients were enrolled in the study after convenience sampling. Right-sided lesions of the patients were treated by CO2 laser every 3 weeks. The left-sided lesions of the same patients were treated by topical 5% KOH solution twice a day using a toothpick with cotton wrap on the tip. The patients were visited at 3, 6, and 9 weeks after initiation of the treatment and followed up for 6 months after the last visit. Results: Out of seventy patients, sixty three completed the study and were analyzed. A total of 56 KOH treated-patients (88.9%) showed complete response. On the other hand, 56 laser-treated patients (88.9%) presented complete clearing of the lesion. There was not any difference in response to both modalities of treatment. Complications of KOH solution and CO2 laser were 24% and 19% respectively (P>0.05), but serious adverse events were not observed. The patients under KOH treatment displayed a recurrence rate of 11.1% (7 cases), while the same patients with CO2 laser therapy demonstrated a recurrence rate of 7.9% (5 cases) (P=0.54). Conclusion: Topical 5% KOH solution was as effective as CO2 laser in the treatment of female genital warts. There was not any serious complication in the application of KOH solution. This could be used as a new treatment for genital warts. Trial Registration Number: IRCT201412207848N1 PMID:27382594

  14. A Comparative Study of Potassium Hydroxide versus CO2 Laser Vaporization in The Treatment of Female Genital Warts: A Controlled Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Asadi, Nasrin; Hemmati, Ensie; Namazi, Golnaz; Jahromi, Mahnaz Pakniat; Sarraf, Zahra; Pazyar, Nader; Salehi, Alireza

    2016-07-01

    Genital warts are the most common viral sexually transmitted disease affecting 1% of the population. A prospective, open-label controlled trial was performed to compare topical 5% potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution with CO2 laser in the treatment of female genital warts. Seventy patients were enrolled in the study after convenience sampling. Right-sided lesions of the patients were treated by CO2 laser every 3 weeks. The left-sided lesions of the same patients were treated by topical 5% KOH solution twice a day using a toothpick with cotton wrap on the tip. The patients were visited at 3, 6, and 9 weeks after initiation of the treatment and followed up for 6 months after the last visit. Out of seventy patients, sixty three completed the study and were analyzed. A total of 56 KOH treated-patients (88.9%) showed complete response. On the other hand, 56 laser-treated patients (88.9%) presented complete clearing of the lesion. There was not any difference in response to both modalities of treatment. Complications of KOH solution and CO2 laser were 24% and 19% respectively (P>0.05), but serious adverse events were not observed. The patients under KOH treatment displayed a recurrence rate of 11.1% (7 cases), while the same patients with CO2 laser therapy demonstrated a recurrence rate of 7.9% (5 cases) (P=0.54). Topical 5% KOH solution was as effective as CO2 laser in the treatment of female genital warts. There was not any serious complication in the application of KOH solution. This could be used as a new treatment for genital warts. IRCT201412207848N1.

  15. Treatment of Multiple-Resistant and/or Recurrent Cutaneous Warts With Squaric Acid Dibutylester: A Randomized, Double-blind, Vehicle-controlled Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    DallʼOglio, Federica; Luca, Maria; Barresi, Sebastiano; Micali, Giuseppe

    Contact immunotherapy with squaric acid dibutylester (SADBE) for cutaneous warts has been reported to be effective, although no controlled studies are available so far. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of SADBE on cutaneous warts by a randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled, clinical trial. Thirty-six patients were randomly assigned to SADBE (18 cases) or vehicle (18 cases) group. At 8 weeks, subjects were clinically evaluated for number/size reduction rate and for Investigator Global Assessment. Those who showed improvement extended therapy up to 40 weeks, whereas those who showed unresponsiveness were either switched to SADBE application for up to 48 weeks (if in the vehicle group) or withdrawn from the study (if under SADBE). At 8 weeks, a significant reduction in wart number (P = 0.020) and size (P = 0.010) in the SADBE group, with clearing rates of 41.2% versus 12.5% in the SADBE and vehicle groups, respectively, was observed. Nine remaining SADBE responders who underwent treatment extension up to 40 weeks achieved clearing versus 2 patients of the vehicle group who remained unresponsive. Clearing was obtained in 81.8% of patients who underwent previous ineffective vehicle treatment and had been switched to SADBE. Squaric acid dibutylester is an effective therapeutic option and is significantly more effective than vehicle.

  16. Complete remission of recalcitrant genital warts with a combination approach of surgical debulking and oral isotretinoin in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Yew, Yik Weng; Pan, Jiun Yit

    2014-01-01

    Genital warts in immunocompromised patients can be extensive and recalcitrant to treatment. We report a case of recalcitrant genital warts in a female patient with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), who achieved complete remission with a combination approach of surgical debulking and oral isotretinoin at an initial dose of 20 mg/day with a gradual taper of dose over 8 months. She had previously been treated with a combination of topical imiquimod cream and regular fortnightly liquid nitrogen. Although there was partial response, there was no complete clearance. Her condition worsened after topical imiquimod cream was stopped because of her pregnancy. She underwent a combination approach of surgical debulking and oral isotretinoin after her delivery and achieved full clearance for more than 2 years duration. Oral isotretinoin, especially in the treatment of recalcitrant genital warts, is a valuable and feasible option when other more conventional treatment methods have failed or are not possible. It can be used alone or in combination with other local or physical treatment methods. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Temporal trends in genital warts among individuals covered by the public prescription drug insurance plan in the province of Quebec, Canada, from 1998 to 2007.

    PubMed

    Steben, Marc; Ouhoummane, Najwa; Rodier, Caroline; Brassard, Paul

    2013-04-01

    We assessed temporal trend in the incidence and prevalence of genital warts (GWs) in the province of Quebec, Canada, between 1998 and 2007 as a baseline for future assessment of the impact of Quebec human papillomavirus vaccination program. Data on GWs were obtained from the linkage of the physician service claims and the public insurance drug plan databases. Genital warts were identified through a prescription of podofilox, a medical procedure code specific to GWs or a diagnosis code for viral warts followed by a prescription of imiquimod or fluorouracil within 2 weeks. An episode was considered incident if it was preceded by a 12-month interval period free of GWs care. During the study period, a total of 27,138 episodes of GWs occurred among 24,267 individuals. The age-standardized incidence rate increased over time in men and women. The highest incidence was observed in women aged 20 to 24 years (391.9/100,000) and in men aged 25 to 29 years (383.3/100,000). Similar trends in prevalence were observed. The incidence and prevalence of GWs has increased among the population covered by the public insurance drug plan in Quebec.

  18. High prevalence of genital HPV infection among long-term monogamous partners of women with cervical dysplasia or genital warts-Another reason for HPV vaccination of boys.

    PubMed

    Rob, Filip; Tachezy, Ruth; Pichlík, Tomáš; Rob, Lukáš; Kružicová, Zuzana; Hamšíková, Eva; Šmahelová, Jana; Hercogová, Jana

    2017-01-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study on the occurrence of a specific type of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) among long-term monogamous male partners of women with cervical dysplasia and genital warts. The purpose of the study was to improve knowledge with regards to the management of these couples. The presence of genital HPV-DNA was detected by PCR with broad spectrum primers followed by hybridization. 82 males met the study criteria, 41 in each group. Genital HPV-DNA prevalence was 67.5% in the genital warts group and 72.2% in the cervical dysplasia group. The prevalence of high risk HPVs was higher in the cervical dysplasia group, while low risk HPVs were more prevalent in the genital warts group (p < .05). The prevalence of HPV in males was independent of the duration of the relationship (73.5% for 6-24 months and 66.7% for longer relationships). In conclusion, our results suggest that the prevalence of the genital HPV infection in both groups of male partners is comparable and very high, but the spectrum of HPV types varies significantly. The presence of the genital HPV infection in male sexual partners seems to be independent of the duration of the relationship. Applying the HPV vaccination to boys may prevent this phenomenon. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. The WD-Repeat Protein CsTTG1 Regulates Fruit Wart Formation through Interaction with the Homeodomain-Leucine Zipper I Protein Mict1

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Shuai; Liu, Xingwang; Liu, Bin; Yang, Sen; Xue, Shudan; Cai, Yanling; Liu, Huiling; Dong, Mingming; Zhang, Yaqi; Zhao, Binyu

    2016-01-01

    The cucumber (Cucumis sativus) fruit is covered with bloom trichomes and warts (composed of spines and tubercules), which have an important impact on the commercial value of the crop. However, little is known about the regulatory mechanism underlying their formation. Here, we reported that the cucumber WD-repeat homolog CsTTG1, which is localized in the nucleus and cytomembrane, plays an important role in the formation of cucumber fruit bloom trichomes and warts. Functional characterization of CsTTG1 revealed that it is mainly expressed in the epidermis of cucumber ovary and that its overexpression in cucumber alters the density of fruit bloom trichomes and spines, thereby promoting the warty fruit trait. Conversely, silencing CsTTG1 expression inhibits the initiation of fruit spines. Molecular and genetic analyses showed that CsTTG1 acts in parallel to Mict/CsGL1, a key trichome formation factor, to regulate the initiation of fruit trichomes, including fruit bloom trichomes and spines, and that the further differentiation of fruit spines and formation of tubercules regulated by CsTTG1 is dependent on Mict. Using yeast two-hybrid assay and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay, we determined that CsTTG1 directly interacts with Mict. Collectively, our results indicate that CsTTG1 is an important component of the molecular network that regulates fruit bloom trichome and wart formation in cucumber. PMID:27208299

  20. Acantholytic dermatosis of the crural folds with ATP2C1 mutation is a possible variant of Hailey-Hailey Disease.

    PubMed

    Lipoff, Jules B; Mudgil, Adarsh V; Young, Saryna; Chu, Paul; Cohen, Steven R

    2009-01-01

    We describe a patient with acantholytic dermatosis of the crural folds (ADCF) that was misdiagnosed and treated as condyloma acuminata for 13 years. After many skin biopsies consistently showed epidermal acantholysis and negative human papillomavirus serotyping excluded condyloma acuminata, a diagnosis of ADCF was considered most likely. Acitretin effectively suppressed the symptomatic hyperkeratosis. Subsequent genetic testing revealed a deletion in the ATP2C1 gene that led us to conclude that this case of ADCF is probably a variant of familial benign chronic pemphigus (Hailey-Hailey disease).

  1. Decreased Management of Genital Warts in Young Women in Australian General Practice Post Introduction of National HPV Vaccination Program: Results from a Nationally Representative Cross-Sectional General Practice Study

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Christopher; Britt, Helena; Garland, Suzanne; Conway, Lynne; Stein, Alicia; Pirotta, Marie; Fairley, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Since the introduction of Australia's human papillomavirus vaccination program, the management rate of genital warts in sexual health clinics and private hospitals has decreased in women of vaccine-eligible age. However, most genital warts in Australia are managed in general practice. This study examines whether a similar decrease occurred in Australian general practice after the introduction of the program. Methods Analysis of a nationally representative cross-sectional database of Australian general practice activity (1,175,879 patient encounters with 11,780 general practitioners). Genital warts management rates were estimated for the periods before and after introduction of the program (Pre-program, July 2002-June 2006; Post-program, July 2008-June 2012). Control conditions included genital herpes and gardnerella/bacterial vaginosis in female patients and genital herpes and urethritis in male patients. Trends in management rates by year, pre-vaccine (July 2000-June 2007) and post-vaccine (July 2007-June 2012) were also calculated. Results Management rate of genital warts among women potentially covered by program (aged 15–27 years) decreased by 61% from 4.33 per 1,000 encounters in the Pre-program period to 1.67 in the Post-program period. Trend analysis of the post-vaccine period showed, among women of vaccine eligible age, a significant year-on-year reduction in the rate of genital warts management (p<0.0001) and a significant increase in the management rate of control conditions per year (p<0.0001). For all other age-sex groups there was no significant change in the management rate of genital warts between the Pre- and Post-program periods. Conclusion The large decrease in general practice management of genital warts in women of vaccine-eligible age highlights the success of the program in the wider community. PMID:25180698

  2. Decreased management of genital warts in young women in Australian general practice post introduction of national HPV vaccination program: results from a nationally representative cross-sectional general practice study.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Christopher; Britt, Helena; Garland, Suzanne; Conway, Lynne; Stein, Alicia; Pirotta, Marie; Fairley, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Since the introduction of Australia's human papillomavirus vaccination program, the management rate of genital warts in sexual health clinics and private hospitals has decreased in women of vaccine-eligible age. However, most genital warts in Australia are managed in general practice. This study examines whether a similar decrease occurred in Australian general practice after the introduction of the program. Analysis of a nationally representative cross-sectional database of Australian general practice activity (1,175,879 patient encounters with 11,780 general practitioners). Genital warts management rates were estimated for the periods before and after introduction of the program (Pre-program, July 2002-June 2006; Post-program, July 2008-June 2012). Control conditions included genital herpes and gardnerella/bacterial vaginosis in female patients and genital herpes and urethritis in male patients. Trends in management rates by year, pre-vaccine (July 2000-June 2007) and post-vaccine (July 2007-June 2012) were also calculated. Management rate of genital warts among women potentially covered by program (aged 15-27 years) decreased by 61% from 4.33 per 1,000 encounters in the Pre-program period to 1.67 in the Post-program period. Trend analysis of the post-vaccine period showed, among women of vaccine eligible age, a significant year-on-year reduction in the rate of genital warts management (p<0.0001) and a significant increase in the management rate of control conditions per year (p<0.0001). For all other age-sex groups there was no significant change in the management rate of genital warts between the Pre- and Post-program periods. The large decrease in general practice management of genital warts in women of vaccine-eligible age highlights the success of the program in the wider community.

  3. A homomeric geranyl diphosphate synthase-encoding gene from Camptotheca acuminata and its combinatorial optimization for production of geraniol in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lixia; Jiang, Liangzhen; Li, Wei; Yang, Yun; Zhang, Guolin; Luo, Yinggang

    2017-10-01

    Geranyl diphosphate (GPP), the unique precursor for all monoterpenoids, is biosynthesized from isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate via the head-to-tail condensation reaction catalyzed by GPP synthase (GPPS). Herein a homomeric GPPS from Camptotheca acuminata, a camptothecin-producing plant, was obtained from 5'- and 3'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends and subsequent overlap extension and convenient PCR amplifications. The truncate CaGPPS was introduced to replace ispA of pBbA5c-MevT(CO)-MBIS(CO, ispA), a de novo biosynthetic construct for farnesyl diphosphate generation, and overexpressed in Escherichia coli, together with the truncate geraniol synthase-encoding gene from C. acuminata (tCaGES), to confirm CaGPPS-catalyzed reaction in vivo. A 24.0 ± 1.3 mg L -1 of geraniol was produced in the recombinant E. coli. The production of GPP was also validated by the direct UPLC-HRMS E analyses. The tCaGPPS and tCaGES genes with different copy numbers were introduced into E. coli to balance their catalytic potential for high-yield geraniol production. A 1.6-fold increase of geraniol production was obtained when four copies of tCaGPPS and one copy of tCaGES were introduced into E. coli. The following fermentation conditions optimization, including removal of organic layers and addition of new n-decane, led to a 74.6 ± 6.5 mg L -1 of geraniol production. The present study suggested that the gene copy number optimization, i.e., the ratio of tCaGPPS and tCaGES, plays an important role in geraniol production in the recombinant E. coli. The removal and addition of organic solvent are very useful for sustainable high-yield production of geraniol in the recombinant E. coli in view of that the solubility of geraniol is limited in the fermentation broth and/or n-decane.

  4. Human papillomavirus genotypes in genital warts in Latin America: a cross-sectional study in Bogota, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Suarez, G; Pineros, M; Vargas, J C; Orjuela, L; Hernandez, F; Peroza, C; Torres, D; Escobar, A; Perez, G

    2013-07-01

    Epidemiological studies on benign lesions related to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection are scarce in Latin America. We enrolled 342 consecutive patients with lesions suspected of being genital warts (GW). All patients underwent confirmatory biopsy and GP5+/GP6+/- Reverse Line Blot HPV testing on frozen tissue. In 261 (81%) cases, the diagnosis was confirmed by histopathology and HPV was detected in 90.6% of men and 87.7% of women. HPV 6 was by far the most common type in both women (62%) and men (56%), followed by HPV 11 (∼20%). Co-infection with these two types occurred in 7% and 12% of women and men, respectively. HPV16 ranked third in prevalence, with 16% of patients testing positive. Twenty-five percent of cases tested positive for multiple HPV genotypes. Although HPV 6 and HPV 11 were the main types detected and no differences between men and women were observed, we found HPV 11 contributed more to GW aetiology compared with previous reports, showing a variability of HPV type distribution in GW across populations. This information is valuable baseline data in Latin America for future estimations of the burden of GW in men and women and shows the potential benefit obtainable by prophylactic vaccination against HPV types 6 and 11.

  5. Expansion of banana (Musa acuminata) gene families involved in ethylene biosynthesis and signalling after lineage-specific whole-genome duplications.

    PubMed

    Jourda, Cyril; Cardi, Céline; Mbéguié-A-Mbéguié, Didier; Bocs, Stéphanie; Garsmeur, Olivier; D'Hont, Angélique; Yahiaoui, Nabila

    2014-05-01

    Whole-genome duplications (WGDs) are widespread in plants, and three lineage-specific WGDs occurred in the banana (Musa acuminata) genome. Here, we analysed the impact of WGDs on the evolution of banana gene families involved in ethylene biosynthesis and signalling, a key pathway for banana fruit ripening. Banana ethylene pathway genes were identified using comparative genomics approaches and their duplication modes and expression profiles were analysed. Seven out of 10 banana ethylene gene families evolved through WGD and four of them (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACS), ethylene-insensitive 3-like (EIL), ethylene-insensitive 3-binding F-box (EBF) and ethylene response factor (ERF)) were preferentially retained. Banana orthologues of AtEIN3 and AtEIL1, two major genes for ethylene signalling in Arabidopsis, were particularly expanded. This expansion was paralleled by that of EBF genes which are responsible for control of EIL protein levels. Gene expression profiles in banana fruits suggested functional redundancy for several MaEBF and MaEIL genes derived from WGD and subfunctionalization for some of them. We propose that EIL and EBF genes were co-retained after WGD in banana to maintain balanced control of EIL protein levels and thus avoid detrimental effects of constitutive ethylene signalling. In the course of evolution, subfunctionalization was favoured to promote finer control of ethylene signalling. © 2014 CIRAD New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  6. Dietary Administration of Banana (Musa acuminata) Peel Flour Affects the Growth, Antioxidant Status, Cytokine Responses, and Disease Susceptibility of Rohu, Labeo rohita

    PubMed Central

    Giri, Sib Sankar; Jun, Jin Woo; Sukumaran, Venkatachalam; Park, Se Chang

    2016-01-01

    To explore the feasibility of Musa acuminata (banana) peels as a feed additive, effects of banana peel flour (BPF) on the growth and immune functions of Labeo rohita were evaluated. Diets containing five different concentrations of BPF (0% [basal diet], 1% [B1], 3% [B3], 5% [B5], and 7% [B7]) were fed to the fish (average weight: 15.3 g) for 60 days. The final weight gain and specific growth rate were higher (P < 0.05) in the B5 group. The most significant improvements in immune parameters such as lysozyme, alternative complement pathway, leukocyte phagocytic, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities were observed in the B5 group. However, the B5 group exhibited the lowest malondialdehyde activity. IgM and glutathione peroxidise activities were significantly elevated in the treatment groups, except in B1, after only 30 days of feeding. Of the examined cytokine-related genes, IL-1β, TNF-α, and HSP70 were upregulated in the head kidney and hepatopancreas, and expressions were generally higher in the B3 and B5 groups. Moreover, B5 group challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila 60 days after feeding exhibited the highest survival rate (70%; P < 0.05). These results suggest that dietary BPF at 5% could promote growth performance and strengthen immunity in L. rohita. PMID:27294156

  7. Dietary Administration of Banana (Musa acuminata) Peel Flour Affects the Growth, Antioxidant Status, Cytokine Responses, and Disease Susceptibility of Rohu, Labeo rohita.

    PubMed

    Giri, Sib Sankar; Jun, Jin Woo; Sukumaran, Venkatachalam; Park, Se Chang

    2016-01-01

    To explore the feasibility of Musa acuminata (banana) peels as a feed additive, effects of banana peel flour (BPF) on the growth and immune functions of Labeo rohita were evaluated. Diets containing five different concentrations of BPF (0% [basal diet], 1% [B1], 3% [B3], 5% [B5], and 7% [B7]) were fed to the fish (average weight: 15.3 g) for 60 days. The final weight gain and specific growth rate were higher (P < 0.05) in the B5 group. The most significant improvements in immune parameters such as lysozyme, alternative complement pathway, leukocyte phagocytic, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities were observed in the B5 group. However, the B5 group exhibited the lowest malondialdehyde activity. IgM and glutathione peroxidise activities were significantly elevated in the treatment groups, except in B1, after only 30 days of feeding. Of the examined cytokine-related genes, IL-1β, TNF-α, and HSP70 were upregulated in the head kidney and hepatopancreas, and expressions were generally higher in the B3 and B5 groups. Moreover, B5 group challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila 60 days after feeding exhibited the highest survival rate (70%; P < 0.05). These results suggest that dietary BPF at 5% could promote growth performance and strengthen immunity in L. rohita.

  8. Identification of pectenotoxins in plankton, filter feeders, and isolated cells of a Dinophysis acuminata with an atypical toxin profile, from Chile.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Juan; Alvarez, Gonzalo; Uribe, Eduardo

    2007-04-01

    A bloom of Dinophysis acuminata produced, in autumn of 2005, a closure of the scallop harvesting in Bahía Inglesa, in the Chilean III region. Isolated cells of this Dinophysis species were shown to contain 180 pg cell(-1) of pectenotoxin 2 but neither okadaic acid nor any of its analogs or derivatives (at least at a detectable level). Examination of plankton and filter-feeder samples covering an area of ca. 350 km, from the location where the toxicity was recorded to Bahía Tongoy, showed that the unique toxin profile found in the first bloom was widespread over that part of Chile and persisted for months. The analysis were carried out by HPLC-ESI-MS using positive ionization mode, with a detection limit below 2 ng of OA mL(-1) of methanolic extract. This is the first report of the presence of pectenotoxins in the plankton of the Pacific coast of America and in the studied filter feeders. This is also the first report of a Dinophysis species containing pectenotoxins and not any toxin of the okadaic acid group.

  9. Content of polyphenolic compounds in the Nigerian stimulants Cola nitida ssp. alba, Cola nitida ssp. rubra A. Chev, and Cola acuminata Schott & Endl and their antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Atawodi, Sunday Ene-Ojo; Pfundstein, Beate; Haubner, Roswitha; Spiegelhalder, Bertold; Bartsch, Helmut; Owen, Robert Wyn

    2007-11-28

    Varieties of kola nuts (Cola nitida alba, Cola nitida rubra A. Chev, and Cola acuminata Schott & Endl), a group of popular Nigerian and West African stimulants, were analyzed for their content of secondary plant metabolites. The three varieties of the kola nuts contained appreciable levels of (+)-catechin (27-37 g/kg), caffeine (18-24 g/kg), (-)-epicatechin (20-21 g/kg), procyanidin B 1 [epicatechin-(4beta-->8)-catechin] (15-19 g/kg), and procyanidin B2 [epicatechin-(4beta-->8)-epicatechin] (7-10 g/kg). Antioxidant capacity of the extracts and purified metabolites was assessed by two HPLC-based and two colorimetric in vitro assays. Extracts of all varieties exhibited antioxidant capacity with IC 50 values in the range 1.70-2.83 and 2.74-4.08 mg/mL in the hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase and 2-deoxyguanosine HPLC-based assays, respectively. Utilization of HPLC-based assays designed to reflect in situ generation of free radicals (e.g., HO(*)), as opposed to general assays (DPPH, FRAP) in common use which do not, indicate that, of the major secondary plant metabolites present in kola nut extracts, caffeine is potentially the more effective cancer chemopreventive metabolite in terms of its antioxidant capacity.

  10. The Hippo Pathway Targets Rae1 to Regulate Mitosis and Organ Size and to Feed Back to Regulate Upstream Components Merlin, Hippo, and Warts.

    PubMed

    Jahanshahi, Maryam; Hsiao, Kuangfu; Jenny, Andreas; Pfleger, Cathie M

    2016-08-01

    Hippo signaling acts as a master regulatory pathway controlling growth, proliferation, and apoptosis and also ensures that variations in proliferation do not alter organ size. How the pathway coordinates restricting proliferation with organ size control remains a major unanswered question. Here we identify Rae1 as a highly-conserved target of the Hippo Pathway integrating proliferation and organ size. Genetic and biochemical studies in Drosophila cells and tissues and in mammalian cells indicate that Hippo signaling promotes Rae1 degradation downstream of Warts/Lats. In proliferating cells, Rae1 loss restricts cyclin B levels and organ size while Rae1 over-expression increases cyclin B levels and organ size, similar to Hippo Pathway over-activation or loss-of-function, respectively. Importantly, Rae1 regulation by the Hippo Pathway is crucial for its regulation of cyclin B and organ size; reducing Rae1 blocks cyclin B accumulation and suppresses overgrowth caused by Hippo Pathway loss. Surprisingly, in addition to suppressing overgrowth, reducing Rae1 also compromises survival of epithelial tissue overgrowing due to loss of Hippo signaling leading to a tissue "synthetic lethality" phenotype. Excitingly, Rae1 plays a highly conserved role to reduce the levels and activity of the Yki/YAP oncogene. Rae1 increases activation of the core kinases Hippo and Warts and plays a post-transcriptional role to increase the protein levels of the Merlin, Hippo, and Warts components of the pathway; therefore, in addition to Rae1 coordinating organ size regulation with proliferative control, we propose that Rae1 also acts in a feedback circuit to regulate pathway homeostasis.

  11. Human Papillomavirus and Genital Warts: A Review of the Evidence for the 2015 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Park, Ina U; Introcaso, Camille; Dunne, Eileen F

    2015-12-15

    To provide updates for the 2015 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines on human papillomavirus (HPV) and anogenital warts (AGWs), a review of the literature was conducted in key topic areas: (1) epidemiology and burden of disease; (2) transmission and natural history; (3) diagnosis and management of AGWs; (4) occupational exposure of healthcare workers; (5) anal cancer screening among men who have sex with men (MSM); and (6) HPV vaccine recommendations. Most sexually active persons will have detectable HPV at least once in their lifetime; 14 million persons are infected annually, and 79 million persons have prevalent infection. HPV is transmitted frequently between partners; more frequent transmission has been reported from females to males than from males to females. A new formulation of imiquimod (3.75% cream) is recommended for AGW treatment. Appropriate infection control, including performing laser or electrocautery in ventilated rooms using standard precautions, is recommended to prevent possible transmission to healthcare workers who treat anogenital warts, oral warts, and anogenital intraepithelial neoplasias (eg, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia). Data are insufficient to recommend routine anal cancer screening with anal cytology in persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS or HIV-negative MSM. An annual digital anorectal examination may be useful for early detection of anal cancer in these populations. HPV vaccine is recommended routinely for 11- or 12-year-olds, as well as for young men through age 21 years and young women through age 26 years who have not previously been vaccinated. HPV vaccine is also recommended for MSM, people living with HIV/AIDS, and immunocompromised persons through age 26 years. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Significant Reduction in the Incidence of Genital Warts in Young Men 5 Years into the Danish Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Program for Girls and Women.

    PubMed

    Bollerup, Signe; Baldur-Felskov, Birgitte; Blomberg, Maria; Baandrup, Louise; Dehlendorff, Christian; Kjaer, Susanne K

    2016-04-01

    Denmark introduced the quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine into the vaccination program for 12- to 15-year-old girls in 2008 to 2009. In 2012, the program was supplemented with a catch-up program for women aged up to 27 years. We evaluated the effectiveness of the Danish vaccination program on the nationwide incidence of genital warts (GWs), after the second catch-up by including information on both hospital treatments and on self-administered treatment with podophyllotoxin. Genital wart incidence was investigated in both sexes; however, the main focus was on potential herd protection of men. Incident cases of GWs were identified from the Danish National Patient Register and through redemptions of prescription for podophyllotoxin in the Danish National Prescription Registry in 2006 to 2013. Age-specific incidence rates (IRs) were assessed, and estimated annual percentage change (EAPC) was calculated by Poisson regression. Genital wart incidence was either stable or increased in both sexes in 2006 to 2008. After introduction of the vaccination program, GW incidence decreased significantly in women aged 12 to 35 years and men aged 12 to 29 years, with rapid decrease among 16- to 17-year-olds (IRwomen, from 1071 to 58 per 100,000 person-years [EAPC, -55.1%; 95% confidence interval, -58.7 to-51.2]; IRmen, from 365 to 77 per 100,000 person-years [EAPC, -36.6%; 95% confidence interval, -40.5 to -32.5] in 2008-2013). We found a significantly decreasing incidence of GWs in women up to 35 years of age after the start of the human papillomavirus vaccination program. A similar pattern was observed for men aged 12 to 29 years, indicating substantial herd protection.

  13. The Hippo Pathway Targets Rae1 to Regulate Mitosis and Organ Size and to Feed Back to Regulate Upstream Components Merlin, Hippo, and Warts

    PubMed Central

    Jenny, Andreas; Pfleger, Cathie M.

    2016-01-01

    Hippo signaling acts as a master regulatory pathway controlling growth, proliferation, and apoptosis and also ensures that variations in proliferation do not alter organ size. How the pathway coordinates restricting proliferation with organ size control remains a major unanswered question. Here we identify Rae1 as a highly-conserved target of the Hippo Pathway integrating proliferation and organ size. Genetic and biochemical studies in Drosophila cells and tissues and in mammalian cells indicate that Hippo signaling promotes Rae1 degradation downstream of Warts/Lats. In proliferating cells, Rae1 loss restricts cyclin B levels and organ size while Rae1 over-expression increases cyclin B levels and organ size, similar to Hippo Pathway over-activation or loss-of-function, respectively. Importantly, Rae1 regulation by the Hippo Pathway is crucial for its regulation of cyclin B and organ size; reducing Rae1 blocks cyclin B accumulation and suppresses overgrowth caused by Hippo Pathway loss. Surprisingly, in addition to suppressing overgrowth, reducing Rae1 also compromises survival of epithelial tissue overgrowing due to loss of Hippo signaling leading to a tissue “synthetic lethality” phenotype. Excitingly, Rae1 plays a highly conserved role to reduce the levels and activity of the Yki/YAP oncogene. Rae1 increases activation of the core kinases Hippo and Warts and plays a post-transcriptional role to increase the protein levels of the Merlin, Hippo, and Warts components of the pathway; therefore, in addition to Rae1 coordinating organ size regulation with proliferative control, we propose that Rae1 also acts in a feedback circuit to regulate pathway homeostasis. PMID:27494403

  14. Hypocrea rufa/Trichoderma viride: a reassessment, and description of five closely related species with and without warted conidia

    PubMed Central

    Jaklitsch, Walter M.; Samuels, Gary J.; Dodd, Sarah L.; Lu, Bing-Sheng; Druzhinina, Irina S.

    2006-01-01

    The type species of the genus Hypocrea (Hypocreaceae, Hypocreales, Ascomycota, Fungi), H. rufa, is re-defined and epitypified using a combination of phenotype (morphology of teleomorphs and anamorphs, and characteristics in culture) and phylogenetic analyses of the translation-elongation factor 1α gene. Its anamorph, T. viride, the type species of Trichoderma, is re-described and epitypified. Eidamia viridescens is combined as Trichoderma viridescens and is recognised as one of the most morphologically and phylogenetically similar relatives of T. viride. Its teleomorph is newly described as Hypocrea viridescens. Contrary to frequent citations of H. rufa and T. viride in the literature, this species is relatively rare. Although both T. viride and T. viridescens have a wide geographic distribution, their greatest genetic diversity appears to be in Europe and North America. Hypocrea vinosa is characterised and its anamorph, T. vinosum sp. nov., is described. Conidia of T. vinosum are subglobose and warted. The new species T. gamsii is proposed. It shares eidamia-like morphology of conidiophores with T. viridescens, but it has smooth, ellipsoidal conidia that have the longest L/W ratio that we have seen in Trichoderma. Trichoderma scalesiae, an endophyte of trunks of Scalesia pedunculata in the Galapagos Islands, is described as new. It only produces conidia on a low-nutrient agar to which filter paper has been added. Additional phylogenetically distinct clades are recognised and provisionally delimited from the species here described. Trichoderma neokoningii, a T. koningii-like species, is described from a collection made in Peru on a fruit of Theobroma cacao infected with Moniliophthora roreri. PMID:18490991

  15. A cross-sectional study estimating the burden of illness related to genital warts in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Taek Sang; Kothari-Talwar, Smita; Singhal, Puneet K; Yee, Karen; Kulkarni, Amit; Lara, Nuria; Roset, Montserrat; Giuliano, Anna R; Garland, Suzanne M; Ju, Woong

    2017-07-02

    Estimate the prevalence of genital warts (GW) and GW-related healthcare resource use and costs among male and female patients seeking treatment in South Korea. To estimate GW prevalence, physicians in five major South Korean regions recorded daily logs of patients (n=71 655) seeking care between July 26 and September 27, 2011. Overall prevalence estimates (and 95% CIs) were weighted by the estimated number of physicians in each specialty and the estimated proportion of total patients visiting each specialist type. Healthcare resource use was compared among different specialties. Corresponding p values were calculated using Mann-Whitney U tests. The database covers 5098 clinics and hospitals for five major regions in South Korea: Seoul, Busan, Daegu, Gwangju and Daejeon. Primary care physicians (general practice/family medicine), obstetricians/gynaecologists, urologists and dermatologists with 2-30 years' experience. The estimated overall GW prevalence was 0.7% (95% CI 0.7% to 0.8%). Among women, GW prevalence was 0.6% (95% CI 0.6% to 0.7%); among men prevalence was 1.0% (95% CI 0.9% to 1.0%), peaking among patients aged 18-24 years. Median costs for GW diagnosis and treatment for male patients were US$58.2 (South Korean Won (KRW) ₩66 857) and US$66.3 (KRW₩76 113) for female patients. The estimated overall GW prevalence in South Korea was 0.7% and was higher for male patients. The overall median costs associated with a GW episode were higher for female patients than for male patients. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. A cross-sectional study estimating the burden of illness related to genital warts in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Taek Sang; Kothari-Talwar, Smita; Singhal, Puneet K; Yee, Karen; Kulkarni, Amit; Lara, Nuria; Roset, Montserrat; Giuliano, Anna R; Garland, Suzanne M; Ju, Woong

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Estimate the prevalence of genital warts (GW) and GW-related healthcare resource use and costs among male and female patients seeking treatment in South Korea. Design To estimate GW prevalence, physicians in five major South Korean regions recorded daily logs of patients (n=71 655) seeking care between July 26 and September 27, 2011. Overall prevalence estimates (and 95% CIs) were weighted by the estimated number of physicians in each specialty and the estimated proportion of total patients visiting each specialist type. Healthcare resource use was compared among different specialties. Corresponding p values were calculated using Mann-Whitney U tests. Setting The database covers 5098 clinics and hospitals for five major regions in South Korea: Seoul, Busan, Daegu, Gwangju and Daejeon. Participants Primary care physicians (general practice/family medicine), obstetricians/gynaecologists, urologists and dermatologists with 2–30 years’ experience. Results The estimated overall GW prevalence was 0.7% (95% CI 0.7% to 0.8%). Among women, GW prevalence was 0.6% (95% CI 0.6% to 0.7%); among men prevalence was 1.0% (95% CI 0.9% to 1.0%), peaking among patients aged 18–24 years. Median costs for GW diagnosis and treatment for male patients were US$58.2 (South Korean Won (KRW) ₩66 857) and US$66.3 (KRW₩76 113) for female patients. Conclusions The estimated overall GW prevalence in South Korea was 0.7% and was higher for male patients. The overall median costs associated with a GW episode were higher for female patients than for male patients. PMID:28674130

  17. Estimation of the overall burden of cancers, precancerous lesions, and genital warts attributable to 9-valent HPV vaccine types in women and men in Europe.

    PubMed

    Hartwig, Susanne; St Guily, Jean Lacau; Dominiak-Felden, Géraldine; Alemany, Laia; de Sanjosé, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    In addition to cervical cancer, human papillomavirus (HPV) is responsible for a significant proportion of cancers and precancerous lesions of the vulva, vagina, anus, penis, head and neck, as well as genital warts. We estimated the annual number of new cases of these diseases attributable to 9-valent HPV vaccine types in women and men in Europe. The annual number of new cancers of the cervix, vulva, vagina, anus, penis, and selected head and neck sites in the population of the European Medicines Agency territory was estimated based on age-specific incidence rates extracted from Cancer Incidence in 5 Continents, Volume X and Eurostat population data for 2015. The annual number of new cancers attributable to 9-valent HPV vaccine types was estimated by applying the HPV attributable fraction from reference publications based on a large European multicenter study. For non-cervical cancers, HPV attributable fractions were based on oncogenically-active HPV infections only (i.e., detection of HPV DNA and either mRNA and/or p16 positivity). For precancerous lesions of the cervix, vulva, vagina, and anus, and for genital warts, previously published estimations were updated for the 2015 population. The annual number of new cancers attributable to 9-valent HPV vaccine types was estimated at 47,992 (95% bound: 39,785-58,511). Cervical cancer showed the highest burden (31,130 cases), followed by head and neck cancer (6,786 cases), anal cancer (6,137 cases), vulvar cancer (1,466 cases), vaginal cancer (1,360 cases), and penile cancer (1,113 cases). About 81% were estimated to occur in women and 19% in men. The annual number of new precancerous lesions (CIN2+, VIN2/3, VaIN2/3, and AIN2/3) and genital warts attributable to 9-valent HPV vaccine types was estimated at 232,103 to 442,347 and 680,344 to 844,391, respectively. The burden of cancers associated with 9-valent HPV vaccine types in Europe is substantial in both sexes. Head and neck cancers constitute a heavy burden

  18. Identification and expression analysis of four 14-3-3 genes during fruit ripening in banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA group, cv. Brazilian).

    PubMed

    Li, Mei-Ying; Xu, Bi-Yu; Liu, Ju-Hua; Yang, Xiao-Liang; Zhang, Jian-Bin; Jia, Cai-Hong; Ren, Li-Cheng; Jin, Zhi-Qiang

    2012-02-01

    To investigate the regulation of 14-3-3 proteins in banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA group, cv. Brazilian) fruit postharvest ripening, four cDNAs encoding 14-3-3 proteins were isolated from banana and designated as Ma-14-3-3a, Ma-14-3-3c, Ma-14-3-3e, and Ma-14-3-3i, respectively. Amino acid sequence alignment showed that the four 14-3-3 proteins shared a highly conserved core structure and variable C-terminal as well as N-terminal regions with 14-3-3 proteins from other plant species. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the four 14-3-3 genes belong to the non-ε groups. They were differentially and specifically expressed in various tissues. Real-time RT-PCR analysis indicated that these four genes function differentially during banana fruit postharvest ripening. Three genes, Ma-14-3-3a, Ma-14-3-3c, and Ma-14-3-3e, were significantly induced by exogenous ethylene treatment. However, gene function differed in naturally ripened fruits. Ethylene could induce Ma-14-3-3c expression during postharvest ripening, but expression patterns of Ma-14-3-3a and Ma-14-3-3e suggest that these two genes appear to be involved in regulating ethylene biosynthesis during fruit ripening. No obvious relationship emerged between Ma-14-3-3i expression in naturally ripened and 1-MCP (1-methylcyclopropene)-treated fruit groups during fruit ripening. These results indicate that the 14-3-3 proteins might be involved in various regulatory processes of banana fruit ripening. Further studies will mainly focus on revealing the detailed biological mechanisms of these four 14-3-3 genes in regulating banana fruit postharvest ripening.

  19. Activation of salicylic acid metabolism and signal transduction can enhance resistance to Fusarium wilt in banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA group, cv. Cavendish).

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhuo; Jia, Caihong; Li, Jingyang; Huang, Suzhen; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium wilt caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubens (Foc) is the most serious disease that attacks banana plants. Salicylic acid (SA) can play a key role in plant-microbe interactions. Our study is the first to examine the role of SA in conferring resistance to Foc TR4 in banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA group, cv. Cavendish), which is the greatest commercial importance cultivar in Musa. We used quantitative real-time reverse polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to analyze the expression profiles of 45 genes related to SA biosynthesis and downstream signaling pathways in a susceptible banana cultivar (cv. Cavendish) and a resistant banana cultivar (cv. Nongke No. 1) inoculated with Foc TR4. The expression of genes involved in SA biosynthesis and downstream signaling pathways was suppressed in a susceptible cultivar and activated in a resistant cultivar. The SA levels in each treatment arm were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. SA levels were decreased in the susceptible cultivar and increased in the resistant cultivar. Finally, we examined the contribution of exogenous SA to Foc TR4 resistance in susceptible banana plants. The expression of genes involved in SA biosynthesis and signal transduction pathways as well as SA levels were significantly increased. The results suggest that one reason for banana susceptibility to Foc TR4 is that expression of genes involved in SA biosynthesis and SA levels are suppressed and that the induced resistance observed in banana against Foc TR4 might be a case of salicylic acid-dependent systemic acquired resistance.

  20. A Ser/Thr protein kinase phosphorylates MA-ACS1 (Musa acuminata 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase 1) during banana fruit ripening.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Swarup Roy; Roy, Sujit; Sengupta, Dibyendu N

    2012-08-01

    1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (ACS) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in ethylene biosynthesis during ripening. ACS isozymes are regulated both transcriptionally and post-translationally. However, in banana, an important climacteric fruit, little is known about post-translational regulation of ACS. Here, we report the post-translational modification of MA-ACS1 (Musa acuminata ACS1), a ripening inducible isozyme in the ACS family, which plays a key role in ethylene biosynthesis during banana fruit ripening. Immunoprecipitation analyses of phospholabeled protein extracts from banana fruit using affinity-purified anti-MA-ACS1 antibody have revealed phosphorylation of MA-ACS1, particularly in ripe fruit tissue. We have identified the induction of a 41-kDa protein kinase activity in pulp at the onset of ripening. The 41-kDa protein kinase has been identified as a putative protein kinase by MALDI-TOF/MS analysis. Biochemical analyses using partially purified protein kinase fraction from banana fruit have identified the protein kinase as a Ser/Thr family of protein kinase and its possible involvement in MA-ACS1 phosphorylation during ripening. In vitro phosphorylation analyses using synthetic peptides and site-directed mutagenized recombinant MA-ACS1 have revealed that serine 476 and 479 residues at the C-terminal region of MA-ACS1 are phosphorylated. Overall, this study provides important novel evidence for in vivo phosphorylation of MA-ACS1 at the molecular level as a possible mechanism of post-translational regulation of this key regulatory protein in ethylene signaling pathway in banana fruit during ripening.

  1. Seasonal variation in abiotic factors and ferulic acid toxicity in snail-attractant pellets against the intermediate host snail Lymnaea acuminata.

    PubMed

    Agrahari, P; Singh, D K

    2013-11-01

    Laboratory evaluation was made to access the seasonal variations in abiotic environmental factors temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, carbon dioxide, electrical conductivity and ferulic acid toxicity in snail-attractant pellets (SAP) against the intermediate host snail Lymnaea acuminata in each month of the years 2010 and 2011. On the basis of a 24-h toxicity assay, it was noted that lethal concentration values of 4.03, 3.73% and 4.45% in SAP containing starch and 4.16, 4.23% and 4.29% in SAP containing proline during the months of May, June and September, respectively, were most effective in killing the snails, while SAP containing starch/proline + ferulic acid was least effective in the month of January/February (24-h lethal concentration value was 7.67%/7.63% in SAP). There was a significant positive correlation between lethal concentration value of ferulic acid containing SAP and levels of dissolved O2 /pH of water in corresponding months. On the contrary, a negative correlation was observed between lethal concentration value and dissolved CO2 /temperature of test water in the same months. To ascertain that such a relationship between toxicity and abiotic factors is not co-incidental, the nervous tissue of treated (40% and 80% of 24-h lethal concentration value) and control group of snails was assayed for the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in each of the 12 months of the same year. There was a maximum inhibition of 58.43% of AChE, in snails exposed to 80% of the 24-h lethal concentration value of ferulic acid + starch in the month of May. This work shows conclusively that the best time to control snail population with SAP containing ferulic acid is during the months of May, June and September. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. The transcriptional regulatory network mediated by banana (Musa acuminata) dehydration-responsive element binding (MaDREB) transcription factors in fruit ripening.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Jian-Fei; Chen, Jian-Ye; Liu, Xun-Cheng; Han, Yan-Chao; Xiao, Yun-Yi; Shan, Wei; Tang, Yang; Wu, Ke-Qiang; He, Jun-Xian; Lu, Wang-Jin

    2017-04-01

    Fruit ripening is a complex, genetically programmed process involving the action of critical transcription factors (TFs). Despite the established significance of dehydration-responsive element binding (DREB) TFs in plant abiotic stress responses, the involvement of DREBs in fruit ripening is yet to be determined. Here, we identified four genes encoding ripening-regulated DREB TFs in banana (Musa acuminata), MaDREB1, MaDREB2, MaDREB3, and MaDREB4, and demonstrated that they play regulatory roles in fruit ripening. We showed that MaDREB1-MaDREB4 are nucleus-localized, induced by ethylene and encompass transcriptional activation activities. We performed a genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation and high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-Seq) experiment for MaDREB2 and identified 697 genomic regions as potential targets of MaDREB2. MaDREB2 binds to hundreds of loci with diverse functions and its binding sites are distributed in the promoter regions proximal to the transcriptional start site (TSS). Most of the MaDREB2-binding targets contain the conserved (A/G)CC(G/C)AC motif and MaDREB2 appears to directly regulate the expression of a number of genes involved in fruit ripening. In combination with transcriptome profiling (RNA sequencing) data, our results indicate that MaDREB2 may serve as both transcriptional activator and repressor during banana fruit ripening. In conclusion, our study suggests a hierarchical regulatory model of fruit ripening in banana and that the MaDREB TFs may act as transcriptional regulators in the regulatory network. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  3. Highly efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of embryogenic cell suspensions of Musa acuminata cv. Mas (AA) via a liquid co-cultivation system.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xia; Huang, Xue-Lin; Xiao, Wang; Zhao, Jie-Tang; Dai, Xue-Mei; Chen, Yun-Feng; Li, Xiao-Ju

    2007-10-01

    A high efficient protocol of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Musa acuminata cv. Mas (AA), a major banana variety of the South East Asia region, was developed in this study. Male-flower-derived embryogenic cell suspensions (ECS) were co-cultivated in liquid medium with Agrobacterium strain EHA105 harboring a binary vector pCAMBIA2301 carrying nptII and gusA gene in the T-DNA. Depending upon conditions and duration of co-cultivation in liquid medium, 0-490 transgenic plants per 0.5 ml packed cell volume (PCV) of ECS were obtained. The optimum duration of inoculation was 2 h, and the highest transformation frequency was achieved when infected ECS were co-cultivated in liquid medium first for 12 h at 40 rpm and then for 156 h at 100 rpm on a rotary shaker. Co-cultivation for a shorter duration (72 h) or shaking constantly at 100 rpm at the same duration gave 1.6 and 1.8 folds lower transformation efficiency, respectively. No transgenic plants were obtained in parallel experiments carried on semi-solid media. Histochemical GUS assay and molecular analysis in several tissues of the transgenic plants demonstrated that foreign genes were stably integrated into the banana genome. Compared to semi-solid co-cultivation transformation in other banana species, it is remarkable that liquid co-cultivation was much more efficient for transformation of the Mas cultivar, and was at least 1 month faster for regenerating transgenic plants.

  4. Phase I safety and antigenicity of TA-GW: a recombinant HPV6 L2E7 vaccine for the treatment of genital warts.

    PubMed

    Thompson, H S; Davies, M L; Holding, F P; Fallon, R E; Mann, A E; O'Neill, T; Roberts, J S

    1999-01-01

    A phase I double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was carried out in healthy subjects to assess the safety and immunogenicity of TA-GW, a recombinant HPV6 L2E7 fusion protein vaccine for the treatment of genital warts. Forty-two healthy male volunteers were randomised to receive three intramuscular injections of either 0, 3, 30 or 300 microg of recombinant L2E7 adsorbed onto Alhydrogel. Two vaccination schedules were compared: weeks 0, 1 and 4 (accelerated schedule) and weeks 0, 4 and 8 (classical schedule). Subjects were monitored for adverse events throughout. Immunogenicity was assessed by measuring L2E7 specific in vitro T cell proliferative responses, production of IFNgamma and IL-5 and serum antibodies. Dose-dependent and long-lived T and B cell immune responses were elicited by TA-GW with both vaccination schedules. In conclusion, TA-GW is both safe, well-tolerated and immunogenic. The results allow the selection of the 300-microg vaccine formulation and accelerated vaccination schedule for phase II trials in patients with genital warts.

  5. Lidocaine/prilocaine cream (EMLA(R)) versus infiltration anaesthesia: a comparison of the analgesic efficacy for punch biopsy and electrocoagulation of genital warts in men.

    PubMed Central

    vd Berg, G M; Lillieborg, S; Stolz, E

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To compare analgesic efficacy and pain caused by administration of lidocaine/prilocaine cream (EMLA(R)) versus xylocaine 1% local infiltration for punch biopsy and electrocoagulation of genital warts in men. DESIGN--Open randomised comparative parallel-group study. SETTING--Department of Dermatovenereology, University Hospital Rotterdam/Dijkzigt, the Netherlands. PATIENTS--63 males with warts on the genital mucosa and/or perianal area. METHODS--EMLA(R) cream (2.5-5 g) was applied during 13-45 minutes before surgery. Xylocaine 1% (0.1-4 ml) was infiltrated 0.5-4 minutes before surgery. Pain during administration and surgery was assessed by the patient on a verbal rating scale and on a visual analogue scale. RESULTS--EMLA(R) application was painless in all patients (n = 31) whereas xylocaine infiltration was slightly painful in 17/29 patients and moderately painful in 10/29 patients. EMLA(R) analgesia was satisfactory for 94% of biopsies and 62% of electrocoagulations. Xylocaine infiltration was satisfactory in all procedures. CONCLUSIONS--EMLA(R) application on the male genital mucosa is painless but it has a lower analgesic efficacy than xylocaine infiltration. However EMLA is a useful anaesthetic for taking biopsies in this area and may be used as premedication for local infiltration. PMID:1607191

  6. Early direct and indirect impact of quadrivalent HPV (4HPV) vaccine on genital warts: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mariani, Luciano; Vici, Patrizia; Suligoi, Barbara; Checcucci-Lisi, Giovanni; Drury, Rosybel

    2015-01-01

    Since 2007, many countries have implemented national human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programs with the quadrivalent HPV (4HPV) vaccine that has been shown to be efficacious in clinical trials involving 25,000 subjects. Two vaccine serotypes, HPV16 and 18, are responsible for cervical cancer and other HPV-related cancers, but the impact of the 4HPV vaccine on these cancers cannot be seen immediately as there is a considerable lag between infection with HPV and cancer development. The other two serotypes, HPV6 and 11, are responsible for genital warts (GWs), which develop within a few months after infection, making GWs an early clinical endpoint for the assessment of the impact of 4HPV vaccination. We performed a systematic literature search in PubMed to identify all published studies on 4HPV vaccination, including those that assessed the impact of 4HPV vaccination programs on the incidence of GWs at a population level around the world. A total of 354 records were identified in the PubMed search. After screening and obtaining full papers for 56 publications, 16 publications presenting data on the impact or effectiveness of 4HPV vaccination on GWs were identified. These reported data on the impact or effectiveness of 4HPV in six countries [Australia (n = 6), New Zealand (n = 2), United States (n = 3), Denmark (n = 2), Germany (n = 1), and Sweden (n = 2)]. In Australia, no GWs were diagnosed in women aged <21 years who reported being vaccinated. A 92.6% reduction in GWs incidence was reported for all women in this age group, where the vaccine uptake rate (VUR) was 70% for 3 doses. The highest reductions were reported in countries with high VURs, mostly through school-based vaccination programs, although high VURs were obtained with some non-school-based programs. The results are coherent with the GWs incidence reduction reported in clinical trials and are an early indicator of what can be expected for the long-term clinical impact on vaccine-type HPV

  7. Inclusion of the benefits of enhanced cross-protection against cervical cancer and prevention of genital warts in the cost-effectiveness analysis of human papillomavirus vaccination in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Westra, Tjalke A; Stirbu-Wagner, Irina; Dorsman, Sara; Tutuhatunewa, Eric D; de Vrij, Edwin L; Nijman, Hans W; Daemen, Toos; Wilschut, Jan C; Postma, Maarten J

    2013-02-07

    Infection with HPV 16 and 18, the major causative agents of cervical cancer, can be prevented through vaccination with a bivalent or quadrivalent vaccine. Both vaccines provide cross-protection against HPV-types not included in the vaccines. In particular, the bivalent vaccine provides additional protection against HPV 31, 33, and 45 and the quadrivalent vaccine against HPV31. The quadrivalent vaccine additionally protects against low-risk HPV type 6 and 11, responsible for most cases of genital warts. In this study, we made an analytical comparison of the two vaccines in terms of cost-effectiveness including the additional benefits of cross-protection and protection against genital warts in comparison with a screening-only strategy. We used a Markov model, simulating the progression from HPV infection to cervical cancer or genital warts. The model was used to estimate the difference in future costs and health effects of both HPV-vaccines separately. In a cohort of 100,000 women, use of the bivalent or quadrivalent vaccine (both at 50% vaccination coverage) reduces the cervical cancer incidence by 221 and 207 cases, corresponding to ICERs of €17,600/QALY and €18,900/QALY, respectively. It was estimated that the quadrivalent vaccine additionally prevents 4390 cases of genital warts, reducing the ICER to €16,300/QALY. Assuming a comparable willingness to pay for cancer and genital warts prevention, the difference in ICERs could justify a slightly higher price (~7% per dose) in favor of the quadrivalent vaccine. Clearly, HPV vaccination has been implemented for the prevention of cervical cancer. From this perspective, use of the bivalent HPV vaccine appears to be most effective and cost-effective. Including the benefits of prevention against genital warts, the ICER of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine was found to be slightly more favourable. However, current decision-making on the introduction of HPV is driven by the primary cervical cancer outcome. New vaccine

  8. Inclusion of the benefits of enhanced cross-protection against cervical cancer and prevention of genital warts in the cost-effectiveness analysis of human papillomavirus vaccination in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Infection with HPV 16 and 18, the major causative agents of cervical cancer, can be prevented through vaccination with a bivalent or quadrivalent vaccine. Both vaccines provide cross-protection against HPV-types not included in the vaccines. In particular, the bivalent vaccine provides additional protection against HPV 31, 33, and 45 and the quadrivalent vaccine against HPV31. The quadrivalent vaccine additionally protects against low-risk HPV type 6 and 11, responsible for most cases of genital warts. In this study, we made an analytical comparison of the two vaccines in terms of cost-effectiveness including the additional benefits of cross-protection and protection against genital warts in comparison with a screening-only strategy. Methods We used a Markov model, simulating the progression from HPV infection to cervical cancer or genital warts. The model was used to estimate the difference in future costs and health effects of both HPV-vaccines separately. Results In a cohort of 100,000 women, use of the bivalent or quadrivalent vaccine (both at 50% vaccination coverage) reduces the cervical cancer incidence by 221 and 207 cases, corresponding to ICERs of €17,600/QALY and €18,900/QALY, respectively. It was estimated that the quadrivalent vaccine additionally prevents 4390 cases of genital warts, reducing the ICER to €16,300/QALY. Assuming a comparable willingness to pay for cancer and genital warts prevention, the difference in ICERs could justify a slightly higher price (~7% per dose) in favor of the quadrivalent vaccine. Conclusions Clearly, HPV vaccination has been implemented for the prevention of cervical cancer. From this perspective, use of the bivalent HPV vaccine appears to be most effective and cost-effective. Including the benefits of prevention against genital warts, the ICER of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine was found to be slightly more favourable. However, current decision-making on the introduction of HPV is driven by the primary

  9. Functional characterization of a geraniol synthase-encoding gene from Camptotheca acuminata and its application in production of geraniol in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fei; Li, Wei; Jiang, Liangzhen; Pu, Xiang; Yang, Yun; Zhang, Guolin; Luo, Yinggang

    2016-09-01

    Geraniol synthase (GES) catalyzes the conversion of geranyl diphosphate (GPP) into geraniol, an acyclic monoterpene alcohol that has been widely used in many industries. Here we report the functional characterization of CaGES from Camptotheca acuminata, a camptothecin-producing plant, and its application in production of geraniol in Escherichia coli. The full-length cDNA of CaGES was obtained from overlap extension PCR amplification. The intact and N-terminus-truncated CaGESs were overexpressed in E. coli and purified to homogeneity. Recombinant CaGES showed the conversion activity from GPP to geraniol. To produce geraniol in E. coli using tCaGES, the biosynthetic precursor GPP should be supplied and transferred to the catalytic pocket of tCaGES. Thus, ispA(S80F), a mutant of farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) synthase, was prepared to produce GPP via the head-to-tail condensation of isoprenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). A slight increase of geraniol production was observed in the fermentation broth of the recombinant E. coli harboring tCaGES and ispA(S80F). To enhance the supply of IPP and DMAPP, the encoding genes involved in the whole mevalonic acid biosynthetic pathway were introduced to the E. coli harboring tCaGES and the ispA(S80F) and a significant increase of geraniol yield was observed. The geraniol production was enhanced to 5.85 ± 0.46 mg L(-1) when another copy of ispA(S80F) was introduced to the above recombinant strain. The following optimization of medium composition, fermentation time, and addition of metal ions led to the geraniol production of 48.5 ± 0.9 mg L(-1). The present study will be helpful to uncover the biosynthetic enigma of camptothecin and tCaGES will be an alternative to selectively produce geraniol in E. coli with other metabolic engineering approaches.

  10. Fall in genital warts diagnoses in the general and indigenous Australian population following implementation of a national human papillomavirus vaccination program: analysis of routinely collected national hospital data.

    PubMed

    Smith, Megan A; Liu, Bette; McIntyre, Peter; Menzies, Robert; Dey, Aditi; Canfell, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination targeting females aged 12-13 years commenced in Australia in 2007, with catch-up vaccination of females aged 13-26 years continuing to 2009. Whole-population analyses, including effects on the Indigenous population, have not previously been reported. All hospital admissions between 1999-2011 involving a diagnosis of genital warts were obtained from a comprehensive national database. We compared the age-specific rates before to those after implementation of the vaccination program, according to sex and other characteristics. Admission rates decreased from mid-2007 in females aged 12-17 years (annual decline, 44.1% [95% confidence interval {CI}, 35.4%-51.6%]) and from mid-2008 in females and males aged 18-26 years (annual declines, 31.8% [95% CI, 28.4%-35.2%] and 14.0% [95% CI, 5.1%-22.1%], respectively). The overall reductions from 2006-2007 to 2010-2011 were 89.9% (95% CI, 84.4%-93.4%) for females aged 12-17 years, 72.7% (95% CI, 67.0%-77.5%) for females aged 18-26 years, and 38.3% (95% CI, 27.7%-47.2%) for males aged 18-26 years. Compared with the average annual number before program implementation, about 1000 fewer hospital admissions involved a warts diagnosis during 2010-2011. Reductions after program implementation were similar for Indigenous (86.7% [95% CI, 76.0-92.7]) and non-Indigenous (76.1% [95% CI, 71.6%-79.9%]) females aged 15-24 years (P(heterogeneity) = .08). National population-based hospital data confirm previous clinic-based reports of a marked decline in genital warts diagnoses among young people in Australia after program implementation, including indirect benefits to males. The impact of HPV vaccination appears to be similar in young Indigenous and non-Indigenous females. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. The full transcription map of mouse papillomavirus type 1 (MmuPV1) in mouse wart tissues

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bong-Hyun; Gotte, Deanna; Chen, Xiongfong; Cam, Maggie; Lambert, Paul F.

    2017-01-01

    Mouse papillomavirus type 1 (MmuPV1) provides, for the first time, the opportunity to study infection and pathogenesis of papillomaviruses in the context of laboratory mice. In this report, we define the transcriptome of MmuPV1 genome present in papillomas arising in experimentally infected mice using a combination of RNA-seq, PacBio Iso-seq, 5’ RACE, 3’ RACE, primer-walking RT-PCR, RNase protection, Northern blot and in situ hybridization analyses. We demonstrate that the MmuPV1 genome is transcribed unidirectionally from five major promoters (P) or transcription start sites (TSS) and polyadenylates its transcripts at two major polyadenylation (pA) sites. We designate the P7503, P360 and P859 as “early” promoters because they give rise to transcripts mostly utilizing the polyadenylation signal at nt 3844 and therefore can only encode early genes, and P7107 and P533 as “late” promoters because they give rise to transcripts utilizing polyadenylation signals at either nt 3844 or nt 7047, the latter being able to encode late, capsid proteins. MmuPV1 genome contains five splice donor sites and three acceptor sites that produce thirty-six RNA isoforms deduced to express seven predicted early gene products (E6, E7, E1, E1^M1, E1^M2, E2 and E8^E2) and three predicted late gene products (E1^E4, L2 and L1). The majority of the viral early transcripts are spliced once from nt 757 to 3139, while viral late transcripts, which are predicted to encode L1, are spliced twice, first from nt 7243 to either nt 3139 (P7107) or nt 757 to 3139 (P533) and second from nt 3431 to nt 5372. Thirteen of these viral transcripts were detectable by Northern blot analysis, with the P533-derived late E1^E4 transcripts being the most abundant. The late transcripts could be detected in highly differentiated keratinocytes of MmuPV1-infected tissues as early as ten days after MmuPV1 inoculation and correlated with detection of L1 protein and viral DNA amplification. In mature warts

  12. A placebo controlled observer blind immunocytochemical and histologic study of epithelium adjacent to anogenital warts in patients treated with systemic interferon alpha in combination with cryotherapy or cryotherapy alone.

    PubMed Central

    Handley, J M; Maw, R D; Horner, T; Lawther, H; Walsh, M; Dinsmore, W W

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine biopsy specimens of tissue immediately adjacent to anogenital (AG) warts which had been treated with either cryotherapy plus subcutaneous interferon (IFN) alpha 2a or cryotherapy alone, for histological features of (a) human papilloma virus (HPV) infection (b) localised cellular immune responses, to further characterise any cellular immune infiltrates with tissue immunocytochemistry, and to relate any histological, immunocytochemical findings to the treatment response of nearby AG warts. DESIGN--A randomised placebo controlled observer blind study. SETTING--Genitourinary Medicine clinic, Department of Immunopathology, Royal Victoria Hospital, Belfast, N. Ireland. SUBJECTS--Thirty patients with AG warts; 16 treated with IFN alpha 2a plus cryotherapy, and 14 treated with cryotherapy alone. OUTCOME MEASURES--(1) Light microscopic features associated with HPV infection and local cellular immune responses. (2) Indirect immunofluorescence detection of the following cell surface markers: HLA DR, alpha one antitrypsin, CD1, CD3, CD4, CD8, CD22. (3) Clinical response of AG warts to treatment. RESULTS--In pre-treatment biopsies only non specific indicators of HPV infection (acanthosis, 29/30 biopsies, and hyperkeratosis, 7/30 biopsies) were seen on light microscopy. Mononuclear cells were seen both throughout the upper dermis and centred around dermal blood vessels in 19/30 (63.3%) biopsies, and infiltrating into the epidermis in 12/30 (40%) biopsies. On indirect immunofluorescence CD3, CD8, CD4 antigen was detected on the surface of cells throughout the upper dermis in 24/29 (82.7%), 15/29 (51.7%), and 3/29 (10.3%), of biopsy specimens respectively. CD3 antigen, CD8 antigen and CD4 antigen was detected on the surface of cells infiltrating into the epidermis in 18/29 (62%), 7/29 (24.1%), and 6/29 (20.7%) of biopsy specimens respectively. CD1 antigen was seen on the surface of dendritic cells throughout the epidermis in all specimens; CD1 positive cells

  13. Sociodemographic and Behavioral Correlates of Anogenital Warts and Human Papilloma Virus-Related Knowledge Among Men who have Sex with Men and Trans Women in Lima, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Brandon; Monsour, Emmi; Klausner, Jeffrey D.; Galea, Jerome T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Human papilloma virus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI) globally, with a high burden of anogenital warts (AGW) among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transwomen (TW). Methods Six-hundred HIV negative MSM and TW (300 with AGW, 300 without) were recruited for a prospective cohort study to examine HPV outcomes and HPV vaccine knowledge. Participants completed a self-administered online questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics with HPV vaccine knowledge. Results The average participant age was 25.5 years. Most (67%) were single and 41.2% self-reported STI symptoms. The average age of first anal intercourse was 17 years, with self-reported sexual role as active (36%), passive (36%), and both (27%). Three quarters (77%) of participants reported engaging in condomless anal or oral sex up to six months prior to the study. Less than half (48%) of participants had heard of HPV. Participants with AGW were more likely to report that condoms helped prevent HPV (p=0.01) and that the absence of genital warts does not mean the absence of HPV (p<0.01). Conclusion Study participants had low levels of HPV knowledge but likely high HPV exposure due to condomless anal sex. The HPV knowledge gap may be explained in part by the stigma of sex work, underreporting of STIs, the high cost of the HPV vaccine in Peru, and misinformation about HPV vaccine. More work is needed to educate MSM and TW on HPV and the HPV vaccine. PMID:25763672

  14. In vitro evaluation of phosphorothioate oligonucleotides targeted to the E2 mRNA of papillomavirus: potential treatment for genital warts.

    PubMed Central

    Cowsert, L M; Fox, M C; Zon, G; Mirabelli, C K

    1993-01-01

    Papillomaviruses induce benign proliferative lesions, such as genital warts, in humans. The E2 gene product is thought to play a major role in the regulation of viral transcription and DNA replication and may represent a rational target for an antisense oligonucleotide drug action. Phosphorothioate oligonucleotides complementary to E2 mRNAs were synthesized and tested in a series of in vitro bovine papillomavirus (BPV) and human papillomavirus (HPV) models for the ability to inhibit E2 transactivation and virus-induced focus formation. The most active BPV-specific compounds were complementary to the mRNA cap region (ISIS 1751), the translation initiation region for the full-length E2 transactivator (ISIS 1753), and the translation initiation region for the E2 transrepressor mRNA (ISIS 1755). ISIS 1751 and ISIS 1753 were found to reduce E2-dependent transactivation and viral focus formation in a sequence-specific and concentration-dependent manner. ISIS 1755 increased E2 transactivation in a dose-dependent manner but had no effect on focus formation. Oligonucleotides with a chain length of 20 residues had optimal activity in the E2 transactivation assay. On the basis of the above observations, ISIS 2105, a 20-residue phosphorothioate oligonucleotide targeted to the translation initiation of both HPV type 6 (HPV-6) and HPV-11 E2 mRNA, was designed and shown to inhibit E2-dependent transactivation by HPV-11 E2 expressed from a surrogate promoter. These observations support the rationale of E2 as a target for antiviral therapy against papillomavirus infections and specifically identify ISIS 2105 as a candidate antisense oligonucleotide for the treatment of genital warts induced by HPV-6 and HPV-11. Images PMID:8383937

  15. Sociodemographic and behavioral correlates of anogenital warts and human papillomavirus-related knowledge among men who have sex with men and transwomen in Lima, Peru.

    PubMed

    Brown, Brandon; Monsour, Emmi; Klausner, Jeffrey D; Galea, Jerome T

    2015-04-01

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI) globally, with a high burden of anogenital warts (AGW) among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transwomen (TW). Six-hundred HIV negative MSM and TW (300 with AGW, 300 without) were recruited for a prospective cohort study to examine HPV outcomes and HPV vaccine knowledge. Participants completed a self-administered online questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics with HPV vaccine knowledge. The average participant age was 25.5 years. Most (67%) were single and 41.2% self-reported STI symptoms. The average age of first anal intercourse was 17 years, with self-reported sexual role as active (36%), passive (36%), and both (27%). Three quarters (77%) of participants reported engaging in condomless anal or oral sex up to six months prior to the study. Less than half (48%) of participants had heard of HPV. Participants with AGW were more likely to report that condoms helped prevent HPV (p=0.01) and that the absence of genital warts does not mean the absence of HPV (p < 0.01). Study participants had low levels of HPV knowledge but likely high HPV exposure due to condomless anal sex. The HPV knowledge gap may be explained in part by the stigma of sex work, underreporting of STIs, the high cost of the HPV vaccine in Peru, and misinformation about HPV vaccine. More work is needed to educate MSM and TW on HPV and the HPV vaccine.

  16. Clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of interventions for the treatment of anogenital warts: systematic review and economic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Thurgar, Elizabeth; Barton, Samantha; Karner, Charlotta; Edwards, Steven J

    2016-03-01

    Typically occurring on the external genitalia, anogenital warts (AGWs) are benign epithelial skin lesions caused by human papillomavirus infection. AGWs are usually painless but can be unsightly and physically uncomfortable, and affected people might experience psychological distress. The evidence base on the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of treatments for AGWs is limited. To systematically review the evidence on the clinical effectiveness of medical and surgical treatments for AGWs and to develop an economic model to estimate the cost-effectiveness of the treatments. Electronic databases (MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library databases and Web of Science) were searched from inception (or January 2000 for Web of Science) to September 2014. Bibliographies of relevant systematic reviews were hand-searched to identify potentially relevant studies. The World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched for ongoing and planned studies. A systematic review of the clinical effectiveness literature was carried out according to standard methods and a mixed-treatment comparison (MTC) undertaken. The model implemented for each outcome was that with the lowest deviance information criterion. A de novo economic model was developed to assess cost-effectiveness from the perspective of the UK NHS. The model structure was informed through a systematic review of the economic literature and in consultation with clinical experts. Effectiveness data were obtained from the MTC. Costs were obtained from the literature and standard UK sources. Of 4232 titles and abstracts screened for inclusion in the review of clinical effectiveness, 60 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating 19 interventions were included. Analysis by MTC indicated that ablative techniques were typically more effective than topical interventions at completely clearing AGWs at the end of

  17. Higher prevalence of sexual transmitted diseases and correlates of genital warts among heterosexual males attending sexually transmitted infection clinics (MSCs) in Jiangmen, China: implication for the up-taking of STD related service.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shujie; Tang, Weiming; Zhu, Zhengjun; Lu, Hekun; Tan, Xueling; Zhang, Baoyuan; Best, John; Yang, Ligang; Zheng, Heping; Jiang, Ning; Yin, Yueping; Yang, Bin; Chen, Xiangsheng

    2015-01-01

    Increasing burden of STDs is one of China's major public health concerns. However, only a limited number of studies have ever investigated the prevalence of these STDs, particular for genital warts and its correlates among heterosexual males attending STD clinics in China. In order to fill this gap, we conducted a cross-sectional study among MSCs in Jiangmen, China, between the years of 2009 and 2010. The eligible participants were recruited from several STD-clinics in public hospitals. We collected demographic information and behaviors of the participants. After HIV and syphilis testing, we further checked whether the participants had genital warts and genital herpes. In addition, urine samples were collected from part of the participants for CT and NG testing. Of the 533 eligible participants, over three-fifths were aged 35 or below, nearly three quarters had no college degree, over three-fifths were residence of Jiangmen. The prevalence of HIV, syphilis, genital warts, genital herpes, CT and NG were 0.19%, 7.50%, 7.32%, 5.25%, 9.73% and 6.19%, respectively. Living with family members (versus living alone), no STD-related service in past year, experiencing STDs related symptoms in past year, and sex with FSWs in last three months were positively associated with genital warts, with adjusted ORs of 5.54 (95% CI 1.94-15.81), 2.26 (95% CI 1.08-4.74), 1.99 (95% CI 1.00-3.99) and 2.01 (95% CI 1.00-4.04), respectively. Our study indicates that the prevalence of STDs among MSCs in Jiangmen was high, which may further spread HIV among MSCs. Targeted interventions that focused on STDs related services uptake should be implemented urgently.

  18. Higher Prevalence of Sexual Transmitted Diseases and Correlates of Genital Warts among Heterosexual Males Attending Sexually Transmitted Infection Clinics (MSCs) in Jiangmen, China: Implication for the Up-Taking of STD Related Service

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhengjun; Lu, Hekun; Tan, Xueling; Zhang, Baoyuan; Best, John; Yang, Ligang; Zheng, Heping; Jiang, Ning; Yin, Yueping; Yang, Bin; Chen, Xiangsheng

    2015-01-01

    Background Increasing burden of STDs is one of China’s major public health concerns. However, only a limited number of studies have ever investigated the prevalence of these STDs, particular for genital warts and its correlates among heterosexual males attending STD clinics in China. In order to fill this gap, we conducted a cross-sectional study among MSCs in Jiangmen, China, between the years of 2009 and 2010. Method The eligible participants were recruited from several STD-clinics in public hospitals. We collected demographic information and behaviors of the participants. After HIV and syphilis testing, we further checked whether the participants had genital warts and genital herpes. In addition, urine samples were collected from part of the participants for CT and NG testing. Results Of the 533 eligible participants, over three-fifths were aged 35 or below, nearly three quarters had no college degree, over three-fifths were residence of Jiangmen. The prevalence of HIV, syphilis, genital warts, genital herpes, CT and NG were 0.19%, 7.50%, 7.32%, 5.25%, 9.73% and 6.19%, respectively. Living with family members (versus living alone), no STD-related service in past year, experiencing STDs related symptoms in past year, and sex with FSWs in last three months were positively associated with genital warts, with adjusted ORs of 5.54 (95% CI 1.94–15.81), 2.26 (95% CI 1.08–4.74), 1.99 (95% CI 1.00–3.99) and 2.01 (95% CI 1.00–4.04), respectively. Conclusion Our study indicates that the prevalence of STDs among MSCs in Jiangmen was high, which may further spread HIV among MSCs. Targeted interventions that focused on STDs related services uptake should be implemented urgently. PMID:25811185

  19. A comparison of a 5% potassium hydroxide solution with a 5-fluorouracil and salicylic acid combination in the treatment of patients with anogenital warts: a randomized, open-label clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Işik, Selda; Koca, Rafet; Sarici, Gülben; Altinyazar, Hilmi Cevdet

    2014-09-01

    Anogenital warts are caused by human papillomavirus (HPV), over 30 types of which are infectious for the anogenital tract. Without treatment, warts may regress spontaneously, remain unchanged, or increase in number and size. This study compared the efficacy of a topical 5% potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution with that of a topical 0.5% 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and 10% salicylic acid (SA) combination in the treatment of anogenital warts. Sixty patients were randomly assigned to receive topical KOH or 5-FU + SA. Both groups demonstrated a significant decrease in numbers of lesions (P < 0.05), but this difference was not significant at week 12 (P > 0.05). The mean number of lesions decreased from baseline to week 12 from 17.03 ± 12.64 to 3.73 ± 7.30 and from 16.13 ± 12.97 to 3.10 ± 4.90 in the KOH and 5-FU + SA groups, respectively (P < 0.001). Excellent clearance was achieved by 70.0 and 76.7% of patients in the KOH and 5-FU + SA groups, respectively. Marked improvement was seen in 13.3 and 20.0% of patients in the KOH and 5-FU + SA groups, respectively. At week 16, relapse was observed in two patients in the KOH group and three in the 5-FU + SA group (P > 0.05). No serious adverse events were reported. Neither treatment was more efficacious. Safety and ease of application are important goals in treatments for anogenital warts. A 5% KOH solution is a promising alternative treatment because it is effective and inexpensive and causes minimal side effects. © 2014 The International Society of Dermatology.

  20. Intralesional immunotherapy with tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD) in recalcitrant wart: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial including an extra group of candidates for cryotherapy.

    PubMed

    Amirnia, Mehdi; Khodaeiani, Effat; Fouladi, Daniel F; Masoudnia, Sima

    2016-01-01

    Due to paucity of randomized clinical trials, intralesional immunotherapy has not been yet accepted as a standard therapeutic method. To examine the efficacy and safety of intralesional immunotherapy with tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD) for treating recalcitrant wart. In this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial, a total of 69 patients with recalcitrant warts received either intralesional PPD antigen (n = 35) or intralesional saline (n = 34) for six times at 2-week intervals. A third group of candidates for cryotherapy (n = 33) was also included. The decrease in lesion size (good: complete response, intermediate: 50-99% improvement, poor: <50% improvement), adverse effects and recurrence within 6-month follow-up were documented. At the final session, good, intermediate and poor responses were observed in 77.1%, 22.9% and 0% of the PPD patients; 0%, 14.7% and 85.3% of the placebo patients and 18.2%, 33.3% and 48.5% of the cryotherapy patients, respectively (PPD versus placebo: p < 0.001; PPD versus cryotherapy: p < 0.001). No significant complication was seen in the PPD group. The recurrence rate was 8.6%, 5.9% and 24.2% in the PPD, placebo and cryotherapy groups, respectively (p > 0.05). Intralesional immunotherapy with PPD antigen is highly effective and safe for treating recalcitrant warts. IRCT201407089844N3 in the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT).

  1. Potential impact of the human papillomavirus vaccine on the incidence proportion of genital warts in French women (EFFICAE study): a multicentric prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Judlin, Philippe; Jacquard, Anne-Carole; Carcopino, Xavier; Aubin, François; Dahlab, André; Mistretta, Frédéric; Not, Didier; Boelle, Pierre-Yves; Aynaud, Olivier; Soubeyrand, Benoît

    2016-02-01

    Background The objective was to evaluate the effect of a HPV vaccination program on the incidence proportion of a proxy, genital warts (GW), in women in France. The number of primary GW cases was prospectively recorded over two 4-month periods before (T0: Dec 2008 to March 2009) and after (T1: Dec 2011 to March 2012) a HPV vaccination program. A total of 160 gynaecologists participated in T0 and 189 in T1. Primary genital herpes (HSV) infection was used as a control. During T0, 39190 15- to 26 year-old women were seen, of whom 176 were diagnosed with GW (incidence proportion: 0.45%) and 155 with primary HSV infection (incidence proportion: 0.39%). During T1, 45628 females were seen [229 with GW (incidence proportion: 0.50%) and 202 with HSV (incidence proportion: 0.44%)]. In the 15-20 years age category, the incidence proportion of primary GW decreased from 0.41% to 0.30% (P=0.128) between T0 and T1, and the proportion of women newly diagnosed with primary genital herpes diseases slightly increased from 0.34% to 0.38% (P=0.620). In the 15-18 years age group, this decrease became significant (0.34% to 0.18%; P=0.048). A trend for a non-significant decreased incidence proportion of GW was observed in young women below 20 years who are more frequently vaccinated. This may be the result of HPV vaccination and suggests that a substantial increase in vaccine coverage could lead to a more pronounced decreased incidence proportion of GW in the future.

  2. Incidence and Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Type Distribution of Genital Warts in a Multinational Cohort of Men: The HPV in Men Study

    PubMed Central

    Anic, Gabriella M.; Lee, Ji–Hyun; Stockwell, Heather; Rollison, Dana E.; Wu, Yougui; Papenfuss, Mary R.; Villa, Luisa L.; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Gage, Christine; Silva, Roberto José C.; Baggio, Maria L.; Quiterio, Manuel; Salmerón, Jorge; Abrahamsen, Martha

    2011-01-01

    Background. Data on the natural history of human papillomavirus (HPV)–related genital warts (GWs) in men are sparse. We described the distribution of HPV types in incident GWs and estimated GW incidence and time from type-specific incident HPV infections to GW detection in a multinational cohort of men aged 18–70 years. Methods. Participants included 2487 men examined for GWs and tested for HPV every 6 months and followed up for a median of 17.9 months. Samples were taken from 112 men with incident GWs to test for HPV DNA by polymerase chain reaction. Results. Incidence of GWs was 2.35 cases per 1000 person-years, with highest incidence among men aged 18–30 years (3.43 cases per 1000 person-years). HPV 6 (43.8%), HPV 11 (10.7%), and HPV 16 (9.8%) were the genotypes most commonly detected in GWs. The 24-month cumulative incidence of GWs among men with incident HPV 6/11 infections was 14.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.5%–21.1%). Median time to GW detection was 17.1 months (95% CI, 12.4–19.3 months), with shortest time to detection among men with incident infections with HPV 6/11 only (6.2 months; 95% CI, 5.6–24.2 months). Conclusions. HPV 6/11 plays an important role in GW development, with the highest incidence and shortest time to detection among men with incident HPV 6/11 infection. PMID:22013227

  3. Traumatic neuroma of the penis after circumcision--Case report.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Thaís Abrão; dos Santos, Karen Regina; Franzotti, Aline Martinez; Avelar, Juliana Centofanti Dentello; Tebcherani, Antonio José; Pegas, José Roberto Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic neuromas are tumors resulting from hyperplasia of axons and nerve sheath cells after section or injury to the nervous tissue. We present a case of this tumor, confirmed by anatomopathological examination, in a male patient with history of circumcision. Knowledge of this entity is very important in achieving the differential diagnosis with other lesions that affect the genital area such as condyloma acuminata, bowenoid papulosis, lichen nitidus, sebaceous gland hyperplasia, achrochordon and pearly penile papules.

  4. High efficiency transformation of banana [Musa acuminata L. cv. Matti (AA)] for enhanced tolerance to salt and drought stress through overexpression of a peanut salinity-induced pathogenesis-related class 10 protein.

    PubMed

    Rustagi, Anjana; Jain, Shalu; Kumar, Deepak; Shekhar, Shashi; Jain, Mukesh; Bhat, Vishnu; Sarin, Neera Bhalla

    2015-01-01

    Bananas and plantains (Musa spp. L.) are important subsistence crops and premium export commodity in several countries, and susceptible to a wide range of environmental and biotic stress conditions. Here, we report efficient, rapid, and reproducible Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and regeneration of an Indian niche cultivar of banana [M. acuminata cv. Matti (AA)]. Apical meristem-derived highly proliferative multiple shoot clump (MSC) explants were transformed with the Agrobacterium strain EHA105 harboring a binary vector pCAMBIA-1301 carrying hptII and uidA. Sequential agro-infiltration (10 min, 400 mmHg), infection (additional 35 min, Agrobacterium density A 600 = 0.8) and co-cultivation (18 h) regimen in 100 µM acetosyringone containing liquid medium were critical factors yielding high transformation efficiency (~81 %) corroborated by transient GUS expression assay. Stable transgenic events were recovered following two cycles of meristem initiation and selection on hygromycin containing medium. Histochemical GUS assay in several tissues of transgenic plants and molecular analyses confirmed stable integration and expression of transgene. The protocol described here allowed recovery of well-established putative transgenic plantlets in as little as 5 months. The transgenic banana plants could be readily acclimatized under greenhouse conditions, and were phenotypically similar to the wild-type untransformed control plants (WT). Transgenic plants overexpressing Salinity-Induced Pathogenesis-Related class 10 protein gene from Arachis hypogaea (AhSIPR10) in banana cv. Matti (AA) showed better photosynthetic efficiency and less membrane damage (P < 0.05) in the presence of NaCl and mannitol in comparison to WT plants suggesting the role of AhSIPR10 in better tolerance of salt stress and drought conditions.

  5. Identification, transcriptional and functional analysis of heat-shock protein 90s in banana (Musa acuminata L.) highlight their novel role in melatonin-mediated plant response to Fusarium wilt.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yunxie; Hu, Wei; Wang, Qiannan; Zeng, Hongqiu; Li, Xiaolin; Yan, Yu; Reiter, Russel J; He, Chaozu; Shi, Haitao

    2017-01-01

    As one popular fresh fruit, banana (Musa acuminata) is cultivated in the world's subtropical and tropical areas. In recent years, pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) has been widely and rapidly spread to banana cultivated areas, causing substantial yield loss. However, the molecular mechanism of banana response to Foc remains unclear, and functional identification of disease-related genes is also very limited. In this study, nine 90 kDa heat-shock proteins (HSP90s) were genomewide identified. Moreover, the expression profile of them in different organs, developmental stages, and in response to abiotic and fungal pathogen Foc were systematically analyzed. Notably, we found that the transcripts of 9 MaHSP90s were commonly regulated by melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) and Foc infection. Further studies showed that exogenous application of melatonin improved banana resistance to Fusarium wilt, but the effect was lost when cotreated with HSP90 inhibitor (geldanamycin, GDA). Moreover, melatonin and GDA had opposite effect on auxin level in response to Foc4, while melatonin and GDA cotreated plants had no significant effect, suggesting the involvement of MaHSP90s in the cross talk of melatonin and auxin in response to fungal infection. Taken together, this study demonstrated that MaHSP90s are essential for melatonin-mediated plant response to Fusarium wilt, which extends our understanding the putative roles of MaHSP90s as well as melatonin in the biological control of banana Fusarium wilt. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Health service utilisation for anogenital warts in Ontario, Canada prior to the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine programme introduction: a retrospective longitudinal population-based study.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Fiona M; Rosella, Laura C; Dunn, Sheila; Wilson, Sarah E; Chen, Cynthia; Deeks, Shelley L

    2016-03-10

    Trends in occurrence of anogenital warts (AGWs) can provide early evidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programme impact on preventing HPV infection and HPV-induced lesions. The objective of this study was to provide a baseline of AGW epidemiology in Ontario prior to the introduction of the publicly-funded school-based HPV vaccination programme in September 2007. As a retrospective longitudinal population-based study, we used health administrative data as a proxy to estimate incident AGWs and total health service utilisation (HSU) for AGWs for all Ontario residents 15 years and older with valid health cards between 1 April 2003 and 31 March 2007. The outcome of interest was AGW healthcare utilisation identified using the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision (ICD-10) diagnostic code for AGWs, as well as an algorithm for identifying AGW physician office visits in a database with a unique system of diagnostic and procedural codes. An AGW case was considered incident if preceded by 12 months without HSU for AGWs. Time trends by age group and sex were analysed. Between fiscal years 2003 and 2006, we identified 123,247 health service visits for AGWs by 51,436 Ontario residents 15 years and older. Incident AGWs peaked in females and males in the 21-23 year age group, at 3.74 per 1000 and 2.81 per 1000, respectively. HSU for AGWs peaked in females and males within the 21-23 year age group, at 9.34 per 1000 and 7.22 per 1000, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first population-based study of AGW incidence and HSU in Ontario. The sex and age distribution of individuals with incident and prevalent AGWs in Ontario was similar to that of other provinces before HPV vaccine programme implementation in Canada. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  7. HPV knowledge, burden and genital wart location among heterosexually identified versus homosexually identified men who have sex with men in Lima, Peru: cross-sectional results from a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Galea, Jerome T; León, Segundo R; Peinado, Jesús; Calvo, Gino; Zamora, Jonathan; Sánchez, Hugo; Brown, Brandon J

    2017-10-24

    The relationship between sexual practices, identity and role among Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) and HIV risk is the subject of ongoing investigation but less is known about how these aspects of sexuality relate to human papilloma-virus (HPV), an independent risk factor for HIV. This observational study investigated the relationship between HPV and sexual practices, identity and role as well as other sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV risk factors among HIV-negative heterosexually and homosexually identified Peruvian MSM. Community-based clinic for MSM in Lima, Peru. 756 subjects were screened based on inclusion criteria of: born anatomically male; age ≥18 years; had any anal intercourse with a man during the previous 12 months; residing in metropolitan Lima; HIV negative; willing to commit to twice-yearly clinic visits for 24 months; had not participated in an HIV or HPV vaccine study. 600/756 participants met the inclusion criteria and were enrolled, of whom 48% (284) identified as homosexual and 10% (57) as heterosexual, the basis of the analyses performed. Compared with homosexually identified MSM, heterosexually identified MSM had completed fewer years of formal education and were less likely to have: anogenital HPV or visible anal warts; given oral sex to a man; or used a condom with their most recent female sexual partner (all p<0.05). Conversely, heterosexually identified MSM were more likely to have: visible penile warts; used a condom during last anal intercourse; smoked cigarettes; had transactional sex; and used drugs during sex in the previous month (all p<0.01). There was no difference found between heterosexually and homosexually identified MSM by syphilis or high-risk HPV prevalence. HPV burden, wart type (penile vs anal) and select HIV/STI risk behaviours differed between heterosexually and homosexually identified Peruvian MSM. Understanding the implications of these differences can lead to tailored HIV/STI prevention interventions

  8. Prevalence, incidence and correlates of low risk HPV infection and anogenital warts in a cohort of women living with HIV in Burkina Faso and South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Objective To report the prevalence and incidence of low-risk human papillomavirus infection (LR-HPV) and anogenital warts (AGW) among women living with HIV (WLHIV) in Burkina Faso (BF) and South Africa (SA), and to explore HIV-related factors associated with these outcomes. Methods We enrolled 1238 WLHIV (BF = 615; SA = 623) aged 25–50 years and followed them at three time points (6, 12 and 16 months) after enrolment. Presence of AGW was assessed during gynaecological examination. Cervico-vaginal swabs for enrolment and month 16 follow-up visits were tested for HPV infection by Inno-LiPA® genotyping. Logistic regression was used to assess risk factors for prevalent infection or AGW. Cox regression was used to assess risk factors for incident AGW. Results Women in SA were more likely than those in BF to have prevalent LR-HPV infection (BF: 27.1% vs. SA: 40.9%; p<0.001) and incident LR-HPV infection (BF: 25.8% vs. SA: 31.6%, p = 0.05). Prevalence of persistent LR-HPV was similar in the two countries (BF: 33.3% vs. SA: 30.4%; p = 0.54), as were prevalence and incidence of AGW (Prevalence: BF: 7.5% vs. SA: 5.7%; p = 0.21; Incidence: BF: 2.47 vs. SA: 2.33 per 100 person-years; p = 0.41). HPV6 was associated with incident AGW (BF: adjusted Hazard Ratio (aHR) = 4.88; 95%CI: 1.36–17.45; SA: aHR = 5.02; 95%CI: 1.40–17.99). Prevalent LR-HPV (BF: adjusted Odds Ratio [aOR = 1.86]; 95%CI: 1.01–3.41; SA: aOR = 1.75; 95%CI: 0.88–3.48); persistent LR-HPV (BF: aOR = 1.92; 95%CI: 0.44–8.44; SA: aOR = 2.81; 95%CI: 1.07–7.41) and prevalent AGW (BF: aOR = 1.53; 95%CI: 0.61–3.87; SA: aOR = 4.11; 95%CI: 1.20–14.10) were each associated with low CD4+ counts (i.e. <200 vs. >500 cells/μL). Duration of ART and HIV plasma viral load were not associated with any LR-HPV infection or AGW outcomes. Conclusion LR-HPV infection and AGW are common in WLHIV in sub-Saharan Africa. Type-specific HPV vaccines and effective ART with immunological reconstitution could reduce the burden

  9. Effects of hot-water extract of banana (Musa acuminata) fruit's peel on the antibacterial activity, and anti-hypothermal stress, immune responses and disease resistance of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbegii.

    PubMed

    Rattanavichai, Wutti; Cheng, Winton

    2014-08-01

    The hot-extracts isolated from fruit's peel of banana, Musa acuminata, was evaluated on the antibacterial activity to pathogens from aquatic animals, and immunostimulating potential, disease resistance and anti-hypothermal stress in giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii through injection administration. The banana peel extract (BPE) showed good activity against 1 Gram-positive and 3 Gram-negative pathogens, including Lactococcus garvieae, Photobacteria damsella, Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio parahemolyticus especially in prawn pathogen of L. garvieae strain, which were carried out by a disk diffusion method. Prawn received BPE via injection administration at 1-6 μg (g prawn)(-1) significantly increased total haemocyte count (THC), hyaline cell (HC), granular cell (GC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity and phagocytic activity against L. garvieae from 3 to 6 days, and significantly increased clearance efficiency against L. garvieae and a significantly decreased coagulation time of prawn from 1 to 6 days. Prawn injected with BPE at 6.0 μg (g prawn)(-1) for 6 days showed significantly increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, but significantly decreased respiratory bursts (RBs) of per haemocyte. Survival rates of M. rosenbergii injected with BPE at concentrations of 1, 3 and 6 μg (g prawn)(-1) were significantly higher than those injected with saline control after challenge with L. garvieae for 4-6 days, and the respective relative survival percentages of prawn were 28.6%, 38.1%, and 47.8%, respectively at 6 days. The sublethal time of prawns that had received saline and BPE at 1, 3 and 6 μg (g prawn)(-1) for 6 days and then were transferred from 28 °C to 14 °C were 69.4, 79.8, 83.6, and 90.2 h, respectively. It was concluded that the BPE can be used as the bacteriostat, and immunostimulant and physiological regulator for prawn through injection administration to enhance immunity, physiological responses, and resistance against L. garvieae

  10. Impact of quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine in women at increased risk of genital warts burden: Population-based cross-sectional survey of Czech women aged 16 to 40 years.

    PubMed

    Petráš, Marek; Adámková, Věra

    2015-11-17

    To assess the impact of a quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine (4HPV) in women at increased risk of genital warts (GWs) acquisition. The study was conducted using a population-based cross-sectional survey of 19,199 women aged 16 to 40 years randomly chosen from the general population in the Czech Republic between January 2013 and March 2014. A total of 1086 women reported having received the 4HPV vaccine. The vaccine's effectiveness was estimated not only in the general population of women but also in those at increased risk due to having a sexual partner with GWs or prior GWs history. The acquisition of GWs was dramatically reduced by 90.6% (80.1-95.6%) in immunised women at least one year after the completion of the 4HPV vaccination in comparison with unimmunised women. Recurrent GWs prevalences of 1.1% (95% CI, 0.0-5.9) and 10.9% (95% CI, 9.1-12.9) in immunised and unimmunised women with prior GWs history, respectively, resulted in a vaccine effectiveness of 89.0% (38.6-98.0%). The notably strong protective effect of 4HPV immunisation in women who had a sexual partner with GWs was demonstrated by a very low age-adjusted odds ratio of 0.02 (95% CI 0.01-0.10) in contrast to unimmunised women. To lower the chance of genital warts acquisition in the general population and in populations at increased risk, only current 4HPV or incoming 9HPV vaccination should be recommended to provide effective protection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Transmissibility of Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Sexually Abused Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammerschlag, Margaret R.

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarizes what is known about, and research needs on, the transmissibility to sexually abused children of the following sexually transmitted diseases: gonorrhea, chlamydia trachomatis, human papillomavirus genital warts, condylomata acuminata, syphilis, bacterial vaginosis, trichomonas vaginalis, herpes simplex, and human…

  12. Plant Guide: Tapertip hawksbeard (Crepis acuminata Nutt.)

    Treesearch

    Derek Tilley; Scott Jensen; Loren St. John

    2012-01-01

    Tapertip hawksbeard leaves are consumed by pre-laying sage grouse hens and make up a large portion of their diet (Barnett and Crawford, 1994). Sage grouse chicks also feed on tapertip hawksbeard leaves in addition to the insects attracted by the flowers (Drut and others, 1994; Klebenow and Gray, 1968).

  13. Frequent epigenetic inactivation of KIBRA, an upstream member of the Salvador/Warts/Hippo (SWH) tumor suppressor network, is associated with specific genetic event in B-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Victoria K; Dunwell, Thomas; Catchpoole, Daniel; Krex, Dietmar; Brini, Anna T; Griffiths, Mike; Craddock, Charles; Maher, Eamonn R

    2011-01-01

    The WW-domain containing protein KIBRA has recently been identified as a new member of the Salvador/Warts/Hippo (SWH) pathway in Drosophila and is shown to act as a tumor suppressor gene in Drosophila. This pathway is conserved in humans and members of the pathway have been shown to act as tumor suppressor genes in mammalian systems. We determined the methylation status of the 5′ CpG island associated with the KIBRA gene in human cancers. In a large panel of cancer cell lines representing common epithelial cancers KIBRA was unmethylated. But in pediatric acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) cell lines KIBRA showed frequent hypermethylation and silencing of gene expression, which could be reversed by treatment with 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine. In ALL patient samples KIBRA was methylated in 70% B-ALL but was methylated in <20% T-ALL leukemia (p = 0.0019). In B-ALL KIBRA methylation was associated with ETV6/RUNX1 [t(12;21) (p13;q22)] chromosomal translocation (p = 0.0082) phenotype, suggesting that KIBRA may play an important role in t(12;21) leukemogenesis. In ALL paired samples at diagnosis and remission KIBRA methylation was seen in diagnostic but not in any of the remission samples accompanied by loss of KIBRA expression in disease state compared to patients in remission. Hence KIBRA methylation occurs frequently in B-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia but not in epithelial cancers and is linked to specific genetic event in B-ALL. PMID:21173572

  14. Warts, Hypogammaglobulinemia, Infections, and Myelokathexis Syndrome (WHIMS)

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the Director Office of the Chief Science Management & Operations Administrative Services Office of Biodefense Research & Surety Communications ... Office of Clinical Research Policy and Regulatory Planning Operations Support Program Planning Analysis ... Office of Acquisitions Scientific Review Program Division ...

  15. Thinking about ... leadership. Warts and all.

    PubMed

    Kellerman, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    Does using Tyco's funds to purchase a $6,000 shower curtain and a $15,000 dog-shaped umbrella stand make Dennis Kozlowski a bad leader? Is Martha Stewart's career any less instructive because she may have sold some shares on the basis of a tip-off? Is leadership synonymous with moral leadership? Before 1970, the answer from most leadership theorists would certainly have been no. Look at Hitler, Stalin, Pol Pot, Mao Tsetung--great leaders all, but hardly good men. In fact, capricious, murderous, high-handed, corrupt, and evil leaders are effective and commonplace. Machiavelli celebrated them; the U.S. constitution built in safeguards against them. Everywhere, power goes hand in hand with corruption--everywhere, that is, except in the literature of business leadership. To read Tom Peters, Jay Conger, John Kotter, and most of their colleagues, leaders are, as Warren Bennis puts it, individuals who create shared meaning, have a distinctive voice, have the capacity to adapt, and have integrity. According to today's business literature, to be a leader is, by definition, to be benevolent. But leadership is not a moral concept, and it is high time we acknowledge that fact. We have as much to learn from those we would regard as bad examples as we do from the far fewer good examples we're presented with these days. Leaders are like the rest of us: trustworthy and deceitful, cowardly and brave, greedy and generous. To assume that all good leaders are good people is to be willfully blind to the reality of the human condition, and it severely limits our ability to become better leaders. Worse, it may cause senior executives to think that, because they are leaders, they are never deceitful, cowardly, or greedy. That way lies disaster.

  16. Toads Give You Warts--Not!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomasek, Terry; Matthews, Catherine E.

    2008-01-01

    The authors provide activities through which teachers can share experiences in the outdoors with young children and teach them about herpetology, the study of amphibians and reptiles. Outdoor activities include observation, classification, and mapping. The authors also include activities for the classroom, including connections between the science…

  17. Practice management--warts and all.

    PubMed

    Fleming, G J

    1993-02-01

    A recent survey, part of a Practice Management Study, asked 100 doctors how their businesses were going. From the responses, it was evident that there were many areas of concern, including working long hours looking after patients; no time for the family; the accountant does the tax, but that's all; and accountants, solicitors and consultants are too expensive. This article sets out some of the issues raised in the survey.

  18. Warts and All: HPV in Primary Immunodeficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Leiding, Jennifer W.; Holland, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    Infection with human papilloma virus (HPV) is almost universal and eventually asymptomatic, but pathologic infection with HPV is severe, recurrent, and recalcitrant to therapy. It is also an underappreciated manifestation of primary immunodeficiency. Mutations in EVER1, EVER2, GATA2, CXCR4, and DOCK8 are typically associated with extensive HPV infections, whereas several other primary immune defects have severe HPV much less frequently. We review immunodeficiencies with severe HPV infections and the mechanisms underlying them. PMID:23036745

  19. Human papillomavirus types and recurrent cervical warts

    SciTech Connect

    Nuovo, G.J.; Pedemonte, B.M.

    1990-03-02

    The authors analyzed cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CINs) detected after cryotherapy to determine if recurrence is associated with the same human papillomavirus (HPV) type found in the original lesion. Eight women had detectable HPV DNA in CINs that occurred after ablation of another CIN, and for each patient the HPV type in the pretreatment lesion was different from that in the CIN that appeared after cryotherapy. This compares with 12 women who had HPV detected in two or more CINs present at the same time, 11 of whom had the same HPv type noted. they concluded that although multiple, simultaneous CINsmore » in a woman often contain the same HPV type, recurrent CINs that occur after cryotherapy contain an HPV type different from that present in the pretreatment lesion.« less

  20. Genital Human Papillomavirus Infection Progression to External Genital Lesions: The HIM Study.

    PubMed

    Sudenga, Staci L; Ingles, Donna J; Pierce Campbell, Christine M; Lin, Hui-Yi; Fulp, William J; Messina, Jane L; Stoler, Mark H; Abrahamsen, Martha; Villa, Luisa L; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes two types of external genital lesions (EGLs) in men: genital warts (condyloma) and penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PeIN). The purpose of this study was to describe genital HPV progression to a histopathologically confirmed HPV-related EGL. A prospective analysis nested within the HPV Infection in Men (HIM) study was conducted among 3033 men. At each visit, visually distinct EGLs were biopsied; the biopsy specimens were subjected to pathologic evaluation and categorized by pathologic diagnoses. Genital swabs and biopsies were used to identify HPV types using the Linear Array genotyping method for swabs and INNO-LiPA for biopsy specimens. EGL incidence was determined among 1788 HPV-positive men, and cumulative incidence rates at 6, 12, and 24 mo were estimated. The proportion of HPV infections that progressed to EGL was also calculated, along with median time to EGL development. Among 1788 HPV-positive men, 92 developed an incident EGL during follow-up (9 PeIN and 86 condyloma). During the first 12 mo of follow-up, 16% of men with a genital HPV 6 infection developed an HPV 6-positive condyloma, and 22% of genital HPV 11 infections progressed to an HPV 11-positive condyloma. During the first 12 mo of follow-up, 0.5% of men with a genital HPV 16 infection developed an HPV 16-positive PeIN. Although we expected PeIN to be a rare event, the sample size for PeIN (n=10) limited the types of analyses that could be performed. Most EGLs develop following infection with HPV 6, 11, or 16, all of which could be prevented with the 4-valent HPV vaccine. In this study, we looked at genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infections that can cause lesions in men. The HPV that we detected within the lesions could be prevented by a vaccine. Copyright © 2015 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Sexually transmitted diseases in Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom.

    PubMed

    Wright, Johnnie; Albright, Todd S; Gehrich, Alan P; Dunlow, Susan G; Lettieri, Christine F; Buller, Jerome L

    2006-10-01

    To identify the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in a female active duty population deployed in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom was the objective of this study. Retrospective chart review was completed on all soldiers seeking outpatient gynecologic care at Camp Doha, Kuwait, from September 2003 through March 2004. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed on data from all patients identified as having an STD. Forty-four soldiers (2.5% of all encounters) were diagnosed with STDs during the study period. Genital herpes, Condyloma acuminata, and chlamydia were the most commonly identified infections accounting for 30, 25, and 21% of the diagnoses, respectively. Transmission of STDs in the deployed environment continues to be problematic. Viral infections were more commonly encountered than were bacterial infections. Patient education and prevention should be emphasized. Consideration should be given to STD screening upon redeployment.

  2. Otorhinolaryngology manifestations secondary to oral sex.

    PubMed

    Fernández-López, Claudia; Morales-Angulo, Carmelo

    Over the last few years, oral and pharyngeal signs and symptoms due to oral sex have increased significantly. However, no review articles related to this subject have been found in the medical literature. The objective of our study was to identify otorhinolaryngological manifestations associated with orogenital/oroanal contact, both in adults and children, in the context of consensual sex or sexual abuse. We performed a review of the medical literature on otorhinolaryngological pathology associated with oral sex published in the last 20 years in the PubMed database. Otorhinolaryngological manifestations secondary to oral sex practice in adults can be infectious, tumoral or secondary to trauma. The more common signs and symptoms found in the literature were human papillomavirus infection (above all, condyloma acuminata and papilloma/condyloma), oral or pharyngeal syphilis, gonococcal pharyngitis, herpes simplex virus infection and pharyngitis from Chlamydia trachomatis. The incidence of human papillomavirus -induced oropharyngeal carcinoma has dramatically increased. In children past the neonatal period, the presence of condyloma acuminatus, syphilis, gonorrhoea or palatal ecchymosis (the last one, unless justified by other causes) should make us suspect sexual abuse. Sexual habits have changed in the last decades, resulting in the appearance of otorhinolaryngological pathology that was rarely seen previously. For this reason, it is important for primary care physicians to have knowledge about the subject to perform correct diagnosis and posterior treatment. Some sexual abuse cases in children may also be suspected based on the knowledge of the characteristic oropharyngeal manifestations secondary to them. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. All rights reserved.

  3. The adaptive, cut-cell Cartesian approach (warts and all)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Kenneth G.

    1995-01-01

    Solution-adaptive methods based on cutting bodies out of Cartesian grids are gaining popularity now that the ways of circumventing the accuracy problems associated with small cut cells have been developed. Researchers are applying Cartesian-based schemes to a broad class of problems now, and, although there is still development work to be done, it is becoming clearer which problems are best suited to the approach (and which are not). The purpose of this paper is to give a candid assessment, based on applying Cartesian schemes to a variety of problems, of the strengths and weaknesses of the approach as it is currently implemented.

  4. Goodbye warts, hello vitiligo: Candida antigen-induced depigmentation.

    PubMed

    Wilmer, Erin N; Burkhart, Craig N; Morrell, Dean S

    2013-01-01

    Depigmentation after the use of topical immune modulators is a rare but reported event. Herein we present what is to our knowledge the first case of vitiligo at a site of Candida antigen injection. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. The presence of human papillomavirus in semen does not affect the integrity of sperm DNA.

    PubMed

    Cortés-Gutiérrez, E I; Dávila-Rodríguez, M I; Fernández, J L; de la O-Pérez, L O; Garza-Flores, M E; Eguren-Garza, R; Gosálvez, J

    2017-12-01

    It remains unknown whether human papillomaviruses (HPVs) in semen affect sperm DNA integrity. We investigated whether the presence of these viruses in semen was associated with an elevated sperm DNA fragmentation index. Semen samples of 22 normozoospermic patients undergoing infertility treatment, nine fertile donors and seven fertile men with a risk of HPV infection (genital warts or condylomas) were included in the study. The samples were examined by an INNO-LiPA test PCR-based reverse hybridisation array that identifies 28 types of HPVs as simple or multiple infections. Sperm DNA integrity was determined by sperm chromatin dispersion assay (SCD). Our preliminary findings demonstrate an increase in HPV infection in infertile men with respect to fertile men. However, the sperm DNA fragmentation index was not increased in semen containing these viruses. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Perianal Crohn disease.

    PubMed

    Asma, Sioud Dhrif; Soumaya, Youssef; Kahena, Jaber; Raouf, Dhaoui Mohamed; Nejib, Doss

    2006-12-10

    Crohn disease is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by sharply demarcated segments of gastrointestinal involvement from mouth to anus. Its perineal manifestations are among the most devastating and mutilating complications. They occur at any time and may precede the intestinal manifestations. Their most common presentations are perineal ulceration, fistula, and abscess. Proliferative and polypoid morphology of the cutaneous lesions mimicking warts and condyloma are rarely described. We report a 25-year-old woman with a 4-month history of confluent plaques of the perineal region with vegetant surfaces, suspected to be genital warts. The lesions progressed to fistulas, inducing deep ulcerations surrounded by pseudocondylomatous tumors. About 2 months prior to presentation she began to suffer from gastrointestinal symptoms and noted weight loss. Physical examination, endoscopic examination, and pathological interpretation led to the diagnosis of Crohn disease with perineal involvement being the initial presenting sign. Significant improvement was induced with prednisone (45 mg daily) and azathioprine. Our observation is notable for the pseudocondylomatous appearance and the dramatic response to medical treatment despite severe involvement.

  7. Molecular characterization of Banana streak virus isolate from Musa Acuminata in China.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Jun; Wang, Jian-Hua; Zhang, Xin; Liu, Zhi-Xin

    2011-12-01

    Banana streak virus (BSV), a member of genus Badnavirus, is a causal agent of banana streak disease throughout the world. The genetic diversity of BSVs from different regions of banana plantations has previously been investigated, but there are relatively few reports of the genetic characteristic of episomal (non-integrated) BSV genomes isolated from China. Here, the complete genome, a total of 7722bp (GenBank accession number DQ092436), of an isolate of Banana streak virus (BSV) on cultivar Cavendish (BSAcYNV) in Yunnan, China was determined. The genome organises in the typical manner of badnaviruses. The intergenic region of genomic DNA contains a large stem-loop, which may contribute to the ribosome shift into the following open reading frames (ORFs). The coding region of BSAcYNV consists of three overlapping ORFs, ORF1 with a non-AUG start codon and ORF2 encoding two small proteins are individually involved in viral movement and ORF3 encodes a polyprotein. Besides the complete genome, a defective genome lacking the whole RNA leader region and a majority of ORF1 and which encompasses 6525bp was also isolated and sequenced from this BSV DNA reservoir in infected banana plants. Sequence analyses showed that BSAcYNV has closest similarity in terms of genome organization and the coding assignments with an BSV isolate from Vietnam (BSAcVNV). The corresponding coding regions shared identities of 88% and -95% at nucleotide and amino acid levels, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis also indicated BSAcYNV shared the closest geographical evolutionary relationship to BSAcVNV among sequenced banana streak badnaviruses.

  8. Use of Banana (Musa acuminata Colla AAA) Peel Extract as an Antioxidant Source in Orange Juices.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Lucía; Dorta, Eva; Gloria Lobo, M; González-Mendoza, L Antonio; Díaz, Carlos; González, Mónica

    2017-03-01

    Using banana peel extract as an antioxidant in freshly squeezed orange juices and juices from concentrate was evaluated. Free radical scavenging capacity increased by adding banana peel extracts to both types of orange juice. In addition, remarkable increases in antioxidant capacity using 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical were observed when equal or greater than 5 mg of banana peel extract per ml of freshly squeezed juice was added. No clear effects were observed in the capacity to inhibit lipid peroxidation. Adding 5 mg banana peel extract per ml of orange juice did not substantially modify the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of either type of juice. However, undesirable changes in the sensory characteristics (in-mouth sensations and colour) were detected when equal or greater than 10 mg banana peel extract per ml of orange juice was added. These results confirm that banana peel is a promising natural additive that increases the capacity to scavenge free radicals of orange juice with acceptable sensory and physicochemical characteristics for the consumer.

  9. Antioxidant effcacy of unripe banana (Musa acuminata Colla) peel extracts in sunflower oil during accelerated storage.

    PubMed

    Ling, Stella Sye Chee; Chang, Sui Kiat; Sia, Winne Chiaw Mei; Yim, Hip Seng

    2015-01-01

    Sunflower oil is prone to oxidation during storage time, leading to production of toxic compounds that might affect human health. Synthetic antioxidants are used to prevent lipid oxidation. Spreading interest in the replacement of synthetic food antioxidants by natural ones has fostered research on fruit and vegetables for new antioxidants. In this study, the efficacy of unripe banana peel extracts (100, 200 and 300 ppm)  in stabilizing sunflower oil was tested under accelerated storage (65°C) for a period of 24 days. BHA and α-tocopherol served as comparative standards besides the control. Established parameters such as peroxide value (PV), iodine value (IV), p-anisidine value (p-AnV), total oxidation value (TOTOX), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and free fatty acid (FFA) content were used to assess the extent of oil deterioration. After 24 days storage at 65°C, sunflower oil containing 200 and 300 ppm extract of unripe banana peel showed significantly lower PV and TOTOX compared to BHA and α-tocopherol. TBARS, p-AnV and FFA values of sunflower oil containing 200 and 300 ppm of unripe banana peel extract exhibited comparable inhibitory effects with BHA. Unripe banana peel extract at 200 and 300 ppm demonstrated inhibitory effect against both primary and secondary oxidation up to 24 days under accelerated storage conditions. Unripe banana peel extract may be used as a potential source of natural antioxidants in the application of food industry to suppress lipid oxidation.

  10. Chemical composition and physicochemical properties of green banana (Musa acuminata x balbisiana Colla cv. Awak) flour.

    PubMed

    Haslinda, W H; Cheng, L H; Chong, L C; Noor Aziah, A A

    2009-01-01

    Flour was prepared from peeled and unpeeled banana Awak ABB. Samples prepared were subjected to analysis for determination of chemical composition, mineral, dietary fibre, starch and total phenolics content, antioxidant activity and pasting properties. In general, flour prepared from unpeeled banana was found to show enhanced nutrition values with higher contents of mineral, dietary fibre and total phenolics. Hence, flour fortified with peel showed relatively higher antioxidant activity. On the other hand, better pasting properties were shown when banana flour was blended with peel. It was found that a relatively lower pasting temperature, peak viscosity, breakdown, final viscosity and setback were evident in a sample blended with peel.

  11. Malate synthase gene expression during fruit ripening of Cavendish banana (Musa acuminata cv. Williams).

    PubMed

    Pua, Eng-Chong; Chandramouli, Sumana; Han, Ping; Liu, Pei

    2003-01-01

    Malate synthase (MS) is a key enzyme responsible for malic acid synthesis in the glyoxylate cycle, which functions to convert stored lipids to carbohydrates, by catalysing the glyoxylate condensation reaction with acetyl-CoA in the peroxisome. In this study, the cloning of an MS cDNA, designated MaMS-1, from the banana fruit is reported. MaMS-1 was 1801 bp in length encoding a single polypeptide of 556 amino acid residues. Sequence analysis revealed that MaMS-1 possessed the conserved catalytic domain and a putative peroxisomal targeting signal SK(I/L) at the carboxyl terminal. MaMS-1 also shared an extensive sequence homology (79-81.3%) with other plant MS homologues. Southern analysis indicated that MS might be present as multiple members in the banana genome. In Northern analysis, MaMS-1 was expressed specifically in ripening fruit tissue and transcripts were not detected in other organs such as roots, pseudostem, leaves, ovary, male flower, and in fruit at different stages of development. However, the transcript abundance in fruit was affected by stage of ripening, during which transcript was barely detectable at the early stage of ripening (FG and TY), but the level increased markedly in MG and in other fruits at advanced ripening stages. Furthermore, MaMS-1 expression in FG fruit could be stimulated by treatment with 1 microl l(-1) exogenous ethylene, but the stimulatory effect was abolished by the application of an ethylene inhibitor, norbornadiene. Results of this study clearly show that MS expression in banana fruit is temporally regulated during ripening and is ethylene-inducible.

  12. Application of Cold Storage for Raja Sere Banana (Musa acuminata colla)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crismas, S. R. S.; Purwanto, Y. A.; Sutrisno

    2018-05-01

    Raja Sere is one of the indigenous banana cultivars in Indonesia. This cultivar has a yellow color when ripen, small size and sweet taste. Traditionally, the growers market this banana cultivar to the market without any treatment to delay the ripening process. Banana fruits are commonly being harvested at the condition of hard green mature. At this condition of hard green mature, banana fruits can be stored for a long-term period. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of cold storage on the quality of raja sere banana that stored at 13°C. Banana fruits cultivar Raja Sere were harvested from local farmer field at the condition of hard green mature (about 14 weeks age after the flower bloom). Fifteen bunches of banana were stored in cold storage with a temperature of 13°C for 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 days, respectively. For the control, room temperature storage (28°C) was used. At a storage period, samples of banana fruits ripened in the ripening chamber by injecting 100 ppm of ethylene gas at 25°C for 24 hours. The quality parameters namely respiration rate, hardness, total soluble solids (TSS), change in color, and weight loss were measured. For those banana fruits stored at room temperature, the shelf-life of banana was only reached up to 6 days. For those banana fruits stored in cold storage, the condition of banana fruits was reached up to 12 days. After cold storage and ripening, the third day measurement was the optimal time for bananas to be consumed which indicated by the yellow color (lightness value = 68.51, a* = 4.74 and value b* = 62.63), TSS 24.30 °Brix and hardness 0.48 kgf, weight loss about 7.53-16.45% and CO2 respiration rate of 100.37 mLCO2 / kg.hr.

  13. Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer in Nonwhite Organ Transplant Recipients.

    PubMed

    Pritchett, Ellen N; Doyle, Alden; Shaver, Christine M; Miller, Brett; Abdelmalek, Mark; Cusack, Carrie Ann; Malat, Gregory E; Chung, Christina Lee

    2016-12-01

    Organ transplant recipients have a higher incidence of skin cancer. This risk is magnified over time and with continued exposure to immunosuppression. Skin cancer in nonwhite patients is associated with greater morbidity and mortality owing to diagnosis at a more advanced stage, which suggests that nonwhite organ transplant recipients are at even higher risk. To describe demographic and clinical factors and the incidence of skin cancer in nonwhite organ transplant recipients. We performed a retrospective medical record review of patients who were organ transplant recipients (154 were white and 259 nonwhite [black, Asian, Hispanic, Pacific Islander]) seen from November 1, 2011, to April 18, 2016 at an academic referral center. Variables were analyzed and compared between racial groups, including sex, age, race/ethnicity, Fitzpatrick type, type and location of skin cancer, type of organ transplanted, time to diagnosis of skin cancer after transplantation, and history of condyloma acuminata and/or verruca vulgaris. Most of the 413 patients (62.7%) evaluated were nonwhite organ transplant recipients; 264 were men, and 149 were women. Their mean (SD) age was 60.09 (13.59) years. Nineteen skin cancers were identified in 15 patients (5.8%) representing 3 racial/ethnic groups: black (6 patients), Asian (5), and Hispanic (4). All squamous cell carcinomas in blacks were diagnosed in the in situ stage, located on sun-protected sites, and occurred in patients whose lesions tested positive for human papilloma virus (HPV) and/or who endorsed a history of condyloma acuminata or verruca vulgaris. Most skin cancers in Asians were located on sun-exposed areas and occurred in individuals who emigrated from equatorial locations. Nonwhite organ transplant recipients are at risk for developing skin cancer posttransplantation. Follow-up in a specialized transplant dermatology center and baseline total-body skin examination should be part of posttransplantation care in all organ

  14. Skin infections in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Müllegger, Robert R; Häring, Nina S; Glatz, Martin

    2016-01-01

    A wide array of infectious diseases can occur in pregnancy. Their acquisition, clinical presentation, and course during gestation may be altered due to an impairment of the maternal cellular immunity. Some infectious diseases can lead to serious consequences for the mother or the offspring, including congenital malformations. This review describes in detail the clinical presentation, course, management, and associated maternal and fetal risks of selected viral (varicella-zoster virus infections, condylomata acuminata), fungal (candida vulvovaginitis), bacterial (Lyme borreliosis), and parasitic (scabies) infections. The treatment options are critically reviewed. First-line therapies include acyclovir and varicella-zoster virus immunoglobulin for varicella-zoster virus infections, surgical modalities for genital warts, topical clotrimazole and oral fluconazole for Candida vulvovaginitis, amoxicillin and cefuroxime for Lyme borreliosis, and permethrin for scabies. A synopsis of maternal and fetal risks of other important infections is also included. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cryotherapy - skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin; Warts - freezing; Warts - cryotherapy; Actinic keratosis - cryotherapy; Solar keratosis - cryotherapy ... warts Destroy precancerous skin lesions (actinic keratoses or solar keratoses) In rare cases, cryotherapy is used to ...

  16. Cantharidin and Occlusion in Verruca Epithelium

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-04-03

    Common Wart; Warts Hand; Warts; Papillomavirus Infections; DNA Virus Infections; Skin Diseases, Viral; Skin Diseases, Infectious; Skin Diseases; Virus Diseases; Tumor Virus Infections; Verruca Vulgaris; Verruca

  17. Comparison of peroxidase-labeled DNA probes with radioactive RNA probes for detection of human papillomaviruses by in situ hybridization in paraffin sections

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.S.; Kurman, R.J.; Kessis, T.D.

    1991-01-01

    A study comparing in situ hybridization using nonradioactive DNA probes directly conjugated with horseradish peroxidase (HRP), and {sup 35}S-labeled antisense RNA probes for human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6/11, 16, and 18 was performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue from 34 lesions of the cervix and vulva. These lesions included exophytic condylomas and intraepithelial and invasive neoplasms. HPV 6/11 was detected in two of four condylomata acuminata by both in situ techniques. HPV 16 was detected in 13 of 30 cases of intraepithelial and invasive neoplasms by both methods. Discordance between the two methods occurred in two instances. The radiolabeled probe butmore » not the HRP probe detected HPV 16 in one case of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN 3), whereas the converse occurred in one case of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN 3). HPV 18 was not detected in any of the specimens by either method. This study demonstrates that nonradioactive HRP-labeled probes for the detection of specific HPV types are as sensitive as the more laborious and potentially hazardous radioactive probes.« less

  18. Comparison of peroxidase-labeled DNA probes with radioactive RNA probes for detection of human papillomaviruses by in situ hybridization in paraffin sections.

    PubMed

    Park, J S; Kurman, R J; Kessis, T D; Shah, K V

    1991-01-01

    A study comparing in situ hybridization using nonradioactive DNA probes directly conjugated with horseradish peroxidase (HRP), and 35S-labeled antisense RNA probes for human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6/11, 16, and 18 was performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue from 34 lesions of the cervix and vulva. These lesions included exophytic condylomas and intraepithelial and invasive neoplasms. HPV 6/11 was detected in two of four condylomata acuminata by both in situ techniques. HPV 16 was detected in 13 of 30 cases of intraepithelial and invasive neoplasms by both methods. Discordance between the two methods occurred in two instances. The radiolabeled probe but not the HRP probe detected HPV 16 in one case of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN 3), whereas the converse occurred in one case of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN 3). HPV 18 was not detected in any of the specimens by either method. This study demonstrates that nonradioactive HRP-labeled probes for the detection of specific HPV types are as sensitive as the more laborious and potentially hazardous radioactive probes.

  19. Otezla, Warts and All, Racks Up Sales and Eyes Blockbuster Status.

    PubMed

    Reinke, Thomas

    2017-10-01

    Otezla-the generic name is apremilast-also exploited a new mechanism of action as the first inhibitor of phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) that results in increased expression of both anti-inflammatory proteins and reduced expression of their pro-inflammatory counterparts.

  20. History of human papillomavirus, warts and cancer: what do we know today?

    PubMed

    Onon, Toli S

    2011-10-01

    Human papillomavirus has been a cause of infection in humans for thousands of years. The history of papillomaviruses, knowledge of their causative role in benign and malignant disease, and their structural characteristics have led to the development of vaccines to prevent cervical and anogenital cancers. Many questions remain unanswered before HPV vaccines can be optimised; however, the concept of virtual eradication of cervical cancer is not impossible, and remains a realistic aspiration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cancer, Warts, or Asymptomatic Infections: Clinical Presentation Matches Codon Usage Preferences in Human Papillomaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Félez-Sánchez, Marta; Trösemeier, Jan-Hendrik; Bedhomme, Stéphanie; González-Bravo, Maria Isabel; Kamp, Christel; Bravo, Ignacio G.

    2015-01-01

    Viruses rely completely on the hosts’ machinery for translation of viral transcripts. However, for most viruses infecting humans, codon usage preferences (CUPrefs) do not match those of the host. Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are a showcase to tackle this paradox: they present a large genotypic diversity and a broad range of phenotypic presentations, from asymptomatic infections to productive lesions and cancer. By applying phylogenetic inference and dimensionality reduction methods, we demonstrate first that genes in HPVs are poorly adapted to the average human CUPrefs, the only exception being capsid genes in viruses causing productive lesions. Phylogenetic relationships between HPVs explained only a small proportion of CUPrefs variation. Instead, the most important explanatory factor for viral CUPrefs was infection phenotype, as orthologous genes in viruses with similar clinical presentation displayed similar CUPrefs. Moreover, viral genes with similar spatiotemporal expression patterns also showed similar CUPrefs. Our results suggest that CUPrefs in HPVs reflect either variations in the mutation bias or differential selection pressures depending on the clinical presentation and expression timing. We propose that poor viral CUPrefs may be central to a trade-off between strong viral gene expression and the potential for eliciting protective immune response. PMID:26139833

  2. 9-Valent HPV vaccine for cancers, pre-cancers and genital warts related to HPV.

    PubMed

    Pitisuttithum, Punnee; Velicer, Christine; Luxembourg, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the causative agent of nearly all cervical cancer cases as well as a substantial proportion of anal, vulvar, vaginal, penile and oropharyngeal cancers, making it responsible for approximately 5% of the global cancer burden. The first-generation HPV vaccines that is, quadrivalent HPV type 6/11/16/18 vaccine and bivalent HPV type 16/18 vaccine were licensed in 2006 and 2007, respectively. A second-generation 9-valent HPV type 6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58 vaccine with broader cancer coverage was initiated even before the first vaccines were approved. By preventing HPV infection and disease due to HPV31/33/45/52/58, the 9vHPV vaccine has the potential to increase prevention of cervical cancer from 70 to 90%. In addition, the 9vHPV vaccine has the potential to prevent 85-95% of HPV-related vulvar, vaginal and anal cancers. Overall, the 9vHPV vaccine addresses a significant unmet medical need, although further health economics and implementation research is needed.

  3. Sulfoxidation Regulation of Musa acuminata Calmodulin (MaCaM) Influences the Functions of MaCaM-Binding Proteins.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guoxiang; Wu, Fuwang; Li, Zhiwei; Li, Taotao; Gupta, Vijai Kumar; Duan, Xuewu; Jiang, Yueming

    2018-06-01

    Sulfoxidation of methionine in proteins by reactive oxygen species can cause conformational alteration or functional impairment, and can be reversed by methionine sulfoxide reductase (Msr). Currently, only a few potential Msr substrates have been confirmed in higher plants. Here, we investigated Msr-mediated sulfoxidation regulation of calmodulin (CaM) and its underlying biological significance in relation to banana fruit ripening and senescence. Expression of MaCaM1 and MaMsrA7 was up-regulated with increased ripening and senescence. We verified that MaCaM1 interacts with MaMsrA7 in vitro and in vivo, and sulfoxidated MaCaM1 could be partly repaired by MaMsrA7 (MaMsrA7 reduces oxidized residues Met77 and Met110 in MaCaM1). Furthermore, we investigated two known CaM-binding proteins, catalase (MaCAT1) and MaHY5-1. MaHY5-1 acts as a transcriptional repressor of carotenoid biosynthesis-related genes (MaPSY1, MaPSY2 and MaPSY3) in banana fruit. MaCaM1 could enhance the catalytic activity of MaCAT1 and the transcriptional repression activity of MaHY5-1 toward MaPSY2. Mimicked sulfoxidation in MaCaM1 did not affect the physical interactions of the protein with MaHY5-1 and MaCAT1, but reduced the catalytic activity of MaCAT1 and the transcriptional repression activity of MaHY5-1. Our data suggest that sulfoxidation modification in MaCaM1 by MaMsrA7 regulates antioxidant response and gene transcription, thereby being involved in regulation of ripening and senescence of banana fruit.

  4. Development of an Uncooled Photomechanic Infrared Sensor Based on the IR Organ of the Pyrophilous Jewel Beetle Melanophila Acuminata

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-04

    been found to be a suitable means for depositing thin films of chitosan onto the surface of a silicon wafer. A small amount of liquid solution is...response of the system to changes of the meniscus position in the capillary. This was done by gradually filling the working volume with an ionic liquid ...from the wetting of the electrodes by the ionic liquid . From this data we have calculated a signal to noise ratio of 100 for the read out mechanism

  5. Transcripts and MicroRNAs Responding to Salt Stress in Musa acuminata Colla (AAA Group) cv. Berangan Roots.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wan Sin; Gudimella, Ranganath; Wong, Gwo Rong; Tammi, Martti Tapani; Khalid, Norzulaani; Harikrishna, Jennifer Ann

    2015-01-01

    Physiological responses to stress are controlled by expression of a large number of genes, many of which are regulated by microRNAs. Since most banana cultivars are salt-sensitive, improved understanding of genetic regulation of salt induced stress responses in banana can support future crop management and improvement in the face of increasing soil salinity related to irrigation and climate change. In this study we focused on determining miRNA and their targets that respond to NaCl exposure and used transcriptome sequencing of RNA and small RNA from control and NaCl-treated banana roots to assemble a cultivar-specific reference transcriptome and identify orthologous and Musa-specific miRNA responding to salinity. We observed that, banana roots responded to salinity stress with changes in expression for a large number of genes (9.5% of 31,390 expressed unigenes) and reduction in levels of many miRNA, including several novel miRNA and banana-specific miRNA-target pairs. Banana roots expressed a unique set of orthologous and Musa-specific miRNAs of which 59 respond to salt stress in a dose-dependent manner. Gene expression patterns of miRNA compared with those of their predicted mRNA targets indicated that a majority of the differentially expressed miRNAs were down-regulated in response to increased salinity, allowing increased expression of targets involved in diverse biological processes including stress signaling, stress defence, transport, cellular homeostasis, metabolism and other stress-related functions. This study may contribute to the understanding of gene regulation and abiotic stress response of roots and the high-throughput sequencing data sets generated may serve as important resources related to salt tolerance traits for functional genomic studies and genetic improvement in banana.

  6. Transcripts and MicroRNAs Responding to Salt Stress in Musa acuminata Colla (AAA Group) cv. Berangan Roots

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wan Sin; Gudimella, Ranganath; Wong, Gwo Rong; Tammi, Martti Tapani; Khalid, Norzulaani; Harikrishna, Jennifer Ann

    2015-01-01

    Physiological responses to stress are controlled by expression of a large number of genes, many of which are regulated by microRNAs. Since most banana cultivars are salt-sensitive, improved understanding of genetic regulation of salt induced stress responses in banana can support future crop management and improvement in the face of increasing soil salinity related to irrigation and climate change. In this study we focused on determining miRNA and their targets that respond to NaCl exposure and used transcriptome sequencing of RNA and small RNA from control and NaCl-treated banana roots to assemble a cultivar-specific reference transcriptome and identify orthologous and Musa-specific miRNA responding to salinity. We observed that, banana roots responded to salinity stress with changes in expression for a large number of genes (9.5% of 31,390 expressed unigenes) and reduction in levels of many miRNA, including several novel miRNA and banana-specific miRNA-target pairs. Banana roots expressed a unique set of orthologous and Musa-specific miRNAs of which 59 respond to salt stress in a dose-dependent manner. Gene expression patterns of miRNA compared with those of their predicted mRNA targets indicated that a majority of the differentially expressed miRNAs were down-regulated in response to increased salinity, allowing increased expression of targets involved in diverse biological processes including stress signaling, stress defence, transport, cellular homeostasis, metabolism and other stress-related functions. This study may contribute to the understanding of gene regulation and abiotic stress response of roots and the high-throughput sequencing data sets generated may serve as important resources related to salt tolerance traits for functional genomic studies and genetic improvement in banana. PMID:25993649

  7. Optimatization of transient transformation methods to study gene expression in Musa acuminata (AAA group) cultivar Ambon Lumut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prayuni, Kinasih; Dwivany, Fenny M.

    2015-09-01

    Banana is classified as a climateric fruit, whose ripening is regulated by ethylene. Ethylene is synthesized from ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid) by ACC oxidase enzyme which is encoded by ACO gene. Controling an important gene expression in ethylene biosynthesis pathway has became a target to delay the ripening process. Therefore in the previous study we have designed a MaACO-RNAi construct to control MaACO gene expression. In this research, we study the effectiveness of different transient transformation methods to deliver the construct. Direct injection, with or no vaccum infiltration methods were used to deliver MaACO-RNAi construct. All of the methods succesfully deliver the construct into banana fruits based on RT-PCR result.

  8. Isolation and Screening of Pectinolytic Fungi from Orange (Citrus nobilis Tan.) and Banana (Musa acuminata L.) Fruit Peel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amilia, K. R.; Sari, S. L. A.; Setyaningsih, R.

    2017-04-01

    Pectinase is the one of most important enzyme which is used in food industry such as fruit and vegetable juice extraction, oil extraction and fermentation of coffee, cocoa and tea. Pectinase can be produced by microorganism such as bacteria and fungi. Fungi are known as potent producer of pectinase. This research was conducted to isolate and screen of the pectinolytic fungi from rotten orange and banana fruit peels. This research succeeded to isolate 10 fungal isolates from rotten orange peels and 5 fungal isolates from rotten banana peels. These isolates were screened in pectinolytic activities based on clear zone formation on pectic medium which is stained by cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide. The screening result showed that fungal isolates which showed pectinolytic activity were O2, O3, O4, O7, O8, O10, B3, and B5. Based on morphological characters, pectinolytic fungi were identified as Fusarium O4 and O10, Penicillium O2, Aspergillus O3, O7, B3 and B5 and Trichoderma O8. The highest pectinolytic activity was showed by Penicillium O2 which was isolated from orange peel.

  9. Expression of a ripening-related cytochrome P450 cDNA in Cavendish banana (Musa acuminata cv. Williams).

    PubMed

    Pua, Eng-Chong; Lee, Yi-Chuan

    2003-02-13

    As part of a study to understand the molecular basis of fruit ripening, this study reports the isolation and characterization of a banana cytochrome P450 (P450) cDNA, designated as MAP450-1, which was associated with fruit ripening of banana. MAP450-1 encoded a single polypeptide of 507 amino acid residues that shared an overall identity of 27-45% with that of several plant P450s, among which MAP450-1 was most related phylogenetically to the avocado P450 CYP71A1. The polypeptide that possessed residue domains conserved in all P450s was classified as CYP71N1. Expression of CYP71N1 varied greatly between banana organs. Transcripts were detected only in peel and pulp of the ripening fruit and not in unripe fruit tissues at all developmental stages or other organs (root, leaf, ovary and flower). During ripening, transcripts were barely detectable in pre-climacteric and climacteric fruits but, as ripening progressed, they began to accumulate and reached a maximum in post-climacteric fruits. CYP71N1 expression in pre-climacteric fruit could be upregulated by exogenous application of ethylene (1-5 ppm) and treatment of overripe fruit with exogenous sucrose (50-300 mM) but not glucose downregulated the expression. These results indicate that P450s may not play a role in fruit development and its expression is associated with ripening, which may be regulated, in part, by ethylene and/or sucrose, at the transcript level.

  10. Socio-cultural factors affecting the spread of HIV/AIDS in Africa: a case study.

    PubMed

    Dada-Adegbola, H O

    2004-06-01

    There is a disproportionate share of AIDS cases over the years in Africa. This has occurred in racial and ethnic minority populations, a finding likely related to social, economic and cultural factors. Certain socio-cultural and religious practices such as polygamy and giving a daughter away in marriage without considering the social life of the man are likely contributory factors to the higher prevalence of HIV/AIDS in women in this part of the world. This is illustrated with a case of Mr. M. S. who married two wives within four months interval, having lived a promiscuous life before marriage. One of the wives was a virgin at the time of marriage. Neither of wives had any symptoms suggestive of STD or HIV before marriage, however, the three of them tested positive to HIV-1 following a visit to the special treatment clinic. He had genital herpes and his two wives also had vulvovaginal candidiasis, genital herpes and condyloma accuminata (genital warts). The husband would not want his HIV status declared to the wives. There is therefore a need to enact law on pre-marriage HIV screening for intending couples. Couple Pre-and post-test counseling must be encouraged and promoted. In addition, women should be empowered to negotiate safer sex.

  11. Botanicals With Dermatologic Properties Derived From First Nations Healing: Part 2-Plants and Algae.

    PubMed

    Colantonio, Sophia; Rivers, Jason K

    Plants and algae have played a central role in the treatment of skin conditions in both traditional First Nations healing and in modern dermatology. The objective of this study was to examine the evidence supporting the dermatological use of seaweed, witch hazel, bearberry, and mayapple. Four plants and algae used in traditional First Nations treatments of skin disease were selected based on expert recommendations. Several databases were searched to identify relevant citations without language restrictions. Seaweed has potential clinical use in the treatment of acne and wrinkles and may be incorporated into biofunctional textiles. Witch hazel is an effective and well-tolerated treatment of inflammation and diaper dermatitis. Bearberry leaves contain arbutin, a skin-lightening agent that is an alternative for the treatment of hyperpigmentation. Mayapple contains podophyllotoxin, a treatment for condyloma accuminata, molluscum contagiosum, and recalcitrant palmoplantar warts. Common plants and algae are replete with bioactive agents that may have beneficial effects on the skin. Further research will open the door to new and innovative products in the future. Limitations of this study include that the scope of our study is limited to 4 plants and algae, a small sample of the breadth of plants used by First Nations for dermatological treatments.

  12. Highlights of Thirty-Year Experience of CO2 Laser Use at the Florence (Italy) Department of Dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Campolmi, Piero; Bonan, Paolo; Cannarozzo, Giovanni; Bassi, Andrea; Bruscino, Nicola; Arunachalam, Meena; Troiano, Michela; Lotti, Torello; Moretti, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    The CO2 laser has been used extensively in dermatological surgery over the past 30 years and is now recognised as the gold standard for soft tissue vaporization. Considering that the continuous wave CO2 laser delivery system and the newer “superpulsed” and scanned CO2 systems have progressively changed our practice and patient satisfaction, a long range documentation can be useful. Our experience has demonstrated that the use of CO2 laser involves a reduced healing time, an infrequent need for anaesthesia, reduced thermal damage, less bleeding, less inflammation, the possibility of intra-operative histologic and/or cytologic examination, and easy access to anatomically difficult areas. Immediate side effects have been pain, erythema, edema, typically see with older methods, using higher power. The percentage of after-treatment keloids and hypertrophic scars observed was very low (~1%) especially upon the usage of lower parameters. The recurrence of viral lesions (condylomas and warts) have been not more frequent than those due to other techniques. Tumor recurrence is minor compared with radiotherapy or surgery. This method is a valid alternative to surgery and/or diathermocoagulation for microsurgery of soft tissues. Our results are at times not consistent with those published in the literature, stressing the concept that multicentric studies that harmonization methodology and the patient selection are vital. PMID:22593693

  13. Photodynamic therapy--mechanism and employment.

    PubMed

    Szpringer, Ewa; Lutnicki, Krzysztof; Marciniak, Andrzej

    2004-01-01

    Photodynamic terapy (PDT) is a new treatment for a wide variety of malignancies and premalignant dysplasias, as well as some non-cancer indications. Therapeutic response to PTD is achieved through the activation of non-toxic photosensitiser located within neoplastic tissue, using visible light tuned to the appropriate absorption band of the photosensitiser molecule. This produces cytotoxic free radical such as singlet oxigen, which result in local photo-oxidation, cell damage and destruction of the tumour cells. Systemic administration of photosensitisers has been used with endoscopic light exposure to treat a variety of internal malignances. A topical drug delivery is used in the skin deseases treatment. The selective distribution of photosensitiser in the target tissue is the fundamental to the process of PDT. This tissue specific photosensitation and normal tissue sparing results in good healing and often very good cosmetic results. Peterson PTD can be used for the treatment of cutaneous lesions (e.g., SCC, BCC, Bowen's disease, mycosis fungoides, erythroplasia of Queyrat, Gorlin's Syndrome, actinic keratoses), lower genital tract neoplasia (VIN and CIN), gastrointestinal tumours, etc., as well as nononcological indications (e.g., acne, condyloma acuminatum, lichen planus, psoriasis, vitiligo, vulval lichen sclerosus, warts and verrucae).

  14. Sexually Transmitted Diseases in a specialized STD healthcare center: epidemiology and demographic profile from January 1999 to December 2009*

    PubMed Central

    Fagundes, Luiz Jorge; Vieira Junior, Elso Elias; Moysés, Ana Carolina Marteline Cavalcante; de Lima, Fernão Dias; de Morais, Fátima Regina Borges; Vizinho, Natalina Lima

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Sexually Transmitted Diseases are still considered a serious public health problem in Brazil and worldwide. OBJECTIVE To examine Sexually Transmitted Diseases prevalence and the sickness impact profile of STDs in a reference health center specializing in the treatment of Sexually Transmitted Diseases. METHOD We collected epidemiological, demographic, clinical and laboratory data from the medical records and interviews of 4,128 patients who had attended the center from January 1999 to December 2009. RESULTS Male patients outnumbered (76%) females (24%), Caucasians outnumbered (74.3%) those of mixed race (14.8%), blacks (10.8%) and Asians (0.1%). STD occurrence was higher in the 20-29 age group (46.2%) This population included 34.7% high school graduates, 8.7% college graduates and 0.8% illiterates. As for affective-sexual orientation, 86.5% were heterosexual, 7.8% homosexual and 5.5% bisexual. Regarding patients' sexual practices over the previous 30 days, 67.7% reported sexual intercourse with one person, 8.6% had had sex with two persons and 3.9%, with three or more people. The highest incidence of STD was condyloma acuminata, affecting 29.4% of all the patients, genital candidiasis 14.2%, and genital herpes 10.6%. Of the 44.3% who submitted to serologic testing for HIV detection 5% were positive, with a ratio of 6.8 males to 1 female. CONCLUSIONS STD prevalence remains high in Brazil and it is necessary to invest in early detection, prevention and treatment. PMID:24068122

  15. Skinning vulvectomy for the treatment of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia 2-3: a study of 21 cases.

    PubMed

    Ayhan, A; Tuncer, Z S; Doğan, L; Yüce, K; Küçükali, T

    1998-01-01

    Twenty-one cases of patients with vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) 2-3 were reviewed. The mean age at diagnosis was 45.4 years. All of the patients presented with vulvar pruritus. Five of the patients had hypertension, two had coronary heart disease and two had diabetes mellitus as complicating medical illnesses. None of the patients had history or evidence of vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VAIN) or cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), and only one patient had invasive cervical cancer at diagnosis. Provided the histology confirmed VIN, the patients were subjected to a skinning vulvectomy procedure. Of the patients, 15 (71.4%) had VIN 2, and the remaining 6 (28.6%) had VIN 3 at preoperative evaluation. Histologic analysis of skinning vulvectomy specimens revealed no evidence of neoplasia in three patients (14.2%). Multifocality was observed in only three patients (14.2%). The areas involved were the perineum in four patients, labia in 15 and clitoris in two patients. Associated vulvar pathologies were condyloma acuminata in one, squamous vulvar hyperplasia in three and lichen sclerosus with squamous hyperplasia in one patient. The complications of the procedure included febrile morbidity in three patients and minor wound break-down in one patient. None of the patients in this series experienced recurrence. Skinning vulvectomy seems to have a high success rate in treatment of VIN 2-3 with minimal postoperative complications and satisfactory cosmetic results. However, observation of only three patients with multifocal lesions as well as no patient with invasive cancer adds credence to an ablative procedure after appropriate evaluation under colposcopy.

  16. Efficacy of pulsed dye laser treatment for common warts is not influenced by the causative HPV type: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Fichman, Yoseph; Levi, Assi; Hodak, Emmilia; Halachmi, Shlomit; Mazor, Sigal; Wolf, Dana; Caplan, Orit; Lapidoth, Moshe

    2018-05-01

    Verruca vulgaris (VV) is a prevalent skin condition caused by various subtypes of human papilloma virus (HPV). The most common causes of non-genital lesions are HPV types 2 and 4, and to a lesser extent types 1, 3, 26, 29, and 57. Although numerous therapeutic modalities exist, none is universally effective or without adverse events (AE). Pulsed dye laser (PDL) is a favorable option due to its observed efficacy and relatively low AE rate. However, it is not known which verrucae are most likely to respond to PDL, or whether the causative viral subtype influences this response. The objective of this prospective blinded study was to assess whether the HPV subtype was predictive of response to PDL. For that matter, 26 verrucae from 26 immunocompetent patients were biopsied prior to treatment by PDL. HPV coding sequences were isolated and genotyped using PCR analysis. Patients were treated by PDL (595 nm wavelength, 5 mm spot size, 1.5 ms pulse duration, 12 J/cm 2 fluence) once a month for up to 6 months, and clinical response was assessed. Binary logistic regression analysis and linear logistic regression analysis were used in order to evaluate statistical significance. Different types of HPV were identified in 22 of 26 tissue samples. Response to treatment did not correlate with HPV type, age, or gender. As no association between HPV type and response to PDL therapy could be established, it is therefore equally effective for all HPV types and remains a favorable treatment option for all VV.

  17. Clinical evidence for individual animal therapy for papillomatous digital dermatitis (hairy heel wart) and infectious bovine pododermatitis (foot rot).

    PubMed

    Apley, Michael D

    2015-03-01

    Data supporting individual animal therapy for papillomatous digital dermatitis (PDD) and infectious pododermatitis (IP) in cattle are available for treatment with multiple drugs in the form of randomized, prospective clinical trials conducted in naturally occurring disease with negative controls and masked subjective evaluators. In the case of PDD, these trials support the use of topical tetracycline and oxytetracycline, lincomycin, a copper-containing preparation, and a nonantimicrobial cream. In individual therapy for IP, trial evidence is available to support systemic treatment with ceftiofur, florfenicol, tulathromycin, and oxytetracycline. However, it was not available for IP standards such as penicillin G, sulfadimethoxine, and tylosin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Fairy Godmother--and Her Warts: Making the Dream of Evidence-Based Policy Come True

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Carol H.; Murphy-Graham, Erin; Petrosino, Anthony; Gandhi, Allison G.

    2008-01-01

    Evaluators sometimes wish for a Fairy Godmother who would make decision makers pay attention to evaluation findings when choosing programs to implement. The U.S. Department of Education came close to creating such a Fairy Godmother when it required school districts to choose drug abuse prevention programs only if their effectiveness was supported…

  19. Trial watch

    PubMed Central

    Vacchelli, Erika; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Eggermont, Alexander; Fridman, Wolf Hervé; Galon, Jerome; Sautès-Fridman, Catherine; Tartour, Eric; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido

    2012-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have first been characterized for their capacity to detect conserved microbial components like lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and double-stranded RNA, resulting in the elicitation of potent (innate) immune responses against invading pathogens. More recently, TLRs have also been shown to promote the activation of the cognate immune system against cancer cells. Today, only three TLR agonists are approved by FDA for use in humans: the bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) and imiquimod. BCG (an attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis) is mainly used as a vaccine against tuberculosis, but also for the immunotherapy of in situ bladder carcinoma. MPL (derived from the LPS of Salmonella minnesota) is included in the formulation of Cervarix®, a vaccine against human papillomavirus-16 and -18. Imiquimod (a synthetic imidazoquinoline) is routinely employed for actinic keratosis, superficial basal cell carcinoma, and external genital warts (condylomata acuminata). In this Trial Watch, we will summarize the results of recently completed clinical trials and discuss the progress of ongoing studies that have evaluated/are evaluating FDA-approved TLR agonists as off-label medications for cancer therapy. PMID:23162757

  20. [Morphologic manifestations of human papillomavirus infection in the vulvar and anogenital region].

    PubMed

    Hadzić, B; Djurdjević, S; Hadzić, M; Jerant-Patić, V

    1998-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection of the female genital tract is a sexually transmissible disease most frequently manifested by warts on the vulva, anogenital region, vagina and cervix. Precancerous lesions of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) as well as the development of invasive malignant neoplasms are also related to the infections caused by some HPV types. Infections with HPV-6 and HPV-11, the disease is often polycentric, sometimes reaching gigantic dimensions, elicit venereal warts. Amongst several histological criteria for diagnosing this change, the most typical is koilocytosis, with perinuclear halo formation with a thick cytoplasmic border. Precancerous changes of the vulva and anogenital region are displastic changes of the squamous epithelium, characterized by high mitotic activity, disturbance of nucleocytoplasmic relationship and lack of differentiation in the upper epithelial layers. The changes in the epithelium divided into thirds starting from basal membrane is the main criterion in estimating the degree of dysplasia, marked by VIN 1, VIN 2 and VIN 3. According to the nuclear and cytoplasmic characteristics. VINs are subclassified into three types: basaloid, verrucous (condylomatous) and well differentiated. Basaloid and verrucous (condylomatous) VIN types are morphological markers of HPV infection. The squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva and anogenital region is a morphologically heteregenous neoplasm with particular histological entities connected with HPV infection. Four cases of patients with changes in the anogenital region in the form of small to gigantic polypoid formations were reported. The histological features corresponded to vulvar intraepithelial neoplasms (VIN lesions), as well as to neoplastic changes characteristic of HPV infection. The evolution of the changes from typical condylomas through VIN lesions to infiltrative neoplasms, taking place over the years, was also verified. Some histologically typical epithelial

  1. Chimeric L2-Based Virus-Like Particle (VLP) Vaccines Targeting Cutaneous Human Papillomaviruses (HPV).

    PubMed

    Huber, Bettina; Schellenbacher, Christina; Shafti-Keramat, Saeed; Jindra, Christoph; Christensen, Neil; Kirnbauer, Reinhard

    2017-01-01

    Common cutaneous human papillomavirus (HPV) types induce skin warts, whereas species beta HPV are implicated, together with UV-radiation, in the development of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) in immunosuppressed patients. Licensed HPV vaccines contain virus-like particles (VLP) self-assembled from L1 major capsid proteins that provide type-restricted protection against mucosal HPV infections causing cervical and other ano-genital and oro-pharyngeal carcinomas and warts (condylomas), but do not target heterologous HPV. Experimental papillomavirus vaccines have been designed based on L2 minor capsid proteins that contain type-common neutralization epitopes, to broaden protection to heterologous mucosal and cutaneous HPV types. Repetitive display of the HPV16 L2 cross-neutralization epitope RG1 (amino acids (aa) 17-36) on the surface of HPV16 L1 VLP has greatly enhanced immunogenicity of the L2 peptide. To more directly target cutaneous HPV, L1 fusion proteins were designed that incorporate the RG1 homolog of beta HPV17, the beta HPV5 L2 peptide aa53-72, or the common cutaneous HPV4 RG1 homolog, inserted into DE surface loops of HPV1, 5, 16 or 18 L1 VLP scaffolds. Baculovirus expressed chimeric proteins self-assembled into VLP and VLP-raised NZW rabbit immune sera were evaluated by ELISA and L1- and L2-based pseudovirion (PsV) neutralizing assays, including 12 novel beta PsV types. Chimeric VLP displaying the HPV17 RG1 epitope, but not the HPV5L2 aa53-72 epitope, induced cross-neutralizing humoral immune responses to beta HPV. In vivo cross-protection was evaluated by passive serum transfer in a murine PsV challenge model. Immune sera to HPV16L1-17RG1 VLP (cross-) protected against beta HPV5/20/24/38/96/16 (but not type 76), while antisera to HPV5L1-17RG1 VLP cross-protected against HPV20/24/96 only, and sera to HPV1L1-4RG1 VLP cross-protected against HPV4 challenge. In conclusion, RG1-based VLP are promising next generation vaccine candidates to target cutaneous HPV

  2. Chimeric L2-Based Virus-Like Particle (VLP) Vaccines Targeting Cutaneous Human Papillomaviruses (HPV)

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Bettina; Schellenbacher, Christina; Shafti-Keramat, Saeed; Jindra, Christoph; Christensen, Neil

    2017-01-01

    Common cutaneous human papillomavirus (HPV) types induce skin warts, whereas species beta HPV are implicated, together with UV-radiation, in the development of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) in immunosuppressed patients. Licensed HPV vaccines contain virus-like particles (VLP) self-assembled from L1 major capsid proteins that provide type-restricted protection against mucosal HPV infections causing cervical and other ano-genital and oro-pharyngeal carcinomas and warts (condylomas), but do not target heterologous HPV. Experimental papillomavirus vaccines have been designed based on L2 minor capsid proteins that contain type-common neutralization epitopes, to broaden protection to heterologous mucosal and cutaneous HPV types. Repetitive display of the HPV16 L2 cross-neutralization epitope RG1 (amino acids (aa) 17–36) on the surface of HPV16 L1 VLP has greatly enhanced immunogenicity of the L2 peptide. To more directly target cutaneous HPV, L1 fusion proteins were designed that incorporate the RG1 homolog of beta HPV17, the beta HPV5 L2 peptide aa53-72, or the common cutaneous HPV4 RG1 homolog, inserted into DE surface loops of HPV1, 5, 16 or 18 L1 VLP scaffolds. Baculovirus expressed chimeric proteins self-assembled into VLP and VLP-raised NZW rabbit immune sera were evaluated by ELISA and L1- and L2-based pseudovirion (PsV) neutralizing assays, including 12 novel beta PsV types. Chimeric VLP displaying the HPV17 RG1 epitope, but not the HPV5L2 aa53-72 epitope, induced cross-neutralizing humoral immune responses to beta HPV. In vivo cross-protection was evaluated by passive serum transfer in a murine PsV challenge model. Immune sera to HPV16L1-17RG1 VLP (cross-) protected against beta HPV5/20/24/38/96/16 (but not type 76), while antisera to HPV5L1-17RG1 VLP cross-protected against HPV20/24/96 only, and sera to HPV1L1-4RG1 VLP cross-protected against HPV4 challenge. In conclusion, RG1-based VLP are promising next generation vaccine candidates to target cutaneous

  3. Antiretroviral Therapy as a Factor Protective against Anal Dysplasia in HIV-Infected Males Who Have Sex with Males

    PubMed Central

    Hidalgo-Tenorio, Carmen; Rivero-Rodriguez, Mar; Gil-Anguita, Concepción; Lopez De Hierro, Mercedes; Palma, Pablo; Ramírez-Taboada, Jessica; Esquivias, Javier; López-Ruz, Miguel Angel; Javier-Martínez, Rosario; Pasquau-Liaño, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Chronic infection with oncogenic HPV genotype is associated with the development of anal dysplasia. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been shown to decrease the incidence of cervical carcinoma in women with HIV. We sought to: 1) describe the prevalence and grade of anal dysplasia and HPV infection in our study subjects; 2) analyze the grade of correlation between anal cytology, PCR of high-risk HPV, and histology; 3) identify the factors associated with the appearance of ≥AIN2 lesions. Design Cross-sectional, prospective study. Methods A cohort of HIV-positive males (n = 140, mean age  = 37 years) who have sex with males (MSM) had epidemiological, clinical and analytical data collected. Anal mucosa samples were taken for cytology, HPV PCR genotyping, and anoscopy for histological analysis. Results Within the cohort, 77.1% were being treated with ART, 8.5% anoscopy findings were AIN2, and 11.4% carcinoma in situ; 74.2% had high-risk (HR), 59.7% low-risk (LR) HPV genotypes and 46.8% had both. The combination of cytology with PCR identifying HR-HPV better predicts the histology findings than either of these factors alone. Logistic regression highlighted ART as a protective factor against ≥AIN2 lesions (OR: 0.214; 95%CI: 0.054–0.84). Anal/genital condylomas (OR: 4.26; 95%CI: 1.27–14.3), and HPV68 genotype (OR: 10.6; 95%CI: 1.23–91.47) were identified as risk factors. Conclusions In our cohort, ART has a protective effect against dysplastic anal lesions. Anal/genital warts and HPV68 genotype are predictors of ≥AIN2 lesions. Introducing PCR HPV genotype evaluation improves screening success over that of cytology alone. PMID:24676139

  4. Risk factors for the development and severity of juvenile-onset recurrent respiratory papillomatosis: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Niyibizi, Joseph; Rodier, Caroline; Wassef, Maggy; Trottier, Helen

    2014-02-01

    Juvenile-onset recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (JoRRP) is a rare yet aggressive disease caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). Although many newborns are likely exposed to HPV, few develop JoRRP and the clinical course of the disease varies from one child to another. This systematic review seeks to provide an up-to-date understanding of the risk factors for acquisition and severity. We conducted a comprehensive literature search in EMBASE, MEDLINE and EBMR databases using various combinations of keywords related to JoRRP etiology, risk factors and severity. We also searched Google Scholar and the reference lists of eligible studies. Our search was limited to original studies published in French or English between 1995 and July 2012 and to patients under 20 years of age. Of 1362 citations, we retrieved 102 articles and found 14 additional studies. We retained 32 studies meeting inclusion criteria. All were observational and together included 2296 JoRRP cases. Risk factors could be classified mainly as maternal and birth history, viral genotype, and host factors. A history of genital warts during pregnancy and delivery was strongly linked to the development of JoRRP. Depending on ethnicity, specific human leukocyte antigen class II alleles and immune response factors were important determinants of JoRRP acquisition and severity. HPV-11 genotype and younger age at onset of JoRRP were important predictors of severity. Genetic and immunological profiles underlying the acquisition and clinical course are not readily modifiable. Thus, preventing condylomas in women of childbearing age could reduce the burden of this life-threatening disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Regression of Human Papillomavirus Intraepithelial Lesions Is Induced by MVA E2 Therapeutic Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    López-Contreras, Mario; Rosales, Carlos; Magallanes-Molina, Jose-Roberto; Gonzalez-Vergara, Roberto; Arroyo-Cazarez, Jose Martin; Ricardez-Arenas, Antonio; del Follo-Valencia, Armando; Padilla-Arriaga, Santiago; Guerrero, Miriam Veronica; Pirez, Miguel Angel; Arellano-Fiore, Claudia; Villarreal, Freddy

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Human papilloma viruses can induce warts, condylomas, and other intraepithelial cervical lesions that can progress to cancer. Cervical cancer is a serious problem in developing countries because early detection is difficult, and thus proper early treatment is many times missing. In this phase III clinical trial, we evaluated the potential use of MVA E2 recombinant vaccinia virus to treat intraepithelial lesions associated with papillomavirus infection. A total of 1176 female and 180 male patients with intraepithelial lesions were studied. They were injected with 107 MVA E2 virus particles directly into their uterus, urethra, vulva, or anus. Patients were monitored by colposcopy and cytology. Immune response was determined by measuring the antibody titer against MVA E2 virus and by analyzing the cytotoxic activity against cancer cells bearing papillomavirus DNA. Papillomavirus was determined by the Hybrid Capture method or by polymerase chain reaction analysis. By histology, 1051 (89.3%) female patients showed complete elimination of lesions after treatment with MVA E2. In 28 (2.4%) female patients, the lesion was reduced to CIN 1. Another 97 (8.3%) female patients presented isolated koilocytes after treatment. In men, all lesions were completely eliminated. All MVA E2–treated patients developed antibodies against the MVA E2 vaccine and generated a specific cytotoxic response against papilloma-transformed cells. Papillomavirus DNA was not detected after treatment in 83% of total patients treated. MVA E2 did not generate any apparent side effects. These data suggest that therapeutic vaccination with MVA E2 vaccine is an excellent candidate to stimulate the immune system and generate regression in intraepithelial lesions when applied locally. PMID:25275724

  6. Molecular cloning and expression of five glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes from Banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA group, cv. Cavendish).

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhuo; Huang, Suzhen; Jia, Caihong; Liu, Juhua; Zhang, Jianbin; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2013-09-01

    Three tau class MaGSTs responded to abiotic stress, MaGSTF1 and MaGSTL1 responded to signaling molecules, they may play an important role in the growth of banana plantlet. Glutathione S-transferases (GST) are multifunctional detoxification enzymes that participate in a variety of cellular processes, including stress responses. In this study, we report the molecular characteristics of five GST genes (MaGSTU1, MaGSTU2, MaGSTU3, MaGSTF1 and MaGSTL1) cloned from banana (Musa acuminate L. AAA group, cv. Cavendish) using a RACE-PCR-based strategy. The predicted molecular masses of these GSTs range from 23.4 to 27.7 kDa and their pIs are acidic. At the amino acid level, they share high sequence similarity with GSTs in the banana DH-Pahang (AA group) genome. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the deduced amino acid sequences of MaGSTs also have high similarity to GSTs of other plant species. Expression analysis by semi-quantitative RT-PCR revealed that these genes are differentially expressed in various tissues. In addition, their expression is regulated by various stress conditions, including exposure to signaling molecules, cold, salinity, drought and Fusarium oxysporum f specialis(f. Sp) cubense Tropical Race 4 (Foc TR4) infection. The expression of the tau class MaGSTs (MaGSTU1, MaGSTU2 and MaGSTU3) mainly responded to cold, salinity and drought while MaGSTF1 and MaGSTL1 expressions were upregulated by signaling molecules. Our findings suggest that MaGSTs play a key role in both development and abiotic stress responses.

  7. Physico-chemical characteristics and sensory evaluation of wheat bread partially substituted with banana (Musa acuminata X balbisiana cv. Awak) pseudo-stem flour.

    PubMed

    Ho, Lee-Hoon; Abdul Aziz, Noor Aziah; Azahari, Baharin

    2013-08-15

    The physico-chemical and sensorial properties of the control (BCtr), commercial wheat flour (CWF) bread substituted with 10% BPF (banana pseudo-stem flour) (B10BPF) and B10BPF with added 0.8% w/w (flour weight basis) xanthan gum (XG) or sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) (B10BPFXG and B10BPFCMC, respectively) were examined. The proximate analyses revealed that the composite bread had significantly higher moisture, ash, crude fibre, soluble, insoluble and total dietary fibre contents but lower protein, fat and carbohydrate contents than the BCtr. Bread incorporated with BPF resulted in a lower volume, darker crumb and lighter crust colour than the BCtr. The addition of CMC improved the bread volume. All breads containing BPF had greater total phenolics, and antioxidant properties than the control bread. Sensory evaluation indicated that the B10BPFCMC bread had the highest acceptability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Enhanced yield of phenolic extracts from banana peels (Musa acuminata Colla AAA) and cinnamon barks (Cinnamomum varum) and their antioxidative potentials in fish oil.

    PubMed

    Anal, Anil Kumar; Jaisanti, Sirorat; Noomhorm, Athapol

    2014-10-01

    The bioactive compounds of banana peels and cinnamon barks were extracted by vacuum microwave and ultrasonic-assisted extraction methods at pre-determined temperatures and times. These methods enhance the yield extracts in shorter time. The highest yields of both extracts were obtained from the conditions which employed the highest temperature and the longest time. The extracts' yield from cinnamon bark method was higher by ultrasonic than vacuum microwave method, while vacuum microwave method gave higher extraction yield from banana peel than ultrasonic method. The phenolic contents of cinnamon bark and banana peel extracts were 467 and 35 mg gallic acid equivalent/g extract, respectively. The flavonoid content found in banana peel and cinnamon bark extracts were 196 and 428 mg/g quercetin equivalent, respectively. In addition, it was found that cinnamon bark gave higher 2,2-Diphenyl-1-1 picryhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and total antioxidant activity (TAA). The antioxidant activity of the extracts was analyzed by measuring the peroxide and p-anisidine values after oxidation of fish oils, stored for a month (30 days) at 25 °C and showed lesser peroxide and p-anisidine values in the fish oils containing the sample extracts in comparison to the fish oil without containing any extract. The banana peel and cinnamon extracts had shown the ability as antioxidants to prevent the oxidation of fish oil and might be considered as rich sources of natural antioxidant.

  9. Isolation of (S)-(+)-naproxene from Musa acuminata. Inhibitory effect of naproxene and its 7-methoxy isomer on constitutive COX-1 and inducible COX-2.

    PubMed

    Abad, T; McNaughton-Smith, G; Fletcher, W Q; Echeverri, F; Diaz-Peñate, R; Tabraue, C; Ruiz de Galarreta, C M; López-Blanco, F; Luis, J G

    2000-06-01

    The isolation and characterisation of (S)-(+)-6-methoxy-alpha-methyl-2-naphthaleneacetic acid, a well known synthetic non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (naproxene), from a natural source is described for the first time. We evaluated the ability of naproxene and its 7-methoxy isomer to abrogate constitutive COX-1 and inducible COX-2 activity in human A549 cells. Naproxene inhibited COX-1 (IC50 = 3.42 microM) and COX-2 (IC50 = 1.53 microM), whereas the 7-methoxy isomer had no appreciable effect on COX-1 (IC50 > 100 microM) but also abrogated the activity of COX-2 enzyme (IC50 = 14.42 microM).

  10. Efficacy of larvicidal activity of green synthesized titanium dioxide nanoparticles using Mangifera indica extract against blood-feeding parasites.

    PubMed

    Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Chung, Ill-Min; Anbarasan, Karunanithi; Karthikeyan, Viswanathan

    2015-02-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are considered to be among the best photocatalytic materials due to their long-term thermodynamic stability, strong oxidizing power, and relative non-toxicity. Nano-preparations with TiO2 NPs are currently under investigation as novel treatments for acne vulgaris, recurrent condyloma acuminata, atopic dermatitis, hyperpigmented skin lesions, and other non-dermatologic diseases. The present study was to investigate the acaricidal and larvicidal activity of synthesized TiO2 NPs utilizing leaf aqueous extract of Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae) against hematophagous parasites. The anti-parasitic activity of TiO2 NPs against the larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and Haemaphysalis bispinosa (Acari: Ixodidae), fourth instar larvae of Anopheles subpictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) were assessed. The green synthesized TiO2 NPs were analyzed by UV-Vis, FTIR, X-ray diffraction (XRD), AFM, SEM, and TEM. The XRD analysis of synthesized TiO2 NPs revealed the dominant peak at 2θ value of 27.81 which matched the 110 crystallographic plane of the rutile structure indicating the crystal structure. The FTIR spectra exhibited a prominent peak at 3,448 cm(-1) and showed OH stretching due to the alcoholic group, and the OH group may act as a capping agent. The SEM images of TiO2 NPs displayed spherical, oval in shape, individual, and some in aggregates. Characterization of the synthesized TiO2 NPs using AFM offered three-dimensional visualization and uneven surface morphology. The TEM micrograph showed agglomerates, round and slight elongation with an average size of 30 ± 5 nm. The maximum efficacy was observed in synthesized TiO2 NPs against the larvae of R. microplus, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum, Haemaphysalis bispinosa, A. subpictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus with LC50 value of 28.56, 33.17, 23.81, 5.84, and 4.34 mg/L, respectively. In the present study, a novel

  11. Assessment of the carcinogenic potential of high intense-sweeteners through the test for detection of epithelial tumor clones (warts) in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Mirley Alves; Orsolin, Priscila Capelari; Silva-Oliveira, Rosiane Gomes; Nepomuceno, Júlio César; Spanó, Mário Antônio

    2017-03-01

    High intensity-sweeteners (HIS) are natural or synthetic substances, sweeter than sugar, providing sweetness without calories. Sweeteners are mainly used as an aid in losing weight, preventing obesity and controlling blood sugar levels for diabetics. The objective of this study was to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of the sweeteners aspartame, sucralose, sodium saccharin and steviol glycoside, using the test for detection of epithelial tumor clones in Drosophila melanogaster. Larvae of 72 ± 4h, obtained from wts/TM3 female mated with mwh/mwh males, were treated for approximately 48h with different concentrations of aspartame (0.85, 1.7, 3.4, 6.8 or 13.6 mM ); sucralose (0.5, 1.25, 2.5, 5.0 or 10 mM); sodium saccharin (25; 50; 100; 200 or 400 mM) and steviol glycoside (2.5; 5.0; 10; 20 or 40 mM). Water (Reverse Osmosis) and doxorubicin (DXR 0.4 mM) were used as negative and positive controls, respectively. No statistically significant differences were observed (p > 0.05) in tumor frequencies in individuals treated with all concentrations of these sweeteners when compared to negative control. It was therefore concluded that, in these experimental conditions, aspartame, sucralose, sodium saccharin and steviol glycoside have no carcinogenic effect in D. melanogaster. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. About Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)

    MedlinePlus

    ... wrong. A person can get some STDs, like herpes or genital warts, through skin-to-skin contact with an ... STDs, click on the links below. Chlamydia Genital Herpes (HSV-2) Genital Warts Gonorrhea Hepatitis B (HBV) HIV and AIDS ...

  13. Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ebola Encephalitis Fevers Fifth Disease Food Poisoning Genital Herpes Genital Warts (HPV) Gonorrhea HIV and AIDS Hand, Foot, ... Toxocariasis Toxoplasmosis Trichomoniasis Sexually Transmitted Diseases Chlamydia Genital Herpes Genital Warts (HPV) Gonorrhea HIV and AIDS Pelvic Inflammatory ...

  14. The effect of banana (Musa acuminata) peels hot-water extract on the immunity and resistance of giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii via dietary administration for a long term: Activity and gene transcription.

    PubMed

    Rattanavichai, Wutti; Chen, Ying-Nan; Chang, Chin-Chyuan; Cheng, Winton

    2015-10-01

    The non-specific immune parameters, disease resistance and immune genes expressions in Macrobrachium rosenbergii were evaluated at 120 days of post feeding the diets containing the extracts of banana, Musa acuminate, fruit's peel (banana peels extract, BPE) at 0, 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1). Results showed that prawns fed with a diet containing BPE at the level of 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1) for 120 days had a significantly higher survival rate (30.0%, 40.0% and 56.7%, respectively) than those fed with the control diet after challenge with Lactococcus garvieae for 144 h, and the respective relative survival percentages were 22.2%, 33.3%, and 51.9%, respectively. Dietary BPE supplementation at 3.0 and/or 6.0 g kg(-1) for 120 days showed a significant increase total haemocyte count (THC), granular cell (GC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, phenoloxidase (PO) activity, transglutaminase (TG) activity, and phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency to L. garvieae infection, and meanwhile, the significant decrease in haemolymph clotting times and respiratory bursts (RBs) per haemocyte of prawns were revealed. Furthermore, the mRNA expressions of prophenoloxidase (proPO), lipopolysaccharide and β-1,3-glucan binding protein (LGBP), peroxinectin (PE), transglutaminase (TG), and crustin (CT) were significantly increased. We therefore recommend that BPE can be used as an immunomodulator for prawns through dietary administration at 6.0 g kg(-1) for a long term (over 120 days) to modify immune responses and genes expression following the enhanced resistance against pathogens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Dietary supplement of banana (Musa acuminata) peels hot-water extract to enhance the growth, anti-hypothermal stress, immunity and disease resistance of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Rattanavichai, Wutti; Cheng, Winton

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, Macrobrachium rosenbergii were fed with diets containing extracts of banana, Musa acuminate, fruit's peel (banana peels extract, BPE) at 0, 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1). The non-specific immune parameters, disease resistance and anti-hypothermal stress were evaluated at 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 days of post feeding. Also, we demonstrated the percent weight gain (PWG), percent length gain (PLG), feeding efficiency (FE), and survival rate of giant freshwater prawn at 30, 60, 90, and 120 days of post feeding. The PWG, PLG, FE and survival rate of prawns fed at 0, 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1) BPE-containing diets after 120 days were 69.5%, 75.4%, 77.8% and 83.3%; 21.8%, 23.6%, 27.8% and 33.9%; 0.60, 0.72, 0.75 and 0.90; and 55.4%, 62.2%, 62.3% and 75.3%, respectively. After 32 days of post feeding, a significant increase in total haemocyte count (THC), different haemocyte count (DHC), respiratory bursts (RBs), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, phenoloxidase (PO) activity and transglutaminase (TG) activity, and meanwhile, a decreased haemolymph coagulation time was observed. Furthermore, phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency of prawns against Lactococcus garvieae infection were significantly increased. Prawns challenged with L. garvieae after 32 days of feeding at 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1) had a significantly higher survival rate (33.3%, 40.0% and 56.7%) than those fed with the control diet. Subsequently, hypothermal (14 °C) stress was 43.4%, 50.0% and 50.0%, respectively. Altogether, we therefore recommend the dietary BPE administration at 6.0 g kg(-1) promotes growth, anti-hypothermal stress, and enhance immunity and resistance against L. garvieae in M. rosenbergii. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Morphological, molecular and ecological aspects of the South American hypogeous fungi Alpova austroalnicola sp. nov.

    Treesearch

    Eduardo R. Nouhra; Laura S. Domínguez; Alejandra G. Becerra; James M. Trappe

    2005-01-01

    Field studies in Argentina's Yunga District revealed Alpova austroalnicola sp. nov., a hypogeous fungus associated with Alnus acuminata ssp, acuminata. Morphological and molecular studies based on amplification and sequencing of the nuclear LSU rDNA gene showed its unique identity within ...

  17. Skin lesion removal

    MedlinePlus

    ... benign; Cryosurgery - skin, benign; BCC - removal; Basal cell cancer - removal; Actinic keratosis - removal; Wart - removal; Squamous cell - removal; Mole - removal; Nevus - removal; Nevi - removal; Scissor ...

  18. DIVERGENCE BETWEEN POPULATIONS OF A MONOGAMOUS POLYCHAETE WITH MALE PARENTAL CARE: PREMATING ISOLATION AND CHROMOSOME VARIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Low dispersal and sexual selection are characteristic of the coastal polychaete Nereis acuminata Ehlers 1868 [also known as Nereis arenaceodentata Moore 1903 and Nereis (Neanthes) caudata elle Chiaje 1841]. e assessed levels of premating isolation between populations of this poly...

  19. A rare case of acquired lymphangioma circumscriptum of the penis.

    PubMed

    Adikari, S; Philippidou, M; Samuel, M

    2017-02-01

    Acquired lymphangioma circumscriptum is a rare occurrence on the penis. We report a case of a 47-year-old man who presented with a single lesion of acquired lymphangiom