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Sample records for wasabi wasabia japonica

  1. Colon cancer proliferating desulfosinigrin in wasabi (Wasabia japonica).

    PubMed

    Weil, Marvin J; Zhang, Yanjun; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2004-01-01

    A reduced incidence of different types of cancer has been linked to consumption of Brassica vegetables, and there is evidence that glucosinolates (GSLs) and their hydrolysis products play a role in reducing cancer risk. Wasabi (Wasabia japonica) and horseradish (Armoracia rusticana), both Brassica vegetables, are widely used condiments both in Japanese cuisine and in the United States. Desulfosinigrin (DSS) (1) was isolated from a commercially available wasabi powder and from fresh wasabi roots. Sinigrin (2) was isolated from horseradish roots. DSS and sinigrin were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzymes, on lipid peroxidation, and on the proliferation of human colon (HCT-116), breast (MCF-7), lung (NCIH460), and central nervous system (CNS, SF-268) cancer cell lines. DSS did not inhibit COX enzymes or lipid peroxidation at 250 microg/ml. Sinigrin inhibited lipid peroxidation by 71% at 250 microg/ml. However, DSS promoted the growth of HCT-116 (colon) and NCI H460 (lung) human cancer cells as determined by the MTT assay in a concentration-dependent manner. At 3.72 microg/ml, a 27% increase in the number of viable human HCT-116 colon cancer cells was observed; the corresponding increases at 7.50 and 15 microg/ml were 42 and 69%, respectively. At 60 microg/ml, DSS doubled the number of HCT-16 colon cancer cells. For NCI H460 human lung cancer cells, DSS at 60 microg/ml increased the cell number by 20%. Sinigrin showed no proliferating effect on the tumor cells tested. This is the first report of the tumor cell-proliferating activity by a desulfoglucosinolate, the biosynthetic precursor of GSLs found in Brassica spp.

  2. Bactericidal activity of wasabi (Wasabia japonica) against Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Shin, Il Shik; Masuda, Hideki; Naohide, Kinae

    2004-08-01

    In this study, the bactericidal activity of Korean and Japanese wasabi roots, stems and leaves against Helicobacter pylori were examined. Allyl isothiocyanate (AIT) in roots, stems and leaves of Korean wasabi were 0.75, 0.18 and 0.32 mg/g, respectively. AIT in roots, stems and leaves of Japanese wasabi were 1.18, 0.41 and 0.38 mg/g, respectively. All parts of wasabi showed bactericidal activities against H. pylori strain NCTC 11637, YS 27 and YS 50. The leaves of both wasabi showed the highest bactericidal activities with the minimum bactericidal concentration of 1.05-1.31 mg of dry weight/ml against three strains of H. pylori. The roots showed a little lower bactericidal activity with 2.09-4.17 mg of dry weight/ml against them. The main component related to antimicrobial activity in wasabi is well known to be AIT. In this study, the bactericidal activity of leaves was higher than that of roots, although AIT amount of leaves was lower than that of roots. These results suggest that certain components besides AIT in wasabi are effective in killing H. pylori.

  3. Tumor cell proliferation and cyclooxygenase inhibitory constituents in horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) and Wasabi (Wasabia japonica).

    PubMed

    Weil, Marvin J; Zhang, Yanjun; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2005-03-09

    Cyclooxygenase and human tumor cell growth inhibitory extracts of horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) and wasabi (Wasabia japonica) rhizomes upon purification yielded active compounds 1-3 from horseradish and 4 and 5 from wasabi rhizomes. Spectroscopic analyses confirmed the identities of these active compounds as plastoquinone-9 (1), 6-O-acyl-beta-d-glucosyl-beta-sitosterol (2), 1,2-dilinolenoyl-3-galactosylglycerol (3), linolenoyloleoyl-3-beta-galactosylglycerol (4), and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-3-beta-galactosylglycerol (5). 3-Acyl-sitosterols, sinigrin, gluconasturtiin, and phosphatidylcholines isolated from horseradish and alpha-tocopherol and ubiquinone-10 from wasabi rhizomes isolated were inactive in our assays. At a concentration of 60 microg/mL, compounds 1 and 2 selectively inhibited COX-1 enzyme by 28 and 32%, respectively. Compounds 3, 4, and 5 gave 75, 42, and 47% inhibition of COX-1 enzyme, respectively, at a concentration of 250 microg/mL. In a dose response study, compound 3 inhibited the proliferation of colon cancer cells (HCT-116) by 21.9, 42.9, 51.2, and 68.4% and lung cancer cells (NCI-H460) by 30, 39, 44, and 71% at concentrations of 7.5, 15, 30, and 60 microg/mL, respectively. At a concentration of 60 microg/mL, compound 4 inhibited the growth of colon, lung, and stomach cancer cells by 28, 17, and 44%, respectively. This is the first report of the COX-1 enzyme and cancer cell growth inhibitory monogalactosyl diacylglycerides from wasabi and horseradish rhizomes.

  4. Cryopreservation of in vitro-grown apical meristems of wasabi (Wasabia japonica) by vitrification and subsequent high plant regeneration.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, T; Sakai, A; Yamada, K

    1994-05-01

    In vitro-grown apical meristems of wasabi (Wasabia japonica Matsumura) were successfully cryopreserved by vitrification. Excised apical meristems precultured on solidified M S medium containing 0.3M sucrose at 20°C for 1 day were loaded with a mixture of 2M glycerol and 0.4M sucrose for 20 min at 25°C. Cryoprotected meristems were then sufficiently dehydrated with a highly concentrated vitrification solution (designated PVS2) for 10 min at 25°C prior to a plunge into liquid nitrogen. After rapid warming, the meristems were expelled into 2 ml of 1.2M sucrose for 20 min and then plated on solidified culture medium. Successfully vitrified and warmed meristems remained green after plating, resumed growth within 3 days, and directly developed shoots within two weeks. The average rate of normal shoot formation amounted to about 80 to 90% in the cryopreserved meristems. This method was successfully applied to three other cultivars of wasabi. This vitrification procedure promises to become a routine method for cryopreserving meristems of wasabi.

  5. Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Anti-Inflammatory Actions of 6-(Methylsulfinyl)hexyl Isothiocyanate Derived from Wasabi (Wasabia japonica)

    PubMed Central

    Uto, Takuhiro; Hou, De-Xing; Morinaga, Osamu; Shoyama, Yukihiro

    2012-01-01

    6-(Methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate (6-MSITC) is a major bioactive compound in wasabi (Wasabia japonica), which is a typical Japanese pungent spice. Recently, in vivo and in vitro studies demonstrated that 6-MSITC has several biological properties, including anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiplatelet, and anticancer effects. We previously reported that 6-MSITC strongly suppresses cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cytokines, which are important factors that mediate inflammatory processes. Moreover, molecular analysis demonstrated that 6-MSITC blocks the expressions of these factors by suppressing multiple signal transduction pathways to attenuate the activation of transcriptional factors. Structure-activity relationships of 6-MSITC and its analogues containing an isothiocyanate group revealed that methylsulfinyl group and the length of alkyl chain of 6-MSITC might be related to high inhibitory potency. In this paper, we review the anti-inflammatory properties of 6-MSITC and discuss potential molecular mechanisms focusing on inflammatory responses by macrophages. PMID:22927840

  6. Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Anti-Inflammatory Actions of 6-(Methylsulfinyl)hexyl Isothiocyanate Derived from Wasabi (Wasabia japonica).

    PubMed

    Uto, Takuhiro; Hou, De-Xing; Morinaga, Osamu; Shoyama, Yukihiro

    2012-01-01

    6-(Methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate (6-MSITC) is a major bioactive compound in wasabi (Wasabia japonica), which is a typical Japanese pungent spice. Recently, in vivo and in vitro studies demonstrated that 6-MSITC has several biological properties, including anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiplatelet, and anticancer effects. We previously reported that 6-MSITC strongly suppresses cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cytokines, which are important factors that mediate inflammatory processes. Moreover, molecular analysis demonstrated that 6-MSITC blocks the expressions of these factors by suppressing multiple signal transduction pathways to attenuate the activation of transcriptional factors. Structure-activity relationships of 6-MSITC and its analogues containing an isothiocyanate group revealed that methylsulfinyl group and the length of alkyl chain of 6-MSITC might be related to high inhibitory potency. In this paper, we review the anti-inflammatory properties of 6-MSITC and discuss potential molecular mechanisms focusing on inflammatory responses by macrophages.

  7. Preventive effect of oral administration of 6-(methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate derived from wasabi (Wasabia japonica Matsum) against pulmonary metastasis of B16-BL6 mouse melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Fuke, Yoko; Shinoda, Shoko; Nagata, Ikuko; Sawaki, Saeko; Murata, Mituyoshi; Ryoyama, Kazuo; Koizumi, Keiichi; Saiki, Ikuo; Nomura, Takahiro

    2006-01-01

    Effect of oral administration of 6-(methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate (6-MITC) or a 6-MITC-containing T-wasabi fraction from wasabi root (Wasabia japonica Matsum) to inhibit the macroscopic pulmonary metastasis was studied with a murine B16-BL6 melanoma model. Two administration routes, subcutaneous or intravenous, and two administration times, prior to or concomitant with tumor inoculation, of 6-MITC or T-wasabi against the metastatic foci formation in C57BL/6J mouse lungs were compared. The number of metastasized foci per lung in either subcutaneous or intravenous injection was significantly reduced by intake of 6-MITC or a T-wasabi fraction. The maximum reduction by a T-wasabi fraction reached to 82%. Fifty-six percent of foci formation was inhibited by a 2 week-prior administration of 6-MITC (200 microM), whereas only 27% inhibition was obtained by a concomitant administration with tumor inoculation. Neither 6-MITC nor T-wasabi at tested concentrations showed any toxic effects. Together with our previous results, a component of the Japanese pungent spice, wasabi appears to inhibit not only tumor cell growth but also tumor metastasis. Therefore, 6-MITC from wasabi is apparently a useful dietary candidate for controlling tumor progression.

  8. The effect of 6-methylthiohexyl isothiocyanate isolated from Wasabia japonica (wasabi) on 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-buatnone-induced lung tumorigenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Yano, T; Yajima, S; Virgona, N; Yano, Y; Otani, S; Kumagai, H; Sakurai, H; Kishimoto, M; Ichikawa, T

    2000-07-31

    The present study was undertaken to estimate the effect of 6-methylthiohexyl isothiocyanate (6MHITC) isolated from Wasabia japonica (wasabi) pretreatment on 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone(NNK)-induced lung tumorigenesis in mice. Pretreatment with 6MHITC for 4 consecutive days at a daily dose of 5 micromol significantly inhibited NNK-induced O(6)-methylguanine formation in lungs at 4 h after the injection. In conjugation with this inhibitory effect, 6MHITC suppressed the increase in proliferating nuclear cell antigen level as well as ornithine decarboxylase activity at a promotion stage of NNK-induced lung tumorigenesis. Finally, this treatment of 6MHITC suppressed the NNK-induced lung tumorigenesis in mice. These results suggest that 6MHITC inhibits the development of lung tumors in mice treated with NNK, due to the suppression of initiation stage.

  9. Glycogen synthase kinase-3β inhibition of 6-(methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate derived from wasabi (Wasabia japonica Matsum).

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Jun; Nomura, Satomi; Nishizawa, Naoyuki; Ito, Yoshiaki; Kimura, Ken-ichi

    2011-01-01

    A new biological activity of 6-(methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate derived from Wasabia japonica was discovered as an inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase-3β. The most potent isothiocyanate, 9-(methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate, inhibited glycogen synthase kinase-3β at a K(i) value of 10.5 µM and showed ATP competitive inhibition. The structure-activity relationship revealed an inhibitory potency of methylsulfinyl isothiocyanate dependent on the alkyl chain length and the sulfoxide, sulfone, and/or the isothiocyanate moiety.

  10. Anti-obesity effects of hot water extract from Wasabi (Wasabia japonica Matsum.) leaves in mice fed high-fat diets

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Tetsuro; Wang, Li; Katsube, Takuya; Yamasaki, Yukikazu; Sun, Xufeng; Shiwaku, Kuninori

    2013-01-01

    The anti-obesity effects of a hot water extract from wasabi (Wasabia japonica Matsum.) leaves (WLE), without its specific pungent constituents, such as allyl-isothiocyanate, were investigated in high fat-diet induced mice. C57J/BL mice were fed a high-fat diet (control group) or a high-fat diet supplemented with 5% WLE (WLE group). Physical parameters and blood profiles were determined. Gene expression associated with lipid metabolism in liver and white adipose tissue were analyzed. After 120 days of feeding, significantly lower body weight gain, liver weight and epididymal white adipose tissue weight was observed in the WLE group compared to the control group. In liver gene expression within the WLE group, PPARα was significantly enhanced and SREBP-1c was significantly suppressed. Subsequent downstream genes controlled by these regulators were significantly suppressed. In epididymal white adipose tissue of the WLE group, expression of leptin, PPARγ, and C/EBPα were significantly suppressed and adiponectin was significantly enhanced. Acox, related to fatty acid oxidization in adipocytes, was also enhanced. Our results demonstrate that the WLE dietary supplement induces mild suppression of obesity in a high-fat diet induced mice, possibly due to suppression of lipid accumulation in liver and white adipose tissue. PMID:23964313

  11. Anti-obesity effects of hot water extract from Wasabi (Wasabia japonica Matsum.) leaves in mice fed high-fat diets.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Masayuki; Ogawa, Tetsuro; Wang, Li; Katsube, Takuya; Yamasaki, Yukikazu; Sun, Xufeng; Shiwaku, Kuninori

    2013-08-01

    The anti-obesity effects of a hot water extract from wasabi (Wasabia japonica Matsum.) leaves (WLE), without its specific pungent constituents, such as allyl-isothiocyanate, were investigated in high fat-diet induced mice. C57J/BL mice were fed a high-fat diet (control group) or a high-fat diet supplemented with 5% WLE (WLE group). Physical parameters and blood profiles were determined. Gene expression associated with lipid metabolism in liver and white adipose tissue were analyzed. After 120 days of feeding, significantly lower body weight gain, liver weight and epididymal white adipose tissue weight was observed in the WLE group compared to the control group. In liver gene expression within the WLE group, PPARα was significantly enhanced and SREBP-1c was significantly suppressed. Subsequent downstream genes controlled by these regulators were significantly suppressed. In epididymal white adipose tissue of the WLE group, expression of leptin, PPARγ, and C/EBPα were significantly suppressed and adiponectin was significantly enhanced. Acox, related to fatty acid oxidization in adipocytes, was also enhanced. Our results demonstrate that the WLE dietary supplement induces mild suppression of obesity in a high-fat diet induced mice, possibly due to suppression of lipid accumulation in liver and white adipose tissue.

  12. ASSESSMENT OF MOLECULAR GENETIC STABILITY BETWEEN LONG-TERM CRYOPRESERVED AND TISSUE CULTURED WASABI (Wasabia japonica) PLANTS.

    PubMed

    Maki, S; Hirai, Y; Niino, T; Matsumoto, T

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining the genetic integrity in long-term tissue cultured and cryopreserved plants is important for the conservation of plant genetic resources. In this study, the genetic stability of cryopreserved wasabi shoot tips stored for 10 years at -150 degree C was visualized using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) and Methylation Sensitive Amplified Polymorphism (MSAP). The study included plants derived from cryopreserved shoot tips after 10.5 years storage at -150 degree C (LN10yr), after 2 h storage at -196 degree C (LN2hr), cryopreservation controls (No LN cooling (TC)) and non-treated controls without LN cooling (LC). The donor plants for LN2hr, TC and LC were also maintained in vitro at 20 degree C for the same period. Neither technique detected genetic variations in either control or cryopreserved plants. Some mutations were noted in plants maintained in tissue culture for 10 years. Comparison of genome stability for TC and LN2hr plants showed only a minor change in DNA. However, when comparing the LC and Ln10yr, many differences were found. We conclude that cryopreservation is a superior conservation method compared to tissue culture in maintaining genetic stability for a long-term storage of wasabi germplasm.

  13. Cloning of a FLOWERING LOCUS T ortholog in Wasabia japonica (Matsum).

    PubMed

    Kubo, Hiroyoshi; Yoshida, Kiyoshi; Nozue, Masayuki

    2011-01-01

    A FLOWERING LOCUS T ortholog (WjFT) was identified in Wasabia japonica. Heterologous expression of WjFT remarkably promoted the flowering of Arabidopsis. The expression of WjFT was examined in field-grown wasabi in October and November of 2009, and February of 2010 because the differentiation of flower buds occurs in autumn in field-grown wasabi. No expression of WjFT was detected in October, it was slightly increased in November, and highly increased in February. WjFT might be useful for examining the flowering response of wasabi.

  14. Inhibitory effects of Japanese horseradish (Wasabia japonica) on the formation and genotoxicity of a potent carcinogen, acrylamide.

    PubMed

    Shimamura, Yuko; Iio, Misako; Urahira, Tomoko; Masuda, Shuichi

    2017-06-01

    The formation of acrylamide (AA) in cooked foods has raised human health concerns. AA is metabolized by cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) to glycidamide (GA), which forms DNA adducts. This study examined the inhibitory effects of wasabi (Japanese horseradish, Wasabia japonica) roots and leaves as well as their active component, allyl isothiocyanate (AIT), on the formation and genotoxicity of AA. AA formation (51.8 ± 4.2 µg kg -1 ) was inhibited with ≥2 mg mL -1 of AIT. Wasabi roots also inhibited AA formation (∼90% reduction), but wasabi leaves were not effective at 2 mg mL -1 . Wasabi roots and leaves decreased the number of cells with micronuclei by approximately 33 and 24% respectively compared with the AA treatment group. Moreover, wasabi roots and leaves (100 mg kg -1 body weight (BW) day -1 for each) decreased AA (100 mg kg -1 BW day -1 )-induced DNA damage. The AA-induced CYP2E1 activity was decreased by 39 and 26% with wasabi roots and leaves respectively. Further, the activity of glutathione S-transferase, which catalyzes the detoxification of AA via glutathione conjugation, increased by 54 and 33% with wasabi roots and leaves respectively. These results indicate that wasabi roots and leaves are effective ingredients for inhibiting the formation and genotoxicity of AA. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Wasalexins A and B, new phytoalexins from wasabi: isolation, synthesis, and antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Pedras, M S; Sorensen, J L; Okanga, F I; Zaharia, I L

    1999-10-18

    The chemical structure determination of two phytoalexins from wasabi (Wasabia japonica, syn. Eutrema wasabi), a plant resistant to virulent isolates of the blackleg fungus [Leptosphaeria maculans (Desm.) Ces. et de Not., asexual stage Phoma lingam (Tode ex Fr.) Desm.], as well as their synthesis and antifungal activity towards isolates of P. lingam and P. wasabiae is reported.

  16. The induction of apoptosis and autophagy by Wasabia japonica extract in colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Hsuan, Shu-Wen; Chyau, Charng-Cherng; Hung, Hsiao-Yu; Chen, Jing-Hsien; Chou, Fen-Pi

    2016-03-01

    Wasabia japonica (wasabi) has been shown to exhibit properties of detoxification, anti-inflammation and the induction of apoptosis in cancer cells. This study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanism of the cytotoxicity of wasabi extract (WE) in colon cancer cells to evaluate the potential of wasabi as a functional food for chemoprevention. Colo 205 cells were treated with different doses of WE, and the cytotoxicity was analyzed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide. Apoptosis and autophagy were detected by 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, 5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'-tetraethyl-imidacarbo-yanine iodide and staining for acidic vascular organelles (AVOs), along with Western blotting. The results demonstrated that WE induced the extrinsic pathway and mitochondrial death machinery through the activation of TNF-α, Fas-L, caspases, truncated Bid and cytochrome C. WE also induced autophagy by decreasing the phosphorylation of Akt and mTOR and promoting the expression of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3-II and AVO formation. An in vivo xenograft model verified that tumor growth was delayed by WE treatment. Our studies revealed that WE exhibits anti-colon cancer properties through the induction of apoptosis and autophagy. These results provide support for the application of WE as a chemopreventive functional food and as a prospective treatment of colon cancer.

  17. Management of Meloidogyne incognita on tomato with endophytic bacteria and fresh residue of Wasabia japonica.

    PubMed

    Li, G J; Dong, Q E; Ma, L; Huang, Y; Zhu, M L; Ji, Y P; Wang, Q H; Mo, M H; Zhang, K Q

    2014-10-01

    To characterize the nematicidal endophytic bacteria (NEB) of Wasabia japonica (wasabi) and evaluated the control efficacies of promising NEB as well as fresh wasabi residue (FWR) against Meloidogyne incognita on tomato. By in vitro bioassay, 53 NEB strains showing nematicidal efficacies of >50% against J2 of M. incognita were isolated from wasabi. Basing on 16S rRNA gene sequences, these NEB were identified into 18 species of 11 genera. In greenhouse, incorporation of selected NEB culture or FWR into potted soil significantly reduced infection of M. incognita on tomato. Treating tomatoes with either FWR or NEB of Raoultella terrigena RN16 and Pseudomonas reinekei SN21 in the field yielded excellent control efficacies against M. incognita, especially the combinations of FWR with either R. terrigena RN16 or Ps. reinekei SN21 at doses of 50 g plus 100 ml per plant or more. The results established that R. terrigena RN16 and Ps. reinekei SN21 applied separately or combined with FWR have the potential to provide bioprotection agents against M. incognita. This study provides novel way for disease management using combination of endophyte and host residue. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Wasabia japonica is a potential functional food to prevent colitis via inhibiting the NF-κB signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Kang, Ju-Hee; Choi, Seungho; Jang, Jeong-Eun; Ramalingam, Prakash; Ko, Young Tag; Kim, Sun Yeou; Oh, Seung Hyun

    2017-08-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), including Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), are prevalent and debilitating health problems worldwide. Many types of drugs are used to treat IBDs, but they exhibit adverse effects such as vomiting, nausea, abdominal pain, diarrhea, etc. In order to overcome the limitations of current therapeutic drugs, scientists have searched for functional foods from natural resources. In this study, we investigated the anti-colitic effects of Wasabia japonica extract in a DSS-induced colitis model. Wasabi japonica is a plant of the Brassicaceae family that has recently been reported to exhibit properties of detoxification, anti-inflammation, and induction of apoptosis in cancer cells. In this study, we generated wasabi ethanol extract (WK) and assessed its anti-colitic effect. In addition, in order to improve delivery of the extract to the colon, WK was coated with 5% Eudragit S100 (WKE), after which the anti-colitic effects of WKE were assessed. In conclusion, WK prevented development of colitis through inhibition of the NF-kB signaling pathway and recovery of epithelial tight junctions. In addition, the anti-colitic effect of WK was enhanced by improving its delivery to the colon by coating the WK with Eudragit S100. Therefore, we suggest that wasabi can be used as a new functional food to prevent IBDs due to its anti-colitic effect.

  19. Comparison of effects of Wasabia japonica and allyl isothiocyanate on the growth of four strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in lean and fatty tuna meat suspensions.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, N; Matsumoto, Y; Hoshino, A; Iwashita, K

    1999-08-01

    Lean tuna meat suspensions (LEAN), with a fat content of 0.006%, and fatty tuna meat suspension (FATTY), with a fat content of 3.0% were inoculated with four strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and wasabi (Wasabia japonica Matsumura) or allyl isothiocyanate (AIT) was added before incubation at 37 degrees C. During the incubation, viable Vibrio counts were determined on TCBS agar plates. Both LEAN and FATTY suspensions were inoculated with V. parahaemolyticus AOTO-81, (1.28+/-0.20) x 10(2) CFU/ml, followed by addition of 20 mg wasabi/ml, and incubation for 8 h. The viable Vibrio counts were (7.76+/-5.93) x 10(5) CFU/ml in LEAN and (3.50+/-2.65) x 10(1) CFU/ml in FATTY. When the same strain, at (1.18+/-0.22) x 10(2) CFU/ml, was incubated for 8 h with 50.9 microg AIT/ml, viable Vibrio counts were (4.79+/-1.78) x 10(4) CFU/ml in LEAN and (1.80+/-1.30) x 10(1) CFU/ml in FATTY. Growth of the other three strains with wasabi or AIT was shown to be less in FATTY than in LEAN. These results indicate that growth of V. parahaemolyticus is inhibited more in FATTY than in LEAN by wasabi and allyl isothiocyanate.

  20. Isothiocyanates from Wasabia japonica activate transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 channel.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Kunitoshi; Miura, Yosuke; Nagai, Masashi; Tominaga, Makoto

    2012-11-01

    6-(Methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate (6-MSITC) and 6-(methylthio)hexyl isothiocyanate (6-MTITC) have low pungency and are responsible for the fresh flavor of wasabi (Wasabia japonica [Miq] Matsumura). In this study, we found that these two isothiocyanates activate transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), and 6-MSITC activates transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), but not other transient receptor potential channels expressed in sensory neurons. Both 6-MSITC and 6-MTITCinduced intracellular Ca(2+) increases in human embryonic kidney-derived 293 cells expressing mouse TRPA1 (mTRPA1) as measured by Ca(2+) imaging. In whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, 6-MSITC and 6-MTITC dose-dependently activated both mTRPA1 (EC(50) = 147±26 µM for 6-MSITC and 30±3 µM for 6-MTITC) and human TRPA1 (hTRPA1; EC(50) = 39±4 µM for 6-MSITC and 34±3 µM for 6-MTITC). In addition, TRPA1 N-terminal cysteines, which are reported to be important for channel activation by electrophilic ligands, were involved in 6-MSITC- and 6-MTITC-evoked TRPA1 activation. These isothiocyanates also activated endogenous TRPA1 expressed in mouse dorsal root ganglion neurons and intraplantar injection of 10-30 mM 6-MSITC-evoked pain-related behaviors in mice. These results indicate the following: 1) 6-MSITC and 6-MTITC activate both mTRPA1 and hTRPA1; 2) 6-MSITC activates mTRPV1; and 3) the pharmacological functions of these isothiocyanates could be derived from TRPA1 activation.

  1. Leaf extract of Wasabia japonica relieved oxidative stress induced by Helicobacter pylori infection and stress loading in Mongolian gerbils.

    PubMed

    Sekiguchi, Hirotaka; Takabayashi, Fumiyo; Deguchi, Yuya; Masuda, Hideki; Toyoizumi, Tomoyasu; Masuda, Shuichi; Kinae, Naohide

    2010-01-01

    Infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) can induce gastric disorders, and though its presence cannot explain disease pathogenesis and does not have associations with other factors, it is well known that H. pylori infection causes stomach inflammation following oxidative stress. We examined the suppressive effects of a leaf extract of Wasabia japonica on H. pylori infection and on stress loading in Mongolian gerbils. Following oral administration of wasabi extract of 50 and 200 mg/kg B.W./d for 10 d, the animals were exposed to restraint stress for 90 and 270 min. As for the results, the level of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) in the stomach and oxidative DNA damage in peripheral erythrocytes at 270 min significantly increased. That elevation was significantly suppressed by the addition of the leaf extract. We concluded that the simultaneous loading of H. pylori infection and physical stress loading might induce oxidative DNA damage additively, while a leaf extract attenuated this DNA damage in the stomach as well as the peripheral erythrocytes.

  2. Antiplatelet and anticancer isothiocyanates in Japanese domestic horseradish, wasabi.

    PubMed

    Morimitsu, Y; Hayashi, K; Nakagawa, Y; Horio, F; Uchida, K; Osawa, T

    2000-01-01

    6-Methylsulfinylhexyl isothiocyanate (MS-ITC) was isolated from wasabi (Wasabia japonica, Japanese domestic horseradish) as a potential inhibitor of human platelet aggregation in vitro through our extensive screening of vegetables and fruits. In the course of another screening for the induction of glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity in RL34 cells. MS-ITC was inadvertently isolated from wasabi as a potential inducer of GST. MS-ITC administered to rats or mice also showed both activities in vivo. As a result from elucidation of the platelet aggregation inhibition and the GST induction mechanisms of MS-ITC, the isothiocyanate moiety of MS-ITC plays an important role for antiplatelet and anticancer activities because of its highly reactivity with sulfhydryl (-SH) groups in biomolecules (GSH, cysteine residue in a certain protein, etc.).

  3. Antiplatelet and anticancer isothiocyanates in Japanese domestic horseradish, Wasabi.

    PubMed

    Morimitsu, Y; Hayashi, K; Nakagawa, Y; Fujii, H; Horio, F; Uchida, K; Osawa, T

    2000-07-31

    6-Methylsulfinylhexyl isothiocyanate (MS-ITC) was isolated from wasabi (Wasabia japonica, Japanese domestic horseradish) as a potential inhibitor of human platelet aggregation in vitro through our extensive screening of vegetables and fruits. In the course of an another screening for the induction of glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity in RL34 cells, MS-ITC was inadvertently isolated from wasabi as a potential inducer of GST. MS-ITC administered to rats or mice also showed both activities in vivo. As a result from elucidation of the platelet aggregation inhibition and the GST induction mechanisms of MS-ITC, the isothiocyanate moiety of MS-ITC plays an important role for antiplatelet and anticancer activities because of its high reactivity with sulfhydryl (RSH) groups in biomolecules (GSH, cysteine residue in a certain protein, etc.).

  4. In situ observation of the generation of isothiocyanates from sinigrin in horseradish and wasabi.

    PubMed

    Yu, E Y; Pickering, I J; George, G N; Prince, R C

    2001-08-15

    Sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy has been used to determine the chemical identity of the sulfur-containing species in horseradish (Armoracia lapthifolia) and wasabi (Wasabia japonica) in situ, before and after cell disruption. The major sulfur-containing species in the intact root is sinigrin (1-thio-beta-D-glucopyranose 1-N-(sulfoxy)-3-buteneimidate) and related congeners. Disrupting the cells by applying local pressure allowed the conversion of the sulfur moieties in sinigrin to isothiocyanates and sulfate in approximately equimolar amounts. In contrast to previous suggestions, no detectable thiocyanates were formed, but an unusual thio intermediate may have been identified for the first time.

  5. Investigation of total phenolic, total flavonoid, antioxidant and allyl isothiocyanate content in the different organs of Wasabi japonica grown in an organic system.

    PubMed

    Shin, Seong Woo; Ghimeray, Amal Kumar; Park, Cheol Ho

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the total polyphenol (TP), total flavonoid (TF), antioxidative effect and allyl isothyocyanate (ITC) content in different organs of wasabi plant grown in an organic system. Invitro study of methanol and boiled water extracts of wasabi were conducted by analyzing the 1-1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrozyl (DPPH) radial scavenging activity, metal chelating activity and total antioxidant capacity in a comparative manner. The result revealed that methanol extract showed higher TP in flower (3644 mg TAE/100 g dw), leaf (3201 mg TAE/100 g dw) and fruit (3025 mg TAE/100 g dw) as compared to the boiled water extract. Similarly, TF content was also higher in methanol extracts of flower (1152 mg QE/100 g dw) and leaf (325 mg QE/100 g dw), however, the other parts showed ignorable value. Results of antioxidant activity were found at different magnitude of potency. The methanol extract of different parts of wasabi exhibited higher activity in total antioxidant capacity and DPPH radical scavenging assay as compared to water extract. In metal chelating assay, the boiled water extracts of leaf showed higher (76.9%) activity, followed by fruit (68.8%) and flower (62.8%). Ally ITC detected by gas chromatography was present in all of the tissues of wasabi plant but the content was found to be varied in different tissues. Overall, this study will allow consumers and processors to understand the possibility for medical application of wasabi plant by knowing the level of total polyphenol distribution, Ally ITC content and antioxidant property distributed in different parts and tissues.Key words: Allyl ITC, antioxidant, flavonoid, polyphenol, Wasabi japonica.

  6. Wasabi leaf extracts attenuate adipocyte hypertrophy through PPARγ and AMPK.

    PubMed

    Oowatari, Yasuo; Ogawa, Tetsuro; Katsube, Takuya; Iinuma, Kiyohisa; Yoshitomi, Hisae; Gao, Ming

    2016-08-01

    Hypertrophy of adipocytes in obese adipose tissues causes metabolic abnormality by adipocytokine dysregulation, which promotes type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. We investigated the effects of wasabi (Wasabia japonica Matsum) leaf extracts on metabolic abnormalities in SHRSP.Z-Leprfa/IzmDmcr rats (SHRSP/ZF), which are a model of metabolic syndrome. Male SHRSP/ZF rats aged 7 weeks were divided into two groups: control and wasabi leaf extract (WLE) groups, which received water or oral treatment with 4 g/kg/day WLE for 6 weeks. WLE improved the body weight gain and high blood pressure in SHRSP/ZF rats, and the plasma triglyceride levels were significantly lower in the WLE group. Adipocyte hypertrophy was markedly prevented in adipose tissue. The expression of PPARγ and subsequent downstream genes was suppressed in the WLE group adipose tissues. Our data suggest that WLE inhibits adipose hypertrophy by suppressing PPARγ expression in adipose tissue and stimulating the AMPK activity by increased adiponectin.

  7. Integrated Process for Production of Galangal Acetate, the "Wasabi-Like" Spicy Compound, and Analysis of Essential Oils of Rhizoma Alpinia officinarum (Hance) Farw.

    PubMed

    Lin, Li-Yun; Shen, Kun-Hung; Yeh, Xiang-Yü; Huang, Bou-Yü; Wang, Hui-Er; Chen, Kuan-Chou; Peng, Robert Y

    2016-06-01

    Rhizoma Alpinia officinarum (Hance) Farw, Zingiberaceae (AO), a ginger family herb exhibiting stimulant and a carminative bioactivity, is widely used in European and Asian countries as spicy condiment and medicinal uses. Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) is the main pungent taste of native Wasabi (Wasabia japonica). The cytotoxicity of AITC has been implicated in thymus, adrenals, and white blood cells. Considering food safety, apparently a safer substitute for wasabi is worthy commercialized. Previously, we found AO crude paste to be rather feasible for use as a "Wasabi-substitute" in fresh meat and cold salads. A process linking cold ethyl acetate (EtAc) extraction with silica gel adsorption and reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) (mobile phase, 75% methanol) was used to isolate galangal acetate, the Wasabi-like taste constituent. AO contained abundant galangal acetate (3.84 ± 0.07%) compared to A. galangal (0.57 ± 0.16%), and as already confirmed by thin layer chromatography (TLC), gas chromatography (GC)/mass spectrometry (MS)/MS and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (NMR), galangal acetate was particularly thermally labile. The steam distilled essential oil (SDEO) of AO (0.14% on wet basis) contained 80 compounds (number of component, %): monoterpene hydrocarbon (21, 13.83%); oxygenated monoterpene (17, 27.08%); sesquiterpene hydrocarbon (20, 31.03%), and oxygenated sesquiterpene (20, 21.85%), respectively. However, no spicy wasabi-like constituent remained in SDEO. Alternatively, n-hexane, EtAc, and methanol extracts of AO all showed potent DPPH- and superoxide anion-scavenging activity. Conclusively, SDEO although contains 80 volatiles, galangal acetate is absent due to thermal instability. Galangal acetate exhibits pleasant "Wasabi-like taste" for which we have successively developed an integrated process for mass production. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. 5-Hydroxyferulic acid methyl ester isolated from wasabi leaves inhibits 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Misawa, Naoki; Hosoya, Takahiro; Yoshida, Shuhei; Sugimoto, Osamu; Yamada-Kato, Tomoe; Kumazawa, Shigenori

    2018-02-26

    To investigate the compounds present in wasabi leaves (Wasabia japonica Matsumura) that inhibit the adipocyte differentiation, activity-guided fractionation was performed on these leaves. 5-Hydroxyferulic acid methyl ester (1: 5-HFA ester), one of the phenylpropanoids, was isolated from wasabi leaves as a compound that inhibits the adipocyte differentiation. Compound 1 suppressed the intracellular lipid accumulation of 3T3-L1 cells without significant cytotoxicity. Gene expression analysis revealed that 1 suppressed the mRNA expression of 2 master regulators of adipocyte differentiation, PPARγ and C/EBPα. Furthermore, 1 downregulated the expression of adipogenesis-related genes, GLUT4, LPL, SREBP-1c, ACC, and FAS. Protein expression analysis revealed that 1 suppressed PPARγ protein expression. Moreover, to investigate the relationship between the structure and activity of inhibiting the adipocyte differentiation, we synthesized 12 kinds of phenylpropanoid analog. Comparison of the activity among 1 and its analogs suggested that the compound containing the substructure that possess a common functional group at the ortho position such as a catechol group exhibits the activity of inhibiting the adipocyte differentiation. Taken together, our findings suggest that 1 from wasabi leaves inhibits adipocyte differentiation via the downregulation of PPARγ. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Effect of Wasabi Component 6-(Methylsulfinyl)hexyl Isothiocyanate and Derivatives on Human Pancreatic Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Jen; Huang, Yu-Chuen; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2014-01-01

    The naturally occurring compound 6-(methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate (6-MITC) was isolated from Wasabia japonica (Wasabi), a pungent spice used in Japanese food worldwide. The synthetic derivatives 6-(methylsulfenyl)hexyl isothiocyanate (I7447) and 6-(methylsulfonyl)hexyl isothiocyanate (I7557) are small molecule compounds derived from 6-MITC. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of these compounds on human pancreatic cancer cells. Human pancreatic cancer cell lines PANC-1 and BxPC-3 were used to perform an MTT assay for cell viability and Liu's stain for morphological observation. The cell cycle was analyzed by DNA histogram. Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity was used as a marker for cancer stem cells (CSC). Western blotting was performed for the expression of proteins related to CSC signaling. The results showed that compounds 6-MITC and I7557, but not I7447, inhibited viability of both PANC-1 and BxPC-3 cells. Morphological observation showed mitotic arrest and apoptosis in 6-MITC- and I7557-treated cells. These two compounds induced G2/M phase arrest and hypoploid population. Percentages of ALDH-positive PANC-1 cells were markedly reduced by 6-MITC and I7557 treatment. The expression of CSC signaling molecule SOX2, but not NOTCH1, ABCG2, Sonic hedgehog, or OCT4, was inhibited by 6-MITC and I7557. In conclusion, wasabi compounds 6-MITC and I7557 may possess activity against the growth and CSC phenotypes of human pancreatic cancer cells. PMID:24575144

  10. Effect of Wasabi Component 6-(Methylsulfinyl)hexyl Isothiocyanate and Derivatives on Human Pancreatic Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Jen; Huang, Yu-Chuen; Tsai, Tung-Hu; Liao, Hui-Fen

    2014-01-01

    The naturally occurring compound 6-(methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate (6-MITC) was isolated from Wasabia japonica (Wasabi), a pungent spice used in Japanese food worldwide. The synthetic derivatives 6-(methylsulfenyl)hexyl isothiocyanate (I7447) and 6-(methylsulfonyl)hexyl isothiocyanate (I7557) are small molecule compounds derived from 6-MITC. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of these compounds on human pancreatic cancer cells. Human pancreatic cancer cell lines PANC-1 and BxPC-3 were used to perform an MTT assay for cell viability and Liu's stain for morphological observation. The cell cycle was analyzed by DNA histogram. Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity was used as a marker for cancer stem cells (CSC). Western blotting was performed for the expression of proteins related to CSC signaling. The results showed that compounds 6-MITC and I7557, but not I7447, inhibited viability of both PANC-1 and BxPC-3 cells. Morphological observation showed mitotic arrest and apoptosis in 6-MITC- and I7557-treated cells. These two compounds induced G2/M phase arrest and hypoploid population. Percentages of ALDH-positive PANC-1 cells were markedly reduced by 6-MITC and I7557 treatment. The expression of CSC signaling molecule SOX2, but not NOTCH1, ABCG2, Sonic hedgehog, or OCT4, was inhibited by 6-MITC and I7557. In conclusion, wasabi compounds 6-MITC and I7557 may possess activity against the growth and CSC phenotypes of human pancreatic cancer cells.

  11. Wasabi 6-(methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate induces apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells through p53-independent mitochondrial dysfunction pathway.

    PubMed

    Yano, Satoshi; Wu, Shusong; Sakao, Kozue; Hou, De-Xing

    2018-05-14

    6-(Methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate (6-MSITC), a major bioactive compound in Wasabi [Wasabia japonica (Miq.) Matsum.], has revealed the inhibitory effect on colon carcinogenesis in rat cancer model although the underlying mechanism is unclear. In this study, we used two types of human colorectal cancer cells (HCT116 p53 +/+ and HCT116 p53 -/- ) to investigate the anticancer activity and molecular mechanisms of 6-MSITC. Interestingly, 6-MSITC inhibited the cell proliferation in both types of cells with similar IC 50 value although a light increase in the phosphorylation and accumulation of P53 protein was observed in HCT116 p53 +/+ cells at 24 h after treatment. In addition, 6-MSITC increased the ratio of proapoptotic cells in both types of cells with the same fashion in a p53-independent manner. The data from mitochondrial analysis revealed that 6-MSITC enhanced the ratio of proapoptotic B-cell lymphoma-2-associated X protein/antiapoptotic myeloid cell leukemia 1, and sequentially caused mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ m ) loss, cytochrome c release, and caspase-3 activation in both types of cells. Taken together, Wasabi 6-MSITC induced apoptosis of human colorectal cancer cells in p53-independent mitochondrial dysfunction pathway. These findings suggest that 6-MSITC might be a potential agent for colon cancer chemoprevention although with p53 mutation. © 2018 BioFactors, 2018. © 2018 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  12. Functional properties of wasabi and horseradish.

    PubMed

    Kinae, N; Masuda, H; Shin, I S; Furugori, M; Shimoi, K

    2000-01-01

    Wasabi (Wasabi japonica) and horseradish (Cholearia arnoracia) are used as spices of daily foodstuffs. Allylisothiocyanate (AIT) is a potent component in both plants and occurs by grating them. It is well known that AIT shows inhibitory effect on the growth of food poisoning bacteria and fungi. In this work, several functional properties of roots and leaves from wasabi and horseradish were examined in vitro. Each sample showed peroxidase activity. They also exhibited antioxidative and superoxide scavenging potency. Antimutagenic activity was observed toward 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline [MeIQx], a well-known mutagen/carcinogen in broiled fish and meat. They also decreased His+ revertant colonies of 3-chloro-4-dichloromethyl-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (MX) in the Ames test, a strong mutagen and carcinogen in chlorine disinfected tap water. Isolation of antimutagenic components in wasabi root was done. Three components including (-)-(R)-7-methylsulfinylheptyl isothiocyanate were identified. These data show that wasabi and horseradish might be potent functional foods for keeping human health.

  13. Stable integration and expression of wasabi defensin gene in "Egusi" melon (Colocynthis citrullus L.) confers resistance to Fusarium wilt and Alternaria leaf spot.

    PubMed

    Ntui, Valentine Otang; Thirukkumaran, Gunaratnam; Azadi, Pejman; Khan, Raham Sher; Nakamura, Ikuo; Mii, Masahiro

    2010-09-01

    Production of "Egusi" melon (Colocynthis citrullus L.) in West Africa is limited by fungal diseases, such as Alternaria leaf spot and Fusarium wilt. In order to engineer "Egusi" resistant to these diseases, cotyledonary explants of two "Egusi" genotypes, 'Ejagham' and NHC1-130, were transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA101 harbouring wasabi defensin gene (isolated from Wasabia japonica L.) in a binary vector pEKH1. After co-cultivation for 3 days, infected explants were transferred to MS medium containing 100 mg l(-l) kanamycin to select transformed tissues. After 3 weeks of culture, adventitious shoots appeared directly along the edges of the explants. As much as 19 out of 52 (36.5%) and 25 out of 71 (35.2%) of the explants in genotype NHC1-130 and 'Ejagham', respectively, formed shoots after 6 weeks of culture. As much as 74% (14 out of 19) of the shoots regenerated in genotype NHC1-130 and 72% (18 out of 25) of those produced in genotype 'Ejagham' were transgenic. A DNA fragment corresponding to the wasabi defensin gene or the selection marker nptII was amplified by PCR from the genomic DNA of all regenerated plant clones rooted on hormone-free MS medium under the same selection pressure, suggesting their transgenic nature. Southern blot analysis confirmed successful integration of 1-5 copies of the transgene. RT-PCR, northern and western blot analyses revealed that wasabi defensin gene was expressed in transgenic lines. Transgenic lines showed increased levels of resistance to Alternaria solani, which causes Alternaria leaf spot and Fusarium oxysporum, which causes Fusarium wilt, as compared to that of untransformed plants.

  14. Transfer of the potato plant isolates of Pectobacterium wasabiae to Pectobacterium parmentieri sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Khayi, Slimane; Cigna, Jérémy; Chong, Teik Min; Quêtu-Laurent, Angélique; Chan, Kok-Gan; Hélias, Valérie; Faure, Denis

    2016-12-01

    Pectobacterium wasabiae was originally isolated from Japanese horseradish (Eutrema wasabi), but recently some Pectobacterium isolates collected from potato plants and tubers displaying blackleg and soft rot symptoms were also assigned to P. wasabiae. Here, combining genomic and phenotypical data, we re-evaluated their taxonomic position. PacBio and Illumina technologies were used to complete the genome sequences of P. wasabiae CFBP 3304T and RNS 08-42-1A. Multi-locus sequence analysis showed that the P. wasabiae strains RNS 08-42-1A, SCC3193, CFIA1002 and WPP163, which were collected from potato plant environment, constituted a separate clade from the original Japanese horseradish P. wasabiae. The taxonomic position of these strains was also supported by calculation of the in-silico DNA-DNA hybridization, genome average nucleotide indentity, alignment fraction and average nucleotide indentity values. In addition, they were phenotypically distinguished from P. wasabiae strains by producing acids from (+)-raffinose, α-d(+)-α-lactose, d(+)-galactose and (+)-melibiose but not from methyl α-d-glycopyranoside, (+)-maltose or malonic acid. The name Pectobacterium parmentieri sp. nov. is proposed for this taxon; the type strain is RNS 08-42-1AT (=CFBP 8475T=LMG 29774T).

  15. Retransformation of marker-free potato for enhanced resistance against fungal pathogens by pyramiding chitinase and wasabi defensin genes.

    PubMed

    Khan, Raham Sher; Darwish, Nader Ahmed; Khattak, Bushra; Ntui, Valentine Otang; Kong, Kynet; Shimomae, Kazuki; Nakamura, Ikuo; Mii, Masahiro

    2014-09-01

    Multi-auto-transformation vector system has been one of the strategies to produce marker-free transgenic plants without using selective chemicals and plant growth regulators and thus facilitating transgene stacking. In the study reported here, retransformation was carried out in marker-free transgenic potato CV. May Queen containing ChiC gene (isolated from Streptomyces griseus strain HUT 6037) with wasabi defensin (WD) gene (isolated from Wasabia japonica) to pyramid the two disease resistant genes. Molecular analyses of the developed shoots confirmed the existence of both the genes of interest (ChiC and WD) in transgenic plants. Co-expression of the genes was confirmed by RT-PCR, northern blot, and western blot analyses. Disease resistance assay of in vitro plants showed that the transgenic lines co-expressing both the ChiC and WD genes had higher resistance against the fungal pathogens, Fusarium oxysporum (Fusarium wilt) and Alternaria solani (early blight) compared to the non-transformed control and the transgenic lines expressing either of the ChiC or WD genes. The disease resistance potential of the transgenic plants could be increased by transgene stacking or multiple transformations.

  16. Wasabi-derived 6-(methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate induces apoptosis in human breast cancer by possible involvement of the NF-κB pathways.

    PubMed

    Fuke, Yoko; Hishinuma, Madoka; Namikawa, Mayumi; Oishi, Yoshie; Matsuzaki, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    6-(methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate (6-MSITC) is a bioactive ingredient of wasabi (Wasabia japonica), which is a popular spice in Japan. 6-MSITC has been reported to inhibit the proliferation of breast cancer and melanoma cell lines. We inoculated 30 female Balb-nu/nu mice with MDA-MB-231 or -453 cells, and orally administered varying concentrations of 6-MSITC for 12 days following tumor growth. The tumor volumes and tumor weights from mice inoculated with MDA-MB-231 cells, and the tumor volumes of MDA-MB-453 cells were significantly inhibited by 6-MSITC on Days 9 and 11 after drug administration. DNA fragmentation, DNA ladder, and caspase 3/7 activity performed in vitro revealed that 6-MSITC induced apoptosis of MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-453, and MCF-7 cells. Furthermore, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) expression in the nuclei and phosphorylation of inhibitor κBα (IκBα) was downregulated by 6-MSITC in a concentration-dependent manner; however, this activity was not observed in MCF-7 cells. Moreover, this downregulation of phosphorylated IκBα by 6-MSITC in MDA-MB-231 and -453 cells supports its inhibitory effects on NF-κB activity. The expression of phosphorylated AKT (pAKT) reduced by 6-MSITC was confirmed in MDA-MB-231 cells. Thus, we conclude that 6-MITC promotes apoptosis of breast cancer cells by inhibiting NF-kB and therefore releasing its control of the PI3K/AKT pathway.

  17. Comparison of isothiocyanate yield from wasabi rhizome tissues grown in soil or water.

    PubMed

    Sultana, Tamanna; Porter, N G; Savage, G P; McNeil, D L

    2003-06-04

    The isothiocyanate (ITC) yield of wasabi, the Japanese horseradish (Wasabi japonica), was measured on its release from glucosinolates in the rhizomes of plants grown in two traditional ways. Mature plants of 18 months old were harvested from two different commercial farms located in the South Island of New Zealand. At one farm, the plants were grown in raised soil beds, while the plants at the other farm were grown in gravel irrigated by river water. Following harvest, the rhizomes from each growth medium were divided into five size groups based on the weight and length of the rhizomes. The different sized rhizomes were also subdivided into proximal, medial, and distal portions of the rhizomes and each portion was further subdivided into epidermis plus cortex, and vascular plus pith. The individual and total ITC contents of each portion (proximal, medial, and distal) of the rhizomes were measured using dichloromethane extraction followed by the GC-FPD. The total ITC content of the rhizomes grown in soil increased (13 times) linearly from 6 to 114 g of rhizome weight, while the mean ITC content of the water-grown wasabi increased (10 times) nonlinearly for similar sized rhizomes. Water-grown rhizomes in the weight range from 18 to 45 g gave significantly (P = 0.030) higher total ITC (1-2 times) than similarly sized soil-grown rhizomes. Analysis of the tissues showed that the total and the individual ITCs were found in significantly higher levels (73 and 64%, respectively) in the skin and cortex tissue compared to the vascular and pith tissues. Analysis of the ITC content of the different locations of the wasabi rhizome showed that the distal portion of the rhizome contained significantly higher levels of both total and individual ITCs compared to the medial and proximal portions of the rhizome.

  18. Suppressive effect of wasabi (pungent Japanese spice) on gastric carcinogenesis induced by MNNG in rats.

    PubMed

    Tanida, N; Kawaura, A; Takahashi, A; Sawada, K; Shimoyama, T

    1991-01-01

    Dietary habits have been causally implicated in gastric carcinogenesis, whereas minor dietary items may also play a part. Wasabi is a popular pungent spice in Japanese meals. In this study the effect of wasabi on N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG)-induced gastric carcinogenesis was studied in rats. Wistar WKY male rats received drinking water containing 50 micrograms/ml of MNNG or tap water alone and a basal diet (PCE-2) or PCE-2 containing 10% (wt/wt) of wasabi powder for 40 weeks. Thus, three groups were completed as MNNG + PCE-2 (n = 30), MNNG + wasabi (n = 30), and tap water + wasabi (n = 30). At autopsy, nine rats (30%) had seven glandular stomach tumors (2 adenocarcinomas, 2 adenomatous polyps, and 3 adenomatous glandular hyperplasias) and three duodenal adenocarcinomas in the MNNG + PCE-2 group, whereas in the MNNG + wasabi group, two rats (7%) had one forestomach epidermoid cyst and one duodenal carcinosarcoma (corrected chi 2 = 4.63, p less than 0.05 for incidences of glandular stomach tumors between 2 groups). In addition, two rats had microscopic atypical glands in the MNNG + PCE-2 group. There was no tumor in the tap water + wasabi group. These results indicated that glandular stomach carcinogenesis induced by MNNG was suppressed by the administration of wasabi.

  19. Wasabi: An Integrated Platform for Evolutionary Sequence Analysis and Data Visualization.

    PubMed

    Veidenberg, Andres; Medlar, Alan; Löytynoja, Ari

    2016-04-01

    Wasabi is an open source, web-based environment for evolutionary sequence analysis. Wasabi visualizes sequence data together with a phylogenetic tree within a modern, user-friendly interface: The interface hides extraneous options, supports context sensitive menus, drag-and-drop editing, and displays additional information, such as ancestral sequences, associated with specific tree nodes. The Wasabi environment supports reproducibility by automatically storing intermediate analysis steps and includes built-in functions to share data between users and publish analysis results. For computational analysis, Wasabi supports PRANK and PAGAN for phylogeny-aware alignment and alignment extension, and it can be easily extended with other tools. Along with drag-and-drop import of local files, Wasabi can access remote data through URL and import sequence data, GeneTrees and EPO alignments directly from Ensembl. To demonstrate a typical workflow using Wasabi, we reproduce key findings from recent comparative genomics studies, including a reanalysis of the EGLN1 gene from the tiger genome study: These case studies can be browsed within Wasabi at http://wasabiapp.org:8000?id=usecases. Wasabi runs inside a web browser and does not require any installation. One can start using it at http://wasabiapp.org. All source code is licensed under the AGPLv3. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Signal Integration in Quorum Sensing Enables Cross-Species Induction of Virulence in Pectobacterium wasabiae.

    PubMed

    Valente, Rita S; Nadal-Jimenez, Pol; Carvalho, André F P; Vieira, Filipe J D; Xavier, Karina B

    2017-05-23

    Bacterial communities can sense their neighbors, regulating group behaviors in response to cell density and environmental changes. The diversity of signaling networks in a single species has been postulated to allow custom responses to different stimuli; however, little is known about how multiple signals are integrated and the implications of this integration in different ecological contexts. In the plant pathogen Pectobacterium wasabiae (formerly Erwinia carotovora ), two signaling networks-the N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) quorum-sensing system and the Gac/Rsm signal transduction pathway-control the expression of secreted plant cell wall-degrading enzymes, its major virulence determinants. We show that the AHL system controls the Gac/Rsm system by affecting the expression of the regulatory RNA RsmB. This regulation is mediated by ExpR2, the quorum-sensing receptor that responds to the P. wasabiae cognate AHL but also to AHLs produced by other bacterial species. As a consequence, this level of regulation allows P. wasabiae to bypass the Gac-dependent regulation of RsmB in the presence of exogenous AHLs or AHL-producing bacteria. We provide in vivo evidence that this pivotal role of RsmB in signal transduction is important for the ability of P. wasabiae to induce virulence in response to other AHL-producing bacteria in multispecies plant lesions. Our results suggest that the signaling architecture in P. wasabiae was coopted to prime the bacteria to eavesdrop on other bacteria and quickly join the efforts of other species, which are already exploiting host resources. IMPORTANCE Quorum-sensing mechanisms enable bacteria to communicate through small signal molecules and coordinate group behaviors. Often, bacteria have various quorum-sensing receptors and integrate information with other signal transduction pathways, presumably allowing them to respond to different ecological contexts. The plant pathogen Pectobacterium wasabiae has two N-acyl homoserine lactone

  1. Wasabi nose: an underreported complication of cyclophosphamide infusions.

    PubMed

    Janow, Ginger L; Ilowite, Norman T; Wahezi, Dawn M

    2011-07-01

    Wasabi nose, a term used to describe the nasopharyngeal discomfort experienced during cyclophosphamide infusions, is a rare phenomenon, previously described in case reports of adult oncology patients typically receiving high-dose chemotherapy regimens. The underlying mechanism by which this phenomenon occurs is unknown. We report four cases of children with rheumatic diseases afflicted by profound nasopharyngeal discomfort secondary to low-dose cyclophosphamide infusions. We additionally review the literature regarding potential medical management of these complications and describe our experience using these interventions.

  2. Antibacterial Activities of Wasabi against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zhongjing; Dockery, Christopher R.; Crosby, Michael; Chavarria, Katherine; Patterson, Brett; Giedd, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus are two of the major pathogens frequently involved in foodborne outbreaks. Control of these pathogens in foods is essential to food safety. It is of great interest in the use of natural antimicrobial compounds present in edible plants to control foodborne pathogens as consumers prefer more natural “green” foods. Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) is an antimicrobial compound naturally present in wasabi (Japanese horseradish) and several other edible plants. Although the antibacterial effects of pure AITC and wasabi extract (essential oil) against several bacteria have been reported, the antibacterial property of natural wasabi has not been well studied. This study investigated the antibacterial activities of wasabi as well as AITC against E. coli O157:H7 and S. aureus. Chemical analysis showed that AITC is the major isothiocyanate in wasabi. The AITC concentration in the wasabi powder used in this study was 5.91 ± 0.59 mg/g. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of wasabi against E. coli O157:H7 or S. aureus was 1% (or 10 mg/ml). Wasabi at 4% displayed higher bactericidal activity against S. aureus than against E. coli O157:H7. The MIC of AITC against either pathogen was between 10 and 100 μg/ml. AITC at 500 μg/ml was bactericidal against both pathogens while AITC at 1000 μg/ml eliminated E. coli O157:H7 much faster than S. aureus. The results from this study showed that wasabi has strong antibacterial property and has high potential to effectively control E. coli O157:H7 and S. aureus in foods. The antibacterial property along with its natural green color, unique flavor, and advantage to safeguard foods at the point of ingestion makes wasabi a promising natural edible antibacterial plant. The results from this study may be of significant interest to the food industry as they develop new and safe foods. These results may also stimulate more research to evaluate the antibacterial effect of wasabi against other

  3. Antibacterial Activities of Wasabi against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhongjing; Dockery, Christopher R; Crosby, Michael; Chavarria, Katherine; Patterson, Brett; Giedd, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus are two of the major pathogens frequently involved in foodborne outbreaks. Control of these pathogens in foods is essential to food safety. It is of great interest in the use of natural antimicrobial compounds present in edible plants to control foodborne pathogens as consumers prefer more natural "green" foods. Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) is an antimicrobial compound naturally present in wasabi (Japanese horseradish) and several other edible plants. Although the antibacterial effects of pure AITC and wasabi extract (essential oil) against several bacteria have been reported, the antibacterial property of natural wasabi has not been well studied. This study investigated the antibacterial activities of wasabi as well as AITC against E . coli O157:H7 and S . aureus . Chemical analysis showed that AITC is the major isothiocyanate in wasabi. The AITC concentration in the wasabi powder used in this study was 5.91 ± 0.59 mg/g. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of wasabi against E. coli O157:H7 or S. aureus was 1% (or 10 mg/ml). Wasabi at 4% displayed higher bactericidal activity against S. aureus than against E. coli O157:H7. The MIC of AITC against either pathogen was between 10 and 100 μg/ml. AITC at 500 μg/ml was bactericidal against both pathogens while AITC at 1000 μg/ml eliminated E. coli O157:H7 much faster than S. aureus . The results from this study showed that wasabi has strong antibacterial property and has high potential to effectively control E. coli O157:H7 and S. aureus in foods. The antibacterial property along with its natural green color, unique flavor, and advantage to safeguard foods at the point of ingestion makes wasabi a promising natural edible antibacterial plant. The results from this study may be of significant interest to the food industry as they develop new and safe foods. These results may also stimulate more research to evaluate the antibacterial effect of wasabi against other

  4. Signal Integration in Quorum Sensing Enables Cross-Species Induction of Virulence in Pectobacterium wasabiae

    PubMed Central

    Valente, Rita S.; Nadal-Jimenez, Pol; Carvalho, André F. P.; Vieira, Filipe J. D.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacterial communities can sense their neighbors, regulating group behaviors in response to cell density and environmental changes. The diversity of signaling networks in a single species has been postulated to allow custom responses to different stimuli; however, little is known about how multiple signals are integrated and the implications of this integration in different ecological contexts. In the plant pathogen Pectobacterium wasabiae (formerly Erwinia carotovora), two signaling networks—the N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) quorum-sensing system and the Gac/Rsm signal transduction pathway—control the expression of secreted plant cell wall-degrading enzymes, its major virulence determinants. We show that the AHL system controls the Gac/Rsm system by affecting the expression of the regulatory RNA RsmB. This regulation is mediated by ExpR2, the quorum-sensing receptor that responds to the P. wasabiae cognate AHL but also to AHLs produced by other bacterial species. As a consequence, this level of regulation allows P. wasabiae to bypass the Gac-dependent regulation of RsmB in the presence of exogenous AHLs or AHL-producing bacteria. We provide in vivo evidence that this pivotal role of RsmB in signal transduction is important for the ability of P. wasabiae to induce virulence in response to other AHL-producing bacteria in multispecies plant lesions. Our results suggest that the signaling architecture in P. wasabiae was coopted to prime the bacteria to eavesdrop on other bacteria and quickly join the efforts of other species, which are already exploiting host resources. PMID:28536283

  5. Transcriptional regulation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate: quinone oxidoreductase in murine hepatoma cells by 6-(methylsufinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate, an active principle of wasabi (Eutrema wasabi Maxim).

    PubMed

    Hou, D X; Fukuda, M; Fujii, M; Fuke, Y

    2000-12-20

    Wasabi is a very popular pungent spice in Japan. This study examined the ability of 6-(methylsufinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate (6-MITC), an active principle of wasabi, to induce the cellular expression of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate: quinone oxidoreductase (QR) in Hepa 1c1c7 cells. The cells were treated with various concentrations of 6-MITC, and were then assessed for cell growth, QR activity and QR mRNA expression. The induction of QR activity and QR mRNA expression was time- and dose-responsive over a narrow range of 0.1-5 microM, with declining induction at higher concentrations due to cell toxicity. Furthermore, transfection studies demonstrated that the induction of transcription of the QR gene by 6-MITC involved an antioxidant/electrophile-responsive element (ARE/EpRE) activation. Our results suggest a novel mechanism by which dietary wasabi 6-MITC may be implicated in cancer chemoprevention.

  6. Anti-carcinogenic activity of 6-methylsulfinylhexyl isothiocyanate-, an active anti-proliferative principal of wasabi (Eutrema wasabi Maxim.).

    PubMed

    Fuke, Y; Haga, Y; Ono, H; Nomura, T; Ryoyama, K

    1997-11-01

    Synthetic 4-methylsulfinylhexyl isothiocyanate (MITC)(a potent inducer of phase 2 detoxification enzymes from broccoli) and 6-MITC(a potent anti-proliferative principal from wasabi) slightly inhibited the induction of mouse skin tumor in a two-stage process of carcinogenesis (initiator, 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene; promotor,12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate), but the effect was not significant. Both compounds, however, significantly inhibited the mutation of skin resulting from topical applications of the carcinogens. When a murine hepatoma cell line, Hepa 1c1c7, was treated with 2-,4-,6- and 8-MITCs, they augmented the induction of its quinone reductase, one of the phase 2 detoxification enzymes in a concentration dependent manner, and the 4- and 6-MITCs were much more potent on the reduction of the enzyme than the 2- and 8-MITCs. All 2-, 4-, 6- and 8-MITCs suppressed the growth of murine tumor cells, their suppressive activities being proportional to the length of their methyl residue. They were also cytotoxic to mouse peritoneal exudate macrophages which were not proliferating in vitro, indicating that the cellular targets of isothiocyanate may not be dependent upon the cell cycle. In addition, all the 2-, 4-, 6- and 8-MITCs inhibited the production of nitric oxide (a potent radical carcinogen) by peritoneal macrophages.

  7. The effect of wasabi rhizome extract on atopic dermatitis-like symptoms in HR-1 hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Masashi; Okunishi, Isao

    2009-04-01

    We investigated the effect of wasabi rhizome extract on atopic dermatitis (AD) model mice. The wasabi extract was fed to the HR-1 hairless mice, which develop AD-like symptoms with a special diet (HR-AD diet). The extract was expected to reduce the symptoms induced. Wasabi rhizome-containing HR-AD diet (5% and 10%) reduced the scratching behavior, and the 10% wasabi rhizome HR-AD diet significantly reduced scratching behavior on days 28, 35 and 42. Plasma components (histamine, eotaxin, IgE and thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC)) were decreased in the 10% wasabi rhizome HR-AD diet. In histopathological examinations (toluidine blue (T.B.), major basic protein (MBP), CD4, IL-4, IL-5, eotaxin, TARC and IgE), the wasabi rhizome-containing HR-AD diet (5% and 10%) significantly reduced the number of positive stained cells. These results suggested that the wasabi rhizome extract improved the AD-like symptoms of HR-1 hairless mice.

  8. Diagnostic Assay for Rickettsia japonica

    PubMed Central

    Hanaoka, Nozomu; Matsutani, Minenosuke; Kawabata, Hiroki; Yamamoto, Seigo; Fujita, Hiromi; Sakata, Akiko; Azuma, Yoshinao; Ogawa, Motohiko; Takano, Ai; Watanabe, Haruo; Kishimoto, Toshio; Shirai, Mutsunori; Kurane, Ichiro

    2009-01-01

    We developed a specific and rapid detection system for Rickettsia japonica and R. heilongjiangensis, the causative agents of spotted fever, using a TaqMan minor groove binder probe for a particular open reading frame (ORF) identified by the R. japonica genome project. The target ORF was present only in R. japonica–related strains. PMID:19961684

  9. The effect of isosaponarin isolated from wasabi leaf on collagen synthesis in human fibroblasts and its underlying mechanism.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Masashi; Akita, Keiko; Yamada, Kazuno; Okunishi, Isao

    2010-07-01

    Wasabi has been used as an important spice in Japanese foods. The wasabi leaves were used as a cosmetic material, but its biological activities have not yet been examined. We investigated the effect of isosaponarin derived from wasabi leaf on collagen synthesis in human fibroblasts. The production of type I collagen in human fibroblasts was increased with treatment of wasabi leaf extract. Isosaponarin isolated from wasabi leaves belonged to the group of flavone glycoside, and was the key compound in collagen synthesis from the wasabi leaf ingredients. Isosaponarin increased the type I collagen production at the mRNA gene level. The treatment of isosaponarin did not influence the production of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) protein, but increased the production of TGF-beta type II receptor (TbetaR-II) protein and TbetaR-II mRNA. Prolyl 4-hydroxylase (P4H) protein and P4H mRNA were increased by treatment with isosaponarin. Heat shock protein 47 (HSP47) was not increased by treatment with isosaponarin. These results suggested that isosaponarin increased collagen synthesis in human fibroblasts, caused by up-regulated TbetaR-II and P4H production.

  10. Revised Phylogeny and Novel Horizontally Acquired Virulence Determinants of the Model Soft Rot Phytopathogen Pectobacterium wasabiae SCC3193

    PubMed Central

    Koskinen, Patrik; Nokso-Koivisto, Jussi; Pasanen, Miia; Broberg, Martin; Plyusnin, Ilja; Törönen, Petri; Holm, Liisa; Pirhonen, Minna; Palva, E. Tapio

    2012-01-01

    Soft rot disease is economically one of the most devastating bacterial diseases affecting plants worldwide. In this study, we present novel insights into the phylogeny and virulence of the soft rot model Pectobacterium sp. SCC3193, which was isolated from a diseased potato stem in Finland in the early 1980s. Genomic approaches, including proteome and genome comparisons of all sequenced soft rot bacteria, revealed that SCC3193, previously included in the species Pectobacterium carotovorum, can now be more accurately classified as Pectobacterium wasabiae. Together with the recently revised phylogeny of a few P. carotovorum strains and an increasing number of studies on P. wasabiae, our work indicates that P. wasabiae has been unnoticed but present in potato fields worldwide. A combination of genomic approaches and in planta experiments identified features that separate SCC3193 and other P. wasabiae strains from the rest of soft rot bacteria, such as the absence of a type III secretion system that contributes to virulence of other soft rot species. Experimentally established virulence determinants include the putative transcriptional regulator SirB, two partially redundant type VI secretion systems and two horizontally acquired clusters (Vic1 and Vic2), which contain predicted virulence genes. Genome comparison also revealed other interesting traits that may be related to life in planta or other specific environmental conditions. These traits include a predicted benzoic acid/salicylic acid carboxyl methyltransferase of eukaryotic origin. The novelties found in this work indicate that soft rot bacteria have a reservoir of unknown traits that may be utilized in the poorly understood latent stage in planta. The genomic approaches and the comparison of the model strain SCC3193 to other sequenced Pectobacterium strains, including the type strain of P. wasabiae, provides a solid basis for further investigation of the virulence, distribution and phylogeny of soft rot

  11. Identification of 6-methylsulfinylhexyl isothiocyanate as an apoptosis-inducing component in wasabi.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Makoto; Ohata, Masahiko; Hayakawa, Sumio; Isemura, Mamoru; Kumazawa, Shigenori; Nakayama, Tsutomu; Furugori, Michiyo; Kinae, Naohide

    2003-03-01

    The ethanol extract from Japanese horseradish wasabi was found to inhibit cell proliferation in human monoblastic leukemia U937 cells by inducing apoptotic cell death. Separation by methods including silica gel chromatography and preparative HPLC gave an active compound, which was identified as 6-methylsulfinylhexyl isothiocyanate (6-HITC). Several lines of evidence indicated that 6-HITC induced apoptosis in U937 cells and human stomach cancer MKN45 cells. Thus, 6-HITC is potentially useful as a natural anti-cancer agent.

  12. Path integral pricing of Wasabi option in the Black-Scholes model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassagnes, Aurelien; Chen, Yu; Ohashi, Hirotada

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, using path integral techniques, we derive a formula for a propagator arising in the study of occupation time derivatives. Using this result we derive a fair price for the case of the cumulative Parisian option. After confirming the validity of the derived result using Monte Carlo simulation, a new type of heavily path dependent derivative product is investigated. We derive an approximation for our so-called Wasabi option fair price and check the accuracy of our result with a Monte Carlo simulation.

  13. Inhibitory effects of wasabi isothiocyanates on chemical mediator release in RBL-2H3 rat basophilic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Yamada-Kato, Tomoe; Nagai, Masashi; Ohnishi, Motoko; Yoshida, Kazutoshi

    2012-01-01

    Wasabi is a plant of Japanese origin. It belongs to the family Brassicaceae and produces various isothiocyanates (ITCs). To clarify the type I allergies inhibited by wasabi ITCs, we investigated the inhibitory effect on chemical mediator release from dinitrophenylated bovine serum albumin (DNP-BSA)-stimulated RBL-2H3 rat basophilic leukemia cells. Allyl ITC (AITC), sec-butyl ITC (s-BuITC), and 3-butenyl ITC (3-BuITC), which have 3 or 4 carbon chains, inhibited histamine release but did not inhibit the release of leukotriene B4 (LTB4) or cysteinyl LTs (CysLTs). 4-Pentenyl ITC (4-PeITC) and 5-hexenyl ITC (5-HeITC), which have 5 or 6 carbon chains and an unsaturated bond at the end, inhibited LTB4 release but did not inhibit the release of histamine or CysLTs. 6-Methylthiohexyl ITC (6-MTITC), 6-methylsulfinylhexyl ITC (6-MSITC), and 6-methylsulfonylhexyl ITC (6-MSFITC), which have a sulfur atom inserted at the end of a 6-carbon chain, inhibited the release of histamine, LTB4, and CysLTs and the elevation in intracellular Ca(2+). These results suggest that wasabi ITCs inhibited type I allergies by inhibiting chemical mediator release and that the inhibitory effects on each chemical mediator were due to differences in the side chain structure of the wasabi ITCs.

  14. Overexpression of the wasabi defensin gene confers enhanced resistance to blast fungus ( Magnaporthe grisea) in transgenic rice.

    PubMed

    Kanzaki, H.; Nirasawa, S.; Saitoh, H.; Ito, M.; Nishihara, M.; Terauchi, R.; Nakamura, I.

    2002-11-01

    Transgenic rice ( Oryza sativa cv. Sasanishiki) overexpressing the wasabi defensin gene, a plant defensin effective against the rice blast fungus, was generated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Twenty-two T2 homozygous lines harboring the wasabi defensin gene were challenged by the blast fungus. Transformants exhibited resistance to rice blast at various levels. The inheritance of the resistance over generations was investigated. T3 plants derived from two highly blast-resistant T2 lines (WT14-5 and WT43-5) were challenged with the blast fungus using the press-injured spots method. The average size of disease lesions of the transgenic line WT43-5 was reduced to about half of that of non-transgenic plants. The 5-kDa peptide, corresponding to the processed form of the wasabi defensin, was detected in the total protein fraction extracted from the T3 progeny. Transgenic rice plants overproducing wasabi defensin are expected to possess a durable and wide-spectrum resistance (i.e. field resistance) against various rice blast races.

  15. Immunochemical detection of food-derived isothiocyanate as a lysine conjugate.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Toshiyuki; Kitamoto, Noritoshi; Osawa, Toshihiko; Kato, Yoji

    2010-01-01

    In a previous study we prepared monoclonal antibody against allyl isothiocyanate (AITC)-modified lysine (Lys), and found that AITC reacted with Lys under physiological conditions in vitro (T. Nakamura et al., Chem. Res. Toxicol., 22, 536-542 (2009)). In the present study, antibodies against benzyl isothiocyanate (ITC), 6-methylsulfinylhexyl ITC and phenethyl ITC modified protein were prepared, and the respective monoclonal antibodies, B6C9, 6MS3D10, and PE3A10 were obtained. These antibodies were applied to ITC detection in food using shredded Wasabia japonica (wasabi) and ground Carica papaya (papaya) seed by trapping ITC with biotin-labeled bovine serum albumin. ITC formation from the wasabi and papaya seed samples was confirmed using the antibodies in a dose-dependent manner. These antibodies might be applicable in identifying food-derived ITC.

  16. Simultaneous mapping of water shift and B1 (WASABI)-Application to field-Inhomogeneity correction of CEST MRI data.

    PubMed

    Schuenke, Patrick; Windschuh, Johannes; Roeloffs, Volkert; Ladd, Mark E; Bachert, Peter; Zaiss, Moritz

    2017-02-01

    Together with the development of MRI contrasts that are inherently small in their magnitude, increased magnetic field accuracy is also required. Hence, mapping of the static magnetic field (B 0 ) and the excitation field (B 1 ) is not only important to feedback shim algorithms, but also for postprocess contrast-correction procedures. A novel field-inhomogeneity mapping method is presented that allows simultaneous mapping of the water shift and B 1 (WASABI) using an off-resonant rectangular preparation pulse. The induced Rabi oscillations lead to a sinc-like spectrum in the frequency-offset dimension and allow for determination of B 0 by its symmetry axis and of B 1 by its oscillation frequency. Stability of the WASABI method with regard to the influences of T 1 , T 2 , magnetization transfer, and repetition time was investigated and its convergence interval was verified. B 0 and B 1 maps obtained simultaneously by means of WASABI in the human brain at 3 T and 7 T can compete well with maps obtained by standard methods. Finally, the method was applied successfully for B 0 and B 1 correction of chemical exchange saturation transfer MRI (CEST-MRI) data of the human brain. The proposed WASABI method yields a novel simultaneous B 0 and B 1 mapping within 1 min that is robust and easy to implement. Magn Reson Med 77:571-580, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  17. DNA Microarray Profiling Highlights Nrf2-Mediated Chemoprevention Targeted by Wasabi-Derived Isothiocyanates in HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Trio, Phoebe Zapanta; Kawahara, Atsuyoshi; Tanigawa, Shunsuke; Sakao, Kozue; Hou, De-Xing

    2017-01-01

    6-MSITC and 6-MTITC are sulforaphane (SFN) analogs found in Japanese Wasabi. As we reported previously, Wasabi isothiocyanates (ITCs) are activators of Nrf2-antioxidant response element pathway, and also inhibitors of pro-inflammatory cyclooxygenase-2. This study is the first to assess the global changes in transcript levels by Wasabi ITCs, comparing with SFN, in HepG2 cells. We performed comparative gene expression profiling by treating HepG2 cells with ITCs, followed by DNA microarray analyses using HG-U133 plus 2.0 oligonucleotide array. Partial array data on selected gene products were confirmed by RT-PCR and Western blotting. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) was used to identify functional subsets of genes and biologically significant network pathways. 6-MTITC showed the highest number of differentially altered (≥2 folds) gene expression, of which 114 genes were upregulated and 75 were downregulated. IPA revealed that Nrf2-mediated pathway, together with glutamate metabolism, is the common significantly modulated pathway across treatments. Interestingly, 6-MSITC exhibited the most potent effect toward Nrf2-mediated pathway. Our data suggest that 6-MSITC could exert chemopreventive role against cancer through its underlying antioxidant activity via the activation of Nrf2-mediated subsequent induction of cytoprotective genes.

  18. The Trk Potassium Transporter Is Required for RsmB-Mediated Activation of Virulence in the Phytopathogen Pectobacterium wasabiae.

    PubMed

    Valente, Rita S; Xavier, Karina B

    2016-01-15

    Pectobacterium wasabiae (previously known as Erwinia carotovora) is an important plant pathogen that regulates the production of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes through an N-acyl homoserine lactone-based quorum sensing system and through the GacS/GacA two-component system (also known as ExpS/ExpA). At high cell density, activation of GacS/GacA induces the expression of RsmB, a noncoding RNA that is essential for the activation of virulence in this bacterium. A genetic screen to identify regulators of RsmB revealed that mutants defective in components of a putative Trk potassium transporter (trkH and trkA) had decreased rsmB expression. Further analysis of these mutants showed that changes in potassium concentration influenced rsmB expression and consequent tissue damage in potato tubers and that this regulation required an intact Trk system. Regulation of rsmB expression by potassium via the Trk system occurred even in the absence of the GacS/GacA system, demonstrating that these systems act independently and are both required for full activation of RsmB and for the downstream induction of virulence in potato infection assays. Overall, our results identified potassium as an essential environmental factor regulating the Rsm system, and the consequent induction of virulence, in the plant pathogen P. wasabiae. Crop losses from bacterial diseases caused by pectolytic bacteria are a major problem in agriculture. By studying the regulatory pathways involved in controlling the expression of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes in Pectobacterium wasabiae, we showed that the Trk potassium transport system plays an important role in the regulation of these pathways. The data presented further identify potassium as an important environmental factor in the regulation of virulence in this plant pathogen. We showed that a reduction in virulence can be achieved by increasing the extracellular concentration of potassium. Therefore, this work highlights how elucidation of the

  19. The Trk Potassium Transporter Is Required for RsmB-Mediated Activation of Virulence in the Phytopathogen Pectobacterium wasabiae

    PubMed Central

    Valente, Rita S.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pectobacterium wasabiae (previously known as Erwinia carotovora) is an important plant pathogen that regulates the production of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes through an N-acyl homoserine lactone-based quorum sensing system and through the GacS/GacA two-component system (also known as ExpS/ExpA). At high cell density, activation of GacS/GacA induces the expression of RsmB, a noncoding RNA that is essential for the activation of virulence in this bacterium. A genetic screen to identify regulators of RsmB revealed that mutants defective in components of a putative Trk potassium transporter (trkH and trkA) had decreased rsmB expression. Further analysis of these mutants showed that changes in potassium concentration influenced rsmB expression and consequent tissue damage in potato tubers and that this regulation required an intact Trk system. Regulation of rsmB expression by potassium via the Trk system occurred even in the absence of the GacS/GacA system, demonstrating that these systems act independently and are both required for full activation of RsmB and for the downstream induction of virulence in potato infection assays. Overall, our results identified potassium as an essential environmental factor regulating the Rsm system, and the consequent induction of virulence, in the plant pathogen P. wasabiae. IMPORTANCE Crop losses from bacterial diseases caused by pectolytic bacteria are a major problem in agriculture. By studying the regulatory pathways involved in controlling the expression of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes in Pectobacterium wasabiae, we showed that the Trk potassium transport system plays an important role in the regulation of these pathways. The data presented further identify potassium as an important environmental factor in the regulation of virulence in this plant pathogen. We showed that a reduction in virulence can be achieved by increasing the extracellular concentration of potassium. Therefore, this work highlights how

  20. Rice, Japonica (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Main, Marcy; Frame, Bronwyn; Wang, Kan

    2015-01-01

    The importance of rice, as a food crop, is reflected in the extensive global research being conducted in an effort to improve and better understand this particular agronomic plant. In regard to biotechnology, this has led to the development of numerous genetic transformation protocols. Over the years, many of these methods have become increasingly straightforward, rapid, and efficient, thereby making rice valuable as a model crop for scientific research and functional genomics. The focus of this chapter is on one such protocol that uses Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Oryza sativa L. ssp. Japonica cv. Nipponbare with an emphasis on tissue desiccation. The explants consist of callus derived from mature seeds which are cocultivated on filter paper postinfection. Hygromycin selection is used for the recovery of subsequent genetically engineered events.

  1. DNA Microarray Highlights Nrf2-Mediated Neuron Protection Targeted by Wasabi-Derived Isothiocyanates in IMR-32 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Trio, Phoebe Zapanta; Fujisaki, Satoru; Tanigawa, Shunsuke; Hisanaga, Ayami; Sakao, Kozue; Hou, De-Xing

    2016-01-01

    6-(Methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate (6-MSITC), 6-(methylthio)hexyl isothiocyanate (6-MTITC), and 4-(methylsulfinyl)butyl isothiocyanate (4-MSITC) are isothiocyanate (ITC) bioactive compounds from Japanese Wasabi. Previous in vivo studies highlighted the neuroprotective potential of ITCs since ITCs enhance the production of antioxidant-related enzymes. Thus, in this present study, a genome-wide DNA microarray analysis was designed to profile gene expression changes in a neuron cell line, IMR-32, stimulated by these ITCs. Among these ITCs, 6-MSITC caused the expression changes of most genes (263), of which 100 genes were upregulated and 163 genes were downregulated. Gene categorization showed that most of the differentially expressed genes are involved in oxidative stress response, and pathway analysis further revealed that Nrf2-mediated oxidative stress pathway is the top of the ITC-modulated signaling pathway. Finally, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blotting confirmed the gene expression and protein products of the major targets by ITCs. Taken together, Wasabi-derived ITCs might target the Nrf2-mediated oxidative stress pathway to exert neuroprotective effects. PMID:27547033

  2. Response of Drosophila to wasabi is mediated by painless, the fly homolog of mammalian TRPA1/ANKTM1.

    PubMed

    Al-Anzi, Bader; Tracey, W Daniel; Benzer, Seymour

    2006-05-23

    A number of repellent compounds produced by plants elicit a spicy or pungent sensation in mammals . In several cases, this has been found to occur through activation of ion channels in the transient receptor potential (TRP) family . We report that isothiocyanate (ITC), the pungent ingredient of wasabi, is a repellent to the insect Drosophila melanogaster, and that the painless gene, previously known to be required for larval nociception, is required for this avoidance behavior. A painless reporter gene is expressed in gustatory receptor neurons of the labial palpus, tarsus, and wing anterior margin, but not in olfactory receptor neurons, suggesting a gustatory role. Indeed, painless expression overlaps with a variety of gustatory-receptor gene reporters. Some, such as Gr66a, are known to be expressed in neurons that mediate gustatory repulsion . painless mutants are not taste blind; they show normal aversive gustatory behavior with salt and quinine and attractive responses to sugars and capsaicin. The painless gene is an evolutionary homolog of the mammalian "wasabi receptor" TRPA1/ANKTM1 , also thought to be involved in nociception. Our results suggest that the stinging sensation of isothiocyanate is caused by activation of an evolutionarily conserved molecular pathway that is also used for nociception.

  3. DNA Microarray Highlights Nrf2-Mediated Neuron Protection Targeted by Wasabi-Derived Isothiocyanates in IMR-32 Cells.

    PubMed

    Trio, Phoebe Zapanta; Fujisaki, Satoru; Tanigawa, Shunsuke; Hisanaga, Ayami; Sakao, Kozue; Hou, De-Xing

    2016-01-01

    6-(Methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate (6-MSITC), 6-(methylthio)hexyl isothiocyanate (6-MTITC), and 4-(methylsulfinyl)butyl isothiocyanate (4-MSITC) are isothiocyanate (ITC) bioactive compounds from Japanese Wasabi. Previous in vivo studies highlighted the neuroprotective potential of ITCs since ITCs enhance the production of antioxidant-related enzymes. Thus, in this present study, a genome-wide DNA microarray analysis was designed to profile gene expression changes in a neuron cell line, IMR-32, stimulated by these ITCs. Among these ITCs, 6-MSITC caused the expression changes of most genes (263), of which 100 genes were upregulated and 163 genes were downregulated. Gene categorization showed that most of the differentially expressed genes are involved in oxidative stress response, and pathway analysis further revealed that Nrf2-mediated oxidative stress pathway is the top of the ITC-modulated signaling pathway. Finally, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blotting confirmed the gene expression and protein products of the major targets by ITCs. Taken together, Wasabi-derived ITCs might target the Nrf2-mediated oxidative stress pathway to exert neuroprotective effects.

  4. Administration of Wasabia koreana Ameliorates Irritable Bowel Syndrome-Like Symptoms in a Zymosan-Induced Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Park, Bo-Kyung; Chun, Eunho; Choi, Jeong June; Shin, Younmin; Kho, Young Tak; Oh, Seung Hyun; Kim, Sun Yeou; Lee, Taek Hwan; Kim, Tae-Wan; Shin, Eunju; Do, Seon-Gil; Jin, Mirim

    2017-05-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal disease with complex pathophysiology involving the brain-gut axis. To assess the effects of Wasabia koreana (WK) on IBS, we employed a mouse model of colonic zymosan injection presenting with diarrhea-predominant IBS-like symptoms. Oral WK administration significantly diminished stool score, suppressed colon length and weight change, and minimized body weight loss without affecting food intake. In WK-treated mice, the submucosal thickening and epithelial lining of the colon were inhibited and were similar to those of naïve mice. Infiltration of mast cells into the colon and serum tumor necrosis factor-α levels were markedly suppressed. These effects were comparable to those of sulfasalazine, an anti-inflammatory drug. Furthermore, the number of visceral pain-related behaviors was significantly decreased, and locomotion activities measured in the elevated plus maze and open field tests were significantly increased by WK in a dose-dependent manner compared with amitriptyline, an antidepressant. These changes were accompanied by reduced FosB2 expression in the brain. Taken together, these data suggest that WK may have potential as a medicinal food for IBS by acting on inflammatory diarrhea and neural activity.

  5. Cytotoxic hydrolyzable tannins from Balanophora japonica.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhi-Hong; Wen, Xiao-Yun; Tanaka, Takashi; Wu, Shao-Yu; Liu, Zhongqiu; Iwata, Hiromi; Hirose, Yoko; Wu, Shuguang; Kouno, Isao

    2008-04-01

    Four hydrolyzable tannins named balanophotannins D-G ( 1- 4) were isolated from the aerial parts of the parasitic plant Balanophora japonica. Their structures were characterized on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical evidence. Balanophotannins D-G contain an oxidized hexahydroxydiphenoyl (HHDP) group. The absolute configurations of balanophotannins D ( 1) and F ( 3) were determined via the PGME method. Balanophotannin E ( 2) showed cytotoxicity to Hep G2 cancer cells with an IC 50 value of 4.22 microM.

  6. Lonicerae Japonicae Flos and Lonicerae Flos: A Systematic Pharmacology Review

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yujie; Cai, Weiyan; Weng, Xiaogang; Li, Qi; Wang, Yajie; Chen, Ying; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Qing; Guo, Yan; Zhu, Xiaoxin; Wang, Hainan

    2015-01-01

    Lonicerae japonicae flos, a widely used traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), has been used for several thousand years in China. Chinese Pharmacopeia once included Lonicerae japonicae flos of Caprifoliaceae family and plants of the same species named Lonicerae flos in general in the same group. Chinese Pharmacopeia (2005 Edition) lists Lonicerae japonicae flos and Lonicerae flos under different categories, although they have the similar history of efficacy. In this study, we research ancient books of TCM, 4 main databases of Chinese academic journals, and MEDLINE/PubMed to verify the origins and effects of Lonicerae japonicae flos and Lonicerae flos in traditional medicine and systematically summarized the research data in light of modern pharmacology and toxicology. Our results show that Lonicerae japonicae flos and Lonicerae flos are similar pharmacologically, but they also differ significantly in certain aspects. A comprehensive systematic review and a standard comparative pharmacological study of Lonicerae japonicae flos and Lonicerae flos as well as other species of Lonicerae flos support their clinical safety and application. Our study provides evidence supporting separate listing of Lonicerae japonicae flos and Lonicerae flos in Chinese Pharmacopeia as well as references for revision of relevant pharmacopeial records dealing with traditional efficacy of Lonicerae japonicae flos and Lonicerae flos. PMID:26257818

  7. Validation of yield component traits identified by GWA mapping in a rice tropical japonica x tropical japonica RIL mapping population

    The Rice Diversity Panel 1 (RDP1) was developed for genome-wide association (GWA) mapping to explore the five diverse rice (Oryza sativa) subpopulations (indica, aus, aromatic, temperate japonica and tropical japonica). RDP1 was evaluated for over 30 agronomic and morphological traits, most of whic...

  8. Modulation of Nrf2/Keap1 system by Wasabi 6-methylthiohexyl isothiocyanate in ARE-mediated NQO1 expression.

    PubMed

    Korenori, Yoshimi; Tanigawa, Shunsuke; Kumamoto, Takuma; Qin, Si; Daikoku, Yosuke; Miyamori, Koji; Nagai, Masashi; Hou, De-Xing

    2013-05-01

    6-Methylthiohexyl isothiocyanate (6-MTITC), one of the major bioactive ingredients in Japanese Wasabi, has revealed cytoprotective and cancer chemopreventive effects. This study aims to clarify the molecular mechanisms how 6-MTITC modulates nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/Kelchlike ECH-associating protein 1 (Keap1) system in antioxidant-responsive element (ARE)-mediated nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP): quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) expression. HepG2 cells were treated with 6-MTITC with varying time and dose. NQO1, Nrf2, and Keap1 proteins were detected by Western blotting. ARE transactivation was detected by electrophilic mobility shift assay and reporter gene assay. Nuclear localization of Nrf2 was determined by immunocytochemistry assay. Ubiquitination of Nrf2 and Keap1 was detected using immunoprecipitation after treatment with MG132. Small interfering RNA was used to knockdown Nrf2 or Keap1. The results revealed that 6-MTITC modulated Nrf2/ARE pathway by stimulating Keap1 modification, and inhibiting Nrf2 ubiquitination and protein turnover. These actions finally increased nuclear Nrf2 accumulation and ARE-binding activity. Moreover, silencing Nrf2 markedly reduced ARE-driven activity induced by 6-MTITC. 6-MTITC modulated ARE-driven NQO1 expression by stabilizing Nrf2 with enhanced Keap1 modification and decreased Nrf2 degradation. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. The Influence of Different Processing Methods on Component Content of Sophora japonica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Y. B.; Zhu, H. J.; Xin, G. S.; Wei, C.

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this experiment is to understand the effect of different processing methods on the content of active ingredients in Sophora japonica, and to determine the content of rutin and quercetin in Sophora japonica under different processing methods by UV spectrophotometry of the content determination. So as to compare the effect of different processing methods on the active ingredient content of Sophora japonica. Experiments can be seen in the rutin content: Fried Sophora japonica>Vinegar sunburn Sophora> Health products Sophora japonica> Charred sophora flower, Vinegar sunburn Sophora and Fried Sophora japonica difference is not obvious; Quercetin content: Charred sophora flower> Fried Sophora japonica> Vinegar sunburn Sophora>Health products Sophora japonica. It is proved that there are some differences in the content of active ingredients in Sophora japonica in different processing methods. The content of rutin increased with the increase of the processing temperature, but the content decreased after a certain temperature; Quercetin content will increase gradually with time.

  10. Generation of selectable marker-free transgenic eggplant resistant to Alternaria solani using the R/RS site-specific recombination system.

    PubMed

    Darwish, Nader Ahmed; Khan, Raham Sher; Ntui, Valentine Otang; Nakamura, Ikuo; Mii, Masahiro

    2014-03-01

    Marker-free transgenic eggplants, exhibiting enhanced resistance to Alternaria solani , can be generated on plant growth regulators (PGRs)- and antibiotic-free MS medium employing the multi-auto-transformation (MAT) vector, pMAT21 - wasabi defensin , wherein isopentenyl transferase ( ipt ) gene is used as a positive selection marker. Use of the selection marker genes conferring antibiotic or herbicide resistance in transgenic plants has been considered a serious problem for environment and the public. Multi-auto-transformation (MAT) vector system has been one of the tools to excise the selection marker gene and produce marker-free transgenic plants. Ipt gene was used as a selection marker gene. Wasabi defensin gene, isolated from Wasabia japonica (a Japanese horseradish which has been a potential source of antimicrobial proteins), was used as a gene of interest. Wasabi defensin gene was cloned from the binary vector, pEKH-WD, to an ipt-type MAT vector, pMAT21, by gateway cloning technology and transferred to Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105. Infected cotyledon explants of eggplant were cultured on PGRs- and antibiotic-free MS medium. Extreme shooty phenotype/ipt shoots were produced by the explants infected with the pMAT21-wasabi defensin (WD). The same PGRs- and antibiotic-free MS medium was used in subcultures of the ipt shoots. Subsequently, morphologically normal shoots emerged from the Ipt shoots. Molecular analyses of genomic DNA from transgenic plants confirmed the integration of the WD gene and excision of the selection marker (ipt gene). Expression of the WD gene was confirmed by RT-PCR and Northern blot analyses. In vitro whole plant and detached leaf assay of the marker-free transgenic plants exhibited enhanced resistance against Alternaria solani.

  11. Characteristics and in vitro Anti-diabetic Properties of the Korean Rice Wine, Makgeolli Fermented with Laminaria japonica.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae-Suk; Seo, Hyo Ju; Lee, Yu-Ri; Kwon, Su-Jung; Moon, Sun Hwa; Park, Sun-Mee; Sohn, Jae Hak

    2014-06-01

    New in vitro anti-diabetes makgeolli was produced from rice by adding various quantities of Laminaria japonica, and the fermentation characteristics of the L. japonica makgeolli during the fermentation process were investigated. The contents of alcohol and reducing sugar, and viable count of yeast, of L. japonica makgeolli were not significantly changed when the proportion of L. japonica was increased. The total acid content decreased with an increase in L. japonica concentration; the pH and total bacterial cell count increased in proportion with the increase in L. japonica concentration. The L. japonica makgeolli contents of free sugars, such as fructose, glucose, and sucrose, and of organic acids, such as acetic acid, citric acid, succinic acid, and lactic acid, were altered during fermentation and showed various patterns. The effects of the quantity of L. japonica added on the acceptability and anti-diabetes activities of L. japonica makgeolli were also investigated. In a sensory evaluation, L. japonica makgeolli brewed by adding 2.5 or 5% L. japonica to the mash showed the best overall acceptability; the 12.5% L. japonica sample was least favored due to its seaweed flavor. L. japonica addition did not increase the peroxynitrite-scavenging activity of makgeolli. L. japonica makgeolli showed potent anti-diabetes activity, particularly that containing >7.5% L. japonica. Therefore, L. japonica makgeolli may represent a new functional makgeolli with anti-diabetes properties.

  12. Characteristics and in vitro Anti-diabetic Properties of the Korean Rice Wine, Makgeolli Fermented with Laminaria japonica

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jae-Suk; Seo, Hyo Ju; Lee, Yu-Ri; Kwon, Su-Jung; Moon, Sun Hwa; Park, Sun-Mee; Sohn, Jae Hak

    2014-01-01

    New in vitro anti-diabetes makgeolli was produced from rice by adding various quantities of Laminaria japonica, and the fermentation characteristics of the L. japonica makgeolli during the fermentation process were investigated. The contents of alcohol and reducing sugar, and viable count of yeast, of L. japonica makgeolli were not significantly changed when the proportion of L. japonica was increased. The total acid content decreased with an increase in L. japonica concentration; the pH and total bacterial cell count increased in proportion with the increase in L. japonica concentration. The L. japonica makgeolli contents of free sugars, such as fructose, glucose, and sucrose, and of organic acids, such as acetic acid, citric acid, succinic acid, and lactic acid, were altered during fermentation and showed various patterns. The effects of the quantity of L. japonica added on the acceptability and anti-diabetes activities of L. japonica makgeolli were also investigated. In a sensory evaluation, L. japonica makgeolli brewed by adding 2.5 or 5% L. japonica to the mash showed the best overall acceptability; the 12.5% L. japonica sample was least favored due to its seaweed flavor. L. japonica addition did not increase the peroxynitrite-scavenging activity of makgeolli. L. japonica makgeolli showed potent anti-diabetes activity, particularly that containing >7.5% L. japonica. Therefore, L. japonica makgeolli may represent a new functional makgeolli with anti-diabetes properties. PMID:25054108

  13. Structure-Activity Relationship Study on Isothiocyanates: Comparison of TRPA1-Activating Ability between Allyl Isothiocyanate and Specific Flavor Components of Wasabi, Horseradish, and White Mustard.

    PubMed

    Terada, Yuko; Masuda, Hideki; Watanabe, Tatsuo

    2015-08-28

    Allyl isothiocyanate (ITC) (4) is the main pungent component in wasabi, and it generates an acrid sensation by activating TRPA1. The flavor and pungency of ITCs vary depending on the compound. However, the differences in activity to activate TRPA1 between ITCs are not known except for a few compounds. To investigate the effect of carbon chain length and substituents of ITCs, the TRPA1-activiting ability of 16 ITCs was measured. Since most of the ITCs showed nearly equal TRPA1-activiting potency, the ITC moiety is likely the predominant contributor to their TRPA1-activating abilities, and contributions of other functional groups to their activities to activate TRPA1 are comparatively small.

  14. Microarray-based determination of anti-inflammatory genes targeted by 6-(methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jihua; Uto, Takuhiro; Tanigawa, Shunsuke; Yamada-Kato, Tomeo; Fujii, Makoto; Hou, DE-Xing

    2010-01-01

    6-(Methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate (6-MSITC) is a bioactive ingredient of wasabi [Wasabia japonica (Miq.) Matsumura], which is a popular pungent spice of Japan. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory function and underlying genes targeted by 6-MSITC, gene expression profiling through DNA microarray was performed in mouse macrophages. Among 22,050 oligonucleotides, the expression levels of 406 genes were increased by ≥3-fold in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW264 cells, 238 gene signals of which were attenuated by 6-MSITC (≥2-fold). Expression levels of 717 genes were decreased by ≥3-fold in LPS-activated cells, of which 336 gene signals were restored by 6-MSITC (≥2-fold). Utilizing group analysis, 206 genes affected by 6-MSITC with a ≥2-fold change were classified into 35 categories relating to biological processes (81), molecular functions (108) and signaling pathways (17). The genes were further categorized as 'defense, inflammatory response, cytokine activities and receptor activities' and some were confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Ingenuity pathway analysis further revealed that wasabi 6-MSITC regulated the relevant networks of chemokines, interleukins and interferons to exert its anti-inflammatory function.

  15. Development of disease-resistant marker-free tomato by R/RS site-specific recombination.

    PubMed

    Khan, Raham Sher; Nakamura, Ikuo; Mii, Masahiro

    2011-06-01

    The selection marker genes, imparting antibiotic or herbicide resistance, in the final transgenics have been criticized by the public and considered a hindrance in their commercialization. Multi-auto-transformation (MAT) vector system has been one of the strategies to produce marker-free transgenic plants without using selective chemicals and plant growth regulators (PGRs). In the study reported here, isopentenyltransferase (ipt) gene was used as a selection marker and wasabi defensin (WD) gene, isolated from Wasabia japonica as a target gene. WD was cloned from the binary vector, pEKH-WD to an ipt-type MAT vector, pMAT21 by gateway cloning and transferred to Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105. Infected cotyledons of tomato cv. Reiyo were cultured on PGR- and antibiotic-free MS medium. Adventitious shoots were developed by the explants infected with the pMAT21/wasabi defensin. The same PGR- and antibiotic-free MS medium was used in subcultures of the adventitious shoot lines (ASLs) to produce ipt and normal shoots. Approximately, 6 months after infection morphologically normal shoots were produced. Molecular analyses of the developed shoots confirmed the integration of gene of interest (WD) and excision of the selection marker (ipt). Expression of WD was confirmed by Northern blot and Western blot analyses. The marker-free transgenic plants exhibited enhanced resistance against Botrytis cinerea (gray mold), Alternaria solani (early blight), Fusarium oxysporum (Fusarium wilt) and Erysiphe lycopersici (powdery mildew).

  16. Microarray-based determination of anti-inflammatory genes targeted by 6-(methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate in macrophages

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, JIHUA; UTO, TAKUHIRO; TANIGAWA, SHUNSUKE; YAMADA-KATO, TOMEO; FUJII, MAKOTO; HOU, DE-XING

    2010-01-01

    6-(Methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate (6-MSITC) is a bioactive ingredient of wasabi [Wasabia japonica (Miq.) Matsumura], which is a popular pungent spice of Japan. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory function and underlying genes targeted by 6-MSITC, gene expression profiling through DNA microarray was performed in mouse macrophages. Among 22,050 oligonucleotides, the expression levels of 406 genes were increased by ≥3-fold in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW264 cells, 238 gene signals of which were attenuated by 6-MSITC (≥2-fold). Expression levels of 717 genes were decreased by ≥3-fold in LPS-activated cells, of which 336 gene signals were restored by 6-MSITC (≥2-fold). Utilizing group analysis, 206 genes affected by 6-MSITC with a ≥2-fold change were classified into 35 categories relating to biological processes (81), molecular functions (108) and signaling pathways (17). The genes were further categorized as ‘defense, inflammatory response, cytokine activities and receptor activities’ and some were confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Ingenuity pathway analysis further revealed that wasabi 6-MSITC regulated the relevant networks of chemokines, interleukins and interferons to exert its anti-inflammatory function. PMID:23136589

  17. Systematic review for geo-authentic Lonicerae Japonicae Flos.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xingyue; Liu, Yali; Hou, Aijuan; Yang, Yang; Tian, Xin; He, Liyun

    2017-06-01

    In traditional Chinese medicine, Lonicerae Japonicae Flos is commonly used as anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and antipyretic herbal medicine, and geo-authentic herbs are believed to present the highest quality among all samples from different regions. To discuss the current situation and trend of geo-authentic Lonicerae Japonicae Flos, we searched Chinese Biomedicine Literature Database, Chinese Journal Full-text Database, Chinese Scientific Journal Full-text Database, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Wanfang, and PubMed. We investigated all studies up to November 2015 pertaining to quality assessment, discrimination, pharmacological effects, planting or processing, or ecological system of geo-authentic Lonicerae Japonicae Flos. Sixty-five studies mainly discussing about chemical fingerprint, component analysis, planting and processing, discrimination between varieties, ecological system, pharmacological effects, and safety were systematically reviewed. By analyzing these studies, we found that the key points of geo-authentic Lonicerae Japonicae Flos research were quality and application. Further studies should focus on improving the quality by selecting the more superior of all varieties and evaluating clinical effectiveness.

  18. Negative gravitactic behavior of Caenorhabditis japonica dauer larvae.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Etsuko; Tanaka, Ryusei; Yoshiga, Toyoshi

    2013-04-15

    Gravity on Earth is a constant stimulus and many organisms are able to perceive and respond to it. However, there is no clear evidence that nematodes respond to gravity. In this study, we demonstrated negative gravitaxis in a nematode using dauer larvae (DL) of Caenorhabditis japonica, which form an association with their carrier insect Parastrachia japonensis. Caenorhabditis japonica DL demonstrating nictation, a typical host-finding behavior, had a negative gravitactic behavior, whereas non-nictating C. japonica and C. elegans DL did not. The negative gravitactic index of nictating DL collected from younger nematode cultures was higher than that from older cultures. After a 24 h incubation in M9 buffer, nictating DL did not alter their negative gravitactic behavior, but a longer incubation resulted in less pronounced negative gravitaxis. These results are indicative of negative gravitaxis in nictating C. japonica DL, which is maintained once initiated, seems to be affected by the age of DL and does not appear to be a simple passive mechanism.

  19. [Study on Commercial Specification of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jie; Zou, Lin; Liu, Wei; Bian, Li-hua; Wang, Xiao; Zhang, Yong-qing; Dan, Staerk

    2015-04-01

    To provide the basis data for the institute of commercial specification standard of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos. 39 samples of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos commercial of different grades in market were collected, and vernier caliper and electronic balance were used to measure the numbers of flower bud and blooming rate per 0. 5 g, contamination content, browning degree, milden and rot, length, upside diameter, middle diameter and bottom diameter of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos. The content of neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, rutin, galuteolin,3,5-icaffeoylquinic acid and 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid were detected by HPLC. Correlation analysis, principal component analysis and cluster analysis were used by SPSS to analyze all index data,and the correlation of appearance characteristics and intrinsic active constituents was discussed. The numbers of flower bud and blooming rate per 0. 5 g, contamination content and browning degree were principal component indexes. The length of flower bud showed a significant correlation with galuteolin content, and the browning degree and upside diameter showed a significant correlation with chlorogenic acid content. Lonicerae Japonicae Flos commercial should be divided into four specification grades by sieved indexes.

  20. Laminaria japonica Extract, an Inhibitor of Clavibater michiganense Subsp. Sepedonicum

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Jin; Feng, Jia; Xie, Shulian; Wang, Feipeng; Xu, Qiufeng

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial ring rot of potato is one of the most serious potato plant and tuber diseases. Laminaria japonica extract was investigated for its antimicrobial activity against Clavibater michiganense subsp. sepedonicum (Spieckermann & Kotthoff) Davis et al., the causative agent of bacterial ring rot of potato. The results showed that the optimum extraction conditions of antimicrobial substances from L. japonica were an extraction temperature of 80°C, an extraction time of 12 h, and a solid to liquid ratio of 1∶25. Active compounds of L. japonica were isolated by solvent partition, thin layer chromatography (TLC) and column chromatography. All nineteen fractionations had antimicrobial activities against C. michiganense subsp. sepedonicum, while Fractionation three (Fr.3) had the highest (P<0.05) antimicrobial activity. Chemical composition analysis identified a total of 26 components in Fr.3. The main constituents of Fr.3 were alkanes (80.97%), esters (5.24%), acids (4.87%) and alcohols (2.21%). Antimicrobial activity of Fr.3 against C. michiganense subsp. sepedonicum could be attributed to its ability to damage the cell wall and cell membrane, induce the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), increase cytosolic Ca2+ concentration, inhibit the glycolytic pathway (EMP) and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, inhibit protein and nucleic acid synthesis, and disrupt the normal cycle of DNA replication. These findings indicate that L. japonica extracts have potential for inhibiting C. michiganense subsp. sepedonicum. PMID:24714388

  1. Role and Regulation of the Flp/Tad Pilus in the Virulence of Pectobacterium atrosepticum SCRI1043 and Pectobacterium wasabiae SCC3193

    PubMed Central

    Nykyri, Johanna; Mattinen, Laura; Niemi, Outi; Adhikari, Satish; Kõiv, Viia; Somervuo, Panu; Fang, Xin; Auvinen, Petri; Mäe, Andres; Palva, E. Tapio; Pirhonen, Minna

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we characterized a putative Flp/Tad pilus-encoding gene cluster, and we examined its regulation at the transcriptional level and its role in the virulence of potato pathogenic enterobacteria of the genus Pectobacterium. The Flp/Tad pilus-encoding gene clusters in Pectobacterium atrosepticum, Pectobacterium wasabiae and Pectobacterium aroidearum were compared to previously characterized flp/tad gene clusters, including that of the well-studied Flp/Tad pilus model organism Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, in which this pilus is a major virulence determinant. Comparative analyses revealed substantial protein sequence similarity and open reading frame synteny between the previously characterized flp/tad gene clusters and the cluster in Pectobacterium, suggesting that the predicted flp/tad gene cluster in Pectobacterium encodes a Flp/Tad pilus-like structure. We detected genes for a novel two-component system adjacent to the flp/tad gene cluster in Pectobacterium, and mutant analysis demonstrated that this system has a positive effect on the transcription of selected Flp/Tad pilus biogenesis genes, suggesting that this response regulator regulate the flp/tad gene cluster. Mutagenesis of either the predicted regulator gene or selected Flp/Tad pilus biogenesis genes had a significant impact on the maceration ability of the bacterial strains in potato tubers, indicating that the Flp/Tad pilus-encoding gene cluster represents a novel virulence determinant in Pectobacterium. Soft-rot enterobacteria in the genera Pectobacterium and Dickeya are of great agricultural importance, and an investigation of the virulence of these pathogens could facilitate improvements in agricultural practices, thus benefiting farmers, the potato industry and consumers. PMID:24040039

  2. Role and regulation of the Flp/Tad pilus in the virulence of Pectobacterium atrosepticum SCRI1043 and Pectobacterium wasabiae SCC3193.

    PubMed

    Nykyri, Johanna; Mattinen, Laura; Niemi, Outi; Adhikari, Satish; Kõiv, Viia; Somervuo, Panu; Fang, Xin; Auvinen, Petri; Mäe, Andres; Palva, E Tapio; Pirhonen, Minna

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we characterized a putative Flp/Tad pilus-encoding gene cluster, and we examined its regulation at the transcriptional level and its role in the virulence of potato pathogenic enterobacteria of the genus Pectobacterium. The Flp/Tad pilus-encoding gene clusters in Pectobacterium atrosepticum, Pectobacterium wasabiae and Pectobacterium aroidearum were compared to previously characterized flp/tad gene clusters, including that of the well-studied Flp/Tad pilus model organism Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, in which this pilus is a major virulence determinant. Comparative analyses revealed substantial protein sequence similarity and open reading frame synteny between the previously characterized flp/tad gene clusters and the cluster in Pectobacterium, suggesting that the predicted flp/tad gene cluster in Pectobacterium encodes a Flp/Tad pilus-like structure. We detected genes for a novel two-component system adjacent to the flp/tad gene cluster in Pectobacterium, and mutant analysis demonstrated that this system has a positive effect on the transcription of selected Flp/Tad pilus biogenesis genes, suggesting that this response regulator regulate the flp/tad gene cluster. Mutagenesis of either the predicted regulator gene or selected Flp/Tad pilus biogenesis genes had a significant impact on the maceration ability of the bacterial strains in potato tubers, indicating that the Flp/Tad pilus-encoding gene cluster represents a novel virulence determinant in Pectobacterium. Soft-rot enterobacteria in the genera Pectobacterium and Dickeya are of great agricultural importance, and an investigation of the virulence of these pathogens could facilitate improvements in agricultural practices, thus benefiting farmers, the potato industry and consumers.

  3. Characteristics and Application Analysis of Traditional Chinese Medicine Containing Sophora Japonica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Zhenzhen; Feng, Suxiang; Fang, Xiaoyan; Miao, Mingsan

    2018-01-01

    Purposes: To sum up the characteristics of Chinese medicine with Sophora Japonica and provide reference for the research, development and utilization of the Chinese medicine of Sophora japonica in the future. Methods: The author sums up the forms, functions, indications, usage, dosage and contraindications of the proprietary Chinese medicine containing Sophora Japonica in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia and the Ministerial standards. In addition, we will inquire about the clinical application of proprietary Chinese medicine containing Sophora japonica in the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). Results: The proprietary Chinese medicine containing Sophora Japonica was widely used in the treatment of various diseases in clinic, but it was taken orally and without any external use of Chinese patent medicine. Moreover, in most of the proprietary Chinese medicine, Sophora japonica was used as a supplement; In addition, the causes of adverse reactions were not analyzed, and the safety of the drugs needed to be further analyzed. Conclusions: To make clear the role of Sophora japonica in proprietary Chinese medicine, we can develop the Chinese medicine new dosage forms of Sophora japonica; The Chinese medicine is made up of a variety of single herbs, some are toxic drugs, when an adverse reaction occurs, We should analyze the specific causes and avoid the occurrence of adverse reactions. In addition, Sophora japonica is a traditional herbal medicine and food in China; we can expand the application in other areas and explore the pharmacological and toxicological pathology.

  4. A food-derived synergist of NGF signaling: identification of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B as a key regulator of NGF receptor-initiated signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Takahiro; Nakahara, Hiroko; Kita, Narumi; Matsubara, Yui; Han, Chunguang; Morimitsu, Yasujiro; Iwamoto, Noriko; Kumagai, Yoshito; Nishida, Motohiro; Kurose, Hitoshi; Aoki, Naohito; Ojika, Makoto; Uchida, Koji

    2008-12-01

    Neurotrophins, such as the nerve growth factor (NGF), play an essential role in the growth, development, survival and functional maintenance of neurons in the central and peripheral systems. They also prevent neuronal cell death under various stressful conditions, such as ischemia and neurodegenerative disorders. NGF induces cell differentiation and neurite outgrowth by binding with and activating the NGF receptor tyrosine kinase followed by activation of a variety of signaling cascades. We have investigated the NGF-dependent neuritogenesis enhancer potential of a food-derived small molecule contained in Brassica vegetables and identified the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) 1B as a key regulator of the NGF receptor-initiated signal transduction. Based on an extensive screening of Brassica vegetable extracts for the neuritogenic-promoting activity in the rat pheochromocytoma cell line PC12, we found the Japanese horseradish, wasabi (Wasabia japonica, syn. Eutrema wasabi), as the richest source and identified 6-methylsulfinylhexyl isothiocyanate (6-HITC), an analogue of sulforaphane isolated from broccoli, as one of the major neuritogenic enhancers in the wasabi. 6-HITC strongly enhanced the neurite outgrowth and neurofilament expression elicited by a low-concentration of NGF that alone was insufficient to induce neuronal differentiation. 6-HITC also facilitated the sustained-phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase and the autophosphorylation of the NGF receptor TrkA. It was found that PTP1B act as a phosphatase capable of dephosphorylating Tyr-490 of TrkA and was inactivated by 6-HITC in a redox-dependent manner. The identification of PTP1B as a regulator of NGF signaling may provide new clues about the chemoprotective potential of food components, such as isothiocyanates.

  5. A sulforaphane analogue that potently activates the Nrf2-dependent detoxification pathway.

    PubMed

    Morimitsu, Yasujiro; Nakagawa, Yoko; Hayashi, Kazuhiro; Fujii, Hiroyuki; Kumagai, Takeshi; Nakamura, Yoshimasa; Osawa, Toshihiko; Horio, Fumihiko; Itoh, Ken; Iida, Katsuyuki; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Uchida, Koji

    2002-02-01

    Exposure of cells to a wide variety of chemoprotective compounds confers resistance to a broad set of carcinogens. For a subset of the chemoprotective compounds, protection is generated by an increase in the abundance of the protective phase II detoxification enzymes, such as glutathione S-transferase (GST). We have recently developed a cell culture system, using rat liver epithelial RL 34 cells, that potently responds to the phenolic antioxidants resulting in the induction of GST activity (Kawamoto, Y., Nakamura, Y., Naito, Y., Torii, Y., Kumagai, T., Osawa, T., Ohigashi, H., Satoh, K., Imagawa, M., and Uchida, K. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 11291-11299.) In the present study, we investigated the phase II-inducing potency of an isothiocyanate compound in vitro and in vivo and examined a possible induction mechanism. Based on an extensive screening of vegetable extracts for GST inducer activity in RL34 cells, we found Japanese horseradish, wasabi (Wasabia japonica, syn. Eutrema wasabi), as the richest source and identified 6-methylsulfinylhexyl isothiocyanate (6-HITC), an analogue of sulforaphane (4-methylsulfinylbutyl isothiocyanate) isolated from broccoli, as the major GST inducer in wasabi. 6-HITC potently induced both class alpha GSTA1 and class pi GSTP1 isozymes in RL34 cells. In animal experiments, we found that 6-MSHI was rapidly absorbed into the body and induced hepatic phase II detoxification enzymes more potently than sulforaphane. The observations that (i) 6-HITC activated the antioxidant response element (ARE), (ii) 6-HITC induced nuclear localization of the transcription factor Nrf2 that binds to ARE, and (iii) the induction of phase II enzyme genes by 6-HITC was completely abrogated in the nrf2-deficient mice, suggest that 6-HITC is a potential activator of the Nrf2/ARE-dependent detoxification pathway.

  6. Antimicrobial Air Filters Using Natural Euscaphis japonica Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Ji Ho; Lee, Jung Eun; Lee, Hee Ju; Nho, Chu Won; Bae, Gwi- Nam; Jung, Jae Hee

    2015-01-01

    Controlling bioaerosols has become more important with increasing participation in indoor activities. Treatments using natural-product nanomaterials are a promising technique because of their relatively low toxicity compared to inorganic nanomaterials such as silver nanoparticles or carbon nanotubes. In this study, antimicrobial filters were fabricated from natural Euscaphis japonica nanoparticles, which were produced by nebulizing E. japonica extract. The coated filters were assessed in terms of pressure drop, antimicrobial activity, filtration efficiency, major chemical components, and cytotoxicity. Pressure drop and antimicrobial activity increased as a function of nanoparticle deposition time (590, 855, and 1150 µg/cm2filter at 3-, 6-, and 9-min depositions, respectively). In filter tests, the antimicrobial efficacy was greater against Staphylococcus epidermidis than Micrococcus luteus; ~61, ~73, and ~82% of M. luteus cells were inactivated on filters that had been coated for 3, 6, and 9 min, respectively, while the corresponding values were ~78, ~88, and ~94% with S. epidermidis. Although statistically significant differences in filtration performance were not observed between samples as a function of deposition time, the average filtration efficacy was slightly higher for S. epidermidis aerosols (~97%) than for M. luteus aerosols (~95%). High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI/MS) analyses confirmed that the major chemical compounds in the E. japonica extract were 1(ß)-O-galloyl pedunculagin, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, and kaempferol-3-O-glucoside. In vitro cytotoxicity and disk diffusion tests showed that E. japonica nanoparticles were less toxic and exhibited stronger antimicrobial activity toward some bacterial strains than a reference soluble nickel compound, which is classified as a human carcinogen. This study provides valuable information for the development of a bioaerosol control

  7. Genetic stability assessment of wWasabi plants regenerated from long-term cryopreserved shoot tips using morphological, biochemical and molecular analysis.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Toshikazu; Akihiro, Takashi; Maki, Shinya; Mochida, Kouhei; Kitagawa, Masaru; Tanaka, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Shin-Ichi; Niino, Takao

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the effect of cryopreserved storage duration of wasabi shoot tips, which derived from the same in vitro mother-plant. We compared the survival of shoot tips and the genetic stability of regenerated plants originating from four experimental groups: shoot tips stored in a -150°C deep-freezer for 10 years; shoot tips stored in liquid nitrogen for 2 h; shoot tips treated with PVS2 vitrification solution; and untreated controls. No significant difference in survival was observed between the four experimental groups. Survival ranged between 93 and 100%. Genetic stability of plants regenerated from cryopreserved shoot tips was assessed over a period of 24 months using morphological, biochemical and molecular markers. While glucose, fructose and glutamic acid concentrations differed slightly between experimental groups after 16 months, these differences disappeared after 24 months. No significant differences were noted for the morphological markers studied (petiole length, shoot number and leaf index). No differences were observed in RAPD profiles obtained with the six primers tested.

  8. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the 3' terminal region of a wasabi strain of crucifer tobamovirus genomic RNA: subgrouping of crucifer tobamoviruses.

    PubMed

    Shimamoto, I; Sonoda, S; Vazquez, P; Minaka, N; Nishiguchi, M

    1998-01-01

    The 3' terminal 2378 nucleotides of a wasabi strain of crucifer tobamovirus (CTMV-W) infectious to crucifer plants was determined. This includes the 3' non-coding region of 235 nucleotides, coat protein (CP) gene (468 nucleotides), movement protein (MP) gene (798 nucleotides) and C-terminal partial readthrough portion of 180 K protein gene (940 nucleotides). Comparison of the sequence with homologous regions of thirteen other tobamovirus genomes showed that it had much higher identity to those of four other crucifer tobamoviruses, 85.2% to cr-TMV and turnip vein-clearing virus (TVCV), 87.4% to oilseed rape mosaic virus (ORMV) and 87.1% to TMV-Cg, than to those of other tobamoviruses. Thus CTMV-W was most similar to ORMV and TMV-Cg in sequence, but only marginally so, whereas the location and size of its MP gene was the same as cr-TMV amd TVCV. These results, together with other analyses, show that CTMV-W is a new crucifer tobamovirus, that the five crucifer tobamoviruses can be classified into two subgroups based on MP gene organization, and that the rate of sequence change is not the same in all lineages.

  9. Antioxidant and Anti-Adipogenic Activities of Trapa japonica Shell Extract Cultivated in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, DooJin; Lee, Ok-Hwan; Choi, Geunpyo; Kim, Jong Dai

    2017-01-01

    Trapa japonica shell contains phenolic compounds such as tannins. Studies regarding the antioxidant and anti-adipogenic effects of Trapa japonica shell cultivated in Korea are still unclear. Antioxidant and anti-adipogenic activities were measured by in vitro assays such as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazy (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, 2,2′-azinobis( 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing ability of plasma assay, reducing power, superoxide dismutase-like activity, and iron chelating ability in 3T3-L1 cells. We also measured the total phenol and flavonoids contents (TPC and TFC, respectively) in Trapa japonica shell extract. Our results show that TPC and TFC of Trapa japonica shell extract were 157.7±0.70 mg gallic acid equivalents/g and 25.0±1.95 mg quercetin equivalents/g, respectively. Trapa japonica shell extract showed strong antioxidant activities in a dose-dependent manner in DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities and other methods. Especially, the whole antioxidant activity test of Trapa japonica shell extract exhibited higher levels than that of butylated hydroxytoluene as a positive control. Furthermore, Trapa japonica shell extract inhibited lipid accumulation and reactive oxygen species production during the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Trapa japonica shell extract possessed a significant antioxidant and anti-adipogenic property, which suggests its potential as a natural functional food ingredient. PMID:29333386

  10. Species-specific recognition of the carrier insect by dauer larvae of the nematode Caenorhabditis japonica.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Etsuko; Tanaka, Ryusei; Yoshiga, Toyoshi

    2013-02-15

    Host recognition is crucial during the phoretic stage of nematodes because it facilitates their association with hosts. However, limited information is available on the direct cues used for host recognition and host specificity in nematodes. Caenorhabditis japonica forms an intimate association with the burrower bug Parastrachia japonensis. Caenorhabditis japonica dauer larvae (DL), the phoretic stage of the nematode, are mainly found on adult P. japonensis females but no other species. To understand the mechanisms of species-specific and female carrier-biased ectophoresy in C. japonica, we investigated whether C. japonica DL could recognize their hosts using nematode loading and chemoattraction experiments. During the loading experiments, up to 300 C. japonica DL embarked on male and female P. japonensis, whereas none or very few utilized the other shield bugs Erthesina fullo and Macroscytus japonensis or the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare. In the chemoattraction experiments, hexane extracts containing the body surface components of nymphs and both adult P. japonensis sexes attracted C. japonica DL, whereas those of other shield bugs did not. Parastrachia japonensis extracts also arrested the dispersal of C. japonica DL released at a site where hexane extracts were spotted on an agar plate; i.e. >50% of DL remained at the site even 60 min after nematode inoculation whereas M. japonensis extracts or hexane alone did not have the same effect. These results suggest that C. japonica DL recognize their host species using direct chemical attractants from their specific host to maintain their association.

  11. Duration of Temperature exposure controls growth of Zostera japonica: implications for zonation and colonization

    EPA Science Inventory

    At least two seagrass congeners in the genus Zostera are found along the Pacific Coast of North America: native Z. marina L. and the non-native Z. japonica Aschers. & Graebn. Efforts to understand the drivers behind the expanding colonization of Z. japonica have led to interest ...

  12. [Photosynthetic characteristics of Cuscuta japonica and its hosts during parasitization and after detachment].

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong; Hu, Fei; Chen, Yu-Fen; Yang, Jun; Kong, Chui-Hua

    2007-08-01

    The study on the photosynthetic characteristics of Cuscuta japonica and its hosts showed that there was a negative correlation between the photosynthetic pigment content (PPC) of C. japonica and its hosts. The PPC increased in the C. japonica-preferred hosts' parasitized and neighboring leaves, but decreased in its less preferred hosts' parasitized and neighboring leaves. The leaves parasitized by C. japonica and their neighboring far from the parasitized ones had a lowered net photosynthesis rate P(n), and the decreasing order accorded with that of parasitization. The decrease of P(n) for C. japonica-less preferred hosts was mainly due to the stomatal factors, but that for the preferred hosts was regulated by multi-factors. Under light, the PPC of C. japonica detached from preferred hosts increased faster than that of C. japonica detached from less preferred hosts, but the dry matter decrease was in adverse. In dark, however, the changes in PPC and dry matter content of C. japonica were not significant, whatever hosts it was detached from.

  13. 50 CFR 226.215 - Critical habitat for the North Pacific Right Whale (Eubalaena japonica).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Right Whale (Eubalaena japonica). 226.215 Section 226.215 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE... DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.215 Critical habitat for the North Pacific Right Whale (Eubalaena japonica). (a) Primary Constituent Elements. The primary constituent elements of the North Pacific right whale...

  14. 50 CFR 226.215 - Critical habitat for the North Pacific Right Whale (Eubalaena japonica).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Right Whale (Eubalaena japonica). 226.215 Section 226.215 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE... DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.215 Critical habitat for the North Pacific Right Whale (Eubalaena japonica). (a) Primary Constituent Elements. The primary constituent elements of the North Pacific right whale...

  15. 50 CFR 226.215 - Critical habitat for the North Pacific Right Whale (Eubalaena japonica).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Right Whale (Eubalaena japonica). 226.215 Section 226.215 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE... DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.215 Critical habitat for the North Pacific Right Whale (Eubalaena japonica). (a) Primary Constituent Elements. The primary constituent elements of the North Pacific right whale...

  16. 50 CFR 226.215 - Critical habitat for the North Pacific Right Whale (Eubalaena japonica).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Right Whale (Eubalaena japonica). 226.215 Section 226.215 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE... DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.215 Critical habitat for the North Pacific Right Whale (Eubalaena japonica). (a) Primary Constituent Elements. The primary constituent elements of the North Pacific right whale...

  17. 50 CFR 226.215 - Critical habitat for the North Pacific Right Whale (Eubalaena japonica).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Right Whale (Eubalaena japonica). 226.215 Section 226.215 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE... DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.215 Critical habitat for the North Pacific Right Whale (Eubalaena japonica). (a) Primary Constituent Elements. The primary constituent elements of the North Pacific right whale...

  18. Science and Management of the Introduced Seagrass Zostera japonica in North America

    EPA Science Inventory

    Healthy seagrass is considered a prime indicator of estuarine ecosystem function. On the Pacific coast of North America, at least two congeners of Zostera occur: native Zostera marina, and introduced, Z. japonica. Z. japonica is considered “invasive” and therefore, ecologically...

  19. Monitoring autophagic flux by an improved tandem fluorescent-tagged LC3 (mTagRFP-mWasabi-LC3) reveals that high-dose rapamycin impairs autophagic flux in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Cuihong; Zhong, Wu; Zhou, Jun; Sheng, Fugeng; Fang, Ziyuan; Wei, Yue; Chen, Yingyu; Deng, Xiaoyan; Xia, Bin; Lin, Jian

    2012-08-01

    Monitoring autophagic flux is important for the analysis of autophagy. Tandem fluorescent-tagged LC3 (mRFP-EGFP-LC3) is a convenient assay for monitoring autophagic flux based on different pH stability of EGFP and mRFP fluorescent proteins. However, it has been reported that there is still weak fluorescence of EGFP in acidic environments (pH between 4 and 5) or acidic lysosomes. So it is possible that autolysosomes are labeled with yellow signals (GFP(+)RFP(+) puncta), which results in misinterpreting autophagic flux results. Therefore, it is desirable to choose a monomeric green fluorescent protein that is more acid sensitive than EGFP in the assay of autophagic flux. Here, we report on an mTagRFP-mWasabi-LC3 reporter, in which mWasabi is more acid sensitive than EGFP and has no fluorescence in acidic lysosomes. Meanwhile, mTagRFP-mWasabi-LC3ΔG was constructed as the negative control for this assay. Compared with mRFP-EGFP-LC3, our results showed that this reporter is more sensitive and accurate in detecting the accumulation of autophagosomes and autolysosomes. Using this reporter, we find that high-dose rapamycin (30 μM) will impair autophagic flux, inducing many more autophagosomes than autolysosomes in HeLa cells, while low-dose rapamycin (500 nM) has an opposite effect. In addition, other chemical autophagy inducers (cisplatin, staurosporine and Z18) also elicit much more autophagosomes at high doses than those at low doses. Our results suggest that the dosage of chemical autophagy inducers would obviously influence autophagic flux in cells.

  20. Extremely Low Genomic Diversity of Rickettsia japonica Distributed in Japan.

    PubMed

    Akter, Arzuba; Ooka, Tadasuke; Gotoh, Yasuhiro; Yamamoto, Seigo; Fujita, Hiromi; Terasoma, Fumio; Kida, Kouji; Taira, Masakatsu; Nakadouzono, Fumiko; Gokuden, Mutsuyo; Hirano, Manabu; Miyashiro, Mamoru; Inari, Kouichi; Shimazu, Yukie; Tabara, Kenji; Toyoda, Atsushi; Yoshimura, Dai; Itoh, Takehiko; Kitano, Tomokazu; Sato, Mitsuhiko P; Katsura, Keisuke; Mondal, Shakhinur Islam; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Ando, Shuji; Hayashi, Tetsuya

    2017-01-01

    Rickettsiae are obligate intracellular bacteria that have small genomes as a result of reductive evolution. Many Rickettsia species of the spotted fever group (SFG) cause tick-borne diseases known as "spotted fevers". The life cycle of SFG rickettsiae is closely associated with that of the tick, which is generally thought to act as a bacterial vector and reservoir that maintains the bacterium through transstadial and transovarial transmission. Each SFG member is thought to have adapted to a specific tick species, thus restricting the bacterial distribution to a relatively limited geographic region. These unique features of SFG rickettsiae allow investigation of how the genomes of such biologically and ecologically specialized bacteria evolve after genome reduction and the types of population structures that are generated. Here, we performed a nationwide, high-resolution phylogenetic analysis of Rickettsia japonica, an etiological agent of Japanese spotted fever that is distributed in Japan and Korea. The comparison of complete or nearly complete sequences obtained from 31 R. japonica strains isolated from various sources in Japan over the past 30 years demonstrated an extremely low level of genomic diversity. In particular, only 34 single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified among the 27 strains of the major lineage containing all clinical isolates and tick isolates from the three tick species. Our data provide novel insights into the biology and genome evolution of R. japonica, including the possibilities of recent clonal expansion and a long generation time in nature due to the long dormant phase associated with tick life cycles. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  1. Chemoprevention of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colonic preneoplastic lesions in Fischer rats by 6-methylsulfinylhexyl isothiocyanate, a wasabi derivative

    PubMed Central

    KUNO, TOSHIYA; HIROSE, YOSHINOBU; YAMADA, YASUHIRO; IMAIDA, KATSUMI; TATEMATSU, KENJIRO; MORI, YUKIO; MORI, HIDEKI

    2010-01-01

    The preventive effects of dietary exposure to a wasabi derivative 6-methylsulfinylhexyl isothiocyanate (6-MSITC) during the initiation and post-initiation phases on the development of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF), and β-catenin-accumulated crypts (BCAC) were investigated in male F344 rats. To induce ACF and BCAC, rats were given four weekly subcutaneous injections of DMH (40 mg/kg body weight). The rats also received diets containing 200 or 400 ppm 6-MSITC during the initiation or post-initiation phases. The experiment was terminated 12 weeks after the start. DMH exposure produced a substantial number of ACF (323.8±69.7/colon) and BCAC (3.80±1.05/cm2) at the end of the study. Dietary administration of 6-MSITC at a dose of 400 ppm during the initiation phase caused a significant reduction in the total number of ACF (52% reduction, P<0.0001), larger ACF (4 or more crypt ACF) (58% reduction, P<0.001) and BCAC (76% reduction, P<0.00001). The dietary exposure to 6-MSITC significantly reduced the size (crypt multiplicity) of BCAC during both initiation and post-initiation treatment when compared to group 1 treated with DMH alone. Immunohistochemically, 6-MSITC administration lowered the proliferating cell nuclear antigen labeling index in ACF and BCAC. In addition, protein levels of hepatic cytochrome P-450 isozymes at 24 h after 6-MSITC exposure were significantly suppressed (P<0.01). The results indicated that 6-MSITC exerted chemopreventive effects in the present short-term colon carcinogenesis bioassay, through alterations in cell proliferation activity and drug metabolizing enzyme levels. PMID:22966293

  2. Selective sensitivity to wasabi-derived 6-(methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate of human breast cancer and melanoma cell lines studied in vitro.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Takahiro; Shinoda, Shoko; Yamori, Takao; Sawaki, Saeko; Nagata, Ikuko; Ryoyama, Kazuo; Fuke, Yoko

    2005-01-01

    Recently, attention has focused on the anticancer properties of an aromatic component 6-(methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate (6-MITC) in a typical Japanese spice, wasabi. In this paper, anticancer activity of 6-MITC in vitro was studied by using a human cancer cell (HCC) panel. 6-MITC directly affected the cells in the HCC panel and inhibited their growth in culture. The mean concentration required to inhibit 50% of control cell growth was 3.9 microM, which is a sufficiently low dosage for practical use. The suppression influenced not only the cell growth, but also the survival of these cells. The mean concentration to suppress cells to a 50% survival was 43.7 microM. The reduction activity of 6-MITC was differential, and it suppressed specific cells. These severely suppressed cell lines included breast cancer and melanoma cell lines. For example, one melanoma line was seriously damaged at a concentration of 0.3 microM of 6-MITC. Compared with other MITCs (2-MITC, 4-MITC and 8-MITC), 6-MITC showed the most effective suppression and with the most specific manner of the cells mentioned above. A "COMPARE" analysis using a computerized algorithm, which was based on the HCC database, suggested that the suppression mechanism of 6-MITC is unique and may be different from that of other known chemicals. The actual mechanism may not a simple one but may involve multiple pathways. On account of its sufficiently small size, 6-MITC is a new possible candidate for controlling cancer cells.

  3. Chemoprevention of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colonic preneoplastic lesions in Fischer rats by 6-methylsulfinylhexyl isothiocyanate, a wasabi derivative.

    PubMed

    Kuno, Toshiya; Hirose, Yoshinobu; Yamada, Yasuhiro; Imaida, Katsumi; Tatematsu, Kenjiro; Mori, Yukio; Mori, Hideki

    2010-03-01

    The preventive effects of dietary exposure to a wasabi derivative 6-methylsulfinylhexyl isothiocyanate (6-MSITC) during the initiation and post-initiation phases on the development of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF), and β-catenin-accumulated crypts (BCAC) were investigated in male F344 rats. To induce ACF and BCAC, rats were given four weekly subcutaneous injections of DMH (40 mg/kg body weight). The rats also received diets containing 200 or 400 ppm 6-MSITC during the initiation or post-initiation phases. The experiment was terminated 12 weeks after the start. DMH exposure produced a substantial number of ACF (323.8±69.7/colon) and BCAC (3.80±1.05/cm(2)) at the end of the study. Dietary administration of 6-MSITC at a dose of 400 ppm during the initiation phase caused a significant reduction in the total number of ACF (52% reduction, P<0.0001), larger ACF (4 or more crypt ACF) (58% reduction, P<0.001) and BCAC (76% reduction, P<0.00001). The dietary exposure to 6-MSITC significantly reduced the size (crypt multiplicity) of BCAC during both initiation and post-initiation treatment when compared to group 1 treated with DMH alone. Immunohistochemically, 6-MSITC administration lowered the proliferating cell nuclear antigen labeling index in ACF and BCAC. In addition, protein levels of hepatic cytochrome P-450 isozymes at 24 h after 6-MSITC exposure were significantly suppressed (P<0.01). The results indicated that 6-MSITC exerted chemopreventive effects in the present short-term colon carcinogenesis bioassay, through alterations in cell proliferation activity and drug metabolizing enzyme levels.

  4. Dynamics of Nrf2 and Keap1 in ARE-mediated NQO1 expression by wasabi 6-(methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate.

    PubMed

    Hou, De-Xing; Korenori, Yoshimi; Tanigawa, Shunsuke; Yamada-Kato, Tomoe; Nagai, Masashi; He, Xi; He, Jianhua

    2011-11-23

    6-(Methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate (6-MSITC) is a bioactive ingredient present in wasabi, a popular pungent spice in Japan. Previous studies have revealed the cytoprotective and cancer chemopreventive effects of 6-MSITC. This study aims to clarify the molecular mechanisms by investigating the action of 6-MSITC on the Nrf2/Keap1 system. 6-MSITC up-regulated the expression of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) by increasing the Nrf2 level. Treatment with 6-MSITC extended the half-life (t(1/2)) of Nrf2 protein from 11.5 to 35.2 min, approximately three times longer. Moreover, 6-MSITC suppressed the ubiquitination of Nrf2 but not Keap1. Alternatively, a modified Keap1 was observed in 6-MSITC-treated cells accompanying reduction of normal Keap1 protein. The results from cellular fractionation and immunocytochemistry assay revealed that Nrf2 was primarily accumulated in nucleus. EMSA and the reporter gene assay further demonstrated that 6-MSITC augmented Nrf2-ARE binding and transcription activity. Silencing Nrf2 using Nrf2 siRNA markedly reduced the Nrf2 level and ARE-driven activity under both baseline and 6-MSITC-induced conditions. Our data revealed that 6-MSITC enhanced Nrf2/ARE-driven NQO1 expression by stabilizing Nrf2 that was accomplished by modifying Keap1 with consequent inhibition of the ubiquitination and proteasomal turnover of Nrf2. The findings provide an insight into the mechanisms underlying 6-MSITC in cytoprotection and cancer chemoprevention.

  5. DNA variation in a conifer, Cryptomeria japonica (Cupressaceae sensu lato).

    PubMed Central

    Kado, Tomoyuki; Yoshimaru, Hiroshi; Tsumura, Yoshihiko; Tachida, Hidenori

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the nucleotide variation of a conifer, Cryptomeria japonica, and the divergence between this species and its closest relative, Taxodium distichum, at seven nuclear loci (Acl5, Chi1, Ferr, GapC, HemA, Lcyb, and Pat). Samples of C. japonica were collected from three areas, Kantou-Toukai, Hokuriku, and Iwate. No apparent geographic differentiation was found among these samples. However, the frequency spectrum of the nucleotide polymorphism revealed excesses of intermediate-frequency variants, which suggests that the population was not panmictic and a constant size in the past. The average nucleotide diversity, pi, for silent sites was 0.00383. However, values of pi for silent sites vary among loci. Comparisons of polymorphism to divergence among loci (the HKA test) showed that the polymorphism at the Acl5 locus was significantly lower. We also observed a nearly significant excess of replacement polymorphisms at the Lcyb locus. These results suggested possibilities of natural selection acting at some of the loci. Intragenic recombination was detected only once at the Chi1 locus and was not detected at the other loci. The low level of population recombination rate, 4Nr, seemed to be due to both low level of recombination, r, and small population size, N. PMID:12930759

  6. Sex change in the subdioecious shrub Eurya japonica (Pentaphylacaceae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Matsushita, Michinari; Tomaru, Nobuhiro; Nakagawa, Michiko

    2017-04-01

    Sex change affects the sex ratios of plant populations and may play an essential role in the evolutionary shift of sexual systems. Sex change can be a strategy for increasing fitness over the lifetime of a plant, and plant size, environmental factors, and growth rate may affect sex change. We described frequent, repeated sex changes following various patterns in a subdioecious Eurya japonica population over five successive years. Of the individuals, 27.5% changed their sex at least once, and these changes were unidirectional or bidirectional. The sex ratio (females/males/all hermaphrodite types) did not fluctuate over the 5 years. In our study plots, although the current sex ratio among the sexes appears to be stable, the change in sex ratio may be slowly progressing toward increasing females and decreasing males. Sex was more likely to change with higher growth rates and more exposure to light throughout the year. Among individuals that changed sex, those that were less exposed to light in the leafy season and had less diameter growth tended to shift from hermaphrodite to a single sex. Therefore, sex change in E . japonica seemed to be explained by a response to the internal physiological condition of an individual mediated by intrinsic and abiotic environmental factors.

  7. Concentrating phenolic acids from Lonicera japonica by nanofiltration technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cunyu; Ma, Yun; Li, Hongyang; Peng, Guoping

    2017-03-01

    Response surface analysis methodology was used to optimize the concentrate process of phenolic acids from Lonicera japonica by nanofiltration technique. On the basis of the influences of pressure, temperature and circulating volume, the retention rate of neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid and 4-dicaffeoylquinic acid were selected as index, molecular weight cut-off of nanofiltration membrane, concentration and pH were selected as influencing factors during concentrate process. The experiment mathematical model was arranged according to Box-Behnken central composite experiment design. The optimal concentrate conditions were as following: nanofiltration molecular weight cut-off, 150 Da; solutes concentration, 18.34 µg/mL; pH, 4.26. The predicted value of retention rate was 97.99% under the optimum conditions, and the experimental value was 98.03±0.24%, which was in accordance with the predicted value. These results demonstrate that the combination of Box-Behnken design and response surface analysis can well optimize the concentrate process of Lonicera japonica water-extraction by nanofiltration, and the results provide the basis for nanofiltration concentrate for heat-sensitive traditional Chinese medicine.

  8. Identification and characterisation of ROS modulator 1 in Lampetra japonica.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chunhui; Feng, Bin; Cao, Ying; Xie, Peng; Xu, Jie; Pang, Yue; Liu, Xin; Li, Qingwei

    2013-08-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are a heterogeneous group of highly reactive molecules that oxidise targets in biological systems. ROS are also considered important immune regulators. In this study, we identified a homologue of reactive oxygen species modulator 1 (Romo1) in the Japanese lamprey (Lampetra japonica). The L japonica Romo1 (Lj-Romo1) gene shares high sequence homology with the Romo1 genes of jawed vertebrates. Real-time quantitative PCR demonstrated the wide distribution of Lj-Romo1 in lamprey tissues. Furthermore, after the lampreys were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the level of Lj-Romo1 mRNA was markedly up-regulated in the liver, gill, kidney, and intestine tissues. Lj-Romo1 was localised to the mitochondria and has the capacity to increase the ROS level in cells. The results obtained in the present study will help us to understand the roles of Romo1 in ROS production and innate immune responses in jawless vertebrates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Golden Indica and Japonica rice lines amenable to deregulation.

    PubMed

    Hoa, Tran Thi Cuc; Al-Babili, Salim; Schaub, Patrick; Potrykus, Ingo; Beyer, Peter

    2003-09-01

    As an important step toward free access and, thus, impact of GoldenRice, a freedom-to-operate situation has been achieved for developing countries for the technology involved. Specifically, to carry the invention beyond its initial "proof-of-concept" status in a Japonica rice (Oryza sativa) cultivar, we report here on two transformed elite Indica varieties (IR64 and MTL250) plus one Japonica variety Taipei 309. Indica varieties are predominantly consumed in the areas with vitamin A deficiency. To conform with regulatory constraints, we changed the vector backbone, investigated the absence of beyond-border transfer, and relied on Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation to obtain defined integration patterns. To avoid an antibiotic selection system, we now rely exclusively on phosphomannose isomerase as the selectable marker. Single integrations were given a preference to minimize potential epigenetic effects in subsequent generations. These novel lines, now in the T(3) generation, are highly valuable because they are expected to more readily receive approval for follow-up studies such as nutritional and risk assessments and for breeding approaches leading to locally adapted variety development.

  10. Variations of metabolites and proteome in Lonicera japonica Thunb. buds and flowers under UV radiation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wei; Zheng, Wen; Hu, Xingjiang; Xu, Xiaobao; Zhang, Lin; Tian, Jingkui

    2017-04-01

    Lonicera japonica Thunb., also known as Jin Yin Hua and Japanese honeysuckle, is used as a herbal medicine in Asian countries. Its flowers have been used in folk medicine in the clinic and in making food or healthy beverages for over 1500years in China. To investigate the molecular processes involved in L. japonica development from buds to flowers exposed to UV radiation, a comparative proteomics analysis was performed. Fifty-four proteins were identified as differentially expressed, including 42 that had increased expression and 12 that had decreased expression. The levels of the proteins related to glycolysis, TCA/organic acid transformation, major carbohydrate metabolism, oxidative pentose phosphate, stress, secondary metabolism, hormone, and mitochondrial electron transport were increased during flower opening process after exposure to UV radiation. Six metabolites in L. japonica buds and flowers were identified and relatively quantified using LC-MS/MS. The antioxidant activity was performed using a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay, which revealed that L. japonica buds had more activity than the UV irradiated flowers. This suggests that UV-B radiation induces production of endogenous ethylene in L. japonica buds, thus facilitating blossoming of the buds and activating the antioxidant system. Additionally, the higher metabolite contents and antioxidant properties of L. japonica buds indicate that the L. japonica bud stage may be a more optimal time to harvest than the flower stage when using for medicinal properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. [Research progress on chemical constituents and their differences between Lonicerae Japonicae Flos and Lonicerae Flos].

    PubMed

    Yang, Qian-Ru; Zhao, Yuan-Yuan; Hao, Jiang-Bo; Li, Wei-Dong

    2016-04-01

    The dried flower buds or initial flowers of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos and Lonicerae Flos, which belong to different species of Lonicera or Caprifoliaceae, are usually taken to clear away heat and toxic material and treat the exopathogenic wind-heat. They are two different herbs, and due to various reasons, there are far more controversies. This paper reviews the research on the chemical constituents and their differences between Lonicerae Japonicae Flos and Lonicerae Flos. Both of them contain the similar chemical constituents, such as organic acids, flavonoids, triterpenoidal saponins, iridoids, volatile oils and trace elements. But there are also differences between them. The main differences:Lonicerae Japonicae Flos contains a wealth of iridoids and flavonoids, while Lonicerae Flos contains more kinds of triterpenoidal saponins; the content of chlorogenic acid in Lonicerae Flos is significantly higher than that of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos; the content of rutin, luteoloside,luteolin-7-O-β-D-galactoside and lonicerin in Lonicerae Japonicae Flos is much higher than that of Lonicerae Flos; the content of Fe and Ni in Lonicerae Japonicae Flos is higher, while the content of Mn is higher in Lonicerae Flos. Finally, main problems and suggestions on chemical composition between Lonicerae Japonicae Flos and Lonicerae Flos were also discussed. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  12. Vitellogenin gene characterization and expression of Asian paddle crabs ( Charybdis japonica) following endocrine disrupting chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kiyun; Kwak, Tae-Soo; Kwak, Ihn-Sil

    2014-06-01

    Vitellogenin (VTG), the yolk-precursor lipoprotein, has been widely recognized as a biomarker for the detection of estrogenic activity in water-borne chemical pollutants. The Asian paddle crab, Charybdis japonica, is a potential bio-indicator for monitoring marine environments. The aim of this study was to identify the possibility of using C. japonica VTG as biomarkers of stress caused by endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). We characterized a partial sequence of the VTG cDNA in the C. japonica crab and evaluated the crab's mRNA expression profiles following exposure to different concentrations of bisphenol A (BPA) and 4-nonylphenol (NP) for 24 or 96 h. The sequence homology of C. japonica VTG is over 93% in nucleotide and over 98% in amino acid with the corresponding gene of other crabs. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the C. japonica VTG is an ortholog of other species of lobster and shrimp. Tissue distribution analysis of the C. japonica VTG mRNA revealed that the expression of VTG mRNA was highest in the ovary of females and hepatopancreas. The expression of the C. japonica VTG gene in various BPA or NP concentrations during shorter and longer times was assessed. The expression of VTG transcripts was significantly increased in the C. japonica crab exposed to BPA and NP at different concentrations for 24 h. The mRNA expression of the VTG gene was significantly induced in concentration- and time-dependent manners after BPA or NP exposures for 96 h. These results indicate that crab C. japonica VTG could be used as a potential biomarker of EDCs in marine environment monitoring.

  13. Induction of metamorphosis in the sand dollar Peronella japonica by thyroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Saito, M; Seki, M; Amemiya, S; Yamasu, K; Suyemitsu, T; Ishihara, K

    1998-06-01

    The larva of the sand dollar Peronella japonica lacks a mouth and gut, and undergoes metamorphosis into a juvenile sand dollar without feeding. In the present study, it was found that thyroid hormones accelerate the metamorphosis of P. japonica larvae. The contents of thyroid hormones in larvae increased gradually during development. Thiourea and potassium perchlorate, inhibitors of thyroid hormone synthesis, delayed larval metamorphosis and simultaneously repressed an increase in the content of thyroxine in the larval body. These results suggest that the P. japonica larva has a system for synthesis of thyroid hormones that act as factors for inducing metamorphosis.

  14. Harvest time of Cryptomeria japonica seeds depending on climate factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Seog-Gu; Kim, Hyo-Jeong; Kim, Chang-Soo; Byun, Kwang-Ok

    2010-05-01

    Sound seeds should have good germination rates and seed germination can be influenced by several factors. Seed picking time is regarded as one of the necessary elements to obtain sound seeds. From a clonal seed orchard of Cryptomeria japonica located in southern part of Korean peninsular, cones were picked about every 10 days from 30th of July 2005 to 30th of October in both 2005 and 2006. We have also analyzed the effects of climatic factors about two consecutive years on seed productivity. From the picked cones, seeds were collected and these germination ability, seed size and embryo shapes were investigated according to cone picking time. The 1,000-seed weight picked on 18th of August was 3.3 g and 5.3 g on 30th of September 2005and 2006. The size of seeds picked from 18th of August to 30th of September increased from 19.3 mm to 21.3 mm in length and from 15.8 mm to 18.5 mm in width. Depending on picking time, various shapes of embryos, including embryos with liquid material, jellied material and fully matured ones were observed. Germination aspects also varied throughout the test days. About two weeks after seeding in a glass petri-dish, germinal apparatuses appeared from each test seed sets which had been picked from after 10 August 2005 and 10 August 2006. The germination rates started from 10.7% from seeds picked 20 August 2006. Average germination rate in 2005 was 18.3 and 19.6 in 2006. In 2005, the highest germination rate was 34.3% from seeds picked on the 30th of September. In 2006, the highest germination rate was 31.7% for seeds picked at the same date as the 2005 seeds. After September, the highest germination rate for picked seeds decreased in both 2005 and 2006. Among the climatic factors, monthly sum of temperature and of precipitation were the main factors for maturation of C. japonica seeds. The results implied that the best cone picking time for the Korean C. japonica seed orchard to be around the end of September.

  15. Estuarine intertidal sediment temperature variability in Zoster marina and Z. japonica habitats in Yaquina Bay, Oregon

    EPA Science Inventory

    Physical characterization of intertidal estuarine plant habitats over time may reveal distribution-limiting thresholds. Temperature data from loggers embedded in sediment in transects crossing Zostera marina and Z. japonica habitats in lower Yaquina Bay, Oregon display signific...

  16. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of Malassezia japonica isolated from psoriasis vulgaris patients.

    PubMed

    Honnavar, Prasanna; Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Dogra, Sunil; Handa, Sanjeev; Rudramurthy, Shivaprakash M

    2015-03-01

    Malassezia species, which are skin colonizers, are being debated as to their pathogenic role in various cutaneous diseases. Species identification of Malassezia is important as particular species have been implicated in or associated with specific diseases. Malassezia japonica, a relatively newly described species, has not been completely characterized owing to the rarity of its isolation. In the present study we describe phenotypic and molecular characterization of six M. japonica strains isolated from patients with psoriasis vulgaris. In contrast to the physiological and biochemical properties of the M. japonica type strain, CBS9348, all our isolates assimilated Tween 20 and showed positive β-glucosidase activity, and the Cremophor EL utilization test was negative. However, the sequences of the D1/D2 region of rDNA, ITS2 and IGS1 regions of all our isolates clustered with the type strain of M. japonica. © 2015 The Authors.

  17. Development of microsatellite markers from loquat, Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.

    PubMed

    Gisbert, A D; Lopez-Capuz, I; Soriano, J M; Llacer, G; Romero, C; Badenes, M L

    2009-05-01

    Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) is a minor fruit which has become an interesting alternative into the European fruit industry. This interest resulted in a loquat germplasm collection established at the Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Agrarias, Valencia, Spain. Currently, it is the main reservoir of this species outside Asia. We developed and characterized the first 21 polymorphic microsatellite loci from a CT/AG-enriched loquat genomic library. The observed heterozygosity ranged between 0.20 and 1.00, expected heterozygosity ranged between 0.17 and 0.81, three markers were multilocus and eight loci departed significantly from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. These markers will facilitate diversity and genetic studies into the species. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Antimicrobial activity of ethanol extracts of Laminaria japonica against oral microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeon-Hee; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Jin, Hyung-Joo; Lee, Si Young

    2013-06-01

    Laminaria japonica is a brown alga, which is consumed widely in Korea, Japan, and China. This study investigated the antimicrobial activity of ethanol extracts of L. japonica against oral microbial species to assess the possible application of L. japonica extracts in dental care products. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined in culture medium using a microdilution method. The MICs of ethanol extracts of L. japonica with oral streptococci were 62.5-500 μg/ml and the MBCs were 125-1000 μg/ml. The MICs of Actinomyces naeslundii and Actinomyces odontolyticus were 250 and 62.5 μg/ml, respectively. The MBCs of A. naeslundii and A. odontolyticus were 500 and 250 μg/ml, respectively. The MICs were 250 and 62.5 μg/ml for Fusobacterium nucleatum and Porphyromonas gingivalis, respectively. The killing of Streptococcus mutans and P. gingivalis was dependent on the incubation time. The killing of S. mutans, A. odontolyticus, and P. gingivalis was significantly dependent on the extract concentration. Bacterial treatment with L. japonica extracts changed the cell surface texture of S. mutans, A. odontolyticus, and P. gingivalis. The results of this study suggest that L. japonica extracts may be useful for the development of antimicrobial agents to combat oral pathogens. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Responsive Surface Methodology Optimizes Extraction Conditions of Industrial by-products, Camellia japonica Seed Cake

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae Kyeom; Lim, Ho-Jeong; Kim, Mi-So; Choi, Soo Jung; Kim, Mi-Jeong; Kim, Cho Rong; Shin, Dong-Hoon; Shin, Eui-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Background: The central nervous system is easily damaged by oxidative stress due to high oxygen consumption and poor defensive capacity. Hence, multiple studies have demonstrated that inhibiting oxidative stress-induced damage, through an antioxidant-rich diet, might be a reasonable approach to prevent neurodegenerative disease. Objective: In the present study, response surface methodology was utilized to optimize the extraction for neuro-protective constituents of Camellia japonica byproducts. Materials and Methods: Rat pheochromocytoma cells were used to evaluate protective potential of Camellia japonica byproducts. Results: Optimum conditions were 33.84 min, 75.24%, and 75.82°C for time, ethanol concentration and temperature. Further, we demonstrated that major organic acid contents were significantly impacted by the extraction conditions, which may explain varying magnitude of protective potential between fractions. Conclusions: Given the paucity of information in regards to defatted C. japonica seed cake and their health promoting potential, our results herein provide interesting preliminary data for utilization of this byproduct from oil processing in both academic and industrial applications. SUMMARY Neuro-protective potential of C. japonica seed cake on cell viability was affected by extraction conditionsExtraction conditions effectively influenced on active constituents of C. japonica seed cakeBiological activity of C. japonica seed cake was optimized by the responsive surface methodology. Abbreviations used: GC-MS: Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer, MTT: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, PC12 cells: Pheochromocytoma, RSM: Response surface methodology. PMID:27601847

  20. Local and traditional uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacology of Sophora japonica L.: A review.

    PubMed

    He, Xirui; Bai, Yajun; Zhao, Zefeng; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Fang, Jiacheng; Huang, Linhong; Zeng, Min; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Yajun; Zheng, Xiaohui

    2016-07-01

    Sophora japonica (Fabaceae), also known as Huai (Chinese: ), is a medium-sized deciduous tree commonly found in China, Japan, Korea, Vietnam, and other countries. The use of this plant has been recorded in classical medicinal treatises of ancient China, and it is currently recorded in both the Chinese Pharmacopoeia and European Pharmacopoeia. The flower buds and fruits of S. japonica, also known as Flos Sophorae Immaturus and Fructus Sophorae in China, are most commonly used in Asia (especially in China) to treat hemorrhoids, hematochezia, hematuria, hematemesis, hemorrhinia, uterine or intestinal hemorrhage, arteriosclerosis, headache, hypertension, dysentery, dizziness, and pyoderma. To discuss feasible trends for further research on S. japonica, this review highlights the botany, ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, biological activities, and toxicology of S. japonica based on studies published in the last six decades. Information on the S. japonica was collected from major scientific databases (SciFinder, PubMed, Elsevier, SpringerLink, Web of Science, Google Scholar, Medline Plus, China Knowledge Resource Integrated (CNKI), and "Da Yi Yi Xue Sou Suo (http://www.dayi100.com/login.jsp)" for publications between 1957 and 2015 on S. japonica. Information was also obtained from local classic herbal literature, government reports, conference papers, as well as PhD and MSc dissertations. Approximately 153 chemical compounds, including flavonoids, isoflavonoids, triterpenes, alkaloids, polysaccharides, amino acids, and other compounds, have been isolated from the leaves, branches, flowers, buds, pericarps, and/or fruits of S. japonica. Among these compounds, several flavonoids and isoflavonoids comprise the active constituents of S. japonica, which exhibit a wide range of biological activities in vitro and in vivo such as anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiviral, anti-osteoporotic, antioxidant, radical scavenging, antihyperglycemic, antiobesity, antitumor, and

  1. Pharmacognostic Specification, Chlorogenic Acid Content, and In vitro Antioxidant Activities of Lonicera japonica Flowering Bud.

    PubMed

    Chaowuttikul, Chayanon; Palanuvej, Chanida; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri

    2017-01-01

    Lonicera japonica Thunb. or Japanese Honeysuckle has been widely used in traditional medicine for antipyretic. To establish the pharmacognostic specification of L. japonica flowering bud in Thailand and to determine its chlorogenic acid content and in vitro antioxidant activities. Dried L. japonica flowering bud from 15 various herbal drugstores throughout Thailand were investigated for pharmacognostic specification. Their chlorogenic acid contents were quantitatively analyzed by thin layer chromatography (TLC) densitometry with winCATS software. The mobile phase for TLC development consisted of ethyl acetate: formic acid: acetic acid: water (10:1.1:1.1:2.6). Antioxidant activities were investigated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, ferric ion reducing antioxidant power assay, nitric oxide scavenging assay, and β-carotene bleaching assays. Qualified L. japonica flowering bud in Thailand was presented that the contents of loss on drying, total ash, acid-insoluble ash, and water should not be >10.11%, 6.59%, 1.14%, and 10.82% by weight, respectively. The ethanol and water soluble extractive values should not be < 16.46% and 28.88% by weight, respectively. Chlorogenic acid content in L. japonica flowering bud was found to be 2.24 ± 0.50 g/100 g of crude drug. L. japonica flowering bud showed DPPH and nitric oxide scavenging activities as well as reducing power property. This pharmacognostic specification with special reference to the chlorogenic acid content can be used for quality control of L. japonica flowering bud in Thailand. The potential antioxidant of this crude drug was demonstrated in vitro . Pharmacognostic specification of Lonicera japonica flowering bud in Thailand has been establishedThe chlorogenic acid content has been quantified by thin layer chromatography-densitometryThe ethanolic extract of L. japonica flowering bud showed antioxidation potential, especially on reducing power property. Abbreviations Used: TLC: Thin layer

  2. Pharmacognostic Specification, Chlorogenic Acid Content, and In vitro Antioxidant Activities of Lonicera japonica Flowering Bud

    PubMed Central

    Chaowuttikul, Chayanon; Palanuvej, Chanida; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri

    2017-01-01

    Background: Lonicera japonica Thunb. or Japanese Honeysuckle has been widely used in traditional medicine for antipyretic. Objective: To establish the pharmacognostic specification of L. japonica flowering bud in Thailand and to determine its chlorogenic acid content and in vitro antioxidant activities. Materials and Methods: Dried L. japonica flowering bud from 15 various herbal drugstores throughout Thailand were investigated for pharmacognostic specification. Their chlorogenic acid contents were quantitatively analyzed by thin layer chromatography (TLC) densitometry with winCATS software. The mobile phase for TLC development consisted of ethyl acetate: formic acid: acetic acid: water (10:1.1:1.1:2.6). Antioxidant activities were investigated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, ferric ion reducing antioxidant power assay, nitric oxide scavenging assay, and β-carotene bleaching assays. Results: Qualified L. japonica flowering bud in Thailand was presented that the contents of loss on drying, total ash, acid-insoluble ash, and water should not be >10.11%, 6.59%, 1.14%, and 10.82% by weight, respectively. The ethanol and water soluble extractive values should not be < 16.46% and 28.88% by weight, respectively. Chlorogenic acid content in L. japonica flowering bud was found to be 2.24 ± 0.50 g/100 g of crude drug. L. japonica flowering bud showed DPPH and nitric oxide scavenging activities as well as reducing power property. Conclusion: This pharmacognostic specification with special reference to the chlorogenic acid content can be used for quality control of L. japonica flowering bud in Thailand. The potential antioxidant of this crude drug was demonstrated in vitro. SUMMARY Pharmacognostic specification of Lonicera japonica flowering bud in Thailand has been establishedThe chlorogenic acid content has been quantified by thin layer chromatography-densitometryThe ethanolic extract of L. japonica flowering bud showed antioxidation potential

  3. Mapping invasive Fallopia japonica by combined spectral, spatial, and temporal analysis of digital orthophotos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorigo, Wouter; Lucieer, Arko; Podobnikar, Tomaž; Čarni, Andraž

    2012-10-01

    Japanese knotweed (Fallopia japonica) is listed among 100 of the World's worst invasive alien species and poses an increasing threat to ecosystems and agriculture in Northern America, Europe, and Oceania. This study proposes a remote sensing method to detect local occurrences of F. japonica from low-cost digital orthophotos taken in early spring and summer by concurrently exploring its temporal, spectral, and spatial characteristics. Temporal characteristics of the species are quantified by a band ratio calculated from the green and red spectral channels of both images. The normalized difference vegetation index was used to capture the high near-infrared (NIR) reflectance of F. japonica in summer while the characteristic texture of F. japonica is quantified by calculating gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) measures. After establishing the optimum kernel size to quantify texture, the different input features (spectral, spatial, and texture) were stacked and used as input to the random forest (RF) classifier. The proposed method was tested for a built-up and semi-natural area in Slovenia. The spectral, spatial, and temporal provided an equally important contribution for differentiating F. japonica from other land cover types. The combination of all signatures resulted in a producer accuracy of 90.3% and a user accuracy of 98.1% for F. japonica when validation was based on independent regions of interest. A producer accuracy of 61.4% was obtained for F. japonica when comparing the classification result with all occurrences of F. japonica identified during a field validation campaign. This is an encouraging result given the very small patches in which the species usually occur and the high degree of intermingling with other plants. All hot spots were identified and even likely infestations of F. japonica that had remained undiscovered during the field campaign were detected. The probability images resulting from the RF classifier can be used to reduce the

  4. Emission of floral volatiles from Mahonia japonica (Berberidaceae).

    PubMed

    Picone, Joanne M; MacTavish, Hazel S; Clery, Robin A

    2002-07-01

    Flowering Mahonia japonica plants were subjected to controlled environments and the floral volatiles emitted from whole racemes (laterals) were trapped by Porapak Q adsorbent and analysed by GC-FID. An experiment with photoperiods of 6 and 9 h at constant temperature (10+/-1 degrees C) demonstrated that photoperiod was the stimulus for enhanced emission of most volatiles. Small quantitative differences in emitted fragrance composition were observed between light and dark periods and between plants acclimatised to different photoperiods. Maximum rates of emission occurred in the middle of the light period; aromatic compounds (benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol and indole) displayed a more rapid increase and subsequent decline compared with monoterpenes (cis- and trans-ocimene and linalool). When the photoperiod was extended from 6 to 9 h, maximum rates of emission continued throughout the additional 3 h. Total emission (microg/h) of volatiles was 2-fold greater in the day-time (DT) (39.7 microg/h) compared with the night-time (NT) (19.8 microgg/h) under a 6 h photoperiod and was not significantly different from total emission under a 9 h photoperiod.

  5. Terpenoids from rhizomes of Alpinia japonica inhibiting nitric oxide production.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang-Ming; Luo, Jian-Guang; Yang, Ming-Hua; Kong, Ling-Yi

    2015-03-01

    A new sesquiterpenoid, 1, and three new diterpenoids, 3-5, along with five known compounds, 2 and 6-9, were isolated from rhizomes of Alpinia japonica. The structures of the new compounds were determined as (1R,4R,6S,7S,9S)-4α-hydroxy-1,9-peroxybisabola-2,10-diene (1), methyl (12E)-16-oxolabda-8(17),12-dien-15-oate (3), (12R)-15-ethoxy-12-hydroxylabda-8(17),13(14)-dien-16,15-olide (4), and methyl (11E)-14,15,16-trinorlabda-8(17),11-dien-13-oate (5) by means of spectroscopic data. The absolute configurations at C(4) in 1 and C(12) in 4 were deduced from the circular dichroism (CD) data of the in situ-formed [Rh2 (CF3 COO)4 ] complexes. Inhibitory effects of the isolates on NO production in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW264.7 macrophages were evaluated, and 2-4, 6, and 7 were found to exhibit inhibitory activities with IC50 values between 14.6 and 34.3 μM. Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  6. [Luring effect of the fermented Laminaria japonica to Oncomelania hupensis].

    PubMed

    Ma, An-ning; Ni, Hong; Wang, Wan-xian; Zhang, Yun; Geng, Peng

    2010-02-01

    To study the attraction effect of the food attractants on Oncomelania hupensis. Oncomelania snail food was prepared with the fermented kelp (Laminaria japonica) mixed with corn starch. Snails were fed with the food and kept for 12, 24, 36, and 48 h at 15, 25, 35 degrees C respectively. Meanwhile, snail-killing effect was tested by granules containing jack-in-the-pulpit (Arisama heterophyllum) with or without the fermented kelp under the condition of 25 degrees C, 30% or 60% soil humidity. The snail-attracting rate of the fermented kelp was affected by the temperature, highest under 25 degrees C and lowest under 35 degrees C at any time point, with a rate of 80.3% in 48 h at 25 degrees C which was higher than that of the control (17.0%) (P<0.01). The snail mortality rate in the group using jack-in-the-pulpit with fermented kelp (85.3%) was higher than that of the group without fermented kelp (26.8%) (P<0.05). The mortality under 60% of soil humidity was higher than that under 30% humidity (P<0.01). The fermented kelp shows a strong luring effect to the Oncomelania snails.

  7. Effect of tributyltin on reproduction in Japanese whiting, Sillago japonica.

    PubMed

    Shimasaki, Yohei; Oshima, Yuji; Inoue, Suguru; Inoue, Yoshiyuki; Kang, Ik Joon; Nakayama, Kei; Imoto, Hisaya; Honjo, Tsuneo

    2006-07-01

    We examined the effect of tributyltin (TBT) on reproduction in the Japanese whiting, Sillago japonica. Mature fish were placed in indoor 500-L polyethylene tanks (five males and three females per tank) with a flow-through system and received dietary exposure to tributyltin oxide at concentrations of 2, 20, or 200 microg/g for 30 days during the active spawning period. Eggs spawned from the fish were collected daily, and the floating egg rate, larval deformity, hatchability, and viable hatch were monitored. TBT concentration in eggs of 200-microg/g group ranged from 85.0 to 159.6 ng/g in the evaluation period (days 5-30). In this period, the floating egg rate (83.2%), viable hatchability (82.2%), and total number of viable larvae (422,000 larvae per 100 g of female) were all significantly decreased in the 200-microg/g group compared with the control group (93.0%, 91.9%, and 709,000 larvae, respectively). The rate of deformity (2.6%) in the 200-microg/g group was about three times that in the control group (0.8%), although this difference was not significant. From these results, the lowest observed effect concentration of TBT in eggs on reproduction in Japanese whiting was estimated to be less than 159.6 ng/g-eggs.

  8. Species-specific and female host-biased ectophoresy in the roundworm Caenorhabditis japonica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshiga, Toyoshi; Ishikawa, Yuji; Tanaka, Ryusei; Hironaka, Mantaro; Okumura, Etsuko

    2013-02-01

    Caenorhabditis japonica is a bacteriophagous nematode species that was discovered on the semi-social burrower bug, Parastrachia japonensis, which demonstrates egg-guarding and provisioning behaviors. To understand the life history of C. japonica in relation to P. japonensis, we demonstrated the specificity of this association and fluctuations in nematode number on the insect throughout the year. C. japonica dauer larvae (DL), larvae in a nonfeeding diapause stage, were predominantly found as clumps on the adult female insects but rarely found on the male insects in all populations examined. This female-biased association was consistent throughout the year, but after the nymphs hatched, nematodes were not detected on the mother insects showing provisioning behavior. DL appeared on the nymphs, and the number of DL on the newly emerged female insects gradually increased thereafter. C. japonica has never been detected on other invertebrates collected from the P. japonensis habitat thus far. Our data suggest that the life cycles of C. japonica and P. japonensis are synchronized.

  9. Studies on the interaction of the Sophora japonica lectin and concanavalin A with erythrocytes and lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Poretz, R D; Barth, R F

    1976-01-01

    The agglutinating activity of lectins from the seeds of Sophora japonica and Canavalia ensiformis (concanavalin A) with human and murine erythrocytes and lymphocytes have been compared to one another and related to the mitogenic and immunosuppressive properties of these purified proteins. The S. japonica lectin, which demonstrates blood group specificity, is more active than concanavalin A with human erythrocytes, but has a much lower reactivity than concanavalin A with murine red blood cells. Ficin treatment of human erythrocytes results in an increase in agglutinability by both lectins as well as causing the appearance of S. japonica lectin receptors on type O cells. Treatment of murine reythrocytes with ficin alone or followed by beta-galactosidase causes the cells to be more reactive with concanavalin A. Beta-Galactosidase alone has no observable affect on the cells. In contrast, the agglutinability of cells by the S. japonica lectin increases after ficin treatment but is not affected by beta-galaetosidose treatment either after or in the absence of ficinization. Murine lymphocytes react with both lectins in a manner paralleling the agglutination patterns of murine erythrocytes. The S. japonica lectin appears to be devoid of mitogenic and immuno-suppressive activity, in contrast to concanavalin A which suppresses the T helper-dependent antibody response to sheep erythrocytes. These results are discussed in terms of the types of lectin receptors on lymphocytes related to agglutination, induction of blastogenesis and immuno-suppression. PMID:955676

  10. Comparative mitogenomic analysis of Aposthonia borneensis and Aposthonia japonica (Embioptera: Oligotomidae) reveals divergent evolution of webspinners.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi-Teng; Lü, Liang; Lu, Ming-Xing; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2017-08-15

    In this study, we report the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome, mtDNA) of Aposthonia borneensis and compare it with another sequenced webspinner, Aposthonia japonica. The A. borneensis mitogenome is smaller than A. japonica, but the size of each gene and the A + T content of protein-coding genes (PCGs) are almost identical in the two mitogenomes. Among the PCGs, atp6 shows the highest evolutionary rate and cox1 the lowest. The mtDNA map in A. borneensis is similar to Drosophila yakuba, but distinctly different from A. japonica, which has extensive rearrangement. Phylogenetic analyses dated the divergence time of the two webspinners at ca. 103 Ma. We speculate that the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of A. borneensis and A. japonica was divided into several geographic groups during the Pangea breakup. Geographic isolation between the Japanese islands and the continental southeastern Asia resulted in the divergent evolution of A. borneensis and A. japonica, thus generating mtDNA structural variations between the two species. Based on the phylogenetic analyses and specific distributional features, the genus Aposthonia was supported as non-monophyly, and we speculate that both highly rearranged and relatively conserved mitogenomes exist in other webspinners.

  11. Microcosm investigation of growth and phytoremediation potential of Azolla japonica along nitrogen gradients.

    PubMed

    Park, Hun; Song, Uhram

    2017-10-03

    Although Azolla species are among the most promising plants for use in phytoremediation, more studies on their growth and nitrogen (N) uptake along the N gradients of growing media are required. In this study, N concentration-dependent growth in growing media and phosphorus (P) and N accumulation by Azolla japonica were studied by estimating direct N uptake from media by molybdenum-iron proteins. The doubling time of A. japonica was less than a week, regardless of the N concentration (0, 5, and 25 mg N/L) present in the growth media, indicating that this plant is suitable for remediation. Plants showed a high uptake of P, probably via plant-bacteria symbiosis, indicating their potential for effective P remediation. A. japonica also showed more than 4% N content regardless of the treatment and accumulated more than 40 mg of N per microcosm in 3 weeks. iron and molybdenum levels in plants were strongly associated with N fixation, and N uptake from media was estimated to be more than 25 mg per microcosm in 3 weeks, indicating that A. japonica has N remediation potential. As A. japonica is a rapidly growing plant, capable of efficient P and N remediation, it has great potential for use in phytoremediation of nutrient-enriched waters such as agricultural or urban wastewater and eutrophicated aquatic ecosystems.

  12. Induction of hsp70, hsp90, and catalase activity in planarian Dugesia japonica exposed to cadmium.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiufang; Mo, Yehua; Zhou, Luming; Wang, Yinan; Wang, Zhongchen; Zhao, Bosheng

    2016-08-01

    The hsp70 and hsp90 expression patterns and catalase (CAT) activity in the freshwater planaria Dugesia japonica exposed to cadmium (Cd) under laboratory conditions were investigated. Planaria were exposed to a range of Cd concentrations (0-150 μg Cd/L) for 24 h. The expression levels of hsp70 and hsp90 were determined by relative quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Within the overall dose range in the experiment, the expression level of hsp70 and the activity of CAT in D. japonica were altered significantly. Hsp70 was induced in D. japonica upon Cd exposure concentrations as low as 9.375 μg Cd/L. No significant effect on the expression level of hsp90 was observed. Our findings demonstrated that stress gene hsp70, but not hsp90, was responsive to Cd contamination in D. japonica CAT activity was significantly induced at concentrations of 18.75, 37.5, and 75 μg Cd/L after 24-h exposure. We recommend that the use of hsp70 as a biomarker should be complemented by evidence of changes in other parameters, such as CAT activity, in D. japonica. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. INTERTIDAL SEDIMENT TEMPERATURE VARIANCE AS A POSSIBLE LIMITING FACTOR FOR EELGRASSES ZOSTERA MARINA AND ZOSTERA JAPONICA IN YAQUINA BAY, OR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The eelgrass species Zostera marina and Z. japonica co-occur in most Pacific Northwest estuaries; Z. marina is regarded as a native species, Z. japonica as non-indigenous, introduced in Yaquina Bay in approximately 1975. The mean tidal range is ~2 m, extreme ~3m. The vertical d...

  14. Study on creep properties of Japonica cooked rice and its relationship with rice chemical compositions and sensory evaluation

    Creep properties of four varieties japonica cooked rice were tested using a Dynamic Mechanical Analyser (DMA Q800). The creep curve was described by Burgers model. The creep process of japonica cooked rice mainly consisted of retarded elastic deformation, epsilonR and viscous flow deformation, epsil...

  15. A tale of two seagrasses: Comparing the science and management of Zostera marina and Zostera japonica in the Pacific Northwest

    EPA Science Inventory

    On the Pacific coast of North America, at least two congeners of Zostera occur: native Zostera marina, and introduced, Z. japonica. Z. japonica is considered “invasive” and therefore, ecologically and economically harmful by some, while others consider it benign or perhaps benef...

  16. [Effect of gas-turbine green discoloring and drying processing methods on herbal quality of tetraploid Lonicerae Japonicae Flos].

    PubMed

    Hu, Xuan; Li, Wei-dong; Li, Ou; Hao, Jiang-bo; Liu, Jia-kun

    2012-09-01

    To study the effect of gas-turbine green discoloring and drying processing method on the quality of various Lonicerae Japonicae Flos herbs. DIKMA DiamonsilTM-C18 column (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 microm) was adopted using HPLC Waters 1525 and eluted with acetonitrile and 0.1% phosphate acid as the mobile phase. The flow rate was 1.0 mL x min(-1) , the column temperature was 25 degrees C the detection wavelength was 355 nm. After being processed by the gas-turbine green discoloring and drying method, tetraploid Lonicerae Japonicae Flos showed a green color. The contents of chlorogenic acid and galuteolin were 5.31% and 0.105% , both significantly higher by 18.0% and 32.1% than those of diploid Lonicerae Japonicae Flos processed by the same method. The content of chlorogenic acid in tetraploid Lonicerae Japonicae Flos processed the gas-turbine green discoloring and drying method were also remarkably higher than that of tetraploid and diploid Lonicerae Japonicae Flos processed by traditional processing method of natural drying. The gas-turbine green discoloring and drying processing method is a new-type drying method suitable for tetraploid Lonicerae Japonicae Flos. Under the condition of gas-turbine green discoloring and drying processing, tetraploid Lonicerae Japonicae Flos shows much higher quality than Lonicerae Japonicae Flos, suggesting that it is a good variety worth popularizing and applying.

  17. Effects of salinity on survival of the exotic seagrass Zostera japonica subjected to extreme high temperature stress

    EPA Science Inventory

    Zostera japonica is a non-indigenous seagrass that is expanding along the Pacific Coast of North America. The ecophysiology of this seagrass is poorly studied and management of the species is fragmented. We collected Z. japonica plants from Padilla Bay, WA., Yaquina Bay and Coo...

  18. Neuroprotective and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Allyl Isothiocyanate through Attenuation of JNK/NF-κB/TNF-α Signaling.

    PubMed

    Subedi, Lalita; Venkatesan, Ramu; Kim, Sun Yeou

    2017-07-03

    Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), present in Wasabia japonica (wasabi), is an aliphatic isothiocyanate derived from the precursor sinigrin, which is a glucosinolate present in vegetables of the Brassica family. Traditionally, it has been used to treat rheumatic arthralgia, blood circulation, and pain. This study focuses on its anti-apoptotic activity through the regulation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammation. Furthermore, we assessed its neuroprotective efficacy, which it achieves through the upregulation of nerve growth factor (NGF) production. Pretreatment with AITC significantly inhibited inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression, decreased tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and nitric oxide (NO) production in activated microglia, and increased the nerve growth factor (NGF) and neurite outgrowth in neuroblastoma cells. AITC inhibited the nuclear factor (NF-κB-mediated transcription by modulating mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, particularly downregulating c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation, which was followed by a reduction in the TNF-α expression in activated microglia. This promising effect of AITC in controlling JNK/NF-κB/TNF-α cross-linking maintains the Bcl-2 gene family and protects neuroblastoma cells from activated microglia-induced toxicity. These findings provide novel insights into the anti-neuroinflammatory effects of AITC on microglial cells, which may have clinical significance in neurodegeneration.

  19. Neuroprotective and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Allyl Isothiocyanate through Attenuation of JNK/NF-κB/TNF-α Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Subedi, Lalita

    2017-01-01

    Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), present in Wasabia japonica (wasabi), is an aliphatic isothiocyanate derived from the precursor sinigrin, which is a glucosinolate present in vegetables of the Brassica family. Traditionally, it has been used to treat rheumatic arthralgia, blood circulation, and pain. This study focuses on its anti-apoptotic activity through the regulation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammation. Furthermore, we assessed its neuroprotective efficacy, which it achieves through the upregulation of nerve growth factor (NGF) production. Pretreatment with AITC significantly inhibited inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression, decreased tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and nitric oxide (NO) production in activated microglia, and increased the nerve growth factor (NGF) and neurite outgrowth in neuroblastoma cells. AITC inhibited the nuclear factor (NF-κB-mediated transcription by modulating mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, particularly downregulating c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation, which was followed by a reduction in the TNF-α expression in activated microglia. This promising effect of AITC in controlling JNK/NF-κB/TNF-α cross-linking maintains the Bcl-2 gene family and protects neuroblastoma cells from activated microglia-induced toxicity. These findings provide novel insights into the anti-neuroinflammatory effects of AITC on microglial cells, which may have clinical significance in neurodegeneration. PMID:28671636

  20. Sulforaphane homologues: Enantiodivergent synthesis of both enantiomers, activation of the Nrf2 transcription factor and selective cytotoxic activity.

    PubMed

    Elhalem, Eleonora; Recio, Rocío; Werner, Sabine; Lieder, Franziska; Calderón-Montaño, José Manuel; López-Lázaro, Miguel; Fernández, Inmaculada; Khiar, Noureddine

    2014-11-24

    Reported is an enantiodivergent approach for the synthesis of both enantiomers of sulforaphane (SFN) homologues with different chain lengths between the sulfinyl sulfur and the isothiocyanate groups and different substituents on the sulfinyl sulfur. The homologues were designed in order to unravel the effect of all the diversity elements included in sulforaphane's structure. The key step of the approach is the diastereoselective synthesis of both sulfinate ester epimers at sulfur, using as single chiral auxiliary the sugar derived diacetone-d-glucose. The approach allows the first synthesis of both enantiomers of 5-methylsulfinylpentyl isothiocyanate, and the biologically important 6-methylsulfinylhexyl isothiocyanate (6-HITC) found in Japanese horseradish, wasabi (Wasabia japonica). The ability of the synthesized compounds as inductors of phase II detoxifying enzymes has been studied by determining their ability to activate the cytoprotective transcription factor Nrf2. The cytotoxic activity of all the synthesized compounds against human lung adenocarcinoma (A549) and foetal lung fibroblasts (MRC-5) is also reported. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. 6-Methylsulfinylhexyl isothiocyanate modulates endothelial cell function and suppresses leukocyte adhesion.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Takayuki; Akita, Nobuyuki; Nagai, Masashi; Hayashi, Tatsuya; Suzuki, Koji

    2014-01-01

    6-Methylsulfinylhexyl isothiocyanate (6-MSITC) is an active compound in wasabi (Wasabia japonica Matsum.), which is one of the most popular spices in Japan. 6-MSITC suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced macrophage activation, arachidonic- or adenosine diphosphate-induced platelet activation, and tumor cell proliferation. These data indicate that 6-MSITC has several biological activities involving anti-inflammatory, anti-coagulant, and anti-apoptosis properties. Endothelial cells (ECs) maintain vascular homeostasis and play crucial roles in crosstalk between blood coagulation and vascular inflammation. In this study, we determined the anti-coagulant and anti-inflammatory effects of 6-MSITC on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). 6-MSITC slightly reduced tissue factor expression, but did not alter von Willebrand factor release in activated HUVECs. 6-MSITC modulated the generation of activated protein C, which is essential for negative regulation of blood coagulation, on normal ECs. In addition, 6-MSITC reduced tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced interleukin-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression. 6-MSITC markedly attenuated TNF-α-induced adhesion of human monoblast U937 cells to HUVECs and reduced vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and E-selectin mRNA expression in activated ECs. These results showed that 6-MSITC modulates EC function and suppresses cell adhesion. This study provides new insight into the mechanism of the anti-inflammatory effect of 6-MSITC, suggesting that 6-MSITC has therapeutic potential as a treatment for vasculitis and vascular inflammation.

  2. Regulation of chlorogenic acid biosynthesis by hydroxycinnamoyl CoA quinate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase in Lonicera japonica.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingru; Wu, Minlin; Li, Weidong; Bai, Genben

    2017-12-01

    For many centuries, Lonicera japonica has been used as an effective herb for the treatment of inflammation and swelling because of the presence of bioactive components such as chlorogenic acid (CGA). To clarify the relationship between L. japonica hydroxycinnamoyl CoA quinate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HQT) gene expression and CGA content, an HQT eukaryotic expression system was constructed using Gateway cloning. L. japonica callus transformed with HQT was obtained using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. We found a positive correlation between CGA content, determined by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), and the expression of HQT, analyzed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. This study demonstrates that the HQT gene positively regulates CGA synthesis and lays the foundation for further study into enhancing efficacious components of medicinal plants. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  3. Comparative Study on Volatile Compounds of Alpinia japonica and Elettaria cardamomum.

    PubMed

    Asakawa, Yoshinori; Ludwiczuk, Agnieszka; Sakurai, Kazutoshi; Tomiyama, Kenichi; Kawakami, Yukihiro; Yaguchi, Yoshihiro

    2017-08-01

    The volatile compounds obtained from the ether extracts, headspace gases and steam distillates of Alpinia japonica and Elettaria cardamomum were analyzed by GC/MS. Both species were rich sources of naturally rare fenchane-type monoterpenoids, fenchene, fenchone, fenchyl alcohol and its acetate, together with 1,8-cineole. The distributions of volatile sesquiterpenoids were very poor in both species. Chiralities of fenchone in A. japonica and E. cardamomum were 99% of (1S,4R)-(+)-form. Camphor in A. japonica is composed of a mixture of (1R,4R)-(+)-form (94.3%) and (1S,4S)-(-)-form (5.7%). On the other hand, E. cardamomum produced only (1R,4R)-(+)-camphor (99%).

  4. Low survivorship of dauer larva in the nematode Caenorhabditis japonica, a potential comparative system for a model organism, C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Ryusei; Okumura, Etsuko; Kanzaki, Natsumi; Yoshiga, Toyoshi

    2012-05-01

    The nematode dauer larva (DL) is a non-aging diapause stage. The DL of the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been studied as a model system for aging and longevity. However, information on DL in other nematode species is limited. In this study, the survivorship, storage, energy consumption, and oxidative stress tolerance of Caenorhabditis japonica DL were examined. C. japonica is a close relative of C. elegans, but has species-specific phoretic associations with the shield bug Parastrachia japonensis. Also, its DL has a much longer lifespan than C. elegans in a biological setting. However, when C. japonica DLs were detached from their phoretic host, they did not survive more than 10 days while more than 80% of C. elegans survived under the same conditions. Also, C. japonica DL showed more active movement (swimming) and lower tolerance to oxidative stress than C. elegans DL. Because the concentration of triacylglycerol (TAG), the energy source of nematodes, did not decrease significantly during the experiment, exhaustion of the energy reservoir did not cause the low survivorship of C. japonica. Instead, low tolerance to oxidizing stress and increased production of reactive oxygen species in C. japonica were the main causes of the reduced survivorship. The fact that C. japonica DL cannot survive away from its insect host indicates that its longevity is increased by unknown factors derived from the host. Despite these significant differences between C. japonica and C. elegans, these two species are phylogenetically closely related (they are derived from a common ancestor). Therefore, C. japonica could be a good comparative system for C. elegans, and further physiological and molecular analyses of C. japonica DL may provide important information about the internal and external factors affecting the longevity of nematodes in general. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. First occurrence of the non-native bryozoan Schizoporella japonica Ortmann (1890) in Western Europe.

    PubMed

    Ryland, John S; Holt, Rohan; Loxton, Jennifer

    2014-03-24

    Schizoporella japonica Ortmann was described from Japan but was subsequently introduced on Pacific oysters to the Pacific coast of North America, where it is now well established. In this paper we record it for the first time in European waters. The initial discovery was in a marina at Holyhead, North Wales, in July 2010 but S. japonica has since been observed abundantly in the Orkney Islands (from May 2011) and, subsequently, at other localities in northern Scotland. Introduction seems most likely to have been on an ocean-going vessel. The British material is here fully described and illustrated with SEMs and colour photographs; some unusual characters are discussed. Unlike other recently introduced bryozoans, S. japonica is a cold-water species and its breeding season in Britain extends through the winter. Extensive confusion between this and other species of Schizoporella on the west coast of Canada and the USA led us to make thorough morphometric comparisons between the species concerned (Schizoporella unicornis (Johnston in Wood), Schizoporella errata (Waters) and Schizoporella pseudoerrata Soule, Soule and Chaney). Zooid size in cheilostomate bryozoans is variable and often an unreliable character for species separation but shape (and therefore ratios between variables, which are independent of size) are often valuable: S. japonica zooids have a much greater length:width ratio than the other species. Density of frontal pseudopores provides a useful discriminatory character. Schizoporella unicornis, repeatedly reported in error from the Pacific coast of North America, does not occur there; it is a European species. Full comparisons are made between S. japonica and S. unicornis for European identification and between S. japonica, S. errata and S. pseudoerrata (which are also illustrated) for North American localities.

  6. The social and economic context and determinants of schistosomiasis japonica.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi-Xin; Manderson, Lenore

    2005-01-01

    A variety of biological and social factors govern schistosomiasis japonica in China. Social factors include those at a national and regional level, such as policies and patterns of development, which impact on local economic activities, and affect community, household and personal risk factors of infection. Drawing on research conducted in China, we illustrate how social structural and related factors influence individual risk and prevalence of infection. At a macro-level, political changes have occurred resulting in the shift from collective to family-based production, leading to clustering of infection in families. Industrialization and urbanization, and associated increased population mobility, have also influenced patterns of transmission and infection. Types of activities and local production patterns determine the exposure of individuals to schistosome-infested water sources. Fishermen have the most frequent water contact, aquatic workers the second and farmers the third; the relative risk of Schistosoma japonicum infection follows the same order. Among farmers, human infection is significantly related to agricultural production in rice fields infested with the intermediate host snail, and to rates of the infection in livestock. Risk of S. japonicum infection is also influenced by the domestic environment, including both the location of the house in relation to snail-colonized water sources, access to safe water, and improved sanitation. Household wealth and income determine family ability to provide and maintain safe water and sanitation, while determining or interacting with other variables. At an individual level, sex, age, educational level and ethnicity are all associated with different patterns of water use and water contact behaviour thereby affecting infection rates. Schistosomiasis impairs the growth and nutrition of children and the physical work capacity of adults, and so affects economic development. Given this, we note the importance of further

  7. Isolation of antiosteoporotic compounds from seeds of Sophora japonica.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, Hossam M; Al-Abd, Ahmed M; Asaad, Gihan F; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B; El-halawany, Ali M

    2014-01-01

    Chemical investigation of Sophora japonica seeds resulted in the isolation of seven metabolites identified as: genistin (1), sophoricoside (2), sophorabioside (3), sophoraflavonoloside (4), genistein 7,4'-di-O-β-D-glucopyransoide (5), kaempferol 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1 → 6)β-D-glucopyranosyl(1 → 2)β-D-glucopyranoside (6) and rutin (7). Compounds 1, 2 and 5 showed significant estrogenic proliferative effect in MCF-7 cell in sub-cytotoxic concentration range. Compounds 1 and 2 showed minimal cell membrane damaging effect using LDH leakage assay. Accordingly, compound 2 (sophoricoside, (SPH)) was selected for further in-vivo studies as a potential anti-osteoporosis agent. The anti-osteoporotic effect of SPH was assessed in ovarectomized (OVX) rats after oral administration (15 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg) for 45 days compared to estradiol (10 µg/kg) as a positive control. Only in a dose of 30 mg/kg, SPH regained the original mechanical bone hardness compared to normal non-osteoporotic group. However, SPH (15 mg/kg) significantly increased the level of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) to normal level. Treatment with SPH (30 mg/kg) increased the level of ALP to be higher than normal group. SPH (15 mg/kg) did not significantly increase the serum level of osteocalcin (OC) compared to OVX group. On the other hand, treatment with SPH (30 mg/kg) significantly increased the level of OC to 78% higher than normal non-ovarectomized animals group. In addition, SPH (15 mg/kg) decreased the bone resorption marker, acid phosphatase (ACP) to normal level and SPH (30 mg/kg) further diminished the level of serum ACP. Histopathologically, sophoricoside ameliorated the ovarectomy induced osteoporosis in a dose dependent manner. The drug showed thicker bony trabeculae, more osteoid, and more osteoblastic rimming compared to OVX group.

  8. Exploiting genes and functional diversity of chlorogenic acid and luteolin biosyntheses in Lonicera japonica and their substitutes.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yuan; Wang, Zhouyong; Jiang, Chao; Wang, Xumin; Huang, Luqi

    2014-01-25

    Chlorogenic acids (CGAs) and luteolin are active compounds in Lonicera japonica, a plant of high medicinal value in traditional Chinese medicine. This study provides a comprehensive overview of gene families involved in chlorogenic acid and luteolin biosynthesis in L. japonica, as well as its substitutes Lonicera hypoglauca and Lonicera macranthoides. The gene sequence feature and gene expression patterns in various tissues and buds of the species were characterized. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that 14 chlorogenic acid and luteolin biosynthesis-related genes were identified from the L. japonica transcriptome assembly. Phylogenetic analyses suggested that the function of individual gene could be differentiation and induce active compound diversity. Their orthologous genes were also recognized in L. hypoglauca and L. macranthoides genomic datasets, except for LHCHS1 and LMC4H2. The expression patterns of these genes are different in the tissues of L. japonica, L. hypoglauca and L. macranthoides. Results also showed that CGAs were controlled in the first step of biosynthesis, whereas both steps controlled luteolin in the bud of L. japonica. The expression of LJFNS2 exhibited positive correlation with luteolin levels in L. japonica. This study provides significant information for understanding the functional diversity of gene families involved in chlorogenic acid and the luteolin biosynthesis, active compound diversity of L. japonica and its substitutes, and the different usages of the three species. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Genetic dissection of agronomically important traits in closely related temperate japonica rice cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Hori, Kiyosumi; Yamamoto, Toshio; Yano, Masahiro

    2017-01-01

    Many quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for agronomically important traits such as grain yield, disease resistance, and stress tolerance of rice (Oryza sativa L.) have been detected by using segregating populations derived from crosses between indica and japonica subspecies or with wild relatives. However, the QTLs involved in the control of natural variation in agronomic traits among closely related cultivars are still unclear. Decoding the whole genome sequences of Nipponbare and other temperate japonica rice cultivars has accelerated the collection of a huge number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). These SNPs are good resource for developing polymorphic DNA markers and for detecting QTLs distributed across all rice chromosomes. The temperate japonica rice cultivar Koshihikari has remained the top cultivar for about 40 years since 1979 in Japan. Unraveling the genetic factors in Koshihikari will provide important insights into improving agronomic traits in temperate japonica rice cultivars. Here we describe recent progress in our studies as an example of genetic analysis in closely related cultivars. PMID:29398936

  10. Antiviral activity of polysaccharide extract from Laminaria japonica against respiratory syncytial virus.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yin-Guang; Hao, Yu; Li, Zhi-Hui; Liu, Shun-Tao; Wang, Le-Xin

    2016-12-01

    This study was designed to investigate the inhibition activity of polysaccharide extract from Laminaria japonica against RSV. The polysaccharide from Laminaria japonica was isolated by ethanol precipitation. HEK293 cells were infected with RVS, and the antiviral activity of polysaccharide extract against RSV in host cells was tested. By using ELISA and western blot assay, the expression level of IFN-α and IRF3 and their functional roles in polysaccharide-mediated antiviral activity against RSV were investigated. The polysaccharide extract from Laminaria japonica had low toxicity to HEK293 cell. The TC50 to HEK293 cells was up to 1.76mg/mL. Furthermore, the EC50 of polysaccharide extract to RSV was 5.27μg/mL, and TI was 334. The polysaccharide extract improved IRF-3 expression which promoted the level of IFN-α. Polysaccharide extract from Laminaria japonica elicits antiviral activity against RSV by up-regulation of IRF3 signaling-mediated IFN-α production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of SCAR markers for sex determination in the dioecious shrub Aucuba japonica (Cornaceae).

    PubMed

    Maki, Masayuki

    2009-03-01

    Two sex-linked fragments were identified by RAPD analyses in the dioecious diploid shrub Aucuba japonica var. ovoidea and were converted into markers of male-specific sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers. PCRs using the primers designed in this study correctly discriminated 24 flowering males and 24 flowering females at higher annealing temperatures (SCAR markers OPA10-424 at 55 degrees C and OPN11-1095 at 65 degrees C), although at relatively low annealing temperatures, the fragments were amplified in both males and females. These SCAR primers were also tested to see whether they were applicable to sex identification in the conspecific tetraploid Aucuba japonica var. japonica. One set pf SCAR primers could be used for sex identification even in this tetraploid variety, although the other failed. The SCAR markers developed in this study will provide a powerful tool in identifying the sex of immature plants of dioecious A. japonica, which is a commercially valuable shrub due to its conspicuous fruits.

  12. Innate olfactory responses of Asobara japonica toward fruits infested by the invasive spotted wing Drosophila

    Insect parasitoids are often manipulated to improve biological control programs for various arthropod pests. Volatile compounds can be a relevant cue used by most parasitoid hymenoptera for host or host microhabitat location. We studied olfactory responses of the braconid Asobara japonica Belokobyls...

  13. Identification of seedling vigor-associated quantitative trait loci in temperate japonica rice

    A quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis of seedling vigor traits was conducted under dry-seeded conditions using 176 recombinant inbred lines developed from a cross of two California temperate japonica rice varieties M-203 and M-206. Height at early seedling (HES) and late seedling (HLS) stage, gro...

  14. Expansion of the invasive dwarf eelgrass, Zostera japonica, in Yaquina Bay, Oregon

    EPA Science Inventory

    The areal coverage of the non-indigenous dwarf eelgrass, Zostera japonica, is increasing in several estuaries on the US West Coast. As a result, regulatory agencies in the states of California and Washington are considering methods of controlling its expansion. Factors relevan...

  15. Comparison of photosynthetic characteristics of the seagrasscongeners Zostera marina L. and Zostera japonica Ascher. & Graeb.

    EPA Science Inventory

    On the Pacific coast of North America two seagrass species in the genus Zostera co-exist; the native species Zostera marina, and an introduced species, Z. japonica. These two species typically occupy separate habitat niches, with Z. marina occupying the lower intertidal and shal...

  16. Dwarf eelgrass, Zostera japonica: a malevolent, benevolent, or benign invasive ecosystem engineer?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dwarf eelgrass, Zostera japonica, is an introduced ecosystem engineering species first reported on the US west coast in 1957. In some US Pacific Northwest estuaries its areal coverage now exceeds that of the native eelgrass species, Zostera marina. Natural resource management’s...

  17. Temperature trumps light: Teasing apart interactive factors controlling non-indigenous Zostera japonica growth

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the Pacific Northwest Zostera marina and Z. japonica co-exist by occupying separate elevation niches. We conducted two mesocosm experiments to evaluate light and temperature as factors controlling the disjunct distribution of congeners. The first study tests the hypothesis t...

  18. Effects of temperature on development of Lymantria dispar asiatica and Lymantria dispar japonica (Lepidoptera: Erebidae)

    Samita Limbu; Melody Keena; Fang Chen; Gericke Cook; Hannah Nadel; Kelli Hoover

    2017-01-01

    Periodic introductions of the Asian subspecies of gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar asiatica Vnukovskij and Lymantria dispar japonica Motschulsky, in North America are threatening forests and interrupting foreign trade. Although Asian gypsy moth has similar morphology to that of European and North American gypsy moth, it has several...

  19. Newly discovered role of the heterotrophic nanoflagellate Katablepharis japonica, a predator of toxic or harmful dinoflagellates and raphidophytes.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Ji Eun; Jeong, Hae Jin; Kim, So Jin; Jang, Se Hyeon; Lee, Kyung Ha; Seong, Kyeong Ah

    2017-09-01

    Heterotrophic nanoflagellates are ubiquitous and known to be major predators of bacteria. The feeding of free-living heterotrophic nanoflagellates on phytoplankton is poorly understood, although these two components usually co-exist. To investigate the feeding and ecological roles of major heterotrophic nanoflagellates Katablepharis spp., the feeding ability of Katablepharis japonica on bacteria and phytoplankton species and the type of the prey that K. japonica can feed on were explored. Furthermore, the growth and ingestion rates of K. japonica on the dinoflagellate Akashiwo sanguinea-a suitable algal prey item-heterotrophic bacteria, and the cyanobacteria Synechococcus sp., as a function of prey concentration were determined. Among the prey tested, K. japonica ingested heterotrophic bacteria, Synechococcus sp., the prasinophyte Pyramimonas sp., the cryptophytes Rhodomonas salina and Teleaulax sp., the raphidophytes Heterosigma akashiwo and Chattonella ovata, the dinoflagellates Heterocapsa rotundata, Amphidinium carterae, Prorocentrum donghaiense, Alexandrium minutum, Cochlodinium polykrikoides, Gymnodinium catenatum, A. sanguinea, Coolia malayensis, and the ciliate Mesodinium rubrum, however, it did not feed on the dinoflagellates Alexandrium catenella, Gambierdiscus caribaeus, Heterocapsa triquetra, Lingulodinium polyedra, Prorocentrum cordatum, P. micans, and Scrippsiella acuminata and the diatom Skeletonema costatum. Many K. japonica cells attacked and ingested a prey cell together after pecking and rupturing the surface of the prey cell and then uptaking the materials that emerged from the ruptured cell surface. Cells of A. sanguinea supported positive growth of K. japonica, but neither heterotrophic bacteria nor Synechococcus sp. supported growth. The maximum specific growth rate of K. japonica on A. sanguinea was 1.01 d -1 . In addition, the maximum ingestion rate of K. japonica for A. sanguinea was 0.13ngC predator -1 d -1 (0.06 cells predator -1 d -1

  20. Mapping estuarine distributions of the non-indigenous Japanese Eelgrass Zostera japonica using Color Infrared Aerial Photography

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes a technique for mapping distributions of the nonindigenous Japanese eelgrass Zostera japonica in estuarine ecosystems of the Pacific Northwest. The relatively broad distribution of this intertidal plant, often on very soft substrate, makes classical g...

  1. Effects of Temperature, Salinity and Seed Age on Induction of Zostera japonica Germination in North America, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seagrasses can colonize unstructured mudflats either through clonal growth or seed germination and survival. Zostera japonica is an introduced seagrass in North America that has rapidly colonized mudflats along the Pacific Coast, leading to active management of the species. Gro...

  2. Consumption of Bt Maize Pollen Containing Cry1Ie Does Not Negatively Affect Propylea japonica (Thunberg) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Yonghui; Liu, Yanmin; Yin, Xinming; Romeis, Jörg; Song, Xinyuan; Chen, Xiuping; Geng, Lili; Peng, Yufa; Li, Yunhe

    2017-03-16

    Propylea japonica (Thunberg) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) are prevalent predators and pollen feeders in East Asian maize fields. They are therefore indirectly (via prey) and directly (via pollen) exposed to Cry proteins within Bt -transgenic maize fields. The effects of Cry1Ie-producing transgenic maize pollen on the fitness of P. japonica was assessed using two dietary-exposure experiments in the laboratory. In the first experiment, survival, larval developmental time, adult fresh weight, and fecundity did not differ between ladybirds consuming Bt or non- Bt maize pollen. In the second experiment, none of the tested lethal and sublethal parameters of P. japonica were negatively affected when fed a rapeseed pollen-based diet containing Cry1Ie protein at 200 μg/g dry weight of diet. In contrast, the larval developmental time, adult fresh weight, and fecundity of P. japonica were significantly adversely affected when fed diet containing the positive control compound E-64. In both experiments, the bioactivity of the Cry1Ie protein in the food sources was confirmed by bioassays with a Cry1Ie-sensitive lepidopteran species. These results indicated that P. japonica are not affected by the consumption of Cry1Ie-expressing maize pollen and are not sensitive to the Cry1Ie protein, suggesting that the growing of Bt maize expressing Cry1Ie protein will pose a negligible risk to P. japonica .

  3. Unusual coelom formation in the direct-type developing sand dollar Peronella japonica.

    PubMed

    Tsuchimoto, Jun; Yamada, Toshihiro; Yamaguchi, Masaaki

    2011-11-01

    Peronella japonica is a sand dollar with a zygote that develops into an abbreviated pluteus but then metamorphoses on day three. The adult rudiment formation is unique; it uses a median position of the hydrocoel and a stomodeum-like invagination of vestibule that covers the dorsal side of the hydrocoel. However, the developmental processes underlying coelom formation remain unclear. In this study, we examined this process by reconstructing three-dimensional images from serial sections of larvae. We show that the left coelom developed by both schizocoely and enterocoely from the archenteron tip, whereas the hydrocoel and right coelom formed by enterocoely from the archenteron. This coelom formation arranged the coelomic compartments directly along the adult oral-aboral axis by skipping the initial bilateral phases. Furthermore, our data indicate P. japonica retains ancestral asymmetry along the left-right axis in the location of the adult rudiment. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Antiproliferative constituents in plants 14. Coumarins and acridone alkaloids from Boenninghausenia japonica NAKAI.

    PubMed

    Chaya, Norihito; Terauchi, Kazuko; Yamagata, Yuriko; Kinjo, Junei; Okabe, Hikaru

    2004-08-01

    The MeOH extracts of the ground part and the root of Boenninghausenia japonica NAKAI showed inhibitory activity against tumor cell growth. Fractionation of the extracts has resulted in isolation of 1,3-dihydroxy-4-(2'-hydroxy-3'-hydroxymethyl-3',4'-epoxy-butyl)-N-methylacridone, 1,3-dihydroxy-4-[(Z)-3'-hydroxy-3'-methyl-buten-1'-yl]-N-methylacridone, 3-(1',1'-dimethylallyl)-7-hydroxy-8-methoxy-2H-1-benzopyran-2-one, casegravol, cis-casegravol, and edgeworin in addition to 9 compounds reported from B. japonica and B. albiflora. The isolates from this plant and some related compounds were tested for antiproliferative activity against human gastric adenocarcinoma (MK-1), human uterus carcinoma (HeLa), and murine melanoma (B16F10) cells.

  5. Expression of stress response HSP70 gene in Asian paddle crabs, Charybdis japonica, exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals, bisphenol A (BPA) and 4-nonylphenol (NP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kiyun; Kwak, Ihn-Sil

    2013-06-01

    The Asian paddle crab, Charybdis japonica, is a potential bio-indicator reflecting marine sediment toxicity as well as a commercially important species living along coastal areas in Korea. This study investigated its stress response by looking at the heat shock protein (HSP70) gene of C. japonica when the organism is exposed to bisphenol A (BPA) and 4-nonylphenol (NP). We characterized partial sequence of HSP70 as the stressresponse gene of C. japonica. The nucleotide sequence of C. japonica HSP70 is over 90% homologous with the corresponding gene of other crabs. Phylogenetic tree analysis revealed a close relationship between C. japonica HSP70 and HSP70 in other species of lobster and shrimps. HSP70 mRNA transcripts were detected in all the examined tissues of C. japonica, with the highest level in gills, the organ that most frequently came into contact with the external BPA or NP-laden water. As no reference data were available for C. japonica crab exposure, the BPA and NP 24-h LC50 values have not been previously determined. The expression of the C. japonica HSP70 gene to various BPA or NP concentrations during short and longer times was assessed. Gene expression was significantly induced in concentration- and time-dependent manners after BPA or NP exposures. These results support the postulation that crab C. japonica HSP70 could be a potential stress response molecular marker to monitor marine ecosystems.

  6. Reproductive strategy of the intertidal seagrass Zostera japonica under different levels of disturbance and tidal inundation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suonan, Zhaxi; Kim, Seung Hyeon; Qin, Le-Zheng; Lee, Kun-Seop

    2017-10-01

    Zostera japonica populations along the coastline of the northwestern Pacific Ocean are declining, mainly due to anthropogenic and natural disturbances. Although reproductive strategy is an important factor in achieving population persistence, changes in the reproductive strategy of Z. japonica under anthropogenic disturbances and tidal stresses are largely unknown. Thus, the duration and frequency of flowering, reproductive effort, potential seed production, and seed density in sediments were measured at three study stations (undisturbed upper, undisturbed lower, and disturbed stations), which were classified based on the levels of inundation stress and clamming activity, in monospecific meadows of Z. japonica on the southern coast of Korea. The flowering duration was approximately six months in the disturbed station, with disturbance due to clam harvesting, whereas the duration was about five months in the undisturbed lower station, and only three months in the undisturbed upper station. The maximum flowering frequency was 25.5% in the disturbed station, which was approximately 4- and 2-fold higher than in the undisturbed upper (6.1%) and lower (12.3%) stations, respectively. A similar trend in reproductive effort was also found among the three study stations. Potential seed production was 7850, 6220, and 1560 seeds m-2 in the disturbed, undisturbed lower, and undisturbed upper stations, respectively. The annual maximum seed density in sediments was also higher in the disturbed and undisturbed lower stations than in the undisturbed upper station, but the densities were relatively low (ranging from 71 to 254 seeds m-2) at all three study stations. It was found that the allocation to sexual reproduction was highest in the disturbed station, followed by the undisturbed lower station, and lowest in the undisturbed upper station, suggesting that sexual reproduction in Z. japonica tends to be enhanced under disturbed and inundated environmental conditions for population

  7. Microjaponin, a new dihydroagarofuranoid sesquiterpene from the stem of Microtropis japonica with antituberculosis activity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jih-Jung; Kuo, Wen-Lung; Chen, Ih-Sheng; Peng, Chien-Fang; Sung, Ping-Jyun; Cheng, Ming-Jen; Lim, Yun-Ping

    2014-08-01

    A new dihydroagarofuran-based sesquiterpene, microjaponin (1), was isolated from the stem of Microtropis japonica. Its structure was determined by in-depth spectroscopic and mass-spectrometric analyses. Microjaponin (1) exhibited potent in vitro antituberculosis activity, with an MIC value of 12.5 μg/ml against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37 Rv. Copyright © 2014 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  8. Evolution and Expansion of the Prokaryote-Like Lipoxygenase Family in the Brown Alga Saccharina japonica

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Linhong; Han, Wentao; Fan, Xiao; Xu, Dong; Zhang, Xiaowen; Dittami, Simon M.; Ye, Naihao

    2017-01-01

    Lipoxygenase (LOX) plays important roles in fatty acid oxidation and lipid mediator biosynthesis. In this study, we give first insights into brown algal LOX evolution. Whole genome searches revealed four, three, and eleven LOXs in Ectocarpus siliculosus, Cladosiphon okamuranus, and Saccharina japonica, respectively. In phylogenetic analyses, LOXs from brown algae form a robust clade with those from prokaryotes, suggesting an ancestral origin and slow evolution. Brown algal LOXs were divided into two clades, C1 and C2 in a phylogenetic tree. Compared to the two species of Ectocarpales, LOX gene expansion occurred in the kelp S. japonica through tandem duplication and segmental duplication. Selection pressure analysis showed that LOX genes in brown algae have undergone strong purifying selection, while the selective constraint in the C2 clade was more relaxed than that in the C1 clade. Furthermore, within each clade, LOXs of S. japonica evolved under more relaxed selection constraints than E. siliculosus and C. okamuranus. Structural modeling showed that unlike LOXs of plants and animals, which contain a β barrel in the N-terminal part of the protein, LOXs in brown algae fold into a single domain. Analysis of previously published transcriptomic data showed that LOXs in E. siliculosus are responsive to hyposaline, hypersaline, oxidative, and copper stresses. Moreover, clear divergence of expression patterns was observed among different life stages, as well as between duplicate gene pairs. In E. siliculosus, all four LOXs are male-biased in immature gametophytes, and mature gametophytes showed significantly higher LOX mRNA levels than immature gametophytes and sporophytes. In S. japonica, however, our RNA-Seq data showed that most LOXs are highly expressed in sporophytes. Even the most recently duplicated gene pairs showed divergent expression patterns, suggesting that functional divergence has likely occurred since LOX genes duplicated, which potentially contributes

  9. In vitro fermentation of sulfated polysaccharides from E. prolifera and L. japonica by human fecal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Kong, Qing; Dong, Shiyuan; Gao, Jian; Jiang, Chaoyu

    2016-10-01

    In vitro fermentation of the sulfated polysaccharides from seaweeds Enteromorpha prolifera and Laminaria japonica and their prebiotic effects on human fecal microbiota were investigated in this study. The sulfated polysaccharides were fermented in vitro for 48h by human fecal cultures. When 0.8g MWCOL (polysaccharides MWCO<30kD) from L. japonica was fermented, the pH in fecal cultures decreased from 6.5 to 5.1 and the levels of short chain fatty acids, such as acetic, butyric and lactic acids all significantly increased. After 48h fermentation, 0.8g MWCOL showed good effect on modulating the gut microflora balance, because the beneficial strains (Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium) were both significantly higher than those in control group (p<0.05). As far as we know, this is the first report that consumption of sulfated polysaccharides from E. prolifera and L. japonica is beneficial to the ecosystem of the intestinal tract by increasing the populations of probiotics and short chain fatty acids. Furthermore, our reports indicated that molecular weight of sulfated polysaccharide from marine algae is related to its prebiotic effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Overcoming inter-subspecific hybrid sterility in rice by developing indica-compatible japonica lines

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jie; Xu, Xiaomei; Li, Wentao; Zhu, Wenyin; Zhu, Haitao; Liu, Ziqiang; Luan, Xin; Dai, Ziju; Liu, Guifu; Zhang, Zemin; Zeng, Ruizhen; Tang, Guang; Fu, Xuelin; Wang, Shaokui; Zhang, Guiquan

    2016-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an important staple crop. The exploitation of the great heterosis that exists in the inter-subspecific crosses between the indica and japonica rice has long been considered as a promising way to increase the yield potential. However, the male and female sterility frequently occurred in the inter-subspecific hybrids hampered the utilization of the heterosis. Here we report that the inter-subspecific hybrid sterility in rice is mainly affected by the genes at Sb, Sc, Sd and Se loci for F1 male sterility and the gene at S5 locus for F1 female sterility. The indica-compatible japonica lines (ICJLs) developed by pyramiding the indica allele (S-i) at Sb, Sc, Sd and Se loci and the neutral allele (S-n) at S5 locus in japonica genetic background through marker-assisted selection are compatible with indica rice in pollen fertility and in spikelet fertility. These results showed a great promise of overcoming the inter-subspecific hybrid sterility and exploiting the heterosis by developing ICJLs. PMID:27246799

  11. Overcoming inter-subspecific hybrid sterility in rice by developing indica-compatible japonica lines.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jie; Xu, Xiaomei; Li, Wentao; Zhu, Wenyin; Zhu, Haitao; Liu, Ziqiang; Luan, Xin; Dai, Ziju; Liu, Guifu; Zhang, Zemin; Zeng, Ruizhen; Tang, Guang; Fu, Xuelin; Wang, Shaokui; Zhang, Guiquan

    2016-06-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an important staple crop. The exploitation of the great heterosis that exists in the inter-subspecific crosses between the indica and japonica rice has long been considered as a promising way to increase the yield potential. However, the male and female sterility frequently occurred in the inter-subspecific hybrids hampered the utilization of the heterosis. Here we report that the inter-subspecific hybrid sterility in rice is mainly affected by the genes at Sb, Sc, Sd and Se loci for F1 male sterility and the gene at S5 locus for F1 female sterility. The indica-compatible japonica lines (ICJLs) developed by pyramiding the indica allele (S-i) at Sb, Sc, Sd and Se loci and the neutral allele (S-n) at S5 locus in japonica genetic background through marker-assisted selection are compatible with indica rice in pollen fertility and in spikelet fertility. These results showed a great promise of overcoming the inter-subspecific hybrid sterility and exploiting the heterosis by developing ICJLs.

  12. Pharmacological assessment of methamphetamine-induced behavioral hyperactivity mediated by dopaminergic transmission in planarian Dugesia japonica.

    PubMed

    Tashiro, Natsuka; Nishimura, Kaneyasu; Daido, Kanako; Oka, Tomoe; Todo, Mio; Toshikawa, Asami; Tsushima, Jun; Takata, Kazuyuki; Ashihara, Eishi; Yoshimoto, Kanji; Agata, Kiyokazu; Kitamura, Yoshihisa

    2014-07-11

    The freshwater planarian Dugesia japonica has a simple central nervous system (CNS) and can regenerate complete organs, even a functional brain. Recent studies demonstrated that there is a great variety of neuronal-related genes, specifically expressed in several domains of the planarian brain. We identified a planarian dat gene, named it D. japonica dopamine transporter (Djdat), and analyzed its expression and function. Both in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence revealed that localization of Djdat mRNA and protein was the same as that of D. japonica tyrosine hydroxylase (DjTH). Although, dopamine (DA) content in Djdat(RNAi) planarians was not altered, Djdat(RNAi) planarians showed increased spontaneous locomotion. The hyperactivity in the Djdat(RNAi) planarians was significantly suppressed by SCH23390 or sulpiride pretreatment, which are D1 or D2 receptor antagonists, respectively. These results suggest that planarians have a Djdat ortholog and the ability to regulate dopaminergic neurotransmission and association with spontaneous locomotion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of N,N-dimethylformamide on behaviour and regeneration of planarian Dugesia japonica.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianyong; Yuan, Zuoqing; Zheng, Mingyue; Sun, Yuqian; Wang, Youjun; Yang, Shudong

    2013-09-01

    In this study, the toxicity, behavioural and regeneration effects of dimethylformamide (DMF) on planarian Dugesia japonica were investigated. One control and six different concentrations of DMF (10 ppm, 100 ppm, 500 ppm, 1000 ppm, 5000 ppm and 10,000 ppm) were used in triplicate. The results showed that the mortality was directly proportional to the DMF concentration and planarian locomotor velocity (pLMV) was significantly reduced by increasing the exposure time and DMF concentration. pLMV of D. japonica was significantly reduced at a lower concentration of 10 ppm after 7 days of continuous exposure to DMF. The recovery of the motility of planarians pretreated with DMF was found to be time- and dose dependent, all planarians had complete recovery in their motility after 48 h. The appearance of auricles in regenerating animals was easily affected by DMF exposure in comparison with the appearance of eyespot. The present results suggest that the intact adult mobility in the aquatic planarian D. japonica is a more sensitive biomarker than mortality, and the appearance of auricles in regenerating animals is a more sensitive biomarker than eyespot.

  14. Antioxidant and isozyme features of two strains of Laminaria japonica (Phaeophyceae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, You; Tang, Xuexi; Li, Yongqi; Yu, Zhiming

    2007-01-01

    Healthy sporophytes of two gametophyte mutants of Laminaria japonica with different heat resistances: kelp 901 ( 901, with comparatively stronger heat-resistance) and Rongcheng No.1 ( RC, sensitive to heat stress), were respectively collected during October to December 2002 from Yantai and Rongcheng Sea Farm in the Shandong Peninsula of China. The contents of some biochemical materials and antioxidant capacity were analyzed under controlled laboratory conditions to identify if there is any relation between the overall antioxidant capacity and the heat-resistance in L. japonica and to understand possible mechanism of heat-resistance. Results show that: (1) the overall antioxidant capacity in healthy sporophyte of 901, such as vitamin E, polyphenol, and ascorbic acid contents and the enzymatic activity of SOD, POD, CAT, Gpx, PPO, and PAL, were not always higher than that of RC under controlled laboratory conditions, and no significance ( P>0.05) was shown in total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) in 901 and RC. Result suggested that the difference in antioxidant capacity was not a decisive factor for different heat-resistances in L. japonica; (2) the simultaneous assay on isozymes was carried out using vertical polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Considerable differences in peroxide (PRX), malate dehydrogenase (MDH), malic enzyme (ME), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) were obtained in 901 and RC from either the band number, relative mobility ( R f ), or staining intensity, and ME could be used as an indicator to distinguish healthy sporophyte of 901 and RC under controlled laboratory conditions.

  15. Effects of road dust on the growth characteristics of Sophora japonica L. seedlings.

    PubMed

    Bao, Le; Qu, Laiye; Ma, Keming; Lin, Lin

    2016-08-01

    Road dust is one of the most common pollutants and causes a series of negative effects on plant physiology. Dust's impacts on plants can be regarded as a combination of load, composition and grain size impacts on plants; however, there is a lack of integrated dust effect studies involving these three aspects. In our study, Sophora japonica seedlings were artificially dusted with road dust collected from the road surface of Beijing so that we could study the impacts of this dust on nitrogen/carbon allocation, biomass allocation and photosynthetic pigments from the three aspects of composition, load and grain size. The results showed that the growth characteristics of S. japonica seedlings were mostly influenced by dust composition and load. Leaf N, root-shoot ratio and chlorophyll a/b were significantly affected by dust composition and load; leaf C/N, shoot biomass, total chlorophyll and carotenoid were significantly affected by dust load; stem N and stem C/N were significantly affected by dust composition; while the dust grain size alone did not affect any of the growth characteristics. Road dust did influence the growth characteristics more extensively than loam. Therefore, a higher dust load could increase the differences between road dust and loam treatments. The elements in dust are well correlated to the shoot N, shoot C/N, and root-shoot ratio of S. japonica seedlings. This knowledge could benefit the management of urban green spaces. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Effects of several immunostimulants on phenoloxidase and hemocytes of the crab Charybdis japonica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Tingjun; Yu, Miaomiao; Yang, Lingling; Shi, Zhenping; Sun, Wenjie; Cong, Rishan; Yang, Xiuxia; Jiang, Guojian

    2009-09-01

    To investigate the stimulating effects of immunostimulants on the autogenous immunocompetence of crabs and the possible mechanisms involved, the immunostimulating effects of β-1,3-glucan, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), inactivated Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio anguillarum on phenoloxidase (PO) and hemocytes of Charybdis japonica were investigated in this study. It was found that the yields and the enzymatic activities of purified PO in C. japonica increased significantly after the crabs were treated with immunostimulants, while the unit enzymatic activities remained almost the same. After treatment with β-1,3-glucan and LPS, the amount of rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and the number of mitochondria in both semigranular cells and granular cells increased greatly, and the number of cytoplasmic granules decreased but with enlarged volume. However, the corresponding characteristics of hyaline cells remained almost the same. On the other hand, the number of granules in semigranular cells decreased greatly, and the number of mitochondria of hyaline cells increased greatly, after treatment with inactivated vibrios. It may be concluded that the effect of polysaccharide immunostimulants on the innate immune system of C. japonica is different from that of inactivated vibrio immunostimulants. The immunity-enhancing mechanism of polysaccharides in crab autogenous immunocompetence is probably accomplished by the increased yields of PO and total PO activities, while that of inactivated vibrios is probably accomplished by the partially increased yields of PO and total PO activities as well as the significantly improved phagocytotic abilities of semigranular cells and hyaline cells.

  17. Use of a pollen-based diet to expose the ladybird beetle Propylea japonica to insecticidal proteins.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaojie; Li, Yunhe; Romeis, Jörg; Yin, Xinming; Wu, Kongming; Peng, Yufa

    2014-01-01

    A rape seed pollen-based diet was developed and found to be suitable for use in a dietary exposure assay for Propylea japonica. Using the diet, we established and validated a dietary exposure assay by using the protease inhibitor E-64 as positive control. Dose-dependent responses were documented for all observed life-table parameters of P. japonica including survival, pupation and eclosion rates, development time and adult weight. Results suggested that the dietary assay can detect the effects of insecticidal compounds on the survival and development of P. japonica. Using the established dietary assay, we subsequently tested the toxicity of Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac and Cry1F proteins that are expressed by transgenic maize, cotton or rice plants to P. japonica larvae. The diet containing E-64 was included as a positive control. Survival and development of P. japonica larvae were not adversely affected when the diet contained purified Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, or Cry1F at 500 µg/g diet representing a worst-case exposure scenario. In contrast, P. japonica larvae were adversely affected when the diet contained E-64. The bioactivity and stability of the Cry proteins in the diet and Cry protein uptake by the ladybird larvae were confirmed by bioassay with a Cry-sensitive insect species and by ELISA. The current study describes a suitable experimental system for assessing the potential effects of gut-active insecticidal compounds on ladybird beetle larvae. The experiments with the Cry proteins demonstrate that P. japonica larvae are not sensitive to Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac and Cry1F.

  18. [Anti-radical activity of products of processing of holothurian Cucumaria japonica and their practical application for lipid stabilization].

    PubMed

    Tabakaeva, O V; Kalenik, T K; Tabakaev, A V

    2015-01-01

    Products of technological and biotechnological modification (acid and enzymatic hydrolyzates and hydrothermal extracts) of the holothurian Cucumariajaponica from the Far East region are the complex multicomponent systems containing biologically active agents of a sea origin that has to provide them biological activity. The research objective consisted in quantitative studying of anti-radical properties of acid, enzymatic hydrolyzates and hydrothermal extracts from soft fabrics of a holothurian from the Far East region (Cucumaria japonica) and their influence on oxidation of lipids in fat emulsion products. The reaction with stable free 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical was used as a model system. Radical relating activity of hydrolyzates and extracts from Cucumaria japonica varied over a wide range from 48 to 78%. The maximum radical binding activity was noted for acid hydrolyzates. The activity of the hydrolyzate from a nimbus and feelers of Cucumaria japonica was comparable with activity of ionol. It has been defined that levels of manifestation of anti-radical activity depended on a way of technological and biotechnological processing of raw materials. Studying of fractional composition of melanoidins of hydrolyzates and extracts from Cucumaria japonica established that they can be divided into fractions--with molecular masses about 10,000 and 1000 Da. The maximum content of melanoidins has been defined in fraction weighing about 1000 Da. Introduction of acid, enzymatic hydrolyzates and hydrothermal extracts from Cucumaria japonica in the composition of oil-fat emulsion systems allowed to slow down processes of lipid oxidation and triglyceride hydrolysis in mayonnaise. Introduction of hydrolyzates and hydrothermal extracts from Cucumaria japonica in an oil-fat emulsion product allowed to reduce peroxide value by 22-45%, acid value by 12-35% on the 90th days of storage. Acid hydrolysates of Cucumaria Japonica most significantly reduce the rate of

  19. Comprehensive evaluation of candidate reference genes for gene expression studies in Lysiphlebia japonica (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) using RT-qPCR.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xue-Ke; Zhang, Shuai; Luo, Jun-Yu; Wang, Chun-Yi; Lü, Li-Min; Zhang, Li-Juan; Zhu, Xiang-Zhen; Wang, Li; Lu, Hui; Cui, Jin-Jie

    2017-12-30

    Lysiphlebia japonica (Ashmead) is a predominant parasitoid of cotton-melon aphids in the fields of northern China with a proven ability to effectively control cotton aphid populations in early summer. For accurate normalization of gene expression in L. japonica using quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), reference genes with stable gene expression patterns are essential. However, no appropriate reference genes is L. japonica have been investigated to date. In the present study, 12 selected housekeeping genes from L. japonica were cloned. We evaluated the stability of these genes under various experimental treatments by RT-qPCR using four independent (geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and Delta Ct) and one comparative (RefFinder) algorithm. We identified genes showing the most stable levels of expression: DIMT, 18S rRNA, and RPL13 during different stages; AK, RPL13, and TBP among sexes; EF1A, PPI, and RPL27 in different tissues, and EF1A, RPL13, and PPI in adults fed on different diets. Moreover, the expression profile of a target gene (odorant receptor 1, OR1) studied during the developmental stages confirms the reliability of the chosen selected reference genes. This study provides for the first time a comprehensive list of suitable reference genes for gene expression studies in L. japonica and will benefit subsequent genomics and functional genomics research on this natural enemy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. A tale of two seagrasses: Comparing the science and management of Zostera marina and Zostera japonica in the Pacific Northwest - CERF

    EPA Science Inventory

    On the Pacific coast of North America, at least two congeners of Zostera occur: native Z. marina, and introduced, Z. japonica. Z. marina is protected by State and Federal laws as essential fish habitat. Z. japonica is considered “invasive” and therefore, ecologicall...

  1. EFFECTS OF THE INVASIVE, NONINDIGENOUS SEAGRASS ZOSTERA JAPONICA ON NUTRIENT FLUXES BETWEEN THE WATER COLUMN AND BENTHOS IN A NE PACIFIC ESTUARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since its introduction in the early to mid-20th century, the Asian seagrass Zostera japonica has become established in marine and mesohaline portions of many estuaries in the Pacific Northwest. Z. japonica forms dense patches from 0.3-2.4m above mean lower low water, a zone that...

  2. Maize Benefits the Predatory Beetle, Propylea japonica (Thunberg), to Provide Potential to Enhance Biological Control for Aphids in Cotton

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Fang; Men, Xingyuan; Yang, Bing; Su, Jianwei; Zhang, Yongsheng; Zhao, Zihua; Ge, Feng

    2012-01-01

    Background Biological control provided by natural enemies play an important role in integrated pest management. Generalist insect predators provide an important biological service in the regulation of agricultural insect pests. Our goal is to understand the explicit process of oviposition preference, habitat selection and feeding behavior of predators in farmland ecosystem consisting of multiple crops, which is central to devising and delivering an integrated pest management program. Methodology The hypotheses was that maize can serve as habitat for natural enemies and benefits predators to provide potential to enhance biological control for pest insects in cotton. This explicit process of a predatory beetle, Propylea japonica, in agricultural ecosystem composed of cotton and maize were examined by field investigation and stable carbon isotope analysis during 2008–2010. Principal Finding Field investigation showed that P. japonica adults will search host plants for high prey abundance before laying eggs, indicating indirectly that P. japonica adults prefer to inhabit maize plants and travel to cotton plants to actively prey on aphids. The δ13C values of adult P. japonica in a dietary shift experiment found that individual beetles were shifting from a C3- to a C4-based diet of aphids reared on maize or cotton, respectively, and began to reflect the isotope ratio of their new C4 resources within one week. Approximately 80–100% of the diet of P. japonica adults in maize originated from a C3-based resource in June, July and August, while approximately 80% of the diet originated from a C4-based resource in September. Conclusion/Significance Results suggest that maize can serve as a habitat or refuge source for the predatory beetle, P. japonica, and benefits predators to provide potential to enhance biological control for insect pests in cotton. PMID:22984499

  3. Changes in Rice Grain Quality of Indica and Japonica Type Varieties Released in China from 2000 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Feng, Fan; Li, Yajun; Qin, Xiaoliang; Liao, Yuncheng; Siddique, Kadambot H M

    2017-01-01

    China is the first country to use heterosis successfully for commercial rice production. This study compared the main quality characteristics (head rice rate, chalky rice rate, chalkiness degree, gel consistency, amylose content, and length-to-width ratio) of 635 rice varieties (not including upland and glutinous rice) released from 2000 to 2014 to establish the quality status and offer suggestions for future rice breeding for grain quality in China. In the past 15 years, grain quality in japonica rice and indica hybrid rice has improved. In japonica rice, inbred varieties have increased head rice rates and decreased chalkiness degree over time, while hybrid rice varieties have decreased chalky rice rates and chalkiness degree. In indica hybrid rice, the chalkiness degree and amylose contents have decreased and gel consistency has increased. Improvements in grain quality in indica inbred rice have been limited, with some increases in head rice rate and decreases in chalky rice rate and amylose content. From 2010 to 2014, the percentage of indica varieties meeting the Grade III national standard of rice quality for different quality traits was low, especially for chalky rice rate and chalkiness degree. Japonica varieties have more superior grain quality than indica rice in terms of higher head rice rates and gel consistency, lower chalky rice rates and chalkiness degree, and lower amylose contents, which may explain why the Chinese prefer japonica rice. The japonica rice varieties, both hybrid and inbred, had similar grain qualities, but this varied in indica rice with the hybrid varieties having higher grain quality than inbred varieties due to significantly better head rice rates and lower chalkiness degree. For better quality rice in future, the chalky rice rate and chalkiness degree should be improved in japonica rice along with most of the quality traits in indica rice.

  4. Growth and transpiration of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) and Hinoki cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) seedlings in response to soil water content.

    PubMed

    Nagakura, Junko; Shigenaga, Hidetoshi; Akama, Akio; Takahashi, Masamichi

    2004-11-01

    To investigate the effects of soil water content on growth and transpiration of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) and Hinoki cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa (Siebold et Zucc.) Endl.), potted seedlings were grown in well-watered soil (wet treatment) or in drying soil (dry treatment) for 12 weeks. Seedlings in the wet treatment were watered once every 2 or 3 days, whereas seedlings in the dry treatment were watered when soil water content (Theta; m3 m(-3)) reached 0.30, equivalent to a soil matric potential of -0.06 MPa. From Weeks 7 to 12 after the onset of the treatments, seedling transpiration was measured by weighing the potted seedlings. After the last watering, changes in transpiration rate during soil drying were monitored intensely. The dry treatment restricted aboveground growth but increased biomass allocation to the roots in both species, resulting in no significant treatment difference in whole-plant biomass production. The species showed similar responses in relative growth rate (RGR), net assimilation rate (NAR) and shoot mass ratio (SMR) to the dry treatment. Although NAR did not change significantly in either C. japonica or C. obtusa as the soil dried, the two species responded differently to the dry treatment in terms of mean transpiration rate (E) and water-use efficiency (WUE), which are parameters that relate to NAR. In the dry treatment, both E and WUE of C. japonica were stable, whereas in C. obtusa, E decreased and WUE increased (E and WUE counterbalanced to maintain a constant NAR). Transpiration rates were lower in C. obtusa seedlings than in C. japonica seedlings, even in well-watered conditions. During soil drying, the transpiration rate decreased after Theta reached about 0.38 (-0.003 MPa) in C. obtusa and 0.32 (-0.028 MPa) in C. japonica. We conclude that C. obtusa has more water-saving characteristics than C. japonica, particularly when water supply is limited.

  5. Impact of Tributyltin and Triphenyltin on Ivory Shell (Babylonia japonica) Populations

    PubMed Central

    Horiguchi, Toshihiro; Kojima, Mitsuhiro; Hamada, Fumihiko; Kajikawa, Akira; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Morita, Masatoshi; Shimizu, Makoto

    2006-01-01

    We histopathologically examined gonads and chemically determined organotin compounds in tissues of the ivory shell, Babylonia japonica. Imposex (a superimposition of male-type genital organs on females) occurred in approximately 80–90% of B. japonica specimens that we examined, with the penis and vas deferens both well developed. No oviduct blockage by vas deferens formation was observed. Ovarian spermatogenesis and suppressed ovarian maturation were observed in the females that exhibited imposex, although no histopathological abnormalities were found in males. Tissue distributions of organotin compounds [tributyltin (TBT), triphenyltin (TPhT), and their metabolites] were different for butyltins and phenyltins; a remarkably high accumulation of TBT was observed in the ctenidium, osphradium, and heart, whereas high concentrations of TPhT were detected in the ovary and digestive gland. More than one-third of TBT accumulated in the digestive glands of both males and females, followed by the testis, ctenidium, muscle, and heart tissues in males and in the muscle, ovary, ctenidium, and head tissues (including the central nervous system ganglia) in females. In both males and females, more than half of total TPhT accumulated in the digestive glands, followed by the gonads. The next highest values were in the muscle, ctenidium, and heart tissues in males and in the muscle, oviduct, and head tissues in females. Both TBT and TPhT concentrations in the gonads were positively correlated with penis length in females. Our findings strongly suggest that reproductive failure in adult females accompanied by imposex, possibly induced by TBT and TPhT from antifouling paints, may have caused the marked decline of B. japonica populations in Japan. PMID:16818241

  6. Impact of tributyltin and triphenyltin on ivory shell (Babylonia japonica) populations.

    PubMed

    Horiguchi, Toshihiro; Kojima, Mitsuhiro; Hamada, Fumihiko; Kajikawa, Akira; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Morita, Masatoshi; Shimizu, Makoto

    2006-04-01

    We histopathologically examined gonads and chemically determined organotin compounds in tissues of the ivory shell, Babylonia japonica. Imposex (a superimposition of male-type genital organs on females) occurred in approximately 80-90% of B. japonica specimens that we examined, with the penis and vas deferens both well developed. No oviduct blockage by vas deferens formation was observed. Ovarian spermatogenesis and suppressed ovarian maturation were observed in the females that exhibited imposex, although no histopathological abnormalities were found in males. Tissue distributions of organotin compounds [tributyltin (TBT), triphenyltin (TPhT), and their metabolites] were different for butyltins and phenyltins; a remarkably high accumulation of TBT was observed in the ctenidium, osphradium, and heart, whereas high concentrations of TPhT were detected in the ovary and digestive gland. More than one-third of TBT accumulated in the digestive glands of both males and females, followed by the testis, ctenidium, muscle, and heart tissues in males and in the muscle, ovary, ctenidium, and head tissues (including the central nervous system ganglia) in females. In both males and females, more than half of total TPhT accumulated in the digestive glands, followed by the gonads. The next highest values were in the muscle, ctenidium, and heart tissues in males and in the muscle, oviduct, and head tissues in females. Both TBT and TPhT concentrations in the gonads were positively correlated with penis length in females. Our findings strongly suggest that reproductive failure in adult females accompanied by imposex, possibly induced by TBT and TPhT from antifouling paints, may have caused the marked decline of B. japonica populations in Japan.

  7. Responses of Crepis japonica induced by supplemental blue light and UV-A radiation.

    PubMed

    Constantino, L F da S; Nascimento, L B Dos S; Casanova, L M; Moreira, N Dos S; Menezes, E A; Esteves, R L; Costa, S S; Tavares, E S

    2017-02-15

    Crepis japonica (L.) D.C. (Asteraceae), a weed with antioxidant, antiallergenic, antiviral and antitumor properties displays both medicinal properties and nutritional value. This study aims to assess the effects of a supplementation of blue light and UV-A radiation on the growth, leaf anatomical structure and phenolic profile of the aerial parts of Crepis japonica. Plants were grown under two light treatments: W (control - white light), W + B (white light supplemented with blue light) and W + UV-A (white light supplemented with UV-A radiation). We recorded the length, width, and weight of fresh and dry leaves, the thickness of the epidermis and mesophyll, and stomata density. The phenolic profiles of the aqueous extracts of the aerial parts were analyzed by HPLC-DAD. There was an increase in the leaf size, stomatal density, and phenolic production, and a thickening of the mesophyll and epidermis. UV-A radiation increased the phenolic production more than blue light. Blue light and UV-A radiation both improved the production of caffeic acid by about 6 and 3 times, respectively, in comparison to control. This compound was first reported as a constituent of the extract from the aerial parts together with caftaric acid. UV-A also promoted the production of chlorogenic acid (about 1.5 times in comparison to the control). We observed that the morphological and chemical parameters of C. japonica are modified in response to blue light and UV-A radiation, which can be used as tools in the cultivation of this species in order to improve its medicinal properties and nutritional value.

  8. Evidence for cryptic northern refugia in the last glacial period in Cryptomeria japonica

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Megumi K.; Uchiyama, Kentaro; Nakao, Katsuhiro; Moriguchi, Yoshinari; San Jose-Maldia, Lerma; Tsumura, Yoshihiko

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Distribution shifts and natural selection during past climatic changes are important factors in determining the genetic structure of forest species. In particular, climatic fluctuations during the Quaternary appear to have caused changes in the distribution ranges of plants, and thus strongly affected their genetic structure. This study was undertaken to identify the responses of the conifer Cryptomeria japonica, endemic to the Japanese Archipelago, to past climatic changes using a combination of phylogeography and species distribution modelling (SDM) methods. Specifically, this study focused on the locations of refugia during the last glacial maximum (LGM). Methods Genetic diversity and structure were examined using 20 microsatellite markers in 37 populations of C. japonica. The locations of glacial refugia were assessed using STRUCTURE analysis, and potential habitats under current and past climate conditions were predicted using SDM. The process of genetic divergence was also examined using the approximate Bayesian computation procedure (ABC) in DIY ABC to test the divergence time between the gene pools detected by the STRUCTURE analysis. Key Results STRUCTURE analysis identified four gene pools: northern Tohoku district; from Chubu to Chugoku district; from Tohoku to Shikoku district on the Pacific Ocean side of the Archipelago; and Yakushima Island. DIY ABC analysis indicated that the four gene pools diverged at the same time before the LGM. SDM also indicated potential northern cryptic refugia. Conclusions The combined evidence from microsatellites and SDM clearly indicates that climatic changes have shaped the genetic structure of C. japonica. The gene pool detected in northern Tohoku district is likely to have been established by cryptic northern refugia on the coast of the Japan Sea to the west of the Archipelago. The gene pool in Yakushima Island can probably be explained simply by long-term isolation from the other gene pools since

  9. Two distinct roles of the yorkie/yap gene during homeostasis in the planarian Dugesia japonica.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Byulnim; An, Yang; Agata, Kiyokazu; Umesono, Yoshihiko

    2015-04-01

    Adult planarians possess somatic pluripotent stem cells called neoblasts that give rise to all missing cell types during regeneration and homeostasis. Recent studies revealed that the Yorkie (Yki)/Yes-associated protein (YAP) transcriptional coactivator family plays an important role in the regulation of tissue growth during development and regeneration, and therefore we investigated the role of a planarian yki-related gene (termed Djyki) during regeneration and homeostasis of the freshwater planarian Dugesia japonica. We found that knockdown of the function of Djyki by RNA interference (RNAi) downregulated neoblast proliferation and caused regeneration defects after amputation. In addition, Djyki RNAi caused edema during homeostasis. These seemingly distinct defects induced by Djyki RNAi were rescued by simultaneous RNAi of a planarian mats-related gene (termed Djmats), suggesting an important role of Djmats in the negative regulation of Djyki, in accordance with the conservation of the functional relationship of these two genes during the course of evolution. Interestingly, Djyki RNAi did not prevent normal protonephridial structure, suggesting that Djyki RNAi induced the edema phenotype without affecting the excretory system. Further analyses revealed that increased expression of the D. japonica gene DjaquaporinA (DjaqpA), which belongs to a large gene family that encodes a water channel protein for the regulation of transcellular water flow, promoted the induction of edema, but not defects in neoblast dynamics, in Djyki(RNAi) animals. Thus, we conclude that Djyki plays two distinct roles in the regulation of active proliferation of stem cells and in osmotic water transport across the body surface in D. japonica. © 2015 The Authors Development, Growth & Differentiation published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  10. Quantifying Quality of Life and Disability of Patients with Advanced Schistosomiasis Japonica

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Tie-Wu; Utzinger, Jürg; Deng, Yao; Yang, Kun; Li, Yi-Yi; Zhu, Jin-Huan; King, Charles H.; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2011-01-01

    Background The Chinese government lists advanced schistosomiasis as a leading healthcare priority due to its serious health and economic impacts, yet it has not been included in the estimates of schistosomiasis burden in the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study. Therefore, the quality of life and disability weight (DW) for the advanced cases of schistosomiasis japonica have to be taken into account in the re-estimation of burden of disease due to schistosomiasis. Methodology/Principal Findings A patient-based quality-of-life evaluation was performed for advanced schistosomiasis japonica. Suspected or officially registered advanced cases in a Schistosoma japonicum-hyperendemic county of the People's Republic of China (P.R. China) were screened using a short questionnaire and physical examination. Disability and morbidity were assessed in confirmed cases, using the European quality of life questionnaire with an additional cognitive dimension (known as the “EQ-5D plus”), ultrasonography, and laboratory testing. The age-specific DW of advanced schistosomiasis japonica was estimated based on patients' self-rated health scores on the visual analogue scale of the questionnaire. The relationships between health status, morbidity and DW were explored using multivariate regression models. Of 506 candidates, 215 cases were confirmed as advanced schistosomiasis japonica and evaluated. Most of the patients reported impairments in at least one health dimension, such as pain or discomfort (90.7%), usual activities (87.9%), and anxiety or depression (80.9%). The overall DW was 0.447, and age-specific DWs ranged from 0.378 among individuals aged 30–44 years to 0.510 among the elderly aged ≥60 years. DWs are positively associated with loss of work capacity, psychological abnormality, ascites, and active hepatitis B virus, while splenectomy and high albumin were protective factors for quality of life. Conclusions/Significance These patient-preference disability estimates

  11. Triterpene glycosides from the whole plant of Anemone hupehensis var. japonica and their cytotoxic activity.

    PubMed

    Yokosuka, Akihito; Sano, Tomoe; Hashimoto, Ken; Sakagami, Hiroshi; Mimaki, Yoshihiro

    2009-12-01

    Three new triterpene glycosides (1-3), together with eight known triterpene glycosides (4-11), were isolated from the whole plant of Anemone hupehensis var. japonica (Ranunculaceae). The structures of the new compounds were determined on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and the results of hydrolytic cleavage experiments. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against HL-60 human leukemia cells, HSC-2 human oral squamous carcinoma cells, HSC-4 human oral squamous carcinoma cells, and A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells.

  12. Microtropiosides A-F: ent-Labdane diterpenoid glucosides from the leaves of Microtropis japonica (Celastraceae).

    PubMed

    Koyama, Yuka; Matsunami, Katsuyoshi; Otsuka, Hideaki; Shinzato, Takakazu; Takeda, Yoshio

    2010-04-01

    From a 1-BuOH-soluble fraction of a MeOH extract of the leaves of Microtropis japonica, collected in the Okinawa islands, six ent-labdane glucosides, named microtropiosides A-F, were isolated together with one known acyclic sesquiterpene glucoside. Their structures were elucidated by a combination of spectroscopic analyses, and their absolute configurations determined by application of the beta-D-glucopyranosylation-induced shift-trend rule in (13)C NMR spectroscopy and the modified Mosher's method. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Polarization Analysis of Light Scattered by Pollen Grains of Cryptomeria japonica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwai, Toshiaki

    2013-06-01

    Pollinosis to airborne pollen grains is a severe problem that concerns the whole world. Almost spring allergies in Japan are caused by pollen grains of Japan cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) during the period of pollination from February to May. One of the key technologies in a pollen monitoring and forecast system is a pollen sensor. The pollen grain of Japan cedar is identified by introducing the degree of polarization to the optical sensor based on the scattered intensity. The detectability and discriminability in identifying the pollen grains of Japan cedar from the polystyrene spherical particles and the Kanto loam grains are achieved up to 95 and 86%, respectively.

  14. Oral allergy syndrome induced by tomato in a dog with Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) pollinosis.

    PubMed

    Fujimura, Masato; Ohmori, Keitaro; Masuda, Kenichi; Tsujimoto, Hajime; Sakaguchi, Masahiro

    2002-11-01

    A dog with Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica, CJ) pollinosis had oral allergy syndrome (OAS) after ingesting fresh tomato. The dog showed specific IgE to both CJ and tomato allergens. As a negative control, twenty dogs without atopic dermatitis that had no exposure to tomato and no specific IgE to CJ allergen were used. They had no specific IgE to tomato allergen. Furthermore, IgE cross-reactivity was observed between CJ and tomato allergens in the dog. We found that OAS induced by tomato exists in the dog and there is a relationship between CJ and tomato allergens.

  15. Salicylic acid and heat acclimation pretreatment protects Laminaria japonica sporophyte (Phaeophyceae) from heat stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Bin; Tang, Xuexi; Wang, You

    2010-07-01

    Possible mediatory roles of heat acclimation and salicylic acid in protecting the sporophyte of marine macroalga Laminaria japonica (Phaeophyceae) from heat stress were studied. Heat stress resulted in oxidative injury in the kelp blades. Under heat stress significant accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malonaldehyde (MDA), a membrane lipid peroxidation product, and a drastic decrease in chlorophyll a content were recorded. Activity of the enzymatic antioxidant system was drastically affected by heat stress. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was significantly increased while peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) were greatly inhibited and, simultaneously, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase was activated while polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was inhibited. Both heat acclimation pretreatment and exogenous application of salicylic acid alleviated oxidative damage in kelp blades. Blades receiving heat acclimation pretreatment and exogenous salicylic acid prior to heat stress exhibited a reduced increase in H2O2 and MDA content, and a lower reduction in chlorophyll a content. Pretreatment with heat acclimation and salicylic acid elevated activities of SOD, POD, CAT, GPX and PPO. Considering these results collectively, we speculate that the inhibition of antioxidant enzymes is a possible cause of the heat-stress-induced oxidative stress in L. japonica, and enhanced thermotolerance may be associated, at least in part, with the elevated activity of the enzymatic antioxidant system.

  16. Identification of Insecticidal Constituents from the Essential Oil from the Aerial Parts Stachys riederi var. japonica.

    PubMed

    Quan, Meirong; Liu, Qi Zhi; Liu, Zhi Long

    2018-05-17

    The essential oil of Stachys riederi var. japonica (Family: Lamiaceae) was extracted by hydrodistillation and determined by GC and GC-MS. A total of 40 components were identified, representing 96.01% of the total oil composition. The major compounds in the essential oil were acetanisole (15.43%), anisole (9.43%), 1,8-cineole (8.07%), geraniol (7.89%), eugenol (4.54%), caryophyllene oxide (4.47%), caryophyllene (4.21%) and linalool (4.07%). Five active constituents (acetanisole, anisole, 1,8-cineole, eugenol and geraniol) were identified by bioactivity-directed fractionation. The essential oil possessed fumigant toxicity against maize weevils ( Sitophilus zeamais ) and booklice ( Liposcelis bostrychophila ), with LC 50 values of 15.0 mg/L and 0.7 mg/L, respectively. Eugenol and anisole exhibited stronger fumigant toxicity than the oil against booklice. 1,8-Cineole showed stronger toxicity, and anisole as well as eugenol exhibited the same level of fumigant toxicity as the essential oil against maize weevils. The essential oil also exhibited contact toxicity against S. zeamais adults and L. bostrychophila , with LC 50 values of 21.8 µg/adult and 287.0 µg/cm², respectively. The results indicated that the essential oil of S. riederi var. japonica and its isolates show potential as fumigants, and for their contact toxicity against grain storage insects.

  17. Effects of Eriobotrya japonica seed extract on oxidative stress in rats with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, Saburo; Hamada, Atsuhide; Jobu, Kohei; Yokota, Junko; Onogawa, Masahide; Kyotani, Shojiro; Miyamura, Mitsuhiko; Saibara, Toshiji; Onishi, Saburo; Nishioka, Yutaka

    2010-02-01

    Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis is associated with the deposition of lipid droplets in the liver, and is characterised histologically by the infiltration of inflammatory cells, hepatocellular degeneration and liver fibrosis. Oxidative stress may play an important role in the onset and deterioration of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. We previously reported that an Eriobotrya japonica seed extract, extracted in 70% ethanol, exhibited antioxidant actions in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we examined the effect of this extract in a rat model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. The seed extract was given in the drinking water to fats being fed a methionine-choline-deficient diet for 15 weeks. Increases in alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels were significantly inhibited in rats fed the seed extract compared with the group on the diet alone. Formation of fatty droplets in the liver was also inhibited. Antioxidant enzyme activity in liver tissue was higher than in the diet-only group and lipid peroxidation was reduced compared with rats that also received the extract. Expression of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal was lower in the rats given the seed extract than in the diet-only group. In the former, liver tissue levels of transforming growth factor-beta and collagen were also decreased. Thus, the E. japonica seed extract inhibited fatty liver, inflammation and fibrosis, suggesting its usefulness in the treatment of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

  18. A multidrug and toxic compound extrusion transporter mediates berberine accumulation into vacuoles in Coptis japonica.

    PubMed

    Takanashi, Kojiro; Yamada, Yasuyuki; Sasaki, Takayuki; Yamamoto, Yoko; Sato, Fumihiko; Yazaki, Kazufumi

    2017-06-01

    Plants produce a large variety of alkaloids, which have diverse chemical structures and biological activities. Many of these alkaloids accumulate in vacuoles. Although some membrane proteins on tonoplasts have been identified as alkaloid uptake transporters, few have been characterized to date, and relatively little is known about the mechanisms underlying alkaloid transport and accumulation in plant cells. Berberine is a model alkaloid. Although all genes involved in berberine biosynthesis, as well as the master regulator, have been identified, the gene responsible for the final accumulation of berberine at tonoplasts has not been determined. This study showed that a multidrug and toxic compound extrusion protein 1 (CjMATE1) may act as a berberine transporter in cultured Coptis japonica cells. CjMATE1 was found to localize at tonoplasts in C. japonica cells and, in intact plants, to be expressed preferentially in rhizomes, the site of abundant berberine accumulation. Cellular transport analysis using a yeast expression system showed that CjMATE1 could transport berberine. Expression analysis showed that RNAi suppression of CjbHLH1, a master transcription factor of the berberine biosynthetic pathway, markedly reduced the expression of CjMATE1 in a manner similar to the suppression of berberine biosynthetic genes. These results strongly suggest that CjMATE1 is the transporter that mediates berberine accumulation in vacuoles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. High efficiency induction of callus and regeneration of sporophytes of Laminaria japonica (Phaeophyta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xi-Hua; Qin, Song; Li, Xin-Ping; Jiang, Peng; Zeng, Cheng-Kui; Qin, Mei

    1998-03-01

    Four media (PESI solid, MS liquid, MS solid and ASP-C-I solid medium) were used to induce callus from excised tissues of the kelp Laminaria japonica. Only PESI solid medium and MS solid medium produced calli. Modified MS solid medium supplemented with mannitol (3%,W/V), yeast extract (0.1%, W/V), VB2 (0.5 mg/ml), VB12 (0.5 mg/ml), kinetin (0.108 μg/ml) and NAA (1.860μg/ml) showed much better effect on callus induction than non-modified MS solid medium. After 24 days of induction 75.5% of tissues in PESI solid medium showed callus formation. For modified MS solid medium, after three months of induction 67.3% of tissues dedifferentiated into calli. No callus could be found after five months of induction in either MS liquid or ASP-C-I solid medium. When calli were squashed and cultured in N-P enriched autoclaved seawater, MS liquid medium and ASP12-NTA liquid medium (both modified with kelp extract), differentiation of cells and regeneration of sporophytes were only observed in ASP12-NTA medium supplemented with kelp extract. Gametophyte-like filaments formed first, then eggs were released. It was suggested that sporophyte formation could be a process of parthenogenesis. Sterilization techniques in tissue culture of L. japonica were also tested in this study.

  20. Effects of Laminaria japonica polysaccharides on exercise endurance and oxidative stress in forced swimming mouse model.

    PubMed

    Yan, Feiwei; Hao, Haitao

    2016-12-01

    Polysaccharides are the major active ingredients responsible for the bioactivities of Laminaria japonica. However, the effects of L. japonica polysaccharides (LJP) on exercise endurance and oxidative stress have never been investigated. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of LJP on exercise endurance and oxidative stress in a forced swimming mouse model. The animals were divided into four groups, namely the control (C), LJP-75, LJP-150, and LJP-300 groups, which received physiological saline and 75, 150, and 300 mg kg(-1) LJP, respectively, by gavage once a day for 28 days. This was followed by a forced swimming test and measurements of various biochemical parameters. LJP increased swimming time to exhaustion, the liver and muscle glycogen content, and levels of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase in the serum, liver, and muscle, which were accompanied by corresponding decreases in the malondialdehyde (MDA) content of the same tissues. Furthermore, decreases in blood lactic acid and serum myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels were observed. LJP enhanced exercise endurance and protected mice against exhaustive exercise-induced oxidative stress.

  1. Flavonoids from Machilus japonica Stems and Their Inhibitory Effects on LDL Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Se-Jin; Park, Hee-Jung; Park, Ji-Hae; Cho, Jin-Gyeong; Kang, Ji-Hyun; Jeong, Tae-Sook; Kang, Hee Cheol; Lee, Dae-Young; Kim, Hack-Soo; Byun, Sang-Yo; Baek, Nam-In

    2014-01-01

    Stems of Machilus japonica were extracted with 80% aqueous methanol (MeOH) and the concentrated extract was successively extracted with ethyl acetate (EtOAc), normal butanol (n-BuOH), and water. Six flavonoids were isolated from the EtOAc fraction: (+)-taxifolin, afzelin, (−)-epicatechin, 5,3'-di-O-methyl-(−)-epicatechin, 5,7,3'-tri-O-methyl-(−)-epicatechin, and 5,7-di-O-methyl-3',4'-methylenedioxyflavan-3-ol. The chemical structures were identified using spectroscopic data including NMR, mass spectrometry and infrared spectroscopy. This is the first report of isolation of these six compounds from M. japonica. The compounds were evaluated for their diphenyl picryl hydrazinyl scavenging activity and inhibitory effects on low-density lipoprotein oxidation. Compounds 1 and 3–6 exhibited DPPH antioxidant activity equivalent with that of ascorbic acid, with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 0.16, 0.21, 0.17, 0.15 and 0.07 mM, respectively. The activity of compound 1 was similar to the positive control butylated hydroxytoluene, which had an IC50 value of 1.9 µM, while compounds 3 and 5 showed little activity. Compounds 1, 3, and 5 exhibited LDL antioxidant activity with IC50 values of 2.8, 7.1, and 4.6 µM, respectively. PMID:25229822

  2. Antioxidant and Cytoprotective Activities of Enzymatic Extracts from Rhizoid of Laminaria japonica

    PubMed Central

    Je, Jae-Young; Park, Soo Yeon; Ahn, Chang-Bum

    2017-01-01

    Rhizoid of Laminaria japonica was hydrolyzed with proteases and carbohydrases to obtain antioxidant materials. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of the enzymatic extracts was evaluated and the Protamex extract (PE) exhibited the highest ORAC value. PE also potently scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic) acid cation radical, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and had good reducing power. PE inhibited hydroxyl radical-induced DNA scission by measuring the conversion of supercoiled pBR322 plasmid DNA to the open circular form. The cytoprotective effect of PE against H2O2-induced hepatic cell damage was also investigated. PE showed a dose-dependent cytoprotective effect in cultured hepatocytes by inhibiting intracellular reactive oxygen species scavenging activity. In addition, PE up-regulated the expression of heme oxygenase-1, which is a cytoprotective enzyme, by activating translocation of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2. Taken together, the enzymatic extract of rhizoid of L. japonica, particularly PE, may be useful for antioxidant additives. PMID:29333384

  3. Changes in growth conditions alter the male strobilus gene expression pattern in Cryptomeria japonica.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Mitsue

    2003-11-01

    Two-year old saplings grown from cuttings of Cryptomeria japonica D. Don initiate strobilus development following treatment with gibberellic acid under long-day photoperiods. At 25 degrees C with a 14-h photoperiod in a phytotron, male strobili initiated normally; however, they remained green and fell from the saplings prematurely. To examine the change in male strobilus development at the molecular level, three genes expressed specifically in male strobili were analyzed. Two were MADS box genes homologous to the B-function genes in angiosperms, CjMADS1 and CjMADS2, and the third was Cry j I, which encodes an allergen protein, and this gene is expressed mainly in microspores. Under phytotron growing conditions, the homeotic genes were expressed constantly, which reflected the extended early developmental stage of male strobili. On the other hand, Cry j I expression was detected after a long delay just before strobilus development ceased. These results indicate that the expression of the genes related to male reproductive development in C. japonica is regulated by a factor(s) that is sensitive to environmental signals.

  4. Genetic Structure and Potential Environmental Determinants of Local Genetic Diversity in Japanese Honeybees (Apis cerana japonica)

    PubMed Central

    Nagamitsu, Teruyoshi; Yasuda, Mika; Saito-Morooka, Fuki; Inoue, Maki N.; Nishiyama, Mio; Goka, Koichi; Sugiura, Shinji; Maeto, Kaoru; Okabe, Kimiko; Taki, Hisatomo

    2016-01-01

    Declines in honeybee populations have been a recent concern. Although causes of the declines remain unclear, environmental factors may be responsible. We focused on the potential environmental determinants of local populations of wild honeybees, Apis cerana japonica, in Japan. This subspecies has little genetic variation in terms of its mitochondrial DNA sequences, and genetic variations at nuclear loci are as yet unknown. We estimated the genetic structure and environmental determinants of local genetic diversity in nuclear microsatellite genotypes of fathers and mothers, inferred from workers collected at 139 sites. The genotypes of fathers and mothers showed weak isolation by distance and negligible genetic structure. The local genetic diversity was high in central Japan, decreasing toward the peripheries, and depended on the climate and land use characteristics of the sites. The local genetic diversity decreased as the annual precipitation increased, and increased as the proportion of urban and paddy field areas increased. Positive effects of natural forest area, which have also been observed in terms of forager abundance in farms, were not detected with respect to the local genetic diversity. The findings suggest that A. cerana japonica forms a single population connected by gene flow in its main distributional range, and that climate and landscape properties potentially affect its local genetic diversity. PMID:27898704

  5. Differential neuritogenic activities of two edible brown macroalgae, Undaria pinnatifida and Saccharina japonica.

    PubMed

    Hannan, Md Abdul; Mohibbullah, Md; Hwang, Seon-Yeong; Lee, Kyungyong; Kim, Yang-Chun; Hong, Yong-Ki; Moon, Il Soo

    2014-01-01

    Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar and Saccharina japonica Areschoug are two common seaweeds, and both are known to have numerous pharmacological properties that include neuroprotective effects. In a previous study, we found that the ethanol extracts of U. pinnatifida (UPE) and S. japonica (SJE) had neurite promoting activities on developing hippocampal neurons. In the present study, we studied and compared the effects of UPE and SJE on neuronal maturation. Both UPE and SJE promoted neurite outgrowth in a dose-dependent manner with optimal concentrations of 5 and 15 μg/mL, respectively. Initial neuronal differentiation was significantly promoted by UPE and SJE. Subsequently, treatment with both increased indices of axonal and dendritic cytoarchitecture, such as, the numbers and lengths of primary processes, although only UPE had a significant effect on branching frequencies. In addition, UPE and SJE showed no evidence of cytotoxicity, rather they protected neurons from naturally occurring death in vitro. These results indicate that UPE and SJE promote axodendritic maturation and neuronal survival and suggest that these algal extracts, especially UPE, have beneficial effects on the nervous system.

  6. Background matching by means of dorsal color change in treefrog populations (Hyla japonica).

    PubMed

    Choi, Noori; Jang, Yikweon

    2014-02-01

    Treefrogs change dorsal coloration to match background colors, presumably for predator avoidance. Dorsal coloration in treefrogs results from rearrangement of pigment granules in dermal chromatophores. This physiological basis for color change suggests that brightness and chroma are the color components that may change in response to background color. However, results of experiments are conflicting in that there is no consensus as to which color component is critical for color change in treefrogs. We tested predictions of the physiological model for color change in treefrogs by investigating dorsal color change under five background colors in three different populations of the treefrog Hyla japonica. Differences in color components between background colors and frogs were used as a measure of background matching. Throughout a 1-week experimental period, brightness and chroma differences decreased monotonically, while hue difference remained constant for all background colors. Chroma differences were smaller with the natural colors such as green and brown than with achromatic colors. Moreover, variation in color change among frogs from three localities that differed in land cover suggested that chroma change capacity may be sensitive to environmental conditions. Under the white background color, however, decreasing brightness difference seemed to be crucial to background matching. Furthermore, chroma difference and brightness difference did not decrease indefinitely, suggesting a trade-off between chroma difference and brightness difference under the white background. Thus, background matching may generally occur by decreasing chroma difference under most background colors in H. japonica, but brightness matching may be important under the white color. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Fungicides affect Japanese beetle Popillia japonica (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) egg hatch, larval survival and detoxification enzymes.

    PubMed

    Obear, Glen R; Adesanya, Adekunle W; Liesch, Patrick J; Williamson, R Chris; Held, David W

    2016-05-01

    Larvae of the Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), have a patchy distribution in soils, which complicates detection and management of this insect pest. Managed turf systems are frequently under pest pressure from fungal pathogens, necessitating frequent fungicide applications. It is possible that certain turfgrass fungicides may have lethal or sublethal adverse effects on eggs and larvae of P. japonica that inhabit managed turf systems. In this study, eggs and first-, second- and third-instar larvae were treated with the fungicides chlorothalonil and propiconazole, and survival was compared with that of untreated controls as well as positive controls treated with the insecticide trichlorfon. Chlorothalonil reduced survival of first-instar larvae treated directly and hatched from treated eggs. Propiconazole delayed egg hatch, reduced the proportion of eggs that successfully hatched and reduced survival of first-instar larvae treated directly and hatched from treated eggs. Sublethal doses of the fungicides lowered the activities of certain detoxification enzymes in third-instar grubs. Fungicide applications to turfgrass that coincide with oviposition and egg hatch of white grubs may have sublethal effects. This work is applicable both to high-maintenance turfgrass such as golf courses, where applications of pesticides are more frequent, and to home lawn services, where mixtures of multiple pesticides are commonly used. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Changes in mineral elements and starch quality of grains during the improvement of japonica rice cultivars.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Yu, Chao; Hou, Danping; Liu, Hailang; Zhang, Huiting; Tao, Rongrong; Cai, Han; Gu, Junfei; Liu, Lijun; Zhang, Zujian; Wang, Zhiqin; Yang, Jianchang

    2018-01-01

    The improvement of rice cultivars plays an important role in yield increase. However, little is known about the changes in starch quality and mineral elements during the improvement of rice cultivars. This study was conducted to investigate the changes in starch quality and mineral elements in japonica rice cultivars. Twelve typical rice cultivars, applied in the production in Jiangsu province during the last 60 years, were grown in the paddy fields. These cultivars were classified into six types according to their application times, plant types and genotypes. The nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and, and potassium (K) were mainly distributed in endosperm, bran and bran, respectively. Secondary and micromineral nutrients were distributed throughout grains. With the improvement of cultivars, total N contents gradually decreased, while total P, K and magnesium contents increased in grains. Total copper and zinc contents in type 80'S in grains were highest. The improvement of cultivars enhanced palatability (better gelatinisation enthalpy and amylose content), taste (better protein content) and protein quality (better protein components and essential amino acids). Correlation analysis indicated the close relationship between mineral elements and starch quality. The mineral elements and starch quality of grains during the improvement of japonica rice cultivars are improved. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Multi-scale structures and functional properties of starches from Indica hybrid, Japonica and waxy rice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shujun; Li, Peiyan; Yu, Jinglin; Guo, Peng; Wang, Shuo

    2017-09-01

    The structural and functional properties of starches from three rice grains differing in amylose content (19.9, 13.4 and 0.8% for Japonica, Indica hybrid and waxy rice, respectively) were investigated using a range of characterization methods Indica hybrid starch (IHS) had the highest proportion of intermediate (DP 13-24) and long branch chains (DP≥37) and the lowest proportion of short branch chains (DP 6-12), whereas the opposite results were observed for Japonica starch (JS). The results for waxy rice starch (WS) were between those of IHS and JS. Rice starches showed a typical A-type X-ray diffraction pattern with the relative crystallinity ranging from 33.4% for JS to 39.4% for WS. Significant differences were observed in lamellar distance and short-range molecular order characterized by IR ratio of absorbances at 1047/1022cm -1 and full width of half maximum (FWHM) of the band at 480cm -1 . WS showed a higher swelling power and a lower close packing concentration at temperatures from 60 to 90°C. The lower peak viscosity of WS was attributed to the formation of less rigid swollen granules at a concentrated regime. WS showed a higher in vitro digestibility compared with IHS and JS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Identification and characterization of a phospholipid scramblase encoded by planarian Dugesia japonica.

    PubMed

    Han, Yu; Li, Ao; Gao, Lili; Wu, Weiwei; Deng, Hongkuan; Hu, Wenjing; Li, Na; Sun, Shimin; Zhang, Xiufang; Zhao, Bosheng; Liu, Baohua; Pang, Qiuxiang

    2017-02-20

    Phospholipid scramblases (PLSCRs) are the conserved calcium-binding, type II transmembrane proteins synthesized in all eukaryotic organisms. In mammals, these proteins play essential roles in various physiological processes, especially in the immune responses. However, the existence of PLSCRs and their biological functions in planarian are still unknown at present. In this study, a new member of PLSCRs was identified in planarian Dugesia japonica (D. japonica), named DjPLSCR. The sequence analysis revealed that it contains an opening reading frame consisting of 726bp encoding a putative protein of 241 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of ~28.7kDa and an isoelectric point of 6.21. Whole-mount in situ hybridization showed that mRNAs of DjPLSCR are predominantly expressed in adult and regenerative pharynx which is an important organ of immune system in planarians. Importantly, we found that the transcription level of DjPLSCR was significantly upregulated when planarians were stimulated with the pathogen-associated molecular patterns [polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid, lipopolysaccharide, peptidoglycan and β-glucan], suggesting that DjPLSCR is involved in the immune response upon pathogen invasion. Our findings provide the first experimental insights into the characteristics and potential functions of PLSCR in planarians. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. RNA-Seq and UHPLC-Q-TOF/MS Based Lipidomics Study in Lysiphlebia japonica.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xueke; Luo, Junyu; Lü, Limin; Zhang, LiJuan; Zhang, Shuai; Cui, Jinjie

    2018-05-17

    Lipids play an important role in energy storage, membrane structure stabilization and signaling. Parasitoids are excellent models to study lipidomics because a majority of them do not accumulate during their free-living life-stage. Studies on parasitoids have mostly focused on the changes in the lipids and gene transcripts in hosts and little attention has been devoted to lipidomics and transcriptomics changes in parasitoids. In this study, a relative quantitative analysis of lipids and their gene transcripts in 3-days-old Lysiphlebia japonica larva (3 days after spawning) and pupae were performed using liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry and RNA-seq. Thirty-three glycerolipids and 250 glycerophospholipids were identified in this study; all triglycerides and the vast majority of phospholipids accumulated in the pupal stage. This was accompanied by differentially regulated lipid uptake and remolding. Furthermore, our data showed that gene transcription was up-regulated in key nutrient metabolic pathways involved in lipid synthesis in 3-days-old larvae. Finally, our data suggests that larva and pupa of L. japonica may lack the ability for fatty acids synthesis. A comprehensive, quantitative, and expandable resource was provided for further studies of metabolic regulation and molecular mechanisms underlying parasitic response to hosts defense.

  12. Morphology, taxonomic status and distribution of the opisthobranch mollusc Coryphella (s.l.) japonica from the central deep water basin of the Sea of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martynov, Alexander V.

    2013-02-01

    The opisthobranch fauna (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia) of the deep sea basins of the Sea of Japan is reviewed. A detailed description of the most common deep sea nudibranch species Coryphella japonicaVolodchenko, 1941 is given based on materials from various expeditions (including R/V "Vityaz" cruises and SoJaBio project). Distinct morphological features of C. japonica are discussed and its valid taxonomic status is confirmed. The considerable radular variability of C. japonica for the first time is documented using a scanning electron microscope. Unique features of the bathymetric distribution of C. japonica ranging from shelf to the abyssal depths are discussed in connection with the "pseudabyssal area" concept. C. japonica was compared to its assumed synonym C. salmonacea, and to similar C. athadona. Material from all these species, including types of C. japonica, was examined externally, anatomically via dissection, and SEM. C. salmonacea is restricted to North Atlantic and Arctic only, whereas C. japonica inhabits NE Pacific including deep water basins of the Sea of Japan.

  13. The promoter of an A9 homolog from the conifer Cryptomeria japonica imparts male strobilus-dominant expression in transgenic trees.

    PubMed

    Kurita, Manabu; Konagaya, Ken-ichi; Watanabe, Atsushi; Kondo, Teiji; Ishii, Katsuaki; Taniguchi, Toru

    2013-02-01

    KEY MESSAGE : GUS analysis in Cryptomeria japonica revealed that the CjMALE1 promoter is activated in the male strobilus of C. japonica. Toward the development of male sterile technology for Cryptomeria japonica, a male strobilus-dominant promoter of C. japonica was isolated. The CjMALE1 gene was isolated from a male strobilus-specific suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) library, and the promoter was isolated by the TAIL-PCR method. To characterize the CjMALE1 promoter, β-glucuronidase (GUS)-fused genes were constructed and introduced into C. japonica using Agrobacterium tumefaciens. GUS expression from CjMALE1-2.5 K (2,718 bp fragment)::GUS C. japonica and CjMALE1-1 K (1,029 bp fragment)::GUS C. japonica was detected in the tapetum and microspore mother cells. These promoter fragments were comparably active in the pre-meiotic stage of the male strobilus of C. japonica. Our analysis showed that the 1,029 bp promoter had all the cis-elements necessary for male strobilus-dominant expression of CjMALE1. When CjMALE1-1 K::GUS was introduced into Arabidopsis, GUS expression was detected in the same spatiotemporal pattern as in C. japonica. These results suggest that the CjMALE1 promoter is subject to transcriptional regulatory systems consisting of cis- and trans-elements that have been highly conserved during evolution.

  14. Predicting the spatial distribution of Lonicera japonica, based on species occurrence data from two watersheds in Western Kentucky and Tennessee

    Dongjiao Liu; Hao Jiang; Robin Zhang; Kate S. He

    2011-01-01

    The spatial distribution of most invasive plants is poorly documented and studied. This project examined and compared the spatial distribution of a successful invasive plant, Japanese honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica), in two similar-sized but ecologically distinct watersheds in western Kentucky (Ledbetter Creek) and western Tennessee (Panther Creek)....

  15. Bacterial community composition in the gut content of Lampetra japonica revealed by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Yu; Xie, Wenfang; Pang, Yue; Li, Tiesong; Li, Qingwei; Li, Yingying

    2017-01-01

    The composition of the bacterial communities in the hindgut contents of Lampetrs japonica was surveyed by Illumina MiSeq of the 16S rRNA gene. An average of 32385 optimized reads was obtained from three samples. The rarefaction curve based on the operational taxonomic units tended to approach the asymptote. The rank abundance curve representing the species richness and evenness was calculated. The composition of microbe in six classification levels was also analyzed. Top 20 members in genera level were displayed as the classification tree. The abundance of microorganisms in different individuals was displayed as the pie charts at the branch nodes in the classification tree. The differences of top 50 genera in abundance between individuals of lamprey are displayed as a heatmap. The pairwise comparison of bacterial taxa abundance revealed that there are no significant differences of gut microbiota between three individuals of lamprey at a given rarefied depth. Also, the gut microbiota derived from L. japonica displays little similarity with other aquatic organism of Vertebrata after UPGMA analysis. The metabolic function of the bacterial communities was predicted through KEGG analysis. This study represents the first analysis of the bacterial community composition in the gut content of L. japonica. The investigation of the gut microbiota associated with L. japonica will broaden our understanding of this unique organism.

  16. Identity and specificity of Rhizoctonia-like fungi from different populations of Liparis japonica (Orchidaceae) in Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Ding, Rui; Chen, Xu-Hui; Zhang, Li-Jun; Yu, Xiao-Dan; Qu, Bo; Duan, Ru; Xu, Yu-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Mycorrhizal association is known to be important to orchid species, and a complete understanding of the fungi that form mycorrhizas is required for orchid ecology and conservation. Liparis japonica (Orchidaceae) is a widespread terrestrial photosynthetic orchid in Northeast China. Previously, we found the genetic diversity of this species has been reduced recent years due to habitat destruction and fragmentation, but little was known about the relationship between this orchid species and the mycorrhizal fungi. The Rhizoctonia-like fungi are the commonly accepted mycorrhizal fungi associated with orchids. In this study, the distribution, diversity and specificity of culturable Rhizoctonia-like fungi associated with L. japonica species were investigated from seven populations in Northeast China. Among the 201 endophytic fungal isolates obtained, 86 Rhizoctonia-like fungi were identified based on morphological characters and molecular methods, and the ITS sequences and phylogenetic analysis revealed that all these Rhizoctonia-like fungi fell in the same main clade and were closely related to those of Tulasnella calospora species group. These findings indicated the high mycorrhizal specificity existed in L. japonica species regardless of habitats at least in Northeast China. Our results also supported the wide distribution of this fungal partner, and implied that the decline of L. japonica in Northeast China did not result from high mycorrhizal specificity. Using culture-dependent technology, these mycorrhizal fungal isolates might be important sources for the further utilizing in orchids conservation.

  17. Combined Phytochemistry and Chemotaxis Assays for Identification and Mechanistic Analysis of Anti-Inflammatory Phytochemicals in Fallopia japonica

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Ming-Yi; Liu, Yan-Jun; Don, Ming-Jaw; Liu, Hsien-Yueh; Chen, Zeng-Weng; Mettling, Clément; Corbeau, Pierre; Chiang, Chih-Kang; Jang, Yu-Song; Li, Tzu-Hsuan; Young, Paul; Chang, Cicero L. T.; Lin, Yea-Lih; Yang, Wen-Chin

    2011-01-01

    Plants provide a rich source of lead compounds for a variety of diseases. A novel approach combining phytochemistry and chemotaxis assays was developed and used to identify and study the mechanisms of action of the active compounds in F. japonica, a medicinal herb traditionally used to treat inflammation. Based on a bioactivity-guided purification strategy, two anthranoids, emodin and physcion, were identified from F. japonica. Spectroscopic techniques were used to characterize its crude extract, fractions and phytochemicals. The crude extract, chloroform fraction, and anthranoids of F. japonica significantly inhibited CXCR4-mediated chemotaxis. Mechanistic studies showed that emodin and physcion inhibited chemotaxis via inactivating the MEK/ERK pathway. Moreover, the crude extract and emodin could prevent or treat type 1 diabetes in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. This study illustrates the applicability of a combinational approach for the study of anti-inflammatory medicine and shows the potential of F. japonica and its anthranoids for anti-inflammatory therapy. PMID:22087325

  18. Diaphorina citri Induces Huanglongbing-Infected Citrus Plant Volatiles to Repel and Reduce the Performance of Propylaea japonica.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yongwen; Lin, Sheng; Akutse, Komivi S; Hussain, Mubasher; Wang, Liande

    2016-01-01

    Transmission of plant pathogens through insect vectors is a complex biological process involving interactions between the host plants, insects, and pathogens. Simultaneous impact of the insect damage and pathogenic bacteria in infected host plants induce volatiles that modify not only the behavior of its insect vector but also of their natural enemies, such as parasitoid wasps. Therefore, it is essential to understand how insects such as the predator ladybird beetle responds to volatiles emitted from a host plant and how the disease transmission alters the interactions between predators, vector, pathogens, and plants. In this study, we investigated the response of Propylaea japonica to volatiles from citrus plants damaged by Diaphorina citri and Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus through olfactometer bioassays. Synthetic chemical blends were also used to determine the active compounds in the plant volatile. The results showed that volatiles emitted by healthy plants attracted more P. japonica than other treatments, due to the presence of high quantities of D-limonene and beta-ocimene, and the lack of methyl salicylate. When using synthetic chemicals in the olfactory tests, we found that D-limonene attracted P. japonica while methyl salicylate repelled the predator. However, beta-ocimene attracted the insects at lower concentrations but repelled them at higher concentrations. These results indicate that P. japonica could not efficiently search for its host by using volatile cues emitted from psyllids- and Las bacteria-infected citrus plants.

  19. Development and validation of a habitat suitability model for the non-indigenous seagrass Zostera japonica in North America

    EPA Science Inventory

    We developed a spatially-explicit, flexible 3-parameter habitat suitability model that can be used to identify and predict areas at higher risk for non-native dwarf eelgrass (Zostera japonica) invasion. The model uses simple environmental parameters (depth, nearshore slope, and s...

  20. Effects of elevated pCO2 on reproductive properties of the benthic copepod Tigriopus japonicus and gastropod Babylonia japonica.

    PubMed

    Kita, Jun; Kikkawa, Takashi; Asai, Takamasa; Ishimatsu, Atsushi

    2013-08-30

    We investigated the effects of elevated pCO2 in seawater both on the acute mortality and the reproductive properties of the benthic copepod Tigriopus japonicus and gastropod Babylonia japonica with the purpose of accumulating basic data for assessing potential environmental impacts of sub-sea geological storage of anthropogenic CO2 in Japan. Acute tests showed that nauplii of T. japonicus have a high tolerance to elevated pCO2 environments. Full life cycle tests on T. japonicus indicated NOEC=5800μatm and LOEC=37,000μatm. Adult B. japonica showed remarkable resistance to elevated pCO2 in the acute tests. Embryonic development of B. japonica showed a NOEC=1500μatm and LOEC=5400μatm. T. japonicus showed high resistance to elevated pCO2 throughout the life cycle and B. japonica are rather sensitive during the veliger stage when they started to form their shells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Bt proteins Cry1Ah and Cry2Ab do not affect cotton aphid Aphis gossypii and ladybeetle Propylea japonica

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yao; Zhang, Shuai; Luo, Jun-Yu; Wang, Chun-Yi; Lv, Li-Min; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Cui, Jin-Jie; Lei, Chao-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Plant varieties expressing the Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) insecticidal proteins Cry1Ah and Cry2Ab have potential commercialization prospects in China. However, their potential effects on non-target arthropods (NTAs) remain uncharacterized. The cotton aphid Aphis gossypii is a worldwide pest that damages various important crops. The ladybeetle Propylea japonica is a common and abundant natural enemy in many cropping systems in East Asia. In the present study, the effects of Cry1Ah and Cry2Ab proteins on A. gossypii and P. japonica were assessed from three aspects. First, neither of the Cry proteins affected the growth or developmental characteristics of the two test insects. Second, the expression levels of the detoxification-related genes of the two test insects did not change significantly in either Cry protein treatment. Third, neither of the Cry proteins had a favourable effect on the expression of genes associated with the amino acid metabolism of A. gossypii and the nutrition utilization of P. japonica. In conclusion, the Cry1Ah and Cry2Ab proteins do not appear to affect the cotton aphid A. gossypii or the ladybeetle P. japonica. PMID:26829252

  2. PRODUCTION ECOLOGY OF THE NON-INDIGENOUS SEAGRASS, DWARF EELGRASS (ZOSTERA JAPONICA ASCHER. & GRAEB.), IN A PACIFIC NORTHWEST ESTUARY, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The non-indigenous seagrass Zostera japonica Ascher. & Graeb. (dwarf eelgrass) was first identified in central Oregon (USA) estuaries about 30 years ago. The autecology of this species is poorly described at the southern end of its non-native range although several process orien...

  3. De novo Transcriptome Analysis of Rhizoctonia solani AG1 IA Strain Early Invasion in Zoysia japonica Root.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chen; Ai, Lin; Wang, Li; Yin, Pingping; Liu, Chenglan; Li, Shanshan; Zeng, Huiming

    2016-01-01

    Zoysia japonica brown spot was caused by necrotrophic fungus Rhizoctonia solani invasion, which led to severe financial loss in city lawn and golf ground maintenance. However, little was known about the molecular mechanism of R. solani pathogenicity in Z. japonica. In this study we examined early stage interaction between R. solani AG1 IA strain and Z. japonica cultivar "Zenith" root by cell ultra-structure analysis, pathogenesis-related proteins assay and transcriptome analysis to explore molecular clues for AG1 IA strain pathogenicity in Z. japonica. No obvious cell structure damage was found in infected roots and most pathogenesis-related protein activities showedg a downward trend especially in 36 h post inoculation, which exhibits AG1 IA strain stealthy invasion characteristic. According to Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database classification, most DEGs in infected "Zenith" roots dynamically changed especially in three aspects, signal transduction, gene translation, and protein synthesis. Total 3422 unigenes of "Zenith" root were predicted into 14 kinds of resistance (R) gene class. Potential fungal resistance related unigenes of "Zenith" root were involved in ligin biosynthesis, phytoalexin synthesis, oxidative burst, wax biosynthesis, while two down-regulated unigenes encoding leucine-rich repeat receptor protein kinase and subtilisin-like protease might be important for host-derived signal perception to AG1 IA strain invasion. According to Pathogen Host Interaction (PHI) database annotation, 1508 unigenes of AG1 IA strain were predicted and classified into 37 known pathogen species, in addition, unigenes encoding virulence, signaling, host stress tolerance, and potential effector were also predicted. This research uncovered transcriptional profiling during the early phase interaction between R. solani AG1 IA strain and Z. japonica, and will greatly help identify key pathogenicity of AG1 IA strain.

  4. Variation of cleavage pattern permitting normal development in a sand dollar, Peronella japonica: comparison with other sand dollars.

    PubMed

    Amemiya, S; Arakawa, E

    1996-09-01

    Peronella japonica, a sand dollar, forms an abbreviated pluteus larva and metamorphoses within 3 days without feeding. In the present study, the cleavage pattern of Peronella embryos was found to be quite irregular in the vegetal blastomeres at the fourth cleavage. Less than half of the embryos examined formed four typical micromeres. The majority formed zero, one, two or three typical micromeres of regular size, and the blastomere(s) remaining in the vegetal-most region was atypical in size and/or its direction of division. Most embryos were able to form pluteus larvae and a considerable proportion of these metamorphosed into juvenile sea urchins, regardless of whether or not they had formed four typical micromeres of regular size, although embryos which formed no typical micromeres developed into pluteus larvae less frequently. The micromere progeny in Peronella embryos form skeletogenic mesenchyme cells. The average numbers of skeletogenic mesenchyme cells in the three sand dollar species, Clypeaster japonicus, Astriclypeus manni and P. japonica were 62, 122 and 219, respectively. In these species, the skeletogenic mesenchyme cell-specific glycoprotein (msp130) was first detected immediately after ingression of the primary mesenchyme cells, spicules appeared at the early gastrula stage and triradiate spicules were found in late gastrulae. Appearance of these characteristics was markedly accelerated in the embryos of A. manni and P. japonica in comparison with those of C. japonicus. Each step in the formation of larval spicules was equally accelerated in A. manni and P. japonica, although the appearance of the adult skeleton was further accelerated in P. japonica in comparison with A. manni, possibly because of omission of the four- to eight-armed pluteus stages.

  5. Herbological studies of Coptidis rhizoma (Part 2): on the old Japanese name of Coptis japonica makino.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, M; Mikage, M

    1999-01-01

    The rhizome of Coptis plant of the family ranunculaceae has been used in traditional Chinese medicine as a crude drug (Huanglian in present Chinese). In Japan, the rhizome of Coptis japonica Makino (the botanical name of which is "Ohren" in modern Japanese) has been utilized as a crude drug since the Nara era. The Japanese name in those days was "Kakumakusa based on descriptions in old books written in the Heian era. It changed to "Kakumikusa" early in the Edo era, and then changed again to Kakumakusa later in the Edo era. Through this herbological study, it was conjectured as follows: The resemblance between Chinese characters (or MA) and (or MI) in cursive style caused mis-copying of the character. After the "Honzo-wamyo, written in the Heian era, was revised in the late Edo era, and on which the name was accurately written as Kakumakusa, the mistake was corrected.

  6. Short-term toxicity of polystryrene microplastics on mysid shrimps Neomysis japonica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mingxin; Wang, Xiao; Luo, Xianxiang; Zheng, Hao

    2017-04-01

    Plastic debris especially microplastics (MPs) have become a global concern for the aggravating pollution in the oceans. In this study, the physico-chemical properties of fluorescently labeled polystyrene (PS) beads and the effects of PS-MPs on the survival of mysid shrimps (Neomysis japonica) were investigated. PS-MPs were identified to have spherical shape, uniform size and stable green fluorescence. The results showed that PS beads had little effects on the mortality of shrimps under a short-term (72 h) exposure with concentrations of 50 μg L-1 and 500 μg L-1. However, PS-MPs had severe short-term toxicity on the survival of mysid shrimps, resulting in 30% mortality especially in a 72 h exposure with the higher concentration of 1000 μg L-1. These findings provide new insights into the toxic effects of MPs on marine invertebrates.

  7. Genome scanning for detecting adaptive genes along environmental gradients in the Japanese conifer, Cryptomeria japonica.

    PubMed

    Tsumura, Y; Uchiyama, K; Moriguchi, Y; Ueno, S; Ihara-Ujino, T

    2012-12-01

    Local adaptation is important in evolutionary processes and speciation. We used multiple tests to identify several candidate genes that may be involved in local adaptation from 1026 loci in 14 natural populations of Cryptomeria japonica, the most economically important forestry tree in Japan. We also studied the relationships between genotypes and environmental variables to obtain information on the selective pressures acting on individual populations. Outlier loci were mapped onto a linkage map, and the positions of loci associated with specific environmental variables are considered. The outlier loci were not randomly distributed on the linkage map; linkage group 11 was identified as a genomic island of divergence. Three loci in this region were also associated with environmental variables such as mean annual temperature, daily maximum temperature, maximum snow depth, and so on. Outlier loci identified with high significance levels will be essential for conservation purposes and for future work on molecular breeding.

  8. Adaptive biochemical and physiological responses of Eriobotrya japonica to fluoride air pollution.

    PubMed

    Elloumi, Nada; Zouari, Mohamed; Mezghani, Imed; Ben Abdallah, Ferjani; Woodward, Steve; Kallel, Monem

    2017-09-01

    The biochemical and physiological effects of fluoride were investigated in loquat trees (Eriobotrya japonica) grown in the vicinity of a phosphate fertilizer plant in Tunisia. Photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), transpiration rate (E), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were assessed; along with photosynthetic pigments, lipid peroxidation, electrolytic leakage (EL) and total phenolic contents in foliage and roots of trees at different distances from the phosphate fertilizer plant. All assessed parameters showed significant discrepancies in comparison with unpolluted sites. Obtained results showed high oxidative stress indices including H 2 O 2 , lipid peroxidation, and EL, SOD, CAT and GPx activities and proline contents in leaves and roots at the polluted sites as compared to control. In contrast, leaf Pn, Gs, E and photosynthetic pigment contents were low as compared to the control. These results indicate that even though antioxidant responses increased near the factory, adverse effects on physiology were pronounced.

  9. Wound repair and anti-inflammatory potential of Lonicera japonica in excision wound-induced rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Cheng; Liou, Shorong-Shii; Tzeng, Thing-Fong; Lee, Shiow-Ling; Liu, I-Min

    2012-11-23

    Lonicera japonica Thunb. (Caprifoliaceae), a widely used traditional Chinese medicinal plant, is used to treat some infectious diseases and it may have uses as a healthy food and applications in cosmetics and as an ornamental groundcover. The ethanol extract of the flowering aerial parts of L. japonica (LJEE) was investigated for its healing efficiency in a rat excision wound model. Excision wounds were inflicted upon three groups of eight rats each. Healing was assessed by the rate of wound contraction in skin wound sites in rats treated with simple ointment base, 10% (w/w) LJEE ointment, or the reference standard drug, 0.2% (w/w) nitrofurazone ointment. The effects of LJEE on the contents of hydroxyproline and hexosamine during healing were estimated. The antimicrobial activity of LJEE against microorganisms was also assessed. The in vivo anti-inflammatory activity of LJEE was investigated to understand the mechanism of wound healing. LJEE exhibited significant antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, and Candida tropicalis. The ointment formulation prepared with 10% (w/w) LJEE exhibited potent wound healing capacity as evidenced by the wound contraction in the excision wound model. The contents of hydroxyproline and hexosamine also correlated with the observed healing pattern. These findings were supported by the histopathological characteristics of healed wound sections, as greater tissue regeneration, more fibroblasts, and angiogenesis were observed in the 10% (w/w) LJEE ointment-treated group. The results also indicated that LJEE possesses potent anti-inflammatory activity, as it enhanced the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines that suppress proinflammatory cytokine production. The results suggest that the antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities of LJEE act synergistically to accelerate wound repair.

  10. An SNP resource for rice genetics and breeding based on subspecies indica and japonica genome alignments.

    PubMed

    Feltus, F Alex; Wan, Jun; Schulze, Stefan R; Estill, James C; Jiang, Ning; Paterson, Andrew H

    2004-09-01

    Dense coverage of the rice genome with polymorphic DNA markers is an invaluable tool for DNA marker-assisted breeding, positional cloning, and a wide range of evolutionary studies. We have aligned drafts of two rice subspecies, indica and japonica, and analyzed levels and patterns of genetic diversity. After filtering multiple copy and low quality sequence, 408,898 candidate DNA polymorphisms (SNPs/INDELs) were discerned between the two subspecies. These filters have the consequence that our data set includes only a subset of the available SNPs (in particular excluding large numbers of SNPs that may occur between repetitive DNA alleles) but increase the likelihood that this subset is useful: Direct sequencing suggests that 79.8% +/- 7.5% of the in silico SNPs are real. The SNP sample in our database is not randomly distributed across the genome. In fact, 566 rice genomic regions had unusually high (328 contigs/48.6 Mb/13.6% of genome) or low (237 contigs/64.7 Mb/18.1% of genome) polymorphism rates. Many SNP-poor regions were substantially longer than most SNP-rich regions, covering up to 4 Mb, and possibly reflecting introgression between the respective gene pools that may have occurred hundreds of years ago. Although 46.2% +/- 8.3% of the SNPs differentiate other pairs of japonica and indica genotypes, SNP rates in rice were not predictive of evolutionary rates for corresponding genes in another grass species, sorghum. The data set is freely available at http://www.plantgenome.uga.edu/snp.

  11. An SNP Resource for Rice Genetics and Breeding Based on Subspecies Indica and Japonica Genome Alignments

    PubMed Central

    Feltus, F. Alex; Wan, Jun; Schulze, Stefan R.; Estill, James C.; Jiang, Ning; Paterson, Andrew H.

    2004-01-01

    Dense coverage of the rice genome with polymorphic DNA markers is an invaluable tool for DNA marker-assisted breeding, positional cloning, and a wide range of evolutionary studies. We have aligned drafts of two rice subspecies, indica and japonica, and analyzed levels and patterns of genetic diversity. After filtering multiple copy and low quality sequence, 408,898 candidate DNA polymorphisms (SNPs/INDELs) were discerned between the two subspecies. These filters have the consequence that our data set includes only a subset of the available SNPs (in particular excluding large numbers of SNPs that may occur between repetitive DNA alleles) but increase the likelihood that this subset is useful: Direct sequencing suggests that 79.8% ± 7.5% of the in silico SNPs are real. The SNP sample in our database is not randomly distributed across the genome. In fact, 566 rice genomic regions had unusually high (328 contigs/48.6 Mb/13.6% of genome) or low (237 contigs/64.7 Mb/18.1% of genome) polymorphism rates. Many SNP-poor regions were substantially longer than most SNP-rich regions, covering up to 4 Mb, and possibly reflecting introgression between the respective gene pools that may have occurred hundreds of years ago. Although 46.2% ± 8.3% of the SNPs differentiate other pairs of japonica and indica genotypes, SNP rates in rice were not predictive of evolutionary rates for corresponding genes in another grass species, sorghum. The data set is freely available at http://www.plantgenome.uga.edu/snp. PMID:15342564

  12. Genetic diversity and genetic relationships of japonica rice varieties in Northeast Asia based on SSR markers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jingguo; Jiang, Tingbo; Zou, Detang; Zhao, Hongwei; Li, Qiang; Liu, Hualong; Zhou, Changjun

    2014-01-01

    Genetic diversity and the relationship among nine japonica rice groups consisting of 288 landraces and varieties in different geographical origins of Northeast Asia (China, Japan, Korea, Democratic People's Republic of Korea) and the Russian Far East district of the Russian Federation were evaluated with 154 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. A total of 823 alleles were detected. The observed allele numbers (Na) per locus, Nei's gene diversity (He) and the polymorphism information content (PIC) ranged from 2 to 9, 0.061 to 0.869 and 0.060 to 0.856, with an average of 5.344, 0.624 and 0.586, respectively. Five SSR loci, RM1350, RM1369, RM257, RM336 and RM1374, provided the highest PIC values and are potential for exploring the genetic diversity of rice cultivars in Northeast Asia. Molecular variance analysis showed that a significant difference existed both among groups (91.6%) and within each group (8.4%). The low genetic variation within each group indicated that the gene pool is narrow and alien genetic variation should be introduced into the rice breeding program in Northeast Asia. Based on the He and PIC values, the nine groups were ranked in a descending order: Heilongjiang landraces, Jilin landraces, Japanese improved varieties, Heilongjiang improved varieties, Russian Far East district of the Russian Federation improved varieties, Liaoning improved varieties, Jilin improved varieties, Korean improved varieties and Democratic People's Republic of Korea improved varieties. The nine groups were further divided into three subgroups and the 288 varieties into five clusters. This study provided information for parent selection in order to broaden the gene pool of the japonica rice germplasm in Northeast Asia. PMID:26019508

  13. Genetic diversity and genetic relationships of japonica rice varieties in Northeast Asia based on SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingguo; Jiang, Tingbo; Zou, Detang; Zhao, Hongwei; Li, Qiang; Liu, Hualong; Zhou, Changjun

    2014-03-04

    Genetic diversity and the relationship among nine japonica rice groups consisting of 288 landraces and varieties in different geographical origins of Northeast Asia (China, Japan, Korea, Democratic People's Republic of Korea) and the Russian Far East district of the Russian Federation were evaluated with 154 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. A total of 823 alleles were detected. The observed allele numbers (Na) per locus, Nei's gene diversity (He) and the polymorphism information content (PIC) ranged from 2 to 9, 0.061 to 0.869 and 0.060 to 0.856, with an average of 5.344, 0.624 and 0.586, respectively. Five SSR loci, RM1350, RM1369, RM257, RM336 and RM1374, provided the highest PIC values and are potential for exploring the genetic diversity of rice cultivars in Northeast Asia. Molecular variance analysis showed that a significant difference existed both among groups (91.6%) and within each group (8.4%). The low genetic variation within each group indicated that the gene pool is narrow and alien genetic variation should be introduced into the rice breeding program in Northeast Asia. Based on the He and PIC values, the nine groups were ranked in a descending order: Heilongjiang landraces, Jilin landraces, Japanese improved varieties, Heilongjiang improved varieties, Russian Far East district of the Russian Federation improved varieties, Liaoning improved varieties, Jilin improved varieties, Korean improved varieties and Democratic People's Republic of Korea improved varieties. The nine groups were further divided into three subgroups and the 288 varieties into five clusters. This study provided information for parent selection in order to broaden the gene pool of the japonica rice germplasm in Northeast Asia.

  14. Comparative transcriptome analysis between planarian Dugesia japonica and other platyhelminth species.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Osamu; Hirao, Yukako; Tarui, Hiroshi; Agata, Kiyokazu

    2012-06-29

    Planarians are considered to be among the extant animals close to one of the earliest groups of organisms that acquired a central nervous system (CNS) during evolution. Planarians have a bilobed brain with nine lateral branches from which a variety of external signals are projected into different portions of the main lobes. Various interneurons process different signals to regulate behavior and learning/memory. Furthermore, planarians have robust regenerative ability and are attracting attention as a new model organism for the study of regeneration. Here we conducted large-scale EST analysis of the head region of the planarian Dugesia japonica to construct a database of the head-region transcriptome, and then performed comparative analyses among related species. A total of 54,752 high-quality EST reads were obtained from a head library of the planarian Dugesia japonica, and 13,167 unigene sequences were produced by de novo assembly. A new method devised here revealed that proteins related to metabolism and defense mechanisms have high flexibility of amino-acid substitutions within the planarian family. Eight-two CNS-development genes were found in the planarian (cf. C. elegans 3; chicken 129). Comparative analysis revealed that 91% of the planarian CNS-development genes could be mapped onto the schistosome genome, but one-third of these shared genes were not expressed in the schistosome. We constructed a database that is a useful resource for comparative planarian transcriptome studies. Analysis comparing homologous genes between two planarian species showed that the potential of genes is important for accumulation of amino-acid substitutions. The presence of many CNS-development genes in our database supports the notion that the planarian has a fundamental brain with regard to evolution and development at not only the morphological/functional, but also the genomic, level. In addition, our results indicate that the planarian CNS-development genes already existed

  15. Wound repair and anti-inflammatory potential of Lonicera japonica in excision wound-induced rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Lonicera japonica Thunb. (Caprifoliaceae), a widely used traditional Chinese medicinal plant, is used to treat some infectious diseases and it may have uses as a healthy food and applications in cosmetics and as an ornamental groundcover. The ethanol extract of the flowering aerial parts of L. japonica (LJEE) was investigated for its healing efficiency in a rat excision wound model. Methods Excision wounds were inflicted upon three groups of eight rats each. Healing was assessed by the rate of wound contraction in skin wound sites in rats treated with simple ointment base, 10% (w/w) LJEE ointment, or the reference standard drug, 0.2% (w/w) nitrofurazone ointment. The effects of LJEE on the contents of hydroxyproline and hexosamine during healing were estimated. The antimicrobial activity of LJEE against microorganisms was also assessed. The in vivo anti-inflammatory activity of LJEE was investigated to understand the mechanism of wound healing. Results LJEE exhibited significant antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, and Candida tropicalis. The ointment formulation prepared with 10% (w/w) LJEE exhibited potent wound healing capacity as evidenced by the wound contraction in the excision wound model. The contents of hydroxyproline and hexosamine also correlated with the observed healing pattern. These findings were supported by the histopathological characteristics of healed wound sections, as greater tissue regeneration, more fibroblasts, and angiogenesis were observed in the 10% (w/w) LJEE ointment-treated group. The results also indicated that LJEE possesses potent anti-inflammatory activity, as it enhanced the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines that suppress proinflammatory cytokine production. Conclusions The results suggest that the antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities of LJEE act synergistically to accelerate wound repair. PMID:23173654

  16. Monitoring the dynamic emission of biogenic volatile organic compounds from Cryptomeria japonica by enclosure measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chun-Ya; Chang, Tzu-Cheng; Chen, Yu-Han; Chen, Ying-Ju; Cheng, Sen-Sung; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2015-12-01

    Research on biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emitted from trees is essential in the world since these BVOCs play an important role in the atmospheric process which may further influence on the air quality. However, little is known about BVOCs emitted from trees in the field in Taiwan. Hence, this study intends to establish an enclosure technique coupled with in situ sampling to facilitate the collection of BVOCs emitted from Cryptomeria japonica leaves. Furthermore, the emission model derived from the relationship between emission rate and temperature was applied to estimate the emission of BVOCs in the field. Results from GC-MS showed that the BVOCs emitted from intact leaves contain 14 monoterpenoids and 4 sesquiterpenoid. The emission rate of the major constituent, sabinene, was 0.42 μg h-1 g-1 around noon on September 11, 2013. Sabinene varies with the changing temperature inside the bag. These findings indicated that the enclosure technique can collect the BVOCs emitted from intact leaves and monitor the dynamic changes in emission. Two determinants, basal emission rate (at 30 °C) and β coefficient, of sabinene were further measured, and they were 1.29 μg h-1 g-1 and 0.18 °C-1, respectively. By using these two determinants and data of meteorology and forest resource, the emission of monoterpenes from C. japonica stand was estimated to be 1.13 mg m-2 h-1 in July in Xitou area. Taken together, the results provide valuable information for estimation of BVOCs from tree species in Taiwan for the first time.

  17. De novo transcriptome assembly and characterization of nine tissues of Lonicera japonica to identify potential candidate genes involved in chlorogenic acid, luteolosides, and secoiridoid biosynthesis pathways.

    PubMed

    Rai, Amit; Kamochi, Hidetaka; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Nakamura, Michimi; Takahashi, Hiroki; Hatada, Tomoki; Saito, Kazuki; Yamazaki, Mami

    2017-01-01

    Lonicera japonica is one of the most important medicinal plants with applications in traditional Chinese and Japanese medicine for thousands of years. Extensive studies on the constituents of L. japonica extracts have revealed an accumulation of pharmaceutically active metabolite classes, such as chlorogenic acid, luteolin and other flavonoids, and secoiridoids, which impart characteristic medicinal properties. Despite being a rich source of pharmaceutically active metabolites, little is known about the biosynthetic enzymes involved, and their expression profile across different tissues of L. japonica. In this study, we performed de novo transcriptome assembly for L. japonica, representing transcripts from nine different tissues. A total of 22 Gbps clean RNA-seq reads from nine tissues of L. japonica were used, resulting in 243,185 unigenes, with 99,938 unigenes annotated based on a homology search using blastx against the NCBI-nr protein database. Unsupervised principal component analysis and correlation studies using transcript expression data from all nine tissues of L. japonica showed relationships between tissues, explaining their association at different developmental stages. Homologs for all genes associated with chlorogenic acid, luteolin, and secoiridoid biosynthesis pathways were identified in the L. japonica transcriptome assembly. Expression of unigenes associated with chlorogenic acid was enriched in stems and leaf-2, unigenes from luteolin were enriched in stems and flowers, while unigenes from secoiridoid metabolic pathways were enriched in leaf-1 and shoot apex. Our results showed that different tissues of L. japonica are enriched with sets of unigenes associated with specific pharmaceutically important metabolic pathways and, therefore, possess unique medicinal properties. The present study will serve as a resource for future attempts for functional characterization of enzyme coding genes within key metabolic processes.

  18. Lodging Resistance of Japonica Rice (Oryza Sativa L.): Morphological and Anatomical Traits due to top-Dressing Nitrogen Application Rates.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wujun; Wu, Longmei; Wu, Xiaoran; Ding, Yanfeng; Li, Ganghua; Li, Jingyong; Weng, Fei; Liu, Zhenghui; Tang, She; Ding, Chengqiang; Wang, Shaohua

    2016-12-01

    Lodging in rice production often limits grain yield and quality by breaking or bending stems. Excessive nitrogen (N) fertilizer rates are the cause of poor lodging resistance in rice, but little is known about the effect of top-dressing N application rates on the mechanical strength of japonica rice plants, especially how the anatomical structure in culms is affected by N. In this study, field experiments on two japonica rice varieties with three top-dressing N application rates, 0 kg N ha(-1) (LN), 135 kg N ha(-1) (MN), and 270 kg N ha(-1) (HN) as urea, were conducted. Wuyunjing23, a lodging-resistant japonica rice cultivar and W3668, a lodging-susceptible japonica rice cultivar were used. The lodging index, breaking strength, morphological and anatomical traits in culms were measured in this study. The visual lodging rate in japonica rice differed remarkably between genotypes and top-dressing N treatments. The higher lodging index of rice plants was primarily attributed to the weak breaking strength of the lower internodes. The longer elongated basal internodes were responsible for higher plant height and a higher lodging index. Correlation analysis showed that breaking strength was significantly and positively correlated with the thickness of the mechanical tissue but was significantly and negatively correlated with the inner diameter of the major axis (b2). With increasing top-dressing N rates, the sclerenchyma cells of the mechanical tissues and the vascular bundles of the Wuyunjing23 cultivar varied little. The plant height, inner diameter of the minor axis (a2) and b2 increased significantly, but the area of the large vascular bundle (ALVB) and the area of the small vascular bundle (ASVB) decreased significantly and resulted in lower stem strength and a higher lodging index under higher top-dressing N conditions. The culm diameter of the W3668 cultivar increased slightly with no significant difference, and the sclerenchyma cells in the mechanical

  19. Recombinant expression of rt-PA gene (encoding Reteplase) in gametophytes of the seaweed Laminaria japonica (Laminariales, Phaeophyta).

    PubMed

    Zhang, YiChen; Jiang, Peng; Gao, JiangTao; Liao, JianMin; Sun, ShiJing; Shen, ZiLong; Qin, Song

    2008-12-01

    The life cycle of seaweed Laminaria japonica involves a generation alternation between diploid sporophyte and haploid gametophte. The expression of foreign genes in sporophte has been proved. In this research, the recombinant expression in gametophyte was investigated by particle bombardment with the rt-PA gene encoding the recombinant human tissue-type plasminogen activator (Reteplase), which is a thrombolytic agent for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Transgenic gametophytes were selected by their resistance to herbicide phosphiothricin (PPT), and proliferated in an established bubble column photo-bioreactor. According to the results from quantitative ELISA, Southern blotting, and fibrin agarose plate assay (FAPA) for bioactivity, it was showed that the rt-PA gene had been integrated into the genome of gametophytes of L. japonica, and the expression product showed the expected bioactivity, implying the proper post-transcript modification in haploid gametophyte.

  20. Effects of Swertia japonica extract and its main compound swertiamarin on gastric emptying and gastrointestinal motility in mice.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yoshiyuki; Sumiyoshi, Maho

    2011-09-01

    The Swertia japonica is used clinically as a remedy for gastrointestinal symptoms in Japan. We examined the effects of a S. japonica and swertiamarin on gastric emptying and gastrointestinal motility in atropine-, dopamine-, and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-treated mice. All three preparations inhibited reductions in gastric emptying and gastrointestinal motility induced by dopamine (1mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection, ip). Neither the powder, swertiamarin, nor itopride had any effect on the reductions in gastric emptying and gastrointestinal motility caused by 5-HT (4 mg/kg, ip). These findings suggest that the powder and swertiamarin stimulate gastric emptying and gastrointestinal motility by inhibiting the dopamine D(2) receptor. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequence and Annotation of the Tropical japonica Group of Asian Cultivated Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuo

    2016-01-01

    We announce here the first complete chloroplast genome sequence of the tropical japonica rice, along with its genome structure and functional annotation. The plant was collected from Indonesia and deposited as a germplasm accession of the International Rice GenBank Collection (IRGC 66630) at the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI). This genome provides valuable data for the future utilization of the germplasm of rice. PMID:26893422

  2. Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequence and Annotation of the Tropical japonica Group of Asian Cultivated Rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuo; Gao, Li-Zhi

    2016-02-18

    We announce here the first complete chloroplast genome sequence of the tropical japonica rice, along with its genome structure and functional annotation. The plant was collected from Indonesia and deposited as a germplasm accession of the International Rice GenBank Collection (IRGC 66630) at the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI). This genome provides valuable data for the future utilization of the germplasm of rice. Copyright © 2016 Wang and Gao.

  3. Pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis of Laminaria japonica and polypropylene over mesoporous Al-SBA-15 catalyst

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The catalytic co-pyrolysis of a seaweed biomass, Laminaria japonica, and a typical polymer material, polypropylene, was studied for the first time. A mesoporous material Al-SBA-15 was used as a catalyst. Pyrolysis experiments were conducted using a fixed-bed reactor and pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). BET surface area, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, and NH3 temperature programmed desorption were measured to examine the catalyst characteristics. When only L. japonica was pyrolyzed, catalytic reforming slightly increased the gas yield and decreased the oil yield. The H2O content in bio-oil was increased by catalytic reforming from 42.03 to 50.32 wt% due to the dehydration reaction occurring on the acid sites inside the large pores of Al-SBA-15. Acids, oxygenates, mono-aromatics, poly aromatic hydrocarbons, and phenolics were the main components of the bio-oil obtained from the pyrolysis of L. japonica. Upon catalytic reforming over Al-SBA-15, the main oxygenate species 1,4-anhydro-d-galactitol and 1,5-anhydro-d-manitol were completely removed. When L. japonica was co-pyrolyzed with polypropylene, the H2O content in bio-oil was decreased dramatically (8.93 wt% in the case of catalytic co-pyrolysis), contributing to the improvement of the oil quality. A huge increase in the content of gasoline-range and diesel-range hydrocarbons in bio-oil was the most remarkable change that resulted from the co-pyrolysis with polypropylene, suggesting its potential as a transport fuel. The content of mono-aromatics with high economic value was also increased significantly by catalytic co-pyrolysis. PMID:25136282

  4. Sympatric Spawning but Allopatric Distribution of Anguilla japonica and Anguilla marmorata : Temperature- and Oceanic Current-Dependent Sieving

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yu-San; Yambot, Apolinario V.; Zhang, Heng; Hung, Chia-Ling

    2012-01-01

    Anguilla japonica and Anguilla marmorata share overlapping spawning sites, similar drifting routes, and comparable larval durations. However, they exhibit allopatric geographical distributions in East Asia. To clarify this ecological discrepancy, glass eels from estuaries in Taiwan, the Philippines, Indonesia, and China were collected monthly, and the survival rate of A. marmorata under varying water salinities and temperatures was examined. The composition ratio of these 2 eel species showed a significant latitude cline, matching the 24°C sea surface temperature isotherm in winter. Both species had opposing temperature preferences for recruitment. A. marmorata prefer high water temperatures and die at low water temperatures. In contrast, A. japonica can endure low water temperatures, but their recruitment is inhibited by high water temperatures. Thus, A. japonica glass eels, which mainly spawn in summer, are preferably recruited to Taiwan, China, Korea, and Japan by the Kuroshio and its branch waters in winter. Meanwhile, A. marmorata glass eels, which spawn throughout the year, are mostly screened out in East Asia in areas with low-temperature coastal waters in winter. During summer, the strong northward currents from the South China Sea and Changjiang River discharge markedly block the Kuroshio invasion and thus restrict the approach of A. marmorata glass eels to the coasts of China and Korea. The differences in the preferences of the recruitment temperature for glass eels combined with the availability of oceanic currents shape the real geographic distribution of Anguilla japonica and Anguilla marmorata, making them “temperate” and “tropical” eels, respectively. PMID:22675481

  5. Paeonia japonica, Houttuynia cordata, and Aster scaber water extracts induce nitric oxide and cytokine production by lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin; Park, Chang-Shin; Lim, Yunsook; Kim, Hyun-Sook

    2009-04-01

    Natural products are increasingly recognized as potential targets for drug discovery and development. We previously reported that Paeonia japonica, Houttuynia cordata, and Aster scaber enhanced macrophage activation both in vitro and in vivo. In the present study we investigated the immunomodulating effects of these plants on lipopolysacharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages. An aqueous extract of each plant was administered to female BALB/c mice every other day for 4 weeks. Peritoneal macrophages were then collected and incubated to examine the immunoreactivity of macrophages against LPS at different time points. The expression levels of inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthetase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, and inhibitory factor kappaB alpha (IkappaBalpha) proteins and the production of NO metabolite (nitrite), prostaglandin (PG) E(2), and the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha were determined in the activated macrophages treated with extracts from each plant individually or combined. High levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines were produced by A. scaber-, P. japonica-, and H. cordata-treated macrophages following 24 hours of LPS stimulation. P. japonica, H. cordata, and A. scaber treatment also induced the production of nitrate by LPS-treated macrophages. Induction of iNOS mRNA and protein was also different in each group. PGE(2) secretion was up-regulated by all extract-treated macrophages at early time points; however, no significant differences were observed between the groups by 8 hours post-LPS stimulation. Treatment with A. scaber extract resulted in the highest levels of IkappaBalpha degradation. Our findings illustrate that the natural plant products P. japonica, H. cordata, and A. scaber may enhance immune function by modulating ex vivo pro-inflammatory cytokine and NO production as well as the expression of iNOS and COX-2.

  6. Pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis of Laminaria japonica and polypropylene over mesoporous Al-SBA-15 catalyst.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyung Won; Choi, Suek Joo; Park, Sung Hoon; Jeon, Jong-Ki; Jung, Sang-Chul; Kim, Sang Chai; Park, Young-Kwon

    2014-01-01

    The catalytic co-pyrolysis of a seaweed biomass, Laminaria japonica, and a typical polymer material, polypropylene, was studied for the first time. A mesoporous material Al-SBA-15 was used as a catalyst. Pyrolysis experiments were conducted using a fixed-bed reactor and pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). BET surface area, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, and NH3 temperature programmed desorption were measured to examine the catalyst characteristics. When only L. japonica was pyrolyzed, catalytic reforming slightly increased the gas yield and decreased the oil yield. The H2O content in bio-oil was increased by catalytic reforming from 42.03 to 50.32 wt% due to the dehydration reaction occurring on the acid sites inside the large pores of Al-SBA-15. Acids, oxygenates, mono-aromatics, poly aromatic hydrocarbons, and phenolics were the main components of the bio-oil obtained from the pyrolysis of L. japonica. Upon catalytic reforming over Al-SBA-15, the main oxygenate species 1,4-anhydro-d-galactitol and 1,5-anhydro-d-manitol were completely removed. When L. japonica was co-pyrolyzed with polypropylene, the H2O content in bio-oil was decreased dramatically (8.93 wt% in the case of catalytic co-pyrolysis), contributing to the improvement of the oil quality. A huge increase in the content of gasoline-range and diesel-range hydrocarbons in bio-oil was the most remarkable change that resulted from the co-pyrolysis with polypropylene, suggesting its potential as a transport fuel. The content of mono-aromatics with high economic value was also increased significantly by catalytic co-pyrolysis.

  7. Pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis of Laminaria japonica and polypropylene over mesoporous Al-SBA-15 catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyung Won; Choi, Suek Joo; Park, Sung Hoon; Jeon, Jong-Ki; Jung, Sang-Chul; Kim, Sang Chai; Park, Young-Kwon

    2014-08-01

    The catalytic co-pyrolysis of a seaweed biomass, Laminaria japonica, and a typical polymer material, polypropylene, was studied for the first time. A mesoporous material Al-SBA-15 was used as a catalyst. Pyrolysis experiments were conducted using a fixed-bed reactor and pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). BET surface area, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, and NH3 temperature programmed desorption were measured to examine the catalyst characteristics. When only L. japonica was pyrolyzed, catalytic reforming slightly increased the gas yield and decreased the oil yield. The H2O content in bio-oil was increased by catalytic reforming from 42.03 to 50.32 wt% due to the dehydration reaction occurring on the acid sites inside the large pores of Al-SBA-15. Acids, oxygenates, mono-aromatics, poly aromatic hydrocarbons, and phenolics were the main components of the bio-oil obtained from the pyrolysis of L. japonica. Upon catalytic reforming over Al-SBA-15, the main oxygenate species 1,4-anhydro- d-galactitol and 1,5-anhydro- d-manitol were completely removed. When L. japonica was co-pyrolyzed with polypropylene, the H2O content in bio-oil was decreased dramatically (8.93 wt% in the case of catalytic co-pyrolysis), contributing to the improvement of the oil quality. A huge increase in the content of gasoline-range and diesel-range hydrocarbons in bio-oil was the most remarkable change that resulted from the co-pyrolysis with polypropylene, suggesting its potential as a transport fuel. The content of mono-aromatics with high economic value was also increased significantly by catalytic co-pyrolysis.

  8. Effect of indica pedigree on eating and cooking quality in rice backcross inbred lines of indica and japonica crosses

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Mingyu; Wang, Xiaojing; Sun, Jian; Zhang, Qun; Xu, Zhengjin; Xu, Quan

    2017-01-01

    Amylopectin is one of the major determinants of rice (Oryza sativa L.) grain quality, and a large difference in amylopectin is found between two subspecies: japonica and indica. However, the relationship among rice grain quality, indica/japonica genetic background, and amylopectin has not been clearly established. In this study, a series of backcross inbred lines derived from the cross between japonica (cv. Sasanishiki) and indica (cv. Habataki) were used to survey eating and cooking quality (ECQ), rapid visco analyzer (RVA) profiles, and the chain length distribution of amylopectin. The frequency of indica pedigree (Fi) was calculated to analyze the effects of Fi on grain quality and amylopectin. The results showed that the Sasanishiki cultivar was markedly enriched in chain length with DP6-15 and DP34-45 compared to the Habataki. DP34-45 strongly correlated to RVA characteristics, cooking quality, and prolamin content. The Fi also has significant correlations to RVA characteristics and ECQ, but only significantly negative correlation to DP34-45. Seven quantitative trait loci (QTLs) corresponding to amylopectin were mapped, of which three were in agreement with previous findings. The results of this study provide valuable information for amylopectin characteristics in the offspring derived from the subspecies cross, and the novel QTLs may provide new insights to the identification of minor starch synthesis-related genes. PMID:29398938

  9. Isolation and characterization of a SEPALLATA-like gene, ZjMADS1, from marine angiosperm Zostera japonica.

    PubMed

    Kakinuma, Makoto; Inoue, Miho; Morita, Teruwo; Tominaga, Hiroshi; Maegawa, Miyuki; Coury, Daniel A; Amano, Hideomi

    2012-05-01

    In flowering plants, floral homeotic MADS-box genes, which constitute a large multigene family, play important roles in the specification of floral organs as defined by the ABCDE model. In this study, a MADS-box gene, ZjMADS1, was isolated and characterized from the marine angiosperm Zostera japonica. The predicted length of the ZjMADS1 protein was 246 amino acids (AA), and the AA sequence was most similar to those of the SEPALLATA (SEP) subfamily, corresponding to E-function genes. Southern blot analysis suggested the presence of two SEP3-like genes in the Z. japonica genome. ZjMADS1 mRNA levels were extremely high in the spadices, regardless of the developmental stage, compared to other organs from the reproductive and vegetative shoots. These results suggest that the ZjMADS1 gene may be involved in spadix development in Z. japonica and act as an E-function gene in floral organ development in marine angiosperms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Simultaneous determination of 4 diterpenoids in Rabdosia japonica var.glaucocalyx by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS and cluster analysis].

    PubMed

    Tian, Ting-Ting; Ma, Ying-Hua; Xie, Wei-Wei; Jin, Yi-Ran; Xu, Hui-Jun; Zhang, Lan-Tong; Du, Ying-Feng

    2016-01-01

    A quick HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method was established for simultaneous determination of four major diterpenoids in Rabdosia japonica var.glaucocalyx, including glaucocalyxin A, oridonin, hebeirubesensin and enmenol. Analysis was performed on an Agilent ZORBAX SB-C18(4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 μm ) column eluted in a gradient program with methanol and water. The flow rate was 0.8 mL•min⁻¹. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) scanning mode was performed in negative ion switching mode to apply for the quantitative determination. The calibration curves for the above four compounds were linear in corresponding injection amount. The average recoveries of the compounds ranged from 92.40% to 105.9%, with RSDs of 1.7%-6.5%. The method is simple, rapid, accurate with good repeatability, which can provide a reference for overcalling evaluation the quality of R. japonica var.glaucocalyx. The result of cluster analysis- showed that the quality of R. japonica glaucocalyx var. greatly varied between areas and parts. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  11. Rapid and quantitative determination of 10 major active components in Lonicera japonica Thunb. by ultrahigh pressure extraction-HPLC/DAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Li; Lin, Changhu; Duan, Wenjuan; Wang, Xiao; Liu, Jianhua; Liu, Feng

    2015-01-01

    An ultrahigh pressure extraction (UPE)-high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)/diode array detector (DAD) method was established to evaluate the quality of Lonicera japonica Thunb. Ten active components, including neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, 4-dicaffeoylquinic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, luteoloside, isochlorogenic acid B, isochlorogenic acid A, isochlorogenic acid C, and quercetin, were qualitatively evaluated and quantitatively determined. Scanning electron microscope images elucidated the bud surface microstructure and extraction mechanism. The optimal extraction conditions of the UPE were 60% methanol solution, 400 MPa of extraction pressure, 3 min of extraction time, and 1:30 (g/mL) solid:liquid ratio. Under the optimized conditions, the total extraction yield of 10 active components was 57.62 mg/g. All the components showed good linearity (r2 ≥ 0.9994) and recoveries. This method was successfully applied to quantify 10 components in 22 batches of L. japonica samples from different areas. Compared with heat reflux extraction and ultrasonic-assisted extraction, UPE can be considered as an alternative extraction technique for fast extraction of active ingredient from L. japonica.

  12. Can arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi reduce Cd uptake and alleviate Cd toxicity of Lonicera japonica grown in Cd-added soils?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Qiu-Yun; Zhuo, Feng; Long, Shi-Hui; Zhao, Hai-Di; Yang, Dan-Jing; Ye, Zhi-Hong; Li, Shao-Shan; Jing, Yuan-Xiao

    2016-02-01

    A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to study the impact of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi-Glomus versiforme (Gv) and Rhizophagus intraradices (Ri) on the growth, Cd uptake, antioxidant indices [glutathione reductase (GR), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate (ASA), glutathione (GSH) and malonaldehyde (MDA)] and phytochelatins (PCs) production of Lonicera japonica in Cd-amended soils. Gv and Ri significantly increased P acquisition, biomass of shoots and roots at all Cd treatments. Gv significantly decreased Cd concentrations in shoots and roots, and Ri also obviously reduced Cd concentrations in shoots but increased Cd concentrations in roots. Meanwhile, activities of CAT, APX and GR, and contents of ASA and PCs were remarkably higher in Gv/Ri-inoculated plants than those of uninoculated plants, but lower MDA and GSH contents in Gv/Ri-inoculated plants were found. In conclusion, Gv and Ri symbiosis alleviated Cd toxicity of L. japonica through the decline of shoot Cd concentrations and the improvement of P nutrition, PCs content and activities of GR, CAT, APX in inoculated plants, and then improved plant growth. The decrease of shoot Cd concentrations in L. japonica inoculated with Gv/Ri would provide a clue for safe production of this plant from Cd-contaminated soils.

  13. Hexamermis popilliae n. sp. (Nematoda: Mermithidae) parasitizing the Japanese beetle Popillia japonica Newman (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in Italy.

    PubMed

    Mazza, Giuseppe; Paoli, Francesco; Strangi, Agostino; Torrini, Giulia; Marianelli, Leonardo; Peverieri, Giuseppino Sabbatini; Binazzi, Francesco; Bosio, Giovanni; Sacchi, Stefano; Benvenuti, Claudia; Venanzio, Davide; Giacometto, Emanuela; Roversi, Pio F; Poinar, George O

    2017-10-01

    A new species of mermithid nematode, Hexamermis popilliae n. sp. (Nematoda: Mermithidae) is described from the Japanese beetle Popillia japonica Newman in Italy, an area of new introduction for this invasive pest. The combination of the following characters separates H. popilliae from other members of the genus Hexamermis Steiner, 1924: adult head obtuse; amphidial pouches slightly posterior to lateral head papillae in female but adjacent to lateral head papillae in males; amphidial openings large, well developed; amphidial pouches elliptical in females and oblong in males; cuticular vulvar cone well developed, vulvar lips greatly reduced or lacking, vagina curved at tip where meeting uteri, without reverse bend (not S-shaped), spicules slightly curved, with a slight bend in the basal portion, approximately equal to body width at cloaca. This is the first record of a species of Hexamermis parasitizing the Japanese beetle Popillia japonica. The only previous mention of mermithid nematodes from P. japonica was an undescribed species of Psammomermis in North America. Hexamermis popilliae will be evaluated as a potential biological control agent in an integrated control program of the Japanese beetle in Italy.

  14. Genome-wide transcriptional analysis of salinity stressed japonica and indica rice genotypes during panicle initiation stage

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Clyde; Zeng, Linghe; Ismail, Abdelbagi M.; Condamine, Pascal; Close, Timothy J.

    2006-01-01

    Rice yield is most sensitive to salinity stress imposed during the panicle initiation (PI) stage. In this study, we have focused on physiological and transcriptional responses of four rice genotypes exposed to salinity stress during PI. The genotypes selected included a pair of indicas (IR63731 and IR29) and a pair of japonica (Agami and M103) rice subspecies with contrasting salt tolerance. Physiological characterization showed that tolerant genotypes maintained a much lower shoot Na+ concentration relative to sensitive genotypes under salinity stress. Global gene expression analysis revealed a strikingly large number of genes which are induced by salinity stress in sensitive genotypes, IR29 and M103 relative to tolerant lines. We found 19 probe sets to be commonly induced in all four genotypes. We found several salinity modulated, ion homeostasis related genes from our analysis. We also studied the expression of SKC1, a cation transporter reported by others as a major source of variation in salt tolerance in rice. The transcript abundance of SKC1 did not change in response to salinity stress at PI stage in the shoot tissue of all four genotypes. However, we found the transcript abundance of SKC1 to be significantly higher in tolerant japonica Agami relative to sensitive japonica M103 under control and stressed conditions during PI stage. Electronic supplementary material Supplementary material is available in the online version of this article at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11103-006-9112-0 and is accessible for authorized users. PMID:17160619

  15. [Construction of individual-based ecological model for Scomber japonicas at its early growth stages in East China Sea].

    PubMed

    Li, Yue-Song; Chen, Xin-Jun; Yang, Hong

    2012-06-01

    By adopting FVCOM-simulated 3-D physical field and based on the biological processes of chub mackerel (Scomber japonicas) in its early life history from the individual-based biological model, the individual-based ecological model for S. japonicas at its early growth stages in the East China Sea was constructed through coupling the physical field in March-July with the biological model by the method of Lagrange particle tracking. The model constructed could well simulate the transport process and abundance distribution of S. japonicas eggs and larvae. The Taiwan Warm Current, Kuroshio, and Tsushima Strait Warm Current directly affected the transport process and distribution of the eggs and larvae, and indirectly affected the growth and survive of the eggs and larvae through the transport to the nursery grounds with different water temperature and foods. The spawning grounds in southern East China Sea made more contributions to the recruitment to the fishing grounds in northeast East China Sea, but less to the Yangtze estuary and Zhoushan Island. The northwestern and southwestern parts of spawning grounds had strong connectivity with the nursery grounds of Cheju and Tsushima Straits, whereas the northeastern and southeastern parts of the spawning ground had strong connectivity with the nursery grounds of Kyushu and Pacific Ocean.

  16. Spermatozoid life-span of two brown seaweeds, Saccharina japonica and Undaria pinnatifida, as measured by fertilization efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing; Pang, Shaojun; Liu, Feng; Shan, Tifeng; Gao, Suqin

    2013-07-01

    During sexual reproduction of seaweeds, spermatozoid (sperm) discharge is triggered by chemical messengers (pheromones) released by the female gametes. The chemotactic ability of the sperm ensures fertilization success. Using unialgal male and female gametophyte material under designated standard gametogenesis testing (SGT) conditions, the potential life-span of the sperm of two seaweeds, Saccharina japonica and Undaria pinnatifida, was assessed by their ability to fertilize eggs. Results show that within 20-30 min after being discharged, sperm of both species could complete fertilization without an apparent decline in fertilization rate. Although fertilization rate 60-120 min after sperm discharge dropped significantly in both species, some sperm were viable enough to fertilize the eggs. In S. japonica, at 12°C, some sperm were able to fertilize eggs up to 12 h after discharge. In both species, egg discharge rates (EDR) in the male and female mixed positive controls were significantly higher than those of all the sperm-testing groups. Doubling the seeded male gametophytes of S. japonica in the SGT tests significantly increased the EDR, further confirming the effect of the presence of the male on the female in terms of facilitating egg discharge from oogonia.

  17. Characterize and Gene Expression of Heat Shock Protein 90 in Marine Crab Charybdis japonica following Bisphenol A and 4-Nonylphenol Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kiyun

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is a highly conserved molecular chaperone important in the maturation of a broad spectrum of protein. In this study, an HSP90 gene was isolated from Asian paddle crab, Charybdis japonica, as a bio-indicator to monitor the marine ecosystem. Methods This work reports the responses of C. japonica HSP90 mRNA expression to cellular stress by endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), such as bisphenol A (BPA) and 4-nonylphenol (NP) using real-time. reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Results The deduced amino acid sequence of HSP90 from C. japonica shared a high degree of homology with their homologues in other species. In a phylogenetic analysis, C. japonica HSP90 is evolutionally related with an ortholog of the other crustacean species. The expression of HSP90 gene was almost distributed in all the examined tissues of the C. japonica crab but expression levels varied among the different body parts of the crabs. We examined HSP90 mRNA expression pattern in C. japonica crabs exposed to EDCs for various exposure times. The expression of HSP90 transcripts was significantly increased in C. japonica crabs exposed to BPA and NP at different concentrations for 12, 24, 48 and 96 hours. The mRNA expression of HSP90 gene was significantly induced in a concentration- and time-dependent manner after BPA or NP exposures for 96 hours. Conclusions Taken together, expression analysis of Asian paddle crab HSP90 gene provided useful molecular information about crab responses in stress conditions and potential ways to monitor the EDCs stressors in marine environments. PMID:24955332

  18. Characterize and Gene Expression of Heat Shock Protein 90 in Marine Crab Charybdis japonica following Bisphenol A and 4-Nonylphenol Exposures.

    PubMed

    Park, Kiyun; Kwak, Ihn-Sil

    2014-01-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is a highly conserved molecular chaperone important in the maturation of a broad spectrum of protein. In this study, an HSP90 gene was isolated from Asian paddle crab, Charybdis japonica, as a bio-indicator to monitor the marine ecosystem. This work reports the responses of C. japonica HSP90 mRNA expression to cellular stress by endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), such as bisphenol A (BPA) and 4-nonylphenol (NP) using real-time. reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The deduced amino acid sequence of HSP90 from C. japonica shared a high degree of homology with their homologues in other species. In a phylogenetic analysis, C. japonica HSP90 is evolutionally related with an ortholog of the other crustacean species. The expression of HSP90 gene was almost distributed in all the examined tissues of the C. japonica crab but expression levels varied among the different body parts of the crabs. We examined HSP90 mRNA expression pattern in C. japonica crabs exposed to EDCs for various exposure times. The expression of HSP90 transcripts was significantly increased in C. japonica crabs exposed to BPA and NP at different concentrations for 12, 24, 48 and 96 hours. The mRNA expression of HSP90 gene was significantly induced in a concentration- and time-dependent manner after BPA or NP exposures for 96 hours. Taken together, expression analysis of Asian paddle crab HSP90 gene provided useful molecular information about crab responses in stress conditions and potential ways to monitor the EDCs stressors in marine environments.

  19. Differences in organotin accumulation among ecological migratory types of the Japanese eel Anguilla japonica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohji, Madoka; Harino, Hiroya; Arai, Takaomi

    2006-08-01

    In order to examine the ecological risks caused by organotin compounds (OTs) in diadromous fish migrating between sea and freshwater, tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT) compounds, and their breakdown products, were determined in the catadromous eel Anguilla japonica having sea, estuarine and river life histories, collected in Japanese sea, brackish and fresh waters. Ontogenic changes in otolith strontium (Sr) and calcium (Ca) concentrations were examined along life history transect to discriminate the migration type. There were generally three different patterns, which were categorized 'sea eels' (spent most of their life in the sea and did not enter freshwater), 'estuarine eels' (inhabited estuaries or switched between different habitats), and 'river eels' (entered and remained in freshwater river habitats after arrival in the estuary) according to the otolith Sr:Ca ratio. There were generally no significant correlations between TBT and TPT accumulation and various biological characteristics such as total length (TL), body weight (BW), age and sex in A. japonica. The concentrations of TBT and TPT in silver eels (mature eels) were significantly higher than those in yellow eels (immature eels), and the percentages of TBT and TPT were also higher in silver eels than in yellow eels. A positive correlation was found between TBT concentration and the gonad-somatic index (GSI). It is thus considered that silver eels have a higher risk of contamination by TBT than yellow eels. TBT and TPT concentrations in sea eels were significantly higher than those in river eels. In contrast, no significant differences were observed in TBT and TPT concentrations in estuarine eels compared to sea and river eels. These results suggest that sea eels have a higher ecological risk of OT contamination than river eels during their life history, and the risk of OTs in estuarine eels is considered to be intermediate between that of sea and river eels. Positive linear relationships were

  20. [Effect of ginsenoside Rg3 on hepatic fibrosis in murine schistosomiasis japonica].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jin; Wang, Hong; Jia, Xue-mei; Li, Cui-ying; Li, Fei

    2011-04-30

    To investigate the therapeutic efficacy of ginsenoside Rg3 on hepatic fibrosis in murine schistosomiasis japonica. 54 ICR-strain male mice were divided into 4 groups named as normal control group (A), infected control group (B), praziquantel+Rg3 treated group (C) and praziquantel treated group (D). There were 12 mice in each group, but 18 in group A. Mice in groups B, C, and D were infected with 20 +/- 2 cercariae of Schistosoma japonicum. At ten weeks post-infection, 10 mice of group A and 12 mice of group B were weighed and sacrificed. Specimens from left hepatic lobes were taken and fixed in 10% formaldehyde solution. Mice in groups C and D were treated intragastrically with praziquantel at a single dose of 300 mg/kg. At the second day after praziquantel treatment, each mouse in group C was given 3 mg/(kg x d) ginsenoside Rg3 for 8 weeks. The rest mice were sacrificed on 8 weeks after treatment, and liver tissue samples from left hepatic lobes were prepared. The histological changes and collagen fiber deposition in the liver tissue sections were observed with hematoxylin-eosin staining and van gieson staining. Liver fibrosis was graded according to semi-quantitative scoring system (SSS) method. In group B, many eggs deposited in the hepatic lobules and portal areas, and eosinophilic abscesses and pseudo-tubercles developed in the liver, especially common in portal areas. There were many fibre hyperplasia and deposit inside abbacy and liver flocculus. Pipestem fibrosis formed around the portal areas, and some cord-like fibres extended into hepatic lobules, and formed in the fibrous septa. After 8-week treatment with ginsenoside Rg3, in group C, the livers were initially enlarged, firm and dust-color; and the degree of hepatomegaly varied from mild to marked; but the degree of fibre hyperplasia and inflammatory infiltration were mitigated compared with that of group B. Mean percentage of collagen area in group C [(2.32 +/- 0.99)%] was lower than that of groups B

  1. Isolation, expression, and characterization of blue light receptor AUREOCHROME gene from Saccharina japonica (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae).

    PubMed

    Deng, Yunyan; Yao, Jianting; Fu, Gang; Guo, Hui; Duan, Delin

    2014-04-01

    Photosynthetic stramenopile have chloroplasts of secondary endosymbiotic origin and are significant as aquatic primary productivity and biomass production. In marine environments, many photosynthetic stramenopiles utilize blue light to regulate growth, development, and organelle movement. Aureochrome (AUREO) is a new type blue light photoreceptor specific in photosynthetic stramenopiles. Previously, several AUREO orthologs were reported in genomes of stramenopile members, but the full-length cDNA sequences were completed only in Vaucheria frigida (Xanthophyceae), Fucus distichus (Phaeophyceae), and Ochromonas danica (Chrysophyceae). In this study, the full-length cDNA of AUREO from Saccharina japonica (designated as SjAUREO) was isolated based on homologous cloning and the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). It characterized by the full length of 1,013 bp with an open reading frame of 612 bp, which encoded a polypeptide of 203 amino acids with predicted molecular weight of 23.08 kDa and theoretical isoelectric point of 7.63. The deduced amino acid sequence of SjAUREO contained one N-terminal basic region/leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription regulation domain and a single light-, oxygen-, or voltage-sensitive (LOV) domain near the C-terminus. Homologous analysis showed that SjAUREO shared 40-92 % similarities with those of other photosynthetic stramenopiles. Phylogenetic analysis revealed close phylogenetic affinity between SjAUREO and AUREO4 of brown alga Ectocarpus siliculosus. Real-time PCR detection revealed that the SjAUREO transcription was markedly increased under BL exposure and dramatically upregulated in the 1-month juvenile sporophyte than those in the 2 and 3-month materials, which indirectly reflected the SjAUREO associated with the BL-mediated photomorphogenesis during the growth and early development of juvenile sporophytes. In vitro expression showed one distinct band existed at ∼27 kDa, and western blot detection proved that it was

  2. Water retained in tall Cryptomeria japonica leaves as studied by infrared micro-spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Wakana; Nakashima, Satoru; Yamakita, Eri; Ishii, H Roaki; Kuroda, Keiko

    2017-10-01

    Recent studies in the tallest tree species suggest that physiological and anatomical traits of tree-top leaves are adapted to water-limited conditions. In order to examine water retention mechanism of leaves in a tall tree, infrared (IR) micro-spectroscopy was conducted on mature leaf cross-sections of tall Cryptomeria japonica D. Don from four different heights (51, 43, 31 and 19 m). We measured IR transmission spectra and mainly analyzed OH (3700-3000 cm-1) and C-O (1190-845 cm-1) absorption bands, indicating water molecules and sugar groups, respectively. The changes in IR spectra of leaf sections from different heights were compared with bulk-leaf hydraulics. Both average OH band area of the leaf sections and leaf water content were larger in the upper-crown, while osmotic potential at saturation did not vary with height, suggesting higher dissolved sugar contents of upper-crown leaves. As cell-wall is the main cellular structure of leaves, we inferred that larger average C-O band area of upper-crown leaves reflected higher content of structural polysaccharides such as cellulose, hemicellulose and pectin. Infrared micro-spectroscopic imaging showed that the OH and C-O band areas are large in the vascular bundle, transfusion tissue and epidermis. Infrared spectra of individual tissue showed that much more water is retained in vascular bundle and transfusion tissue than mesophyll. These results demonstrate that IR micro-spectroscopy is a powerful tool for visualizing detailed, quantitative information on the spatial distribution of chemical substances within plant tissues, which cannot be done using conventional methods like histochemical staining. The OH band could be well reproduced by four Gaussian OH components around 3530 (free water: long H bond), 3410 (pectin-like OH species), 3310 (cellulose-like OH species) and 3210 (bound water: short H bond) cm-1, and all of these OH components were higher in the upper crown while their relative proportions did not

  3. Thalli Growth, Propagule Survival, and Integrated Physiological Response to Nitrogen Stress of Ramalina calicaris var. japonica in Shennongjia Mountain (China).

    PubMed

    Wang, Chuan-Hua; Wang, Ming; Jia, Rao-Zhen; Guo, Hua

    2018-01-01

    In this study, effects of nitrogen (N) availability on growth, survival of Ramalina calicaris var. japonica , and whether it respond nitrogen stress in an integrated physiological way was evaluated. Thalli growth and propagule survival, thalli N and phosphorus (P) content, and activity of phosphomonoesterase (PME) of R. calicaris var. japonica were determined in a field experiment. Its differentiate adsorption in ammonia and nitrate, the activity of glutamine synthetase (GSA) and nitrate reductase (NRA) also were investigated in a series of indoor experiments. The results showed that N deposition significantly decreased the growth and survival of this lichen, and the N sensitivity threshold was suggested at 6.0 kg N⋅ha -1 ⋅y -1 . When the N deposition increased from 8.59 kg N⋅ha -1 ⋅y -1 to 14.24, 20.49, 32.99 and 57.99 kg N⋅ha -1 ⋅y -1 , the growth rates of lichen thalli decreased by 26.47, 39.01, 52.18 and 60.3%, respectively; Whereas the survival rate of the lichen propagules decreased from 92.8% of control (0.0 kg N⋅ha -1 ⋅y -1 ) to 10.7% of 50.0 kg N⋅ha -1 ⋅y -1 , when they were treated with 0.00, 6.25, 12.5, 25.0, and 50.0 kg N⋅ha -1 ⋅y -1 deposition. Compared with an adequate adsorption of ammonium N, no nitrate adsorption occurred when thalli was submerged in solution lower than 0.4 mM. Our results also suggested that thalli total nitrogen, N:P ratio increased with N availability, and the activity of PME was significantly correlated with thalli total nitrogen. These all indicated that phosphorus limitation occurred when R. calicaris var. japonica treated with higher nitrogen deposition. Compared with slightly effects of NRA, GSA of R. calicaris var. japonica responded nitrogen availability significantly; In addition, GSA and NRA negatively correlated with thalli growth rate and propagule survival significantly. These results indicated that nitrogen stress do decrease growth and survival of R. calicaris var. japonica , and lichen

  4. Genetic diversity of loquat germplasm (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb) Lindl) assessed by SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Soriano, José Miguel; Romero, Carlos; Vilanova, Santiago; Llácer, Gerardo; Badenes, María Luisa

    2005-02-01

    Genetic relationships among 40 loquat (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb) Lindl) accessions that originated from different countries and that are part of the germplasm collection of the Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Agrarias (IVIA) (Valencia, Spain) were evaluated using microsatellites. Thirty primer pairs flanking microsatellites previously identified in Malus x domestica (Borkh.) were assayed. Thirteen of them amplified polymorphic products and unambiguously distinguished 34 genotypes from the 40 accessions analyzed. Six accessions showing identical marker patterns were Spanish local varieties thought to have been derived from 'Algerie' by a mutational process very common in loquat species. A total of 39 alleles were detected in the population studied, with a mean value of 2.4 alleles per locus. The expected and observed heterozygosities were 0.46 and 51% on average, respectively, leading to a negative value of the Wright's fixation index (-0.20). The values of these parameters indicate a smaller degree of genetic diversity in the set of loquat accessions analyzed than in other members of the Rosaceae family. Unweighted pair-group method (UPGMA) cluster analysis, based on Nei's genetic distance, generally grouped genotypes according to their geographic origins and pedigrees. The high number of alleles and the high expected heterozygosity detected with SSR markers developed in Malus x domestica (Borkh.) make them a suitable tool for loquat cultivar identification, confirming microsatellite marker transportability among genera in the Rosaceae family.

  5. Anaerobic Digestion of Laminaria japonica Waste from Industrial Production Residues in Laboratory- and Pilot-Scale

    PubMed Central

    Barbot, Yann Nicolas; Thomsen, Claudia; Thomsen, Laurenz; Benz, Roland

    2015-01-01

    The cultivation of macroalgae to supply the biofuel, pharmaceutical or food industries generates a considerable amount of organic residue, which represents a potential substrate for biomethanation. Its use optimizes the total resource exploitation by the simultaneous disposal of waste biomaterials. In this study, we explored the biochemical methane potential (BMP) and biomethane recovery of industrial Laminaria japonica waste (LJW) in batch, continuous laboratory and pilot-scale trials. Thermo-acidic pretreatment with industry-grade HCl or industrial flue gas condensate (FGC), as well as a co-digestion approach with maize silage (MS) did not improve the biomethane recovery. BMPs between 172 mL and 214 mL g−1 volatile solids (VS) were recorded. We proved the feasibility of long-term continuous anaerobic digestion with LJW as sole feedstock showing a steady biomethane production rate of 173 mL g−1 VS. The quality of fermentation residue was sufficient to serve as biofertilizer, with enriched amounts of potassium, sulfur and iron. We further demonstrated the upscaling feasibility of the process in a pilot-scale system where a CH4 recovery of 189 L kg−1 VS was achieved and a biogas composition of 55% CH4 and 38% CO2 was recorded. PMID:26393620

  6. In-vitro anticoagulant activity of fucoidan derivatives from brown seaweed Laminaria japonica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Zhang, Quanbin; Zhang, Zhongshan; Hou, Yun; Zhang, Hong

    2011-05-01

    Fucoidan, a group of sulfated heteropolysaccharides, was extracted from Laminaria japonica, an important economic alga species in China. The anticoagulant activity of fucoidan and its derivatives (including sulfated, phosphorylated, and aminated fucoidan) was examined using in-vitro anticoagulant systems. The correlation between chemical variations within the fucoidan group and anticoagulant activity was determined. The in-vitro anticoagulant properties of fucoidan and its derivatives were determined by measuring activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), and thrombin time (TT). The results indicate anticoagulant activity in all samples using APTT and TT assays; however, only the fucoidan derivatives affected the PT assay. Thus, the fucoidan derivatives were able to inhibit both intrinsic and extrinsic blood coagulants. Fucoidan (FPS) and its derivatives presented better anticoagulant activity than low molecular weight fucoidan (DFPS) and its derivatives, suggesting that molecular weight and proper conformation are contributing factors for anticoagulant activity of polysaccharides. Amino groups have a positive charge and can thus change the charge density of fucoidan. Accordingly, among the tested samples, aminated fucoidan (NF) was the most active reflecting the importance of charge density for anticoagulant activity. Available data obtained using in-vitro models suggest that the sulfate content, sulfate/total-sugar ratio, molecular weight, and the substituted group of fucoidan are important factors for anticoagulant activity but that the influence of sulfate, phosphate and amino groups on anticoagulant activity was different.

  7. Study on antithrombotic and antiplatelet activities of low molecular weight fucoidan from Laminaria japonica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Anjin; Zhang, Fang; Shi, Jie; Zhao, Xue

    2012-06-01

    The antithrombotic and antiplatelet effects of two fucoidan fractions with low molecular weight and different sulfate content from Laminaria japonica were compared in order to examine the influence of chemical character on their antithrombotic activity and the possible mechanism. Both LMW fucoidan fractions exhibited favorable antithrombotic activity in an Fecl3-induced arterial thrombosis. The antithrombotic activity of LMW fucoidan was related with decrease of TXB2 and whole blood viscosity and hematocrit. LMW fucoidan showed a correlation between anticoagulant, antiaggregant and antithrombotic effects in vivo. For LMW fucoidan, antithrombotic activity required high dose of 5-10 nmol kg-1, concomitantly with increase in anticoagulant activity and inhibition of platelet aggregation. Administration of LMW fucoidan significantly promoted the 6-keto-PGF1α content and decreased the TXB2 content, indicating its inhibition of tissue factor pathway and regulation of metabolism of arachidonic acid. By comparison, highly sulfated fucoidan LF2 with Mw 3900 seemed to be a more suitable choice for antithrombotic drug for its antithrombotic activity accompanied with specific inhibitory activity on platelet aggregation, low anticoagulant activity and low hemorrhagic risk in vivo.

  8. Flavone synthases from Lonicera japonica and L. macranthoides reveal differential flavone accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jie; Wang, Xiao-Chen; Liu, Yang; Du, Hui; Shu, Qing-Yan; Su, Shang; Wang, Li-Jin; Li, Shan-Shan; Wang, Liang-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Flavones are important secondary metabolites found in many plants. In Lonicera species, flavones contribute both physiological and pharmaceutical properties. However, flavone synthase (FNS), the key enzyme responsible for flavone biosynthesis, has not yet been characterized in Lonicera species. In this study, FNSII genes were identified from Lonicera japonica Thunb. and L. macranthoides Hand.-Mazz. In the presence of NADPH, the recombinant cytochrome P450 proteins encoded by LjFNSII-1.1, LjFNSII-2.1, and LmFNSII-1.1 converted eriodictyol, naringenin, and liquiritigenin to the corresponding flavones directly. The different catalytic properties between LjFNSII-2.1 and LjFNSII-1.1 were caused by a single amino acid substitution at position 242 (glutamic acid to lysine). A methionine at position 206 and a leucine at position 381 contributed considerably to the high catalytic activity of LjFNSII-1.1. In addition, LjFNSII-1.1&2.1 and LmFNSII-1.1 also biosynthesize flavones that were further modified by O-glycosylation in transgenic tobacco. The expression levels of the FNSII genes were consistent with flavone accumulation patterns in flower buds. Our findings suggested that the weak catalytic activity of LmFNSII-1.1 and the relatively low expression of LmFNSII-1.1 in flowers might be responsible for the low levels of flavone accumulation in flower buds of L. macranthoides.

  9. Structural characters and protecting β-cells of a polysaccharide from flowers of Inula japonica.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chunzhi; Diao, Yulin; Wang, Changzhen; Qu, Wensheng; Zhao, Xiunan; Ma, Hao; Shan, Junjie; Sun, Guohui

    2017-08-01

    Our previous studies found that the crude polysaccharides (IJP) from flowers of Inula japonica exhibited significantly anti-diabetic activity in alloxan or MLD-STZ induced diabetic mice. In this study, we will trace an active polysaccharide from IJP and investigate its physico-chemical property and its protective mechanism on islet cell damage. The result showed that an active polysaccharide (IJP-B-1) was isolated from IJP, its molecular mass was 3.7×10 4 Da. IJP-B-1 was composed of rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose, galactose and galactocuronic acid. Its major backbone structure was (1→3, 6)-linked-galactose and other branched residues. IJP-B-1 could protect pancreatic cells against STZ impairment at 50μg/mL and scavenge OH and O 2 radicals to decrease reactive oxygen generation in islet-cells in vitro. These results suggested that IJP-B-1 might be useful for protecting β-cells and against oxidative stress as an anti-diabetic candidate drug in future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Anti-inflammatory effects of alpinone 3-acetate from Alpinia japonica seeds.

    PubMed

    Kakegawa, Tomohito; Miyazaki, Aya; Yasukawa, Ken

    2016-07-01

    We aimed to investigate the bioactive components of Alpinia japonica as anti-inflammatory compounds using searches of the Alpinia genus, and subsequently demonstrated that alpinone 3-acetate markedly inhibits 12-O-tetradecanoyiphorbol 13-acetate-induced inflammation in a mouse model of ear edema. To assess other bioactivities of alpinone 3-acetate, we performed translatome analyses and compared them with those of hydrocortisone. Polysome-associated mRNAs were prepared from alpinone 3-acetate- or hydrocortisone-treated and control cells from 12-O-tetradecanoyiphorbol 13-acetate-induced THP-1-derived macrophages cultured in the presence of Escherichia coli O-111 lipopolysaccharide. Subsequent microarray analysis revealed that alpinone 3-acetate and hydrocortisone upregulated and downregulated the same 155 and 41 genes, respectively. Moreover, direct comparisons of translationally regulated genes indicated 5 and 10 gene probes that were upregulated and downregulated by alpinone 3-acetate and hydrocortisone, respectively. In conclusion, assays of 12-O-tetradecanoyiphorbol 13-acetate-induced inflammation ear edema in mice and polysome profiling of alpinone 3-acetate bioactivities indicated similar medicinal possibilities to those of hydrocortisone.

  11. Effects of inhalable microparticle of flower of Lonicera japonica in a mouse model of COPD.

    PubMed

    Park, Yang-Chun; Jin, Mirim; Kim, Seung-Hyung; Kim, Min-Hee; Namgung, Uk; Yeo, Yoon

    2014-01-01

    Flower of Lonicera japonica (FLJ) is a traditional herbal medicine widely used in East Asia as an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative agent. The purpose of this study is to develop an inhalable powder formulation of FLJ and to evaluate its biological effects in a mouse model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Inhalable dry powder containing FLJ was produced by spray-drying with leucine as an excipient. Its aerodynamic properties and anti-inflammatory activities were evaluated using the Anderson cascade impactor (ACI) and a mouse model of COPD, respectively. FLJ microparticle (FLJmp) had a hollow spherical shape in electron microscopy and showed aerodynamic properties suitable for inhalation (fine particle fraction of 54.0 ± 4.68% and mass median aerodynamic diameter of 4.6 ± 0.34μm). FLJmp decreased TNF-α and IL-6 expression in RAW264.7 cells activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In mice challenged with LPS and cigarette smoke solution (CSS) to develop COPD, FLJmp decreased the levels of TNF-α and IL-6 in bronchoalveolar fluidas well as the number of inflammatory cells including neutrophils in peripheral blood. In addition, FLJmp induced recovery of elastin and collagen distribution, reduction of caspase-3 expression in lung tissues of COPD mice. Inhalational delivery of FLJ using a microparticle system is a promising strategy for the treatment of COPD. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of 2 G hypergravity exposure on Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) and Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ronca, April E.; Baer, Lisa A.; Everett, Erin M.; Shaughnessey, Rebecca; Foushee, Rebecca E.

    2004-01-01

    We compared reproductive fitness and early postnatal growth of Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) and Japanese (Coturnix coturnix japonica) quail incubated and hatched during 2 G centrifugation. Fertilized Bobwhite and Japanese quail eggs were placed in portable incubators on the 8-ft International Space Station Test Bed (ISSTB) Centrifuge at NASA Ames Research Center. The quail eggs were incubated throughout hatching and reared until Postnatal day (P)4 at either 1.0, 1.2 or 2.0 G. Two days before hatching, candling revealed significantly greater numbers of viable Bobwhite than Japanese quail eggs at all g-loads. Bobwhite quail exhibited significantly better hatching success at all g-loads than did Japanese quail. Bobwhite hatchlings were sensitive to gravitational loading as evidenced by reduced postnatal body mass and length of 2 G hatchlings relative to 1 G control hatchlings. In contrast, mass and length of Japanese quail hatchlings were unaffected by 1.2 or 2 G exposure. Together, our findings provide evidence for superior viability and hatching success in Bobwhite quail relative to Japanese quail, coupled with greater sensitivity of postnatal body growth and development to 2 G loading. Bobwhite quail may be better suited than Japanese quail for scientific studies on space biology platforms.

  13. Sphingomonas japonica sp. nov., isolated from the marine crustacean Paralithodes camtschatica.

    PubMed

    Romanenko, Lyudmila A; Tanaka, Naoto; Frolova, Galina M; Mikhailov, Valery V

    2009-05-01

    A Sphingomonas-like bacterium, strain KC7(T), was isolated from a marine crustacean specimen obtained from the Sea of Japan and subjected to a polyphasic study. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis positioned the novel strain in the genus Sphingomonas as an independent lineage adjacent to a subclade containing Sphingomonas trueperi LMG 2142(T), Sphingomonas pituitosa EDIV(T) and Sphingomonas azotifigens NBRC 15497(T). Strain KC7(T) shared highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (96.1 %) with S. trueperi LMG 2142(T), Sphingomonas dokdonensis DS-4(T) and S. azotifigens NBRC 15497(T); similarities to strains of other recognized Sphingomonas species were lower (96.0-93.9 %). The strain contained sphingoglycolipid and the predominant fatty acids were C(16 : 1), C(16 : 0) and C(18 : 1); 2-OH C(14 : 0) was the major 2-hydroxy fatty acid. Previously, these lipids have been found to be characteristic of members of the genus Sphingomonas sensu stricto. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis and physiological and biochemical characterization, strain KC7(T) represents a novel species of the genus Sphingomonas, for which the name Sphingomonas japonica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KC7(T) (=KMM 3038(T) =NRIC 0738(T) =JCM 15438(T)).

  14. Colour and pattern change against visually heterogeneous backgrounds in the tree frog Hyla japonica

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Changku; Kim, Ye Eun; Jang, Yikweon

    2016-01-01

    Colour change in animals can be adaptive phenotypic plasticity in heterogeneous environments. Camouflage through background colour matching has been considered a primary force that drives the evolution of colour changing ability. However, the mechanism to which animals change their colour and patterns under visually heterogeneous backgrounds (i.e. consisting of more than one colour) has only been identified in limited taxa. Here, we investigated the colour change process of the Japanese tree frog (Hyla japonica) against patterned backgrounds and elucidated how the expression of dorsal patterns changes against various achromatic/chromatic backgrounds with/without patterns. Our main findings are i) frogs primarily responded to the achromatic differences in background, ii) their contrasting dorsal patterns were conditionally expressed dependent on the brightness of backgrounds, iii) against mixed coloured background, frogs adopted intermediate forms between two colours. Using predator (avian and snake) vision models, we determined that colour differences against different backgrounds yielded perceptible changes in dorsal colours. We also found substantial individual variation in colour changing ability and the levels of dorsal pattern expression between individuals. We discuss the possibility of correlational selection on colour changing ability and resting behaviour that maintains the high variation in colour changing ability within population. PMID:26932675

  15. Impact of long-term habitat loss on the Japanese eel Anguilla japonica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jian-Ze; Huang, Shiang-Lin; Han, Yu-San

    2014-12-01

    Since the 1970s, the loss of temperate-zone anguillid eels, particularly Anguilla anguilla, Anguilla rostrata, and Anguilla japonica, has exceeded 90% based on estimates of glass eel recruitment. The cause of this decline has not been conclusively determined, although many factors have been proposed. In East Asia, the consequences of long-term habitat loss and deterioration of habitat quality on the sustainability of Japanese eel resources are important. Impacts have already occurred and are expected to increase because hundreds of millions of people live near estuaries and rivers that have undergone, and further, are expected to continue to undergo, substantial changes in land use. Driven by economic growth, these landscape changes have resulted in, and may continue to produce, the large-scale destruction of eel habitats. We used chronological Landsat imagery to measure Japanese eel habitat reduction from human activities in 16 rivers in East Asia, including Japan, Korea, Taiwan, and China. On average, 76.8% of the effective habitat area (Ae) was lost in these 16 rivers from the 1970s-2010s. Taiwan and China had the highest percentages of Ae loss, with declines of 49.3% and 81.5%, respectively. Extensive habitat loss may play an important role, together with regional climate phenomena such as the ENSO and overfishing, in the decline of the Japanese eel in East Asia. Measures targeting habitat restoration and protection may need to be integrated into management planning for Japanese eel resources in an international rather than regional context.

  16. Colour and pattern change against visually heterogeneous backgrounds in the tree frog Hyla japonica.

    PubMed

    Kang, Changku; Kim, Ye Eun; Jang, Yikweon

    2016-03-02

    Colour change in animals can be adaptive phenotypic plasticity in heterogeneous environments. Camouflage through background colour matching has been considered a primary force that drives the evolution of colour changing ability. However, the mechanism to which animals change their colour and patterns under visually heterogeneous backgrounds (i.e. consisting of more than one colour) has only been identified in limited taxa. Here, we investigated the colour change process of the Japanese tree frog (Hyla japonica) against patterned backgrounds and elucidated how the expression of dorsal patterns changes against various achromatic/chromatic backgrounds with/without patterns. Our main findings are i) frogs primarily responded to the achromatic differences in background, ii) their contrasting dorsal patterns were conditionally expressed dependent on the brightness of backgrounds, iii) against mixed coloured background, frogs adopted intermediate forms between two colours. Using predator (avian and snake) vision models, we determined that colour differences against different backgrounds yielded perceptible changes in dorsal colours. We also found substantial individual variation in colour changing ability and the levels of dorsal pattern expression between individuals. We discuss the possibility of correlational selection on colour changing ability and resting behaviour that maintains the high variation in colour changing ability within population.

  17. Curated genome annotation of Oryza sativa ssp. japonica and comparative genome analysis with Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Itoh, Takeshi; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Barrero, Roberto A.; Yamasaki, Chisato; Fujii, Yasuyuki; Hilton, Phillip B.; Antonio, Baltazar A.; Aono, Hideo; Apweiler, Rolf; Bruskiewich, Richard; Bureau, Thomas; Burr, Frances; Costa de Oliveira, Antonio; Fuks, Galina; Habara, Takuya; Haberer, Georg; Han, Bin; Harada, Erimi; Hiraki, Aiko T.; Hirochika, Hirohiko; Hoen, Douglas; Hokari, Hiroki; Hosokawa, Satomi; Hsing, Yue; Ikawa, Hiroshi; Ikeo, Kazuho; Imanishi, Tadashi; Ito, Yukiyo; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Kanno, Masako; Kawahara, Yoshihiro; Kawamura, Toshiyuki; Kawashima, Hiroaki; Khurana, Jitendra P.; Kikuchi, Shoshi; Komatsu, Setsuko; Koyanagi, Kanako O.; Kubooka, Hiromi; Lieberherr, Damien; Lin, Yao-Cheng; Lonsdale, David; Matsumoto, Takashi; Matsuya, Akihiro; McCombie, W. Richard; Messing, Joachim; Miyao, Akio; Mulder, Nicola; Nagamura, Yoshiaki; Nam, Jongmin; Namiki, Nobukazu; Numa, Hisataka; Nurimoto, Shin; O’Donovan, Claire; Ohyanagi, Hajime; Okido, Toshihisa; OOta, Satoshi; Osato, Naoki; Palmer, Lance E.; Quetier, Francis; Raghuvanshi, Saurabh; Saichi, Naomi; Sakai, Hiroaki; Sakai, Yasumichi; Sakata, Katsumi; Sakurai, Tetsuya; Sato, Fumihiko; Sato, Yoshiharu; Schoof, Heiko; Seki, Motoaki; Shibata, Michie; Shimizu, Yuji; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Shinso, Yuji; Singh, Nagendra K.; Smith-White, Brian; Takeda, Jun-ichi; Tanino, Motohiko; Tatusova, Tatiana; Thongjuea, Supat; Todokoro, Fusano; Tsugane, Mika; Tyagi, Akhilesh K.; Vanavichit, Apichart; Wang, Aihui; Wing, Rod A.; Yamaguchi, Kaori; Yamamoto, Mayu; Yamamoto, Naoyuki; Yu, Yeisoo; Zhang, Hao; Zhao, Qiang; Higo, Kenichi; Burr, Benjamin; Gojobori, Takashi; Sasaki, Takuji

    2007-01-01

    We present here the annotation of the complete genome of rice Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica cultivar Nipponbare. All functional annotations for proteins and non-protein-coding RNA (npRNA) candidates were manually curated. Functions were identified or inferred in 19,969 (70%) of the proteins, and 131 possible npRNAs (including 58 antisense transcripts) were found. Almost 5000 annotated protein-coding genes were found to be disrupted in insertional mutant lines, which will accelerate future experimental validation of the annotations. The rice loci were determined by using cDNA sequences obtained from rice and other representative cereals. Our conservative estimate based on these loci and an extrapolation suggested that the gene number of rice is ∼32,000, which is smaller than previous estimates. We conducted comparative analyses between rice and Arabidopsis thaliana and found that both genomes possessed several lineage-specific genes, which might account for the observed differences between these species, while they had similar sets of predicted functional domains among the protein sequences. A system to control translational efficiency seems to be conserved across large evolutionary distances. Moreover, the evolutionary process of protein-coding genes was examined. Our results suggest that natural selection may have played a role for duplicated genes in both species, so that duplication was suppressed or favored in a manner that depended on the function of a gene. PMID:17210932

  18. The role of silicon in physiology of the medicinal plant (Lonicera japonica L.) under salt stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gengmao, Zhao; Shihui, Li; Xing, Sun; Yizhou, Wang; Zipan, Chang

    2015-08-01

    Silicon(Si) is the only element which can enhance the resistance to multiple stresses. However, the role of silicon in medicinal plants under salt stress is not yet understood. This experiment was conducted to study the effects of silicon addition on the growth, osmotic adjustments, photosynthetic characteristics, chloroplast ultrastructure and Chlorogenic acid (CGA) production of Honeysuckle plant (Lonicera japonica L.) under salt-stressed conditions. Salinity exerted an adverse effect on the plant fresh weight and dry weight, whilst 0.5 g L-1 K2SiO3·nH2O addition obviously improved the plant growth. Although Na+ concentration in plant organs was drastically increased with increasing salinity, higher levels of K+/Na+ ratio was obtained after K2SiO3·nH2O addition. Salinity stress induced the destruction of the chloroplast envelope; however, K2SiO3·nH2O addition counteracted the adverse effect by salinity on the structure of the photosynthetic apparatus. K2SiO3·nH2O addition also enhanced the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase. To sum up, exogenous Si plays a key role in enhancing its resistance to salt stresses in physiological base, thereby improving the growth and CGA production of Honeysuckle plant.

  19. Carotenoid distribution in wild Japanese tree frogs (Hyla japonica) exposed to ionizing radiation in Fukushima.

    PubMed

    Giraudeau, Mathieu; Bonzom, Jean-Marc; Ducatez, Simon; Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Deviche, Pierre; Lengagne, Thierry; Cavalie, Isabelle; Camilleri, Virginie; Adam-Guillermin, Christelle; McGraw, Kevin J

    2018-05-09

    The nuclear accident in the Fukushima prefecture released a large amount of artificial radionuclides that might have short- and long-term biological effects on wildlife. Ionizing radiation can be a harmful source of reactive oxygen species, and previous studies have already shown reduced fitness effects in exposed animals in Chernobyl. Due to their potential health benefits, carotenoid pigments might be used by animals to limit detrimental effects of ionizing radiation exposure. Here, we examined concentrations of carotenoids in blood (i.e. a snapshot of levels in circulation), liver (endogenous carotenoid reserves), and the vocal sac skin (sexual signal) in relation to the total radiation dose rates absorbed by individual (TDR from 0.2 to 34 µGy/h) Japanese tree frogs (Hyla japonica). We found high within-site variability of TDRs, but no significant effects of the TDR on tissue carotenoid levels, suggesting that carotenoid distribution in amphibians might be less sensitive to ionizing radiation exposure than in other organisms or that the potential deleterious effects of radiation exposure might be less significant or more difficult to detect in Fukushima than in Chernobyl due to, among other things, differences in the abundance and mixture of each radionuclide.

  20. Impact of vinclozolin on reproductive behavior and endocrinology in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica)

    McGary, S.; Henry, P.F.P.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    The impact of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) has been demonstrated in mammalian models, but less research is available for avian species. The effects of vinclozolin (VIN), an antiandrogenic fungicide, on sexual differentiation and maturation were investigated in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). On day 4 of incubation, embryos were exposed to no treatment, oil, or 25, 50, or 100 ppm of VIN. Endpoints measured included adult male reproductive behavior, hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone I (GnRH-I) content in hatchlings and adults, plasma steroid levels in hatchlings and adults, proctodeal gland growth during maturation, and relative testicular weight at seven weeks of age. Results showed that exposure to VIN significantly (p < 0.05) altered GnRH-I in male hatchlings, whereas GnRH-I levels in females remained unaffected. Although steroid levels were unaltered by any VIN treatment, the display of male reproductive behavior seemed delayed, with the number of mounts and the number of cloacal contacts being significantly (p < 0.05) lower in the VIN-treated males. This could have an extreme negative impact on wild avian species that are routinely exposed to similar EDCs.

  1. Soldier caste-specific gene expression in the mandibular glands of Hodotermopsis japonica (Isoptera: Termopsidae)

    PubMed Central

    Miura, Toru; Kamikouchi, Azusa; Sawata, Miyuki; Takeuchi, Hideaki; Natori, Syunji; Kubo, Takeo; Matsumoto, Tadao

    1999-01-01

    Although “polymorphic castes” in social insects are well known as one of the most important phenomena of polyphenism, few studies of caste-specific gene expressions have been performed in social insects. To identify genes specifically expressed in the soldier caste of the Japanese damp-wood termite Hodotermopsis japonica, we employed the differential-display method using oligo(dT) and arbitrary primers, compared mRNA from the heads of mature soldiers and pseudergates (worker caste), and identified a clone (PCR product) 329 bp in length termed SOL1. Northern blot analysis showed that the SOL1 mRNA is about 1.0 kb in length and is expressed specifically in mature soldiers, but not in pseudergates, even in the presoldier induction by juvenile hormone analogue, suggesting that the product is specific for terminally differentiated soldiers. By using the method of 5′- and 3′-rapid amplification of cDNA ends, we isolated the full length of SOL1 cDNA, which contained an ORF with a putative signal peptide at the N terminus. The sequence showed no significant homology with any other known protein sequences. In situ hybridization analysis showed that SOL1 is expressed specifically in the mandibular glands. These results strongly suggest that the SOL1 gene encodes a secretory protein specifically synthesized in the mandibular glands of the soldiers. Histological observations revealed that the gland actually develops during the differentiation into the soldier caste. PMID:10570166

  2. Anaerobic Digestion of Laminaria japonica Waste from Industrial Production Residues in Laboratory- and Pilot-Scale.

    PubMed

    Barbot, Yann Nicolas; Thomsen, Claudia; Thomsen, Laurenz; Benz, Roland

    2015-09-18

    The cultivation of macroalgae to supply the biofuel, pharmaceutical or food industries generates a considerable amount of organic residue, which represents a potential substrate for biomethanation. Its use optimizes the total resource exploitation by the simultaneous disposal of waste biomaterials. In this study, we explored the biochemical methane potential (BMP) and biomethane recovery of industrial Laminaria japonica waste (LJW) in batch, continuous laboratory and pilot-scale trials. Thermo-acidic pretreatment with industry-grade HCl or industrial flue gas condensate (FGC), as well as a co-digestion approach with maize silage (MS) did not improve the biomethane recovery. BMPs between 172 mL and 214 mL g(-1) volatile solids (VS) were recorded. We proved the feasibility of long-term continuous anaerobic digestion with LJW as sole feedstock showing a steady biomethane production rate of 173 mL g(-1) VS. The quality of fermentation residue was sufficient to serve as biofertilizer, with enriched amounts of potassium, sulfur and iron. We further demonstrated the upscaling feasibility of the process in a pilot-scale system where a CH₄ recovery of 189 L kg(-1) VS was achieved and a biogas composition of 55% CH₄ and 38% CO₂ was recorded.

  3. Influence of cooking on anthocyanins in black rice (Oryza sativa L. japonica var. SBR).

    PubMed

    Hiemori, Miki; Koh, Eunmi; Mitchell, Alyson E

    2009-03-11

    The composition and thermal stability of anthocyanins in black rice (Oryza sativa L. japonica var. SBR) produced in California were investigated. Six anthocyanin pigments were identified and quantified by high performance liquid chromatography using photo diode-array detection (HPLC-PDA) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry [LC-(ESI)MS/MS]. The predominant anthocyanins are cyanidin-3-glucoside (572.47 microg/g; 91.13% of total) and peonidin-3-glucoside (29.78 microg/g; 4.74% of total). Minor constituents included three cyanidin-dihexoside isomers and one cyanidin hexoside. Thermal stability of anthocyanins was assessed in rice cooked using a rice cooker, pressure cooker, or on a gas range. All cooking methods caused significant (P < 0.001) decreases in the anthocyanins identified. Pressure cooking resulted in the greatest loss of cyanidin-3-glucoside (79.8%) followed by the rice cooker (74.2%) and gas range (65.4%). Conversely, levels of protocatechuic acid increased 2.7 to 3.4 times in response to all cooking methods. These findings indicate that cooking black rice results in the thermal degradation of cyanidin-3-glucoside and concomitant production of protocatechuic acid.

  4. Navigation in wood ants Formica japonica: context dependent use of landmarks.

    PubMed

    Fukushi, Tsukasa; Wehner, Rüdiger

    2004-09-01

    Wood ants Formica japonica can steer their outbound (foraging) and inbound (homing) courses without using celestial compass information, by relying exclusively on landmark cues. This is shown by training ants to run back and forth between the nest and an artificial feeder, and later displacing the trained ants either from the nest (when starting their foraging runs: outbound full-vector ants) or from the feeder (when starting their home runs: inbound full-vector ants) to various nearby release sites. In addition, ants that have already completed their foraging and homing runs are displaced after arrival either at the feeder (outbound zero-vector ants) or at the nest (inbound zero-vector ants), respectively, to the very same release sites. Upon release, the full-vector ants steer their straight courses by referring to panoramic landmark cues, while the zero-vector ants presented with the very same visual scenery immediately search for local landmark cues defining their final goal. Hence, it depends on the context, in this case on the state of the forager's round-trip cycle, what visual cues are picked out from a given set of landmarks and used for navigation.

  5. Molecular characterization of the glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) gene in planarian Dugesia japonica.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ke-Xue; Chen, Guang-Wen; Shi, Chang-Ying; Cheng, Fang-Fang; Dou, He; Feng, Cheng-Cheng; Liu, De-Zeng

    2014-05-01

    GRP78 (78 kDa glucose-regulated protein) has ubiquitously existed in nearly all organisms from yeast to humans, reflecting the central roles it plays in cell survival. In this report, we isolated and sequenced the full-length cDNA of GRP78 (designated DjGRP78) from the planarian Dugesia japonica. The cDNA is 2121 bp, including an open reading frame (ORF) of 1983 bp encoding a polypeptide of 660 amino acids with three HSP70 family signatures. DjGRP78 contains signal peptides at the N-terminus and a KTEL peptide motif at the C-terminus, which suggests that it localizes in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Fluorescent real time RT-PCR was employed to detect the expression pattern of Djgrp78 in response to different stressors. Our results show that heat shock and heavy metals (Hg(2+) and Pb(2+)) induce Djgrp78 expression, but starvation does not. Interestingly, we found that Djgrp78 was up-regulated in planarians with septic tissues, and also verified that it was up-regulated in response to bacterial challenge. Our data indicate that Djgrp78 may be a multifunctional gene, and play important roles in physiological and pathological stress in planarians. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Heterogeneity of chromatoid bodies in adult pluripotent stem cells of planarian Dugesia japonica.

    PubMed

    Kashima, Makoto; Kumagai, Nobuyoshi; Agata, Kiyokazu; Shibata, Norito

    2016-02-01

    The robust regenerative ability of planarians is known to be dependent on adult pluripotent stem cells called neoblasts. One of the morphological features of neoblasts is cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein granules (chromatoid bodies: CBs), which resemble germ granules present in germline cells in other animals. Previously, we showed by immuno-electron microscopic analysis that DjCBC-1, a planarian Me31B/Dhh1/DDX6 homologue, which is a component of ribonucleoprotein granules, was localized in CBs in the planarian Dugesia japonica. Also, recently it was reported using another planarian species that Y12 antibody recognizing symmetrical dimethylarginine (sDMA) specifically binds to CBs in which histone mRNA is co-localized. Here, we showed by double immunostaining and RNA interference (RNAi) that DjCBC-1-containing CBs and Y12-immunoreactive CBs are distinct structures, suggesting that CBs are composed of heterogeneous populations. We also found that the Y12-immunoreactive CBs specifically contained a cytoplasmic type of planarian PIWI protein (DjPiwiC). We revealed by RNAi experiments that Y12-immunoreactive CBs may have anti-transposable element activity involving the DjPiwiC protein in the neoblasts. © 2016 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  7. Biological Activities of Extracts from Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.): A Review

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yilong; Zhang, Wenna; Xu, Changjie; Li, Xian

    2016-01-01

    Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) is a subtropical fruit tree with high medicinal value native to China. Different organs of loquat have been used historically as folk medicines and this has been recorded in Chinese history for thousands of years. Research shows that loquat extracts contain many antioxidants, and different extracts exhibit bioactivity capable of counteracting inflammation, diabetes, cancer, bacterial infection, aging, pain, allergy and other health issues. Bioactive compounds such as phenolics and terpenoids have been isolated and characterized to provide a better understanding of the chemical mechanisms underlying the biological activities of loquat extracts. As the identification of compounds progresses, studies investigating the in vivo metabolism, bioavailability, and structure–activity relationships, as well as potential toxicity of loquat extracts in animal or cell models are receiving more attention. In addition, genetic studies and breeding of loquat germplasms for high contents of health-benefiting compounds may provide new insight for the loquat industry and research. This review is focused on the main medicinal properties reported and the possible pharmaceutically active compounds identified in different loquat extracts. PMID:27929430

  8. Expression and localization of aquaporin 1b during oocyte development in the Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    To elucidate the molecular mechanisms underling hydration during oocyte maturation, we characterized the structure of Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) novel-water selective aquaporin 1 (AQP1b) that thought to be involved in oocyte hydration. The aqp1b cDNA encodes a 263 amino acid protein that includes the six potential transmembrane domains and two Asn-Pro-Ala motifs. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed transcription of Japanese eel aqp1b in ovary and testis but not in the other tissues. In situ hybridization studies with the eel aqp1b cRNA probe revealed intense eel aqp1b signal in the oocytes at the perinucleolus stage and the signals became faint during the process of oocyte development. Light microscopic immunocytochemical analysis of ovary revealed that the Japanese eel AQP1b was expressed in the cytoplasm around the yolk globules which were located in the peripheral region of oocytes during the primary yolk globule stage; thereafter, the immunoreactivity was observed throughout the cytoplasm of oocyte as vitellogenesis progressed. The immunoreactivity became localized around the large membrane-limited yolk masses which were formed by the fusion of yolk globules during the oocyte maturation phase. These results together indicate that AQP1b, which is synthesized in the oocyte during the process of oocyte growth, is essential for mediating water uptake into eel oocytes. PMID:21615964

  9. Global Expression Profiling of Low Temperature Induced Genes in the Chilling Tolerant Japonica Rice Jumli Marshi

    PubMed Central

    Chawade, Aakash; Lindlöf, Angelica; Olsson, Björn; Olsson, Olof

    2013-01-01

    Low temperature is a key factor that limits growth and productivity of many important agronomical crops worldwide. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is negatively affected already at temperatures below +10°C and is therefore denoted as chilling sensitive. However, chilling tolerant rice cultivars exist and can be commercially cultivated at altitudes up to 3,050 meters with temperatures reaching as low as +4°C. In this work, the global transcriptional response to cold stress (+4°C) was studied in the Nepalese highland variety Jumli Marshi (spp. japonica) and 4,636 genes were identified as significantly differentially expressed within 24 hours of cold stress. Comparison with previously published microarray data from one chilling tolerant and two sensitive rice cultivars identified 182 genes differentially expressed (DE) upon cold stress in all four rice cultivars and 511 genes DE only in the chilling tolerant rice. Promoter analysis of the 182 genes suggests a complex cross-talk between ABRE and CBF regulons. Promoter analysis of the 511 genes identified over-represented ABRE motifs but not DRE motifs, suggesting a role for ABA signaling in cold tolerance. Moreover, 2,101 genes were DE in Jumli Marshi alone. By chromosomal localization analysis, 473 of these cold responsive genes were located within 13 different QTLs previously identified as cold associated. PMID:24349120

  10. Detection of triterpene acids distribution in loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) leaf using hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jiyong; Chen, Wu; Zou, Xiaobo; Xu, Yiwei; Huang, Xiaowei; Zhu, Yaodi; Shen, Tingting

    2018-01-01

    Hyperspectral images (431-962 nm) and partial least squares (PLS) were used to detect the distribution of triterpene acids within loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) leaves. 72 fresh loquat leaves in the young group, mature group and old group were collected for hyperspectral imaging; and triterpene acids content of the loquat leaves was analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Then the spectral data of loquat leaf hyperspectral images and the triterpene acids content were employed to build calibration models. After spectra pre-processing and wavelength selection, an optimum calibration model (Rp = 0.8473, RMSEP = 2.61 mg/g) for predicting triterpene acids was obtained by synergy interval partial least squares (siPLS). Finally, spectral data of each pixel in the loquat leaf hyperspectral image were extracted and substituted into the optimum calibration model to predict triterpene acids content of each pixel. Therefore, the distribution map of triterpene acids content was obtained. As shown in the distribution map, triterpene acids are accumulated mainly in the leaf mesophyll regions near the main veins, and triterpene acids concentration of young group is less than that of mature and old groups. This study showed that hyperspectral imaging is suitable to determine the distribution of active constituent content in medical herbs in a rapid and non-invasive manner.

  11. Pseudomonas japonica sp. nov., a novel species that assimilates straight chain alkylphenols.

    PubMed

    Pungrasmi, Wiboonluk; Lee, Haeng-Seog; Yokota, Akira; Ohta, Akinori

    2008-02-01

    A bacterial strain, WL(T), which was isolated from an activated sludge, was able to degrade alkylphenols. 16S rDNA sequence analysis indicated that strain WL(T) belonged to the genus Pseudomonas (sensu stricto) and formed a monophyletic clade with the type strain of Pseudomonas graminis and other members in the Pseudomonas putida subcluster with sequence similarity values higher than 97%. Genomic relatedness based on DNA-DNA hybridization of strain WL(T) to these strains is 2-41%. Strain WL(T) contained ubiquinone-9 as the main respiratory quinone, and the G+C content of DNA was 66 mol%. The organism contained hexadecanoic acid (16:0), hexadecenoic acid (16:1) and octadecenoic acid (18:1) as major cellular fatty acids. The hydroxy fatty acids detected were 3-hydroxydecanoic acid (3-OH 10:0), 3-hydroxydodecanoic acid (3-OH 12:0) and 2-hydroxydodecanoic acid (2-OH 12:0). These results, as well as physiological and biochemical characteristics clearly indicate that the strain WL(T) represents a new Pseudomonas species, for which the name Pseudomonas japonica is proposed. The type strain is strain WL(T) (=IAM 15071T=TISTR 1526T).

  12. Distribution of Peripheral Memory T Follicular Helper Cells in Patients with Schistosomiasis Japonica

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaojun; Li, Wei; Zhang, Yang; Song, Xian; Xu, Lei; Xu, Zhipeng; Zhou, Sha; Zhu, Jifeng; Jin, Xin; Liu, Feng; Chen, Gengxin; Su, Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis is a helminthic disease that affects more than 200 million people. An effective vaccine would be a major step towards eliminating the disease. Studies suggest that T follicular helper (Tfh) cells provide help to B cells to generate the long-term humoral immunity, which would be a crucial component of successful vaccines. Thus, understanding the biological characteristics of Tfh cells in patients with schistosomiasis, which has never been explored, is essential for vaccine design. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we investigated the biological characteristics of peripheral memory Tfh cells in schistosomiasis patients by flow cytometry. Our data showed that the frequencies of total and activated peripheral memory Tfh cells in patients were significantly increased during Schistosoma japonicum infection. Moreover, Tfh2 cells, which were reported to be a specific subpopulation to facilitate the generation of protective antibodies, were increased more greatly than other subpopulations of total peripheral memory Tfh cells in patients with schistosomiasis japonica. More importantly, our result showed significant correlations of the percentage of Tfh2 cells with both the frequency of plasma cells and the level of IgG antibody. In addition, our results showed that the percentage of T follicular regulatory (Tfr) cells was also increased in patients with schistosomiasis. Conclusions/Significance Our report is the first characterization of peripheral memory Tfh cells in schistosomasis patients, which not only provides potential targets to improve immune response to vaccination, but also is important for the development of vaccination strategies to control schistosomiasis. PMID:26284362

  13. [Investigation on schistosomiasis japonica infection and preventive knowledge of immigration population in Jinshan District, Shanghai].

    PubMed

    Shen, Li; Tao, Jian-xiu; Yu, Rui-fang; Shen, Guo-hong; Wu, Jun; Cai, Li; Cao, Chun-li; Xu, Jing; Li, Shi-zhu; Guo, Jia-gang

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the schistosomiasis japonica infection and preventive knowledge of immigration population in Jinshan District, Shanghai so as to provide the evidence for improving the control work. The immigration population from schistosomiasis endemic provinces and local people were screened by serum IHA screening for schistosome infection, and the positives were further examined by Kato-Katz technique and the miracidium hatching method. The schistosomiasis preventive knowledge and behaviors were investigated by questionnaires. A total of 579 were investigated with 348 immigration people and 231 local people, and among them, the male accounted for 72.0% and female accounted for 28.0%. In the immigration population, the main age group was 20-29 (56.0%), and 56.6% of the immigration had an education level at senior middle school or higher. The most proportion of immigration was from Anhui Province (36.2%). There were 4 IHA positive persons (1.15%) in the immigration, and 1 was positive in the stool test, and the schistosome infection rate was 0.29%. There were no positives in the local people. The schistosomiasis preventive knowledge of the immigration was generally poor, and some people' s behaviors of see doctor and medication were incorrect. There are schistosome infected persons among the immigration population from schistosomiasis endemic provinces, and their schistosomiasis prevention knowledge was poor, thus there is a schistosomiasis transmission risk.

  14. Spontaneous, Experimentally Induced, and Transmissible AA Amyloidosis in Japanese Quail ( Coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Yumi; Kamiie, Junichi; Watanabe, Gen; Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Murakami, Tomoaki

    2017-11-01

    The authors describe a spontaneous case of amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis in an adult female Japanese quail ( Coturnix japonica). The bird developed AA amyloidosis secondary to chronic peritonitis caused by a Gram-negative bacillus infection. Mild amyloid deposition was also identified in the intestinal tract of apparently healthy adult individuals, suggesting that quail may develop intestinal amyloidosis with age. Based on these observations, it was hypothesized that quail can develop AA amyloidosis following inflammatory stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Therefore, adult quail were repeatedly injected with LPS and the development of AA amyloidosis was confirmed. The amyloid deposition in this model increased when quail amyloid was intravenously injected as an amyloid-enhancing factor. The experiments were repeated with young quail, but amyloid deposits were not observed following LPS injections. However, AA amyloidosis did develop when quail amyloid was injected in addition to LPS. These results indicated that adult quail develop AA amyloidosis after inflammatory stimulation with LPS. Furthermore, quail AA amyloidosis was shown to have transmissibility regardless of age. Interestingly, the authors found that administration of chicken amyloid fibrils also induced AA amyloidosis in young quail. This is the first report of cross-species transmission of avian AA amyloidosis.

  15. Next-Generation Sequencing of an 88-Year-Old Specimen of the Poorly Known Species Liagora japonica (Nemaliales, Rhodophyta) Supports the Recognition of Otohimella gen. nov.

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Masahiro; Segawa, Takahiro; Mori, Hiroshi; Akiyoshi, Ayumi; Ootsuki, Ryo; Kurihara, Akira; Sakayama, Hidetoshi; Kitayama, Taiju; Abe, Tsuyoshi; Kogame, Kazuhiro; Kawai, Hiroshi; Nozaki, Hisayoshi

    2016-01-01

    Liagora japonica is a red algal species distributed in temperate regions of Japan. This species has not been collected from its type locality on the Pacific coast of Japan since 1927 and seems to have become extinct in this area. For molecular characterization of L. japonica, we extracted DNA from the topotype material of L. japonica collected in 1927, analyzed seven genes using Illumina next-generation sequencing, and compared these data with sequences from modern samples of similar red algae collected from the Japan Sea coast of Japan. Both morphological and molecular data from modern samples and historical specimens (including the lectotype and topotype) suggest that the specimens from the Pacific and Japan Sea coasts of Japan should be treated as a single species, and that L. japonica is phylogenetically separated from the genus Liagora. Based on the phylogenetic results and examination of reproductive structures, we propose Otohimella japonica gen. et comb. nov., characterized morphologically by diffuse carposporophytes, undivided carposporangia, and involucral filaments initiated only from the cortical cell on the supporting cell. PMID:27388436

  16. Ingestion of Bt corn pollen containing Cry1Ab/2Aj or Cry1Ac does not harm Propylea japonica larvae

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yanmin; Liu, Qingsong; Wang, Yanan; Chen, Xiuping; Song, Xinyuan; Romeis, Jörg; Li, Yunhe; Peng, Yufa

    2016-01-01

    Propylea japonica (Thunberg) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is a prevalent pollen consumer in corn fields and is therefore exposed to insecticidal proteins contained in the pollen of insect-resistant transgenic corn cultivars expressing Cry proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). In the present study, the potential effect of Cry1Ab/2Aj- or Cry1Ac-containing transgenic Bt corn pollen on the fitness of P. japonica larvae was evaluated. The results show that the larval developmental time was significantly shorter when P. japonica larvae were fed pollen from Bt corn cultivars rather than control pollen but that pupation rate, eclosion rate, and adult fresh weight were not significantly affected. In the feeding experiments, the stability of the Cry proteins in the food sources was confirmed. When Bt corn pollen passed through the gut of P. japonica, 23% of Cry1Ab/2Aj was digested. The results demonstrate that consumption of Bt corn pollen containing Cry1Ab/2Aj or Cry1Ac has no detrimental effect on P. japonica larvae; the shortened developmental time of larvae that consumed these proteins was likely attributable to unknown differences in the nutritional composition between the Bt-transgenic and control corn pollen. PMID:27005950

  17. Slipping through the cracks: the taxonomic impediment conceals the origin and dispersal of Haminoea japonica, an invasive species with impacts to human health.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Dieta; Cooke, Samantha; Hirano, Yayoi; Malaquias, Manuel A E; Crocetta, Fabio; Valdés, Ángel

    2013-01-01

    Haminoea japonica is a species of opisthobranch sea slug native to Japan and Korea. Non-native populations have spread unnoticed for decades due to difficulties in the taxonomy of Haminoea species. Haminoea japonica is associated with a schistosome parasite in San Francisco Bay, thus further spread could have consequence to human health and economies. Anecdotal evidence suggests that H. japonica has displaced native species of Haminoea in North America and Europe, becoming locally dominant in estuaries and coastal lagoons. In this paper we study the population genetics of native and non-native populations of H. japonica based on mt-DNA data including newly discovered populations in Italy and France. The conclusions of this study further corroborate a Northeastern Japan origin for the non-native populations and suggest possible independent introductions into North America and Europe. Additionally, the data obtained revealed possible secondary introductions within Japan. Although non-native populations have experienced severe genetic bottlenecks they have colonized different regions with a broad range of water temperatures and other environmental conditions. The environmental tolerance of this species, along with its ability to become dominant in invaded areas and its association with a schistosome parasite, suggest H. japonica could be a dangerous invasive species.

  18. Slipping through the Cracks: The Taxonomic Impediment Conceals the Origin and Dispersal of Haminoea japonica, an Invasive Species with Impacts to Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Dieta; Cooke, Samantha; Hirano, Yayoi; Malaquias, Manuel A. E.; Crocetta, Fabio; Valdés, Ángel

    2013-01-01

    Haminoea japonica is a species of opisthobranch sea slug native to Japan and Korea. Non-native populations have spread unnoticed for decades due to difficulties in the taxonomy of Haminoea species. Haminoea japonica is associated with a schistosome parasite in San Francisco Bay, thus further spread could have consequence to human health and economies. Anecdotal evidence suggests that H. japonica has displaced native species of Haminoea in North America and Europe, becoming locally dominant in estuaries and coastal lagoons. In this paper we study the population genetics of native and non-native populations of H. japonica based on mt-DNA data including newly discovered populations in Italy and France. The conclusions of this study further corroborate a Northeastern Japan origin for the non-native populations and suggest possible independent introductions into North America and Europe. Additionally, the data obtained revealed possible secondary introductions within Japan. Although non-native populations have experienced severe genetic bottlenecks they have colonized different regions with a broad range of water temperatures and other environmental conditions. The environmental tolerance of this species, along with its ability to become dominant in invaded areas and its association with a schistosome parasite, suggest H. japonica could be a dangerous invasive species. PMID:24098588

  19. Distribution of the invasive bryozoan Schizoporella japonica in Great Britain and Ireland and a review of its European distribution.

    PubMed

    Loxton, J; Wood, C A; Bishop, J D D; Porter, J S; Spencer Jones, M; Nall, C R

    2017-01-01

    The bryozoan Schizoporella japonica Ortmann (1890) was first recorded in European waters in 2010 and has since been reported from further locations in Great Britain (GB) and Norway. This paper provides a new earliest European record for the species from 2009, a first record from Ireland and presence and absence records from a total of 231 marinas and harbours across GB, Ireland, the Isle of Man, France and Portugal. This species is typically associated with human activity, including commercial and recreational vessels, aquaculture equipment, and both wave and tidal energy devices. It has also been observed in the natural environment, fouling rocks and boulders. The species has an extensive but widely discontinuous distribution in GB and Ireland. Although found frequently in marinas and harbours in Scotland, it inhabits only a few sites in England, Wales and Ireland, interspersed with wide gaps that are well documented as genuine absences. This appears to be a rare example of a southward-spreading invasion in GB and Ireland. The species has been reported from the Isle of Man and Norway but has not been found in France or Portugal. In the future we expect S. japonica to spread into suitable sections of the English, Welsh and Irish coasts, and further within Europe. The species' capability for long-distance saltatory spread and potential for negative impact on native ecosystems and economic activity suggests that S. japonica should now be considered invasive in GB and Ireland. As such, it is recommended that biosecurity procedures alongside effective surveillance and monitoring should be prioritised for regions outside the species' current distribution.

  20. Genome wide association analysis of cold tolerance at germination in temperate japonica rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties.

    PubMed

    Sales, Ester; Viruel, Juan; Domingo, Concha; Marqués, Luis

    2017-01-01

    A pool of 200 traditional, landraces and modern elite and old cultivars of rice, mainly japonica varieties adapted to temperate regions, have been used to perform a genome wide association study to detect chromosome regions associated to low temperature germination (LTG) regulation using a panel of 1672 SNP markers. Phenotyping was performed by determining growth rates when seeds were germinated at 25° and 15°C in order to separate the germination vigorousness from cold tolerance effects. As expected, the ability to produce viable seedlings varied widely among rice cultivars and also depended greatly on temperature. Furthermore, we observed a differential response during seed germination and in coleoptile elongation. Faster development at 15°C was observed in seeds from varieties traditionally used as cold tolerant parents by breeders, along with other potentially useful cultivars, mainly of Italian origin. When phenotypic data were combined with the panel of SNPs for japonica rice cultivars, significant associations were detected for 31 markers: 7 were related to growth rate at 25°C and 24 to growth rates at 15°. Among the latter, some chromosome regions were associated to LTG while others were related to coleoptile elongation. Individual effects of the associated markers were low, but by combining favourable alleles in a linear regression model we estimated that 27 loci significantly explained the observed phenotypic variation. From these, a core panel of 13 markers was selected and, furthermore, two wide regions of chromosomes 3 and 6 were consistently associated to rice LTG. Varieties with higher numbers of favourable alleles for the panels of associated markers significantly correlated with increased phenotypic values at both temperatures, thus corroborating the utility of the tagged markers for marker assisted selection (MAS) when breeding japonica rice for LTG.

  1. Characterization of the major fragance gene from an aromatic japonica rice and analysis of its diversity in Asian cultivated rice

    PubMed Central

    Bourgis, F.; Guyot, R.; Gherbi, H.; Tailliez, E.; Amabile, I.; Salse, J.; Lorieux, M.; Delseny, M.

    2008-01-01

    In Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.), aroma is one of the most valuable traits in grain quality and 2-ACP is the main volatile compound contributing to the characteristic popcorn-like odour of aromatic rices. Although the major locus for grain fragrance (frg gene) has been described recently in Basmati rice, this gene has not been characterised in true japonica varieties and molecular information available on the genetic diversity and evolutionary origin of this gene among the different varieties is still limited. Here we report on characterisation of the frg gene in the Azucena variety, one of the few aromatic japonica cultivars. We used a RIL population from a cross between Azucena and IR64, a non-aromatic indica, the reference genomic sequence of Nipponbare (japonica) and 93–11 (indica) as well as an Azucena BAC library, to identify the major fragance gene in Azucena. We thus identified a betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase gene, badh2, as the candidate locus responsible for aroma, which presented exactly the same mutation as that identified in Basmati and Jasmine-like rices. Comparative genomic analyses showed very high sequence conservation between Azucena and Nipponbare BADH2, and a MITE was identified in the promotor region of the BADH2 allele in 93–11. The badh2 mutation and MITE were surveyed in a representative rice collection, including traditional aromatic and non-aromatic rice varieties, and strongly suggested a monophylogenetic origin of this badh2 mutation in Asian cultivated rices. Altogether these new data are discussed here in the light of current hypotheses on the origin of rice genetic diversity. PMID:18491070

  2. Identification of the two new, functional actinoporins, CJTOX I and CJTOX II, from the deep-sea anemone Cribrinopsis japonica.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Kenta; Sato, Tomomi

    2018-06-15

    Actinoporins are pore-forming proteins found in sea anemones. Although we now have a large collection of data on actinoporins, our knowledge is based heavily on those identified in shallow-water anemones. Because the deep sea differs considerably from shallow waters in hydrostatic pressures, temperatures, and the prey composition, the deep-sea actinoporin may have evolved in unique ways. This study, therefore, aimed to obtain new actinoporins in the deep-sea anemone Cribrinopis japonica (Actiniaria, Actiniidae). An actinoporin-like sequence was identified from the previously established C. japonica RNA-Seq database, and the complete length (663 bp) of the deep-sea actinoporin gene, Cjtox I, was obtained. In addition, a similar gene, Cjtox II (666 bp), was also identified from RNA of actinopharynx. CJTOX I and CJTOX II were similar in their primary structures, but CJTOX I lacked one residue in the middle of the protein. There was also a difference in the gene expression in live animals, where only Cjtox I was expressed in tentacles of C. japonica. In the heterologous expression where BL21 (DE3) strain was retransformed with the plasmid containing either Cjtox I or Cjtox II gene, the supernatants of both cell lysates showed hemolytic activity on the equine erythrocytes. Preincubation of the supernatants with sphingomyelin caused reduced activity, implying that the CJTOX I and II would target sphingomyelin as with other actinoporins. Because of the structures similarity to the known actinoporins and the sphingomyelin-inhibitable hemolytic activity, both CJTOX I and II were concluded to be new actinoporins, which were identified for the first time from a deep-sea anemone. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Carbon and nitrogen dynamics of the intertidal seagrass, Zostera japonica, on the southern coast of the Korean peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jong-Hyeob; Kim, Seung Hyeon; Kim, Young Kyun; Lee, Kun-Seop

    2016-12-01

    Seagrasses require a large amount of nutrient assimilation to support high levels of production, and thus nutrient limitation for growth often occurs in seagrass habitats. Seagrasses can take up nutrients from both the water column and sediments. However, since seagrasses inhabiting in the intertidal zones are exposed to the air during low tide, the intertidal species may exhibit significantly different carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) dynamics compared to the subtidal species. To examine C and N dynamics of the intertidal seagrass, Zostera japonica, C and N content and stable isotope ratios of above- and below-ground tissues were measured monthly at the three intertidal zones in Koje Bay on the southern coast of Korea. The C and N content and stable isotope (δ13C and δ15N) ratios of seagrass tissues exhibited significant seasonal variations. Both leaf and rhizome C content were not significantly correlated with productivity. Leaf δ13C values usually exhibited negative correlations with leaf productivity. These results of tissue C content and δ13C values suggest that photosynthesis of Z. japonica in the study site was not limited by inorganic C supply, and sufficient inorganic C was provided from the atmosphere. The tissue N content usually exhibited negative correlations with leaf productivity except at the upper intertidal zone, suggesting that Z. japonica growth was probably limited by N availability during high growing season. In the upper intertidal zone, no correlations between leaf productivity and tissue elemental content and stable isotope ratios were observed due to the severely suppressed growth caused by strong desiccation stress.

  4. Genome wide association analysis of cold tolerance at germination in temperate japonica rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties

    PubMed Central

    Viruel, Juan; Domingo, Concha; Marqués, Luis

    2017-01-01

    A pool of 200 traditional, landraces and modern elite and old cultivars of rice, mainly japonica varieties adapted to temperate regions, have been used to perform a genome wide association study to detect chromosome regions associated to low temperature germination (LTG) regulation using a panel of 1672 SNP markers. Phenotyping was performed by determining growth rates when seeds were germinated at 25° and 15°C in order to separate the germination vigorousness from cold tolerance effects. As expected, the ability to produce viable seedlings varied widely among rice cultivars and also depended greatly on temperature. Furthermore, we observed a differential response during seed germination and in coleoptile elongation. Faster development at 15°C was observed in seeds from varieties traditionally used as cold tolerant parents by breeders, along with other potentially useful cultivars, mainly of Italian origin. When phenotypic data were combined with the panel of SNPs for japonica rice cultivars, significant associations were detected for 31 markers: 7 were related to growth rate at 25°C and 24 to growth rates at 15°. Among the latter, some chromosome regions were associated to LTG while others were related to coleoptile elongation. Individual effects of the associated markers were low, but by combining favourable alleles in a linear regression model we estimated that 27 loci significantly explained the observed phenotypic variation. From these, a core panel of 13 markers was selected and, furthermore, two wide regions of chromosomes 3 and 6 were consistently associated to rice LTG. Varieties with higher numbers of favourable alleles for the panels of associated markers significantly correlated with increased phenotypic values at both temperatures, thus corroborating the utility of the tagged markers for marker assisted selection (MAS) when breeding japonica rice for LTG. PMID:28817683

  5. Complete nucleotide sequence of the Cryptomeria japonica D. Don. chloroplast genome and comparative chloroplast genomics: diversified genomic structure of coniferous species.

    PubMed

    Hirao, Tomonori; Watanabe, Atsushi; Kurita, Manabu; Kondo, Teiji; Takata, Katsuhiko

    2008-06-23

    The recent determination of complete chloroplast (cp) genomic sequences of various plant species has enabled numerous comparative analyses as well as advances in plant and genome evolutionary studies. In angiosperms, the complete cp genome sequences of about 70 species have been determined, whereas those of only three gymnosperm species, Cycas taitungensis, Pinus thunbergii, and Pinus koraiensis have been established. The lack of information regarding the gene content and genomic structure of gymnosperm cp genomes may severely hamper further progress of plant and cp genome evolutionary studies. To address this need, we report here the complete nucleotide sequence of the cp genome of Cryptomeria japonica, the first in the Cupressaceae sensu lato of gymnosperms, and provide a comparative analysis of their gene content and genomic structure that illustrates the unique genomic features of gymnosperms. The C. japonica cp genome is 131,810 bp in length, with 112 single copy genes and two duplicated (trnI-CAU, trnQ-UUG) genes that give a total of 116 genes. Compared to other land plant cp genomes, the C. japonica cp has lost one of the relevant large inverted repeats (IRs) found in angiosperms, fern, liverwort, and gymnosperms, such as Cycas and Gingko, and additionally has completely lost its trnR-CCG, partially lost its trnT-GGU, and shows diversification of accD. The genomic structure of the C. japonica cp genome also differs significantly from those of other plant species. For example, we estimate that a minimum of 15 inversions would be required to transform the gene organization of the Pinus thunbergii cp genome into that of C. japonica. In the C. japonica cp genome, direct repeat and inverted repeat sequences are observed at the inversion and translocation endpoints, and these sequences may be associated with the genomic rearrangements. The observed differences in genomic structure between C. japonica and other land plants, including pines, strongly support the

  6. Microtropins Q-W, ent-Labdane Glucosides: Microtropiosides G-I, Ursane-Type Triterpene Diglucoside and Flavonol Glycoside from the Leaves of Microtropis japonica.

    PubMed

    Terazawa, Saori; Uemura, Yuka; Koyama, Yuka; Kawakami, Susumu; Sugimoto, Sachiko; Matsunami, Katsuyoshi; Otsuka, Hideaki; Shinzato, Takakazu; Kawahata, Masatoshi; Yamaguchi, Kentaro

    2017-01-01

    Microtropins Q-W, (2S,3R)-2-ethyl-2,3-dihydroxybutyrate of various glucosides and glucose, as well as three ent-labdane diterpenoid glucosides, named microtropiosides G, H and I, an ursane-type triterpene diglucoside and a flavonoid glycoside were isolated from the MeOH extract of the leaves of Microtropis japonica. The structure of microtropioside A, also isolated from the branches of M. japonica, was elucidated spectroscopically in a previous experiment and was found to possess a rare seven-membered oxyrane ring. Its structure was confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis of its pentaacetate.

  7. [Pediatric pneumonia, pleural effusion, and pericarditis following cat scratch disease and serological cross-reactions among Bartonella henselae and Rickettsia japonica determined by indirect fluorescence antibodies].

    PubMed

    Takeda, Nobue; Ishiwada, Naruhiko; Fukasawa, Chie; Furuya, Yumiko; Tsuneoka, Hidehiro; Tsukahara, Masato; Kohno, Yoichi

    2007-03-01

    Cat scratch disease is associated with a variety of systemic manifestations. We report a pediatric case associated with pneumonia, pleural effusion, and pericarditis. A 3-year-old boy developed prolonged fever unresponsive to antibiotic treatment, including azithromycin and minocycline. Although the fever resolved with corticosteroid treatment, Bartonella henselae IgG titer was positive in indirect fluorescence antibodies, as was Rickettsia japonica IgG titer. Both titers were significantly reduced by serum absorption with B. henselae antigens, and we observed a serological cross-reaction between B. henselae and R. japonica.

  8. Enhanced Corrosion Resistance of Carbon Steel in Hydrochloric Acid Solution by Eriobotrya Japonica Thunb. Leaf Extract: Electrochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wenjing; Wang, Qihui; Xu, Ke; Yin, Yanjun; Bao, Hebin; Li, Xueming; Niu, Lidan; Chen, Shiqi

    2017-01-01

    The biodegradable inhibitors, which could effectively reduce the rate of corrosion of carbon steel, were investigated by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The mixed-type inhibitors extracted from Eriobotrya japonica Thunb. leaf exhibited excellent inhibition performance, and the inhibition efficiency for carbon steel reached 90.0% at 298 K in hydrochloric acid. Moreover, the adsorption mechanism of the inhibitors on a carbon steel surface is described by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Simultaneously, the corrosion morphology of the carbon steel and the inhibitor structure were analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), respectively. PMID:28812993

  9. Enhanced Corrosion Resistance of Carbon Steel in Hydrochloric Acid Solution by Eriobotrya Japonica Thunb. Leaf Extract: Electrochemical Study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wenjing; Wang, Qihui; Xu, Ke; Yin, Yanjun; Bao, Hebin; Li, Xueming; Niu, Lidan; Chen, Shiqi

    2017-08-16

    The biodegradable inhibitors, which could effectively reduce the rate of corrosion of carbon steel, were investigated by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The mixed-type inhibitors extracted from Eriobotrya japonica Thunb. leaf exhibited excellent inhibition performance, and the inhibition efficiency for carbon steel reached 90.0% at 298 K in hydrochloric acid. Moreover, the adsorption mechanism of the inhibitors on a carbon steel surface is described by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Simultaneously, the corrosion morphology of the carbon steel and the inhibitor structure were analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), respectively.

  10. Antioxidant Activities of Achyranthes japonica Nakai Extract and Its Application to the Pork Sausages.

    PubMed

    Park, J H; Kang, S N; Shin, D; Hur, I C; Kim, I S; Jin, S K

    2013-02-01

    Influence of Achyranthes japonica Nakai Extract (AJNE) on properties of pork sausages were studied in the present investigation. AJNE was added to sausages alone or in combination with ascorbic acid to obtain a comparative analysis on properties of control and ascorbic acid added-sausages. Results showed that addition of 0.05% AJNE led to a decrease in color L* and whiteness (W), and an increase in color b* of pork sausage samples (p<0.05). Although color a* of pork sausages containing AJNE was not significantly different, ascorbic acid added-sausages were highest amongst other treatments (p<0.05). Sausages containing AJNE had lower non-heme iron values and peroxide value (POV) than control sausages (p<0.05); however, high nitrosomyoglobin content was observed in AJNE added-sausages (p<0.05). Ascorbic acid led to a decrease in residual nitrite concentration of sausages (p<0.05), but no difference was found in AJNE added-sausages. Free radical scavenging analysis showed that AJNE did not affect 1,1-diphenyl -2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) activity of sausages, whereas ascorbic acid added-sausages showed relatively higher activity among the samples (p<0.05). Addition of AJNE had no influence on texture properties of sausages. In sensory evaluation, AJNE treatment had significant effects on color (p<0.05), but no significant effects on aroma, flavor, springiness, juiciness, and overall acceptability. In conclusion, the addition of AJNE, as a natural supplement may offer natural antioxidants for pork sausages, and appears to be particularly effective in inducing changes in non-heme iron concentration, POV value and nitrosomyglobin content.

  11. Antioxidant Activities of Achyranthes japonica Nakai Extract and Its Application to the Pork Sausages

    PubMed Central

    Park, J. H.; Kang, S. N.; Shin, D.; Hur, I. C.; Kim, I. S.; Jin, S. K.

    2013-01-01

    Influence of Achyranthes japonica Nakai Extract (AJNE) on properties of pork sausages were studied in the present investigation. AJNE was added to sausages alone or in combination with ascorbic acid to obtain a comparative analysis on properties of control and ascorbic acid added-sausages. Results showed that addition of 0.05% AJNE led to a decrease in color L* and whiteness (W), and an increase in color b* of pork sausage samples (p<0.05). Although color a* of pork sausages containing AJNE was not significantly different, ascorbic acid added-sausages were highest amongst other treatments (p<0.05). Sausages containing AJNE had lower non-heme iron values and peroxide value (POV) than control sausages (p<0.05); however, high nitrosomyoglobin content was observed in AJNE added-sausages (p<0.05). Ascorbic acid led to a decrease in residual nitrite concentration of sausages (p<0.05), but no difference was found in AJNE added-sausages. Free radical scavenging analysis showed that AJNE did not affect 1,1-diphenyl -2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) activity of sausages, whereas ascorbic acid added-sausages showed relatively higher activity among the samples (p<0.05). Addition of AJNE had no influence on texture properties of sausages. In sensory evaluation, AJNE treatment had significant effects on color (p<0.05), but no significant effects on aroma, flavor, springiness, juiciness, and overall acceptability. In conclusion, the addition of AJNE, as a natural supplement may offer natural antioxidants for pork sausages, and appears to be particularly effective in inducing changes in non-heme iron concentration, POV value and nitrosomyglobin content. PMID:25049789

  12. Development of Novel Glyphosate-Tolerant Japonica Rice Lines: A Step Toward Commercial Release.

    PubMed

    Cui, Ying; Huang, Shuqing; Liu, Ziduo; Yi, Shuyuan; Zhou, Fei; Chen, Hao; Lin, Yongjun

    2016-01-01

    Glyphosate is the most widely used herbicide for its low cost and high efficiency. However, it is rarely applied directly in rice field due to its toxicity to rice. Therefore, glyphosate-tolerant rice can greatly decrease the cost of rice production and provide a more effective weed management strategy. Although, several approaches to develop transgenic rice with glyphosate tolerance have been reported, the agronomic performances of these plants have not been well evaluated, and the feasibility of commercial production has not been confirmed yet. Here, a novel glyphosate-tolerant gene cloned from the bacterium Isoptericola variabilis was identified, codon optimized (designated as I. variabilis-EPSPS (*)), and transferred into Zhonghua11, a widely used japonica rice cultivar. After systematic analysis of the transgene integration via PCR, Southern blot and flanking sequence isolation, three transgenic lines with only one intact I. variabilis-EPSPS (*) expression cassette integrated into intergenic regions were identified. Seed test results showed that the glyphosate tolerance of the transgenic rice was about 240 times that of wild type on plant medium. The glyphosate tolerance of transgenic rice lines was further evaluated based on comprehensive agronomic performances in the field with T3 and T5generations in a 2-year assay, which showed that they were rarely affected by glyphosate even when the dosage was 8400 g ha(-1). To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the development of glyphosate-tolerant rice lines based on a comprehensive analysis of agronomic performances in the field. Taken together, the results suggest that the selected glyphosate-tolerant rice lines are highly tolerant to glyphosate and have the possibility of commercial release. I. variabilis-EPSPS (*) also can be a promising candidate gene in other species for developing glyphosate-tolerant crops.

  13. Copper oxide nanoparticles and arsenic interact to alter seedling growth of rice (Oryza sativa japonica).

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Dhungana, Birendra; Cobb, George P

    2018-05-04

    Arsenic (As) causes phytotoxicity to rice plants, decreases rice production and causes serious human health concerns due to rice consumption. Additional stresses may be posed to rice plants due to the increasing release into the environment by the expanding production and application of copper oxide nanoparticles (nCuO). The influence of nCuO on As uptake in and effects on rice (Oryza sativa japonica) are explored here for the first time. An 18-d factorial experiment was conducted to determine main effects of nCuO (0, 0.1, 1.0, 10, 50, and 100 mg/L) and As (0 and 10 mg/kg), and the interaction between nCuO and As on rice seed germination and seedling growth. Arsenic alone decreased the germination percentage. Both As and nCuO reduced seedling shoot and root length, and exhibited interactive effects. nCuO and As also produced an interaction effect on the number of root branches (NRB) of rice seedlings. Notably, high nCuO concentrations (50 and 100 mg/L) mitigated the negative effect of As on the NRB. Copper uptake in shoots and roots was linearly correlated with Cu concentration in the sand without As addition (R 2  > 0.756). Whereas, As addition to the sand produced non-monotonic changes in Cu concentrations in shoots and roots versus Cu concentration in the sand (R 2  > 0.890). Arsenic concentration in shoots had a slightly negative linear correlation with Cu concentration in the sand (R 2  = 0.275). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Involvement of Multiple Types of Dehydrins in the Freezing Response in Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica)

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hongxia; Yang, Yong; Xie, Li; Li, Xiaoying; Feng, Chao; Chen, Junwei; Xu, Changjie

    2014-01-01

    Dehydrins (DHNs) are a family of plant proteins typically induced in response to stress conditions that cause cellular dehydration, such as low temperatures, high salinity, and drought. Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) is a perennial fruit crop that blossoms during winter. Loquat fruitlets are frequently injured by freezing. To evaluate the role of the EjDHNs in freezing resistance in loquat fruitlets, two cultivars of loquat, the freezing-sensitive ‘Ninghaibai’ (FS-NHB) and the freezing-tolerant ‘Jiajiao’ (FT-JJ), were analyzed under induced freezing stress. Freezing stress led to obvious accumulation of reactive oxygen species and considerable lipid peroxidation in membranes during the treatment period. Both these phenomena were more pronounced in ‘FS-NHB’ than in ‘FS-JJ.’ Immunogold labeling of dehydrin protein was performed. DHN proteins were found to be concentrated mainly in the vicinity of the plasma membrane, and the density of the immunogold labeling was significantly higher after freezing treatment, especially in the more freezing-tolerant cultivar ‘FT-JJ.’ Seven DHNs, showing four different structure types, were obtained from loquat fruitlets and used to study the characteristics of different EjDHN proteins. These DHN proteins are all highly hydrophilic, but they differ significantly in size, ranging from 188 to 475 amino acids, and in biochemical properties, such as theoretical pI, aliphatic index, and instability index. Freezing treatment resulted in up-regulation of the expression levels of all seven EjDHNs, regardless of structure type. The accumulation of the transcripts of these EjDHN genes was much more pronounced in ‘FT-JJ’ than in ‘FS-NHB.’ Altogether, this study provides evidence that EjDHNs are involved in the cryoprotection of the plasma membrane during freeze-induced dehydration in loquat fruitlets. PMID:24498141

  15. Genetic linkage map construction and QTL mapping of salt tolerance traits in Zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica).

    PubMed

    Guo, Hailin; Ding, Wanwen; Chen, Jingbo; Chen, Xuan; Zheng, Yiqi; Wang, Zhiyong; Liu, Jianxiu

    2014-01-01

    Zoysiagrass (Zoysia Willd.) is an important warm season turfgrass that is grown in many parts of the world. Salt tolerance is an important trait in zoysiagrass breeding programs. In this study, a genetic linkage map was constructed using sequence-related amplified polymorphism markers and random amplified polymorphic DNA markers based on an F1 population comprising 120 progeny derived from a cross between Zoysia japonica Z105 (salt-tolerant accession) and Z061 (salt-sensitive accession). The linkage map covered 1211 cM with an average marker distance of 5.0 cM and contained 24 linkage groups with 242 marker loci (217 sequence-related amplified polymorphism markers and 25 random amplified polymorphic DNA markers). Quantitative trait loci affecting the salt tolerance of zoysiagrass were identified using the constructed genetic linkage map. Two significant quantitative trait loci (qLF-1 and qLF-2) for leaf firing percentage were detected; qLF-1 at 36.3 cM on linkage group LG4 with a logarithm of odds value of 3.27, which explained 13.1% of the total variation of leaf firing and qLF-2 at 42.3 cM on LG5 with a logarithm of odds value of 2.88, which explained 29.7% of the total variation of leaf firing. A significant quantitative trait locus (qSCW-1) for reduced percentage of dry shoot clipping weight was detected at 44.1 cM on LG5 with a logarithm of odds value of 4.0, which explained 65.6% of the total variation. This study provides important information for further functional analysis of salt-tolerance genes in zoysiagrass. Molecular markers linked with quantitative trait loci for salt tolerance will be useful in zoysiagrass breeding programs using marker-assisted selection.

  16. Fasting triggers hypothermia, and ambient temperature modulates its depth in Japanese quail Coturnix japonica.

    PubMed

    Ben-Hamo, Miriam; Pinshow, Berry; McCue, Marshall D; McWilliams, Scott R; Bauchinger, Ulf

    2010-05-01

    We tested three hypotheses regarding the cues that elicit facultative hypothermia in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica): H(1)) Ambient temperature (T(a)), alone, influences the onset and depth of hypothermia; H(2)) Fasting, alone, influences the onset and depth of hypothermia; H(3)) T(a) acts synergistically with fasting to shape the use of hypothermia. Eight quail were maintained within their thermoneutral zone (TNZ) at 32.6+/-0.2 degrees C, and eight below their lower critical temperature (T(lc)) at 12.7+/-3.0 degrees C. All quail entered hypothermia upon food deprivation, even quail kept within their TNZ. Body temperature (T(b)) decreased more (38.36+/-0.53 degrees C vs. 39.57+/-0.57 degrees C), body mass (m(b)) loss was greater (21.0+/-7.20 g vs.12.8+/-2.62g), and the energy saved by using hypothermia was greater (25.18-45.01% vs. 7.98-28.06%) in low the T(a) treatment than in TNZ treatment. Interestingly, the depth of hypothermia was positively correlated with m(b) loss in the low T(a) treatment, but not in TNZ treatment. Our data support H(3), that both thermoregulatory costs and body energy reserves are proximate cues for entry into hypothermia in quail. This outcome is not surprising below the T(lc). However, the quail kept at their TNZ also responded to food deprivation by entering hypothermia with no apparent dependence on m(b) loss. Therefore inputs, other than thermoregulatory costs and body condition, must serve as cues to enter hypothermia. Consequently, we address the role that tissue sparing may play in the physiological 'decision' to employ hypothermia. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Five new triterpene saponins, polygalasaponins XXVIII-XXXII from the root of Polygala japonica Houtt.

    PubMed

    Zhang, D; Miyase, T; Kuroyanagi, M; Umehara, K; Ueno, A

    1996-04-01

    Five new oleanane-type saponins, polygalasaponins XXVIII-XXXII, along with one known saponin, polygalasaponin XXIV, and one known acylated sucrose, tenuifoliside C, were isolated from the root of Polygala japonica. The structures of these new compounds were elucidated as 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl pesenegenin 28-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl (1-->4)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1-->2)-beta-D-fucopyranosyl ester, 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl presenegenin 28-O-beta-D-galactopyranosyl (1-->5)-beta-D-apiofuranosyl (1-->4)-beta-D-xylopyranosyl (1-->4)-alpha-L-rhamno-pyranosyl (1-->2)-beta-D-fucopyranosyl ester, 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl presenegenin 28-O-beta-D-galactopyranosyl (1-->4)-beta-D-xylopyranosyl (1-->4)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1-->2)-[4-O-p-methoxycinnamoyl]-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1-->3)]-beta-D-fucopyranosyl ester, 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl presenegenin 28-O-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl (1-->3)-beta-D-xylopyranosyl (1-->4)-[beta-D-apiofuranosyl (1-->3)]-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1-->2)-[4-O-3,4,5-trimethoxycinnamoyl]-beta-D-fucopyranosyl ester, 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl persenegenin 28-O-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl (1-->3)-beta-D-xylopyranosyl (1-->4)-[beta-D-apiofuranosyl (1-->3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1-->2)-[4-O-p-methoxycinnamoyl]-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1-->3)-beta-D-fucopyranosyl ester, respectively, on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical evidence.

  18. Variation in organotin accumulation in relation to the life history in the Japanese eel Anguilla japonica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohji, Madoka; Harino, Hiroya; Arai, Takaomi

    2009-08-01

    In order to examine the ecological risks caused by organotin compounds (OTs) in diadromous fish migrating between sea and freshwaters, tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT) compounds and their breakdown products were determined in the catadromous eel Anguilla japonica, which has sea, estuarine and river life histories, collected in Japanese sea, brackish and freshwaters within the same region. Ontogenic changes in otolith strontium (Sr) and calcium (Ca) concentrations were examined along the life history transect to discriminate the migration type. There were generally three different patterns, which were categorized as 'sea eels', 'estuarine eels' and 'river eels' according to the otolith Sr:Ca ratio. The concentrations of TBT in silver eels (mature eels) were significantly higher than that in yellow eels (immature eels), and the percentages of TBT were also higher in silver eels than in yellow eels. A positive correlation was found between TBT concentration and the gonad-somatic index (GSI). It is thus considered that silver eels have a higher risk of contamination by TBT than yellow eels. TBT and TPT concentrations in sea eels were significantly higher than those in river eels, while no significant differences were observed in TBT and TPT concentrations in estuarine eels compared to sea and river eels. These results suggest that sea eels have a higher ecological risk of OT contamination than river eels during their life history, and the risk of OTs in estuarine eels is considered to be intermediate between that of sea and river eels. Positive linear relationships were found between Sr:Ca ratios and the concentrations of TBT and TPT. Therefore, these results suggest that the ecological risk of OTs increase as the sea residence period in the eel becomes longer. TBT and TPT concentrations in sea eels were significantly higher than those in river eels even at the same growth stage. Thus, it is clear that migratory type is the most important factor for OT

  19. Effect of different light sources on reproductive anatomy and physiology of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Bobadilla-Mendez, M F; Rojas-Granados, C P; Andrade, E F; Retes, P L; Ferreira, L G; Alvarenga, R R; Rodriguez-Gil, J E; Fassani, E J; Zangeronimo, M G

    2016-05-01

    Artificial lights are essential for controlling the reproductive tract development of birds during puberty and therefore influence reproductive quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different light sources on reproductive anatomic and physiological characteristics of female Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). A total of 270 birds from one day of age were housed in a masonry shed divided into six rooms with light isolation. Each room was equipped with a different type of light bulb and contained seven cages with five birds in each. The light bulbs tested were: incandescent; compact fluorescent; and light-emitting diode (LED) in the colors white, blue, red and green. The experimental design was completely randomized with six treatments and seven replications of individual birds each. The anatomic and physiological condition of the birds was evaluated at four, eight and 12 weeks of age. The white LED bulb advanced (P<0.05) the sexual maturity by one week, resulted (P<0.05) in higher live weights and greater weight and relative percentage of ovarian stroma, oviduct and ovarian tissue at eight weeks of age. Higher plasma concentrations of estradiol and lipids were also observed (P<0.05) at eight weeks under the white LED bulb. At 12 weeks of age, the magnum and isthmus folding characteristics were better (P<0.05) with the red LED bulb. In conclusion, the photostimulation with the white LED bulb was more efficient at activating the reproductive cycle, hastening the onset of sexual maturity and increasing the development of reproductive organs after puberty. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Floral affinity and benefits of dietary mixing with flowers for a polyphagous scarab, Popillia japonica Newman.

    PubMed

    Held, David W; Potter, Daniel A

    2004-07-01

    Many generalist herbivores, especially adult beetles, are facultative florivores, feeding on leaves but readily accepting floral tissues when available. We speculated that day-flying beetles with high energetic requirements would benefit from dietary mixing with nutrient-rich flower tissues and favor them during foraging. We tested that "Floral Affinity Hypothesis" with Popillia japonica, a day-active ruteline scarab that feeds intermittently throughout its adult life on multiple plant species. In field tests with six species of flowering hosts, far more landings occurred on flowers than on foliage for all plants except Hibiscus syriacus which bears flowers along the main stem rather than terminally. Trials with elevated plants showed that height of the floral display contributes to beetles' landing on flowers. Flower petals generally were preferred over leaves in laboratory choice tests. Nitrogen and water content were comparable or higher in foliage than in petals, but plant sugars were much higher in petals. Longevity and fecundity of beetles provided single-plant diets of Hibiscus, Rosa x hybrida, or Trifolium flowers for 3 weeks were as high, or higher, than for beetles fed foliage of Tilia cordata, a highly suitable resource. As expected, rotating flowers or Tilia foliage with marginally suitable Quercus palustris foliage enhanced those parameters relative to a diet of Quercus alone, but beetles provided high-quality Tilia foliage also benefitted from dietary mixing with flowers. Nearly all past dietary mixing studies concerned immature insects, for which growth rate is paramount. Opportunistic florivory by adult beetles represents a type of dietary mixing wherein the premium may be calorie-rich food for fueling flight muscles, with ensuing reproductive benefits.

  1. Hydrogen Isotopes as a Sentinel of Biological Invasion by the Japanese Beetle, Popillia japonica (Newman)

    PubMed Central

    Ogle, Kiona; Caron, Melanie; Marks, Jane C.; Rogg, Helmuth W.

    2016-01-01

    Invasive species alter ecosystems, threaten native and endangered species, and have negative economic impacts. Knowing where invading individuals are from and when they arrive to a new site can guide management. Here, we evaluated how well the stable hydrogen isotope composition (δ2H) records the recent origin and time since arrival of specimens of the invasive Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica Newman) captured near the Portland International Airport (Oregon, U.S.A.). The δ2H of Japanese beetle specimens collected from sites across the contiguous U.S.A. reflected the δ2H of local precipitation, a relationship similar to that documented for other organisms, and one confirming the utility of δ2H as a geographic fingerprint. Within weeks after experimental relocation to a new isotopic environment, the δ2H of beetles changed linearly with time, demonstrating the potential for δ2H to also mark the timing of arrival to a new location. We used a hierarchical Bayesian model to estimate the recent geographical origin and timing of arrival of each specimen based on its δ2H value. The geographic resolution was broad, with values consistent with multiple regions of origin in the eastern U.S.A., slightly favoring the southeastern U.S.A. as the more likely source. Beetles trapped from 2007–2010 had arrived 30 or more days prior to trapping, whereas the median time since arrival declined to 3–7 days for beetles trapped from 2012–2014. This reduction in the time between arrival and trapping at the Portland International Airport supports the efficacy of trapping and spraying to prevent establishment. More generally, our analysis shows how stable isotopes can serve as sentinels of biological invasions, verifying the efficacy of control measures, or, alternatively, indicating when those measures show signs of failure. PMID:26959686

  2. Effects of 4-nonylphenol in drinking water on the reproductive capacity of Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yan; Shan, Zhengjun; Zhou, Junying; Bu, Yuanqing; Li, Pengfu; Lu, Shan

    2017-05-01

    4-nonylphenol (4-NP), a major degradation product of Nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEOs), is widespread in environment. In this study, the effects of long-term 4-NP exposure in drinking water on Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica) were investigated. A total of 45 quails were evenly divided into 15 groups and administrated with various doses (0.1 μg L -1 , 1.0 μg L -1 , 10 μg L -1 and 100 μg L -1 , which reflected the environmental concentrations of 4-NP) of 4-NP in drinking water. The results showed that 4-NP in drinking water had no effect on quails' food intake, but significantly decreased the quails' body weights (P < 0.05) in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The egg fertilization rates were also significantly decreased (P < 0.05) in all treatment groups. Moreover, the hatchability was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) in 10 μg L -1 and 100 μg L -1 groups, and the 14 d survival rates of young quails were significantly decreased (P < 0.05) in 1.0 μg L -1 , 10 μg L -1 and 100 μg L -1 groups. Damaged spermatogenesis in male quails was observed in all treatment groups. Therefore, administration of 4-NP in drinking water impaired the reproductive ability of Japanese quails, and led to pathological lesions in the male gonads. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Radiocesium distribution in sugi (Cryptomeria japonica) in eastern Japan: translocation from needles to pollen.

    PubMed

    Kanasashi, Tsutomu; Sugiura, Yuki; Takenaka, Chisato; Hijii, Naoki; Umemura, Mitsutoshi

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the radiocesium contamination of sugi (Cryptomeria japonica) forests in eastern Japan from November 2012 to February 2013, including 80 sites in Fukushima and 35 sites in other regions (Tohoku and Kanto-Koshinetsu), by measuring the (137)Cs concentrations in needles of different ages, male flowers, and pollen. Over a wide geographic area, needles that were present at the time of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident contained much higher (137)Cs concentrations than needles that emerged after the accident. This result, together with visual analysis of (137)Cs distribution using autoradiography, indicated that some of the (137)Cs derived from direct fallout remained on the surface of the older needles. Since we also detected (137)Cs in younger needles and male flowers, we concluded that (137)Cs was translocated toward the tips of sugi needles. The (137)Cs concentration in male flowers was higher than and positively correlated with that in the currently growing (2012) needles. Also, a positive relationship was observed between the (137)Cs concentration of male flowers and pollen, and they were found to be nearly identical (137)Cs concentration. These results indicate the occurrence of acropetal translocation of (137)Cs from old needles to young needles, male flowers and pollen. However, the results as related to (137)Cs concentration in the needles of three different ages differed from the results of similar studies conducted more than 4 y after the Chernobyl accident. This suggests that, 2 y after the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP accident, the distribution of (137)Cs in the sugi forests has not yet reached a steady state. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparative transcriptome profiling of freezing stress responses in loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) fruitlets.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hong-Xia; Li, Xiao-Ying; Chen, Jun-Wei

    2017-09-01

    Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) is an important subtropical, commercial fruit in China. It blossoms during autumn and winter in most areas of China and its fruitlets usually suffer from freezing stress. However, studies about the mechanisms underlying freezing stress in loquat are very limited. The gene expression profiles of loquat fruitlets subjected to freezing (G2 library) versus non-treated ones (G1 library) were investigated using Illumina sequencing technology to elucidate the molecular mechanisms and identify the genes that play vital roles in the freezing stress response. The results showed that approximately 157.63 million reads in total were obtained from freeze-treated and non-treated loquat fruitlets. These reads were assembled into 87,379 unigenes with an average length of 710 bp and an N50 of 1,200 bp. After comparing the profiles obtained from the G1 and G2 libraries, 2,892 differentially expressed genes were identified, of which 1,883 were up-regulated and 1,009 were down-regulated in the treated samples compared to non-treated ones. These unigenes showed significant differences in expression for carbohydrate transport and metabolism, amino acid metabolism, energy metabolism, and lipid metabolism, which are involved in defense against freezing stress. Glycolysis/gluconeogenesis was one of the most significantly regulated pathways. Freezing also significantly damaged the membrane system of loquat fruitlets, and several defense mechanisms were induced. Some selected genes related to low temperature resistance were validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The results revealed many genes and pathways that are part of freezing resistance processes and expand our understanding of the complex molecular events involved in freezing stress.

  5. Memory-enhancing effects of Cuscuta japonica Choisy via enhancement of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Moon, Minho; Jeong, Hyun Uk; Choi, Jin Gyu; Jeon, Seong Gak; Song, Eun Ji; Hong, Seon-Pyo; Oh, Myung Sook

    2016-09-15

    It is generally accepted that functional and structural changes within the hippocampus are involved in learning and memory and that adult neurogenesis in this region may modulate cognition. The extract of Cuscuta japonica Choisy (CJ) is a well-known traditional Chinese herbal medicine that has been used since ancient times as a rejuvenation remedy. The systemic effects of this herb are widely known and can be applied for the treatment of a number of physiological diseases, but there is a lack of evidence describing its effects on brain function. Thus, the present study investigated whether CJ would enhance memory function and/or increase hippocampal neurogenesis using mice orally administered with CJ water extract or vehicle for 21days. Performance on the novel object recognition and passive avoidance tests revealed that treatment with CJ dose-dependently improved the cognitive function of mice. Additionally, CJ increased the Ki-67-positive proliferating cells and the number of doublecortin-stained neuroblasts in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus, and double labeling with 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine and neuronal specific nuclear protein showed that CJ increased the number of mature neurons in the DG. Finally, CJ resulted in the upregulated expression of neurogenic differentiation factor, which is essential for the maturation and differentiation of granule cells in the hippocampus. Taken together, the present findings indicate that CJ stimulated neuronal cell proliferation, differentiation, and maturation, which are all processes associated with neurogenesis. Additionally, these findings suggest that CJ may improve learning and memory via the enhancement of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Sensitivity of spore germination and germ tube elongation of Saccharina japonica to metal exposure.

    PubMed

    Han, Taejun; Kong, Jeong-Ae; Kang, Hee-Gyu; Kim, Seon-Jin; Jin, Gyo-Sun; Choi, Hoon; Brown, Murray T

    2011-11-01

    The sensitivity of early life stages of the brown seaweed Saccharina japonica to six metals (Cd, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn) and two waste-water samples were investigated and a new toxicity bioassay developed. The two endpoints used were spore germination and germ tube elongation with an exposure time of 24 h. Optimal test conditions determined for photon irradiance, pH, salinity and temperature were darkness, pH 8, 35‰ and 15°C, respectively. The toxicity ranking of five metals was: Hg (EC(50) of 41 and 42 μg l(-1)) > Cu (120 and 81 μg l(-1)) > Ni (2,009 and 1,360 μg l(-1)) > Zn (3,024 and 3,897 μg l(-1)) > Pb (4,760 and 4,429 μg l(-1)) > Cd (15,052 and 7,541 μg l(-1)) for germination and germ tube elongation, respectively. The sensitivities to Cd, Cu and Ni were greater in germ tube elongation than in germination process. When tested against two different waste-water samples (processed animal and printed circuit board waste-water) values of EC(50) were between 21.29 and 32.02% for germination and between 5.33 and 8.98% for germ tube elongation. Despite differences in their chemical composition, the toxic effects of waste-water samples, as indicated by EC(50) values, did not differ significantly for the same endpoints. The CV range for both germination and germ tube elongation was between 4.61 and 37.69%, indicating high levels of precision of the tests. The results compare favourably with those from more established test procedures employing micro- and macroalgae. The advantages and potential limitations of the bioassay for the assessment of anthropogenic impacts on coastal ecosystems and commercial cultivation areas in near-shore environments are discussed.

  7. Studies on Antiviral and Immuno-Regulation Activity of Low Molecular Weight Fucoidan from Laminaria japonica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Taohua; Zhang, Xinhui; Miao, Ying; Zhou, Yang; Shi, Jie; Yan, Meixing; Chen, Anjin

    2018-06-01

    The antiviral activity in vitro and in vivo and the effect of the immune system of two fucoidan fractions with low molecular weight and different sulfate content from Laminaria japonica (LMW fucoidans) were investigated in order to examine the possible mechanism. In vitro, I-type influenza virus, adenovirus and Parainfluenza virus I were used to infect Hep-2, Hela and MDCK cells, respectively. And 50% tissue culture infective dose was calculated to detect the antiviral activity of two LMW fucoidans. The results indicated that compared with the control group, 2 kinds of LMW fucoidans had remarkable antiviral activity in vitro in middle and high doses, while at low doses, the antiviral activity of 2 kinds of LMW fucoidans was not statistically different from that in the blank control group. And there was no statistically difference between two LMW fucoidans in antiviral activity. In vivo, LMW fucoidans could prolong the survival time of virus-infected mice, and could improve the lung index of virus-infected mice significantly, which have statistical differences with the control group significantly ( p < 0.01). However, the survival time of the two LMW fucoidans was not statistically significant ( p > 0.05). In this study, it was shown that both of two LMW fucoidans (LF1, LF2) could increase the thymus index, spleen index, phagocytic index, phagocytosis coefficient and half hemolysin value in middle and high doses, which suggested that LMW fucoidans could play an antiviral role by improving the quality of immune organs, improving immune cell phagocytosis and humoral immunity.

  8. Genomic organization of the 260 kb surrounding the waxy locus in a Japonica rice

    PubMed

    Nagano; Wu; Kawasaki; Kishima; Sano

    1999-12-01

    The present study was carried out to characterize the molecular organization in the vicinity of the waxy locus in rice. To determine the structural organization of the region surrounding waxy, contiguous clones covering a total of 260 kb were constructed using a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library from the Shimokita variety of Japonica rice. This map also contains 200 overlapping subclones, which allowed construction of a fine physical map with a total of 64 HindIII sites. During the course of constructing the map, we noticed the presence of some repeated regions which might be related to transposable elements. We divided the 260-kb region into 60 segments (average size of 5.7 kb) to use as probes to determine their genomic organization. Hybridization patterns obtained by probing with these segments were classified into four types: class 1, a single or a few bands without a smeared background; class 2, a single or a few bands with a smeared background; class 3, multiple discrete bands without a smeared background; and class 4, only a smeared background. These classes constituted 6.5%, 20.9%, 3.7%, and 68.9% of the 260-kb region, respectively. The distribution of each class revealed that repetitive sequences are a major component in this region, as expected, and that unique sequence regions were mostly no longer than 6 kb due to interruption by repetitive sequences. We discuss how the map constructed here might be a powerful tool for characterization and comparison of the genome structures and the genes around the waxy locus in the Oryza species.

  9. Effects of pentachlorophenol on the quail (Coturnix japonica) liver detoxification pathway.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Peng; Wang, Jianshe; Sheng, Nan; Wei, Dongbing; Dai, Jiayin

    2017-06-01

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP), an extensively used pesticide and biocide, is of critical environmental concern due to its toxicity and recalcitrance to degradation. In this study, the effect of PCP on induction of transcription factors, cytochrome P450 (CYP450) genes, and the antioxidative enzyme system were investigated in the quail liver. A total of 60 (4- to 6-week-old) male quails (Coturnix japonica) were administered 0, 0.05, 0.5, and 5 mg/kg/d PCP orally for 42 d. Following exposure, both absolute and relative liver weights were significantly lower than those of the control. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, PCP accumulation was, from highest to lowest, kidney > liver > muscle for all exposure groups. The expressions of CYP1A5, CYP1B1, CYP2C18, nuclear translocator 1 (ARNT1), and aryl hydrocarbon receptor 1 (AHR1) were induced after PCP treatment, and increases were found in the activities of hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and the content of hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA). In addition, exposure to PCP induced an increase in liver 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and significantly elevated ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), methoxyresorufin O-demethylase (MROD), and 7-ethoxycoumarin-O-deethylase (ECOD) activity, but decreased that of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), benzyloxyresorufin O-debenzylase (BROD), pentoxyresorufin O-depentylase (PROD), and erythromycin N-demethylase (END). No significant responses were observed for benzyloxy-trifluoromethyl-coumarin (BFC). The protein level of liver nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) was higher, whereas that of nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) was lower for exposed quail. These results suggest that PCP affects quail oxidative stress by modulating CYP450 enzymes and nuclear transcription factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Vaccination of bovines against Schistosomiasis japonica with highly irradiated schistosomula in China

    SciT

    Hsue, S.Y.; Xu, S.T.; He, Y.X.

    1984-09-01

    Vaccination of Chinese bovines (cattle and buffaloes) against Schistosomiasis japonica with 36 kR gamma-irradiated schistosomula was done for laboratory challenge and for field trials in China. Altogether, 61 bovines were used. All experimental animals were vaccinated 2-3 times with 10,000 irradiated schistosomula per time. For the laboratory challenge, all experimental and control cattle were challenged with 500 normal cercariae and each buffalo, with 2,000 cercariae. The laboratory-challenged bovines were killed after 54-57 days of challenge; the bovines for the field trial in the lightly endemic area, after 5 months in the field; and the bovines for the field trial inmore » the heavily endemic area, after 58-63 days. When the animals were killed, the number of mature worms in the vaccinated (experimental) and non-vaccinated (control) animals was recorded and the percentage of worm reduction in each group was calculated. The first group, consisting of three vaccinated and three non-vaccinated cattle, was given a laboratory challenge; the worm reduction was 71.6%. The second group, consisting of two vaccinated and three non-vaccinated buffaloes, was also given a laboratory challenge; the worm reduction was 74.4%. The third group, consisting of seven vaccinated and eight non-vaccinated buffaloes, was utilized in a field trial in a lightly endemic area; the worm reduction was 75.6%. The fourth group, consisting of eight vaccinated and nine non-vaccinated cattle, and the fifth group, consisting of nine vaccinated and nine non-vaccinated buffaloes, were pastured in a heavily endemic area. The worm reduction was 65.1% in the fourth group and 75.7% in the fifth group.« less

  11. Identification and analysis of CYP450 genes from transcriptome of Lonicera japonica and expression analysis of chlorogenic acid biosynthesis related CYP450s.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xiwu; Yu, Xu; Xu, Daohua; Fang, Hailing; Dong, Ke; Li, Weilin; Liang, Chengyuan

    2017-01-01

    Lonicera japonica is an important medicinal plant that has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for thousands of years. The pharmacological activities of L. japonica are mainly due to its rich natural active ingredients, most of which are secondary metabolites. CYP450s are a large, complex, and widespread superfamily of proteins that participate in many endogenous and exogenous metabolic reactions, especially secondary metabolism. Here, we identified CYP450s in L. japonica transcriptome and analyzed CYP450s that may be involved in chlorogenic acid (CGA) biosynthesis. The recent availability of L. japonica transcriptome provided opportunity to identify CYP450s in this herb. BLAST based method and HMM based method were used to identify CYP450s in L. japonica transcriptome. Then, phylogenetic analysis, conserved motifs analysis, GO annotation, and KEGG annotation analyses were conducted to characterize the identified CYP450s. qRT-PCR was used to explore expression patterns of five CGA biosynthesis related CYP450s. In this study, 151 putative CYP450s with complete cytochrome P450 domain, which belonged to 10 clans, 45 families and 76 subfamilies, were identified in L. japonica transcriptome. Phylogenetic analysis classified these CYP450s into two major branches, A-type (47%) and non-A type (53%). Both types of CYP450s had conserved motifs in L. japonica . The differences of typical motif sequences between A-type and non-A type CYP450s in L. japonica were similar with other plants. GO classification indicated that non-A type CYP450s participated in more molecular functions and biological processes than A-type. KEGG pathway annotation totally assigned 47 CYP450s to 25 KEGG pathways. From these data, we cloned two LjC3Hs (CYP98A subfamily) and three LjC4Hs (CYP73A subfamily) that may be involved in biosynthesis of CGA, the major ingredient for pharmacological activities of L. japonica . qRT-PCR results indicated that two LjC3Hs exhibited oppositing expression

  12. Optimization and development of a SPE-HPLC-UV method to determine astaxanthin in Saccharina japonica.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jun; Bi, Wentao; Row, Kyung Ho

    2011-04-01

    An effective and accurate method including extraction, saponification, and separation was developed to determine astaxanthin (AX) in Saccharina japonica. The optimal extraction conditions with different solvents were investigated. 29.30 μg/g of AX was extracted from dry Saccharina japonica powder by solvent. After subsequent saponification, the extracted amount of AX was increased to 37.26 μg/g. Furthermore, 3 different ionic liquid-based silicas were prepared as sorbents for the solid phase extraction of AX from the extract. By comparing the adsorption isotherms of AX on different ionic liquid-based silicas, suitable sorbent was successfully selected and applied for separation of AX from extract. Astaxanthin, in 3 main forms (free, monoesters, and diesters), can be obtained from marine plants and animals. By extraction with subsequent saponification, the astaxanthin was extracted from Saccharina japonica. And then, ionic liquid-based silicas were used to separate the astaxanthin from the extract solution. This method can be widely applied for determination, or even industrial separation and purification of astaxanthin from many other algae.

  13. Cell wall layers delimit cell groups derived from cell division in the foliose trebouxiophycean alga Prasiola japonica.

    PubMed

    Mine, Ichiro; Kinoshita, Urara; Kawashima, Shigetaka; Sekida, Satoko

    2018-01-22

    The cells in the foliose thallus of trebouxiophycean alga Prasiola japonica apparently develop into 2 × 2 cell groups composed of two two-celled groups, each of which is a pair of derivative cells of the latest cell division. In the present study, the structural features of cell walls of the alga P. japonica concerning the formation of the cell groups were investigated using histochemical methods. Thin cell layers stained by Calcofluor White appeared to envelope the two-celled and four-celled groups separately and, hence, separated them from neighboring cell groups, and the Calcofluor White-negative gaps between neighboring four-celled groups were specifically stained by lectins, such as soybean agglutinin, jacalin, and Vicia villosa lectin conjugated with fluorescein. These results indicated that the Calcofluor White-positive cell wall layer of parent cell that existed during two successive cell divisions structurally distinguished two-celled and four-celled groups from others in this alga. Moreover, the results suggested that the cell wall components of the Calcofluor White-negative gaps would possibly contribute to the formation of the planar thallus through lateral union of the cell groups.

  14. The Interactive Effects of Elevated CO2 and Ammonium Enrichment on the Physiological Performances of Saccharina japonica (Laminariales, Phaeophyta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jin Woo; Chung, Ik Kyo

    2018-04-01

    Environmental challenges such as ocean acidification and eutrophication influence the physiology of kelp species. We investigated their interactive effects on Saccharina japonica (Laminariales, Phaeophyta) under two pH conditions [Low, 7.50; High (control), 8.10] and three NH4 +concentrations (Low, 4; Medium, 60; High, 120 μM). The degree of variation of pH values in the culture medium and inhibition rate of photosynthetic oxygen evolution by acetazolamide were affected by pH treatments. Relative growth rates, carbon, nitrogen, and the C:N ratio in tissue samples were influenced by higher concentrations of NH4 + . Rates of photosynthetic oxygen evolution were enhanced under elevated CO2 or NH4 +conditions, independently, but these two factors did not show an interactive effect. However, rates of NH4 +uptake were influenced by the interactive effect of increased CO2 under elevated NH4 +treatment. Although ocean acidification and eutrophication states had an impact on physiological performance, chlorophyll fluorescence was not affected by those conditions. Our results indicated that the physiological reactions by this alga were influenced to some extent by a rise in the levels of CO2 and NH4 + . Therefore, we expect that the biomass accumulation of S. japonica may well increase under future scenarios of ocean acidification and eutrophication.

  15. Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Flavone di-C-Glycosides as Active Principles of Camellia Mistletoe, Korthalsella japonica

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Kyoung; Yun, Kwang Jun; Lim, Da Hae; Kim, Jinju; Jang, Young Pyo

    2016-01-01

    The chemical components and biological activity of Camellia mistletoe, Korthalsella japonica (Loranthaceae) are relatively unknown compared to other mistletoe species. Therefore, we investigated the phytochemical properties and biological activity of this parasitic plant to provide essential preliminary scientific evidence to support and encourage its further pharmaceutical research and development. The major plant components were chromatographically isolated using high-performance liquid chromatography and their structures were elucidated using tandem mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance anlysis. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory activity of the 70% ethanol extract of K. japonica (KJ) and its isolated components was evaluated using a nitric oxide (NO) assay and western blot analysis for inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2. Three flavone di-C-glycosides, lucenin-2, vicenin-2, and stellarin-2 were identified as major components of KJ, for the first time. KJ significantly inhibited NO production and reduced iNOS and COX-2 expression in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells at 100 μg/mL while similar activity were observed with isolated flavone C-glycosides. In conclusion, KJ has a simple secondary metabolite profiles including flavone di-C-glycosides as major components and has a strong potential for further research and development as a source of therapeutic anti-inflammatory agents. PMID:27302962

  16. Species-Specific Detection of Mycosphaerella polygoni-cuspidati as a Biological Control Agent for Fallopia japonica by PCR Assay.

    PubMed

    Kurose, Daisuke; Furuya, Naruto; Saeki, Tetsuya; Tsuchiya, Kenichi; Tsushima, Seiya; Seier, Marion K

    2016-10-01

    The ascomycete fungus Mycosphaerella polygoni-cuspidati has been undergoing evaluation as a potential classical biological control agent for the invasive weed Fallopia japonica (Japanese knotweed), which has become troublesome in Europe and North America. In advance of the potential release of a biocontrol agent into a new environment, it is crucial to develop an effective monitoring system to enable the evaluation of agent establishment and dispersal within the target host population, as well as any potential attacks on non-target species. Therefore, a primer pair was designed for direct, rapid, and specific detection of the Japanese knotweed pathogen M. polygoni-cuspidati based on the sequences of the internal transcribed spacer regions including the 5.8S rDNA. A PCR product of approximately 298 bp was obtained only when the DNA extracted from mycelial fragments of M. polygoni-cuspidati was used. The lower limit of detection of the PCR method was 100 fg of genomic DNA. Using the specific primer pair, M. polygoni-cuspidati could be detected from both naturally and artificially infected Japanese knotweed plants. No amplification was observed for other Mycosphaerella spp. or fungal endophytes isolated from F. japonica. The designed primer pair is thus effective for the specific detection of M. polygoni-cuspidati in planta.

  17. Improving seedless kelp (Saccharina japonica) during its domestication by hybridizing gametophytes and seedling-raising from sporophytes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaojie; Zhang, Zhuangzhi; Qu, Shancun; Liang, Guangjin; Sun, Juan; Zhao, Nan; Cui, Cuiju; Cao, Zengmei; Li, Yan; Pan, Jinhua; Yu, Shenhui; Wang, Qingyan; Li, Xia; Luo, Shiju; Song, Shaofeng; Guo, Li; Yang, Guanpin

    2016-01-01

    Dongfang no.7 (Saccharina japonica) was bred and maintained by hybridizing gametophytes, self-crossing the best individuals, selecting the best self-crossing line and seedling-raising from yearly reconstructed sporophytes. It increased the air dry yield by 43.2% in average over 2 widely farmed controls. Dongfang no.7 was seedling-raised from bulked sporophytes reconstructed from its representative gametophyte clones. Such strategy ensured it against variety contamination due to possible cross fertilization and occasional mixing and inbred depletion due to self-crossing number-limited sporophytes year after year. It derived from an intraspecific hybrid through 4 rounds of self-crossing and selection and retained a certain degree of genetic heterozygosity, thus being immune to inbred depletion due to purification of unknown detrimental alleles. Most importantly, it can be farmed in currently available system as the seedlings for large scale culture can be raised from reconstructed Dongfang no.7 sporophytes. Breeding and maintaining Dongfang no.7 provided a model that other varieties of kelp (S. japonica) and brown algae may follow during their domestication. PMID:26887644

  18. Brown seaweed (Saccharina japonica) as an edible natural delivery matrix for allyl isothiocyanate inhibiting food-borne bacteria.

    PubMed

    Siahaan, Evi Amelia; Pendleton, Phillip; Woo, Hee-Chul; Chun, Byung-Soo

    2014-01-01

    The edible, brown seaweed Saccharina japonica was prepared as powder in the size range 500-900 μm for the desorption release of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC). Powders were used as raw (containing lipids) and as de-oiled, where the lipid was removed. In general, de-oiled powders adsorbed larger masses of AITC after vapour or solution contact. Mass adsorbed due to solution contact exceeded vapour contact. Larger particles adsorbed more than smaller particles. No chemical bonding between AITC and the powder surface occurred. Release from vapour deposited particles reached 70-85% available within 72 h; solution deposited reached 70-90% available at 192 h. The larger amounts of AITC adsorbed via solution deposition resulted in greater vapour-phase concentrations at 72 h for antimicrobial activity studies. No loss of activity was detected against Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium or Bacillus cereus. Only a nominal activity against Staphylococcus aureus was demonstrated. S. japonica powder could be used as an edible, natural vehicle for AITC delivery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Agatharesinol biosynthesis-related changes of ray parenchyma in sapwood sticks of Cryptomeria japonica during cell death.

    PubMed

    Nakaba, Satoshi; Arakawa, Izumi; Morimoto, Hikaru; Nakada, Ryogo; Bito, Nobumasa; Imai, Takanori; Funada, Ryo

    2016-05-01

    The work demonstrates a relationship between the biosynthesis of the secondary metabolite, agatharesinol, and cytological changes that occur in ray parenchyma during cell death in sapwood sticks of Cryptomeria japonica under humidity-regulated conditions. To characterize the death of ray parenchyma cells that accompanies the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, we examined cell death in sapwood sticks of Cryptomeria japonica under humidity-regulated conditions. We monitored features of ray parenchyma cells, such as viability, the morphology of nuclei and vacuoles, and the amount of starch grains. In addition, we analyzed levels of agatharesinol, a heartwood norlignan, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in the same sapwood sticks. Dramatic changes in the amount of starch grains and in the level of agatharesinol occurred simultaneously. Therefore, the biosynthesis of agatharesinol appeared to originate from the breakdown of starch. Furthermore, we observed the expansion of vacuoles in ray parenchyma cells prior to other cytological changes at the final stage of cell death. In our experimental system, we were able to follow the process of cell death and to demonstrate relationships between cytological changes and the biosynthesis of a secondary metabolite during the death of ray parenchyma cells.

  20. Temporal pattern in biometrics and nutrient stoichiometry of the intertidal seagrass Zostera japonica and its adaptation to air exposure in a temperate marine lagoon (China): Implications for restoration and management.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaomei; Zhou, Yi; Liu, Peng; Wang, Feng; Liu, Bingjian; Liu, Xujia; Yang, Hongsheng

    2015-05-15

    In coastal areas of China, the seagrass Zostera japonica has drastically decreased in the past decades. Swan Lake is an exception, where we found extensive areas of Z. japonica beds. The growth of Z. japonica in the lagoon exhibited strong seasonal variation. The maximum shoot density of 9880±2786 shoots m(-2) occurred in August. The maximum specific growth rate (SGR) of 4.99±1.99%⋅d(-1) was recorded in June 2012. SGR might be a good parameter for assessing the growth status of Z. japonica population. N and P contents in the rhizome were significantly lower than those in the leaf and leaf sheath. Lower C/P ratios suggested P enrichment of the seagrass. The occurrence of Z. japonica in Swan Lake was featured by adapting to the intertidal harsh environments. The transplantation method using sectioned rhizomes would be a potential way for restoration of degraded Z. japonica beds. The establishment of the Rongcheng Swan National Nature Reserve in China has contributed to the survival and expansion of Z. japonica in Swan Lake. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. DNA Methylation Influences Chlorogenic Acid Biosynthesis in Lonicera japonica by Mediating LjbZIP8 to Regulate Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase 2 Expression.

    PubMed

    Zha, Liangping; Liu, Shuang; Liu, Juan; Jiang, Chao; Yu, Shulin; Yuan, Yuan; Yang, Jian; Wang, Yaolong; Huang, Luqi

    2017-01-01

    The content of active compounds differ in buds and flowers of Lonicera japonica (FLJ) and L. japonica var. chinensis (rFLJ). Chlorogenic acid (CGAs) were major active compounds of L. japonica and regarded as measurements for quality evaluation. However, little is known concerning the formation of active compounds at the molecular level. We quantified the major CGAs in FLJ and rFLJ, and found the concentrations of CGAs were higher in the buds of rFLJ than those of FLJ. Further analysis of CpG methylation of CGAs biosynthesis genes showed differences between FLJ and rFLJ in the 5'-UTR of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase 2 ( PAL2 ). We identified 11 LjbZIP proteins and 24 rLjbZIP proteins with conserved basic leucine zipper domains, subcellular localization, and electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that the transcription factor LjbZIP8 is a nuclear-localized protein that specifically binds to the G-box element of the LjPAL2 5'-UTR. Additionally, a transactivation assay and LjbZIP8 overexpression in transgenic tobacco indicated that LjbZIP8 could function as a repressor of transcription. Finally, treatment with 5-azacytidine decreased the transcription level of LjPAL2 and CGAs content in FLJ leaves. These results raise the possibility that DNA methylation might influence the recruitment of LjbZIP8, regulating PAL2 expression level and CGAs content in L. japonica .

  2. DNA Methylation Influences Chlorogenic Acid Biosynthesis in Lonicera japonica by Mediating LjbZIP8 to Regulate Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase 2 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Zha, Liangping; Liu, Shuang; Liu, Juan; Jiang, Chao; Yu, Shulin; Yuan, Yuan; Yang, Jian; Wang, Yaolong; Huang, Luqi

    2017-01-01

    The content of active compounds differ in buds and flowers of Lonicera japonica (FLJ) and L. japonica var. chinensis (rFLJ). Chlorogenic acid (CGAs) were major active compounds of L. japonica and regarded as measurements for quality evaluation. However, little is known concerning the formation of active compounds at the molecular level. We quantified the major CGAs in FLJ and rFLJ, and found the concentrations of CGAs were higher in the buds of rFLJ than those of FLJ. Further analysis of CpG methylation of CGAs biosynthesis genes showed differences between FLJ and rFLJ in the 5′-UTR of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase 2 (PAL2). We identified 11 LjbZIP proteins and 24 rLjbZIP proteins with conserved basic leucine zipper domains, subcellular localization, and electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that the transcription factor LjbZIP8 is a nuclear-localized protein that specifically binds to the G-box element of the LjPAL2 5′-UTR. Additionally, a transactivation assay and LjbZIP8 overexpression in transgenic tobacco indicated that LjbZIP8 could function as a repressor of transcription. Finally, treatment with 5-azacytidine decreased the transcription level of LjPAL2 and CGAs content in FLJ leaves. These results raise the possibility that DNA methylation might influence the recruitment of LjbZIP8, regulating PAL2 expression level and CGAs content in L. japonica. PMID:28740500

  3. Has the rapidly expanding invasive dwarf eelgrass Zostera japonica in Yaquina estuary, Oregon impacted the distribution of native eelgrass Zostera marina – a critical intertidal habitat?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Native eelgrass, Zostera marina, occupies a significant portion of marine-dominated intertidal and near-subtidal sectors of many coastal estuaries. In recent decades an invasive congener, Z. japonica, has become established in many Pacific Northwest estuaries. We measured the h...

  4. Has the rapidly expanding invasive dwarf eelgrass Zostera japonica in Yaquina estuary, Oregon impacted the distribution of native eelgrass Zostera marina – a critical intertidal habitat? - CERF

    EPA Science Inventory

    Native eelgrass, Zostera marina, occupies a significant portion of marine-dominated intertidal and near-subtidal sectors of many coastal estuaries. In recent decades an invasive congener, Z. japonica, has become established in many Pacific Northwest estuaries. We measured the h...

  5. Comparison of non-indigenous dwarf eelgrass (Zostera japonica) and native eelgrass (Z. marina) distributions in a northeast Pacific estuary: 1997-2014

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study addressed the following question: In a coastal estuary of the northeastern Pacific Ocean with a relatively large areal extent of the native eelgrass Zostera marina, is an expanding distribution of the non-indigenous dwarf eelgrass Z. japonica accompanied by a measurab...

  6. The external morphology of the mouthparts, and observations on feeding and behavior of Tuckerella japonica on Camellia sinensis in the continental United States

    Tuckerella japonica Ehara (Acari: Tetranychoidea: Tuckerellidae) is found where longitudinal splitting occurs on exposed green periderm tissue of shoots on certain varieties or seedling plants of Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze (Theales: Theaceae) in the continental United States. The mite is able ...

  7. CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Gene Editing in Rice (Oryza sativa L. japonica cv. Katy) for Stable Resistance against Blast Fungus (Magnaporthe oryzae)

    Rice blast is a recurring and devastating disease in the USA and worldwide. In the USA, the blast-resistance (R) genes found in a tropical japonica cultivar, Katy, reduce blast damages from 1990 to present. The cultivar is still used as a principal donor of blast R genes in developing numerous elit...

  8. Effects of salinity on photosynthesis and respiration of the seagrass Zostera japonica: A comparison of two established populations in North America

    EPA Science Inventory

    Zostera japonica is a non-native seagrass along the Pacific Coast of North America that is distributed from Northern California, USA to British Columbia, Canada. Recent observations indicate that the species is expanding both latitudinally and into areas of lower salinity. Ther...

  9. Ultrasonic extraction of polysaccharides from Laminaria japonica and their antioxidative and glycosidase inhibitory activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Peng; Yang, Xiaoman; Cai, Bingna; Chen, Hua; Sun, Huili; Chen, Deke; Pan, Jianyu

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, ultrasonic extraction technique (UET) is used to improve the yield of polysaccharides from Laminaria japonica (LJPs). And their antioxidative as well as glycosidase inhibitory activities are investigated. Box-Behnken design (BBD) combined with response surface methodology (RSM) is applied to optimize ultrasonic extraction for polysaccharides. The optimized conditions are obtained as extraction time at 54 min, ultrasonic power at 1050 W, extraction temperature at 80°C and ratio of material to solvent at 1:50 (g mL-1). Under these optimal ultrasonic extraction conditions, an actual experimental yield (5.75% ± 0.3%) is close to the predicted result (5.67%) with no significant difference ( P > 0.05). Vitro antioxidative and glycosidase inhibitory activities tests indicate that the crude polysaccharides (LJP) and two major ethanol precipitated fractions (LJP1 and LJP2) are in a concentration-dependent manner. LJP2 (30%-60% ethanol precipitated polysaccharides) possesses the strongest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and moderate scavenging activity against hydroxyl radicals (66.09% ± 2.19%, 3.0 mg mL-1). Also, the inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase (59.08% ± 3.79%, 5.0 mg mL-1) is close to that of acarbose (63.99% ± 3.27%, 5.0 mg mL-1). LJP1 (30% ethanol precipitated polysaccharides) exhibits the strongest scavenging activity against hydroxyl radicals (99.80% ± 0.00%, 3.0 mg mL-1) and moderate α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (47.76% ± 1.92%, 5.0 mg mL-1). LJP shows the most remarkable DPPH scavenging activity (66.20% ± 0.11%, 5.0 mg mL-1) but weakest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (37.77% ± 1.30%, 5.0 mg mL-1). However, all these LJPs exert weak inhibitory effects against α-amylase. These results show that UET is an effective method for extracting bioactive polysaccharides from seaweed materials. LJP1 and LJP2 can be developed as a potential ingredient in hypoglycemic agents or functional food for the management of

  10. Salinity Stress Is Beneficial to the Accumulation of Chlorogenic Acids in Honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica Thunb.).

    PubMed

    Yan, Kun; Cui, Mingxing; Zhao, Shijie; Chen, Xiaobing; Tang, Xiaoli

    2016-01-01

    Honeysuckle ( Lonicera japonica Thunb.) is a traditional medicinal plant in China that is particularly rich in chlorogenic acids, which are phenolic compounds with various medicinal properties. This study aimed to examine the effects of salinity stress on accumulation of chlorogenic acids in honeysuckle, through hydroponic experiments and field trials, and to examine the mechanisms underlying the effects. NaCl stress stimulated the transcription of genes encoding key enzymes in the synthesis of chlorogenic acids in leaves; accordingly, the concentrations of chlorogenic acids in leaves were significantly increased under NaCl stress, as was antioxidant activity. Specifically, the total concentration of leaf chlorogenic acids was increased by 145.74 and 50.34% after 30 days of 150 and 300 mM NaCl stress, respectively. Similarly, the concentrations of chlorogenic acids were higher in the leaves of plants in saline, compared with non-saline, plots, with increases in total concentrations of chlorogenic acids of 56.05 and 105.29% in October 2014 and 2015, respectively. Despite leaf biomass reduction, absolute amounts of chlorogenic acids per plant and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity were significantly increased by soil salinity, confirming that the accumulation of chlorogenic acids in leaves was a result of stimulation of their synthesis under salinity stress. Soil salinity also led to elevated chlorogenic acid concentrations in honeysuckle flower buds, with significant increases in total chlorogenic acids concentration of 22.42 and 25.14% in May 2014 and 2015, respectively. Consistent with biomass reduction, the absolute amounts of chlorogenic acid per plant declined in flower buds of plants exposed to elevated soil salinity, with no significant change in PAL activity. Thus, salinity-induced chlorogenic acid accumulation in flower buds depended on an amplification effect of growth reduction. In conclusion, salinity stress improved the medicinal quality of

  11. Salinity Stress Is Beneficial to the Accumulation of Chlorogenic Acids in Honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica Thunb.)

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Kun; Cui, Mingxing; Zhao, Shijie; Chen, Xiaobing; Tang, Xiaoli

    2016-01-01

    Honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica Thunb.) is a traditional medicinal plant in China that is particularly rich in chlorogenic acids, which are phenolic compounds with various medicinal properties. This study aimed to examine the effects of salinity stress on accumulation of chlorogenic acids in honeysuckle, through hydroponic experiments and field trials, and to examine the mechanisms underlying the effects. NaCl stress stimulated the transcription of genes encoding key enzymes in the synthesis of chlorogenic acids in leaves; accordingly, the concentrations of chlorogenic acids in leaves were significantly increased under NaCl stress, as was antioxidant activity. Specifically, the total concentration of leaf chlorogenic acids was increased by 145.74 and 50.34% after 30 days of 150 and 300 mM NaCl stress, respectively. Similarly, the concentrations of chlorogenic acids were higher in the leaves of plants in saline, compared with non-saline, plots, with increases in total concentrations of chlorogenic acids of 56.05 and 105.29% in October 2014 and 2015, respectively. Despite leaf biomass reduction, absolute amounts of chlorogenic acids per plant and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity were significantly increased by soil salinity, confirming that the accumulation of chlorogenic acids in leaves was a result of stimulation of their synthesis under salinity stress. Soil salinity also led to elevated chlorogenic acid concentrations in honeysuckle flower buds, with significant increases in total chlorogenic acids concentration of 22.42 and 25.14% in May 2014 and 2015, respectively. Consistent with biomass reduction, the absolute amounts of chlorogenic acid per plant declined in flower buds of plants exposed to elevated soil salinity, with no significant change in PAL activity. Thus, salinity-induced chlorogenic acid accumulation in flower buds depended on an amplification effect of growth reduction. In conclusion, salinity stress improved the medicinal quality of

  12. Plastid structure and carotenogenic gene expression in red- and white-fleshed loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) fruits

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Xiumin; Kong, Wenbin; Peng, Gang; Zhou, Jingyi; Azam, Muhammad; Xu, Changjie; Grierson, Don; Chen, Kunsong

    2012-01-01

    Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) can be sorted into red- and white-fleshed cultivars. The flesh of Luoyangqing (LYQ, red-fleshed) appears red-orange because of a high content of carotenoids while the flesh of Baisha (BS, white-fleshed) appears ivory white due to a lack of carotenoid accumulation. The carotenoid content in the peel and flesh of LYQ was approximately 68 μg g−1 and 13 μg g−1 fresh weight (FW), respectively, and for BS 19 μg g−1 and 0.27 μg g−1 FW. The mRNA levels of 15 carotenogenesis-related genes were analysed during fruit development and ripening. After the breaker stage (S4), the mRNA levels of phytoene synthase 1 (PSY1) and chromoplast-specific lycopene β-cyclase (CYCB) were higher in the peel, and CYCB and β-carotene hydroxylase (BCH) mRNAs were higher in the flesh of LYQ, compared with BS. Plastid morphogenesis during fruit ripening was also studied. The ultrastructure of plastids in the peel of BS changed less than in LYQ during fruit development. Two different chromoplast shapes were observed in the cells of LYQ peel and flesh at the fully ripe stage. Carotenoids were incorporated in the globules in chromoplasts of LYQ and BS peel but were in a crystalline form in the chromoplasts of LYQ flesh. However, no chromoplast structure was found in the cells of fully ripe BS fruit flesh. The mRNA level of plastid lipid-associated protein (PAP) in the peel and flesh of LYQ was over five times higher than in BS peel and flesh. In conclusion, the lower carotenoid content in BS fruit was associated with the lower mRNA levels of PSY1, CYCB, and BCH; however, the failure to develop normal chromoplasts in BS flesh is the most convincing explanation for the lack of carotenoid accumulation. The expression of PAP was well correlated with chromoplast numbers and carotenoid accumulation, suggesting its possible role in chromoplast biogenesis or interconversion of loquat fruit. PMID:21994170

  13. Relationship between the transmission of schistosomiasis japonica and the construction of the Three Gorge Reservoir.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jiang; Gu, Xue-guang; Xu, Yong-long; Ge, Ji-hua; Yang, Xian-xiang; He, Chang-hao; Tang, Chao; Cai, Kai-ping; Jiang, Qing-wu; Liang, You-sheng; Wang, Tian-ping; Xu, Xing-jian; Zhong, Jiu-he; Yuan, Hong-chang; Zhou, Xiao-nong

    2002-05-01

    To study the relationship between the changes of environment and the transmission of Schistosomiasis japonica after the construction of the Three Gorge Reservoir. On the basis of the predictive data on changes of water level and sediment in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River after the dam construction provided by the Yangtze River Committee on Water Conservancy, corresponding data were collected and analyzed. In order to understand the effects of changes of water level and sediment on Oncomelania hupensis, the intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum, field surveys and ecologically intimated experiments were done. The prevalence status and factors related to transmission were investigated by epidemiology, medical geography and public health. Positive impact on control of schistosomiasis is that floods in the Yangtze River will occur less and will decrease the dispersal of snails and the chances of infection for humans and animals as well. Snail habitats' beach will be reduced in the flushed area along the Yangtze River. Exploitation of beach and elimination of snails will benefit from the beach's uplift in flushed area. The floods ahead of time in autumn will interfere with the development of snails. Negative impact is that the flushed beaches and migratory settlements at certain altitude may become snail habitats. So the reservoir area will be a potential transmission area of schistosomiasis due to dispersal of infectious resources and Oncomelania snails. The uprising of the water body level may cause the expending of the snail habitats in some places of Jianghan plain during the transition of spring to summer. The destruction of the embankments of the Dongting Lake will be put off by its delayed flush, which causes the beach in a situation of growing reed-grass or grass for a long time that benefits the reproduction of the snails. The chances for schistosome infection to humans and animals will be on the increase, because the water regression

  14. [Response of yield, quality and nitrogen use efficiency to nitrogen fertilizer from mechanical transplanting super japonica rice].

    PubMed

    Wei, Hai-Yan; Wang, Ya-Jiang; Meng, Tian-Yao; Ge, Meng-Jie; Zhang, Hong-Cheng; Dai, Qi-Gen; Huo, Zhong-Yang; Xu, Ke

    2014-02-01

    Five super japonica rice cultivars were grown by mechanical transplanting in field and seven N treatments with total N application rate of 0, 150, 187.5, 225, 262.5, 300 and 337.5 kg x hm(-2) respectively were adopted to study the effects of N rate on rice yield, quality and N use efficiency. The differences between N requirement for obtaining the highest yield and for achieving the best economic benefit were compared. With the increase of N fertilizer rate, the yields of five super japonica rice cultivars increased firstly and then descended, achieving the highest yield at the N level of 300 kg x hm(-2) ranging from 10.33-10.60 kg x hm(-2). Yield increase mainly attributed to the large number of spikelet, for the total spikelet number of each rice cultivar reached the maximum value at the 300 kg x hm(-2) N level. With the increase of N application, the rates of brown rice, milled rice, head milled rice and the protein content of the five super japonica rice cultivars were all increased, and the rates of brown rice, milled rice, head milled rice and the protein con- tent were higher at 337.5 kg x hm(-2) N level than at 0 kg x hm(-2) N level by 3.3%-4.2%, 2.9%-6.0%, 4.4%-33.7% and 23.8%-44.3%, respectively. While the amylose content, gel consistency and taste value of the five rice cultivars were all decreased, and the amylose content, gel consistency and taste value were lower at 337.5 kg x hm(-2) N level than at 0 kg x hm(-2) N level by 12.4%-38.9%, 10.3%-28.5% and 20.3%-29.7%, respectively. The chalkiness increased firstly and then decreased while the change of chalky rate varied with the cultivars. With the increase of N application, the N use efficiency, agronomic N use efficiency and physiological N use efficiency decreased while the N uptake of grain increased significantly. If the cost of N fertilizer was taken into account, the N fertilizer amount to obtain the optimal economic benefits would be 275.68 kg x hm(-2) with the corresponding yield of 9.97 t x hm

  15. Discovery and identification of a male-killing agent in the Japanese ladybird Propylea japonica (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Endosymbionts that manipulate the reproduction of their hosts have been reported widely in invertebrates. One such group of endosymbionts is the male-killers. To date all male-killers reported are bacterial in nature, but comprise a diverse group. Ladybirds have been described as a model system for the study of male-killing, which has been reported in multiple species from widespread geographic locations. Whilst criteria of low egg hatch-rate and female-biased progenic sex ratio have been used to identify female hosts of male-killers, variation in vertical transmission efficiency and host genetic factors may result in variation in these phenotypic indicators of male-killer presence. Molecular identification of bacteria and screening for bacterial presence provide us with a more accurate method than breeding data alone to link the presence of the bacteria to the male-killing phenotype. In addition, by identifying the bacteria responsible we may find evidence for horizontal transfer between endosymbiont hosts and can gain insight into the evolutionary origins of male-killing. Phylogenetic placement of male-killing bacteria will allow us to address the question of whether male-killing is a potential strategy for only some, or all, maternally inherited bacteria. Together, phenotypic and molecular characterisation of male-killers will allow a deeper insight into the interactions between host and endosymbiont, which ultimately may lead to an understanding of how male-killers identify and kill male-hosts. Results A male-killer was detected in the Japanese coccinellid, Propylea japonica (Thunberg) a species not previously known to harbour male-killers. Families produced by female P. japonica showed significantly female-biased sex ratios. One female produced only daughters. This male-killer trait was maternally inherited and antibiotic treatment produced a full, heritable cure. Molecular analysis identified Rickettsia to be associated with the trait in this

  16. Species characteristics and intraspecific variation in growth and photosynthesis of Cryptomeria japonica under elevated O3 and CO2.

    PubMed

    Hiraoka, Yuichiro; Iki, Taiichi; Nose, Mine; Tobita, Hiroyuki; Yazaki, Kenichi; Watanabe, Atsushi; Fujisawa, Yoshitake; Kitao, Mitsutoshi

    2017-06-01

    In order to predict the effects of future atmospheric conditions on forest productivity, it is necessary to clarify the physiological responses of major forest tree species to high concentrations of ozone (O3) and carbon dioxide (CO2). Furthermore, intraspecific variation of these responses should also be examined in order to predict productivity gains through tree improvements in the future. We investigated intraspecific variation in growth and photosynthesis of Cryptomeria japonica D. Don, a major silviculture species in Japan, in response to elevated concentrations of O3 (eO3) and CO2 (eCO2), separately and in combination. Cuttings of C. japonica were grown and exposed to two levels of O3 (ambient and twice-ambient levels) in combination with two levels of CO2 (ambient and 550 µmol mol-1 in the daytime) for two growing seasons in a free-air CO2 enrichment experiment. There was no obvious negative effect of eO3 on growth or photosynthetic traits of the C. japonica clones, but a positive effect was observed for annual height increments in the first growing season. Dry mass production and the photosynthetic rate increased under eCO2 conditions, while the maximum carboxylation rate decreased. Significant interaction effects of eO3 and eCO2 on growth and photosynthetic traits were not observed. Clonal effects on growth and photosynthetic traits were significant, but the interactions between clones and O3 and/or CO2 treatments were not. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients between growth traits under ambient conditions and for each treatment were significantly positive, implying that clonal ranking in growth abilities might not be affected by either eO3 or eCO2. The knowledge obtained from this study will be helpful for species selection in afforestation programs, to continue and to improve current programs involving this species, and to accurately predict the CO2 fixation capacity of Japanese forests. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All

  17. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using extracts of Artocarpus Lakoocha fruit and its leaves, and Eriobotrya Japonica leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Ankita; Dhiman, Naresh; Singh, Bhanu P.; Gathania, Arvind K.

    2014-04-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) synthesis is demonstrated successfully using fresh young leaves of Artocarpus Lakoocha (A. Lakoocha), fruit pulp of A. Lakoocha and loquat (Eriobotrya Japonica) leaves. We have also compared green synthesis with chemical assisted tri-n-octyl-phosphine (TOP) stabilized gold nanoparticles. Samples were characterized with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and UV-Visible spectroscopy. TEM images have shown that the average size of the particles is 15.06, 36.8 and 25.08 nm for A. Lakoocha fruits, A. Lakoocha leaves and loquat leaves assisted gold nanoparticles, respectively. Hydrogen tetrachloroaurate is reduced and AuNPs are stabilized by phenols, hydroxyls and carboxyls groups such as terpenoids, flavonoids, tannins etc, present in young leaves and fruit extracts. It was observed that green synthesis using botanical extracts is a cost effective and non- toxic way for nanoparticle preparation.

  18. Differences in Viscosity of Superior and Inferior Spikelets of Japonica Rice with Various Percentages of Apparent Amylose Content.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhao-Hui; Cheng, Hai-Tao; Nitta, Y; Aoki, Naohiro; Chen, Yun; Chen, Heng-Xue; Ohsugi, Ryu; Lyu, Wen-Yan

    2017-05-31

    Viscosity, a crucial characteristic for rice palatability, is affected by endosperm characters. We compared correlations between differences in viscosity of japonica rice with various palatability and endosperm characters. Changes in apparent amylose and protein contents (AAC% and PC%, respectively) and amylopectin side-chain distribution and the relationship of these traits with palatability were investigated in superior and inferior spikelets of good cultivars with low amylose content from Hokkaido and common cultivars from northeastern Japan, using rapid visco analyzer characteristics and rice-grain microstructures. Significant differences occurred in PC%, AAC%, breakdown, setback, peak time, and pasting temperature of different cultivars and grain positions. Amylopectin components showed remarkable differences in grain surfaces, surface layers, and section structure between the grain varieties. Hokkaido cultivars showed better viscosity than northeastern cultivars, particularly initial stage grains. Correlation analysis indicated viscosity was mainly AAC%-dependent, whereas differences in endosperm characteristics between spikelet positions were mainly due to grain-filling temperature.

  19. The screening research of anti-inflammatory bioactive markers from different flowering phases of Flos Lonicerae Japonicae.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Min; Han, Yan-qi; Zhou, Meng-ge; Zhao, Hong-zhi; Xiao, Xue; Hou, Yuan-yuan; Gao, Jie; Bai, Gang; Luo, Guo-an

    2014-01-01

    Flos Lonicerae Japonicae (FLJ) is an important cash crop in eastern Asia, and it is an anti-inflammatory Traditional Chinese Medicine. There are large variations in the quality of the marketed FLJ products. To find marker ingredients useful for quality control, a tandem technology integrating ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q/TOF), principal component analysis (PCA), heat map analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis coupled with a NF-κB luciferase reporter gene assay were used to identify the different ingredients from the green bud, white bud, flowering stage and leaf stages, as well as to screen the anti-inflammatory activity of FLJ compositions. As flowering progressed, the anti-inflammatory effects of FLJ gradually decreased; however, chlorogenic acid, swertiamarin and sweroside should be used to evaluate the quality of FLJ products.

  20. The Screening Research of Anti-Inflammatory Bioactive Markers from Different Flowering Phases of Flos Lonicerae Japonicae

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Min; Han, Yan-qi; Zhou, Meng-ge; Zhao, Hong-zhi; Xiao, Xue; Hou, Yuan-yuan; Gao, Jie; Bai, Gang; Luo, Guo-an

    2014-01-01

    Flos Lonicerae Japonicae (FLJ) is an important cash crop in eastern Asia, and it is an anti-inflammatory Traditional Chinese Medicine. There are large variations in the quality of the marketed FLJ products. To find marker ingredients useful for quality control, a tandem technology integrating ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q/TOF), principal component analysis (PCA), heat map analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis coupled with a NF-κB luciferase reporter gene assay were used to identify the different ingredients from the green bud, white bud, flowering stage and leaf stages, as well as to screen the anti-inflammatory activity of FLJ compositions. As flowering progressed, the anti-inflammatory effects of FLJ gradually decreased; however, chlorogenic acid, swertiamarin and sweroside should be used to evaluate the quality of FLJ products. PMID:24809338

  1. A survey of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) farming in selected areas of Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Nasar, Abu; Rahman, Aminoor; Hoque, Nazmul; Kumar Talukder, Anup; Das, Ziban Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the status, problems and prospects of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) farming in selected areas of Bangladesh. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in 14 districts of Bangladesh, viz., Dhaka, Narayanganj, Munshiganj, Mymensingh, Netrakona, Faridpur, Jessore, Khulna, Satkhira, Kushtia, Bogra, Naogaon, Comilla, and Sylhet during the period from July 2011 to June 2012. A total of 52 quail farmers were interviewed for data collection using a structured questionnaire. Focus group discussions were also carried out with unsuccessful farmers and those want to start quail farming. Workers of quail farms, quail feeds and medicine suppliers, quail eggs and meat sellers were also interviewed regarding the issue. Results: Out of 52 farms, 86.5% were operated by male, 67.3% farmers did not receive any training and 92.3% farmers had no earlier experience of quail farming although 58.0% farmers primary occupation was quail farming. Most of the farms (63.4%) were mixed in type having ≤5000 birds of two or three varieties. About 80.7% farms were operated separately round the year with no other poultry and 83.0% farmers wanted to expand their farming. The average pullet weight 145.0±0.12, 110.0±0.07, 120.0±0.22, and 128.0±0.17 g; age at the first lay 46.0±0.04, 42.0±0.31, 42.0±0.09, and 45.2±0.05 days; rearing period 15.0±0.01, 12.0±0.14, 15.0±0.32, and 15.2±0.18 months; culling period 15.5±0.14, 13.0±0.06, 15.0±0.03, and 15.4±0.26 months were for layer, parent stock, hatchery, and mixed farms, respectively. Most of the layer farms had an average egg production of ≤5000/day and net profit BDT 0.75/egg. However, an average number of birds, hatchability and net profit per day-old-chick were ≤5000, 76.8% and BDT 2.75, respectively, in the hatchery. Broiler quails were sold at 30 days with mean weight of 110.8 g and net profit BDT 9.02/bird. The major constraints of quail farming were higher feed price, outbreak of endemic

  2. Determination of male strobilus developmental stages by cytological and gene expression analyses in Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica).

    PubMed

    Tsubomura, Miyoko; Kurita, Manabu; Watanabe, Atsushi

    2016-05-01

    The molecular mechanisms that control male strobilus development in conifers are largely unknown because the developmental stages and related genes have not yet been characterized. The determination of male strobilus developmental stages will contribute to genetic research and reproductive biology in conifers. Our objectives in this study were to determine the developmental stages of male strobili by cytological and transcriptome analysis, and to determine the stages at which aberrant morphology is observed in a male-sterile mutant of Cryptomeria japonica D. Don to better understand the molecular mechanisms that control male strobilus and pollen development. Male strobilus development was observed for 8 months, from initiation to pollen dispersal. A set of 19,209 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) collected from a male reproductive library and a pollen library was used for microarray analysis. We divided male strobilus development into 10 stages by cytological and transcriptome analysis. Eight clusters (7324 ESTs) exhibited major changes in transcriptome profiles during male strobili and pollen development in C. japonica Two clusters showed a gradual increase and decline in transcript abundance, respectively, while the other six clusters exhibited stage-specific changes. The stages at which the male sterility trait of Sosyun was expressed were identified using information on male strobilus and pollen developmental stages and gene expression profiles. Aberrant morphology was observed cytologically at Stage 6 (microspore stage), and differences in expression patterns compared with wild type were observed at Stage 4 (tetrad stage). © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Effects of soil water content and elevated CO2 concentration on the monoterpene emission rate of Cryptomeria japonica.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Tomoki; Amagai, Takashi; Tani, Akira

    2018-09-01

    Monoterpenes emitted from plants contribute to the formation of secondary pollution and affect the climate system. Monoterpene emission rates may be affected by environmental changes such as increasing CO 2 concentration caused by fossil fuel burning and drought stress induced by climate change. We measured monoterpene emissions from Cryptomeria japonica clone saplings grown under different CO 2 concentrations (control: ambient CO 2 level, elevated CO 2 : 1000μmolmol -1 ). The saplings were planted in the ground and we did not artificially control the SWC. The relationship between the monoterpene emissions and naturally varying SWC was investigated. The dominant monoterpene was α-pinene, followed by sabinene. The monoterpene emission rates were exponentially correlated with temperature for all measurements and normalized (35°C) for each measurement day. The daily normalized monoterpene emission rates (E s0.10 ) were positively and linearly correlated with SWC under both control and elevated CO 2 conditions (control: r 2 =0.55, elevated CO 2 : r 2 =0.89). The slope of the regression line of E s0.10 against SWC was significantly higher under elevated CO 2 than under control conditions (ANCOVA: P<0.01), indicating that the effect of CO 2 concentration on monoterpene emission rates differed by soil water status. The monoterpene emission rates estimated by considering temperature and SWC (Improved G93 algorithm) better agreed with the measured monoterpene emission rates, when compared with the emission rates estimated by considering temperature alone (G93 algorithm). Our results demonstrated that the combined effects of SWC and CO 2 concentration are important for controlling the monoterpene emissions from C. japonica clone saplings. If these relationships can be applied to the other coniferous tree species, our results may be useful to improve accuracy of monoterpene emission estimates from the coniferous forests as affected by climate change in the present and

  4. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of an Essential Oil Extracted from an Edible Seaweed, Laminaria japonica L.

    PubMed

    Patra, Jayanta Kumar; Das, Gitishree; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    2015-07-02

    Laminaria japonica L. is among the most commonly consumed seaweeds in northeast Asia. In the present study, L. japonica essential oil (LJEO) was extracted by microwave-hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy. LJEO contained 21 volatile compounds, comprising 99.76% of the total volume of the essential oil, primarily tetradeconoic acid (51.75%), hexadecanoic acid (16.57%), (9Z,12Z)-9,12-Octadecadienoic acid (12.09%), and (9Z)-hexadec-9-enoic acid (9.25%). Evaluation of the antibacterial potential against three foodborne pathogens, Bacillus cereus ATCC 10876, Escherichia coli O157:H7 ATCC 43890, and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 49444, revealed that LJEO at a concentration of 25 mg/paper disc exerted high antibacterial activity against S. aureus (11.5 ± 0.58 mm inhibition zone) and B. cereus (10.5 ± 0.57 mm inhibition zone), but no inhibition of E. coli O157:H7. LJEO also displayed DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging activity (80.45%), superoxide anion scavenging activity (54.03%), and ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical and hydroxyl radical scavenging at 500 µg/mL. Finally, LJEO showed high inhibition of lipid peroxidation with strong reducing power. In conclusion, LJEO from edible seaweed is an inexpensive but favorable resource with strong antibacterial capacity as well as free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity; therefore, it has the potential for use in the food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries.

  5. Identification, functional characterization and expression pattern of myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) in Sepiella japonica.

    PubMed

    Huo, Liping; Bao, Miaomiao; Lv, Zhenming; Chi, Changfeng; Wang, Tianming; Liu, Huihui

    2018-05-01

    Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) is an adaptor protein involved in the interleukin-1 receptor and Toll-like receptor-induced activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). In this study a novel isoform of MyD88 in Sepiella japonica (SjMyD88) was cloned and functionally characterized (GenBank accession no. AQY56781.1). The complete cDNA sequence of SjMyD88 was 1912 bp and contained a 1017 bp open reading frame encoding 338 amino acid residues, which was similar to its mollusk orthologues in the length. BLASTp analysis suggested the deduced amino acids sequence of SjMyD88 shared high identity to the known MyD88, for instance, 64% identity with Octopus bimaculoides. Sequence analysis revealed two conserved domains, the N-terminal DD and the C-terminal TIR domain appeared in SjMyD88, which was consistent with MyD88 proteins from other species. The fusion expression of SjMyD88 and green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in HEK293 cells was conducted and cytoplasm localization was detected. Meanwhile, the TIR-pmCherry fusion protein showed red fluorescence and mainly distributed in the cytoplasm. After cotransfection MyD88-EGFP and TIR-pmCherry red obviously overlapped and changed to yellowish green. The results suggested that there was the interaction between homologous TIR-pmcherry and MyD88-EGFP. Tissues expression profiles analysis showed that SjMyD88 ubiquitously expressed in all tested tissues with the highest expression in the gills and livers except reproductive related tissue, and it was significantly induced in livers under LPS stress. These data provide insight into the roles of SjMyD88 in the TLR signaling pathway of S. japonica in response to pathogenic bacteria. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Arabinogalactan Proteins Accumulate in the Cell Walls of Searching Hyphae of the Stem Parasitic Plants, Cuscuta campestris and Cuscuta japonica.

    PubMed

    Hozumi, Akitaka; Bera, Subhankar; Fujiwara, Daiki; Obayashi, Takeshi; Yokoyama, Ryusuke; Nishitani, Kazuhiko; Aoki, Koh

    2017-11-01

    Stem parasitic plants (Cuscuta spp.) develop a specialized organ called a haustorium to penetrate their hosts' stem tissues. To reach the vascular tissues of the host plant, the haustorium needs to overcome the physical barrier of the cell wall, and the parasite-host interaction via the cell wall is a critical process. However, the cell wall components responsible for the establishment of parasitic connections have not yet been identified. In this study, we investigated the spatial distribution patterns of cell wall components at a parasitic interface using parasite-host complexes of Cuscuta campestris-Arabidopsis thaliana and Cuscuta japonica-Glycine max. We focused on arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs), because AGPs accumulate in the cell walls of searching hyphae of both C. campestris and C. japonica. We found more AGPs in elongated haustoria than in pre haustoria, indicating that AGP accumulation is developmentally regulated. Using in situ hybridization, we identified five genes in C. campestris that encode hyphal-expressed AGPs that belong to the fasciclin-like AGP (FLA) family, which were named CcFLA genes. Three of the five CcFLA genes were expressed in the holdfast, which develops on the Cuscuta stem epidermis at the attachment site for the host's stem epidermis. Our results suggest that AGPs are involved in hyphal elongation and adhesion to host cells, and in the adhesion between the epidermal tissues of Cuscuta and its host. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Identification and characterization of plant cell wall degrading enzymes from three glycoside hydrolase families in the cerambycid beetle Apriona japonica.

    PubMed

    Pauchet, Yannick; Kirsch, Roy; Giraud, Sandra; Vogel, Heiko; Heckel, David G

    2014-06-01

    Xylophagous insects have evolved to thrive in a highly challenging environment. For example, wood-boring beetles from the family Cerambycidae feed exclusively on woody tissues, and to efficiently access the nutrients present in this sub-optimal environment, they have to cope with the lignocellulose barrier. Whereas microbes of the insect's gut flora were hypothesized to be responsible for the degradation of lignin, the beetle itself depends heavily on the secretion of a range of enzymes, known as plant cell wall degrading enzymes (PCWDEs), to efficiently digest both hemicellulose and cellulose networks. Here we sequenced the larval gut transcriptome of the Mulberry longhorn beetle, Apriona japonica (Cerambycidae, Lamiinae), in order to investigate the arsenal of putative PCWDEs secreted by this species. We combined our transcriptome with all available sequencing data derived from other cerambycid beetles in order to analyze and get insight into the evolutionary history of the corresponding gene families. Finally, we heterologously expressed and functionally characterized the A. japonica PCWDEs we identified from the transcriptome. Together with a range of endo-β-1,4-glucanases, we describe here for the first time the presence in a species of Cerambycidae of (i) a xylanase member of the subfamily 2 of glycoside hydrolase family 5 (GH5 subfamily 2), as well as (ii) an exopolygalacturonase from family GH28. Our analyses greatly contribute to a better understanding of the digestion physiology of this important group of insects, many of which are major pests of forestry worldwide. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Molecular cloning and transcriptional analysis of a NPY receptor-like in common Chinese cuttlefish Sepiella japonica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jingwen; Xu, Yuchao; Xu, Ke; Ping, Hongling; Shi, Huilai; Lü, Zhenming; Wu, Changwen; Wang, Tianming

    2017-08-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) has a pivotal role in the regulation of many physiological processes. In this study, the gene encoding a NPY receptor-like from the common Chinese cuttlefish Sepiella japonica (SjNPYR-like) was identified and characterized. The full-length SjNPYR-like cDNA was cloned containing a 492-bp of 5' untranslated region (UTR), 1 182 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a protein of 393 amino acid residues, and 228 bp of 3' UTR. The putative protein was predicted to have a molecular weight of 45.54 kDa and an isoelectric point (pI) of 8.13. By informatic analyses, SjNPYR-like was identified as belonging to the class A G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) family (the rhodopsin-type). The amino acid sequence contained 12 potential phosphorylation sites and five predicted N-linked glycosylation sites. Multiple sequence alignment and 3D structure modeling were conducted to clarify SjNPYR bioinformatics characteristics. Phylogenetic analysis identifies it as an NPYR with identity of 33% to Lymnaea stagnalis NPFR. Transmembrane properties of SjNPYR-like were demonstrated in vitro using HEK293 cells and the pEGFP-N1 plasmid. Relative quantification of SjNPYR-like mRNA level confirmed a high level expression and broad distribution of SjNPYR - like in various tissues of female S. japonica. In addition, the transcriptional profile of SjNPYR - like in the brain, liver, and ovary during gonadal development was analyzed. The results provide basic understanding on the molecular characteristics of SjNPYR-like and its potentially physical functions.

  9. Evaluation of the agronomic performance of atrazine-tolerant transgenic japonica rice parental lines for utilization in hybrid seed production.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Luhua; Chen, Haiwei; Li, Yanlan; Li, Yanan; Wang, Shengjun; Su, Jinping; Liu, Xuejun; Chen, Defu; Chen, Xiwen

    2014-01-01

    Currently, the purity of hybrid seed is a crucial limiting factor when developing hybrid japonica rice (Oryza sativa L.). To chemically control hybrid seed purity, we transferred an improved atrazine chlorohydrolase gene (atzA) from Pseudomonas ADP into hybrid japonica parental lines (two maintainers, one restorer), and Nipponbare, by using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. We subsequently selected several transgenic lines from each genotype by using PCR, RT-PCR, and germination analysis. In the presence of the investigated atrazine concentrations, particularly 150 µM atrazine, almost all of the transgenic lines produced significantly larger seedlings, with similar or higher germination percentages, than did the respective controls. Although the seedlings of transgenic lines were taller and gained more root biomass compared to the respective control plants, their growth was nevertheless inhibited by atrazine treatment compared to that without treatment. When grown in soil containing 2 mg/kg or 5 mg/kg atrazine, the transgenic lines were taller, and had higher total chlorophyll contents than did the respective controls; moreover, three of the strongest transgenic lines completely recovered after 45 days of growth. After treatment with 2 mg/kg or 5 mg/kg of atrazine, the atrazine residue remaining in the soil was 2.9-7.0% or 0.8-8.7% respectively, for transgenic lines, and 44.0-59.2% or 28.1-30.8%, respectively, for control plants. Spraying plants at the vegetative growth stage with 0.15% atrazine effectively killed control plants, but not transgenic lines. Our results indicate that transgenic atzA rice plants show tolerance to atrazine, and may be used as parental lines in future hybrid seed production.

  10. Camouflage effects of various colour-marking morphs against different microhabitat backgrounds in a polymorphic pygmy grasshopper Tetrix japonica.

    PubMed

    Tsurui, Kaori; Honma, Atsushi; Nishida, Takayoshi

    2010-07-06

    Colour-marking polymorphism is widely distributed among cryptic species. To account for the adaptive significance of such polymorphisms, several hypotheses have been proposed to date. Although these hypotheses argue over the degree of camouflage effects of marking morphs (and the interactions between morphs and their microhabitat backgrounds), as far as we know, most empirical evidence has been provided under unnatural conditions (i.e., using artificial prey). Tetrix japonica, a pygmy grasshopper, is highly polymorphic in colour-markings and occurs in both sand and grass microhabitats. Even within a microhabitat, T. japonica is highly polymorphic. Using humans as dummy predators and printed photographs in which various morphs of grasshoppers were placed against different backgrounds, we addressed three questions to test the neutral, background heterogeneity, and differential crypsis hypotheses in four marking-type morphs: 1) do the morphs differ in the degree of crypsis in each microhabitat, 2) are different morphs most cryptic in specific backgrounds of the microhabitats, and 3) does the morph frequency reflect the degree of crypsis? The degree of camouflage differed among the four morphs; therefore, the neutral hypothesis was rejected. Furthermore, the order of camouflage advantage among morphs differed depending on the two types of backgrounds (sand and grass), although the grass background consistently provided greater camouflage effects. Thus, based on our results, we could not reject the background heterogeneity hypothesis. Under field conditions, the more cryptic morphs comprised a minority of the population. Overall, our results demonstrate that the different morphs were not equivalent in the degree of crypsis, but the degree of camouflage of the morphs was not consistent with the morph frequency. These findings suggest that trade-offs exist between the camouflage benefit of body colouration and other fitness components, providing a better understanding of

  11. Transmission Risks of Schistosomiasis Japonica: Extraction from Back-propagation Artificial Neural Network and Logistic Regression Model

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jun-Fang; Xu, Jing; Li, Shi-Zhu; Jia, Tia-Wu; Huang, Xi-Bao; Zhang, Hua-Ming; Chen, Mei; Yang, Guo-Jing; Gao, Shu-Jing; Wang, Qing-Yun; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2013-01-01

    Background The transmission of schistosomiasis japonica in a local setting is still poorly understood in the lake regions of the People's Republic of China (P. R. China), and its transmission patterns are closely related to human, social and economic factors. Methodology/Principal Findings We aimed to apply the integrated approach of artificial neural network (ANN) and logistic regression model in assessment of transmission risks of Schistosoma japonicum with epidemiological data collected from 2339 villagers from 1247 households in six villages of Jiangling County, P.R. China. By using the back-propagation (BP) of the ANN model, 16 factors out of 27 factors were screened, and the top five factors ranked by the absolute value of mean impact value (MIV) were mainly related to human behavior, i.e. integration of water contact history and infection history, family with past infection, history of water contact, infection history, and infection times. The top five factors screened by the logistic regression model were mainly related to the social economics, i.e. village level, economic conditions of family, age group, education level, and infection times. The risk of human infection with S. japonicum is higher in the population who are at age 15 or younger, or with lower education, or with the higher infection rate of the village, or with poor family, and in the population with more than one time to be infected. Conclusion/Significance Both BP artificial neural network and logistic regression model established in a small scale suggested that individual behavior and socioeconomic status are the most important risk factors in the transmission of schistosomiasis japonica. It was reviewed that the young population (≤15) in higher-risk areas was the main target to be intervened for the disease transmission control. PMID:23556015

  12. Few effects of invasive plants Reynoutria japonica, Rudbeckia laciniata and Solidago gigantea on soil physical and chemical properties.

    PubMed

    Stefanowicz, Anna M; Stanek, Małgorzata; Nobis, Marcin; Zubek, Szymon

    2017-01-01

    Biological invasions are an important problem of human-induced changes at a global scale. Invasive plants can modify soil nutrient pools and element cycling, creating feedbacks that potentially stabilize current or accelerate further invasion, and prevent re-establishment of native species. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of Reynoutria japonica, Rudbeckia laciniata and Solidago gigantea, invading non-forest areas located within or outside river valleys, on soil physical and chemical parameters, including soil moisture, element concentrations, organic matter content and pH. Additionally, invasion effects on plant species number and total plant cover were assessed. The concentrations of elements in shoots and roots of invasive and native plants were also measured. Split-plot ANOVA revealed that the invasions significantly reduced plant species number, but did not affect most soil physical and chemical properties. The invasions decreased total P concentration and increased N-NO 3 concentration in soil in comparison to native vegetation, though the latter only in the case of R. japonica. The influence of invasion on soil properties did not depend on location (within- or outside valleys). The lack of invasion effects on most soil properties does not necessarily imply the lack of influence of invasive plants, but may suggest that the direction of the changes varies among replicate sites and there are no general patterns of invasion-induced alterations for these parameters. Tissue element concentrations, with the exception of Mg, did not differ between invasive and native plants, and were not related to soil element concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Development and characterization of japonica rice lines carrying the brown planthopper-resistance genes BPH12 and BPH6.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yongfu; Guo, Jianping; Jing, Shengli; Zhu, Lili; He, Guangcun

    2012-02-01

    The brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål; BPH) has become a severe constraint on rice production. Identification and pyramiding BPH-resistance genes is an economical and effective solution to increase the resistance level of rice varieties. All the BPH-resistance genes identified to date have been from indica rice or wild species. The BPH12 gene in the indica rice accession B14 is derived from the wild species Oryza latifolia. Using an F(2) population from a cross between the indica cultivar 93-11 and B14, we mapped the BPH12 gene to a 1.9-cM region on chromosome 4, flanked by the markers RM16459 and RM1305. In this population, BPH12 appeared to be partially dominant and explained 73.8% of the phenotypic variance in BPH resistance. A near-isogenic line (NIL) containing the BPH12 locus in the background of the susceptible japonica variety Nipponbare was developed and crossed with a NIL carrying BPH6 to generate a pyramid line (PYL) with both genes. BPH insects showed significant differences in non-preference in comparisons between the lines harboring resistance genes (NILs and PYL) and Nipponbare. BPH growth and development were inhibited and survival rates were lower on the NIL-BPH12 and NIL-BPH6 plants compared to the recurrent parent Nipponbare. PYL-BPH6 + BPH12 exhibited 46.4, 26.8 and 72.1% reductions in population growth rates (PGR) compared to NIL-BPH12, NIL-BPH6 and Nipponbare, respectively. Furthermore, insect survival rates were the lowest on the PYL-BPH6 + BPH12 plants. These results demonstrated that pyramiding different BPH-resistance genes resulted in stronger antixenotic and antibiotic effects on the BPH insects. This gene pyramiding strategy should be of great benefit for the breeding of BPH-resistant japonica rice varieties.

  14. Medicinal flowers. XXXVI.1) Acylated oleanane-type triterpene saponins with inhibitory effects on melanogenesis from the flower buds of Chinese Camellia japonica.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Seikou; Fujimoto, Katsuyoshi; Nakashima, Souichi; Matsumoto, Takahiro; Miura, Tomoko; Uno, Kaoru; Matsuda, Hisashi; Yoshikawa, Masayuki

    2012-01-01

    Four acylated oleanane-type triterpene oligoglycosides, sanchakasaponins E-H, were isolated from the flower buds of Camellia japonica cultivated in Yunnan province, China, together with four known triterpene oligoglycosides. The chemical structures of the new triterpene oligoglycosides were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence. The inhibitory effects of the triterpene oligoglycoside constituents on melanogenesis in theophylline-stimulated B16 melanoma 4A5 cells were investigated.

  15. Effects of long-term exposure to ammonium sulfate particles on growth and gas exchange rates of Fagus crenata, Castanopsis sieboldii, Larix kaempferi and Cryptomeria japonica seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Otani, Yoko; Li, Peiran; Nagao, Hiroshi; Lenggoro, I. Wuled; Ishida, Atsushi; Yazaki, Kenichi; Noguchi, Kyotaro; Nakaba, Satoshi; Yamane, Kenichi; Kuroda, Katsushi; Sano, Yuzou; Funada, Ryo; Izuta, Takeshi

    2014-11-01

    To clarify the effects of long-term exposure to ammonium sulfate (AS) particles on growth and physiological functions of forest tree species, seedlings of Fagus crenata, Castanopsis sieboldii, Larix kaempferi and Cryptomeria japonica were exposed to submicron-size AS particles during two growing seasons from 3 June 2011 to 8 October 2012. The mean sulfate concentration in PM2.5 increased during the exposure inside the chamber in 2011 and 2012 by 2.73 and 4.32 μg SO42- m-3, respectively. No significant effects of exposure to AS particles were detected on the whole-plant dry mass of the seedlings. These results indicate that the exposure to submicrometer AS particles at the ambient level for two growing seasons did not significantly affect the growth of the seedlings. No significant effects of exposure to AS particles were found on the net photosynthetic rate in the leaves or needles of F. crenata, C. sieboldii and L. kaempferi seedlings. Also, in the previous-year needles of C. japonica seedlings, exposure to AS particles significantly reduced the net photosynthetic rate, which may be caused by the reduction in the concentration of ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco). On the contrary, in current-year needles of C. japonica seedlings, net photosynthetic rate significantly increased with exposure to AS particles, which may be the result of increases in stomatal conductance and concentrations of Rubisco and chlorophyll. Furthermore, exposure to AS particles correlated with an increase in concentrations of NH4+, free amino acid and total soluble protein, suggesting that AS particles may be deliquesced, absorbed into the leaves and metabolized into amino acid and protein. These results suggest that net photosynthesis in the needles of C. japonica is relatively sensitive to submicron-size AS particles as compared with the other three tree species.

  16. Estimation of Carbon Balance in Young and Mature Stands of Japanese Cedar (Cryptomeria Japonica) Plantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M.; Sode, N.; Koizumi, H.

    2006-12-01

    Two-thirds of Japan is covered by forests, and Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) plantations occupy approximately 45% of the plantation areas or 20% of total forested area in Japan. Since the 1950s, cedar plantation has been encouraged and managed for timber production. Therefore, it is important to study quantitatively and synthetically the balance of carbon in cedar plantation ecosystems according to forest development. The ecological process-based approach provides a detailed assessment of belowground compartment as one of the major compartment of carbon balance. Carbon net balance (NEP: net ecosystem production) in ecosystems by this approach is determined by the balance between net primary production (NPP) of vegetation and heterotrophic respiration (HR) of soil (NEP= NPP-HR). HR is the difference between total soil respiration (SR) and root respiration (RR) (HR= SR-RR). To estimate the NPP, we used to biometric method by allometric relationships and litter traps. To estimate the SR, we used a chamber system with automatic open and closing for measuring continuous CO2 efflux from soil surface based on an open-flow method (AOCC) and a portable system for measuring leaf photosynthesis attached to a soil chamber (LI-6400). Our object is to examine balance of carbon in ca. 7 y old (young) and 45 y old (mature) stands of Japanese cedar. Our goal of this study is to investigate carbon cycling on a regional scale using ecological process, remote sensing, and climate observation and modeling analysis as part of the 21st COE program {Satellite Ecology}. This presents the initial results obtained by a process-based measurement since 2004. The study region refers to a cool temperate zone, Asia monsoon climate (36° 08'N, 137° 22'E). In the mature stand, Japanese cedar plantation located in about 10km east of Takayama city, central Japan. The ecological-process research plot was established on the middle of a slope (30m×50m) in November 2004. The slope

  17. Understory dominance and the new climax: Impacts of Japanese knotweed (Fallopia japonica) invasion on native plant diversity and recruitment in a riparian woodland

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Matthew J.; Freundlich, Anna E.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Riparian forests exhibit levels of ecological disturbance that leave them especially prone to biological invasions. Japanese knotweed (Fallopia japonica) is particularly suited to these habitats and is an aggressive invader along watercourses throughout its now-global range as an exotic invader. Using one of the few Silver Maple Floodplain Forest communities that has not been invaded by F. japonica in the West Branch Susquehanna River valley (Pennsylvania, USA) as a baseline, this study examines whether and how this primarily intact riparian forest community differs from nearby invaded communities in terms of 1) native species richness, 2) native species density, and 3) riparian forest tree recruitment. Defining a baseline (intact) community composition will inform restoration plans for local riparian forests where knotweed might be eradicated or reduced. Invaded and non-invaded sites differed statistically across species richness, species density, and tree recruitment. Our results suggest that F. japonica has reduced the diversity and abundance of native understory riparian plant species. The species also appears to have suppressed long-term tree recruitment, setting up a trajectory whereby the eventual decline of trees currently in the canopy could shift this community from a tree-dominated riparian forest to a knotweed-dominated herbaceous shrubland. PMID:29308042

  18. Comparison of the Trace Elements and Active Components of Lonicera japonica flos and Lonicera flos Using ICP-MS and HPLC-PDA.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yueran; Dou, Deqiang; Guo, Yueqiu; Qi, Yue; Li, Jun; Jia, Dong

    2018-06-01

    Thirteen trace elements and active constituents of 40 batches of Lonicera japonica flos and Lonicera flos were comparatively studied using inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry (ICP-MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array (HPLC-PDA). The trace elements were 24 Mg, 52 Cr, 55 Mn, 57 Fe, 60 Ni, 63 Cu, 66 Zn, 75 As, 82 Se, 98 Mo, 114 Cd, 202 Hg, and 208 Pb, and the active compounds were chlorogenic acid, 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinc acid, 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinc acid, luteolin-7-O-glucoside, and 4-O-caffeoylquinic acid. The data of 18 variables were statistically processed using principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminate analysis (DA) to classify L. japonica flos and L. flos. The validated method was developed to divide the 40 samples into two groups based on the PCA in terms of 18 variables. Furthermore, the species of Lonicera was better discriminated by using DA with 12 variables. These results suggest that the method and statistical analysis of the contents of trace elements and chemical components can classify the L. japonica flos and L. flos using 12 variables, such as 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquincacid, luteolin-7-O-glucoside, Cd, Mn, Hg, Pb, Ni, 4-O-caffeoyl-quinic acid, 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinc acid, Fe, Mg, and Cr.

  19. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Asian paddle crab Charybdis japonica (Crustacea: Decapoda: Portunidae): gene rearrangement of the marine brachyurans and phylogenetic considerations of the decapods.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuan; Cui, Zhaoxia

    2010-06-01

    Given the commercial and ecological importance of the Asian paddle crab, Charybdis japonica, there is a clearly need for genetic and molecular research on this species. Here, we present the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of C. japonica, determined by the long-polymerase chain reaction and primer walking sequencing method. The entire genome is 15,738 bp in length, encoding a standard set of 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, and 22 transfer RNA genes, plus the putative control region, which is typical for metazoans. The total A+T content of the genome is 69.2%, lower than the other brachyuran crabs except for Callinectes sapidus. The gene order is identical to the published marine brachyurans and differs from the ancestral pancrustacean order by only the position of the tRNA ( His ) gene. Phylogenetic analyses using the concatenated nucleotide and amino acid sequences of 13 protein-coding genes strongly support the monophyly of Dendrobranchiata and Pleocyemata, which is consistent with the previous taxonomic classification. However, the systematic status of Charybdis within subfamily Thalamitinae of family Portunidae is not supported. C. japonica, as the first species of Charybdis with complete mitochondrial genome available, will provide important information on both genomics and molecular ecology of the group.

  20. Shading Contributes to the Reduction of Stem Mechanical Strength by Decreasing Cell Wall Synthesis in Japonica Rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Wu, Longmei; Zhang, Wujun; Ding, Yanfeng; Zhang, Jianwei; Cambula, Elidio D; Weng, Fei; Liu, Zhenghui; Ding, Chengqiang; Tang, She; Chen, Lin; Wang, Shaohua; Li, Ganghua

    2017-01-01

    Low solar radiation caused by industrial development and solar dimming has become a limitation in crop production in China. It is widely accepted that low solar radiation influences many aspects of plant development, including slender, weak stems and susceptibility to lodging. However, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. To clarify how low solar radiation affects stem mechanical strength formation and lodging resistance, the japonica rice cultivars Wuyunjing23 (lodging-resistant) and W3668 (lodging-susceptible) were grown under field conditions with normal light (Control) and shading (the incident light was reduced by 60%) with a black nylon net. The yield and yield components, plant morphological characteristics, the stem mechanical strength, cell wall components, culm microstructure, gene expression correlated with cellulose and lignin biosynthesis were measured. The results showed that shading significantly reduced grain yield attributed to reduction of spikelets per panicles and grain weight. The stem-breaking strength decreased significantly under shading treatment; consequently, resulting in higher lodging index in rice plant in both varieties, as revealed by decreased by culm diameter, culm wall thickness and increased plant height, gravity center height. Compared with control, cell wall components including non-structural carbohydrate, sucrose, cellulose, and lignin reduced quite higher. With histochemical straining, shading largely reduced lignin deposition in the sclerenchyma cells and vascular bundle cells compared with control, and decreased cellulose deposition in the parenchyma cells of culm tissue in both Wuyunjing23 and W3668. And under shading condition, gene expression involved in secondary cell wall synthesis, OsPAL, OsCOMT, OsCCoAOMT, OsCCR , and OsCAD2 , and primary cell wall synthesis, OsCesA1, OsCesA3 , and OsCesA8 were decreased significantly. These results suggest that gene expression involved in the reduction of lignin and

  1. iTRAQ-based proteome profile analysis of superior and inferior Spikelets at early grain filling stage in japonica Rice.

    PubMed

    You, Cuicui; Chen, Lin; He, Haibing; Wu, Liquan; Wang, Shaohua; Ding, Yanfeng; Ma, Chuanxi

    2017-06-07

    Large-panicle rice varieties often fail to achieve their yield potential due to poor grain filling of late-flowering inferior spikelets (IS). The physiological and molecular mechanisms of poor IS grain filling, and whether an increase in assimilate supply could regulate protein abundance and consequently improve IS grain filling for japonica rice with large panicles is still partially understood. A field experiment was performed with two spikelet removal treatments at anthesis in the large-panicle japonica rice line W1844, including removal of the top 1/3 of spikelets (T1) and removal of the top 2/3 of spikelets (T2), with no spikelet removal as a control (T0). The size, weight, setting rate, and grain filling rate of IS were significantly increased after spikelet removing. The biological functions of the differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) between superior and inferior spikelets as well as the response of IS to the removal of superior spikelets (SS) were investigated by using iTRAQ at 10 days post anthesis. A total of 159, 87, and 28 DEPs were identified from group A (T0-SS/T0-IS), group B (T0-SS/T2-IS), and group C (T2-IS/T0-IS), respectively. Among these, 104, 63, and 22 proteins were up-regulated, and 55, 24, and 6 proteins were down-regulated, respectively. Approximately half of these DEPs were involved in carbohydrate metabolism (sucrose-to-starch metabolism and energy metabolism) and protein metabolism (protein synthesis, folding, degradation, and storage). Reduced endosperm cell division and decreased activities of key enzymes associated with sucrose-starch metabolism and nitrogen metabolism are mainly attributed to the poor sink strength of IS. In addition, due to weakened photosynthesis and respiration, IS are unable to obtain a timely supply of materials and energy after fertilization, which might be resulted in the stagnation of IS development. Finally, an increased abundance of 14-3-3 protein in IS could be involved in the inhibition of starch

  2. Characterization of lecithin isolated from anchovy (Engraulis japonica) residues deoiled by supercritical carbon dioxide and organic solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Mi; Asaduzzaman, A K M; Chun, Byung-Soo

    2012-07-01

    Lecithin was isolated and characterized from anchovy (Engraulis japonica) deoiled residues using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO(2)) at a semibatch flow extraction process and an organic solvent (hexane) extraction. SC-CO(2) extraction was carried out to extract oil from anchovy at different temperatures (35 to 45 °C) and pressures (15 to 25 MPa). Extraction yield of oil was influenced by physical properties of SC-CO(2) with temperature and pressure changes. The major phospholipids of anchovy lecithin were quantitatively analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) (68%± 1.00%) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) (29%± 0.50%) were the main phospholipids. Thin layer chromatography was performed to purify the individual phospholipids. The fatty acid compositions of lecithin, PC, and PE were analyzed by gas chromatography. A significant amount of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were present in both phospholipids of PC and PE. Emulsions of lecithin in water were prepared through the use of a homogenizer. Oxidative stability of anchovy lecithin was high in spite of its high concentration of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Lecithin can be totally metabolized by humans, so is well tolerated by humans and nontoxic when ingested. Lecithin from anchovy contain higher amounts of ω-3 fatty acids especially EPA and DHA, it may have positive outcome to use in food and pharmaceutical industries. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. Identification of immune-related genes in gill cells of Japanese eels (Anguilla japonica) in adaptation to water salinity changes.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jie; Dai, Shuya; Liu, Haitao; Cao, Quanquan; Yin, Shaowu; Lai, Keng Po; Tse, William Ka Fai; Wong, Chris Kong Chu; Shi, Haifeng

    2018-02-01

    The changes in ambient salinity influence ion and water homeostasis, hormones secretion, and immune response in fish gills. The physiological functions of hormones and ion transporters in the regulation of gill-osmoregulation have been widely studied, however the modulation of immune response under salinity changes is not determined. Using transcriptome sequencing, we obtained a comprehensive profile of osmo-responsive genes in gill cells of Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica). Herein, we applied bioinformatics analysis to identify the immune-related genes that were significantly higher expressed in gill pavement cells (PVCs) and mitochondrial-rich cells (MRCs) in freshwater (FW) than seawater (SW) adapted fish. We validated the data using the real-time qPCR, which showed a high correlation between the RNA-seq and real-time qPCR data. In addition, the immunohistochemistry results confirmed the changes of the expression of selected immune-related genes, including C-reactive protein (CRP) in PVCs, toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in MRCs and interleukin-1 receptor type 2 (IL-1R2) in both PVCs and MRCs. Collectively our results demonstrated that those immune-related genes respond to salinity changes, and might trigger related special signaling pathways and network. This study provides new insights into the impacts of ambient salinity changes on adaptive immune response in fish gill cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A combination mode of climate variability responsible for extremely poor recruitment of the Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yong-Fu; Wu, Chau-Ron; Han, Yu-San

    2017-03-01

    Satellite data and assimilation products are used to investigate fluctuations in the catch of Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) in eastern Asian countries. It has been reported that the salinity front has extended farther south, which has shifted the eel’s spawning grounds to a lower latitude, resulting in smaller eel catches in 1983, 1992, and 1998. This study demonstrates that interannual variability in the eel catch is strongly correlated with the combination mode (C-mode), but not with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. These eels continue to spawn within the North Equatorial Current (NEC), but the salinity front shifts south during a canonical El Niño. On the other hand, the spawning grounds accompanied by the salinity front extend farther south during the C-mode of climate variability, and eel larvae fail to join the nursery in the NEC, resulting in extremely poor recruitment in East Asia. We propose an appropriate sea surface temperature index to project Japanese eel larval catch.

  5. Symbiotic association of Photobacterium fischeri with the marine luminous fish Monocentris japonica; a model of symbiosis based on bacterial studies.

    PubMed

    Ruby, E G; Nealson, K H

    1976-12-01

    Isolation of bacteria from the luminous organ of the fish Monocentris japonica has revealed that the organ contains a pure culture of luminous bacteria. For the four fish examined, all contained Photobacterium fischeri as their luminous bacterial symbiont. This is the first time that P. fischeri has been identified in a symbiotic association. A representative isolate (MJl) of the light organ population was selected for in vivo studies of its luminous system. Several physiological features suggest adaptation for symbiotic existence. First, MJl has been shown to produce and respond to an inducer of luciferase that could accumulate in the light organ. Secondly, the specific activity of light production was seen to be maximal under low, growth-limiting concentrations of oxygen. Thirdly, unlike another luminous species (Beneckea harveyi), synthesis of the light production system of these bacteria is not catabolite repressed by glucose--a possible source of nutrition in the light organ. Fourthly, when grown aerobically on glucose these bacteria excrete pyruvic acid into the medium. This production of pyruvate is a major process, accounting for 30-40% of the glucose utilized and may serve as a form of regulatory and nutritional communication with the host.

  6. Pharmacokinetics and Tissue Distribution Study of Chlorogenic Acid from Lonicerae Japonicae Flos Following Oral Administrations in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yulu; Zhou, Ting; Pei, Qi; Liu, Shikun; Yuan, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Chlorogenic acid (ChA) is proposed as the major bioactive compounds of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos (LJF). Forty-two Wistar rats were randomly divided into seven groups to investigate the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of ChA, via oral administration of LJF extract, using ibuprofen as internal standard, employing a high performance liquid chromatography in conjunction with tandem mass spectrometry. Analytes were extracted from plasma samples and tissue homogenate by liquid–liquid extraction with acetonitrile, separated on a C 18 column by linear gradient elution, and detected by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry in negative selected multiple reaction monitoring mode. Our results successfully demonstrate that the method has satisfactory selectivity, linearity, extraction recovery, matrix effect, precision, accuracy, and stability. Using noncompartment model to study pharmacokinetics, profile revealed that ChA was rapidly absorbed and eliminated. Tissue study indicated that the highest level was observed in liver, followed by kidney, lung, heart, and spleen. In conclusion, this method was suitable for the study on pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of ChA after oral administration. PMID:25140190

  7. Dynamic changes in the accumulation of metabolites in brackish water clam Corbicula japonica associated with alternation of salinity.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Hiroki; Okamoto, Seiji; Watanabe, Naoki; Hoshino, Naoshige; Jimbo, Mitsuru; Yasumoto, Ko; Watabe, Shugo

    2015-03-01

    The brackish water clam Corbicula japonica inhabits rivers and brackish waters throughout Japan where the major fishing grounds in the Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan, are located at the Hinuma Lake and Hinuma River. Water salinity in the Lake Hinuma is low and stable due to the long distance from the Pacific Ocean, whereas that in the downstream of the river varies daily due to a strong effect of tidal waters. In the present study, we dissected the gill and foot muscle of brackish water clam collected from these areas, and subjected them to metabolome analysis by capillary electrophoresis-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. More than 200 metabolites including free amino acids, peptides and organic acids were identified, and their amounts from the foot muscle tend to be higher than those from the gill. The principal component analysis revealed that the amount of each metabolite was different among sampling areas and between the gill and foot muscle, whereas no apparent differences were observed between male and female specimens. When the metabolites in the female clam at high salinity were compared with those at low salinity, concentrations of β-alanine, choline, γ-aminobutyric acid, ornithine and glycine betaine were found to be changed in association with salinity. We also compared various metabolites in relation to metabolic pathways, suggesting that many enzymes were involved in their changes depending on salinity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Impact of insecticide-manipulated defoliation by Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica) on grapevines from vineyard establishment through production.

    PubMed

    Hammons, Derrick L; Kaan Kurtural, S; Potter, Daniel A

    2010-05-01

    Japanese beetle (JB), Popillia japonica Newman, is a severe pest of grapes in the southeastern USA where viticulture is a growing industry. This study evaluated the impact of foliar injury from JB field populations on growth, fruit ripening, berry composition and yield of young vines of six cultivars from vineyard establishment through the first year of production. Three spray regimes, carbaryl applied every 7 or 14 days, or no insecticide, were used to manipulate levels of defoliation by JB. Cultivars varied in susceptibility and response to defoliation by JB. Some (e.g. Norton) showed reduced vine growth and delayed post-veraison increase in total soluble sugars and pH, as well as reduced cluster number and weight, berries per cluster and yield. Others (e.g. Concord) showed little or no measurable impact from JB. Notably, the biweekly spray regime was as effective as weekly sprays in mitigating the impacts of defoliation. Foliar loss from JB feeding can set back establishment and productivity of young grapevines. Nevertheless, many growers can reduce spray frequency without compromising the benefits of JB management. Even susceptible cultivars can tolerate low to moderate (<20%) levels of defoliation, and some are resistant enough to be grown without treating for JB.

  9. Mechanism study of endothelial protection and inhibits platelet activation of low molecular weight fucoidan from Laminaria japonica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Anjin; Zhang, Fang; Shi, Jie; Zhao, Xue; Yan, Meixing

    2016-10-01

    Several studies have indicated that fucoidan fractions with low molecular weight and different sulfate content from Laminaria japonica could inhibit the activation of platelets directly by reducing the platelet aggregation. To explore the direct effect of LMW fucoidan on the platelet system furthermore and examine the possible mechanism, the endothelial protection and inhibits platelet activation effects of two LMW fucoidan were investigated. In the present study, Endothelial injury model of rats was made by injection of adrenaline (0.4 mg kg-1) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells were cultured. vWF level was be investigated in vivo and in vitro as an important index of endothelial injury. LMW fucoidan could significantly reduce vWF level in vascular endothelial injury rats and also significantly reduce vWF level in vitro. The number of EMPs was be detected as another important index of endothelial injury. The results showed that LMW fucoidan reduced EMPs stimulated by tumor necrosis factor. In this study, it was found that by inhibiting platelet adhesion, LMW fucoidan played a role in anti-thrombosis and the specific mechanism of action is to inhibit the flow of extracellular Ca2+. All in a word, LMW fucoidan could inhibit the activation of platelets indirectly by reducing the concentration of EMPs and vWF, at the same time; LMW fucoidan inhibited the activation of platelets directly by inhibiting the flow of extracellular Ca2+.

  10. Litsea japonica Extract Inhibits Aldose Reductase Activity and Hyperglycemia-Induced Lenticular Sorbitol Accumulation in db/db Mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Junghyun; Kim, Chan-Sik; Sohn, Eunjin; Lee, Yun Mi; Jo, Kyuhyung; Kim, Jin Sook

    2015-01-01

    Aldose reductase (AR) is the first and rate-limiting enzyme of the polyol pathway. AR-dependent synthesis of excess polyols leads to lens opacification in diabetic cataract. The purpose of this study is to investigate the protective effect of Litsea japonica extract (LJE) on diabetes-induced lens opacification and its protective mechanism in db/db mice. Seven-week-old male db/db mice were treated with LJE (100 and 250 mg/kg body weight) once a day orally for 12 weeks. LJE dose dependently inhibited rat lens aldose reductase activity in vitro (IC50 = 13.53 ± 0.74 µg/mL). In db/db mice, lens was slightly opacified, and lens fiber cells were swollen and ruptured. In addition, lenticular sorbitol accumulation was increased in db/db mice. However, the administration of LJE inhibited these lenticular sorbitol accumulation and lens architectural changes in db/db mice. Our results suggest that LJE might be beneficial for the treatment of diabetes-induced lens opacification. The ability of LJE to suppress lenticular sorbitol accumulation may be mediated by the inhibition of AR activity.

  11. Litsea japonica Extract Inhibits Aldose Reductase Activity and Hyperglycemia-Induced Lenticular Sorbitol Accumulation in db/db Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Junghyun; Kim, Chan-Sik; Sohn, Eunjin; Lee, Yun Mi; Jo, Kyuhyung; Kim, Jin Sook

    2015-01-01

    Aldose reductase (AR) is the first and rate-limiting enzyme of the polyol pathway. AR-dependent synthesis of excess polyols leads to lens opacification in diabetic cataract. The purpose of this study is to investigate the protective effect of Litsea japonica extract (LJE) on diabetes-induced lens opacification and its protective mechanism in db/db mice. Seven-week-old male db/db mice were treated with LJE (100 and 250 mg/kg body weight) once a day orally for 12 weeks. LJE dose dependently inhibited rat lens aldose reductase activity in vitro (IC50 = 13.53 ± 0.74 µg/mL). In db/db mice, lens was slightly opacified, and lens fiber cells were swollen and ruptured. In addition, lenticular sorbitol accumulation was increased in db/db mice. However, the administration of LJE inhibited these lenticular sorbitol accumulation and lens architectural changes in db/db mice. Our results suggest that LJE might be beneficial for the treatment of diabetes-induced lens opacification. The ability of LJE to suppress lenticular sorbitol accumulation may be mediated by the inhibition of AR activity. PMID:25802544

  12. Effect of ionic liquid treatment on the ultrastructural and topochemical features of compression wood in Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica).

    PubMed

    Kanbayashi, Toru; Miyafuji, Hisashi

    2016-07-18

    The morphological and topochemical changes in wood tissues in compression wood of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) upon treated with two types of ionic liquids, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C2mim][Cl]) and 1-ethylpyridinium bromide ([EtPy][Br]) were investigated. Compression wood tracheids were swollen by both ionic liquids but their swelling behaviors were different in the types of ionic liquids used. Under the polarized light, we confirmed that crystalline cellulose in compression wood is amorphized by [C2mim][Cl] treatment whereas it changes slightly by [EtPy][Br] treatment. Raman microscopic analyses revealed that [C2mim][Cl] can preferentially liquefy polysaccharides in compression wood whereas [EtPy][Br] liquefy lignin. In addition, the interaction of compression wood with ionic liquids is different for the morphological regions. These results will assist in the use of ionic liquid treatment of woody biomass to produce valuable chemicals, bio-fuels, bio-based composites and other products.

  13. Effect of ionic liquid treatment on the ultrastructural and topochemical features of compression wood in Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica)

    PubMed Central

    Kanbayashi, Toru; Miyafuji, Hisashi

    2016-01-01

    The morphological and topochemical changes in wood tissues in compression wood of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) upon treated with two types of ionic liquids, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C2mim][Cl]) and 1-ethylpyridinium bromide ([EtPy][Br]) were investigated. Compression wood tracheids were swollen by both ionic liquids but their swelling behaviors were different in the types of ionic liquids used. Under the polarized light, we confirmed that crystalline cellulose in compression wood is amorphized by [C2mim][Cl] treatment whereas it changes slightly by [EtPy][Br] treatment. Raman microscopic analyses revealed that [C2mim][Cl] can preferentially liquefy polysaccharides in compression wood whereas [EtPy][Br] liquefy lignin. In addition, the interaction of compression wood with ionic liquids is different for the morphological regions. These results will assist in the use of ionic liquid treatment of woody biomass to produce valuable chemicals, bio-fuels, bio-based composites and other products. PMID:27426470

  14. Rice Ferredoxin-Dependent Glutamate Synthase Regulates Nitrogen-Carbon Metabolomes and Is Genetically Differentiated between japonica and indica Subspecies.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaolu; Nian, Jinqiang; Xie, Qingjun; Feng, Jian; Zhang, Fengxia; Jing, Hongwei; Zhang, Jian; Dong, Guojun; Liang, Yan; Peng, Juli; Wang, Guodong; Qian, Qian; Zuo, Jianru

    2016-11-07

    Plants assimilate inorganic nitrogen absorbed from soil into organic forms as Gln and Glu through the glutamine synthetase/glutamine:2-oxoglutarate amidotransferase (GS/GOGAT) cycle. Whereas GS catalyzes the formation of Gln from Glu and ammonia, GOGAT catalyzes the transfer of an amide group from Gln to 2-oxoglutarate to produce two molecules of Glu. However, the regulatory role of the GS/GOGAT cycle in the carbon-nitrogen balance is not well understood. Here, we report the functional characterization of rice ABNORMAL CYTOKININ RESPONSE 1 (ABC1) gene that encodes a ferredoxin-dependent (Fd)-GOGAT. The weak mutant allele abc1-1 mutant shows a typical nitrogen-deficient syndrome, whereas the T-DNA insertional mutant abc1-2 is seedling lethal. Metabolomics analysis revealed the accumulation of an excessive amount of amino acids with high N/C ratio (Gln and Asn) and several intermediates in the tricarboxylic acid cycle in abc1-1, suggesting that ABC1 plays a critical role in nitrogen assimilation and carbon-nitrogen balance. Five non-synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms were identified in the ABC1 coding region and characterized as three distinct haplotypes, which have been highly and specifically differentiated between japonica and indica subspecies. Collectively, these results suggest that ABC1/OsFd-GOGAT is essential for plant growth and development by modulating nitrogen assimilation and the carbon-nitrogen balance. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparative Study of the Phytoprostane and Phytofuran Content of indica and japonica Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Flours.

    PubMed

    Pinciroli, M; Domínguez-Perles, R; Abellán, A; Guy, A; Durand, T; Oger, C; Galano, J M; Ferreres, F; Gil-Izquierdo, A

    2017-10-11

    Phytoprostanes and phytofurans (PhytoPs and PhytoFs, respectively) are nonenzymatic lipid peroxidation products derived from α-linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3), considered biomarkers of oxidative degradation in plant foods. The present work profiled these compounds in white and brown grain flours and rice bran from 14 rice cultivars of the subspecies indica and japonica by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization and triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. For PhytoPs, the average concentrations were higher in rice bran (0.01-9.35 ng g -1 ) than in white and brown grain flours (0.01-1.17 ng g -1 ). In addition, the evaluation of rice flours for the occurrence PhytoFs evidenced average values 1.77, 4.22, and 10.30 ng g -1 dw in rice bran, brown grain flour, and white grain flour, respectively. A significant correlation was observed between total and individual compounds. The concentrations retrieved suggest rice bran as a valuable source of PhytoPs and PhytoFs that should be considered in further studies on bioavailability and bioactivity of such compounds.

  16. Preparative isolation and purification of antioxidative diarylheptanoid derivatives from Alnus japonica by high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Lim, Soon Sung; Lee, Min Young; Ahn, Hong Ryul; Choi, Soon Jung; Lee, Jae-Yong; Jung, Sang Hoon

    2011-12-01

    This study employed the online HPLC-2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS)(+) bioassay to rapidly determine the antioxidant compounds occurring in the crude extract of Alnus japonica. The negative peaks of the ABTS(+) radical scavenging detection system, which indicated the presence of antioxidant activity, were monitored by measuring the decrease in absorbance at 734 nm. The ABTS(+)-based antioxidant activity profile showed that three negative peaks exhibited antioxidant activity. High-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was used for preparative scale separation of the three active peaks from the extract. The purity of the isolated compounds was analyzed by HPLC and their structures were identified by (1)H- and (13)C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (NMR), heteronuclear multiple bond correlation (HMBC), and heteronuclear single quantum correlation (HSQC). Two solvent systems composed of n-hexane/ethylacetate/methanol/water (4:6:4:6, v/v) and of ethyl acetate/methanol/water (1:0.1:1, v/v) were performed in high-speed counter-current chromatography. Consequently, a total of 527 mg of hirsutanonol 5-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, 80.04 mg of 3-deoxohirsutenonol 5-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, and 91.0 mg of hirsutenone were obtained with purity of 94.7, 90.5, and 98.6%, respectively. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Measurement of the amount and number of pollen particles of Cryptomeria japonica (taxodiaceae) by imaging with a photoacoustic microscope.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Katsuhiko; Hoshimiya, Tsutomu

    2006-03-01

    A photoacoustic microscope (PAM), which includes a condenser microphone and a pair of linear-motor-driven pulse stages, was specially designed for spectroscopic applications. The PAM was applied to measure the amount and number of pollen particles of Cryptomeria japonica (CJ), which is known for its allergic function against eyes and nose. The advantage of photoacoustic (PA) imaging is both its high sensitivity and its counting ability up to high concentrations of the specimen. The CJ pollen particles were fixed on a piece of adhesive tape or on albumen (egg white) on a glass slide set in a PA cell. The PA image showed the ability of this method to count CJ pollen from the several-hundred-milligram region to even a single particle. The PA signal obtained was integrated over the specimen surface. The dependence of the PA signal on the amount or number of the pollen particles was measured. The resulting coefficients of correlation of the calibration curves for the amount and the number of pollen particles were 0.94 and 0.97, respectively.

  18. Variation along ITS markers across strains of Fibrocapsa japonica (Raphidophyceae) suggests hybridisation events and recent range expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kooistra, Wiebe H. C. F.; de Boer, M. Karin; Vrieling, Engel G.; Connell, Laurie B.; Gieskes, Winfried W. C.

    2001-12-01

    The flagellate micro-alga Fibrocapsa japonica can form harmful algal blooms along all temperate coastal regions of the world. The species was first observed in coastal waters of Japan and the western US in the 1970s; it has been reported regularly worldwide since. To unravel whether this apparent range expansion can be tracked, we assessed genetic variation among nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS sequences, obtained from sixteen global strains collected over the course of three decades. Ten sequence positions showed polymorphism across the strains. Nine out of these revealed ambiguities in several or most sequences sampled. The oldest strain collected (LB-2161) was the only one without such intra-individual polymorphism. In the others, the proportion of ambiguities at variable sites increased with more recent collection date. The pattern does not result from loss of variation due to sexual reproduction and random drift in culture because sister cultures CS-332 and NIES-136 showed virtually the same ITS-pattern after seven years of separation. Neither are the patterns explained by recent range expansion of a single genotype, because in that case one would expect lowest genetic diversity in the recently invaded North Sea; instead, polymorphism is highest there. Recent ballast-water-mediated mixing of formerly isolated populations and subsequent ongoing sexual reproduction among them can explain the increase in ambiguities. The species' capacity to form harmful blooms may well have been enhanced through increased genetic diversity of regional populations.

  19. [Optimization of lime milk precipitation process of Lonicera Japonica aqueous extract based on quality by design concept].

    PubMed

    Shen, Jin-Jing; Gong, Xing-Chu; Pan, Jian-Yang; Qu, Hai-Bin

    2017-03-01

    Design space approach was applied in this study to optimize the lime milk precipitation process of Lonicera Japonica (Jinyinhua) aqueous extract. The evaluation indices for this process were total organic acid purity and amounts of 6 organic acids obtained from per unit mass of medicinal materials. Four critical process parameters (CPPs) including drop speed of lime milk, pH value after adding lime milk, settling time and settling temperature were identified by using the weighted standardized partial regression coefficient method. Quantitative models between process evaluation indices and CPPs were established by a stepwise regression analysis. A design space was calculated by a Monte-Carlo simulation method, and then verified. The verification test results showed that the operation within the design space can guarantee the stability of the lime milk precipitation process. The recommended normal operation space is as follows: drop speed of lime milk of 1.00-1.25 mL•min⁻¹, pH value of 11.5-11.7, settling time of 1.0-1.2 h, and settling temperature of 10-20 ℃.. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  20. Flavonoids from Litsea japonica Inhibit AGEs Formation and Rat Lense Aldose Reductase In Vitro and Vessel Dilation in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ik-Soo; Kim, Yu Jin; Jung, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Joo-Hwan; Kim, Jin Sook

    2017-02-01

    In our ongoing efforts to identify effective naturally sourced agents for the treating of diabetic complications, two new ( 1 and 2 ) and 11 known phenolic compounds ( 3 - 13 ) were isolated from an 80 % ethanol extract of Litsea japonica leaves. The structures of the new compounds were established by spectroscopic and chemical studies. These isolates ( 1 - 13 ) were subjected to an in vitro bioassay evaluating their inhibitory activity on advanced glycation end products formation and rat lens aldose reductase activity. Of the compounds evaluated, the flavonoids ( 3, 4, 6 - 8, 11 , and 12 ) markedly inhibited advanced glycation end products formation, with IC 50 values of 7.4-72.0 µM, compared with the positive control, aminoguanidine (IC 50  = 975.9 µM). In the rat lens aldose reductase assay, consistent with the inhibition of advanced glycation end products formation, the flavonoids ( 3, 4, 6 - 8, 11 , and 12 ) exhibited considerable inhibition of rat lens aldose reductase activity, with IC 50 values of 1.1-12.5 µM. In addition, the effects of kaempferol ( 4 ) and tiliroside ( 7 ) on the dilation of hyaloid-retinal vessels induced by high glucose in larval zebrafish were investigated. Only kaempferol significantly reduced the diameters of high glucose-induced hyaloid-retinal vessels, by 52.2 % at 10 µM, compared with those in the high glucose-treated control group. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Effect of feed supplement containing earthworm meal (Lumbricus rubellus) on production performance of quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Istiqomah, L.; Sakti, A. A.; Suryani, A. E.; Karimy, M. F.; Anggraeni, A. S.; Herdian, H.

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of feed supplement (FS) contained earthworm meal (EWM) on production performance of laying quails. Twenty weeks-old of 360 Coturnix coturnix japonica quails were used in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with three dietary treatments A = CD (control without FS), B = CD + 0.250 % of FS, and C = CD + 0.375 % of FS during 6 weeks of experimental period. Each treatment in 4 equal replicates in which 30 quails were randomly allocated into 12 units of cages. Variable measured were feed intake, feed conversion ratio, feed efficiency, mortality rate, hen day production, egg weight, and egg uniformity. Data were statistically analyzed by One Way ANOVA and the differences among mean treatments are analysed using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT). The results showed that administration of 0.375% FS based on earthworm meal, fermented rice bran, and skim milk impaired the feed conversion ratio and increased the feed efficiency. The experimental treatments did not effect on feed intake, mortality, hen day production, egg weight, and egg uniformity of quail. It is concluded that administration of feed supplement improved the growth performance of quail.

  2. A cross-sectional survey comparing a free treatment program for advanced schistosomiasis japonica to a general assistance program.

    PubMed

    Song, Langui; Wu, Xiaoying; Zhang, Beibei; Liu, Jiahua; Ning, An; Wu, Zhongdao

    2017-11-01

    The prevalence and intensity of schistosomiasis has dropped dramatically in China due to an effective integrated control program. However, advanced schistosomiasis is becoming a key challenge on the road to elimination. The aims of this study were to compare the disease condition between advanced cases under the general assistance program (GAP) and free treatment program (FTP) and to determine whether the FTP should be popularized to provide an objective reference for policymakers in China's advanced schistosomiasis control program. One hundred and ninety-four patients with schistosomiasis japonica who were enrolled in the GAP or FTP participated in this study. Little significant difference was observed in the potential confounders, including general characteristics, comorbidities, and lifestyle, indicating a similar effect on the pathology of liver damage caused by schistosome infection. There was no apparent difference in the incidence of common clinical symptoms. Furthermore, no significant difference was observed in the ultrasound findings, implying that the GAP and FTP groups shared a similar degree of liver lesion. With the exception of the abnormal rates of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and hyaluronic acid (HA), the other serological indicators were comparable between the groups. Overall, the FTP is not a better option for controlling advanced schistosomiasis in China. It is important to reveal the precise mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of advanced schistosomiasis so that specific approaches to treating and preventing the development of advanced schistosomiasis can be developed and schistosomiasis can be eliminated in China.

  3. Plasma Concentrations of Itraconazole, Voriconazole, and Terbinafine When Delivered by an Impregnated, Subcutaneous Implant in Japanese Quail ( Coturnix japonica ).

    PubMed

    Souza, Marcy J; Redig, Patrick; Cox, Sherry K

    2017-06-01

    Aspergillosis is a common fungal infection in both wild and pet birds. Although effective antifungal medications are available, treatment of aspergillosis can require months of medication administration, which entails stressful handling one or more times per day. This study examined the delivery of the antifungal drugs itraconazole, voriconazole, and terbinafine to Japanese quail ( Coturnix japonica ) via an impregnated implant. Implants contained 0.5, 3, 8, or 24 mg of itraconazole, voriconazole, or terbinafine. The implants were administered subcutaneously over the dorsum and between the scapulae. Blood was collected from birds before and 2, 7, 21, 42, and 56 days after implant placement. Plasma was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography for concentrations of itraconazole, voriconazole, or terbinafine, as appropriate. During the course of the study, targeted terbinafine concentrations were achieved in some birds at various time points, but concentrations were inconsistent. Itraconazole and voriconazole concentrations were also inconsistent and did not reach targeted concentrations. Currently, the implant examined in this study cannot be recommended for treatment of aspergillosis in avian species.

  4. The characteristics of vasa gene from Japanese sea bass ( Lateolabrax japonicas) and its response to the external hormones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Meili; Wen, Haishen; Ni, Meng; Qian, Kun; Zhang, Pei; Chai, Senhao

    2015-08-01

    The RNA helicase Vasa is an important regulator of primordial germ cell development. Its function in mature fish, especially the hormone-related differences in maturing male fish has seldom been documented. In this study, a full length cDNA sequence of the vasa gene was cloned from Japanese sea bass, Lateolabrax japonicas, and it was named jsb-vasa. Homology analysis showed that jsb-vasa was closely related to its teleost homologs. The spatial distribution of jsb-vasa indicated that it was only highly expressed in testis, showing its germ cell-specific expression pattern. During the testicular development cycle, jsb-vasa was highly expressed during early period of spermatogenesis, and reduced when spermatogenesis advanced. In addition, the jsb-vasa gene expression was significantly inhibited at 6 h, 12 h and 24 h after injecting hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) and GnRHa (Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue), indicating that jsb-vasa gene may play an important role in spermatogenesis of Japanese sea bass, and be under the regulation of external sex hormones.

  5. Cryopreservation of gametophytes of Laminaria japonica (Phaeophyta) using encapsulation-dehydration with two-step cooling method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Quansheng; Cong, Yizhou; Qu, Shancun; Luo, Shiju; Yang, Guanpin

    2008-02-01

    Gametophytes of Laminaria japonica were cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen using encapsulation-dehydration with two-step cooling method. Gametophytes cultured at 10°C and under continuous irradiance of 30 μmol m-2 s-1 for 3 weeks were encapsulated in calcium alginate beads. The beads were dehydrated in 0.4 molL-1 sucrose prepared with seawater for 6 h, desiccated in an incubator set at 10°C and 70% relative humidity for 4 h, pre-frozen at either -40°C or -60°C for 30 min, and stored in liquid nitrogen for >24 h. As high as 43% of survival rate was observed when gametophytes were thawed by placing the beads in 40°C seawater and re-hydrated in 0.05 molL-1 citrate sodium prepared using 30‰ NaCl 7 d later. More cells of male gametophytes survived the whole procedure in comparison with female gametophytes. The cells of gametophytes surviving the preservation were able to grow asexually and produce morphologically normal sporophytes.

  6. Effect of Calcium Chloride on the Permeation of the Cryoprotectant Dimethyl Sulfoxide to Japanese Whiting Sillago japonica Embryos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Sk. Mustafizur; Majhi, Sullip Kumar; Suzuki, Toru; Strussmann, Carlos Augusto; Watanabe, Manabu

    Cryopreservation of fish eggs and embryos is a highly desired tool to promote aquaculture production and fisheries resource management, but it is still not technically feasible. The failure to develop successful cryopreservation protocols for fish embryos is largely attributed to poor cryoprotectant permeability. The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of CaCl2 to enhance cryoprotectant uptake by fish embryos. In this study, embryos (somites and tail elongation stages) of Japanese whiting Sillago japonica were exposed to 10 and 15% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in artificial sea water (ASW) or a solution of 0.125M CaCl2 in distilled water for 20 min at 24°C. The toxicity of all solutions was estimated from the hatching rates of the embryos and High Performance Liquid Chromatography was used to determine the amount of DMSO taken up during impregnation. The results showed that DMSO incorporation into the embryos was greatly (›50%) enhanced in the presence of CaCl2 compared to ASW. CaCl2 itself was not toxic to the embryos but, probably as a result of the enhanced DMSO uptake, caused decreases in survival of about 14-44% relative to ASW. Somites stage embryos were more tolerant than tail elongation ones to DMSO both as ASW and CaCl2 solutions. The use of CaCl2 as a vehicle for DMSO impregnation could be a promising aid for the successful cryopreservation of fish embryos.

  7. Degradation Dynamics and Dietary Risk Assessments of Two Neonicotinoid Insecticides during Lonicera japonica Planting, Drying, and Tea Brewing Processes.

    PubMed

    Fang, Qingkui; Shi, Yanhong; Cao, Haiqun; Tong, Zhou; Xiao, Jinjing; Liao, Min; Wu, Xiangwei; Hua, Rimao

    2017-03-01

    The degradation dynamics and dietary risk assessments of thiamethoxam and thiacloprid during Lonicera japonica planting, drying, and tea brewing processes were systematically investigated using high-performance liquid chromatography. The half-lives of thiamethoxam and thiacloprid were 1.0-4.1 d in the honeysuckle flowers and leaves, with degradation rate constants k ranging from -0.169 to -0.696. The safety interval time was 7 d. The sun- and oven-drying (70 °C) percent digestions were 59.4-81.0% for the residues, which were higher than the shade- and oven-drying percentages at lower temperatures (30, 40, 50, and 60 °C, which ranged from 37.7% to 57.0%). The percent transfers of thiamethoxam and thiacloprid were 0-48.4% and 0-25.2%, respectively, for the different tea brewing conditions. On the basis of the results of this study, abiding by the safety interval time is important, and using reasonable drying methods and tea brewing conditions can reduce the transfer of thiamethoxam and thiacloprid to humans.

  8. 14-3-3 α and 14-3-3 ζ contribute to immune responses in planarian Dugesia japonica.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qingqing; Wu, Suge; Zhen, Hui; Deng, Hongkuan; Song, Qian; Ma, Kaifu; Cao, Zhonghong; Pang, Qiuxiang; Zhao, Bosheng

    2017-06-05

    14-3-3 proteins are a family of highly conserved acidic proteins that regulate cellular processes. They act as a kind of important signaling molecules taking part in many crucial decisions throughout the development process. We have isolated and characterized two members of the 14-3-3 family, namely, Dj14-3-3 α and Dj14-3-3 ζ in the planarian Dugesia japonica. The Dj14-3-3 α and ζ genes encode polypeptides of 260 and 255 amino acids respectively. We have proved that the Dj14-3-3 α and ζ genes were especially expressed in the pharynx in adult and regenerating planarians by in situ hybridization and they were not involved in regeneration process. Besides, Dj14-3-3 α and ζ genes can compensate each other in planarians by RNA interference. The Dj14-3-3 α and ζ were significantly up-regulated expression when planarians were stimulated with the pathogen-associated molecular patterns including lipopolysaccharide (LPS), peptidoglycan (PGN), β-Glu and Poly (I:C), indicating that the Dj14-3-3 α and ζ may be involved in the immune responses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The preferential accumulation of cadmium in the head portion of the freshwater planarian, Dugesia japonica (Platyhelminthes: Turbellaria).

    PubMed

    Wu, Jui-Pin; Chen, Hon-Cheng; Li, Mei-Hui

    2011-12-01

    Free-living freshwater planarians are considered to have the potential for development as an experimental model for toxicological studies on xenobiotics, including metals. However, little was known about the distribution patterns of metals in the body of treated planarians. This study was conducted to determine the tissue distribution patterns of cadmium (Cd) in different body portions of the treated planarian, Dugesia japonica. Results showed that Cd accumulated in the head of planarians at a significantly higher concentration than in the tail. After examining the level of metallothionein (MT), we suggested that the tissue distribution pattern of Cd might be related to MT induction patterns. In contrast, in planarians treated with copper (Cu), neither the tissue accumulation of Cu nor the multiples of induction of MTs significantly differed between different portions. Furthermore, a higher Cd accumulation rate in the head of planarians caused more-severe oxidative stress to appear in this portion and also a higher susceptibility to a lethal concentration of Cd. Finally, both in vitro and in vivo acetylcholinesterase activities in both body portions of planarians were inhibited by Cd. The present study provides the first report that different metals are distributed in various body portions with different patterns in the planarian.

  10. Schistosomiasis japonica and childhood nutritional status in northeastern Leyte, the Philippines: a randomized trial of praziquantel versus placebo.

    PubMed

    McGarvey, S T; Aligui, G; Graham, K K; Peters, P; Olds, G R; Olveda, R

    1996-05-01

    The hypothesis that infection with Schistosoma japonicum causes decreased nutritional status was studied in a randomized trial among 170 males and females, mean (SD) age 11.4 (3.5) years, residing in an endemic region of northeastern Leyte, Philippines. The S. japonicum-infected children were randomized to receive praziquantel or placebo and followed-up six months after randomization. Stature, weight, triceps, subscapular, and calf skinfold thicknesses and their sum, and hemoglobin level were measured at baseline and follow-up. Schistosoma japonicum eggs were detected in Kato-Katz stool smears and the intensity of infection was assessed by quantitative egg count. Intensities of hookworm, ascaris, and trichuris infections were also measured. The six-month levels of the anthropometric measures and hemoglobin were adjusted for age and their baseline levels and then compared between the praziquantel and placebo groups. Treatment interactions were also analyzed by sex. Baseline anthropometric and hemoglobin levels and parasite infection intensities were the same in the two groups. At six months, the praziquantel group had significantly higher hemoglobin levels (P < 0.001) and sum of skinfolds (P < 0.001) than the placebo group. Males had a significantly greater increase in hemoglobin levels with treatment than did females. The hemoglobin increase was not due to changes in hookworm intensity. The results show that schistosomiasis japonica caused decreased nutritional status in children and probably is partly responsible for the malnutrition and reduction in growth for age described in prior cross-sectional studies.

  11. Occurrence and metabolism of 4-substituted glutamic acids in the seedlings of various species of legumes. [Sophora japonica

    SciT

    Winter, H.C.; Dekker, E.E.

    1987-04-01

    The authors measured the levels of 4-methyleneglutamic acid (Meglu), 4-methyleneglutamine (Megln), erythro-4-methylglutamic acid (e-Mglu), and threo-4-methylglutamic acid (t-Mglu) in seedlings of various species of legumes by HPLC and ion exchange chromatography. High levels of e-Mglu and Megln but no t-Mglu or Meglu are present in Sophora japonica. Peanut seedling contain both e-Mglu and t-Mglu at 20-50% and 5%, resp., of the level of Meglu whereas only traces of Meglu and Mglu occur in soybean seedlings. Excised peanut embryos germinated on Linsmaier and Skoog medium + (U-/sup 14/C)-leucine incorporated isotope into e-Mglu, Meglu, and Megln; (U-/sup 14/C)-proline or glycine was notmore » so incorporated. Soybean embryos rapidly converted added (2-/sup 14/C)-Meglu to a variety of non-amino acid products; peanut embryos, in contrast, retain 25% of added Meglu unchanged and 50% as Megln. These results suggest that in a variety of legumes leucine may serve as a precursor of Mglu and Meglu during germination; also, whereas Meglu remains as such or as Megln in some species, it is rapidly metabolized in others.« less

  12. Comparative pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin, danofloxacin, and marbofloxacin after intravenous and oral administration in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Haritova, Aneliya; Dimitrova, Dimitrichka; Dinev, Toncho; Moutafchieva, Rumyana; Lashev, Lubomir

    2013-03-01

    A population approach was used to evaluate the pharmacokinetic parameters of 3 fluoroquinolones administered to Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Healthy adult quail (n = 50) were divided into 3 groups, each administered a separate intravenous and oral dose of the compounded drug: enrofloxacin at 10 mg/kg (n = 18; 9 male, 9 female), danofloxacin at 10 mg/kg (n = 12; 6 male, 6 female), and marbofloxacin at 5 mg/kg (n = 20; 10 male, 10 female). A fourth group was used as a control (n = 5). Enrofloxacin was metabolized extensively to ciprofloxacin, while no metabolites of either danofloxacin or marbofloxacin were detected. The volume of distribution was high, greater than 1 in all cases, and highest for danofloxacin, followed by enrofloxacin, then marbofloxacin. The total body clearance was higher in quail than that reported for other avian species with the exception of ostriches. As in mammals, the lowest clearance rate of the 3 fluoroquinolones was observed for marbofloxacin. Enrofloxacin was absorbed most rapidly, followed by marbofloxacin, then danofloxacin. The highest bioavailability was observed for danofloxacin followed by marbofloxacin, while very low bioavailability with significant conversion to ciprofloxacin was observed for enrofloxacin. Population analysis showed low intersubject variability for danofloxacin and marbofloxacin in contrast to that for enrofloxacin and its main metabolite, ciprofloxacin. Because of their more favorable pharmacokinetic properties after oral administration, either danofloxacin or marbofloxacin appears to be preferable to enrofloxacin for the treatment of susceptible bacterial infection in Japanese quail.

  13. Optimization of the microwave-assisted extraction of phlorotannins from Saccharina japonica Aresch and evaluation of the inhibitory effects of phlorotannin-containing extracts on HepG2 cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zhizhou; Chen, Yongshun; Chen, Yongheng; Liu, Haohuai; Yuan, Guanfu; Fan, Yaming; Chen, Kun

    2013-09-01

    The use of a microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) method for the extraction of phlorotannins from Saccharina japonica Aresch ( S. japonica) has been evaluated with particular emphasis on the influential parameters, including the ethanol concentration, solid/liquid ratio, extraction time, extraction temperature, and microwave power. The MAE procedure was optimized using single-factor design and orthogonal array design (OAD). The content of total phlorotannins in S. japonica was determined using a Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) assay. A maximum total phlorotannin content of 0.644 mg of phloroglucinol equivalent per gram of dry weight plant (mg PGE/g DW) was obtained using the optimized model, which included an ethanol concentration of 55%, solid/liquid ratio of 1:8, extraction time of 25 min, irradiation power of 400 W, and temperature of 60°C. Under similar conditions, the application of a conventional extraction method led to a lower phlorotannin yield of 0.585 mg PGE/g WD. These results demonstrated that the MAE approach provided better results for the extraction of phlorotannins from S. japonica and was a promising technique for the extraction of phenolic compounds from S. japonica and other materials. In addition, screening tests for the inhibitory activity showed that the phlorotannin-containing extracts significantly inhibited the growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2) by inducing their apoptosis. The morphological changes that occurred during cell apoptosis were characterized using Hoechst33258 staining.

  14. GC/MS analysis of high-performance liquid chromatography fractions from Sophora flavescens and Torilis japonica extracts and their in vitro anti-neosporal effects on Neospora caninum.

    PubMed

    Seo, Hun-Su; Kim, Kyoung Hee; Kim, Dae-Yong; Park, Bong-Kyun; Shin, Nam-Shik; Kim, Jae-Hoon; Youn, Heejeong

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed alcoholic extracts of herbs possessing anti-neosporal activity against Neospora (N.) caninum. To identify the chemical components of Sophora (S.) flavescens and Torilis (T.) japonica associated with anti-neosporal activity, specific fractions were isolated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In vitro activity of the fractions against N. caninum was then assessed. Gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to identify and quantify specific anti-neosporal molecules in the herbal extracts. Almost all HPLC fractions of S. flavescens and T. japonica had higher levels of anti-neosporal activity compared to the not treated control. Active constituents of the extracts were sophoridane, furosardonin A, and tetraisopropylidene-cyclobutane in S. flavescens; 5,17-β-dihydroxy-de-A-estra-5,7,9,14-tetraene, furanodiene, and 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z)-(CAS,1) in T. japonica.

  15. GC/MS analysis of high-performance liquid chromatography fractions from Sophora flavescens and Torilis japonica extracts and their in vitro anti-neosporal effects on Neospora caninum

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Hun-Su; Kim, Kyoung Hee; Kim, Dae-Yong; Park, Bong-Kyun; Shin, Nam-Shik; Kim, Jae-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed alcoholic extracts of herbs possessing anti-neosporal activity against Neospora (N.) caninum. To identify the chemical components of Sophora (S.) flavescens and Torilis (T.) japonica associated with anti-neosporal activity, specific fractions were isolated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In vitro activity of the fractions against N. caninum was then assessed. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to identify and quantify specific anti-neosporal molecules in the herbal extracts. Almost all HPLC fractions of S. flavescens and T. japonica had higher levels of anti-neosporal activity compared to the not treated control. Active constituents of the extracts were sophoridane, furosardonin A, and tetraisopropylidene-cyclobutane in S. flavescens; 5,17-β-dihydroxy-de-A-estra-5,7,9,14-tetraene, furanodiene, and 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z)-(CAS,1) in T. japonica. PMID:23820198

  16. Cloning and functional characterization of a fatty acid transport protein (FATP) from the pheromone gland of a lichen moth, Eilema japonica, which secretes an alkenyl sex pheromone.

    PubMed

    Qian, Shuguang; Fujii, Takeshi; Ito, Katsuhiko; Nakano, Ryo; Ishikawa, Yukio

    2011-01-01

    Sex pheromones of moths are largely classified into two types based on the presence (Type I) or absence (Type II) of a terminal functional group. While Type-I sex pheromones are synthesized from common fatty acids in the pheromone gland (PG), Type-II sex pheromones are derived from hydrocarbons produced presumably in the oenocytes and transported to the PG via the hemolymph. Recently, a fatty acid transport protein (BmFATP) was identified from the PG of the silkworm Bombyx mori, which produces a Type-I sex pheromone (bombykol). BmFATP was shown to facilitate the uptake of extracellular fatty acids into PG cells for the synthesis of bombykol. To elucidate the presence and function of FATP in the PG of moths that produce Type-II sex pheromones, we explored fatp homologues expressed in the PG of a lichen moth, Eilema japonica, which secretes an alkenyl sex pheromone (Type II). A fatp homologue cloned from E. japonica (Ejfatp) was predominantly expressed in the PG, and its expression is upregulated shortly after eclosion. Functional expression of EjFATP in Escherichia coli enhanced the uptake of long chain fatty acids (C₁₈ and C₂₀), but not pheromone precursor hydrocarbons. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the cloning and functional characterization of a FATP in the PG of a moth producing a Type-II sex pheromone. Although EjFATP is not likely to be involved in the uptake of pheromone precursors in E. japonica, the expression pattern of Ejfatp suggests a role for EjFATP in the PG not directly linked to pheromone biosynthesis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of chemical compositions and antimicrobial activities of essential oils from three conifer trees; Pinus densiflora, Cryptomeria japonica, and Chamaecyparis obtusa.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong-Ho; Lee, Byung-Kyu; Kim, Jong-Hee; Lee, Sang Hee; Hong, Soon-Kwang

    2009-04-01

    The chemical compositions, and antibacterial and antifungal effects of essential oils extracted from three coniferous species, Pinus densiflora, Cryptomeria japonica, and Chamaecyparis obtusa, were investigated. Gas chromatography mass analysis of the essential oils revealed that the major components and the percentage of each essential oil were 16.66% beta-phellandrene and 14.85% alpha-pinene in P. densiflora; 31.45% kaur-16-ene and 11.06% sabinene in C. japonica; and 18.75% bicyclo [2, 2, 1] heptan-2-ol and 17.41% 2-carene in Ch. obtusa. The antimicrobial assay by agar disc diffusion method showed that 2.2 microg of Ch. obtusa oil inhibited most effectively the growth of Escherichia coli ATCC 33312 and Klebsiella oxytoca ATCC 10031, whereas the C. japonica oil gave weak antimicrobial activity. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for bacterial strains were in the range of 5.45-21.8 mg/ml depending on essential oils, but most Gram-negative bacteria were resistant even at 21.8 mg oil/ml. P. densiflora oil showed the most effective antifungal activity and the MIC values for Cryptococcus neoformans B42419 and Candida glabrata YFCC 062CCM 11658 were as low as 0.545 and 2.18 mg/ml, respectively. Cryp. neoformans B42419 was the most sensitive to all essential oils in the range of 0.545-2.18 mg/ml. Our data clearly showed that the essential oils from the three conifers had effective antimicrobial activity, especially against fungi.

  18. Effects of ultrahigh pressure extraction on yield and antioxidant activity of chlorogenic acid and cynaroside extracted from flower buds of Lonicera japonica.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wen; Guo, Ting; Jiang, Wen-Jun; Dong, Guang-Li; Chen, Da-Wei; Yang, Shi-Lin; Li, He-Ran

    2015-06-01

    The present study was designed to establish and optimize a new method for extracting chlorogenic acid and cynaroside from Lonicera japonica Thunb. through orthogonal experimental designl. A new ultrahigh pressure extraction (UPE) technology was applied to extract chlorogenic acid and cynaroside from L. japonica. The influential factors, including solvent type, ethanol concentration, extraction pressure, time, and temperature, and the solid/liquid ratio, have been studied to optimize the extraction process. The optimal conditions for the UPE were developed by quantitative analysis of the extraction products by HPLC-DAD in comparison with standard samples. In addition, the microstructures of the medicinal materials before and after extraction were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Furthermore, the extraction efficiency of different extraction methods and the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities of the extracts were investigated. The optimal conditions for extracting chlorogenic acid and cynaroside were as follows: ethanol concentration, 60%; extraction pressure, 400 MPa; extraction time, 2 min; extraction temperature, 30 °C; and the solid/liquid ratio, 1 : 50. Under these conditions, the yields of chlorogenic acid and cynaroside were raised to 4.863% and 0.080%, respectively. Compared with other extraction methods, such as heat reflux extraction (HRE), ultrasonic extraction (UE), and Sohxlet extraction (SE), the UPE method showed several advantages, including higher extraction yield, shorter extraction time, lower energy consumption, and higher purity of the extracts. This study could help better utilize L. japonica flower buds as a readily accessible source of natural antioxidants in food and pharmaceutical industries. Copyright © 2015 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Trait evaluation and trial cultivation of Dongfang No. 2, the hybrid of a male gametophyte clone of Laminaria longissima (Laminariales, Phaeophyta) and a female one of L. japonica.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaojie; Cong, Yizhou; Yang, Guanpin; Shi, Yuanyuan; Qu, Shancun; Li, Zhiling; Wang, Guowen; Zhang, Zhuangzhi; Luo, Shiju; Dai, Hongliang; Xie, Jianzu; Jiang, Guangliang; Liu, Jialiang; Wang, Tongyong

    2007-04-01

    Direct cultivation of the first filial generation of gametophyte clones from different Laminaria species is a highly effective way of utilizing kelp heterozygous vigor (heterosis). A male gametophyte clone of L. longissima Miyabe and a female one of L. japonica Areschoug were hybridized, generating Dongfang No. 2 hybrid kelp. This hybrid kelp was used directly in trial cultivation, and its agronomical traits were evaluated. L. longissima and L. japonica are obviously different and complement each other in their morphological characteristics and ecological performances. The hybrid of their gametophyte clones, Dongfang No. 2, showed 56.8% heterozygous vigor in yield. It also showed increased yields of 41.0 and 76.4% compared to the widely used commercial kelps Variety 1 and Variety 2, respectively. In large-scale cultivation trials at different locations and in different years, Dongfang No. 2 attained significantly higher yields than Varieties 1 and 2, increasing yield by 26.4% on average over Variety 1 and by 65.0% over the other. Dongfang No. 2 has a robust holdfast and a wide, long and deep-brown uniform blade, which shows a distinct middle groove. In addition to yield, Dongfang No. 2 also demonstrates obvious heterozygous vigor in other agronomic traits. It is resistant to strong irradiance, as the two commercial varieties are, has an appropriate vegetative maturation time, and adapts well to a range of different culture conditions. The parentage analysis using AFLP of total DNA and SNP of the ITS region of ribosomal RNA transcription unit showed that Dongfang No. 2 is the real hybrid of L. japonica and L. longissima.

  20. Allelic variants of OsHKT1;1 underlie the divergence between indica and japonica subspecies of rice (Oryza sativa) for root sodium content

    PubMed Central

    Bandillo, Nonoy; Al Shiblawi, Fouad Razzaq A.; Liu, Kan; Du, Qian; Zhang, Chi; Véry, Anne-Aliénor; Lorenz, Aaron J.; Walia, Harkamal

    2017-01-01

    Salinity is a major factor limiting crop productivity. Rice (Oryza sativa), a staple crop for the majority of the world, is highly sensitive to salinity stress. To discover novel sources of genetic variation for salt tolerance-related traits in rice, we screened 390 diverse accessions under 14 days of moderate (9 dS·m-1) salinity. In this study, shoot growth responses to moderate levels of salinity were independent of tissue Na+ content. A significant difference in root Na+ content was observed between the major subpopulations of rice, with indica accessions displaying higher root Na+ and japonica accessions exhibiting lower root Na+ content. The genetic basis of the observed variation in phenotypes was elucidated through genome-wide association (GWA). The strongest associations were identified for root Na+:K+ ratio and root Na+ content in a region spanning ~575 Kb on chromosome 4, named Root Na+ Content 4 (RNC4). Two Na+ transporters, HKT1;1 and HKT1;4 were identified as candidates for RNC4. Reduced expression of both HKT1;1 and HKT1;4 through RNA interference indicated that HKT1;1 regulates shoot and root Na+ content, and is likely the causal gene underlying RNC4. Three non-synonymous mutations within HKT1;1 were present at higher frequency in the indica subpopulation. When expressed in Xenopus oocytes the indica-predominant isoform exhibited higher inward (negative) currents and a less negative voltage threshold of inward rectifying current activation compared to the japonica-predominant isoform. The introduction of a 4.5kb fragment containing the HKT1;1 promoter and CDS from an indica variety into a japonica background, resulted in a phenotype similar to the indica subpopulation, with higher root Na+ and Na+:K+. This study provides evidence that HKT1;1 regulates root Na+ content, and underlies the divergence in root Na+ content between the two major subspecies in rice. PMID:28582424

  1. Biochars derived from wasted marine macro-algae (Saccharina japonica and Sargassum fusiforme) and their potential for heavy metal removal in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Poo, Kyung-Min; Son, Eun-Bi; Chang, Jae-Soo; Ren, Xianghao; Choi, Yun-Jung; Chae, Kyu-Jung

    2018-01-15

    For the purpose of reusing wasted marine macro-algae generated during cultivation, harvesting, processing and selling processes, biochars derived from Saccharina japonica (known as kelp) and Sargassum fusiforme (known as hijikia) were characterized and their removal capacities for Cu, Cd, and Zn in aqueous solution were assessed. Feedstocks, S. japonica, S. fusiforme, and also pinewood sawdust as a control, were pyrolyzed at 250, 400, 500, 600 and 700 °C. In evaluating heavy metal removal capacities, SJB (S. japonica biochar) showed the best performance, with removal efficiencies of more than 98% for the three heavy metals when pyrolyzed at over 400 °C. SFB (S. fusiforme biochar) also showed good potential as an adsorbent, with removal efficiencies for the three heavy metals of more than 86% when pyrolyzed at over 500 °C. On the contrary, the maximum removal efficiencies of PSB (pinewood sawdust biochar) were 81%, 46%, and 47% for Cu, Cd, and Zn, respectively, even at 700 °C, the highest pyrolysis temperature. This demonstrates that marine macro-algae were advantageous in terms of production energy for removing heavy metals even at relatively low pyrolysis temperatures, compared with PSB. The excellent heavy metal adsorption capacities of marine macro-algae biochars were considered due to their higher pH and more oxygen-containing functional groups, although the specific surface areas of SJB and SFB were significantly lower than that of PSB. This research confirmed that the use of marine macro-algae as a heavy metal adsorbent was suitable not only in the removal of heavy metals, but also in terms of resource recycling and energy efficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Prophylactic effects of Lonicera japonica extract on dextran sulphate sodium-induced colitis in a mouse model by the inhibition of the Th1/Th17 response.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae-Woo; Bae, Hyunsu; Lee, Gihyun; Hong, Beom-Gi; Yoo, Hye Hyun; Lim, Sung-Jig; Lee, Kyungjin; Kim, Jinsung; Ryu, Bongha; Lee, Beom-Joon; Bae, Jinhyun; Lee, Hyejung; Bu, Youngmin

    2013-01-28

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronically relapsing inflammatory disorders of the intestine. Although some therapeutic agents, including steroids, are available for the treatment of IBD, these agents have limited use. Therefore, dietary supplements have emerged as possible interventions for IBD. Japanese honeysuckle flower, the flower of Lonicera japonica, is a well-known dietary supplement and has been used to prevent or treat various inflammatory diseases. In the present study, we investigated the effects of L. japonica on experimental murine colitis. Colitis was induced by 5 % dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) in Balb/c mice. The water extract of L. japonica (LJE) at doses of 20, 100 or 500 mg/kg was orally administered to mice twice per day for 7 d. Body weight, colon length and a histological damage score were assessed to determine the effects on colitis. Cytokine profiles were assessed to examine the effects on helper T (Th) cell-related immunological responses. In addition, CD4⁺CD25⁺Foxp3⁺T cells were analysed in vivo and in vitro for investigating the effects on regulatory T (Treg) cells. LJE showed dose-dependent inhibitory effects against colon shortening, weight loss and histological damage. LJE down-regulated IL-1β, TNF-α, interferon-γ, IL-6, IL-12 and IL-17. However, LJE did not show any significant effects on IL-10, IL-23, transforming growth factor-β1 and Treg cell populations. In conclusion, LJE showed protective effects against DSS-induced colitis via the Th1/Th17 pathway and not via Treg cell-related mechanisms.

  3. [Study on an intervention model of "schools without infected students with schistosoma japonica" in heavy endemic areas].

    PubMed

    Chen, Hai-ying; Hu, Guang-han; Song, Kuang-yu; Xiong, Zhi-wei; Wan, Bao-ping; Yang, Ping-yi; Hu, Jia; Peng, Guo-hua; Hu, Wei-Chen; Fu, Guo-Lan

    2010-10-01

    To study an intervention model of "schools without infected students with schistosoma japonica", to control and prevent students from schistosoma infection. Twelve primary schools of four heavy endemic counties (districts) with schistosomiasis in the Poyang Lake areas were selected as the study fields, of which, ten schools were the experimental groups, and the other two schools were the control groups by cluster random sampling. All enrolment students were the target population. The baseline survey was carried out in 2005, and an intervention model, "information dissemination + behavior participation + behavior encouragement", was applied in the experiment groups in 2006 - 2008, then the effect of intervention was assessed. Before intervention (2005), the anti-schistosomiasis knowledge awareness rate of experimental and control groups were 14.75% (324/2196) and 16.58% (91/549), and the different was not significant (χ(2) = 1.14, P > 0.05); the rate of accurate attitude of anti-schistosomiasis were 14.71% (323/2196) and 11.84% (65/549) in experimental and control groups, and the difference was not significant (χ(2) = 2.98, P > 0.05); the rate of contacting infected water were 15.44% (18 988/122 976) and 15.03% (4622/30 744) in experimental and control group and the difference was not significant (χ(2) = 3.13, P > 0.05); and the infection rate of schistosomiasis of experiment control groups were 9.65% (212/2196) and 10.56% (58/549), the difference was not significant (χ(2) = 0.41, P > 0.05). After one year intervention (2006), the anti-schistosomiasis knowledge awareness rate of experimental and control groups were 97.79% (2032/2078) and 18.11% (98/541), and the different was significant (χ(2) = 1794.31, P < 0.01); the rate of accurate attitude of anti-schistosomiasis were 99.09% (2059/2078) and 13.49% (73/541) in experimental and control group, and the difference was significant (χ(2) = 2077.45, P < 0.01). After 1 - 3 years intervention (2006 - 2008), there

  4. Renoprotective effect of low-molecular-weight sulfated polysaccharide from the seaweed Laminaria japonica on glycerol-induced acute kidney injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinpeng; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Quanbin

    2017-02-01

    We investigated the renal protective effect of low-molecular-weight sulfated polysaccharide (LMWSP) fractions extracted from Laminaria japonica on glycerol-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) in rats. Glycerol treatment significantly increased serum creatinine (SCr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels. Intraperitoneal injection of LMWSP fractions markedly decreased SCr and BUN levels and reduced renal swelling. The fraction of 1.0M NaCl displayed the best renal protective effect of all fractions in attenuating AKI and maintaining blood glucose. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Isolation of a latent polyphenol oxidase from loquat fruit (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.): kinetic characterization and comparison with the active form.

    PubMed

    Sellés-Marchart, Susana; Casado-Vela, Juan; Bru-Martínez, Roque

    2006-02-15

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) has been extracted from both soluble and particulate fractions of loquat fruit (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl. cv. Algerie). The soluble PPO (20% of total activity) was partially purified 3.3-fold after ammonium sulfate fractionation being in its active state. The particulate PPO fraction (80% of total activity) was purified to homogeneity in a latent form being activable by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The enzyme was purified 40.0-fold with a total yield of 15.3% after extraction by phase partitioning in Triton X-114 followed by three chromatographic steps. The molecular weight was estimated to be about 59.2 and 61.2 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and gel filtration chromatography, respectively, indicating that latent PPO is a monomer. Latent PPO catalyzed the oxidation of chlorogenic acid (CA) at a rate 50-fold faster than that of 4-tert-butylcatechol (TBC) but the soluble active counterpart only twice. Both PPOs exhibited similar Km values for TBC but Km for CA was 5-fold higher for the latent than for the active soluble PPO. Other kinetic characteristics, including sensitivity to inhibitors, substrate specificity, thermal stability, temperature, and pH profiles, were quite different between both PPOs. These results provide strong evidences that the soluble active and the particulate latent are different forms of PPO in loquat fruit flesh. The results suggest that the major PPO form for the oxidation of CA, leading to enzymatic browning under physiological conditions, is the latent one.

  6. Hidden floral adaptation to nocturnal moths in an apparently bee-pollinated flower, Adenophora triphylla var. japonica (Campanulaceae).

    PubMed

    Funamoto, D; Ohashi, K

    2017-09-01

    The discrepancy between observed flower visitors and those predicted based on floral phenotype has often cast doubt on the pollination syndrome concept. Here we show that this paradox may be alleviated by gaining better knowledge of the contributions of different flower visitors to pollination and the effects of floral traits that cannot be readily perceived by humans in Adenophora triphylla var. japonica. The blue, bell-shaped and pendant flowers of A. triphylla appear to fit a bee pollination syndrome. In contrast to this expectation, recent studies show that these flowers are frequented by nocturnal moths. We compared the flower visitor fauna, their visitation frequency and their relative contributions to seed set between day and night in two field populations of A. triphylla in Japan. We also determined the floral traits associated with temporal changes in the visitor assemblage, i.e. the timing of anthesis, the timing of changes in the sexual phase and the diel pattern of nectar production. While A. triphylla flowers were visited by both diurnal and nocturnal insects, the results from pollination experiments demonstrate that their primary pollinators are nocturnal settling-moths. Moreover, the flowers opened just after sunset, changed from staminate to pistillate phase in successive evenings and produced nectar only during the night, which all conform to the activity of nocturnal/crepuscular moths. Our study illustrates that the tradition of stereotyping the pollinators of a flower based on its appearance can be misleading and that it should be improved with empirical evidence of pollination performance and sufficient trait matching. © 2017 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  7. Classification of rice (Oryza sativa L. Japonica nipponbare) immunophilins (FKBPs, CYPs) and expression patterns under water stress.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jun Cheul; Kim, Dae-Won; You, Young Nim; Seok, Min Sook; Park, Jeong Mee; Hwang, Hyunsik; Kim, Beom-Gi; Luan, Sheng; Park, Hong-Seog; Cho, Hye Sun

    2010-11-18

    FK506 binding proteins (FKBPs) and cyclophilins (CYPs) are abundant and ubiquitous proteins belonging to the peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase (PPIase) superfamily, which regulate much of metabolism through a chaperone or an isomerization of proline residues during protein folding. They are collectively referred to as immunophilin (IMM), being present in almost all cellular organs. In particular, a number of IMMs relate to environmental stresses. FKBP and CYP proteins in rice (Oryza sativa cv. Japonica) were identified and classified, and given the appropriate name for each IMM, considering the ortholog-relation with Arabidopsis and Chlamydomonas or molecular weight of the proteins. 29 FKBP and 27 CYP genes can putatively be identified in rice; among them, a number of genes can be putatively classified as orthologs of Arabidopsis IMMs. However, some genes were novel, did not match with those of Arabidopsis and Chlamydomonas, and several genes were paralogs by genetic duplication. Among 56 IMMs in rice, a significant number are regulated by salt and/or desiccation stress. In addition, their expression levels responding to the water-stress have been analyzed in different tissues, and some subcellular IMMs located by means of tagging with GFP protein. Like other green photosynthetic organisms such as Arabidopsis (23 FKBPs and 29 CYPs) and Chlamydomonas (23 FKBs and 26 CYNs), rice has the highest number of IMM genes among organisms reported so far, suggesting that the numbers relate closely to photosynthesis. Classification of the putative FKBPs and CYPs in rice provides the information about their evolutional/functional significance when comparisons are drawn with the relatively well studied genera, Arabidopsis and Chlamydomonas. In addition, many of the genes upregulated by water stress offer the possibility of manipulating the stress responses in rice.

  8. Nitrogen fertilizer application affects lodging resistance by altering secondary cell wall synthesis in japonica rice (Oryza sativa).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wujun; Wu, Longmei; Ding, Yanfeng; Yao, Xiong; Wu, Xiaoran; Weng, Fei; Li, Ganghua; Liu, Zhenghui; Tang, She; Ding, Chengqiang; Wang, Shaohua

    2017-09-01

    Stem mechanical strength is an important agricultural quantitative trait that is closely related to lodging resistance in rice, which is known to be reduced by fertilizer with higher levels of nitrogen. To understand the mechanism that regulates stem mechanical strength in response to nitrogen, we analysed stem morphology, anatomy, mechanical properties, cell wall components, and expression of cell wall-related genes, in two varieties of japonica rice, namely, Wuyunjing23 (lodging-resistant variety) and W3668 (lodging-susceptible variety). The results showed that higher nitrogen fertilizer increased the lodging index in both varieties due to a reduction in breaking strength and bending stress, and these changes were larger in W3668. Cellulose content decreased slightly under higher nitrogen fertilizer, whereas lignin content reduced remarkably. Histochemical staining revealed that high nitrogen application decreased lignin deposition in the secondary cell wall of the sclerenchyma cells and vascular bundle cells compared with the low nitrogen treatments, while it did not alter the pattern of cellulose deposition in these cells in both Wuyunjing23 and W3668. In addition, the expression of the genes involved in lignin biosynthesis, OsPAL, OsCoMT, Os4CL3, OsCCR, OsCAD2, OsCAD7, OsCesA4, and OsCesA7, were also down-regulated under higher nitrogen conditions at the early stage of culm growth. These results suggest that the genes involved in lignin biosynthesis are down-regulated by higher nitrogen fertilizer, which causes lignin deficiency in the secondary cell walls and the weakening of mechanical tissue structure. Subsequently, this results in these internodes with reduced mechanical strength and poor lodging resistance.

  9. Halophilic mechanism of the enzymatic function of a moderately halophilic dihydrofolate reductase from Haloarcula japonica strain TR-1.

    PubMed

    Miyashita, Yurina; Ohmae, Eiji; Ikura, Teikichi; Nakasone, Kaoru; Katayanagi, Katsuo

    2017-05-01

    Dihydrofolate (DHF) reductase coded by a plasmid of the extremely halophilic archaeon Haloarcula japonica strain TR-1 (HjDHFR P1) shows moderate halophilicity on enzymatic activity at pH 6.0, although there is no significant effect of NaCl on its secondary structure. To elucidate the salt-activation and -inactivation mechanisms of this enzyme, we investigated the effects of pH and salt concentration, deuterium isotope effect, steady-state kinetics, and rapid-phase ligand-binding kinetics. Enzyme activity was increased eightfold by the addition of 500 mM NaCl at pH 6.0, fourfold by 250 mM at pH 8.0, and became independent of salt concentration at pH 10.0. Full isotope effects observed at pH 10.0 under 0-1000 mM NaCl indicated that the rate of hydride transfer, which was the rate-determining step at the basic pH region, was independent of salt concentration. Conversely, rapid-phase ligand-binding experiments showed that the amplitude of the DHF-binding reaction increased and the tetrahydrofolate (THF)-releasing rate decreased with increasing NaCl concentration. These results suggested that the salt-activation mechanism of HjDHFR P1 is via the population change of the anion-unbound and anion-bound conformers, which are binding-incompetent and -competent conformations for DHF, respectively, while that of salt inactivation is via deceleration of the THF-releasing rate, which is the rate-determining step at the neutral pH region.

  10. Assimilation of terrigenous organic matter via bacterial biomass as a food source for a brackish clam, Corbicula japonica (Mollusca: Bivalva)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, Toshiro; Mizota, Chitoshi; Maki, Yonosuke; Matsumasa, Masatoshi

    2013-07-01

    Corbicula japonica collected from the Kitakami River estuary, northeastern Japan, showed lower δ34S values in soft-body parts (+1.7 to +11.0‰) than the ambient seawater sulfate sulfur (+21‰), and this value gradually decreased at successive sites up to 15.8 km upstream from the river mouth. Previous study using carbon and nitrogen isotopes suggests that the bivalve nonselectively assimilates particulate organic matter of marine and terrestrial origin by filter feeding. This pattern in δ34S values may indicate a considerable contribution of a food source derived from terrigenous organic matter, which has low δ34S values close to 0‰, and the bivalve has been reported to have cellulase and hemicellulase activities. Unique fatty acids (iso 17:0 and anteiso 17:0 acids), both characteristic of sulfate-reducing bacteria, were observed in the salt-free, soft-body parts of the bivalve. The concentration of monounsaturated fatty acids, possibly derived from bacteria, was also high. Trace amounts of a polyunsaturated fatty acid (20:5ω3) specific to dinoflagellates were detected. In Corbicula habitats, reductive sandy layers with ample sulfides that were sporadically intercalated into the oxidative sandy sediment were often observed. The stable isotopic signatures of sediment sulfides (acid-volatile sulfide) and associated pore-water sulfates were -8.9 to +8.6‰ and +22.4 to +26.3‰, respectively, indicating the existence of bacterial sulfate-reducing activity and thiobios biomass. These isotopic signatures of the sediment, with the fatty acid composition of the bivalve, confirm the importance of a food source derived from bacteria belonging to the thiobios in the substrate sediments via pedal feeding, rather than direct digestion of terrigenous organic matter, in this estuarine ecosystem.

  11. Seasonal and clonal variation in cellulose microfibril orientation during cell wall formation of tracheids in Cryptomeria japonica.

    PubMed

    Jyske, Tuula; Fujiwara, Takeshi; Kuroda, Katsushi; Iki, Taiichi; Zhang, Chunhua; Jyske, Tuomas K; Abe, Hisashi

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the biological mechanism by which trees control the changes in microfibril (MF) orientation among secondary cell wall layers of conifer tracheids, we studied seasonal variation in the orientation of newly deposited MFs during tracheid cell wall development in Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) trees growing in Central Japan (36°36'N, 140°39'E). Sample blocks were repeatedly collected from four 16-year-old clones of different origins during the growing season of 2010 to investigate the hypotheses that changes in cellulose MF orientation between wall layers exhibited seasonal and clonal differences. The progressive change in the orientation of newly deposited MFs on the primary and secondary cell wall layers of tracheids was detected by field-emission-scanning electron microscopy. Tracheid production and differentiation was studied by light microscopy. We observed a decreasing trend in the orientation of deposited MFs from earlywood to latewood in the S2 and S1 layers, where MFs appeared in a Z-helix. In contrast, no seasonal pattern in the orientation of the MFs in the S-helix was observed. Minor clonal variation was observed in the phenology of tracheid production and differentiation. We concluded that a seasonal decreasing trend in the orientation of the MFs in the Z-helix in S1 and S2 was present, whereas the MFs in other layers exhibited minor random variations. Thus, the orientation of the MFs in S2 was affected by seasonal factors, whereas the MFs in other layers were more intrinsically controlled. The within-ring variations in the MF orientation and thus the resulting average MF angle might also be related to genotypic differences in the tracheid production and differentiation rate. However, our results do not exclude other intrinsic and environmental regulations in the change in MF orientation, which remains a topic for future studies. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions

  12. Effects of water-soluble Laminaria japonica polysaccharide 3 (LJP-P3) on bull cryopreservation sperm.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yuxin; Zhang, Nina; Liu, Shujie; Li, Qingwang; Jiang, Zhongliang

    2017-12-01

    In this study, water-soluble Laminaria japonica polysaccharide3 (LJP-P3) was investigated for the cryoprotective effects on bull sperm. Five concentrations of LJP-P3 with 0.1, 1, 10, 50 and 100 mmol/L were added into the extenders of bull semen, respectively, and the effects on quality of sperm after freezing-thawing were assessed. The results showed that the kinematic parameters of bull sperm including linear motile sperm (LM), curvilinear line velocity (VCL) value, straight line velocity (VSL) and velocity of the average path (VAP) were greater in the extenders containing LJP-P3 (P<0.05). In comparison to those of other treatments and control group the extenders containing 1.0, 10.0 and 50.0 mmol/L of LJP-P3 led to higher percentage of mitochondrial activity and sperm membrane integrity(P<0.05), and the acrosome integrity of bull cryopreservation sperm were significantly improved in all treatment groups. Moreover, the higher GSH-Px, SOD and CAT levels in bull cryopreservation sperm were favored from the extenders of 10.0, 50.0 and 100.0 mmol/L LJP-P3 added (P<0.05) compared with other treatments and control group. In addition, the results of artificial insemination showed that both the pregnancy rate and the number of calving were higher in the group of semen containing 10 mmol/L of LJP-P3 than that of control group (P <0.05). In summary, LJP-P3 exhibited a greater cryoprotective effect to bull sperm and the most suitable concentration of LJP-P3 is 10.0 mmol/L. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Improvement of marker-based predictability of Apparent Amylose Content in japonica rice through GBSSI allele mining

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Apparent Amylose Content (AAC), regulated by the Waxy gene, represents the key determinant of rice cooking properties. In occidental countries high AAC rice represents the most requested market class but the availability of molecular markers allowing specific selection of high AAC varieties is limited. Results In this study, the effectiveness of available molecular markers in predicting AAC was evaluated in a collection of 127 rice accessions (125 japonica ssp. and 2 indica ssp.) characterized by AAC values from glutinous to 26%. The analyses highlighted the presence of several different allelic patterns identifiable by a few molecular markers, and two of them, i.e., the SNPs at intron1 and exon 6, were able to explain a maximum of 79.5% of AAC variation. However, the available molecular markers haplotypes did not provide tools for predicting accessions with AAC higher than 24.5%. To identify additional polymorphisms, the re-sequencing of the Waxy gene and 1kbp of the putative upstream regulatory region was performed in 21 genotypes representing all the AAC classes identified. Several previously un-characterized SNPs were identified and four of them were used to develop dCAPS markers. Conclusions The addition of the SNPs newly identified slightly increased the AAC explained variation and allowed the identification of a haplotype almost unequivocally associated to AAC higher than 24.5%. Haplotypes at the waxy locus were also associated to grain length and length/width (L/W) ratio. In particular, the SNP at the first intron, which identifies the Wx a and Wx b alleles, was associated with differences in the width of the grain, the L/W ratio and the length of the kernel, most likely as a result of human selection. PMID:24383761

  14. Marinobacterium rhizophilum sp. nov., isolated from the rhizosphere of the coastal tidal-flat plant Suaeda japonica.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoon-Gon; Jin, Yeon-A; Hwang, Chung Yeon; Cho, Byung Cheol

    2008-01-01

    A Gram-negative, strictly aerobic, marine bacterium, designated strain CL-YJ9(T), was isolated from sediment closely associated with the roots of a plant (Suaeda japonica) inhabiting a coastal tidal flat. Cells of the novel strain were straight and rod-shaped and were motile by means of monopolar flagella. A phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain CL-YJ9(T) belongs to the genus Marinobacterium and was most closely related to Marinobacterium halophilum mano11(T) (94.1% sequence similarity) and to other members of the genus Marinobacterium (92.5-93.7% sequence similarity). The strain grew with 1-5% NaCl (optimum, 3%) and at 5-30 degrees C (optimum, approx. 25 degrees C) and pH 6.0-9.0 (optimum, pH 7.0). The predominant cellular fatty acids were summed feature 3 (C(16:1)omega7c and/or iso-C(15:0) 2-OH, 40.3%), C(18:1)omega7c (26.6%), C(16:0) (16.6%) and C(10:0) 3-OH (7.1%). The major isoprenoid quinone was Q-8. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 61 mol%. On the basis of the data from this polyphasic study, strain CL-YJ9(T) belongs to the genus Marinobacterium but is distinguishable from the recognized species. Strain CL-YJ9(T) therefore represents a novel species, for which the name Marinobacterium rhizophilum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CL-YJ9(T) (=KCCM 42386(T) =DSM 18822(T)).

  15. Comparison of Saccharina japonica-Undaria pinnatifida Mixture and Minoxidil on Hair Growth Promoting Effect in Mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Ki Soo; Park, Dae Hwan

    2016-11-01

    Algae have traditionally been used for promotion of hair growth. Use of hair regrowth drugs, such as minoxidil, is limited due to side effects. The aim of this study was to examine a mixture of Saccharina japonica and Undaria pinnatifida (L-U mixture) on hair growth and to compare the promoting effect of hair growth by a 3% minoxidil and a L-U mixture. To evaluate the hair growth-promoting activity, saline, 50% ethanol, 3% minoxidil, and the L-U mixture were applied 2 times a day for a total of 14 days on the dorsal skin of C57BL/6 mice after depilation. Analysis was determined by using a high-resolution hair analysis system, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and H&E staining. On day 14, the hair growth effect of the L-U mixture was the same as that of the 3% minoxidil treatment. The L-U mixture significantly (P<0.05) stimulated hair growth-promoting genes, as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and insulin-like growth factor -1. Increase of VEGF was observed in the L-U mixture group compared with minoxidil and the negative control. In contrast, the L-U mixture suppressed the expression of transforming growth factor-β1, which is the hair loss-related gene. In histological examination in the L-U mixture and minoxidil groups, the induction of an anagen stage of hair follicles was faster than that of control groups. This study provides evidence that the L-U mixture can promote hair growth in mice, similar to the effect from minoxidil, and suggests that there is potential application for hair loss treatments.

  16. No evidence for sex-specific effects of the maternal social environment on offspring development in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Langen, Esther M A; von Engelhardt, Nikolaus; Goerlich-Jansson, Vivian C

    2018-07-01

    The social environment of reproducing females can cause physiological changes, with consequences for reproductive investment and offspring development. These prenatal maternal effects are often found to be sex-specific and may have evolved as adaptations, maximizing fitness of male and female offspring for their future environment. Female hormone levels during reproduction are considered a potential mechanism regulating sex allocation in vertebrates: high maternal androgens have repeatedly been linked to increased investment in sons, whereas high glucocorticoid levels are usually related to increased investment in daughters. However, results are not consistent across studies and therefore still inconclusive. In Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), we previously found that pair-housed females had higher plasma androgen levels and tended to have higher plasma corticosterone levels than group-housed females. In the current study we investigate whether these differences in maternal social environment and physiology affect offspring sex allocation and physiology. Counter to our expectations, we find no effects of the maternal social environment on offspring sex ratio, sex-specific mortality, growth, circulating androgen or corticosterone levels. Also, maternal corticosterone or androgen levels do not correlate with offspring sex ratio or mortality. The social environment during reproduction therefore does not necessarily modify sex allocation and offspring physiology, even if it causes differences in maternal physiology. We propose that maternal effects of the social environment strongly depend upon the type of social stimuli and the timing of changes in the social environment and hormones with respect to the reproductive cycle and meiosis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact and cost-effectiveness of a comprehensive Schistosomiasis japonica control program in the Poyang Lake region of China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qing; Zhao, Geng-Ming; Hong, Xian-Lin; Lutz, Eric A; Guo, Jia-Gang

    2013-11-28

    Schistosomiasis japonica remains a significant public-health problem in China. This study evaluated cost-effectiveness of a comprehensive schistosomiasis control program (2003-2006). The comprehensive control program was implemented in Zhangjia and Jianwu (cases); while standard interventions continued in Koutou and Xiajia (controls). Incurred costs were documented and the schistosomiasis comprehensive impact index (SCI) and cost-effectiveness ratio (Comprehensive Control Program Cost/SCI) were applied. In 2003, prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum infection was 11.3% (Zhangjia), 6.7% (Jianwu), 6.5% (Koutou), and 8.0% (Xiajia). In 2006, the comprehensive control program in Zhangjia and Jianwu reduced infection to 1.6% and 0.6%, respectively; while Koutou and Xiajia had a schistosomiasis prevalence of 3.2% and 13.0%, respectively. The year-by-year SCIs in Zhangjia were 0.28, 105.25, and 47.58, with an overall increase in cost-effectiveness ratio of 374.9%-544.8%. The SCIs in Jianwu were 16.21, 52.95, and 149.58, with increase in cost-effectiveness of 226.7%-1,149.4%. Investment in Koutou and Xiajia remained static (US$10,000 unit cost). The comprehensive control program implemented in the two case villages reduced median prevalence of schistosomiasis 8.5-fold. Further, the cost effectiveness ratio demonstrated that the comprehensive control program was 170% (Zhangjia) and 922.7% (Jianwu) more cost-effective. This work clearly shows the improvements in both cost and disease prevention effectiveness that a comprehensive control program-approach has on schistosomiasis infection prevalence.

  18. Common, unsightly and until now undescribed: Fumiglobus pieridicola sp. nov., a sooty mold infesting Pieris japonica from western North America.

    PubMed

    Bose, Tanay; Reynolds, Don R; Berbee, Mary L

    2014-01-01

    Sooty molds (Capnodiaceae) are saprotrophs on the surfaces of leaves, and they take their nutrients from honeydew exuded by sap-sucking insects. We describe and illustrate the sooty mold Fumiglobus pieridicola sp. nov., which, to the dismay of gardeners, forms a thick black mycelial coating on the leaves and twigs of ornamental Japanese andromeda (Pieris japonica) in western North America. As a mitosporic species with a pycnidium that lacks an elongated neck and has at most a rudimentary stalk, the species belongs in the genus Fumiglobus. Although locally common, we found no specimens identified under Fumiglobus or its synonyms in regional herbaria and no record of any similar fungus in host indices. Our species differs from others in Fumiglobus in having smaller pycnidia and conidia and in having intercalary as well as apical pycnidia. We determined partial 18S and 28S ribosomal gene sequences for F. pieridicola, the first for any Fumiglobus species. Sequence analysis provides strong bootstrap support for including Fumiglobus within Capnodiaceae. We also determined 18S and 28S sequences for the type species of the mitosporic genus Conidiocarpus, also in Capnodiaceae. We confirm that Conidiocarpus is the anamorph of Phragmocapnias. Following the rules of nomenclatural priority, we propose the new combinations Conidiocarpus asiaticus, Conidiocarpus betle, Conidiocarpus callitris, Conidiocarpus fuliginodes, Conidiocarpus heliconiae, Conidiocarpus imperspicuus and Conidiocarpus siamensis. We hope that describing the mystery fungus from our region and providing sequences for its molecular identification will lead to new studies on its biology and distribution. © 2014 by The Mycological Society of America.

  19. Impact and Cost-Effectiveness of a Comprehensive Schistosomiasis japonica Control Program in the Poyang Lake Region of China

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Qing; Zhao, Geng-Ming; Hong, Xian-Lin; Lutz, Eric A.; Guo, Jia-Gang

    2013-01-01

    Schistosomiasis japonica remains a significant public-health problem in China. This study evaluated cost-effectiveness of a comprehensive schistosomiasis control program (2003–2006). The comprehensive control program was implemented in Zhangjia and Jianwu (cases); while standard interventions continued in Koutou and Xiajia (controls). Incurred costs were documented and the schistosomiasis comprehensive impact index (SCI) and cost-effectiveness ratio (Comprehensive Control Program Cost/SCI) were applied. In 2003, prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum infection was 11.3% (Zhangjia), 6.7% (Jianwu), 6.5% (Koutou), and 8.0% (Xiajia). In 2006, the comprehensive control program in Zhangjia and Jianwu reduced infection to 1.6% and 0.6%, respectively; while Koutou and Xiajia had a schistosomiasis prevalence of 3.2% and 13.0%, respectively. The year-by-year SCIs in Zhangjia were 0.28, 105.25, and 47.58, with an overall increase in cost-effectiveness ratio of 374.9%–544.8%. The SCIs in Jianwu were 16.21, 52.95, and 149.58, with increase in cost-effectiveness of 226.7%–1,149.4%. Investment in Koutou and Xiajia remained static (US$10,000 unit cost). The comprehensive control program implemented in the two case villages reduced median prevalence of schistosomiasis 8.5-fold. Further, the cost effectiveness ratio demonstrated that the comprehensive control program was 170% (Zhangjia) and 922.7% (Jianwu) more cost-effective. This work clearly shows the improvements in both cost and disease prevention effectiveness that a comprehensive control program-approach has on schistosomiasis infection prevalence. PMID:24287861

  20. Geographic range and structure of cryptic genetic diversity among Pacific North American populations of the non-native amphipod Grandidierella japonica

    Pilgrim, Erik M.; Blum, Michael J.; Reusser, Deborah A.; Lee, Henry; Darling, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Reconstructing the invasion history of aquatic invasive species can enhance understanding of invasion risks by recognizing areas most susceptible to invasion and forecasting future spread based on past patterns of population expansion. Here we reconstruct the invasion history of the Japanese amphipod Grandidierella japonica Stephensen 1938 combining information from historical collection data with molecular genetic data to better understand post-invasion range expansion and anthropogenic connectivity across the Pacific coast of North America. Compilation of collection data from bays and estuaries of the Pacific North American coast show many new localities have been colonized in the last two decades, moving outward from harbors and bays with high commercial traffic into smaller coastal locations dominated by local recreational traffic. DNA barcode sequence data for G. japonica reveals two distinct clades: one found in San Francisco Bay and sites to the north, and one also found in San Francisco Bay and sites to the south. The two clades differ by an average 7.28 % genetic distance, large enough to consider these invasive amphipods two separate species. Both northern and southern clades exhibit low levels of genetic diversity, suggesting a single introduction event for each. The presence of cryptic diversity within this invasive amphipod highlights the need for more extensive study of the invasive and native populations of aquatic invasive invertebrates to address questions of taxonomy, diversity, and invasion history.

  1. RNA-seq based transcriptomic analysis uncovers α-linolenic acid and jasmonic acid biosynthesis pathways respond to cold acclimation in Camellia japonica

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qingyuan; Lei, Sheng; Du, Kebing; Li, Lizhi; Pang, Xufeng; Wang, Zhanchang; Wei, Ming; Fu, Shao; Hu, Limin; Xu, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Camellia is a well-known ornamental flower native to Southeast of Asia, including regions such as Japan, Korea and South China. However, most species in the genus Camellia are cold sensitive. To elucidate the cold stress responses in camellia plants, we carried out deep transcriptome sequencing of ‘Jiangxue’, a cold-tolerant cultivar of Camellia japonica, and approximately 1,006 million clean reads were generated using Illumina sequencing technology. The assembly of the clean reads produced 367,620 transcripts, including 207,592 unigenes. Overall, 28,038 differentially expressed genes were identified during cold acclimation. Detailed elucidation of responses of transcription factors, protein kinases and plant hormone signalling-related genes described the interplay of signal that allowed the plant to fine-tune cold stress responses. On the basis of global gene regulation of unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis- and jasmonic acid biosynthesis-related genes, unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis and jasmonic acid biosynthesis pathways were deduced to be involved in the low temperature responses in C. japonica. These results were supported by the determination of the fatty acid composition and jasmonic acid content. Our results provide insights into the genetic and molecular basis of the responses to cold acclimation in camellia plants. PMID:27819341

  2. Genome-wide screening of Oryza sativa ssp. japonica and indica reveals a complex family of proteins with ribosome-inactivating protein domains.

    PubMed

    Wytynck, Pieter; Rougé, Pierre; Van Damme, Els J M

    2017-11-01

    Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) are cytotoxic enzymes capable of halting protein synthesis by irreversible modification of ribosomes. Although RIPs are widespread they are not ubiquitous in the plant kingdom. The physiological importance of RIPs is not fully elucidated, but evidence suggests a role in the protection of the plant against biotic and abiotic stresses. Searches in the rice genome revealed a large and highly complex family of proteins with a RIP domain. A comparative analysis retrieved 38 RIP sequences from the genome sequence of Oryza sativa subspecies japonica and 34 sequences from the subspecies indica. The RIP sequences are scattered over different chromosomes but are mostly found on the third chromosome. The phylogenetic tree revealed the pairwise clustering of RIPs from japonica and indica. Molecular modeling and sequence analysis yielded information on the catalytic site of the enzyme, and suggested that a large part of RIP domains probably possess N-glycosidase activity. Several RIPs are differentially expressed in plant tissues and in response to specific abiotic stresses. This study provides an overview of RIP motifs in rice and will help to understand their biological role(s) and evolutionary relationships. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Water-based gas purge microsyringe extraction coupled with liquid chromatography for determination of alkylphenols from sea food Laminaria japonica Aresh.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cui; Zhao, Jinhua; Wang, Juan; Yu, Hongling; Piao, Xiangfan; Li, Donghao

    2013-07-26

    A novel organic solvent-free mode of gas purge microsyringe extraction, termed water-based gas purge microsyringe extraction, was developed. This technique can directly extract target compounds in wet samples without any drying process. Parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were investigated. Under optimal extraction conditions, the recoveries of alkylphenols were between 87.6 and 105.8%, and reproducibility was between 5.2 and 12.1%. The technique was also used to determine six kinds of alkylphenols (APs) from samples of Laminaria japonica Aresh. The OP and NP were detected in all the samples, and concentrations ranged from 26.0 to 54.5ngg(-1) and 45.0-180.4ngg(-1), respectively. The 4-n-butylphenol was detected in only one sample and its concentration was very low. Other APs were not detected in L. japonica Aresh samples. The experimental results demonstrated that the technique is fast, simple, non-polluting, allows for quantitative extraction, and a drying process was not required for wet samples. Since only aqueous solution and a conventional microsyringe were used, this technique proved affordable, efficient, and convenient for the extraction of volatile and semivolatile ionizable compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of novel microsatellite markers for Holothurian scabra (Holothuriidae), Apostichopus japonicas (Stichopodidae) and cross-species testing in other sea cucumbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shangguan, Jingbo; Li, Zhongbao

    2017-06-01

    Thirty-five new microsatellite loci from the sea cucumbers Holothurian scabra (Jaeger, 1833) and Apostichopus japonicas (Selenka, 1867) were screened and characterized using the method of magnetic bead enrichment. Of the twenty-four polymorphic loci tested, eighteen were consistent with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium after a modified false discovery rate (B-Y FDR) correction, whereas six showed statistically significant deviations (CHS2 and CHS11: P <0.014790; FCS1, FCS6, FCS8 and FCS14: P <0.015377). Furthermore, four species of plesiomorphous and related sea cucumbers (Holothurian scabra, Holothuria leucospilota, Stichopus horrens and Apostichopus japonicas) were tested for mutual cross-amplification using a total of ninety microsatellite loci. Although transferability and universality of all loci were generally low, the results of the cross-species study showed that the markers can be applied to identify individuals to species according to the presence or absence of specific microsatellite alleles. The microsatellite markers reported here will contribute to the study of genetic diversity, assisted breeding, and population conservation in sea cucumbers, as well as allow for the identification of individuals to closely related species.

  5. Lamprey immune protein-1 (LIP-1) from Lampetra japonica induces cell cycle arrest and cell death in HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Chi, Xiaoyuan; Su, Peng; Bi, Dan; Tai, Zhao; Li, Yingying; Pang, Yue; Li, Qingwei

    2018-04-01

    The lamprey (Lampetra japonica), a representative of the jawless vertebrates, is the oldest extant species in the world. LIP-1, which has a jacalin-like domain and an aerolysin pore-forming domain, has previously been identified in Lampetra japonica. However, the structure and function of the LIP-1 protein have not been described. In this study, the LIP-1 gene was overexpressed in HeLa cells and H293T cells. The results showed that the overexpression of LIP-1 in HeLa cells significantly elevated LDH release (P < 0.05), phosphatidylserine exposure and ROS accumulation. The overexpression of LIP-1 also had remarkable effects on the organelles in HeLa cells, while it had no effect on H293T cell organelles. Array data indicated that overexpression of LIP-1 primarily upregulated P53 signaling pathways in HeLa cells. Cell cycle assay results confirmed that LIP-1 caused arrest in the G 2 /M phase of the cell cycle in HeLa cells. In summary, our findings provide insights into the function and characterization of LIP-1 genes in vertebrates and establish the foundation for further research into the biological function of LIP-1. Our observations suggest that this lamprey protein has the potential for use in new applications in the medical field. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Development of novel microsatellite markers for Holothurian scabra (Holothuriidae), Apostichopus japonicas (Stichopodidae) and cross-species testing in other sea cucumbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shangguan, Jingbo; Li, Zhongbao

    2018-03-01

    Thirty-five new microsatellite loci from the sea cucumbers Holothurian scabra (Jaeger, 1833) and Apostichopus japonicas (Selenka, 1867) were screened and characterized using the method of magnetic bead enrichment. Of the twenty-four polymorphic loci tested, eighteen were consistent with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium after a modified false discovery rate (B-Y FDR) correction, whereas six showed statistically significant deviations (CHS2 and CHS11: P<0.014 790; FCS1, FCS6, FCS8 and FCS14: P<0.015 377). Furthermore, four species of plesiomorphous and related sea cucumbers ( Holothurian scabra, Holothuria leucospilota, Stichopus horrens and Apostichopus japonicas) were tested for mutual cross-amplification using a total of ninety microsatellite loci. Although transferability and universality of all loci were generally low, the results of the cross-species study showed that the markers can be applied to identify individuals to species according to the presence or absence of specific microsatellite alleles. The microsatellite markers reported here will contribute to the study of genetic diversity, assisted breeding, and population conservation in sea cucumbers, as well as allow for the identification of individuals to closely related species.

  7. The influence of inclusions of vitamin E and corn oil on semen traits of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Golzar Adabi, S H; Cooper, R G; Kamali, M A; Hajbabaei, A

    2011-01-01

    Reported was an investigation of the effect of vitamin E (Vit.E) and corn oil on semen traits of male Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). From 8 to 20 wk of age, birds were raised on corn-based diets supplemented with corn oil (0 and 3%) and Vit.E (National Research Council (NRC) recommended 25mg/kg/day/dry matter and 150 mg/kg/day/dry matter) in a 2×2 factorial manner. The diet was supplemented with corn oil and Vit.E (E2C2) which provided additional n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the form of 20:4n-6 and 22:4n-6 in spermatozoa phospholipid. The left testes weights were increased (P<0.01) in groups that received Vit.E in the diet (3.95 and 4.12 g, respectively) (P=0.03) and combined testes weight was the greatest in E2C2 group (7.57g) (P=0.02). Semen volume increased throughout the experiment in the E2C2 group. E2C1 and E2C2 birds had the greatest (90.05% and 92.1%, respectively) live sperm percent by comparison with other groups. The susceptibility of semen to lipid peroxidation in vitro was increased in quail fed E1C1 and E1C2, but was reduced when 150 mg Vit.E kg/day/dry matter feed was provided in the diet. The amount of Vit.E in the seminal plasma of E1C1 and E1C2 groups was (P<0.01) less than that in the other two groups (E2C1 and E2C2). From this study, it may be concluded that increasing diet n-6/n-3 ratio can be beneficial for semen traits, however, this application increased sperm peroxidation sensitivity but it can be controlled by inclusion of antioxidant such as Vit.E (150 mg/kg/day/dry matter) to diet. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Semen characteristics and biochemical composition of cloacal foam of male Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix Japonica) fed diet incorporated with selenium.

    PubMed

    Biswas, A; Mohan, J; Mandal, A B; Lal, N

    2017-04-01

    An attempt was made to investigate the effect of dietary selenium (Se) on physical and cloacal gland size, foam production, biochemical composition of foam and semen biochemical characteristics of male Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix Japonica). Two hundred twenty-five (225)-day-old male Japanese quail were randomly distributed to three dietary treatment groups for a period of 20 weeks. Each treatment comprised of three replicates, each containing 25 chicks. Three experimental diets were supplemented with 0, 0.5 and 1.0 mg Se/kg (T 1 , T 2 and T 3, respectively), and diet T 1 was considered as control. Sodium selenite was used as the source of selenium. All the birds were provided with feed and water ad libitum. Cloacal foam characteristics, that is cloacal gland index and foam weight, were significantly higher in T 2 group. However, body weight, frequency of foam discharge and testes weight (left and right) did not differ significantly (p > 0.05). Physical characteristics of semen, that is semen volume and sperm concentration, did not differ (p > 0.05) among the Se-treated groups. The sperm motility, live-dead count and abnormality improved significantly (p < 0.05) in 0.5 mg/Se-supplemented group compared to 0 or 1.0 mg/Se-supplemented groups. Similarly, fertility and hatchability percentages were higher (p < 0.05) in 0.5 mg/Se-supplemented group than in control or 1.0 mg/Se-supplemented counterparts. The biochemical characteristics of foam in terms of total protein, acid phosphatase (ACP) and nitric oxide did not differ (p > 0.05), while the concentration of glucose was higher (p < 0.05) in 0.5 mg/Se-supplemented diet. On the other hand, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were lower (p < 0.05) in 0.5 mg/Se-supplemented group compared to control or 1.0 mg/Se-supplemented groups. From this study, it was concluded that supplementation of 0.5 mg Se/kg diet was beneficial for foam

  9. Plasma D-dimer Can Effectively Predict the Prospective Occurrence of Ascites in Advanced Schistosomiasis Japonica Patients.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaoying; Ren, Jianwei; Gao, Zulu; Xu, Yun; Xie, Huiqun; Li, Tingfang; Cheng, Yanhua; Hu, Fei; Liu, Hongyun; Gong, Zhihong; Liang, Jinyi; Shen, Jia; Liu, Zhen; Wu, Feng; Sun, Xi; Niu, Zhongzheng; Ning, An

    2017-04-01

    China still has more than 30,000 patients of advanced schistosomiasis while new cases being reported consistently. D-dimer is a fibrin degradation product. As ascites being the dominating symptom in advanced schistosomiasis, the present study aimed to explore a prediction model of ascites with D-dimer and other clinical easy-achievable indicators. A case-control study nested in a prospective cohort was conducted in schistosomiasis-endemic area of southern China. A total of 291 patients of advanced schistosomiasis were first investigated in 2013 and further followed in 2014. Information on clinical history, physical examination, and abdominal ultrasonography, including the symptom of ascites was repeatedly collected. Result showed 44 patients having ascites. Most of the patients' ascites were confined in the kidney area with median area of 20 mm 2 . The level of plasma D-dimer and pertinent liver function indicators were measured at the initial investigation in 2013. Compared with those without ascites, cases with ascites had significantly higher levels of D-dimer (0.71±2.44 μg/L vs 0.48±2.12 μg/L, P =0.005), as well ALB (44.5 vs 46.2, g/L) and Type IV collagen (50.04 vs 44.50 μg/L). Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses indicated a moderate predictive value of D-dimer by its own area under curve (AUC) of 0.64 (95% CI: 0.54-0.73) and the cutoff value as 0.81 μg/L. Dichotomized by the cutoff level, D-dimer along with other categorical variables generated a prediction model with AUC of 0.76 (95% CI: 0.68-0.89). Risks of patients with specific characteristics in the prediction model were summarized. Our study suggests that the plasma D-dimer level is a reliable predictor for incident ascites in advanced schistosomiasis japonica patients.

  10. Plasma D-dimer Can Effectively Predict the Prospective Occurrence of Ascites in Advanced Schistosomiasis Japonica Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaoying; Ren, Jianwei; Gao, Zulu; Xu, Yun; Xie, Huiqun; Li, Tingfang; Cheng, Yanhua; Hu, Fei; Liu, Hongyun; Gong, Zhihong; Liang, Jinyi; Shen, Jia; Liu, Zhen; Wu, Feng; Sun, Xi; Niu, Zhongzheng; Ning, An

    2017-01-01

    China still has more than 30,000 patients of advanced schistosomiasis while new cases being reported consistently. D-dimer is a fibrin degradation product. As ascites being the dominating symptom in advanced schistosomiasis, the present study aimed to explore a prediction model of ascites with D-dimer and other clinical easy-achievable indicators. A case-control study nested in a prospective cohort was conducted in schistosomiasis-endemic area of southern China. A total of 291 patients of advanced schistosomiasis were first investigated in 2013 and further followed in 2014. Information on clinical history, physical examination, and abdominal ultrasonography, including the symptom of ascites was repeatedly collected. Result showed 44 patients having ascites. Most of the patients’ ascites were confined in the kidney area with median area of 20 mm2. The level of plasma D-dimer and pertinent liver function indicators were measured at the initial investigation in 2013. Compared with those without ascites, cases with ascites had significantly higher levels of D-dimer (0.71±2.44 μg/L vs 0.48±2.12 μg/L, P=0.005), as well ALB (44.5 vs 46.2, g/L) and Type IV collagen (50.04 vs 44.50 μg/L). Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses indicated a moderate predictive value of D-dimer by its own area under curve (AUC) of 0.64 (95% CI: 0.54–0.73) and the cutoff value as 0.81 μg/L. Dichotomized by the cutoff level, D-dimer along with other categorical variables generated a prediction model with AUC of 0.76 (95% CI: 0.68–0.89). Risks of patients with specific characteristics in the prediction model were summarized. Our study suggests that the plasma D-dimer level is a reliable predictor for incident ascites in advanced schistosomiasis japonica patients. PMID:28506039

  11. Effects of dietary nucleotides on growth, non-specific immune response and disease resistance of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicas.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zehong; Yi, Lina; Xu, Wei; Zhou, Huihui; Zhang, Yanjiao; Zhang, Wenbing; Mai, Kangsen

    2015-11-01

    A 9-week feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary nucleotides (NT) on growth, immune response and disease resistance of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicas (initial weight: 5.87 ± 0.03 g). Four graded levels of dietary NT were designed as 0, 150, 375 and 700 mg/kg, respectively. After the feeding trial, sea cucumbers were challenged with Vibrio splendidus for the determination of disease resistance. The results showed that the specific growth rates were significantly higher in sea cucumber fed the diet with 375 mg/kg NT than those fed the basal diet without NT supplementation (P < 0.05). The highest total coelomocytes counts in coelomic fluid were found in the treatment with 150 mg/kg of dietary NT (P < 0.05). Compared to those fed with the basal diet, sea cucumber fed diets with nucleotides (≥ 375 mg/kg) had significantly higher phagocytic activities in coelomic fluid (P < 0.05). Respiratory burst activities in coelomic fluid significantly increased with increasing dietary NT supplementations up to 700 mg/kg (P < 0.05). No significant differences in the activities of superoxide dismutase, total nitric oxide synthase and acid phosphatase in coelomic fluid were found among all the treatments (P > 0.05). After being challenged with V. splendidus, the cumulative mortalities of sea cucumber fed diets with 150 and 375 mg/kg NT were significantly lower than that in the treatment without dietary nucleotide supplementation (P < 0.05). Under the experimental conditions, the present results confirmed that a diet supplemented with 375 mg/kg NT is able to enhance both non-specific immune response and growth of sea cucumber in vivo. In conclusion, it was showed that dietary NT does increase the growth performance, non-specific immunity and disease resistance of sea cucumber. The optimum dietary NT supplementation level for sea cucumber was found to be 375 mg/kg. The application of dietary NT may present a novel strategy for health management in

  12. Oriental orchid (Cymbidium floribundum) attracts the Japanese honeybee (Apis cerana japonica) with a mixture of 3-hydroxyoctanoic acid and 10-hydroxy- (E)-2-decenoic acid.

    PubMed

    Sugahara, Michio; Izutsu, Kazunari; Nishimura, Yasuichiro; Sakamoto, Fumio

    2013-02-01

    The flower of the oriental orchid Cymbidium floribundum is known to attract the Japanese honeybee Apis cerana japonica. This effect is observed not only in workers but also drones and queens; that is, it attracts even swarming and absconding bees. A mixture of 3-hydroxyoctanoic acid (3-HOAA) and 10-hydroxy-(E)-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA) was identified as the active principles from the orchid flower, whereas these compounds individually have no such activity. Both compounds are also mandibular gland components of worker honeybees with related compounds. This strongly supports the idea that orchid flowers mimic bee secretions, although the ecological consequences of this relationship remain unknown. Because the flower is used to capture swarms, the present identification may contribute to the development of new techniques in traditional beekeeping for Japanese bees as well as A. cerana in Southeast Asia.

  13. Black rice (Oryza sativa L. var. japonica) hydrolyzed peptides induce expression of hyaluronan synthase 2 gene in HaCaT keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Sim, Gwan Sub; Lee, Dong-Hwan; Kim, Jin-Hwa; An, Sung-Kwan; Choe, Tae-Boo; Kwon, Tae-Jong; Pyo, Hyeong-Bae; Lee, Bum-Chun

    2007-02-01

    Black rice (Oryza sativa L. var. japonica) has been used in folk medicine in Asia. To understand the effects of black rice hydrolyzed peptides (BRP) from germinated black rice, we assessed the expression levels of about 20,000 transcripts in BRP-treated HaCaT keratinocytes using human 1A oligo microarray analysis. As a result, the BRP treatment showed a differential expression ratio of more than 2-fold: 745 were activated and 1,011 were repressed. One of the most interesting findings was a 2-fold increase in hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2) gene expression by BRP. Semiquantitative RT-PCR showed that BRP increased HAS2 mRNA in dose-dependent manners. ELISA showed that BRP effectively increased hyaluronan (HA) production in HaCaT keratinocytes.

  14. Protoberberine alkaloids and their reversal activity of P-gp expressed multidrug resistance (MDR) from the rhizome of Coptis japonica Makino.

    PubMed

    Min, Yong Deuk; Yang, Min Cheol; Lee, Kyu Ha; Kim, Kyung Ran; Choi, Sang Un; Lee, Kang Ro

    2006-09-01

    Six protoberberine alkaloids were isolated from the chloroform layer of the rhizome of Coptis japonica Makino (Ranunculaceae). The structures of the isolated compounds were determined to be 6-([1,3]dioxolo[4,5-g]isoquinoline-5-carbonyl)-2,3-dimethoxy-benzoic acid methyl ester (1), oxyberberine (2), 8-oxo-epiberberine (3), 8-oxocoptisine (4), berberine (5) and palmatine (6) by physicochemical and spectroscopic methods. The compound 3 (8-oxo-epiberberine) was first isolated from natural sources. The compounds were tested for cytotoxicity against five tumor cell lines in vitro by SRB method, and also tested for the MDR reversal activities. Compound 4 was of significant P-gp MDR inhibition activity with ED50 value 0.018 microg/mL in MES-SA/DX5 cell and 0.0005 microg/mL in HCT15 cell, respectively.

  15. Effect of dietary supplementation of fermented fish silage on serum biochemical parameters of broiler Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Panda, Sasmita; Babu, Laxman Kumar; Panda, Arun Kumar; S, Tanuja; Mohanty, Anurag; Panigrahy, Kuldeep Kumar; Samal, Pinaki

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding fermented fish silage (FFS) on serum biochemical parameters of Japanese quails ( Coturnix coturnix japonica ). A total of 192, 7-day-old broiler Japanese quail chicks of either sex, were randomly distributed into four dietary treatments with four replicates in each group having 12 chicks in each replicate pen. The dietary treatments were T 1 - Control diet, T 2 - Diet containing 5% FFS, T 3 - Diet containing 10% FFS, and T 4 - Diet containing 15% FFS. Group body weight and feed consumption were recorded at weekly intervals. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) was derived by dividing the feed consumed with the weekly body weight gain. At the end of the experiment, 8 birds from each treatment were selected randomly and sacrificed by cervical dislocation to study the carcass traits expressed as % pre-slaughter live weight. At 5 weeks of age, about 2 ml of blood was taken from the jugular vein of each selected bird, and serum samples were separated after centrifugation. Total protein, albumin/globulin (A/G) ratio, calcium, phosphorus, triglyceride, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were estimated in the serum. The cumulative body weight gains from 1 to 5 weeks of age did not vary significantly between control and 5% FFS group. However, a linear decrease in body weight gain was observed by increasing the levels of FFS beyond 5% in the diet. The cumulative feed consumption was significantly higher in case of birds under control group during 1-5 weeks of age as compared to birds fed FFS based diet (5%, 10%, and 15%). No statistical difference in cumulative feed conversion ratio could be noticed during 1-5 weeks of age. The eviscerated yield decreased and giblet weight increased due to the dietary supplementation of FFS at

  16. Characterization of ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase and transcriptional analysis of its related genes in Saccharina japonica (Laminariales, Phaeophyta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Zhanru; Liu, Fuli; Li, Qiuying; Yao, Jianting; Duan, Delin

    2014-03-01

    Saccharina japonica is a common macroalga in sublittoral communities of cold seawater environments, and consequently may have highly efficient ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) activity for carbon assimilation. In our study, we cloned the full-length Rubisco gene from S. japonica ( SJ-rbc). It contained an open reading frame for a large subunit gene ( SJ — rbcL) of 1 467 bp, a small subunit gene ( SJ-rbcS) of 420 bp, and a SJ-rbcL/S intergenic spacer of 269 bp. The deduced peptides of SJ-rbcL and SJ-rbcS were 488 and 139 amino acids with theoretical molecular weights and isoelectric points of 53.97 kDa, 5.81 and 15.84 kDa, 4.71, respectively. After induction with 1 mmol/L isopropyl- β-D-thiogalactopyranoside for 5 h and purification by Ni2+ affinity chromatography, electrophoresis and western blot detection demonstrated successful expression of the 55 kDa SJ-rbcL protein. Real-time quantitative PCR showed that the mRNA levels of SJ-rbcL in gametophytes increased when transferred into normal growth conditions and exhibited diurnal variations: increased expression during the day but suppressed expression at night. This observation implied that Rubisco played a role in normal gametophytic growth and development. In juvenile sporophytes, mRNA levels of SJ-rbcL, carbonic anhydrase, Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle-related enzyme, and chloroplast light-harvesting protein were remarkably increased under continuous light irradiance. Similarly, expression of these genes was up-regulated under blue light irradiance at 350 μmol/(m2·s). Our results indicate that long-term white light and short-term blue light irradiance enhances juvenile sporophytic growth by synergistic effects of various photosynthetic elements.

  17. De novo assembly of the Japanese lawngrass (Zoysia japonica Steud.) root transcriptome and identification of candidate unigenes related to early responses under salt stress

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Qi; Niu, Jun; Xu, Xilin; Xu, Lixin; Zhang, Yinbing; Fan, Bo; Liang, Xiaohong; Zhang, Lijuan; Yin, Shuxia; Han, Liebao

    2015-01-01

    Japanese lawngrass (Zoysia japonica Steud.) is an important warm-season turfgrass that is able to survive in a range of soils, from infertile sands to clays, and to grow well under saline conditions. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in its resistance to salt stress. Here, we used high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to investigate the changes in gene expression of Zoysia grass at high NaCl concentrations. We first constructed two sequencing libraries, including control and NaCl-treated samples, and sequenced them using the Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 platform. Approximately 157.20 million paired-end reads with a total length of 68.68 Mb were obtained. Subsequently, 32,849 unigenes with an N50 length of 1781 bp were assembled using Trinity. Furthermore, three public databases, the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), Swiss-prot, and Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COGs), were used for gene function analysis and enrichment. The annotated genes included 57 Gene Ontology (GO) terms, 120 KEGG pathways, and 24 COGs. Compared with the control, 1455 genes were significantly different (false discovery rate ≤0.01, |log2Ratio |≥1) in the NaCl-treated samples. These genes were enriched in 10 KEGG pathways and 73 GO terms, and subjected to 25 COG categories. Using high-throughput next-generation sequencing, we built a database as a global transcript resource for Z. japonica Steud. roots. The results of this study will advance our understanding of the early salt response in Japanese lawngrass roots. PMID:26347751

  18. Rice choline monooxygenase (OsCMO) protein functions in enhancing glycine betaine biosynthesis in transgenic tobacco but does not accumulate in rice (Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica).

    PubMed

    Luo, Di; Niu, Xiangli; Yu, Jinde; Yan, Jun; Gou, Xiaojun; Lu, Bao-Rong; Liu, Yongsheng

    2012-09-01

    Glycine betaine (GB) is a compatible quaternary amine that enables plants to tolerate abiotic stresses, including salt, drought and cold. In plants, GB is synthesized through two-step of successive oxidations from choline, catalyzed by choline monooxygenase (CMO) and betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH), respectively. Rice is considered as a typical non-GB accumulating species, although the entire genome sequencing revealed rice contains orthologs of both CMO and BADH. Several studies unraveled that rice has a functional BADH gene, but whether rice CMO gene (OsCMO) is functional or a pseudogene remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we report the functional characterization of rice CMO gene. The OsCMO gene was isolated from rice cv. Nipponbare (Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica) using RT-PCR. Northern blot demonstrated the transcription of OsCMO is enhanced by salt stress. Transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing OsCMO results in increased GB content and elevated tolerance to salt stress. Immunoblotting analysis demonstrates that a functional OsCMO protein with correct size was present in transgenic tobacco but rarely accumulated in wild-type rice plants. Surprisingly, a large amount of truncated proteins derived from OsCMO was induced in the rice seedlings in response to salt stresses. This suggests that it is the lack of a functional OsCMO protein that presumably results in non-GB accumulation in the tested rice plant. Expression and transgenic studies demonstrate OsCMO is transcriptionally induced in response to salt stress and functions in increasing glycinebetaine accumulation and enhancing tolerance to salt stress. Immunoblotting analysis suggests that no accumulation of glycinebetaine in the Japonica rice plant presumably results from lack of a functional OsCMO protein.

  19. An efficient and high-throughput protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation based on phosphomannose isomerase positive selection in Japonica rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Duan, Yongbo; Zhai, Chenguang; Li, Hao; Li, Juan; Mei, Wenqian; Gui, Huaping; Ni, Dahu; Song, Fengshun; Li, Li; Zhang, Wanggen; Yang, Jianbo

    2012-09-01

    A number of Agrobacterium-mediated rice transformation systems have been developed and widely used in numerous laboratories and research institutes. However, those systems generally employ antibiotics like kanamycin and hygromycin, or herbicide as selectable agents, and are used for the small-scale experiments. To address high-throughput production of transgenic rice plants via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, and to eliminate public concern on antibiotic markers, we developed a comprehensive efficient protocol, covering from explant preparation to the acquisition of low copy events by real-time PCR analysis before transplant to field, for high-throughput production of transgenic plants of Japonica rice varieties Wanjing97 and Nipponbare using Escherichia coli phosphomannose isomerase gene (pmi) as a selectable marker. The transformation frequencies (TF) of Wanjing97 and Nipponbare were achieved as high as 54.8 and 47.5%, respectively, in one round of selection of 7.5 or 12.5 g/L mannose appended with 5 g/L sucrose. High-throughput transformation from inoculation to transplant of low copy events was accomplished within 55-60 days. Moreover, the Taqman assay data from a large number of transformants showed 45.2% in Wanjing97 and 31.5% in Nipponbare as a low copy rate, and the transformants are fertile and follow the Mendelian segregation ratio. This protocol facilitates us to perform genome-wide functional annotation of the open reading frames and utilization of the agronomically important genes in rice under a reduced public concern on selectable markers. We describe a comprehensive protocol for large scale production of transgenic Japonica rice plants using non-antibiotic selectable agent, at simplified, cost- and labor-saving manners.

  20. Flavonoids from the grains of C1/R-S transgenic rice, the transgenic Oryza sativa spp. japonica, and their radical scavenging activities.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jin-Gyeong; Song, Na-Young; Nam, Tae-Gyu; Shrestha, Sabina; Park, Hee-Jung; Lyu, Ha-Na; Kim, Dae-Ok; Lee, Gihwan; Woo, Young-Min; Jeong, Tae-Sook; Baek, Nam-In

    2013-10-30

    The transgenic rice cultivar of Oryza sativa spp. japonica cv. Hwa-Young, C1/R-S transgenic rice (C1/R-S rice), is a flavonoid-rich cultivar of rice. The grains of C1/R-S rice were extracted with aqueous MeOH, and the concentrated extract was partitioned with EtOAc, n-BuOH, and H2O, successively. Repeated silica gel, octadecyl silica gel (ODS), and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies for the EtOAc and n-BuOH fractions afforded four new flavonoids (compounds 2, 3, 7, and 8) along with four known flavonoids: (+)-3'-O-methyltaxifolin (1), brassicin (4), isorhamnetin-4'-O-β-D-glucosyranoside (5), and 3'-O-methyltaxifolin-5-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (6). The new flavonoids were identified as 3'-O-methyltaxifolin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), 3'-O-methyltaxifolin-4'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3), isorhamnetin-7-O-β-D-cellobioside (brassicin-4″-O-β-D-glucopyranoside) (7), and brassicin-4'-O-β-D-glucosyranoside (8) from the result of spectroscopic data including nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (NMR), mass spectrometry (MS), and infrared spectroscopy (IR). Also, quantitative analysis of major flavonoids (compounds 2, 3, and 8) in C1/R-S rice, O. sativa spp. japonica cv. Hwa-Young (HY), and a hybrid of two cultivar (C1/R-S rice/HY) extracts was performed using HPLC experiment. The isolated flavonoids were evaluated for their radical-scavenging effect on DPPH and ABTS radicals.

  1. Genome-wide association analysis of host genotype and plastic wing morphological variation of an endoparasitoid wasp Asobara japonica (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Shinpei; Takigahira, Tomohiro; Takahashi, Kazuo H

    2018-06-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that genotype of host insects influences the development of koinobiont endoparasitoids. Although there are many potential genetic variations that lead to the internal body environmental variations of host insects, association between the host genotype and the parasitoid development has not been examined in a genome-wide manner. In the present study, we used highly inbred whole genome sequenced strains of Drosophila melanogaster to associate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of host flies with morphological traits of Asobara japonica, a larval-pupal parasitoid wasp that infected those hosts. We quantified the outline shape of the forewings of A. japonica with two major principal components (PC1 and PC2) calculated from Fourier coefficients obtained from elliptic Fourier analysis. We also quantified wing size and estimated wasp survival. We then examined the association between the PC scores, wing size and 1,798,561 SNPs and  the association between the estimated wasp survival and 1,790,544 SNPs. As a result, we obtained 22, 24 and 14 SNPs for PC1, PC2 and wing size and four SNPs for the estimated survival with P values smaller than 10 -5 . Based on the location of the SNPs, 12, 17, 11 and five protein coding genes were identified as potential candidates for PC1, PC2, wing size and the estimated survival, respectively. Based on the function of the candidate genes, it is suggested that the host genetic variation associated with the cell growth and morphogenesis may influence the wasp's morphogenetic variation.

  2. An Efficient Method for the Preparative Isolation and Purification of Flavonoid Glycosides and Caffeoylquinic Acid Derivatives from Leaves of Lonicera japonica Thunb. Using High Speed Counter-Current Chromatography (HSCCC) and Prep-HPLC Guided by DPPH-HPLC Experiments.

    PubMed

    Wang, Daijie; Du, Ning; Wen, Lei; Zhu, Heng; Liu, Feng; Wang, Xiao; Du, Jinhua; Li, Shengbo

    2017-02-02

    In this work, the n-butanol extract from leaves of Lonicera japonica Thunb. (L. japonica) was reacted with DPPH and subjected to a HPLC analysis for the guided screening antioxidants (DPPH-HPLC experiments). Then, nine antioxidants, including flavonoid glycosides and caffeoylquinic acid derivatives, were isolated and purified from leaves of L. japonica using high speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) and prep-HPLC. The n-butanol extract was firstly isolated by HSCCC using methyl tert-butyl ether/n-butanol/acetonitrile/water (0.5% acetic acid) (2:2:1:5, v/v), yielding five fractions F1, F2 (rhoifolin), F3 (luteoloside), F4 and F5 (collected from the column after the separation). The sub-fractions F1, F4 and F5 were successfully separated by prep-HPLC. Finally, nine compounds, including chlorogenic acid (1), lonicerin (2), rutin (3), rhoifolin (4), luteoloside (5), 3,4-Odicaffeoylquinic acid (6), hyperoside (7), 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid (8), and 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid (9) were obtained, respectively, with the puriti