Weil, Marvin J; Zhang, Yanjun; Nair, Muraleedharan G
A reduced incidence of different types of cancer has been linked to consumption of Brassica vegetables, and there is evidence that glucosinolates (GSLs) and their hydrolysis products play a role in reducing cancer risk. Wasabi (Wasabia japonica) and horseradish (Armoracia rusticana), both Brassica vegetables, are widely used condiments both in Japanese cuisine and in the United States. Desulfosinigrin (DSS) (1) was isolated from a commercially available wasabi powder and from fresh wasabi roots. Sinigrin (2) was isolated from horseradish roots. DSS and sinigrin were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzymes, on lipid peroxidation, and on the proliferation of human colon (HCT-116), breast (MCF-7), lung (NCIH460), and central nervous system (CNS, SF-268) cancer cell lines. DSS did not inhibit COX enzymes or lipid peroxidation at 250 microg/ml. Sinigrin inhibited lipid peroxidation by 71% at 250 microg/ml. However, DSS promoted the growth of HCT-116 (colon) and NCI H460 (lung) human cancer cells as determined by the MTT assay in a concentration-dependent manner. At 3.72 microg/ml, a 27% increase in the number of viable human HCT-116 colon cancer cells was observed; the corresponding increases at 7.50 and 15 microg/ml were 42 and 69%, respectively. At 60 microg/ml, DSS doubled the number of HCT-16 colon cancer cells. For NCI H460 human lung cancer cells, DSS at 60 microg/ml increased the cell number by 20%. Sinigrin showed no proliferating effect on the tumor cells tested. This is the first report of the tumor cell-proliferating activity by a desulfoglucosinolate, the biosynthetic precursor of GSLs found in Brassica spp.
Kubo, Hiroyoshi; Yoshida, Kiyoshi; Nozue, Masayuki
A FLOWERING LOCUS T ortholog (WjFT) was identified in Wasabia japonica. Heterologous expression of WjFT remarkably promoted the flowering of Arabidopsis. The expression of WjFT was examined in field-grown wasabi in October and November of 2009, and February of 2010 because the differentiation of flower buds occurs in autumn in field-grown wasabi. No expression of WjFT was detected in October, it was slightly increased in November, and highly increased in February. WjFT might be useful for examining the flowering response of wasabi.
Weil, Marvin J; Zhang, Yanjun; Nair, Muraleedharan G
Cyclooxygenase and human tumor cell growth inhibitory extracts of horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) and wasabi (Wasabia japonica) rhizomes upon purification yielded active compounds 1-3 from horseradish and 4 and 5 from wasabi rhizomes. Spectroscopic analyses confirmed the identities of these active compounds as plastoquinone-9 (1), 6-O-acyl-beta-d-glucosyl-beta-sitosterol (2), 1,2-dilinolenoyl-3-galactosylglycerol (3), linolenoyloleoyl-3-beta-galactosylglycerol (4), and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-3-beta-galactosylglycerol (5). 3-Acyl-sitosterols, sinigrin, gluconasturtiin, and phosphatidylcholines isolated from horseradish and alpha-tocopherol and ubiquinone-10 from wasabi rhizomes isolated were inactive in our assays. At a concentration of 60 microg/mL, compounds 1 and 2 selectively inhibited COX-1 enzyme by 28 and 32%, respectively. Compounds 3, 4, and 5 gave 75, 42, and 47% inhibition of COX-1 enzyme, respectively, at a concentration of 250 microg/mL. In a dose response study, compound 3 inhibited the proliferation of colon cancer cells (HCT-116) by 21.9, 42.9, 51.2, and 68.4% and lung cancer cells (NCI-H460) by 30, 39, 44, and 71% at concentrations of 7.5, 15, 30, and 60 microg/mL, respectively. At a concentration of 60 microg/mL, compound 4 inhibited the growth of colon, lung, and stomach cancer cells by 28, 17, and 44%, respectively. This is the first report of the COX-1 enzyme and cancer cell growth inhibitory monogalactosyl diacylglycerides from wasabi and horseradish rhizomes.
Matsumoto, T; Sakai, A; Yamada, K
In vitro-grown apical meristems of wasabi (Wasabia japonica Matsumura) were successfully cryopreserved by vitrification. Excised apical meristems precultured on solidified M S medium containing 0.3M sucrose at 20°C for 1 day were loaded with a mixture of 2M glycerol and 0.4M sucrose for 20 min at 25°C. Cryoprotected meristems were then sufficiently dehydrated with a highly concentrated vitrification solution (designated PVS2) for 10 min at 25°C prior to a plunge into liquid nitrogen. After rapid warming, the meristems were expelled into 2 ml of 1.2M sucrose for 20 min and then plated on solidified culture medium. Successfully vitrified and warmed meristems remained green after plating, resumed growth within 3 days, and directly developed shoots within two weeks. The average rate of normal shoot formation amounted to about 80 to 90% in the cryopreserved meristems. This method was successfully applied to three other cultivars of wasabi. This vitrification procedure promises to become a routine method for cryopreserving meristems of wasabi.
Uto, Takuhiro; Hou, De-Xing; Morinaga, Osamu; Shoyama, Yukihiro
6-(Methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate (6-MSITC) is a major bioactive compound in wasabi (Wasabia japonica), which is a typical Japanese pungent spice. Recently, in vivo and in vitro studies demonstrated that 6-MSITC has several biological properties, including anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiplatelet, and anticancer effects. We previously reported that 6-MSITC strongly suppresses cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cytokines, which are important factors that mediate inflammatory processes. Moreover, molecular analysis demonstrated that 6-MSITC blocks the expressions of these factors by suppressing multiple signal transduction pathways to attenuate the activation of transcriptional factors. Structure-activity relationships of 6-MSITC and its analogues containing an isothiocyanate group revealed that methylsulfinyl group and the length of alkyl chain of 6-MSITC might be related to high inhibitory potency. In this paper, we review the anti-inflammatory properties of 6-MSITC and discuss potential molecular mechanisms focusing on inflammatory responses by macrophages. PMID:22927840
Uto, Takuhiro; Hou, De-Xing; Morinaga, Osamu; Shoyama, Yukihiro
6-(Methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate (6-MSITC) is a major bioactive compound in wasabi (Wasabia japonica), which is a typical Japanese pungent spice. Recently, in vivo and in vitro studies demonstrated that 6-MSITC has several biological properties, including anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiplatelet, and anticancer effects. We previously reported that 6-MSITC strongly suppresses cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cytokines, which are important factors that mediate inflammatory processes. Moreover, molecular analysis demonstrated that 6-MSITC blocks the expressions of these factors by suppressing multiple signal transduction pathways to attenuate the activation of transcriptional factors. Structure-activity relationships of 6-MSITC and its analogues containing an isothiocyanate group revealed that methylsulfinyl group and the length of alkyl chain of 6-MSITC might be related to high inhibitory potency. In this paper, we review the anti-inflammatory properties of 6-MSITC and discuss potential molecular mechanisms focusing on inflammatory responses by macrophages.
Fuke, Yoko; Shinoda, Shoko; Nagata, Ikuko; Sawaki, Saeko; Murata, Mituyoshi; Ryoyama, Kazuo; Koizumi, Keiichi; Saiki, Ikuo; Nomura, Takahiro
Effect of oral administration of 6-(methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate (6-MITC) or a 6-MITC-containing T-wasabi fraction from wasabi root (Wasabia japonica Matsum) to inhibit the macroscopic pulmonary metastasis was studied with a murine B16-BL6 melanoma model. Two administration routes, subcutaneous or intravenous, and two administration times, prior to or concomitant with tumor inoculation, of 6-MITC or T-wasabi against the metastatic foci formation in C57BL/6J mouse lungs were compared. The number of metastasized foci per lung in either subcutaneous or intravenous injection was significantly reduced by intake of 6-MITC or a T-wasabi fraction. The maximum reduction by a T-wasabi fraction reached to 82%. Fifty-six percent of foci formation was inhibited by a 2 week-prior administration of 6-MITC (200 microM), whereas only 27% inhibition was obtained by a concomitant administration with tumor inoculation. Neither 6-MITC nor T-wasabi at tested concentrations showed any toxic effects. Together with our previous results, a component of the Japanese pungent spice, wasabi appears to inhibit not only tumor cell growth but also tumor metastasis. Therefore, 6-MITC from wasabi is apparently a useful dietary candidate for controlling tumor progression.
Pedras, M S; Sorensen, J L; Okanga, F I; Zaharia, I L
The chemical structure determination of two phytoalexins from wasabi (Wasabia japonica, syn. Eutrema wasabi), a plant resistant to virulent isolates of the blackleg fungus [Leptosphaeria maculans (Desm.) Ces. et de Not., asexual stage Phoma lingam (Tode ex Fr.) Desm.], as well as their synthesis and antifungal activity towards isolates of P. lingam and P. wasabiae is reported.
Yano, T; Yajima, S; Virgona, N; Yano, Y; Otani, S; Kumagai, H; Sakurai, H; Kishimoto, M; Ichikawa, T
The present study was undertaken to estimate the effect of 6-methylthiohexyl isothiocyanate (6MHITC) isolated from Wasabia japonica (wasabi) pretreatment on 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone(NNK)-induced lung tumorigenesis in mice. Pretreatment with 6MHITC for 4 consecutive days at a daily dose of 5 micromol significantly inhibited NNK-induced O(6)-methylguanine formation in lungs at 4 h after the injection. In conjugation with this inhibitory effect, 6MHITC suppressed the increase in proliferating nuclear cell antigen level as well as ornithine decarboxylase activity at a promotion stage of NNK-induced lung tumorigenesis. Finally, this treatment of 6MHITC suppressed the NNK-induced lung tumorigenesis in mice. These results suggest that 6MHITC inhibits the development of lung tumors in mice treated with NNK, due to the suppression of initiation stage.
Shin, Il Shik; Masuda, Hideki; Naohide, Kinae
In this study, the bactericidal activity of Korean and Japanese wasabi roots, stems and leaves against Helicobacter pylori were examined. Allyl isothiocyanate (AIT) in roots, stems and leaves of Korean wasabi were 0.75, 0.18 and 0.32 mg/g, respectively. AIT in roots, stems and leaves of Japanese wasabi were 1.18, 0.41 and 0.38 mg/g, respectively. All parts of wasabi showed bactericidal activities against H. pylori strain NCTC 11637, YS 27 and YS 50. The leaves of both wasabi showed the highest bactericidal activities with the minimum bactericidal concentration of 1.05-1.31 mg of dry weight/ml against three strains of H. pylori. The roots showed a little lower bactericidal activity with 2.09-4.17 mg of dry weight/ml against them. The main component related to antimicrobial activity in wasabi is well known to be AIT. In this study, the bactericidal activity of leaves was higher than that of roots, although AIT amount of leaves was lower than that of roots. These results suggest that certain components besides AIT in wasabi are effective in killing H. pylori.
Ogawa, Tetsuro; Wang, Li; Katsube, Takuya; Yamasaki, Yukikazu; Sun, Xufeng; Shiwaku, Kuninori
The anti-obesity effects of a hot water extract from wasabi (Wasabia japonica Matsum.) leaves (WLE), without its specific pungent constituents, such as allyl-isothiocyanate, were investigated in high fat-diet induced mice. C57J/BL mice were fed a high-fat diet (control group) or a high-fat diet supplemented with 5% WLE (WLE group). Physical parameters and blood profiles were determined. Gene expression associated with lipid metabolism in liver and white adipose tissue were analyzed. After 120 days of feeding, significantly lower body weight gain, liver weight and epididymal white adipose tissue weight was observed in the WLE group compared to the control group. In liver gene expression within the WLE group, PPARα was significantly enhanced and SREBP-1c was significantly suppressed. Subsequent downstream genes controlled by these regulators were significantly suppressed. In epididymal white adipose tissue of the WLE group, expression of leptin, PPARγ, and C/EBPα were significantly suppressed and adiponectin was significantly enhanced. Acox, related to fatty acid oxidization in adipocytes, was also enhanced. Our results demonstrate that the WLE dietary supplement induces mild suppression of obesity in a high-fat diet induced mice, possibly due to suppression of lipid accumulation in liver and white adipose tissue. PMID:23964313
Yamasaki, Masayuki; Ogawa, Tetsuro; Wang, Li; Katsube, Takuya; Yamasaki, Yukikazu; Sun, Xufeng; Shiwaku, Kuninori
The anti-obesity effects of a hot water extract from wasabi (Wasabia japonica Matsum.) leaves (WLE), without its specific pungent constituents, such as allyl-isothiocyanate, were investigated in high fat-diet induced mice. C57J/BL mice were fed a high-fat diet (control group) or a high-fat diet supplemented with 5% WLE (WLE group). Physical parameters and blood profiles were determined. Gene expression associated with lipid metabolism in liver and white adipose tissue were analyzed. After 120 days of feeding, significantly lower body weight gain, liver weight and epididymal white adipose tissue weight was observed in the WLE group compared to the control group. In liver gene expression within the WLE group, PPARα was significantly enhanced and SREBP-1c was significantly suppressed. Subsequent downstream genes controlled by these regulators were significantly suppressed. In epididymal white adipose tissue of the WLE group, expression of leptin, PPARγ, and C/EBPα were significantly suppressed and adiponectin was significantly enhanced. Acox, related to fatty acid oxidization in adipocytes, was also enhanced. Our results demonstrate that the WLE dietary supplement induces mild suppression of obesity in a high-fat diet induced mice, possibly due to suppression of lipid accumulation in liver and white adipose tissue.
Shimamura, Yuko; Iio, Misako; Urahira, Tomoko; Masuda, Shuichi
The formation of acrylamide (AA) in cooked foods has raised human health concerns. AA is metabolized by cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) to glycidamide (GA), which forms DNA adducts. This study examined the inhibitory effects of wasabi (Japanese horseradish, Wasabia japonica) roots and leaves as well as their active component, allyl isothiocyanate (AIT), on the formation and genotoxicity of AA. AA formation (51.8 ± 4.2 µg kg -1 ) was inhibited with ≥2 mg mL -1 of AIT. Wasabi roots also inhibited AA formation (∼90% reduction), but wasabi leaves were not effective at 2 mg mL -1 . Wasabi roots and leaves decreased the number of cells with micronuclei by approximately 33 and 24% respectively compared with the AA treatment group. Moreover, wasabi roots and leaves (100 mg kg -1 body weight (BW) day -1 for each) decreased AA (100 mg kg -1 BW day -1 )-induced DNA damage. The AA-induced CYP2E1 activity was decreased by 39 and 26% with wasabi roots and leaves respectively. Further, the activity of glutathione S-transferase, which catalyzes the detoxification of AA via glutathione conjugation, increased by 54 and 33% with wasabi roots and leaves respectively. These results indicate that wasabi roots and leaves are effective ingredients for inhibiting the formation and genotoxicity of AA. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.
Li, G J; Dong, Q E; Ma, L; Huang, Y; Zhu, M L; Ji, Y P; Wang, Q H; Mo, M H; Zhang, K Q
To characterize the nematicidal endophytic bacteria (NEB) of Wasabia japonica (wasabi) and evaluated the control efficacies of promising NEB as well as fresh wasabi residue (FWR) against Meloidogyne incognita on tomato. By in vitro bioassay, 53 NEB strains showing nematicidal efficacies of >50% against J2 of M. incognita were isolated from wasabi. Basing on 16S rRNA gene sequences, these NEB were identified into 18 species of 11 genera. In greenhouse, incorporation of selected NEB culture or FWR into potted soil significantly reduced infection of M. incognita on tomato. Treating tomatoes with either FWR or NEB of Raoultella terrigena RN16 and Pseudomonas reinekei SN21 in the field yielded excellent control efficacies against M. incognita, especially the combinations of FWR with either R. terrigena RN16 or Ps. reinekei SN21 at doses of 50 g plus 100 ml per plant or more. The results established that R. terrigena RN16 and Ps. reinekei SN21 applied separately or combined with FWR have the potential to provide bioprotection agents against M. incognita. This study provides novel way for disease management using combination of endophyte and host residue. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.
Kang, Ju-Hee; Choi, Seungho; Jang, Jeong-Eun; Ramalingam, Prakash; Ko, Young Tag; Kim, Sun Yeou; Oh, Seung Hyun
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), including Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), are prevalent and debilitating health problems worldwide. Many types of drugs are used to treat IBDs, but they exhibit adverse effects such as vomiting, nausea, abdominal pain, diarrhea, etc. In order to overcome the limitations of current therapeutic drugs, scientists have searched for functional foods from natural resources. In this study, we investigated the anti-colitic effects of Wasabia japonica extract in a DSS-induced colitis model. Wasabi japonica is a plant of the Brassicaceae family that has recently been reported to exhibit properties of detoxification, anti-inflammation, and induction of apoptosis in cancer cells. In this study, we generated wasabi ethanol extract (WK) and assessed its anti-colitic effect. In addition, in order to improve delivery of the extract to the colon, WK was coated with 5% Eudragit S100 (WKE), after which the anti-colitic effects of WKE were assessed. In conclusion, WK prevented development of colitis through inhibition of the NF-kB signaling pathway and recovery of epithelial tight junctions. In addition, the anti-colitic effect of WK was enhanced by improving its delivery to the colon by coating the WK with Eudragit S100. Therefore, we suggest that wasabi can be used as a new functional food to prevent IBDs due to its anti-colitic effect.
Hsuan, Shu-Wen; Chyau, Charng-Cherng; Hung, Hsiao-Yu; Chen, Jing-Hsien; Chou, Fen-Pi
Wasabia japonica (wasabi) has been shown to exhibit properties of detoxification, anti-inflammation and the induction of apoptosis in cancer cells. This study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanism of the cytotoxicity of wasabi extract (WE) in colon cancer cells to evaluate the potential of wasabi as a functional food for chemoprevention. Colo 205 cells were treated with different doses of WE, and the cytotoxicity was analyzed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide. Apoptosis and autophagy were detected by 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, 5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'-tetraethyl-imidacarbo-yanine iodide and staining for acidic vascular organelles (AVOs), along with Western blotting. The results demonstrated that WE induced the extrinsic pathway and mitochondrial death machinery through the activation of TNF-α, Fas-L, caspases, truncated Bid and cytochrome C. WE also induced autophagy by decreasing the phosphorylation of Akt and mTOR and promoting the expression of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3-II and AVO formation. An in vivo xenograft model verified that tumor growth was delayed by WE treatment. Our studies revealed that WE exhibits anti-colon cancer properties through the induction of apoptosis and autophagy. These results provide support for the application of WE as a chemopreventive functional food and as a prospective treatment of colon cancer.
Yoshida, Jun; Nomura, Satomi; Nishizawa, Naoyuki; Ito, Yoshiaki; Kimura, Ken-ichi
A new biological activity of 6-(methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate derived from Wasabia japonica was discovered as an inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase-3β. The most potent isothiocyanate, 9-(methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate, inhibited glycogen synthase kinase-3β at a K(i) value of 10.5 µM and showed ATP competitive inhibition. The structure-activity relationship revealed an inhibitory potency of methylsulfinyl isothiocyanate dependent on the alkyl chain length and the sulfoxide, sulfone, and/or the isothiocyanate moiety.
Morimitsu, Y; Hayashi, K; Nakagawa, Y; Horio, F; Uchida, K; Osawa, T
6-Methylsulfinylhexyl isothiocyanate (MS-ITC) was isolated from wasabi (Wasabia japonica, Japanese domestic horseradish) as a potential inhibitor of human platelet aggregation in vitro through our extensive screening of vegetables and fruits. In the course of another screening for the induction of glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity in RL34 cells. MS-ITC was inadvertently isolated from wasabi as a potential inducer of GST. MS-ITC administered to rats or mice also showed both activities in vivo. As a result from elucidation of the platelet aggregation inhibition and the GST induction mechanisms of MS-ITC, the isothiocyanate moiety of MS-ITC plays an important role for antiplatelet and anticancer activities because of its highly reactivity with sulfhydryl (-SH) groups in biomolecules (GSH, cysteine residue in a certain protein, etc.).
Morimitsu, Y; Hayashi, K; Nakagawa, Y; Fujii, H; Horio, F; Uchida, K; Osawa, T
6-Methylsulfinylhexyl isothiocyanate (MS-ITC) was isolated from wasabi (Wasabia japonica, Japanese domestic horseradish) as a potential inhibitor of human platelet aggregation in vitro through our extensive screening of vegetables and fruits. In the course of an another screening for the induction of glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity in RL34 cells, MS-ITC was inadvertently isolated from wasabi as a potential inducer of GST. MS-ITC administered to rats or mice also showed both activities in vivo. As a result from elucidation of the platelet aggregation inhibition and the GST induction mechanisms of MS-ITC, the isothiocyanate moiety of MS-ITC plays an important role for antiplatelet and anticancer activities because of its high reactivity with sulfhydryl (RSH) groups in biomolecules (GSH, cysteine residue in a certain protein, etc.).
Hasegawa, N; Matsumoto, Y; Hoshino, A; Iwashita, K
Lean tuna meat suspensions (LEAN), with a fat content of 0.006%, and fatty tuna meat suspension (FATTY), with a fat content of 3.0% were inoculated with four strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and wasabi (Wasabia japonica Matsumura) or allyl isothiocyanate (AIT) was added before incubation at 37 degrees C. During the incubation, viable Vibrio counts were determined on TCBS agar plates. Both LEAN and FATTY suspensions were inoculated with V. parahaemolyticus AOTO-81, (1.28+/-0.20) x 10(2) CFU/ml, followed by addition of 20 mg wasabi/ml, and incubation for 8 h. The viable Vibrio counts were (7.76+/-5.93) x 10(5) CFU/ml in LEAN and (3.50+/-2.65) x 10(1) CFU/ml in FATTY. When the same strain, at (1.18+/-0.22) x 10(2) CFU/ml, was incubated for 8 h with 50.9 microg AIT/ml, viable Vibrio counts were (4.79+/-1.78) x 10(4) CFU/ml in LEAN and (1.80+/-1.30) x 10(1) CFU/ml in FATTY. Growth of the other three strains with wasabi or AIT was shown to be less in FATTY than in LEAN. These results indicate that growth of V. parahaemolyticus is inhibited more in FATTY than in LEAN by wasabi and allyl isothiocyanate.
Oowatari, Yasuo; Ogawa, Tetsuro; Katsube, Takuya; Iinuma, Kiyohisa; Yoshitomi, Hisae; Gao, Ming
Hypertrophy of adipocytes in obese adipose tissues causes metabolic abnormality by adipocytokine dysregulation, which promotes type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. We investigated the effects of wasabi (Wasabia japonica Matsum) leaf extracts on metabolic abnormalities in SHRSP.Z-Leprfa/IzmDmcr rats (SHRSP/ZF), which are a model of metabolic syndrome. Male SHRSP/ZF rats aged 7 weeks were divided into two groups: control and wasabi leaf extract (WLE) groups, which received water or oral treatment with 4 g/kg/day WLE for 6 weeks. WLE improved the body weight gain and high blood pressure in SHRSP/ZF rats, and the plasma triglyceride levels were significantly lower in the WLE group. Adipocyte hypertrophy was markedly prevented in adipose tissue. The expression of PPARγ and subsequent downstream genes was suppressed in the WLE group adipose tissues. Our data suggest that WLE inhibits adipose hypertrophy by suppressing PPARγ expression in adipose tissue and stimulating the AMPK activity by increased adiponectin.
Sekiguchi, Hirotaka; Takabayashi, Fumiyo; Deguchi, Yuya; Masuda, Hideki; Toyoizumi, Tomoyasu; Masuda, Shuichi; Kinae, Naohide
Infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) can induce gastric disorders, and though its presence cannot explain disease pathogenesis and does not have associations with other factors, it is well known that H. pylori infection causes stomach inflammation following oxidative stress. We examined the suppressive effects of a leaf extract of Wasabia japonica on H. pylori infection and on stress loading in Mongolian gerbils. Following oral administration of wasabi extract of 50 and 200 mg/kg B.W./d for 10 d, the animals were exposed to restraint stress for 90 and 270 min. As for the results, the level of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) in the stomach and oxidative DNA damage in peripheral erythrocytes at 270 min significantly increased. That elevation was significantly suppressed by the addition of the leaf extract. We concluded that the simultaneous loading of H. pylori infection and physical stress loading might induce oxidative DNA damage additively, while a leaf extract attenuated this DNA damage in the stomach as well as the peripheral erythrocytes.
Uchida, Kunitoshi; Miura, Yosuke; Nagai, Masashi; Tominaga, Makoto
6-(Methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate (6-MSITC) and 6-(methylthio)hexyl isothiocyanate (6-MTITC) have low pungency and are responsible for the fresh flavor of wasabi (Wasabia japonica [Miq] Matsumura). In this study, we found that these two isothiocyanates activate transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), and 6-MSITC activates transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), but not other transient receptor potential channels expressed in sensory neurons. Both 6-MSITC and 6-MTITCinduced intracellular Ca(2+) increases in human embryonic kidney-derived 293 cells expressing mouse TRPA1 (mTRPA1) as measured by Ca(2+) imaging. In whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, 6-MSITC and 6-MTITC dose-dependently activated both mTRPA1 (EC(50) = 147±26 µM for 6-MSITC and 30±3 µM for 6-MTITC) and human TRPA1 (hTRPA1; EC(50) = 39±4 µM for 6-MSITC and 34±3 µM for 6-MTITC). In addition, TRPA1 N-terminal cysteines, which are reported to be important for channel activation by electrophilic ligands, were involved in 6-MSITC- and 6-MTITC-evoked TRPA1 activation. These isothiocyanates also activated endogenous TRPA1 expressed in mouse dorsal root ganglion neurons and intraplantar injection of 10-30 mM 6-MSITC-evoked pain-related behaviors in mice. These results indicate the following: 1) 6-MSITC and 6-MTITC activate both mTRPA1 and hTRPA1; 2) 6-MSITC activates mTRPV1; and 3) the pharmacological functions of these isothiocyanates could be derived from TRPA1 activation.
Yu, E Y; Pickering, I J; George, G N; Prince, R C
Sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy has been used to determine the chemical identity of the sulfur-containing species in horseradish (Armoracia lapthifolia) and wasabi (Wasabia japonica) in situ, before and after cell disruption. The major sulfur-containing species in the intact root is sinigrin (1-thio-beta-D-glucopyranose 1-N-(sulfoxy)-3-buteneimidate) and related congeners. Disrupting the cells by applying local pressure allowed the conversion of the sulfur moieties in sinigrin to isothiocyanates and sulfate in approximately equimolar amounts. In contrast to previous suggestions, no detectable thiocyanates were formed, but an unusual thio intermediate may have been identified for the first time.
Misawa, Naoki; Hosoya, Takahiro; Yoshida, Shuhei; Sugimoto, Osamu; Yamada-Kato, Tomoe; Kumazawa, Shigenori
To investigate the compounds present in wasabi leaves (Wasabia japonica Matsumura) that inhibit the adipocyte differentiation, activity-guided fractionation was performed on these leaves. 5-Hydroxyferulic acid methyl ester (1: 5-HFA ester), one of the phenylpropanoids, was isolated from wasabi leaves as a compound that inhibits the adipocyte differentiation. Compound 1 suppressed the intracellular lipid accumulation of 3T3-L1 cells without significant cytotoxicity. Gene expression analysis revealed that 1 suppressed the mRNA expression of 2 master regulators of adipocyte differentiation, PPARγ and C/EBPα. Furthermore, 1 downregulated the expression of adipogenesis-related genes, GLUT4, LPL, SREBP-1c, ACC, and FAS. Protein expression analysis revealed that 1 suppressed PPARγ protein expression. Moreover, to investigate the relationship between the structure and activity of inhibiting the adipocyte differentiation, we synthesized 12 kinds of phenylpropanoid analog. Comparison of the activity among 1 and its analogs suggested that the compound containing the substructure that possess a common functional group at the ortho position such as a catechol group exhibits the activity of inhibiting the adipocyte differentiation. Taken together, our findings suggest that 1 from wasabi leaves inhibits adipocyte differentiation via the downregulation of PPARγ. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Maki, S; Hirai, Y; Niino, T; Matsumoto, T
Maintaining the genetic integrity in long-term tissue cultured and cryopreserved plants is important for the conservation of plant genetic resources. In this study, the genetic stability of cryopreserved wasabi shoot tips stored for 10 years at -150 degree C was visualized using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) and Methylation Sensitive Amplified Polymorphism (MSAP). The study included plants derived from cryopreserved shoot tips after 10.5 years storage at -150 degree C (LN10yr), after 2 h storage at -196 degree C (LN2hr), cryopreservation controls (No LN cooling (TC)) and non-treated controls without LN cooling (LC). The donor plants for LN2hr, TC and LC were also maintained in vitro at 20 degree C for the same period. Neither technique detected genetic variations in either control or cryopreserved plants. Some mutations were noted in plants maintained in tissue culture for 10 years. Comparison of genome stability for TC and LN2hr plants showed only a minor change in DNA. However, when comparing the LC and Ln10yr, many differences were found. We conclude that cryopreservation is a superior conservation method compared to tissue culture in maintaining genetic stability for a long-term storage of wasabi germplasm.
Khayi, Slimane; Cigna, Jérémy; Chong, Teik Min; Quêtu-Laurent, Angélique; Chan, Kok-Gan; Hélias, Valérie; Faure, Denis
Pectobacterium wasabiae was originally isolated from Japanese horseradish (Eutrema wasabi), but recently some Pectobacterium isolates collected from potato plants and tubers displaying blackleg and soft rot symptoms were also assigned to P. wasabiae. Here, combining genomic and phenotypical data, we re-evaluated their taxonomic position. PacBio and Illumina technologies were used to complete the genome sequences of P. wasabiae CFBP 3304T and RNS 08-42-1A. Multi-locus sequence analysis showed that the P. wasabiae strains RNS 08-42-1A, SCC3193, CFIA1002 and WPP163, which were collected from potato plant environment, constituted a separate clade from the original Japanese horseradish P. wasabiae. The taxonomic position of these strains was also supported by calculation of the in-silico DNA-DNA hybridization, genome average nucleotide indentity, alignment fraction and average nucleotide indentity values. In addition, they were phenotypically distinguished from P. wasabiae strains by producing acids from (+)-raffinose, α-d(+)-α-lactose, d(+)-galactose and (+)-melibiose but not from methyl α-d-glycopyranoside, (+)-maltose or malonic acid. The name Pectobacterium parmentieri sp. nov. is proposed for this taxon; the type strain is RNS 08-42-1AT (=CFBP 8475T=LMG 29774T).
Lin, Li-Yun; Shen, Kun-Hung; Yeh, Xiang-Yü; Huang, Bou-Yü; Wang, Hui-Er; Chen, Kuan-Chou; Peng, Robert Y
Rhizoma Alpinia officinarum (Hance) Farw, Zingiberaceae (AO), a ginger family herb exhibiting stimulant and a carminative bioactivity, is widely used in European and Asian countries as spicy condiment and medicinal uses. Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) is the main pungent taste of native Wasabi (Wasabia japonica). The cytotoxicity of AITC has been implicated in thymus, adrenals, and white blood cells. Considering food safety, apparently a safer substitute for wasabi is worthy commercialized. Previously, we found AO crude paste to be rather feasible for use as a "Wasabi-substitute" in fresh meat and cold salads. A process linking cold ethyl acetate (EtAc) extraction with silica gel adsorption and reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) (mobile phase, 75% methanol) was used to isolate galangal acetate, the Wasabi-like taste constituent. AO contained abundant galangal acetate (3.84 ± 0.07%) compared to A. galangal (0.57 ± 0.16%), and as already confirmed by thin layer chromatography (TLC), gas chromatography (GC)/mass spectrometry (MS)/MS and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (NMR), galangal acetate was particularly thermally labile. The steam distilled essential oil (SDEO) of AO (0.14% on wet basis) contained 80 compounds (number of component, %): monoterpene hydrocarbon (21, 13.83%); oxygenated monoterpene (17, 27.08%); sesquiterpene hydrocarbon (20, 31.03%), and oxygenated sesquiterpene (20, 21.85%), respectively. However, no spicy wasabi-like constituent remained in SDEO. Alternatively, n-hexane, EtAc, and methanol extracts of AO all showed potent DPPH- and superoxide anion-scavenging activity. Conclusively, SDEO although contains 80 volatiles, galangal acetate is absent due to thermal instability. Galangal acetate exhibits pleasant "Wasabi-like taste" for which we have successively developed an integrated process for mass production. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®
Kinae, N; Masuda, H; Shin, I S; Furugori, M; Shimoi, K
Wasabi (Wasabi japonica) and horseradish (Cholearia arnoracia) are used as spices of daily foodstuffs. Allylisothiocyanate (AIT) is a potent component in both plants and occurs by grating them. It is well known that AIT shows inhibitory effect on the growth of food poisoning bacteria and fungi. In this work, several functional properties of roots and leaves from wasabi and horseradish were examined in vitro. Each sample showed peroxidase activity. They also exhibited antioxidative and superoxide scavenging potency. Antimutagenic activity was observed toward 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline [MeIQx], a well-known mutagen/carcinogen in broiled fish and meat. They also decreased His+ revertant colonies of 3-chloro-4-dichloromethyl-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (MX) in the Ames test, a strong mutagen and carcinogen in chlorine disinfected tap water. Isolation of antimutagenic components in wasabi root was done. Three components including (-)-(R)-7-methylsulfinylheptyl isothiocyanate were identified. These data show that wasabi and horseradish might be potent functional foods for keeping human health.
Chen, Yu-Jen; Huang, Yu-Chuen; Tsai, Tung-Hu
The naturally occurring compound 6-(methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate (6-MITC) was isolated from Wasabia japonica (Wasabi), a pungent spice used in Japanese food worldwide. The synthetic derivatives 6-(methylsulfenyl)hexyl isothiocyanate (I7447) and 6-(methylsulfonyl)hexyl isothiocyanate (I7557) are small molecule compounds derived from 6-MITC. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of these compounds on human pancreatic cancer cells. Human pancreatic cancer cell lines PANC-1 and BxPC-3 were used to perform an MTT assay for cell viability and Liu's stain for morphological observation. The cell cycle was analyzed by DNA histogram. Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity was used as a marker for cancer stem cells (CSC). Western blotting was performed for the expression of proteins related to CSC signaling. The results showed that compounds 6-MITC and I7557, but not I7447, inhibited viability of both PANC-1 and BxPC-3 cells. Morphological observation showed mitotic arrest and apoptosis in 6-MITC- and I7557-treated cells. These two compounds induced G2/M phase arrest and hypoploid population. Percentages of ALDH-positive PANC-1 cells were markedly reduced by 6-MITC and I7557 treatment. The expression of CSC signaling molecule SOX2, but not NOTCH1, ABCG2, Sonic hedgehog, or OCT4, was inhibited by 6-MITC and I7557. In conclusion, wasabi compounds 6-MITC and I7557 may possess activity against the growth and CSC phenotypes of human pancreatic cancer cells. PMID:24575144
Chen, Yu-Jen; Huang, Yu-Chuen; Tsai, Tung-Hu; Liao, Hui-Fen
The naturally occurring compound 6-(methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate (6-MITC) was isolated from Wasabia japonica (Wasabi), a pungent spice used in Japanese food worldwide. The synthetic derivatives 6-(methylsulfenyl)hexyl isothiocyanate (I7447) and 6-(methylsulfonyl)hexyl isothiocyanate (I7557) are small molecule compounds derived from 6-MITC. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of these compounds on human pancreatic cancer cells. Human pancreatic cancer cell lines PANC-1 and BxPC-3 were used to perform an MTT assay for cell viability and Liu's stain for morphological observation. The cell cycle was analyzed by DNA histogram. Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity was used as a marker for cancer stem cells (CSC). Western blotting was performed for the expression of proteins related to CSC signaling. The results showed that compounds 6-MITC and I7557, but not I7447, inhibited viability of both PANC-1 and BxPC-3 cells. Morphological observation showed mitotic arrest and apoptosis in 6-MITC- and I7557-treated cells. These two compounds induced G2/M phase arrest and hypoploid population. Percentages of ALDH-positive PANC-1 cells were markedly reduced by 6-MITC and I7557 treatment. The expression of CSC signaling molecule SOX2, but not NOTCH1, ABCG2, Sonic hedgehog, or OCT4, was inhibited by 6-MITC and I7557. In conclusion, wasabi compounds 6-MITC and I7557 may possess activity against the growth and CSC phenotypes of human pancreatic cancer cells.
Shin, Seong Woo; Ghimeray, Amal Kumar; Park, Cheol Ho
This study was carried out to investigate the total polyphenol (TP), total flavonoid (TF), antioxidative effect and allyl isothyocyanate (ITC) content in different organs of wasabi plant grown in an organic system. Invitro study of methanol and boiled water extracts of wasabi were conducted by analyzing the 1-1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrozyl (DPPH) radial scavenging activity, metal chelating activity and total antioxidant capacity in a comparative manner. The result revealed that methanol extract showed higher TP in flower (3644 mg TAE/100 g dw), leaf (3201 mg TAE/100 g dw) and fruit (3025 mg TAE/100 g dw) as compared to the boiled water extract. Similarly, TF content was also higher in methanol extracts of flower (1152 mg QE/100 g dw) and leaf (325 mg QE/100 g dw), however, the other parts showed ignorable value. Results of antioxidant activity were found at different magnitude of potency. The methanol extract of different parts of wasabi exhibited higher activity in total antioxidant capacity and DPPH radical scavenging assay as compared to water extract. In metal chelating assay, the boiled water extracts of leaf showed higher (76.9%) activity, followed by fruit (68.8%) and flower (62.8%). Ally ITC detected by gas chromatography was present in all of the tissues of wasabi plant but the content was found to be varied in different tissues. Overall, this study will allow consumers and processors to understand the possibility for medical application of wasabi plant by knowing the level of total polyphenol distribution, Ally ITC content and antioxidant property distributed in different parts and tissues.Key words: Allyl ITC, antioxidant, flavonoid, polyphenol, Wasabi japonica.
Yano, Satoshi; Wu, Shusong; Sakao, Kozue; Hou, De-Xing
6-(Methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate (6-MSITC), a major bioactive compound in Wasabi [Wasabia japonica (Miq.) Matsum.], has revealed the inhibitory effect on colon carcinogenesis in rat cancer model although the underlying mechanism is unclear. In this study, we used two types of human colorectal cancer cells (HCT116 p53 +/+ and HCT116 p53 -/- ) to investigate the anticancer activity and molecular mechanisms of 6-MSITC. Interestingly, 6-MSITC inhibited the cell proliferation in both types of cells with similar IC 50 value although a light increase in the phosphorylation and accumulation of P53 protein was observed in HCT116 p53 +/+ cells at 24 h after treatment. In addition, 6-MSITC increased the ratio of proapoptotic cells in both types of cells with the same fashion in a p53-independent manner. The data from mitochondrial analysis revealed that 6-MSITC enhanced the ratio of proapoptotic B-cell lymphoma-2-associated X protein/antiapoptotic myeloid cell leukemia 1, and sequentially caused mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ m ) loss, cytochrome c release, and caspase-3 activation in both types of cells. Taken together, Wasabi 6-MSITC induced apoptosis of human colorectal cancer cells in p53-independent mitochondrial dysfunction pathway. These findings suggest that 6-MSITC might be a potential agent for colon cancer chemoprevention although with p53 mutation. © 2018 BioFactors, 2018. © 2018 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
Ntui, Valentine Otang; Thirukkumaran, Gunaratnam; Azadi, Pejman; Khan, Raham Sher; Nakamura, Ikuo; Mii, Masahiro
Production of "Egusi" melon (Colocynthis citrullus L.) in West Africa is limited by fungal diseases, such as Alternaria leaf spot and Fusarium wilt. In order to engineer "Egusi" resistant to these diseases, cotyledonary explants of two "Egusi" genotypes, 'Ejagham' and NHC1-130, were transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA101 harbouring wasabi defensin gene (isolated from Wasabia japonica L.) in a binary vector pEKH1. After co-cultivation for 3 days, infected explants were transferred to MS medium containing 100 mg l(-l) kanamycin to select transformed tissues. After 3 weeks of culture, adventitious shoots appeared directly along the edges of the explants. As much as 19 out of 52 (36.5%) and 25 out of 71 (35.2%) of the explants in genotype NHC1-130 and 'Ejagham', respectively, formed shoots after 6 weeks of culture. As much as 74% (14 out of 19) of the shoots regenerated in genotype NHC1-130 and 72% (18 out of 25) of those produced in genotype 'Ejagham' were transgenic. A DNA fragment corresponding to the wasabi defensin gene or the selection marker nptII was amplified by PCR from the genomic DNA of all regenerated plant clones rooted on hormone-free MS medium under the same selection pressure, suggesting their transgenic nature. Southern blot analysis confirmed successful integration of 1-5 copies of the transgene. RT-PCR, northern and western blot analyses revealed that wasabi defensin gene was expressed in transgenic lines. Transgenic lines showed increased levels of resistance to Alternaria solani, which causes Alternaria leaf spot and Fusarium oxysporum, which causes Fusarium wilt, as compared to that of untransformed plants.
Khan, Raham Sher; Darwish, Nader Ahmed; Khattak, Bushra; Ntui, Valentine Otang; Kong, Kynet; Shimomae, Kazuki; Nakamura, Ikuo; Mii, Masahiro
Multi-auto-transformation vector system has been one of the strategies to produce marker-free transgenic plants without using selective chemicals and plant growth regulators and thus facilitating transgene stacking. In the study reported here, retransformation was carried out in marker-free transgenic potato CV. May Queen containing ChiC gene (isolated from Streptomyces griseus strain HUT 6037) with wasabi defensin (WD) gene (isolated from Wasabia japonica) to pyramid the two disease resistant genes. Molecular analyses of the developed shoots confirmed the existence of both the genes of interest (ChiC and WD) in transgenic plants. Co-expression of the genes was confirmed by RT-PCR, northern blot, and western blot analyses. Disease resistance assay of in vitro plants showed that the transgenic lines co-expressing both the ChiC and WD genes had higher resistance against the fungal pathogens, Fusarium oxysporum (Fusarium wilt) and Alternaria solani (early blight) compared to the non-transformed control and the transgenic lines expressing either of the ChiC or WD genes. The disease resistance potential of the transgenic plants could be increased by transgene stacking or multiple transformations.
Nakamura, Toshiyuki; Kitamoto, Noritoshi; Osawa, Toshihiko; Kato, Yoji
In a previous study we prepared monoclonal antibody against allyl isothiocyanate (AITC)-modified lysine (Lys), and found that AITC reacted with Lys under physiological conditions in vitro (T. Nakamura et al., Chem. Res. Toxicol., 22, 536-542 (2009)). In the present study, antibodies against benzyl isothiocyanate (ITC), 6-methylsulfinylhexyl ITC and phenethyl ITC modified protein were prepared, and the respective monoclonal antibodies, B6C9, 6MS3D10, and PE3A10 were obtained. These antibodies were applied to ITC detection in food using shredded Wasabia japonica (wasabi) and ground Carica papaya (papaya) seed by trapping ITC with biotin-labeled bovine serum albumin. ITC formation from the wasabi and papaya seed samples was confirmed using the antibodies in a dose-dependent manner. These antibodies might be applicable in identifying food-derived ITC.
Fuke, Yoko; Hishinuma, Madoka; Namikawa, Mayumi; Oishi, Yoshie; Matsuzaki, Takeshi
6-(methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate (6-MSITC) is a bioactive ingredient of wasabi (Wasabia japonica), which is a popular spice in Japan. 6-MSITC has been reported to inhibit the proliferation of breast cancer and melanoma cell lines. We inoculated 30 female Balb-nu/nu mice with MDA-MB-231 or -453 cells, and orally administered varying concentrations of 6-MSITC for 12 days following tumor growth. The tumor volumes and tumor weights from mice inoculated with MDA-MB-231 cells, and the tumor volumes of MDA-MB-453 cells were significantly inhibited by 6-MSITC on Days 9 and 11 after drug administration. DNA fragmentation, DNA ladder, and caspase 3/7 activity performed in vitro revealed that 6-MSITC induced apoptosis of MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-453, and MCF-7 cells. Furthermore, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) expression in the nuclei and phosphorylation of inhibitor κBα (IκBα) was downregulated by 6-MSITC in a concentration-dependent manner; however, this activity was not observed in MCF-7 cells. Moreover, this downregulation of phosphorylated IκBα by 6-MSITC in MDA-MB-231 and -453 cells supports its inhibitory effects on NF-κB activity. The expression of phosphorylated AKT (pAKT) reduced by 6-MSITC was confirmed in MDA-MB-231 cells. Thus, we conclude that 6-MITC promotes apoptosis of breast cancer cells by inhibiting NF-kB and therefore releasing its control of the PI3K/AKT pathway.
Sultana, Tamanna; Porter, N G; Savage, G P; McNeil, D L
The isothiocyanate (ITC) yield of wasabi, the Japanese horseradish (Wasabi japonica), was measured on its release from glucosinolates in the rhizomes of plants grown in two traditional ways. Mature plants of 18 months old were harvested from two different commercial farms located in the South Island of New Zealand. At one farm, the plants were grown in raised soil beds, while the plants at the other farm were grown in gravel irrigated by river water. Following harvest, the rhizomes from each growth medium were divided into five size groups based on the weight and length of the rhizomes. The different sized rhizomes were also subdivided into proximal, medial, and distal portions of the rhizomes and each portion was further subdivided into epidermis plus cortex, and vascular plus pith. The individual and total ITC contents of each portion (proximal, medial, and distal) of the rhizomes were measured using dichloromethane extraction followed by the GC-FPD. The total ITC content of the rhizomes grown in soil increased (13 times) linearly from 6 to 114 g of rhizome weight, while the mean ITC content of the water-grown wasabi increased (10 times) nonlinearly for similar sized rhizomes. Water-grown rhizomes in the weight range from 18 to 45 g gave significantly (P = 0.030) higher total ITC (1-2 times) than similarly sized soil-grown rhizomes. Analysis of the tissues showed that the total and the individual ITCs were found in significantly higher levels (73 and 64%, respectively) in the skin and cortex tissue compared to the vascular and pith tissues. Analysis of the ITC content of the different locations of the wasabi rhizome showed that the distal portion of the rhizome contained significantly higher levels of both total and individual ITCs compared to the medial and proximal portions of the rhizome.
Chen, Jihua; Uto, Takuhiro; Tanigawa, Shunsuke; Yamada-Kato, Tomeo; Fujii, Makoto; Hou, DE-Xing
6-(Methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate (6-MSITC) is a bioactive ingredient of wasabi [Wasabia japonica (Miq.) Matsumura], which is a popular pungent spice of Japan. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory function and underlying genes targeted by 6-MSITC, gene expression profiling through DNA microarray was performed in mouse macrophages. Among 22,050 oligonucleotides, the expression levels of 406 genes were increased by ≥3-fold in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW264 cells, 238 gene signals of which were attenuated by 6-MSITC (≥2-fold). Expression levels of 717 genes were decreased by ≥3-fold in LPS-activated cells, of which 336 gene signals were restored by 6-MSITC (≥2-fold). Utilizing group analysis, 206 genes affected by 6-MSITC with a ≥2-fold change were classified into 35 categories relating to biological processes (81), molecular functions (108) and signaling pathways (17). The genes were further categorized as 'defense, inflammatory response, cytokine activities and receptor activities' and some were confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Ingenuity pathway analysis further revealed that wasabi 6-MSITC regulated the relevant networks of chemokines, interleukins and interferons to exert its anti-inflammatory function.
CHEN, JIHUA; UTO, TAKUHIRO; TANIGAWA, SHUNSUKE; YAMADA-KATO, TOMEO; FUJII, MAKOTO; HOU, DE-XING
6-(Methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate (6-MSITC) is a bioactive ingredient of wasabi [Wasabia japonica (Miq.) Matsumura], which is a popular pungent spice of Japan. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory function and underlying genes targeted by 6-MSITC, gene expression profiling through DNA microarray was performed in mouse macrophages. Among 22,050 oligonucleotides, the expression levels of 406 genes were increased by ≥3-fold in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW264 cells, 238 gene signals of which were attenuated by 6-MSITC (≥2-fold). Expression levels of 717 genes were decreased by ≥3-fold in LPS-activated cells, of which 336 gene signals were restored by 6-MSITC (≥2-fold). Utilizing group analysis, 206 genes affected by 6-MSITC with a ≥2-fold change were classified into 35 categories relating to biological processes (81), molecular functions (108) and signaling pathways (17). The genes were further categorized as ‘defense, inflammatory response, cytokine activities and receptor activities’ and some were confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Ingenuity pathway analysis further revealed that wasabi 6-MSITC regulated the relevant networks of chemokines, interleukins and interferons to exert its anti-inflammatory function. PMID:23136589
Darwish, Nader Ahmed; Khan, Raham Sher; Ntui, Valentine Otang; Nakamura, Ikuo; Mii, Masahiro
Marker-free transgenic eggplants, exhibiting enhanced resistance to Alternaria solani , can be generated on plant growth regulators (PGRs)- and antibiotic-free MS medium employing the multi-auto-transformation (MAT) vector, pMAT21 - wasabi defensin , wherein isopentenyl transferase ( ipt ) gene is used as a positive selection marker. Use of the selection marker genes conferring antibiotic or herbicide resistance in transgenic plants has been considered a serious problem for environment and the public. Multi-auto-transformation (MAT) vector system has been one of the tools to excise the selection marker gene and produce marker-free transgenic plants. Ipt gene was used as a selection marker gene. Wasabi defensin gene, isolated from Wasabia japonica (a Japanese horseradish which has been a potential source of antimicrobial proteins), was used as a gene of interest. Wasabi defensin gene was cloned from the binary vector, pEKH-WD, to an ipt-type MAT vector, pMAT21, by gateway cloning technology and transferred to Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105. Infected cotyledon explants of eggplant were cultured on PGRs- and antibiotic-free MS medium. Extreme shooty phenotype/ipt shoots were produced by the explants infected with the pMAT21-wasabi defensin (WD). The same PGRs- and antibiotic-free MS medium was used in subcultures of the ipt shoots. Subsequently, morphologically normal shoots emerged from the Ipt shoots. Molecular analyses of genomic DNA from transgenic plants confirmed the integration of the WD gene and excision of the selection marker (ipt gene). Expression of the WD gene was confirmed by RT-PCR and Northern blot analyses. In vitro whole plant and detached leaf assay of the marker-free transgenic plants exhibited enhanced resistance against Alternaria solani.
Veidenberg, Andres; Medlar, Alan; Löytynoja, Ari
Wasabi is an open source, web-based environment for evolutionary sequence analysis. Wasabi visualizes sequence data together with a phylogenetic tree within a modern, user-friendly interface: The interface hides extraneous options, supports context sensitive menus, drag-and-drop editing, and displays additional information, such as ancestral sequences, associated with specific tree nodes. The Wasabi environment supports reproducibility by automatically storing intermediate analysis steps and includes built-in functions to share data between users and publish analysis results. For computational analysis, Wasabi supports PRANK and PAGAN for phylogeny-aware alignment and alignment extension, and it can be easily extended with other tools. Along with drag-and-drop import of local files, Wasabi can access remote data through URL and import sequence data, GeneTrees and EPO alignments directly from Ensembl. To demonstrate a typical workflow using Wasabi, we reproduce key findings from recent comparative genomics studies, including a reanalysis of the EGLN1 gene from the tiger genome study: These case studies can be browsed within Wasabi at http://wasabiapp.org:8000?id=usecases. Wasabi runs inside a web browser and does not require any installation. One can start using it at http://wasabiapp.org. All source code is licensed under the AGPLv3. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Valente, Rita S; Nadal-Jimenez, Pol; Carvalho, André F P; Vieira, Filipe J D; Xavier, Karina B
Bacterial communities can sense their neighbors, regulating group behaviors in response to cell density and environmental changes. The diversity of signaling networks in a single species has been postulated to allow custom responses to different stimuli; however, little is known about how multiple signals are integrated and the implications of this integration in different ecological contexts. In the plant pathogen Pectobacterium wasabiae (formerly Erwinia carotovora ), two signaling networks-the N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) quorum-sensing system and the Gac/Rsm signal transduction pathway-control the expression of secreted plant cell wall-degrading enzymes, its major virulence determinants. We show that the AHL system controls the Gac/Rsm system by affecting the expression of the regulatory RNA RsmB. This regulation is mediated by ExpR2, the quorum-sensing receptor that responds to the P. wasabiae cognate AHL but also to AHLs produced by other bacterial species. As a consequence, this level of regulation allows P. wasabiae to bypass the Gac-dependent regulation of RsmB in the presence of exogenous AHLs or AHL-producing bacteria. We provide in vivo evidence that this pivotal role of RsmB in signal transduction is important for the ability of P. wasabiae to induce virulence in response to other AHL-producing bacteria in multispecies plant lesions. Our results suggest that the signaling architecture in P. wasabiae was coopted to prime the bacteria to eavesdrop on other bacteria and quickly join the efforts of other species, which are already exploiting host resources. IMPORTANCE Quorum-sensing mechanisms enable bacteria to communicate through small signal molecules and coordinate group behaviors. Often, bacteria have various quorum-sensing receptors and integrate information with other signal transduction pathways, presumably allowing them to respond to different ecological contexts. The plant pathogen Pectobacterium wasabiae has two N-acyl homoserine lactone
Tanida, N; Kawaura, A; Takahashi, A; Sawada, K; Shimoyama, T
Dietary habits have been causally implicated in gastric carcinogenesis, whereas minor dietary items may also play a part. Wasabi is a popular pungent spice in Japanese meals. In this study the effect of wasabi on N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG)-induced gastric carcinogenesis was studied in rats. Wistar WKY male rats received drinking water containing 50 micrograms/ml of MNNG or tap water alone and a basal diet (PCE-2) or PCE-2 containing 10% (wt/wt) of wasabi powder for 40 weeks. Thus, three groups were completed as MNNG + PCE-2 (n = 30), MNNG + wasabi (n = 30), and tap water + wasabi (n = 30). At autopsy, nine rats (30%) had seven glandular stomach tumors (2 adenocarcinomas, 2 adenomatous polyps, and 3 adenomatous glandular hyperplasias) and three duodenal adenocarcinomas in the MNNG + PCE-2 group, whereas in the MNNG + wasabi group, two rats (7%) had one forestomach epidermoid cyst and one duodenal carcinosarcoma (corrected chi 2 = 4.63, p less than 0.05 for incidences of glandular stomach tumors between 2 groups). In addition, two rats had microscopic atypical glands in the MNNG + PCE-2 group. There was no tumor in the tap water + wasabi group. These results indicated that glandular stomach carcinogenesis induced by MNNG was suppressed by the administration of wasabi.
Lu, Zhongjing; Dockery, Christopher R.; Crosby, Michael; Chavarria, Katherine; Patterson, Brett; Giedd, Matthew
Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus are two of the major pathogens frequently involved in foodborne outbreaks. Control of these pathogens in foods is essential to food safety. It is of great interest in the use of natural antimicrobial compounds present in edible plants to control foodborne pathogens as consumers prefer more natural “green” foods. Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) is an antimicrobial compound naturally present in wasabi (Japanese horseradish) and several other edible plants. Although the antibacterial effects of pure AITC and wasabi extract (essential oil) against several bacteria have been reported, the antibacterial property of natural wasabi has not been well studied. This study investigated the antibacterial activities of wasabi as well as AITC against E. coli O157:H7 and S. aureus. Chemical analysis showed that AITC is the major isothiocyanate in wasabi. The AITC concentration in the wasabi powder used in this study was 5.91 ± 0.59 mg/g. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of wasabi against E. coli O157:H7 or S. aureus was 1% (or 10 mg/ml). Wasabi at 4% displayed higher bactericidal activity against S. aureus than against E. coli O157:H7. The MIC of AITC against either pathogen was between 10 and 100 μg/ml. AITC at 500 μg/ml was bactericidal against both pathogens while AITC at 1000 μg/ml eliminated E. coli O157:H7 much faster than S. aureus. The results from this study showed that wasabi has strong antibacterial property and has high potential to effectively control E. coli O157:H7 and S. aureus in foods. The antibacterial property along with its natural green color, unique flavor, and advantage to safeguard foods at the point of ingestion makes wasabi a promising natural edible antibacterial plant. The results from this study may be of significant interest to the food industry as they develop new and safe foods. These results may also stimulate more research to evaluate the antibacterial effect of wasabi against other
Lu, Zhongjing; Dockery, Christopher R; Crosby, Michael; Chavarria, Katherine; Patterson, Brett; Giedd, Matthew
Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus are two of the major pathogens frequently involved in foodborne outbreaks. Control of these pathogens in foods is essential to food safety. It is of great interest in the use of natural antimicrobial compounds present in edible plants to control foodborne pathogens as consumers prefer more natural "green" foods. Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) is an antimicrobial compound naturally present in wasabi (Japanese horseradish) and several other edible plants. Although the antibacterial effects of pure AITC and wasabi extract (essential oil) against several bacteria have been reported, the antibacterial property of natural wasabi has not been well studied. This study investigated the antibacterial activities of wasabi as well as AITC against E . coli O157:H7 and S . aureus . Chemical analysis showed that AITC is the major isothiocyanate in wasabi. The AITC concentration in the wasabi powder used in this study was 5.91 ± 0.59 mg/g. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of wasabi against E. coli O157:H7 or S. aureus was 1% (or 10 mg/ml). Wasabi at 4% displayed higher bactericidal activity against S. aureus than against E. coli O157:H7. The MIC of AITC against either pathogen was between 10 and 100 μg/ml. AITC at 500 μg/ml was bactericidal against both pathogens while AITC at 1000 μg/ml eliminated E. coli O157:H7 much faster than S. aureus . The results from this study showed that wasabi has strong antibacterial property and has high potential to effectively control E. coli O157:H7 and S. aureus in foods. The antibacterial property along with its natural green color, unique flavor, and advantage to safeguard foods at the point of ingestion makes wasabi a promising natural edible antibacterial plant. The results from this study may be of significant interest to the food industry as they develop new and safe foods. These results may also stimulate more research to evaluate the antibacterial effect of wasabi against other
Nagai, Masashi; Okunishi, Isao
We investigated the effect of wasabi rhizome extract on atopic dermatitis (AD) model mice. The wasabi extract was fed to the HR-1 hairless mice, which develop AD-like symptoms with a special diet (HR-AD diet). The extract was expected to reduce the symptoms induced. Wasabi rhizome-containing HR-AD diet (5% and 10%) reduced the scratching behavior, and the 10% wasabi rhizome HR-AD diet significantly reduced scratching behavior on days 28, 35 and 42. Plasma components (histamine, eotaxin, IgE and thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC)) were decreased in the 10% wasabi rhizome HR-AD diet. In histopathological examinations (toluidine blue (T.B.), major basic protein (MBP), CD4, IL-4, IL-5, eotaxin, TARC and IgE), the wasabi rhizome-containing HR-AD diet (5% and 10%) significantly reduced the number of positive stained cells. These results suggested that the wasabi rhizome extract improved the AD-like symptoms of HR-1 hairless mice.
Shibata, Takahiro; Nakahara, Hiroko; Kita, Narumi; Matsubara, Yui; Han, Chunguang; Morimitsu, Yasujiro; Iwamoto, Noriko; Kumagai, Yoshito; Nishida, Motohiro; Kurose, Hitoshi; Aoki, Naohito; Ojika, Makoto; Uchida, Koji
Neurotrophins, such as the nerve growth factor (NGF), play an essential role in the growth, development, survival and functional maintenance of neurons in the central and peripheral systems. They also prevent neuronal cell death under various stressful conditions, such as ischemia and neurodegenerative disorders. NGF induces cell differentiation and neurite outgrowth by binding with and activating the NGF receptor tyrosine kinase followed by activation of a variety of signaling cascades. We have investigated the NGF-dependent neuritogenesis enhancer potential of a food-derived small molecule contained in Brassica vegetables and identified the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) 1B as a key regulator of the NGF receptor-initiated signal transduction. Based on an extensive screening of Brassica vegetable extracts for the neuritogenic-promoting activity in the rat pheochromocytoma cell line PC12, we found the Japanese horseradish, wasabi (Wasabia japonica, syn. Eutrema wasabi), as the richest source and identified 6-methylsulfinylhexyl isothiocyanate (6-HITC), an analogue of sulforaphane isolated from broccoli, as one of the major neuritogenic enhancers in the wasabi. 6-HITC strongly enhanced the neurite outgrowth and neurofilament expression elicited by a low-concentration of NGF that alone was insufficient to induce neuronal differentiation. 6-HITC also facilitated the sustained-phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase and the autophosphorylation of the NGF receptor TrkA. It was found that PTP1B act as a phosphatase capable of dephosphorylating Tyr-490 of TrkA and was inactivated by 6-HITC in a redox-dependent manner. The identification of PTP1B as a regulator of NGF signaling may provide new clues about the chemoprotective potential of food components, such as isothiocyanates.
Valente, Rita S.; Nadal-Jimenez, Pol; Carvalho, André F. P.; Vieira, Filipe J. D.
ABSTRACT Bacterial communities can sense their neighbors, regulating group behaviors in response to cell density and environmental changes. The diversity of signaling networks in a single species has been postulated to allow custom responses to different stimuli; however, little is known about how multiple signals are integrated and the implications of this integration in different ecological contexts. In the plant pathogen Pectobacterium wasabiae (formerly Erwinia carotovora), two signaling networks—the N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) quorum-sensing system and the Gac/Rsm signal transduction pathway—control the expression of secreted plant cell wall-degrading enzymes, its major virulence determinants. We show that the AHL system controls the Gac/Rsm system by affecting the expression of the regulatory RNA RsmB. This regulation is mediated by ExpR2, the quorum-sensing receptor that responds to the P. wasabiae cognate AHL but also to AHLs produced by other bacterial species. As a consequence, this level of regulation allows P. wasabiae to bypass the Gac-dependent regulation of RsmB in the presence of exogenous AHLs or AHL-producing bacteria. We provide in vivo evidence that this pivotal role of RsmB in signal transduction is important for the ability of P. wasabiae to induce virulence in response to other AHL-producing bacteria in multispecies plant lesions. Our results suggest that the signaling architecture in P. wasabiae was coopted to prime the bacteria to eavesdrop on other bacteria and quickly join the efforts of other species, which are already exploiting host resources. PMID:28536283
Khan, Raham Sher; Nakamura, Ikuo; Mii, Masahiro
The selection marker genes, imparting antibiotic or herbicide resistance, in the final transgenics have been criticized by the public and considered a hindrance in their commercialization. Multi-auto-transformation (MAT) vector system has been one of the strategies to produce marker-free transgenic plants without using selective chemicals and plant growth regulators (PGRs). In the study reported here, isopentenyltransferase (ipt) gene was used as a selection marker and wasabi defensin (WD) gene, isolated from Wasabia japonica as a target gene. WD was cloned from the binary vector, pEKH-WD to an ipt-type MAT vector, pMAT21 by gateway cloning and transferred to Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105. Infected cotyledons of tomato cv. Reiyo were cultured on PGR- and antibiotic-free MS medium. Adventitious shoots were developed by the explants infected with the pMAT21/wasabi defensin. The same PGR- and antibiotic-free MS medium was used in subcultures of the adventitious shoot lines (ASLs) to produce ipt and normal shoots. Approximately, 6 months after infection morphologically normal shoots were produced. Molecular analyses of the developed shoots confirmed the integration of gene of interest (WD) and excision of the selection marker (ipt). Expression of WD was confirmed by Northern blot and Western blot analyses. The marker-free transgenic plants exhibited enhanced resistance against Botrytis cinerea (gray mold), Alternaria solani (early blight), Fusarium oxysporum (Fusarium wilt) and Erysiphe lycopersici (powdery mildew).
Elhalem, Eleonora; Recio, Rocío; Werner, Sabine; Lieder, Franziska; Calderón-Montaño, José Manuel; López-Lázaro, Miguel; Fernández, Inmaculada; Khiar, Noureddine
Reported is an enantiodivergent approach for the synthesis of both enantiomers of sulforaphane (SFN) homologues with different chain lengths between the sulfinyl sulfur and the isothiocyanate groups and different substituents on the sulfinyl sulfur. The homologues were designed in order to unravel the effect of all the diversity elements included in sulforaphane's structure. The key step of the approach is the diastereoselective synthesis of both sulfinate ester epimers at sulfur, using as single chiral auxiliary the sugar derived diacetone-d-glucose. The approach allows the first synthesis of both enantiomers of 5-methylsulfinylpentyl isothiocyanate, and the biologically important 6-methylsulfinylhexyl isothiocyanate (6-HITC) found in Japanese horseradish, wasabi (Wasabia japonica). The ability of the synthesized compounds as inductors of phase II detoxifying enzymes has been studied by determining their ability to activate the cytoprotective transcription factor Nrf2. The cytotoxic activity of all the synthesized compounds against human lung adenocarcinoma (A549) and foetal lung fibroblasts (MRC-5) is also reported. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Morimitsu, Yasujiro; Nakagawa, Yoko; Hayashi, Kazuhiro; Fujii, Hiroyuki; Kumagai, Takeshi; Nakamura, Yoshimasa; Osawa, Toshihiko; Horio, Fumihiko; Itoh, Ken; Iida, Katsuyuki; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Uchida, Koji
Exposure of cells to a wide variety of chemoprotective compounds confers resistance to a broad set of carcinogens. For a subset of the chemoprotective compounds, protection is generated by an increase in the abundance of the protective phase II detoxification enzymes, such as glutathione S-transferase (GST). We have recently developed a cell culture system, using rat liver epithelial RL 34 cells, that potently responds to the phenolic antioxidants resulting in the induction of GST activity (Kawamoto, Y., Nakamura, Y., Naito, Y., Torii, Y., Kumagai, T., Osawa, T., Ohigashi, H., Satoh, K., Imagawa, M., and Uchida, K. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 11291-11299.) In the present study, we investigated the phase II-inducing potency of an isothiocyanate compound in vitro and in vivo and examined a possible induction mechanism. Based on an extensive screening of vegetable extracts for GST inducer activity in RL34 cells, we found Japanese horseradish, wasabi (Wasabia japonica, syn. Eutrema wasabi), as the richest source and identified 6-methylsulfinylhexyl isothiocyanate (6-HITC), an analogue of sulforaphane (4-methylsulfinylbutyl isothiocyanate) isolated from broccoli, as the major GST inducer in wasabi. 6-HITC potently induced both class alpha GSTA1 and class pi GSTP1 isozymes in RL34 cells. In animal experiments, we found that 6-MSHI was rapidly absorbed into the body and induced hepatic phase II detoxification enzymes more potently than sulforaphane. The observations that (i) 6-HITC activated the antioxidant response element (ARE), (ii) 6-HITC induced nuclear localization of the transcription factor Nrf2 that binds to ARE, and (iii) the induction of phase II enzyme genes by 6-HITC was completely abrogated in the nrf2-deficient mice, suggest that 6-HITC is a potential activator of the Nrf2/ARE-dependent detoxification pathway.
Transcriptional regulation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate: quinone oxidoreductase in murine hepatoma cells by 6-(methylsufinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate, an active principle of wasabi (Eutrema wasabi Maxim).
Hou, D X; Fukuda, M; Fujii, M; Fuke, Y
Wasabi is a very popular pungent spice in Japan. This study examined the ability of 6-(methylsufinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate (6-MITC), an active principle of wasabi, to induce the cellular expression of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate: quinone oxidoreductase (QR) in Hepa 1c1c7 cells. The cells were treated with various concentrations of 6-MITC, and were then assessed for cell growth, QR activity and QR mRNA expression. The induction of QR activity and QR mRNA expression was time- and dose-responsive over a narrow range of 0.1-5 microM, with declining induction at higher concentrations due to cell toxicity. Furthermore, transfection studies demonstrated that the induction of transcription of the QR gene by 6-MITC involved an antioxidant/electrophile-responsive element (ARE/EpRE) activation. Our results suggest a novel mechanism by which dietary wasabi 6-MITC may be implicated in cancer chemoprevention.
Nagai, Masashi; Akita, Keiko; Yamada, Kazuno; Okunishi, Isao
Wasabi has been used as an important spice in Japanese foods. The wasabi leaves were used as a cosmetic material, but its biological activities have not yet been examined. We investigated the effect of isosaponarin derived from wasabi leaf on collagen synthesis in human fibroblasts. The production of type I collagen in human fibroblasts was increased with treatment of wasabi leaf extract. Isosaponarin isolated from wasabi leaves belonged to the group of flavone glycoside, and was the key compound in collagen synthesis from the wasabi leaf ingredients. Isosaponarin increased the type I collagen production at the mRNA gene level. The treatment of isosaponarin did not influence the production of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) protein, but increased the production of TGF-beta type II receptor (TbetaR-II) protein and TbetaR-II mRNA. Prolyl 4-hydroxylase (P4H) protein and P4H mRNA were increased by treatment with isosaponarin. Heat shock protein 47 (HSP47) was not increased by treatment with isosaponarin. These results suggested that isosaponarin increased collagen synthesis in human fibroblasts, caused by up-regulated TbetaR-II and P4H production.
Koskinen, Patrik; Nokso-Koivisto, Jussi; Pasanen, Miia; Broberg, Martin; Plyusnin, Ilja; Törönen, Petri; Holm, Liisa; Pirhonen, Minna; Palva, E. Tapio
Soft rot disease is economically one of the most devastating bacterial diseases affecting plants worldwide. In this study, we present novel insights into the phylogeny and virulence of the soft rot model Pectobacterium sp. SCC3193, which was isolated from a diseased potato stem in Finland in the early 1980s. Genomic approaches, including proteome and genome comparisons of all sequenced soft rot bacteria, revealed that SCC3193, previously included in the species Pectobacterium carotovorum, can now be more accurately classified as Pectobacterium wasabiae. Together with the recently revised phylogeny of a few P. carotovorum strains and an increasing number of studies on P. wasabiae, our work indicates that P. wasabiae has been unnoticed but present in potato fields worldwide. A combination of genomic approaches and in planta experiments identified features that separate SCC3193 and other P. wasabiae strains from the rest of soft rot bacteria, such as the absence of a type III secretion system that contributes to virulence of other soft rot species. Experimentally established virulence determinants include the putative transcriptional regulator SirB, two partially redundant type VI secretion systems and two horizontally acquired clusters (Vic1 and Vic2), which contain predicted virulence genes. Genome comparison also revealed other interesting traits that may be related to life in planta or other specific environmental conditions. These traits include a predicted benzoic acid/salicylic acid carboxyl methyltransferase of eukaryotic origin. The novelties found in this work indicate that soft rot bacteria have a reservoir of unknown traits that may be utilized in the poorly understood latent stage in planta. The genomic approaches and the comparison of the model strain SCC3193 to other sequenced Pectobacterium strains, including the type strain of P. wasabiae, provides a solid basis for further investigation of the virulence, distribution and phylogeny of soft rot
Kanzaki, H.; Nirasawa, S.; Saitoh, H.; Ito, M.; Nishihara, M.; Terauchi, R.; Nakamura, I.
Transgenic rice ( Oryza sativa cv. Sasanishiki) overexpressing the wasabi defensin gene, a plant defensin effective against the rice blast fungus, was generated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Twenty-two T2 homozygous lines harboring the wasabi defensin gene were challenged by the blast fungus. Transformants exhibited resistance to rice blast at various levels. The inheritance of the resistance over generations was investigated. T3 plants derived from two highly blast-resistant T2 lines (WT14-5 and WT43-5) were challenged with the blast fungus using the press-injured spots method. The average size of disease lesions of the transgenic line WT43-5 was reduced to about half of that of non-transgenic plants. The 5-kDa peptide, corresponding to the processed form of the wasabi defensin, was detected in the total protein fraction extracted from the T3 progeny. Transgenic rice plants overproducing wasabi defensin are expected to possess a durable and wide-spectrum resistance (i.e. field resistance) against various rice blast races.
Yamada-Kato, Tomoe; Nagai, Masashi; Ohnishi, Motoko; Yoshida, Kazutoshi
Wasabi is a plant of Japanese origin. It belongs to the family Brassicaceae and produces various isothiocyanates (ITCs). To clarify the type I allergies inhibited by wasabi ITCs, we investigated the inhibitory effect on chemical mediator release from dinitrophenylated bovine serum albumin (DNP-BSA)-stimulated RBL-2H3 rat basophilic leukemia cells. Allyl ITC (AITC), sec-butyl ITC (s-BuITC), and 3-butenyl ITC (3-BuITC), which have 3 or 4 carbon chains, inhibited histamine release but did not inhibit the release of leukotriene B4 (LTB4) or cysteinyl LTs (CysLTs). 4-Pentenyl ITC (4-PeITC) and 5-hexenyl ITC (5-HeITC), which have 5 or 6 carbon chains and an unsaturated bond at the end, inhibited LTB4 release but did not inhibit the release of histamine or CysLTs. 6-Methylthiohexyl ITC (6-MTITC), 6-methylsulfinylhexyl ITC (6-MSITC), and 6-methylsulfonylhexyl ITC (6-MSFITC), which have a sulfur atom inserted at the end of a 6-carbon chain, inhibited the release of histamine, LTB4, and CysLTs and the elevation in intracellular Ca(2+). These results suggest that wasabi ITCs inhibited type I allergies by inhibiting chemical mediator release and that the inhibitory effects on each chemical mediator were due to differences in the side chain structure of the wasabi ITCs.
Janow, Ginger L; Ilowite, Norman T; Wahezi, Dawn M
Wasabi nose, a term used to describe the nasopharyngeal discomfort experienced during cyclophosphamide infusions, is a rare phenomenon, previously described in case reports of adult oncology patients typically receiving high-dose chemotherapy regimens. The underlying mechanism by which this phenomenon occurs is unknown. We report four cases of children with rheumatic diseases afflicted by profound nasopharyngeal discomfort secondary to low-dose cyclophosphamide infusions. We additionally review the literature regarding potential medical management of these complications and describe our experience using these interventions.
Subedi, Lalita; Venkatesan, Ramu; Kim, Sun Yeou
Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), present in Wasabia japonica (wasabi), is an aliphatic isothiocyanate derived from the precursor sinigrin, which is a glucosinolate present in vegetables of the Brassica family. Traditionally, it has been used to treat rheumatic arthralgia, blood circulation, and pain. This study focuses on its anti-apoptotic activity through the regulation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammation. Furthermore, we assessed its neuroprotective efficacy, which it achieves through the upregulation of nerve growth factor (NGF) production. Pretreatment with AITC significantly inhibited inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression, decreased tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and nitric oxide (NO) production in activated microglia, and increased the nerve growth factor (NGF) and neurite outgrowth in neuroblastoma cells. AITC inhibited the nuclear factor (NF-κB-mediated transcription by modulating mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, particularly downregulating c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation, which was followed by a reduction in the TNF-α expression in activated microglia. This promising effect of AITC in controlling JNK/NF-κB/TNF-α cross-linking maintains the Bcl-2 gene family and protects neuroblastoma cells from activated microglia-induced toxicity. These findings provide novel insights into the anti-neuroinflammatory effects of AITC on microglial cells, which may have clinical significance in neurodegeneration.
Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), present in Wasabia japonica (wasabi), is an aliphatic isothiocyanate derived from the precursor sinigrin, which is a glucosinolate present in vegetables of the Brassica family. Traditionally, it has been used to treat rheumatic arthralgia, blood circulation, and pain. This study focuses on its anti-apoptotic activity through the regulation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammation. Furthermore, we assessed its neuroprotective efficacy, which it achieves through the upregulation of nerve growth factor (NGF) production. Pretreatment with AITC significantly inhibited inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression, decreased tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and nitric oxide (NO) production in activated microglia, and increased the nerve growth factor (NGF) and neurite outgrowth in neuroblastoma cells. AITC inhibited the nuclear factor (NF-κB-mediated transcription by modulating mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, particularly downregulating c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation, which was followed by a reduction in the TNF-α expression in activated microglia. This promising effect of AITC in controlling JNK/NF-κB/TNF-α cross-linking maintains the Bcl-2 gene family and protects neuroblastoma cells from activated microglia-induced toxicity. These findings provide novel insights into the anti-neuroinflammatory effects of AITC on microglial cells, which may have clinical significance in neurodegeneration. PMID:28671636
Schuenke, Patrick; Windschuh, Johannes; Roeloffs, Volkert; Ladd, Mark E; Bachert, Peter; Zaiss, Moritz
Together with the development of MRI contrasts that are inherently small in their magnitude, increased magnetic field accuracy is also required. Hence, mapping of the static magnetic field (B 0 ) and the excitation field (B 1 ) is not only important to feedback shim algorithms, but also for postprocess contrast-correction procedures. A novel field-inhomogeneity mapping method is presented that allows simultaneous mapping of the water shift and B 1 (WASABI) using an off-resonant rectangular preparation pulse. The induced Rabi oscillations lead to a sinc-like spectrum in the frequency-offset dimension and allow for determination of B 0 by its symmetry axis and of B 1 by its oscillation frequency. Stability of the WASABI method with regard to the influences of T 1 , T 2 , magnetization transfer, and repetition time was investigated and its convergence interval was verified. B 0 and B 1 maps obtained simultaneously by means of WASABI in the human brain at 3 T and 7 T can compete well with maps obtained by standard methods. Finally, the method was applied successfully for B 0 and B 1 correction of chemical exchange saturation transfer MRI (CEST-MRI) data of the human brain. The proposed WASABI method yields a novel simultaneous B 0 and B 1 mapping within 1 min that is robust and easy to implement. Magn Reson Med 77:571-580, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.
Trio, Phoebe Zapanta; Kawahara, Atsuyoshi; Tanigawa, Shunsuke; Sakao, Kozue; Hou, De-Xing
6-MSITC and 6-MTITC are sulforaphane (SFN) analogs found in Japanese Wasabi. As we reported previously, Wasabi isothiocyanates (ITCs) are activators of Nrf2-antioxidant response element pathway, and also inhibitors of pro-inflammatory cyclooxygenase-2. This study is the first to assess the global changes in transcript levels by Wasabi ITCs, comparing with SFN, in HepG2 cells. We performed comparative gene expression profiling by treating HepG2 cells with ITCs, followed by DNA microarray analyses using HG-U133 plus 2.0 oligonucleotide array. Partial array data on selected gene products were confirmed by RT-PCR and Western blotting. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) was used to identify functional subsets of genes and biologically significant network pathways. 6-MTITC showed the highest number of differentially altered (≥2 folds) gene expression, of which 114 genes were upregulated and 75 were downregulated. IPA revealed that Nrf2-mediated pathway, together with glutamate metabolism, is the common significantly modulated pathway across treatments. Interestingly, 6-MSITC exhibited the most potent effect toward Nrf2-mediated pathway. Our data suggest that 6-MSITC could exert chemopreventive role against cancer through its underlying antioxidant activity via the activation of Nrf2-mediated subsequent induction of cytoprotective genes.
Okamoto, Takayuki; Akita, Nobuyuki; Nagai, Masashi; Hayashi, Tatsuya; Suzuki, Koji
6-Methylsulfinylhexyl isothiocyanate (6-MSITC) is an active compound in wasabi (Wasabia japonica Matsum.), which is one of the most popular spices in Japan. 6-MSITC suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced macrophage activation, arachidonic- or adenosine diphosphate-induced platelet activation, and tumor cell proliferation. These data indicate that 6-MSITC has several biological activities involving anti-inflammatory, anti-coagulant, and anti-apoptosis properties. Endothelial cells (ECs) maintain vascular homeostasis and play crucial roles in crosstalk between blood coagulation and vascular inflammation. In this study, we determined the anti-coagulant and anti-inflammatory effects of 6-MSITC on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). 6-MSITC slightly reduced tissue factor expression, but did not alter von Willebrand factor release in activated HUVECs. 6-MSITC modulated the generation of activated protein C, which is essential for negative regulation of blood coagulation, on normal ECs. In addition, 6-MSITC reduced tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced interleukin-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression. 6-MSITC markedly attenuated TNF-α-induced adhesion of human monoblast U937 cells to HUVECs and reduced vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and E-selectin mRNA expression in activated ECs. These results showed that 6-MSITC modulates EC function and suppresses cell adhesion. This study provides new insight into the mechanism of the anti-inflammatory effect of 6-MSITC, suggesting that 6-MSITC has therapeutic potential as a treatment for vasculitis and vascular inflammation.
Cassagnes, Aurelien; Chen, Yu; Ohashi, Hirotada
In this paper, using path integral techniques, we derive a formula for a propagator arising in the study of occupation time derivatives. Using this result we derive a fair price for the case of the cumulative Parisian option. After confirming the validity of the derived result using Monte Carlo simulation, a new type of heavily path dependent derivative product is investigated. We derive an approximation for our so-called Wasabi option fair price and check the accuracy of our result with a Monte Carlo simulation.
Watanabe, Makoto; Ohata, Masahiko; Hayakawa, Sumio; Isemura, Mamoru; Kumazawa, Shigenori; Nakayama, Tsutomu; Furugori, Michiyo; Kinae, Naohide
The ethanol extract from Japanese horseradish wasabi was found to inhibit cell proliferation in human monoblastic leukemia U937 cells by inducing apoptotic cell death. Separation by methods including silica gel chromatography and preparative HPLC gave an active compound, which was identified as 6-methylsulfinylhexyl isothiocyanate (6-HITC). Several lines of evidence indicated that 6-HITC induced apoptosis in U937 cells and human stomach cancer MKN45 cells. Thus, 6-HITC is potentially useful as a natural anti-cancer agent.
Valente, Rita S.
ABSTRACT Pectobacterium wasabiae (previously known as Erwinia carotovora) is an important plant pathogen that regulates the production of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes through an N-acyl homoserine lactone-based quorum sensing system and through the GacS/GacA two-component system (also known as ExpS/ExpA). At high cell density, activation of GacS/GacA induces the expression of RsmB, a noncoding RNA that is essential for the activation of virulence in this bacterium. A genetic screen to identify regulators of RsmB revealed that mutants defective in components of a putative Trk potassium transporter (trkH and trkA) had decreased rsmB expression. Further analysis of these mutants showed that changes in potassium concentration influenced rsmB expression and consequent tissue damage in potato tubers and that this regulation required an intact Trk system. Regulation of rsmB expression by potassium via the Trk system occurred even in the absence of the GacS/GacA system, demonstrating that these systems act independently and are both required for full activation of RsmB and for the downstream induction of virulence in potato infection assays. Overall, our results identified potassium as an essential environmental factor regulating the Rsm system, and the consequent induction of virulence, in the plant pathogen P. wasabiae. IMPORTANCE Crop losses from bacterial diseases caused by pectolytic bacteria are a major problem in agriculture. By studying the regulatory pathways involved in controlling the expression of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes in Pectobacterium wasabiae, we showed that the Trk potassium transport system plays an important role in the regulation of these pathways. The data presented further identify potassium as an important environmental factor in the regulation of virulence in this plant pathogen. We showed that a reduction in virulence can be achieved by increasing the extracellular concentration of potassium. Therefore, this work highlights how
Trio, Phoebe Zapanta; Fujisaki, Satoru; Tanigawa, Shunsuke; Hisanaga, Ayami; Sakao, Kozue; Hou, De-Xing
6-(Methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate (6-MSITC), 6-(methylthio)hexyl isothiocyanate (6-MTITC), and 4-(methylsulfinyl)butyl isothiocyanate (4-MSITC) are isothiocyanate (ITC) bioactive compounds from Japanese Wasabi. Previous in vivo studies highlighted the neuroprotective potential of ITCs since ITCs enhance the production of antioxidant-related enzymes. Thus, in this present study, a genome-wide DNA microarray analysis was designed to profile gene expression changes in a neuron cell line, IMR-32, stimulated by these ITCs. Among these ITCs, 6-MSITC caused the expression changes of most genes (263), of which 100 genes were upregulated and 163 genes were downregulated. Gene categorization showed that most of the differentially expressed genes are involved in oxidative stress response, and pathway analysis further revealed that Nrf2-mediated oxidative stress pathway is the top of the ITC-modulated signaling pathway. Finally, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blotting confirmed the gene expression and protein products of the major targets by ITCs. Taken together, Wasabi-derived ITCs might target the Nrf2-mediated oxidative stress pathway to exert neuroprotective effects. PMID:27547033
Trio, Phoebe Zapanta; Fujisaki, Satoru; Tanigawa, Shunsuke; Hisanaga, Ayami; Sakao, Kozue; Hou, De-Xing
6-(Methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate (6-MSITC), 6-(methylthio)hexyl isothiocyanate (6-MTITC), and 4-(methylsulfinyl)butyl isothiocyanate (4-MSITC) are isothiocyanate (ITC) bioactive compounds from Japanese Wasabi. Previous in vivo studies highlighted the neuroprotective potential of ITCs since ITCs enhance the production of antioxidant-related enzymes. Thus, in this present study, a genome-wide DNA microarray analysis was designed to profile gene expression changes in a neuron cell line, IMR-32, stimulated by these ITCs. Among these ITCs, 6-MSITC caused the expression changes of most genes (263), of which 100 genes were upregulated and 163 genes were downregulated. Gene categorization showed that most of the differentially expressed genes are involved in oxidative stress response, and pathway analysis further revealed that Nrf2-mediated oxidative stress pathway is the top of the ITC-modulated signaling pathway. Finally, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blotting confirmed the gene expression and protein products of the major targets by ITCs. Taken together, Wasabi-derived ITCs might target the Nrf2-mediated oxidative stress pathway to exert neuroprotective effects.
Valente, Rita S; Xavier, Karina B
Pectobacterium wasabiae (previously known as Erwinia carotovora) is an important plant pathogen that regulates the production of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes through an N-acyl homoserine lactone-based quorum sensing system and through the GacS/GacA two-component system (also known as ExpS/ExpA). At high cell density, activation of GacS/GacA induces the expression of RsmB, a noncoding RNA that is essential for the activation of virulence in this bacterium. A genetic screen to identify regulators of RsmB revealed that mutants defective in components of a putative Trk potassium transporter (trkH and trkA) had decreased rsmB expression. Further analysis of these mutants showed that changes in potassium concentration influenced rsmB expression and consequent tissue damage in potato tubers and that this regulation required an intact Trk system. Regulation of rsmB expression by potassium via the Trk system occurred even in the absence of the GacS/GacA system, demonstrating that these systems act independently and are both required for full activation of RsmB and for the downstream induction of virulence in potato infection assays. Overall, our results identified potassium as an essential environmental factor regulating the Rsm system, and the consequent induction of virulence, in the plant pathogen P. wasabiae. Crop losses from bacterial diseases caused by pectolytic bacteria are a major problem in agriculture. By studying the regulatory pathways involved in controlling the expression of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes in Pectobacterium wasabiae, we showed that the Trk potassium transport system plays an important role in the regulation of these pathways. The data presented further identify potassium as an important environmental factor in the regulation of virulence in this plant pathogen. We showed that a reduction in virulence can be achieved by increasing the extracellular concentration of potassium. Therefore, this work highlights how elucidation of the
Hanaoka, Nozomu; Matsutani, Minenosuke; Kawabata, Hiroki; Yamamoto, Seigo; Fujita, Hiromi; Sakata, Akiko; Azuma, Yoshinao; Ogawa, Motohiko; Takano, Ai; Watanabe, Haruo; Kishimoto, Toshio; Shirai, Mutsunori; Kurane, Ichiro
We developed a specific and rapid detection system for Rickettsia japonica and R. heilongjiangensis, the causative agents of spotted fever, using a TaqMan minor groove binder probe for a particular open reading frame (ORF) identified by the R. japonica genome project. The target ORF was present only in R. japonica–related strains. PMID:19961684
Fuke, Y; Haga, Y; Ono, H; Nomura, T; Ryoyama, K
Synthetic 4-methylsulfinylhexyl isothiocyanate (MITC)(a potent inducer of phase 2 detoxification enzymes from broccoli) and 6-MITC(a potent anti-proliferative principal from wasabi) slightly inhibited the induction of mouse skin tumor in a two-stage process of carcinogenesis (initiator, 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene; promotor,12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate), but the effect was not significant. Both compounds, however, significantly inhibited the mutation of skin resulting from topical applications of the carcinogens. When a murine hepatoma cell line, Hepa 1c1c7, was treated with 2-,4-,6- and 8-MITCs, they augmented the induction of its quinone reductase, one of the phase 2 detoxification enzymes in a concentration dependent manner, and the 4- and 6-MITCs were much more potent on the reduction of the enzyme than the 2- and 8-MITCs. All 2-, 4-, 6- and 8-MITCs suppressed the growth of murine tumor cells, their suppressive activities being proportional to the length of their methyl residue. They were also cytotoxic to mouse peritoneal exudate macrophages which were not proliferating in vitro, indicating that the cellular targets of isothiocyanate may not be dependent upon the cell cycle. In addition, all the 2-, 4-, 6- and 8-MITCs inhibited the production of nitric oxide (a potent radical carcinogen) by peritoneal macrophages.
Li, Yujie; Cai, Weiyan; Weng, Xiaogang; Li, Qi; Wang, Yajie; Chen, Ying; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Qing; Guo, Yan; Zhu, Xiaoxin; Wang, Hainan
Lonicerae japonicae flos, a widely used traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), has been used for several thousand years in China. Chinese Pharmacopeia once included Lonicerae japonicae flos of Caprifoliaceae family and plants of the same species named Lonicerae flos in general in the same group. Chinese Pharmacopeia (2005 Edition) lists Lonicerae japonicae flos and Lonicerae flos under different categories, although they have the similar history of efficacy. In this study, we research ancient books of TCM, 4 main databases of Chinese academic journals, and MEDLINE/PubMed to verify the origins and effects of Lonicerae japonicae flos and Lonicerae flos in traditional medicine and systematically summarized the research data in light of modern pharmacology and toxicology. Our results show that Lonicerae japonicae flos and Lonicerae flos are similar pharmacologically, but they also differ significantly in certain aspects. A comprehensive systematic review and a standard comparative pharmacological study of Lonicerae japonicae flos and Lonicerae flos as well as other species of Lonicerae flos support their clinical safety and application. Our study provides evidence supporting separate listing of Lonicerae japonicae flos and Lonicerae flos in Chinese Pharmacopeia as well as references for revision of relevant pharmacopeial records dealing with traditional efficacy of Lonicerae japonicae flos and Lonicerae flos. PMID:26257818
Ji, Y. B.; Zhu, H. J.; Xin, G. S.; Wei, C.
The purpose of this experiment is to understand the effect of different processing methods on the content of active ingredients in Sophora japonica, and to determine the content of rutin and quercetin in Sophora japonica under different processing methods by UV spectrophotometry of the content determination. So as to compare the effect of different processing methods on the active ingredient content of Sophora japonica. Experiments can be seen in the rutin content: Fried Sophora japonica>Vinegar sunburn Sophora> Health products Sophora japonica> Charred sophora flower, Vinegar sunburn Sophora and Fried Sophora japonica difference is not obvious; Quercetin content: Charred sophora flower> Fried Sophora japonica> Vinegar sunburn Sophora>Health products Sophora japonica. It is proved that there are some differences in the content of active ingredients in Sophora japonica in different processing methods. The content of rutin increased with the increase of the processing temperature, but the content decreased after a certain temperature; Quercetin content will increase gradually with time.
Al-Anzi, Bader; Tracey, W Daniel; Benzer, Seymour
A number of repellent compounds produced by plants elicit a spicy or pungent sensation in mammals . In several cases, this has been found to occur through activation of ion channels in the transient receptor potential (TRP) family . We report that isothiocyanate (ITC), the pungent ingredient of wasabi, is a repellent to the insect Drosophila melanogaster, and that the painless gene, previously known to be required for larval nociception, is required for this avoidance behavior. A painless reporter gene is expressed in gustatory receptor neurons of the labial palpus, tarsus, and wing anterior margin, but not in olfactory receptor neurons, suggesting a gustatory role. Indeed, painless expression overlaps with a variety of gustatory-receptor gene reporters. Some, such as Gr66a, are known to be expressed in neurons that mediate gustatory repulsion . painless mutants are not taste blind; they show normal aversive gustatory behavior with salt and quinine and attractive responses to sugars and capsaicin. The painless gene is an evolutionary homolog of the mammalian "wasabi receptor" TRPA1/ANKTM1 , also thought to be involved in nociception. Our results suggest that the stinging sensation of isothiocyanate is caused by activation of an evolutionarily conserved molecular pathway that is also used for nociception.
Wei, Zhenzhen; Feng, Suxiang; Fang, Xiaoyan; Miao, Mingsan
Purposes: To sum up the characteristics of Chinese medicine with Sophora Japonica and provide reference for the research, development and utilization of the Chinese medicine of Sophora japonica in the future. Methods: The author sums up the forms, functions, indications, usage, dosage and contraindications of the proprietary Chinese medicine containing Sophora Japonica in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia and the Ministerial standards. In addition, we will inquire about the clinical application of proprietary Chinese medicine containing Sophora japonica in the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). Results: The proprietary Chinese medicine containing Sophora Japonica was widely used in the treatment of various diseases in clinic, but it was taken orally and without any external use of Chinese patent medicine. Moreover, in most of the proprietary Chinese medicine, Sophora japonica was used as a supplement; In addition, the causes of adverse reactions were not analyzed, and the safety of the drugs needed to be further analyzed. Conclusions: To make clear the role of Sophora japonica in proprietary Chinese medicine, we can develop the Chinese medicine new dosage forms of Sophora japonica; The Chinese medicine is made up of a variety of single herbs, some are toxic drugs, when an adverse reaction occurs, We should analyze the specific causes and avoid the occurrence of adverse reactions. In addition, Sophora japonica is a traditional herbal medicine and food in China; we can expand the application in other areas and explore the pharmacological and toxicological pathology.
The Rice Diversity Panel 1 (RDP1) was developed for genome-wide association (GWA) mapping to explore the five diverse rice (Oryza sativa) subpopulations (indica, aus, aromatic, temperate japonica and tropical japonica). RDP1 was evaluated for over 30 agronomic and morphological traits, most of whic...
Okumura, Etsuko; Tanaka, Ryusei; Yoshiga, Toyoshi
Gravity on Earth is a constant stimulus and many organisms are able to perceive and respond to it. However, there is no clear evidence that nematodes respond to gravity. In this study, we demonstrated negative gravitaxis in a nematode using dauer larvae (DL) of Caenorhabditis japonica, which form an association with their carrier insect Parastrachia japonensis. Caenorhabditis japonica DL demonstrating nictation, a typical host-finding behavior, had a negative gravitactic behavior, whereas non-nictating C. japonica and C. elegans DL did not. The negative gravitactic index of nictating DL collected from younger nematode cultures was higher than that from older cultures. After a 24 h incubation in M9 buffer, nictating DL did not alter their negative gravitactic behavior, but a longer incubation resulted in less pronounced negative gravitaxis. These results are indicative of negative gravitaxis in nictating C. japonica DL, which is maintained once initiated, seems to be affected by the age of DL and does not appear to be a simple passive mechanism.
Wang, Dong; Hu, Fei; Chen, Yu-Fen; Yang, Jun; Kong, Chui-Hua
The study on the photosynthetic characteristics of Cuscuta japonica and its hosts showed that there was a negative correlation between the photosynthetic pigment content (PPC) of C. japonica and its hosts. The PPC increased in the C. japonica-preferred hosts' parasitized and neighboring leaves, but decreased in its less preferred hosts' parasitized and neighboring leaves. The leaves parasitized by C. japonica and their neighboring far from the parasitized ones had a lowered net photosynthesis rate P(n), and the decreasing order accorded with that of parasitization. The decrease of P(n) for C. japonica-less preferred hosts was mainly due to the stomatal factors, but that for the preferred hosts was regulated by multi-factors. Under light, the PPC of C. japonica detached from preferred hosts increased faster than that of C. japonica detached from less preferred hosts, but the dry matter decrease was in adverse. In dark, however, the changes in PPC and dry matter content of C. japonica were not significant, whatever hosts it was detached from.
Yang, Xingyue; Liu, Yali; Hou, Aijuan; Yang, Yang; Tian, Xin; He, Liyun
In traditional Chinese medicine, Lonicerae Japonicae Flos is commonly used as anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and antipyretic herbal medicine, and geo-authentic herbs are believed to present the highest quality among all samples from different regions. To discuss the current situation and trend of geo-authentic Lonicerae Japonicae Flos, we searched Chinese Biomedicine Literature Database, Chinese Journal Full-text Database, Chinese Scientific Journal Full-text Database, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Wanfang, and PubMed. We investigated all studies up to November 2015 pertaining to quality assessment, discrimination, pharmacological effects, planting or processing, or ecological system of geo-authentic Lonicerae Japonicae Flos. Sixty-five studies mainly discussing about chemical fingerprint, component analysis, planting and processing, discrimination between varieties, ecological system, pharmacological effects, and safety were systematically reviewed. By analyzing these studies, we found that the key points of geo-authentic Lonicerae Japonicae Flos research were quality and application. Further studies should focus on improving the quality by selecting the more superior of all varieties and evaluating clinical effectiveness.
Choi, Jae-Suk; Seo, Hyo Ju; Lee, Yu-Ri; Kwon, Su-Jung; Moon, Sun Hwa; Park, Sun-Mee; Sohn, Jae Hak
New in vitro anti-diabetes makgeolli was produced from rice by adding various quantities of Laminaria japonica, and the fermentation characteristics of the L. japonica makgeolli during the fermentation process were investigated. The contents of alcohol and reducing sugar, and viable count of yeast, of L. japonica makgeolli were not significantly changed when the proportion of L. japonica was increased. The total acid content decreased with an increase in L. japonica concentration; the pH and total bacterial cell count increased in proportion with the increase in L. japonica concentration. The L. japonica makgeolli contents of free sugars, such as fructose, glucose, and sucrose, and of organic acids, such as acetic acid, citric acid, succinic acid, and lactic acid, were altered during fermentation and showed various patterns. The effects of the quantity of L. japonica added on the acceptability and anti-diabetes activities of L. japonica makgeolli were also investigated. In a sensory evaluation, L. japonica makgeolli brewed by adding 2.5 or 5% L. japonica to the mash showed the best overall acceptability; the 12.5% L. japonica sample was least favored due to its seaweed flavor. L. japonica addition did not increase the peroxynitrite-scavenging activity of makgeolli. L. japonica makgeolli showed potent anti-diabetes activity, particularly that containing >7.5% L. japonica. Therefore, L. japonica makgeolli may represent a new functional makgeolli with anti-diabetes properties. PMID:25054108
Choi, Jae-Suk; Seo, Hyo Ju; Lee, Yu-Ri; Kwon, Su-Jung; Moon, Sun Hwa; Park, Sun-Mee; Sohn, Jae Hak
New in vitro anti-diabetes makgeolli was produced from rice by adding various quantities of Laminaria japonica, and the fermentation characteristics of the L. japonica makgeolli during the fermentation process were investigated. The contents of alcohol and reducing sugar, and viable count of yeast, of L. japonica makgeolli were not significantly changed when the proportion of L. japonica was increased. The total acid content decreased with an increase in L. japonica concentration; the pH and total bacterial cell count increased in proportion with the increase in L. japonica concentration. The L. japonica makgeolli contents of free sugars, such as fructose, glucose, and sucrose, and of organic acids, such as acetic acid, citric acid, succinic acid, and lactic acid, were altered during fermentation and showed various patterns. The effects of the quantity of L. japonica added on the acceptability and anti-diabetes activities of L. japonica makgeolli were also investigated. In a sensory evaluation, L. japonica makgeolli brewed by adding 2.5 or 5% L. japonica to the mash showed the best overall acceptability; the 12.5% L. japonica sample was least favored due to its seaweed flavor. L. japonica addition did not increase the peroxynitrite-scavenging activity of makgeolli. L. japonica makgeolli showed potent anti-diabetes activity, particularly that containing >7.5% L. japonica. Therefore, L. japonica makgeolli may represent a new functional makgeolli with anti-diabetes properties.
Zhou, Jie; Zou, Lin; Liu, Wei; Bian, Li-hua; Wang, Xiao; Zhang, Yong-qing; Dan, Staerk
To provide the basis data for the institute of commercial specification standard of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos. 39 samples of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos commercial of different grades in market were collected, and vernier caliper and electronic balance were used to measure the numbers of flower bud and blooming rate per 0. 5 g, contamination content, browning degree, milden and rot, length, upside diameter, middle diameter and bottom diameter of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos. The content of neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, rutin, galuteolin,3,5-icaffeoylquinic acid and 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid were detected by HPLC. Correlation analysis, principal component analysis and cluster analysis were used by SPSS to analyze all index data,and the correlation of appearance characteristics and intrinsic active constituents was discussed. The numbers of flower bud and blooming rate per 0. 5 g, contamination content and browning degree were principal component indexes. The length of flower bud showed a significant correlation with galuteolin content, and the browning degree and upside diameter showed a significant correlation with chlorogenic acid content. Lonicerae Japonicae Flos commercial should be divided into four specification grades by sieved indexes.
Lee, DooJin; Lee, Ok-Hwan; Choi, Geunpyo; Kim, Jong Dai
Trapa japonica shell contains phenolic compounds such as tannins. Studies regarding the antioxidant and anti-adipogenic effects of Trapa japonica shell cultivated in Korea are still unclear. Antioxidant and anti-adipogenic activities were measured by in vitro assays such as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazy (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, 2,2′-azinobis( 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing ability of plasma assay, reducing power, superoxide dismutase-like activity, and iron chelating ability in 3T3-L1 cells. We also measured the total phenol and flavonoids contents (TPC and TFC, respectively) in Trapa japonica shell extract. Our results show that TPC and TFC of Trapa japonica shell extract were 157.7±0.70 mg gallic acid equivalents/g and 25.0±1.95 mg quercetin equivalents/g, respectively. Trapa japonica shell extract showed strong antioxidant activities in a dose-dependent manner in DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities and other methods. Especially, the whole antioxidant activity test of Trapa japonica shell extract exhibited higher levels than that of butylated hydroxytoluene as a positive control. Furthermore, Trapa japonica shell extract inhibited lipid accumulation and reactive oxygen species production during the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Trapa japonica shell extract possessed a significant antioxidant and anti-adipogenic property, which suggests its potential as a natural functional food ingredient. PMID:29333386
Kim, Yeon-Hee; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Jin, Hyung-Joo; Lee, Si Young
Laminaria japonica is a brown alga, which is consumed widely in Korea, Japan, and China. This study investigated the antimicrobial activity of ethanol extracts of L. japonica against oral microbial species to assess the possible application of L. japonica extracts in dental care products. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined in culture medium using a microdilution method. The MICs of ethanol extracts of L. japonica with oral streptococci were 62.5-500 μg/ml and the MBCs were 125-1000 μg/ml. The MICs of Actinomyces naeslundii and Actinomyces odontolyticus were 250 and 62.5 μg/ml, respectively. The MBCs of A. naeslundii and A. odontolyticus were 500 and 250 μg/ml, respectively. The MICs were 250 and 62.5 μg/ml for Fusobacterium nucleatum and Porphyromonas gingivalis, respectively. The killing of Streptococcus mutans and P. gingivalis was dependent on the incubation time. The killing of S. mutans, A. odontolyticus, and P. gingivalis was significantly dependent on the extract concentration. Bacterial treatment with L. japonica extracts changed the cell surface texture of S. mutans, A. odontolyticus, and P. gingivalis. The results of this study suggest that L. japonica extracts may be useful for the development of antimicrobial agents to combat oral pathogens. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yoshiga, Toyoshi; Ishikawa, Yuji; Tanaka, Ryusei; Hironaka, Mantaro; Okumura, Etsuko
Caenorhabditis japonica is a bacteriophagous nematode species that was discovered on the semi-social burrower bug, Parastrachia japonensis, which demonstrates egg-guarding and provisioning behaviors. To understand the life history of C. japonica in relation to P. japonensis, we demonstrated the specificity of this association and fluctuations in nematode number on the insect throughout the year. C. japonica dauer larvae (DL), larvae in a nonfeeding diapause stage, were predominantly found as clumps on the adult female insects but rarely found on the male insects in all populations examined. This female-biased association was consistent throughout the year, but after the nymphs hatched, nematodes were not detected on the mother insects showing provisioning behavior. DL appeared on the nymphs, and the number of DL on the newly emerged female insects gradually increased thereafter. C. japonica has never been detected on other invertebrates collected from the P. japonensis habitat thus far. Our data suggest that the life cycles of C. japonica and P. japonensis are synchronized.
He, Xirui; Bai, Yajun; Zhao, Zefeng; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Fang, Jiacheng; Huang, Linhong; Zeng, Min; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Yajun; Zheng, Xiaohui
Sophora japonica (Fabaceae), also known as Huai (Chinese: ), is a medium-sized deciduous tree commonly found in China, Japan, Korea, Vietnam, and other countries. The use of this plant has been recorded in classical medicinal treatises of ancient China, and it is currently recorded in both the Chinese Pharmacopoeia and European Pharmacopoeia. The flower buds and fruits of S. japonica, also known as Flos Sophorae Immaturus and Fructus Sophorae in China, are most commonly used in Asia (especially in China) to treat hemorrhoids, hematochezia, hematuria, hematemesis, hemorrhinia, uterine or intestinal hemorrhage, arteriosclerosis, headache, hypertension, dysentery, dizziness, and pyoderma. To discuss feasible trends for further research on S. japonica, this review highlights the botany, ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, biological activities, and toxicology of S. japonica based on studies published in the last six decades. Information on the S. japonica was collected from major scientific databases (SciFinder, PubMed, Elsevier, SpringerLink, Web of Science, Google Scholar, Medline Plus, China Knowledge Resource Integrated (CNKI), and "Da Yi Yi Xue Sou Suo (http://www.dayi100.com/login.jsp)" for publications between 1957 and 2015 on S. japonica. Information was also obtained from local classic herbal literature, government reports, conference papers, as well as PhD and MSc dissertations. Approximately 153 chemical compounds, including flavonoids, isoflavonoids, triterpenes, alkaloids, polysaccharides, amino acids, and other compounds, have been isolated from the leaves, branches, flowers, buds, pericarps, and/or fruits of S. japonica. Among these compounds, several flavonoids and isoflavonoids comprise the active constituents of S. japonica, which exhibit a wide range of biological activities in vitro and in vivo such as anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiviral, anti-osteoporotic, antioxidant, radical scavenging, antihyperglycemic, antiobesity, antitumor, and
Zhou, Cuihong; Zhong, Wu; Zhou, Jun; Sheng, Fugeng; Fang, Ziyuan; Wei, Yue; Chen, Yingyu; Deng, Xiaoyan; Xia, Bin; Lin, Jian
Monitoring autophagic flux is important for the analysis of autophagy. Tandem fluorescent-tagged LC3 (mRFP-EGFP-LC3) is a convenient assay for monitoring autophagic flux based on different pH stability of EGFP and mRFP fluorescent proteins. However, it has been reported that there is still weak fluorescence of EGFP in acidic environments (pH between 4 and 5) or acidic lysosomes. So it is possible that autolysosomes are labeled with yellow signals (GFP(+)RFP(+) puncta), which results in misinterpreting autophagic flux results. Therefore, it is desirable to choose a monomeric green fluorescent protein that is more acid sensitive than EGFP in the assay of autophagic flux. Here, we report on an mTagRFP-mWasabi-LC3 reporter, in which mWasabi is more acid sensitive than EGFP and has no fluorescence in acidic lysosomes. Meanwhile, mTagRFP-mWasabi-LC3ΔG was constructed as the negative control for this assay. Compared with mRFP-EGFP-LC3, our results showed that this reporter is more sensitive and accurate in detecting the accumulation of autophagosomes and autolysosomes. Using this reporter, we find that high-dose rapamycin (30 μM) will impair autophagic flux, inducing many more autophagosomes than autolysosomes in HeLa cells, while low-dose rapamycin (500 nM) has an opposite effect. In addition, other chemical autophagy inducers (cisplatin, staurosporine and Z18) also elicit much more autophagosomes at high doses than those at low doses. Our results suggest that the dosage of chemical autophagy inducers would obviously influence autophagic flux in cells.
Park, Kiyun; Kwak, Tae-Soo; Kwak, Ihn-Sil
Vitellogenin (VTG), the yolk-precursor lipoprotein, has been widely recognized as a biomarker for the detection of estrogenic activity in water-borne chemical pollutants. The Asian paddle crab, Charybdis japonica, is a potential bio-indicator for monitoring marine environments. The aim of this study was to identify the possibility of using C. japonica VTG as biomarkers of stress caused by endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). We characterized a partial sequence of the VTG cDNA in the C. japonica crab and evaluated the crab's mRNA expression profiles following exposure to different concentrations of bisphenol A (BPA) and 4-nonylphenol (NP) for 24 or 96 h. The sequence homology of C. japonica VTG is over 93% in nucleotide and over 98% in amino acid with the corresponding gene of other crabs. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the C. japonica VTG is an ortholog of other species of lobster and shrimp. Tissue distribution analysis of the C. japonica VTG mRNA revealed that the expression of VTG mRNA was highest in the ovary of females and hepatopancreas. The expression of the C. japonica VTG gene in various BPA or NP concentrations during shorter and longer times was assessed. The expression of VTG transcripts was significantly increased in the C. japonica crab exposed to BPA and NP at different concentrations for 24 h. The mRNA expression of the VTG gene was significantly induced in concentration- and time-dependent manners after BPA or NP exposures for 96 h. These results indicate that crab C. japonica VTG could be used as a potential biomarker of EDCs in marine environment monitoring.
Healthy seagrass is considered a prime indicator of estuarine ecosystem function. On the Pacific coast of North America, at least two congeners of Zostera occur: native Zostera marina, and introduced, Z. japonica. Z. japonica is considered “invasive” and therefore, ecologically...
Okumura, Etsuko; Tanaka, Ryusei; Yoshiga, Toyoshi
Host recognition is crucial during the phoretic stage of nematodes because it facilitates their association with hosts. However, limited information is available on the direct cues used for host recognition and host specificity in nematodes. Caenorhabditis japonica forms an intimate association with the burrower bug Parastrachia japonensis. Caenorhabditis japonica dauer larvae (DL), the phoretic stage of the nematode, are mainly found on adult P. japonensis females but no other species. To understand the mechanisms of species-specific and female carrier-biased ectophoresy in C. japonica, we investigated whether C. japonica DL could recognize their hosts using nematode loading and chemoattraction experiments. During the loading experiments, up to 300 C. japonica DL embarked on male and female P. japonensis, whereas none or very few utilized the other shield bugs Erthesina fullo and Macroscytus japonensis or the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare. In the chemoattraction experiments, hexane extracts containing the body surface components of nymphs and both adult P. japonensis sexes attracted C. japonica DL, whereas those of other shield bugs did not. Parastrachia japonensis extracts also arrested the dispersal of C. japonica DL released at a site where hexane extracts were spotted on an agar plate; i.e. >50% of DL remained at the site even 60 min after nematode inoculation whereas M. japonensis extracts or hexane alone did not have the same effect. These results suggest that C. japonica DL recognize their host species using direct chemical attractants from their specific host to maintain their association.
Yang, Qian-Ru; Zhao, Yuan-Yuan; Hao, Jiang-Bo; Li, Wei-Dong
The dried flower buds or initial flowers of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos and Lonicerae Flos, which belong to different species of Lonicera or Caprifoliaceae, are usually taken to clear away heat and toxic material and treat the exopathogenic wind-heat. They are two different herbs, and due to various reasons, there are far more controversies. This paper reviews the research on the chemical constituents and their differences between Lonicerae Japonicae Flos and Lonicerae Flos. Both of them contain the similar chemical constituents, such as organic acids, flavonoids, triterpenoidal saponins, iridoids, volatile oils and trace elements. But there are also differences between them. The main differences：Lonicerae Japonicae Flos contains a wealth of iridoids and flavonoids, while Lonicerae Flos contains more kinds of triterpenoidal saponins; the content of chlorogenic acid in Lonicerae Flos is significantly higher than that of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos; the content of rutin, luteoloside,luteolin-7-O-β-D-galactoside and lonicerin in Lonicerae Japonicae Flos is much higher than that of Lonicerae Flos; the content of Fe and Ni in Lonicerae Japonicae Flos is higher, while the content of Mn is higher in Lonicerae Flos. Finally, main problems and suggestions on chemical composition between Lonicerae Japonicae Flos and Lonicerae Flos were also discussed. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Honnavar, Prasanna; Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Dogra, Sunil; Handa, Sanjeev; Rudramurthy, Shivaprakash M
Malassezia species, which are skin colonizers, are being debated as to their pathogenic role in various cutaneous diseases. Species identification of Malassezia is important as particular species have been implicated in or associated with specific diseases. Malassezia japonica, a relatively newly described species, has not been completely characterized owing to the rarity of its isolation. In the present study we describe phenotypic and molecular characterization of six M. japonica strains isolated from patients with psoriasis vulgaris. In contrast to the physiological and biochemical properties of the M. japonica type strain, CBS9348, all our isolates assimilated Tween 20 and showed positive β-glucosidase activity, and the Cremophor EL utilization test was negative. However, the sequences of the D1/D2 region of rDNA, ITS2 and IGS1 regions of all our isolates clustered with the type strain of M. japonica. © 2015 The Authors.
Asakawa, Yoshinori; Ludwiczuk, Agnieszka; Sakurai, Kazutoshi; Tomiyama, Kenichi; Kawakami, Yukihiro; Yaguchi, Yoshihiro
The volatile compounds obtained from the ether extracts, headspace gases and steam distillates of Alpinia japonica and Elettaria cardamomum were analyzed by GC/MS. Both species were rich sources of naturally rare fenchane-type monoterpenoids, fenchene, fenchone, fenchyl alcohol and its acetate, together with 1,8-cineole. The distributions of volatile sesquiterpenoids were very poor in both species. Chiralities of fenchone in A. japonica and E. cardamomum were 99% of (1S,4R)-(+)-form. Camphor in A. japonica is composed of a mixture of (1R,4R)-(+)-form (94.3%) and (1S,4S)-(-)-form (5.7%). On the other hand, E. cardamomum produced only (1R,4R)-(+)-camphor (99%).
Saito, M; Seki, M; Amemiya, S; Yamasu, K; Suyemitsu, T; Ishihara, K
The larva of the sand dollar Peronella japonica lacks a mouth and gut, and undergoes metamorphosis into a juvenile sand dollar without feeding. In the present study, it was found that thyroid hormones accelerate the metamorphosis of P. japonica larvae. The contents of thyroid hormones in larvae increased gradually during development. Thiourea and potassium perchlorate, inhibitors of thyroid hormone synthesis, delayed larval metamorphosis and simultaneously repressed an increase in the content of thyroxine in the larval body. These results suggest that the P. japonica larva has a system for synthesis of thyroid hormones that act as factors for inducing metamorphosis.
Zhu, Wei; Zheng, Wen; Hu, Xingjiang; Xu, Xiaobao; Zhang, Lin; Tian, Jingkui
Lonicera japonica Thunb., also known as Jin Yin Hua and Japanese honeysuckle, is used as a herbal medicine in Asian countries. Its flowers have been used in folk medicine in the clinic and in making food or healthy beverages for over 1500years in China. To investigate the molecular processes involved in L. japonica development from buds to flowers exposed to UV radiation, a comparative proteomics analysis was performed. Fifty-four proteins were identified as differentially expressed, including 42 that had increased expression and 12 that had decreased expression. The levels of the proteins related to glycolysis, TCA/organic acid transformation, major carbohydrate metabolism, oxidative pentose phosphate, stress, secondary metabolism, hormone, and mitochondrial electron transport were increased during flower opening process after exposure to UV radiation. Six metabolites in L. japonica buds and flowers were identified and relatively quantified using LC-MS/MS. The antioxidant activity was performed using a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay, which revealed that L. japonica buds had more activity than the UV irradiated flowers. This suggests that UV-B radiation induces production of endogenous ethylene in L. japonica buds, thus facilitating blossoming of the buds and activating the antioxidant system. Additionally, the higher metabolite contents and antioxidant properties of L. japonica buds indicate that the L. japonica bud stage may be a more optimal time to harvest than the flower stage when using for medicinal properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Cao, Yin-Guang; Hao, Yu; Li, Zhi-Hui; Liu, Shun-Tao; Wang, Le-Xin
This study was designed to investigate the inhibition activity of polysaccharide extract from Laminaria japonica against RSV. The polysaccharide from Laminaria japonica was isolated by ethanol precipitation. HEK293 cells were infected with RVS, and the antiviral activity of polysaccharide extract against RSV in host cells was tested. By using ELISA and western blot assay, the expression level of IFN-α and IRF3 and their functional roles in polysaccharide-mediated antiviral activity against RSV were investigated. The polysaccharide extract from Laminaria japonica had low toxicity to HEK293 cell. The TC50 to HEK293 cells was up to 1.76mg/mL. Furthermore, the EC50 of polysaccharide extract to RSV was 5.27μg/mL, and TI was 334. The polysaccharide extract improved IRF-3 expression which promoted the level of IFN-α. Polysaccharide extract from Laminaria japonica elicits antiviral activity against RSV by up-regulation of IRF3 signaling-mediated IFN-α production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Yun, Ji Ho; Lee, Jung Eun; Lee, Hee Ju; Nho, Chu Won; Bae, Gwi- Nam; Jung, Jae Hee
Controlling bioaerosols has become more important with increasing participation in indoor activities. Treatments using natural-product nanomaterials are a promising technique because of their relatively low toxicity compared to inorganic nanomaterials such as silver nanoparticles or carbon nanotubes. In this study, antimicrobial filters were fabricated from natural Euscaphis japonica nanoparticles, which were produced by nebulizing E. japonica extract. The coated filters were assessed in terms of pressure drop, antimicrobial activity, filtration efficiency, major chemical components, and cytotoxicity. Pressure drop and antimicrobial activity increased as a function of nanoparticle deposition time (590, 855, and 1150 µg/cm2filter at 3-, 6-, and 9-min depositions, respectively). In filter tests, the antimicrobial efficacy was greater against Staphylococcus epidermidis than Micrococcus luteus; ~61, ~73, and ~82% of M. luteus cells were inactivated on filters that had been coated for 3, 6, and 9 min, respectively, while the corresponding values were ~78, ~88, and ~94% with S. epidermidis. Although statistically significant differences in filtration performance were not observed between samples as a function of deposition time, the average filtration efficacy was slightly higher for S. epidermidis aerosols (~97%) than for M. luteus aerosols (~95%). High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI/MS) analyses confirmed that the major chemical compounds in the E. japonica extract were 1(ß)-O-galloyl pedunculagin, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, and kaempferol-3-O-glucoside. In vitro cytotoxicity and disk diffusion tests showed that E. japonica nanoparticles were less toxic and exhibited stronger antimicrobial activity toward some bacterial strains than a reference soluble nickel compound, which is classified as a human carcinogen. This study provides valuable information for the development of a bioaerosol control
Hori, Kiyosumi; Yamamoto, Toshio; Yano, Masahiro
Many quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for agronomically important traits such as grain yield, disease resistance, and stress tolerance of rice (Oryza sativa L.) have been detected by using segregating populations derived from crosses between indica and japonica subspecies or with wild relatives. However, the QTLs involved in the control of natural variation in agronomic traits among closely related cultivars are still unclear. Decoding the whole genome sequences of Nipponbare and other temperate japonica rice cultivars has accelerated the collection of a huge number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). These SNPs are good resource for developing polymorphic DNA markers and for detecting QTLs distributed across all rice chromosomes. The temperate japonica rice cultivar Koshihikari has remained the top cultivar for about 40 years since 1979 in Japan. Unraveling the genetic factors in Koshihikari will provide important insights into improving agronomic traits in temperate japonica rice cultivars. Here we describe recent progress in our studies as an example of genetic analysis in closely related cultivars. PMID:29398936
Dorigo, Wouter; Lucieer, Arko; Podobnikar, Tomaž; Čarni, Andraž
Japanese knotweed (Fallopia japonica) is listed among 100 of the World's worst invasive alien species and poses an increasing threat to ecosystems and agriculture in Northern America, Europe, and Oceania. This study proposes a remote sensing method to detect local occurrences of F. japonica from low-cost digital orthophotos taken in early spring and summer by concurrently exploring its temporal, spectral, and spatial characteristics. Temporal characteristics of the species are quantified by a band ratio calculated from the green and red spectral channels of both images. The normalized difference vegetation index was used to capture the high near-infrared (NIR) reflectance of F. japonica in summer while the characteristic texture of F. japonica is quantified by calculating gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) measures. After establishing the optimum kernel size to quantify texture, the different input features (spectral, spatial, and texture) were stacked and used as input to the random forest (RF) classifier. The proposed method was tested for a built-up and semi-natural area in Slovenia. The spectral, spatial, and temporal provided an equally important contribution for differentiating F. japonica from other land cover types. The combination of all signatures resulted in a producer accuracy of 90.3% and a user accuracy of 98.1% for F. japonica when validation was based on independent regions of interest. A producer accuracy of 61.4% was obtained for F. japonica when comparing the classification result with all occurrences of F. japonica identified during a field validation campaign. This is an encouraging result given the very small patches in which the species usually occur and the high degree of intermingling with other plants. All hot spots were identified and even likely infestations of F. japonica that had remained undiscovered during the field campaign were detected. The probability images resulting from the RF classifier can be used to reduce the
Kim, Jae Kyeom; Lim, Ho-Jeong; Kim, Mi-So; Choi, Soo Jung; Kim, Mi-Jeong; Kim, Cho Rong; Shin, Dong-Hoon; Shin, Eui-Cheol
Background: The central nervous system is easily damaged by oxidative stress due to high oxygen consumption and poor defensive capacity. Hence, multiple studies have demonstrated that inhibiting oxidative stress-induced damage, through an antioxidant-rich diet, might be a reasonable approach to prevent neurodegenerative disease. Objective: In the present study, response surface methodology was utilized to optimize the extraction for neuro-protective constituents of Camellia japonica byproducts. Materials and Methods: Rat pheochromocytoma cells were used to evaluate protective potential of Camellia japonica byproducts. Results: Optimum conditions were 33.84 min, 75.24%, and 75.82°C for time, ethanol concentration and temperature. Further, we demonstrated that major organic acid contents were significantly impacted by the extraction conditions, which may explain varying magnitude of protective potential between fractions. Conclusions: Given the paucity of information in regards to defatted C. japonica seed cake and their health promoting potential, our results herein provide interesting preliminary data for utilization of this byproduct from oil processing in both academic and industrial applications. SUMMARY Neuro-protective potential of C. japonica seed cake on cell viability was affected by extraction conditionsExtraction conditions effectively influenced on active constituents of C. japonica seed cakeBiological activity of C. japonica seed cake was optimized by the responsive surface methodology. Abbreviations used: GC-MS: Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer, MTT: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, PC12 cells: Pheochromocytoma, RSM: Response surface methodology. PMID:27601847
Chaowuttikul, Chayanon; Palanuvej, Chanida; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri
Lonicera japonica Thunb. or Japanese Honeysuckle has been widely used in traditional medicine for antipyretic. To establish the pharmacognostic specification of L. japonica flowering bud in Thailand and to determine its chlorogenic acid content and in vitro antioxidant activities. Dried L. japonica flowering bud from 15 various herbal drugstores throughout Thailand were investigated for pharmacognostic specification. Their chlorogenic acid contents were quantitatively analyzed by thin layer chromatography (TLC) densitometry with winCATS software. The mobile phase for TLC development consisted of ethyl acetate: formic acid: acetic acid: water (10:1.1:1.1:2.6). Antioxidant activities were investigated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, ferric ion reducing antioxidant power assay, nitric oxide scavenging assay, and β-carotene bleaching assays. Qualified L. japonica flowering bud in Thailand was presented that the contents of loss on drying, total ash, acid-insoluble ash, and water should not be >10.11%, 6.59%, 1.14%, and 10.82% by weight, respectively. The ethanol and water soluble extractive values should not be < 16.46% and 28.88% by weight, respectively. Chlorogenic acid content in L. japonica flowering bud was found to be 2.24 ± 0.50 g/100 g of crude drug. L. japonica flowering bud showed DPPH and nitric oxide scavenging activities as well as reducing power property. This pharmacognostic specification with special reference to the chlorogenic acid content can be used for quality control of L. japonica flowering bud in Thailand. The potential antioxidant of this crude drug was demonstrated in vitro . Pharmacognostic specification of Lonicera japonica flowering bud in Thailand has been establishedThe chlorogenic acid content has been quantified by thin layer chromatography-densitometryThe ethanolic extract of L. japonica flowering bud showed antioxidation potential, especially on reducing power property. Abbreviations Used: TLC: Thin layer
Chaowuttikul, Chayanon; Palanuvej, Chanida; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri
Background: Lonicera japonica Thunb. or Japanese Honeysuckle has been widely used in traditional medicine for antipyretic. Objective: To establish the pharmacognostic specification of L. japonica flowering bud in Thailand and to determine its chlorogenic acid content and in vitro antioxidant activities. Materials and Methods: Dried L. japonica flowering bud from 15 various herbal drugstores throughout Thailand were investigated for pharmacognostic specification. Their chlorogenic acid contents were quantitatively analyzed by thin layer chromatography (TLC) densitometry with winCATS software. The mobile phase for TLC development consisted of ethyl acetate: formic acid: acetic acid: water (10:1.1:1.1:2.6). Antioxidant activities were investigated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, ferric ion reducing antioxidant power assay, nitric oxide scavenging assay, and β-carotene bleaching assays. Results: Qualified L. japonica flowering bud in Thailand was presented that the contents of loss on drying, total ash, acid-insoluble ash, and water should not be >10.11%, 6.59%, 1.14%, and 10.82% by weight, respectively. The ethanol and water soluble extractive values should not be < 16.46% and 28.88% by weight, respectively. Chlorogenic acid content in L. japonica flowering bud was found to be 2.24 ± 0.50 g/100 g of crude drug. L. japonica flowering bud showed DPPH and nitric oxide scavenging activities as well as reducing power property. Conclusion: This pharmacognostic specification with special reference to the chlorogenic acid content can be used for quality control of L. japonica flowering bud in Thailand. The potential antioxidant of this crude drug was demonstrated in vitro. SUMMARY Pharmacognostic specification of Lonicera japonica flowering bud in Thailand has been establishedThe chlorogenic acid content has been quantified by thin layer chromatography-densitometryThe ethanolic extract of L. japonica flowering bud showed antioxidation potential
Hu, Xuan; Li, Wei-dong; Li, Ou; Hao, Jiang-bo; Liu, Jia-kun
To study the effect of gas-turbine green discoloring and drying processing method on the quality of various Lonicerae Japonicae Flos herbs. DIKMA DiamonsilTM-C18 column (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 microm) was adopted using HPLC Waters 1525 and eluted with acetonitrile and 0.1% phosphate acid as the mobile phase. The flow rate was 1.0 mL x min(-1) , the column temperature was 25 degrees C the detection wavelength was 355 nm. After being processed by the gas-turbine green discoloring and drying method, tetraploid Lonicerae Japonicae Flos showed a green color. The contents of chlorogenic acid and galuteolin were 5.31% and 0.105% , both significantly higher by 18.0% and 32.1% than those of diploid Lonicerae Japonicae Flos processed by the same method. The content of chlorogenic acid in tetraploid Lonicerae Japonicae Flos processed the gas-turbine green discoloring and drying method were also remarkably higher than that of tetraploid and diploid Lonicerae Japonicae Flos processed by traditional processing method of natural drying. The gas-turbine green discoloring and drying processing method is a new-type drying method suitable for tetraploid Lonicerae Japonicae Flos. Under the condition of gas-turbine green discoloring and drying processing, tetraploid Lonicerae Japonicae Flos shows much higher quality than Lonicerae Japonicae Flos, suggesting that it is a good variety worth popularizing and applying.
Cai, Jin; Feng, Jia; Xie, Shulian; Wang, Feipeng; Xu, Qiufeng
Bacterial ring rot of potato is one of the most serious potato plant and tuber diseases. Laminaria japonica extract was investigated for its antimicrobial activity against Clavibater michiganense subsp. sepedonicum (Spieckermann & Kotthoff) Davis et al., the causative agent of bacterial ring rot of potato. The results showed that the optimum extraction conditions of antimicrobial substances from L. japonica were an extraction temperature of 80°C, an extraction time of 12 h, and a solid to liquid ratio of 1∶25. Active compounds of L. japonica were isolated by solvent partition, thin layer chromatography (TLC) and column chromatography. All nineteen fractionations had antimicrobial activities against C. michiganense subsp. sepedonicum, while Fractionation three (Fr.3) had the highest (P<0.05) antimicrobial activity. Chemical composition analysis identified a total of 26 components in Fr.3. The main constituents of Fr.3 were alkanes (80.97%), esters (5.24%), acids (4.87%) and alcohols (2.21%). Antimicrobial activity of Fr.3 against C. michiganense subsp. sepedonicum could be attributed to its ability to damage the cell wall and cell membrane, induce the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), increase cytosolic Ca2+ concentration, inhibit the glycolytic pathway (EMP) and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, inhibit protein and nucleic acid synthesis, and disrupt the normal cycle of DNA replication. These findings indicate that L. japonica extracts have potential for inhibiting C. michiganense subsp. sepedonicum. PMID:24714388
Park, Hun; Song, Uhram
Although Azolla species are among the most promising plants for use in phytoremediation, more studies on their growth and nitrogen (N) uptake along the N gradients of growing media are required. In this study, N concentration-dependent growth in growing media and phosphorus (P) and N accumulation by Azolla japonica were studied by estimating direct N uptake from media by molybdenum-iron proteins. The doubling time of A. japonica was less than a week, regardless of the N concentration (0, 5, and 25 mg N/L) present in the growth media, indicating that this plant is suitable for remediation. Plants showed a high uptake of P, probably via plant-bacteria symbiosis, indicating their potential for effective P remediation. A. japonica also showed more than 4% N content regardless of the treatment and accumulated more than 40 mg of N per microcosm in 3 weeks. iron and molybdenum levels in plants were strongly associated with N fixation, and N uptake from media was estimated to be more than 25 mg per microcosm in 3 weeks, indicating that A. japonica has N remediation potential. As A. japonica is a rapidly growing plant, capable of efficient P and N remediation, it has great potential for use in phytoremediation of nutrient-enriched waters such as agricultural or urban wastewater and eutrophicated aquatic ecosystems.
Park, Bo-Kyung; Chun, Eunho; Choi, Jeong June; Shin, Younmin; Kho, Young Tak; Oh, Seung Hyun; Kim, Sun Yeou; Lee, Taek Hwan; Kim, Tae-Wan; Shin, Eunju; Do, Seon-Gil; Jin, Mirim
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal disease with complex pathophysiology involving the brain-gut axis. To assess the effects of Wasabia koreana (WK) on IBS, we employed a mouse model of colonic zymosan injection presenting with diarrhea-predominant IBS-like symptoms. Oral WK administration significantly diminished stool score, suppressed colon length and weight change, and minimized body weight loss without affecting food intake. In WK-treated mice, the submucosal thickening and epithelial lining of the colon were inhibited and were similar to those of naïve mice. Infiltration of mast cells into the colon and serum tumor necrosis factor-α levels were markedly suppressed. These effects were comparable to those of sulfasalazine, an anti-inflammatory drug. Furthermore, the number of visceral pain-related behaviors was significantly decreased, and locomotion activities measured in the elevated plus maze and open field tests were significantly increased by WK in a dose-dependent manner compared with amitriptyline, an antidepressant. These changes were accompanied by reduced FosB2 expression in the brain. Taken together, these data suggest that WK may have potential as a medicinal food for IBS by acting on inflammatory diarrhea and neural activity.
... Right Whale (Eubalaena japonica). 226.215 Section 226.215 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE... DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.215 Critical habitat for the North Pacific Right Whale (Eubalaena japonica). (a) Primary Constituent Elements. The primary constituent elements of the North Pacific right whale...
... Right Whale (Eubalaena japonica). 226.215 Section 226.215 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE... DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.215 Critical habitat for the North Pacific Right Whale (Eubalaena japonica). (a) Primary Constituent Elements. The primary constituent elements of the North Pacific right whale...
... Right Whale (Eubalaena japonica). 226.215 Section 226.215 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE... DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.215 Critical habitat for the North Pacific Right Whale (Eubalaena japonica). (a) Primary Constituent Elements. The primary constituent elements of the North Pacific right whale...
Yuan, Yuan; Wang, Zhouyong; Jiang, Chao; Wang, Xumin; Huang, Luqi
Chlorogenic acids (CGAs) and luteolin are active compounds in Lonicera japonica, a plant of high medicinal value in traditional Chinese medicine. This study provides a comprehensive overview of gene families involved in chlorogenic acid and luteolin biosynthesis in L. japonica, as well as its substitutes Lonicera hypoglauca and Lonicera macranthoides. The gene sequence feature and gene expression patterns in various tissues and buds of the species were characterized. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that 14 chlorogenic acid and luteolin biosynthesis-related genes were identified from the L. japonica transcriptome assembly. Phylogenetic analyses suggested that the function of individual gene could be differentiation and induce active compound diversity. Their orthologous genes were also recognized in L. hypoglauca and L. macranthoides genomic datasets, except for LHCHS1 and LMC4H2. The expression patterns of these genes are different in the tissues of L. japonica, L. hypoglauca and L. macranthoides. Results also showed that CGAs were controlled in the first step of biosynthesis, whereas both steps controlled luteolin in the bud of L. japonica. The expression of LJFNS2 exhibited positive correlation with luteolin levels in L. japonica. This study provides significant information for understanding the functional diversity of gene families involved in chlorogenic acid and the luteolin biosynthesis, active compound diversity of L. japonica and its substitutes, and the different usages of the three species. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Kurita, Manabu; Konagaya, Ken-ichi; Watanabe, Atsushi; Kondo, Teiji; Ishii, Katsuaki; Taniguchi, Toru
KEY MESSAGE : GUS analysis in Cryptomeria japonica revealed that the CjMALE1 promoter is activated in the male strobilus of C. japonica. Toward the development of male sterile technology for Cryptomeria japonica, a male strobilus-dominant promoter of C. japonica was isolated. The CjMALE1 gene was isolated from a male strobilus-specific suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) library, and the promoter was isolated by the TAIL-PCR method. To characterize the CjMALE1 promoter, β-glucuronidase (GUS)-fused genes were constructed and introduced into C. japonica using Agrobacterium tumefaciens. GUS expression from CjMALE1-2.5 K (2,718 bp fragment)::GUS C. japonica and CjMALE1-1 K (1,029 bp fragment)::GUS C. japonica was detected in the tapetum and microspore mother cells. These promoter fragments were comparably active in the pre-meiotic stage of the male strobilus of C. japonica. Our analysis showed that the 1,029 bp promoter had all the cis-elements necessary for male strobilus-dominant expression of CjMALE1. When CjMALE1-1 K::GUS was introduced into Arabidopsis, GUS expression was detected in the same spatiotemporal pattern as in C. japonica. These results suggest that the CjMALE1 promoter is subject to transcriptional regulatory systems consisting of cis- and trans-elements that have been highly conserved during evolution.
At least two seagrass congeners in the genus Zostera are found along the Pacific Coast of North America: native Z. marina L. and the non-native Z. japonica Aschers. & Graebn. Efforts to understand the drivers behind the expanding colonization of Z. japonica have led to interest ...
Two sex-linked fragments were identified by RAPD analyses in the dioecious diploid shrub Aucuba japonica var. ovoidea and were converted into markers of male-specific sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers. PCRs using the primers designed in this study correctly discriminated 24 flowering males and 24 flowering females at higher annealing temperatures (SCAR markers OPA10-424 at 55 degrees C and OPN11-1095 at 65 degrees C), although at relatively low annealing temperatures, the fragments were amplified in both males and females. These SCAR primers were also tested to see whether they were applicable to sex identification in the conspecific tetraploid Aucuba japonica var. japonica. One set pf SCAR primers could be used for sex identification even in this tetraploid variety, although the other failed. The SCAR markers developed in this study will provide a powerful tool in identifying the sex of immature plants of dioecious A. japonica, which is a commercially valuable shrub due to its conspicuous fruits.
Ryland, John S; Holt, Rohan; Loxton, Jennifer
Schizoporella japonica Ortmann was described from Japan but was subsequently introduced on Pacific oysters to the Pacific coast of North America, where it is now well established. In this paper we record it for the first time in European waters. The initial discovery was in a marina at Holyhead, North Wales, in July 2010 but S. japonica has since been observed abundantly in the Orkney Islands (from May 2011) and, subsequently, at other localities in northern Scotland. Introduction seems most likely to have been on an ocean-going vessel. The British material is here fully described and illustrated with SEMs and colour photographs; some unusual characters are discussed. Unlike other recently introduced bryozoans, S. japonica is a cold-water species and its breeding season in Britain extends through the winter. Extensive confusion between this and other species of Schizoporella on the west coast of Canada and the USA led us to make thorough morphometric comparisons between the species concerned (Schizoporella unicornis (Johnston in Wood), Schizoporella errata (Waters) and Schizoporella pseudoerrata Soule, Soule and Chaney). Zooid size in cheilostomate bryozoans is variable and often an unreliable character for species separation but shape (and therefore ratios between variables, which are independent of size) are often valuable: S. japonica zooids have a much greater length:width ratio than the other species. Density of frontal pseudopores provides a useful discriminatory character. Schizoporella unicornis, repeatedly reported in error from the Pacific coast of North America, does not occur there; it is a European species. Full comparisons are made between S. japonica and S. unicornis for European identification and between S. japonica, S. errata and S. pseudoerrata (which are also illustrated) for North American localities.
Zhang, Xiaojie; Li, Yunhe; Romeis, Jörg; Yin, Xinming; Wu, Kongming; Peng, Yufa
A rape seed pollen-based diet was developed and found to be suitable for use in a dietary exposure assay for Propylea japonica. Using the diet, we established and validated a dietary exposure assay by using the protease inhibitor E-64 as positive control. Dose-dependent responses were documented for all observed life-table parameters of P. japonica including survival, pupation and eclosion rates, development time and adult weight. Results suggested that the dietary assay can detect the effects of insecticidal compounds on the survival and development of P. japonica. Using the established dietary assay, we subsequently tested the toxicity of Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac and Cry1F proteins that are expressed by transgenic maize, cotton or rice plants to P. japonica larvae. The diet containing E-64 was included as a positive control. Survival and development of P. japonica larvae were not adversely affected when the diet contained purified Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, or Cry1F at 500 µg/g diet representing a worst-case exposure scenario. In contrast, P. japonica larvae were adversely affected when the diet contained E-64. The bioactivity and stability of the Cry proteins in the diet and Cry protein uptake by the ladybird larvae were confirmed by bioassay with a Cry-sensitive insect species and by ELISA. The current study describes a suitable experimental system for assessing the potential effects of gut-active insecticidal compounds on ladybird beetle larvae. The experiments with the Cry proteins demonstrate that P. japonica larvae are not sensitive to Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac and Cry1F.
Kwon, Ji Eun; Jeong, Hae Jin; Kim, So Jin; Jang, Se Hyeon; Lee, Kyung Ha; Seong, Kyeong Ah
Heterotrophic nanoflagellates are ubiquitous and known to be major predators of bacteria. The feeding of free-living heterotrophic nanoflagellates on phytoplankton is poorly understood, although these two components usually co-exist. To investigate the feeding and ecological roles of major heterotrophic nanoflagellates Katablepharis spp., the feeding ability of Katablepharis japonica on bacteria and phytoplankton species and the type of the prey that K. japonica can feed on were explored. Furthermore, the growth and ingestion rates of K. japonica on the dinoflagellate Akashiwo sanguinea-a suitable algal prey item-heterotrophic bacteria, and the cyanobacteria Synechococcus sp., as a function of prey concentration were determined. Among the prey tested, K. japonica ingested heterotrophic bacteria, Synechococcus sp., the prasinophyte Pyramimonas sp., the cryptophytes Rhodomonas salina and Teleaulax sp., the raphidophytes Heterosigma akashiwo and Chattonella ovata, the dinoflagellates Heterocapsa rotundata, Amphidinium carterae, Prorocentrum donghaiense, Alexandrium minutum, Cochlodinium polykrikoides, Gymnodinium catenatum, A. sanguinea, Coolia malayensis, and the ciliate Mesodinium rubrum, however, it did not feed on the dinoflagellates Alexandrium catenella, Gambierdiscus caribaeus, Heterocapsa triquetra, Lingulodinium polyedra, Prorocentrum cordatum, P. micans, and Scrippsiella acuminata and the diatom Skeletonema costatum. Many K. japonica cells attacked and ingested a prey cell together after pecking and rupturing the surface of the prey cell and then uptaking the materials that emerged from the ruptured cell surface. Cells of A. sanguinea supported positive growth of K. japonica, but neither heterotrophic bacteria nor Synechococcus sp. supported growth. The maximum specific growth rate of K. japonica on A. sanguinea was 1.01 d -1 . In addition, the maximum ingestion rate of K. japonica for A. sanguinea was 0.13ngC predator -1 d -1 (0.06 cells predator -1 d -1
Tanaka, Ryusei; Okumura, Etsuko; Kanzaki, Natsumi; Yoshiga, Toyoshi
The nematode dauer larva (DL) is a non-aging diapause stage. The DL of the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been studied as a model system for aging and longevity. However, information on DL in other nematode species is limited. In this study, the survivorship, storage, energy consumption, and oxidative stress tolerance of Caenorhabditis japonica DL were examined. C. japonica is a close relative of C. elegans, but has species-specific phoretic associations with the shield bug Parastrachia japonensis. Also, its DL has a much longer lifespan than C. elegans in a biological setting. However, when C. japonica DLs were detached from their phoretic host, they did not survive more than 10 days while more than 80% of C. elegans survived under the same conditions. Also, C. japonica DL showed more active movement (swimming) and lower tolerance to oxidative stress than C. elegans DL. Because the concentration of triacylglycerol (TAG), the energy source of nematodes, did not decrease significantly during the experiment, exhaustion of the energy reservoir did not cause the low survivorship of C. japonica. Instead, low tolerance to oxidizing stress and increased production of reactive oxygen species in C. japonica were the main causes of the reduced survivorship. The fact that C. japonica DL cannot survive away from its insect host indicates that its longevity is increased by unknown factors derived from the host. Despite these significant differences between C. japonica and C. elegans, these two species are phylogenetically closely related (they are derived from a common ancestor). Therefore, C. japonica could be a good comparative system for C. elegans, and further physiological and molecular analyses of C. japonica DL may provide important information about the internal and external factors affecting the longevity of nematodes in general. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chen, Zhi-Teng; Lü, Liang; Lu, Ming-Xing; Du, Yu-Zhou
In this study, we report the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome, mtDNA) of Aposthonia borneensis and compare it with another sequenced webspinner, Aposthonia japonica. The A. borneensis mitogenome is smaller than A. japonica, but the size of each gene and the A + T content of protein-coding genes (PCGs) are almost identical in the two mitogenomes. Among the PCGs, atp6 shows the highest evolutionary rate and cox1 the lowest. The mtDNA map in A. borneensis is similar to Drosophila yakuba, but distinctly different from A. japonica, which has extensive rearrangement. Phylogenetic analyses dated the divergence time of the two webspinners at ca. 103 Ma. We speculate that the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of A. borneensis and A. japonica was divided into several geographic groups during the Pangea breakup. Geographic isolation between the Japanese islands and the continental southeastern Asia resulted in the divergent evolution of A. borneensis and A. japonica, thus generating mtDNA structural variations between the two species. Based on the phylogenetic analyses and specific distributional features, the genus Aposthonia was supported as non-monophyly, and we speculate that both highly rearranged and relatively conserved mitogenomes exist in other webspinners.
Zhang, Xiufang; Mo, Yehua; Zhou, Luming; Wang, Yinan; Wang, Zhongchen; Zhao, Bosheng
The hsp70 and hsp90 expression patterns and catalase (CAT) activity in the freshwater planaria Dugesia japonica exposed to cadmium (Cd) under laboratory conditions were investigated. Planaria were exposed to a range of Cd concentrations (0-150 μg Cd/L) for 24 h. The expression levels of hsp70 and hsp90 were determined by relative quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Within the overall dose range in the experiment, the expression level of hsp70 and the activity of CAT in D. japonica were altered significantly. Hsp70 was induced in D. japonica upon Cd exposure concentrations as low as 9.375 μg Cd/L. No significant effect on the expression level of hsp90 was observed. Our findings demonstrated that stress gene hsp70, but not hsp90, was responsive to Cd contamination in D. japonica CAT activity was significantly induced at concentrations of 18.75, 37.5, and 75 μg Cd/L after 24-h exposure. We recommend that the use of hsp70 as a biomarker should be complemented by evidence of changes in other parameters, such as CAT activity, in D. japonica. © The Author(s) 2014.
Li, Yonghui; Liu, Yanmin; Yin, Xinming; Romeis, Jörg; Song, Xinyuan; Chen, Xiuping; Geng, Lili; Peng, Yufa; Li, Yunhe
Propylea japonica (Thunberg) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) are prevalent predators and pollen feeders in East Asian maize fields. They are therefore indirectly (via prey) and directly (via pollen) exposed to Cry proteins within Bt -transgenic maize fields. The effects of Cry1Ie-producing transgenic maize pollen on the fitness of P. japonica was assessed using two dietary-exposure experiments in the laboratory. In the first experiment, survival, larval developmental time, adult fresh weight, and fecundity did not differ between ladybirds consuming Bt or non- Bt maize pollen. In the second experiment, none of the tested lethal and sublethal parameters of P. japonica were negatively affected when fed a rapeseed pollen-based diet containing Cry1Ie protein at 200 μg/g dry weight of diet. In contrast, the larval developmental time, adult fresh weight, and fecundity of P. japonica were significantly adversely affected when fed diet containing the positive control compound E-64. In both experiments, the bioactivity of the Cry1Ie protein in the food sources was confirmed by bioassays with a Cry1Ie-sensitive lepidopteran species. These results indicated that P. japonica are not affected by the consumption of Cry1Ie-expressing maize pollen and are not sensitive to the Cry1Ie protein, suggesting that the growing of Bt maize expressing Cry1Ie protein will pose a negligible risk to P. japonica .
Martynov, Alexander V.
The opisthobranch fauna (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia) of the deep sea basins of the Sea of Japan is reviewed. A detailed description of the most common deep sea nudibranch species Coryphella japonicaVolodchenko, 1941 is given based on materials from various expeditions (including R/V "Vityaz" cruises and SoJaBio project). Distinct morphological features of C. japonica are discussed and its valid taxonomic status is confirmed. The considerable radular variability of C. japonica for the first time is documented using a scanning electron microscope. Unique features of the bathymetric distribution of C. japonica ranging from shelf to the abyssal depths are discussed in connection with the "pseudabyssal area" concept. C. japonica was compared to its assumed synonym C. salmonacea, and to similar C. athadona. Material from all these species, including types of C. japonica, was examined externally, anatomically via dissection, and SEM. C. salmonacea is restricted to North Atlantic and Arctic only, whereas C. japonica inhabits NE Pacific including deep water basins of the Sea of Japan.
Zostera japonica is a non-indigenous seagrass that is expanding along the Pacific Coast of North America. The ecophysiology of this seagrass is poorly studied and management of the species is fragmented. We collected Z. japonica plants from Padilla Bay, WA., Yaquina Bay and Coo...
Tabakaeva, O V; Kalenik, T K; Tabakaev, A V
Products of technological and biotechnological modification (acid and enzymatic hydrolyzates and hydrothermal extracts) of the holothurian Cucumariajaponica from the Far East region are the complex multicomponent systems containing biologically active agents of a sea origin that has to provide them biological activity. The research objective consisted in quantitative studying of anti-radical properties of acid, enzymatic hydrolyzates and hydrothermal extracts from soft fabrics of a holothurian from the Far East region (Cucumaria japonica) and their influence on oxidation of lipids in fat emulsion products. The reaction with stable free 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical was used as a model system. Radical relating activity of hydrolyzates and extracts from Cucumaria japonica varied over a wide range from 48 to 78%. The maximum radical binding activity was noted for acid hydrolyzates. The activity of the hydrolyzate from a nimbus and feelers of Cucumaria japonica was comparable with activity of ionol. It has been defined that levels of manifestation of anti-radical activity depended on a way of technological and biotechnological processing of raw materials. Studying of fractional composition of melanoidins of hydrolyzates and extracts from Cucumaria japonica established that they can be divided into fractions--with molecular masses about 10,000 and 1000 Da. The maximum content of melanoidins has been defined in fraction weighing about 1000 Da. Introduction of acid, enzymatic hydrolyzates and hydrothermal extracts from Cucumaria japonica in the composition of oil-fat emulsion systems allowed to slow down processes of lipid oxidation and triglyceride hydrolysis in mayonnaise. Introduction of hydrolyzates and hydrothermal extracts from Cucumaria japonica in an oil-fat emulsion product allowed to reduce peroxide value by 22-45%, acid value by 12-35% on the 90th days of storage. Acid hydrolysates of Cucumaria Japonica most significantly reduce the rate of
Jiang, Zhi-Hong; Wen, Xiao-Yun; Tanaka, Takashi; Wu, Shao-Yu; Liu, Zhongqiu; Iwata, Hiromi; Hirose, Yoko; Wu, Shuguang; Kouno, Isao
Four hydrolyzable tannins named balanophotannins D-G ( 1- 4) were isolated from the aerial parts of the parasitic plant Balanophora japonica. Their structures were characterized on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical evidence. Balanophotannins D-G contain an oxidized hexahydroxydiphenoyl (HHDP) group. The absolute configurations of balanophotannins D ( 1) and F ( 3) were determined via the PGME method. Balanophotannin E ( 2) showed cytotoxicity to Hep G2 cancer cells with an IC 50 value of 4.22 microM.
Shen, Ming-Yi; Liu, Yan-Jun; Don, Ming-Jaw; Liu, Hsien-Yueh; Chen, Zeng-Weng; Mettling, Clément; Corbeau, Pierre; Chiang, Chih-Kang; Jang, Yu-Song; Li, Tzu-Hsuan; Young, Paul; Chang, Cicero L. T.; Lin, Yea-Lih; Yang, Wen-Chin
Plants provide a rich source of lead compounds for a variety of diseases. A novel approach combining phytochemistry and chemotaxis assays was developed and used to identify and study the mechanisms of action of the active compounds in F. japonica, a medicinal herb traditionally used to treat inflammation. Based on a bioactivity-guided purification strategy, two anthranoids, emodin and physcion, were identified from F. japonica. Spectroscopic techniques were used to characterize its crude extract, fractions and phytochemicals. The crude extract, chloroform fraction, and anthranoids of F. japonica significantly inhibited CXCR4-mediated chemotaxis. Mechanistic studies showed that emodin and physcion inhibited chemotaxis via inactivating the MEK/ERK pathway. Moreover, the crude extract and emodin could prevent or treat type 1 diabetes in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. This study illustrates the applicability of a combinational approach for the study of anti-inflammatory medicine and shows the potential of F. japonica and its anthranoids for anti-inflammatory therapy. PMID:22087325
Zhang, Jingru; Wu, Minlin; Li, Weidong; Bai, Genben
For many centuries, Lonicera japonica has been used as an effective herb for the treatment of inflammation and swelling because of the presence of bioactive components such as chlorogenic acid (CGA). To clarify the relationship between L. japonica hydroxycinnamoyl CoA quinate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HQT) gene expression and CGA content, an HQT eukaryotic expression system was constructed using Gateway cloning. L. japonica callus transformed with HQT was obtained using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. We found a positive correlation between CGA content, determined by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), and the expression of HQT, analyzed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. This study demonstrates that the HQT gene positively regulates CGA synthesis and lays the foundation for further study into enhancing efficacious components of medicinal plants. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
Poretz, R D; Barth, R F
The agglutinating activity of lectins from the seeds of Sophora japonica and Canavalia ensiformis (concanavalin A) with human and murine erythrocytes and lymphocytes have been compared to one another and related to the mitogenic and immunosuppressive properties of these purified proteins. The S. japonica lectin, which demonstrates blood group specificity, is more active than concanavalin A with human erythrocytes, but has a much lower reactivity than concanavalin A with murine red blood cells. Ficin treatment of human erythrocytes results in an increase in agglutinability by both lectins as well as causing the appearance of S. japonica lectin receptors on type O cells. Treatment of murine reythrocytes with ficin alone or followed by beta-galactosidase causes the cells to be more reactive with concanavalin A. Beta-Galactosidase alone has no observable affect on the cells. In contrast, the agglutinability of cells by the S. japonica lectin increases after ficin treatment but is not affected by beta-galaetosidose treatment either after or in the absence of ficinization. Murine lymphocytes react with both lectins in a manner paralleling the agglutination patterns of murine erythrocytes. The S. japonica lectin appears to be devoid of mitogenic and immuno-suppressive activity, in contrast to concanavalin A which suppresses the T helper-dependent antibody response to sheep erythrocytes. These results are discussed in terms of the types of lectin receptors on lymphocytes related to agglutination, induction of blastogenesis and immuno-suppression. PMID:955676
Guo, Jie; Xu, Xiaomei; Li, Wentao; Zhu, Wenyin; Zhu, Haitao; Liu, Ziqiang; Luan, Xin; Dai, Ziju; Liu, Guifu; Zhang, Zemin; Zeng, Ruizhen; Tang, Guang; Fu, Xuelin; Wang, Shaokui; Zhang, Guiquan
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an important staple crop. The exploitation of the great heterosis that exists in the inter-subspecific crosses between the indica and japonica rice has long been considered as a promising way to increase the yield potential. However, the male and female sterility frequently occurred in the inter-subspecific hybrids hampered the utilization of the heterosis. Here we report that the inter-subspecific hybrid sterility in rice is mainly affected by the genes at Sb, Sc, Sd and Se loci for F1 male sterility and the gene at S5 locus for F1 female sterility. The indica-compatible japonica lines (ICJLs) developed by pyramiding the indica allele (S-i) at Sb, Sc, Sd and Se loci and the neutral allele (S-n) at S5 locus in japonica genetic background through marker-assisted selection are compatible with indica rice in pollen fertility and in spikelet fertility. These results showed a great promise of overcoming the inter-subspecific hybrid sterility and exploiting the heterosis by developing ICJLs. PMID:27246799
Guo, Jie; Xu, Xiaomei; Li, Wentao; Zhu, Wenyin; Zhu, Haitao; Liu, Ziqiang; Luan, Xin; Dai, Ziju; Liu, Guifu; Zhang, Zemin; Zeng, Ruizhen; Tang, Guang; Fu, Xuelin; Wang, Shaokui; Zhang, Guiquan
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an important staple crop. The exploitation of the great heterosis that exists in the inter-subspecific crosses between the indica and japonica rice has long been considered as a promising way to increase the yield potential. However, the male and female sterility frequently occurred in the inter-subspecific hybrids hampered the utilization of the heterosis. Here we report that the inter-subspecific hybrid sterility in rice is mainly affected by the genes at Sb, Sc, Sd and Se loci for F1 male sterility and the gene at S5 locus for F1 female sterility. The indica-compatible japonica lines (ICJLs) developed by pyramiding the indica allele (S-i) at Sb, Sc, Sd and Se loci and the neutral allele (S-n) at S5 locus in japonica genetic background through marker-assisted selection are compatible with indica rice in pollen fertility and in spikelet fertility. These results showed a great promise of overcoming the inter-subspecific hybrid sterility and exploiting the heterosis by developing ICJLs.
Creep properties of four varieties japonica cooked rice were tested using a Dynamic Mechanical Analyser (DMA Q800). The creep curve was described by Burgers model. The creep process of japonica cooked rice mainly consisted of retarded elastic deformation, epsilonR and viscous flow deformation, epsil...
Park, Kiyun; Kwak, Ihn-Sil
The Asian paddle crab, Charybdis japonica, is a potential bio-indicator reflecting marine sediment toxicity as well as a commercially important species living along coastal areas in Korea. This study investigated its stress response by looking at the heat shock protein (HSP70) gene of C. japonica when the organism is exposed to bisphenol A (BPA) and 4-nonylphenol (NP). We characterized partial sequence of HSP70 as the stressresponse gene of C. japonica. The nucleotide sequence of C. japonica HSP70 is over 90% homologous with the corresponding gene of other crabs. Phylogenetic tree analysis revealed a close relationship between C. japonica HSP70 and HSP70 in other species of lobster and shrimps. HSP70 mRNA transcripts were detected in all the examined tissues of C. japonica, with the highest level in gills, the organ that most frequently came into contact with the external BPA or NP-laden water. As no reference data were available for C. japonica crab exposure, the BPA and NP 24-h LC50 values have not been previously determined. The expression of the C. japonica HSP70 gene to various BPA or NP concentrations during short and longer times was assessed. Gene expression was significantly induced in concentration- and time-dependent manners after BPA or NP exposures. These results support the postulation that crab C. japonica HSP70 could be a potential stress response molecular marker to monitor marine ecosystems.
Terada, Yuko; Masuda, Hideki; Watanabe, Tatsuo
Allyl isothiocyanate (ITC) (4) is the main pungent component in wasabi, and it generates an acrid sensation by activating TRPA1. The flavor and pungency of ITCs vary depending on the compound. However, the differences in activity to activate TRPA1 between ITCs are not known except for a few compounds. To investigate the effect of carbon chain length and substituents of ITCs, the TRPA1-activiting ability of 16 ITCs was measured. Since most of the ITCs showed nearly equal TRPA1-activiting potency, the ITC moiety is likely the predominant contributor to their TRPA1-activating abilities, and contributions of other functional groups to their activities to activate TRPA1 are comparatively small.
Park, Kiyun; Kwak, Ihn-Sil
Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is a highly conserved molecular chaperone important in the maturation of a broad spectrum of protein. In this study, an HSP90 gene was isolated from Asian paddle crab, Charybdis japonica, as a bio-indicator to monitor the marine ecosystem. This work reports the responses of C. japonica HSP90 mRNA expression to cellular stress by endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), such as bisphenol A (BPA) and 4-nonylphenol (NP) using real-time. reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The deduced amino acid sequence of HSP90 from C. japonica shared a high degree of homology with their homologues in other species. In a phylogenetic analysis, C. japonica HSP90 is evolutionally related with an ortholog of the other crustacean species. The expression of HSP90 gene was almost distributed in all the examined tissues of the C. japonica crab but expression levels varied among the different body parts of the crabs. We examined HSP90 mRNA expression pattern in C. japonica crabs exposed to EDCs for various exposure times. The expression of HSP90 transcripts was significantly increased in C. japonica crabs exposed to BPA and NP at different concentrations for 12, 24, 48 and 96 hours. The mRNA expression of HSP90 gene was significantly induced in a concentration- and time-dependent manner after BPA or NP exposures for 96 hours. Taken together, expression analysis of Asian paddle crab HSP90 gene provided useful molecular information about crab responses in stress conditions and potential ways to monitor the EDCs stressors in marine environments.
Zhang, Jianyong; Yuan, Zuoqing; Zheng, Mingyue; Sun, Yuqian; Wang, Youjun; Yang, Shudong
In this study, the toxicity, behavioural and regeneration effects of dimethylformamide (DMF) on planarian Dugesia japonica were investigated. One control and six different concentrations of DMF (10 ppm, 100 ppm, 500 ppm, 1000 ppm, 5000 ppm and 10,000 ppm) were used in triplicate. The results showed that the mortality was directly proportional to the DMF concentration and planarian locomotor velocity (pLMV) was significantly reduced by increasing the exposure time and DMF concentration. pLMV of D. japonica was significantly reduced at a lower concentration of 10 ppm after 7 days of continuous exposure to DMF. The recovery of the motility of planarians pretreated with DMF was found to be time- and dose dependent, all planarians had complete recovery in their motility after 48 h. The appearance of auricles in regenerating animals was easily affected by DMF exposure in comparison with the appearance of eyespot. The present results suggest that the intact adult mobility in the aquatic planarian D. japonica is a more sensitive biomarker than mortality, and the appearance of auricles in regenerating animals is a more sensitive biomarker than eyespot.
Feng, Fan; Li, Yajun; Qin, Xiaoliang; Liao, Yuncheng; Siddique, Kadambot H M
China is the first country to use heterosis successfully for commercial rice production. This study compared the main quality characteristics (head rice rate, chalky rice rate, chalkiness degree, gel consistency, amylose content, and length-to-width ratio) of 635 rice varieties (not including upland and glutinous rice) released from 2000 to 2014 to establish the quality status and offer suggestions for future rice breeding for grain quality in China. In the past 15 years, grain quality in japonica rice and indica hybrid rice has improved. In japonica rice, inbred varieties have increased head rice rates and decreased chalkiness degree over time, while hybrid rice varieties have decreased chalky rice rates and chalkiness degree. In indica hybrid rice, the chalkiness degree and amylose contents have decreased and gel consistency has increased. Improvements in grain quality in indica inbred rice have been limited, with some increases in head rice rate and decreases in chalky rice rate and amylose content. From 2010 to 2014, the percentage of indica varieties meeting the Grade III national standard of rice quality for different quality traits was low, especially for chalky rice rate and chalkiness degree. Japonica varieties have more superior grain quality than indica rice in terms of higher head rice rates and gel consistency, lower chalky rice rates and chalkiness degree, and lower amylose contents, which may explain why the Chinese prefer japonica rice. The japonica rice varieties, both hybrid and inbred, had similar grain qualities, but this varied in indica rice with the hybrid varieties having higher grain quality than inbred varieties due to significantly better head rice rates and lower chalkiness degree. For better quality rice in future, the chalky rice rate and chalkiness degree should be improved in japonica rice along with most of the quality traits in indica rice.
Kita, Jun; Kikkawa, Takashi; Asai, Takamasa; Ishimatsu, Atsushi
We investigated the effects of elevated pCO2 in seawater both on the acute mortality and the reproductive properties of the benthic copepod Tigriopus japonicus and gastropod Babylonia japonica with the purpose of accumulating basic data for assessing potential environmental impacts of sub-sea geological storage of anthropogenic CO2 in Japan. Acute tests showed that nauplii of T. japonicus have a high tolerance to elevated pCO2 environments. Full life cycle tests on T. japonicus indicated NOEC=5800μatm and LOEC=37,000μatm. Adult B. japonica showed remarkable resistance to elevated pCO2 in the acute tests. Embryonic development of B. japonica showed a NOEC=1500μatm and LOEC=5400μatm. T. japonicus showed high resistance to elevated pCO2 throughout the life cycle and B. japonica are rather sensitive during the veliger stage when they started to form their shells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Matsumoto, Toshikazu; Akihiro, Takashi; Maki, Shinya; Mochida, Kouhei; Kitagawa, Masaru; Tanaka, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Shin-Ichi; Niino, Takao
This study compared the effect of cryopreserved storage duration of wasabi shoot tips, which derived from the same in vitro mother-plant. We compared the survival of shoot tips and the genetic stability of regenerated plants originating from four experimental groups: shoot tips stored in a -150°C deep-freezer for 10 years; shoot tips stored in liquid nitrogen for 2 h; shoot tips treated with PVS2 vitrification solution; and untreated controls. No significant difference in survival was observed between the four experimental groups. Survival ranged between 93 and 100%. Genetic stability of plants regenerated from cryopreserved shoot tips was assessed over a period of 24 months using morphological, biochemical and molecular markers. While glucose, fructose and glutamic acid concentrations differed slightly between experimental groups after 16 months, these differences disappeared after 24 months. No significant differences were noted for the morphological markers studied (petiole length, shoot number and leaf index). No differences were observed in RAPD profiles obtained with the six primers tested.
Objectives Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is a highly conserved molecular chaperone important in the maturation of a broad spectrum of protein. In this study, an HSP90 gene was isolated from Asian paddle crab, Charybdis japonica, as a bio-indicator to monitor the marine ecosystem. Methods This work reports the responses of C. japonica HSP90 mRNA expression to cellular stress by endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), such as bisphenol A (BPA) and 4-nonylphenol (NP) using real-time. reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Results The deduced amino acid sequence of HSP90 from C. japonica shared a high degree of homology with their homologues in other species. In a phylogenetic analysis, C. japonica HSP90 is evolutionally related with an ortholog of the other crustacean species. The expression of HSP90 gene was almost distributed in all the examined tissues of the C. japonica crab but expression levels varied among the different body parts of the crabs. We examined HSP90 mRNA expression pattern in C. japonica crabs exposed to EDCs for various exposure times. The expression of HSP90 transcripts was significantly increased in C. japonica crabs exposed to BPA and NP at different concentrations for 12, 24, 48 and 96 hours. The mRNA expression of HSP90 gene was significantly induced in a concentration- and time-dependent manner after BPA or NP exposures for 96 hours. Conclusions Taken together, expression analysis of Asian paddle crab HSP90 gene provided useful molecular information about crab responses in stress conditions and potential ways to monitor the EDCs stressors in marine environments. PMID:24955332
Tashiro, Natsuka; Nishimura, Kaneyasu; Daido, Kanako; Oka, Tomoe; Todo, Mio; Toshikawa, Asami; Tsushima, Jun; Takata, Kazuyuki; Ashihara, Eishi; Yoshimoto, Kanji; Agata, Kiyokazu; Kitamura, Yoshihisa
The freshwater planarian Dugesia japonica has a simple central nervous system (CNS) and can regenerate complete organs, even a functional brain. Recent studies demonstrated that there is a great variety of neuronal-related genes, specifically expressed in several domains of the planarian brain. We identified a planarian dat gene, named it D. japonica dopamine transporter (Djdat), and analyzed its expression and function. Both in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence revealed that localization of Djdat mRNA and protein was the same as that of D. japonica tyrosine hydroxylase (DjTH). Although, dopamine (DA) content in Djdat(RNAi) planarians was not altered, Djdat(RNAi) planarians showed increased spontaneous locomotion. The hyperactivity in the Djdat(RNAi) planarians was significantly suppressed by SCH23390 or sulpiride pretreatment, which are D1 or D2 receptor antagonists, respectively. These results suggest that planarians have a Djdat ortholog and the ability to regulate dopaminergic neurotransmission and association with spontaneous locomotion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Li, Cunyu; Ma, Yun; Li, Hongyang; Peng, Guoping
Response surface analysis methodology was used to optimize the concentrate process of phenolic acids from Lonicera japonica by nanofiltration technique. On the basis of the influences of pressure, temperature and circulating volume, the retention rate of neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid and 4-dicaffeoylquinic acid were selected as index, molecular weight cut-off of nanofiltration membrane, concentration and pH were selected as influencing factors during concentrate process. The experiment mathematical model was arranged according to Box-Behnken central composite experiment design. The optimal concentrate conditions were as following: nanofiltration molecular weight cut-off, 150 Da; solutes concentration, 18.34 µg/mL; pH, 4.26. The predicted value of retention rate was 97.99% under the optimum conditions, and the experimental value was 98.03±0.24%, which was in accordance with the predicted value. These results demonstrate that the combination of Box-Behnken design and response surface analysis can well optimize the concentrate process of Lonicera japonica water-extraction by nanofiltration, and the results provide the basis for nanofiltration concentrate for heat-sensitive traditional Chinese medicine.
Hoa, Tran Thi Cuc; Al-Babili, Salim; Schaub, Patrick; Potrykus, Ingo; Beyer, Peter
As an important step toward free access and, thus, impact of GoldenRice, a freedom-to-operate situation has been achieved for developing countries for the technology involved. Specifically, to carry the invention beyond its initial "proof-of-concept" status in a Japonica rice (Oryza sativa) cultivar, we report here on two transformed elite Indica varieties (IR64 and MTL250) plus one Japonica variety Taipei 309. Indica varieties are predominantly consumed in the areas with vitamin A deficiency. To conform with regulatory constraints, we changed the vector backbone, investigated the absence of beyond-border transfer, and relied on Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation to obtain defined integration patterns. To avoid an antibiotic selection system, we now rely exclusively on phosphomannose isomerase as the selectable marker. Single integrations were given a preference to minimize potential epigenetic effects in subsequent generations. These novel lines, now in the T(3) generation, are highly valuable because they are expected to more readily receive approval for follow-up studies such as nutritional and risk assessments and for breeding approaches leading to locally adapted variety development.
On the Pacific coast of North America, at least two congeners of Zostera occur: native Zostera marina, and introduced, Z. japonica. Z. japonica is considered “invasive” and therefore, ecologically and economically harmful by some, while others consider it benign or perhaps benef...
Wang, You; Tang, Xuexi; Li, Yongqi; Yu, Zhiming
Healthy sporophytes of two gametophyte mutants of Laminaria japonica with different heat resistances: kelp 901 ( 901, with comparatively stronger heat-resistance) and Rongcheng No.1 ( RC, sensitive to heat stress), were respectively collected during October to December 2002 from Yantai and Rongcheng Sea Farm in the Shandong Peninsula of China. The contents of some biochemical materials and antioxidant capacity were analyzed under controlled laboratory conditions to identify if there is any relation between the overall antioxidant capacity and the heat-resistance in L. japonica and to understand possible mechanism of heat-resistance. Results show that: (1) the overall antioxidant capacity in healthy sporophyte of 901, such as vitamin E, polyphenol, and ascorbic acid contents and the enzymatic activity of SOD, POD, CAT, Gpx, PPO, and PAL, were not always higher than that of RC under controlled laboratory conditions, and no significance ( P>0.05) was shown in total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) in 901 and RC. Result suggested that the difference in antioxidant capacity was not a decisive factor for different heat-resistances in L. japonica; (2) the simultaneous assay on isozymes was carried out using vertical polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Considerable differences in peroxide (PRX), malate dehydrogenase (MDH), malic enzyme (ME), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) were obtained in 901 and RC from either the band number, relative mobility ( R f ), or staining intensity, and ME could be used as an indicator to distinguish healthy sporophyte of 901 and RC under controlled laboratory conditions.
Zhao, Chunhui; Feng, Bin; Cao, Ying; Xie, Peng; Xu, Jie; Pang, Yue; Liu, Xin; Li, Qingwei
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are a heterogeneous group of highly reactive molecules that oxidise targets in biological systems. ROS are also considered important immune regulators. In this study, we identified a homologue of reactive oxygen species modulator 1 (Romo1) in the Japanese lamprey (Lampetra japonica). The L japonica Romo1 (Lj-Romo1) gene shares high sequence homology with the Romo1 genes of jawed vertebrates. Real-time quantitative PCR demonstrated the wide distribution of Lj-Romo1 in lamprey tissues. Furthermore, after the lampreys were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the level of Lj-Romo1 mRNA was markedly up-regulated in the liver, gill, kidney, and intestine tissues. Lj-Romo1 was localised to the mitochondria and has the capacity to increase the ROS level in cells. The results obtained in the present study will help us to understand the roles of Romo1 in ROS production and innate immune responses in jawless vertebrates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Akter, Arzuba; Ooka, Tadasuke; Gotoh, Yasuhiro; Yamamoto, Seigo; Fujita, Hiromi; Terasoma, Fumio; Kida, Kouji; Taira, Masakatsu; Nakadouzono, Fumiko; Gokuden, Mutsuyo; Hirano, Manabu; Miyashiro, Mamoru; Inari, Kouichi; Shimazu, Yukie; Tabara, Kenji; Toyoda, Atsushi; Yoshimura, Dai; Itoh, Takehiko; Kitano, Tomokazu; Sato, Mitsuhiko P; Katsura, Keisuke; Mondal, Shakhinur Islam; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Ando, Shuji; Hayashi, Tetsuya
Rickettsiae are obligate intracellular bacteria that have small genomes as a result of reductive evolution. Many Rickettsia species of the spotted fever group (SFG) cause tick-borne diseases known as "spotted fevers". The life cycle of SFG rickettsiae is closely associated with that of the tick, which is generally thought to act as a bacterial vector and reservoir that maintains the bacterium through transstadial and transovarial transmission. Each SFG member is thought to have adapted to a specific tick species, thus restricting the bacterial distribution to a relatively limited geographic region. These unique features of SFG rickettsiae allow investigation of how the genomes of such biologically and ecologically specialized bacteria evolve after genome reduction and the types of population structures that are generated. Here, we performed a nationwide, high-resolution phylogenetic analysis of Rickettsia japonica, an etiological agent of Japanese spotted fever that is distributed in Japan and Korea. The comparison of complete or nearly complete sequences obtained from 31 R. japonica strains isolated from various sources in Japan over the past 30 years demonstrated an extremely low level of genomic diversity. In particular, only 34 single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified among the 27 strains of the major lineage containing all clinical isolates and tick isolates from the three tick species. Our data provide novel insights into the biology and genome evolution of R. japonica, including the possibilities of recent clonal expansion and a long generation time in nature due to the long dormant phase associated with tick life cycles. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.
Ouyang, Fang; Men, Xingyuan; Yang, Bing; Su, Jianwei; Zhang, Yongsheng; Zhao, Zihua; Ge, Feng
Background Biological control provided by natural enemies play an important role in integrated pest management. Generalist insect predators provide an important biological service in the regulation of agricultural insect pests. Our goal is to understand the explicit process of oviposition preference, habitat selection and feeding behavior of predators in farmland ecosystem consisting of multiple crops, which is central to devising and delivering an integrated pest management program. Methodology The hypotheses was that maize can serve as habitat for natural enemies and benefits predators to provide potential to enhance biological control for pest insects in cotton. This explicit process of a predatory beetle, Propylea japonica, in agricultural ecosystem composed of cotton and maize were examined by field investigation and stable carbon isotope analysis during 2008–2010. Principal Finding Field investigation showed that P. japonica adults will search host plants for high prey abundance before laying eggs, indicating indirectly that P. japonica adults prefer to inhabit maize plants and travel to cotton plants to actively prey on aphids. The δ13C values of adult P. japonica in a dietary shift experiment found that individual beetles were shifting from a C3- to a C4-based diet of aphids reared on maize or cotton, respectively, and began to reflect the isotope ratio of their new C4 resources within one week. Approximately 80–100% of the diet of P. japonica adults in maize originated from a C3-based resource in June, July and August, while approximately 80% of the diet originated from a C4-based resource in September. Conclusion/Significance Results suggest that maize can serve as a habitat or refuge source for the predatory beetle, P. japonica, and benefits predators to provide potential to enhance biological control for insect pests in cotton. PMID:22984499
Jia, Tie-Wu; Utzinger, Jürg; Deng, Yao; Yang, Kun; Li, Yi-Yi; Zhu, Jin-Huan; King, Charles H.; Zhou, Xiao-Nong
Background The Chinese government lists advanced schistosomiasis as a leading healthcare priority due to its serious health and economic impacts, yet it has not been included in the estimates of schistosomiasis burden in the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study. Therefore, the quality of life and disability weight (DW) for the advanced cases of schistosomiasis japonica have to be taken into account in the re-estimation of burden of disease due to schistosomiasis. Methodology/Principal Findings A patient-based quality-of-life evaluation was performed for advanced schistosomiasis japonica. Suspected or officially registered advanced cases in a Schistosoma japonicum-hyperendemic county of the People's Republic of China (P.R. China) were screened using a short questionnaire and physical examination. Disability and morbidity were assessed in confirmed cases, using the European quality of life questionnaire with an additional cognitive dimension (known as the “EQ-5D plus”), ultrasonography, and laboratory testing. The age-specific DW of advanced schistosomiasis japonica was estimated based on patients' self-rated health scores on the visual analogue scale of the questionnaire. The relationships between health status, morbidity and DW were explored using multivariate regression models. Of 506 candidates, 215 cases were confirmed as advanced schistosomiasis japonica and evaluated. Most of the patients reported impairments in at least one health dimension, such as pain or discomfort (90.7%), usual activities (87.9%), and anxiety or depression (80.9%). The overall DW was 0.447, and age-specific DWs ranged from 0.378 among individuals aged 30–44 years to 0.510 among the elderly aged ≥60 years. DWs are positively associated with loss of work capacity, psychological abnormality, ascites, and active hepatitis B virus, while splenectomy and high albumin were protective factors for quality of life. Conclusions/Significance These patient-preference disability estimates
The eelgrass species Zostera marina and Z. japonica co-occur in most Pacific Northwest estuaries; Z. marina is regarded as a native species, Z. japonica as non-indigenous, introduced in Yaquina Bay in approximately 1975. The mean tidal range is ~2 m, extreme ~3m. The vertical d...
Hirao, Tomonori; Watanabe, Atsushi; Kurita, Manabu; Kondo, Teiji; Takata, Katsuhiko
The recent determination of complete chloroplast (cp) genomic sequences of various plant species has enabled numerous comparative analyses as well as advances in plant and genome evolutionary studies. In angiosperms, the complete cp genome sequences of about 70 species have been determined, whereas those of only three gymnosperm species, Cycas taitungensis, Pinus thunbergii, and Pinus koraiensis have been established. The lack of information regarding the gene content and genomic structure of gymnosperm cp genomes may severely hamper further progress of plant and cp genome evolutionary studies. To address this need, we report here the complete nucleotide sequence of the cp genome of Cryptomeria japonica, the first in the Cupressaceae sensu lato of gymnosperms, and provide a comparative analysis of their gene content and genomic structure that illustrates the unique genomic features of gymnosperms. The C. japonica cp genome is 131,810 bp in length, with 112 single copy genes and two duplicated (trnI-CAU, trnQ-UUG) genes that give a total of 116 genes. Compared to other land plant cp genomes, the C. japonica cp has lost one of the relevant large inverted repeats (IRs) found in angiosperms, fern, liverwort, and gymnosperms, such as Cycas and Gingko, and additionally has completely lost its trnR-CCG, partially lost its trnT-GGU, and shows diversification of accD. The genomic structure of the C. japonica cp genome also differs significantly from those of other plant species. For example, we estimate that a minimum of 15 inversions would be required to transform the gene organization of the Pinus thunbergii cp genome into that of C. japonica. In the C. japonica cp genome, direct repeat and inverted repeat sequences are observed at the inversion and translocation endpoints, and these sequences may be associated with the genomic rearrangements. The observed differences in genomic structure between C. japonica and other land plants, including pines, strongly support the
On the Pacific coast of North America, at least two congeners of Zostera occur: native Z. marina, and introduced, Z. japonica. Z. marina is protected by State and Federal laws as essential fish habitat. Z. japonica is considered “invasive” and therefore, ecologicall...
Gao, Xue-Ke; Zhang, Shuai; Luo, Jun-Yu; Wang, Chun-Yi; Lü, Li-Min; Zhang, Li-Juan; Zhu, Xiang-Zhen; Wang, Li; Lu, Hui; Cui, Jin-Jie
Lysiphlebia japonica (Ashmead) is a predominant parasitoid of cotton-melon aphids in the fields of northern China with a proven ability to effectively control cotton aphid populations in early summer. For accurate normalization of gene expression in L. japonica using quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), reference genes with stable gene expression patterns are essential. However, no appropriate reference genes is L. japonica have been investigated to date. In the present study, 12 selected housekeeping genes from L. japonica were cloned. We evaluated the stability of these genes under various experimental treatments by RT-qPCR using four independent (geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and Delta Ct) and one comparative (RefFinder) algorithm. We identified genes showing the most stable levels of expression: DIMT, 18S rRNA, and RPL13 during different stages; AK, RPL13, and TBP among sexes; EF1A, PPI, and RPL27 in different tissues, and EF1A, RPL13, and PPI in adults fed on different diets. Moreover, the expression profile of a target gene (odorant receptor 1, OR1) studied during the developmental stages confirms the reliability of the chosen selected reference genes. This study provides for the first time a comprehensive list of suitable reference genes for gene expression studies in L. japonica and will benefit subsequent genomics and functional genomics research on this natural enemy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Liu, Yanmin; Liu, Qingsong; Wang, Yanan; Chen, Xiuping; Song, Xinyuan; Romeis, Jörg; Li, Yunhe; Peng, Yufa
Propylea japonica (Thunberg) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is a prevalent pollen consumer in corn fields and is therefore exposed to insecticidal proteins contained in the pollen of insect-resistant transgenic corn cultivars expressing Cry proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). In the present study, the potential effect of Cry1Ab/2Aj- or Cry1Ac-containing transgenic Bt corn pollen on the fitness of P. japonica larvae was evaluated. The results show that the larval developmental time was significantly shorter when P. japonica larvae were fed pollen from Bt corn cultivars rather than control pollen but that pupation rate, eclosion rate, and adult fresh weight were not significantly affected. In the feeding experiments, the stability of the Cry proteins in the food sources was confirmed. When Bt corn pollen passed through the gut of P. japonica, 23% of Cry1Ab/2Aj was digested. The results demonstrate that consumption of Bt corn pollen containing Cry1Ab/2Aj or Cry1Ac has no detrimental effect on P. japonica larvae; the shortened developmental time of larvae that consumed these proteins was likely attributable to unknown differences in the nutritional composition between the Bt-transgenic and control corn pollen. PMID:27005950
Chaya, Norihito; Terauchi, Kazuko; Yamagata, Yuriko; Kinjo, Junei; Okabe, Hikaru
The MeOH extracts of the ground part and the root of Boenninghausenia japonica NAKAI showed inhibitory activity against tumor cell growth. Fractionation of the extracts has resulted in isolation of 1,3-dihydroxy-4-(2'-hydroxy-3'-hydroxymethyl-3',4'-epoxy-butyl)-N-methylacridone, 1,3-dihydroxy-4-[(Z)-3'-hydroxy-3'-methyl-buten-1'-yl]-N-methylacridone, 3-(1',1'-dimethylallyl)-7-hydroxy-8-methoxy-2H-1-benzopyran-2-one, casegravol, cis-casegravol, and edgeworin in addition to 9 compounds reported from B. japonica and B. albiflora. The isolates from this plant and some related compounds were tested for antiproliferative activity against human gastric adenocarcinoma (MK-1), human uterus carcinoma (HeLa), and murine melanoma (B16F10) cells.
Zhu, Chen; Ai, Lin; Wang, Li; Yin, Pingping; Liu, Chenglan; Li, Shanshan; Zeng, Huiming
Zoysia japonica brown spot was caused by necrotrophic fungus Rhizoctonia solani invasion, which led to severe financial loss in city lawn and golf ground maintenance. However, little was known about the molecular mechanism of R. solani pathogenicity in Z. japonica. In this study we examined early stage interaction between R. solani AG1 IA strain and Z. japonica cultivar "Zenith" root by cell ultra-structure analysis, pathogenesis-related proteins assay and transcriptome analysis to explore molecular clues for AG1 IA strain pathogenicity in Z. japonica. No obvious cell structure damage was found in infected roots and most pathogenesis-related protein activities showedg a downward trend especially in 36 h post inoculation, which exhibits AG1 IA strain stealthy invasion characteristic. According to Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database classification, most DEGs in infected "Zenith" roots dynamically changed especially in three aspects, signal transduction, gene translation, and protein synthesis. Total 3422 unigenes of "Zenith" root were predicted into 14 kinds of resistance (R) gene class. Potential fungal resistance related unigenes of "Zenith" root were involved in ligin biosynthesis, phytoalexin synthesis, oxidative burst, wax biosynthesis, while two down-regulated unigenes encoding leucine-rich repeat receptor protein kinase and subtilisin-like protease might be important for host-derived signal perception to AG1 IA strain invasion. According to Pathogen Host Interaction (PHI) database annotation, 1508 unigenes of AG1 IA strain were predicted and classified into 37 known pathogen species, in addition, unigenes encoding virulence, signaling, host stress tolerance, and potential effector were also predicted. This research uncovered transcriptional profiling during the early phase interaction between R. solani AG1 IA strain and Z. japonica, and will greatly help identify key pathogenicity of AG1 IA strain.
Lin, Yongwen; Lin, Sheng; Akutse, Komivi S; Hussain, Mubasher; Wang, Liande
Transmission of plant pathogens through insect vectors is a complex biological process involving interactions between the host plants, insects, and pathogens. Simultaneous impact of the insect damage and pathogenic bacteria in infected host plants induce volatiles that modify not only the behavior of its insect vector but also of their natural enemies, such as parasitoid wasps. Therefore, it is essential to understand how insects such as the predator ladybird beetle responds to volatiles emitted from a host plant and how the disease transmission alters the interactions between predators, vector, pathogens, and plants. In this study, we investigated the response of Propylaea japonica to volatiles from citrus plants damaged by Diaphorina citri and Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus through olfactometer bioassays. Synthetic chemical blends were also used to determine the active compounds in the plant volatile. The results showed that volatiles emitted by healthy plants attracted more P. japonica than other treatments, due to the presence of high quantities of D-limonene and beta-ocimene, and the lack of methyl salicylate. When using synthetic chemicals in the olfactory tests, we found that D-limonene attracted P. japonica while methyl salicylate repelled the predator. However, beta-ocimene attracted the insects at lower concentrations but repelled them at higher concentrations. These results indicate that P. japonica could not efficiently search for its host by using volatile cues emitted from psyllids- and Las bacteria-infected citrus plants.
Amemiya, S; Arakawa, E
Peronella japonica, a sand dollar, forms an abbreviated pluteus larva and metamorphoses within 3 days without feeding. In the present study, the cleavage pattern of Peronella embryos was found to be quite irregular in the vegetal blastomeres at the fourth cleavage. Less than half of the embryos examined formed four typical micromeres. The majority formed zero, one, two or three typical micromeres of regular size, and the blastomere(s) remaining in the vegetal-most region was atypical in size and/or its direction of division. Most embryos were able to form pluteus larvae and a considerable proportion of these metamorphosed into juvenile sea urchins, regardless of whether or not they had formed four typical micromeres of regular size, although embryos which formed no typical micromeres developed into pluteus larvae less frequently. The micromere progeny in Peronella embryos form skeletogenic mesenchyme cells. The average numbers of skeletogenic mesenchyme cells in the three sand dollar species, Clypeaster japonicus, Astriclypeus manni and P. japonica were 62, 122 and 219, respectively. In these species, the skeletogenic mesenchyme cell-specific glycoprotein (msp130) was first detected immediately after ingression of the primary mesenchyme cells, spicules appeared at the early gastrula stage and triradiate spicules were found in late gastrulae. Appearance of these characteristics was markedly accelerated in the embryos of A. manni and P. japonica in comparison with those of C. japonicus. Each step in the formation of larval spicules was equally accelerated in A. manni and P. japonica, although the appearance of the adult skeleton was further accelerated in P. japonica in comparison with A. manni, possibly because of omission of the four- to eight-armed pluteus stages.
De novo transcriptome assembly and characterization of nine tissues of Lonicera japonica to identify potential candidate genes involved in chlorogenic acid, luteolosides, and secoiridoid biosynthesis pathways.
Rai, Amit; Kamochi, Hidetaka; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Nakamura, Michimi; Takahashi, Hiroki; Hatada, Tomoki; Saito, Kazuki; Yamazaki, Mami
Lonicera japonica is one of the most important medicinal plants with applications in traditional Chinese and Japanese medicine for thousands of years. Extensive studies on the constituents of L. japonica extracts have revealed an accumulation of pharmaceutically active metabolite classes, such as chlorogenic acid, luteolin and other flavonoids, and secoiridoids, which impart characteristic medicinal properties. Despite being a rich source of pharmaceutically active metabolites, little is known about the biosynthetic enzymes involved, and their expression profile across different tissues of L. japonica. In this study, we performed de novo transcriptome assembly for L. japonica, representing transcripts from nine different tissues. A total of 22 Gbps clean RNA-seq reads from nine tissues of L. japonica were used, resulting in 243,185 unigenes, with 99,938 unigenes annotated based on a homology search using blastx against the NCBI-nr protein database. Unsupervised principal component analysis and correlation studies using transcript expression data from all nine tissues of L. japonica showed relationships between tissues, explaining their association at different developmental stages. Homologs for all genes associated with chlorogenic acid, luteolin, and secoiridoid biosynthesis pathways were identified in the L. japonica transcriptome assembly. Expression of unigenes associated with chlorogenic acid was enriched in stems and leaf-2, unigenes from luteolin were enriched in stems and flowers, while unigenes from secoiridoid metabolic pathways were enriched in leaf-1 and shoot apex. Our results showed that different tissues of L. japonica are enriched with sets of unigenes associated with specific pharmaceutically important metabolic pathways and, therefore, possess unique medicinal properties. The present study will serve as a resource for future attempts for functional characterization of enzyme coding genes within key metabolic processes.
Horiguchi, Toshihiro; Kojima, Mitsuhiro; Hamada, Fumihiko; Kajikawa, Akira; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Morita, Masatoshi; Shimizu, Makoto
We histopathologically examined gonads and chemically determined organotin compounds in tissues of the ivory shell, Babylonia japonica. Imposex (a superimposition of male-type genital organs on females) occurred in approximately 80–90% of B. japonica specimens that we examined, with the penis and vas deferens both well developed. No oviduct blockage by vas deferens formation was observed. Ovarian spermatogenesis and suppressed ovarian maturation were observed in the females that exhibited imposex, although no histopathological abnormalities were found in males. Tissue distributions of organotin compounds [tributyltin (TBT), triphenyltin (TPhT), and their metabolites] were different for butyltins and phenyltins; a remarkably high accumulation of TBT was observed in the ctenidium, osphradium, and heart, whereas high concentrations of TPhT were detected in the ovary and digestive gland. More than one-third of TBT accumulated in the digestive glands of both males and females, followed by the testis, ctenidium, muscle, and heart tissues in males and in the muscle, ovary, ctenidium, and head tissues (including the central nervous system ganglia) in females. In both males and females, more than half of total TPhT accumulated in the digestive glands, followed by the gonads. The next highest values were in the muscle, ctenidium, and heart tissues in males and in the muscle, oviduct, and head tissues in females. Both TBT and TPhT concentrations in the gonads were positively correlated with penis length in females. Our findings strongly suggest that reproductive failure in adult females accompanied by imposex, possibly induced by TBT and TPhT from antifouling paints, may have caused the marked decline of B. japonica populations in Japan. PMID:16818241
Horiguchi, Toshihiro; Kojima, Mitsuhiro; Hamada, Fumihiko; Kajikawa, Akira; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Morita, Masatoshi; Shimizu, Makoto
We histopathologically examined gonads and chemically determined organotin compounds in tissues of the ivory shell, Babylonia japonica. Imposex (a superimposition of male-type genital organs on females) occurred in approximately 80-90% of B. japonica specimens that we examined, with the penis and vas deferens both well developed. No oviduct blockage by vas deferens formation was observed. Ovarian spermatogenesis and suppressed ovarian maturation were observed in the females that exhibited imposex, although no histopathological abnormalities were found in males. Tissue distributions of organotin compounds [tributyltin (TBT), triphenyltin (TPhT), and their metabolites] were different for butyltins and phenyltins; a remarkably high accumulation of TBT was observed in the ctenidium, osphradium, and heart, whereas high concentrations of TPhT were detected in the ovary and digestive gland. More than one-third of TBT accumulated in the digestive glands of both males and females, followed by the testis, ctenidium, muscle, and heart tissues in males and in the muscle, ovary, ctenidium, and head tissues (including the central nervous system ganglia) in females. In both males and females, more than half of total TPhT accumulated in the digestive glands, followed by the gonads. The next highest values were in the muscle, ctenidium, and heart tissues in males and in the muscle, oviduct, and head tissues in females. Both TBT and TPhT concentrations in the gonads were positively correlated with penis length in females. Our findings strongly suggest that reproductive failure in adult females accompanied by imposex, possibly induced by TBT and TPhT from antifouling paints, may have caused the marked decline of B. japonica populations in Japan.
The catalytic co-pyrolysis of a seaweed biomass, Laminaria japonica, and a typical polymer material, polypropylene, was studied for the first time. A mesoporous material Al-SBA-15 was used as a catalyst. Pyrolysis experiments were conducted using a fixed-bed reactor and pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). BET surface area, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, and NH3 temperature programmed desorption were measured to examine the catalyst characteristics. When only L. japonica was pyrolyzed, catalytic reforming slightly increased the gas yield and decreased the oil yield. The H2O content in bio-oil was increased by catalytic reforming from 42.03 to 50.32 wt% due to the dehydration reaction occurring on the acid sites inside the large pores of Al-SBA-15. Acids, oxygenates, mono-aromatics, poly aromatic hydrocarbons, and phenolics were the main components of the bio-oil obtained from the pyrolysis of L. japonica. Upon catalytic reforming over Al-SBA-15, the main oxygenate species 1,4-anhydro-d-galactitol and 1,5-anhydro-d-manitol were completely removed. When L. japonica was co-pyrolyzed with polypropylene, the H2O content in bio-oil was decreased dramatically (8.93 wt% in the case of catalytic co-pyrolysis), contributing to the improvement of the oil quality. A huge increase in the content of gasoline-range and diesel-range hydrocarbons in bio-oil was the most remarkable change that resulted from the co-pyrolysis with polypropylene, suggesting its potential as a transport fuel. The content of mono-aromatics with high economic value was also increased significantly by catalytic co-pyrolysis. PMID:25136282
Lee, Hyung Won; Choi, Suek Joo; Park, Sung Hoon; Jeon, Jong-Ki; Jung, Sang-Chul; Kim, Sang Chai; Park, Young-Kwon
The catalytic co-pyrolysis of a seaweed biomass, Laminaria japonica, and a typical polymer material, polypropylene, was studied for the first time. A mesoporous material Al-SBA-15 was used as a catalyst. Pyrolysis experiments were conducted using a fixed-bed reactor and pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). BET surface area, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, and NH3 temperature programmed desorption were measured to examine the catalyst characteristics. When only L. japonica was pyrolyzed, catalytic reforming slightly increased the gas yield and decreased the oil yield. The H2O content in bio-oil was increased by catalytic reforming from 42.03 to 50.32 wt% due to the dehydration reaction occurring on the acid sites inside the large pores of Al-SBA-15. Acids, oxygenates, mono-aromatics, poly aromatic hydrocarbons, and phenolics were the main components of the bio-oil obtained from the pyrolysis of L. japonica. Upon catalytic reforming over Al-SBA-15, the main oxygenate species 1,4-anhydro-d-galactitol and 1,5-anhydro-d-manitol were completely removed. When L. japonica was co-pyrolyzed with polypropylene, the H2O content in bio-oil was decreased dramatically (8.93 wt% in the case of catalytic co-pyrolysis), contributing to the improvement of the oil quality. A huge increase in the content of gasoline-range and diesel-range hydrocarbons in bio-oil was the most remarkable change that resulted from the co-pyrolysis with polypropylene, suggesting its potential as a transport fuel. The content of mono-aromatics with high economic value was also increased significantly by catalytic co-pyrolysis.
Lee, Hyung Won; Choi, Suek Joo; Park, Sung Hoon; Jeon, Jong-Ki; Jung, Sang-Chul; Kim, Sang Chai; Park, Young-Kwon
The catalytic co-pyrolysis of a seaweed biomass, Laminaria japonica, and a typical polymer material, polypropylene, was studied for the first time. A mesoporous material Al-SBA-15 was used as a catalyst. Pyrolysis experiments were conducted using a fixed-bed reactor and pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). BET surface area, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, and NH3 temperature programmed desorption were measured to examine the catalyst characteristics. When only L. japonica was pyrolyzed, catalytic reforming slightly increased the gas yield and decreased the oil yield. The H2O content in bio-oil was increased by catalytic reforming from 42.03 to 50.32 wt% due to the dehydration reaction occurring on the acid sites inside the large pores of Al-SBA-15. Acids, oxygenates, mono-aromatics, poly aromatic hydrocarbons, and phenolics were the main components of the bio-oil obtained from the pyrolysis of L. japonica. Upon catalytic reforming over Al-SBA-15, the main oxygenate species 1,4-anhydro- d-galactitol and 1,5-anhydro- d-manitol were completely removed. When L. japonica was co-pyrolyzed with polypropylene, the H2O content in bio-oil was decreased dramatically (8.93 wt% in the case of catalytic co-pyrolysis), contributing to the improvement of the oil quality. A huge increase in the content of gasoline-range and diesel-range hydrocarbons in bio-oil was the most remarkable change that resulted from the co-pyrolysis with polypropylene, suggesting its potential as a transport fuel. The content of mono-aromatics with high economic value was also increased significantly by catalytic co-pyrolysis.
Main, Marcy; Frame, Bronwyn; Wang, Kan
The importance of rice, as a food crop, is reflected in the extensive global research being conducted in an effort to improve and better understand this particular agronomic plant. In regard to biotechnology, this has led to the development of numerous genetic transformation protocols. Over the years, many of these methods have become increasingly straightforward, rapid, and efficient, thereby making rice valuable as a model crop for scientific research and functional genomics. The focus of this chapter is on one such protocol that uses Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Oryza sativa L. ssp. Japonica cv. Nipponbare with an emphasis on tissue desiccation. The explants consist of callus derived from mature seeds which are cocultivated on filter paper postinfection. Hygromycin selection is used for the recovery of subsequent genetically engineered events.
Kakinuma, Makoto; Inoue, Miho; Morita, Teruwo; Tominaga, Hiroshi; Maegawa, Miyuki; Coury, Daniel A; Amano, Hideomi
In flowering plants, floral homeotic MADS-box genes, which constitute a large multigene family, play important roles in the specification of floral organs as defined by the ABCDE model. In this study, a MADS-box gene, ZjMADS1, was isolated and characterized from the marine angiosperm Zostera japonica. The predicted length of the ZjMADS1 protein was 246 amino acids (AA), and the AA sequence was most similar to those of the SEPALLATA (SEP) subfamily, corresponding to E-function genes. Southern blot analysis suggested the presence of two SEP3-like genes in the Z. japonica genome. ZjMADS1 mRNA levels were extremely high in the spadices, regardless of the developmental stage, compared to other organs from the reproductive and vegetative shoots. These results suggest that the ZjMADS1 gene may be involved in spadix development in Z. japonica and act as an E-function gene in floral organ development in marine angiosperms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The areal coverage of the non-indigenous dwarf eelgrass, Zostera japonica, is increasing in several estuaries on the US West Coast. As a result, regulatory agencies in the states of California and Washington are considering methods of controlling its expansion. Factors relevan...
Dwarf eelgrass, Zostera japonica, is an introduced ecosystem engineering species first reported on the US west coast in 1957. In some US Pacific Northwest estuaries its areal coverage now exceeds that of the native eelgrass species, Zostera marina. Natural resource management’s...
Tsuchimoto, Jun; Yamada, Toshihiro; Yamaguchi, Masaaki
Peronella japonica is a sand dollar with a zygote that develops into an abbreviated pluteus but then metamorphoses on day three. The adult rudiment formation is unique; it uses a median position of the hydrocoel and a stomodeum-like invagination of vestibule that covers the dorsal side of the hydrocoel. However, the developmental processes underlying coelom formation remain unclear. In this study, we examined this process by reconstructing three-dimensional images from serial sections of larvae. We show that the left coelom developed by both schizocoely and enterocoely from the archenteron tip, whereas the hydrocoel and right coelom formed by enterocoely from the archenteron. This coelom formation arranged the coelomic compartments directly along the adult oral-aboral axis by skipping the initial bilateral phases. Furthermore, our data indicate P. japonica retains ancestral asymmetry along the left-right axis in the location of the adult rudiment. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Wang, Hui; Matsushita, Michinari; Tomaru, Nobuhiro; Nakagawa, Michiko
Sex change affects the sex ratios of plant populations and may play an essential role in the evolutionary shift of sexual systems. Sex change can be a strategy for increasing fitness over the lifetime of a plant, and plant size, environmental factors, and growth rate may affect sex change. We described frequent, repeated sex changes following various patterns in a subdioecious Eurya japonica population over five successive years. Of the individuals, 27.5% changed their sex at least once, and these changes were unidirectional or bidirectional. The sex ratio (females/males/all hermaphrodite types) did not fluctuate over the 5 years. In our study plots, although the current sex ratio among the sexes appears to be stable, the change in sex ratio may be slowly progressing toward increasing females and decreasing males. Sex was more likely to change with higher growth rates and more exposure to light throughout the year. Among individuals that changed sex, those that were less exposed to light in the leafy season and had less diameter growth tended to shift from hermaphrodite to a single sex. Therefore, sex change in E . japonica seemed to be explained by a response to the internal physiological condition of an individual mediated by intrinsic and abiotic environmental factors.
Ding, Rui; Chen, Xu-Hui; Zhang, Li-Jun; Yu, Xiao-Dan; Qu, Bo; Duan, Ru; Xu, Yu-Feng
Mycorrhizal association is known to be important to orchid species, and a complete understanding of the fungi that form mycorrhizas is required for orchid ecology and conservation. Liparis japonica (Orchidaceae) is a widespread terrestrial photosynthetic orchid in Northeast China. Previously, we found the genetic diversity of this species has been reduced recent years due to habitat destruction and fragmentation, but little was known about the relationship between this orchid species and the mycorrhizal fungi. The Rhizoctonia-like fungi are the commonly accepted mycorrhizal fungi associated with orchids. In this study, the distribution, diversity and specificity of culturable Rhizoctonia-like fungi associated with L. japonica species were investigated from seven populations in Northeast China. Among the 201 endophytic fungal isolates obtained, 86 Rhizoctonia-like fungi were identified based on morphological characters and molecular methods, and the ITS sequences and phylogenetic analysis revealed that all these Rhizoctonia-like fungi fell in the same main clade and were closely related to those of Tulasnella calospora species group. These findings indicated the high mycorrhizal specificity existed in L. japonica species regardless of habitats at least in Northeast China. Our results also supported the wide distribution of this fungal partner, and implied that the decline of L. japonica in Northeast China did not result from high mycorrhizal specificity. Using culture-dependent technology, these mycorrhizal fungal isolates might be important sources for the further utilizing in orchids conservation.
Suzuki, Masahiro; Segawa, Takahiro; Mori, Hiroshi; Akiyoshi, Ayumi; Ootsuki, Ryo; Kurihara, Akira; Sakayama, Hidetoshi; Kitayama, Taiju; Abe, Tsuyoshi; Kogame, Kazuhiro; Kawai, Hiroshi; Nozaki, Hisayoshi
Liagora japonica is a red algal species distributed in temperate regions of Japan. This species has not been collected from its type locality on the Pacific coast of Japan since 1927 and seems to have become extinct in this area. For molecular characterization of L. japonica, we extracted DNA from the topotype material of L. japonica collected in 1927, analyzed seven genes using Illumina next-generation sequencing, and compared these data with sequences from modern samples of similar red algae collected from the Japan Sea coast of Japan. Both morphological and molecular data from modern samples and historical specimens (including the lectotype and topotype) suggest that the specimens from the Pacific and Japan Sea coasts of Japan should be treated as a single species, and that L. japonica is phylogenetically separated from the genus Liagora. Based on the phylogenetic results and examination of reproductive structures, we propose Otohimella japonica gen. et comb. nov., characterized morphologically by diffuse carposporophytes, undivided carposporangia, and involucral filaments initiated only from the cortical cell on the supporting cell. PMID:27388436
Zhao, Yao; Zhang, Shuai; Luo, Jun-Yu; Wang, Chun-Yi; Lv, Li-Min; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Cui, Jin-Jie; Lei, Chao-Liang
Plant varieties expressing the Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) insecticidal proteins Cry1Ah and Cry2Ab have potential commercialization prospects in China. However, their potential effects on non-target arthropods (NTAs) remain uncharacterized. The cotton aphid Aphis gossypii is a worldwide pest that damages various important crops. The ladybeetle Propylea japonica is a common and abundant natural enemy in many cropping systems in East Asia. In the present study, the effects of Cry1Ah and Cry2Ab proteins on A. gossypii and P. japonica were assessed from three aspects. First, neither of the Cry proteins affected the growth or developmental characteristics of the two test insects. Second, the expression levels of the detoxification-related genes of the two test insects did not change significantly in either Cry protein treatment. Third, neither of the Cry proteins had a favourable effect on the expression of genes associated with the amino acid metabolism of A. gossypii and the nutrition utilization of P. japonica. In conclusion, the Cry1Ah and Cry2Ab proteins do not appear to affect the cotton aphid A. gossypii or the ladybeetle P. japonica. PMID:26829252
Zuo, Yu; Xie, Wenfang; Pang, Yue; Li, Tiesong; Li, Qingwei; Li, Yingying
The composition of the bacterial communities in the hindgut contents of Lampetrs japonica was surveyed by Illumina MiSeq of the 16S rRNA gene. An average of 32385 optimized reads was obtained from three samples. The rarefaction curve based on the operational taxonomic units tended to approach the asymptote. The rank abundance curve representing the species richness and evenness was calculated. The composition of microbe in six classification levels was also analyzed. Top 20 members in genera level were displayed as the classification tree. The abundance of microorganisms in different individuals was displayed as the pie charts at the branch nodes in the classification tree. The differences of top 50 genera in abundance between individuals of lamprey are displayed as a heatmap. The pairwise comparison of bacterial taxa abundance revealed that there are no significant differences of gut microbiota between three individuals of lamprey at a given rarefied depth. Also, the gut microbiota derived from L. japonica displays little similarity with other aquatic organism of Vertebrata after UPGMA analysis. The metabolic function of the bacterial communities was predicted through KEGG analysis. This study represents the first analysis of the bacterial community composition in the gut content of L. japonica. The investigation of the gut microbiota associated with L. japonica will broaden our understanding of this unique organism.
Qi, Xiwu; Yu, Xu; Xu, Daohua; Fang, Hailing; Dong, Ke; Li, Weilin; Liang, Chengyuan
Lonicera japonica is an important medicinal plant that has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for thousands of years. The pharmacological activities of L. japonica are mainly due to its rich natural active ingredients, most of which are secondary metabolites. CYP450s are a large, complex, and widespread superfamily of proteins that participate in many endogenous and exogenous metabolic reactions, especially secondary metabolism. Here, we identified CYP450s in L. japonica transcriptome and analyzed CYP450s that may be involved in chlorogenic acid (CGA) biosynthesis. The recent availability of L. japonica transcriptome provided opportunity to identify CYP450s in this herb. BLAST based method and HMM based method were used to identify CYP450s in L. japonica transcriptome. Then, phylogenetic analysis, conserved motifs analysis, GO annotation, and KEGG annotation analyses were conducted to characterize the identified CYP450s. qRT-PCR was used to explore expression patterns of five CGA biosynthesis related CYP450s. In this study, 151 putative CYP450s with complete cytochrome P450 domain, which belonged to 10 clans, 45 families and 76 subfamilies, were identified in L. japonica transcriptome. Phylogenetic analysis classified these CYP450s into two major branches, A-type (47%) and non-A type (53%). Both types of CYP450s had conserved motifs in L. japonica . The differences of typical motif sequences between A-type and non-A type CYP450s in L. japonica were similar with other plants. GO classification indicated that non-A type CYP450s participated in more molecular functions and biological processes than A-type. KEGG pathway annotation totally assigned 47 CYP450s to 25 KEGG pathways. From these data, we cloned two LjC3Hs (CYP98A subfamily) and three LjC4Hs (CYP73A subfamily) that may be involved in biosynthesis of CGA, the major ingredient for pharmacological activities of L. japonica . qRT-PCR results indicated that two LjC3Hs exhibited oppositing expression
Temporal pattern in biometrics and nutrient stoichiometry of the intertidal seagrass Zostera japonica and its adaptation to air exposure in a temperate marine lagoon (China): Implications for restoration and management.
Zhang, Xiaomei; Zhou, Yi; Liu, Peng; Wang, Feng; Liu, Bingjian; Liu, Xujia; Yang, Hongsheng
In coastal areas of China, the seagrass Zostera japonica has drastically decreased in the past decades. Swan Lake is an exception, where we found extensive areas of Z. japonica beds. The growth of Z. japonica in the lagoon exhibited strong seasonal variation. The maximum shoot density of 9880±2786 shoots m(-2) occurred in August. The maximum specific growth rate (SGR) of 4.99±1.99%⋅d(-1) was recorded in June 2012. SGR might be a good parameter for assessing the growth status of Z. japonica population. N and P contents in the rhizome were significantly lower than those in the leaf and leaf sheath. Lower C/P ratios suggested P enrichment of the seagrass. The occurrence of Z. japonica in Swan Lake was featured by adapting to the intertidal harsh environments. The transplantation method using sectioned rhizomes would be a potential way for restoration of degraded Z. japonica beds. The establishment of the Rongcheng Swan National Nature Reserve in China has contributed to the survival and expansion of Z. japonica in Swan Lake. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Since its introduction in the early to mid-20th century, the Asian seagrass Zostera japonica has become established in marine and mesohaline portions of many estuaries in the Pacific Northwest. Z. japonica forms dense patches from 0.3-2.4m above mean lower low water, a zone that...
Bao, Le; Qu, Laiye; Ma, Keming; Lin, Lin
Road dust is one of the most common pollutants and causes a series of negative effects on plant physiology. Dust's impacts on plants can be regarded as a combination of load, composition and grain size impacts on plants; however, there is a lack of integrated dust effect studies involving these three aspects. In our study, Sophora japonica seedlings were artificially dusted with road dust collected from the road surface of Beijing so that we could study the impacts of this dust on nitrogen/carbon allocation, biomass allocation and photosynthetic pigments from the three aspects of composition, load and grain size. The results showed that the growth characteristics of S. japonica seedlings were mostly influenced by dust composition and load. Leaf N, root-shoot ratio and chlorophyll a/b were significantly affected by dust composition and load; leaf C/N, shoot biomass, total chlorophyll and carotenoid were significantly affected by dust load; stem N and stem C/N were significantly affected by dust composition; while the dust grain size alone did not affect any of the growth characteristics. Road dust did influence the growth characteristics more extensively than loam. Therefore, a higher dust load could increase the differences between road dust and loam treatments. The elements in dust are well correlated to the shoot N, shoot C/N, and root-shoot ratio of S. japonica seedlings. This knowledge could benefit the management of urban green spaces. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Fan, Tingjun; Yu, Miaomiao; Yang, Lingling; Shi, Zhenping; Sun, Wenjie; Cong, Rishan; Yang, Xiuxia; Jiang, Guojian
To investigate the stimulating effects of immunostimulants on the autogenous immunocompetence of crabs and the possible mechanisms involved, the immunostimulating effects of β-1,3-glucan, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), inactivated Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio anguillarum on phenoloxidase (PO) and hemocytes of Charybdis japonica were investigated in this study. It was found that the yields and the enzymatic activities of purified PO in C. japonica increased significantly after the crabs were treated with immunostimulants, while the unit enzymatic activities remained almost the same. After treatment with β-1,3-glucan and LPS, the amount of rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and the number of mitochondria in both semigranular cells and granular cells increased greatly, and the number of cytoplasmic granules decreased but with enlarged volume. However, the corresponding characteristics of hyaline cells remained almost the same. On the other hand, the number of granules in semigranular cells decreased greatly, and the number of mitochondria of hyaline cells increased greatly, after treatment with inactivated vibrios. It may be concluded that the effect of polysaccharide immunostimulants on the innate immune system of C. japonica is different from that of inactivated vibrio immunostimulants. The immunity-enhancing mechanism of polysaccharides in crab autogenous immunocompetence is probably accomplished by the increased yields of PO and total PO activities, while that of inactivated vibrios is probably accomplished by the partially increased yields of PO and total PO activities as well as the significantly improved phagocytotic abilities of semigranular cells and hyaline cells.
Hanson, Dieta; Cooke, Samantha; Hirano, Yayoi; Malaquias, Manuel A E; Crocetta, Fabio; Valdés, Ángel
Haminoea japonica is a species of opisthobranch sea slug native to Japan and Korea. Non-native populations have spread unnoticed for decades due to difficulties in the taxonomy of Haminoea species. Haminoea japonica is associated with a schistosome parasite in San Francisco Bay, thus further spread could have consequence to human health and economies. Anecdotal evidence suggests that H. japonica has displaced native species of Haminoea in North America and Europe, becoming locally dominant in estuaries and coastal lagoons. In this paper we study the population genetics of native and non-native populations of H. japonica based on mt-DNA data including newly discovered populations in Italy and France. The conclusions of this study further corroborate a Northeastern Japan origin for the non-native populations and suggest possible independent introductions into North America and Europe. Additionally, the data obtained revealed possible secondary introductions within Japan. Although non-native populations have experienced severe genetic bottlenecks they have colonized different regions with a broad range of water temperatures and other environmental conditions. The environmental tolerance of this species, along with its ability to become dominant in invaded areas and its association with a schistosome parasite, suggest H. japonica could be a dangerous invasive species.
Hanson, Dieta; Cooke, Samantha; Hirano, Yayoi; Malaquias, Manuel A. E.; Crocetta, Fabio; Valdés, Ángel
Haminoea japonica is a species of opisthobranch sea slug native to Japan and Korea. Non-native populations have spread unnoticed for decades due to difficulties in the taxonomy of Haminoea species. Haminoea japonica is associated with a schistosome parasite in San Francisco Bay, thus further spread could have consequence to human health and economies. Anecdotal evidence suggests that H. japonica has displaced native species of Haminoea in North America and Europe, becoming locally dominant in estuaries and coastal lagoons. In this paper we study the population genetics of native and non-native populations of H. japonica based on mt-DNA data including newly discovered populations in Italy and France. The conclusions of this study further corroborate a Northeastern Japan origin for the non-native populations and suggest possible independent introductions into North America and Europe. Additionally, the data obtained revealed possible secondary introductions within Japan. Although non-native populations have experienced severe genetic bottlenecks they have colonized different regions with a broad range of water temperatures and other environmental conditions. The environmental tolerance of this species, along with its ability to become dominant in invaded areas and its association with a schistosome parasite, suggest H. japonica could be a dangerous invasive species. PMID:24098588
Nagakura, Junko; Shigenaga, Hidetoshi; Akama, Akio; Takahashi, Masamichi
To investigate the effects of soil water content on growth and transpiration of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) and Hinoki cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa (Siebold et Zucc.) Endl.), potted seedlings were grown in well-watered soil (wet treatment) or in drying soil (dry treatment) for 12 weeks. Seedlings in the wet treatment were watered once every 2 or 3 days, whereas seedlings in the dry treatment were watered when soil water content (Theta; m3 m(-3)) reached 0.30, equivalent to a soil matric potential of -0.06 MPa. From Weeks 7 to 12 after the onset of the treatments, seedling transpiration was measured by weighing the potted seedlings. After the last watering, changes in transpiration rate during soil drying were monitored intensely. The dry treatment restricted aboveground growth but increased biomass allocation to the roots in both species, resulting in no significant treatment difference in whole-plant biomass production. The species showed similar responses in relative growth rate (RGR), net assimilation rate (NAR) and shoot mass ratio (SMR) to the dry treatment. Although NAR did not change significantly in either C. japonica or C. obtusa as the soil dried, the two species responded differently to the dry treatment in terms of mean transpiration rate (E) and water-use efficiency (WUE), which are parameters that relate to NAR. In the dry treatment, both E and WUE of C. japonica were stable, whereas in C. obtusa, E decreased and WUE increased (E and WUE counterbalanced to maintain a constant NAR). Transpiration rates were lower in C. obtusa seedlings than in C. japonica seedlings, even in well-watered conditions. During soil drying, the transpiration rate decreased after Theta reached about 0.38 (-0.003 MPa) in C. obtusa and 0.32 (-0.028 MPa) in C. japonica. We conclude that C. obtusa has more water-saving characteristics than C. japonica, particularly when water supply is limited.
Teng, Linhong; Han, Wentao; Fan, Xiao; Xu, Dong; Zhang, Xiaowen; Dittami, Simon M.; Ye, Naihao
Lipoxygenase (LOX) plays important roles in fatty acid oxidation and lipid mediator biosynthesis. In this study, we give first insights into brown algal LOX evolution. Whole genome searches revealed four, three, and eleven LOXs in Ectocarpus siliculosus, Cladosiphon okamuranus, and Saccharina japonica, respectively. In phylogenetic analyses, LOXs from brown algae form a robust clade with those from prokaryotes, suggesting an ancestral origin and slow evolution. Brown algal LOXs were divided into two clades, C1 and C2 in a phylogenetic tree. Compared to the two species of Ectocarpales, LOX gene expansion occurred in the kelp S. japonica through tandem duplication and segmental duplication. Selection pressure analysis showed that LOX genes in brown algae have undergone strong purifying selection, while the selective constraint in the C2 clade was more relaxed than that in the C1 clade. Furthermore, within each clade, LOXs of S. japonica evolved under more relaxed selection constraints than E. siliculosus and C. okamuranus. Structural modeling showed that unlike LOXs of plants and animals, which contain a β barrel in the N-terminal part of the protein, LOXs in brown algae fold into a single domain. Analysis of previously published transcriptomic data showed that LOXs in E. siliculosus are responsive to hyposaline, hypersaline, oxidative, and copper stresses. Moreover, clear divergence of expression patterns was observed among different life stages, as well as between duplicate gene pairs. In E. siliculosus, all four LOXs are male-biased in immature gametophytes, and mature gametophytes showed significantly higher LOX mRNA levels than immature gametophytes and sporophytes. In S. japonica, however, our RNA-Seq data showed that most LOXs are highly expressed in sporophytes. Even the most recently duplicated gene pairs showed divergent expression patterns, suggesting that functional divergence has likely occurred since LOX genes duplicated, which potentially contributes
In the Pacific Northwest Zostera marina and Z. japonica co-exist by occupying separate elevation niches. We conducted two mesocosm experiments to evaluate light and temperature as factors controlling the disjunct distribution of congeners. The first study tests the hypothesis t...
Kong, Qing; Dong, Shiyuan; Gao, Jian; Jiang, Chaoyu
In vitro fermentation of the sulfated polysaccharides from seaweeds Enteromorpha prolifera and Laminaria japonica and their prebiotic effects on human fecal microbiota were investigated in this study. The sulfated polysaccharides were fermented in vitro for 48h by human fecal cultures. When 0.8g MWCOL (polysaccharides MWCO<30kD) from L. japonica was fermented, the pH in fecal cultures decreased from 6.5 to 5.1 and the levels of short chain fatty acids, such as acetic, butyric and lactic acids all significantly increased. After 48h fermentation, 0.8g MWCOL showed good effect on modulating the gut microflora balance, because the beneficial strains (Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium) were both significantly higher than those in control group (p<0.05). As far as we know, this is the first report that consumption of sulfated polysaccharides from E. prolifera and L. japonica is beneficial to the ecosystem of the intestinal tract by increasing the populations of probiotics and short chain fatty acids. Furthermore, our reports indicated that molecular weight of sulfated polysaccharide from marine algae is related to its prebiotic effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
A quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis of seedling vigor traits was conducted under dry-seeded conditions using 176 recombinant inbred lines developed from a cross of two California temperate japonica rice varieties M-203 and M-206. Height at early seedling (HES) and late seedling (HLS) stage, gro...
Han, Yu-San; Yambot, Apolinario V.; Zhang, Heng; Hung, Chia-Ling
Anguilla japonica and Anguilla marmorata share overlapping spawning sites, similar drifting routes, and comparable larval durations. However, they exhibit allopatric geographical distributions in East Asia. To clarify this ecological discrepancy, glass eels from estuaries in Taiwan, the Philippines, Indonesia, and China were collected monthly, and the survival rate of A. marmorata under varying water salinities and temperatures was examined. The composition ratio of these 2 eel species showed a significant latitude cline, matching the 24°C sea surface temperature isotherm in winter. Both species had opposing temperature preferences for recruitment. A. marmorata prefer high water temperatures and die at low water temperatures. In contrast, A. japonica can endure low water temperatures, but their recruitment is inhibited by high water temperatures. Thus, A. japonica glass eels, which mainly spawn in summer, are preferably recruited to Taiwan, China, Korea, and Japan by the Kuroshio and its branch waters in winter. Meanwhile, A. marmorata glass eels, which spawn throughout the year, are mostly screened out in East Asia in areas with low-temperature coastal waters in winter. During summer, the strong northward currents from the South China Sea and Changjiang River discharge markedly block the Kuroshio invasion and thus restrict the approach of A. marmorata glass eels to the coasts of China and Korea. The differences in the preferences of the recruitment temperature for glass eels combined with the availability of oceanic currents shape the real geographic distribution of Anguilla japonica and Anguilla marmorata, making them “temperate” and “tropical” eels, respectively. PMID:22675481
Constantino, L F da S; Nascimento, L B Dos S; Casanova, L M; Moreira, N Dos S; Menezes, E A; Esteves, R L; Costa, S S; Tavares, E S
Crepis japonica (L.) D.C. (Asteraceae), a weed with antioxidant, antiallergenic, antiviral and antitumor properties displays both medicinal properties and nutritional value. This study aims to assess the effects of a supplementation of blue light and UV-A radiation on the growth, leaf anatomical structure and phenolic profile of the aerial parts of Crepis japonica. Plants were grown under two light treatments: W (control - white light), W + B (white light supplemented with blue light) and W + UV-A (white light supplemented with UV-A radiation). We recorded the length, width, and weight of fresh and dry leaves, the thickness of the epidermis and mesophyll, and stomata density. The phenolic profiles of the aqueous extracts of the aerial parts were analyzed by HPLC-DAD. There was an increase in the leaf size, stomatal density, and phenolic production, and a thickening of the mesophyll and epidermis. UV-A radiation increased the phenolic production more than blue light. Blue light and UV-A radiation both improved the production of caffeic acid by about 6 and 3 times, respectively, in comparison to control. This compound was first reported as a constituent of the extract from the aerial parts together with caftaric acid. UV-A also promoted the production of chlorogenic acid (about 1.5 times in comparison to the control). We observed that the morphological and chemical parameters of C. japonica are modified in response to blue light and UV-A radiation, which can be used as tools in the cultivation of this species in order to improve its medicinal properties and nutritional value.
Suonan, Zhaxi; Kim, Seung Hyeon; Qin, Le-Zheng; Lee, Kun-Seop
Zostera japonica populations along the coastline of the northwestern Pacific Ocean are declining, mainly due to anthropogenic and natural disturbances. Although reproductive strategy is an important factor in achieving population persistence, changes in the reproductive strategy of Z. japonica under anthropogenic disturbances and tidal stresses are largely unknown. Thus, the duration and frequency of flowering, reproductive effort, potential seed production, and seed density in sediments were measured at three study stations (undisturbed upper, undisturbed lower, and disturbed stations), which were classified based on the levels of inundation stress and clamming activity, in monospecific meadows of Z. japonica on the southern coast of Korea. The flowering duration was approximately six months in the disturbed station, with disturbance due to clam harvesting, whereas the duration was about five months in the undisturbed lower station, and only three months in the undisturbed upper station. The maximum flowering frequency was 25.5% in the disturbed station, which was approximately 4- and 2-fold higher than in the undisturbed upper (6.1%) and lower (12.3%) stations, respectively. A similar trend in reproductive effort was also found among the three study stations. Potential seed production was 7850, 6220, and 1560 seeds m-2 in the disturbed, undisturbed lower, and undisturbed upper stations, respectively. The annual maximum seed density in sediments was also higher in the disturbed and undisturbed lower stations than in the undisturbed upper station, but the densities were relatively low (ranging from 71 to 254 seeds m-2) at all three study stations. It was found that the allocation to sexual reproduction was highest in the disturbed station, followed by the undisturbed lower station, and lowest in the undisturbed upper station, suggesting that sexual reproduction in Z. japonica tends to be enhanced under disturbed and inundated environmental conditions for population
Kado, Tomoyuki; Yoshimaru, Hiroshi; Tsumura, Yoshihiko; Tachida, Hidenori
We investigated the nucleotide variation of a conifer, Cryptomeria japonica, and the divergence between this species and its closest relative, Taxodium distichum, at seven nuclear loci (Acl5, Chi1, Ferr, GapC, HemA, Lcyb, and Pat). Samples of C. japonica were collected from three areas, Kantou-Toukai, Hokuriku, and Iwate. No apparent geographic differentiation was found among these samples. However, the frequency spectrum of the nucleotide polymorphism revealed excesses of intermediate-frequency variants, which suggests that the population was not panmictic and a constant size in the past. The average nucleotide diversity, pi, for silent sites was 0.00383. However, values of pi for silent sites vary among loci. Comparisons of polymorphism to divergence among loci (the HKA test) showed that the polymorphism at the Acl5 locus was significantly lower. We also observed a nearly significant excess of replacement polymorphisms at the Lcyb locus. These results suggested possibilities of natural selection acting at some of the loci. Intragenic recombination was detected only once at the Chi1 locus and was not detected at the other loci. The low level of population recombination rate, 4Nr, seemed to be due to both low level of recombination, r, and small population size, N. PMID:12930759
Tian, Ting-Ting; Ma, Ying-Hua; Xie, Wei-Wei; Jin, Yi-Ran; Xu, Hui-Jun; Zhang, Lan-Tong; Du, Ying-Feng
A quick HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method was established for simultaneous determination of four major diterpenoids in Rabdosia japonica var.glaucocalyx, including glaucocalyxin A, oridonin, hebeirubesensin and enmenol. Analysis was performed on an Agilent ZORBAX SB-C18(4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 μm ) column eluted in a gradient program with methanol and water. The flow rate was 0.8 mL•min⁻¹. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) scanning mode was performed in negative ion switching mode to apply for the quantitative determination. The calibration curves for the above four compounds were linear in corresponding injection amount. The average recoveries of the compounds ranged from 92.40% to 105.9%, with RSDs of 1.7%-6.5%. The method is simple, rapid, accurate with good repeatability, which can provide a reference for overcalling evaluation the quality of R. japonica var.glaucocalyx. The result of cluster analysis- showed that the quality of R. japonica glaucocalyx var. greatly varied between areas and parts. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Mazza, Giuseppe; Paoli, Francesco; Strangi, Agostino; Torrini, Giulia; Marianelli, Leonardo; Peverieri, Giuseppino Sabbatini; Binazzi, Francesco; Bosio, Giovanni; Sacchi, Stefano; Benvenuti, Claudia; Venanzio, Davide; Giacometto, Emanuela; Roversi, Pio F; Poinar, George O
A new species of mermithid nematode, Hexamermis popilliae n. sp. (Nematoda: Mermithidae) is described from the Japanese beetle Popillia japonica Newman in Italy, an area of new introduction for this invasive pest. The combination of the following characters separates H. popilliae from other members of the genus Hexamermis Steiner, 1924: adult head obtuse; amphidial pouches slightly posterior to lateral head papillae in female but adjacent to lateral head papillae in males; amphidial openings large, well developed; amphidial pouches elliptical in females and oblong in males; cuticular vulvar cone well developed, vulvar lips greatly reduced or lacking, vagina curved at tip where meeting uteri, without reverse bend (not S-shaped), spicules slightly curved, with a slight bend in the basal portion, approximately equal to body width at cloaca. This is the first record of a species of Hexamermis parasitizing the Japanese beetle Popillia japonica. The only previous mention of mermithid nematodes from P. japonica was an undescribed species of Psammomermis in North America. Hexamermis popilliae will be evaluated as a potential biological control agent in an integrated control program of the Japanese beetle in Italy.
Li, Jing; Pang, Shaojun; Liu, Feng; Shan, Tifeng; Gao, Suqin
During sexual reproduction of seaweeds, spermatozoid (sperm) discharge is triggered by chemical messengers (pheromones) released by the female gametes. The chemotactic ability of the sperm ensures fertilization success. Using unialgal male and female gametophyte material under designated standard gametogenesis testing (SGT) conditions, the potential life-span of the sperm of two seaweeds, Saccharina japonica and Undaria pinnatifida, was assessed by their ability to fertilize eggs. Results show that within 20-30 min after being discharged, sperm of both species could complete fertilization without an apparent decline in fertilization rate. Although fertilization rate 60-120 min after sperm discharge dropped significantly in both species, some sperm were viable enough to fertilize the eggs. In S. japonica, at 12°C, some sperm were able to fertilize eggs up to 12 h after discharge. In both species, egg discharge rates (EDR) in the male and female mixed positive controls were significantly higher than those of all the sperm-testing groups. Doubling the seeded male gametophytes of S. japonica in the SGT tests significantly increased the EDR, further confirming the effect of the presence of the male on the female in terms of facilitating egg discharge from oogonia.
Je, Jae-Young; Park, Soo Yeon; Ahn, Chang-Bum
Rhizoid of Laminaria japonica was hydrolyzed with proteases and carbohydrases to obtain antioxidant materials. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of the enzymatic extracts was evaluated and the Protamex extract (PE) exhibited the highest ORAC value. PE also potently scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic) acid cation radical, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and had good reducing power. PE inhibited hydroxyl radical-induced DNA scission by measuring the conversion of supercoiled pBR322 plasmid DNA to the open circular form. The cytoprotective effect of PE against H2O2-induced hepatic cell damage was also investigated. PE showed a dose-dependent cytoprotective effect in cultured hepatocytes by inhibiting intracellular reactive oxygen species scavenging activity. In addition, PE up-regulated the expression of heme oxygenase-1, which is a cytoprotective enzyme, by activating translocation of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2. Taken together, the enzymatic extract of rhizoid of L. japonica, particularly PE, may be useful for antioxidant additives. PMID:29333384
Korenori, Yoshimi; Tanigawa, Shunsuke; Kumamoto, Takuma; Qin, Si; Daikoku, Yosuke; Miyamori, Koji; Nagai, Masashi; Hou, De-Xing
6-Methylthiohexyl isothiocyanate (6-MTITC), one of the major bioactive ingredients in Japanese Wasabi, has revealed cytoprotective and cancer chemopreventive effects. This study aims to clarify the molecular mechanisms how 6-MTITC modulates nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/Kelchlike ECH-associating protein 1 (Keap1) system in antioxidant-responsive element (ARE)-mediated nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP): quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) expression. HepG2 cells were treated with 6-MTITC with varying time and dose. NQO1, Nrf2, and Keap1 proteins were detected by Western blotting. ARE transactivation was detected by electrophilic mobility shift assay and reporter gene assay. Nuclear localization of Nrf2 was determined by immunocytochemistry assay. Ubiquitination of Nrf2 and Keap1 was detected using immunoprecipitation after treatment with MG132. Small interfering RNA was used to knockdown Nrf2 or Keap1. The results revealed that 6-MTITC modulated Nrf2/ARE pathway by stimulating Keap1 modification, and inhibiting Nrf2 ubiquitination and protein turnover. These actions finally increased nuclear Nrf2 accumulation and ARE-binding activity. Moreover, silencing Nrf2 markedly reduced ARE-driven activity induced by 6-MTITC. 6-MTITC modulated ARE-driven NQO1 expression by stabilizing Nrf2 with enhanced Keap1 modification and decreased Nrf2 degradation. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Son, Seog-Gu; Kim, Hyo-Jeong; Kim, Chang-Soo; Byun, Kwang-Ok
Sound seeds should have good germination rates and seed germination can be influenced by several factors. Seed picking time is regarded as one of the necessary elements to obtain sound seeds. From a clonal seed orchard of Cryptomeria japonica located in southern part of Korean peninsular, cones were picked about every 10 days from 30th of July 2005 to 30th of October in both 2005 and 2006. We have also analyzed the effects of climatic factors about two consecutive years on seed productivity. From the picked cones, seeds were collected and these germination ability, seed size and embryo shapes were investigated according to cone picking time. The 1,000-seed weight picked on 18th of August was 3.3 g and 5.3 g on 30th of September 2005and 2006. The size of seeds picked from 18th of August to 30th of September increased from 19.3 mm to 21.3 mm in length and from 15.8 mm to 18.5 mm in width. Depending on picking time, various shapes of embryos, including embryos with liquid material, jellied material and fully matured ones were observed. Germination aspects also varied throughout the test days. About two weeks after seeding in a glass petri-dish, germinal apparatuses appeared from each test seed sets which had been picked from after 10 August 2005 and 10 August 2006. The germination rates started from 10.7% from seeds picked 20 August 2006. Average germination rate in 2005 was 18.3 and 19.6 in 2006. In 2005, the highest germination rate was 34.3% from seeds picked on the 30th of September. In 2006, the highest germination rate was 31.7% for seeds picked at the same date as the 2005 seeds. After September, the highest germination rate for picked seeds decreased in both 2005 and 2006. Among the climatic factors, monthly sum of temperature and of precipitation were the main factors for maturation of C. japonica seeds. The results implied that the best cone picking time for the Korean C. japonica seed orchard to be around the end of September.
Shimamoto, I; Sonoda, S; Vazquez, P; Minaka, N; Nishiguchi, M
The 3' terminal 2378 nucleotides of a wasabi strain of crucifer tobamovirus (CTMV-W) infectious to crucifer plants was determined. This includes the 3' non-coding region of 235 nucleotides, coat protein (CP) gene (468 nucleotides), movement protein (MP) gene (798 nucleotides) and C-terminal partial readthrough portion of 180 K protein gene (940 nucleotides). Comparison of the sequence with homologous regions of thirteen other tobamovirus genomes showed that it had much higher identity to those of four other crucifer tobamoviruses, 85.2% to cr-TMV and turnip vein-clearing virus (TVCV), 87.4% to oilseed rape mosaic virus (ORMV) and 87.1% to TMV-Cg, than to those of other tobamoviruses. Thus CTMV-W was most similar to ORMV and TMV-Cg in sequence, but only marginally so, whereas the location and size of its MP gene was the same as cr-TMV amd TVCV. These results, together with other analyses, show that CTMV-W is a new crucifer tobamovirus, that the five crucifer tobamoviruses can be classified into two subgroups based on MP gene organization, and that the rate of sequence change is not the same in all lineages.
Fan, Li; Lin, Changhu; Duan, Wenjuan; Wang, Xiao; Liu, Jianhua; Liu, Feng
An ultrahigh pressure extraction (UPE)-high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)/diode array detector (DAD) method was established to evaluate the quality of Lonicera japonica Thunb. Ten active components, including neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, 4-dicaffeoylquinic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, luteoloside, isochlorogenic acid B, isochlorogenic acid A, isochlorogenic acid C, and quercetin, were qualitatively evaluated and quantitatively determined. Scanning electron microscope images elucidated the bud surface microstructure and extraction mechanism. The optimal extraction conditions of the UPE were 60% methanol solution, 400 MPa of extraction pressure, 3 min of extraction time, and 1:30 (g/mL) solid:liquid ratio. Under the optimized conditions, the total extraction yield of 10 active components was 57.62 mg/g. All the components showed good linearity (r2 ≥ 0.9994) and recoveries. This method was successfully applied to quantify 10 components in 22 batches of L. japonica samples from different areas. Compared with heat reflux extraction and ultrasonic-assisted extraction, UPE can be considered as an alternative extraction technique for fast extraction of active ingredient from L. japonica.
Zha, Liangping; Liu, Shuang; Liu, Juan; Jiang, Chao; Yu, Shulin; Yuan, Yuan; Yang, Jian; Wang, Yaolong; Huang, Luqi
The content of active compounds differ in buds and flowers of Lonicera japonica (FLJ) and L. japonica var. chinensis (rFLJ). Chlorogenic acid (CGAs) were major active compounds of L. japonica and regarded as measurements for quality evaluation. However, little is known concerning the formation of active compounds at the molecular level. We quantified the major CGAs in FLJ and rFLJ, and found the concentrations of CGAs were higher in the buds of rFLJ than those of FLJ. Further analysis of CpG methylation of CGAs biosynthesis genes showed differences between FLJ and rFLJ in the 5'-UTR of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase 2 ( PAL2 ). We identified 11 LjbZIP proteins and 24 rLjbZIP proteins with conserved basic leucine zipper domains, subcellular localization, and electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that the transcription factor LjbZIP8 is a nuclear-localized protein that specifically binds to the G-box element of the LjPAL2 5'-UTR. Additionally, a transactivation assay and LjbZIP8 overexpression in transgenic tobacco indicated that LjbZIP8 could function as a repressor of transcription. Finally, treatment with 5-azacytidine decreased the transcription level of LjPAL2 and CGAs content in FLJ leaves. These results raise the possibility that DNA methylation might influence the recruitment of LjbZIP8, regulating PAL2 expression level and CGAs content in L. japonica .
Hannan, Md Abdul; Mohibbullah, Md; Hwang, Seon-Yeong; Lee, Kyungyong; Kim, Yang-Chun; Hong, Yong-Ki; Moon, Il Soo
Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar and Saccharina japonica Areschoug are two common seaweeds, and both are known to have numerous pharmacological properties that include neuroprotective effects. In a previous study, we found that the ethanol extracts of U. pinnatifida (UPE) and S. japonica (SJE) had neurite promoting activities on developing hippocampal neurons. In the present study, we studied and compared the effects of UPE and SJE on neuronal maturation. Both UPE and SJE promoted neurite outgrowth in a dose-dependent manner with optimal concentrations of 5 and 15 μg/mL, respectively. Initial neuronal differentiation was significantly promoted by UPE and SJE. Subsequently, treatment with both increased indices of axonal and dendritic cytoarchitecture, such as, the numbers and lengths of primary processes, although only UPE had a significant effect on branching frequencies. In addition, UPE and SJE showed no evidence of cytotoxicity, rather they protected neurons from naturally occurring death in vitro. These results indicate that UPE and SJE promote axodendritic maturation and neuronal survival and suggest that these algal extracts, especially UPE, have beneficial effects on the nervous system.
Bone homeostasis is maintained through a balance between osteoblastic bone formation and osteoclastic bone resorption. Bone loss with aging is induced by decreasing in osteoblastic bone formation and increasing in osteoclastic bone resorption, thereby leading to osteoporosis. Osteoporosis with its accompanying decrease in bone mass is widely recognized as a major public heath problem. Pharmacologic and nutritional factors may play a role in the prevention and treatment of bone loss with aging. p-Hydroxycinnamic acid (HCA), which stimulates bone mineralization in mouse bone tissues in vitro, has been found to be present in the leafstalk of wasabi (Wasabi japonica MATSUM) among various food and plants. Other phenolic acids including cinnamic acid, ferulic acid, caffeic acid and 3,4-dimethoxycinnamic acid did not have osteogenic effects. HCA was demonstrated to stimulate osteoblastic bone formation and suppresses osteoclastic bone resorption in vitro by antagonizing activation of the nuclear factor kappa B. Oral administration of HCA was found to exhibit restorative effects on bone loss induced by ovariectomy and diabetic states, supporting a role in the treatment of osteoporosis. Moreover, HCA was demonstrated to prevent the suppressed osteoblastic mineralization and the enhanced osteoclastogenesis in mouse bone marrow cells cocultured with bone metastatic MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells in vitro. The botanical molecule HCA, as a new osteogenic agent, is suggested to play a role in the treatment of cancer bone metastases. This review will discuss an advanced recent finding that HCA may be a useful agent to treat bone metabolic disorder.
Insect parasitoids are often manipulated to improve biological control programs for various arthropod pests. Volatile compounds can be a relevant cue used by most parasitoid hymenoptera for host or host microhabitat location. We studied olfactory responses of the braconid Asobara japonica Belokobyls...
Physical characterization of intertidal estuarine plant habitats over time may reveal distribution-limiting thresholds. Temperature data from loggers embedded in sediment in transects crossing Zostera marina and Z. japonica habitats in lower Yaquina Bay, Oregon display signific...
Kimura, Yoshiyuki; Sumiyoshi, Maho
The Swertia japonica is used clinically as a remedy for gastrointestinal symptoms in Japan. We examined the effects of a S. japonica and swertiamarin on gastric emptying and gastrointestinal motility in atropine-, dopamine-, and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-treated mice. All three preparations inhibited reductions in gastric emptying and gastrointestinal motility induced by dopamine (1mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection, ip). Neither the powder, swertiamarin, nor itopride had any effect on the reductions in gastric emptying and gastrointestinal motility caused by 5-HT (4 mg/kg, ip). These findings suggest that the powder and swertiamarin stimulate gastric emptying and gastrointestinal motility by inhibiting the dopamine D(2) receptor. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Zha, Liangping; Liu, Shuang; Liu, Juan; Jiang, Chao; Yu, Shulin; Yuan, Yuan; Yang, Jian; Wang, Yaolong; Huang, Luqi
The content of active compounds differ in buds and flowers of Lonicera japonica (FLJ) and L. japonica var. chinensis (rFLJ). Chlorogenic acid (CGAs) were major active compounds of L. japonica and regarded as measurements for quality evaluation. However, little is known concerning the formation of active compounds at the molecular level. We quantified the major CGAs in FLJ and rFLJ, and found the concentrations of CGAs were higher in the buds of rFLJ than those of FLJ. Further analysis of CpG methylation of CGAs biosynthesis genes showed differences between FLJ and rFLJ in the 5′-UTR of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase 2 (PAL2). We identified 11 LjbZIP proteins and 24 rLjbZIP proteins with conserved basic leucine zipper domains, subcellular localization, and electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that the transcription factor LjbZIP8 is a nuclear-localized protein that specifically binds to the G-box element of the LjPAL2 5′-UTR. Additionally, a transactivation assay and LjbZIP8 overexpression in transgenic tobacco indicated that LjbZIP8 could function as a repressor of transcription. Finally, treatment with 5-azacytidine decreased the transcription level of LjPAL2 and CGAs content in FLJ leaves. These results raise the possibility that DNA methylation might influence the recruitment of LjbZIP8, regulating PAL2 expression level and CGAs content in L. japonica. PMID:28740500
On the Pacific coast of North America two seagrass species in the genus Zostera co-exist; the native species Zostera marina, and an introduced species, Z. japonica. These two species typically occupy separate habitat niches, with Z. marina occupying the lower intertidal and shal...
Li, Yue-Song; Chen, Xin-Jun; Yang, Hong
By adopting FVCOM-simulated 3-D physical field and based on the biological processes of chub mackerel (Scomber japonicas) in its early life history from the individual-based biological model, the individual-based ecological model for S. japonicas at its early growth stages in the East China Sea was constructed through coupling the physical field in March-July with the biological model by the method of Lagrange particle tracking. The model constructed could well simulate the transport process and abundance distribution of S. japonicas eggs and larvae. The Taiwan Warm Current, Kuroshio, and Tsushima Strait Warm Current directly affected the transport process and distribution of the eggs and larvae, and indirectly affected the growth and survive of the eggs and larvae through the transport to the nursery grounds with different water temperature and foods. The spawning grounds in southern East China Sea made more contributions to the recruitment to the fishing grounds in northeast East China Sea, but less to the Yangtze estuary and Zhoushan Island. The northwestern and southwestern parts of spawning grounds had strong connectivity with the nursery grounds of Cheju and Tsushima Straits, whereas the northeastern and southeastern parts of the spawning ground had strong connectivity with the nursery grounds of Kyushu and Pacific Ocean.
This presentation describes a technique for mapping distributions of the nonindigenous Japanese eelgrass Zostera japonica in estuarine ecosystems of the Pacific Northwest. The relatively broad distribution of this intertidal plant, often on very soft substrate, makes classical g...
Zhang, Wujun; Wu, Longmei; Wu, Xiaoran; Ding, Yanfeng; Li, Ganghua; Li, Jingyong; Weng, Fei; Liu, Zhenghui; Tang, She; Ding, Chengqiang; Wang, Shaohua
Lodging in rice production often limits grain yield and quality by breaking or bending stems. Excessive nitrogen (N) fertilizer rates are the cause of poor lodging resistance in rice, but little is known about the effect of top-dressing N application rates on the mechanical strength of japonica rice plants, especially how the anatomical structure in culms is affected by N. In this study, field experiments on two japonica rice varieties with three top-dressing N application rates, 0 kg N ha(-1) (LN), 135 kg N ha(-1) (MN), and 270 kg N ha(-1) (HN) as urea, were conducted. Wuyunjing23, a lodging-resistant japonica rice cultivar and W3668, a lodging-susceptible japonica rice cultivar were used. The lodging index, breaking strength, morphological and anatomical traits in culms were measured in this study. The visual lodging rate in japonica rice differed remarkably between genotypes and top-dressing N treatments. The higher lodging index of rice plants was primarily attributed to the weak breaking strength of the lower internodes. The longer elongated basal internodes were responsible for higher plant height and a higher lodging index. Correlation analysis showed that breaking strength was significantly and positively correlated with the thickness of the mechanical tissue but was significantly and negatively correlated with the inner diameter of the major axis (b2). With increasing top-dressing N rates, the sclerenchyma cells of the mechanical tissues and the vascular bundles of the Wuyunjing23 cultivar varied little. The plant height, inner diameter of the minor axis (a2) and b2 increased significantly, but the area of the large vascular bundle (ALVB) and the area of the small vascular bundle (ASVB) decreased significantly and resulted in lower stem strength and a higher lodging index under higher top-dressing N conditions. The culm diameter of the W3668 cultivar increased slightly with no significant difference, and the sclerenchyma cells in the mechanical
Samita Limbu; Melody Keena; Fang Chen; Gericke Cook; Hannah Nadel; Kelli Hoover
Periodic introductions of the Asian subspecies of gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar asiatica Vnukovskij and Lymantria dispar japonica Motschulsky, in North America are threatening forests and interrupting foreign trade. Although Asian gypsy moth has similar morphology to that of European and North American gypsy moth, it has several...
Joo, Se-Jin; Park, Hee-Jung; Park, Ji-Hae; Cho, Jin-Gyeong; Kang, Ji-Hyun; Jeong, Tae-Sook; Kang, Hee Cheol; Lee, Dae-Young; Kim, Hack-Soo; Byun, Sang-Yo; Baek, Nam-In
Stems of Machilus japonica were extracted with 80% aqueous methanol (MeOH) and the concentrated extract was successively extracted with ethyl acetate (EtOAc), normal butanol (n-BuOH), and water. Six flavonoids were isolated from the EtOAc fraction: (+)-taxifolin, afzelin, (−)-epicatechin, 5,3'-di-O-methyl-(−)-epicatechin, 5,7,3'-tri-O-methyl-(−)-epicatechin, and 5,7-di-O-methyl-3',4'-methylenedioxyflavan-3-ol. The chemical structures were identified using spectroscopic data including NMR, mass spectrometry and infrared spectroscopy. This is the first report of isolation of these six compounds from M. japonica. The compounds were evaluated for their diphenyl picryl hydrazinyl scavenging activity and inhibitory effects on low-density lipoprotein oxidation. Compounds 1 and 3–6 exhibited DPPH antioxidant activity equivalent with that of ascorbic acid, with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 0.16, 0.21, 0.17, 0.15 and 0.07 mM, respectively. The activity of compound 1 was similar to the positive control butylated hydroxytoluene, which had an IC50 value of 1.9 µM, while compounds 3 and 5 showed little activity. Compounds 1, 3, and 5 exhibited LDL antioxidant activity with IC50 values of 2.8, 7.1, and 4.6 µM, respectively. PMID:25229822
Han, Yu; Li, Ao; Gao, Lili; Wu, Weiwei; Deng, Hongkuan; Hu, Wenjing; Li, Na; Sun, Shimin; Zhang, Xiufang; Zhao, Bosheng; Liu, Baohua; Pang, Qiuxiang
Phospholipid scramblases (PLSCRs) are the conserved calcium-binding, type II transmembrane proteins synthesized in all eukaryotic organisms. In mammals, these proteins play essential roles in various physiological processes, especially in the immune responses. However, the existence of PLSCRs and their biological functions in planarian are still unknown at present. In this study, a new member of PLSCRs was identified in planarian Dugesia japonica (D. japonica), named DjPLSCR. The sequence analysis revealed that it contains an opening reading frame consisting of 726bp encoding a putative protein of 241 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of ~28.7kDa and an isoelectric point of 6.21. Whole-mount in situ hybridization showed that mRNAs of DjPLSCR are predominantly expressed in adult and regenerative pharynx which is an important organ of immune system in planarians. Importantly, we found that the transcription level of DjPLSCR was significantly upregulated when planarians were stimulated with the pathogen-associated molecular patterns [polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid, lipopolysaccharide, peptidoglycan and β-glucan], suggesting that DjPLSCR is involved in the immune response upon pathogen invasion. Our findings provide the first experimental insights into the characteristics and potential functions of PLSCR in planarians. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Two-year old saplings grown from cuttings of Cryptomeria japonica D. Don initiate strobilus development following treatment with gibberellic acid under long-day photoperiods. At 25 degrees C with a 14-h photoperiod in a phytotron, male strobili initiated normally; however, they remained green and fell from the saplings prematurely. To examine the change in male strobilus development at the molecular level, three genes expressed specifically in male strobili were analyzed. Two were MADS box genes homologous to the B-function genes in angiosperms, CjMADS1 and CjMADS2, and the third was Cry j I, which encodes an allergen protein, and this gene is expressed mainly in microspores. Under phytotron growing conditions, the homeotic genes were expressed constantly, which reflected the extended early developmental stage of male strobili. On the other hand, Cry j I expression was detected after a long delay just before strobilus development ceased. These results indicate that the expression of the genes related to male reproductive development in C. japonica is regulated by a factor(s) that is sensitive to environmental signals.
Nykyri, Johanna; Mattinen, Laura; Niemi, Outi; Adhikari, Satish; Kõiv, Viia; Somervuo, Panu; Fang, Xin; Auvinen, Petri; Mäe, Andres; Palva, E. Tapio; Pirhonen, Minna
In this study, we characterized a putative Flp/Tad pilus-encoding gene cluster, and we examined its regulation at the transcriptional level and its role in the virulence of potato pathogenic enterobacteria of the genus Pectobacterium. The Flp/Tad pilus-encoding gene clusters in Pectobacterium atrosepticum, Pectobacterium wasabiae and Pectobacterium aroidearum were compared to previously characterized flp/tad gene clusters, including that of the well-studied Flp/Tad pilus model organism Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, in which this pilus is a major virulence determinant. Comparative analyses revealed substantial protein sequence similarity and open reading frame synteny between the previously characterized flp/tad gene clusters and the cluster in Pectobacterium, suggesting that the predicted flp/tad gene cluster in Pectobacterium encodes a Flp/Tad pilus-like structure. We detected genes for a novel two-component system adjacent to the flp/tad gene cluster in Pectobacterium, and mutant analysis demonstrated that this system has a positive effect on the transcription of selected Flp/Tad pilus biogenesis genes, suggesting that this response regulator regulate the flp/tad gene cluster. Mutagenesis of either the predicted regulator gene or selected Flp/Tad pilus biogenesis genes had a significant impact on the maceration ability of the bacterial strains in potato tubers, indicating that the Flp/Tad pilus-encoding gene cluster represents a novel virulence determinant in Pectobacterium. Soft-rot enterobacteria in the genera Pectobacterium and Dickeya are of great agricultural importance, and an investigation of the virulence of these pathogens could facilitate improvements in agricultural practices, thus benefiting farmers, the potato industry and consumers. PMID:24040039
Nykyri, Johanna; Mattinen, Laura; Niemi, Outi; Adhikari, Satish; Kõiv, Viia; Somervuo, Panu; Fang, Xin; Auvinen, Petri; Mäe, Andres; Palva, E Tapio; Pirhonen, Minna
In this study, we characterized a putative Flp/Tad pilus-encoding gene cluster, and we examined its regulation at the transcriptional level and its role in the virulence of potato pathogenic enterobacteria of the genus Pectobacterium. The Flp/Tad pilus-encoding gene clusters in Pectobacterium atrosepticum, Pectobacterium wasabiae and Pectobacterium aroidearum were compared to previously characterized flp/tad gene clusters, including that of the well-studied Flp/Tad pilus model organism Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, in which this pilus is a major virulence determinant. Comparative analyses revealed substantial protein sequence similarity and open reading frame synteny between the previously characterized flp/tad gene clusters and the cluster in Pectobacterium, suggesting that the predicted flp/tad gene cluster in Pectobacterium encodes a Flp/Tad pilus-like structure. We detected genes for a novel two-component system adjacent to the flp/tad gene cluster in Pectobacterium, and mutant analysis demonstrated that this system has a positive effect on the transcription of selected Flp/Tad pilus biogenesis genes, suggesting that this response regulator regulate the flp/tad gene cluster. Mutagenesis of either the predicted regulator gene or selected Flp/Tad pilus biogenesis genes had a significant impact on the maceration ability of the bacterial strains in potato tubers, indicating that the Flp/Tad pilus-encoding gene cluster represents a novel virulence determinant in Pectobacterium. Soft-rot enterobacteria in the genera Pectobacterium and Dickeya are of great agricultural importance, and an investigation of the virulence of these pathogens could facilitate improvements in agricultural practices, thus benefiting farmers, the potato industry and consumers.
Kim, Jin; Park, Chang-Shin; Lim, Yunsook; Kim, Hyun-Sook
Natural products are increasingly recognized as potential targets for drug discovery and development. We previously reported that Paeonia japonica, Houttuynia cordata, and Aster scaber enhanced macrophage activation both in vitro and in vivo. In the present study we investigated the immunomodulating effects of these plants on lipopolysacharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages. An aqueous extract of each plant was administered to female BALB/c mice every other day for 4 weeks. Peritoneal macrophages were then collected and incubated to examine the immunoreactivity of macrophages against LPS at different time points. The expression levels of inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthetase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, and inhibitory factor kappaB alpha (IkappaBalpha) proteins and the production of NO metabolite (nitrite), prostaglandin (PG) E(2), and the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha were determined in the activated macrophages treated with extracts from each plant individually or combined. High levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines were produced by A. scaber-, P. japonica-, and H. cordata-treated macrophages following 24 hours of LPS stimulation. P. japonica, H. cordata, and A. scaber treatment also induced the production of nitrate by LPS-treated macrophages. Induction of iNOS mRNA and protein was also different in each group. PGE(2) secretion was up-regulated by all extract-treated macrophages at early time points; however, no significant differences were observed between the groups by 8 hours post-LPS stimulation. Treatment with A. scaber extract resulted in the highest levels of IkappaBalpha degradation. Our findings illustrate that the natural plant products P. japonica, H. cordata, and A. scaber may enhance immune function by modulating ex vivo pro-inflammatory cytokine and NO production as well as the expression of iNOS and COX-2.
Wang, Chuan-Hua; Wang, Ming; Jia, Rao-Zhen; Guo, Hua
In this study, effects of nitrogen (N) availability on growth, survival of Ramalina calicaris var. japonica , and whether it respond nitrogen stress in an integrated physiological way was evaluated. Thalli growth and propagule survival, thalli N and phosphorus (P) content, and activity of phosphomonoesterase (PME) of R. calicaris var. japonica were determined in a field experiment. Its differentiate adsorption in ammonia and nitrate, the activity of glutamine synthetase (GSA) and nitrate reductase (NRA) also were investigated in a series of indoor experiments. The results showed that N deposition significantly decreased the growth and survival of this lichen, and the N sensitivity threshold was suggested at 6.0 kg N⋅ha -1 ⋅y -1 . When the N deposition increased from 8.59 kg N⋅ha -1 ⋅y -1 to 14.24, 20.49, 32.99 and 57.99 kg N⋅ha -1 ⋅y -1 , the growth rates of lichen thalli decreased by 26.47, 39.01, 52.18 and 60.3%, respectively; Whereas the survival rate of the lichen propagules decreased from 92.8% of control (0.0 kg N⋅ha -1 ⋅y -1 ) to 10.7% of 50.0 kg N⋅ha -1 ⋅y -1 , when they were treated with 0.00, 6.25, 12.5, 25.0, and 50.0 kg N⋅ha -1 ⋅y -1 deposition. Compared with an adequate adsorption of ammonium N, no nitrate adsorption occurred when thalli was submerged in solution lower than 0.4 mM. Our results also suggested that thalli total nitrogen, N:P ratio increased with N availability, and the activity of PME was significantly correlated with thalli total nitrogen. These all indicated that phosphorus limitation occurred when R. calicaris var. japonica treated with higher nitrogen deposition. Compared with slightly effects of NRA, GSA of R. calicaris var. japonica responded nitrogen availability significantly; In addition, GSA and NRA negatively correlated with thalli growth rate and propagule survival significantly. These results indicated that nitrogen stress do decrease growth and survival of R. calicaris var. japonica , and lichen
Jiang, Qiu-Yun; Zhuo, Feng; Long, Shi-Hui; Zhao, Hai-Di; Yang, Dan-Jing; Ye, Zhi-Hong; Li, Shao-Shan; Jing, Yuan-Xiao
A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to study the impact of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi-Glomus versiforme (Gv) and Rhizophagus intraradices (Ri) on the growth, Cd uptake, antioxidant indices [glutathione reductase (GR), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate (ASA), glutathione (GSH) and malonaldehyde (MDA)] and phytochelatins (PCs) production of Lonicera japonica in Cd-amended soils. Gv and Ri significantly increased P acquisition, biomass of shoots and roots at all Cd treatments. Gv significantly decreased Cd concentrations in shoots and roots, and Ri also obviously reduced Cd concentrations in shoots but increased Cd concentrations in roots. Meanwhile, activities of CAT, APX and GR, and contents of ASA and PCs were remarkably higher in Gv/Ri-inoculated plants than those of uninoculated plants, but lower MDA and GSH contents in Gv/Ri-inoculated plants were found. In conclusion, Gv and Ri symbiosis alleviated Cd toxicity of L. japonica through the decline of shoot Cd concentrations and the improvement of P nutrition, PCs content and activities of GR, CAT, APX in inoculated plants, and then improved plant growth. The decrease of shoot Cd concentrations in L. japonica inoculated with Gv/Ri would provide a clue for safe production of this plant from Cd-contaminated soils.
Wilson, Clyde; Zeng, Linghe; Ismail, Abdelbagi M.; Condamine, Pascal; Close, Timothy J.
Rice yield is most sensitive to salinity stress imposed during the panicle initiation (PI) stage. In this study, we have focused on physiological and transcriptional responses of four rice genotypes exposed to salinity stress during PI. The genotypes selected included a pair of indicas (IR63731 and IR29) and a pair of japonica (Agami and M103) rice subspecies with contrasting salt tolerance. Physiological characterization showed that tolerant genotypes maintained a much lower shoot Na+ concentration relative to sensitive genotypes under salinity stress. Global gene expression analysis revealed a strikingly large number of genes which are induced by salinity stress in sensitive genotypes, IR29 and M103 relative to tolerant lines. We found 19 probe sets to be commonly induced in all four genotypes. We found several salinity modulated, ion homeostasis related genes from our analysis. We also studied the expression of SKC1, a cation transporter reported by others as a major source of variation in salt tolerance in rice. The transcript abundance of SKC1 did not change in response to salinity stress at PI stage in the shoot tissue of all four genotypes. However, we found the transcript abundance of SKC1 to be significantly higher in tolerant japonica Agami relative to sensitive japonica M103 under control and stressed conditions during PI stage. Electronic supplementary material Supplementary material is available in the online version of this article at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11103-006-9112-0 and is accessible for authorized users. PMID:17160619
Kimura, Megumi K.; Uchiyama, Kentaro; Nakao, Katsuhiro; Moriguchi, Yoshinari; San Jose-Maldia, Lerma; Tsumura, Yoshihiko
Background and Aims Distribution shifts and natural selection during past climatic changes are important factors in determining the genetic structure of forest species. In particular, climatic fluctuations during the Quaternary appear to have caused changes in the distribution ranges of plants, and thus strongly affected their genetic structure. This study was undertaken to identify the responses of the conifer Cryptomeria japonica, endemic to the Japanese Archipelago, to past climatic changes using a combination of phylogeography and species distribution modelling (SDM) methods. Specifically, this study focused on the locations of refugia during the last glacial maximum (LGM). Methods Genetic diversity and structure were examined using 20 microsatellite markers in 37 populations of C. japonica. The locations of glacial refugia were assessed using STRUCTURE analysis, and potential habitats under current and past climate conditions were predicted using SDM. The process of genetic divergence was also examined using the approximate Bayesian computation procedure (ABC) in DIY ABC to test the divergence time between the gene pools detected by the STRUCTURE analysis. Key Results STRUCTURE analysis identified four gene pools: northern Tohoku district; from Chubu to Chugoku district; from Tohoku to Shikoku district on the Pacific Ocean side of the Archipelago; and Yakushima Island. DIY ABC analysis indicated that the four gene pools diverged at the same time before the LGM. SDM also indicated potential northern cryptic refugia. Conclusions The combined evidence from microsatellites and SDM clearly indicates that climatic changes have shaped the genetic structure of C. japonica. The gene pool detected in northern Tohoku district is likely to have been established by cryptic northern refugia on the coast of the Japan Sea to the west of the Archipelago. The gene pool in Yakushima Island can probably be explained simply by long-term isolation from the other gene pools since
Zhang, YiChen; Jiang, Peng; Gao, JiangTao; Liao, JianMin; Sun, ShiJing; Shen, ZiLong; Qin, Song
The life cycle of seaweed Laminaria japonica involves a generation alternation between diploid sporophyte and haploid gametophte. The expression of foreign genes in sporophte has been proved. In this research, the recombinant expression in gametophyte was investigated by particle bombardment with the rt-PA gene encoding the recombinant human tissue-type plasminogen activator (Reteplase), which is a thrombolytic agent for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Transgenic gametophytes were selected by their resistance to herbicide phosphiothricin (PPT), and proliferated in an established bubble column photo-bioreactor. According to the results from quantitative ELISA, Southern blotting, and fibrin agarose plate assay (FAPA) for bioactivity, it was showed that the rt-PA gene had been integrated into the genome of gametophytes of L. japonica, and the expression product showed the expected bioactivity, implying the proper post-transcript modification in haploid gametophyte.
Seagrasses can colonize unstructured mudflats either through clonal growth or seed germination and survival. Zostera japonica is an introduced seagrass in North America that has rapidly colonized mudflats along the Pacific Coast, leading to active management of the species. Gro...
He, Zhizhou; Chen, Yongshun; Chen, Yongheng; Liu, Haohuai; Yuan, Guanfu; Fan, Yaming; Chen, Kun
The use of a microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) method for the extraction of phlorotannins from Saccharina japonica Aresch ( S. japonica) has been evaluated with particular emphasis on the influential parameters, including the ethanol concentration, solid/liquid ratio, extraction time, extraction temperature, and microwave power. The MAE procedure was optimized using single-factor design and orthogonal array design (OAD). The content of total phlorotannins in S. japonica was determined using a Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) assay. A maximum total phlorotannin content of 0.644 mg of phloroglucinol equivalent per gram of dry weight plant (mg PGE/g DW) was obtained using the optimized model, which included an ethanol concentration of 55%, solid/liquid ratio of 1:8, extraction time of 25 min, irradiation power of 400 W, and temperature of 60°C. Under similar conditions, the application of a conventional extraction method led to a lower phlorotannin yield of 0.585 mg PGE/g WD. These results demonstrated that the MAE approach provided better results for the extraction of phlorotannins from S. japonica and was a promising technique for the extraction of phenolic compounds from S. japonica and other materials. In addition, screening tests for the inhibitory activity showed that the phlorotannin-containing extracts significantly inhibited the growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2) by inducing their apoptosis. The morphological changes that occurred during cell apoptosis were characterized using Hoechst33258 staining.
Chen, Jih-Jung; Kuo, Wen-Lung; Chen, Ih-Sheng; Peng, Chien-Fang; Sung, Ping-Jyun; Cheng, Ming-Jen; Lim, Yun-Ping
A new dihydroagarofuran-based sesquiterpene, microjaponin (1), was isolated from the stem of Microtropis japonica. Its structure was determined by in-depth spectroscopic and mass-spectrometric analyses. Microjaponin (1) exhibited potent in vitro antituberculosis activity, with an MIC value of 12.5 μg/ml against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37 Rv. Copyright © 2014 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.
Hwang, Byulnim; An, Yang; Agata, Kiyokazu; Umesono, Yoshihiko
Adult planarians possess somatic pluripotent stem cells called neoblasts that give rise to all missing cell types during regeneration and homeostasis. Recent studies revealed that the Yorkie (Yki)/Yes-associated protein (YAP) transcriptional coactivator family plays an important role in the regulation of tissue growth during development and regeneration, and therefore we investigated the role of a planarian yki-related gene (termed Djyki) during regeneration and homeostasis of the freshwater planarian Dugesia japonica. We found that knockdown of the function of Djyki by RNA interference (RNAi) downregulated neoblast proliferation and caused regeneration defects after amputation. In addition, Djyki RNAi caused edema during homeostasis. These seemingly distinct defects induced by Djyki RNAi were rescued by simultaneous RNAi of a planarian mats-related gene (termed Djmats), suggesting an important role of Djmats in the negative regulation of Djyki, in accordance with the conservation of the functional relationship of these two genes during the course of evolution. Interestingly, Djyki RNAi did not prevent normal protonephridial structure, suggesting that Djyki RNAi induced the edema phenotype without affecting the excretory system. Further analyses revealed that increased expression of the D. japonica gene DjaquaporinA (DjaqpA), which belongs to a large gene family that encodes a water channel protein for the regulation of transcellular water flow, promoted the induction of edema, but not defects in neoblast dynamics, in Djyki(RNAi) animals. Thus, we conclude that Djyki plays two distinct roles in the regulation of active proliferation of stem cells and in osmotic water transport across the body surface in D. japonica. © 2015 The Authors Development, Growth & Differentiation published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.
Terazawa, Saori; Uemura, Yuka; Koyama, Yuka; Kawakami, Susumu; Sugimoto, Sachiko; Matsunami, Katsuyoshi; Otsuka, Hideaki; Shinzato, Takakazu; Kawahata, Masatoshi; Yamaguchi, Kentaro
Microtropins Q-W, (2S,3R)-2-ethyl-2,3-dihydroxybutyrate of various glucosides and glucose, as well as three ent-labdane diterpenoid glucosides, named microtropiosides G, H and I, an ursane-type triterpene diglucoside and a flavonoid glycoside were isolated from the MeOH extract of the leaves of Microtropis japonica. The structure of microtropioside A, also isolated from the branches of M. japonica, was elucidated spectroscopically in a previous experiment and was found to possess a rare seven-membered oxyrane ring. Its structure was confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis of its pentaacetate.
Zhou, Jun; Bi, Wentao; Row, Kyung Ho
An effective and accurate method including extraction, saponification, and separation was developed to determine astaxanthin (AX) in Saccharina japonica. The optimal extraction conditions with different solvents were investigated. 29.30 μg/g of AX was extracted from dry Saccharina japonica powder by solvent. After subsequent saponification, the extracted amount of AX was increased to 37.26 μg/g. Furthermore, 3 different ionic liquid-based silicas were prepared as sorbents for the solid phase extraction of AX from the extract. By comparing the adsorption isotherms of AX on different ionic liquid-based silicas, suitable sorbent was successfully selected and applied for separation of AX from extract. Astaxanthin, in 3 main forms (free, monoesters, and diesters), can be obtained from marine plants and animals. By extraction with subsequent saponification, the astaxanthin was extracted from Saccharina japonica. And then, ionic liquid-based silicas were used to separate the astaxanthin from the extract solution. This method can be widely applied for determination, or even industrial separation and purification of astaxanthin from many other algae.
Seo, Hun-Su; Kim, Kyoung Hee; Kim, Dae-Yong; Park, Bong-Kyun; Shin, Nam-Shik; Kim, Jae-Hoon; Youn, Heejeong
We analyzed alcoholic extracts of herbs possessing anti-neosporal activity against Neospora (N.) caninum. To identify the chemical components of Sophora (S.) flavescens and Torilis (T.) japonica associated with anti-neosporal activity, specific fractions were isolated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In vitro activity of the fractions against N. caninum was then assessed. Gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to identify and quantify specific anti-neosporal molecules in the herbal extracts. Almost all HPLC fractions of S. flavescens and T. japonica had higher levels of anti-neosporal activity compared to the not treated control. Active constituents of the extracts were sophoridane, furosardonin A, and tetraisopropylidene-cyclobutane in S. flavescens; 5,17-β-dihydroxy-de-A-estra-5,7,9,14-tetraene, furanodiene, and 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z)-(CAS,1) in T. japonica.
Seo, Hun-Su; Kim, Kyoung Hee; Kim, Dae-Yong; Park, Bong-Kyun; Shin, Nam-Shik; Kim, Jae-Hoon
We analyzed alcoholic extracts of herbs possessing anti-neosporal activity against Neospora (N.) caninum. To identify the chemical components of Sophora (S.) flavescens and Torilis (T.) japonica associated with anti-neosporal activity, specific fractions were isolated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In vitro activity of the fractions against N. caninum was then assessed. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to identify and quantify specific anti-neosporal molecules in the herbal extracts. Almost all HPLC fractions of S. flavescens and T. japonica had higher levels of anti-neosporal activity compared to the not treated control. Active constituents of the extracts were sophoridane, furosardonin A, and tetraisopropylidene-cyclobutane in S. flavescens; 5,17-β-dihydroxy-de-A-estra-5,7,9,14-tetraene, furanodiene, and 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z)-(CAS,1) in T. japonica. PMID:23820198
Gao, Xueke; Luo, Junyu; Lü, Limin; Zhang, LiJuan; Zhang, Shuai; Cui, Jinjie
Lipids play an important role in energy storage, membrane structure stabilization and signaling. Parasitoids are excellent models to study lipidomics because a majority of them do not accumulate during their free-living life-stage. Studies on parasitoids have mostly focused on the changes in the lipids and gene transcripts in hosts and little attention has been devoted to lipidomics and transcriptomics changes in parasitoids. In this study, a relative quantitative analysis of lipids and their gene transcripts in 3-days-old Lysiphlebia japonica larva (3 days after spawning) and pupae were performed using liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry and RNA-seq. Thirty-three glycerolipids and 250 glycerophospholipids were identified in this study; all triglycerides and the vast majority of phospholipids accumulated in the pupal stage. This was accompanied by differentially regulated lipid uptake and remolding. Furthermore, our data showed that gene transcription was up-regulated in key nutrient metabolic pathways involved in lipid synthesis in 3-days-old larvae. Finally, our data suggests that larva and pupa of L. japonica may lack the ability for fatty acids synthesis. A comprehensive, quantitative, and expandable resource was provided for further studies of metabolic regulation and molecular mechanisms underlying parasitic response to hosts defense.
Aging induces a decrease in bone mass, and osteoporosis with its accompanying decrease in bone mass is widely recognized as a major public health problem. Bone loss with increasing age may be due to decreased bone formation and increased bone resorption. Pharmacologic and nutritional factors may prevent bone loss with aging, although chemical compounds in food and plants which act on bone metabolism are poorly understood. We have found that isoflavones (including genistein and daidzein), which are contained in soybeans, have a stimulatory effect on osteoblastic bone formation and an inhibitory effect on osteoclastic bone resorption, thereby increasing bone mass. Menaquinone-7, an analogue of vitamin K(2) which is abundant in fermented soybeans, has been demonstrated to stimulate osteoblastic bone formation and to inhibit osteoclastic bone resorption. Of various carotenoids, beta-cryptoxanthin, which is abundant in Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unchiu MARC), has a stimulatory effect on osteoblastic bone formation and an inhibitory effect on osteoclastic bone resorption. The supplementation of these factors has a preventive effect on bone loss induced by ovariectomy in rats, which are an animal model of osteoporosis, and their intake has been shown to have a stimulatory effect on bone mass in humans. Factors with an anabolic effect on bone metabolism were found in extracts obtained from wasabi leafstalk (Wasabi japonica MATSUM), the marine alga Sargassum horneri, and bee pollen Cistus ladaniferus. Phytocomponent p-hydroxycinnamic acid was also found to have an anabolic effect on bone metabolism. Food chemical factors thus play a role in bone health and may be important in the prevention of bone loss with increasing age.
Fan, Mingyu; Wang, Xiaojing; Sun, Jian; Zhang, Qun; Xu, Zhengjin; Xu, Quan
Amylopectin is one of the major determinants of rice (Oryza sativa L.) grain quality, and a large difference in amylopectin is found between two subspecies: japonica and indica. However, the relationship among rice grain quality, indica/japonica genetic background, and amylopectin has not been clearly established. In this study, a series of backcross inbred lines derived from the cross between japonica (cv. Sasanishiki) and indica (cv. Habataki) were used to survey eating and cooking quality (ECQ), rapid visco analyzer (RVA) profiles, and the chain length distribution of amylopectin. The frequency of indica pedigree (Fi) was calculated to analyze the effects of Fi on grain quality and amylopectin. The results showed that the Sasanishiki cultivar was markedly enriched in chain length with DP6-15 and DP34-45 compared to the Habataki. DP34-45 strongly correlated to RVA characteristics, cooking quality, and prolamin content. The Fi also has significant correlations to RVA characteristics and ECQ, but only significantly negative correlation to DP34-45. Seven quantitative trait loci (QTLs) corresponding to amylopectin were mapped, of which three were in agreement with previous findings. The results of this study provide valuable information for amylopectin characteristics in the offspring derived from the subspecies cross, and the novel QTLs may provide new insights to the identification of minor starch synthesis-related genes. PMID:29398938
Hou, De-Xing; Korenori, Yoshimi; Tanigawa, Shunsuke; Yamada-Kato, Tomoe; Nagai, Masashi; He, Xi; He, Jianhua
6-(Methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate (6-MSITC) is a bioactive ingredient present in wasabi, a popular pungent spice in Japan. Previous studies have revealed the cytoprotective and cancer chemopreventive effects of 6-MSITC. This study aims to clarify the molecular mechanisms by investigating the action of 6-MSITC on the Nrf2/Keap1 system. 6-MSITC up-regulated the expression of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) by increasing the Nrf2 level. Treatment with 6-MSITC extended the half-life (t(1/2)) of Nrf2 protein from 11.5 to 35.2 min, approximately three times longer. Moreover, 6-MSITC suppressed the ubiquitination of Nrf2 but not Keap1. Alternatively, a modified Keap1 was observed in 6-MSITC-treated cells accompanying reduction of normal Keap1 protein. The results from cellular fractionation and immunocytochemistry assay revealed that Nrf2 was primarily accumulated in nucleus. EMSA and the reporter gene assay further demonstrated that 6-MSITC augmented Nrf2-ARE binding and transcription activity. Silencing Nrf2 using Nrf2 siRNA markedly reduced the Nrf2 level and ARE-driven activity under both baseline and 6-MSITC-induced conditions. Our data revealed that 6-MSITC enhanced Nrf2/ARE-driven NQO1 expression by stabilizing Nrf2 that was accomplished by modifying Keap1 with consequent inhibition of the ubiquitination and proteasomal turnover of Nrf2. The findings provide an insight into the mechanisms underlying 6-MSITC in cytoprotection and cancer chemoprevention.
Zhao, Yueran; Dou, Deqiang; Guo, Yueqiu; Qi, Yue; Li, Jun; Jia, Dong
Thirteen trace elements and active constituents of 40 batches of Lonicera japonica flos and Lonicera flos were comparatively studied using inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry (ICP-MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array (HPLC-PDA). The trace elements were 24 Mg, 52 Cr, 55 Mn, 57 Fe, 60 Ni, 63 Cu, 66 Zn, 75 As, 82 Se, 98 Mo, 114 Cd, 202 Hg, and 208 Pb, and the active compounds were chlorogenic acid, 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinc acid, 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinc acid, luteolin-7-O-glucoside, and 4-O-caffeoylquinic acid. The data of 18 variables were statistically processed using principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminate analysis (DA) to classify L. japonica flos and L. flos. The validated method was developed to divide the 40 samples into two groups based on the PCA in terms of 18 variables. Furthermore, the species of Lonicera was better discriminated by using DA with 12 variables. These results suggest that the method and statistical analysis of the contents of trace elements and chemical components can classify the L. japonica flos and L. flos using 12 variables, such as 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquincacid, luteolin-7-O-glucoside, Cd, Mn, Hg, Pb, Ni, 4-O-caffeoyl-quinic acid, 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinc acid, Fe, Mg, and Cr.
We developed a spatially-explicit, flexible 3-parameter habitat suitability model that can be used to identify and predict areas at higher risk for non-native dwarf eelgrass (Zostera japonica) invasion. The model uses simple environmental parameters (depth, nearshore slope, and s...
Yan, Feiwei; Hao, Haitao
Polysaccharides are the major active ingredients responsible for the bioactivities of Laminaria japonica. However, the effects of L. japonica polysaccharides (LJP) on exercise endurance and oxidative stress have never been investigated. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of LJP on exercise endurance and oxidative stress in a forced swimming mouse model. The animals were divided into four groups, namely the control (C), LJP-75, LJP-150, and LJP-300 groups, which received physiological saline and 75, 150, and 300 mg kg(-1) LJP, respectively, by gavage once a day for 28 days. This was followed by a forced swimming test and measurements of various biochemical parameters. LJP increased swimming time to exhaustion, the liver and muscle glycogen content, and levels of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase in the serum, liver, and muscle, which were accompanied by corresponding decreases in the malondialdehyde (MDA) content of the same tissues. Furthermore, decreases in blood lactic acid and serum myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels were observed. LJP enhanced exercise endurance and protected mice against exhaustive exercise-induced oxidative stress.
Li, Xiaojie; Zhang, Zhuangzhi; Qu, Shancun; Liang, Guangjin; Sun, Juan; Zhao, Nan; Cui, Cuiju; Cao, Zengmei; Li, Yan; Pan, Jinhua; Yu, Shenhui; Wang, Qingyan; Li, Xia; Luo, Shiju; Song, Shaofeng; Guo, Li; Yang, Guanpin
Dongfang no.7 (Saccharina japonica) was bred and maintained by hybridizing gametophytes, self-crossing the best individuals, selecting the best self-crossing line and seedling-raising from yearly reconstructed sporophytes. It increased the air dry yield by 43.2% in average over 2 widely farmed controls. Dongfang no.7 was seedling-raised from bulked sporophytes reconstructed from its representative gametophyte clones. Such strategy ensured it against variety contamination due to possible cross fertilization and occasional mixing and inbred depletion due to self-crossing number-limited sporophytes year after year. It derived from an intraspecific hybrid through 4 rounds of self-crossing and selection and retained a certain degree of genetic heterozygosity, thus being immune to inbred depletion due to purification of unknown detrimental alleles. Most importantly, it can be farmed in currently available system as the seedlings for large scale culture can be raised from reconstructed Dongfang no.7 sporophytes. Breeding and maintaining Dongfang no.7 provided a model that other varieties of kelp (S. japonica) and brown algae may follow during their domestication. PMID:26887644
Kim, Jong-Hyeob; Kim, Seung Hyeon; Kim, Young Kyun; Lee, Kun-Seop
Seagrasses require a large amount of nutrient assimilation to support high levels of production, and thus nutrient limitation for growth often occurs in seagrass habitats. Seagrasses can take up nutrients from both the water column and sediments. However, since seagrasses inhabiting in the intertidal zones are exposed to the air during low tide, the intertidal species may exhibit significantly different carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) dynamics compared to the subtidal species. To examine C and N dynamics of the intertidal seagrass, Zostera japonica, C and N content and stable isotope ratios of above- and below-ground tissues were measured monthly at the three intertidal zones in Koje Bay on the southern coast of Korea. The C and N content and stable isotope (δ13C and δ15N) ratios of seagrass tissues exhibited significant seasonal variations. Both leaf and rhizome C content were not significantly correlated with productivity. Leaf δ13C values usually exhibited negative correlations with leaf productivity. These results of tissue C content and δ13C values suggest that photosynthesis of Z. japonica in the study site was not limited by inorganic C supply, and sufficient inorganic C was provided from the atmosphere. The tissue N content usually exhibited negative correlations with leaf productivity except at the upper intertidal zone, suggesting that Z. japonica growth was probably limited by N availability during high growing season. In the upper intertidal zone, no correlations between leaf productivity and tissue elemental content and stable isotope ratios were observed due to the severely suppressed growth caused by strong desiccation stress.
Wang, Xi-Hua; Qin, Song; Li, Xin-Ping; Jiang, Peng; Zeng, Cheng-Kui; Qin, Mei
Four media (PESI solid, MS liquid, MS solid and ASP-C-I solid medium) were used to induce callus from excised tissues of the kelp Laminaria japonica. Only PESI solid medium and MS solid medium produced calli. Modified MS solid medium supplemented with mannitol (3%,W/V), yeast extract (0.1%, W/V), VB2 (0.5 mg/ml), VB12 (0.5 mg/ml), kinetin (0.108 μg/ml) and NAA (1.860μg/ml) showed much better effect on callus induction than non-modified MS solid medium. After 24 days of induction 75.5% of tissues in PESI solid medium showed callus formation. For modified MS solid medium, after three months of induction 67.3% of tissues dedifferentiated into calli. No callus could be found after five months of induction in either MS liquid or ASP-C-I solid medium. When calli were squashed and cultured in N-P enriched autoclaved seawater, MS liquid medium and ASP12-NTA liquid medium (both modified with kelp extract), differentiation of cells and regeneration of sporophytes were only observed in ASP12-NTA medium supplemented with kelp extract. Gametophyte-like filaments formed first, then eggs were released. It was suggested that sporophyte formation could be a process of parthenogenesis. Sterilization techniques in tissue culture of L. japonica were also tested in this study.
[Pediatric pneumonia, pleural effusion, and pericarditis following cat scratch disease and serological cross-reactions among Bartonella henselae and Rickettsia japonica determined by indirect fluorescence antibodies].
Takeda, Nobue; Ishiwada, Naruhiko; Fukasawa, Chie; Furuya, Yumiko; Tsuneoka, Hidehiro; Tsukahara, Masato; Kohno, Yoichi
Cat scratch disease is associated with a variety of systemic manifestations. We report a pediatric case associated with pneumonia, pleural effusion, and pericarditis. A 3-year-old boy developed prolonged fever unresponsive to antibiotic treatment, including azithromycin and minocycline. Although the fever resolved with corticosteroid treatment, Bartonella henselae IgG titer was positive in indirect fluorescence antibodies, as was Rickettsia japonica IgG titer. Both titers were significantly reduced by serum absorption with B. henselae antigens, and we observed a serological cross-reaction between B. henselae and R. japonica.
Gisbert, A D; Lopez-Capuz, I; Soriano, J M; Llacer, G; Romero, C; Badenes, M L
Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) is a minor fruit which has become an interesting alternative into the European fruit industry. This interest resulted in a loquat germplasm collection established at the Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Agrarias, Valencia, Spain. Currently, it is the main reservoir of this species outside Asia. We developed and characterized the first 21 polymorphic microsatellite loci from a CT/AG-enriched loquat genomic library. The observed heterozygosity ranged between 0.20 and 1.00, expected heterozygosity ranged between 0.17 and 0.81, three markers were multilocus and eight loci departed significantly from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. These markers will facilitate diversity and genetic studies into the species. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Nomura, Takahiro; Shinoda, Shoko; Yamori, Takao; Sawaki, Saeko; Nagata, Ikuko; Ryoyama, Kazuo; Fuke, Yoko
Recently, attention has focused on the anticancer properties of an aromatic component 6-(methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate (6-MITC) in a typical Japanese spice, wasabi. In this paper, anticancer activity of 6-MITC in vitro was studied by using a human cancer cell (HCC) panel. 6-MITC directly affected the cells in the HCC panel and inhibited their growth in culture. The mean concentration required to inhibit 50% of control cell growth was 3.9 microM, which is a sufficiently low dosage for practical use. The suppression influenced not only the cell growth, but also the survival of these cells. The mean concentration to suppress cells to a 50% survival was 43.7 microM. The reduction activity of 6-MITC was differential, and it suppressed specific cells. These severely suppressed cell lines included breast cancer and melanoma cell lines. For example, one melanoma line was seriously damaged at a concentration of 0.3 microM of 6-MITC. Compared with other MITCs (2-MITC, 4-MITC and 8-MITC), 6-MITC showed the most effective suppression and with the most specific manner of the cells mentioned above. A "COMPARE" analysis using a computerized algorithm, which was based on the HCC database, suggested that the suppression mechanism of 6-MITC is unique and may be different from that of other known chemicals. The actual mechanism may not a simple one but may involve multiple pathways. On account of its sufficiently small size, 6-MITC is a new possible candidate for controlling cancer cells.
Pollinosis to airborne pollen grains is a severe problem that concerns the whole world. Almost spring allergies in Japan are caused by pollen grains of Japan cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) during the period of pollination from February to May. One of the key technologies in a pollen monitoring and forecast system is a pollen sensor. The pollen grain of Japan cedar is identified by introducing the degree of polarization to the optical sensor based on the scattered intensity. The detectability and discriminability in identifying the pollen grains of Japan cedar from the polystyrene spherical particles and the Kanto loam grains are achieved up to 95 and 86%, respectively.
The non-indigenous seagrass Zostera japonica Ascher. & Graeb. (dwarf eelgrass) was first identified in central Oregon (USA) estuaries about 30 years ago. The autecology of this species is poorly described at the southern end of its non-native range although several process orien...
KUNO, TOSHIYA; HIROSE, YOSHINOBU; YAMADA, YASUHIRO; IMAIDA, KATSUMI; TATEMATSU, KENJIRO; MORI, YUKIO; MORI, HIDEKI
The preventive effects of dietary exposure to a wasabi derivative 6-methylsulfinylhexyl isothiocyanate (6-MSITC) during the initiation and post-initiation phases on the development of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF), and β-catenin-accumulated crypts (BCAC) were investigated in male F344 rats. To induce ACF and BCAC, rats were given four weekly subcutaneous injections of DMH (40 mg/kg body weight). The rats also received diets containing 200 or 400 ppm 6-MSITC during the initiation or post-initiation phases. The experiment was terminated 12 weeks after the start. DMH exposure produced a substantial number of ACF (323.8±69.7/colon) and BCAC (3.80±1.05/cm2) at the end of the study. Dietary administration of 6-MSITC at a dose of 400 ppm during the initiation phase caused a significant reduction in the total number of ACF (52% reduction, P<0.0001), larger ACF (4 or more crypt ACF) (58% reduction, P<0.001) and BCAC (76% reduction, P<0.00001). The dietary exposure to 6-MSITC significantly reduced the size (crypt multiplicity) of BCAC during both initiation and post-initiation treatment when compared to group 1 treated with DMH alone. Immunohistochemically, 6-MSITC administration lowered the proliferating cell nuclear antigen labeling index in ACF and BCAC. In addition, protein levels of hepatic cytochrome P-450 isozymes at 24 h after 6-MSITC exposure were significantly suppressed (P<0.01). The results indicated that 6-MSITC exerted chemopreventive effects in the present short-term colon carcinogenesis bioassay, through alterations in cell proliferation activity and drug metabolizing enzyme levels. PMID:22966293
Kuno, Toshiya; Hirose, Yoshinobu; Yamada, Yasuhiro; Imaida, Katsumi; Tatematsu, Kenjiro; Mori, Yukio; Mori, Hideki
The preventive effects of dietary exposure to a wasabi derivative 6-methylsulfinylhexyl isothiocyanate (6-MSITC) during the initiation and post-initiation phases on the development of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF), and β-catenin-accumulated crypts (BCAC) were investigated in male F344 rats. To induce ACF and BCAC, rats were given four weekly subcutaneous injections of DMH (40 mg/kg body weight). The rats also received diets containing 200 or 400 ppm 6-MSITC during the initiation or post-initiation phases. The experiment was terminated 12 weeks after the start. DMH exposure produced a substantial number of ACF (323.8±69.7/colon) and BCAC (3.80±1.05/cm(2)) at the end of the study. Dietary administration of 6-MSITC at a dose of 400 ppm during the initiation phase caused a significant reduction in the total number of ACF (52% reduction, P<0.0001), larger ACF (4 or more crypt ACF) (58% reduction, P<0.001) and BCAC (76% reduction, P<0.00001). The dietary exposure to 6-MSITC significantly reduced the size (crypt multiplicity) of BCAC during both initiation and post-initiation treatment when compared to group 1 treated with DMH alone. Immunohistochemically, 6-MSITC administration lowered the proliferating cell nuclear antigen labeling index in ACF and BCAC. In addition, protein levels of hepatic cytochrome P-450 isozymes at 24 h after 6-MSITC exposure were significantly suppressed (P<0.01). The results indicated that 6-MSITC exerted chemopreventive effects in the present short-term colon carcinogenesis bioassay, through alterations in cell proliferation activity and drug metabolizing enzyme levels.
Sales, Ester; Viruel, Juan; Domingo, Concha; Marqués, Luis
A pool of 200 traditional, landraces and modern elite and old cultivars of rice, mainly japonica varieties adapted to temperate regions, have been used to perform a genome wide association study to detect chromosome regions associated to low temperature germination (LTG) regulation using a panel of 1672 SNP markers. Phenotyping was performed by determining growth rates when seeds were germinated at 25° and 15°C in order to separate the germination vigorousness from cold tolerance effects. As expected, the ability to produce viable seedlings varied widely among rice cultivars and also depended greatly on temperature. Furthermore, we observed a differential response during seed germination and in coleoptile elongation. Faster development at 15°C was observed in seeds from varieties traditionally used as cold tolerant parents by breeders, along with other potentially useful cultivars, mainly of Italian origin. When phenotypic data were combined with the panel of SNPs for japonica rice cultivars, significant associations were detected for 31 markers: 7 were related to growth rate at 25°C and 24 to growth rates at 15°. Among the latter, some chromosome regions were associated to LTG while others were related to coleoptile elongation. Individual effects of the associated markers were low, but by combining favourable alleles in a linear regression model we estimated that 27 loci significantly explained the observed phenotypic variation. From these, a core panel of 13 markers was selected and, furthermore, two wide regions of chromosomes 3 and 6 were consistently associated to rice LTG. Varieties with higher numbers of favourable alleles for the panels of associated markers significantly correlated with increased phenotypic values at both temperatures, thus corroborating the utility of the tagged markers for marker assisted selection (MAS) when breeding japonica rice for LTG.
Viruel, Juan; Domingo, Concha; Marqués, Luis
A pool of 200 traditional, landraces and modern elite and old cultivars of rice, mainly japonica varieties adapted to temperate regions, have been used to perform a genome wide association study to detect chromosome regions associated to low temperature germination (LTG) regulation using a panel of 1672 SNP markers. Phenotyping was performed by determining growth rates when seeds were germinated at 25° and 15°C in order to separate the germination vigorousness from cold tolerance effects. As expected, the ability to produce viable seedlings varied widely among rice cultivars and also depended greatly on temperature. Furthermore, we observed a differential response during seed germination and in coleoptile elongation. Faster development at 15°C was observed in seeds from varieties traditionally used as cold tolerant parents by breeders, along with other potentially useful cultivars, mainly of Italian origin. When phenotypic data were combined with the panel of SNPs for japonica rice cultivars, significant associations were detected for 31 markers: 7 were related to growth rate at 25°C and 24 to growth rates at 15°. Among the latter, some chromosome regions were associated to LTG while others were related to coleoptile elongation. Individual effects of the associated markers were low, but by combining favourable alleles in a linear regression model we estimated that 27 loci significantly explained the observed phenotypic variation. From these, a core panel of 13 markers was selected and, furthermore, two wide regions of chromosomes 3 and 6 were consistently associated to rice LTG. Varieties with higher numbers of favourable alleles for the panels of associated markers significantly correlated with increased phenotypic values at both temperatures, thus corroborating the utility of the tagged markers for marker assisted selection (MAS) when breeding japonica rice for LTG. PMID:28817683
Siahaan, Evi Amelia; Pendleton, Phillip; Woo, Hee-Chul; Chun, Byung-Soo
The edible, brown seaweed Saccharina japonica was prepared as powder in the size range 500-900 μm for the desorption release of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC). Powders were used as raw (containing lipids) and as de-oiled, where the lipid was removed. In general, de-oiled powders adsorbed larger masses of AITC after vapour or solution contact. Mass adsorbed due to solution contact exceeded vapour contact. Larger particles adsorbed more than smaller particles. No chemical bonding between AITC and the powder surface occurred. Release from vapour deposited particles reached 70-85% available within 72 h; solution deposited reached 70-90% available at 192 h. The larger amounts of AITC adsorbed via solution deposition resulted in greater vapour-phase concentrations at 72 h for antimicrobial activity studies. No loss of activity was detected against Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium or Bacillus cereus. Only a nominal activity against Staphylococcus aureus was demonstrated. S. japonica powder could be used as an edible, natural vehicle for AITC delivery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Loxton, J; Wood, C A; Bishop, J D D; Porter, J S; Spencer Jones, M; Nall, C R
The bryozoan Schizoporella japonica Ortmann (1890) was first recorded in European waters in 2010 and has since been reported from further locations in Great Britain (GB) and Norway. This paper provides a new earliest European record for the species from 2009, a first record from Ireland and presence and absence records from a total of 231 marinas and harbours across GB, Ireland, the Isle of Man, France and Portugal. This species is typically associated with human activity, including commercial and recreational vessels, aquaculture equipment, and both wave and tidal energy devices. It has also been observed in the natural environment, fouling rocks and boulders. The species has an extensive but widely discontinuous distribution in GB and Ireland. Although found frequently in marinas and harbours in Scotland, it inhabits only a few sites in England, Wales and Ireland, interspersed with wide gaps that are well documented as genuine absences. This appears to be a rare example of a southward-spreading invasion in GB and Ireland. The species has been reported from the Isle of Man and Norway but has not been found in France or Portugal. In the future we expect S. japonica to spread into suitable sections of the English, Welsh and Irish coasts, and further within Europe. The species' capability for long-distance saltatory spread and potential for negative impact on native ecosystems and economic activity suggests that S. japonica should now be considered invasive in GB and Ireland. As such, it is recommended that biosecurity procedures alongside effective surveillance and monitoring should be prioritised for regions outside the species' current distribution.
Nakaba, Satoshi; Arakawa, Izumi; Morimoto, Hikaru; Nakada, Ryogo; Bito, Nobumasa; Imai, Takanori; Funada, Ryo
The work demonstrates a relationship between the biosynthesis of the secondary metabolite, agatharesinol, and cytological changes that occur in ray parenchyma during cell death in sapwood sticks of Cryptomeria japonica under humidity-regulated conditions. To characterize the death of ray parenchyma cells that accompanies the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, we examined cell death in sapwood sticks of Cryptomeria japonica under humidity-regulated conditions. We monitored features of ray parenchyma cells, such as viability, the morphology of nuclei and vacuoles, and the amount of starch grains. In addition, we analyzed levels of agatharesinol, a heartwood norlignan, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in the same sapwood sticks. Dramatic changes in the amount of starch grains and in the level of agatharesinol occurred simultaneously. Therefore, the biosynthesis of agatharesinol appeared to originate from the breakdown of starch. Furthermore, we observed the expansion of vacuoles in ray parenchyma cells prior to other cytological changes at the final stage of cell death. In our experimental system, we were able to follow the process of cell death and to demonstrate relationships between cytological changes and the biosynthesis of a secondary metabolite during the death of ray parenchyma cells.
Zhou, Bin; Tang, Xuexi; Wang, You
Possible mediatory roles of heat acclimation and salicylic acid in protecting the sporophyte of marine macroalga Laminaria japonica (Phaeophyceae) from heat stress were studied. Heat stress resulted in oxidative injury in the kelp blades. Under heat stress significant accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malonaldehyde (MDA), a membrane lipid peroxidation product, and a drastic decrease in chlorophyll a content were recorded. Activity of the enzymatic antioxidant system was drastically affected by heat stress. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was significantly increased while peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) were greatly inhibited and, simultaneously, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase was activated while polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was inhibited. Both heat acclimation pretreatment and exogenous application of salicylic acid alleviated oxidative damage in kelp blades. Blades receiving heat acclimation pretreatment and exogenous salicylic acid prior to heat stress exhibited a reduced increase in H2O2 and MDA content, and a lower reduction in chlorophyll a content. Pretreatment with heat acclimation and salicylic acid elevated activities of SOD, POD, CAT, GPX and PPO. Considering these results collectively, we speculate that the inhibition of antioxidant enzymes is a possible cause of the heat-stress-induced oxidative stress in L. japonica, and enhanced thermotolerance may be associated, at least in part, with the elevated activity of the enzymatic antioxidant system.
Wilson, Matthew J.; Freundlich, Anna E.
Abstract Riparian forests exhibit levels of ecological disturbance that leave them especially prone to biological invasions. Japanese knotweed (Fallopia japonica) is particularly suited to these habitats and is an aggressive invader along watercourses throughout its now-global range as an exotic invader. Using one of the few Silver Maple Floodplain Forest communities that has not been invaded by F. japonica in the West Branch Susquehanna River valley (Pennsylvania, USA) as a baseline, this study examines whether and how this primarily intact riparian forest community differs from nearby invaded communities in terms of 1) native species richness, 2) native species density, and 3) riparian forest tree recruitment. Defining a baseline (intact) community composition will inform restoration plans for local riparian forests where knotweed might be eradicated or reduced. Invaded and non-invaded sites differed statistically across species richness, species density, and tree recruitment. Our results suggest that F. japonica has reduced the diversity and abundance of native understory riparian plant species. The species also appears to have suppressed long-term tree recruitment, setting up a trajectory whereby the eventual decline of trees currently in the canopy could shift this community from a tree-dominated riparian forest to a knotweed-dominated herbaceous shrubland. PMID:29308042
Koyama, Yuka; Matsunami, Katsuyoshi; Otsuka, Hideaki; Shinzato, Takakazu; Takeda, Yoshio
From a 1-BuOH-soluble fraction of a MeOH extract of the leaves of Microtropis japonica, collected in the Okinawa islands, six ent-labdane glucosides, named microtropiosides A-F, were isolated together with one known acyclic sesquiterpene glucoside. Their structures were elucidated by a combination of spectroscopic analyses, and their absolute configurations determined by application of the beta-D-glucopyranosylation-induced shift-trend rule in (13)C NMR spectroscopy and the modified Mosher's method. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lee, Jeong-Ho; Lee, Byung-Kyu; Kim, Jong-Hee; Lee, Sang Hee; Hong, Soon-Kwang
The chemical compositions, and antibacterial and antifungal effects of essential oils extracted from three coniferous species, Pinus densiflora, Cryptomeria japonica, and Chamaecyparis obtusa, were investigated. Gas chromatography mass analysis of the essential oils revealed that the major components and the percentage of each essential oil were 16.66% beta-phellandrene and 14.85% alpha-pinene in P. densiflora; 31.45% kaur-16-ene and 11.06% sabinene in C. japonica; and 18.75% bicyclo [2, 2, 1] heptan-2-ol and 17.41% 2-carene in Ch. obtusa. The antimicrobial assay by agar disc diffusion method showed that 2.2 microg of Ch. obtusa oil inhibited most effectively the growth of Escherichia coli ATCC 33312 and Klebsiella oxytoca ATCC 10031, whereas the C. japonica oil gave weak antimicrobial activity. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for bacterial strains were in the range of 5.45-21.8 mg/ml depending on essential oils, but most Gram-negative bacteria were resistant even at 21.8 mg oil/ml. P. densiflora oil showed the most effective antifungal activity and the MIC values for Cryptococcus neoformans B42419 and Candida glabrata YFCC 062CCM 11658 were as low as 0.545 and 2.18 mg/ml, respectively. Cryp. neoformans B42419 was the most sensitive to all essential oils in the range of 0.545-2.18 mg/ml. Our data clearly showed that the essential oils from the three conifers had effective antimicrobial activity, especially against fungi.
Tsutsui, Kenta; Sato, Tomomi
Actinoporins are pore-forming proteins found in sea anemones. Although we now have a large collection of data on actinoporins, our knowledge is based heavily on those identified in shallow-water anemones. Because the deep sea differs considerably from shallow waters in hydrostatic pressures, temperatures, and the prey composition, the deep-sea actinoporin may have evolved in unique ways. This study, therefore, aimed to obtain new actinoporins in the deep-sea anemone Cribrinopis japonica (Actiniaria, Actiniidae). An actinoporin-like sequence was identified from the previously established C. japonica RNA-Seq database, and the complete length (663 bp) of the deep-sea actinoporin gene, Cjtox I, was obtained. In addition, a similar gene, Cjtox II (666 bp), was also identified from RNA of actinopharynx. CJTOX I and CJTOX II were similar in their primary structures, but CJTOX I lacked one residue in the middle of the protein. There was also a difference in the gene expression in live animals, where only Cjtox I was expressed in tentacles of C. japonica. In the heterologous expression where BL21 (DE3) strain was retransformed with the plasmid containing either Cjtox I or Cjtox II gene, the supernatants of both cell lysates showed hemolytic activity on the equine erythrocytes. Preincubation of the supernatants with sphingomyelin caused reduced activity, implying that the CJTOX I and II would target sphingomyelin as with other actinoporins. Because of the structures similarity to the known actinoporins and the sphingomyelin-inhibitable hemolytic activity, both CJTOX I and II were concluded to be new actinoporins, which were identified for the first time from a deep-sea anemone. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Choi, Noori; Jang, Yikweon
Treefrogs change dorsal coloration to match background colors, presumably for predator avoidance. Dorsal coloration in treefrogs results from rearrangement of pigment granules in dermal chromatophores. This physiological basis for color change suggests that brightness and chroma are the color components that may change in response to background color. However, results of experiments are conflicting in that there is no consensus as to which color component is critical for color change in treefrogs. We tested predictions of the physiological model for color change in treefrogs by investigating dorsal color change under five background colors in three different populations of the treefrog Hyla japonica. Differences in color components between background colors and frogs were used as a measure of background matching. Throughout a 1-week experimental period, brightness and chroma differences decreased monotonically, while hue difference remained constant for all background colors. Chroma differences were smaller with the natural colors such as green and brown than with achromatic colors. Moreover, variation in color change among frogs from three localities that differed in land cover suggested that chroma change capacity may be sensitive to environmental conditions. Under the white background color, however, decreasing brightness difference seemed to be crucial to background matching. Furthermore, chroma difference and brightness difference did not decrease indefinitely, suggesting a trade-off between chroma difference and brightness difference under the white background. Thus, background matching may generally occur by decreasing chroma difference under most background colors in H. japonica, but brightness matching may be important under the white color. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Mine, Ichiro; Kinoshita, Urara; Kawashima, Shigetaka; Sekida, Satoko
The cells in the foliose thallus of trebouxiophycean alga Prasiola japonica apparently develop into 2 × 2 cell groups composed of two two-celled groups, each of which is a pair of derivative cells of the latest cell division. In the present study, the structural features of cell walls of the alga P. japonica concerning the formation of the cell groups were investigated using histochemical methods. Thin cell layers stained by Calcofluor White appeared to envelope the two-celled and four-celled groups separately and, hence, separated them from neighboring cell groups, and the Calcofluor White-negative gaps between neighboring four-celled groups were specifically stained by lectins, such as soybean agglutinin, jacalin, and Vicia villosa lectin conjugated with fluorescein. These results indicated that the Calcofluor White-positive cell wall layer of parent cell that existed during two successive cell divisions structurally distinguished two-celled and four-celled groups from others in this alga. Moreover, the results suggested that the cell wall components of the Calcofluor White-negative gaps would possibly contribute to the formation of the planar thallus through lateral union of the cell groups.
Dongjiao Liu; Hao Jiang; Robin Zhang; Kate S. He
The spatial distribution of most invasive plants is poorly documented and studied. This project examined and compared the spatial distribution of a successful invasive plant, Japanese honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica), in two similar-sized but ecologically distinct watersheds in western Kentucky (Ledbetter Creek) and western Tennessee (Panther Creek)....
Kim, Min Kyoung; Yun, Kwang Jun; Lim, Da Hae; Kim, Jinju; Jang, Young Pyo
The chemical components and biological activity of Camellia mistletoe, Korthalsella japonica (Loranthaceae) are relatively unknown compared to other mistletoe species. Therefore, we investigated the phytochemical properties and biological activity of this parasitic plant to provide essential preliminary scientific evidence to support and encourage its further pharmaceutical research and development. The major plant components were chromatographically isolated using high-performance liquid chromatography and their structures were elucidated using tandem mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance anlysis. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory activity of the 70% ethanol extract of K. japonica (KJ) and its isolated components was evaluated using a nitric oxide (NO) assay and western blot analysis for inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2. Three flavone di-C-glycosides, lucenin-2, vicenin-2, and stellarin-2 were identified as major components of KJ, for the first time. KJ significantly inhibited NO production and reduced iNOS and COX-2 expression in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells at 100 μg/mL while similar activity were observed with isolated flavone C-glycosides. In conclusion, KJ has a simple secondary metabolite profiles including flavone di-C-glycosides as major components and has a strong potential for further research and development as a source of therapeutic anti-inflammatory agents. PMID:27302962
Quan, Meirong; Liu, Qi Zhi; Liu, Zhi Long
The essential oil of Stachys riederi var. japonica (Family: Lamiaceae) was extracted by hydrodistillation and determined by GC and GC-MS. A total of 40 components were identified, representing 96.01% of the total oil composition. The major compounds in the essential oil were acetanisole (15.43%), anisole (9.43%), 1,8-cineole (8.07%), geraniol (7.89%), eugenol (4.54%), caryophyllene oxide (4.47%), caryophyllene (4.21%) and linalool (4.07%). Five active constituents (acetanisole, anisole, 1,8-cineole, eugenol and geraniol) were identified by bioactivity-directed fractionation. The essential oil possessed fumigant toxicity against maize weevils ( Sitophilus zeamais ) and booklice ( Liposcelis bostrychophila ), with LC 50 values of 15.0 mg/L and 0.7 mg/L, respectively. Eugenol and anisole exhibited stronger fumigant toxicity than the oil against booklice. 1,8-Cineole showed stronger toxicity, and anisole as well as eugenol exhibited the same level of fumigant toxicity as the essential oil against maize weevils. The essential oil also exhibited contact toxicity against S. zeamais adults and L. bostrychophila , with LC 50 values of 21.8 µg/adult and 287.0 µg/cm², respectively. The results indicated that the essential oil of S. riederi var. japonica and its isolates show potential as fumigants, and for their contact toxicity against grain storage insects.
Nagamitsu, Teruyoshi; Yasuda, Mika; Saito-Morooka, Fuki; Inoue, Maki N.; Nishiyama, Mio; Goka, Koichi; Sugiura, Shinji; Maeto, Kaoru; Okabe, Kimiko; Taki, Hisatomo
Declines in honeybee populations have been a recent concern. Although causes of the declines remain unclear, environmental factors may be responsible. We focused on the potential environmental determinants of local populations of wild honeybees, Apis cerana japonica, in Japan. This subspecies has little genetic variation in terms of its mitochondrial DNA sequences, and genetic variations at nuclear loci are as yet unknown. We estimated the genetic structure and environmental determinants of local genetic diversity in nuclear microsatellite genotypes of fathers and mothers, inferred from workers collected at 139 sites. The genotypes of fathers and mothers showed weak isolation by distance and negligible genetic structure. The local genetic diversity was high in central Japan, decreasing toward the peripheries, and depended on the climate and land use characteristics of the sites. The local genetic diversity decreased as the annual precipitation increased, and increased as the proportion of urban and paddy field areas increased. Positive effects of natural forest area, which have also been observed in terms of forager abundance in farms, were not detected with respect to the local genetic diversity. The findings suggest that A. cerana japonica forms a single population connected by gene flow in its main distributional range, and that climate and landscape properties potentially affect its local genetic diversity. PMID:27898704
Zhang, Hao; Yu, Chao; Hou, Danping; Liu, Hailang; Zhang, Huiting; Tao, Rongrong; Cai, Han; Gu, Junfei; Liu, Lijun; Zhang, Zujian; Wang, Zhiqin; Yang, Jianchang
The improvement of rice cultivars plays an important role in yield increase. However, little is known about the changes in starch quality and mineral elements during the improvement of rice cultivars. This study was conducted to investigate the changes in starch quality and mineral elements in japonica rice cultivars. Twelve typical rice cultivars, applied in the production in Jiangsu province during the last 60 years, were grown in the paddy fields. These cultivars were classified into six types according to their application times, plant types and genotypes. The nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and, and potassium (K) were mainly distributed in endosperm, bran and bran, respectively. Secondary and micromineral nutrients were distributed throughout grains. With the improvement of cultivars, total N contents gradually decreased, while total P, K and magnesium contents increased in grains. Total copper and zinc contents in type 80'S in grains were highest. The improvement of cultivars enhanced palatability (better gelatinisation enthalpy and amylose content), taste (better protein content) and protein quality (better protein components and essential amino acids). Correlation analysis indicated the close relationship between mineral elements and starch quality. The mineral elements and starch quality of grains during the improvement of japonica rice cultivars are improved. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.
Yoshioka, Saburo; Hamada, Atsuhide; Jobu, Kohei; Yokota, Junko; Onogawa, Masahide; Kyotani, Shojiro; Miyamura, Mitsuhiko; Saibara, Toshiji; Onishi, Saburo; Nishioka, Yutaka
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis is associated with the deposition of lipid droplets in the liver, and is characterised histologically by the infiltration of inflammatory cells, hepatocellular degeneration and liver fibrosis. Oxidative stress may play an important role in the onset and deterioration of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. We previously reported that an Eriobotrya japonica seed extract, extracted in 70% ethanol, exhibited antioxidant actions in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we examined the effect of this extract in a rat model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. The seed extract was given in the drinking water to fats being fed a methionine-choline-deficient diet for 15 weeks. Increases in alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels were significantly inhibited in rats fed the seed extract compared with the group on the diet alone. Formation of fatty droplets in the liver was also inhibited. Antioxidant enzyme activity in liver tissue was higher than in the diet-only group and lipid peroxidation was reduced compared with rats that also received the extract. Expression of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal was lower in the rats given the seed extract than in the diet-only group. In the former, liver tissue levels of transforming growth factor-beta and collagen were also decreased. Thus, the E. japonica seed extract inhibited fatty liver, inflammation and fibrosis, suggesting its usefulness in the treatment of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.
Wang, Shujun; Li, Peiyan; Yu, Jinglin; Guo, Peng; Wang, Shuo
The structural and functional properties of starches from three rice grains differing in amylose content (19.9, 13.4 and 0.8% for Japonica, Indica hybrid and waxy rice, respectively) were investigated using a range of characterization methods Indica hybrid starch (IHS) had the highest proportion of intermediate (DP 13-24) and long branch chains (DP≥37) and the lowest proportion of short branch chains (DP 6-12), whereas the opposite results were observed for Japonica starch (JS). The results for waxy rice starch (WS) were between those of IHS and JS. Rice starches showed a typical A-type X-ray diffraction pattern with the relative crystallinity ranging from 33.4% for JS to 39.4% for WS. Significant differences were observed in lamellar distance and short-range molecular order characterized by IR ratio of absorbances at 1047/1022cm -1 and full width of half maximum (FWHM) of the band at 480cm -1 . WS showed a higher swelling power and a lower close packing concentration at temperatures from 60 to 90°C. The lower peak viscosity of WS was attributed to the formation of less rigid swollen granules at a concentrated regime. WS showed a higher in vitro digestibility compared with IHS and JS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Obear, Glen R; Adesanya, Adekunle W; Liesch, Patrick J; Williamson, R Chris; Held, David W
Larvae of the Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), have a patchy distribution in soils, which complicates detection and management of this insect pest. Managed turf systems are frequently under pest pressure from fungal pathogens, necessitating frequent fungicide applications. It is possible that certain turfgrass fungicides may have lethal or sublethal adverse effects on eggs and larvae of P. japonica that inhabit managed turf systems. In this study, eggs and first-, second- and third-instar larvae were treated with the fungicides chlorothalonil and propiconazole, and survival was compared with that of untreated controls as well as positive controls treated with the insecticide trichlorfon. Chlorothalonil reduced survival of first-instar larvae treated directly and hatched from treated eggs. Propiconazole delayed egg hatch, reduced the proportion of eggs that successfully hatched and reduced survival of first-instar larvae treated directly and hatched from treated eggs. Sublethal doses of the fungicides lowered the activities of certain detoxification enzymes in third-instar grubs. Fungicide applications to turfgrass that coincide with oviposition and egg hatch of white grubs may have sublethal effects. This work is applicable both to high-maintenance turfgrass such as golf courses, where applications of pesticides are more frequent, and to home lawn services, where mixtures of multiple pesticides are commonly used. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.
Takanashi, Kojiro; Yamada, Yasuyuki; Sasaki, Takayuki; Yamamoto, Yoko; Sato, Fumihiko; Yazaki, Kazufumi
Plants produce a large variety of alkaloids, which have diverse chemical structures and biological activities. Many of these alkaloids accumulate in vacuoles. Although some membrane proteins on tonoplasts have been identified as alkaloid uptake transporters, few have been characterized to date, and relatively little is known about the mechanisms underlying alkaloid transport and accumulation in plant cells. Berberine is a model alkaloid. Although all genes involved in berberine biosynthesis, as well as the master regulator, have been identified, the gene responsible for the final accumulation of berberine at tonoplasts has not been determined. This study showed that a multidrug and toxic compound extrusion protein 1 (CjMATE1) may act as a berberine transporter in cultured Coptis japonica cells. CjMATE1 was found to localize at tonoplasts in C. japonica cells and, in intact plants, to be expressed preferentially in rhizomes, the site of abundant berberine accumulation. Cellular transport analysis using a yeast expression system showed that CjMATE1 could transport berberine. Expression analysis showed that RNAi suppression of CjbHLH1, a master transcription factor of the berberine biosynthetic pathway, markedly reduced the expression of CjMATE1 in a manner similar to the suppression of berberine biosynthetic genes. These results strongly suggest that CjMATE1 is the transporter that mediates berberine accumulation in vacuoles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This study addressed the following question: In a coastal estuary of the northeastern Pacific Ocean with a relatively large areal extent of the native eelgrass Zostera marina, is an expanding distribution of the non-indigenous dwarf eelgrass Z. japonica accompanied by a measurab...
Zostera japonica is a non-native seagrass along the Pacific Coast of North America that is distributed from Northern California, USA to British Columbia, Canada. Recent observations indicate that the species is expanding both latitudinally and into areas of lower salinity. Ther...
Picone, Joanne M; MacTavish, Hazel S; Clery, Robin A
Flowering Mahonia japonica plants were subjected to controlled environments and the floral volatiles emitted from whole racemes (laterals) were trapped by Porapak Q adsorbent and analysed by GC-FID. An experiment with photoperiods of 6 and 9 h at constant temperature (10+/-1 degrees C) demonstrated that photoperiod was the stimulus for enhanced emission of most volatiles. Small quantitative differences in emitted fragrance composition were observed between light and dark periods and between plants acclimatised to different photoperiods. Maximum rates of emission occurred in the middle of the light period; aromatic compounds (benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol and indole) displayed a more rapid increase and subsequent decline compared with monoterpenes (cis- and trans-ocimene and linalool). When the photoperiod was extended from 6 to 9 h, maximum rates of emission continued throughout the additional 3 h. Total emission (microg/h) of volatiles was 2-fold greater in the day-time (DT) (39.7 microg/h) compared with the night-time (NT) (19.8 microgg/h) under a 6 h photoperiod and was not significantly different from total emission under a 9 h photoperiod.
Yokosuka, Akihito; Sano, Tomoe; Hashimoto, Ken; Sakagami, Hiroshi; Mimaki, Yoshihiro
Three new triterpene glycosides (1-3), together with eight known triterpene glycosides (4-11), were isolated from the whole plant of Anemone hupehensis var. japonica (Ranunculaceae). The structures of the new compounds were determined on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and the results of hydrolytic cleavage experiments. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against HL-60 human leukemia cells, HSC-2 human oral squamous carcinoma cells, HSC-4 human oral squamous carcinoma cells, and A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells.
Complete mitochondrial genome of the Asian paddle crab Charybdis japonica (Crustacea: Decapoda: Portunidae): gene rearrangement of the marine brachyurans and phylogenetic considerations of the decapods.
Liu, Yuan; Cui, Zhaoxia
Given the commercial and ecological importance of the Asian paddle crab, Charybdis japonica, there is a clearly need for genetic and molecular research on this species. Here, we present the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of C. japonica, determined by the long-polymerase chain reaction and primer walking sequencing method. The entire genome is 15,738 bp in length, encoding a standard set of 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, and 22 transfer RNA genes, plus the putative control region, which is typical for metazoans. The total A+T content of the genome is 69.2%, lower than the other brachyuran crabs except for Callinectes sapidus. The gene order is identical to the published marine brachyurans and differs from the ancestral pancrustacean order by only the position of the tRNA ( His ) gene. Phylogenetic analyses using the concatenated nucleotide and amino acid sequences of 13 protein-coding genes strongly support the monophyly of Dendrobranchiata and Pleocyemata, which is consistent with the previous taxonomic classification. However, the systematic status of Charybdis within subfamily Thalamitinae of family Portunidae is not supported. C. japonica, as the first species of Charybdis with complete mitochondrial genome available, will provide important information on both genomics and molecular ecology of the group.
Bourgis, F.; Guyot, R.; Gherbi, H.; Tailliez, E.; Amabile, I.; Salse, J.; Lorieux, M.; Delseny, M.
In Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.), aroma is one of the most valuable traits in grain quality and 2-ACP is the main volatile compound contributing to the characteristic popcorn-like odour of aromatic rices. Although the major locus for grain fragrance (frg gene) has been described recently in Basmati rice, this gene has not been characterised in true japonica varieties and molecular information available on the genetic diversity and evolutionary origin of this gene among the different varieties is still limited. Here we report on characterisation of the frg gene in the Azucena variety, one of the few aromatic japonica cultivars. We used a RIL population from a cross between Azucena and IR64, a non-aromatic indica, the reference genomic sequence of Nipponbare (japonica) and 93–11 (indica) as well as an Azucena BAC library, to identify the major fragance gene in Azucena. We thus identified a betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase gene, badh2, as the candidate locus responsible for aroma, which presented exactly the same mutation as that identified in Basmati and Jasmine-like rices. Comparative genomic analyses showed very high sequence conservation between Azucena and Nipponbare BADH2, and a MITE was identified in the promotor region of the BADH2 allele in 93–11. The badh2 mutation and MITE were surveyed in a representative rice collection, including traditional aromatic and non-aromatic rice varieties, and strongly suggested a monophylogenetic origin of this badh2 mutation in Asian cultivated rices. Altogether these new data are discussed here in the light of current hypotheses on the origin of rice genetic diversity. PMID:18491070
Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Otani, Yoko; Li, Peiran; Nagao, Hiroshi; Lenggoro, I. Wuled; Ishida, Atsushi; Yazaki, Kenichi; Noguchi, Kyotaro; Nakaba, Satoshi; Yamane, Kenichi; Kuroda, Katsushi; Sano, Yuzou; Funada, Ryo; Izuta, Takeshi
To clarify the effects of long-term exposure to ammonium sulfate (AS) particles on growth and physiological functions of forest tree species, seedlings of Fagus crenata, Castanopsis sieboldii, Larix kaempferi and Cryptomeria japonica were exposed to submicron-size AS particles during two growing seasons from 3 June 2011 to 8 October 2012. The mean sulfate concentration in PM2.5 increased during the exposure inside the chamber in 2011 and 2012 by 2.73 and 4.32 μg SO42- m-3, respectively. No significant effects of exposure to AS particles were detected on the whole-plant dry mass of the seedlings. These results indicate that the exposure to submicrometer AS particles at the ambient level for two growing seasons did not significantly affect the growth of the seedlings. No significant effects of exposure to AS particles were found on the net photosynthetic rate in the leaves or needles of F. crenata, C. sieboldii and L. kaempferi seedlings. Also, in the previous-year needles of C. japonica seedlings, exposure to AS particles significantly reduced the net photosynthetic rate, which may be caused by the reduction in the concentration of ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco). On the contrary, in current-year needles of C. japonica seedlings, net photosynthetic rate significantly increased with exposure to AS particles, which may be the result of increases in stomatal conductance and concentrations of Rubisco and chlorophyll. Furthermore, exposure to AS particles correlated with an increase in concentrations of NH4+, free amino acid and total soluble protein, suggesting that AS particles may be deliquesced, absorbed into the leaves and metabolized into amino acid and protein. These results suggest that net photosynthesis in the needles of C. japonica is relatively sensitive to submicron-size AS particles as compared with the other three tree species.
Nishimura, Osamu; Hirao, Yukako; Tarui, Hiroshi; Agata, Kiyokazu
Planarians are considered to be among the extant animals close to one of the earliest groups of organisms that acquired a central nervous system (CNS) during evolution. Planarians have a bilobed brain with nine lateral branches from which a variety of external signals are projected into different portions of the main lobes. Various interneurons process different signals to regulate behavior and learning/memory. Furthermore, planarians have robust regenerative ability and are attracting attention as a new model organism for the study of regeneration. Here we conducted large-scale EST analysis of the head region of the planarian Dugesia japonica to construct a database of the head-region transcriptome, and then performed comparative analyses among related species. A total of 54,752 high-quality EST reads were obtained from a head library of the planarian Dugesia japonica, and 13,167 unigene sequences were produced by de novo assembly. A new method devised here revealed that proteins related to metabolism and defense mechanisms have high flexibility of amino-acid substitutions within the planarian family. Eight-two CNS-development genes were found in the planarian (cf. C. elegans 3; chicken 129). Comparative analysis revealed that 91% of the planarian CNS-development genes could be mapped onto the schistosome genome, but one-third of these shared genes were not expressed in the schistosome. We constructed a database that is a useful resource for comparative planarian transcriptome studies. Analysis comparing homologous genes between two planarian species showed that the potential of genes is important for accumulation of amino-acid substitutions. The presence of many CNS-development genes in our database supports the notion that the planarian has a fundamental brain with regard to evolution and development at not only the morphological/functional, but also the genomic, level. In addition, our results indicate that the planarian CNS-development genes already existed
We announce here the first complete chloroplast genome sequence of the tropical japonica rice, along with its genome structure and functional annotation. The plant was collected from Indonesia and deposited as a germplasm accession of the International Rice GenBank Collection (IRGC 66630) at the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI). This genome provides valuable data for the future utilization of the germplasm of rice. PMID:26893422
Shangguan, Jingbo; Li, Zhongbao
Thirty-five new microsatellite loci from the sea cucumbers Holothurian scabra (Jaeger, 1833) and Apostichopus japonicas (Selenka, 1867) were screened and characterized using the method of magnetic bead enrichment. Of the twenty-four polymorphic loci tested, eighteen were consistent with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium after a modified false discovery rate (B-Y FDR) correction, whereas six showed statistically significant deviations (CHS2 and CHS11: P <0.014790; FCS1, FCS6, FCS8 and FCS14: P <0.015377). Furthermore, four species of plesiomorphous and related sea cucumbers (Holothurian scabra, Holothuria leucospilota, Stichopus horrens and Apostichopus japonicas) were tested for mutual cross-amplification using a total of ninety microsatellite loci. Although transferability and universality of all loci were generally low, the results of the cross-species study showed that the markers can be applied to identify individuals to species according to the presence or absence of specific microsatellite alleles. The microsatellite markers reported here will contribute to the study of genetic diversity, assisted breeding, and population conservation in sea cucumbers, as well as allow for the identification of individuals to closely related species.
Wang, Shuo; Gao, Li-Zhi
We announce here the first complete chloroplast genome sequence of the tropical japonica rice, along with its genome structure and functional annotation. The plant was collected from Indonesia and deposited as a germplasm accession of the International Rice GenBank Collection (IRGC 66630) at the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI). This genome provides valuable data for the future utilization of the germplasm of rice. Copyright © 2016 Wang and Gao.
Tuckerella japonica Ehara (Acari: Tetranychoidea: Tuckerellidae) is found where longitudinal splitting occurs on exposed green periderm tissue of shoots on certain varieties or seedling plants of Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze (Theales: Theaceae) in the continental United States. The mite is able ...
Wang, Mingxin; Wang, Xiao; Luo, Xianxiang; Zheng, Hao
Plastic debris especially microplastics (MPs) have become a global concern for the aggravating pollution in the oceans. In this study, the physico-chemical properties of fluorescently labeled polystyrene (PS) beads and the effects of PS-MPs on the survival of mysid shrimps (Neomysis japonica) were investigated. PS-MPs were identified to have spherical shape, uniform size and stable green fluorescence. The results showed that PS beads had little effects on the mortality of shrimps under a short-term (72 h) exposure with concentrations of 50 μg L-1 and 500 μg L-1. However, PS-MPs had severe short-term toxicity on the survival of mysid shrimps, resulting in 30% mortality especially in a 72 h exposure with the higher concentration of 1000 μg L-1. These findings provide new insights into the toxic effects of MPs on marine invertebrates.
Kurose, Daisuke; Furuya, Naruto; Saeki, Tetsuya; Tsuchiya, Kenichi; Tsushima, Seiya; Seier, Marion K
The ascomycete fungus Mycosphaerella polygoni-cuspidati has been undergoing evaluation as a potential classical biological control agent for the invasive weed Fallopia japonica (Japanese knotweed), which has become troublesome in Europe and North America. In advance of the potential release of a biocontrol agent into a new environment, it is crucial to develop an effective monitoring system to enable the evaluation of agent establishment and dispersal within the target host population, as well as any potential attacks on non-target species. Therefore, a primer pair was designed for direct, rapid, and specific detection of the Japanese knotweed pathogen M. polygoni-cuspidati based on the sequences of the internal transcribed spacer regions including the 5.8S rDNA. A PCR product of approximately 298 bp was obtained only when the DNA extracted from mycelial fragments of M. polygoni-cuspidati was used. The lower limit of detection of the PCR method was 100 fg of genomic DNA. Using the specific primer pair, M. polygoni-cuspidati could be detected from both naturally and artificially infected Japanese knotweed plants. No amplification was observed for other Mycosphaerella spp. or fungal endophytes isolated from F. japonica. The designed primer pair is thus effective for the specific detection of M. polygoni-cuspidati in planta.
Hu, Wen; Guo, Ting; Jiang, Wen-Jun; Dong, Guang-Li; Chen, Da-Wei; Yang, Shi-Lin; Li, He-Ran
The present study was designed to establish and optimize a new method for extracting chlorogenic acid and cynaroside from Lonicera japonica Thunb. through orthogonal experimental designl. A new ultrahigh pressure extraction (UPE) technology was applied to extract chlorogenic acid and cynaroside from L. japonica. The influential factors, including solvent type, ethanol concentration, extraction pressure, time, and temperature, and the solid/liquid ratio, have been studied to optimize the extraction process. The optimal conditions for the UPE were developed by quantitative analysis of the extraction products by HPLC-DAD in comparison with standard samples. In addition, the microstructures of the medicinal materials before and after extraction were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Furthermore, the extraction efficiency of different extraction methods and the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities of the extracts were investigated. The optimal conditions for extracting chlorogenic acid and cynaroside were as follows: ethanol concentration, 60%; extraction pressure, 400 MPa; extraction time, 2 min; extraction temperature, 30 °C; and the solid/liquid ratio, 1 : 50. Under these conditions, the yields of chlorogenic acid and cynaroside were raised to 4.863% and 0.080%, respectively. Compared with other extraction methods, such as heat reflux extraction (HRE), ultrasonic extraction (UE), and Sohxlet extraction (SE), the UPE method showed several advantages, including higher extraction yield, shorter extraction time, lower energy consumption, and higher purity of the extracts. This study could help better utilize L. japonica flower buds as a readily accessible source of natural antioxidants in food and pharmaceutical industries. Copyright © 2015 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Chen, Wei-Cheng; Liou, Shorong-Shii; Tzeng, Thing-Fong; Lee, Shiow-Ling; Liu, I-Min
Lonicera japonica Thunb. (Caprifoliaceae), a widely used traditional Chinese medicinal plant, is used to treat some infectious diseases and it may have uses as a healthy food and applications in cosmetics and as an ornamental groundcover. The ethanol extract of the flowering aerial parts of L. japonica (LJEE) was investigated for its healing efficiency in a rat excision wound model. Excision wounds were inflicted upon three groups of eight rats each. Healing was assessed by the rate of wound contraction in skin wound sites in rats treated with simple ointment base, 10% (w/w) LJEE ointment, or the reference standard drug, 0.2% (w/w) nitrofurazone ointment. The effects of LJEE on the contents of hydroxyproline and hexosamine during healing were estimated. The antimicrobial activity of LJEE against microorganisms was also assessed. The in vivo anti-inflammatory activity of LJEE was investigated to understand the mechanism of wound healing. LJEE exhibited significant antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, and Candida tropicalis. The ointment formulation prepared with 10% (w/w) LJEE exhibited potent wound healing capacity as evidenced by the wound contraction in the excision wound model. The contents of hydroxyproline and hexosamine also correlated with the observed healing pattern. These findings were supported by the histopathological characteristics of healed wound sections, as greater tissue regeneration, more fibroblasts, and angiogenesis were observed in the 10% (w/w) LJEE ointment-treated group. The results also indicated that LJEE possesses potent anti-inflammatory activity, as it enhanced the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines that suppress proinflammatory cytokine production. The results suggest that the antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities of LJEE act synergistically to accelerate wound repair.
Hiraoka, Yuichiro; Iki, Taiichi; Nose, Mine; Tobita, Hiroyuki; Yazaki, Kenichi; Watanabe, Atsushi; Fujisawa, Yoshitake; Kitao, Mitsutoshi
In order to predict the effects of future atmospheric conditions on forest productivity, it is necessary to clarify the physiological responses of major forest tree species to high concentrations of ozone (O3) and carbon dioxide (CO2). Furthermore, intraspecific variation of these responses should also be examined in order to predict productivity gains through tree improvements in the future. We investigated intraspecific variation in growth and photosynthesis of Cryptomeria japonica D. Don, a major silviculture species in Japan, in response to elevated concentrations of O3 (eO3) and CO2 (eCO2), separately and in combination. Cuttings of C. japonica were grown and exposed to two levels of O3 (ambient and twice-ambient levels) in combination with two levels of CO2 (ambient and 550 µmol mol-1 in the daytime) for two growing seasons in a free-air CO2 enrichment experiment. There was no obvious negative effect of eO3 on growth or photosynthetic traits of the C. japonica clones, but a positive effect was observed for annual height increments in the first growing season. Dry mass production and the photosynthetic rate increased under eCO2 conditions, while the maximum carboxylation rate decreased. Significant interaction effects of eO3 and eCO2 on growth and photosynthetic traits were not observed. Clonal effects on growth and photosynthetic traits were significant, but the interactions between clones and O3 and/or CO2 treatments were not. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients between growth traits under ambient conditions and for each treatment were significantly positive, implying that clonal ranking in growth abilities might not be affected by either eO3 or eCO2. The knowledge obtained from this study will be helpful for species selection in afforestation programs, to continue and to improve current programs involving this species, and to accurately predict the CO2 fixation capacity of Japanese forests. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All
Background Endosymbionts that manipulate the reproduction of their hosts have been reported widely in invertebrates. One such group of endosymbionts is the male-killers. To date all male-killers reported are bacterial in nature, but comprise a diverse group. Ladybirds have been described as a model system for the study of male-killing, which has been reported in multiple species from widespread geographic locations. Whilst criteria of low egg hatch-rate and female-biased progenic sex ratio have been used to identify female hosts of male-killers, variation in vertical transmission efficiency and host genetic factors may result in variation in these phenotypic indicators of male-killer presence. Molecular identification of bacteria and screening for bacterial presence provide us with a more accurate method than breeding data alone to link the presence of the bacteria to the male-killing phenotype. In addition, by identifying the bacteria responsible we may find evidence for horizontal transfer between endosymbiont hosts and can gain insight into the evolutionary origins of male-killing. Phylogenetic placement of male-killing bacteria will allow us to address the question of whether male-killing is a potential strategy for only some, or all, maternally inherited bacteria. Together, phenotypic and molecular characterisation of male-killers will allow a deeper insight into the interactions between host and endosymbiont, which ultimately may lead to an understanding of how male-killers identify and kill male-hosts. Results A male-killer was detected in the Japanese coccinellid, Propylea japonica (Thunberg) a species not previously known to harbour male-killers. Families produced by female P. japonica showed significantly female-biased sex ratios. One female produced only daughters. This male-killer trait was maternally inherited and antibiotic treatment produced a full, heritable cure. Molecular analysis identified Rickettsia to be associated with the trait in this
Lin, Chun-Ya; Chang, Tzu-Cheng; Chen, Yu-Han; Chen, Ying-Ju; Cheng, Sen-Sung; Chang, Shang-Tzen
Research on biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emitted from trees is essential in the world since these BVOCs play an important role in the atmospheric process which may further influence on the air quality. However, little is known about BVOCs emitted from trees in the field in Taiwan. Hence, this study intends to establish an enclosure technique coupled with in situ sampling to facilitate the collection of BVOCs emitted from Cryptomeria japonica leaves. Furthermore, the emission model derived from the relationship between emission rate and temperature was applied to estimate the emission of BVOCs in the field. Results from GC-MS showed that the BVOCs emitted from intact leaves contain 14 monoterpenoids and 4 sesquiterpenoid. The emission rate of the major constituent, sabinene, was 0.42 μg h-1 g-1 around noon on September 11, 2013. Sabinene varies with the changing temperature inside the bag. These findings indicated that the enclosure technique can collect the BVOCs emitted from intact leaves and monitor the dynamic changes in emission. Two determinants, basal emission rate (at 30 °C) and β coefficient, of sabinene were further measured, and they were 1.29 μg h-1 g-1 and 0.18 °C-1, respectively. By using these two determinants and data of meteorology and forest resource, the emission of monoterpenes from C. japonica stand was estimated to be 1.13 mg m-2 h-1 in July in Xitou area. Taken together, the results provide valuable information for estimation of BVOCs from tree species in Taiwan for the first time.
Fujimura, Masato; Ohmori, Keitaro; Masuda, Kenichi; Tsujimoto, Hajime; Sakaguchi, Masahiro
A dog with Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica, CJ) pollinosis had oral allergy syndrome (OAS) after ingesting fresh tomato. The dog showed specific IgE to both CJ and tomato allergens. As a negative control, twenty dogs without atopic dermatitis that had no exposure to tomato and no specific IgE to CJ allergen were used. They had no specific IgE to tomato allergen. Furthermore, IgE cross-reactivity was observed between CJ and tomato allergens in the dog. We found that OAS induced by tomato exists in the dog and there is a relationship between CJ and tomato allergens.
Rice blast is a recurring and devastating disease in the USA and worldwide. In the USA, the blast-resistance (R) genes found in a tropical japonica cultivar, Katy, reduce blast damages from 1990 to present. The cultivar is still used as a principal donor of blast R genes in developing numerous elit...
Yang, Cui; Zhao, Jinhua; Wang, Juan; Yu, Hongling; Piao, Xiangfan; Li, Donghao
A novel organic solvent-free mode of gas purge microsyringe extraction, termed water-based gas purge microsyringe extraction, was developed. This technique can directly extract target compounds in wet samples without any drying process. Parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were investigated. Under optimal extraction conditions, the recoveries of alkylphenols were between 87.6 and 105.8%, and reproducibility was between 5.2 and 12.1%. The technique was also used to determine six kinds of alkylphenols (APs) from samples of Laminaria japonica Aresh. The OP and NP were detected in all the samples, and concentrations ranged from 26.0 to 54.5ngg(-1) and 45.0-180.4ngg(-1), respectively. The 4-n-butylphenol was detected in only one sample and its concentration was very low. Other APs were not detected in L. japonica Aresh samples. The experimental results demonstrated that the technique is fast, simple, non-polluting, allows for quantitative extraction, and a drying process was not required for wet samples. Since only aqueous solution and a conventional microsyringe were used, this technique proved affordable, efficient, and convenient for the extraction of volatile and semivolatile ionizable compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Shangguan, Jingbo; Li, Zhongbao
Thirty-five new microsatellite loci from the sea cucumbers Holothurian scabra (Jaeger, 1833) and Apostichopus japonicas (Selenka, 1867) were screened and characterized using the method of magnetic bead enrichment. Of the twenty-four polymorphic loci tested, eighteen were consistent with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium after a modified false discovery rate (B-Y FDR) correction, whereas six showed statistically significant deviations (CHS2 and CHS11: P<0.014 790; FCS1, FCS6, FCS8 and FCS14: P<0.015 377). Furthermore, four species of plesiomorphous and related sea cucumbers ( Holothurian scabra, Holothuria leucospilota, Stichopus horrens and Apostichopus japonicas) were tested for mutual cross-amplification using a total of ninety microsatellite loci. Although transferability and universality of all loci were generally low, the results of the cross-species study showed that the markers can be applied to identify individuals to species according to the presence or absence of specific microsatellite alleles. The microsatellite markers reported here will contribute to the study of genetic diversity, assisted breeding, and population conservation in sea cucumbers, as well as allow for the identification of individuals to closely related species.
Kang, Jin Woo; Chung, Ik Kyo
Environmental challenges such as ocean acidification and eutrophication influence the physiology of kelp species. We investigated their interactive effects on Saccharina japonica (Laminariales, Phaeophyta) under two pH conditions [Low, 7.50; High (control), 8.10] and three NH4 +concentrations (Low, 4; Medium, 60; High, 120 μM). The degree of variation of pH values in the culture medium and inhibition rate of photosynthetic oxygen evolution by acetazolamide were affected by pH treatments. Relative growth rates, carbon, nitrogen, and the C:N ratio in tissue samples were influenced by higher concentrations of NH4 + . Rates of photosynthetic oxygen evolution were enhanced under elevated CO2 or NH4 +conditions, independently, but these two factors did not show an interactive effect. However, rates of NH4 +uptake were influenced by the interactive effect of increased CO2 under elevated NH4 +treatment. Although ocean acidification and eutrophication states had an impact on physiological performance, chlorophyll fluorescence was not affected by those conditions. Our results indicated that the physiological reactions by this alga were influenced to some extent by a rise in the levels of CO2 and NH4 + . Therefore, we expect that the biomass accumulation of S. japonica may well increase under future scenarios of ocean acidification and eutrophication.
Background Lonicera japonica Thunb. (Caprifoliaceae), a widely used traditional Chinese medicinal plant, is used to treat some infectious diseases and it may have uses as a healthy food and applications in cosmetics and as an ornamental groundcover. The ethanol extract of the flowering aerial parts of L. japonica (LJEE) was investigated for its healing efficiency in a rat excision wound model. Methods Excision wounds were inflicted upon three groups of eight rats each. Healing was assessed by the rate of wound contraction in skin wound sites in rats treated with simple ointment base, 10% (w/w) LJEE ointment, or the reference standard drug, 0.2% (w/w) nitrofurazone ointment. The effects of LJEE on the contents of hydroxyproline and hexosamine during healing were estimated. The antimicrobial activity of LJEE against microorganisms was also assessed. The in vivo anti-inflammatory activity of LJEE was investigated to understand the mechanism of wound healing. Results LJEE exhibited significant antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, and Candida tropicalis. The ointment formulation prepared with 10% (w/w) LJEE exhibited potent wound healing capacity as evidenced by the wound contraction in the excision wound model. The contents of hydroxyproline and hexosamine also correlated with the observed healing pattern. These findings were supported by the histopathological characteristics of healed wound sections, as greater tissue regeneration, more fibroblasts, and angiogenesis were observed in the 10% (w/w) LJEE ointment-treated group. The results also indicated that LJEE possesses potent anti-inflammatory activity, as it enhanced the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines that suppress proinflammatory cytokine production. Conclusions The results suggest that the antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities of LJEE act synergistically to accelerate wound repair. PMID:23173654
Feltus, F Alex; Wan, Jun; Schulze, Stefan R; Estill, James C; Jiang, Ning; Paterson, Andrew H
Dense coverage of the rice genome with polymorphic DNA markers is an invaluable tool for DNA marker-assisted breeding, positional cloning, and a wide range of evolutionary studies. We have aligned drafts of two rice subspecies, indica and japonica, and analyzed levels and patterns of genetic diversity. After filtering multiple copy and low quality sequence, 408,898 candidate DNA polymorphisms (SNPs/INDELs) were discerned between the two subspecies. These filters have the consequence that our data set includes only a subset of the available SNPs (in particular excluding large numbers of SNPs that may occur between repetitive DNA alleles) but increase the likelihood that this subset is useful: Direct sequencing suggests that 79.8% +/- 7.5% of the in silico SNPs are real. The SNP sample in our database is not randomly distributed across the genome. In fact, 566 rice genomic regions had unusually high (328 contigs/48.6 Mb/13.6% of genome) or low (237 contigs/64.7 Mb/18.1% of genome) polymorphism rates. Many SNP-poor regions were substantially longer than most SNP-rich regions, covering up to 4 Mb, and possibly reflecting introgression between the respective gene pools that may have occurred hundreds of years ago. Although 46.2% +/- 8.3% of the SNPs differentiate other pairs of japonica and indica genotypes, SNP rates in rice were not predictive of evolutionary rates for corresponding genes in another grass species, sorghum. The data set is freely available at http://www.plantgenome.uga.edu/snp.
Feltus, F. Alex; Wan, Jun; Schulze, Stefan R.; Estill, James C.; Jiang, Ning; Paterson, Andrew H.
Dense coverage of the rice genome with polymorphic DNA markers is an invaluable tool for DNA marker-assisted breeding, positional cloning, and a wide range of evolutionary studies. We have aligned drafts of two rice subspecies, indica and japonica, and analyzed levels and patterns of genetic diversity. After filtering multiple copy and low quality sequence, 408,898 candidate DNA polymorphisms (SNPs/INDELs) were discerned between the two subspecies. These filters have the consequence that our data set includes only a subset of the available SNPs (in particular excluding large numbers of SNPs that may occur between repetitive DNA alleles) but increase the likelihood that this subset is useful: Direct sequencing suggests that 79.8% ± 7.5% of the in silico SNPs are real. The SNP sample in our database is not randomly distributed across the genome. In fact, 566 rice genomic regions had unusually high (328 contigs/48.6 Mb/13.6% of genome) or low (237 contigs/64.7 Mb/18.1% of genome) polymorphism rates. Many SNP-poor regions were substantially longer than most SNP-rich regions, covering up to 4 Mb, and possibly reflecting introgression between the respective gene pools that may have occurred hundreds of years ago. Although 46.2% ± 8.3% of the SNPs differentiate other pairs of japonica and indica genotypes, SNP rates in rice were not predictive of evolutionary rates for corresponding genes in another grass species, sorghum. The data set is freely available at http://www.plantgenome.uga.edu/snp. PMID:15342564
Yang, Jingwen; Xu, Yuchao; Xu, Ke; Ping, Hongling; Shi, Huilai; Lü, Zhenming; Wu, Changwen; Wang, Tianming
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) has a pivotal role in the regulation of many physiological processes. In this study, the gene encoding a NPY receptor-like from the common Chinese cuttlefish Sepiella japonica (SjNPYR-like) was identified and characterized. The full-length SjNPYR-like cDNA was cloned containing a 492-bp of 5' untranslated region (UTR), 1 182 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a protein of 393 amino acid residues, and 228 bp of 3' UTR. The putative protein was predicted to have a molecular weight of 45.54 kDa and an isoelectric point (pI) of 8.13. By informatic analyses, SjNPYR-like was identified as belonging to the class A G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) family (the rhodopsin-type). The amino acid sequence contained 12 potential phosphorylation sites and five predicted N-linked glycosylation sites. Multiple sequence alignment and 3D structure modeling were conducted to clarify SjNPYR bioinformatics characteristics. Phylogenetic analysis identifies it as an NPYR with identity of 33% to Lymnaea stagnalis NPFR. Transmembrane properties of SjNPYR-like were demonstrated in vitro using HEK293 cells and the pEGFP-N1 plasmid. Relative quantification of SjNPYR-like mRNA level confirmed a high level expression and broad distribution of SjNPYR - like in various tissues of female S. japonica. In addition, the transcriptional profile of SjNPYR - like in the brain, liver, and ovary during gonadal development was analyzed. The results provide basic understanding on the molecular characteristics of SjNPYR-like and its potentially physical functions.
Native eelgrass, Zostera marina, occupies a significant portion of marine-dominated intertidal and near-subtidal sectors of many coastal estuaries. In recent decades an invasive congener, Z. japonica, has become established in many Pacific Northwest estuaries. We measured the h...
Wytynck, Pieter; Rougé, Pierre; Van Damme, Els J M
Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) are cytotoxic enzymes capable of halting protein synthesis by irreversible modification of ribosomes. Although RIPs are widespread they are not ubiquitous in the plant kingdom. The physiological importance of RIPs is not fully elucidated, but evidence suggests a role in the protection of the plant against biotic and abiotic stresses. Searches in the rice genome revealed a large and highly complex family of proteins with a RIP domain. A comparative analysis retrieved 38 RIP sequences from the genome sequence of Oryza sativa subspecies japonica and 34 sequences from the subspecies indica. The RIP sequences are scattered over different chromosomes but are mostly found on the third chromosome. The phylogenetic tree revealed the pairwise clustering of RIPs from japonica and indica. Molecular modeling and sequence analysis yielded information on the catalytic site of the enzyme, and suggested that a large part of RIP domains probably possess N-glycosidase activity. Several RIPs are differentially expressed in plant tissues and in response to specific abiotic stresses. This study provides an overview of RIP motifs in rice and will help to understand their biological role(s) and evolutionary relationships. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ono, H; Tesaki, S; Tanabe, S; Watanabe, M
Cruciferae plants, banana and coriander each showed antibacterial activity. The highest activity among the food-stuffs tested was found in the stems of wasabi. An ethereal extract from wasabi stems had potent antibacterial activity and we isolated the active compound from the extract. Instrumental analysis identified the compound as 6-methylsulfinylhexyl isothiocyanate. Some homologues of 6-methylsulfinylhexyl isothiocyanate were also active against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.
Poo, Kyung-Min; Son, Eun-Bi; Chang, Jae-Soo; Ren, Xianghao; Choi, Yun-Jung; Chae, Kyu-Jung
For the purpose of reusing wasted marine macro-algae generated during cultivation, harvesting, processing and selling processes, biochars derived from Saccharina japonica (known as kelp) and Sargassum fusiforme (known as hijikia) were characterized and their removal capacities for Cu, Cd, and Zn in aqueous solution were assessed. Feedstocks, S. japonica, S. fusiforme, and also pinewood sawdust as a control, were pyrolyzed at 250, 400, 500, 600 and 700 °C. In evaluating heavy metal removal capacities, SJB (S. japonica biochar) showed the best performance, with removal efficiencies of more than 98% for the three heavy metals when pyrolyzed at over 400 °C. SFB (S. fusiforme biochar) also showed good potential as an adsorbent, with removal efficiencies for the three heavy metals of more than 86% when pyrolyzed at over 500 °C. On the contrary, the maximum removal efficiencies of PSB (pinewood sawdust biochar) were 81%, 46%, and 47% for Cu, Cd, and Zn, respectively, even at 700 °C, the highest pyrolysis temperature. This demonstrates that marine macro-algae were advantageous in terms of production energy for removing heavy metals even at relatively low pyrolysis temperatures, compared with PSB. The excellent heavy metal adsorption capacities of marine macro-algae biochars were considered due to their higher pH and more oxygen-containing functional groups, although the specific surface areas of SJB and SFB were significantly lower than that of PSB. This research confirmed that the use of marine macro-algae as a heavy metal adsorbent was suitable not only in the removal of heavy metals, but also in terms of resource recycling and energy efficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Park, Jae-Woo; Bae, Hyunsu; Lee, Gihyun; Hong, Beom-Gi; Yoo, Hye Hyun; Lim, Sung-Jig; Lee, Kyungjin; Kim, Jinsung; Ryu, Bongha; Lee, Beom-Joon; Bae, Jinhyun; Lee, Hyejung; Bu, Youngmin
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronically relapsing inflammatory disorders of the intestine. Although some therapeutic agents, including steroids, are available for the treatment of IBD, these agents have limited use. Therefore, dietary supplements have emerged as possible interventions for IBD. Japanese honeysuckle flower, the flower of Lonicera japonica, is a well-known dietary supplement and has been used to prevent or treat various inflammatory diseases. In the present study, we investigated the effects of L. japonica on experimental murine colitis. Colitis was induced by 5 % dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) in Balb/c mice. The water extract of L. japonica (LJE) at doses of 20, 100 or 500 mg/kg was orally administered to mice twice per day for 7 d. Body weight, colon length and a histological damage score were assessed to determine the effects on colitis. Cytokine profiles were assessed to examine the effects on helper T (Th) cell-related immunological responses. In addition, CD4⁺CD25⁺Foxp3⁺T cells were analysed in vivo and in vitro for investigating the effects on regulatory T (Treg) cells. LJE showed dose-dependent inhibitory effects against colon shortening, weight loss and histological damage. LJE down-regulated IL-1β, TNF-α, interferon-γ, IL-6, IL-12 and IL-17. However, LJE did not show any significant effects on IL-10, IL-23, transforming growth factor-β1 and Treg cell populations. In conclusion, LJE showed protective effects against DSS-induced colitis via the Th1/Th17 pathway and not via Treg cell-related mechanisms.
Native eelgrass, Zostera marina, occupies a significant portion of marine-dominated intertidal and near-subtidal sectors of many coastal estuaries. In recent decades an invasive congener, Z. japonica, has become established in many Pacific Northwest estuaries. We measured the h...
Wang, Jingguo; Jiang, Tingbo; Zou, Detang; Zhao, Hongwei; Li, Qiang; Liu, Hualong; Zhou, Changjun
Genetic diversity and the relationship among nine japonica rice groups consisting of 288 landraces and varieties in different geographical origins of Northeast Asia (China, Japan, Korea, Democratic People's Republic of Korea) and the Russian Far East district of the Russian Federation were evaluated with 154 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. A total of 823 alleles were detected. The observed allele numbers (Na) per locus, Nei's gene diversity (He) and the polymorphism information content (PIC) ranged from 2 to 9, 0.061 to 0.869 and 0.060 to 0.856, with an average of 5.344, 0.624 and 0.586, respectively. Five SSR loci, RM1350, RM1369, RM257, RM336 and RM1374, provided the highest PIC values and are potential for exploring the genetic diversity of rice cultivars in Northeast Asia. Molecular variance analysis showed that a significant difference existed both among groups (91.6%) and within each group (8.4%). The low genetic variation within each group indicated that the gene pool is narrow and alien genetic variation should be introduced into the rice breeding program in Northeast Asia. Based on the He and PIC values, the nine groups were ranked in a descending order: Heilongjiang landraces, Jilin landraces, Japanese improved varieties, Heilongjiang improved varieties, Russian Far East district of the Russian Federation improved varieties, Liaoning improved varieties, Jilin improved varieties, Korean improved varieties and Democratic People's Republic of Korea improved varieties. The nine groups were further divided into three subgroups and the 288 varieties into five clusters. This study provided information for parent selection in order to broaden the gene pool of the japonica rice germplasm in Northeast Asia. PMID:26019508
Wang, Jingguo; Jiang, Tingbo; Zou, Detang; Zhao, Hongwei; Li, Qiang; Liu, Hualong; Zhou, Changjun
Genetic diversity and the relationship among nine japonica rice groups consisting of 288 landraces and varieties in different geographical origins of Northeast Asia (China, Japan, Korea, Democratic People's Republic of Korea) and the Russian Far East district of the Russian Federation were evaluated with 154 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. A total of 823 alleles were detected. The observed allele numbers (Na) per locus, Nei's gene diversity (He) and the polymorphism information content (PIC) ranged from 2 to 9, 0.061 to 0.869 and 0.060 to 0.856, with an average of 5.344, 0.624 and 0.586, respectively. Five SSR loci, RM1350, RM1369, RM257, RM336 and RM1374, provided the highest PIC values and are potential for exploring the genetic diversity of rice cultivars in Northeast Asia. Molecular variance analysis showed that a significant difference existed both among groups (91.6%) and within each group (8.4%). The low genetic variation within each group indicated that the gene pool is narrow and alien genetic variation should be introduced into the rice breeding program in Northeast Asia. Based on the He and PIC values, the nine groups were ranked in a descending order: Heilongjiang landraces, Jilin landraces, Japanese improved varieties, Heilongjiang improved varieties, Russian Far East district of the Russian Federation improved varieties, Liaoning improved varieties, Jilin improved varieties, Korean improved varieties and Democratic People's Republic of Korea improved varieties. The nine groups were further divided into three subgroups and the 288 varieties into five clusters. This study provided information for parent selection in order to broaden the gene pool of the japonica rice germplasm in Northeast Asia.
Tsubomura, Miyoko; Kurita, Manabu; Watanabe, Atsushi
The molecular mechanisms that control male strobilus development in conifers are largely unknown because the developmental stages and related genes have not yet been characterized. The determination of male strobilus developmental stages will contribute to genetic research and reproductive biology in conifers. Our objectives in this study were to determine the developmental stages of male strobili by cytological and transcriptome analysis, and to determine the stages at which aberrant morphology is observed in a male-sterile mutant of Cryptomeria japonica D. Don to better understand the molecular mechanisms that control male strobilus and pollen development. Male strobilus development was observed for 8 months, from initiation to pollen dispersal. A set of 19,209 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) collected from a male reproductive library and a pollen library was used for microarray analysis. We divided male strobilus development into 10 stages by cytological and transcriptome analysis. Eight clusters (7324 ESTs) exhibited major changes in transcriptome profiles during male strobili and pollen development in C. japonica Two clusters showed a gradual increase and decline in transcript abundance, respectively, while the other six clusters exhibited stage-specific changes. The stages at which the male sterility trait of Sosyun was expressed were identified using information on male strobilus and pollen developmental stages and gene expression profiles. Aberrant morphology was observed cytologically at Stage 6 (microspore stage), and differences in expression patterns compared with wild type were observed at Stage 4 (tetrad stage). © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Wei, Hai-Yan; Wang, Ya-Jiang; Meng, Tian-Yao; Ge, Meng-Jie; Zhang, Hong-Cheng; Dai, Qi-Gen; Huo, Zhong-Yang; Xu, Ke
Five super japonica rice cultivars were grown by mechanical transplanting in field and seven N treatments with total N application rate of 0, 150, 187.5, 225, 262.5, 300 and 337.5 kg x hm(-2) respectively were adopted to study the effects of N rate on rice yield, quality and N use efficiency. The differences between N requirement for obtaining the highest yield and for achieving the best economic benefit were compared. With the increase of N fertilizer rate, the yields of five super japonica rice cultivars increased firstly and then descended, achieving the highest yield at the N level of 300 kg x hm(-2) ranging from 10.33-10.60 kg x hm(-2). Yield increase mainly attributed to the large number of spikelet, for the total spikelet number of each rice cultivar reached the maximum value at the 300 kg x hm(-2) N level. With the increase of N application, the rates of brown rice, milled rice, head milled rice and the protein content of the five super japonica rice cultivars were all increased, and the rates of brown rice, milled rice, head milled rice and the protein con- tent were higher at 337.5 kg x hm(-2) N level than at 0 kg x hm(-2) N level by 3.3%-4.2%, 2.9%-6.0%, 4.4%-33.7% and 23.8%-44.3%, respectively. While the amylose content, gel consistency and taste value of the five rice cultivars were all decreased, and the amylose content, gel consistency and taste value were lower at 337.5 kg x hm(-2) N level than at 0 kg x hm(-2) N level by 12.4%-38.9%, 10.3%-28.5% and 20.3%-29.7%, respectively. The chalkiness increased firstly and then decreased while the change of chalky rate varied with the cultivars. With the increase of N application, the N use efficiency, agronomic N use efficiency and physiological N use efficiency decreased while the N uptake of grain increased significantly. If the cost of N fertilizer was taken into account, the N fertilizer amount to obtain the optimal economic benefits would be 275.68 kg x hm(-2) with the corresponding yield of 9.97 t x hm
Background High-density linkage maps facilitate the mapping of target genes and the construction of partial linkage maps around target loci to develop markers for marker-assisted selection (MAS). MAS is quite challenging in conifers because of their large, complex, and poorly-characterized genomes. Our goal was to construct a high-density linkage map to facilitate the identification of markers that are tightly linked to a major recessive male-sterile gene (ms1) for MAS in C. japonica, a species that is important in Japanese afforestation but which causes serious social pollinosis problems. Results We constructed a high-density saturated genetic linkage map for C. japonica using expressed sequence-derived co-dominant single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers, most of which were genotyped using the GoldenGate genotyping assay. A total of 1261 markers were assigned to 11 linkage groups with an observed map length of 1405.2 cM and a mean distance between two adjacent markers of 1.1 cM; the number of linkage groups matched the basic chromosome number in C. japonica. Using this map, we located ms1 on the 9th linkage group and constructed a partial linkage map around the ms1 locus. This enabled us to identify a marker (hrmSNP970_sf) that is closely linked to the ms1 gene, being separated from it by only 0.5 cM. Conclusions Using the high-density map, we located the ms1 gene on the 9th linkage group and constructed a partial linkage map around the ms1 locus. The map distance between the ms1 gene and the tightly linked marker was only 0.5 cM. The identification of markers that are tightly linked to the ms1 gene will facilitate the early selection of male-sterile trees, which should expedite C. japonica breeding programs aimed at alleviating pollinosis problems without harming productivity. PMID:22424262
Li, Qingyuan; Lei, Sheng; Du, Kebing; Li, Lizhi; Pang, Xufeng; Wang, Zhanchang; Wei, Ming; Fu, Shao; Hu, Limin; Xu, Lin
Camellia is a well-known ornamental flower native to Southeast of Asia, including regions such as Japan, Korea and South China. However, most species in the genus Camellia are cold sensitive. To elucidate the cold stress responses in camellia plants, we carried out deep transcriptome sequencing of ‘Jiangxue’, a cold-tolerant cultivar of Camellia japonica, and approximately 1,006 million clean reads were generated using Illumina sequencing technology. The assembly of the clean reads produced 367,620 transcripts, including 207,592 unigenes. Overall, 28,038 differentially expressed genes were identified during cold acclimation. Detailed elucidation of responses of transcription factors, protein kinases and plant hormone signalling-related genes described the interplay of signal that allowed the plant to fine-tune cold stress responses. On the basis of global gene regulation of unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis- and jasmonic acid biosynthesis-related genes, unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis and jasmonic acid biosynthesis pathways were deduced to be involved in the low temperature responses in C. japonica. These results were supported by the determination of the fatty acid composition and jasmonic acid content. Our results provide insights into the genetic and molecular basis of the responses to cold acclimation in camellia plants. PMID:27819341
Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Matsushima, Kyoji; Takahashi, Takayuki; Nagahama, Yuki; Hasegawa, Satoki; Sano, Marie; Hirayama, Ryuji; Kakue, Takashi; Ito, Tomoyoshi
We propose a large-scale hologram calculation using WAvelet ShrinkAge-Based superpositIon (WASABI), a wavelet transform-based algorithm. An image-type hologram calculated using the WASABI method is printed on a glass substrate with the resolution of 65 , 536 × 65 , 536 pixels and a pixel pitch of 1 μm. The hologram calculation time amounts to approximately 354 s on a commercial CPU, which is approximately 30 times faster than conventional methods.
Ma, An-ning; Ni, Hong; Wang, Wan-xian; Zhang, Yun; Geng, Peng
To study the attraction effect of the food attractants on Oncomelania hupensis. Oncomelania snail food was prepared with the fermented kelp (Laminaria japonica) mixed with corn starch. Snails were fed with the food and kept for 12, 24, 36, and 48 h at 15, 25, 35 degrees C respectively. Meanwhile, snail-killing effect was tested by granules containing jack-in-the-pulpit (Arisama heterophyllum) with or without the fermented kelp under the condition of 25 degrees C, 30% or 60% soil humidity. The snail-attracting rate of the fermented kelp was affected by the temperature, highest under 25 degrees C and lowest under 35 degrees C at any time point, with a rate of 80.3% in 48 h at 25 degrees C which was higher than that of the control (17.0%) (P<0.01). The snail mortality rate in the group using jack-in-the-pulpit with fermented kelp (85.3%) was higher than that of the group without fermented kelp (26.8%) (P<0.05). The mortality under 60% of soil humidity was higher than that under 30% humidity (P<0.01). The fermented kelp shows a strong luring effect to the Oncomelania snails.
Li, Qiang-Ming; Luo, Jian-Guang; Yang, Ming-Hua; Kong, Ling-Yi
A new sesquiterpenoid, 1, and three new diterpenoids, 3-5, along with five known compounds, 2 and 6-9, were isolated from rhizomes of Alpinia japonica. The structures of the new compounds were determined as (1R,4R,6S,7S,9S)-4α-hydroxy-1,9-peroxybisabola-2,10-diene (1), methyl (12E)-16-oxolabda-8(17),12-dien-15-oate (3), (12R)-15-ethoxy-12-hydroxylabda-8(17),13(14)-dien-16,15-olide (4), and methyl (11E)-14,15,16-trinorlabda-8(17),11-dien-13-oate (5) by means of spectroscopic data. The absolute configurations at C(4) in 1 and C(12) in 4 were deduced from the circular dichroism (CD) data of the in situ-formed [Rh2 (CF3 COO)4 ] complexes. Inhibitory effects of the isolates on NO production in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW264.7 macrophages were evaluated, and 2-4, 6, and 7 were found to exhibit inhibitory activities with IC50 values between 14.6 and 34.3 μM. Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.
Elloumi, Nada; Zouari, Mohamed; Mezghani, Imed; Ben Abdallah, Ferjani; Woodward, Steve; Kallel, Monem
The biochemical and physiological effects of fluoride were investigated in loquat trees (Eriobotrya japonica) grown in the vicinity of a phosphate fertilizer plant in Tunisia. Photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), transpiration rate (E), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were assessed; along with photosynthetic pigments, lipid peroxidation, electrolytic leakage (EL) and total phenolic contents in foliage and roots of trees at different distances from the phosphate fertilizer plant. All assessed parameters showed significant discrepancies in comparison with unpolluted sites. Obtained results showed high oxidative stress indices including H 2 O 2 , lipid peroxidation, and EL, SOD, CAT and GPx activities and proline contents in leaves and roots at the polluted sites as compared to control. In contrast, leaf Pn, Gs, E and photosynthetic pigment contents were low as compared to the control. These results indicate that even though antioxidant responses increased near the factory, adverse effects on physiology were pronounced.
Kakegawa, Tomohito; Miyazaki, Aya; Yasukawa, Ken
We aimed to investigate the bioactive components of Alpinia japonica as anti-inflammatory compounds using searches of the Alpinia genus, and subsequently demonstrated that alpinone 3-acetate markedly inhibits 12-O-tetradecanoyiphorbol 13-acetate-induced inflammation in a mouse model of ear edema. To assess other bioactivities of alpinone 3-acetate, we performed translatome analyses and compared them with those of hydrocortisone. Polysome-associated mRNAs were prepared from alpinone 3-acetate- or hydrocortisone-treated and control cells from 12-O-tetradecanoyiphorbol 13-acetate-induced THP-1-derived macrophages cultured in the presence of Escherichia coli O-111 lipopolysaccharide. Subsequent microarray analysis revealed that alpinone 3-acetate and hydrocortisone upregulated and downregulated the same 155 and 41 genes, respectively. Moreover, direct comparisons of translationally regulated genes indicated 5 and 10 gene probes that were upregulated and downregulated by alpinone 3-acetate and hydrocortisone, respectively. In conclusion, assays of 12-O-tetradecanoyiphorbol 13-acetate-induced inflammation ear edema in mice and polysome profiling of alpinone 3-acetate bioactivities indicated similar medicinal possibilities to those of hydrocortisone.
Liu, Yilong; Zhang, Wenna; Xu, Changjie; Li, Xian
Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) is a subtropical fruit tree with high medicinal value native to China. Different organs of loquat have been used historically as folk medicines and this has been recorded in Chinese history for thousands of years. Research shows that loquat extracts contain many antioxidants, and different extracts exhibit bioactivity capable of counteracting inflammation, diabetes, cancer, bacterial infection, aging, pain, allergy and other health issues. Bioactive compounds such as phenolics and terpenoids have been isolated and characterized to provide a better understanding of the chemical mechanisms underlying the biological activities of loquat extracts. As the identification of compounds progresses, studies investigating the in vivo metabolism, bioavailability, and structure–activity relationships, as well as potential toxicity of loquat extracts in animal or cell models are receiving more attention. In addition, genetic studies and breeding of loquat germplasms for high contents of health-benefiting compounds may provide new insight for the loquat industry and research. This review is focused on the main medicinal properties reported and the possible pharmaceutically active compounds identified in different loquat extracts. PMID:27929430
Chi, Xiaoyuan; Su, Peng; Bi, Dan; Tai, Zhao; Li, Yingying; Pang, Yue; Li, Qingwei
The lamprey (Lampetra japonica), a representative of the jawless vertebrates, is the oldest extant species in the world. LIP-1, which has a jacalin-like domain and an aerolysin pore-forming domain, has previously been identified in Lampetra japonica. However, the structure and function of the LIP-1 protein have not been described. In this study, the LIP-1 gene was overexpressed in HeLa cells and H293T cells. The results showed that the overexpression of LIP-1 in HeLa cells significantly elevated LDH release (P < 0.05), phosphatidylserine exposure and ROS accumulation. The overexpression of LIP-1 also had remarkable effects on the organelles in HeLa cells, while it had no effect on H293T cell organelles. Array data indicated that overexpression of LIP-1 primarily upregulated P53 signaling pathways in HeLa cells. Cell cycle assay results confirmed that LIP-1 caused arrest in the G 2 /M phase of the cell cycle in HeLa cells. In summary, our findings provide insights into the function and characterization of LIP-1 genes in vertebrates and establish the foundation for further research into the biological function of LIP-1. Our observations suggest that this lamprey protein has the potential for use in new applications in the medical field. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Nakamura, Seikou; Fujimoto, Katsuyoshi; Nakashima, Souichi; Matsumoto, Takahiro; Miura, Tomoko; Uno, Kaoru; Matsuda, Hisashi; Yoshikawa, Masayuki
Four acylated oleanane-type triterpene oligoglycosides, sanchakasaponins E-H, were isolated from the flower buds of Camellia japonica cultivated in Yunnan province, China, together with four known triterpene oligoglycosides. The chemical structures of the new triterpene oligoglycosides were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence. The inhibitory effects of the triterpene oligoglycoside constituents on melanogenesis in theophylline-stimulated B16 melanoma 4A5 cells were investigated.
Patra, Jayanta Kumar; Das, Gitishree; Baek, Kwang-Hyun
Laminaria japonica L. is among the most commonly consumed seaweeds in northeast Asia. In the present study, L. japonica essential oil (LJEO) was extracted by microwave-hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy. LJEO contained 21 volatile compounds, comprising 99.76% of the total volume of the essential oil, primarily tetradeconoic acid (51.75%), hexadecanoic acid (16.57%), (9Z,12Z)-9,12-Octadecadienoic acid (12.09%), and (9Z)-hexadec-9-enoic acid (9.25%). Evaluation of the antibacterial potential against three foodborne pathogens, Bacillus cereus ATCC 10876, Escherichia coli O157:H7 ATCC 43890, and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 49444, revealed that LJEO at a concentration of 25 mg/paper disc exerted high antibacterial activity against S. aureus (11.5 ± 0.58 mm inhibition zone) and B. cereus (10.5 ± 0.57 mm inhibition zone), but no inhibition of E. coli O157:H7. LJEO also displayed DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging activity (80.45%), superoxide anion scavenging activity (54.03%), and ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical and hydroxyl radical scavenging at 500 µg/mL. Finally, LJEO showed high inhibition of lipid peroxidation with strong reducing power. In conclusion, LJEO from edible seaweed is an inexpensive but favorable resource with strong antibacterial capacity as well as free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity; therefore, it has the potential for use in the food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries.
Azuma, Wakana; Nakashima, Satoru; Yamakita, Eri; Ishii, H Roaki; Kuroda, Keiko
Recent studies in the tallest tree species suggest that physiological and anatomical traits of tree-top leaves are adapted to water-limited conditions. In order to examine water retention mechanism of leaves in a tall tree, infrared (IR) micro-spectroscopy was conducted on mature leaf cross-sections of tall Cryptomeria japonica D. Don from four different heights (51, 43, 31 and 19 m). We measured IR transmission spectra and mainly analyzed OH (3700-3000 cm-1) and C-O (1190-845 cm-1) absorption bands, indicating water molecules and sugar groups, respectively. The changes in IR spectra of leaf sections from different heights were compared with bulk-leaf hydraulics. Both average OH band area of the leaf sections and leaf water content were larger in the upper-crown, while osmotic potential at saturation did not vary with height, suggesting higher dissolved sugar contents of upper-crown leaves. As cell-wall is the main cellular structure of leaves, we inferred that larger average C-O band area of upper-crown leaves reflected higher content of structural polysaccharides such as cellulose, hemicellulose and pectin. Infrared micro-spectroscopic imaging showed that the OH and C-O band areas are large in the vascular bundle, transfusion tissue and epidermis. Infrared spectra of individual tissue showed that much more water is retained in vascular bundle and transfusion tissue than mesophyll. These results demonstrate that IR micro-spectroscopy is a powerful tool for visualizing detailed, quantitative information on the spatial distribution of chemical substances within plant tissues, which cannot be done using conventional methods like histochemical staining. The OH band could be well reproduced by four Gaussian OH components around 3530 (free water: long H bond), 3410 (pectin-like OH species), 3310 (cellulose-like OH species) and 3210 (bound water: short H bond) cm-1, and all of these OH components were higher in the upper crown while their relative proportions did not
Xu, Jun-Fang; Xu, Jing; Li, Shi-Zhu; Jia, Tia-Wu; Huang, Xi-Bao; Zhang, Hua-Ming; Chen, Mei; Yang, Guo-Jing; Gao, Shu-Jing; Wang, Qing-Yun; Zhou, Xiao-Nong
Background The transmission of schistosomiasis japonica in a local setting is still poorly understood in the lake regions of the People's Republic of China (P. R. China), and its transmission patterns are closely related to human, social and economic factors. Methodology/Principal Findings We aimed to apply the integrated approach of artificial neural network (ANN) and logistic regression model in assessment of transmission risks of Schistosoma japonicum with epidemiological data collected from 2339 villagers from 1247 households in six villages of Jiangling County, P.R. China. By using the back-propagation (BP) of the ANN model, 16 factors out of 27 factors were screened, and the top five factors ranked by the absolute value of mean impact value (MIV) were mainly related to human behavior, i.e. integration of water contact history and infection history, family with past infection, history of water contact, infection history, and infection times. The top five factors screened by the logistic regression model were mainly related to the social economics, i.e. village level, economic conditions of family, age group, education level, and infection times. The risk of human infection with S. japonicum is higher in the population who are at age 15 or younger, or with lower education, or with the higher infection rate of the village, or with poor family, and in the population with more than one time to be infected. Conclusion/Significance Both BP artificial neural network and logistic regression model established in a small scale suggested that individual behavior and socioeconomic status are the most important risk factors in the transmission of schistosomiasis japonica. It was reviewed that the young population (≤15) in higher-risk areas was the main target to be intervened for the disease transmission control. PMID:23556015
Stefanowicz, Anna M; Stanek, Małgorzata; Nobis, Marcin; Zubek, Szymon
Biological invasions are an important problem of human-induced changes at a global scale. Invasive plants can modify soil nutrient pools and element cycling, creating feedbacks that potentially stabilize current or accelerate further invasion, and prevent re-establishment of native species. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of Reynoutria japonica, Rudbeckia laciniata and Solidago gigantea, invading non-forest areas located within or outside river valleys, on soil physical and chemical parameters, including soil moisture, element concentrations, organic matter content and pH. Additionally, invasion effects on plant species number and total plant cover were assessed. The concentrations of elements in shoots and roots of invasive and native plants were also measured. Split-plot ANOVA revealed that the invasions significantly reduced plant species number, but did not affect most soil physical and chemical properties. The invasions decreased total P concentration and increased N-NO 3 concentration in soil in comparison to native vegetation, though the latter only in the case of R. japonica. The influence of invasion on soil properties did not depend on location (within- or outside valleys). The lack of invasion effects on most soil properties does not necessarily imply the lack of influence of invasive plants, but may suggest that the direction of the changes varies among replicate sites and there are no general patterns of invasion-induced alterations for these parameters. Tissue element concentrations, with the exception of Mg, did not differ between invasive and native plants, and were not related to soil element concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bandillo, Nonoy; Al Shiblawi, Fouad Razzaq A.; Liu, Kan; Du, Qian; Zhang, Chi; Véry, Anne-Aliénor; Lorenz, Aaron J.; Walia, Harkamal
Salinity is a major factor limiting crop productivity. Rice (Oryza sativa), a staple crop for the majority of the world, is highly sensitive to salinity stress. To discover novel sources of genetic variation for salt tolerance-related traits in rice, we screened 390 diverse accessions under 14 days of moderate (9 dS·m-1) salinity. In this study, shoot growth responses to moderate levels of salinity were independent of tissue Na+ content. A significant difference in root Na+ content was observed between the major subpopulations of rice, with indica accessions displaying higher root Na+ and japonica accessions exhibiting lower root Na+ content. The genetic basis of the observed variation in phenotypes was elucidated through genome-wide association (GWA). The strongest associations were identified for root Na+:K+ ratio and root Na+ content in a region spanning ~575 Kb on chromosome 4, named Root Na+ Content 4 (RNC4). Two Na+ transporters, HKT1;1 and HKT1;4 were identified as candidates for RNC4. Reduced expression of both HKT1;1 and HKT1;4 through RNA interference indicated that HKT1;1 regulates shoot and root Na+ content, and is likely the causal gene underlying RNC4. Three non-synonymous mutations within HKT1;1 were present at higher frequency in the indica subpopulation. When expressed in Xenopus oocytes the indica-predominant isoform exhibited higher inward (negative) currents and a less negative voltage threshold of inward rectifying current activation compared to the japonica-predominant isoform. The introduction of a 4.5kb fragment containing the HKT1;1 promoter and CDS from an indica variety into a japonica background, resulted in a phenotype similar to the indica subpopulation, with higher root Na+ and Na+:K+. This study provides evidence that HKT1;1 regulates root Na+ content, and underlies the divergence in root Na+ content between the two major subspecies in rice. PMID:28582424
Zeng, Jin; Wang, Hong; Jia, Xue-mei; Li, Cui-ying; Li, Fei
To investigate the therapeutic efficacy of ginsenoside Rg3 on hepatic fibrosis in murine schistosomiasis japonica. 54 ICR-strain male mice were divided into 4 groups named as normal control group (A), infected control group (B), praziquantel+Rg3 treated group (C) and praziquantel treated group (D). There were 12 mice in each group, but 18 in group A. Mice in groups B, C, and D were infected with 20 +/- 2 cercariae of Schistosoma japonicum. At ten weeks post-infection, 10 mice of group A and 12 mice of group B were weighed and sacrificed. Specimens from left hepatic lobes were taken and fixed in 10% formaldehyde solution. Mice in groups C and D were treated intragastrically with praziquantel at a single dose of 300 mg/kg. At the second day after praziquantel treatment, each mouse in group C was given 3 mg/(kg x d) ginsenoside Rg3 for 8 weeks. The rest mice were sacrificed on 8 weeks after treatment, and liver tissue samples from left hepatic lobes were prepared. The histological changes and collagen fiber deposition in the liver tissue sections were observed with hematoxylin-eosin staining and van gieson staining. Liver fibrosis was graded according to semi-quantitative scoring system (SSS) method. In group B, many eggs deposited in the hepatic lobules and portal areas, and eosinophilic abscesses and pseudo-tubercles developed in the liver, especially common in portal areas. There were many fibre hyperplasia and deposit inside abbacy and liver flocculus. Pipestem fibrosis formed around the portal areas, and some cord-like fibres extended into hepatic lobules, and formed in the fibrous septa. After 8-week treatment with ginsenoside Rg3, in group C, the livers were initially enlarged, firm and dust-color; and the degree of hepatomegaly varied from mild to marked; but the degree of fibre hyperplasia and inflammatory infiltration were mitigated compared with that of group B. Mean percentage of collagen area in group C [(2.32 +/- 0.99)%] was lower than that of groups B
Yang, Wenjing; Wang, Qihui; Xu, Ke; Yin, Yanjun; Bao, Hebin; Li, Xueming; Niu, Lidan; Chen, Shiqi
The biodegradable inhibitors, which could effectively reduce the rate of corrosion of carbon steel, were investigated by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The mixed-type inhibitors extracted from Eriobotrya japonica Thunb. leaf exhibited excellent inhibition performance, and the inhibition efficiency for carbon steel reached 90.0% at 298 K in hydrochloric acid. Moreover, the adsorption mechanism of the inhibitors on a carbon steel surface is described by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Simultaneously, the corrosion morphology of the carbon steel and the inhibitor structure were analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), respectively. PMID:28812993
Yang, Wenjing; Wang, Qihui; Xu, Ke; Yin, Yanjun; Bao, Hebin; Li, Xueming; Niu, Lidan; Chen, Shiqi
The biodegradable inhibitors, which could effectively reduce the rate of corrosion of carbon steel, were investigated by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The mixed-type inhibitors extracted from Eriobotrya japonica Thunb. leaf exhibited excellent inhibition performance, and the inhibition efficiency for carbon steel reached 90.0% at 298 K in hydrochloric acid. Moreover, the adsorption mechanism of the inhibitors on a carbon steel surface is described by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Simultaneously, the corrosion morphology of the carbon steel and the inhibitor structure were analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), respectively.
Qian, Shuguang; Fujii, Takeshi; Ito, Katsuhiko; Nakano, Ryo; Ishikawa, Yukio
Sex pheromones of moths are largely classified into two types based on the presence (Type I) or absence (Type II) of a terminal functional group. While Type-I sex pheromones are synthesized from common fatty acids in the pheromone gland (PG), Type-II sex pheromones are derived from hydrocarbons produced presumably in the oenocytes and transported to the PG via the hemolymph. Recently, a fatty acid transport protein (BmFATP) was identified from the PG of the silkworm Bombyx mori, which produces a Type-I sex pheromone (bombykol). BmFATP was shown to facilitate the uptake of extracellular fatty acids into PG cells for the synthesis of bombykol. To elucidate the presence and function of FATP in the PG of moths that produce Type-II sex pheromones, we explored fatp homologues expressed in the PG of a lichen moth, Eilema japonica, which secretes an alkenyl sex pheromone (Type II). A fatp homologue cloned from E. japonica (Ejfatp) was predominantly expressed in the PG, and its expression is upregulated shortly after eclosion. Functional expression of EjFATP in Escherichia coli enhanced the uptake of long chain fatty acids (C₁₈ and C₂₀), but not pheromone precursor hydrocarbons. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the cloning and functional characterization of a FATP in the PG of a moth producing a Type-II sex pheromone. Although EjFATP is not likely to be involved in the uptake of pheromone precursors in E. japonica, the expression pattern of Ejfatp suggests a role for EjFATP in the PG not directly linked to pheromone biosynthesis. Copyright Â© 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Deng, Yunyan; Yao, Jianting; Fu, Gang; Guo, Hui; Duan, Delin
Photosynthetic stramenopile have chloroplasts of secondary endosymbiotic origin and are significant as aquatic primary productivity and biomass production. In marine environments, many photosynthetic stramenopiles utilize blue light to regulate growth, development, and organelle movement. Aureochrome (AUREO) is a new type blue light photoreceptor specific in photosynthetic stramenopiles. Previously, several AUREO orthologs were reported in genomes of stramenopile members, but the full-length cDNA sequences were completed only in Vaucheria frigida (Xanthophyceae), Fucus distichus (Phaeophyceae), and Ochromonas danica (Chrysophyceae). In this study, the full-length cDNA of AUREO from Saccharina japonica (designated as SjAUREO) was isolated based on homologous cloning and the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). It characterized by the full length of 1,013 bp with an open reading frame of 612 bp, which encoded a polypeptide of 203 amino acids with predicted molecular weight of 23.08 kDa and theoretical isoelectric point of 7.63. The deduced amino acid sequence of SjAUREO contained one N-terminal basic region/leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription regulation domain and a single light-, oxygen-, or voltage-sensitive (LOV) domain near the C-terminus. Homologous analysis showed that SjAUREO shared 40-92 % similarities with those of other photosynthetic stramenopiles. Phylogenetic analysis revealed close phylogenetic affinity between SjAUREO and AUREO4 of brown alga Ectocarpus siliculosus. Real-time PCR detection revealed that the SjAUREO transcription was markedly increased under BL exposure and dramatically upregulated in the 1-month juvenile sporophyte than those in the 2 and 3-month materials, which indirectly reflected the SjAUREO associated with the BL-mediated photomorphogenesis during the growth and early development of juvenile sporophytes. In vitro expression showed one distinct band existed at ∼27 kDa, and western blot detection proved that it was
Shimasaki, Yohei; Oshima, Yuji; Inoue, Suguru; Inoue, Yoshiyuki; Kang, Ik Joon; Nakayama, Kei; Imoto, Hisaya; Honjo, Tsuneo
We examined the effect of tributyltin (TBT) on reproduction in the Japanese whiting, Sillago japonica. Mature fish were placed in indoor 500-L polyethylene tanks (five males and three females per tank) with a flow-through system and received dietary exposure to tributyltin oxide at concentrations of 2, 20, or 200 microg/g for 30 days during the active spawning period. Eggs spawned from the fish were collected daily, and the floating egg rate, larval deformity, hatchability, and viable hatch were monitored. TBT concentration in eggs of 200-microg/g group ranged from 85.0 to 159.6 ng/g in the evaluation period (days 5-30). In this period, the floating egg rate (83.2%), viable hatchability (82.2%), and total number of viable larvae (422,000 larvae per 100 g of female) were all significantly decreased in the 200-microg/g group compared with the control group (93.0%, 91.9%, and 709,000 larvae, respectively). The rate of deformity (2.6%) in the 200-microg/g group was about three times that in the control group (0.8%), although this difference was not significant. From these results, the lowest observed effect concentration of TBT in eggs on reproduction in Japanese whiting was estimated to be less than 159.6 ng/g-eggs.
Pilgrim, Erik M.; Blum, Michael J.; Reusser, Deborah A.; Lee, Henry; Darling, John A.
Reconstructing the invasion history of aquatic invasive species can enhance understanding of invasion risks by recognizing areas most susceptible to invasion and forecasting future spread based on past patterns of population expansion. Here we reconstruct the invasion history of the Japanese amphipod Grandidierella japonica Stephensen 1938 combining information from historical collection data with molecular genetic data to better understand post-invasion range expansion and anthropogenic connectivity across the Pacific coast of North America. Compilation of collection data from bays and estuaries of the Pacific North American coast show many new localities have been colonized in the last two decades, moving outward from harbors and bays with high commercial traffic into smaller coastal locations dominated by local recreational traffic. DNA barcode sequence data for G. japonica reveals two distinct clades: one found in San Francisco Bay and sites to the north, and one also found in San Francisco Bay and sites to the south. The two clades differ by an average 7.28 % genetic distance, large enough to consider these invasive amphipods two separate species. Both northern and southern clades exhibit low levels of genetic diversity, suggesting a single introduction event for each. The presence of cryptic diversity within this invasive amphipod highlights the need for more extensive study of the invasive and native populations of aquatic invasive invertebrates to address questions of taxonomy, diversity, and invasion history.
Li, Xiaojie; Cong, Yizhou; Yang, Guanpin; Shi, Yuanyuan; Qu, Shancun; Li, Zhiling; Wang, Guowen; Zhang, Zhuangzhi; Luo, Shiju; Dai, Hongliang; Xie, Jianzu; Jiang, Guangliang; Liu, Jialiang; Wang, Tongyong
Direct cultivation of the first filial generation of gametophyte clones from different Laminaria species is a highly effective way of utilizing kelp heterozygous vigor (heterosis). A male gametophyte clone of L. longissima Miyabe and a female one of L. japonica Areschoug were hybridized, generating Dongfang No. 2 hybrid kelp. This hybrid kelp was used directly in trial cultivation, and its agronomical traits were evaluated. L. longissima and L. japonica are obviously different and complement each other in their morphological characteristics and ecological performances. The hybrid of their gametophyte clones, Dongfang No. 2, showed 56.8% heterozygous vigor in yield. It also showed increased yields of 41.0 and 76.4% compared to the widely used commercial kelps Variety 1 and Variety 2, respectively. In large-scale cultivation trials at different locations and in different years, Dongfang No. 2 attained significantly higher yields than Varieties 1 and 2, increasing yield by 26.4% on average over Variety 1 and by 65.0% over the other. Dongfang No. 2 has a robust holdfast and a wide, long and deep-brown uniform blade, which shows a distinct middle groove. In addition to yield, Dongfang No. 2 also demonstrates obvious heterozygous vigor in other agronomic traits. It is resistant to strong irradiance, as the two commercial varieties are, has an appropriate vegetative maturation time, and adapts well to a range of different culture conditions. The parentage analysis using AFLP of total DNA and SNP of the ITS region of ribosomal RNA transcription unit showed that Dongfang No. 2 is the real hybrid of L. japonica and L. longissima.
Fukushi, Tsukasa; Wehner, Rüdiger
Wood ants Formica japonica can steer their outbound (foraging) and inbound (homing) courses without using celestial compass information, by relying exclusively on landmark cues. This is shown by training ants to run back and forth between the nest and an artificial feeder, and later displacing the trained ants either from the nest (when starting their foraging runs: outbound full-vector ants) or from the feeder (when starting their home runs: inbound full-vector ants) to various nearby release sites. In addition, ants that have already completed their foraging and homing runs are displaced after arrival either at the feeder (outbound zero-vector ants) or at the nest (inbound zero-vector ants), respectively, to the very same release sites. Upon release, the full-vector ants steer their straight courses by referring to panoramic landmark cues, while the zero-vector ants presented with the very same visual scenery immediately search for local landmark cues defining their final goal. Hence, it depends on the context, in this case on the state of the forager's round-trip cycle, what visual cues are picked out from a given set of landmarks and used for navigation.
Huo, Liping; Bao, Miaomiao; Lv, Zhenming; Chi, Changfeng; Wang, Tianming; Liu, Huihui
Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) is an adaptor protein involved in the interleukin-1 receptor and Toll-like receptor-induced activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). In this study a novel isoform of MyD88 in Sepiella japonica (SjMyD88) was cloned and functionally characterized (GenBank accession no. AQY56781.1). The complete cDNA sequence of SjMyD88 was 1912 bp and contained a 1017 bp open reading frame encoding 338 amino acid residues, which was similar to its mollusk orthologues in the length. BLASTp analysis suggested the deduced amino acids sequence of SjMyD88 shared high identity to the known MyD88, for instance, 64% identity with Octopus bimaculoides. Sequence analysis revealed two conserved domains, the N-terminal DD and the C-terminal TIR domain appeared in SjMyD88, which was consistent with MyD88 proteins from other species. The fusion expression of SjMyD88 and green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in HEK293 cells was conducted and cytoplasm localization was detected. Meanwhile, the TIR-pmCherry fusion protein showed red fluorescence and mainly distributed in the cytoplasm. After cotransfection MyD88-EGFP and TIR-pmCherry red obviously overlapped and changed to yellowish green. The results suggested that there was the interaction between homologous TIR-pmcherry and MyD88-EGFP. Tissues expression profiles analysis showed that SjMyD88 ubiquitously expressed in all tested tissues with the highest expression in the gills and livers except reproductive related tissue, and it was significantly induced in livers under LPS stress. These data provide insight into the roles of SjMyD88 in the TLR signaling pathway of S. japonica in response to pathogenic bacteria. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
An Efficient Method for the Preparative Isolation and Purification of Flavonoid Glycosides and Caffeoylquinic Acid Derivatives from Leaves of Lonicera japonica Thunb. Using High Speed Counter-Current Chromatography (HSCCC) and Prep-HPLC Guided by DPPH-HPLC Experiments.
Wang, Daijie; Du, Ning; Wen, Lei; Zhu, Heng; Liu, Feng; Wang, Xiao; Du, Jinhua; Li, Shengbo
In this work, the n-butanol extract from leaves of Lonicera japonica Thunb. (L. japonica) was reacted with DPPH and subjected to a HPLC analysis for the guided screening antioxidants (DPPH-HPLC experiments). Then, nine antioxidants, including flavonoid glycosides and caffeoylquinic acid derivatives, were isolated and purified from leaves of L. japonica using high speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) and prep-HPLC. The n-butanol extract was firstly isolated by HSCCC using methyl tert-butyl ether/n-butanol/acetonitrile/water (0.5% acetic acid) (2:2:1:5, v/v), yielding five fractions F1, F2 (rhoifolin), F3 (luteoloside), F4 and F5 (collected from the column after the separation). The sub-fractions F1, F4 and F5 were successfully separated by prep-HPLC. Finally, nine compounds, including chlorogenic acid (1), lonicerin (2), rutin (3), rhoifolin (4), luteoloside (5), 3,4-Odicaffeoylquinic acid (6), hyperoside (7), 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid (8), and 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid (9) were obtained, respectively, with the purities over 94% as determined by HPLC. The structures were identified by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), 1H- and 13C-NMR. Antioxidant activities were tested, and the isolated compounds showed strong antioxidant activities.
Pauchet, Yannick; Kirsch, Roy; Giraud, Sandra; Vogel, Heiko; Heckel, David G
Xylophagous insects have evolved to thrive in a highly challenging environment. For example, wood-boring beetles from the family Cerambycidae feed exclusively on woody tissues, and to efficiently access the nutrients present in this sub-optimal environment, they have to cope with the lignocellulose barrier. Whereas microbes of the insect's gut flora were hypothesized to be responsible for the degradation of lignin, the beetle itself depends heavily on the secretion of a range of enzymes, known as plant cell wall degrading enzymes (PCWDEs), to efficiently digest both hemicellulose and cellulose networks. Here we sequenced the larval gut transcriptome of the Mulberry longhorn beetle, Apriona japonica (Cerambycidae, Lamiinae), in order to investigate the arsenal of putative PCWDEs secreted by this species. We combined our transcriptome with all available sequencing data derived from other cerambycid beetles in order to analyze and get insight into the evolutionary history of the corresponding gene families. Finally, we heterologously expressed and functionally characterized the A. japonica PCWDEs we identified from the transcriptome. Together with a range of endo-β-1,4-glucanases, we describe here for the first time the presence in a species of Cerambycidae of (i) a xylanase member of the subfamily 2 of glycoside hydrolase family 5 (GH5 subfamily 2), as well as (ii) an exopolygalacturonase from family GH28. Our analyses greatly contribute to a better understanding of the digestion physiology of this important group of insects, many of which are major pests of forestry worldwide. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hozumi, Akitaka; Bera, Subhankar; Fujiwara, Daiki; Obayashi, Takeshi; Yokoyama, Ryusuke; Nishitani, Kazuhiko; Aoki, Koh
Stem parasitic plants (Cuscuta spp.) develop a specialized organ called a haustorium to penetrate their hosts' stem tissues. To reach the vascular tissues of the host plant, the haustorium needs to overcome the physical barrier of the cell wall, and the parasite-host interaction via the cell wall is a critical process. However, the cell wall components responsible for the establishment of parasitic connections have not yet been identified. In this study, we investigated the spatial distribution patterns of cell wall components at a parasitic interface using parasite-host complexes of Cuscuta campestris-Arabidopsis thaliana and Cuscuta japonica-Glycine max. We focused on arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs), because AGPs accumulate in the cell walls of searching hyphae of both C. campestris and C. japonica. We found more AGPs in elongated haustoria than in pre haustoria, indicating that AGP accumulation is developmentally regulated. Using in situ hybridization, we identified five genes in C. campestris that encode hyphal-expressed AGPs that belong to the fasciclin-like AGP (FLA) family, which were named CcFLA genes. Three of the five CcFLA genes were expressed in the holdfast, which develops on the Cuscuta stem epidermis at the attachment site for the host's stem epidermis. Our results suggest that AGPs are involved in hyphal elongation and adhesion to host cells, and in the adhesion between the epidermal tissues of Cuscuta and its host. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Yamashita, Shinpei; Takigahira, Tomohiro; Takahashi, Kazuo H
Accumulating evidence suggests that genotype of host insects influences the development of koinobiont endoparasitoids. Although there are many potential genetic variations that lead to the internal body environmental variations of host insects, association between the host genotype and the parasitoid development has not been examined in a genome-wide manner. In the present study, we used highly inbred whole genome sequenced strains of Drosophila melanogaster to associate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of host flies with morphological traits of Asobara japonica, a larval-pupal parasitoid wasp that infected those hosts. We quantified the outline shape of the forewings of A. japonica with two major principal components (PC1 and PC2) calculated from Fourier coefficients obtained from elliptic Fourier analysis. We also quantified wing size and estimated wasp survival. We then examined the association between the PC scores, wing size and 1,798,561 SNPs and the association between the estimated wasp survival and 1,790,544 SNPs. As a result, we obtained 22, 24 and 14 SNPs for PC1, PC2 and wing size and four SNPs for the estimated survival with P values smaller than 10 -5 . Based on the location of the SNPs, 12, 17, 11 and five protein coding genes were identified as potential candidates for PC1, PC2, wing size and the estimated survival, respectively. Based on the function of the candidate genes, it is suggested that the host genetic variation associated with the cell growth and morphogenesis may influence the wasp's morphogenetic variation.
Li, Xinpeng; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Quanbin
We investigated the renal protective effect of low-molecular-weight sulfated polysaccharide (LMWSP) fractions extracted from Laminaria japonica on glycerol-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) in rats. Glycerol treatment significantly increased serum creatinine (SCr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels. Intraperitoneal injection of LMWSP fractions markedly decreased SCr and BUN levels and reduced renal swelling. The fraction of 1.0M NaCl displayed the best renal protective effect of all fractions in attenuating AKI and maintaining blood glucose. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Luhua; Chen, Haiwei; Li, Yanlan; Li, Yanan; Wang, Shengjun; Su, Jinping; Liu, Xuejun; Chen, Defu; Chen, Xiwen
Currently, the purity of hybrid seed is a crucial limiting factor when developing hybrid japonica rice (Oryza sativa L.). To chemically control hybrid seed purity, we transferred an improved atrazine chlorohydrolase gene (atzA) from Pseudomonas ADP into hybrid japonica parental lines (two maintainers, one restorer), and Nipponbare, by using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. We subsequently selected several transgenic lines from each genotype by using PCR, RT-PCR, and germination analysis. In the presence of the investigated atrazine concentrations, particularly 150 µM atrazine, almost all of the transgenic lines produced significantly larger seedlings, with similar or higher germination percentages, than did the respective controls. Although the seedlings of transgenic lines were taller and gained more root biomass compared to the respective control plants, their growth was nevertheless inhibited by atrazine treatment compared to that without treatment. When grown in soil containing 2 mg/kg or 5 mg/kg atrazine, the transgenic lines were taller, and had higher total chlorophyll contents than did the respective controls; moreover, three of the strongest transgenic lines completely recovered after 45 days of growth. After treatment with 2 mg/kg or 5 mg/kg of atrazine, the atrazine residue remaining in the soil was 2.9-7.0% or 0.8-8.7% respectively, for transgenic lines, and 44.0-59.2% or 28.1-30.8%, respectively, for control plants. Spraying plants at the vegetative growth stage with 0.15% atrazine effectively killed control plants, but not transgenic lines. Our results indicate that transgenic atzA rice plants show tolerance to atrazine, and may be used as parental lines in future hybrid seed production.
Tsurui, Kaori; Honma, Atsushi; Nishida, Takayoshi
Colour-marking polymorphism is widely distributed among cryptic species. To account for the adaptive significance of such polymorphisms, several hypotheses have been proposed to date. Although these hypotheses argue over the degree of camouflage effects of marking morphs (and the interactions between morphs and their microhabitat backgrounds), as far as we know, most empirical evidence has been provided under unnatural conditions (i.e., using artificial prey). Tetrix japonica, a pygmy grasshopper, is highly polymorphic in colour-markings and occurs in both sand and grass microhabitats. Even within a microhabitat, T. japonica is highly polymorphic. Using humans as dummy predators and printed photographs in which various morphs of grasshoppers were placed against different backgrounds, we addressed three questions to test the neutral, background heterogeneity, and differential crypsis hypotheses in four marking-type morphs: 1) do the morphs differ in the degree of crypsis in each microhabitat, 2) are different morphs most cryptic in specific backgrounds of the microhabitats, and 3) does the morph frequency reflect the degree of crypsis? The degree of camouflage differed among the four morphs; therefore, the neutral hypothesis was rejected. Furthermore, the order of camouflage advantage among morphs differed depending on the two types of backgrounds (sand and grass), although the grass background consistently provided greater camouflage effects. Thus, based on our results, we could not reject the background heterogeneity hypothesis. Under field conditions, the more cryptic morphs comprised a minority of the population. Overall, our results demonstrate that the different morphs were not equivalent in the degree of crypsis, but the degree of camouflage of the morphs was not consistent with the morph frequency. These findings suggest that trade-offs exist between the camouflage benefit of body colouration and other fitness components, providing a better understanding of
Qiu, Yongfu; Guo, Jianping; Jing, Shengli; Zhu, Lili; He, Guangcun
The brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål; BPH) has become a severe constraint on rice production. Identification and pyramiding BPH-resistance genes is an economical and effective solution to increase the resistance level of rice varieties. All the BPH-resistance genes identified to date have been from indica rice or wild species. The BPH12 gene in the indica rice accession B14 is derived from the wild species Oryza latifolia. Using an F(2) population from a cross between the indica cultivar 93-11 and B14, we mapped the BPH12 gene to a 1.9-cM region on chromosome 4, flanked by the markers RM16459 and RM1305. In this population, BPH12 appeared to be partially dominant and explained 73.8% of the phenotypic variance in BPH resistance. A near-isogenic line (NIL) containing the BPH12 locus in the background of the susceptible japonica variety Nipponbare was developed and crossed with a NIL carrying BPH6 to generate a pyramid line (PYL) with both genes. BPH insects showed significant differences in non-preference in comparisons between the lines harboring resistance genes (NILs and PYL) and Nipponbare. BPH growth and development were inhibited and survival rates were lower on the NIL-BPH12 and NIL-BPH6 plants compared to the recurrent parent Nipponbare. PYL-BPH6 + BPH12 exhibited 46.4, 26.8 and 72.1% reductions in population growth rates (PGR) compared to NIL-BPH12, NIL-BPH6 and Nipponbare, respectively. Furthermore, insect survival rates were the lowest on the PYL-BPH6 + BPH12 plants. These results demonstrated that pyramiding different BPH-resistance genes resulted in stronger antixenotic and antibiotic effects on the BPH insects. This gene pyramiding strategy should be of great benefit for the breeding of BPH-resistant japonica rice varieties.
Romanenko, Lyudmila A; Tanaka, Naoto; Frolova, Galina M; Mikhailov, Valery V
A Sphingomonas-like bacterium, strain KC7(T), was isolated from a marine crustacean specimen obtained from the Sea of Japan and subjected to a polyphasic study. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis positioned the novel strain in the genus Sphingomonas as an independent lineage adjacent to a subclade containing Sphingomonas trueperi LMG 2142(T), Sphingomonas pituitosa EDIV(T) and Sphingomonas azotifigens NBRC 15497(T). Strain KC7(T) shared highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (96.1 %) with S. trueperi LMG 2142(T), Sphingomonas dokdonensis DS-4(T) and S. azotifigens NBRC 15497(T); similarities to strains of other recognized Sphingomonas species were lower (96.0-93.9 %). The strain contained sphingoglycolipid and the predominant fatty acids were C(16 : 1), C(16 : 0) and C(18 : 1); 2-OH C(14 : 0) was the major 2-hydroxy fatty acid. Previously, these lipids have been found to be characteristic of members of the genus Sphingomonas sensu stricto. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis and physiological and biochemical characterization, strain KC7(T) represents a novel species of the genus Sphingomonas, for which the name Sphingomonas japonica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KC7(T) (=KMM 3038(T) =NRIC 0738(T) =JCM 15438(T)).
Pungrasmi, Wiboonluk; Lee, Haeng-Seog; Yokota, Akira; Ohta, Akinori
A bacterial strain, WL(T), which was isolated from an activated sludge, was able to degrade alkylphenols. 16S rDNA sequence analysis indicated that strain WL(T) belonged to the genus Pseudomonas (sensu stricto) and formed a monophyletic clade with the type strain of Pseudomonas graminis and other members in the Pseudomonas putida subcluster with sequence similarity values higher than 97%. Genomic relatedness based on DNA-DNA hybridization of strain WL(T) to these strains is 2-41%. Strain WL(T) contained ubiquinone-9 as the main respiratory quinone, and the G+C content of DNA was 66 mol%. The organism contained hexadecanoic acid (16:0), hexadecenoic acid (16:1) and octadecenoic acid (18:1) as major cellular fatty acids. The hydroxy fatty acids detected were 3-hydroxydecanoic acid (3-OH 10:0), 3-hydroxydodecanoic acid (3-OH 12:0) and 2-hydroxydodecanoic acid (2-OH 12:0). These results, as well as physiological and biochemical characteristics clearly indicate that the strain WL(T) represents a new Pseudomonas species, for which the name Pseudomonas japonica is proposed. The type strain is strain WL(T) (=IAM 15071T=TISTR 1526T).
Nakayama, Yumi; Kamiie, Junichi; Watanabe, Gen; Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Murakami, Tomoaki
The authors describe a spontaneous case of amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis in an adult female Japanese quail ( Coturnix japonica). The bird developed AA amyloidosis secondary to chronic peritonitis caused by a Gram-negative bacillus infection. Mild amyloid deposition was also identified in the intestinal tract of apparently healthy adult individuals, suggesting that quail may develop intestinal amyloidosis with age. Based on these observations, it was hypothesized that quail can develop AA amyloidosis following inflammatory stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Therefore, adult quail were repeatedly injected with LPS and the development of AA amyloidosis was confirmed. The amyloid deposition in this model increased when quail amyloid was intravenously injected as an amyloid-enhancing factor. The experiments were repeated with young quail, but amyloid deposits were not observed following LPS injections. However, AA amyloidosis did develop when quail amyloid was injected in addition to LPS. These results indicated that adult quail develop AA amyloidosis after inflammatory stimulation with LPS. Furthermore, quail AA amyloidosis was shown to have transmissibility regardless of age. Interestingly, the authors found that administration of chicken amyloid fibrils also induced AA amyloidosis in young quail. This is the first report of cross-species transmission of avian AA amyloidosis.
Cho, Jin-Gyeong; Song, Na-Young; Nam, Tae-Gyu; Shrestha, Sabina; Park, Hee-Jung; Lyu, Ha-Na; Kim, Dae-Ok; Lee, Gihwan; Woo, Young-Min; Jeong, Tae-Sook; Baek, Nam-In
The transgenic rice cultivar of Oryza sativa spp. japonica cv. Hwa-Young, C1/R-S transgenic rice (C1/R-S rice), is a flavonoid-rich cultivar of rice. The grains of C1/R-S rice were extracted with aqueous MeOH, and the concentrated extract was partitioned with EtOAc, n-BuOH, and H2O, successively. Repeated silica gel, octadecyl silica gel (ODS), and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies for the EtOAc and n-BuOH fractions afforded four new flavonoids (compounds 2, 3, 7, and 8) along with four known flavonoids: (+)-3'-O-methyltaxifolin (1), brassicin (4), isorhamnetin-4'-O-β-D-glucosyranoside (5), and 3'-O-methyltaxifolin-5-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (6). The new flavonoids were identified as 3'-O-methyltaxifolin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), 3'-O-methyltaxifolin-4'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3), isorhamnetin-7-O-β-D-cellobioside (brassicin-4″-O-β-D-glucopyranoside) (7), and brassicin-4'-O-β-D-glucosyranoside (8) from the result of spectroscopic data including nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (NMR), mass spectrometry (MS), and infrared spectroscopy (IR). Also, quantitative analysis of major flavonoids (compounds 2, 3, and 8) in C1/R-S rice, O. sativa spp. japonica cv. Hwa-Young (HY), and a hybrid of two cultivar (C1/R-S rice/HY) extracts was performed using HPLC experiment. The isolated flavonoids were evaluated for their radical-scavenging effect on DPPH and ABTS radicals.
Tsumura, Y; Uchiyama, K; Moriguchi, Y; Ueno, S; Ihara-Ujino, T
Local adaptation is important in evolutionary processes and speciation. We used multiple tests to identify several candidate genes that may be involved in local adaptation from 1026 loci in 14 natural populations of Cryptomeria japonica, the most economically important forestry tree in Japan. We also studied the relationships between genotypes and environmental variables to obtain information on the selective pressures acting on individual populations. Outlier loci were mapped onto a linkage map, and the positions of loci associated with specific environmental variables are considered. The outlier loci were not randomly distributed on the linkage map; linkage group 11 was identified as a genomic island of divergence. Three loci in this region were also associated with environmental variables such as mean annual temperature, daily maximum temperature, maximum snow depth, and so on. Outlier loci identified with high significance levels will be essential for conservation purposes and for future work on molecular breeding.
Ohji, Madoka; Harino, Hiroya; Arai, Takaomi
In order to examine the ecological risks caused by organotin compounds (OTs) in diadromous fish migrating between sea and freshwater, tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT) compounds, and their breakdown products, were determined in the catadromous eel Anguilla japonica having sea, estuarine and river life histories, collected in Japanese sea, brackish and fresh waters. Ontogenic changes in otolith strontium (Sr) and calcium (Ca) concentrations were examined along life history transect to discriminate the migration type. There were generally three different patterns, which were categorized 'sea eels' (spent most of their life in the sea and did not enter freshwater), 'estuarine eels' (inhabited estuaries or switched between different habitats), and 'river eels' (entered and remained in freshwater river habitats after arrival in the estuary) according to the otolith Sr:Ca ratio. There were generally no significant correlations between TBT and TPT accumulation and various biological characteristics such as total length (TL), body weight (BW), age and sex in A. japonica. The concentrations of TBT and TPT in silver eels (mature eels) were significantly higher than those in yellow eels (immature eels), and the percentages of TBT and TPT were also higher in silver eels than in yellow eels. A positive correlation was found between TBT concentration and the gonad-somatic index (GSI). It is thus considered that silver eels have a higher risk of contamination by TBT than yellow eels. TBT and TPT concentrations in sea eels were significantly higher than those in river eels. In contrast, no significant differences were observed in TBT and TPT concentrations in estuarine eels compared to sea and river eels. These results suggest that sea eels have a higher ecological risk of OT contamination than river eels during their life history, and the risk of OTs in estuarine eels is considered to be intermediate between that of sea and river eels. Positive linear relationships were
Jiang, Min; Han, Yan-qi; Zhou, Meng-ge; Zhao, Hong-zhi; Xiao, Xue; Hou, Yuan-yuan; Gao, Jie; Bai, Gang; Luo, Guo-an
Flos Lonicerae Japonicae (FLJ) is an important cash crop in eastern Asia, and it is an anti-inflammatory Traditional Chinese Medicine. There are large variations in the quality of the marketed FLJ products. To find marker ingredients useful for quality control, a tandem technology integrating ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q/TOF), principal component analysis (PCA), heat map analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis coupled with a NF-κB luciferase reporter gene assay were used to identify the different ingredients from the green bud, white bud, flowering stage and leaf stages, as well as to screen the anti-inflammatory activity of FLJ compositions. As flowering progressed, the anti-inflammatory effects of FLJ gradually decreased; however, chlorogenic acid, swertiamarin and sweroside should be used to evaluate the quality of FLJ products.
Jiang, Min; Han, Yan-qi; Zhou, Meng-ge; Zhao, Hong-zhi; Xiao, Xue; Hou, Yuan-yuan; Gao, Jie; Bai, Gang; Luo, Guo-an
Flos Lonicerae Japonicae (FLJ) is an important cash crop in eastern Asia, and it is an anti-inflammatory Traditional Chinese Medicine. There are large variations in the quality of the marketed FLJ products. To find marker ingredients useful for quality control, a tandem technology integrating ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q/TOF), principal component analysis (PCA), heat map analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis coupled with a NF-κB luciferase reporter gene assay were used to identify the different ingredients from the green bud, white bud, flowering stage and leaf stages, as well as to screen the anti-inflammatory activity of FLJ compositions. As flowering progressed, the anti-inflammatory effects of FLJ gradually decreased; however, chlorogenic acid, swertiamarin and sweroside should be used to evaluate the quality of FLJ products. PMID:24809338
Zhao, Chunzhi; Diao, Yulin; Wang, Changzhen; Qu, Wensheng; Zhao, Xiunan; Ma, Hao; Shan, Junjie; Sun, Guohui
Our previous studies found that the crude polysaccharides (IJP) from flowers of Inula japonica exhibited significantly anti-diabetic activity in alloxan or MLD-STZ induced diabetic mice. In this study, we will trace an active polysaccharide from IJP and investigate its physico-chemical property and its protective mechanism on islet cell damage. The result showed that an active polysaccharide (IJP-B-1) was isolated from IJP, its molecular mass was 3.7×10 4 Da. IJP-B-1 was composed of rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose, galactose and galactocuronic acid. Its major backbone structure was (1→3, 6)-linked-galactose and other branched residues. IJP-B-1 could protect pancreatic cells against STZ impairment at 50μg/mL and scavenge OH and O 2 radicals to decrease reactive oxygen generation in islet-cells in vitro. These results suggested that IJP-B-1 might be useful for protecting β-cells and against oxidative stress as an anti-diabetic candidate drug in future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kawamoto, M; Mikage, M
The rhizome of Coptis plant of the family ranunculaceae has been used in traditional Chinese medicine as a crude drug (Huanglian in present Chinese). In Japan, the rhizome of Coptis japonica Makino (the botanical name of which is "Ohren" in modern Japanese) has been utilized as a crude drug since the Nara era. The Japanese name in those days was "Kakumakusa based on descriptions in old books written in the Heian era. It changed to "Kakumikusa" early in the Edo era, and then changed again to Kakumakusa later in the Edo era. Through this herbological study, it was conjectured as follows: The resemblance between Chinese characters (or MA) and (or MI) in cursive style caused mis-copying of the character. After the "Honzo-wamyo, written in the Heian era, was revised in the late Edo era, and on which the name was accurately written as Kakumakusa, the mistake was corrected.
Kashima, Makoto; Kumagai, Nobuyoshi; Agata, Kiyokazu; Shibata, Norito
The robust regenerative ability of planarians is known to be dependent on adult pluripotent stem cells called neoblasts. One of the morphological features of neoblasts is cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein granules (chromatoid bodies: CBs), which resemble germ granules present in germline cells in other animals. Previously, we showed by immuno-electron microscopic analysis that DjCBC-1, a planarian Me31B/Dhh1/DDX6 homologue, which is a component of ribonucleoprotein granules, was localized in CBs in the planarian Dugesia japonica. Also, recently it was reported using another planarian species that Y12 antibody recognizing symmetrical dimethylarginine (sDMA) specifically binds to CBs in which histone mRNA is co-localized. Here, we showed by double immunostaining and RNA interference (RNAi) that DjCBC-1-containing CBs and Y12-immunoreactive CBs are distinct structures, suggesting that CBs are composed of heterogeneous populations. We also found that the Y12-immunoreactive CBs specifically contained a cytoplasmic type of planarian PIWI protein (DjPiwiC). We revealed by RNAi experiments that Y12-immunoreactive CBs may have anti-transposable element activity involving the DjPiwiC protein in the neoblasts. © 2016 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.
Mochizuki, Tomoki; Amagai, Takashi; Tani, Akira
Monoterpenes emitted from plants contribute to the formation of secondary pollution and affect the climate system. Monoterpene emission rates may be affected by environmental changes such as increasing CO 2 concentration caused by fossil fuel burning and drought stress induced by climate change. We measured monoterpene emissions from Cryptomeria japonica clone saplings grown under different CO 2 concentrations (control: ambient CO 2 level, elevated CO 2 : 1000μmolmol -1 ). The saplings were planted in the ground and we did not artificially control the SWC. The relationship between the monoterpene emissions and naturally varying SWC was investigated. The dominant monoterpene was α-pinene, followed by sabinene. The monoterpene emission rates were exponentially correlated with temperature for all measurements and normalized (35°C) for each measurement day. The daily normalized monoterpene emission rates (E s0.10 ) were positively and linearly correlated with SWC under both control and elevated CO 2 conditions (control: r 2 =0.55, elevated CO 2 : r 2 =0.89). The slope of the regression line of E s0.10 against SWC was significantly higher under elevated CO 2 than under control conditions (ANCOVA: P<0.01), indicating that the effect of CO 2 concentration on monoterpene emission rates differed by soil water status. The monoterpene emission rates estimated by considering temperature and SWC (Improved G93 algorithm) better agreed with the measured monoterpene emission rates, when compared with the emission rates estimated by considering temperature alone (G93 algorithm). Our results demonstrated that the combined effects of SWC and CO 2 concentration are important for controlling the monoterpene emissions from C. japonica clone saplings. If these relationships can be applied to the other coniferous tree species, our results may be useful to improve accuracy of monoterpene emission estimates from the coniferous forests as affected by climate change in the present and
Shao, Zhanru; Liu, Fuli; Li, Qiuying; Yao, Jianting; Duan, Delin
Saccharina japonica is a common macroalga in sublittoral communities of cold seawater environments, and consequently may have highly efficient ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) activity for carbon assimilation. In our study, we cloned the full-length Rubisco gene from S. japonica ( SJ-rbc). It contained an open reading frame for a large subunit gene ( SJ — rbcL) of 1 467 bp, a small subunit gene ( SJ-rbcS) of 420 bp, and a SJ-rbcL/S intergenic spacer of 269 bp. The deduced peptides of SJ-rbcL and SJ-rbcS were 488 and 139 amino acids with theoretical molecular weights and isoelectric points of 53.97 kDa, 5.81 and 15.84 kDa, 4.71, respectively. After induction with 1 mmol/L isopropyl- β-D-thiogalactopyranoside for 5 h and purification by Ni2+ affinity chromatography, electrophoresis and western blot detection demonstrated successful expression of the 55 kDa SJ-rbcL protein. Real-time quantitative PCR showed that the mRNA levels of SJ-rbcL in gametophytes increased when transferred into normal growth conditions and exhibited diurnal variations: increased expression during the day but suppressed expression at night. This observation implied that Rubisco played a role in normal gametophytic growth and development. In juvenile sporophytes, mRNA levels of SJ-rbcL, carbonic anhydrase, Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle-related enzyme, and chloroplast light-harvesting protein were remarkably increased under continuous light irradiance. Similarly, expression of these genes was up-regulated under blue light irradiance at 350 μmol/(m2·s). Our results indicate that long-term white light and short-term blue light irradiance enhances juvenile sporophytic growth by synergistic effects of various photosynthetic elements.
Arai, Daisuke; Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Nishitsuji, Takashi; Kakue, Takashi; Masuda, Nobuyuki; Ito, Tomoyoshi
Fast hologram calculation methods are critical in real-time holography applications such as three-dimensional (3D) displays. We recently proposed a wavelet transform-based hologram calculation called WASABI. Even though WASABI can decrease the calculation time of a hologram from a point cloud, it increases the calculation time with increasing propagation distance. We also proposed a wavefront recoding plane (WRP) method. This is a two-step fast hologram calculation in which the first step calculates the superposition of light waves emitted from a point cloud in a virtual plane, and the second step performs a diffraction calculation from the virtual plane to the hologram plane. A drawback of the WRP method is in the first step when the point cloud has a large number of object points and/or a long distribution in the depth direction. In this paper, we propose a method combining WASABI and the WRP method in which the drawbacks of each can be complementarily solved. Using a consumer CPU, the proposed method succeeded in performing a hologram calculation with 2048 × 2048 pixels from a 3D object with one million points in approximately 0.4 s.
Sansom, Catherine E; Jones, Veronika S; Joyce, Nigel I; Smallfield, Bruce M; Perry, Nigel B; van Klink, John W
The traditionally consumed New Zealand native plant nau, Cook's scurvy grass, Lepidium oleraceum, has a pungent wasabi-like taste, with potential for development as a flavor ingredient. The main glucosinolate in this Brassicaceae was identified by LC-MS and NMR spectroscopy as 3-butenyl glucosinolate (gluconapin, 7-22 mg/g DM in leaves). The leaves were treated to mimic chewing, and the headspace was analyzed by solid-phase microextraction and GC-MS. This showed that 3-butenyl isothiocyanate, with a wasabi-like flavor, was produced by the endogenous myrosinase. Different postharvest treatments were used to create leaf powders as potential flavor products, which were tasted and analyzed for gluconapin and release of 3-butenyl isothiocyanate. A high drying temperature (75 °C) did not give major glucosinolate degradation, but did largely inactivate the myrosinase, resulting in no wasabi-like flavor release. Drying at 45 °C produced more pungent flavor than freeze-drying. Seven other Lepidium species endemic to New Zealand were also analyzed to determine their flavor potential and also whether glucosinolates were taxonomic markers. Six contained mostly gluconapin, but the critically endangered Lepidium banksii had a distinct composition including isopropyl glucosinolate, not detected in the other species.
Abdallah, Hossam M; Al-Abd, Ahmed M; Asaad, Gihan F; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B; El-halawany, Ali M
Chemical investigation of Sophora japonica seeds resulted in the isolation of seven metabolites identified as: genistin (1), sophoricoside (2), sophorabioside (3), sophoraflavonoloside (4), genistein 7,4'-di-O-β-D-glucopyransoide (5), kaempferol 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1 → 6)β-D-glucopyranosyl(1 → 2)β-D-glucopyranoside (6) and rutin (7). Compounds 1, 2 and 5 showed significant estrogenic proliferative effect in MCF-7 cell in sub-cytotoxic concentration range. Compounds 1 and 2 showed minimal cell membrane damaging effect using LDH leakage assay. Accordingly, compound 2 (sophoricoside, (SPH)) was selected for further in-vivo studies as a potential anti-osteoporosis agent. The anti-osteoporotic effect of SPH was assessed in ovarectomized (OVX) rats after oral administration (15 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg) for 45 days compared to estradiol (10 µg/kg) as a positive control. Only in a dose of 30 mg/kg, SPH regained the original mechanical bone hardness compared to normal non-osteoporotic group. However, SPH (15 mg/kg) significantly increased the level of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) to normal level. Treatment with SPH (30 mg/kg) increased the level of ALP to be higher than normal group. SPH (15 mg/kg) did not significantly increase the serum level of osteocalcin (OC) compared to OVX group. On the other hand, treatment with SPH (30 mg/kg) significantly increased the level of OC to 78% higher than normal non-ovarectomized animals group. In addition, SPH (15 mg/kg) decreased the bone resorption marker, acid phosphatase (ACP) to normal level and SPH (30 mg/kg) further diminished the level of serum ACP. Histopathologically, sophoricoside ameliorated the ovarectomy induced osteoporosis in a dose dependent manner. The drug showed thicker bony trabeculae, more osteoid, and more osteoblastic rimming compared to OVX group.
Duan, Yongbo; Zhai, Chenguang; Li, Hao; Li, Juan; Mei, Wenqian; Gui, Huaping; Ni, Dahu; Song, Fengshun; Li, Li; Zhang, Wanggen; Yang, Jianbo
A number of Agrobacterium-mediated rice transformation systems have been developed and widely used in numerous laboratories and research institutes. However, those systems generally employ antibiotics like kanamycin and hygromycin, or herbicide as selectable agents, and are used for the small-scale experiments. To address high-throughput production of transgenic rice plants via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, and to eliminate public concern on antibiotic markers, we developed a comprehensive efficient protocol, covering from explant preparation to the acquisition of low copy events by real-time PCR analysis before transplant to field, for high-throughput production of transgenic plants of Japonica rice varieties Wanjing97 and Nipponbare using Escherichia coli phosphomannose isomerase gene (pmi) as a selectable marker. The transformation frequencies (TF) of Wanjing97 and Nipponbare were achieved as high as 54.8 and 47.5%, respectively, in one round of selection of 7.5 or 12.5 g/L mannose appended with 5 g/L sucrose. High-throughput transformation from inoculation to transplant of low copy events was accomplished within 55-60 days. Moreover, the Taqman assay data from a large number of transformants showed 45.2% in Wanjing97 and 31.5% in Nipponbare as a low copy rate, and the transformants are fertile and follow the Mendelian segregation ratio. This protocol facilitates us to perform genome-wide functional annotation of the open reading frames and utilization of the agronomically important genes in rice under a reduced public concern on selectable markers. We describe a comprehensive protocol for large scale production of transgenic Japonica rice plants using non-antibiotic selectable agent, at simplified, cost- and labor-saving manners.
Zhang, Quansheng; Cong, Yizhou; Qu, Shancun; Luo, Shiju; Yang, Guanpin
Gametophytes of Laminaria japonica were cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen using encapsulation-dehydration with two-step cooling method. Gametophytes cultured at 10°C and under continuous irradiance of 30 μmol m-2 s-1 for 3 weeks were encapsulated in calcium alginate beads. The beads were dehydrated in 0.4 molL-1 sucrose prepared with seawater for 6 h, desiccated in an incubator set at 10°C and 70% relative humidity for 4 h, pre-frozen at either -40°C or -60°C for 30 min, and stored in liquid nitrogen for >24 h. As high as 43% of survival rate was observed when gametophytes were thawed by placing the beads in 40°C seawater and re-hydrated in 0.05 molL-1 citrate sodium prepared using 30‰ NaCl 7 d later. More cells of male gametophytes survived the whole procedure in comparison with female gametophytes. The cells of gametophytes surviving the preservation were able to grow asexually and produce morphologically normal sporophytes.
Wang, Jing; Zhang, Quanbin; Zhang, Zhongshan; Hou, Yun; Zhang, Hong
Fucoidan, a group of sulfated heteropolysaccharides, was extracted from Laminaria japonica, an important economic alga species in China. The anticoagulant activity of fucoidan and its derivatives (including sulfated, phosphorylated, and aminated fucoidan) was examined using in-vitro anticoagulant systems. The correlation between chemical variations within the fucoidan group and anticoagulant activity was determined. The in-vitro anticoagulant properties of fucoidan and its derivatives were determined by measuring activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), and thrombin time (TT). The results indicate anticoagulant activity in all samples using APTT and TT assays; however, only the fucoidan derivatives affected the PT assay. Thus, the fucoidan derivatives were able to inhibit both intrinsic and extrinsic blood coagulants. Fucoidan (FPS) and its derivatives presented better anticoagulant activity than low molecular weight fucoidan (DFPS) and its derivatives, suggesting that molecular weight and proper conformation are contributing factors for anticoagulant activity of polysaccharides. Amino groups have a positive charge and can thus change the charge density of fucoidan. Accordingly, among the tested samples, aminated fucoidan (NF) was the most active reflecting the importance of charge density for anticoagulant activity. Available data obtained using in-vitro models suggest that the sulfate content, sulfate/total-sugar ratio, molecular weight, and the substituted group of fucoidan are important factors for anticoagulant activity but that the influence of sulfate, phosphate and amino groups on anticoagulant activity was different.
Wu, Jie; Wang, Xiao-Chen; Liu, Yang; Du, Hui; Shu, Qing-Yan; Su, Shang; Wang, Li-Jin; Li, Shan-Shan; Wang, Liang-Sheng
Flavones are important secondary metabolites found in many plants. In Lonicera species, flavones contribute both physiological and pharmaceutical properties. However, flavone synthase (FNS), the key enzyme responsible for flavone biosynthesis, has not yet been characterized in Lonicera species. In this study, FNSII genes were identified from Lonicera japonica Thunb. and L. macranthoides Hand.-Mazz. In the presence of NADPH, the recombinant cytochrome P450 proteins encoded by LjFNSII-1.1, LjFNSII-2.1, and LmFNSII-1.1 converted eriodictyol, naringenin, and liquiritigenin to the corresponding flavones directly. The different catalytic properties between LjFNSII-2.1 and LjFNSII-1.1 were caused by a single amino acid substitution at position 242 (glutamic acid to lysine). A methionine at position 206 and a leucine at position 381 contributed considerably to the high catalytic activity of LjFNSII-1.1. In addition, LjFNSII-1.1&2.1 and LmFNSII-1.1 also biosynthesize flavones that were further modified by O-glycosylation in transgenic tobacco. The expression levels of the FNSII genes were consistent with flavone accumulation patterns in flower buds. Our findings suggested that the weak catalytic activity of LmFNSII-1.1 and the relatively low expression of LmFNSII-1.1 in flowers might be responsible for the low levels of flavone accumulation in flower buds of L. macranthoides.
Sharma, Ankita; Dhiman, Naresh; Singh, Bhanu P.; Gathania, Arvind K.
Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) synthesis is demonstrated successfully using fresh young leaves of Artocarpus Lakoocha (A. Lakoocha), fruit pulp of A. Lakoocha and loquat (Eriobotrya Japonica) leaves. We have also compared green synthesis with chemical assisted tri-n-octyl-phosphine (TOP) stabilized gold nanoparticles. Samples were characterized with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and UV-Visible spectroscopy. TEM images have shown that the average size of the particles is 15.06, 36.8 and 25.08 nm for A. Lakoocha fruits, A. Lakoocha leaves and loquat leaves assisted gold nanoparticles, respectively. Hydrogen tetrachloroaurate is reduced and AuNPs are stabilized by phenols, hydroxyls and carboxyls groups such as terpenoids, flavonoids, tannins etc, present in young leaves and fruit extracts. It was observed that green synthesis using botanical extracts is a cost effective and non- toxic way for nanoparticle preparation.
Chen, Anjin; Zhang, Fang; Shi, Jie; Zhao, Xue
The antithrombotic and antiplatelet effects of two fucoidan fractions with low molecular weight and different sulfate content from Laminaria japonica were compared in order to examine the influence of chemical character on their antithrombotic activity and the possible mechanism. Both LMW fucoidan fractions exhibited favorable antithrombotic activity in an Fecl3-induced arterial thrombosis. The antithrombotic activity of LMW fucoidan was related with decrease of TXB2 and whole blood viscosity and hematocrit. LMW fucoidan showed a correlation between anticoagulant, antiaggregant and antithrombotic effects in vivo. For LMW fucoidan, antithrombotic activity required high dose of 5-10 nmol kg-1, concomitantly with increase in anticoagulant activity and inhibition of platelet aggregation. Administration of LMW fucoidan significantly promoted the 6-keto-PGF1α content and decreased the TXB2 content, indicating its inhibition of tissue factor pathway and regulation of metabolism of arachidonic acid. By comparison, highly sulfated fucoidan LF2 with Mw 3900 seemed to be a more suitable choice for antithrombotic drug for its antithrombotic activity accompanied with specific inhibitory activity on platelet aggregation, low anticoagulant activity and low hemorrhagic risk in vivo.
Hiemori, Miki; Koh, Eunmi; Mitchell, Alyson E
The composition and thermal stability of anthocyanins in black rice (Oryza sativa L. japonica var. SBR) produced in California were investigated. Six anthocyanin pigments were identified and quantified by high performance liquid chromatography using photo diode-array detection (HPLC-PDA) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry [LC-(ESI)MS/MS]. The predominant anthocyanins are cyanidin-3-glucoside (572.47 microg/g; 91.13% of total) and peonidin-3-glucoside (29.78 microg/g; 4.74% of total). Minor constituents included three cyanidin-dihexoside isomers and one cyanidin hexoside. Thermal stability of anthocyanins was assessed in rice cooked using a rice cooker, pressure cooker, or on a gas range. All cooking methods caused significant (P < 0.001) decreases in the anthocyanins identified. Pressure cooking resulted in the greatest loss of cyanidin-3-glucoside (79.8%) followed by the rice cooker (74.2%) and gas range (65.4%). Conversely, levels of protocatechuic acid increased 2.7 to 3.4 times in response to all cooking methods. These findings indicate that cooking black rice results in the thermal degradation of cyanidin-3-glucoside and concomitant production of protocatechuic acid.
McGary, S.; Henry, P.F.P.; Ottinger, M.A.
The impact of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) has been demonstrated in mammalian models, but less research is available for avian species. The effects of vinclozolin (VIN), an antiandrogenic fungicide, on sexual differentiation and maturation were investigated in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). On day 4 of incubation, embryos were exposed to no treatment, oil, or 25, 50, or 100 ppm of VIN. Endpoints measured included adult male reproductive behavior, hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone I (GnRH-I) content in hatchlings and adults, plasma steroid levels in hatchlings and adults, proctodeal gland growth during maturation, and relative testicular weight at seven weeks of age. Results showed that exposure to VIN significantly (p < 0.05) altered GnRH-I in male hatchlings, whereas GnRH-I levels in females remained unaffected. Although steroid levels were unaltered by any VIN treatment, the display of male reproductive behavior seemed delayed, with the number of mounts and the number of cloacal contacts being significantly (p < 0.05) lower in the VIN-treated males. This could have an extreme negative impact on wild avian species that are routinely exposed to similar EDCs.
Shi, Jiyong; Chen, Wu; Zou, Xiaobo; Xu, Yiwei; Huang, Xiaowei; Zhu, Yaodi; Shen, Tingting
Hyperspectral images (431-962 nm) and partial least squares (PLS) were used to detect the distribution of triterpene acids within loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) leaves. 72 fresh loquat leaves in the young group, mature group and old group were collected for hyperspectral imaging; and triterpene acids content of the loquat leaves was analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Then the spectral data of loquat leaf hyperspectral images and the triterpene acids content were employed to build calibration models. After spectra pre-processing and wavelength selection, an optimum calibration model (Rp = 0.8473, RMSEP = 2.61 mg/g) for predicting triterpene acids was obtained by synergy interval partial least squares (siPLS). Finally, spectral data of each pixel in the loquat leaf hyperspectral image were extracted and substituted into the optimum calibration model to predict triterpene acids content of each pixel. Therefore, the distribution map of triterpene acids content was obtained. As shown in the distribution map, triterpene acids are accumulated mainly in the leaf mesophyll regions near the main veins, and triterpene acids concentration of young group is less than that of mature and old groups. This study showed that hyperspectral imaging is suitable to determine the distribution of active constituent content in medical herbs in a rapid and non-invasive manner.
Xie, Qi; Niu, Jun; Xu, Xilin; Xu, Lixin; Zhang, Yinbing; Fan, Bo; Liang, Xiaohong; Zhang, Lijuan; Yin, Shuxia; Han, Liebao
Japanese lawngrass (Zoysia japonica Steud.) is an important warm-season turfgrass that is able to survive in a range of soils, from infertile sands to clays, and to grow well under saline conditions. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in its resistance to salt stress. Here, we used high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to investigate the changes in gene expression of Zoysia grass at high NaCl concentrations. We first constructed two sequencing libraries, including control and NaCl-treated samples, and sequenced them using the Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 platform. Approximately 157.20 million paired-end reads with a total length of 68.68 Mb were obtained. Subsequently, 32,849 unigenes with an N50 length of 1781 bp were assembled using Trinity. Furthermore, three public databases, the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), Swiss-prot, and Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COGs), were used for gene function analysis and enrichment. The annotated genes included 57 Gene Ontology (GO) terms, 120 KEGG pathways, and 24 COGs. Compared with the control, 1455 genes were significantly different (false discovery rate ≤0.01, |log2Ratio |≥1) in the NaCl-treated samples. These genes were enriched in 10 KEGG pathways and 73 GO terms, and subjected to 25 COG categories. Using high-throughput next-generation sequencing, we built a database as a global transcript resource for Z. japonica Steud. roots. The results of this study will advance our understanding of the early salt response in Japanese lawngrass roots. PMID:26347751
Lin, Yong-Fu; Wu, Chau-Ron; Han, Yu-San
Satellite data and assimilation products are used to investigate fluctuations in the catch of Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) in eastern Asian countries. It has been reported that the salinity front has extended farther south, which has shifted the eel’s spawning grounds to a lower latitude, resulting in smaller eel catches in 1983, 1992, and 1998. This study demonstrates that interannual variability in the eel catch is strongly correlated with the combination mode (C-mode), but not with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. These eels continue to spawn within the North Equatorial Current (NEC), but the salinity front shifts south during a canonical El Niño. On the other hand, the spawning grounds accompanied by the salinity front extend farther south during the C-mode of climate variability, and eel larvae fail to join the nursery in the NEC, resulting in extremely poor recruitment in East Asia. We propose an appropriate sea surface temperature index to project Japanese eel larval catch.
Sim, Gwan Sub; Lee, Dong-Hwan; Kim, Jin-Hwa; An, Sung-Kwan; Choe, Tae-Boo; Kwon, Tae-Jong; Pyo, Hyeong-Bae; Lee, Bum-Chun
Black rice (Oryza sativa L. var. japonica) has been used in folk medicine in Asia. To understand the effects of black rice hydrolyzed peptides (BRP) from germinated black rice, we assessed the expression levels of about 20,000 transcripts in BRP-treated HaCaT keratinocytes using human 1A oligo microarray analysis. As a result, the BRP treatment showed a differential expression ratio of more than 2-fold: 745 were activated and 1,011 were repressed. One of the most interesting findings was a 2-fold increase in hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2) gene expression by BRP. Semiquantitative RT-PCR showed that BRP increased HAS2 mRNA in dose-dependent manners. ELISA showed that BRP effectively increased hyaluronan (HA) production in HaCaT keratinocytes.
Huang, Yi-Xin; Manderson, Lenore
A variety of biological and social factors govern schistosomiasis japonica in China. Social factors include those at a national and regional level, such as policies and patterns of development, which impact on local economic activities, and affect community, household and personal risk factors of infection. Drawing on research conducted in China, we illustrate how social structural and related factors influence individual risk and prevalence of infection. At a macro-level, political changes have occurred resulting in the shift from collective to family-based production, leading to clustering of infection in families. Industrialization and urbanization, and associated increased population mobility, have also influenced patterns of transmission and infection. Types of activities and local production patterns determine the exposure of individuals to schistosome-infested water sources. Fishermen have the most frequent water contact, aquatic workers the second and farmers the third; the relative risk of Schistosoma japonicum infection follows the same order. Among farmers, human infection is significantly related to agricultural production in rice fields infested with the intermediate host snail, and to rates of the infection in livestock. Risk of S. japonicum infection is also influenced by the domestic environment, including both the location of the house in relation to snail-colonized water sources, access to safe water, and improved sanitation. Household wealth and income determine family ability to provide and maintain safe water and sanitation, while determining or interacting with other variables. At an individual level, sex, age, educational level and ethnicity are all associated with different patterns of water use and water contact behaviour thereby affecting infection rates. Schistosomiasis impairs the growth and nutrition of children and the physical work capacity of adults, and so affects economic development. Given this, we note the importance of further
Giraudeau, Mathieu; Bonzom, Jean-Marc; Ducatez, Simon; Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Deviche, Pierre; Lengagne, Thierry; Cavalie, Isabelle; Camilleri, Virginie; Adam-Guillermin, Christelle; McGraw, Kevin J
The nuclear accident in the Fukushima prefecture released a large amount of artificial radionuclides that might have short- and long-term biological effects on wildlife. Ionizing radiation can be a harmful source of reactive oxygen species, and previous studies have already shown reduced fitness effects in exposed animals in Chernobyl. Due to their potential health benefits, carotenoid pigments might be used by animals to limit detrimental effects of ionizing radiation exposure. Here, we examined concentrations of carotenoids in blood (i.e. a snapshot of levels in circulation), liver (endogenous carotenoid reserves), and the vocal sac skin (sexual signal) in relation to the total radiation dose rates absorbed by individual (TDR from 0.2 to 34 µGy/h) Japanese tree frogs (Hyla japonica). We found high within-site variability of TDRs, but no significant effects of the TDR on tissue carotenoid levels, suggesting that carotenoid distribution in amphibians might be less sensitive to ionizing radiation exposure than in other organisms or that the potential deleterious effects of radiation exposure might be less significant or more difficult to detect in Fukushima than in Chernobyl due to, among other things, differences in the abundance and mixture of each radionuclide.
Barbot, Yann Nicolas; Thomsen, Claudia; Thomsen, Laurenz; Benz, Roland
The cultivation of macroalgae to supply the biofuel, pharmaceutical or food industries generates a considerable amount of organic residue, which represents a potential substrate for biomethanation. Its use optimizes the total resource exploitation by the simultaneous disposal of waste biomaterials. In this study, we explored the biochemical methane potential (BMP) and biomethane recovery of industrial Laminaria japonica waste (LJW) in batch, continuous laboratory and pilot-scale trials. Thermo-acidic pretreatment with industry-grade HCl or industrial flue gas condensate (FGC), as well as a co-digestion approach with maize silage (MS) did not improve the biomethane recovery. BMPs between 172 mL and 214 mL g(-1) volatile solids (VS) were recorded. We proved the feasibility of long-term continuous anaerobic digestion with LJW as sole feedstock showing a steady biomethane production rate of 173 mL g(-1) VS. The quality of fermentation residue was sufficient to serve as biofertilizer, with enriched amounts of potassium, sulfur and iron. We further demonstrated the upscaling feasibility of the process in a pilot-scale system where a CH₄ recovery of 189 L kg(-1) VS was achieved and a biogas composition of 55% CH₄ and 38% CO₂ was recorded.
Soriano, José Miguel; Romero, Carlos; Vilanova, Santiago; Llácer, Gerardo; Badenes, María Luisa
Genetic relationships among 40 loquat (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb) Lindl) accessions that originated from different countries and that are part of the germplasm collection of the Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Agrarias (IVIA) (Valencia, Spain) were evaluated using microsatellites. Thirty primer pairs flanking microsatellites previously identified in Malus x domestica (Borkh.) were assayed. Thirteen of them amplified polymorphic products and unambiguously distinguished 34 genotypes from the 40 accessions analyzed. Six accessions showing identical marker patterns were Spanish local varieties thought to have been derived from 'Algerie' by a mutational process very common in loquat species. A total of 39 alleles were detected in the population studied, with a mean value of 2.4 alleles per locus. The expected and observed heterozygosities were 0.46 and 51% on average, respectively, leading to a negative value of the Wright's fixation index (-0.20). The values of these parameters indicate a smaller degree of genetic diversity in the set of loquat accessions analyzed than in other members of the Rosaceae family. Unweighted pair-group method (UPGMA) cluster analysis, based on Nei's genetic distance, generally grouped genotypes according to their geographic origins and pedigrees. The high number of alleles and the high expected heterozygosity detected with SSR markers developed in Malus x domestica (Borkh.) make them a suitable tool for loquat cultivar identification, confirming microsatellite marker transportability among genera in the Rosaceae family.
Kang, Changku; Kim, Ye Eun; Jang, Yikweon
Colour change in animals can be adaptive phenotypic plasticity in heterogeneous environments. Camouflage through background colour matching has been considered a primary force that drives the evolution of colour changing ability. However, the mechanism to which animals change their colour and patterns under visually heterogeneous backgrounds (i.e. consisting of more than one colour) has only been identified in limited taxa. Here, we investigated the colour change process of the Japanese tree frog (Hyla japonica) against patterned backgrounds and elucidated how the expression of dorsal patterns changes against various achromatic/chromatic backgrounds with/without patterns. Our main findings are i) frogs primarily responded to the achromatic differences in background, ii) their contrasting dorsal patterns were conditionally expressed dependent on the brightness of backgrounds, iii) against mixed coloured background, frogs adopted intermediate forms between two colours. Using predator (avian and snake) vision models, we determined that colour differences against different backgrounds yielded perceptible changes in dorsal colours. We also found substantial individual variation in colour changing ability and the levels of dorsal pattern expression between individuals. We discuss the possibility of correlational selection on colour changing ability and resting behaviour that maintains the high variation in colour changing ability within population. PMID:26932675
Kang, Changku; Kim, Ye Eun; Jang, Yikweon
Colour change in animals can be adaptive phenotypic plasticity in heterogeneous environments. Camouflage through background colour matching has been considered a primary force that drives the evolution of colour changing ability. However, the mechanism to which animals change their colour and patterns under visually heterogeneous backgrounds (i.e. consisting of more than one colour) has only been identified in limited taxa. Here, we investigated the colour change process of the Japanese tree frog (Hyla japonica) against patterned backgrounds and elucidated how the expression of dorsal patterns changes against various achromatic/chromatic backgrounds with/without patterns. Our main findings are i) frogs primarily responded to the achromatic differences in background, ii) their contrasting dorsal patterns were conditionally expressed dependent on the brightness of backgrounds, iii) against mixed coloured background, frogs adopted intermediate forms between two colours. Using predator (avian and snake) vision models, we determined that colour differences against different backgrounds yielded perceptible changes in dorsal colours. We also found substantial individual variation in colour changing ability and the levels of dorsal pattern expression between individuals. We discuss the possibility of correlational selection on colour changing ability and resting behaviour that maintains the high variation in colour changing ability within population.
Ma, Zhao-Hui; Cheng, Hai-Tao; Nitta, Y; Aoki, Naohiro; Chen, Yun; Chen, Heng-Xue; Ohsugi, Ryu; Lyu, Wen-Yan
Viscosity, a crucial characteristic for rice palatability, is affected by endosperm characters. We compared correlations between differences in viscosity of japonica rice with various palatability and endosperm characters. Changes in apparent amylose and protein contents (AAC% and PC%, respectively) and amylopectin side-chain distribution and the relationship of these traits with palatability were investigated in superior and inferior spikelets of good cultivars with low amylose content from Hokkaido and common cultivars from northeastern Japan, using rapid visco analyzer characteristics and rice-grain microstructures. Significant differences occurred in PC%, AAC%, breakdown, setback, peak time, and pasting temperature of different cultivars and grain positions. Amylopectin components showed remarkable differences in grain surfaces, surface layers, and section structure between the grain varieties. Hokkaido cultivars showed better viscosity than northeastern cultivars, particularly initial stage grains. Correlation analysis indicated viscosity was mainly AAC%-dependent, whereas differences in endosperm characteristics between spikelet positions were mainly due to grain-filling temperature.
Min, Yong Deuk; Yang, Min Cheol; Lee, Kyu Ha; Kim, Kyung Ran; Choi, Sang Un; Lee, Kang Ro
Six protoberberine alkaloids were isolated from the chloroform layer of the rhizome of Coptis japonica Makino (Ranunculaceae). The structures of the isolated compounds were determined to be 6-([1,3]dioxolo[4,5-g]isoquinoline-5-carbonyl)-2,3-dimethoxy-benzoic acid methyl ester (1), oxyberberine (2), 8-oxo-epiberberine (3), 8-oxocoptisine (4), berberine (5) and palmatine (6) by physicochemical and spectroscopic methods. The compound 3 (8-oxo-epiberberine) was first isolated from natural sources. The compounds were tested for cytotoxicity against five tumor cell lines in vitro by SRB method, and also tested for the MDR reversal activities. Compound 4 was of significant P-gp MDR inhibition activity with ED50 value 0.018 microg/mL in MES-SA/DX5 cell and 0.0005 microg/mL in HCT15 cell, respectively.
Pinciroli, M; Domínguez-Perles, R; Abellán, A; Guy, A; Durand, T; Oger, C; Galano, J M; Ferreres, F; Gil-Izquierdo, A
Phytoprostanes and phytofurans (PhytoPs and PhytoFs, respectively) are nonenzymatic lipid peroxidation products derived from α-linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3), considered biomarkers of oxidative degradation in plant foods. The present work profiled these compounds in white and brown grain flours and rice bran from 14 rice cultivars of the subspecies indica and japonica by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization and triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. For PhytoPs, the average concentrations were higher in rice bran (0.01-9.35 ng g -1 ) than in white and brown grain flours (0.01-1.17 ng g -1 ). In addition, the evaluation of rice flours for the occurrence PhytoFs evidenced average values 1.77, 4.22, and 10.30 ng g -1 dw in rice bran, brown grain flour, and white grain flour, respectively. A significant correlation was observed between total and individual compounds. The concentrations retrieved suggest rice bran as a valuable source of PhytoPs and PhytoFs that should be considered in further studies on bioavailability and bioactivity of such compounds.
Kim, Junghyun; Kim, Chan-Sik; Sohn, Eunjin; Lee, Yun Mi; Jo, Kyuhyung; Kim, Jin Sook
Aldose reductase (AR) is the first and rate-limiting enzyme of the polyol pathway. AR-dependent synthesis of excess polyols leads to lens opacification in diabetic cataract. The purpose of this study is to investigate the protective effect of Litsea japonica extract (LJE) on diabetes-induced lens opacification and its protective mechanism in db/db mice. Seven-week-old male db/db mice were treated with LJE (100 and 250 mg/kg body weight) once a day orally for 12 weeks. LJE dose dependently inhibited rat lens aldose reductase activity in vitro (IC50 = 13.53 ± 0.74 µg/mL). In db/db mice, lens was slightly opacified, and lens fiber cells were swollen and ruptured. In addition, lenticular sorbitol accumulation was increased in db/db mice. However, the administration of LJE inhibited these lenticular sorbitol accumulation and lens architectural changes in db/db mice. Our results suggest that LJE might be beneficial for the treatment of diabetes-induced lens opacification. The ability of LJE to suppress lenticular sorbitol accumulation may be mediated by the inhibition of AR activity.
Zhou, Yulu; Zhou, Ting; Pei, Qi; Liu, Shikun; Yuan, Hong
Chlorogenic acid (ChA) is proposed as the major bioactive compounds of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos (LJF). Forty-two Wistar rats were randomly divided into seven groups to investigate the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of ChA, via oral administration of LJF extract, using ibuprofen as internal standard, employing a high performance liquid chromatography in conjunction with tandem mass spectrometry. Analytes were extracted from plasma samples and tissue homogenate by liquid–liquid extraction with acetonitrile, separated on a C 18 column by linear gradient elution, and detected by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry in negative selected multiple reaction monitoring mode. Our results successfully demonstrate that the method has satisfactory selectivity, linearity, extraction recovery, matrix effect, precision, accuracy, and stability. Using noncompartment model to study pharmacokinetics, profile revealed that ChA was rapidly absorbed and eliminated. Tissue study indicated that the highest level was observed in liver, followed by kidney, lung, heart, and spleen. In conclusion, this method was suitable for the study on pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of ChA after oral administration. PMID:25140190
Chen, Jian-Ze; Huang, Shiang-Lin; Han, Yu-San
Since the 1970s, the loss of temperate-zone anguillid eels, particularly Anguilla anguilla, Anguilla rostrata, and Anguilla japonica, has exceeded 90% based on estimates of glass eel recruitment. The cause of this decline has not been conclusively determined, although many factors have been proposed. In East Asia, the consequences of long-term habitat loss and deterioration of habitat quality on the sustainability of Japanese eel resources are important. Impacts have already occurred and are expected to increase because hundreds of millions of people live near estuaries and rivers that have undergone, and further, are expected to continue to undergo, substantial changes in land use. Driven by economic growth, these landscape changes have resulted in, and may continue to produce, the large-scale destruction of eel habitats. We used chronological Landsat imagery to measure Japanese eel habitat reduction from human activities in 16 rivers in East Asia, including Japan, Korea, Taiwan, and China. On average, 76.8% of the effective habitat area (Ae) was lost in these 16 rivers from the 1970s-2010s. Taiwan and China had the highest percentages of Ae loss, with declines of 49.3% and 81.5%, respectively. Extensive habitat loss may play an important role, together with regional climate phenomena such as the ENSO and overfishing, in the decline of the Japanese eel in East Asia. Measures targeting habitat restoration and protection may need to be integrated into management planning for Japanese eel resources in an international rather than regional context.
Kanbayashi, Toru; Miyafuji, Hisashi
The morphological and topochemical changes in wood tissues in compression wood of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) upon treated with two types of ionic liquids, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C2mim][Cl]) and 1-ethylpyridinium bromide ([EtPy][Br]) were investigated. Compression wood tracheids were swollen by both ionic liquids but their swelling behaviors were different in the types of ionic liquids used. Under the polarized light, we confirmed that crystalline cellulose in compression wood is amorphized by [C2mim][Cl] treatment whereas it changes slightly by [EtPy][Br] treatment. Raman microscopic analyses revealed that [C2mim][Cl] can preferentially liquefy polysaccharides in compression wood whereas [EtPy][Br] liquefy lignin. In addition, the interaction of compression wood with ionic liquids is different for the morphological regions. These results will assist in the use of ionic liquid treatment of woody biomass to produce valuable chemicals, bio-fuels, bio-based composites and other products.
Kanbayashi, Toru; Miyafuji, Hisashi
The morphological and topochemical changes in wood tissues in compression wood of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) upon treated with two types of ionic liquids, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C2mim][Cl]) and 1-ethylpyridinium bromide ([EtPy][Br]) were investigated. Compression wood tracheids were swollen by both ionic liquids but their swelling behaviors were different in the types of ionic liquids used. Under the polarized light, we confirmed that crystalline cellulose in compression wood is amorphized by [C2mim][Cl] treatment whereas it changes slightly by [EtPy][Br] treatment. Raman microscopic analyses revealed that [C2mim][Cl] can preferentially liquefy polysaccharides in compression wood whereas [EtPy][Br] liquefy lignin. In addition, the interaction of compression wood with ionic liquids is different for the morphological regions. These results will assist in the use of ionic liquid treatment of woody biomass to produce valuable chemicals, bio-fuels, bio-based composites and other products. PMID:27426470
Barbot, Yann Nicolas; Thomsen, Claudia; Thomsen, Laurenz; Benz, Roland
The cultivation of macroalgae to supply the biofuel, pharmaceutical or food industries generates a considerable amount of organic residue, which represents a potential substrate for biomethanation. Its use optimizes the total resource exploitation by the simultaneous disposal of waste biomaterials. In this study, we explored the biochemical methane potential (BMP) and biomethane recovery of industrial Laminaria japonica waste (LJW) in batch, continuous laboratory and pilot-scale trials. Thermo-acidic pretreatment with industry-grade HCl or industrial flue gas condensate (FGC), as well as a co-digestion approach with maize silage (MS) did not improve the biomethane recovery. BMPs between 172 mL and 214 mL g−1 volatile solids (VS) were recorded. We proved the feasibility of long-term continuous anaerobic digestion with LJW as sole feedstock showing a steady biomethane production rate of 173 mL g−1 VS. The quality of fermentation residue was sufficient to serve as biofertilizer, with enriched amounts of potassium, sulfur and iron. We further demonstrated the upscaling feasibility of the process in a pilot-scale system where a CH4 recovery of 189 L kg−1 VS was achieved and a biogas composition of 55% CH4 and 38% CO2 was recorded. PMID:26393620
Ma, Ke-Xue; Chen, Guang-Wen; Shi, Chang-Ying; Cheng, Fang-Fang; Dou, He; Feng, Cheng-Cheng; Liu, De-Zeng
GRP78 (78 kDa glucose-regulated protein) has ubiquitously existed in nearly all organisms from yeast to humans, reflecting the central roles it plays in cell survival. In this report, we isolated and sequenced the full-length cDNA of GRP78 (designated DjGRP78) from the planarian Dugesia japonica. The cDNA is 2121 bp, including an open reading frame (ORF) of 1983 bp encoding a polypeptide of 660 amino acids with three HSP70 family signatures. DjGRP78 contains signal peptides at the N-terminus and a KTEL peptide motif at the C-terminus, which suggests that it localizes in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Fluorescent real time RT-PCR was employed to detect the expression pattern of Djgrp78 in response to different stressors. Our results show that heat shock and heavy metals (Hg(2+) and Pb(2+)) induce Djgrp78 expression, but starvation does not. Interestingly, we found that Djgrp78 was up-regulated in planarians with septic tissues, and also verified that it was up-regulated in response to bacterial challenge. Our data indicate that Djgrp78 may be a multifunctional gene, and play important roles in physiological and pathological stress in planarians. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... Bok choy Broccoli Brussels sprouts Cabbage Cauliflower Collard greens Horseradish Kale Radishes Rutabaga Turnips Watercress Wasabi Why ... nutrients. Vegetables are categorized into five subgroups: dark-green, red and orange, beans and peas (legumes), starchy, ...
Zhang, D; Miyase, T; Kuroyanagi, M; Umehara, K; Ueno, A
Five new oleanane-type saponins, polygalasaponins XXVIII-XXXII, along with one known saponin, polygalasaponin XXIV, and one known acylated sucrose, tenuifoliside C, were isolated from the root of Polygala japonica. The structures of these new compounds were elucidated as 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl pesenegenin 28-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl (1-->4)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1-->2)-beta-D-fucopyranosyl ester, 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl presenegenin 28-O-beta-D-galactopyranosyl (1-->5)-beta-D-apiofuranosyl (1-->4)-beta-D-xylopyranosyl (1-->4)-alpha-L-rhamno-pyranosyl (1-->2)-beta-D-fucopyranosyl ester, 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl presenegenin 28-O-beta-D-galactopyranosyl (1-->4)-beta-D-xylopyranosyl (1-->4)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1-->2)-[4-O-p-methoxycinnamoyl]-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1-->3)]-beta-D-fucopyranosyl ester, 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl presenegenin 28-O-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl (1-->3)-beta-D-xylopyranosyl (1-->4)-[beta-D-apiofuranosyl (1-->3)]-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1-->2)-[4-O-3,4,5-trimethoxycinnamoyl]-beta-D-fucopyranosyl ester, 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl persenegenin 28-O-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl (1-->3)-beta-D-xylopyranosyl (1-->4)-[beta-D-apiofuranosyl (1-->3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1-->2)-[4-O-p-methoxycinnamoyl]-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1-->3)-beta-D-fucopyranosyl ester, respectively, on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical evidence.
Luo, Di; Niu, Xiangli; Yu, Jinde; Yan, Jun; Gou, Xiaojun; Lu, Bao-Rong; Liu, Yongsheng
Glycine betaine (GB) is a compatible quaternary amine that enables plants to tolerate abiotic stresses, including salt, drought and cold. In plants, GB is synthesized through two-step of successive oxidations from choline, catalyzed by choline monooxygenase (CMO) and betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH), respectively. Rice is considered as a typical non-GB accumulating species, although the entire genome sequencing revealed rice contains orthologs of both CMO and BADH. Several studies unraveled that rice has a functional BADH gene, but whether rice CMO gene (OsCMO) is functional or a pseudogene remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we report the functional characterization of rice CMO gene. The OsCMO gene was isolated from rice cv. Nipponbare (Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica) using RT-PCR. Northern blot demonstrated the transcription of OsCMO is enhanced by salt stress. Transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing OsCMO results in increased GB content and elevated tolerance to salt stress. Immunoblotting analysis demonstrates that a functional OsCMO protein with correct size was present in transgenic tobacco but rarely accumulated in wild-type rice plants. Surprisingly, a large amount of truncated proteins derived from OsCMO was induced in the rice seedlings in response to salt stresses. This suggests that it is the lack of a functional OsCMO protein that presumably results in non-GB accumulation in the tested rice plant. Expression and transgenic studies demonstrate OsCMO is transcriptionally induced in response to salt stress and functions in increasing glycinebetaine accumulation and enhancing tolerance to salt stress. Immunoblotting analysis suggests that no accumulation of glycinebetaine in the Japonica rice plant presumably results from lack of a functional OsCMO protein.
Jiang, Peng; Wang, Jianshe; Sheng, Nan; Wei, Dongbing; Dai, Jiayin
Pentachlorophenol (PCP), an extensively used pesticide and biocide, is of critical environmental concern due to its toxicity and recalcitrance to degradation. In this study, the effect of PCP on induction of transcription factors, cytochrome P450 (CYP450) genes, and the antioxidative enzyme system were investigated in the quail liver. A total of 60 (4- to 6-week-old) male quails (Coturnix japonica) were administered 0, 0.05, 0.5, and 5 mg/kg/d PCP orally for 42 d. Following exposure, both absolute and relative liver weights were significantly lower than those of the control. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, PCP accumulation was, from highest to lowest, kidney > liver > muscle for all exposure groups. The expressions of CYP1A5, CYP1B1, CYP2C18, nuclear translocator 1 (ARNT1), and aryl hydrocarbon receptor 1 (AHR1) were induced after PCP treatment, and increases were found in the activities of hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and the content of hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA). In addition, exposure to PCP induced an increase in liver 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and significantly elevated ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), methoxyresorufin O-demethylase (MROD), and 7-ethoxycoumarin-O-deethylase (ECOD) activity, but decreased that of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), benzyloxyresorufin O-debenzylase (BROD), pentoxyresorufin O-depentylase (PROD), and erythromycin N-demethylase (END). No significant responses were observed for benzyloxy-trifluoromethyl-coumarin (BFC). The protein level of liver nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) was higher, whereas that of nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) was lower for exposed quail. These results suggest that PCP affects quail oxidative stress by modulating CYP450 enzymes and nuclear transcription factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chen, Hai-ying; Hu, Guang-han; Song, Kuang-yu; Xiong, Zhi-wei; Wan, Bao-ping; Yang, Ping-yi; Hu, Jia; Peng, Guo-hua; Hu, Wei-Chen; Fu, Guo-Lan
To study an intervention model of "schools without infected students with schistosoma japonica", to control and prevent students from schistosoma infection. Twelve primary schools of four heavy endemic counties (districts) with schistosomiasis in the Poyang Lake areas were selected as the study fields, of which, ten schools were the experimental groups, and the other two schools were the control groups by cluster random sampling. All enrolment students were the target population. The baseline survey was carried out in 2005, and an intervention model, "information dissemination + behavior participation + behavior encouragement", was applied in the experiment groups in 2006 - 2008, then the effect of intervention was assessed. Before intervention (2005), the anti-schistosomiasis knowledge awareness rate of experimental and control groups were 14.75% (324/2196) and 16.58% (91/549), and the different was not significant (χ(2) = 1.14, P > 0.05); the rate of accurate attitude of anti-schistosomiasis were 14.71% (323/2196) and 11.84% (65/549) in experimental and control groups, and the difference was not significant (χ(2) = 2.98, P > 0.05); the rate of contacting infected water were 15.44% (18 988/122 976) and 15.03% (4622/30 744) in experimental and control group and the difference was not significant (χ(2) = 3.13, P > 0.05); and the infection rate of schistosomiasis of experiment control groups were 9.65% (212/2196) and 10.56% (58/549), the difference was not significant (χ(2) = 0.41, P > 0.05). After one year intervention (2006), the anti-schistosomiasis knowledge awareness rate of experimental and control groups were 97.79% (2032/2078) and 18.11% (98/541), and the different was significant (χ(2) = 1794.31, P < 0.01); the rate of accurate attitude of anti-schistosomiasis were 99.09% (2059/2078) and 13.49% (73/541) in experimental and control group, and the difference was significant (χ(2) = 2077.45, P < 0.01). After 1 - 3 years intervention (2006 - 2008), there
Imaizumi, Kazuhiko; Sato, Shogo; Sakakibara, Yuko; Mori, Sayuri; Ohkuma, Masaki; Kawashima, Yu; Ban, Takamasa; Sasaki, Hiromi; Tachiyashiki, Kaoru
The main pungent component of wasabi (Eutrema japonica) is known to be isothiocyanate and its derivatives, volatile substances. Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) accounts for more than half of isothiocyanate derivatives. However, there is a little information on the effects of AITC on the immune system by analyzing the number of white blood cells (WBCs) over the course of days of AITC administration. In the present study, we studied the effects of AITC (dose=20 mg/kg body weight/day for 10 days, subcutaneous: s.c.) on the number of WBCs (total WBCs, lymphocytes, monocyte, neutrophil, basophil and eosinophil) and plasma corticosterone concentrations in adult male rats. Administration of AITC decreased significantly the number of total WBCs on days 1-4 post s.c. injection by 25-27%. Administration of AITC also decreased the number of lymphocytes on days 1-10 by 21-36% and monocyte on days 1-8 by 28-78%. However, administration of AITC increased the number of neutrophil on days 8-10 by 61-112%. AITC did not change the number of eosinophil and basophil. Plasma corticosterone concentrations during the experimental period were 4.7-8.4 times significantly higher in the AITC group than in the control group, indicating that AITC induced stress-responses. The relative weights of thymus and adrenals per body weight were significantly lower and clearly higher in the AITC group than in the control group, respectively. These results suggest that AITC-mediated stress-responses are at least in part attributable to changes in the number of circulating WBCs.
Chi, Meili; Wen, Haishen; Ni, Meng; Qian, Kun; Zhang, Pei; Chai, Senhao
The RNA helicase Vasa is an important regulator of primordial germ cell development. Its function in mature fish, especially the hormone-related differences in maturing male fish has seldom been documented. In this study, a full length cDNA sequence of the vasa gene was cloned from Japanese sea bass, Lateolabrax japonicas, and it was named jsb-vasa. Homology analysis showed that jsb-vasa was closely related to its teleost homologs. The spatial distribution of jsb-vasa indicated that it was only highly expressed in testis, showing its germ cell-specific expression pattern. During the testicular development cycle, jsb-vasa was highly expressed during early period of spermatogenesis, and reduced when spermatogenesis advanced. In addition, the jsb-vasa gene expression was significantly inhibited at 6 h, 12 h and 24 h after injecting hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) and GnRHa (Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue), indicating that jsb-vasa gene may play an important role in spermatogenesis of Japanese sea bass, and be under the regulation of external sex hormones.
Xu, Hong-Xia; Li, Xiao-Ying; Chen, Jun-Wei
Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) is an important subtropical, commercial fruit in China. It blossoms during autumn and winter in most areas of China and its fruitlets usually suffer from freezing stress. However, studies about the mechanisms underlying freezing stress in loquat are very limited. The gene expression profiles of loquat fruitlets subjected to freezing (G2 library) versus non-treated ones (G1 library) were investigated using Illumina sequencing technology to elucidate the molecular mechanisms and identify the genes that play vital roles in the freezing stress response. The results showed that approximately 157.63 million reads in total were obtained from freeze-treated and non-treated loquat fruitlets. These reads were assembled into 87,379 unigenes with an average length of 710 bp and an N50 of 1,200 bp. After comparing the profiles obtained from the G1 and G2 libraries, 2,892 differentially expressed genes were identified, of which 1,883 were up-regulated and 1,009 were down-regulated in the treated samples compared to non-treated ones. These unigenes showed significant differences in expression for carbohydrate transport and metabolism, amino acid metabolism, energy metabolism, and lipid metabolism, which are involved in defense against freezing stress. Glycolysis/gluconeogenesis was one of the most significantly regulated pathways. Freezing also significantly damaged the membrane system of loquat fruitlets, and several defense mechanisms were induced. Some selected genes related to low temperature resistance were validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The results revealed many genes and pathways that are part of freezing resistance processes and expand our understanding of the complex molecular events involved in freezing stress.
Hsue, S.Y.; Xu, S.T.; He, Y.X.
Vaccination of Chinese bovines (cattle and buffaloes) against Schistosomiasis japonica with 36 kR gamma-irradiated schistosomula was done for laboratory challenge and for field trials in China. Altogether, 61 bovines were used. All experimental animals were vaccinated 2-3 times with 10,000 irradiated schistosomula per time. For the laboratory challenge, all experimental and control cattle were challenged with 500 normal cercariae and each buffalo, with 2,000 cercariae. The laboratory-challenged bovines were killed after 54-57 days of challenge; the bovines for the field trial in the lightly endemic area, after 5 months in the field; and the bovines for the field trial inmore » the heavily endemic area, after 58-63 days. When the animals were killed, the number of mature worms in the vaccinated (experimental) and non-vaccinated (control) animals was recorded and the percentage of worm reduction in each group was calculated. The first group, consisting of three vaccinated and three non-vaccinated cattle, was given a laboratory challenge; the worm reduction was 71.6%. The second group, consisting of two vaccinated and three non-vaccinated buffaloes, was also given a laboratory challenge; the worm reduction was 74.4%. The third group, consisting of seven vaccinated and eight non-vaccinated buffaloes, was utilized in a field trial in a lightly endemic area; the worm reduction was 75.6%. The fourth group, consisting of eight vaccinated and nine non-vaccinated cattle, and the fifth group, consisting of nine vaccinated and nine non-vaccinated buffaloes, were pastured in a heavily endemic area. The worm reduction was 65.1% in the fourth group and 75.7% in the fifth group.« less
Uemura, Yuka; Sugimoto, Sachiko; Matsunami, Katsuyoshi; Otsuka, Hideaki; Takeda, Yoshio; Kawahata, Masatoshi; Yamaguchi, Kentaro
From the branches of Microtropis japonica (Celastraceae), nine aliphatic glucosides, named microtropins A-I, were isolated. The 6-position of glucose was esterified with (2S,3R)-2-ethyl-2,3-dihydroxybutyric acid. Microtropins A-D contained a rare natured product nitrile functional group in their aglycones. The absolute structures of the (2S,3R)-2-ethyl-2,3-dihydroxybutyric acid moiety and aglycone of microtropin A were determined by an X-ray crystallographic method. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lee, Jong Seok; Jung, Woo Chul; Park, Seok Jae; Lee, Keun Eok; Shin, Won Cheol; Hong, Eock Kee
In this study, the liquid culture conditions were optimized for maximal production of mycelial biomass and exo-polysaccharide by Paecilomyces japonica. The effects of medium composition, C/N ratio and physical parameters were investigated. From these experiments, 30 g glucose, 20 g yeast extract, 0.5 g KH2PO4, and 0.1 g CuCl2 2H2O in 1-l distilled water were found to be the most suitable carbon, nitrogen, and mineral sources, respectively. The optimal temperature, initial pH, agitation, and aeration were determined to be 27°C, uncontrolled pH, 400 rpm, and 1.0 vvm, respectively. Under these optimal conditions, the maximum mycelial growth and polysaccharides production were 23.1 g/l and 2.5 g/l, respectively. Copyright © 2012 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Shen, Jin-Jing; Gong, Xing-Chu; Pan, Jian-Yang; Qu, Hai-Bin
Design space approach was applied in this study to optimize the lime milk precipitation process of Lonicera Japonica (Jinyinhua) aqueous extract. The evaluation indices for this process were total organic acid purity and amounts of 6 organic acids obtained from per unit mass of medicinal materials. Four critical process parameters (CPPs) including drop speed of lime milk, pH value after adding lime milk, settling time and settling temperature were identified by using the weighted standardized partial regression coefficient method. Quantitative models between process evaluation indices and CPPs were established by a stepwise regression analysis. A design space was calculated by a Monte-Carlo simulation method, and then verified. The verification test results showed that the operation within the design space can guarantee the stability of the lime milk precipitation process. The recommended normal operation space is as follows： drop speed of lime milk of 1.00-1.25 mL•min⁻¹, pH value of 11.5-11.7, settling time of 1.0-1.2 h, and settling temperature of 10-20 ℃.. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Kim, Junghyun; Kim, Chan-Sik; Sohn, Eunjin; Lee, Yun Mi; Jo, Kyuhyung; Kim, Jin Sook
Aldose reductase (AR) is the first and rate-limiting enzyme of the polyol pathway. AR-dependent synthesis of excess polyols leads to lens opacification in diabetic cataract. The purpose of this study is to investigate the protective effect of Litsea japonica extract (LJE) on diabetes-induced lens opacification and its protective mechanism in db/db mice. Seven-week-old male db/db mice were treated with LJE (100 and 250 mg/kg body weight) once a day orally for 12 weeks. LJE dose dependently inhibited rat lens aldose reductase activity in vitro (IC50 = 13.53 ± 0.74 µg/mL). In db/db mice, lens was slightly opacified, and lens fiber cells were swollen and ruptured. In addition, lenticular sorbitol accumulation was increased in db/db mice. However, the administration of LJE inhibited these lenticular sorbitol accumulation and lens architectural changes in db/db mice. Our results suggest that LJE might be beneficial for the treatment of diabetes-induced lens opacification. The ability of LJE to suppress lenticular sorbitol accumulation may be mediated by the inhibition of AR activity. PMID:25802544
Istiqomah, L.; Sakti, A. A.; Suryani, A. E.; Karimy, M. F.; Anggraeni, A. S.; Herdian, H.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of feed supplement (FS) contained earthworm meal (EWM) on production performance of laying quails. Twenty weeks-old of 360 Coturnix coturnix japonica quails were used in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with three dietary treatments A = CD (control without FS), B = CD + 0.250 % of FS, and C = CD + 0.375 % of FS during 6 weeks of experimental period. Each treatment in 4 equal replicates in which 30 quails were randomly allocated into 12 units of cages. Variable measured were feed intake, feed conversion ratio, feed efficiency, mortality rate, hen day production, egg weight, and egg uniformity. Data were statistically analyzed by One Way ANOVA and the differences among mean treatments are analysed using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT). The results showed that administration of 0.375% FS based on earthworm meal, fermented rice bran, and skim milk impaired the feed conversion ratio and increased the feed efficiency. The experimental treatments did not effect on feed intake, mortality, hen day production, egg weight, and egg uniformity of quail. It is concluded that administration of feed supplement improved the growth performance of quail.
Lu, Qingqing; Wu, Suge; Zhen, Hui; Deng, Hongkuan; Song, Qian; Ma, Kaifu; Cao, Zhonghong; Pang, Qiuxiang; Zhao, Bosheng
14-3-3 proteins are a family of highly conserved acidic proteins that regulate cellular processes. They act as a kind of important signaling molecules taking part in many crucial decisions throughout the development process. We have isolated and characterized two members of the 14-3-3 family, namely, Dj14-3-3 α and Dj14-3-3 ζ in the planarian Dugesia japonica. The Dj14-3-3 α and ζ genes encode polypeptides of 260 and 255 amino acids respectively. We have proved that the Dj14-3-3 α and ζ genes were especially expressed in the pharynx in adult and regenerating planarians by in situ hybridization and they were not involved in regeneration process. Besides, Dj14-3-3 α and ζ genes can compensate each other in planarians by RNA interference. The Dj14-3-3 α and ζ were significantly up-regulated expression when planarians were stimulated with the pathogen-associated molecular patterns including lipopolysaccharide (LPS), peptidoglycan (PGN), β-Glu and Poly (I:C), indicating that the Dj14-3-3 α and ζ may be involved in the immune responses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Chen, Xiaojun; Li, Wei; Zhang, Yang; Song, Xian; Xu, Lei; Xu, Zhipeng; Zhou, Sha; Zhu, Jifeng; Jin, Xin; Liu, Feng; Chen, Gengxin; Su, Chuan
Background Schistosomiasis is a helminthic disease that affects more than 200 million people. An effective vaccine would be a major step towards eliminating the disease. Studies suggest that T follicular helper (Tfh) cells provide help to B cells to generate the long-term humoral immunity, which would be a crucial component of successful vaccines. Thus, understanding the biological characteristics of Tfh cells in patients with schistosomiasis, which has never been explored, is essential for vaccine design. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we investigated the biological characteristics of peripheral memory Tfh cells in schistosomiasis patients by flow cytometry. Our data showed that the frequencies of total and activated peripheral memory Tfh cells in patients were significantly increased during Schistosoma japonicum infection. Moreover, Tfh2 cells, which were reported to be a specific subpopulation to facilitate the generation of protective antibodies, were increased more greatly than other subpopulations of total peripheral memory Tfh cells in patients with schistosomiasis japonica. More importantly, our result showed significant correlations of the percentage of Tfh2 cells with both the frequency of plasma cells and the level of IgG antibody. In addition, our results showed that the percentage of T follicular regulatory (Tfr) cells was also increased in patients with schistosomiasis. Conclusions/Significance Our report is the first characterization of peripheral memory Tfh cells in schistosomasis patients, which not only provides potential targets to improve immune response to vaccination, but also is important for the development of vaccination strategies to control schistosomiasis. PMID:26284362
Gengmao, Zhao; Shihui, Li; Xing, Sun; Yizhou, Wang; Zipan, Chang
Silicon(Si) is the only element which can enhance the resistance to multiple stresses. However, the role of silicon in medicinal plants under salt stress is not yet understood. This experiment was conducted to study the effects of silicon addition on the growth, osmotic adjustments, photosynthetic characteristics, chloroplast ultrastructure and Chlorogenic acid (CGA) production of Honeysuckle plant (Lonicera japonica L.) under salt-stressed conditions. Salinity exerted an adverse effect on the plant fresh weight and dry weight, whilst 0.5 g L-1 K2SiO3·nH2O addition obviously improved the plant growth. Although Na+ concentration in plant organs was drastically increased with increasing salinity, higher levels of K+/Na+ ratio was obtained after K2SiO3·nH2O addition. Salinity stress induced the destruction of the chloroplast envelope; however, K2SiO3·nH2O addition counteracted the adverse effect by salinity on the structure of the photosynthetic apparatus. K2SiO3·nH2O addition also enhanced the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase. To sum up, exogenous Si plays a key role in enhancing its resistance to salt stresses in physiological base, thereby improving the growth and CGA production of Honeysuckle plant.
Ronca, April E.; Baer, Lisa A.; Everett, Erin M.; Shaughnessey, Rebecca; Foushee, Rebecca E.
We compared reproductive fitness and early postnatal growth of Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) and Japanese (Coturnix coturnix japonica) quail incubated and hatched during 2 G centrifugation. Fertilized Bobwhite and Japanese quail eggs were placed in portable incubators on the 8-ft International Space Station Test Bed (ISSTB) Centrifuge at NASA Ames Research Center. The quail eggs were incubated throughout hatching and reared until Postnatal day (P)4 at either 1.0, 1.2 or 2.0 G. Two days before hatching, candling revealed significantly greater numbers of viable Bobwhite than Japanese quail eggs at all g-loads. Bobwhite quail exhibited significantly better hatching success at all g-loads than did Japanese quail. Bobwhite hatchlings were sensitive to gravitational loading as evidenced by reduced postnatal body mass and length of 2 G hatchlings relative to 1 G control hatchlings. In contrast, mass and length of Japanese quail hatchlings were unaffected by 1.2 or 2 G exposure. Together, our findings provide evidence for superior viability and hatching success in Bobwhite quail relative to Japanese quail, coupled with greater sensitivity of postnatal body growth and development to 2 G loading. Bobwhite quail may be better suited than Japanese quail for scientific studies on space biology platforms.
Miura, Toru; Kamikouchi, Azusa; Sawata, Miyuki; Takeuchi, Hideaki; Natori, Syunji; Kubo, Takeo; Matsumoto, Tadao
Although “polymorphic castes” in social insects are well known as one of the most important phenomena of polyphenism, few studies of caste-specific gene expressions have been performed in social insects. To identify genes specifically expressed in the soldier caste of the Japanese damp-wood termite Hodotermopsis japonica, we employed the differential-display method using oligo(dT) and arbitrary primers, compared mRNA from the heads of mature soldiers and pseudergates (worker caste), and identified a clone (PCR product) 329 bp in length termed SOL1. Northern blot analysis showed that the SOL1 mRNA is about 1.0 kb in length and is expressed specifically in mature soldiers, but not in pseudergates, even in the presoldier induction by juvenile hormone analogue, suggesting that the product is specific for terminally differentiated soldiers. By using the method of 5′- and 3′-rapid amplification of cDNA ends, we isolated the full length of SOL1 cDNA, which contained an ORF with a putative signal peptide at the N terminus. The sequence showed no significant homology with any other known protein sequences. In situ hybridization analysis showed that SOL1 is expressed specifically in the mandibular glands. These results strongly suggest that the SOL1 gene encodes a secretory protein specifically synthesized in the mandibular glands of the soldiers. Histological observations revealed that the gland actually develops during the differentiation into the soldier caste. PMID:10570166
Itoh, Takeshi; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Barrero, Roberto A.; Yamasaki, Chisato; Fujii, Yasuyuki; Hilton, Phillip B.; Antonio, Baltazar A.; Aono, Hideo; Apweiler, Rolf; Bruskiewich, Richard; Bureau, Thomas; Burr, Frances; Costa de Oliveira, Antonio; Fuks, Galina; Habara, Takuya; Haberer, Georg; Han, Bin; Harada, Erimi; Hiraki, Aiko T.; Hirochika, Hirohiko; Hoen, Douglas; Hokari, Hiroki; Hosokawa, Satomi; Hsing, Yue; Ikawa, Hiroshi; Ikeo, Kazuho; Imanishi, Tadashi; Ito, Yukiyo; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Kanno, Masako; Kawahara, Yoshihiro; Kawamura, Toshiyuki; Kawashima, Hiroaki; Khurana, Jitendra P.; Kikuchi, Shoshi; Komatsu, Setsuko; Koyanagi, Kanako O.; Kubooka, Hiromi; Lieberherr, Damien; Lin, Yao-Cheng; Lonsdale, David; Matsumoto, Takashi; Matsuya, Akihiro; McCombie, W. Richard; Messing, Joachim; Miyao, Akio; Mulder, Nicola; Nagamura, Yoshiaki; Nam, Jongmin; Namiki, Nobukazu; Numa, Hisataka; Nurimoto, Shin; O’Donovan, Claire; Ohyanagi, Hajime; Okido, Toshihisa; OOta, Satoshi; Osato, Naoki; Palmer, Lance E.; Quetier, Francis; Raghuvanshi, Saurabh; Saichi, Naomi; Sakai, Hiroaki; Sakai, Yasumichi; Sakata, Katsumi; Sakurai, Tetsuya; Sato, Fumihiko; Sato, Yoshiharu; Schoof, Heiko; Seki, Motoaki; Shibata, Michie; Shimizu, Yuji; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Shinso, Yuji; Singh, Nagendra K.; Smith-White, Brian; Takeda, Jun-ichi; Tanino, Motohiko; Tatusova, Tatiana; Thongjuea, Supat; Todokoro, Fusano; Tsugane, Mika; Tyagi, Akhilesh K.; Vanavichit, Apichart; Wang, Aihui; Wing, Rod A.; Yamaguchi, Kaori; Yamamoto, Mayu; Yamamoto, Naoyuki; Yu, Yeisoo; Zhang, Hao; Zhao, Qiang; Higo, Kenichi; Burr, Benjamin; Gojobori, Takashi; Sasaki, Takuji
We present here the annotation of the complete genome of rice Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica cultivar Nipponbare. All functional annotations for proteins and non-protein-coding RNA (npRNA) candidates were manually curated. Functions were identified or inferred in 19,969 (70%) of the proteins, and 131 possible npRNAs (including 58 antisense transcripts) were found. Almost 5000 annotated protein-coding genes were found to be disrupted in insertional mutant lines, which will accelerate future experimental validation of the annotations. The rice loci were determined by using cDNA sequences obtained from rice and other representative cereals. Our conservative estimate based on these loci and an extrapolation suggested that the gene number of rice is ∼32,000, which is smaller than previous estimates. We conducted comparative analyses between rice and Arabidopsis thaliana and found that both genomes possessed several lineage-specific genes, which might account for the observed differences between these species, while they had similar sets of predicted functional domains among the protein sequences. A system to control translational efficiency seems to be conserved across large evolutionary distances. Moreover, the evolutionary process of protein-coding genes was examined. Our results suggest that natural selection may have played a role for duplicated genes in both species, so that duplication was suppressed or favored in a manner that depended on the function of a gene. PMID:17210932
Park, Yang-Chun; Jin, Mirim; Kim, Seung-Hyung; Kim, Min-Hee; Namgung, Uk; Yeo, Yoon
Flower of Lonicera japonica (FLJ) is a traditional herbal medicine widely used in East Asia as an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative agent. The purpose of this study is to develop an inhalable powder formulation of FLJ and to evaluate its biological effects in a mouse model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Inhalable dry powder containing FLJ was produced by spray-drying with leucine as an excipient. Its aerodynamic properties and anti-inflammatory activities were evaluated using the Anderson cascade impactor (ACI) and a mouse model of COPD, respectively. FLJ microparticle (FLJmp) had a hollow spherical shape in electron microscopy and showed aerodynamic properties suitable for inhalation (fine particle fraction of 54.0 ± 4.68% and mass median aerodynamic diameter of 4.6 ± 0.34μm). FLJmp decreased TNF-α and IL-6 expression in RAW264.7 cells activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In mice challenged with LPS and cigarette smoke solution (CSS) to develop COPD, FLJmp decreased the levels of TNF-α and IL-6 in bronchoalveolar fluidas well as the number of inflammatory cells including neutrophils in peripheral blood. In addition, FLJmp induced recovery of elastin and collagen distribution, reduction of caspase-3 expression in lung tissues of COPD mice. Inhalational delivery of FLJ using a microparticle system is a promising strategy for the treatment of COPD. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shen, Li; Tao, Jian-xiu; Yu, Rui-fang; Shen, Guo-hong; Wu, Jun; Cai, Li; Cao, Chun-li; Xu, Jing; Li, Shi-zhu; Guo, Jia-gang
To investigate the schistosomiasis japonica infection and preventive knowledge of immigration population in Jinshan District, Shanghai so as to provide the evidence for improving the control work. The immigration population from schistosomiasis endemic provinces and local people were screened by serum IHA screening for schistosome infection, and the positives were further examined by Kato-Katz technique and the miracidium hatching method. The schistosomiasis preventive knowledge and behaviors were investigated by questionnaires. A total of 579 were investigated with 348 immigration people and 231 local people, and among them, the male accounted for 72.0% and female accounted for 28.0%. In the immigration population, the main age group was 20-29 (56.0%), and 56.6% of the immigration had an education level at senior middle school or higher. The most proportion of immigration was from Anhui Province (36.2%). There were 4 IHA positive persons (1.15%) in the immigration, and 1 was positive in the stool test, and the schistosome infection rate was 0.29%. There were no positives in the local people. The schistosomiasis preventive knowledge of the immigration was generally poor, and some people' s behaviors of see doctor and medication were incorrect. There are schistosome infected persons among the immigration population from schistosomiasis endemic provinces, and their schistosomiasis prevention knowledge was poor, thus there is a schistosomiasis transmission risk.
Miyamoto, Katsuhiko; Hoshimiya, Tsutomu
A photoacoustic microscope (PAM), which includes a condenser microphone and a pair of linear-motor-driven pulse stages, was specially designed for spectroscopic applications. The PAM was applied to measure the amount and number of pollen particles of Cryptomeria japonica (CJ), which is known for its allergic function against eyes and nose. The advantage of photoacoustic (PA) imaging is both its high sensitivity and its counting ability up to high concentrations of the specimen. The CJ pollen particles were fixed on a piece of adhesive tape or on albumen (egg white) on a glass slide set in a PA cell. The PA image showed the ability of this method to count CJ pollen from the several-hundred-milligram region to even a single particle. The PA signal obtained was integrated over the specimen surface. The dependence of the PA signal on the amount or number of the pollen particles was measured. The resulting coefficients of correlation of the calibration curves for the amount and the number of pollen particles were 0.94 and 0.97, respectively.
Souza, Marcy J; Redig, Patrick; Cox, Sherry K
Aspergillosis is a common fungal infection in both wild and pet birds. Although effective antifungal medications are available, treatment of aspergillosis can require months of medication administration, which entails stressful handling one or more times per day. This study examined the delivery of the antifungal drugs itraconazole, voriconazole, and terbinafine to Japanese quail ( Coturnix japonica ) via an impregnated implant. Implants contained 0.5, 3, 8, or 24 mg of itraconazole, voriconazole, or terbinafine. The implants were administered subcutaneously over the dorsum and between the scapulae. Blood was collected from birds before and 2, 7, 21, 42, and 56 days after implant placement. Plasma was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography for concentrations of itraconazole, voriconazole, or terbinafine, as appropriate. During the course of the study, targeted terbinafine concentrations were achieved in some birds at various time points, but concentrations were inconsistent. Itraconazole and voriconazole concentrations were also inconsistent and did not reach targeted concentrations. Currently, the implant examined in this study cannot be recommended for treatment of aspergillosis in avian species.
Fang, Qingkui; Shi, Yanhong; Cao, Haiqun; Tong, Zhou; Xiao, Jinjing; Liao, Min; Wu, Xiangwei; Hua, Rimao
The degradation dynamics and dietary risk assessments of thiamethoxam and thiacloprid during Lonicera japonica planting, drying, and tea brewing processes were systematically investigated using high-performance liquid chromatography. The half-lives of thiamethoxam and thiacloprid were 1.0-4.1 d in the honeysuckle flowers and leaves, with degradation rate constants k ranging from -0.169 to -0.696. The safety interval time was 7 d. The sun- and oven-drying (70 °C) percent digestions were 59.4-81.0% for the residues, which were higher than the shade- and oven-drying percentages at lower temperatures (30, 40, 50, and 60 °C, which ranged from 37.7% to 57.0%). The percent transfers of thiamethoxam and thiacloprid were 0-48.4% and 0-25.2%, respectively, for the different tea brewing conditions. On the basis of the results of this study, abiding by the safety interval time is important, and using reasonable drying methods and tea brewing conditions can reduce the transfer of thiamethoxam and thiacloprid to humans.
Ye, Jing; Niu, Xiaojun; Yang, Yaolong; Wang, Shan; Xu, Qun; Yuan, Xiaoping; Yu, Hanyong; Wang, Yiping; Wang, Shu; Feng, Yue; Wei, Xinghua
The heading date is a vital factor in achieving a full rice yield. Cultivars with particular flowering behaviors have been artificially selected to survive in the long-day and low-temperature conditions of Northeast China. To dissect the genetic mechanism responsible for heading date in rice populations from Northeast China, association mapping was performed to identify major controlling loci. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified three genetic loci, Hd1 , Ghd7 , and DTH7 , using general and mixed linear models. The three genes were sequenced to analyze natural variations and identify their functions. Loss-of-function alleles of these genes contributed to early rice heading dates in the northern regions of Northeast China, while functional alleles promoted late rice heading dates in the southern regions of Northeast China. Selecting environmentally appropriate allele combinations in new varieties is recommended during breeding. Introducing the early indica rice's genetic background into Northeast japonica rice is a reasonable strategy for improving genetic diversity.
Winter, H.C.; Dekker, E.E.
The authors measured the levels of 4-methyleneglutamic acid (Meglu), 4-methyleneglutamine (Megln), erythro-4-methylglutamic acid (e-Mglu), and threo-4-methylglutamic acid (t-Mglu) in seedlings of various species of legumes by HPLC and ion exchange chromatography. High levels of e-Mglu and Megln but no t-Mglu or Meglu are present in Sophora japonica. Peanut seedling contain both e-Mglu and t-Mglu at 20-50% and 5%, resp., of the level of Meglu whereas only traces of Meglu and Mglu occur in soybean seedlings. Excised peanut embryos germinated on Linsmaier and Skoog medium + (U-/sup 14/C)-leucine incorporated isotope into e-Mglu, Meglu, and Megln; (U-/sup 14/C)-proline or glycine was notmore » so incorporated. Soybean embryos rapidly converted added (2-/sup 14/C)-Meglu to a variety of non-amino acid products; peanut embryos, in contrast, retain 25% of added Meglu unchanged and 50% as Megln. These results suggest that in a variety of legumes leucine may serve as a precursor of Mglu and Meglu during germination; also, whereas Meglu remains as such or as Megln in some species, it is rapidly metabolized in others.« less
You, Cuicui; Chen, Lin; He, Haibing; Wu, Liquan; Wang, Shaohua; Ding, Yanfeng; Ma, Chuanxi
Large-panicle rice varieties often fail to achieve their yield potential due to poor grain filling of late-flowering inferior spikelets (IS). The physiological and molecular mechanisms of poor IS grain filling, and whether an increase in assimilate supply could regulate protein abundance and consequently improve IS grain filling for japonica rice with large panicles is still partially understood. A field experiment was performed with two spikelet removal treatments at anthesis in the large-panicle japonica rice line W1844, including removal of the top 1/3 of spikelets (T1) and removal of the top 2/3 of spikelets (T2), with no spikelet removal as a control (T0). The size, weight, setting rate, and grain filling rate of IS were significantly increased after spikelet removing. The biological functions of the differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) between superior and inferior spikelets as well as the response of IS to the removal of superior spikelets (SS) were investigated by using iTRAQ at 10 days post anthesis. A total of 159, 87, and 28 DEPs were identified from group A (T0-SS/T0-IS), group B (T0-SS/T2-IS), and group C (T2-IS/T0-IS), respectively. Among these, 104, 63, and 22 proteins were up-regulated, and 55, 24, and 6 proteins were down-regulated, respectively. Approximately half of these DEPs were involved in carbohydrate metabolism (sucrose-to-starch metabolism and energy metabolism) and protein metabolism (protein synthesis, folding, degradation, and storage). Reduced endosperm cell division and decreased activities of key enzymes associated with sucrose-starch metabolism and nitrogen metabolism are mainly attributed to the poor sink strength of IS. In addition, due to weakened photosynthesis and respiration, IS are unable to obtain a timely supply of materials and energy after fertilization, which might be resulted in the stagnation of IS development. Finally, an increased abundance of 14-3-3 protein in IS could be involved in the inhibition of starch
Spectral domain response calculated • Time domain response obtained through inverse transform Approach 4: WASABI Wavelet Analysis of Structural Anomalies...differences at unity scale! Time Function Transform Apply Spectral Domain Transfer Function Time Function Inverse Transform Transform Transform mtP
Park, J H; Kang, S N; Shin, D; Hur, I C; Kim, I S; Jin, S K
Influence of Achyranthes japonica Nakai Extract (AJNE) on properties of pork sausages were studied in the present investigation. AJNE was added to sausages alone or in combination with ascorbic acid to obtain a comparative analysis on properties of control and ascorbic acid added-sausages. Results showed that addition of 0.05% AJNE led to a decrease in color L* and whiteness (W), and an increase in color b* of pork sausage samples (p<0.05). Although color a* of pork sausages containing AJNE was not significantly different, ascorbic acid added-sausages were highest amongst other treatments (p<0.05). Sausages containing AJNE had lower non-heme iron values and peroxide value (POV) than control sausages (p<0.05); however, high nitrosomyoglobin content was observed in AJNE added-sausages (p<0.05). Ascorbic acid led to a decrease in residual nitrite concentration of sausages (p<0.05), but no difference was found in AJNE added-sausages. Free radical scavenging analysis showed that AJNE did not affect 1,1-diphenyl -2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) activity of sausages, whereas ascorbic acid added-sausages showed relatively higher activity among the samples (p<0.05). Addition of AJNE had no influence on texture properties of sausages. In sensory evaluation, AJNE treatment had significant effects on color (p<0.05), but no significant effects on aroma, flavor, springiness, juiciness, and overall acceptability. In conclusion, the addition of AJNE, as a natural supplement may offer natural antioxidants for pork sausages, and appears to be particularly effective in inducing changes in non-heme iron concentration, POV value and nitrosomyglobin content.
Park, J. H.; Kang, S. N.; Shin, D.; Hur, I. C.; Kim, I. S.; Jin, S. K.
Influence of Achyranthes japonica Nakai Extract (AJNE) on properties of pork sausages were studied in the present investigation. AJNE was added to sausages alone or in combination with ascorbic acid to obtain a comparative analysis on properties of control and ascorbic acid added-sausages. Results showed that addition of 0.05% AJNE led to a decrease in color L* and whiteness (W), and an increase in color b* of pork sausage samples (p<0.05). Although color a* of pork sausages containing AJNE was not significantly different, ascorbic acid added-sausages were highest amongst other treatments (p<0.05). Sausages containing AJNE had lower non-heme iron values and peroxide value (POV) than control sausages (p<0.05); however, high nitrosomyoglobin content was observed in AJNE added-sausages (p<0.05). Ascorbic acid led to a decrease in residual nitrite concentration of sausages (p<0.05), but no difference was found in AJNE added-sausages. Free radical scavenging analysis showed that AJNE did not affect 1,1-diphenyl -2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) activity of sausages, whereas ascorbic acid added-sausages showed relatively higher activity among the samples (p<0.05). Addition of AJNE had no influence on texture properties of sausages. In sensory evaluation, AJNE treatment had significant effects on color (p<0.05), but no significant effects on aroma, flavor, springiness, juiciness, and overall acceptability. In conclusion, the addition of AJNE, as a natural supplement may offer natural antioxidants for pork sausages, and appears to be particularly effective in inducing changes in non-heme iron concentration, POV value and nitrosomyglobin content. PMID:25049789
Nagano; Wu; Kawasaki; Kishima; Sano
The present study was carried out to characterize the molecular organization in the vicinity of the waxy locus in rice. To determine the structural organization of the region surrounding waxy, contiguous clones covering a total of 260 kb were constructed using a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library from the Shimokita variety of Japonica rice. This map also contains 200 overlapping subclones, which allowed construction of a fine physical map with a total of 64 HindIII sites. During the course of constructing the map, we noticed the presence of some repeated regions which might be related to transposable elements. We divided the 260-kb region into 60 segments (average size of 5.7 kb) to use as probes to determine their genomic organization. Hybridization patterns obtained by probing with these segments were classified into four types: class 1, a single or a few bands without a smeared background; class 2, a single or a few bands with a smeared background; class 3, multiple discrete bands without a smeared background; and class 4, only a smeared background. These classes constituted 6.5%, 20.9%, 3.7%, and 68.9% of the 260-kb region, respectively. The distribution of each class revealed that repetitive sequences are a major component in this region, as expected, and that unique sequence regions were mostly no longer than 6 kb due to interruption by repetitive sequences. We discuss how the map constructed here might be a powerful tool for characterization and comparison of the genome structures and the genes around the waxy locus in the Oryza species.
Wu, Jui-Pin; Chen, Hon-Cheng; Li, Mei-Hui
Free-living freshwater planarians are considered to have the potential for development as an experimental model for toxicological studies on xenobiotics, including metals. However, little was known about the distribution patterns of metals in the body of treated planarians. This study was conducted to determine the tissue distribution patterns of cadmium (Cd) in different body portions of the treated planarian, Dugesia japonica. Results showed that Cd accumulated in the head of planarians at a significantly higher concentration than in the tail. After examining the level of metallothionein (MT), we suggested that the tissue distribution pattern of Cd might be related to MT induction patterns. In contrast, in planarians treated with copper (Cu), neither the tissue accumulation of Cu nor the multiples of induction of MTs significantly differed between different portions. Furthermore, a higher Cd accumulation rate in the head of planarians caused more-severe oxidative stress to appear in this portion and also a higher susceptibility to a lethal concentration of Cd. Finally, both in vitro and in vivo acetylcholinesterase activities in both body portions of planarians were inhibited by Cd. The present study provides the first report that different metals are distributed in various body portions with different patterns in the planarian.
Hammons, Derrick L; Kaan Kurtural, S; Potter, Daniel A
Japanese beetle (JB), Popillia japonica Newman, is a severe pest of grapes in the southeastern USA where viticulture is a growing industry. This study evaluated the impact of foliar injury from JB field populations on growth, fruit ripening, berry composition and yield of young vines of six cultivars from vineyard establishment through the first year of production. Three spray regimes, carbaryl applied every 7 or 14 days, or no insecticide, were used to manipulate levels of defoliation by JB. Cultivars varied in susceptibility and response to defoliation by JB. Some (e.g. Norton) showed reduced vine growth and delayed post-veraison increase in total soluble sugars and pH, as well as reduced cluster number and weight, berries per cluster and yield. Others (e.g. Concord) showed little or no measurable impact from JB. Notably, the biweekly spray regime was as effective as weekly sprays in mitigating the impacts of defoliation. Foliar loss from JB feeding can set back establishment and productivity of young grapevines. Nevertheless, many growers can reduce spray frequency without compromising the benefits of JB management. Even susceptible cultivars can tolerate low to moderate (<20%) levels of defoliation, and some are resistant enough to be grown without treating for JB.
To elucidate the molecular mechanisms underling hydration during oocyte maturation, we characterized the structure of Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) novel-water selective aquaporin 1 (AQP1b) that thought to be involved in oocyte hydration. The aqp1b cDNA encodes a 263 amino acid protein that includes the six potential transmembrane domains and two Asn-Pro-Ala motifs. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed transcription of Japanese eel aqp1b in ovary and testis but not in the other tissues. In situ hybridization studies with the eel aqp1b cRNA probe revealed intense eel aqp1b signal in the oocytes at the perinucleolus stage and the signals became faint during the process of oocyte development. Light microscopic immunocytochemical analysis of ovary revealed that the Japanese eel AQP1b was expressed in the cytoplasm around the yolk globules which were located in the peripheral region of oocytes during the primary yolk globule stage; thereafter, the immunoreactivity was observed throughout the cytoplasm of oocyte as vitellogenesis progressed. The immunoreactivity became localized around the large membrane-limited yolk masses which were formed by the fusion of yolk globules during the oocyte maturation phase. These results together indicate that AQP1b, which is synthesized in the oocyte during the process of oocyte growth, is essential for mediating water uptake into eel oocytes. PMID:21615964
Chawade, Aakash; Lindlöf, Angelica; Olsson, Björn; Olsson, Olof
Low temperature is a key factor that limits growth and productivity of many important agronomical crops worldwide. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is negatively affected already at temperatures below +10°C and is therefore denoted as chilling sensitive. However, chilling tolerant rice cultivars exist and can be commercially cultivated at altitudes up to 3,050 meters with temperatures reaching as low as +4°C. In this work, the global transcriptional response to cold stress (+4°C) was studied in the Nepalese highland variety Jumli Marshi (spp. japonica) and 4,636 genes were identified as significantly differentially expressed within 24 hours of cold stress. Comparison with previously published microarray data from one chilling tolerant and two sensitive rice cultivars identified 182 genes differentially expressed (DE) upon cold stress in all four rice cultivars and 511 genes DE only in the chilling tolerant rice. Promoter analysis of the 182 genes suggests a complex cross-talk between ABRE and CBF regulons. Promoter analysis of the 511 genes identified over-represented ABRE motifs but not DRE motifs, suggesting a role for ABA signaling in cold tolerance. Moreover, 2,101 genes were DE in Jumli Marshi alone. By chromosomal localization analysis, 473 of these cold responsive genes were located within 13 different QTLs previously identified as cold associated. PMID:24349120
Cui, Ying; Huang, Shuqing; Liu, Ziduo; Yi, Shuyuan; Zhou, Fei; Chen, Hao; Lin, Yongjun
Glyphosate is the most widely used herbicide for its low cost and high efficiency. However, it is rarely applied directly in rice field due to its toxicity to rice. Therefore, glyphosate-tolerant rice can greatly decrease the cost of rice production and provide a more effective weed management strategy. Although, several approaches to develop transgenic rice with glyphosate tolerance have been reported, the agronomic performances of these plants have not been well evaluated, and the feasibility of commercial production has not been confirmed yet. Here, a novel glyphosate-tolerant gene cloned from the bacterium Isoptericola variabilis was identified, codon optimized (designated as I. variabilis-EPSPS (*)), and transferred into Zhonghua11, a widely used japonica rice cultivar. After systematic analysis of the transgene integration via PCR, Southern blot and flanking sequence isolation, three transgenic lines with only one intact I. variabilis-EPSPS (*) expression cassette integrated into intergenic regions were identified. Seed test results showed that the glyphosate tolerance of the transgenic rice was about 240 times that of wild type on plant medium. The glyphosate tolerance of transgenic rice lines was further evaluated based on comprehensive agronomic performances in the field with T3 and T5generations in a 2-year assay, which showed that they were rarely affected by glyphosate even when the dosage was 8400 g ha(-1). To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the development of glyphosate-tolerant rice lines based on a comprehensive analysis of agronomic performances in the field. Taken together, the results suggest that the selected glyphosate-tolerant rice lines are highly tolerant to glyphosate and have the possibility of commercial release. I. variabilis-EPSPS (*) also can be a promising candidate gene in other species for developing glyphosate-tolerant crops.
Wu, Longmei; Zhang, Wujun; Ding, Yanfeng; Zhang, Jianwei; Cambula, Elidio D; Weng, Fei; Liu, Zhenghui; Ding, Chengqiang; Tang, She; Chen, Lin; Wang, Shaohua; Li, Ganghua
Low solar radiation caused by industrial development and solar dimming has become a limitation in crop production in China. It is widely accepted that low solar radiation influences many aspects of plant development, including slender, weak stems and susceptibility to lodging. However, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. To clarify how low solar radiation affects stem mechanical strength formation and lodging resistance, the japonica rice cultivars Wuyunjing23 (lodging-resistant) and W3668 (lodging-susceptible) were grown under field conditions with normal light (Control) and shading (the incident light was reduced by 60%) with a black nylon net. The yield and yield components, plant morphological characteristics, the stem mechanical strength, cell wall components, culm microstructure, gene expression correlated with cellulose and lignin biosynthesis were measured. The results showed that shading significantly reduced grain yield attributed to reduction of spikelets per panicles and grain weight. The stem-breaking strength decreased significantly under shading treatment; consequently, resulting in higher lodging index in rice plant in both varieties, as revealed by decreased by culm diameter, culm wall thickness and increased plant height, gravity center height. Compared with control, cell wall components including non-structural carbohydrate, sucrose, cellulose, and lignin reduced quite higher. With histochemical straining, shading largely reduced lignin deposition in the sclerenchyma cells and vascular bundle cells compared with control, and decreased cellulose deposition in the parenchyma cells of culm tissue in both Wuyunjing23 and W3668. And under shading condition, gene expression involved in secondary cell wall synthesis, OsPAL, OsCOMT, OsCCoAOMT, OsCCR , and OsCAD2 , and primary cell wall synthesis, OsCesA1, OsCesA3 , and OsCesA8 were decreased significantly. These results suggest that gene expression involved in the reduction of lignin and
Kanasashi, Tsutomu; Sugiura, Yuki; Takenaka, Chisato; Hijii, Naoki; Umemura, Mitsutoshi
We assessed the radiocesium contamination of sugi (Cryptomeria japonica) forests in eastern Japan from November 2012 to February 2013, including 80 sites in Fukushima and 35 sites in other regions (Tohoku and Kanto-Koshinetsu), by measuring the (137)Cs concentrations in needles of different ages, male flowers, and pollen. Over a wide geographic area, needles that were present at the time of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident contained much higher (137)Cs concentrations than needles that emerged after the accident. This result, together with visual analysis of (137)Cs distribution using autoradiography, indicated that some of the (137)Cs derived from direct fallout remained on the surface of the older needles. Since we also detected (137)Cs in younger needles and male flowers, we concluded that (137)Cs was translocated toward the tips of sugi needles. The (137)Cs concentration in male flowers was higher than and positively correlated with that in the currently growing (2012) needles. Also, a positive relationship was observed between the (137)Cs concentration of male flowers and pollen, and they were found to be nearly identical (137)Cs concentration. These results indicate the occurrence of acropetal translocation of (137)Cs from old needles to young needles, male flowers and pollen. However, the results as related to (137)Cs concentration in the needles of three different ages differed from the results of similar studies conducted more than 4 y after the Chernobyl accident. This suggests that, 2 y after the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP accident, the distribution of (137)Cs in the sugi forests has not yet reached a steady state. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wu, Min; Li, Tingting; Chen, Lilan; Peng, Sugang; Liao, Wei; Bai, Ruolan; Zhao, Xue; Yang, Hong; Wu, Chunhui; Zeng, Hongjuan; Liu, Yiyao
Angelicae dahurica (Hoffm.) Benth. & Hook.f.ex Franch. & Sav combined with Pueraria and Gastrodia elata Bl. combined with Inula japonica Thunb. are widely used in herb-pairs of traditional chinese medicine. Previous studies have shown that Angelicae dahuricae essential oil (ADO) enhanced puerarin internalization into ABCB1-overexpressed Caco-2 cells. These findings suggest the possibility that essential oils may enhance the absorption via certain mechanisms related to ABCB1 and reverse multidrug resistance (MDR). ADO and essential oils from Inula japonica (IJO) may reverse ABCB1-mediated MDR, but this ability has not been investigated in detail in the well-established cancer cell lines. In this study, the underlying molecular mechanisms were further investigated to examine how IJO and ADO reverse MDR in the resistant human breast cancer cell line of MCF-7/ADR. Also this work may help uncover the conceivable compatibility mechanisms of above herb-pairs involved in ABCB1. The MDR human breast cancer MCF-7/ADR cells were treated with IJO, its sesquiterpene component isoalantolactone (ISO) or ADOat non- cytotoxic concentrations. The MDR ability was examined by measuring the sensitivity to doxorubicin (DOX), DOX accumulation and efflux, ABCB1 ATPase activity, ABCB1 expression, membrane fluidity, and stability and localization of lipid rafts and caveolae. Finally, the molecular modeling was performed to postulate how ISO interacts with ABCB1. Treating MCF-7/ADR cells with IJ oil, ISO or AD oil reversed MDR 2- to 3-fold, without affecting the sensitivity of the non-MDR parental cell line. Mechanistic studies showed that these oils down-regulated mRNA and protein expression of ABCB1, and reduced the stability of lipid rafts in the cell membrane, which has previously been shown to reduce ABCB1-mediated transport. On the other hand, IJO, ISO and ADO did not inhibit ABCB1 ATPase activity, and fluorescence polarization experiments showed that low concentrations of the oils did
Sugahara, Michio; Izutsu, Kazunari; Nishimura, Yasuichiro; Sakamoto, Fumio
The flower of the oriental orchid Cymbidium floribundum is known to attract the Japanese honeybee Apis cerana japonica. This effect is observed not only in workers but also drones and queens; that is, it attracts even swarming and absconding bees. A mixture of 3-hydroxyoctanoic acid (3-HOAA) and 10-hydroxy-(E)-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA) was identified as the active principles from the orchid flower, whereas these compounds individually have no such activity. Both compounds are also mandibular gland components of worker honeybees with related compounds. This strongly supports the idea that orchid flowers mimic bee secretions, although the ecological consequences of this relationship remain unknown. Because the flower is used to capture swarms, the present identification may contribute to the development of new techniques in traditional beekeeping for Japanese bees as well as A. cerana in Southeast Asia.
Ahn, Joungjwa; Lee, Jong Suk; Yang, Kyung Mi
Small-sized particles are more suitable for targeted delivery and are therapeutically more effective than large-sized particles. In this study, we investigated the anticancer effects of ultrafine particles of Ulmus davidiana var. japonica (ufUJ) on human gastric cancer cell lines SNU-1, SNU-216, and SNU-484. ufUJ induced apoptosis by the proteolytic activation of caspase-9, caspase-6, and caspase-3 and cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. The expression levels of the endoplasmic reticulum stress-related protein BiP markedly increased after ufUJ treatment. BiP knockdown decreased ufUJ-induced cell death. ufUJ-induced apoptosis was inhibited by the caspase-3 inhibitor z-DEVD-fmk, caspase-6 inhibitor z-VEID-fmk, and caspase-9 inhibitor z-LEHD-fmk, and by siRNAs against caspases 3, 6, and 9. Gastric cancer cells did not show anchorage-independent growth in the presence of ufUJ. However, cells treated with caspase inhibitors showed an enhanced colony-forming ability. These findings may be helpful in the prevention of gastric cancer and in the development of functional foods.
Sun, Taohua; Zhang, Xinhui; Miao, Ying; Zhou, Yang; Shi, Jie; Yan, Meixing; Chen, Anjin
The antiviral activity in vitro and in vivo and the effect of the immune system of two fucoidan fractions with low molecular weight and different sulfate content from Laminaria japonica (LMW fucoidans) were investigated in order to examine the possible mechanism. In vitro, I-type influenza virus, adenovirus and Parainfluenza virus I were used to infect Hep-2, Hela and MDCK cells, respectively. And 50% tissue culture infective dose was calculated to detect the antiviral activity of two LMW fucoidans. The results indicated that compared with the control group, 2 kinds of LMW fucoidans had remarkable antiviral activity in vitro in middle and high doses, while at low doses, the antiviral activity of 2 kinds of LMW fucoidans was not statistically different from that in the blank control group. And there was no statistically difference between two LMW fucoidans in antiviral activity. In vivo, LMW fucoidans could prolong the survival time of virus-infected mice, and could improve the lung index of virus-infected mice significantly, which have statistical differences with the control group significantly ( p < 0.01). However, the survival time of the two LMW fucoidans was not statistically significant ( p > 0.05). In this study, it was shown that both of two LMW fucoidans (LF1, LF2) could increase the thymus index, spleen index, phagocytic index, phagocytosis coefficient and half hemolysin value in middle and high doses, which suggested that LMW fucoidans could play an antiviral role by improving the quality of immune organs, improving immune cell phagocytosis and humoral immunity.
Lim, Soon Sung; Lee, Min Young; Ahn, Hong Ryul; Choi, Soon Jung; Lee, Jae-Yong; Jung, Sang Hoon
This study employed the online HPLC-2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS)(+) bioassay to rapidly determine the antioxidant compounds occurring in the crude extract of Alnus japonica. The negative peaks of the ABTS(+) radical scavenging detection system, which indicated the presence of antioxidant activity, were monitored by measuring the decrease in absorbance at 734 nm. The ABTS(+)-based antioxidant activity profile showed that three negative peaks exhibited antioxidant activity. High-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was used for preparative scale separation of the three active peaks from the extract. The purity of the isolated compounds was analyzed by HPLC and their structures were identified by (1)H- and (13)C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (NMR), heteronuclear multiple bond correlation (HMBC), and heteronuclear single quantum correlation (HSQC). Two solvent systems composed of n-hexane/ethylacetate/methanol/water (4:6:4:6, v/v) and of ethyl acetate/methanol/water (1:0.1:1, v/v) were performed in high-speed counter-current chromatography. Consequently, a total of 527 mg of hirsutanonol 5-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, 80.04 mg of 3-deoxohirsutenonol 5-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, and 91.0 mg of hirsutenone were obtained with purity of 94.7, 90.5, and 98.6%, respectively. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Ruby, E G; Nealson, K H
Isolation of bacteria from the luminous organ of the fish Monocentris japonica has revealed that the organ contains a pure culture of luminous bacteria. For the four fish examined, all contained Photobacterium fischeri as their luminous bacterial symbiont. This is the first time that P. fischeri has been identified in a symbiotic association. A representative isolate (MJl) of the light organ population was selected for in vivo studies of its luminous system. Several physiological features suggest adaptation for symbiotic existence. First, MJl has been shown to produce and respond to an inducer of luciferase that could accumulate in the light organ. Secondly, the specific activity of light production was seen to be maximal under low, growth-limiting concentrations of oxygen. Thirdly, unlike another luminous species (Beneckea harveyi), synthesis of the light production system of these bacteria is not catabolite repressed by glucose--a possible source of nutrition in the light organ. Fourthly, when grown aerobically on glucose these bacteria excrete pyruvic acid into the medium. This production of pyruvate is a major process, accounting for 30-40% of the glucose utilized and may serve as a form of regulatory and nutritional communication with the host.
Shimozu, Yuuki; Hirai, Takayasu; Hatano, Tsutomu
Three oligomeric hydrolysable tannins, coriariins K, L, and M, which were previously undescribed, together with five known hydrolysable tannins were isolated from dried leaves of Coriaria japonica. Their structures were determined based on 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, HR-ESI-MS, and ECD spectroscopy experiments. Among the isolated compounds, coriariin M has a unique trimer structure where both dehydrodigalloyl and valoneoyl group linkages were found between the hydrolysable tannin monomers. Dimeric hydrolysable tannins coriariins K and L, having a dehydrodigalloyl group as the linking unit, were structurally related to coriariin A, the main hydrolysable tannin of this plant species. Additionally, the complexation of the eight hydrolysable tannins isolated in this study with bovine serum albumin (BSA) to form water-soluble macromolecules was analyzed using native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). A comparison of the behaviors of the oligomeric hydrolysable tannins suggested the participation of the hexahydroxydiphenoyl group and the importance of the molecular sizes of the hydrolysable tannins in the formation of macromolecules. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ben-Hamo, Miriam; Pinshow, Berry; McCue, Marshall D; McWilliams, Scott R; Bauchinger, Ulf
We tested three hypotheses regarding the cues that elicit facultative hypothermia in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica): H(1)) Ambient temperature (T(a)), alone, influences the onset and depth of hypothermia; H(2)) Fasting, alone, influences the onset and depth of hypothermia; H(3)) T(a) acts synergistically with fasting to shape the use of hypothermia. Eight quail were maintained within their thermoneutral zone (TNZ) at 32.6+/-0.2 degrees C, and eight below their lower critical temperature (T(lc)) at 12.7+/-3.0 degrees C. All quail entered hypothermia upon food deprivation, even quail kept within their TNZ. Body temperature (T(b)) decreased more (38.36+/-0.53 degrees C vs. 39.57+/-0.57 degrees C), body mass (m(b)) loss was greater (21.0+/-7.20 g vs.12.8+/-2.62g), and the energy saved by using hypothermia was greater (25.18-45.01% vs. 7.98-28.06%) in low the T(a) treatment than in TNZ treatment. Interestingly, the depth of hypothermia was positively correlated with m(b) loss in the low T(a) treatment, but not in TNZ treatment. Our data support H(3), that both thermoregulatory costs and body energy reserves are proximate cues for entry into hypothermia in quail. This outcome is not surprising below the T(lc). However, the quail kept at their TNZ also responded to food deprivation by entering hypothermia with no apparent dependence on m(b) loss. Therefore inputs, other than thermoregulatory costs and body condition, must serve as cues to enter hypothermia. Consequently, we address the role that tissue sparing may play in the physiological 'decision' to employ hypothermia. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Han, Taejun; Kong, Jeong-Ae; Kang, Hee-Gyu; Kim, Seon-Jin; Jin, Gyo-Sun; Choi, Hoon; Brown, Murray T
The sensitivity of early life stages of the brown seaweed Saccharina japonica to six metals (Cd, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn) and two waste-water samples were investigated and a new toxicity bioassay developed. The two endpoints used were spore germination and germ tube elongation with an exposure time of 24 h. Optimal test conditions determined for photon irradiance, pH, salinity and temperature were darkness, pH 8, 35‰ and 15°C, respectively. The toxicity ranking of five metals was: Hg (EC(50) of 41 and 42 μg l(-1)) > Cu (120 and 81 μg l(-1)) > Ni (2,009 and 1,360 μg l(-1)) > Zn (3,024 and 3,897 μg l(-1)) > Pb (4,760 and 4,429 μg l(-1)) > Cd (15,052 and 7,541 μg l(-1)) for germination and germ tube elongation, respectively. The sensitivities to Cd, Cu and Ni were greater in germ tube elongation than in germination process. When tested against two different waste-water samples (processed animal and printed circuit board waste-water) values of EC(50) were between 21.29 and 32.02% for germination and between 5.33 and 8.98% for germ tube elongation. Despite differences in their chemical composition, the toxic effects of waste-water samples, as indicated by EC(50) values, did not differ significantly for the same endpoints. The CV range for both germination and germ tube elongation was between 4.61 and 37.69%, indicating high levels of precision of the tests. The results compare favourably with those from more established test procedures employing micro- and macroalgae. The advantages and potential limitations of the bioassay for the assessment of anthropogenic impacts on coastal ecosystems and commercial cultivation areas in near-shore environments are discussed.
Xu, Hongxia; Yang, Yong; Xie, Li; Li, Xiaoying; Feng, Chao; Chen, Junwei; Xu, Changjie
Dehydrins (DHNs) are a family of plant proteins typically induced in response to stress conditions that cause cellular dehydration, such as low temperatures, high salinity, and drought. Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) is a perennial fruit crop that blossoms during winter. Loquat fruitlets are frequently injured by freezing. To evaluate the role of the EjDHNs in freezing resistance in loquat fruitlets, two cultivars of loquat, the freezing-sensitive ‘Ninghaibai’ (FS-NHB) and the freezing-tolerant ‘Jiajiao’ (FT-JJ), were analyzed under induced freezing stress. Freezing stress led to obvious accumulation of reactive oxygen species and considerable lipid peroxidation in membranes during the treatment period. Both these phenomena were more pronounced in ‘FS-NHB’ than in ‘FS-JJ.’ Immunogold labeling of dehydrin protein was performed. DHN proteins were found to be concentrated mainly in the vicinity of the plasma membrane, and the density of the immunogold labeling was significantly higher after freezing treatment, especially in the more freezing-tolerant cultivar ‘FT-JJ.’ Seven DHNs, showing four different structure types, were obtained from loquat fruitlets and used to study the characteristics of different EjDHN proteins. These DHN proteins are all highly hydrophilic, but they differ significantly in size, ranging from 188 to 475 amino acids, and in biochemical properties, such as theoretical pI, aliphatic index, and instability index. Freezing treatment resulted in up-regulation of the expression levels of all seven EjDHNs, regardless of structure type. The accumulation of the transcripts of these EjDHN genes was much more pronounced in ‘FT-JJ’ than in ‘FS-NHB.’ Altogether, this study provides evidence that EjDHNs are involved in the cryoprotection of the plasma membrane during freeze-induced dehydration in loquat fruitlets. PMID:24498141
Kim, Seung-Hyung; Choi, Hye-Jin; Yang, Won-Kyung; Lee, Ji-Eun; Cho, Ju-Hyun; Park, In-Jae; Park, Sunyoung; Park, Bo-Kyung; Jin, Mirim
We examined the antiosteoarthritic effect of the n-hexane extract of Litsea japonica fruit flesh (LJF-HE) in a rat model of monosodium-iodoacetate- (MIA-) induced osteoarthritis. LJF-HE significantly reduced the difference in weight-bearing capabilities of the hind paws between healthy and MIA-treated rats. Histological examination of the knee joints indicated that LJF-HE suppressed cartilage and bone destruction. Additionally, there were decreases in the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and metalloproteinase-9 and cyclooxygenase-2 in the joints. The serum levels of deoxypyridinoline (DPD) and osteocalcin, which are markers of bone metabolism, also decreased. Furthermore, LJF-HE significantly suppressed infiltration of inflammatory cells into the synovium and inhibited the expression of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α , interleukin- (IL-) 1, and IL-6 in the joints and serum. The serum levels of leukotriene B4 and lipoxygenase were also significantly lowered by LJF-HE. Finally, LJF-HE inhibited the production of nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2, IL-6, and TNF- α in lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages, which might be associated with inhibited phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase. Our data suggest that LJF-HE has an anti-inflammatory effect and may have potential as an antiosteoarthritic agent.
Zheng, Yuxin; Zhang, Nina; Liu, Shujie; Li, Qingwang; Jiang, Zhongliang
In this study, water-soluble Laminaria japonica polysaccharide3 (LJP-P3) was investigated for the cryoprotective effects on bull sperm. Five concentrations of LJP-P3 with 0.1, 1, 10, 50 and 100 mmol/L were added into the extenders of bull semen, respectively, and the effects on quality of sperm after freezing-thawing were assessed. The results showed that the kinematic parameters of bull sperm including linear motile sperm (LM), curvilinear line velocity (VCL) value, straight line velocity (VSL) and velocity of the average path (VAP) were greater in the extenders containing LJP-P3 (P<0.05). In comparison to those of other treatments and control group the extenders containing 1.0, 10.0 and 50.0 mmol/L of LJP-P3 led to higher percentage of mitochondrial activity and sperm membrane integrity(P<0.05), and the acrosome integrity of bull cryopreservation sperm were significantly improved in all treatment groups. Moreover, the higher GSH-Px, SOD and CAT levels in bull cryopreservation sperm were favored from the extenders of 10.0, 50.0 and 100.0 mmol/L LJP-P3 added (P<0.05) compared with other treatments and control group. In addition, the results of artificial insemination showed that both the pregnancy rate and the number of calving were higher in the group of semen containing 10 mmol/L of LJP-P3 than that of control group (P <0.05). In summary, LJP-P3 exhibited a greater cryoprotective effect to bull sperm and the most suitable concentration of LJP-P3 is 10.0 mmol/L. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Moon, Minho; Jeong, Hyun Uk; Choi, Jin Gyu; Jeon, Seong Gak; Song, Eun Ji; Hong, Seon-Pyo; Oh, Myung Sook
It is generally accepted that functional and structural changes within the hippocampus are involved in learning and memory and that adult neurogenesis in this region may modulate cognition. The extract of Cuscuta japonica Choisy (CJ) is a well-known traditional Chinese herbal medicine that has been used since ancient times as a rejuvenation remedy. The systemic effects of this herb are widely known and can be applied for the treatment of a number of physiological diseases, but there is a lack of evidence describing its effects on brain function. Thus, the present study investigated whether CJ would enhance memory function and/or increase hippocampal neurogenesis using mice orally administered with CJ water extract or vehicle for 21days. Performance on the novel object recognition and passive avoidance tests revealed that treatment with CJ dose-dependently improved the cognitive function of mice. Additionally, CJ increased the Ki-67-positive proliferating cells and the number of doublecortin-stained neuroblasts in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus, and double labeling with 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine and neuronal specific nuclear protein showed that CJ increased the number of mature neurons in the DG. Finally, CJ resulted in the upregulated expression of neurogenic differentiation factor, which is essential for the maturation and differentiation of granule cells in the hippocampus. Taken together, the present findings indicate that CJ stimulated neuronal cell proliferation, differentiation, and maturation, which are all processes associated with neurogenesis. Additionally, these findings suggest that CJ may improve learning and memory via the enhancement of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Liu, Jing; Dhungana, Birendra; Cobb, George P
Arsenic (As) causes phytotoxicity to rice plants, decreases rice production and causes serious human health concerns due to rice consumption. Additional stresses may be posed to rice plants due to the increasing release into the environment by the expanding production and application of copper oxide nanoparticles (nCuO). The influence of nCuO on As uptake in and effects on rice (Oryza sativa japonica) are explored here for the first time. An 18-d factorial experiment was conducted to determine main effects of nCuO (0, 0.1, 1.0, 10, 50, and 100 mg/L) and As (0 and 10 mg/kg), and the interaction between nCuO and As on rice seed germination and seedling growth. Arsenic alone decreased the germination percentage. Both As and nCuO reduced seedling shoot and root length, and exhibited interactive effects. nCuO and As also produced an interaction effect on the number of root branches (NRB) of rice seedlings. Notably, high nCuO concentrations (50 and 100 mg/L) mitigated the negative effect of As on the NRB. Copper uptake in shoots and roots was linearly correlated with Cu concentration in the sand without As addition (R 2 > 0.756). Whereas, As addition to the sand produced non-monotonic changes in Cu concentrations in shoots and roots versus Cu concentration in the sand (R 2 > 0.890). Arsenic concentration in shoots had a slightly negative linear correlation with Cu concentration in the sand (R 2 = 0.275). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lee, Seung-Mi; Asaduzzaman, A K M; Chun, Byung-Soo
Lecithin was isolated and characterized from anchovy (Engraulis japonica) deoiled residues using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO(2)) at a semibatch flow extraction process and an organic solvent (hexane) extraction. SC-CO(2) extraction was carried out to extract oil from anchovy at different temperatures (35 to 45 °C) and pressures (15 to 25 MPa). Extraction yield of oil was influenced by physical properties of SC-CO(2) with temperature and pressure changes. The major phospholipids of anchovy lecithin were quantitatively analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) (68%± 1.00%) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) (29%± 0.50%) were the main phospholipids. Thin layer chromatography was performed to purify the individual phospholipids. The fatty acid compositions of lecithin, PC, and PE were analyzed by gas chromatography. A significant amount of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were present in both phospholipids of PC and PE. Emulsions of lecithin in water were prepared through the use of a homogenizer. Oxidative stability of anchovy lecithin was high in spite of its high concentration of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Lecithin can be totally metabolized by humans, so is well tolerated by humans and nontoxic when ingested. Lecithin from anchovy contain higher amounts of ω-3 fatty acids especially EPA and DHA, it may have positive outcome to use in food and pharmaceutical industries. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®
Cheng, Yan; Shan, Zhengjun; Zhou, Junying; Bu, Yuanqing; Li, Pengfu; Lu, Shan
4-nonylphenol (4-NP), a major degradation product of Nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEOs), is widespread in environment. In this study, the effects of long-term 4-NP exposure in drinking water on Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica) were investigated. A total of 45 quails were evenly divided into 15 groups and administrated with various doses (0.1 μg L -1 , 1.0 μg L -1 , 10 μg L -1 and 100 μg L -1 , which reflected the environmental concentrations of 4-NP) of 4-NP in drinking water. The results showed that 4-NP in drinking water had no effect on quails' food intake, but significantly decreased the quails' body weights (P < 0.05) in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The egg fertilization rates were also significantly decreased (P < 0.05) in all treatment groups. Moreover, the hatchability was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) in 10 μg L -1 and 100 μg L -1 groups, and the 14 d survival rates of young quails were significantly decreased (P < 0.05) in 1.0 μg L -1 , 10 μg L -1 and 100 μg L -1 groups. Damaged spermatogenesis in male quails was observed in all treatment groups. Therefore, administration of 4-NP in drinking water impaired the reproductive ability of Japanese quails, and led to pathological lesions in the male gonads. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kim, Yoon-Gon; Jin, Yeon-A; Hwang, Chung Yeon; Cho, Byung Cheol
A Gram-negative, strictly aerobic, marine bacterium, designated strain CL-YJ9(T), was isolated from sediment closely associated with the roots of a plant (Suaeda japonica) inhabiting a coastal tidal flat. Cells of the novel strain were straight and rod-shaped and were motile by means of monopolar flagella. A phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain CL-YJ9(T) belongs to the genus Marinobacterium and was most closely related to Marinobacterium halophilum mano11(T) (94.1% sequence similarity) and to other members of the genus Marinobacterium (92.5-93.7% sequence similarity). The strain grew with 1-5% NaCl (optimum, 3%) and at 5-30 degrees C (optimum, approx. 25 degrees C) and pH 6.0-9.0 (optimum, pH 7.0). The predominant cellular fatty acids were summed feature 3 (C(16:1)omega7c and/or iso-C(15:0) 2-OH, 40.3%), C(18:1)omega7c (26.6%), C(16:0) (16.6%) and C(10:0) 3-OH (7.1%). The major isoprenoid quinone was Q-8. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 61 mol%. On the basis of the data from this polyphasic study, strain CL-YJ9(T) belongs to the genus Marinobacterium but is distinguishable from the recognized species. Strain CL-YJ9(T) therefore represents a novel species, for which the name Marinobacterium rhizophilum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CL-YJ9(T) (=KCCM 42386(T) =DSM 18822(T)).
Chen, Anjin; Zhang, Fang; Shi, Jie; Zhao, Xue; Yan, Meixing
Several studies have indicated that fucoidan fractions with low molecular weight and different sulfate content from Laminaria japonica could inhibit the activation of platelets directly by reducing the platelet aggregation. To explore the direct effect of LMW fucoidan on the platelet system furthermore and examine the possible mechanism, the endothelial protection and inhibits platelet activation effects of two LMW fucoidan were investigated. In the present study, Endothelial injury model of rats was made by injection of adrenaline (0.4 mg kg-1) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells were cultured. vWF level was be investigated in vivo and in vitro as an important index of endothelial injury. LMW fucoidan could significantly reduce vWF level in vascular endothelial injury rats and also significantly reduce vWF level in vitro. The number of EMPs was be detected as another important index of endothelial injury. The results showed that LMW fucoidan reduced EMPs stimulated by tumor necrosis factor. In this study, it was found that by inhibiting platelet adhesion, LMW fucoidan played a role in anti-thrombosis and the specific mechanism of action is to inhibit the flow of extracellular Ca2+. All in a word, LMW fucoidan could inhibit the activation of platelets indirectly by reducing the concentration of EMPs and vWF, at the same time; LMW fucoidan inhibited the activation of platelets directly by inhibiting the flow of extracellular Ca2+.
Kooistra, Wiebe H. C. F.; de Boer, M. Karin; Vrieling, Engel G.; Connell, Laurie B.; Gieskes, Winfried W. C.
The flagellate micro-alga Fibrocapsa japonica can form harmful algal blooms along all temperate coastal regions of the world. The species was first observed in coastal waters of Japan and the western US in the 1970s; it has been reported regularly worldwide since. To unravel whether this apparent range expansion can be tracked, we assessed genetic variation among nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS sequences, obtained from sixteen global strains collected over the course of three decades. Ten sequence positions showed polymorphism across the strains. Nine out of these revealed ambiguities in several or most sequences sampled. The oldest strain collected (LB-2161) was the only one without such intra-individual polymorphism. In the others, the proportion of ambiguities at variable sites increased with more recent collection date. The pattern does not result from loss of variation due to sexual reproduction and random drift in culture because sister cultures CS-332 and NIES-136 showed virtually the same ITS-pattern after seven years of separation. Neither are the patterns explained by recent range expansion of a single genotype, because in that case one would expect lowest genetic diversity in the recently invaded North Sea; instead, polymorphism is highest there. Recent ballast-water-mediated mixing of formerly isolated populations and subsequent ongoing sexual reproduction among them can explain the increase in ambiguities. The species' capacity to form harmful blooms may well have been enhanced through increased genetic diversity of regional populations.
Structural characterization and identification of iridoid glycosides, saponins, phenolic acids and flavonoids in Flos Lonicerae Japonicae by a fast liquid chromatography method with diode-array detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry.
Qi, Lian-Wen; Chen, Chun-Yun; Li, Ping
A fast liquid chromatography method with diode-array detection (DAD) and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) has been developed for analysis of constituents in Flos Lonicerae Japonicae (FLJ), a traditional Chinese medicine derived from the flower bud of Lonicera japonica. The chromatographic analytical time decreased to 25 min without sacrificing resolution using a column packed with 1.8-microm porous particles (4.6 x 50 mm), three times faster than the performance of conventional 5.0-microm columns (4.6 x 150 mm). Four major groups of compounds previously isolated from FLJ were structurally characterized by DAD-TOF-MS: iridoid glycosides showed maximum UV absorption at 240 nm; phenolic acids at 217, 242, and 326 nm; flavonoids at 255 and 355 nm; while saponins had no absorption. In electrospray ionization (ESI)-TOF-MS experiments, elimination of a glucose unit (162 Da), and successive losses of H(2)O, CH(3)OH and CO, were generally observed in iridoid glycosides; saponins were characterized by a series of identical aglycone ions; phenolic acids typically generated a base peak at [M-H-caffeoyl](-) by loss of a caffeic acid unit (162 Da) and several marked quinic acid moiety ions; cleavage of the glycosidic bond (loss of 162 or 308 Da), subsequent losses of H(2)O, CO, RDA and C-ring fragmentation were the most possible fragmentation pathways for flavonoids. By accurate mass measurements within 4 ppm error for each molecular ion and subsequent fragment ions, as well as the 'full mass spectral' information of TOF-MS, a total of 41 compounds including 13 iridoid glycosides, 11 phenolic acids, 7 saponins, and 10 flavonoids were identified in a methanolic extract of FLJ. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Saravanakumar, Arthanari; Peng, Mei Mei; Ganesh, Mani; Jayaprakash, Jayabalan; Mohankumar, Murugan; Jang, Hyun Tae
Low cost and eco-friendly green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from silver nitrate (AgNO 3 ) using Prunus japonica leaves extract as reducing agent by a simple method at room temperature. The biosynthesized nanoparticles (NPs) were characterized by UV-Vis, tunneling electron microscopy (HR-TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with X-ray energy dispersive spectrophotometer (EDAX), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). In UV-Vis spectroscopy results, the λ max was observed at 441 nm. The AgNPs synthesized were spherical, hexagonal, and irregular in shapes. The EDAX and XRD spectrum confirmed the presence of silver ions and crystalline nature of synthesized AgNPs. FTIR showed the functional groups such as C = O, N-H and C-N groups involved in the reduction of Ag + to Ag. 2, 2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay was performed and it showed the percentage inhibition in concentration-dependent manner. The synthesized AgNPs showed antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus to different extents and the higher activity was observed in Proteus vulgaris.
Li, W J; Zhang, B; Huang, G W; Kang, G P; Liang, M Z; Chen, L B
We analyzed chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) polymorphism and phylogenic relationships between 6 typical indica rice, 4 japonica rice, 8 javanica rice, and 12 Asian common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon) strains collected from different latitudes in China by comparing polymorphism at 9 highly variable regions. One hundred and forty-four polymorphic bases were detected. The O. rufipogon samples had 117 polymorphic bases, showing rich genetic diversity. One hundred and thirty-one bases at 13 sites were identified with indica/japonica characteristics; they showed differences between the indica and japonica subspecies at these sites. The javanica strains and japonica shared similar bases at these 131 polymorphic sites, suggesting that javanica is closely related to japonica. On the basis of length analyses of the open reading frame (ORF)100 and (ORF)29-tRNA-Cys(GCA) (TrnC(GCA)) fragments, the O. rufipogon strains were classified into indica/japonica subgroups, which was consistent with the results of the phylogenic tree assay based on concatenated datasets. These results indicated that differences in indica and japonica also exist in the cpDNA genome of the O. rufipogon strains. However, these differences demonstrated a certain degree of primitiveness and incompleteness, as an O. rufipogon line may show different indica/ japonica attributes at different sites. Consequently, O. rufipogon cannot be simply classified into the indica/japonica types as O. sativa. Our data support the hypothesis that Asian cultivated rice, O. indica and O. japonica, separately evolved from Asian common wild rice (O. rufipogon) strains, which have different indica-japonica differentiation trends.
Paudyal, Hari; Pangeni, Bimala; Inoue, Katsutoshi; Kawakita, Hidetaka; Ohto, Keisuke; Ghimire, Kedar Nath; Alam, Shafiq
A green seaweed, Ulva japonica, was modified by loading multivalent metal ions such as Zr(IV) and La(III) after CaCl2 cross-linking to produce metal loaded cross-linked seaweed (M-CSW) adsorbents, which were characterized by elemental analysis, functional groups identification, and metal content determination. Maximum sorption potential for fluoride was drastically increased after La(III) and Zr(IV) loading, which were evaluated as 0.58 and 0.95 mmol/g, respectively. Loaded fluoride was quantitatively desorbed by using dilute alkaline solution for its regeneration. Mechanism of fluoride adsorption was inferred in terms of ligand exchange reaction between hydroxyl ion on co-ordination sphere of the loaded metal ions of M-CSW and fluoride ion in aqueous solution. Application of M-CSW for the treatment of actual waste plating solution exhibited successful removal of fluoride to clear the effluent and environmental standards in Japan, suggesting high possibility of its application for the treatment of fluoride rich waste water. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mochizuki, Tomoki; Watanabe, Makoto; Koike, Takayoshi; Tani, Akira
We measured monoterpene emissions from needles of hybrid larch F1 (Larix gmelinii var. japonica × Larix kaempferi) to evaluate the response of monoterpene emission rates and their composition to elevated CO2 (600 μmol mol-1) and O3 (60 nmol mol-1) conditions. The dominant monoterpenes were α-pinene and β-pinene. The emission rate of total monoterpenes significantly decreased under elevated CO2 conditions (P < 0.05). The ratio of carbon emission in the form of monoterpenes to photosynthetically fixed carbon also significantly decreased under elevated CO2 conditions. By contrast, elevated O3 did not significantly affect the emission rate of total monoterpenes. The ratios of α-pinene/β-pinene, limonene/β-pinene, and myrcene/β-pinene were all significantly decreased by O3 exposure (P < 0.05). High reactivity of α-pinene, limonene, and myrcene when combining with O3 may be able to mitigate oxidative damage inside the larch needles. No significant combined effects of elevated CO2 and O3 on individual or total monoterpene emissions were detected.
Liao, Jianqing; Qu, Baida; Liu, Da; Zheng, Naiqin
A new method has been proposed for enhancing extraction yield of rutin from Sophora japonica, in which a novel ultrasonic extraction system has been developed to perform the determination of optimum ultrasonic frequency by a two-step procedure. This study has systematically investigated the influence of a continuous frequency range of 20-92 kHz on rutin yields. The effects of different operating conditions on rutin yields have also been studied in detail such as solvent concentration, solvent to solid ratio, ultrasound power, temperature and particle size. A higher extraction yield was obtained at the ultrasonic frequency of 60-62 kHz which was little affected under other extraction conditions. Comparative studies between existing methods and the present method were done to verify the effectiveness of this method. Results indicated that the new extraction method gave a higher extraction yield compared with existing ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and soxhlet extraction (SE). Thus, the potential use of this method may be promising for extraction of natural materials on an industrial scale in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wu, Meihua; Sugimura, Yuya; Iwata, Kyoko; Takaya, Noriko; Takamatsu, Daisuke; Kobayashi, Masaru; Taylor, DeMar; Kimura, Kiyoshi; Yoshiyama, Mikio
Abstract European foulbrood is a contagious bacterial disease of honey bee larvae. Studies have shown that the intestinal bacteria of insects, including honey bees, act as probiotic organisms. Microbial flora from the gut of the Japanese honey bee, Apis cerana japonica F. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) , were characterized and evaluated for their potential to inhibit the growth of Melissococcus plutonius corrig. (ex White) Bailey and Collins (Lactobacillales: Enterococcaceae) , the causative agent of European foulbrood. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences from 17 bacterial strains isolated by using a culture-dependent method revealed that most isolates belonged to Bacillus, Staphylococcus, and Pantoea. The isolates were screened against the pathogenic bacterium M. plutonius by using an in vitro growth inhibition assay, and one isolate (Acja3) belonging to the genus Bacillus exhibited inhibitory activity against M. plutonius. In addition, in vivo feeding assays revealed that isolate Acja3 decreased the mortality of honey bee larvae infected with M plutonius, suggesting that this bacterial strain could potentially be used as a probiotic agent against European foulbrood. PMID:25368073
Guo, Hailin; Ding, Wanwen; Chen, Jingbo; Chen, Xuan; Zheng, Yiqi; Wang, Zhiyong; Liu, Jianxiu
Zoysiagrass (Zoysia Willd.) is an important warm season turfgrass that is grown in many parts of the world. Salt tolerance is an important trait in zoysiagrass breeding programs. In this study, a genetic linkage map was constructed using sequence-related amplified polymorphism markers and random amplified polymorphic DNA markers based on an F1 population comprising 120 progeny derived from a cross between Zoysia japonica Z105 (salt-tolerant accession) and Z061 (salt-sensitive accession). The linkage map covered 1211 cM with an average marker distance of 5.0 cM and contained 24 linkage groups with 242 marker loci (217 sequence-related amplified polymorphism markers and 25 random amplified polymorphic DNA markers). Quantitative trait loci affecting the salt tolerance of zoysiagrass were identified using the constructed genetic linkage map. Two significant quantitative trait loci (qLF-1 and qLF-2) for leaf firing percentage were detected; qLF-1 at 36.3 cM on linkage group LG4 with a logarithm of odds value of 3.27, which explained 13.1% of the total variation of leaf firing and qLF-2 at 42.3 cM on LG5 with a logarithm of odds value of 2.88, which explained 29.7% of the total variation of leaf firing. A significant quantitative trait locus (qSCW-1) for reduced percentage of dry shoot clipping weight was detected at 44.1 cM on LG5 with a logarithm of odds value of 4.0, which explained 65.6% of the total variation. This study provides important information for further functional analysis of salt-tolerance genes in zoysiagrass. Molecular markers linked with quantitative trait loci for salt tolerance will be useful in zoysiagrass breeding programs using marker-assisted selection.
Ogle, Kiona; Caron, Melanie; Marks, Jane C.; Rogg, Helmuth W.
Invasive species alter ecosystems, threaten native and endangered species, and have negative economic impacts. Knowing where invading individuals are from and when they arrive to a new site can guide management. Here, we evaluated how well the stable hydrogen isotope composition (δ2H) records the recent origin and time since arrival of specimens of the invasive Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica Newman) captured near the Portland International Airport (Oregon, U.S.A.). The δ2H of Japanese beetle specimens collected from sites across the contiguous U.S.A. reflected the δ2H of local precipitation, a relationship similar to that documented for other organisms, and one confirming the utility of δ2H as a geographic fingerprint. Within weeks after experimental relocation to a new isotopic environment, the δ2H of beetles changed linearly with time, demonstrating the potential for δ2H to also mark the timing of arrival to a new location. We used a hierarchical Bayesian model to estimate the recent geographical origin and timing of arrival of each specimen based on its δ2H value. The geographic resolution was broad, with values consistent with multiple regions of origin in the eastern U.S.A., slightly favoring the southeastern U.S.A. as the more likely source. Beetles trapped from 2007–2010 had arrived 30 or more days prior to trapping, whereas the median time since arrival declined to 3–7 days for beetles trapped from 2012–2014. This reduction in the time between arrival and trapping at the Portland International Airport supports the efficacy of trapping and spraying to prevent establishment. More generally, our analysis shows how stable isotopes can serve as sentinels of biological invasions, verifying the efficacy of control measures, or, alternatively, indicating when those measures show signs of failure. PMID:26959686
Gu, Jie; Dai, Shuya; Liu, Haitao; Cao, Quanquan; Yin, Shaowu; Lai, Keng Po; Tse, William Ka Fai; Wong, Chris Kong Chu; Shi, Haifeng
The changes in ambient salinity influence ion and water homeostasis, hormones secretion, and immune response in fish gills. The physiological functions of hormones and ion transporters in the regulation of gill-osmoregulation have been widely studied, however the modulation of immune response under salinity changes is not determined. Using transcriptome sequencing, we obtained a comprehensive profile of osmo-responsive genes in gill cells of Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica). Herein, we applied bioinformatics analysis to identify the immune-related genes that were significantly higher expressed in gill pavement cells (PVCs) and mitochondrial-rich cells (MRCs) in freshwater (FW) than seawater (SW) adapted fish. We validated the data using the real-time qPCR, which showed a high correlation between the RNA-seq and real-time qPCR data. In addition, the immunohistochemistry results confirmed the changes of the expression of selected immune-related genes, including C-reactive protein (CRP) in PVCs, toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in MRCs and interleukin-1 receptor type 2 (IL-1R2) in both PVCs and MRCs. Collectively our results demonstrated that those immune-related genes respond to salinity changes, and might trigger related special signaling pathways and network. This study provides new insights into the impacts of ambient salinity changes on adaptive immune response in fish gill cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yang, Yue; Wang, Lei; Wu, Yongjiang; Liu, Xuesong; Bi, Yuan; Xiao, Wei; Chen, Yong
There is a growing need for the effective on-line process monitoring during the manufacture of traditional Chinese medicine to ensure quality consistency. In this study, the potential of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy technique to monitor the extraction process of Flos Lonicerae Japonicae was investigated. A new algorithm of synergy interval PLS with genetic algorithm (Si-GA-PLS) was proposed for modeling. Four different PLS models, namely Full-PLS, Si-PLS, GA-PLS, and Si-GA-PLS, were established, and their performances in predicting two quality parameters (viz. total acid and soluble solid contents) were compared. In conclusion, Si-GA-PLS model got the best results due to the combination of superiority of Si-PLS and GA. For Si-GA-PLS, the determination coefficient (Rp2) and root-mean-square error for the prediction set (RMSEP) were 0.9561 and 147.6544 μg/ml for total acid, 0.9062 and 0.1078% for soluble solid contents, correspondingly. The overall results demonstrated that the NIR spectroscopy technique combined with Si-GA-PLS calibration is a reliable and non-destructive alternative method for on-line monitoring of the extraction process of TCM on the production scale.
Mistry, A C; Honda, S; Hirose, S
Using a Japanese-eel (Anguilla japonica) gill cDNA subtraction library, two novel beta-d-galactose-binding lectins were identified that belong to group VII of the animal C-type lectin family. The eel C-type lectins, termed eCL-1 and eCL-2, are simple lectins composed of 163 amino acid residues, including a 22-residue signal peptide for secretion and a single carbohydrate-recognition domain (CRD) of approximately 130 residues typical of C-type lectins. The galactose specificity of the CRD was suggested by the presence of a QPD motif and confirmed by a competitive binding assay. Using Ruthenium Red staining, the lectins were shown to bind Ca(2+) ions. SDS/PAGE showed that native eCL-1 and eCL-2 have an SDS-resistant octameric structure (a tetramer of disulphide-linked dimers). Northern and Western blot analyses demonstrated high-level expression of eCL-1 and eCL-2 mRNAs and their protein products in gills from freshwater eels, which decreased markedly when the eels were transferred from freshwater to seawater. Immunohistochemistry showed that the eel lectins are localized in the exocrine mucous cells of the gill. PMID:11695997
Mistry, A C; Honda, S; Hirose, S
Using a Japanese-eel (Anguilla japonica) gill cDNA subtraction library, two novel beta-d-galactose-binding lectins were identified that belong to group VII of the animal C-type lectin family. The eel C-type lectins, termed eCL-1 and eCL-2, are simple lectins composed of 163 amino acid residues, including a 22-residue signal peptide for secretion and a single carbohydrate-recognition domain (CRD) of approximately 130 residues typical of C-type lectins. The galactose specificity of the CRD was suggested by the presence of a QPD motif and confirmed by a competitive binding assay. Using Ruthenium Red staining, the lectins were shown to bind Ca(2+) ions. SDS/PAGE showed that native eCL-1 and eCL-2 have an SDS-resistant octameric structure (a tetramer of disulphide-linked dimers). Northern and Western blot analyses demonstrated high-level expression of eCL-1 and eCL-2 mRNAs and their protein products in gills from freshwater eels, which decreased markedly when the eels were transferred from freshwater to seawater. Immunohistochemistry showed that the eel lectins are localized in the exocrine mucous cells of the gill.
Held, David W; Potter, Daniel A
Many generalist herbivores, especially adult beetles, are facultative florivores, feeding on leaves but readily accepting floral tissues when available. We speculated that day-flying beetles with high energetic requirements would benefit from dietary mixing with nutrient-rich flower tissues and favor them during foraging. We tested that "Floral Affinity Hypothesis" with Popillia japonica, a day-active ruteline scarab that feeds intermittently throughout its adult life on multiple plant species. In field tests with six species of flowering hosts, far more landings occurred on flowers than on foliage for all plants except Hibiscus syriacus which bears flowers along the main stem rather than terminally. Trials with elevated plants showed that height of the floral display contributes to beetles' landing on flowers. Flower petals generally were preferred over leaves in laboratory choice tests. Nitrogen and water content were comparable or higher in foliage than in petals, but plant sugars were much higher in petals. Longevity and fecundity of beetles provided single-plant diets of Hibiscus, Rosa x hybrida, or Trifolium flowers for 3 weeks were as high, or higher, than for beetles fed foliage of Tilia cordata, a highly suitable resource. As expected, rotating flowers or Tilia foliage with marginally suitable Quercus palustris foliage enhanced those parameters relative to a diet of Quercus alone, but beetles provided high-quality Tilia foliage also benefitted from dietary mixing with flowers. Nearly all past dietary mixing studies concerned immature insects, for which growth rate is paramount. Opportunistic florivory by adult beetles represents a type of dietary mixing wherein the premium may be calorie-rich food for fueling flight muscles, with ensuing reproductive benefits.
Bobadilla-Mendez, M F; Rojas-Granados, C P; Andrade, E F; Retes, P L; Ferreira, L G; Alvarenga, R R; Rodriguez-Gil, J E; Fassani, E J; Zangeronimo, M G
Artificial lights are essential for controlling the reproductive tract development of birds during puberty and therefore influence reproductive quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different light sources on reproductive anatomic and physiological characteristics of female Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). A total of 270 birds from one day of age were housed in a masonry shed divided into six rooms with light isolation. Each room was equipped with a different type of light bulb and contained seven cages with five birds in each. The light bulbs tested were: incandescent; compact fluorescent; and light-emitting diode (LED) in the colors white, blue, red and green. The experimental design was completely randomized with six treatments and seven replications of individual birds each. The anatomic and physiological condition of the birds was evaluated at four, eight and 12 weeks of age. The white LED bulb advanced (P<0.05) the sexual maturity by one week, resulted (P<0.05) in higher live weights and greater weight and relative percentage of ovarian stroma, oviduct and ovarian tissue at eight weeks of age. Higher plasma concentrations of estradiol and lipids were also observed (P<0.05) at eight weeks under the white LED bulb. At 12 weeks of age, the magnum and isthmus folding characteristics were better (P<0.05) with the red LED bulb. In conclusion, the photostimulation with the white LED bulb was more efficient at activating the reproductive cycle, hastening the onset of sexual maturity and increasing the development of reproductive organs after puberty. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Park, Ki Soo; Park, Dae Hwan
Algae have traditionally been used for promotion of hair growth. Use of hair regrowth drugs, such as minoxidil, is limited due to side effects. The aim of this study was to examine a mixture of Saccharina japonica and Undaria pinnatifida (L-U mixture) on hair growth and to compare the promoting effect of hair growth by a 3% minoxidil and a L-U mixture. To evaluate the hair growth-promoting activity, saline, 50% ethanol, 3% minoxidil, and the L-U mixture were applied 2 times a day for a total of 14 days on the dorsal skin of C57BL/6 mice after depilation. Analysis was determined by using a high-resolution hair analysis system, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and H&E staining. On day 14, the hair growth effect of the L-U mixture was the same as that of the 3% minoxidil treatment. The L-U mixture significantly (P<0.05) stimulated hair growth-promoting genes, as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and insulin-like growth factor -1. Increase of VEGF was observed in the L-U mixture group compared with minoxidil and the negative control. In contrast, the L-U mixture suppressed the expression of transforming growth factor-β1, which is the hair loss-related gene. In histological examination in the L-U mixture and minoxidil groups, the induction of an anagen stage of hair follicles was faster than that of control groups. This study provides evidence that the L-U mixture can promote hair growth in mice, similar to the effect from minoxidil, and suggests that there is potential application for hair loss treatments.
Yang, Xiaolu; Nian, Jinqiang; Xie, Qingjun; Feng, Jian; Zhang, Fengxia; Jing, Hongwei; Zhang, Jian; Dong, Guojun; Liang, Yan; Peng, Juli; Wang, Guodong; Qian, Qian; Zuo, Jianru
Plants assimilate inorganic nitrogen absorbed from soil into organic forms as Gln and Glu through the glutamine synthetase/glutamine:2-oxoglutarate amidotransferase (GS/GOGAT) cycle. Whereas GS catalyzes the formation of Gln from Glu and ammonia, GOGAT catalyzes the transfer of an amide group from Gln to 2-oxoglutarate to produce two molecules of Glu. However, the regulatory role of the GS/GOGAT cycle in the carbon-nitrogen balance is not well understood. Here, we report the functional characterization of rice ABNORMAL CYTOKININ RESPONSE 1 (ABC1) gene that encodes a ferredoxin-dependent (Fd)-GOGAT. The weak mutant allele abc1-1 mutant shows a typical nitrogen-deficient syndrome, whereas the T-DNA insertional mutant abc1-2 is seedling lethal. Metabolomics analysis revealed the accumulation of an excessive amount of amino acids with high N/C ratio (Gln and Asn) and several intermediates in the tricarboxylic acid cycle in abc1-1, suggesting that ABC1 plays a critical role in nitrogen assimilation and carbon-nitrogen balance. Five non-synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms were identified in the ABC1 coding region and characterized as three distinct haplotypes, which have been highly and specifically differentiated between japonica and indica subspecies. Collectively, these results suggest that ABC1/OsFd-GOGAT is essential for plant growth and development by modulating nitrogen assimilation and the carbon-nitrogen balance. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Koyama, Hiroki; Okamoto, Seiji; Watanabe, Naoki; Hoshino, Naoshige; Jimbo, Mitsuru; Yasumoto, Ko; Watabe, Shugo
The brackish water clam Corbicula japonica inhabits rivers and brackish waters throughout Japan where the major fishing grounds in the Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan, are located at the Hinuma Lake and Hinuma River. Water salinity in the Lake Hinuma is low and stable due to the long distance from the Pacific Ocean, whereas that in the downstream of the river varies daily due to a strong effect of tidal waters. In the present study, we dissected the gill and foot muscle of brackish water clam collected from these areas, and subjected them to metabolome analysis by capillary electrophoresis-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. More than 200 metabolites including free amino acids, peptides and organic acids were identified, and their amounts from the foot muscle tend to be higher than those from the gill. The principal component analysis revealed that the amount of each metabolite was different among sampling areas and between the gill and foot muscle, whereas no apparent differences were observed between male and female specimens. When the metabolites in the female clam at high salinity were compared with those at low salinity, concentrations of β-alanine, choline, γ-aminobutyric acid, ornithine and glycine betaine were found to be changed in association with salinity. We also compared various metabolites in relation to metabolic pathways, suggesting that many enzymes were involved in their changes depending on salinity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rahman, Sk. Mustafizur; Majhi, Sullip Kumar; Suzuki, Toru; Strussmann, Carlos Augusto; Watanabe, Manabu
Cryopreservation of fish eggs and embryos is a highly desired tool to promote aquaculture production and fisheries resource management, but it is still not technically feasible. The failure to develop successful cryopreservation protocols for fish embryos is largely attributed to poor cryoprotectant permeability. The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of CaCl2 to enhance cryoprotectant uptake by fish embryos. In this study, embryos (somites and tail elongation stages) of Japanese whiting Sillago japonica were exposed to 10 and 15% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in artificial sea water (ASW) or a solution of 0.125M CaCl2 in distilled water for 20 min at 24°C. The toxicity of all solutions was estimated from the hatching rates of the embryos and High Performance Liquid Chromatography was used to determine the amount of DMSO taken up during impregnation. The results showed that DMSO incorporation into the embryos was greatly (›50%) enhanced in the presence of CaCl2 compared to ASW. CaCl2 itself was not toxic to the embryos but, probably as a result of the enhanced DMSO uptake, caused decreases in survival of about 14-44% relative to ASW. Somites stage embryos were more tolerant than tail elongation ones to DMSO both as ASW and CaCl2 solutions. The use of CaCl2 as a vehicle for DMSO impregnation could be a promising aid for the successful cryopreservation of fish embryos.
Song, Langui; Wu, Xiaoying; Zhang, Beibei; Liu, Jiahua; Ning, An; Wu, Zhongdao
The prevalence and intensity of schistosomiasis has dropped dramatically in China due to an effective integrated control program. However, advanced schistosomiasis is becoming a key challenge on the road to elimination. The aims of this study were to compare the disease condition between advanced cases under the general assistance program (GAP) and free treatment program (FTP) and to determine whether the FTP should be popularized to provide an objective reference for policymakers in China's advanced schistosomiasis control program. One hundred and ninety-four patients with schistosomiasis japonica who were enrolled in the GAP or FTP participated in this study. Little significant difference was observed in the potential confounders, including general characteristics, comorbidities, and lifestyle, indicating a similar effect on the pathology of liver damage caused by schistosome infection. There was no apparent difference in the incidence of common clinical symptoms. Furthermore, no significant difference was observed in the ultrasound findings, implying that the GAP and FTP groups shared a similar degree of liver lesion. With the exception of the abnormal rates of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and hyaluronic acid (HA), the other serological indicators were comparable between the groups. Overall, the FTP is not a better option for controlling advanced schistosomiasis in China. It is important to reveal the precise mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of advanced schistosomiasis so that specific approaches to treating and preventing the development of advanced schistosomiasis can be developed and schistosomiasis can be eliminated in China.
Yu, Qing; Zhao, Geng-Ming; Hong, Xian-Lin; Lutz, Eric A; Guo, Jia-Gang
Schistosomiasis japonica remains a significant public-health problem in China. This study evaluated cost-effectiveness of a comprehensive schistosomiasis control program (2003-2006). The comprehensive control program was implemented in Zhangjia and Jianwu (cases); while standard interventions continued in Koutou and Xiajia (controls). Incurred costs were documented and the schistosomiasis comprehensive impact index (SCI) and cost-effectiveness ratio (Comprehensive Control Program Cost/SCI) were applied. In 2003, prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum infection was 11.3% (Zhangjia), 6.7% (Jianwu), 6.5% (Koutou), and 8.0% (Xiajia). In 2006, the comprehensive control program in Zhangjia and Jianwu reduced infection to 1.6% and 0.6%, respectively; while Koutou and Xiajia had a schistosomiasis prevalence of 3.2% and 13.0%, respectively. The year-by-year SCIs in Zhangjia were 0.28, 105.25, and 47.58, with an overall increase in cost-effectiveness ratio of 374.9%-544.8%. The SCIs in Jianwu were 16.21, 52.95, and 149.58, with increase in cost-effectiveness of 226.7%-1,149.4%. Investment in Koutou and Xiajia remained static (US$10,000 unit cost). The comprehensive control program implemented in the two case villages reduced median prevalence of schistosomiasis 8.5-fold. Further, the cost effectiveness ratio demonstrated that the comprehensive control program was 170% (Zhangjia) and 922.7% (Jianwu) more cost-effective. This work clearly shows the improvements in both cost and disease prevention effectiveness that a comprehensive control program-approach has on schistosomiasis infection prevalence.
McGarvey, S T; Aligui, G; Graham, K K; Peters, P; Olds, G R; Olveda, R
The hypothesis that infection with Schistosoma japonicum causes decreased nutritional status was studied in a randomized trial among 170 males and females, mean (SD) age 11.4 (3.5) years, residing in an endemic region of northeastern Leyte, Philippines. The S. japonicum-infected children were randomized to receive praziquantel or placebo and followed-up six months after randomization. Stature, weight, triceps, subscapular, and calf skinfold thicknesses and their sum, and hemoglobin level were measured at baseline and follow-up. Schistosoma japonicum eggs were detected in Kato-Katz stool smears and the intensity of infection was assessed by quantitative egg count. Intensities of hookworm, ascaris, and trichuris infections were also measured. The six-month levels of the anthropometric measures and hemoglobin were adjusted for age and their baseline levels and then compared between the praziquantel and placebo groups. Treatment interactions were also analyzed by sex. Baseline anthropometric and hemoglobin levels and parasite infection intensities were the same in the two groups. At six months, the praziquantel group had significantly higher hemoglobin levels (P < 0.001) and sum of skinfolds (P < 0.001) than the placebo group. Males had a significantly greater increase in hemoglobin levels with treatment than did females. The hemoglobin increase was not due to changes in hookworm intensity. The results show that schistosomiasis japonica caused decreased nutritional status in children and probably is partly responsible for the malnutrition and reduction in growth for age described in prior cross-sectional studies.
Haritova, Aneliya; Dimitrova, Dimitrichka; Dinev, Toncho; Moutafchieva, Rumyana; Lashev, Lubomir
A population approach was used to evaluate the pharmacokinetic parameters of 3 fluoroquinolones administered to Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Healthy adult quail (n = 50) were divided into 3 groups, each administered a separate intravenous and oral dose of the compounded drug: enrofloxacin at 10 mg/kg (n = 18; 9 male, 9 female), danofloxacin at 10 mg/kg (n = 12; 6 male, 6 female), and marbofloxacin at 5 mg/kg (n = 20; 10 male, 10 female). A fourth group was used as a control (n = 5). Enrofloxacin was metabolized extensively to ciprofloxacin, while no metabolites of either danofloxacin or marbofloxacin were detected. The volume of distribution was high, greater than 1 in all cases, and highest for danofloxacin, followed by enrofloxacin, then marbofloxacin. The total body clearance was higher in quail than that reported for other avian species with the exception of ostriches. As in mammals, the lowest clearance rate of the 3 fluoroquinolones was observed for marbofloxacin. Enrofloxacin was absorbed most rapidly, followed by marbofloxacin, then danofloxacin. The highest bioavailability was observed for danofloxacin followed by marbofloxacin, while very low bioavailability with significant conversion to ciprofloxacin was observed for enrofloxacin. Population analysis showed low intersubject variability for danofloxacin and marbofloxacin in contrast to that for enrofloxacin and its main metabolite, ciprofloxacin. Because of their more favorable pharmacokinetic properties after oral administration, either danofloxacin or marbofloxacin appears to be preferable to enrofloxacin for the treatment of susceptible bacterial infection in Japanese quail.
Ai, Hui-wang; Olenych, Scott G; Wong, Peter; Davidson, Michael W; Campbell, Robert E
Background In the 15 years that have passed since the cloning of Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein (avGFP), the expanding set of fluorescent protein (FP) variants has become entrenched as an indispensable toolkit for cell biology research. One of the latest additions to the toolkit is monomeric teal FP (mTFP1), a bright and photostable FP derived from Clavularia cyan FP. To gain insight into the molecular basis for the blue-shifted fluorescence emission we undertook a mutagenesis-based study of residues in the immediate environment of the chromophore. We also employed site-directed and random mutagenesis in combination with library screening to create new hues of mTFP1-derived variants with wavelength-shifted excitation and emission spectra. Results Our results demonstrate that the protein-chromophore interactions responsible for blue-shifting the absorbance and emission maxima of mTFP1 operate independently of the chromophore structure. This conclusion is supported by the observation that the Tyr67Trp and Tyr67His mutants of mTFP1 retain a blue-shifted fluorescence emission relative to their avGFP counterparts (that is, Tyr66Trp and Tyr66His). Based on previous work with close homologs, His197 and His163 are likely to be the residues with the greatest contribution towards blue-shifting the fluorescence emission. Indeed we have identified the substitutions His163Met and Thr73Ala that abolish or disrupt the interactions of these residues with the chromophore. The mTFP1-Thr73Ala/His163Met double mutant has an emission peak that is 23 nm red-shifted from that of mTFP1 itself. Directed evolution of this double mutant resulted in the development of mWasabi, a new green fluorescing protein that offers certain advantages over enhanced avGFP (EGFP). To assess the usefulness of mTFP1 and mWasabi in live cell imaging applications, we constructed and imaged more than 20 different fusion proteins. Conclusion Based on the results of our mutagenesis study, we conclude
Casteel, Clare L; O'Neill, Bridget F; Zavala, Jorge A; Bilgin, Damla D; Berenbaum, May R; Delucia, Evan H
The accumulation of CO2 and O3 in the troposphere alters phytochemistry which in turn influences the interactions between plants and insects. Using microarray analysis of field-grown soybean (Glycine max), we found that the number of transcripts in the leaves affected by herbivory by Japanese beetles (Popillia japonica) was greater when plants were grown under elevated CO2, elevated O3 and the combination of elevated CO2 plus elevated O3 than when grown in ambient atmosphere. The effect of herbivory on transcription diminished strongly with time (<1% of genes were affected by herbivory after 3 weeks), and elevated CO2 interacted more strongly with herbivory than elevated O3. The majority of transcripts affected by elevated O3 were related to antioxidant metabolism. Constitutive levels and the induction by herbivory of key transcripts associated with defence and hormone signalling were down-regulated under elevated CO2; 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase, lipoxygenase (LOX), allene oxide synthase (AOS), allene oxide cyclase (AOC), chalcone synthase (CHS), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and cysteine protease inhibitor (CystPI) were lower in abundance compared with levels under ambient conditions. By suppressing the ability to mount an effective defence, elevated CO2 may decrease resistance of soybean to herbivory.
Xuan, Jiping; Song, Yufeng; Zhang, Hongxiao; Liu, Jianxiu; Guo, Zhongren; Hua, Yuelou
Zoysiagrass, the most cold-tolerant grass among the warm-season turfgrasses, is often used as a model species for isolating cellular components related to cold stress. To understand the proteomic responses to cold stress in zoysiagrass stolons, we extracted stolon proteins from Zoysia japonica , cv. Meyer (cold-tolerant) and Z . metrella , cv. Diamond (cold-sensitive), which were grown with or without cold treatment. Approximately 700 proteins were resolved on 2-DE gels, and 70 protein spots were differentially accumulated. We further observed that 45 of the identified proteins participate in 10 metabolic pathways and cellular processes. A significantly greater number of proteins accumulated in the Meyer than in the Diamond and 15 increased proteins were detected only in the Meyer cultivar under cold stress. Furthermore, we propose a cold stress-responsive protein network composed of several different functional components that exhibits a balance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and scavenging, accelerated protein biosynthesis and proteolysis, reduced protein folding, enhanced photosynthesis, abundant energy supply and enhanced biosynthesis of carbohydrates and nucleotides. Generally, the cold-tolerant Meyer cultivar showed a greater ROS scavenging ability, more abundant energy supply and increased photosynthesis and protein synthesis than did the cold-sensitive Diamond cultivar, which may partly explain why Meyer is more cold tolerant. PMID:24086619
Yan, Rui; Chen, Jian-bo; Sun, Su-qin; Guo, Bao-lin
Lonicerae japonicae Flos (LJF) and Lonicerae Flos (LF) are widely-used herbs derived from several plants of the genus Lonicera with similar appearances. LF are usually misused or counterfeited as LJF for economically motivated adulteration. However, the saponins in LF may cause serious side-effects. In this research, the infrared spectroscopic tri-step identification approach is used to develop a simple and rapid method to discriminate LJF and LF to ensure the safety and efficacy of these herbal drugs. In the primary identification by Fourier transform infrared spectra, LJF and LF show different peaks near 1534, 1404, and 781 cm-1. In the secondary identification by the second derivative infrared spectra, LJF and LF show more different peaks near 1078, 1050, 988, 923, 855, 815, and 781 cm-1. In the tertiary identification by the two-dimensional correlation infrared spectra, the differences between LJF and LF are shown more remarkably and convincingly. The results show the potential of the infrared spectroscopic tri-step identification approach in the rapid identification of LJF and LF when the samples are too few to build a statistical recognition rule. This should be very helpful to ensure the quality, safety, and efficacy of LJF and LF for clinical applications.