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Sample records for wasp sting causing

  1. Wasp sting

    MedlinePlus

    ... anywhere in the United States. Poisonous Ingredient Wasp venom is poisonous. It is injected into you when you are stung . Where Found Wasps carry this venom. Some people are allergic to the venom and ...

  2. Stinging wasps (Hymenoptera: Aculeata), which species have the longest sting?

    PubMed

    Sadler, Emily A; Pitts, James P; Wilson, Joseph S

    2018-01-01

    The stings of bees, wasps, and ants are something that catches the attention of anyone that experiences them. While many recent studies have focused on the pain inflicted by the stings of various stinging wasps, bees, or ants (Hymenoptera: Aculeata), little is known about how the length of the sting itself varies between species. Here, we investigate the sting length of a variety of aculeate wasps, and compare that to reported pain and toxicity values. We find that velvet ants (Hymenoptera: Mutillidae) have the longest sting compared to their body size out of any bee, wasp, or ant species. We also find that there is no link between relative sting length and pain; however, we did find an inverse relationship between relative sting length and toxicity with taxa having shorter relative stings being more toxic. While we found a significant relationship between host use and relative sting length, we suggest that the long sting length of the velvet ants is also related to their suite of defenses to avoid predation.

  3. Multiorgan failure following mass wasp stings.

    PubMed

    Lin, Cheng-Jui; Wu, Chih-Jen; Chen, Han-Hsiang; Lin, Hsin-Chang

    2011-05-01

    Wasp bites usually bring temporary discomfort and pain, but on occasion, they can cause serious infections and fatal allergic reactions. We report on a patient who experienced massive wasp stings and developed multiple organ failure, including acute kidney, hepatic failure, and circulatory collapse 4 days later. He was treated with aggressive fluid resuscitation, inotropic agent, intravenous injection of steroids, broad-spectrum antibiotics, and hemodialysis. After intensive treatment, his liver function recovered one month later. Recovery of renal function was delayed, and the patient needed temporary regular hemodialysis. The pathology of kidney biopsy showed acute tubulointerstitial nephritis. This case shows that toxic reactions following massive wasp attacks may happen several days after the fact and result in severe, multiorgan system dysfunction.

  4. Phylogenomic analysis of ants, bees and stinging wasps: Improved taxon sampling enhances understanding of hymenopteran evolution

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The importance of taxon sampling in phylogenetic accuracy is a topic of active debate. We investigated the role of taxon sampling in causing incongruent results between two recent phylogenomic studies of stinging wasps (Hymenoptera: Aculeata), a diverse lineage that includes ants, bees and the major...

  5. Scorpion Stings

    MedlinePlus

    ... children) As with other stinging insects, such as bees and wasps, it is possible for people who ... are similar to those of anaphylaxis caused by bee stings and can include hives, trouble breathing, and ...

  6. Myogenic nature of insect heartbeat and intestinal peristalsis, revealed by neuromuscular paralysis caused by the sting of a braconid wasp.

    PubMed

    Sláma, Karel; Lukáš, Jan

    2011-02-01

    Larvae of the greater waxmoth (Galleria mellonella) become paralysed by the venom of the braconid wasp (Habrobracon hebetor) a few minutes after intoxication. The profound neuromuscular paralysis, which may last for several weeks, includes all somatic muscles that are innervated through neuromuscular transmission. The peristaltic contractions of the heart and intestine, which are regulated by the depolarisation potentials of the myocardium or intestinal epithelial muscles, remain unaffected and fully functional. Heartbeat patterns and intestinal pulsations were monitored in the motionless, paralysed larvae by means of advanced electrocardiographic recording methods (contact thermography, pulse-light optocardiography). The records revealed more or less constant cardiac pulsations characterised by 20-25 systolic contractions per minute. The contractions were peristaltically propagated in the forward (anterograde) direction, with a more or less constant speed of 10mm per second (23-25°C). Additional electrocardiographic investigations on larvae immobilised by decapitation revealed the autonomic (brain independent) nature of heartbeat regulation. Sectioning performed in the middle of the heart (4th abdominal segment) seriously impaired the pacemaker rhythmicity and slowed down the rate of heartbeat in the anterior sections. By contrast, the functions of the posterior compartments of the disconnected heart remained unaffected. These results confirmed our previous conclusions about the existence of an autonomic, myogenic, pacemaker nodus in the terminal part of an insect heart. They show an analogy to the similar myogenic, sinoatrial or atrioventricular nodi regulating rhythmicity of the human heart. Peristaltic contractions of the intestine also represent a purely myogenic system, which is fully functional in larvae with complete neuromuscular paralysis. Unlike the constant anterograde direction of the heartbeat, intestinal peristaltic waves periodically reversed

  7. Bug Bites and Stings

    MedlinePlus

    ... visit to the local hospital is in order. Bee and Wasp Stings For most people, being stung by a bee is a minor nuisance. The affected area may ... may be slightly painful, but that's about it. Bee and wasp stings can cause real problems for ...

  8. Two Cases of Acute Kidney Injury Due to Multiple Wasp Stings.

    PubMed

    Vikrant, Sanjay; Parashar, Anupam

    2017-09-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is an unusual complication of wasp stings. Treatment of established AKI is largely supportive but the preventive strategies are not well documented. This is a report of 2 human cases that developed AKI after multiple wasp stings (Vespa magnifica). Each patient reached the hospital early in their clinical course and was treated with intravenous hydration and urine alkalization. In both the cases the severity of AKI, morbidity, and duration of hospitalization were reduced. The requirement of dialysis therapy was avoided. We propose early treatment with intravenous hydration, diuretic administration, and urine alkalization in such cases to prevent systemic and renal complications. Copyright © 2017 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Insect Bites and Stings

    MedlinePlus

    Most insect bites are harmless, though they sometimes cause discomfort. Bee, wasp, and hornet stings and fire ant bites usually hurt. Mosquito and flea bites usually itch. Insects can also spread diseases. In the United States, ...

  10. Bug Bites and Stings

    MedlinePlus

    ... event of a bug bite or sting. Handling Bee and Wasp Stings A bee will usually leave behind a stinger attached to ... child has had an allergic reaction to a bee or wasp sting in the past, see your ...

  11. [Acute myocardial infarction after wasp sting without anaphylactic reaction].

    PubMed

    Bongo, Angelo Sante; Fornaro, Gianluigi; Sansa, Mara; Macciò, Sergio; Rognoni, Andrea

    2005-03-01

    Bites of hymenopterans (bees, wasps and hornets) are very frequent phenomena that can stir up allergical reactions in venom-susceptible patients but that seldom provoke acute myocardial infarction. In the literature we can find case reports of myocardial infarction after bites of hymenopterans, and preceded by an allergic reaction (sometimes with angiographic evidence of undamaged coronary arteries). The pathophysiological determinant seems to be related to the chemical composition of hymenopterans venom, basically made up by vasoactive and thrombogenic substances able to create vasospasm and coronary thrombosis. Our report refers to a 65-year-old male patient without prior cardiological and allergic events who, bitten by a sharm of three bees, complains of an acute large anterior myocardial infarction with angiographic evidence of thrombotic lesion of the proximal left anterior descending artery treated with direct stenting with procedural success, without showing allergical symptoms. The pathophysiological determinant seems to be related to the release of vasoactive amines and thrombogenic substances contained into the hymenopterans venom, the former able to produce vasospasm, the latter able to create diffuse thrombosis. The use of adrenaline itself to counteract the possible systemic allergic reaction appears to advise against the treatment of patients with cardiological symptoms or coronary artery disease and because of its strong vasoactive activity (it leads, in fact, to vasoconstriction) and thrombogenic effects.

  12. Functional and Taxonomic Diversity of Stinging Wasps in Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest Areas.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, E F; Noll, F B; Brandão, C R F

    2014-04-01

    Vespoidea are the most functionally diverse superfamily of Hymenoptera. Ecological studies involving this family are primarily based on eusocial groups, including ants and social paper wasps. In the present study, we examine stinging wasp (Vespoidea) faunal diversity in the Atlantic Rain Forest, which is one of the most diverse and threatened ecosystems in the World. Three conservation areas were sampled employing a standardized sample protocol. Families and functional groups of Vespoidea were collected in each area, with the exception ants (Formicidae), and analyzed using diversity analyses, to generate taxonomic diversity and distinctness indices. Results indicated Pompilidae was the most diverse family, and the idiobiont parasitoid type was the most diverse functional group in the three study areas. Núcleo Picinguaba of the Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar was taxonomically and functionally the most diverse and species rich area. Parque Estadual Intervales showed the highest number of dominant species and diversity of koinobiont parasitoids, while the Rebio Sooretama exhibited a decrease in several diversity parameters.

  13. Partial venom gland transcriptome of a Drosophila parasitoid wasp, Leptopilina heterotoma, reveals novel and shared bioactive profiles with stinging Hymenoptera

    PubMed Central

    Heavner, Mary E.; Gueguen, Gwenaelle; Rajwani, Roma; Pagan, Pedro E.; Small, Chiyedza; Govind, Shubha

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of natural host-parasite relationships reveals the evolutionary forces that shape the delicate and unique specificity characteristic of such interactions. The accessory long gland-reservoir complex of the wasp Leptopilina heterotoma (Figitidae) produces venom with virus-like particles. Upon delivery, venom components delay host larval development and completely block host immune responses. The host range of this Drosophila endoparasitoid notably includes the highly-studied model organism, Drosophila melanogaster. Categorization of 827 unigenes, using similarity as an indicator of putative homology, reveals that approximately 25% are novel or classified as hypothetical proteins. Most of the remaining unigenes are related to processes involved in signaling, cell cycle, and cell physiology including detoxification, protein biogenesis, and hormone production. Analysis of L. heterotoma’s predicted venom gland proteins demonstrates conservation among endo- and ectoparasitoids within the Apocrita (e.g., this wasp and the jewel wasp Nasonia vitripennis) and stinging aculeates (e.g., the honey bee and ants). Enzyme and KEGG pathway profiling predicts that kinases, esterases, and hydrolases may contribute to venom activity in this unique wasp. To our knowledge, this investigation marks the first functional genomic study for a natural parasitic wasp of Drosophila. Our findings will help explain how L. heterotoma shuts down its hosts’ immunity and shed light on the molecular basis of a natural arms race between these insects. PMID:23688557

  14. Dermoscopic Findings of Jellyfish Stings Caused by Pelagia noctiluca.

    PubMed

    Del Pozo, L J; Knöpfel, N; Martín-Santiago, A; Escudero-Góngora, M M; Saus, C; Izquierdo-Herce, N; Bauzà-Alonso, A

    2016-01-01

    Jellyfish are free-living members of the phylum Cnidaria who share a specialized stinging cell, the cnidocyte. Pelagia noctiluca is the most frequent and toxic jellyfish species found in the Balearic beaches and cnidocytes are arranged in pigmented clusters called "warts". Dermoscopy continues to expand its use much beyond the pigmentary lesions and to date, there is no data regarding dermoscopic findings in jellyfish stings. The aim of the present work was to study the dermoscopic findings of jellyfish stings in the island of Mallorca. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical and dermoscopic images of 25 episodes of jellyfish stings caused by P. noctiluca that occurred between 2009 and 2015. Overall, the following dermoscopic features were found: brown dots (84%), pinkish hue (56%), pinpoint brown crusts (44%), scale-crust (40%), brown "Chinese characters pattern" (32%), "serpentine" ulceration (28%), linear purpura (20%), and whitish-yellow crusts (15%). Vessels were mainly dotted (36%) or reticular (16%). Scale-crust, serpentine ulceration and pinkish hue were significantly more frequent in lesions older than 2 days. Our study identifies 4 dermoscopic features that may represent the contact with P. noctiluca cnidocytes: brown dots, brown "Chinese characters pattern", pinpoint brown crusts and whitish-yellow crusts. A peculiar finding of "serpentine ulceration" with brown dots would be very suggestive of P. noctiluca sting. We believe dermoscopy is a valuable tool in the diagnosis of jellyfish stings when a clear history of contact is lacking. Further studies are needed to validate our findings in other jellyfish species. Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Protecting Yourself from Stinging Insects

    MedlinePlus

    ... at risk of being stung by flying insects (bees, wasps, and hornets) and fire ants. While most ... by several stinging insects, run to get away. (Bees release a chemical when they sting, which attracts ...

  16. Stinging ants.

    PubMed

    Rhoades, R

    2001-08-01

    Ants belong to the order Hymenoptera, along with bees, wasps, yellow jackets, etc., they are the most successful animal genera in this world. It is their selfless social structure which accounts for their huge impact. Their effect on man ranges from the parasol ant, which makes plant cultivation untenable in certain parts of South America, to Solenopsis Invicta in the southeastern United States of America, which kill ground dwelling birds and small animals, harass livestock, and renders farmland unusable. With the exception of the Bulldog Ant of Australia (which is the size of a medium cockroach) direct toxic effects are not a lethal threat to man. Human fatalities and morbidity are related to secondary infections of excoriated stings or allergic anaphylaxis. This article reviews history and recent developments regarding stinging ants around the world.

  17. Stinging nettle dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Bryan E; Miller, Christopher J; Adams, David R

    2003-03-01

    The stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) is a common weed that can cause a wide range of cutaneous reactions. Contact with the hairs or spines on the stems and leaves of the stinging nettle causes the release of several biologically active substances. The released chemicals act to cause itching, dermatitis, and urticaria within moments of contact. Extracts from the stinging nettle may provide therapeutic value for some inflammatory medical conditions. There is no standard treatment for stinging nettle dermatitis.

  18. A congenital activating mutant of WASp causes altered plasma membrane topography and adhesion under flow in lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Siobhan O.; Killock, David J.; Moulding, Dale A.; Metelo, Joao; Nunes, Joao; Taylor, Ruth R.; Forge, Andrew; Thrasher, Adrian J.

    2010-01-01

    Leukocytes rely on dynamic actin-dependent changes in cell shape to pass through blood vessels, which is fundamental to immune surveillance. Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome protein (WASp) is a hematopoietic cell–restricted cytoskeletal regulator important for modulating cell shape through Arp2/3-mediated actin polymerization. A recently identified WASpI294T mutation was shown to render WASp constitutively active in vivo, causing increased filamentous (F)–actin polymerization, high podosome turnover in macrophages, and myelodysplasia. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of WASpI294T expression in lymphocytes. Here, we report that lymphocytes isolated from a patient with WASpI294T, and in a cellular model of WASpI294T, displayed abnormal microvillar architecture, associated with an increase in total cellular F-actin. Microvillus function was additionally altered as lymphocytes bearing the WASpI294T mutation failed to roll normally on L-selectin ligand under flow. This was not because of defects in L-selectin expression, shedding, cytoskeletal anchorage, or membranal positioning; however, under static conditions of adhesion, WASpI294T-expressing lymphocytes exhibited altered dynamic interaction with L-selectin ligand, with a significantly reduced rate of adhesion turnover. Together, our results demonstrate that WASpI294T significantly affects lymphocyte membrane topography and L-selectin–dependent adhesion, which may be linked to defective hematopoiesis and leukocyte function in affected patients. PMID:20354175

  19. Strike Fast, Strike Hard: The Red-Throated Caracara Exploits Absconding Behavior of Social Wasps during Nest Predation

    PubMed Central

    McCann, Sean; Moeri, Onour; Jones, Tanya; Scott, Catherine; Khaskin, Grigori; Gries, Regine; O'Donnell, Sean; Gries, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    Red-throated Caracaras Ibycter americanus (Falconidae) are specialist predators of social wasps in the Neotropics. It had been proposed that these caracaras possess chemical repellents that allow them to take the brood of wasp nests without being attacked by worker wasps. To determine how caracaras exploit nests of social wasps and whether chemical repellents facilitate predation, we: (1) video recorded the birds attacking wasp nests; (2) analyzed surface extracts of the birds' faces, feet, and feathers for potential chemical repellents; and (3) inflicted mechanical damage on wasp nests to determine the defensive behavior of wasps in response to varying levels of disturbance. During caracara predation events, two species of large-bodied wasps mounted stinging attacks on caracaras, whereas three smaller-bodied wasp species did not. The “hit-and-run” predation tactic of caracaras when they attacked nests of large and aggressive wasps reduced the risk of getting stung. Our data reveal that the predation strategy of caracaras is based on mechanical disturbance of, and damage to, target wasp nests. Caracara attacks and severe experimental disturbance of nests invariably caused wasps to abscond (abandon their nests). Two compounds in caracara foot extracts [sulcatone and iridodial] elicited electrophysiological responses from wasp antennae, and were also present in defensive secretions of sympatric arboreal-nesting Azteca ants. These compounds appear not to be wasp repellents but to be acquired coincidentally by caracaras when they perch on trees inhabited with Azteca ants. We conclude that caracara predation success does not depend on wasp repellents but relies on the absconding response that is typical of swarm-founding polistine wasps. Our study highlights the potential importance of vertebrate predators in the ecology and evolution of social wasps. PMID:24386338

  20. Strike fast, strike hard: the red-throated caracara exploits absconding behavior of social wasps during nest predation.

    PubMed

    McCann, Sean; Moeri, Onour; Jones, Tanya; Scott, Catherine; Khaskin, Grigori; Gries, Regine; O'Donnell, Sean; Gries, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    Red-throated Caracaras Ibycter americanus (Falconidae) are specialist predators of social wasps in the Neotropics. It had been proposed that these caracaras possess chemical repellents that allow them to take the brood of wasp nests without being attacked by worker wasps. To determine how caracaras exploit nests of social wasps and whether chemical repellents facilitate predation, we: (1) video recorded the birds attacking wasp nests; (2) analyzed surface extracts of the birds' faces, feet, and feathers for potential chemical repellents; and (3) inflicted mechanical damage on wasp nests to determine the defensive behavior of wasps in response to varying levels of disturbance. During caracara predation events, two species of large-bodied wasps mounted stinging attacks on caracaras, whereas three smaller-bodied wasp species did not. The "hit-and-run" predation tactic of caracaras when they attacked nests of large and aggressive wasps reduced the risk of getting stung. Our data reveal that the predation strategy of caracaras is based on mechanical disturbance of, and damage to, target wasp nests. Caracara attacks and severe experimental disturbance of nests invariably caused wasps to abscond (abandon their nests). Two compounds in caracara foot extracts [sulcatone and iridodial] elicited electrophysiological responses from wasp antennae, and were also present in defensive secretions of sympatric arboreal-nesting Azteca ants. These compounds appear not to be wasp repellents but to be acquired coincidentally by caracaras when they perch on trees inhabited with Azteca ants. We conclude that caracara predation success does not depend on wasp repellents but relies on the absconding response that is typical of swarm-founding polistine wasps. Our study highlights the potential importance of vertebrate predators in the ecology and evolution of social wasps.

  1. A Case of Delayed Flare-up Allergic Dermatitis Caused by Jellyfish Sting.

    PubMed

    Manabe, Yasuaki; Mabuchi, Tomotaka; Kawai, Mayu; Ota, Tami; Ikoma, Norihiro; Ozawa, Akira; Horita, Takushi

    2014-09-20

    A 7-year-old boy, taking lessons at a yacht school at Enoshima in Kanagawa prefecture in Japan, recognized a linear eruption on his left lower leg during practice in August 2012. As it gradually enlarged, he visited a local medical clinic. The eruption initially improved with topical treatment but exacerbated in October of the same year. Although topical treatment was started again, there was minimal improvement, so the patient visited our hospital in December. At his first visit, he had a hard linear nodule on his left lower leg, and papules with excoriation were scattered over the lower limbs. Considering eczema, topical steroid treatment and occlusive dressing technique were started but the nodule remained. Based on the clinical course, clinical features, and laboratory findings, the lesion was considered to be delayed flare-up allergic dermatitis caused by a jellyfish sting [1].

  2. Identification of allergens in the box jellyfish Chironex yamaguchii that cause sting dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Horiike, Takumi; Nagai, Hiroshi; Kitani, Seiichi

    2015-01-01

    Jellyfish stings cause painful, papular-urticarial eruptions due to the immediate allergic, acute toxic and persistent inflammatory responses. In spite of many marine accidents and their economic impact, modes of first-aid treatment remain conventional and specific allergen and medical treatment are not yet available. The purpose of this study was to define the specific allergen of the box jellyfish Chironex yamaguchii and to study the precise mechanism of the resulting dermatitis. We comprehensively studied the immunoglobulin-binding molecules from the box jellyfish C. yamaguchii with a purification procedure and Western blotting, using sera from 1 patient and from several controls. From the nematocyst wall and spine, we detected IgG-binding acidic glycoprotein (of 66 and 30 kDa) as determined by Western blot and ion-exchange chromatography. In addition, the 66-kDa protein was found to be an asparagine residue-coupled N-linked glycoprotein and the epitope resided in the protein fraction. We found that CqTX-A, the major toxic protein of the nematocyst, is also a heat-stable IgE-binding allergen. This was confirmed as a 45-kDa protein by Western blot from both nematocyst extracts and purified CqTX-A. The detection of these proteins may, in part, explain the combined immediate allergic-toxic and persistent allergic responses. Hopefully, our findings will lead to the development of specific venom immunotherapy for marine professional workers and tourists for jellyfish-sting dermatitis and anaphylaxis. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Wasp uses venom cocktail to manipulate the behavior of its cockroach prey.

    PubMed

    Libersat, F

    2003-07-01

    The sting of the parasitoid wasp Ampulex compressa is unusual, as it induces a transient paralysis of the front legs followed by grooming behavior and then by a long-term hypokinesia of its cockroach prey. Because the wasp's goal is to provide a living meal for its newborn larva, the behavioral changes in the prey are brought about by manipulating the host behavior in a way beneficial to the wasp and its offspring. To this end, the wasp injects its venom cocktail with two consecutive stings directly into the host's central nervous system. The first sting in the thorax causes a transient front leg paralysis lasting a few minutes. This paralysis is due to the presence of a venom component that induces a postsynaptic block of central cholinergic synaptic transmission. Following the head sting, dopamine identified in the venom appears to induce 30 min of intense grooming. During the long-term hypokinesia that follows the grooming, specific behaviors of the prey are inhibited while others are unaffected. We propose that the venom represses the activity of head ganglia neurons thereby removing the descending excitatory drive to the thoracic neurons.

  4. Wasp manipulates cockroach behavior by injecting venom cocktail into prey central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Haspel, G; Libersat, F

    2004-01-01

    The parasitoid wasp Ampulex compressa induces behavioral changes in the cockroach prey by injecting venom into its central nervous system. In contrast to most other venomous predators, the wasp's sting does not induce paralysis. Rather, the two consecutive stings in the thoracic and head ganglia induce three stereotypic behavioral effects. The prey behavior is manipulated in a way beneficial to the wasp and its offspring by providing a living meal for its newborn larva. The first sting in the thorax causes a transient front leg paralysis lasting a few minutes. This paralysis prevents the cockroach from fighting with its front legs, thereby facilitating the second sting in the head. A postsynaptic block of central synaptic transmission mediates this leg paralysis. Following the head sting, dopamine identified in the venom induces 30 minutes of intense grooming that appears to prevent the cockroach from straying until the last and third behavioral effect of hypokinesia commences. In this lethargic state that lasts about three weeks, the cockroach does not respond to various stimuli nor does it initiates movement. However, other specific behaviors of the prey are unaffected. We propose that the venom represses the activity of head ganglia neurons thereby removing the descending excitatory drive to specific thoracic neurons.

  5. Parasitoid wasp sting: a cocktail of GABA, taurine, and beta-alanine opens chloride channels for central synaptic block and transient paralysis of a cockroach host.

    PubMed

    Moore, Eugene L; Haspel, Gal; Libersat, Frederic; Adams, Michael E

    2006-07-01

    The wasp Ampulex compressa injects venom directly into the prothoracic ganglion of its cockroach host to induce a transient paralysis of the front legs. To identify the biochemical basis for this paralysis, we separated venom components according to molecular size and tested fractions for inhibition of synaptic transmission at the cockroach cercal-giant synapse. Only fractions in the low molecular weight range (<2 kDa) caused synaptic block. Dabsylation of venom components and analysis by HPLC and MALDI-TOF-MS revealed high levels of GABA (25 mM), and its receptor agonists beta-alanine (18 mM), and taurine (9 mM) in the active fractions. Each component produces transient block of synaptic transmission at the cercal-giant synapse and block of efferent motor output from the prothoracic ganglion, which mimics effects produced by injection of whole venom. Whole venom evokes picrotoxin-sensitive chloride currents in cockroach central neurons, consistent with a GABAergic action. Together these data demonstrate that Ampulex utilizes GABAergic chloride channel activation as a strategy for central synaptic block to induce transient and focal leg paralysis in its host. Copyright 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Floor of the nose mucosa lysis and labial abscess caused by a bee sting.

    PubMed

    Alemán Navas, Ramón Manuel; Martínez Mendoza, María Guadalupe; Herrera, Henry; Herrera, Helen Piccolo de

    2009-01-01

    Hymenoptera order includes bees, which have a stinging apparatus at the tail capable of delivering venom to the affected tissues. Myocardial infarction, acute renal failure, Necrotizing fasciitis, fatal infection and hemifacial asymmetry, are some of the unusual reactions reported following hymenoptera stings. This paper reports a case of bee sting in the right floor of the nose that mimicked an odontogenic infection affecting the upper lip, canine space and nasal cavity such as in cases of infection secondary to pulpal or periodontal pathology of the anterior teeth. After a thorough clinical and radiographic examination, odontogenic infection was discarded and the diagnosis of floor of the nose mucosal lysis and lip abscess secondary to a bee sting was made. This case was successfully managed with adequate incision, drainage and antibiotics without any further complication. There are several reports of unusual reactions following hymenoptera stings. However, just a few of them referred to infections of local reactions and none of them related to the anatomic location affected in the patient of the present case. Early diagnosis and treatment prevented infection dissemination and the likelihood of tissue necrosis as in previously reported cases of Necrotizing fasciitis.

  7. Rickettsia Symbionts Cause Parthenogenetic Reproduction in the Parasitoid Wasp Pnigalio soemius (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)▿

    PubMed Central

    Giorgini, M.; Bernardo, U.; Monti, M. M.; Nappo, A. G.; Gebiola, M.

    2010-01-01

    Bacteria in the genus Rickettsia are intracellular symbionts of disparate groups of organisms. Some Rickettsia strains infect vertebrate animals and plants, where they cause diseases, but most strains are vertically inherited symbionts of invertebrates. In insects Rickettsia symbionts are known to have diverse effects on hosts ranging from influencing host fitness to manipulating reproduction. Here we provide evidence that a Rickettsia symbiont causes thelytokous parthenogenesis (in which mothers produce only daughters from unfertilized eggs) in a parasitoid wasp, Pnigalio soemius (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). Feeding antibiotics to thelytokous female wasps resulted in production of progeny that were almost all males. Cloning and sequencing of a fragment of the 16S rRNA gene amplified with universal primers, diagnostic PCR screening of symbiont lineages associated with manipulation of reproduction, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed that Rickettsia is always associated with thelytokous P. soemius and that no other bacteria that manipulate reproduction are present. Molecular analyses and FISH showed that Rickettsia is distributed in the reproductive tissues and is transovarially transmitted from mothers to offspring. Comparison of antibiotic-treated females and untreated females showed that infection had no cost. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA and gltA gene sequences placed the symbiont of P. soemius in the bellii group and indicated that there have been two separate origins of the parthenogenesis-inducing phenotype in the genus Rickettsia. A possible route for evolution of induction of parthenogenesis in the two distantly related Rickettsia lineages is discussed. PMID:20173065

  8. Rickettsia symbionts cause parthenogenetic reproduction in the parasitoid wasp Pnigalio soemius (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae).

    PubMed

    Giorgini, M; Bernardo, U; Monti, M M; Nappo, A G; Gebiola, M

    2010-04-01

    Bacteria in the genus Rickettsia are intracellular symbionts of disparate groups of organisms. Some Rickettsia strains infect vertebrate animals and plants, where they cause diseases, but most strains are vertically inherited symbionts of invertebrates. In insects Rickettsia symbionts are known to have diverse effects on hosts ranging from influencing host fitness to manipulating reproduction. Here we provide evidence that a Rickettsia symbiont causes thelytokous parthenogenesis (in which mothers produce only daughters from unfertilized eggs) in a parasitoid wasp, Pnigalio soemius (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). Feeding antibiotics to thelytokous female wasps resulted in production of progeny that were almost all males. Cloning and sequencing of a fragment of the 16S rRNA gene amplified with universal primers, diagnostic PCR screening of symbiont lineages associated with manipulation of reproduction, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed that Rickettsia is always associated with thelytokous P. soemius and that no other bacteria that manipulate reproduction are present. Molecular analyses and FISH showed that Rickettsia is distributed in the reproductive tissues and is transovarially transmitted from mothers to offspring. Comparison of antibiotic-treated females and untreated females showed that infection had no cost. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA and gltA gene sequences placed the symbiont of P. soemius in the bellii group and indicated that there have been two separate origins of the parthenogenesis-inducing phenotype in the genus Rickettsia. A possible route for evolution of induction of parthenogenesis in the two distantly related Rickettsia lineages is discussed.

  9. Oocyte-specific deletion of N-WASP does not affect oocyte polarity, but causes failure of meiosis II completion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen-Bo; Ma, Xue-Shan; Hu, Meng-Wen; Jiang, Zong-Zhe; Meng, Tie-Gang; Dong, Ming-Zhe; Fan, Li-Hua; Ouyang, Ying-Chun; Snapper, Scott B; Schatten, Heide; Sun, Qing-Yuan

    2016-09-01

    There is an unexplored physiological role of N-WASP (neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein) in oocyte maturation that prevents completion of second meiosis. In mice, N-WASP deletion did not affect oocyte polarity and asymmetric meiotic division in first meiosis, but did impair midbody formation and second meiosis completion. N-WASP regulates actin dynamics and participates in various cell activities through the RHO-GTPase-Arp2/3 (actin-related protein 2/3 complex) pathway, and specifically the Cdc42 (cell division cycle 42)-N-WASP-Arp2/3 pathway. Differences in the functions of Cdc42 have been obtained from in vitro compared to in vivo studies. By conditional knockout of N-WASP in mouse oocytes, we analyzed its in vivo functions by employing a variety of different methods including oocyte culture, immunofluorescent staining and live oocyte imaging. Each experiment was repeated at least three times, and data were analyzed by paired-samples t-test. Oocyte-specific deletion of N-WASP did not affect the process of oocyte maturation including spindle formation, spindle migration, polarity establishment and maintenance, and homologous chromosome or sister chromatid segregation, but caused failure of cytokinesis completion during second meiosis (P < 0.001 compared to control). Further analysis showed that a defective midbody may be responsible for the failure of cytokinesis completion. The present study did not include a detailed analysis of the mechanisms underlying the results, which will require more extensive further investigations. N-WASP may play an important role in mediating and co-ordinating the activity of the spindle (midbody) and actin (contractile ring constriction) when cell division occurs. The findings are important for understanding the regulation of oocyte meiosis completion and failures in this process that affect oocyte quality. None. This work was supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (No. 2012CB944404) and the National Natural

  10. Delayed allergic dermatitis presenting as a keloid-like reaction caused by sting from an Indo-Pacific Portuguese man-o'-war (Physalia utriculus).

    PubMed

    Guevara, B E K; Dayrit, J F; Haddad, V

    2017-03-01

    Cnidarian envenomations are common occurrences in the tropics that can affect holidaymakers. The cutaneous reactions are classified as immediate or delayed types. Delayed allergic reactions are persistently recurring dermatitis, which can occur within 1-4 weeks from the initial sting, and may last for several months. Hypertrophic scar-like or keloid-like reactions are rare, and are believed to be a type IV hypersensitivity reaction to sequestered antigens from stinging filaments. We report an unusual case of delayed allergic dermatitis with keloid-like presentation caused by Physalia utriculus. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  11. Hemichorea after multiple bee stings.

    PubMed

    An, Jin Young; Kim, Ji Seon; Min, Jin Hong; Han, Kyu Hong; Kang, Jun Ho; Lee, Suk Woo; Kim, Hoon; Park, Jung Soo

    2014-02-01

    Bee sting is one of the most commonly encountered insect bites in the world. Despite the common occurrence of local and systemic allergic reactions, there are few reports of ischemic stroke after bee stings. To the best our knowledge, there have been no reports on involuntary hyperkinetic movement disorders after multiple bee stings. We report the case of a 50-year-old man who developed involuntary movements of the left leg 24 hours after multiple bee stings, and the cause was confirmed to be a right temporal infarction on a diffusion magnetic resonance imaging scan. Thus, we concluded that the involuntary movement disorder was caused by right temporal infarction that occurred after multiple bee stings.

  12. Parasitoid wasp affects metabolism of cockroach host to favor food preservation for its offspring.

    PubMed

    Haspel, Gal; Gefen, Eran; Ar, Amos; Glusman, J Gustavo; Libersat, Frederic

    2005-06-01

    Unlike predators, which immediately consume their prey, parasitoid wasps incapacitate their prey to provide a food supply for their offspring. We have examined the effects of the venom of the parasitoid wasp Ampulex compressa on the metabolism of its cockroach prey. This wasp stings into the brain of the cockroach causing hypokinesia. We first established that larval development, from egg laying to pupation, lasts about 8 days. During this period, the metabolism of the stung cockroach slows down, as measured by a decrease in oxygen consumption. Similar decreases in oxygen consumption occurred after pharmacologically induced paralysis or after removing descending input from the head ganglia by severing the neck connectives. However, neither of these two groups of cockroaches survived more than six days, while 90% of stung cockroaches survived at least this long. In addition, cockroaches with severed neck connectives lost significantly more body mass, mainly due to dehydration. Hence, the sting of A. compressa not only renders the cockroach prey helplessly submissive, but also changes its metabolism to sustain more nutrients for the developing larva. This metabolic manipulation is subtler than the complete removal of descending input from the head ganglia, since it leaves some physiological processes, such as water retention, intact.

  13. Bee Stings & Their Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rupp, Robert M.

    1991-01-01

    Relevant information concerning bee stings is provided. Possible reactions to a bee sting and their symptoms, components of bee venom, diagnosis of hypersensitivity, and bee sting prevention and treatment are topics of discussion. The possibility of bee stings occurring during field trips and the required precautions are discussed. (KR)

  14. Conditional knockout of N-WASP in mouse fibroblast caused keratinocyte hyper proliferation and enhanced wound closure

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Neeraj; Kalailingam, Pazhanichamy; Tan, Kai Wei; Tan, Hui Bing; Sng, Ming Keat; Chan, Jeremy Soon Kiat; Tan, Nguan Soon; Thanabalu, Thirumaran

    2016-01-01

    Neural-Wiskott Aldrich Syndrome Protein (N-WASP) is expressed ubiquitously, regulates actin polymerization and is essential during mouse development. We have previously shown that N-WASP is critical for cell-ECM adhesion in fibroblasts. To characterize the role of N-WASP in fibroblast for skin development, we generated a conditional knockout mouse model in which fibroblast N-WASP was ablated using the Cre recombinase driven by Fibroblast Specific Protein promoter (Fsp-Cre). N-WASPFKO (N-WASPfl/fl; Fsp-cre) were born following Mendelian genetics, survived without any visible abnormalities for more than 1 year and were sexually reproductive, suggesting that expression of N-WASP in fibroblast is not critical for survival under laboratory conditions. Histological sections of N-WASPFKO mice skin (13 weeks old) showed thicker epidermis with higher percentage of cells staining for proliferation marker (PCNA), suggesting that N-WASP deficient fibroblasts promote keratinocyte proliferation. N-WASPFKO mice skin had elevated collagen content, elevated expression of FGF7 (keratinocyte growth factor) and TGFβ signaling proteins. Wound healing was faster in N-WASPFKO mice compared to control mice and N-WASP deficient fibroblasts were found to have enhanced collagen gel contraction properties. These results suggest that N-WASP deficiency in fibroblasts improves wound healing by growth factor-mediated enhancement of keratinocyte proliferation and increased wound contraction in mice. PMID:27909303

  15. Cnidarian internal stinging mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Schlesinger, Ami; Zlotkin, Eliahu; Kramarsky-Winter, Esti; Loya, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Stinging mechanisms generally deliver venomous compounds to external targets. However, nematocysts, the microscopic stinging organelles that are common to all members of the phylum Cnidaria, occur and act in both external and internal tissue structures. This is the first report of such an internal piercing mechanism. This mechanism identifies prey items within the body cavity of the sea anemone and actively injects them with cytolytic venom compounds. Internal tissues isolated from sea anemones caused the degradation of live Artemia salina nauplii in vitro. When examined, the nauplii were found to be pierced by discharged nematocysts. This phenomenon is suggested to aid digestive phagocytic processes in a predator otherwise lacking the means to masticate its prey. PMID:19129118

  16. Deaths From Bites and Stings of Venomous Animals

    PubMed Central

    Ennik, Franklin

    1980-01-01

    Data abstracted from 34 death certificates indicate that the three venomous animal groups most often responsible for human deaths in California from 1960 through 1976 were Hymenoptera (bees, wasps, ants and the like) (56 percent), snakes (35 percent) and spiders (6 percent). An average incidence of 2.0 deaths per year occurred during these 17 years, or an average death rate of 0.01 per 100,000 population per year. Nearly three times more males than females died of venomous animal bites and stings. Half of the deaths from venomous snake bites occurred in children younger than 5 years of age. Susceptible persons 40 years or older appeared to be particularly vulnerable to hymenopterous insect stings and often quickly died of anaphylaxis. Fatal encounters with venomous animals occurred more often around the home than at places of employment or during recreational activities. Deaths resulting from spider bites are rare in California but many bites are reported. Medical practitioners are urged to seek professional assistance in identifying offending animals causing human discomfort and to use these animals' scientific names on death certificates and in journal articles. ImagesIGN. PMID:7467305

  17. WASP Model Tutorials

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Contains WASP tutorial videos. WASP Command Line, WASP, Modeling Dissolved Oxygen, Building a Steady State Example, Modeling Nutrients in Rivers, Nutrient Cycles, Interpreting Water Quality Models, Linking with LSPC, WRDB, BASINS, WCS, WASP Network Tool

  18. Differential Properties of Venom Peptides and Proteins in Solitary vs. Social Hunting Wasps

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Si Hyeock; Baek, Ji Hyeong; Yoon, Kyungjae Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The primary functions of venoms from solitary and social wasps are different. Whereas most solitary wasps sting their prey to paralyze and preserve it, without killing, as the provisions for their progeny, social wasps usually sting to defend their colonies from vertebrate predators. Such distinctive venom properties of solitary and social wasps suggest that the main venom components are likely to be different depending on the wasps’ sociality. The present paper reviews venom components and properties of the Aculeata hunting wasps, with a particular emphasis on the comparative aspects of venom compositions and properties between solitary and social wasps. Common components in both solitary and social wasp venoms include hyaluronidase, phospholipase A2, metalloendopeptidase, etc. Although it has been expected that more diverse bioactive components with the functions of prey inactivation and physiology manipulation are present in solitary wasps, available studies on venom compositions of solitary wasps are simply too scarce to generalize this notion. Nevertheless, some neurotoxic peptides (e.g., pompilidotoxin and dendrotoxin-like peptide) and proteins (e.g., insulin-like peptide binding protein) appear to be specific to solitary wasp venom. In contrast, several proteins, such as venom allergen 5 protein, venom acid phosphatase, and various phospholipases, appear to be relatively more specific to social wasp venom. Finally, putative functions of main venom components and their application are also discussed. PMID:26805885

  19. Striking cuticular hydrocarbon dimorphism in the mason wasp Odynerus spinipes and its possible evolutionary cause (Hymenoptera: Chrysididae, Vespidae)

    PubMed Central

    Herbertz, Sina; Kroiss, Johannes; Strohm, Erhard; Baur, Hannes; Niehuis, Oliver; Schmitt, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Cleptoparasitic wasps and bees smuggle their eggs into the nest of a host organism. Here the larvae of the cleptoparasite feed upon the food provision intended for the offspring of the host. As cleptoparasitism incurs a loss of fitness for the host organism (offspring of the host fail to develop), hosts of cleptoparasites are expected to exploit cues that alert them to potential cleptoparasite infestation. Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) could serve as such cues, as insects inevitably leave traces of them behind when entering a nest. By mimicking the host's CHC profile, cleptoparasites can conceal their presence and evade detection by their host. Previous studies have provided evidence of cleptoparasites mimicking their host's CHC profile. However, the impact of this strategy on the evolution of the host's CHC profile has remained unexplored. Here, we present results from our investigation of a host–cleptoparasite system consisting of a single mason wasp species that serves syntopically as the host to three cuckoo wasp species. We found that the spiny mason wasp (Odynerus spinipes) is able to express two substantially different CHC profiles, each of which is seemingly mimicked by a cleptoparasitic cuckoo wasp (i.e. Chrysis mediata and Pseudospinolia neglecta). The CHC profile of the third cuckoo wasp (Chrysis viridula), a species not expected to benefit from mimicking its host's CHC profile because of its particular oviposition strategy, differs from the two CHC profiles of its host. Our results corroborate the idea that the similarity of the CHC profiles between cleptoparasitic cuckoo wasps and their hosts are the result of chemical mimicry. They further suggest that cleptoparasites may represent a hitherto unappreciated force that drives the evolution of their hosts' CHCs. PMID:26674944

  20. Chapter 4: Stinging insect allergy and venom immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Koterba, Alan P; Greenberger, Paul A

    2012-01-01

    The Hymenoptera order is divided into three families: Apids, Vespidae, and Formicidae. Apids include the honeybee, bumblebee, and sweat bee, which are all docile and tend to sting mostly on provocation. The Africanized killer bee, a product of interbreeding between the domestic and African honeybee, is very aggressive and is found mostly in Mexico, Central America, Arizona, and California. The yellow jacket, yellow hornet, white (bald)-faced hornet, and paper wasp all belong to the Vespidae family. The Formicidae family includes the harvester ant and the fire ant. When a "bee" sting results in a large local reaction, defined as >5 in. and lasting >24 hours, the likelihood of anaphylaxis from a future sting is ∼5%. For comparison, when there is a history of anaphylaxis from a previous Hymenoptera sting and the patient has positive skin tests to venom, at least 60% of adults and 20-32% of children will develop anaphylaxis with a future sting. Both patient groups should be instructed about avoidance measures and carrying and knowing when to self-inject epinephrine, but immunotherapy (IT) with Hymenoptera venom is indicated for those patients with a history of anaphylaxis from the index sting and not for patients who have experienced a large local reaction. IT is highly effective in that by 4 years of injections, the incidence of subsequent sting-induced anaphylactic reactions is 3%. This incidence may increase modestly after discontinuation of injections but has not been reported >10% in follow-up.

  1. Convergent evolution in the antennae of a cerambycid beetle, Onychocerus albitarsis, and the sting of a scorpion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkov, Amy; Rodríguez, Nelson; Centeno, Pedro

    2008-03-01

    Venom-injecting structures have arisen independently in unrelated arthropods including scorpions, spiders, centipedes, larval owlflies and antlions, and Hymenoptera (wasps, ants, and bees). Most arthropods use venom primarily as an offensive weapon to subdue prey, and only secondarily in defense against enemies. Venom is injected by biting with fangs or stinging with a specialized hypodermic structure used exclusively for the delivery of venom (usually modified terminal abdominal segments). A true sting apparatus, previously known only in scorpions and aculeate wasps, is now known in a third group. We here report the first known case of a cerambycid beetle using its antennae to inject a secretion that causes cutaneous and subcutaneous inflammation in humans. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the terminal antennal segment of Onychocerus albitarsis (Pascoe) has two pores opening into channels leading to the tip through which the secretion is delivered. This is a novel case of convergent evolution: The delivery system is almost identical to that found in the stinger of a deadly buthid scorpion.

  2. Pain from bluebottle jellyfish stings.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; McGee, Richard G; Webster, Angela C

    2015-07-01

    An 11-year-old girl presented to the emergency department with severe pain after a jellyfish sting at a New South Wales beach. Bluebottle (Physalia) jellyfish was deemed the most likely cause considering her geographical location. The Australian Resuscitation Council Guideline (2010) suggests immersing in water as hot as can be tolerated for 20 min for treating pain from jellyfish stings. This guideline was written based on past case reports, books and randomised controlled trials (RCTs). We performed a search to assess the most current evidence for relief of pain from Bluebottle jellyfish stings, which yielded two systematic reviews and seven RCTs. Both systematic reviews had similar conclusions, with one of the RCTs used in both reviews showing the most relevance to our presenting patient in terms of demographics, location and jellyfish type. This journal club article is an appraisal of this RCT by Loten et al. and the validity of its conclusion that hot water immersion is most effective for the relief of pain from Bluebottle stings. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2015 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  3. STING expression and response to treatment with STING ligands in premalignant and malignant disease

    PubMed Central

    Baird, Jason R.; Feng, Zipeng; Xiao, Hong D.; Friedman, David; Cottam, Ben; Fox, Bernard A.; Kramer, Gwen; Leidner, Rom S.; Bell, R. Bryan; Young, Kristina H.; Crittenden, Marka R.

    2017-01-01

    Human papilloma virus positive (HPV+) tumors represent a large proportion of anal, vulvar, vaginal, cervical and head and neck squamous carcinomas (HNSCC) and late stage invasive disease is thought to originate from a premalignant state. Cyclic dinucleotides that activate STimulator of INterferon Genes (STING) have been shown to cause rapid regression of a range of advanced tumors. We aimed to investigate STING ligands as a novel treatment for papilloma. We tested therapies in a spontaneous mouse model of papilloma of the face and anogenital region that histologically resembles human HPV-associated papilloma. We demonstrate that STING ligands cause rapid regression of papilloma, associated with T cell infiltration, and are significantly more effective than Imiquimod, a current immunotherapy for papilloma. In humans, we show that STING is expressed in the basal layer of normal skin and lost during keratinocyte differentiation. We found STING was expressed in all HPV-associated cervical and anal dysplasia and was strongly expressed in the cancer cells of HPV+ HNSCC but not in HPV-unrelated HNSCC. We found no strong association between STING expression and progressive disease in non-HPV oral dysplasia and oral pre-malignancies that are not HPV-related. These data demonstrate that STING is expressed in basal cells of the skin and is retained in HPV+ pre-malignancies and advanced cancers, but not in HPV-unrelated HNSCC. However, using a murine HNSCC model that does not express STING, we demonstrate that STING ligands are an effective therapy regardless of expression of STING by the cancer cells. PMID:29135982

  4. Venom of a parasitoid wasp induces prolonged grooming in the cockroach

    PubMed

    Weisel-Eichler; Haspel; Libersat

    1999-04-01

    The parasitoid wasp Ampulex compressa hunts cockroaches Periplaneta americana, stinging them first in the thorax and then in the head, the sting penetrating towards the subesophageal ganglion. After being stung the cockroach grooms almost continuously for approximately 30 min, performing all the normal components of grooming behavior. This excessive grooming is only seen after the head sting and cannot be attributed to stress, to contamination of the body surface or to systemic or peripheral effects. This suggests that the venom is activating a neural network for grooming. We suggest that the venom induces prolonged grooming by stimulating dopamine receptors in the cockroach, for the following reasons. (1) Reserpine, which causes massive release of monoamines, induces excessive grooming. (2) Dopamine injected into the hemocoel also induces excessive grooming and is significantly more effective than octopamine or serotonin. In addition, the dopamine agonist SKF 82958 induces excessive grooming when injected directly into the subesophageal ganglion. (3) Injection of the dopamine antagonist flupenthixol greatly reduces venom-induced grooming. (4) Dopamine, or a dopamine-like substance, is present in the venom.

  5. Aquatic antagonists: lionfish stings.

    PubMed

    Burnett, J W

    2001-07-01

    Although lionfish can be found in all the oceans, the highest incidences of human stings appear to be in the tropics, especially in the Indo-Pacific area and Mediterranean Sea. The recent interest in tropical fish aquaria has expanded the geographic range of the stings of these animals.

  6. Field collection of Nasonia (parasitoid wasp) using baits.

    PubMed

    Werren, John H; Loehlin, David W

    2009-10-01

    This protocol describes a standard method for collecting Nasonia wasps using "flyliver": liver remains fed upon by fly maggots (e.g., Sarcophaga) and collected after the mature larvae have dispersed. The flyliver, which contains a volatile substance that is very attractive to the wasps, is placed in a large (approximately 15-cm(2)) mesh bag hung in appropriate collection spots (e.g., near birds' nests or under culverts). Within the large mesh bag is a smaller mesh bag placed abutting the flyliver and containing four to six Sarcophaga pupae. These retain the wasps, which will enter the bag and begin stinging the hosts. The mesh bags can be made with standard nylon window screening, or any other material with mesh width large enough to permit entry of the wasps.

  7. WASP Model FAQ

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Contains frequently asked questions: Is there an Email Support Group for WASP, Do I Need Admin Rights to Install, How to Run WASP after Installation, Can I use my WASP7 File, Attaching to an Excel Spreadsheet or Access Database, Converting QUAL2K to WASP

  8. Direct injection of venom by a predatory wasp into cockroach brain.

    PubMed

    Haspel, Gal; Rosenberg, Lior Ann; Libersat, Frederic

    2003-09-05

    In this article, we provide direct evidence for injection of venom by a wasp into the central nervous system of its cockroach prey. Venomous predators use neurotoxins that generally act at the neuromuscular junction, resulting in different types of prey paralysis. The sting of the parasitoid wasp Ampulex compressa is unusual, as it induces grooming behavior, followed by a long-term lethargic state of its insect prey, thus ultimately providing a living meal for the newborn wasp larvae. These behavioral modifications are induced only when a sting is inflicted into the head. These unique effects of the wasp venom on prey behavior suggest that the venom targets the insect's central nervous system. The mechanism by which behavior modifying compounds in the venom transverse the blood-brain barrier to induce these central and long-lasting effects has been the subject of debate. In this article, we demonstrate that the wasp stings directly into the target ganglia in the head of its prey. To prove this assertion, we produced "hot" wasps by injecting them with (14)C radiolabeled amino acids and used a combination of liquid scintillation and light microscopy autoradiography to trace radiolabeled venom in the prey. To our knowledge, this is the first direct evidence documenting targeted delivery of venom by a predator into the brain of its prey. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Neurobiol 56: 287-292, 2003

  9. Scorpion fish sting

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002849.htm Scorpion fish sting To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Scorpion fish are members of the family Scorpaenidae, which includes ...

  10. Stinging Insect Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... cracks in masonry or woodpiles. Honeybees and bumble bees are non-aggressive and will only sting when provoked. However, Africanized honeybees (AKA "killer bees") found in the Southwestern U.S. are more aggressive ...

  11. Venom immunotherapy for preventing allergic reactions to insect stings.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Robert J; Elremeli, Mariam; Hockenhull, Juliet; Cherry, Mary Gemma; Bulsara, Max K; Daniels, Michael; Oude Elberink, J N G

    2012-10-17

    Venom immunotherapy (VIT) is commonly used for preventing further allergic reactions to insect stings in people who have had a sting reaction. The efficacy and safety of this treatment has not previously been assessed by a high-quality systematic review. To assess the effects of immunotherapy using extracted insect venom for preventing further allergic reactions to insect stings in people who have had an allergic reaction to a sting. We searched the following databases up to February 2012: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (from 1946), EMBASE (from 1974), PsycINFO (from 1806), AMED (from 1985), LILACS (from 1982), the Armed Forces Pest Management Board Literature Retrieval System, and OpenGrey. There were no language or publication status restrictions to our searches. We searched trials databases, abstracts from recent European and North American allergy meetings, and the references of identified review articles in order to identify further relevant trials. Randomised controlled trials of venom immunotherapy using standardised venom extract in insect sting allergy. Two authors independently undertook study selection, data extraction, and assessment of risk of bias. We identified adverse events from included controlled trials and from a separate analysis of observational studies identified as part of a National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence Health Technology Assessment. We identified 6 randomised controlled trials and 1 quasi-randomised controlled trial for inclusion in the review; the total number of participants was 392. The trials had some risk of bias because five of the trials did not blind outcome assessors to treatment allocation. The interventions included ant, bee, and wasp immunotherapy in children or adults with previous systemic or large local reactions to a sting, using sublingual (one trial) or subcutaneous (six trials) VIT. We found that VIT is effective for preventing systemic

  12. Fatal and severe box jellyfish stings, including Irukandji stings, in Malaysia, 2000-2010.

    PubMed

    Lippmann, John M; Fenner, Peter J; Winkel, Ken; Gershwin, Lisa-Ann

    2011-01-01

    Jellyfish are a common cause of injury throughout the world, with fatalities and severe systemic events not uncommon after tropical stings. The internet is a recent innovation to gain information on real-time health issues of travel destinations, including Southeast Asia. We applied the model of internet-based retrospective health data aggregation, through the Divers Alert Network Asia-Pacific (DAN AP), together with more conventional methods of literature and media searches, to document the health significance, and clinical spectrum, of box jellyfish stings in Malaysia for the period January 1, 2000 to July 30, 2010. Three fatalities, consistent with chirodropid envenomation, were identified for the period-all tourists to Malaysia. Non-fatal chirodropid stings were also documented. During 2010, seven cases consistent with moderately severe Irukandji syndrome were reported to DAN and two representative cases are discussed here. Photographs of chirodropid (multi-tentacled), carybdeid (four-tentacled) box jellyfish, and of severe sting lesions were also submitted to DAN during this period. This study suggests that the frequency and severity of jellyfish stings affecting tourists in Southeast Asia have been significantly underestimated. Severe and fatal cases of chirodropid-type stings occur in coastal waters off Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah, Borneo. Indeed, the first Malaysian cases consistent with Irukandji-like syndrome are reported here. Reports to DAN, a provider of emergency advice to divers, offer one method to address the historic lack of formalized reporting mechanisms for such events, for photo-documentation of the possible culprit species and treatment advice. The application of marine stinger prevention and treatment principles throughout the region may help reduce the incidence and severity of such stings. Meanwhile travelers and their medical advisors should be aware of the hazards of these stings throughout the Asia-Pacific. © 2011 International

  13. A WASP in School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Aerospace Education, 1978

    1978-01-01

    During World War II, the Women's Air Force Service Pilots (WASP) substituted for male pilots in domestic flying missions. This article describes a high school aviation course developed by one of these former WASPs. (MA)

  14. Large local reactions to insect stings.

    PubMed

    Golden, David B K

    2015-01-01

    Large local reactions (LLRs) are IgE-mediated late-phase inflammatory reactions that can cause great morbidity but are associated with a relatively low risk of future anaphylaxis. Patients with LLR may benefit from consultation with an allergist to help clarify the relative risk, to plan the best treatment for future stings, and to determine whether or not to pursue testing or venom immunotherapy (VIT). The chance of anaphylaxis to future stings is <5%, so VIT is not generally recommended to people who have had LLR. Whether to prescribe an epinephrine injector is often determined by the frequency of exposure, the proximity to medical care, and the impact on quality of life. For people who have unavoidable exposure and need treatment almost every year for LLR, VIT can be recommended with confidence that it will significantly and safely reduce the severity of LLR to stings. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Stings, bites and other adventures...].

    PubMed

    De Dobbeleer, G

    2000-09-01

    Most of us live in cities and nature seems beneficial. Unfortunately, invertebrates and vertebrates may be aggressive. We will try here a review of the diseases caused by arthropods and other noxious animals. Injuries caused by the following insects will be described: mosquitoes, flies, fleas, bees, wasps and ants, bugs, beetles, butterflies and caterpillars. In the class arachnida: spiders, scopions, ticks and mites. Among invertebrates: leeches, anemons, corals, sea urchins, sponges and mollusca. Noxious or venomous vertebrates will not be forgotten. Basic and practical attitudes are proposed.

  16. WASP TRANSPORT MODELING AND WASP ECOLOGICAL MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A combination of lectures, demonstrations, and hands-on excercises will be used to introduce pollutant transport modeling with the U.S. EPA's general water quality model, WASP (Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program). WASP features include a user-friendly Windows-based interfa...

  17. Acute kidney injury complicating bee stings – a review

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Geraldo Bezerra; Vasconcelos, Adolfo Gomes; Rocha, Amanda Maria Timbó; de Vasconcelos, Vanessa Ribeiro; de Barros, João; Fujishima, Julye Sampaio; Ferreira, Nathália Barros; Barros, Elvino José Guardão; Daher, Elizabeth De Francesco

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bee stings can cause severe reactions and have caused many victims in the last years. Allergic reactions can be triggered by a single sting and the greater the number of stings, the worse the prognosis. The poisoning effects can be systemic and can eventually cause death. The poison components are melitin, apamin, peptide 401, phospholipase A2, hyaluronidase, histamine, dopamine, and norepinephrine, with melitin being the main lethal component. Acute kidney injury (AKI) can be observed in patients suffering from bee stings and this is due to multiple factors, such as intravascular hemolysis, rhabdomyolysis, hypotension and direct toxicity of the venom components to the renal tubules. Arterial hypotension plays an important role in this type of AKI, leading to ischemic renal lesion. The most commonly identified biopsy finding in these cases is acute tubular necrosis, which can occur due to both, ischemic injury and the nephrotoxicity of venom components. Hemolysis and rhabdomyolysis reported in many cases in the literature, were demonstrated by elevated serum levels of indirect bilirubin and creatine kinase. The severity of AKI seems to be associated with the number of stings, since creatinine levels were higher, in most cases, when there were more than 1,000 stings. The aim of this study is to present an updated review of AKI associated with bee stings, including the currently advised clinical approach. PMID:28591253

  18. Stinging and biting insect allergy: an Australian experience.

    PubMed

    Solley, Graham O

    2004-12-01

    Stings and bites from various insects are responsible for many anaphylactic events. To document the clinical features of specific forms of anaphylaxis and investigate clinical concerns regarding stinging and biting insect allergy. All patients presenting for evaluation of adverse reactions to insect stings or bites between December 1980 and December 1997 had the clinical details of their reactions recorded and their reactions classified. The spectrum of clinical symptoms and signs is similar to that seen in anaphylaxis from other sources; stings on the head or neck are not more likely to cause life-threatening reactions than stings elsewhere on the body; a lesser reaction will not necessarily lead to a more serious reaction from a future sting; asthmatic patients do appear to have an increased risk of asthma as a feature of their anaphylactic response; anaphylaxis is usually confined to a particular insect species for the individual patient; patients who have had multiple stings at one time may have experienced true anaphylaxis and not a "toxic" response; and patients who have had anaphylaxis from other sources are at no greater risk than that of the general population of reacting similarly to insect stings or bites. Anaphylactic events from insect stings show the same clinical features as those from other sources. Systemic reactions seem confined to a specific insect species. Patients who experience RXN3 reactions from multiple stings at one time should undergo specific venom testing, because many have experienced true anaphylaxis and not a toxic response. Future consideration should be given to the role of beta-adrenergic antagonists and ACE inhibitors in patients with systemic reactions.

  19. Sensory Arsenal on the Stinger of the Parasitoid Jewel Wasp and Its Possible Role in Identifying Cockroach Brains

    PubMed Central

    Gal, Ram; Kaiser, Maayan; Haspel, Gal; Libersat, Frederic

    2014-01-01

    The parasitoid jewel wasp uses cockroaches as live food supply for its developing larva. To this end, the adult wasp stings a cockroach and injects venom directly inside its brain, turning the prey into a submissive ‘zombie’. Here, we characterize the sensory arsenal on the wasp’s stinger that enables the wasp to identify the brain target inside the cockroach’s head. An electron microscopy study of the stinger reveals (a) cuticular depressions innervated by a single mechanosensory neuron, which are presumably campaniform sensilla; and (b) dome-shaped structures innervated by a single mechanosensory neuron and 4–5 chemosensory neurons, which are presumably contact-chemoreceptive sensilla. Extracellular electrophysiological recordings from stinger afferents show increased firing rate in response to mechanical stimulation with agarose. This response is direction-selective and depends upon the concentration (density) of the agarose, such that the most robust response is evoked when the stinger is stimulated in the distal-to-proximal direction (concomitant with the penetration during the natural stinging behavior) and penetrating into relatively hard (0.75%–2.5%) agarose pellets. Accordingly, wasps demonstrate a normal stinging behavior when presented with cockroaches in which the brain was replaced with a hard (2.5%) agarose pellet. Conversely, wasps demonstrate a prolonged stinging behavior when the cockroach brain was either removed or replaced by a soft (0.5%) agarose pellet, or when stinger sensory organs were ablated prior to stinging. We conclude that the parasitoid jewel wasp uses at least mechanosensory inputs from its stinger to identify the brain within the head capsule of the cockroach prey. PMID:24586962

  20. A hypothesis to explain accuracy of wasp resemblances.

    PubMed

    Boppré, Michael; Vane-Wright, Richard I; Wickler, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Mimicry is one of the oldest concepts in biology, but it still presents many puzzles and continues to be widely debated. Simulation of wasps with a yellow-black abdominal pattern by other insects (commonly called "wasp mimicry") is traditionally considered a case of resemblance of unprofitable by profitable prey causing educated predators to avoid models and mimics to the advantage of both (Figure 1a). However, as wasps themselves are predators of insects, wasp mimicry can also be seen as a case of resemblance to one's own potential antagonist. We here propose an additional hypothesis to Batesian and Müllerian mimicry (both typically involving selection by learning vertebrate predators; cf. Table 1) that reflects another possible scenario for the evolution of multifold and in particular very accurate resemblances to wasps: an innate, visual inhibition of aggression among look-alike wasps, based on their social organization and high abundance. We argue that wasp species resembling each other need not only be Müllerian mutualists and that other insects resembling wasps need not only be Batesian mimics, but an innate ability of wasps to recognize each other during hunting is the driver in the evolution of a distinct kind of masquerade, in which model, mimic, and selecting agent belong to one or several species (Figure  1b). Wasp mimics resemble wasps not (only) to be mistaken by educated predators but rather, or in addition, to escape attack from their wasp models. Within a given ecosystem, there will be selection pressures leading to masquerade driven by wasps and/or to mimicry driven by other predators that have to learn to avoid them. Different pressures by guilds of these two types of selective agents could explain the widely differing fidelity with respect to the models in assemblages of yellow jackets and yellow jacket look-alikes.

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: WASP-22, WASP-41, WASP-42, WASP-55 (Southworth+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Southworth, J.; Tregloan-Reed, J.; Andersen, M. I.; Calchi Novati, S.; Ciceri, S.; Colque, J. P.; D'Ago, G.; Dominik, M.; Evans, D. F.; Gu, S.-H.; Herrera-Cordova, A.; Hinse, T. C.; Jorgensen, U. G.; Juncher, D.; Kuffmeier, M.; Mancini, L.; Peixinho, N.; Popovas, A.; Rabus, M.; Skottfelt, J.; Tronsgaard, R.; Unda-Sanzana, E.; Wang, X.-B.; Wertz, O.; Alsubai, K. A.; Andersen, J. M.; Bozza, V.; Bramich, D. M.; Burgdorf, M.; Damerdji, Y.; Diehl, C.; Elyiv, A.; Figuera Jaimes, R.; Haugbolle, T.; Hundertmark, M.; Kains, N.; Kerins, E.; Korhonen, H.; Liebig, C.; Mathiasen, M.; Penny, M. T.; Rahvar, S.; Scarpetta, G.; Schmidt, R. W.; Snodgrass, C.; Starkey, D.; Surdej, J.; Vilela, C.; von Essen, C.; Wang, Y.

    2018-05-01

    17 light curves of transits of the extrasolar planetary systems WASP-22, WASP-41, WASP-42 and WASP-55 are presented. 13 of the light curves were obtained using the Danish 1.54m telescope at ESO La Silla, Chile, in the Bessell R or Bessell I passbands. The other 4 light curves were obtained using the 84cm telescope at Observatorio Cerro Armazones, Chile, using either an R filter or no filter. The errorbars for each transit have been scaled so the best-fitting model (obtained using the JKTEBOP code) has a reduced chi-squared value of 1.0. (4 data files).

  2. [Hymenoptera stings in eyeball--clinical symptoms, patomechanism and treatment].

    PubMed

    Cichocka-Jarosz, Ewa; Weglarz, Monika; Romanowska-Dixon, Bozena

    2009-01-01

    Eyeball is a rare stings location additionally with very special immunology response, with no systemic anaphylactic reactions. The ACAID (Anterior Chamber Associated Immune Deviation) phenomenon causes a special immunology privilege of the eyeball, which prevents late immunological answer reaction and destruction processes of the anterior part of the eye. In case that sting penetrates the eyeball local allergic reaction can appear despite ACAID phenomenon. Adequate treatment is necessary for those patients. It can lead to permanent visual acuity deterioration.

  3. Wasp venom blocks central cholinergic synapses to induce transient paralysis in cockroach prey.

    PubMed

    Haspel, G; Libersat, F

    2003-03-01

    The parasitoid wasp Ampulex compressa induces a set of unique behavioral effects upon stinging its prey, the cockroach. It stings into the first thoracic segment inducing 2 to 3 min of transient flaccid paralysis of the front legs. This facilitates a second sting in the cockroach's head that induces 30 min of excessive grooming followed by a 2 to 5-week long lethargic state. In the present study, we examine the immediate effect of the first sting, which is a transient paralysis of the front legs. Using radiolabeled wasps, we demonstrate that the wasp injects its venom directly into the cockroach's first thoracic ganglion. The artificial injection of milked venom into a thoracic ganglion abolishes spontaneous and evoked responses of the motoneurons associated with leg movements. To investigate the physiological mechanism of action of the venom, we injected venom into the last abdominal ganglion of the cockroach, which houses a well-characterized cholinergic synapse. Injected venom abolishes both sensory-evoked and agonist-evoked postsynaptic potentials recorded in the postsynaptic neuron for 2 to 3 min without affecting action potential propagation. Thus, the venom blocking effect has a postsynaptic component that follows the same time course as the transient paralysis induced by the thoracic sting. Finally, injection of a nicotinic antagonist in the front thoracic ganglion induces paralysis of the front legs. We conclude that the transient paralytic effect of the thoracic sting can be mainly accounted for by the presence of a venom active component that induces a postsynaptic block of central cholinergic synaptic transmission. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Neurobiol 54: 628-637, 2003

  4. Safety with Wasps and Bees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackett, Erla

    This guide is designed to provide elementary school teachers with safe learning activities concerning bees and wasps. The following topics are included: (1) the importance of a positive teacher attitude towards bees and wasps; (2) special problems posed by paper wasps; (3) what to do when a child is bothered by a wasp; (4) what to do if a wasp…

  5. The culprit insect but not severity of allergic reactions to bee and wasp venom can be determined by molecular diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Gattinger, Pia; Lupinek, Christian; Kalogiros, Lampros; Silar, Mira; Zidarn, Mihaela; Korosec, Peter; Koessler, Christine; Novak, Natalija; Valenta, Rudolf; Mittermann, Irene

    2018-01-01

    Allergy to bee and wasp venom can lead to life-threatening systemic reactions. The identification of the culprit species is important for allergen-specific immunotherapy. To determine a panel of recombinant bee and wasp allergens which is suitable for the identification of bee or wasp as culprit allergen sources and to search for molecular surrogates of clinical severity of sting reactions. Sera from eighty-seven patients with a detailed documentation of their severity of sting reaction (Mueller grade) and who had been subjected to titrated skin testing with bee and wasp venom were analyzed for bee and wasp-specific IgE levels by ImmunoCAPTM. IgE-reactivity testing was performed using a comprehensive panel of recombinant bee and wasp venom allergens (rApi m 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 10; rVes v 1 and 5) by ISAC chip technology, ImmunoCAP and ELISA. IgG4 antibodies to rApi m 1 and rVes v 5 were determined by ELISA and IgE/IgG4 ratios were calculated. Results from skin testing, IgE serology and IgE/IgG4 ratios were compared with severity of sting reactions. The panel of rApi m 1, rApi m 10, rVes v 1 and rVes v 5 allowed identification of the culprit venom in all but two of the 87 patients with good agreement to skin testing. Severities of sting reactions were not associated with results obtained by skin testing, venom-specific IgE levels or molecular diagnosis. Severe sting reactions were observed in patients showing < 1 ISU and < 2kUA/L of IgE to Api m 1 and/or Ves v 5. We identified a minimal panel of recombinant bee and wasp allergens for molecular diagnosis which may permit identification of bee and/or wasp as culprit insect in venom-sensitized subjects. The severity of sting reactions was not associated with parameters obtained by molecular diagnosis.

  6. A systematic review of the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of Pharmalgen® for the treatment of bee and wasp venom allergy.

    PubMed

    Hockenhull, J; Elremeli, M; Cherry, M G; Mahon, J; Lai, M; Darroch, J; Oyee, J; Boland, A; Dickson, R; Dundar, Y; Boyle, R

    2012-01-01

    Each year in the UK, there are between two and nine deaths from anaphylaxis caused by bee and wasp venom. Anaphylactic reactions can occur rapidly following a sting and can progress to a life-threatening condition within minutes. To avoid further reactions in people with a history of anaphylaxis to bee and wasp venom, the use of desensitisation, through a process known as venom immunotherapy (VIT), has been investigated and is in use in the UK. VIT consists of subcutaneous injections of increasing amounts of purified bee and/or wasp venom extract. Pharmalgen® products (ALK Abelló) have had UK marketing authorisation for VIT (as well as diagnosis) of allergy to bee venom (using Pharmalgen Bee Venom) and wasp venom (using Pharmalgen Wasp Venom) since March 1995. This review assessed the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of Pharmalgen in providing immunotherapy to individuals with a history of type 1 [immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated] systemic allergic reaction to bee and wasp venom. A comprehensive search strategy using a combination of index terms (e.g. Pharmalgen) and free-text words (e.g. allerg$) was developed and used to interrogate the following electronic databases: EMBASE, MEDLINE, The Cochrane Library. Papers were included if they studied venom immunotherapy using Pharmalgen (PhVIT) in patients who had previously experienced a systemic reaction to a bee and/or a wasp sting. Comparators were any alternative treatment options available in the NHS without VIT. Included outcomes were systemic reactions, local reactions, mortality, anxiety related to the possibility of future allergic reactions, health-related quality of life (QoL) and adverse reactions (ARs) to treatment. Cost-effectiveness outcomes included cost per quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained. Because of the small number of published randomised controlled trials (RCTs), no meta-analyses were conducted. A de novo economic model was developed to assess the cost-effectiveness of Ph

  7. Marine animal stings or bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... poisonous bites or stings from any form of sea life, including jellyfish. There are about 2,000 ... man-of-war Stingray Stonefish Scorpion fish Catfish Sea urchins Sea anemone Hydroid Coral Cone shell Sharks ...

  8. The uncertainty of the toxic effect of stings from the Urtica nettle on hunting dogs.

    PubMed

    Edom, Gillian

    2002-02-01

    This paper questions the effect of the sting from the Urtica species of nettle on hunting dogs, particularly in the US. Research in this area is limited and is reflected in the wide use of a particularly unsound literature reference on the subject. A general account is given of which types of "nettle" plant have a toxic sting, how the mechanism of the sting works, and the toxic substances it contains. The effects experienced by hunting dogs appear to represent a condition other than contact urticaria, which is normall the result of being stung by nettles (Urticas in particular). The possibility is discussed that the signs were caused by another plant, also commonly labelled a nettle, or that possibly they were caused by other than the direct stinging of soft tissues. Further research should be done on the toxic elements in the sting of Urtica chamaedryoides, indicated in some literature as the "guilty" plant.

  9. Possible complication of bee stings and a review of the cardiac effects of bee stings.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Prabha Nini; Kumar, B Krishna; Velappan, Praveen; Sudheer, M D

    2016-11-01

    We report the case of a patient who, ∼3 weeks after multiple bee stings, developed a prolonged heart block, syncope and cardiac arrest. This required a temporary pacemaker to be implanted, which was later replaced with a permanent pacemaker. An ECG taken following surgery for a fractured humerus 6 years earlier was reportedly normal. The patient had been a rubber tapper who walked ∼1.5 km/day, but after the bee attack he was no longer able to walk or get up from the bed without experiencing syncope. We presume that the bee venom caused these signs, as well as the resulting heart block, which persisted long after the bee sting had subsided. Since his coronary angiogram was normal we believe he had a Kounis type involvement of the cardiovascular system, namely profound coronary spasm that caused complete heart block that did not recover. Another probable reason for the complete heart block could have been that the bees had consumed the pollen of a rhododendron flower, causing 'grayanotoxin' poisoning and severe heart block. The other effects of bee sting are discussed briefly. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  10. High-precision photometry by telescope defocussing - VI. WASP-24, WASP-25 and WASP-26

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Southworth, John; Hinse, T. C.; Burgdorf, M.; Calchi Novati, S.; Dominik, M.; Galianni, P.; Gerner, T.; Giannini, E.; Gu, S.-H.; Hundertmark, M.; Jørgensen, U. G.; Juncher, D.; Kerins, E.; Mancini, L.; Rabus, M.; Ricci, D.; Schäfer, S.; Skottfelt, J.; Tregloan-Reed, J.; Wang, X.-B.; Wertz, O.; Alsubai, K. A.; Andersen, J. M.; Bozza, V.; Bramich, D. M.; Browne, P.; Ciceri, S.; D'Ago, G.; Damerdji, Y.; Diehl, C.; Dodds, P.; Elyiv, A.; Fang, X.-S.; Finet, F.; Figuera Jaimes, R.; Hardis, S.; Harpsøe, K.; Jessen-Hansen, J.; Kains, N.; Kjeldsen, H.; Korhonen, H.; Liebig, C.; Lund, M. N.; Lundkvist, M.; Mathiasen, M.; Penny, M. T.; Popovas, A.; Prof., S.; Rahvar, S.; Sahu, K.; Scarpetta, G.; Schmidt, R. W.; Schönebeck, F.; Snodgrass, C.; Street, R. A.; Surdej, J.; Tsapras, Y.; Vilela, C.

    2014-10-01

    We present time series photometric observations of 13 transits in the planetary systems WASP-24, WASP-25 and WASP-26. All three systems have orbital obliquity measurements, WASP-24 and WASP-26 have been observed with Spitzer, and WASP-25 was previously comparatively neglected. Our light curves were obtained using the telescope-defocussing method and have scatters of 0.5-1.2 mmag relative to their best-fitting geometric models. We use these data to measure the physical properties and orbital ephemerides of the systems to high precision, finding that our improved measurements are in good agreement with previous studies. High-resolution Lucky Imaging observations of all three targets show no evidence for faint stars close enough to contaminate our photometry. We confirm the eclipsing nature of the star closest to WASP-24 and present the detection of a detached eclipsing binary within 4.25 arcmin of WASP-26.

  11. Effects of stings of Australian native bees.

    PubMed

    Morris, B; Southcott, R V; Gale, A E

    Five cases of stings by native bees are reported. The reactions were various and include a fatality as a result of the sting of a presumed Lasioglossum sp. (Halictidae). The effects of stings from Lasioglossum spp., Homalictus dotatus (Cockerell) (Halictidae), and Euryglossa cf adelaidae Cockerell (Colletidae) are described. The rarity of severe allergic reactions to native bees and the rarity of stings by the same species makes a programme of immunotherapy inappropriate.

  12. Evaluation of Cyanea capillata Sting Management Protocols Using Ex Vivo and In Vitro Envenomation Models

    PubMed Central

    Headlam, Jasmine L.; MacLoughlin, Eoin

    2017-01-01

    Lion’s mane jellyfish (Cyanea capillata) stings cause severe pain and can lead to dangerous systemic effects, including Irukandji-like syndrome. As is the case for most cnidarian stings, recommended medical protocols in response to such stings lack rigorous scientific support. In this study, we sought to evaluate potential first aid care protocols using previously described envenomation models that allow for direct measurements of venom activity. We found that seawater rinsing, the most commonly recommended method of tentacle removal for this species, induced significant increases in venom delivery, while rinsing with vinegar or Sting No More® Spray did not. Post-sting temperature treatments affected sting severity, with 40 min of hot-pack treatment reducing lysis of sheep’s blood (in agar plates), a direct representation of venom load, by over 90%. Ice pack treatment had no effect on sting severity. These results indicate that sting management protocols for Cyanea need to be revised immediately to discontinue rinsing with seawater and include the use of heat treatment. PMID:28686221

  13. Chronic relapsing pancreatitis from a scorpion sting in Trinidad.

    PubMed

    George Angus, L D; Salzman, S; Fritz, K; Ramirez, J; Yaman, M; Gintautas, J

    1995-12-01

    Chronic relapsing pancreatitis is a rare cause of abdominal pain in children and exceptionally rarely is related to a scorpion sting. We describe a 13-year-old girl who, following envenoming by a scorpion, developed recurrent attacks of sharp, intermittent pain in the umbilical region associated with fever, nausea, anorexia and vomiting, and changes in her psychological behaviour. Thorough clinical evaluation, including CT scanning, disclosed unabated pancreatitis. A modified Puestow procedure was performed with very good results. Physicians should be aware that in chronic relapsing pancreatitis, particularly in children, a scorpion sting should be considered an aetiological possibility.

  14. WASP8 Download

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    All of the WASP Installers are listed below. There is a 64 Bit Windows Installer, 64 Bit Mac OS X (Yosemite or Higher), 64 Bit Linux (Built on Ubuntu). You will need to have knowledge on how to install software on your target operating system.

  15. Identifying Insect Bites and Stings

    MedlinePlus

    ... Page Content Article Body Mosquitoes Mosquitoes are generally found near water (pools, lakes, birdbaths) and are attracted by bright colors and sweat. Bites result in stinging sensation followed by a small, red, itchy mound with a tiny ... found near or around food, garbage, and animal waste. ...

  16. Injuries, envenomations and stings from exotic pets

    PubMed Central

    Warwick, Clifford; Steedman, Catrina

    2012-01-01

    A variety of exotic vertebrate and invertebrate species are kept as ‘pets’ including fishes, amphibians (for example, frogs and toads), reptiles (turtles, crocodiles, lizards and snakes), birds, mammals (for example, primates, civets, and lions), and invertebrates (for example spiders, scorpions, and centipedes), and ownership of some of these animals is rising. Data for 2009–2011 suggest that the number of homes with reptiles rose by approximately 12.5%. Recent surveys, including only some of these animals, indicated that they might be present in around 18.6% of homes (equal to approximately 42 million animals of which around 40 million are indoor or outdoor fish). Many exotic ‘pets’ are capable of causing injury or poisoning to their keepers and some contacts prove fatal. We examined NHS Health Episode Statistics for England using selected formal categories for hospital admissions and bed days for 2004–2010 using the following categories of injury, envenomation or sting; bitten or struck by crocodile or alligator; bitten or crushed by other reptiles: contact with venomous snakes and lizards; contact with scorpions. Between 2004 and 2010 these data conservatively show a total of 760 full consultation episodes, 709 admissions and 2,121 hospital bed days were associated with injuries probably from exotic pets. Injuries, envenomations and stings from exotic pets constitute a small but important component of emerging medical problems. Greater awareness of relevant injuries and medical sequelae from exotic pet keeping may help medics formulate their clinical assessment and advice to patients. PMID:22843648

  17. Injuries, envenomations and stings from exotic pets.

    PubMed

    Warwick, Clifford; Steedman, Catrina

    2012-07-01

    A variety of exotic vertebrate and invertebrate species are kept as 'pets' including fishes, amphibians (for example, frogs and toads), reptiles (turtles, crocodiles, lizards and snakes), birds, mammals (for example, primates, civets, and lions), and invertebrates (for example spiders, scorpions, and centipedes), and ownership of some of these animals is rising. Data for 2009-2011 suggest that the number of homes with reptiles rose by approximately 12.5%. Recent surveys, including only some of these animals, indicated that they might be present in around 18.6% of homes (equal to approximately 42 million animals of which around 40 million are indoor or outdoor fish). Many exotic 'pets' are capable of causing injury or poisoning to their keepers and some contacts prove fatal. We examined NHS Health Episode Statistics for England using selected formal categories for hospital admissions and bed days for 2004-2010 using the following categories of injury, envenomation or sting; bitten or struck by crocodile or alligator; bitten or crushed by other reptiles: contact with venomous snakes and lizards; contact with scorpions. Between 2004 and 2010 these data conservatively show a total of 760 full consultation episodes, 709 admissions and 2,121 hospital bed days were associated with injuries probably from exotic pets. Injuries, envenomations and stings from exotic pets constitute a small but important component of emerging medical problems. Greater awareness of relevant injuries and medical sequelae from exotic pet keeping may help medics formulate their clinical assessment and advice to patients.

  18. Contact urticaria due to the common stinging nettle (Urtica dioica)--histological, ultrastructural and pharmacological studies.

    PubMed

    Oliver, F; Amon, E U; Breathnach, A; Francis, D M; Sarathchandra, P; Black, A K; Greaves, M W

    1991-01-01

    A frequent cause of contact urticaria is skin exposure to the common stinging nettle (Urtica dioica). The urticaria is accompanied by a stinging sensation lasting longer than 12 h. Little is known of the cellular and molecular mechanism of stinging-nettle urticaria. After preliminary pharmacological analysis of pro-inflammatory activity in nettle stings, the cellular response of mononuclear cells, polymorphonuclear cells and mast cells was examined in six people 5 min and 12 h after nettle contact. Only mast cell numbers were significantly increased at 12 h. Ultrastructurally, some mast cells showed evidence of degranulation at 5 min and 12 h. At 12 h mast cells were closely associated with dermal dendritic cells and lymphocytes suggesting a functional unit. The mean histamine and serotonin contents of a nettle hair were found to be 6.1 ng and 33.25 pg, respectively. Nettle-sting extracts did not demonstrate histamine release from dispersed rat mast cells in vitro. These results suggest that part of the immediate reaction to nettle stings is due to histamine introduced by the nettle. However, the persistence of the stinging sensation might suggest the presence of substances in nettle fluid directly toxic to nerves or capable of secondary release of other mediators.

  19. Meeting in Turkey: WASP Transport Modeling and WASP Ecological Modeling

    EPA Science Inventory

    A combination of lectures, demonstrations, and hands-on excercises will be used to introduce pollutant transport modeling with the U.S. EPA's general water quality model, WASP (Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program). WASP features include a user-friendly Windows-based interfa...

  20. Meeting in Korea: WASP Transport Modeling and WASP Ecological Modeling

    EPA Science Inventory

    A combination of lectures, demonstrations, and hands-on excercises will be used to introduce pollutant transport modeling with the U.S. EPA's general water quality model, WASP (Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program). WASP features include a user-friendly Windows-based interfa...

  1. Insect anaphylaxis: where are we? The stinging facts 2012.

    PubMed

    Tracy, James M; Khan, Fatima S; Demain, Jeffrey G

    2012-08-01

    Insect allergy remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. In 2011, the third iteration of the stinging insect hypersensitivity practice parameter was published, the first being published in 1999 and the second in 2004. Since the 2004 edition, our understanding of insect hypersensitivity has continued to expand and has been incorporated into the 2011 edition. This work will review the relevant changes in the management of insect hypersensitivity occurring since 2004 and present our current understanding of the insect hypersensitivity diagnosis and management. Since the 2004 commissioning by the Joint Task Force (JTF) on Practice Parameters of 'Stinging insect hypersensitivity: a practice parameter update', there have been important contributions to our understanding of insect allergy. These contributions were incorporated into the 2011 iteration. Similar efforts were made by the European Allergy Asthma and Clinical Immunology Interest Group in 2005 and most recently in 2011 by the British Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. Our understanding of insect allergy, including the natural history, epidemiology, diagnostic testing, and risk factors, has greatly expanded. This evolution of knowledge should provide improved long-term management of stinging insect hypersensitivity. This review will focus primarily on the changes between the 2004 and 2011 stinging insect practice parameter commissioned by the JTF on Practice Parameters, but will, where appropriate, highlight the differences between working groups.

  2. When can immunotherapy for insect sting allergy be stopped?

    PubMed

    Müller, Ulrich R; Ring, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Stings by Hymenoptera (honey bees, vespids, ants) can cause systemic allergic reactions (SARs). Venom immunotherapy (VIT) is highly effective and reduces an allergic patient's risk of a recurrent SAR to less than 5-20%. The risk of a recurrent SAR to a re-sting decreases the longer VIT is continued. The recommended duration of VIT is at least 3 to 5 years. Risk factors for recurrent SARs to a sting after stopping VIT have been identified and discussed: Recommendations concerning stopping VIT: For patients without any of the identified risk factors, VIT should be continued for 5 rather than 3 years. In patients with definite risk factors, a longer duration of VIT has to be discussed before stopping it. In mast cell disorders, VIT for life is recommended. Because of the residual risk of SARs after VIT, all patients are advised to carry an epinephrine autoinjector indefinitely and to continue to take measures to avoid Hymenoptera stings. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A Wasp Manipulates Neuronal Activity in the Sub-Esophageal Ganglion to Decrease the Drive for Walking in Its Cockroach Prey

    PubMed Central

    Gal, Ram; Libersat, Frederic

    2010-01-01

    Background The parasitoid Jewel Wasp hunts cockroaches to serve as a live food supply for its offspring. The wasp stings the cockroach in the head and delivers a cocktail of neurotoxins directly inside the prey's cerebral ganglia. Although not paralyzed, the stung cockroach becomes a living yet docile ‘zombie’, incapable of self-initiating spontaneous or evoked walking. We show here that such neuro-chemical manipulation can be attributed to decreased neuronal activity in a small region of the cockroach cerebral nervous system, the sub-esophageal ganglion (SEG). A decrease in descending permissive inputs from this ganglion to thoracic central pattern generators decreases the propensity for walking-related behaviors. Methodology and Principal Findings We have used behavioral, neuro-pharmacological and electrophysiological methods to show that: (1) Surgically removing the cockroach SEG prior to wasp stinging prolongs the duration of the sting 5-fold, suggesting that the wasp actively targets the SEG during the stinging sequence; (2) injecting a sodium channel blocker, procaine, into the SEG of non-stung cockroaches reversibly decreases spontaneous and evoked walking, suggesting that the SEG plays an important role in the up-regulation of locomotion; (3) artificial focal injection of crude milked venom into the SEG of non-stung cockroaches decreases spontaneous and evoked walking, as seen with naturally-stung cockroaches; and (4) spontaneous and evoked neuronal spiking activity in the SEG, recorded with an extracellular bipolar microelectrode, is markedly decreased in stung cockroaches versus non-stung controls. Conclusions and Significance We have identified the neuronal substrate responsible for the venom-induced manipulation of the cockroach's drive for walking. Our data strongly support previous findings suggesting a critical and permissive role for the SEG in the regulation of locomotion in insects. By injecting a venom cocktail directly into the SEG, the

  4. Stinging plants: as future bio-weapon.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sanjay Mohan; Kumar, Kamal

    2016-09-01

    In the present opinion paper, we have been introducing for the first time the stinging plants and/or their biological toxins as novel bio-threat agents that may be used for the development of bio-weapons for self-defence purpose. The selected studied stinging plants are having dual role as nutraceutical and ethno-pharmacological uses apart from their less explored stinging property. However, future detailed work is required for identification and characterization of the precise stinging chemical components that will be used for the formulation of novel bio-warfare agents for self-defence purpose.

  5. High-precision photometry by telescope defocussing - VIII. WASP-22, WASP-41, WASP-42 and WASP-55

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Southworth, John; Tregloan-Reed, J.; Andersen, M. I.; Calchi Novati, S.; Ciceri, S.; Colque, J. P.; D'Ago, G.; Dominik, M.; Evans, D. F.; Gu, S.-H.; Herrera-Cordova, A.; Hinse, T. C.; Jørgensen, U. G.; Juncher, D.; Kuffmeier, M.; Mancini, L.; Peixinho, N.; Popovas, A.; Rabus, M.; Skottfelt, J.; Tronsgaard, R.; Unda-Sanzana, E.; Wang, X.-B.; Wertz, O.; Alsubai, K. A.; Andersen, J. M.; Bozza, V.; Bramich, D. M.; Burgdorf, M.; Damerdji, Y.; Diehl, C.; Elyiv, A.; Figuera Jaimes, R.; Haugbølle, T.; Hundertmark, M.; Kains, N.; Kerins, E.; Korhonen, H.; Liebig, C.; Mathiasen, M.; Penny, M. T.; Rahvar, S.; Scarpetta, G.; Schmidt, R. W.; Snodgrass, C.; Starkey, D.; Surdej, J.; Vilela, C.; von Essen, C.; Wang, Y.

    2016-04-01

    We present 13 high-precision and four additional light curves of four bright southern-hemisphere transiting planetary systems: WASP-22, WASP-41, WASP-42 and WASP-55. In the cases of WASP-42 and WASP-55, these are the first follow-up observations since their discovery papers. We present refined measurements of the physical properties and orbital ephemerides of all four systems. No indications of transit timing variations were seen. All four planets have radii inflated above those expected from theoretical models of gas-giant planets; WASP-55 b is the most discrepant with a mass of 0.63 MJup and a radius of 1.34 RJup. WASP-41 shows brightness anomalies during transit due to the planet occulting spots on the stellar surface. Two anomalies observed 3.1 d apart are very likely due to the same spot. We measure its change in position and determine a rotation period for the host star of 18.6 ± 1.5 d, in good agreement with a published measurement from spot-induced brightness modulation, and a sky-projected orbital obliquity of λ = 6 ± 11°. We conclude with a compilation of obliquity measurements from spot-tracking analyses and a discussion of this technique in the study of the orbital configurations of hot Jupiters.

  6. Bee sting allergy in beekeepers.

    PubMed

    Eich-Wanger, C; Müller, U R

    1998-10-01

    Beekeepers are strongly exposed to honey bee stings and therefore at an increased risk to develop IgE-mediated allergy to bee venom. We wondered whether bee venom-allergic beekeepers were different from normally exposed bee venom-allergic patients with regard to clinical and immunological parameters as well as their response to venom immunotherapy. Among the 459 bee venom-allergic patients seen over the 5 year period 1987-91, 62 (14%) were beekeepers and 44 (10%) family members of beekeepers. These two groups were compared with 101 normally exposed bee venom-allergic patients matched with the allergic beekeepers for age and sex, regarding clinical parameters, skin sensitivity, specific IgE and IgG antibodies to bee venom as well as safety and efficacy of venom immunotherapy. As expected, allergic beekeepers had been stung most frequently before the first allergic reaction. The three groups showed a similar severity of allergic symptoms following bee stings and had an equal incidence of atopic diseases. Allergic beekeepers showed higher levels of bee venom-specific serum IgG, lower skin sensitivity and lower levels of bee venom specific serum IgE than bee venom-allergic control patients. A negative correlation between number of stings and skin sensitivity as well as specific IgE was found in allergic beekeepers and their family members, while the number of stings was positively correlated with specific IgG in these two groups. Venom immunotherapy was equally effective in the three groups, but better tolerated by allergic beekeepers than the two other groups. The majority of allergic beekeepers continued bee-keeping successfully under the protection of venom immunotherapy. The lower level of sensitivity in diagnostic tests and the better tolerance of immunotherapy in allergic beekeepers is most likely related to the high level of specific IgG in this group.

  7. Activation of Stimulator of Interferon Genes (STING) and Sjögren Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Papinska, J; Bagavant, H; Gmyrek, G B; Sroka, M; Tummala, S; Fitzgerald, K A; Deshmukh, U S

    2018-03-01

    Sjögren syndrome (SS), a chronic autoimmune disorder causing dry mouth, adversely affects the overall oral health in patients. Activation of innate immune responses and excessive production of type I interferons (IFNs) play a critical role in the pathogenesis of this disorder. Recognition of nucleic acids by cytosolic nucleic acid sensors is a major trigger for the induction of type I IFNs. Upon activation, cytosolic DNA sensors can interact with the stimulator of interferon genes (STING) protein, and activation of STING causes increased expression of type I IFNs. The role of STING activation in SS is not known. In this study, to investigate whether the cytosolic DNA sensing pathway influences SS development, female C57BL/6 mice were injected with a STING agonist, dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid (DMXAA). Salivary glands (SGs) were studied for gene expression and inflammatory cell infiltration. SG function was evaluated by measuring pilocarpine-induced salivation. Sera were analyzed for cytokines and autoantibodies. Primary SG cells were used to study the expression and activation of STING. Our data show that systemic DMXAA treatment rapidly induced the expression of Ifnb1, Il6, and Tnfa in the SGs, and these cytokines were also elevated in circulation. In contrast, increased Ifng gene expression was dominantly detected in the SGs. The type I innate lymphoid cells present within the SGs were the major source of IFN-γ, and their numbers increased significantly within 3 d of treatment. STING expression in SGs was mainly observed in ductal and interstitial cells. In primary SG cells, DMXAA activated STING and induced IFN-β production. The DMXAA-treated mice developed autoantibodies, sialoadenitis, and glandular hypofunction. Our study demonstrates that activation of the STING pathway holds the potential to initiate SS. Thus, apart from viral infections, conditions that cause cellular perturbations and accumulation of host DNA within the cytosol should also be

  8. Bee sting of the cornea: a case study and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Caça, Ihsan; Ari, Seyhmus; Ulü, Kaan; Ayata, Ali

    2006-01-01

    Bee stings of the cornea are rarely reported, but have the potential for causing serious ophthalmological injuries. We present a case of corneal bee sting with retained stinger apparatus. A 35-year-old patient presented with an acute, corneal bee sting of the right eye 12 hours after he was stung. The patient suffered from pain, blurred vision, and epiphora. The right eye showed edema of the upper and lower eyelid, conjunctival hyperemia, chemosis, and striate keratitis of the paracentral cornea by biomicroscopic examination. The stinger was identified in the depth of the corneal infiltration. Visual acuity was 5/10. It was removed surgically. After 2 months, the eye only showed a minimal residual corneal opacification. Visual acuity was 10/10. We present a case of bee sting to the cornea with retained stinger apparatus and treatment of this unusual presentation.

  9. [Jellyfish sting injuries].

    PubMed

    Mebs, D

    2014-10-01

    Jellyfish are distributed worldwide; they cause local skin injuries upon contact which are often followed by systemic signs of envenoming. Which jellyfish species are of medical importance, which skin reactions and systemic symptoms occur, which first-aid measures and treatment options exist? Review of the medical literature and discussion of first-aid and therapeutic options. Jellyfish capable of causing skin injuries occur in almost all oceans. Several jellyfish species may cause severe, potentially lethal, systemic symptoms; they include the Portuguese man-of-war (Physalia physalis) and box jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri, Carukia barnesi, Chiropsalmus quadrigatus). Among the injuries and envenoming symptoms caused by marine organisms, jellyfish dermatitis should not be underestimated. Skin reactions may not only a dermatological problem, but also be accompanied by complex systemic toxic symptoms which are a challenge for internists.

  10. Insect sting allergy in adults: key messages for clinicians.

    PubMed

    Nittner-Marszalska, Marita; Cichocka-Jarosz, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    During their lifetime, 94.5% of people are stung by wasps, honeybees, hornets, or bumblebees (order Hymenoptera). After a sting, most people show typical local symptoms, 5% to 15% develop local allergic reactions, and 3% to 8.9%--systemic allergic reactions (SARs), which may be potentially life-threatening in about 10% of them. In mild forms of Hymenoptera-venom allergy (HVA), the leading symptoms are urticaria and edema (grades I and II, respectively, according to the Mueller classification). Severe SARs are classified as grade III (respiratory symptoms) and IV (cardiovascular symptoms). Rare manifestations of HVA are Kounis syndrome and takotsubo cardiomyopathy. All patients after an SAR require standard (skin test, IgE, tryptase) or comprehensive (component diagnosis, basophil activation test) allergy testing. All patients with severe systemic symptoms (hypertension, disturbances in consciousness) should be tested for mastocytosis. Additionally, a relationship was found between the severity of HVA symptoms and intake of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs). There is a similar concern, although less well-documented, about the use of β-blockers. Patients with HVA who have experienced a SAR are potential candidates for venom immunotherapy (VIT), which is effective in 80% to 100% of individuals treated for 3 to 5 years. An increased risk of a VIT failure has been reported in patients with systemic mastocytosis and those treated with ACEIs. In certain groups (beekeepers, patients who develop a SAR to stings during a VIT with a standard dose, as well as those with a SAR to maintenance doses of VIT), a twice higher maintenance dose is recommended. Indications, contraindications, treatment protocols, and vaccine doses are regulated by the international guidelines of allergy societies.

  11. Ocean enemy's lasting sting: chronic cutaneous reaction after Cnidarian attack.

    PubMed

    Naumann, D; Hejmadi, R K; Evriviades, D

    2013-01-01

    Cnidaria stings cause a wide range of cutaneous and systemic symptoms, normally occurring shortly after the venomous insult (1). We report a case of worsening cutaneous reaction over an eight-year period following a Cnidaria attack sustained whilst maritime swimming. The lesion was characterised by severe, ulcerating chronic inflammation that required wide local excision and skin grafting. Prevention and early identification of Cnidaria envenomation is important for those treating maritime swimmers.

  12. Absorbing Gas around the WASP-12 Planetary System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fossati, L.; Ayres, T. R.; Haswell, C. A.; Bohlender, D.; Kochukhov, O.; Flöer, L.

    2013-04-01

    Near-UV observations of the planet host star WASP-12 uncovered the apparent absence of the normally conspicuous core emission of the Mg II h and k resonance lines. This anomaly could be due either to (1) a lack of stellar activity, which would be unprecedented for a solar-like star of the imputed age of WASP-12 or (2) extrinsic absorption, from the intervening interstellar medium (ISM) or from material within the WASP-12 system itself, presumably ablated from the extreme hot Jupiter WASP-12 b. HIRES archival spectra of the Ca II H and K lines of WASP-12 show broad depressions in the line cores, deeper than those of other inactive and similarly distant stars and similar to WASP-12's Mg II h and k line profiles. We took high-resolution ESPaDOnS and FIES spectra of three early-type stars within 20' of WASP-12 and at similar distances, which show the ISM column is insufficient to produce the broad Ca II depression observed in WASP-12. The EBHIS H I column density map supports and strengthens this conclusion. Extrinsic absorption by material local to the WASP-12 system is therefore the most likely cause of the line core anomalies. Gas escaping from the heavily irradiated planet could form a stable and thick circumstellar disk/cloud. The anomalously low stellar activity index (log R^{{\\prime }}_{HK}) of WASP-12 is evidently a direct consequence of the extra core absorption, so similar HK index deficiencies might signal the presence of translucent circumstellar gas around other stars hosting evaporating planets. Based on observations obtained at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), which is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Rechereche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii. Based on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma jointly by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, in the Spanish Observatorio del

  13. WASP8 Workshop June 2018

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    US EPA Region 4 and the National Water Quality Modeling Work Group is proud to sponsor a 5-day workshop on water quality principles/modeling using the Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP).

  14. Physiological selectivity and activity reduction of insecticides by rainfall to predatory wasps of Tuta absoluta.

    PubMed

    Barros, Emerson C; Bacci, Leandro; Picanco, Marcelo C; Martins, Júlio C; Rosado, Jander F; Silva, Gerson A

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we carried out three bioassays with nine used insecticides in tomato crops to identify their efficiency against tomato leaf miner Tuta absoluta, the physiological selectivity and the activity reduction of insecticides by three rain regimes to predatory wasps Protonectarina sylveirae and Polybia scutellaris. We assessed the mortality caused by the recommended doses of abamectin, beta-cyfluthrin, cartap, chlorfenapyr, etofenprox, methamidophos, permethrin, phenthoate and spinosad to T. absoluta and wasps at the moment of application. In addition, we evaluated the wasp mortality due to the insecticides for 30 days on plants that did not receive rain and on plants that received 4 or 125 mm of rain. Spinosad, cartap, chlorfenapyr, phenthoate, abamectin and methamidophos caused mortality higher than 90% to T. absoluta, whereas the pyrethroids beta-cyfluthrin, etofenprox and permethrin caused mortality between 8.5% and 46.25%. At the moment of application, all the insecticides were highly toxic to the wasps, causing mortality higher than 80%. In the absence of rain, all the insecticides continued to cause high mortality to the wasps for 30 days after the application. The toxicity of spinosad and methamidophos on both wasp species; beta-cyfluthrin on P. sylveirae and chlorfenapyr and abamectin on P. scutellaris, decreased when the plants received 4 mm of rain. In contrast, the other insecticides only showed reduced toxicity on the wasps when the plants received 125 mm of rain.

  15. Decreased release of histamine and sulfidoleukotrienes by human peripheral blood leukocytes after wasp venom immunotherapy is partially due to induction of IL-10 and IFN-gamma production of T cells.

    PubMed

    Pierkes, M; Bellinghausen, I; Hultsch, T; Metz, G; Knop, J; Saloga, J

    1999-02-01

    Recent studies provide evidence that venom immunotherapy (VIT) alters the pattern of cytokine production by inducing an allergen-specific T-cell shift in cytokine expression from TH2 (IL-4, IL-5) to TH1 (IFN-gamma) cytokines and also inducing the production of IL-10. This study was carried out to analyze whether these changes in cytokine production of T cells already observed 1 week after the initiation of VIT in subjects with wasp venom allergy also influence the reactivity of effector cells, such as mast cells and basophils. All subjects included in this study had a history of severe systemic allergic reactions to wasp stings and positive skin test responses with venom and venom-specific IgE in the sera. Peripheral blood leukocytes were isolated before and after the initiation of VIT (rush therapy reaching a maintenance dose of 100 microg venom injected subcutaneously within 1 week) and preincubated with or without addition of IL-10, IFN-gamma, IL-10 + IFN-gamma, anti-IL-10, or anti-IFN-gamma. After stimulation with wasp venom, histamine and sulfidoleukotriene release were assessed by ELISA and compared with spontaneous release and total histamine content. After the induction of VIT, venom-induced absolute and relative histamine and sulfidoleukotriene release were reduced. This was at least partially due to the induction of IFN-gamma and IL-10 production, because (1) neutralization of IL-10 and IFN-gamma by mAbs partially restored the release after the initiation of VIT and (2) the addition of exogenous IFN-gamma and IL-10 caused a statistically significant diminution of the venom-induced histamine and sulfidoleukotriene release before VIT. Depletion of CD2(+) T cells also restored the releasability after VIT. These data indicate that T cells (producing IL-10 and IFN-gamma after VIT) play a key role for the inhibition of histamine and sulfidoleukotriene release of effector cells.

  16. Bee sting therapy-induced hepatotoxicity: A case report.

    PubMed

    Alqutub, Adel Nazmi; Masoodi, Ibrahim; Alsayari, Khalid; Alomair, Ahmed

    2011-10-27

    The use of bee venom as a therapeutic agent for the relief of joint pains dates back to Hippocrates, and references to the treatment can be found in ancient Egyptian and Greek medical writings as well. Also known as apitherapy, the technique is widely used in Eastern Europe, Asia, and South America. The beneficial effects of bee stings can be attributed to mellitinin, an anti-inflammatory agent, known to be hundred times stronger than cortisone. Unfortunately, certain substances in the bee venom trigger allergic reactions which can be life threatening in a sensitized individual. Multiple stings are known to cause hemolysis, kidney injury, hepatotoxicity and myocardial infarction. The toxicity can be immediate or can manifest itself only weeks after the exposure. We describe hepatotoxicity in a 35-year-old female, following bee sting therapy for multiple sclerosis. She presented to our clinic 3 wk after therapy with a history of progressive jaundice. The patient subsequently improved, and has been attending our clinic now for the last 9 mo.

  17. Bee sting therapy-induced hepatotoxicity: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Alqutub, Adel Nazmi; Masoodi, Ibrahim; Alsayari, Khalid; Alomair, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    The use of bee venom as a therapeutic agent for the relief of joint pains dates back to Hippocrates, and references to the treatment can be found in ancient Egyptian and Greek medical writings as well. Also known as apitherapy, the technique is widely used in Eastern Europe, Asia, and South America. The beneficial effects of bee stings can be attributed to mellitinin, an anti-inflammatory agent, known to be hundred times stronger than cortisone. Unfortunately, certain substances in the bee venom trigger allergic reactions which can be life threatening in a sensitized individual. Multiple stings are known to cause hemolysis, kidney injury, hepatotoxicity and myocardial infarction. The toxicity can be immediate or can manifest itself only weeks after the exposure. We describe hepatotoxicity in a 35-year-old female, following bee sting therapy for multiple sclerosis. She presented to our clinic 3 wk after therapy with a history of progressive jaundice. The patient subsequently improved, and has been attending our clinic now for the last 9 mo. PMID:22059110

  18. Starspots on WASP-107 and pulsations of WASP-118

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Močnik, T.; Hellier, C.; Anderson, D. R.; Clark, B. J. M.; Southworth, J.

    2017-08-01

    By analysing the K2 short-cadence photometry, we detect starspot occultation events in the light curve of WASP-107, the host star of a warm-Saturn exoplanet. WASP-107 also shows a rotational modulation with a period of 17.5 ± 1.4 d. Given that the rotational period is nearly three times the planet's orbital period, one would expect in an aligned system to see starspot occultation events to recur every three transits. The absence of such occultation recurrences suggests a misaligned orbit unless the starspots' lifetimes are shorter than the star's rotational period. We also find stellar variability resembling γ Doradus pulsations in the light curve of WASP-118, which hosts an inflated hot Jupiter. The variability is multiperiodic with a variable semi-amplitude of ˜200 ppm. In addition to these findings, we use the K2 data to refine the parameters of both systems and report non-detections of transit-timing variations, secondary eclipses and any additional transiting planets. We used the upper limits on the secondary-eclipse depths to estimate upper limits on the planetary geometric albedos of 0.7 for WASP-107b and 0.2 for WASP-118b.

  19. Insect Bites and Stings: First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tips to remember. American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. http://www.aaaai.org/conditions-and-treatments/library/allergy-library/stinging-insect-allergy.aspx. Accessed Jan. 9, 2018. LoVecchio F. ...

  20. A mechanical signal biases caste development in a social wasp

    Treesearch

    Sainath Suryanarayanan; John C. Hermanson; Robert L. Jeanne

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the proximate mechanisms of caste development in eusocial taxa can reveal how social species evolved from solitary ancestors. In Polistes wasps, the current paradigm holds that differential amounts of nutrition during the larval stage cause the divergence of worker and gyne (potential queen) castes. But nutrition level alone cannot explain how the first...

  1. Mechanism of action of stinging nettles.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Alexander J; Olsen, Michael

    2011-06-01

    Inadvertent exposure to the ubiquitous weed, Urtica dioica, called "stinging nettles" produces an immediate stinging and burning sensation on the skin. This investigation evaluates the structural effect that stinging nettle spicules may have on the clinical manifestation of these symptoms. This hypothesis was investigated by exposing murine skin to stinging nettles and then evaluating the skin using electron microscopy. It was hypothesized that the mechanism of action of stinging nettles is both biochemical and mechanical, which may have clinical significance regarding treatment for acute exposure. Fresh post-mortem dermis samples from the carcasses of genetically modified hairless mice were brushed under the stem and leaf of a stinging nettle plant, mimicking the clinical method of exposure a patient might experience. Another set of mouse skin samples was obtained but not exposed to the nettles. Both sets of skin samples were imaged with scanning electron microscopy. The skin samples that were not exposed to nettle leaves were uniform, with occasional striated hairs on the skin surface and no nettle spicules. The skin samples exposed to nettle leaves showed many smooth nettle spicules piercing the skin surface. A few spicules retained their bases, which appear empty of any liquid contents. The mechanism of action of stinging nettles dermatitis appears to be both biochemical and mechanical. Impalement of spicules into the skin likely accounts for the mechanical irritation in addition to the known adverse chemical effects of stinging nettles. Further investigation of treatment modalities is warranted. Copyright © 2011 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Sting Dynamics of Wind Tunnel Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-05-01

    Patterson AFB, AFFDL, Ohio, October 1964. 17. Brunk, James E. "Users Manual: Extended Capability Magnus Rotor and Ballistic Body 6-DOF Trajectory...measure "second-order" aerodynamic effects resulting, for example, from Reynolds number in- fluence. Consequently, all wind tunnel data systems are...sting-model interference effects , sting configurations normally consist of one or more linearly tapered sections combined with one or more untapered

  3. [Skin cell response after jellyfish sting].

    PubMed

    Adamicová, Katarína; Výbohová, Desanka; Fetisovová, Želmíra; Nováková, Elena; Mellová, Yvetta

    2016-01-01

    of inflammatory cells in lesional skin after the stinging by a jellyfish and compared them with the numbers of cells in the nonlesional skin of the same patient. Statistically significant differences were seen in the level of selected inflammation cells and numerically documented changes of cellularity in the inflammatory focus were caused by a hypersensitivity reaction after jellyfish injury in the period of 10 days after attack.

  4. Conditional N-WASP knockout in mouse brain implicates actin cytoskeleton regulation in hydrocephalus pathology.

    PubMed

    Jain, Neeraj; Lim, Lee Wei; Tan, Wei Ting; George, Bhawana; Makeyev, Eugene; Thanabalu, Thirumaran

    2014-04-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is produced by the choroid plexus and moved by multi-ciliated ependymal cells through the ventricular system of the vertebrate brain. Defects in the ependymal layer functionality are a common cause of hydrocephalus. N-WASP (Neural-Wiskott Aldrich Syndrome Protein) is a brain-enriched regulator of actin cytoskeleton and N-WASP knockout caused embryonic lethality in mice with neural tube and cardiac abnormalities. To shed light on the role of N-WASP in mouse brain development, we generated N-WASP conditional knockout mouse model N-WASP(fl/fl); Nestin-Cre (NKO-Nes). NKO-Nes mice were born with Mendelian ratios but exhibited reduced growth characteristics compared to their littermates containing functional N-WASP alleles. Importantly, all NKO-Nes mice developed cranial deformities due to excessive CSF accumulation and did not survive past weaning. Coronal brain sections of these animals revealed dilated lateral ventricles, defects in ciliogenesis, loss of ependymal layer integrity, reduced thickness of cerebral cortex and aqueductal stenosis. Immunostaining for N-cadherin suggests that ependymal integrity in NKO-Nes mice is lost as compared to normal morphology in the wild-type controls. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy and immunofluorescence analyses of coronal brain sections with anti-acetylated tubulin antibodies revealed the absence of cilia in ventricular walls of NKO-Nes mice indicative of ciliogenesis defects. N-WASP deficiency does not lead to altered expression of N-WASP regulatory proteins, Fyn and Cdc42, which have been previously implicated in hydrocephalus pathology. Taken together, our results suggest that N-WASP plays a critical role in normal brain development and implicate actin cytoskeleton regulation as a vulnerable axis frequently deregulated in hydrocephalus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Survival after anaphylaxis induced by a bumblebee sting in a dog.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Emily; Mandell, Deborah C; Waddell, Lori S

    2013-01-01

    A 3.5 yr old castrated male miniature schnauzer was referred with a history of collapse after a bee sting to the left hind limb. At the time of presentation, 14 hr after the sting, the dog was hypotensive, comatose, seizuring, and had a brief period of cardiac arrest. Over the following 48 hr, the dog developed azotemia, severely elevated liver enzyme levels, hypertension, hematochezia, hematemesis, and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). The dog's neurologic status improved slowly, but significant behavioral abnormalities remained. The dog was discharged after 7 days with ongoing polyuria, polydipsia, and behavioral changes. The polydipsia and polyuria resolved within a few days, but the behavioral changes continued for 6 wk. Reports of anaphylaxis from any cause are sparse in the veterinary literature. This is the first report of suspected anaphylaxis following a bee sting. There are no previous reports of behavioral changes after physical recovery from anaphylaxis.

  6. Heat-balling wasps by honeybees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ken, Tan; Hepburn, H. R.; Radloff, S. E.; Yusheng, Yu; Yiqiu, Liu; Danyin, Zhou; Neumann, P.

    2005-10-01

    Defensiveness of honeybee colonies of Apis cerana and Apis mellifera (actively balling the wasps but reduction of foraging) against predatory wasps, Vespa velutina, and false wasps was assessed. There were significantly more worker bees in balls of the former than latter. Core temperatures in a ball around a live wasp of A. cerana were significantly higher than those of A. mellifera, and also significantly more when exposed to false wasps. Core temperatures of bee balls exposed to false wasps were significantly lower than those exposed to V. velutina for both A. cerana and for A. mellifera. The lethal thermal limits for V. velutina, A. cerana and A. mellifera were significantly different, so that both species of honeybees have a thermal safety factor in heat-killing such wasp predators. During wasps attacks at the hives measured at 3, 6 and 12 min, the numbers of Apis cerana cerana and Apis cerana indica bees continuing to forage were significantly reduced with increased wasp attack time. Tropical lowland A. c. indica reduced foraging rates significantly more than the highland A. c. cerana bees; but, there was no significant effect on foraging by A. mellifera. The latency to recovery of honeybee foraging was significantly greater the longer the duration of wasp attacks. The results show remarkable thermal fine-tuning in a co-evolving predator prey relationship.

  7. Masters of defence: biomechanics of stinging nettles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Kaare H.; Knoblauch, Jan

    2017-11-01

    The techniques employed by plants and animals to defend themselves are very varied. Some involve extremely refined armaments. Stinging nettles employ hollow needle-like stinging hairs constructed from silica, the mineral from which we make glass, and they are filled with poison. The hairs are remarkably rigid and rarely break. Yet the tip is so sharp that the slightest touch cuts human skin, and so fragile that it breaks at that touch and releases poison into the wound. How the seemingly antagonist mechanical functions of rigidity and fragility are achieved, however, is unknown. We combine experiments on real and synthetic stingers to elucidate the poison injection mechanism. The design of plant stingers is compared to other natural systems and optimal stinging strategies are discussed. This work was supported by a research Grant (13166) from VILLUM FONDEN.

  8. Species-specific disruption of STING-dependent antiviral cellular defenses by the Zika virus NS2B3 protease.

    PubMed

    Ding, Qiang; Gaska, Jenna M; Douam, Florian; Wei, Lei; Kim, David; Balev, Metodi; Heller, Brigitte; Ploss, Alexander

    2018-06-18

    The limited host tropism of numerous viruses causing disease in humans remains incompletely understood. One example is Zika virus (ZIKV), an RNA virus that has reemerged in recent years. Here, we demonstrate that ZIKV efficiently infects fibroblasts from humans, great apes, New and Old World monkeys, but not rodents. ZIKV infection in human-but not murine-cells impairs responses to agonists of the cGMP-AMP synthase/stimulator of IFN genes (cGAS/STING) signaling pathway, suggesting that viral mechanisms to evade antiviral defenses are less effective in rodent cells. Indeed, human, but not mouse, STING is subject to cleavage by proteases encoded by ZIKV, dengue virus, West Nile virus, and Japanese encephalitis virus, but not that of yellow fever virus. The protease cleavage site, located between positions 78/79 of human STING, is only partially conserved in nonhuman primates and rodents, rendering these orthologs resistant to degradation. Genetic disruption of STING increases the susceptibility of mouse-but not human-cells to ZIKV. Accordingly, expression of only mouse, not human, STING in murine STING knockout cells rescues the ZIKV suppression phenotype. STING-deficient mice, however, did not exhibit increased susceptibility, suggesting that other redundant antiviral pathways control ZIKV infection in vivo. Collectively, our data demonstrate that numerous RNA viruses evade cGAS/STING-dependent signaling and affirm the importance of this pathway in shaping the host range of ZIKV. Furthermore, our results explain-at least in part-the decreased permissivity of rodent cells to ZIKV, which could aid in the development of mice model with inheritable susceptibility to ZIKV and other flaviviruses.

  9. Fatal scorpion sting in a child.

    PubMed

    Oyedeji, O A; Musa, T L; Adebami, O J; Oyedeji, G A

    2014-01-01

    Fatal scorpion stings are rare in Nigeria. Hitherto, there has been no report from Nigeria of death following scorpion stings. This report is that of a 2-year-old boy who was stung by a scorpion while playing outside his home environment in Osogbo, South West Nigeria. He subsequently presented to the Children Emergency Unit of Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, in pain and with features of shock. He died within 2 h of admission despite all treatment given to relieve pain and manage shock. The case is reported in order to share the important lessons learned.

  10. The emerging contribution of social wasps to grape rot disease ecology

    PubMed Central

    Boyden, Sean D.; Soriano, Jonathan-Andrew N.; Corey, Tyler B.; Leff, Jonathan W.; Fierer, Noah; Starks, Philip T.

    2017-01-01

    Grape sour (bunch) rot is a polymicrobial disease of vineyards that causes millions of dollars in lost revenue per year due to decreased quality of grapes and resultant wine. The disease is associated with damaged berries infected with a community of acetic acid bacteria, yeasts, and filamentous fungi that results in rotting berries with high amounts of undesirable volatile acidity. Many insect species cause the initial grape berry damage that can lead to this disease, but most studies have focused on the role of fruit flies in facilitating symptoms and vectoring the microorganisms of this disease complex. Like fruit flies, social wasps are abundant in vineyards where they feed on ripe berries and cause significant damage, while also dispersing yeasts involved in wine fermentation. Despite this, their possible role in disease facilitation and dispersal of grape rots has not been explored. We tested the hypothesis that the paper wasp Polistes dominulus could facilitate grape sour rot in the absence of other insect vectors. Using marker gene sequencing we characterized the bacterial and fungal community of wild-caught adults. We used a sterilized foraging arena to determine if these wasps transfer viable microorganisms when foraging. We then tested if wasps harboring their native microbial community, or those inoculated with sour rot, had an effect on grape sour rot incidence and severity using a laboratory foraging arena. We found that all wasps harbor some portion of the sour rot microbial community and that they have the ability to transfer viable microorganisms when foraging. Foraging by inoculated and uninoculated wasps led to an increase in berry rot disease symptom severity and incidence. Our results indicate that paper wasps can facilitate sour rot diseases in the absence of other vectors and that the mechanism of this facilitation may include both increasing host susceptibility and transmitting these microbial communities to the grapes. Social wasps are

  11. A free flight investigation of transonic sting interference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, P.

    1975-01-01

    Transonic sting interference has been studied in a supersonic wind tunnel to obtain free flight and sting support data on identical models. The two principal configurations, representing fuselage bodies, were cigar shaped with tail fins. The others were a sharp 10-deg cone, a sphere, and a blunt entry body. Comparative data indicated that the sting had an appreciable effect on drag for the fuselage-like configurations; drag rise occurred 0.02 Mach number earlier in free flight, and drag level was 15% greater. The spheres and the blunt bodies were insensitive to the presence of stings regardless of their size. The 10-deg cones were in between, experiencing no drag difference with a minimum diameter sting, but a moderate difference with the largest diameter sting tested. All data tend to confirm the notion that for the more slender bodies the sting not only affects flow but the forebody flow as well.

  12. Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP) model helps users interpret and predict water quality responses to natural phenomena and manmade pollution for various pollution management decisions.

  13. IL-2 induces a WAVE2-dependent pathway for actin reorganization that enables WASp-independent human NK cell function.

    PubMed

    Orange, Jordan S; Roy-Ghanta, Sumita; Mace, Emily M; Maru, Saumya; Rak, Gregory D; Sanborn, Keri B; Fasth, Anders; Saltzman, Rushani; Paisley, Allison; Monaco-Shawver, Linda; Banerjee, Pinaki P; Pandey, Rahul

    2011-04-01

    Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is a primary immunodeficiency associated with an increased susceptibility to herpesvirus infection and hematologic malignancy as well as a deficiency of NK cell function. It is caused by defective WAS protein (WASp). WASp facilitates filamentous actin (F-actin) branching and is required for F-actin accumulation at the NK cell immunological synapse and NK cell cytotoxicity ex vivo. Importantly, the function of WASp-deficient NK cells can be restored in vitro after exposure to IL-2, but the mechanisms underlying this remain unknown. Using a WASp inhibitor as well as cells from patients with WAS, we have defined a direct effect of IL-2 signaling upon F-actin that is independent of WASp function. We found that IL-2 treatment of a patient with WAS enhanced the cytotoxicity of their NK cells and the F-actin content at the immunological synapses formed by their NK cells. IL-2 stimulation of NK cells in vitro activated the WASp homolog WAVE2, which was required for inducing WASp-independent NK cell function, but not for baseline activity. Thus, WAVE2 and WASp define parallel pathways to F-actin reorganization and function in human NK cells; although WAVE2 was not required for NK cell innate function, it was accessible through adaptive immunity via IL-2. These results demonstrate how overlapping cytoskeletal activities can utilize immunologically distinct pathways to achieve synonymous immune function.

  14. IL-2 induces a WAVE2-dependent pathway for actin reorganization that enables WASp-independent human NK cell function

    PubMed Central

    Orange, Jordan S.; Roy-Ghanta, Sumita; Mace, Emily M.; Maru, Saumya; Rak, Gregory D.; Sanborn, Keri B.; Fasth, Anders; Saltzman, Rushani; Paisley, Allison; Monaco-Shawver, Linda; Banerjee, Pinaki P.; Pandey, Rahul

    2011-01-01

    Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is a primary immunodeficiency associated with an increased susceptibility to herpesvirus infection and hematologic malignancy as well as a deficiency of NK cell function. It is caused by defective WAS protein (WASp). WASp facilitates filamentous actin (F-actin) branching and is required for F-actin accumulation at the NK cell immunological synapse and NK cell cytotoxicity ex vivo. Importantly, the function of WASp-deficient NK cells can be restored in vitro after exposure to IL-2, but the mechanisms underlying this remain unknown. Using a WASp inhibitor as well as cells from patients with WAS, we have defined a direct effect of IL-2 signaling upon F-actin that is independent of WASp function. We found that IL-2 treatment of a patient with WAS enhanced the cytotoxicity of their NK cells and the F-actin content at the immunological synapses formed by their NK cells. IL-2 stimulation of NK cells in vitro activated the WASp homolog WAVE2, which was required for inducing WASp-independent NK cell function, but not for baseline activity. Thus, WAVE2 and WASp define parallel pathways to F-actin reorganization and function in human NK cells; although WAVE2 was not required for NK cell innate function, it was accessible through adaptive immunity via IL-2. These results demonstrate how overlapping cytoskeletal activities can utilize immunologically distinct pathways to achieve synonymous immune function. PMID:21383498

  15. Take a Bite Out of Mosquito Stings

    MedlinePlus

    ... Menu Search Main navigation Skip to content Conditions & Treatments Allergies Asthma Primary Immunodeficiency Disease Related Conditions Drug Guide ... Expert Search Search AAAAI Breadcrumb navigation Home ▸ Conditions & Treatments ▸ Library ▸ Allergy Library ▸ Take a bite out of mosquito stings ...

  16. Management of Corneal Bee Sting Injuries.

    PubMed

    Rai, Ruju R; Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Luis A; Papakostas, Thanos D; Siracuse-Lee, Donna; Dunphy, Robert; Fanciullo, Lisa; Cakiner-Egilmez, Tulay; Daly, Mary K

    2017-01-01

    To review the management of keratitis after corneal bee stings and to report a case of deep stromal corneal infiltrate secondary to a retained bee stinger managed conservatively in a patient who presented three days after unsanitary manipulation of the stinger apparatus. Case report and review of literature. A 57-year-old male beekeeper was evaluated for pain, blurry vision, and photosensitivity after a corneal bee sting. Of note, the venom sac had been removed with dirty tweezers three days prior to his visit. On exam, a focal infiltrate with diffuse edema was seen surrounding a retained bee stinger in the peripheral cornea. Trace cells in the anterior chamber were also noted. Based on a high suspicion for infectious keratitis, a conservative treatment strategy was elected. Administration of broad-spectrum topical antibiotics with concomitant abstention of corticosteroids led to rapid resolution of the symptoms. Over 16 months of follow-up, the stinger has remained in situ without migration and the patient has maintained 20/20 visual acuity without complications. There is debate on the preferred method for the management of corneal injury secondary to bee stings, especially when it is associated with a retained stinger. We herein present our findings in our appraisal of reported cases. In the aftermath of an ocular bee sting, close surveillance for inflammation and infection is essential. Individual manifestations of these injuries vary in timing, type, and severity; therefore, the accessibility of the stinger and the evolving clinical picture should guide therapeutic decisions.

  17. Immunological and Toxinological Responses to Jellyfish Stings

    PubMed Central

    Tibballs, James; Yanagihara, Angel A.; Turner, Helen C.; Winkel, Ken

    2013-01-01

    Just over a century ago, animal responses to injections of jellyfish extracts unveiled the phenomenon of anaphylaxis. Yet, until very recently, understanding of jellyfish sting toxicity has remained limited. Upon contact, jellyfish stinging cells discharge complex venoms, through thousands of barbed tubules, into the skin resulting in painful and, potentially, lethal envenomations. This review examines the immunological and toxinological responses to stings by prominent species of jellyfish including Physalia sp. (Portuguese Man-o-War, Blue-bottle), Cubozoan jellyfish including Chironex fleckeri, several Carybdeids including Carybdea arborifera and Alatina moseri, Linuche unguiculta (Thimble jellyfish), a jellyfish responsible for Irukandji syndrome (Carukia barnesi) and Pelagia noctiluca. Jellyfish venoms are composed of potent proteinaceous porins (cellular membrane pore-forming toxins), neurotoxic peptides, bioactive lipids and other small molecules whilst the tubules contain ancient collagens and chitins. We postulate that immunologically, both tubular structural and functional biopolymers as well as venom components can initiate innate, adaptive, as well as immediate and delayed hypersensitivity reactions that may be amenable to topical anti-inflammatory-immunomodifier therapy. The current challenge for immunotoxinologists is to deconstruct the actions of venom components to target therapeutic modalities for sting treatment. PMID:21824077

  18. Results from a Sting Whip Correction Verification Test at the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, B. L.; Finley, T. D.

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, great strides have been made toward correcting the largest error in inertial Angle of Attack (AoA) measurements in wind tunnel models. This error source is commonly referred to as 'sting whip' and is caused by aerodynamically induced forces imparting dynamics on sting-mounted models. These aerodynamic forces cause the model to whip through an arc section in the pitch and/or yaw planes, thus generating a centrifugal acceleration and creating a bias error in the AoA measurement. It has been shown that, under certain conditions, this induced AoA error can be greater than one third of a degree. An error of this magnitude far exceeds the target AoA goal of 0.01 deg established at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) and elsewhere. New sting whip correction techniques being developed at LaRC are able to measure and reduce this sting whip error by an order of magnitude. With this increase of accuracy, the 0.01 deg AoA target is achievable under all but the most severe conditions.

  19. Impact of stinging jellyfish proliferations along south Italian coasts: human health hazards, treatment and social costs.

    PubMed

    De Donno, Antonella; Idolo, Adele; Bagordo, Francesco; Grassi, Tiziana; Leomanni, Alessandro; Serio, Francesca; Guido, Marcello; Canitano, Mariarita; Zampardi, Serena; Boero, Ferdinando; Piraino, Stefano

    2014-02-27

    Stinging jellyfish outbreaks represent a health hazard, causing contact dermatitis and systemic reactions. This study investigated the epidemiology, severity, and treatment protocols of jellyfish stings in a coastal area with high tourist development and frequent stinging jellyfish outbreaks of the central Mediterranean (Salento, Southern Italy), and the associated costs for the Italian National Health Service. In 2007-2011, 1,733 bathers (mostly children and females) sought medical assistance following jellyfish stings, the main cause of human pathologies due to contact with marine organisms. The majority of events were reported in the years 2007-2009, whereas the occurrence of cnidarian jellyfish outbreaks has been increasingly reported in the same area since summer 2010. Most symptoms were limited to local and cutaneous reactions; conversely, 8.7% of cases evoked complications, mainly due to allergic reactions. The main drugs used were corticosteroids, locally applied and systemic (46% and 43%, respectively), and with ammonia (74%) as the main non-pharmacological treatment. The estimated cost of jellyfish-related first-aid services along the Salento coastline over the 5-year period was approximately 400,000 Euros. Therefore the management of jellyfish outbreak phenomena need coordinated research efforts towards a better understanding of underlying ecological mechanisms, together with the adoption of effective prevention policy, mitigation strategies, and appropriate planning of health services at tourist hot spots.

  20. Pre-discovery transits of the exoplanets WASP-18b and WASP-33b from Hipparcos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, I.; Kerins, E.

    2018-06-01

    We recover transits of WASP-18b and WASP-33b from Hipparcos (1989-1993) photometry. Marginal detections of HAT-P-56b and HAT-P-2b may be also present in the data. New ephemerides are fitted to WASP-18b and WASP-33b. A tentative (˜1.3σ) orbital decay is measured for WASP-18b, but the implied tidal quality factor (Q΄ ˜ 5 × 105) is small and survival time (<106 yr) is too short to be likely. No orbital decay is measured for WASP-33b, and a limit of Q΄ > 2 × 105 is placed. For both planets, the uncertainties in published ephemerides appear underestimated: the uncertainty in the period derivative of WASP-18b would be greatly reduced if its current ephemeris could be better determined.

  1. Dampened STING-Dependent Interferon Activation in Bats.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jiazheng; Li, Yang; Shen, Xurui; Goh, Geraldine; Zhu, Yan; Cui, Jie; Wang, Lin-Fa; Shi, Zheng-Li; Zhou, Peng

    2018-03-14

    Compared with terrestrial mammals, bats have a longer lifespan and greater capacity to co-exist with a variety of viruses. In addition to cytosolic DNA generated by these viral infections, the metabolic demands of flight cause DNA damage and the release of self-DNA into the cytoplasm. However, whether bats have an altered DNA sensing/defense system to balance high cytosolic DNA levels remains an open question. We demonstrate that bats have a dampened interferon response due to the replacement of the highly conserved serine residue (S358) in STING, an essential adaptor protein in multiple DNA sensing pathways. Reversing this mutation by introducing S358 restored STING functionality, resulting in interferon activation and virus inhibition. Combined with previous reports on bat-specific changes of other DNA sensors such as TLR9, IFI16, and AIM2, our findings shed light on bat adaptation to flight, their long lifespan, and their unique capacity to serve as a virus reservoir. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Exoplanet Transit Spectroscopy Using WFC3: WASP-12 b, WASP-17 b, and WASP-19 b

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandell, Avram Max; Haynes, Korey N.; Sinukoff, Evan; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Burrows, Adam; Deming, Drake

    2013-01-01

    We report an analysis of transit spectroscopy of the extrasolar planets WASP-12 b, WASP-17 b, and WASP-19 b using the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We analyze the data for a single transit for each planet using a strategy similar, in certain aspects, to the techniques used by Berta et al., but we extend their methodology to allow us to correct for channel- or wavelength-dependent instrumental effects by utilizing the band-integrated time series and measurements of the drift of the spectrum on the detector over time. We achieve almost photon-limited results for individual spectral bins, but the uncertainties in the transit depth for the band-integrated data are exacerbated by the uneven sampling of the light curve imposed by the orbital phasing of HST's observations. Our final transit spectra for all three objects are consistent with the presence of a broad absorption feature at 1.4 nano meter most likely due to water. However, the amplitude of the absorption is less than that expected based on previous observations with Spitzer, possibly due to hazes absorbing in the NIR or non-solar compositions. The degeneracy of models with different compositions and temperature structures combined with the low amplitude of any features in the data preclude our ability to place unambiguous constraints on the atmospheric composition without additional observations with WFC3 to improve the signal-to-noise ratio and/or a comprehensive multi-wavelength analysis.

  3. Prospective study of Chironex fleckeri and other box jellyfish stings in the "Top End" of Australia's Northern Territory.

    PubMed

    Currie, Bart J; Jacups, Susan P

    To describe the epidemiology and clinical features of box jellyfish envenoming in the Top End of the Northern Territory and, in particular, confirmed stings from the major Australian box jellyfish, Chironex fleckeri. Prospective collection of clinical data and skin scrapings or sticky-tape tests for nematocyst identification from patients presenting to Royal Darwin Hospital and remote coastal community health clinics in the Northern Territory, spanning 10 950 km of coastline; analysis of tidal, weather and seasonal data. All patients with jellyfish sting details recorded between 1 April 1991 and 30 May 2004. Demographic and clinical features, use of C. fleckeri antivenom, and associations between weather, seasonal and tidal factors and confirmed C. fleckeri stings. Of 606 jellyfish stings documented, 225 were confirmed to have been caused by C. fleckeri. 37% of C. fleckeri stings were in children, 92% occurred during the "stinger season" (1 October to 1 June), 83% occurred in water 1 m or less deep, and 17% occurred while victims were entering the water. Stings were least common on outgoing tides (P < 0.001) and commonest between 15:00 and 18:00 (P < 0.001) and on days with wind speed less than that month's average (P < 0.001). Nearly all victims experienced immediate pain, but this could often be controlled with ice; only 30% required parenteral narcotics and 8% required hospital admission. Cardiorespiratory arrest occurred within several minutes of the sting in the one fatal case, involving a 3-year-old girl with only 1.2 m of visible tentacle contact. C. fleckeri antivenom was given to another 21 patients, none of whom had life-threatening features at the time they were given antivenom. Most C. fleckeri stings are not life-threatening; patients who die usually have cardiopulmonary arrest within minutes of the sting. The potential benefit of antivenom and magnesium under these circumstances remains to be shown, but a protocol with their rapid use is recommended

  4. Animal-related fatalities--part II: characteristic autopsy findings and variable causes of death associated with envenomation, poisoning, anaphylaxis, asphyxiation, and sepsis.

    PubMed

    Bury, Danielle; Langlois, Neil; Byard, Roger W

    2012-03-01

    In addition to blunt and sharp trauma, animal-related fatalities may result from envenomation, poisoning, anaphylaxis, asphyxiation, and sepsis. Although the majority of envenomation deaths are caused by hornets, bees, and wasps, the mechanism of death is most often anaphylaxis. Envenomation resulting from the injection of a poison or toxin into a victim occurs with snakes, spiders, and scorpions on land. Marine animal envenomation may result from stings and bites from jellyfish, octopus, stonefish, cone fish, stingrays, and sea snakes. At autopsy, the findings may be extremely subtle, and so a history of exposure is required. Poisoning may also occur from ingesting certain fish, with three main forms of neurotoxin poisoning involving ciguatera, tetrodotoxin ingestion, and paralytic shellfish poisoning. Asphyxiation may follow upper airway occlusion or neck/chest compression by animals, and sepsis may follow bites. Autopsy analysis of cases requires extensive toxinological, toxicological, and biochemical analyses of body fluids. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  5. Length Is Associated with Pain: Jellyfish with Painful Sting Have Longer Nematocyst Tubules than Harmless Jellyfish.

    PubMed

    Kitatani, Ryuju; Yamada, Mayu; Kamio, Michiya; Nagai, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    A large number of humans are stung by jellyfish all over the world. The stings cause acute pain followed by persistent pain and local inflammation. Harmful jellyfish species typically cause strong pain, whereas harmless jellyfish cause subtle or no pain. Jellyfish sting humans by injecting a tubule, contained in the nematocyst, the stinging organ of jellyfish. The tubule penetrates into the skin leading to venom injection. The detailed morphology of the nematocyst tubule and molecular structure of the venom in the nematocyst has been reported; however, the mechanism responsible for the difference in pain that is caused by harmful and harmless jellyfish sting has not yet been explored or explained. Therefore, we hypothesized that differences in the length of the nematocyst tubule leads to different degrees of epithelial damage. The initial acute pain might be generated by penetration of the tubule, which stimulates pain receptor neurons, whilst persistent pain might be caused by injection of venom into the epithelium. To test this hypothesis we compared the lengths of discharged nematocyst tubules from harmful and harmless jellyfish species and evaluated their ability to penetrate human skin. The results showed that the harmful jellyfish species, Chrysaora pacifica, Carybdea brevipedalia, and Chironex yamaguchii, causing moderate to severe pain, have nematocyst tubules longer than 200 μm, compared with a jellyfish species that cause little or no pain, Aurelia aurita. The majority of the tubules of harmful jellyfishes, C. yamaguchii and C. brevipedalia, were sufficiently long to penetrate the human epidermis and physically stimulate the free nerve endings of Aδ pain receptor fibers around plexuses to cause acute pain and inject the venom into the human skin epithelium to cause persistent pain and inflammation.

  6. WASP-18b (Artist's Concept)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-11-29

    WASP-18b is an exoplanet located 325 light-years from Earth. The planet's mass is 10 times that of Jupiter, and it orbits its star once every 23 hours. A 2017 study found that this planet has a stratosphere that's loaded with carbon dioxide, but has no signs of water. A stratosphere is a layer of atmosphere in which temperature increases with higher altitudes. The study used NASA's Spitzer and Hubble space telescopes. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA22087

  7. Vineyard Colonization by Hyalesthes obsoletus (Hemiptera: Cixiidae) Induced by Stinging Nettle Cut Along Surrounding Ditches.

    PubMed

    Mori, N; Pozzebon, A; Duso, C; Reggiani, N; Pavan, F

    2016-02-01

    Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) is the most important host plant for both phytoplasma associated with Bois noir disease of the grapevine and its vector Hyalesthes obsoletus Signoret (Hemiptera: Cixiidae). Vector abundance in vineyards is favored by stinging nettle growing in surrounding areas. Nettle control by herbicides or cutting can reduce vector population in vineyards. However, chemical weeding can cause environmental problems. Many authors suggest that stinging nettle control applied during H. obsoletus flight could force adults to migrate into vineyards. We evaluate if cutting of nettle growing along ditches during adult flight favors vineyard colonization by H. obsoletus. Three different weed management regimes ("no cuts," "one cut" just before the beginning of adult flight, and "frequent cuts" over the whole vegetative season) were applied to the herbaceous vegetation in ditches bordering two vineyards. The flight dynamics of H. obsoletus were recorded by placing yellow sticky traps on the vegetation along the ditches and at different positions in the vineyards. Frequent stinging nettle cuts (compared with a single cut) in surrounding areas favored the dispersion of vectors inside the vineyards. Stinging nettle control should be based on an integration of a single herbicide application before H. obsoletus emergence followed by frequent cuts to minimize negative side effects of chemical weeding. In organic viticulture, a frequent-cuts strategy should avoid cuts during H. obsoletus flight period, at least in the first year of adoption. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Exoplanet Transit Spectroscopy Using WFC3: WASP-12b, WASP-17b, and WASP-19b

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandell, Avi M.; Haynes, Korey; Sinukoff, Evan; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Burrows, Adam; Deming, Drake

    2013-01-01

    We report an analysis of transit spectroscopy of the extrasolar planets WASP-12 b, WASP-17 b, and WASP-19 b using the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We analyze the data for a single transit for each planet using a strategy similar, in certain aspects, to the techniques used by Berta et al., but we extend their methodology to allow us to correct for channel- or wavelength-dependent instrumental effects by utilizing the band-integrated time series and measurements of the drift of the spectrum on the detector over time. We achieve almost photon-limited results for individual spectral bins, but the uncertainties in the transit depth for the band-integrated data are exacerbated by the uneven sampling of the light curve imposed by the orbital phasing of HST's observations. Our final transit spectra for all three objects are consistent with the presence of a broad absorption feature at 1.4 microns most likely due to water. However, the amplitude of the absorption is less than that expected based on previous observations with Spitzer, possibly due to hazes absorbing in the NIR or non-solar compositions. The degeneracy of models with different compositions and temperature structures combined with the low amplitude of any features in the data preclude our ability to place unambiguous constraints on the atmospheric composition without additional observations with WFC3 to improve the signal-to-noise ratio and/or a comprehensive multi-wavelength analysis. Key words: planetary systems - techniques: photometric - techniques: spectroscopic

  9. Climate Change Impact on Neotropical Social Wasps

    PubMed Central

    Dejean, Alain; Céréghino, Régis; Carpenter, James M.; Corbara, Bruno; Hérault, Bruno; Rossi, Vivien; Leponce, Maurice; Orivel, Jérome; Bonal, Damien

    2011-01-01

    Establishing a direct link between climate change and fluctuations in animal populations through long-term monitoring is difficult given the paucity of baseline data. We hypothesized that social wasps are sensitive to climatic variations, and thus studied the impact of ENSO events on social wasp populations in French Guiana. We noted that during the 2000 La Niña year there was a 77.1% decrease in their nest abundance along ca. 5 km of forest edges, and that 70.5% of the species were no longer present. Two simultaneous 13-year surveys (1997–2009) confirmed the decrease in social wasps during La Niña years (2000 and 2006), while an increase occurred during the 2009 El Niño year. A 30-year weather survey showed that these phenomena corresponded to particularly high levels of rainfall, and that temperature, humidity and global solar radiation were correlated with rainfall. Using the Self-Organizing Map algorithm, we show that heavy rainfall during an entire rainy season has a negative impact on social wasps. Strong contrasts in rainfall between the dry season and the short rainy season exacerbate this effect. Social wasp populations never recovered to their pre-2000 levels. This is probably because these conditions occurred over four years; heavy rainfall during the major rainy seasons during four other years also had a detrimental effect. On the contrary, low levels of rainfall during the major rainy season in 2009 spurred an increase in social wasp populations. We conclude that recent climatic changes have likely resulted in fewer social wasp colonies because they have lowered the wasps' resistance to parasitoids and pathogens. These results imply that Neotropical social wasps can be regarded as bio-indicators because they highlight the impact of climatic changes not yet perceptible in plants and other animals. PMID:22073236

  10. Climate change impact on neotropical social wasps.

    PubMed

    Dejean, Alain; Céréghino, Régis; Carpenter, James M; Corbara, Bruno; Hérault, Bruno; Rossi, Vivien; Leponce, Maurice; Orivel, Jérome; Bonal, Damien

    2011-01-01

    Establishing a direct link between climate change and fluctuations in animal populations through long-term monitoring is difficult given the paucity of baseline data. We hypothesized that social wasps are sensitive to climatic variations, and thus studied the impact of ENSO events on social wasp populations in French Guiana. We noted that during the 2000 La Niña year there was a 77.1% decrease in their nest abundance along ca. 5 km of forest edges, and that 70.5% of the species were no longer present. Two simultaneous 13-year surveys (1997-2009) confirmed the decrease in social wasps during La Niña years (2000 and 2006), while an increase occurred during the 2009 El Niño year. A 30-year weather survey showed that these phenomena corresponded to particularly high levels of rainfall, and that temperature, humidity and global solar radiation were correlated with rainfall. Using the Self-Organizing Map algorithm, we show that heavy rainfall during an entire rainy season has a negative impact on social wasps. Strong contrasts in rainfall between the dry season and the short rainy season exacerbate this effect. Social wasp populations never recovered to their pre-2000 levels. This is probably because these conditions occurred over four years; heavy rainfall during the major rainy seasons during four other years also had a detrimental effect. On the contrary, low levels of rainfall during the major rainy season in 2009 spurred an increase in social wasp populations. We conclude that recent climatic changes have likely resulted in fewer social wasp colonies because they have lowered the wasps' resistance to parasitoids and pathogens. These results imply that Neotropical social wasps can be regarded as bio-indicators because they highlight the impact of climatic changes not yet perceptible in plants and other animals.

  11. Biogenic amines in the nervous system of the cockroach, Periplaneta americana following envenomation by the jewel wasp, Ampulex compressa.

    PubMed

    Banks, Christopher N; Adams, Michael E

    2012-02-01

    The emerald jewel wasp, Ampulex compressa, exploits the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana, as a host for its progeny. The wasp subdues the host by stinging directly into the brain and subesophageal ganglion, inducing long-term hypokinesia. The hypokinesic host lacks normal escape behavior and motivation to walk, making it easy for subjugation by the wasp. The mechanism underlying hypokinesia induction is not known, but depletion of monoamines induces behavior resembling venom-induced hypokinesia. To test whether amine depletion occurs in stung animals, we used high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ED) to measure quantitatively amine levels in the central nervous system. Our data show clearly that levels of dopamine, serotonin, octopamine and tyramine remain unchanged in stung animals, whereas animals treated with reserpine exhibited marked depletion of all amines sampled. Furthermore, stung animals treated with reserpine show depletion of amines, demonstrating that envenomation also does not interfere with amine release. These results show that hypokinesia induced by Ampulex venom does not result from amine depletion or inability to release monoamines in the central nervous system. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Parasitoid wasp uses a venom cocktail injected into the brain to manipulate the behavior and metabolism of its cockroach prey.

    PubMed

    Gal, Ram; Rosenberg, Lior Ann; Libersat, Frederic

    2005-12-01

    Unlike other venomous predators, the parasitoid wasp Ampulex compressa incapacitates its prey, the cockroach Periplaneta americana, to provide a fresh food supply for its offspring. We first established that the wasp larval development, from egg laying to pupation, lasts about 8 days during which the cockroach must remain alive but immobile. To this end, the wasp injects a cocktail of neurotoxins to manipulate the behavior of the cockroach. The cocktail is injected directly into the head ganglia using biosensors located on the stinger. The head sting induces first 30 min of intense grooming followed by hypokinesia during which the cockroach is unable to generate an escape response. In addition, stung cockroaches survive longer, lose less water, and consume less oxygen. Dopamine contained in the venom appears to be responsible for inducing grooming behavior. For the hypokinesia, our hypothesis is that the injected venom affects neurons located in the head ganglia, which send descending tonic input to bioaminergic neurons. These, in turn, control the thoracic premotor circuitry for locomotion. We show that the activity of identified octopaminergic neurons from the thoracic ganglia is altered in stung animals. The alteration in the octopaminergic neurons' activity could be one of the mechanisms by which the venom modulates the escape circuit in the cockroach's central nervous system and metabolism in the peripheral system. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. The Role of Lipid Competition for Endosymbiont-Mediated Protection against Parasitoid Wasps in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Paredes, Juan C; Herren, Jeremy K; Schüpfer, Fanny; Lemaitre, Bruno

    2016-07-12

    their offspring, and some protect their host against pathogens. Here, we studied the mechanism of protection against parasitoid wasps mediated by the Drosophila melanogaster endosymbiont Spiroplasma poulsonii Using genetic manipulation of the host, we provide strong evidence supporting the hypothesis that competition for host lipids underlies S. poulsonii-mediated protection against parasitoid wasps. We propose that lipid competition-based protection may not be restricted to Spiroplasma bacteria but could also apply other endosymbionts, notably Wolbachia bacteria, which can suppress human disease-causing viruses in insect hosts. Copyright © 2016 Paredes et al.

  14. Involvement of the opioid system in the hypokinetic state induced in cockroaches by a parasitoid wasp.

    PubMed

    Gavra, Tali; Libersat, Frederic

    2011-03-01

    The parasitoid wasp Ampulex compressa stings and injects venom into the cockroach brain to induce a long-lasting hypokinetic state. This state is characterized by decreased responsiveness to aversive stimuli, suggesting the manipulation of a neuromodulatory system in the cockroach's central nervous system. A likely candidate is the opioid system, which is known to affect responsiveness to stimuli in insects. To explore this possibility, we injected cockroaches with different opioid receptor agonists or antagonists before they were stung by a wasp and tested the escape behavior of these cockroaches to electric foot shocks. Antagonists significantly decreased the startle threshold in stung individuals, whereas agonists led to an increased startle threshold in controls. Yet, neither agonists nor antagonists had any effect on grooming. To further characterize the interaction between the venom and opioid receptors, we used an antenna-heart preparation. In un-stung individuals external application of crude venom completely inhibits antenna-heart contractions. In stung individuals the antenna-heart showed no contractions. Although acetylcholine restored contractions, the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone was unable to antagonize the venom inhibition. These results suggest that the venom of A. compressa might contribute to the manipulation of cockroach behavior by affecting the opioid system.

  15. Nematodes Associated with Fig Wasps, Pegoscapus spp. (Agaonidae), and Syconia of Native Floridian Figs (Ficus spp.)

    PubMed Central

    Giblin-Davis, Robin M.; Center, Barbara J.; Nadel, Hannah; Frank, J. Howard; Ramírez B., William

    1995-01-01

    Syconia in successive developmental phases from Ficus laevigata Vahl (F. citrifolia Miller sensu DeWolf 1960) (Moraceae) and successive life stages of its fig wasp pollinator, Pegoscapus sp. (P. assuetus (Grandi) sensu Wiebes 1983) (Agaonidae) were dissected to elucidate their association with two undescribed species of nematodes. Parasitodiplogazter sp. (Diplogasteridae) are transported by female Pegoscapus sp. into the cavity of a phase B syconium as third-stage juveniles (J3), where they molt to the J4 stage and greatly increase in size in the hemocoel of the fig wasp after it begins to pollinate and oviposit in female florets. The J4 exit the wasp cadaver in a phase B or early phase C syconium, and molt to adults that mate and lay eggs. New J3 infect the next generation of female or male wasps as they emerge from their galls in phase D figs. Mated entomogenous females of Schistonchus sp. (Aphelenchoididae) are transported in the hemocoel of female wasps to the fig cavity of a phase B syconium. Female Schistonchus sp. exit the wasp and parasitize immature male florets causing an exudate, the development of hypertrophied epidermal cells of the anther filaments and anthers, and aberrations of the anther filament, anthers, and pollen. At least one generation of Schistonchus sp. occurs in the male florets. Entomogenous females appear at about the time that fig wasps molt to adults in their galls in late phase C syconia. Another Schistonchus sp. was recovered from females of P. mexicanus (Ashmead) (P. jimenezi (Grandi) sensu Wiebes 1983) and from the syconia of F. aurea Nuttall and appears to have a life cycle similar to that described for the Schistonchus sp. from F. laevigata. PMID:19277255

  16. WASP-92b, WASP-93b and WASP-118b: three new transiting close-in giant planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hay, K. L.; Collier-Cameron, A.; Doyle, A. P.; Hébrard, G.; Skillen, I.; Anderson, D. R.; Barros, S. C. C.; Brown, D. J. A.; Bouchy, F.; Busuttil, R.; Delorme, P.; Delrez, L.; Demangeon, O.; Díaz, R. F.; Gillon, M.; Gómez Maqueo Chew, Y.; Gonzàlez, E.; Hellier, C.; Holmes, S.; Jarvis, J. F.; Jehin, E.; Joshi, Y. C.; Kolb, U.; Lendl, M.; Maxted, P. F. L.; McCormac, J.; Miller, G. R. M.; Mortier, A.; Pallé, E.; Pollacco, D.; Prieto-Arranz, J.; Queloz, D.; Ségransan, D.; Simpson, E. K.; Smalley, B.; Southworth, J.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Turner, O. D.; Udry, S.; Vanhuysse, M.; West, R. G.; Wilson, P. A.

    2016-12-01

    We present the discovery of three new transiting giant planets, first detected with the WASP telescopes, and establish their planetary nature with follow up spectroscopy and ground-based photometric light curves. WASP-92 is an F7 star, with a moderately inflated planet orbiting with a period of 2.17 d, which has Rp = 1.461 ± 0.077RJ and Mp = 0.805 ± 0.068MJ. WASP-93b orbits its F4 host star every 2.73 d and has Rp = 1.597 ± 0.077RJ and Mp = 1.47 ± 0.029MJ. WASP-118b also has a hot host star (F6) and is moderately inflated, where Rp = 1.440 ± 0.036RJ and Mp = 0.514 ± 0.020MJ and the planet has an orbital period of 4.05 d. They are bright targets (V = 13.18, 10.97 and 11.07, respectively) ideal for further characterization work, particularly WASP-118b, which is being observed by K2 as part of campaign 8. The WASP-93 system has sufficient angular momentum to be tidally migrating outwards if the system is near spin-orbit alignment, which is divergent from the tidal behaviour of the majority of hot Jupiters discovered.

  17. Heterologous Expression, Purification and Immunoreactivity of the Antigen 5 from Polybia paulista Wasp Venom

    PubMed Central

    Bazon, Murilo Luiz; Perez-Riverol, Amilcar; dos Santos-Pinto, José Roberto Aparecido; Lasa, Alexis Musacchio; Justo-Jacomini, Débora Laís; Palma, Mario Sergio

    2017-01-01

    Polybia paulista (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) is responsible for a high number of sting accidents and anaphylaxis events in Southeast Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay. The specific detection of allergy to the venom of this wasp is often hampered by the lack of recombinant allergens currently available for molecular diagnosis. Antigen 5 (~23 kDa) from P. paulista venom (Poly p 5) is a highly abundant and glycosylated allergenic protein that could be used for development of component-resolved diagnosis (CRD). Here, we describe the cloning and heterologous expression of the antigen 5 (rPoly p 5) from P. paulista venom using the eukaryotic system Pichia pastoris. The expression as a secreted protein yielded high levels of soluble rPoly p 5. The recombinant allergen was further purified to homogeneity (99%) using a two-step chromatographic procedure. Simultaneously, the native form of the allergen (nPoly p 5) was purified from the wasp venom by Ion exchange chromatography. The rPoly p 5 and nPoly p 5 were then submitted to a comparative analysis of IgE-mediated immunodetection using sera from patients previously diagnosed with sensitization to wasp venoms. Both rPoly p 5 and nPoly p 5 were recognized by specific IgE (sIgE) in the sera of the allergic individuals. The high levels of identity found between nPoly p 5 and rPoly p 5 by the alignment of its primary sequences as well as by 3-D models support the results obtained in the immunoblot. Overall, we showed that P. pastoris is a suitable system for production of soluble rPoly p 5 and that the recombinant allergen represents a potential candidate for molecular diagnosis of P.paulista venom allergy. PMID:28837089

  18. Wasp venom injected into the prey's brain modulates thoracic identified monoaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Lior Ann; Pflüger, Hans-Joachim; Wegener, Gerhard; Libersat, Frederic

    2006-02-05

    The wasp Ampulex compressa injects a cocktail of neurotoxins into the brain of its cockroach prey to induce an enduring change in the execution of locomotory behaviors. Our hypothesis is that the venom injected into the brain indirectly alters the activity of monoaminergic neurons, thus changing the levels of monoamines that tune the central synapses of locomotory circuits. The purpose of the present investigation was to establish whether the venom alters the descending control, from the brain, of octopaminergic neurons in the thorax. This question was approached by recording the activity of specific identified octopaminergic neurons after removing the input from the brain or after a wasp sting into the brain. We show that the activity of these neurons is altered in stung and "brainless" animals. The spontaneous firing rate of these neurons in stung and brainless animals is approximately 20% that in control animals. Furthermore, we show that an identified octopamine neuron responds more weakly both to sensory stimuli and to direct injection of current in all treated groups. The alteration in the activity of octopamine neurons is likely to be part of the mechanism by which the wasp induces a change in the behavioral state of its prey and also affects its metabolism by reducing the potent glycolytic activator fructose 2,6-bisphosphate in leg muscle. To our knowledge, this is the first direct evidence of a change in electrical activity of specific monoaminergic neurons that can be so closely associated with a venom-induced change in behavioral state of a prey animal.

  19. How to be a fig wasp.

    PubMed

    Weiblen, George D

    2002-01-01

    In the two decades since Janzen described how to be a fig, more than 200 papers have appeared on fig wasps (Agaonidae) and their host plants (Ficus spp., Moraceae). Fig pollination is now widely regarded as a model system for the study of coevolved mutualism, and earlier reviews have focused on the evolution of resource conflicts between pollinating fig wasps, their hosts, and their parasites. Fig wasps have also been a focus of research on sex ratio evolution, the evolution of virulence, coevolution, population genetics, host-parasitoid interactions, community ecology, historical biogeography, and conservation biology. This new synthesis of fig wasp research attempts to integrate recent contributions with the older literature and to promote research on diverse topics ranging from behavioral ecology to molecular evolution.

  20. SUMOylation-disrupting WAS mutation converts WASp from a transcriptional activator to a repressor of NF-κB response genes in T cells.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Koustav; Sadhukhan, Sanjoy; Han, Seong-Su; Vyas, Yatin M

    2015-10-01

    In Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS), immunodeficiency and autoimmunity often comanifest, yet how WAS mutations misregulate chromatin-signaling in Thelper (TH) cells favoring development of auto-inflammation over protective immunity is unclear. Previously, we identified an essential promoter-specific, coactivator role of nuclear-WASp in TH1 gene transcription. Here we identify small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO)ylation as a novel posttranslational modification of WASp, impairment of which converts nuclear-WASp from a transcriptional coactivator to a corepressor of nuclear factor (NF)-κB response genes in human (TH)1-differentiating cells. V75M, one of many disease-causing mutations occurring in SUMO*motif (72-ψψψψKDxxxxSY-83) of WASp, compromises WASp-SUMOylation, associates with COMMD1 to attenuate NF-κB signaling, and recruits histone deacetylases-6 (HDAC6) to p300-marked promoters of NF-κB response genes that pattern immunity but not inflammation. Consequently, proteins mediating adaptive immunity (IFNG, STAT1, TLR1) are deficient, whereas those mediating auto-inflammation (GM-CSF, TNFAIP2, IL-1β) are paradoxically increased in TH1 cells expressing SUMOylation-deficient WASp. Moreover, SUMOylation-deficient WASp favors ectopic development of the TH17-like phenotype (↑IL17A, IL21, IL22, IL23R, RORC, and CSF2) under TH1-skewing conditions, suggesting a role for WASp in modulating TH1/TH17 plasticity. Notably, pan-histone deacetylase inhibitors lift promoter-specific repression imposed by SUMOylation-deficient WASp and restore misregulated gene expression. Our findings uncovering a SUMOylation-based mechanism controlling WASp's dichotomous roles in transcription may have implications for personalized therapy for patients carrying mutations that perturb WASp-SUMOylation. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.

  1. Late Onset of Acute Urticaria after Bee Stings.

    PubMed

    Asai, Yuko; Uhara, Hisashi; Miyazaki, Atsushi; Saiki, Minoru; Okuyama, Ryuhei

    2016-01-01

    Here we report the cases of five patients with a late onset of acute urticaria after a bee sting. The ages of the five Japanese patients ranged from 33 to 86 years (median: 61). All patients had no history of an allergic reaction to bee stings. The onset of urticaria was 6-14 days (median: 10) after a bee sting. Although four of the patients did not describe experiencing a bee sting at their presentation, the subsequent examination detected anti-bee-specific IgE antibodies. So, we think a history of a bee sting should thus be part of the medical interview sheet for patients with acute urticaria, and an examination of IgE for bees may help prevent a severe bee-related anaphylactic reaction in the future.

  2. Efficacy of fungicide combinations, phosphoric acid, and plant extract from stinging nettle on potato late blight management and tuber yield

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans is a major constraint to potato production. Inadequate management of the disease has often resulted in heavy losses in various production regions. We assessed the efficacy of fungicides, phosphoric acid, and stinging nettle plant extract combinations for...

  3. Brief Report: Blockade of TANK-Binding Kinase 1/IKKɛ Inhibits Mutant Stimulator of Interferon Genes (STING)-Mediated Inflammatory Responses in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells.

    PubMed

    Frémond, Marie-Louise; Uggenti, Carolina; Van Eyck, Lien; Melki, Isabelle; Bondet, Vincent; Kitabayashi, Naoki; Hertel, Christina; Hayday, Adrian; Neven, Bénédicte; Rose, Yoann; Duffy, Darragh; Crow, Yanick J; Rodero, Mathieu P

    2017-07-01

    Gain-of-function mutations in TMEM173, encoding the stimulator of interferon (IFN) genes (STING) protein, underlie a novel type I interferonopathy that is minimally responsive to conventional immunosuppressive therapies and associated with high frequency of childhood morbidity and mortality. STING gain-of-function causes constitutive oversecretion of IFN. This study was undertaken to determine the effects of a TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK-1)/IKKɛ inhibitor (BX795) on secretion and signaling of IFN in primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with mutations in STING. PBMCs from 4 patients with STING-associated disease were treated with BX795. The effect of BX795 on IFN pathways was assessed by Western blotting and an IFNβ reporter assay, as well as by quantification of IFNα in cell lysates, staining for STAT-1 phosphorylation, and measurement of IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression. Treatment of PBMCs with BX795 inhibited the phosphorylation of IFN regulatory factor 3 and IFNβ promoter activity induced in HEK 293T cells by cyclic GMP-AMP or by genetic activation of STING. In vitro exposure to BX795 inhibited IFNα production in PBMCs of patients with STING-associated disease without affecting cell survival. In addition, BX795 decreased STAT-1 phosphorylation and ISG mRNA expression independent of IFNα blockade. These findings demonstrate the effect of BX795 on reducing type I IFN production and IFN signaling in cells from patients with gain-of-function mutations in STING. A combined inhibition of TBK-1 and IKKɛ therefore holds potential for the treatment of patients carrying STING mutations, and may also be relevant in other type I interferonopathies. © 2017, American College of Rheumatology.

  4. WASP family proteins and formins compete in pseudopod- and bleb-based migration

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Actin pseudopods induced by SCAR/WAVE drive normal migration and chemotaxis in eukaryotic cells. Cells can also migrate using blebs, in which the edge is driven forward by hydrostatic pressure instead of actin. In Dictyostelium discoideum, loss of SCAR is compensated by WASP moving to the leading edge to generate morphologically normal pseudopods. Here we use an inducible double knockout to show that cells lacking both SCAR and WASP are unable to grow, make pseudopods or, unexpectedly, migrate using blebs. Remarkably, amounts and dynamics of actin polymerization are normal. Pseudopods are replaced in double SCAR/WASP mutants by aberrant filopods, induced by the formin dDia2. Further disruption of the gene for dDia2 restores cells’ ability to initiate blebs and thus migrate, though pseudopods are still lost. Triple knockout cells still contain near-normal F-actin levels. This work shows that SCAR, WASP, and dDia2 compete for actin. Loss of SCAR and WASP causes excessive dDia2 activity, maintaining F-actin levels but blocking pseudopod and bleb formation and migration. PMID:29191847

  5. Study of stinging nettle (urtica dioica l.) Fibers reinforced green composite materials : a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agus Suryawan, I. G. P.; Suardana, N. P. G.; Suprapta Winaya, I. N.; Budiarsa Suyasa, I. W.; Tirta Nindhia, T. G.

    2017-05-01

    Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica L., latin) is a wild plant that grows in Indonesia, Asia, and Europe. Nettle in Bali, Indonesia is called as Lateng, Jelatang. Nettle plant has a very strong fiber and high fixed carbon. Nettle plants are covered with fine hairs, especially in the leaves and stems. When it is touched, it will release chemicals, sting and trigger inflammation that causes redness, itching, bumps and irritation to the skin. Nettle plants grow in the wild, regarded as a weed in the agricultural industry, easy to grow and snatch food from the parent plant. The main objective of this paper is to review of the potential nettle fibers and then explain about the potential of local nettle plant in Indonesia. Nettle is a plant group at the end of bast. Its plant fibers taken from the bark, as reinforcement in composite materials. Nettle fibers have three main advantages such as strong, lightweight and low environmental impact.

  6. WASP-12b and Its Possible Fiery Demise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-07-01

    Jupiter-like planets on orbits close to their hosts are predicted to spiral ever closer to their hosts until they meet their eventual demise and yet weve never observed orbital decay. Could WASP-12b provide the first evidence?Undetected PredictionsSince the discovery of the first hot Jupiter more than 20 years ago, weve studied a number of these peculiar exoplanets. Despite our many observations, two phenomena predicted of hot Jupiters have not yet been detected, due to the long timescales needed to identify them:Tidal orbital decayTidal forces should cause a hot Jupiters orbit to shrink over time, causing the planet to eventually spiral into its host star. This phenomenon would explain a number of statistical properties of observed star-planet systems (for instance, the scarcity of gas giants with periods less than a day).An illustration of apsidal precession. [Mpfiz]Apsidal precessionThe orbits of hot Jupiters should be apsidally precessing on timescales of decades, as long as they are at least slightly eccentric. Since the precession rate depends on the planets tidally deformed mass distribution, measuring this would allow us to probe the interior of the planet.A team of scientists led by Kishore Patra (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) think that the hot Jupiter WASP-12b may be our first chance to study one of these two phenomena. The question is, which one?WASP-12bWASP-12b has orbital period of 1.09 days one of the shortest periods observed for a giant planet and weve monitored it for a decade, making it a great target to test for both of these long-term effects.Timing residuals for WASP-12b. Squares show the new data points, circles show previous data from the past decade. The data are better fit by the decay model than the precession model, but both are still consistent. [Patra et al. 2017]Patra and collaborators made transit observations with the 1.2-m telescope at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory in Arizona and occultation observations with the

  7. [National strategy in the battle against scorpion stings and envenomations. Application and evaluation].

    PubMed

    Soulaymani Bencheikh, R; Faraj, Z; Semlali, I; Ouammi, L; Badri, M

    2003-11-01

    Scorpion stings represent the first cause of poisoning with an incidence of 30 to 50% of all declared cases in the Centre Anti Poison of Morocco (CAPM). Aware of this increasing problem, the CAPM paid special attention to this pathology. Thanks to its retrospective and prospective studies, the scorpion species mapping has been determined as well as the demographic features of stung patients, the nature and the chronology of clinical events in scorpion envenimation, and the epidemiological, clinical and therapeutical factors of severity. On this basis, the CAPM worked out a national strategy to struggle against scorpion stings whose aim was to decrease the morbidity and mortality caused by stings of scorpion as well as to rationalise economic expenses. The components of this strategy were based on the training of the medical and paramedical staff, on information, education, communication involving different sectors, on identification of needs and on follow-up and assessment. A nationwide campaign was implemented to change the population and health-care staff's behaviour regarding this pathology. Its evaluation permitted to improve the compilation of cases with census of 14104 cases, to reduce lethality rate and to rationalise expenses while banishing some medicines and avoiding useless hospitalization.

  8. Phylogeny, evolution, and classification of gall wasps: the plot thickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Gall wasps (Cynipidae) represent the most spectacular radiation of gall-inducing insects. In addition to true gall formers, gall wasps also include phytophagous inquilines, which live inside the galls induced by gall wasps or other insects. Here we present the first comprehensive molecular and total...

  9. Peculiar architectures for the WASP-53 and WASP-81 planet-hosting systems★

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triaud, Amaury H. M. J.; Neveu-VanMalle, Marion; Lendl, Monika; Anderson, David R.; Collier Cameron, Andrew; Delrez, Laetitia; Doyle, Amanda; Gillon, Michaël; Hellier, Coel; Jehin, Emmanuël; Maxted, Pierre F. L.; Ségransan, Damien; Smalley, Barry; Queloz, Didier; Pollacco, Don; Southworth, John; Tregloan-Reed, Jeremy; Udry, Stéphane; West, Richard

    2017-05-01

    We report the detection of two new systems containing transiting planets. Both were identified by WASP as worthy transiting planet candidates. Radial velocity observations quickly verified that the photometric signals were indeed produced by two transiting hot Jupiters. Our observations also show the presence of additional Doppler signals. In addition to short-period hot Jupiters, we find that the WASP-53 and WASP-81 systems also host brown dwarfs, on fairly eccentric orbits with semimajor axes of a few astronomical units. WASP-53c is over 16 MJupsin Ic and WASP-81c is 57 MJupsin Ic. The presence of these tight, massive companions restricts theories of how the inner planets were assembled. We propose two alternative interpretations: the formation of the hot Jupiters within the snow line or the late dynamical arrival of the brown dwarfs after disc dispersal. We also attempted to measure the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect for both hot Jupiters. In the case of WASP-81b, we fail to detect a signal. For WASP-53b, we find that the planet is aligned with respect to the stellar spin axis. In addition we explore the prospect of transit-timing variations, and of using Gaia's astrometry to measure the true masses of both brown dwarfs and also their relative inclination with respect to the inner transiting hot Jupiters.

  10. Chemical Composition and Immuno-Modulatory Effects of Urtica dioica L. (Stinging Nettle) Extracts.

    PubMed

    Francišković, Marina; Gonzalez-Pérez, Raquel; Orčić, Dejan; Sánchez de Medina, Fermín; Martínez-Augustin, Olga; Svirčev, Emilija; Simin, Nataša; Mimica-Dukić, Neda

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this work was to determine the chemical profile of stinging nettle and to provide an insight into the mechanisms by which it ameliorates the immune response. Qualitative and quantitative liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analyses indicated that phenolic acids (5-O-caffeoylquinic acid as dominant) and flavonol glycosides (rutin, isoquercitrin, and kaempferol 3-O-glucoside) are present in the aerial parts, while lignans (secoisolariciresinol, 9,9'-bisacetyl-neo-olivil and their glucosides) were detected in the root. Herb and root extracts expressed selective inhibition toward cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase branches in human platelets: root extracts were better at inhibiting thromboxane production, while herb extracts were more specific toward inhibition of 12-lipoxygenase pathway. Stinging nettle extracts mildly increased monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and growth-related oncogene release from nonstimulated intestinal epithelial cells, stimulating MyD88/NF-κB/p38 signaling, hence preserving the epithelial integrity and enhancing intestinal steady-state defense. Additionally, root extract reduced lipopolysaccharide-induced monocyte chemoattractant protein-1/growth-related oncogene secretion and cyclooxygenase-2 expression in intestinal epithelial cells, thus showing the potential protective effect against tissue damage caused by inflammation processes. These observations suggest that stinging nettle is an interesting candidate for the development of phytopharmaceuticals or dietary supplements for cotreatment of various inflammatory diseases, particularly inflammatory bowel diseases. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Recombinant allergen-based IgE testing to distinguish bee and wasp allergy.

    PubMed

    Mittermann, Irene; Zidarn, Mihaela; Silar, Mira; Markovic-Housley, Zora; Aberer, Werner; Korosec, Peter; Kosnik, Mitja; Valenta, Rudolf

    2010-06-01

    The identification of the disease-causing insect in venom allergy is often difficult. To establish recombinant allergen-based IgE tests to diagnose bee and yellow jacket wasp allergy. Sera from patients with bee and/or wasp allergy (n = 43) and patients with pollen allergy with false-positive IgE serology to venom extracts were tested for IgE reactivity in allergen extract-based tests or with purified allergens, including nonglycosylated Escherichia coli-expressed recombinant (r) Api m 1, rApi m 2, rVes v 5, and insect cell-expressed, glycosylated rApi m 2 as well as 2 natural plant glycoproteins (Phl p 4, bromelain). The patients with venom allergy could be diagnosed with a combination of E coli-expressed rApi m 1, rApi m 2, and rVes v 5 whereas patients with pollen allergy remained negative. For a group of 29 patients for whom the sensitizing venom could not be identified with natural allergen extracts, testing with nonglycosylated allergens allowed identification of the sensitizing venom. Recombinant nonglycosylated allergens also allowed definition of the sensitizing venom for those 14 patients who had reacted either with bee or wasp venom extracts. By IgE inhibition studies, it is shown that glycosylated Api m 2 contains carbohydrate epitopes that cross-react with natural Api m 1, Ves v 2, natural Phl p 4, and bromelain, thus identifying cross-reactive structures responsible for serologic false-positive test results or double-positivity to bee and wasp extracts. Nonglycosylated recombinant bee and wasp venom allergens allow the identification of patients with bee and wasp allergy and should facilitate accurate prescription of venom immunotherapy. Copyright (c) 2010 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. UltraSensitive Mycotoxin Detection by STING Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Actis, Paolo; Jejelowo, Olufisayo; Pourmand, Nader

    2010-01-01

    Signal Transduction by Ion Nano Gating (STING) technology is a label-free biosensor capable of identifying DNA and proteins. Based on a functionalized quartz nanopipette, the STING sensor includes specific recognition elements for analyte discrimination based on size, shape and charge density. A key feature of this technology is that it doesn't require any nanofabrication facility; each nanopipette can be easily, reproducibly, and inexpensively fabricated and tailored at the bench, thus reducing the cost and the turnaround time. Here, we show that STING sensors are capable of the ultrasensitive detection of HT-2 toxin with a detection limit of 100 fg/ml and compare the STING capabilities with respect to conventional sandwich assay techniques. PMID:20829024

  13. Venom Proteins from Parasitoid Wasps and Their Biological Functions

    PubMed Central

    Moreau, Sébastien J. M.; Asgari, Sassan

    2015-01-01

    Parasitoid wasps are valuable biological control agents that suppress their host populations. Factors introduced by the female wasp at parasitization play significant roles in facilitating successful development of the parasitoid larva either inside (endoparasitoid) or outside (ectoparasitoid) the host. Wasp venoms consist of a complex cocktail of proteinacious and non-proteinacious components that may offer agrichemicals as well as pharmaceutical components to improve pest management or health related disorders. Undesirably, the constituents of only a small number of wasp venoms are known. In this article, we review the latest research on venom from parasitoid wasps with an emphasis on their biological function, applications and new approaches used in venom studies. PMID:26131769

  14. Virulent poxviruses inhibit DNA sensing by preventing STING activation.

    PubMed

    Georgana, Iliana; Sumner, Rebecca P; Towers, Greg J; Maluquer de Motes, Carlos

    2018-02-28

    Cytosolic recognition of DNA has emerged as a critical cellular mechanism of host immune activation upon pathogen invasion. The central cytosolic DNA sensor cGAS activates STING, which is phosphorylated, dimerises and translocates from the ER to a perinuclear region to mediate IRF-3 activation. Poxviruses are dsDNA viruses replicating in the cytosol and hence likely to trigger cytosolic DNA sensing. Here we investigated the activation of innate immune signalling by 4 different strains of the prototypic poxvirus vaccinia virus (VACV) in a cell line proficient in DNA sensing. Infection with the attenuated VACV strain MVA activated IRF-3 via cGAS and STING, and accordingly STING dimerised and was phosphorylated during MVA infection. Conversely, VACV strains Copenhagen and Western Reserve inhibited STING dimerisation and phosphorylation during infection and in response to transfected DNA and cGAMP, thus efficiently suppressing DNA sensing and IRF-3 activation. A VACV deletion mutant lacking protein C16, thought to be the only viral DNA sensing inhibitor acting upstream of STING, retained the ability to block STING activation. Similar inhibition of DNA-induced STING activation was also observed for cowpox and ectromelia viruses. Our data demonstrate that virulent poxviruses possess mechanisms for targeting DNA sensing at the level of the cGAS-STING axis and that these mechanisms do not operate in replication-defective strains such as MVA. These findings shed light on the role of cellular DNA sensing in poxvirus-host interactions and will open new avenues to determine its impact on VACV immunogenicity and virulence. IMPORTANCE Poxviruses are dsDNA viruses infecting a wide range of vertebrates and include the causative agent of smallpox (variola virus) and its vaccine vaccinia virus (VACV). Despite smallpox eradication VACV remains of interest as a therapeutic. Attenuated strains are popular vaccine candidates, whereas replication-competent strains are emerging as

  15. Virulent Poxviruses Inhibit DNA Sensing by Preventing STING Activation

    PubMed Central

    Georgana, Iliana; Sumner, Rebecca P.; Towers, Greg J.

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cytosolic recognition of DNA has emerged as a critical cellular mechanism of host immune activation upon pathogen invasion. The central cytosolic DNA sensor cGAS activates STING, which is phosphorylated, dimerizes and translocates from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to a perinuclear region to mediate IRF-3 activation. Poxviruses are double-stranded DNA viruses replicating in the cytosol and hence likely to trigger cytosolic DNA sensing. Here, we investigated the activation of innate immune signaling by 4 different strains of the prototypic poxvirus vaccinia virus (VACV) in a cell line proficient in DNA sensing. Infection with the attenuated VACV strain MVA activated IRF-3 via cGAS and STING, and accordingly STING dimerized and was phosphorylated during MVA infection. Conversely, VACV strains Copenhagen and Western Reserve inhibited STING dimerization and phosphorylation during infection and in response to transfected DNA and cyclic GMP-AMP, thus efficiently suppressing DNA sensing and IRF-3 activation. A VACV deletion mutant lacking protein C16, thought to be the only viral DNA sensing inhibitor acting upstream of STING, retained the ability to block STING activation. Similar inhibition of DNA-induced STING activation was also observed for cowpox and ectromelia viruses. Our data demonstrate that virulent poxviruses possess mechanisms for targeting DNA sensing at the level of the cGAS-STING axis and that these mechanisms do not operate in replication-defective strains such as MVA. These findings shed light on the role of cellular DNA sensing in poxvirus-host interactions and will open new avenues to determine its impact on VACV immunogenicity and virulence. IMPORTANCE Poxviruses are double-stranded DNA viruses infecting a wide range of vertebrates and include the causative agent of smallpox (variola virus) and its vaccine vaccinia virus (VACV). Despite smallpox eradication VACV remains of interest as a therapeutic. Attenuated strains are popular vaccine

  16. Precise Masses in the WASP-47 System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderburg, Andrew; Becker, Juliette C.; Buchhave, Lars A.; Mortier, Annelies; Lopez, Eric; Malavolta, Luca; Haywood, Raphaëlle D.; Latham, David W.; Charbonneau, David; López-Morales, Mercedes; Adams, Fred C.; Bonomo, Aldo Stefano; Bouchy, François; Collier Cameron, Andrew; Cosentino, Rosario; Di Fabrizio, Luca; Dumusque, Xavier; Fiorenzano, Aldo; Harutyunyan, Avet; Johnson, John Asher; Lorenzi, Vania; Lovis, Christophe; Mayor, Michel; Micela, Giusi; Molinari, Emilio; Pedani, Marco; Pepe, Francesco; Piotto, Giampaolo; Phillips, David; Rice, Ken; Sasselov, Dimitar; Ségransan, Damien; Sozzetti, Alessandro; Udry, Stéphane; Watson, Chris

    2017-12-01

    We present precise radial velocity observations of WASP-47, a star known to host a hot Jupiter, a distant Jovian companion, and, uniquely, two additional transiting planets in short-period orbits: a super-Earth in a ≈19 hr orbit, and a Neptune in a ≈9 day orbit. We analyze our observations from the HARPS-N spectrograph along with previously published data to measure the most precise planet masses yet for this system. When combined with new stellar parameters and reanalyzed transit photometry, our mass measurements place strong constraints on the compositions of the two small planets. We find that, unlike most other ultra-short-period planets, the inner planet, WASP-47 e, has a mass (6.83 ± 0.66 {M}\\oplus ) and a radius (1.810 ± 0.027 {R}\\oplus ) that are inconsistent with an Earth-like composition. Instead, WASP-47 e likely has a volatile-rich envelope surrounding an Earth-like core and mantle. We also perform a dynamical analysis to constrain the orbital inclination of WASP-47 c, the outer Jovian planet. This planet likely orbits close to the plane of the inner three planets, suggesting a quiet dynamical history for the system. Our dynamical constraints also imply that WASP-47 c is much more likely to transit than a geometric calculation would suggest. We calculate a transit probability for WASP-47 c of about 10%, more than an order of magnitude larger than the geometric transit probability of 0.6%.

  17. Diagnostic methods for insect sting allergy.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Robert G

    2004-08-01

    This review overviews advances from mid-2002 to the present in the validation and performance methods used in the diagnosis of Hymenoptera venom-induced immediate-type hypersensitivity. The general diagnostic algorithm for insect sting allergy is initially discussed with an examination of the AAAAI's 2003 revised practice parameter guidelines. Changes as a result of a greater recognition of skin test negative systemic reactors include repeat analysis of all testing and acceptance of serology as a complementary diagnostic test to the skin test. Original data examining concordance of venom-specific IgE results produced by the second-generation Pharmacia CAP System with the Johns Hopkins University radioallergosorbent test are presented. Diagnostic performance of honeybee venom-specific IgE assays used in clinical laboratories in North America is discussed using data from the Diagnostic Allergy Proficiency Survey conducted by the College of American Pathologists. Validity of venom-specific IgE antibody in postmortem blood specimens is demonstrated. The utility of alternative in-vivo (provocation) and in-vitro (basophil-based) diagnostic testing methods is critiqued. This overview supports the following conclusions. Improved practice parameter guidelines include serology and skin test as complementary in supporting a positive clinical history during the diagnostic process. Data are provided which support the analytical performance of commercially available venom-specific IgE antibody serology-based assays. Intentional sting challenge in-vivo provocation, in-vitro basophil flow cytometry (CD63, CD203c) based assays, and in-vitro basophil histamine and sulfidoleukotriene release assays have their utility in the study of difficult diagnostic cases, but their use will remain as supplementary, secondary diagnostic tests.

  18. NET23/STING Promotes Chromatin Compaction from the Nuclear Envelope

    PubMed Central

    de las Heras, Jose I.; Saiz-Ros, Natalia; Makarov, Alexandr A.; Lazou, Vassiliki; Meinke, Peter; Waterfall, Martin; Kelly, David A.; Schirmer, Eric C.

    2014-01-01

    Changes in the peripheral distribution and amount of condensed chromatin are observed in a number of diseases linked to mutations in the lamin A protein of the nuclear envelope. We postulated that lamin A interactions with nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins (NETs) that affect chromatin structure might be altered in these diseases and so screened thirty-one NETs for those that promote chromatin compaction as determined by an increase in the number of chromatin clusters of high pixel intensity. One of these, NET23 (also called STING, MITA, MPYS, ERIS, Tmem173), strongly promoted chromatin compaction. A correlation between chromatin compaction and endogenous levels of NET23/STING was observed for a number of human cell lines, suggesting that NET23/STING may contribute generally to chromatin condensation. NET23/STING has separately been found to be involved in innate immune response signaling. Upon infection cells make a choice to either apoptose or to alter chromatin architecture to support focused expression of interferon genes and other response factors. We postulate that the chromatin compaction induced by NET23/STING may contribute to this choice because the cells expressing NET23/STING eventually apoptose, but the chromatin compaction effect is separate from this as the condensation was still observed when cells were treated with Z-VAD to block apoptosis. NET23/STING-induced compacted chromatin revealed changes in epigenetic marks including changes in histone methylation and acetylation. This indicates a previously uncharacterized nuclear role for NET23/STING potentially in both innate immune signaling and general chromatin architecture. PMID:25386906

  19. Ocular Jellyfish Stings: Report of 2 Cases and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Mao, Chen; Hsu, Chien-Chin; Chen, Kuo-Tai

    2016-09-01

    An ocular jellyfish sting is an ophthalmic emergency and is rarely reported in the medical literature. With the evolution of aquatic activities and entertainment in recent decades, we anticipate that more patients with ocular jellyfish stings may be taken to the emergency department. However, most physicians are unaware of the typical presentations, suitable treatments, prognosis, and possible complications of ocular jellyfish stings. We reported 2 cases with ocular jellyfish stings and collected cases series from literature review. The most common clinical features of ocular jellyfish stings were pain, conjunctival injection, corneal lesion, and photophobia. All patients who sustained ocular stings did so during aquatic activities, and the best management at the scene was proper analgesics and copious irrigation of affected eyes with seawater or saline. The ocular lesions were treated with topical cycloplegics, topical steroids, topical antibiotics, topical antihistamines, and removal of nematocysts. The prognosis was good, and all patients recovered without any permanent sequelae. However, symptoms in some patients may last longer than 1 week. Reported complications included iritis, increased intraocular pressures, mydriasis, decreased accommodation, and peripheral anterior synechiae. Copyright © 2016 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Jellyfish venomics and venom gland transcriptomics analysis of Stomolophus meleagris to reveal the toxins associated with sting.

    PubMed

    Li, Rongfeng; Yu, Huahua; Xue, Wei; Yue, Yang; Liu, Song; Xing, Ronge; Li, Pengcheng

    2014-06-25

    Jellyfish Stomolophus meleagris is a very dangerous animal because of its strong toxicity. However, the composition of the venom is still unclear. Both proteomics and transcriptomics approaches were applied in present study to investigate the major components and their possible relationships to the sting. The proteomics of the venom from S. meleagris was conducted by tryptic digestion of the crude venom followed by RP-HPLC separation and MS/MS analysis of the tryptic peptides. The venom gland transcriptome was analyzed using a high-throughput Illumina sequencing platform HiSeq 2000 with de novo assembly. A total of 218 toxins were identified including C-type lectin, phospholipase A₂ (PLA₂), potassium channel inhibitor, protease inhibitor, metalloprotease, hemolysin and other toxins, most of which should be responsible for the sting. Among them, serine protease inhibitor, PLA₂, potassium channel inhibitor and metalloprotease are predominant, representing 28.44%, 21.56%, 16.06% and 15.14% of the identified venom proteins, respectively. Overall, our combined proteomics and transcriptomics approach provides a systematic overview of the toxins in the venom of jellyfish S. meleagris and it will be significant to understand the mechanism of the sting. Jellyfish Stomolophus meleagris is a very dangerous animal because of its strong toxicity. It often bloomed in the coast of China in recent years and caused thousands of people stung and even deaths every year. However, the components which caused sting are still unknown yet. In addition, no study about the venomics of jellyfish S. meleagris has been reported. In the present study, both proteomics and transcriptomics approaches were applied to investigate the major components related to the sting. The result showed that major component included C-type lectin, phospholipase A₂, potassium channel inhibitor, protease inhibitor, metalloprotease, hemolysin and other toxins, which should be responsible for the effect of

  1. High-throughput olfactory conditioning and memory retention test show variation in Nasonia parasitic wasps

    PubMed Central

    Hoedjes, K M; Steidle, J L M; Werren, J H; Vet, L E M; Smid, H M

    2012-01-01

    Most of our knowledge on learning and memory formation results from extensive studies on a small number of animal species. Although features and cellular pathways of learning and memory are highly similar in this diverse group of species, there are also subtle differences. Closely related species of parasitic wasps display substantial variation in memory dynamics and can be instrumental to understanding both the adaptive benefit of and mechanisms underlying this variation. Parasitic wasps of the genus Nasonia offer excellent opportunities for multidisciplinary research on this topic. Genetic and genomic resources available for Nasonia are unrivaled among parasitic wasps, providing tools for genetic dissection of mechanisms that cause differences in learning. This study presents a robust, high-throughput method for olfactory conditioning of Nasonia using a host encounter as reward. A T-maze olfactometer facilitates high-throughput memory retention testing and employs standardized odors of equal detectability, as quantified by electroantennogram recordings. Using this setup, differences in memory retention between Nasonia species were shown. In both Nasonia vitripennis and Nasonia longicornis, memory was observed up to at least 5 days after a single conditioning trial, whereas Nasonia giraulti lost its memory after 2 days. This difference in learning may be an adaptation to species-specific differences in ecological factors, for example, host preference. The high-throughput methods for conditioning and memory retention testing are essential tools to study both ultimate and proximate factors that cause variation in learning and memory formation in Nasonia and other parasitic wasp species. PMID:22804968

  2. A sting from an unknown jellyfish species associated with persistent symptoms and raised troponin I levels.

    PubMed

    McD Taylor, David; Pereira, Peter; Seymour, Jamie; Winkel, Kenneth D

    2002-06-01

    We describe a patient stung by an unknown jellyfish species offshore in Far North Queensland. The sting caused immediate and severe pain, multiple whip-like skin lesions and constitutional symptoms. The jellyfish tentacular nematocysyts were similar to, but distinct from, those of Carukia barnesi, a cause of the 'Irukandji' syndrome. The patients symptoms largely resolved over seven months and were associated with elevated cardiac troponin levels, in the absence of other evidence of cardiac disease. This case highlights the envenomation risks associated with marine recreation, and the need for critical evaluation of cardiac troponin assays and for further research in marine toxicology.

  3. Hot Jupiters with relatives: discovery of additional planets in orbit around WASP-41 and WASP-47

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neveu-VanMalle, M.; Queloz, D.; Anderson, D. R.; Brown, D. J. A.; Collier Cameron, A.; Delrez, L.; Díaz, R. F.; Gillon, M.; Hellier, C.; Jehin, E.; Lister, T.; Pepe, F.; Rojo, P.; Ségransan, D.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Turner, O. D.; Udry, S.

    2016-02-01

    We report the discovery of two additional planetary companions to WASP-41 and WASP-47. WASP-41 c is a planet of minimum mass 3.18 ± 0.20 MJup and eccentricity 0.29 ± 0.02, and it orbits in 421 ± 2 days. WASP-47 c is a planet of minimum mass 1.24 ± 0.22 MJup and eccentricity 0.13 ± 0.10, and it orbits in 572 ± 7 days. Unlike most of the planetary systems that include a hot Jupiter, these two systems with a hot Jupiter have a long-period planet located at only ~1 au from their host star. WASP-41 is a rather young star known to be chromospherically active. To differentiate its magnetic cycle from the radial velocity effect induced by the second planet, we used the emission in the Hα line and find this indicator well suited to detecting the stellar activity pattern and the magnetic cycle. The analysis of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect induced by WASP-41 b suggests that the planet could be misaligned, though an aligned orbit cannot be excluded. WASP-47 has recently been found to host two additional transiting super Earths. With such an unprecedented architecture, the WASP-47 system will be very important for understanding planetary migration. Using data collected at ESO's La Silla Observatory, Chile: HARPS on the ESO 3.6 m (Prog ID 087.C-0649 & 089.C-0151), the Swiss Euler Telescope, TRAPPIST, the 1.54-m Danish telescope (Prog CN2013A-159), and at the LCOGT's Faulkes Telescope South.Photometric lightcurve and RV tables are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/586/A93

  4. Aldolase sequesters WASP and affects WASP/Arp2/3-stimulated actin dynamics.

    PubMed

    Ritterson Lew, Carolyn; Tolan, Dean R

    2013-08-01

    In addition to its roles in sugar metabolism, fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (aldolase) has been implicated in cellular functions independent from these roles, termed "moonlighting functions." These moonlighting functions likely involve the known aldolase-actin interaction, as many proteins with which aldolase interacts are involved in actin-dependent processes. Specifically, aldolase interacts both in vitro and in cells with Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein (WASP), a protein involved in controlling actin dynamics, yet the function of this interaction remains unknown. Here, the effect of aldolase on WASP-dependent processes in vitro and in cells is investigated. Aldolase inhibits WASP/Arp2/3-dependent actin polymerization in vitro. In cells, knockdown of aldolase results in a decreased rate of cell motility and cell spreading, two WASP-dependent processes. Expression of exogenous aldolase rescues these defects. Whether these effects of aldolase on WASP-dependent processes were due to aldolase catalysis or moonlighting functions is tested using aldolase variants defective in either catalytic or actin-binding activity. While the actin-binding deficient aldolase variant is unable to inhibit actin polymerization in vitro and is unable to rescue cell motility defects in cells, the catalytically inactive aldolase is able to perform these functions, providing evidence that aldolase moonlighting plays a role in WASP-mediated processes. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Respiration patterns of resting wasps (Vespula sp.)

    PubMed Central

    Käfer, Helmut; Kovac, Helmut; Stabentheiner, Anton

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the respiration patterns of wasps (Vespula sp.) in their viable temperature range (2.9–42.4 °C) by measuring CO2 production and locomotor and endothermic activity. Wasps showed cycles of an interburst–burst type at low ambient temperatures (Ta < 5 °C) or typical discontinuous gas exchange patterns with closed, flutter and open phases. At high Ta of >31 °C, CO2 emission became cyclic. With rising Ta they enhanced CO2-emission primarily by an exponential increase in respiration frequency, from 2.6 mHz at 4.7 °C to 74 mHz at 39.7 °C. In the same range of Ta CO2 release per cycle decreased from 38.9 to 26.4 μl g−1 cycle−1. A comparison of wasps with other insects showed that they are among the insects with a low respiratory frequency at a given resting metabolic rate (RMR), and a relatively flat increase of respiratory frequency with RMR. CO2 emission was always accompanied by abdominal respiration movements in all open phases and in 71.4% of the flutter phases, often accompanied by body movements. Results suggest that resting wasps gain their highly efficient gas exchange to a considerable extent via the length and type of respiration movements. PMID:23399474

  6. Rush immunotherapy for wasp venom allergy seems safe and effective in patients with mastocytosis.

    PubMed

    Verburg, M; Oldhoff, J M; Klemans, R J B; Lahey-de Boer, A; de Bruin-Weller, M S; Röckmann, H; Sanders, C; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, C A F M; Pasmans, S G M A; Knulst, A C

    2015-11-01

    Patients with mastocytosis and wasp venom allergy (WA) may benefit from venom immunotherapy (VIT). However, fatal insect sting reactions have been described in mastocytosis patients despite previous immunotherapy. We investigated the safety and efficacy of (rush) VIT in patients with mastocytosis and WA. To investigate the safety and efficacy of (rush) VIT in patients with mastocytosis and WA. We describe nine patients with cutaneous mastocytosis and WA who received VIT. Cutaneous mastocytosis was confirmed by histopathology and systemic mastocytosis was diagnosed according to World Health Organization criteria. VIT was given according to a rush protocol. Given the difference in safety and efficacy of VIT in patients with WA and honeybee venom allergy, we reviewed the literature for VIT with the focus on WA patients with mastocytosis and addressed the difference between patients with cutaneous versus systemic mastocytosis. Nine patients had WA and mastocytosis, of whom six had cutaneous mastocytosis, two combined cutaneous and systemic mastocytosis and one systemic mastocytosis. All patients received rush IT with wasp venom. Most patients had only mild local side effects, with no systemic side effects during the course of VIT. One patient had a systemic reaction upon injection on one occasion, during the updosing phase, with dyspnoea and hypotension, but responded well to treatment. Immunotherapy was continued after temporary dose adjustment without problems. Two patients with a previous anaphylactic reaction were re-stung, without any systemic effects. VIT is safe in cutaneous mastocytosis patients with WA, while caution has to be made in case of systemic mastocytosis. VIT was effective in the patients who were re-stung.

  7. Biomechanics of substrate boring by fig wasps.

    PubMed

    Kundanati, Lakshminath; Gundiah, Namrata

    2014-06-01

    Female insects of diverse orders bore into substrates to deposit their eggs. Such insects must overcome several biomechanical challenges to successfully oviposit, which include the selection of suitable substrates through which the ovipositor can penetrate without itself fracturing. In many cases, the insect may also need to steer and manipulate the ovipositor within the substrate to deliver eggs at desired locations before rapidly retracting her ovipositor to avoid predation. In the case of female parasitoid ichneumonid wasps, this process is repeated multiple times during her lifetime, thus testing the ability of the ovipositioning apparatus to endure fracture and fatigue. What specific adaptations does the ovipositioning apparatus of a female ichneumonoid wasp possess to withstand these challenges? We addressed this question using a model system composed of parasitoid and pollinator fig wasps. First, we show that parasitoid ovipositor tips have teeth-like structures, preferentially enriched with zinc, unlike the smooth morphology of pollinator ovipositors. We describe sensillae present on the parasitoid ovipositor tip that are likely to aid in the detection of chemical species and mechanical deformations and sample microenvironments within the substrate. Second, using atomic force microscopy, we show that parasitoid tip regions have a higher modulus compared with regions proximal to the abdomen in parasitoid and pollinator ovipositors. Finally, we use videography to film wasps during substrate boring and analyse buckling of the ovipositor to estimate the forces required for substrate boring. Together, these results allow us to describe the biomechanical principles underlying substrate boring in parasitoid ichneumonid wasps. Such studies may be useful for the biomimetic design of surgical tools and in the use of novel mechanisms to bore through hard substrates. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. WASP and SCAR are evolutionarily conserved in actin-filled pseudopod-based motility

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Diverse eukaryotic cells crawl through complex environments using distinct modes of migration. To understand the underlying mechanisms and their evolutionary relationships, we must define each mode and identify its phenotypic and molecular markers. In this study, we focus on a widely dispersed migration mode characterized by dynamic actin-filled pseudopods that we call “α-motility.” Mining genomic data reveals a clear trend: only organisms with both WASP and SCAR/WAVE—activators of branched actin assembly—make actin-filled pseudopods. Although SCAR has been shown to drive pseudopod formation, WASP’s role in this process is controversial. We hypothesize that these genes collectively represent a genetic signature of α-motility because both are used for pseudopod formation. WASP depletion from human neutrophils confirms that both proteins are involved in explosive actin polymerization, pseudopod formation, and cell migration. WASP and WAVE also colocalize to dynamic signaling structures. Moreover, retention of WASP together with SCAR correctly predicts α-motility in disease-causing chytrid fungi, which we show crawl at >30 µm/min with actin-filled pseudopods. By focusing on one migration mode in many eukaryotes, we identify a genetic marker of pseudopod formation, the morphological feature of α-motility, providing evidence for a widely distributed mode of cell crawling with a single evolutionary origin. PMID:28473602

  9. Generation of a Circumstellar Gas Disk by Hot Jupiter WASP-12b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debrecht, Alex; Carroll-Nellenback, Jonathan; Frank, Adam; Fossati, Luca; Blackman, Eric G.; Dobbs-Dixon, Ian

    2018-05-01

    Observations of transiting extra-solar planets provide rich sources of data for probing the in-system environment. In the WASP-12 system, a broad depression in the usually-bright MgII h&k lines has been observed, in addition to atmospheric escape from the extremely hot Jupiter WASP-12b. It has been hypothesized that a translucent circumstellar cloud is formed by the outflow from the planet, causing the observed signatures. We perform 3D hydrodynamic simulations of the full system environment of WASP-12, injecting a planetary wind and stellar wind from their respective surfaces. We find that a torus of density high enough to account for the lack of MgII h&k line core emission in WASP-12 can be formed in approximately 13 years. We also perform synthetic observations of the Lyman-alpha spectrum at different points in the planet's orbit, which demonstrate that significant absorption occurs at all points in the orbit, not just during transits, as suggested by the observations.

  10. A 'difficult' insect allergy patient: reliable history of a sting, but all testing negative.

    PubMed

    Tracy, James M; Olsen, Jonathan A; Carlson, John

    2015-08-01

    Few conditions are as treatable as allergy to stinging insects, with venom immunotherapy (VIT) providing up to 98% protection to subsequent stings. The challenge with VIT is not in the treatment, but in the diagnosis. To offer VIT, one must determine a history of a systemic reaction to a stinging insect in conjunction with the presence venom-specific IgE. Current diagnostic methods, although sensitive and specific, are imperfect, and some newer testing options are not widely available. A conundrum occasionally faced is the patient with a reliable and compelling history of a systemic allergic reaction yet negative venom-specific testing. This diagnostic dilemma presents an opportunity to consider possible causes for this diagnostic challenge. Our evolving understanding of the role of occult mast cell disease may begin to help us understand this situation and develop appropriate management strategies. Venom-specific skin testing has long been the cornerstone of the evaluation of venom sensitivity and is often combined with in-vitro assays to add clarity, but even these occasionally may fall short. Exploring novel venom diagnostic testing methods may help to fill in some of the diagnostic gaps. Do currently available venom vaccines contain all the key venom species? Are there enough differences between insect species that we may simply be missing the relevant allergens? What is the significance of the antigenicity of carbohydrate moieties in venoms? What is the role of recombinant venom extracts? VIT is the definitive treatment for insect allergic individuals. To utilize VIT, identification of the relevant Hymenoptera is necessary. Unfortunately, this cannot always be accomplished. This deficiency can have several causes: a potential comorbid condition such as occult mast cell disease, limitations of currently available diagnostic resources, or testing vaccines with an insufficient coverage of relevant venom allergens. Exploring these potential causes may help to

  11. WASP-42 b and WASP-49 b: two new transiting sub-Jupiters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lendl, M.; Anderson, D. R.; Collier-Cameron, A.; Doyle, A. P.; Gillon, M.; Hellier, C.; Jehin, E.; Lister, T. A.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Smalley, B.; Ségransan, D.; Smith, A. M. S.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Udry, S.; West, R. G.; Wheatley, P. J.

    2012-08-01

    We report the discovery of two new transiting planets from the WASP survey. WASP-42 b is a 0.500 ± 0.035 MJ planet orbiting a K1 star at a separation of 0.0548 ± 0.0017 AU with a period of 4.9816872 ± 7.3 × 10-6 days. The radius of WASP-42 b is 1.080 ± 0.057 RJ while its equilibrium temperature is Teq = 995 ± 34 K. We detect some evidence for a small but non-zero eccentricity of e = 0.060 ± 0.013. WASP-49 b is a 0.378 ± 0.027 MJ planet around an old G6 star. It has a period of 2.7817387 ± 5.6 × 10-6 days and a separation of 0.0379 ± 0.0011 AU. This planet is slightly bloated, having a radius of 1.115 ± 0.047 RJ and an equilibrium temperature of Teq = 1369 ± 39 K. Both planets have been followed up photometrically, and in total we have obtained 5 full and one partial transit light curves of WASP-42 and 4 full and one partial light curves of WASP-49 using the Euler-Swiss, TRAPPIST and Faulkes South telescopes. Based on photometric observations made with WASP-South, EulerCam on the Euler-Swiss telescope, the Belgian TRAPPIST telescope, the Faulkes South Telescope and spectroscopic observations obtained with CORALIE on the Euler-Swiss telescope and HARPS on the ESO 3.6 m telescope (Prog. ID: 087.C-0649).The photometric time series and radial velocity data in this work are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/544/A72

  12. Stinging insect allergy: state of the art 2015.

    PubMed

    Tankersley, Michael S; Ledford, Dennis K

    2015-01-01

    Stinging insect allergy is responsible for more than 10% of all cases of anaphylaxis. The potential culprit insects are diverse and vary with geography. The incidence of insect allergy is declining in some areas and increasing in others, possibly due to effects of climate change, introduction of species into new areas, outdoor recreational activities, and movement of human populations that brings insects into contact with a greater number of people. Flying Hymenoptera and imported fire ant stings are responsible for the majority of patients evaluated for insect anaphylaxis. The most efficient means of identifying allergy to insects is skin testing although falsely positive and negative results occur. The limitations of testing coupled with the natural temporal variability of allergic sensitivity complicate the interpretation of test results. The clinical history is of paramount importance to be certain that the test results are relevant; therefore, screening or testing before a history of a sting reaction is not advisable. Mast cell disorders are associated with severe anaphylaxis from insect stings and should be considered in affected subjects. Insect immunotherapy, using venoms for most insects and whole-body extracts for imported fire ants, is proven effective in reducing the likelihood of anaphylaxis due to subsequent stings from 40%-60% to less than 5%. Future clinical application of component testing or in vitro cellular tests, such as the basophil activation test, may improve optimal choices for immunotherapy. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Analysis of vesicle fluid following the sting of the lionfish Pterois volitans.

    PubMed

    Auerbach, P S; McKinney, H E; Rees, R S; Heggers, J P

    1987-01-01

    Fluid aspirated from blisters following a lionfish (Pterois volitans) sting was analyzed utilizing combined capillary column gas chromatography and negative ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Analysis for prostaglandin F2 alpha demonstrated 16.91 ng/ml, for prostaglandin E2 0.143 ng/ml, for 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha less than 0.1 ng/ml (nondetectable) and for thromboxane B2 1.65 ng/ml. Platelet aggregation studies showed that blister fluid caused aggregation of isolated platelets only, which was inhibited by heat treatment or by the presence of normal donor plasma.

  14. Reversible thrombin detection by aptamer functionalized STING sensors.

    PubMed

    Actis, Paolo; Rogers, Adam; Nivala, Jeff; Vilozny, Boaz; Seger, R Adam; Jejelowo, Olufisayo; Pourmand, Nader

    2011-07-15

    Signal Transduction by Ion NanoGating (STING) is a label-free technology based on functionalized quartz nanopipettes. The nanopipette pore can be decorated with a variety of recognition elements and the molecular interaction is transduced via a simple electrochemical system. A STING sensor can be easily and reproducibly fabricated and tailored at the bench starting from inexpensive quartz capillaries. The analytical application of this new biosensing platform, however, was limited due to the difficult correlation between the measured ionic current and the analyte concentration in solution. Here we show that STING sensors functionalized with aptamers allow the quantitative detection of thrombin. The binding of thrombin generates a signal that can be directly correlated to its concentration in the bulk solution. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Reversible thrombin detection by aptamer functionalized STING sensors

    PubMed Central

    Actis, Paolo; Rogers, Adam; Nivala, Jeff; Vilozny, Boaz; Seger, R. Adam; Jejelowo, Olufisayo; Pourmand, Nader

    2011-01-01

    Signal Transduction by Ion NanoGating (STING) is a label-free technology based on functionalized quartz nanopipettes. The nanopipette pore can be decorated with a variety of recognition elements and the molecular interaction is transduced via a simple electrochemical system. A STING sensor can be easily and reproducibly fabricated and tailored at the bench starting from inexpensive quartz capillaries. The analytical application of this new biosensing platform, however, was limited due to the difficult correlation between the measured ionic current and the analyte concentration in solution. Here we show that STING sensors functionalized with aptamers allow the quantitative detection of thrombin. The binding of thrombin generates a signal that can be directly correlated to its concentration in the bulk solution. PMID:21636261

  16. Food poisoning associated with ingestion of wild wasp broods in the upstream region of the Lancang river valley, Yunnan province, China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Li; Huang, Tian

    2018-04-01

    Food poisoning due to wild wasp broods ingestion has long been noted in the upstream region of the Lancang river valley, Yunnan province, China. This study describes the epidemiological and clinical features of the poisoning and possible causes. Surveillance data collected between 2008 and 2016 were analyzed to produce demographic data on patients, information on clinical presentations, wasp species identification, and estimations of possible risk factors for symptomatic cases. Eleven poisoning events were associated with the ingestion of wild wasp broods, including 46 exposed persons with 31 symptomatic living cases and 8 deceased cases that were reported in the Yunnan province between 2008 and 2016. Poisoning cases were only detected in the upstream region of the Lancang river valley in the autumn. The severity of the symptoms was correlated with an evident dose-effect relationship regarding the quantity ingested. The mean latent period from wild wasp broods ingestion to the onset of the symptoms was 10 h for symptomatic living cases and 7 h for deceased cases, respectively. Both gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms were commonly observed in the poisoning cases. The toxin source may be indirectly caused by the wasp broods due to the prevalence of local poisonous plants, such as Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F, Tripterygium hypoglaucum Hutch and Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb. Educational programs at the start of wasp harvest season in September in the high-risk area should be carried out to reduce the incidence of poisonings. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Interference Competition and High Temperatures Reduce the Virulence of Fig Wasps and Stabilize a Fig-Wasp Mutualism

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Bao-Fa; Zheng, Qi; Dunn, Derek W.; Cook, James; Shi, Lei; Zhang, Ya-Ping; Yu, Douglas W.

    2009-01-01

    Fig trees are pollinated by fig wasps, which also oviposit in female flowers. The wasp larvae gall and eat developing seeds. Although fig trees benefit from allowing wasps to oviposit, because the wasp offspring disperse pollen, figs must prevent wasps from ovipositing in all flowers, or seed production would cease, and the mutualism would go extinct. In Ficus racemosa, we find that syconia (‘figs’) that have few foundresses (ovipositing wasps) are underexploited in the summer (few seeds, few galls, many empty ovules) and are overexploited in the winter (few seeds, many galls, few empty ovules). Conversely, syconia with many foundresses produce intermediate numbers of galls and seeds, regardless of season. We use experiments to explain these patterns, and thus, to explain how this mutualism is maintained. In the hot summer, wasps suffer short lifespans and therefore fail to oviposit in many flowers. In contrast, cooler temperatures in the winter permit longer wasp lifespans, which in turn allows most flowers to be exploited by the wasps. However, even in winter, only in syconia that happen to have few foundresses are most flowers turned into galls. In syconia with higher numbers of foundresses, interference competition reduces foundress lifespans, which reduces the proportion of flowers that are galled. We further show that syconia encourage the entry of multiple foundresses by delaying ostiole closure. Taken together, these factors allow fig trees to reduce galling in the wasp-benign winter and boost galling (and pollination) in the wasp-stressing summer. Interference competition has been shown to reduce virulence in pathogenic bacteria. Our results show that interference also maintains cooperation in a classic, cooperative symbiosis, thus linking theories of virulence and mutualism. More generally, our results reveal how frequency-dependent population regulation can occur in the fig-wasp mutualism, and how a host species can ‘set the rules of the game’ to

  18. Social wasps are a Saccharomyces mating nest.

    PubMed

    Stefanini, Irene; Dapporto, Leonardo; Berná, Luisa; Polsinelli, Mario; Turillazzi, Stefano; Cavalieri, Duccio

    2016-02-23

    The reproductive ecology of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is still largely unknown. Recent evidence of interspecific hybridization, high levels of strain heterozygosity, and prion transmission suggest that outbreeding occurs frequently in yeasts. Nevertheless, the place where yeasts mate and recombine in the wild has not been identified. We found that the intestine of social wasps hosts highly outbred S. cerevisiae strains as well as a rare S. cerevisiae×S. paradoxus hybrid. We show that the intestine of Polistes dominula social wasps favors the mating of S. cerevisiae strains among themselves and with S. paradoxus cells by providing a succession of environmental conditions prompting cell sporulation and spores germination. In addition, we prove that heterospecific mating is the only option for European S. paradoxus strains to survive in the gut. Taken together, these findings unveil the best hidden secret of yeast ecology, introducing the insect gut as an environmental alcove in which crosses occur, maintaining and generating the diversity of the ascomycetes.

  19. On predatory wasps and zombie cockroaches

    PubMed Central

    Libersat, Frederic

    2010-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggest that nonhuman organisms, including invertebrates, possess the ability to make non-random choices based purely on ongoing and endogenously-created neuronal processes. We study this precursor of spontaneity in cockroaches stung by A. compressa, a parasitoid wasp that employs cockroaches as a live food supply for its offspring. This wasp uses a neurotoxic venom cocktail to ‘hijack’ the nervous system of its cockroach prey and manipulate specific features of its decision making process, thereby turning the cockroach into a submissive ‘zombie' unable to self-initiate locomotion. We discuss different behavioral and physiological aspects of this venom-induced ‘zombified state’ and highlight at least one neuronal substrate involved in the regulation of spontaneous behavior in insects. PMID:21057640

  20. Hypertonic saline in the treatment of corneal jellyfish stings.

    PubMed

    Yu Yao, Hsin; Cho, Ta Hsiung; Lu, Ching Hsiang; Lin, Feng Chi; Horng, Chi Ting

    2016-02-01

    A 20-year-old male soldier was hit by the jellyfish. The ophthalmic examination revealed that epithelial keratitis and corneal oedema in the right eye. We prescribed 3% NaCl eyedrops and 0.3% Norfloxacin eyedrops in the treatment of the corneal jellyfish stings. Two weeks later, the cornea in the right eye healed. In this case report, 3% NaCl eyedrops was effective in the treatment of acute phase of jellyfish stings of the cornea. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Analysis of Sting Balance Calibration Data Using Optimized Regression Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulbrich, Norbert; Bader, Jon B.

    2009-01-01

    Calibration data of a wind tunnel sting balance was processed using a search algorithm that identifies an optimized regression model for the data analysis. The selected sting balance had two moment gages that were mounted forward and aft of the balance moment center. The difference and the sum of the two gage outputs were fitted in the least squares sense using the normal force and the pitching moment at the balance moment center as independent variables. The regression model search algorithm predicted that the difference of the gage outputs should be modeled using the intercept and the normal force. The sum of the two gage outputs, on the other hand, should be modeled using the intercept, the pitching moment, and the square of the pitching moment. Equations of the deflection of a cantilever beam are used to show that the search algorithm s two recommended math models can also be obtained after performing a rigorous theoretical analysis of the deflection of the sting balance under load. The analysis of the sting balance calibration data set is a rare example of a situation when regression models of balance calibration data can directly be derived from first principles of physics and engineering. In addition, it is interesting to see that the search algorithm recommended the same regression models for the data analysis using only a set of statistical quality metrics.

  2. Saudi medicinal plants for the treatment of scorpion sting envenomation.

    PubMed

    Al-Asmari, Abdulrahman; Manthiri, Rajamohamed Abbas; Abdo, Nasreddien; Al-Duaiji, Fawzi Abdullah; Khan, Haseeb Ahmad

    2017-09-01

    Scorpion sting envenoming poses major public health problems. The treatment modalities include antivenoms, chemical antidotes and phytotherapy, with varying degrees of effectiveness and side effects. In this investigation, we reviewed the use of Saudi medicinal plants for the treatment of scorpion sting patients. The relevant literature was collected using the online search engines including Science Direct, Google and PubMed with the help of specific keywords. We also used the printed and online resources at our institutional library to gather the relevant information on the use of medicinal plants for the treatment of scorpion sting patients. A descriptive statistics was used for data compilation and presentation. The results of this survey showed the use of at least 92 medicinal plants with beneficial effects for treating victims of stings of different scorpion species. These commonly used herbs spanned to 37 families whilst different parts of these plants were employed therapeutically for alleviation of envenomation symptoms. The application of leaves (41%) was preferred followed by roots (19%), whole plant (14%) and seeds (9%). The use of latex (4%), stem (3%), flowers (3%) and bark (3%) was also reported. In some cases, tannin (2%), rhizome (1%) and shoot (1%) were also used. In conclusion, herbal medicines are effectively used for the treatment of patients with scorpion envenomation. This type of medication is free from side effects as observed with chemical antidotes or antivenom therapy. It is important to identify the active ingredients of herbal drugs for improving their therapeutic potential in traditional medicine.

  3. Transits and starspots in the WASP-6 planetary system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tregloan-Reed, Jeremy; Southworth, John; Burgdorf, M.; Novati, S. Calchi; Dominik, M.; Finet, F.; Jørgensen, U. G.; Maier, G.; Mancini, L.; Prof, S.; Ricci, D.; Snodgrass, C.; Bozza, V.; Browne, P.; Dodds, P.; Gerner, T.; Harpsøe, K.; Hinse, T. C.; Hundertmark, M.; Kains, N.; Kerins, E.; Liebig, C.; Penny, M. T.; Rahvar, S.; Sahu, K.; Scarpetta, G.; Schäfer, S.; Schönebeck, F.; Skottfelt, J.; Surdej, J.

    2015-06-01

    We present updates to PRISM, a photometric transit-starspot model, and GEMC, a hybrid optimization code combining MCMC and a genetic algorithm. We then present high-precision photometry of four transits in the WASP-6 planetary system, two of which contain a starspot anomaly. All four transits were modelled using PRISM and GEMC, and the physical properties of the system calculated. We find the mass and radius of the host star to be 0.836 ± 0.063 M⊙ and 0.864 ± 0.024 R⊙, respectively. For the planet, we find a mass of 0.485 ± 0.027 MJup, a radius of 1.230 ± 0.035 RJup and a density of 0.244 ± 0.014 ρJup. These values are consistent with those found in the literature. In the likely hypothesis that the two spot anomalies are caused by the same starspot or starspot complex, we measure the stars rotation period and velocity to be 23.80 ± 0.15 d and 1.78 ± 0.20 km s-1, respectively, at a colatitude of 75.8°. We find that the sky-projected angle between the stellar spin axis and the planetary orbital axis is λ = 7.2° ± 3.7°, indicating axial alignment. Our results are consistent with and more precise than published spectroscopic measurements of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect. These results suggest that WASP-6 b formed at a much greater distance from its host star and suffered orbital decay through tidal interactions with the protoplanetary disc.

  4. Motility Determinants in WASP Family ProteinsD⃞

    PubMed Central

    Yarar, Defne; D'Alessio, Joseph A.; Jeng, Robert L.; Welch, Matthew D.

    2002-01-01

    In response to upstream signals, proteins in the Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome protein (WASP) family regulate actin nucleation via the Arp2/3 complex. Despite intensive study of the function of WASP family proteins in nucleation, it is not yet understood how their distinct structural organization contributes to actin-based motility. Herein, we analyzed the activities of WASP and Scar1 truncation derivatives by using a bead-based motility assay. The minimal region of WASP sufficient to direct movement was the C-terminal WCA fragment, whereas the corresponding region of Scar1 was insufficient. In addition, the proline-rich regions of WASP and Scar1 and the Ena/VASP homology 1 (EVH1) domain of WASP independently enhanced motility rates. The contributions of these regions to motility could not be accounted for by their direct effects on actin nucleation with the Arp2/3 complex, suggesting that they stimulate motility by recruiting additional factors. We have identified profilin as one such factor. WASP- and Scar1-coated bead motility rates were significantly reduced by depletion of profilin and VASP and could be more efficiently rescued by a combination of VASP and wild-type profilin than by VASP and a mutant profilin that cannot bind proline-rich sequences. Moreover, motility of WASP WCA beads was not affected by the depletion or addback of VASP and profilin. Our results suggest that recruitment of factors, including profilin, by the proline-rich regions of WASP and Scar1 and the EVH1 domain of WASP stimulates cellular actin-based motility. PMID:12429845

  5. Apomictic parthenogenesis in a parasitoid wasp Meteorus pulchricornis, uncommon in the haplodiploid order Hymenoptera.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Y; Maeto, K; Hamaguchi, K; Isaki, Y; Takami, Y; Naito, T; Miura, K

    2014-06-01

    Although apomixis is the most common form of parthenogenesis in diplodiploid arthropods, it is uncommon in the haplodiploid insect order Hymenoptera. We found a new type of spontaneous apomixis in the Hymenoptera, completely lacking meiosis and the expulsion of polar bodies in egg maturation division, on the thelytokous strain of a parasitoid wasp Meteorus pulchricornis (Wesmael) (Braconidae, Euphorinae) on pest lepidopteran larvae Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Noctuidae). The absence of the meiotic process was consistent with a non-segregation pattern in the offspring of heterozygous females, and no positive evidence was obtained for the induction of thelytoky by any bacterial symbionts. We discuss the conditions that enable the occurrence of such rare cases of apomictic thelytoky in the Hymenoptera, suggesting the significance of fixed heterosis caused by hybridization or polyploidization, symbiosis with bacterial agents, and occasional sex. Our finding will encourage further genetic studies on parasitoid wasps to use asexual lines more wisely for biological control.

  6. MITA/STING and Its Alternative Splicing Isoform MRP Restrict Hepatitis B Virus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuhui; Zhao, Kaitao; Su, Xi; Lu, Lu; Zhao, He; Zhang, Xianwen; Wang, Yun; Wu, Chunchen; Chen, Jizheng; Zhou, Yuan; Hu, Xue; Wang, Yanyi; Lu, Mengji; Chen, Xinwen; Pei, Rongjuan

    2017-01-01

    An efficient clearance of hepatitis B virus (HBV) requires the coordinated work of both the innate and adaptive immune responses. MITA/STING, an adapter protein of the innate immune signaling pathways, plays a key role in regulating innate and adaptive immune responses to DNA virus infection. Previously, we identified an alternatively spliced isoform of MITA/STING, called MITA-related protein (MRP), and found that MRP could specifically block MITA-mediated interferon (IFN) induction while retaining the ability to activate NF-κB. Here, we asked whether MITA/STING and MRP were able to control the HBV replication. Both MITA/STING and MRP significantly inhibited HBV replication in vitro. MITA overexpression stimulated IRF3-IFN pathway; while MRP overexpression activated NF-κB pathway, suggesting these two isoforms may inhibit HBV replication through different ways. Using a hydrodynamic injection (HI) mouse model, we found that HBV replication was reduced following MITA/STING and MRP expression vectors in mice and was enhanced by the knockout of MITA/STING (MITA/STING-/-). The HBV specific humoral and CD8+ T cell responses were impaired in MITA/STING deficient mice, suggesting the participation of MITA/STING in the initiation of host adaptive immune responses. In summary, our data suggest that MITA/STING and MRP contribute to HBV control via modulation of the innate and adaptive responses. PMID:28056087

  7. MITA/STING and Its Alternative Splicing Isoform MRP Restrict Hepatitis B Virus Replication.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuhui; Zhao, Kaitao; Su, Xi; Lu, Lu; Zhao, He; Zhang, Xianwen; Wang, Yun; Wu, Chunchen; Chen, Jizheng; Zhou, Yuan; Hu, Xue; Wang, Yanyi; Lu, Mengji; Chen, Xinwen; Pei, Rongjuan

    2017-01-01

    An efficient clearance of hepatitis B virus (HBV) requires the coordinated work of both the innate and adaptive immune responses. MITA/STING, an adapter protein of the innate immune signaling pathways, plays a key role in regulating innate and adaptive immune responses to DNA virus infection. Previously, we identified an alternatively spliced isoform of MITA/STING, called MITA-related protein (MRP), and found that MRP could specifically block MITA-mediated interferon (IFN) induction while retaining the ability to activate NF-κB. Here, we asked whether MITA/STING and MRP were able to control the HBV replication. Both MITA/STING and MRP significantly inhibited HBV replication in vitro. MITA overexpression stimulated IRF3-IFN pathway; while MRP overexpression activated NF-κB pathway, suggesting these two isoforms may inhibit HBV replication through different ways. Using a hydrodynamic injection (HI) mouse model, we found that HBV replication was reduced following MITA/STING and MRP expression vectors in mice and was enhanced by the knockout of MITA/STING (MITA/STING-/-). The HBV specific humoral and CD8+ T cell responses were impaired in MITA/STING deficient mice, suggesting the participation of MITA/STING in the initiation of host adaptive immune responses. In summary, our data suggest that MITA/STING and MRP contribute to HBV control via modulation of the innate and adaptive responses.

  8. INSECTS AS ALLERGEN INJECTANTS—Severe Reactions to Bites and Stings of Arthropods

    PubMed Central

    Perlman, Frank

    1962-01-01

    Arthropods capable of penetrating human skin often cause severe local and systemic reactions. Local reactions suggest delayed hypersensitivity while systemic symptoms resemble more the anaphylactic shock in animals. The nature of the antigen remains obscure but predominant evidence suggests its presence throughout the entire organism. Positive history of hypersensitivity to insect injectants was obtained in approximately 20 per cent of persons in the course of routine interviews of 1,078 patients. Repeated bites and stings at long or irregular intervals often induce a state of hypersensitivity, while repeated regular injections of extracts of these insects at shorter intervals may greatly reduce the hypersensitivity. The clinical evidence of allergic sensitivity to insect bites and stings cannot be readily confirmed by skin testing or by other immunological procedures. The history and the character of the lesions as well as certain entomological knowledge of the habits of the insects offer a better basis for specific diagnosis. Treatment with extracts of the whole offending insect generally provides good results but the protection afforded by such treatment varies in degree and duration. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7. PMID:14485406

  9. [The epidemiological situation of scorpion stings in the Beni Mellal province].

    PubMed

    Charrab, Nezha; Soulaymani, Rachida; Mokhtari, Abdelrhani; Semlali, Ilham; El Oufir, Rhizlane; Soulaymani, Abdelmajid

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work is to analyse and interpret data from patients bitten by scorpions in a province of Morocco in order to reduce morbidity and mortality caused by scorpion venom. A study was conducted of 901 cases of poisoning among 6959 cases of scorpion stings recorded between January 2002 and December 2006 from bites recorded in Beni Mellal. The results show that poisoning strongly coincides with the summer period, especially in July and August. All age groups are affected by this disease with an average age of 17.28 +/- 17.91 years. For the time post injection, 35.2% were able to check in under an hour. On the other hand, 70.9% reach a health facility with symptoms (class II) and 29.1% with signs of distress (Class III). Finally, the evolution of patients is mostly positive in 94.7% of cases, and the case fatality rate from scorpion sting poisoning is 3.88%.

  10. A Survey of Jellyfish Sting Knowledge among Naval Personnel in Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Kan, Ting; Gui, Li; Shi, Wenwen; Huang, Yan; Li, Shuang; Qiu, Chen

    2016-07-19

    Jellyfish envenomation is common along the coastal area, and can cause severe consequences. Naval personnel are among the high-risk population for this injury. The aim of this study was to assess knowledge regarding jellyfish envenomation among naval personnel in a navy unit in northeast China. A predesigned questionnaire was distributed to 120 naval members in January 2015. The data of 108 respondents were included in the statistical analysis. We found that 38.0% of the respondents selected jellyfish sting as the common wound in their units, and 13.0% had experienced or observed this injury. In addition, 63.0% of the participants rated their own knowledge as "low" or "none". The average score they got was 5.77 ± 2.50, with only 16.7% getting a score above 60% of the full score. The correct rates of five questions were below 60%. No statistical differences existed in the knowledge score among different groups of respondents defined by socio-demographic variables. Jellyfish sting is common in this navy unit, but personnel got a low score on the knowledge assessment. They also lacked confidence in first aid. Medical education and training should be implemented to address this issue.

  11. Influenza A virus targets a cGAS-independent STING pathway that controls enveloped RNA viruses.

    PubMed

    Holm, Christian K; Rahbek, Stine H; Gad, Hans Henrik; Bak, Rasmus O; Jakobsen, Martin R; Jiang, Zhaozaho; Hansen, Anne Louise; Jensen, Simon K; Sun, Chenglong; Thomsen, Martin K; Laustsen, Anders; Nielsen, Camilla G; Severinsen, Kasper; Xiong, Yingluo; Burdette, Dara L; Hornung, Veit; Lebbink, Robert Jan; Duch, Mogens; Fitzgerald, Katherine A; Bahrami, Shervin; Mikkelsen, Jakob Giehm; Hartmann, Rune; Paludan, Søren R

    2016-02-19

    Stimulator of interferon genes (STING) is known be involved in control of DNA viruses but has an unexplored role in control of RNA viruses. During infection with DNA viruses STING is activated downstream of cGAMP synthase (cGAS) to induce type I interferon. Here we identify a STING-dependent, cGAS-independent pathway important for full interferon production and antiviral control of enveloped RNA viruses, including influenza A virus (IAV). Further, IAV interacts with STING through its conserved hemagglutinin fusion peptide (FP). Interestingly, FP antagonizes interferon production induced by membrane fusion or IAV but not by cGAMP or DNA. Similar to the enveloped RNA viruses, membrane fusion stimulates interferon production in a STING-dependent but cGAS-independent manner. Abolishment of this pathway led to reduced interferon production and impaired control of enveloped RNA viruses. Thus, enveloped RNA viruses stimulate a cGAS-independent STING pathway, which is targeted by IAV.

  12. Phylogeny, Evolution and Classification of Gall Wasps: The Plot Thickens

    PubMed Central

    Ronquist, Fredrik; Nieves-Aldrey, José-Luis; Buffington, Matthew L.; Liu, Zhiwei; Liljeblad, Johan; Nylander, Johan A. A.

    2015-01-01

    Gall wasps (Cynipidae) represent the most spectacular radiation of gall-inducing insects. In addition to true gall formers, gall wasps also include phytophagous inquilines, which live inside the galls induced by gall wasps or other insects. Here we present the first comprehensive molecular and total-evidence analyses of higher-level gall wasp relationships. We studied more than 100 taxa representing a rich selection of outgroups and the majority of described cynipid genera outside the diverse oak gall wasps (Cynipini), which were more sparsely sampled. About 5 kb of nucleotide data from one mitochondrial (COI) and four nuclear (28S, LWRh, EF1alpha F1, and EF1alpha F2) markers were analyzed separately and in combination with morphological and life-history data. According to previous morphology-based studies, gall wasps evolved in the Northern Hemisphere and were initially herb gallers. Inquilines originated once from gall inducers that lost the ability to initiate galls. Our results, albeit not conclusive, suggest a different scenario. The first gall wasps were more likely associated with woody host plants, and there must have been multiple origins of gall inducers, inquilines or both. One possibility is that gall inducers arose independently from inquilines in several lineages. Except for these surprising results, our analyses are largely consistent with previous studies. They confirm that gall wasps are conservative in their host-plant preferences, and that herb-galling lineages have radiated repeatedly onto the same set of unrelated host plants. We propose a revised classification of the family into twelve tribes, which are strongly supported as monophyletic across independent datasets. Four are new: Aulacideini, Phanacidini, Diastrophini and Ceroptresini. We present a key to the tribes and discuss their morphological and biological diversity. Until the relationships among the tribes are resolved, the origin and early evolution of gall wasps will remain elusive

  13. Oscillation spectrum of WASP-33 from the MOST photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mkrtichian, David

    2015-08-01

    We present results of extended continuous time series photometry of the Delta Scuti type pulsating exoplanet host star WASP-33 obtained in two seasons (2011 and 2013) with the MOST space telescope. Our frequency analysis yealds rich, low-amplitude multi-frequency spectrum of oscillation modes. We discuss possible resonances between the orbiital period of the planet and frequencies of the oscillation modes. We present results of our measurements of planets orbital O-C variations and analyze possible existence of invisible planets in the system. We review recent results of the high-resolution spectroscopic campaign on WASP-33 and confirm the retrograde orbital motion of the planet WASP-33b.

  14. Space shuttle solid rocket booster sting interference wind tunnel test analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conine, B.; Boyle, W.

    1981-01-01

    Wind tunnel test results from shuttle solid rocket booster (SRB) sting interference tests were evaluated, yielding the general influence of the sting on the normal force and pitching moment coefficients and the side force and yawing moment coefficients. The procedures developed to determine the sting interference, the development of the corrected aerodynamic data, and the development of a new SRB aerodynamic mathematical model are documented.

  15. Candida davenportii sp. nov., a potential soft-drinks spoilage yeast isolated from a wasp.

    PubMed

    Stratford, M; Bond, C J; James, S A; Roberts, N; Steels, H

    2002-07-01

    During a survey of yeast ecology in a soft-drinks production facility, a dead wasp was removed from the sampling tap of an external sugar-syrup storage tank. A yeast isolated from the dead wasp was found to be similar, although not identical, in its physiological characteristics to Candida lactis-condensi and Candida stellata. Sequence analysis of the 26S rDNA D1/D2 variable domain revealed that this isolate was most closely related to C stellata, but differed sufficiently in its D1/D2 sequence to indicate that it belonged to a separate species. The yeast species has been named Candida davenportii sp. nov.; the type strain is NCYC 3013T (= CBS 9069T). C davenportii sp. nov. was osmotolerant, moderately preservative-resistant and able to grow in very acidic conditions, i.e. pH 14. This yeast grew well in fruit-containing soft drinks, cola-type beverages and a synthetic soft drink and is therefore a potential cause of spoilage of soft drinks and other sugary food products. Other related yeast species in the same taxonomic clade as C davenportii sp. nov. are also osmotolerant, growing in < 50% (w/v) sugar. Many of these species are associated with insects, specifically bees, bumblebees and leafcutter bees, and many have been reported as the causative agent of spoilage of sugary foods, such as condensed milk, fruit juices and concentrates. It is proposed that C davenportii sp. nov. and other closely related yeasts are primarily associated with Aculeates (bees and wasps). In turn, bees and wasps are attracted by sugary residues in foods such as fruit juices and concentrates, forming the source of infection of these yeasts and thus instigating spoilage.

  16. Acute axonal polyneuropathy following honey-bee sting: a case report.

    PubMed

    Saini, Arushi Gahlot; Sankhyan, Naveen; Suthar, Renu; Singhi, Pratibha

    2014-05-01

    Hymenoptera stings lead to a myriad of neurologic manifestations by the mechanism of immediate or delayed hypersensitivity reactions. The more common form of polyneuropathy associated with these stings is the acute inflammatory demyelinating type. We describe a 6-year-old girl, who developed progressive, symmetrical, ascending weakness within 3 days after a bee sting. Serial nerve conduction studies confirmed acute, motor-predominant axonal polyneuropathy. Use of intravenous immunoglobulin induced halt of progression, prompt stabilization and a gradual recovery. This case highlights that even a single honey-bee sting can result in acute-onset axonal variety of polyneuropathy in children.

  17. Hubble/WFC3 Spectroscopy of the Transiting Exoplanets WASP-19b and WASP-17b

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandell, A.; Haynes, K.; Sinukoff, E.; Deming, D.; Wlikins, A.; Madhusudhan, N.; Agol, E.; Burrows, A.; Charbonneau, D.; Gilliland, R.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Measurements of transiting exoplanets that target extremes in parameter space offer the best chance to disentangle the structure and composition of the atmospheres of hot Jupiters. WASP-19b is one of the hottest exoplanets discovered to date, while WASP-17b has a much lower equilibrium temperature but has one of the largest atmospheric radii of known transiting planets. We discuss results from HST/WFC3 grism 1.1-1.7 micron spectroscopy of these planets during transit. We compare our integrated-light transit depths to previous IR transit photometry, and derive the 1.4-micron water absorption spectrum. We discuss implications for the atmospheric composition and structure of these hot Jupiters, and outline future observations that will further expand on these results.

  18. WASP-35b, WASP-48b, AND HAT-P-30b/WASP-51b: TWO NEW PLANETS AND AN INDEPENDENT DISCOVERY OF A HAT PLANET

    SciTech Connect

    Enoch, B.; Brown, D. J. A.; Cameron, A. Collier

    2011-09-15

    We report the detection of WASP-35b, a planet transiting a metal-poor ([Fe/H] = -0.15) star in the Southern hemisphere, WASP-48b, an inflated planet which may have spun-up its slightly evolved host star of 1.75 R{sub sun} in the Northern hemisphere, and the independent discovery of HAT-P-30b/WASP-51b, a new planet in the Northern hemisphere. Using WASP, RISE, Faulkes Telescope South, and TRAPPIST photometry, with CORALIE, SOPHIE, and NOT spectroscopy, we determine that WASP-35b has a mass of 0.72 {+-} 0.06 M{sub J} and radius of 1.32 {+-} 0.05R{sub J} , and orbits with a period of 3.16 days, WASP-48b has amore » mass of 0.98 {+-} 0.09 M{sub J} , radius of 1.67 {+-} 0.10 R{sub J} , and orbits in 2.14 days, while HAT-P-30b/WASP-51b, with an orbital period of 2.81 days, is found to have a mass of 0.76 {+-} 0.05 M{sub J} and radius of 1.42 {+-} 0.03 R{sub J} , agreeing with values of 0.71 {+-} 0.03 M{sub J} and 1.34 {+-} 0.07 R{sub J} reported for HAT-P-30b.« less

  19. Stinging insect allergy: current perspectives on venom immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Ludman, Sian W; Boyle, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Systemic allergic reactions to insect stings affect up to 5% of the population during their lifetime, and up to 32% of beekeepers. Such reactions can be fatal, albeit very rarely, and fear of a further systemic reaction (SR) can lead to significant anxiety and quality of life impairment. A recent Cochrane systematic review confirmed that venom immunotherapy (VIT) is an effective treatment for people who have had a systemic allergic reaction to an insect sting. VIT reduces risk of a further SR (relative risk 0.10, 95% confidence interval 0.03–0.28), but VIT also reduces risk of a future large local reaction, and significantly improves disease-specific quality of life. However, health economic analysis showed that VIT is generally not cost effective for preventing future SRs; most people are stung infrequently, most SRs resolve without long-term consequences, and a fatal outcome is extremely rare. VIT only becomes cost effective if one is stung frequently (eg, beekeepers) or if quality of life improvement is considered. Thus, for most people with insect sting allergy, anxiety and quality of life impairment should be the overriding consideration when making treatment decisions, highlighting the importance of a patient-centered approach. Areas which need to be explored in future research include efforts to improve the safety and convenience of VIT such as the use of sublingual immunotherapy; quality of life effects of venom allergy in children and adolescents as well as their parents; and the optimal duration of treatment. PMID:26229493

  20. Analysis of Sting Balance Calibration Data Using Optimized Regression Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulbrich, N.; Bader, Jon B.

    2010-01-01

    Calibration data of a wind tunnel sting balance was processed using a candidate math model search algorithm that recommends an optimized regression model for the data analysis. During the calibration the normal force and the moment at the balance moment center were selected as independent calibration variables. The sting balance itself had two moment gages. Therefore, after analyzing the connection between calibration loads and gage outputs, it was decided to choose the difference and the sum of the gage outputs as the two responses that best describe the behavior of the balance. The math model search algorithm was applied to these two responses. An optimized regression model was obtained for each response. Classical strain gage balance load transformations and the equations of the deflection of a cantilever beam under load are used to show that the search algorithm s two optimized regression models are supported by a theoretical analysis of the relationship between the applied calibration loads and the measured gage outputs. The analysis of the sting balance calibration data set is a rare example of a situation when terms of a regression model of a balance can directly be derived from first principles of physics. In addition, it is interesting to note that the search algorithm recommended the correct regression model term combinations using only a set of statistical quality metrics that were applied to the experimental data during the algorithm s term selection process.

  1. A scanning proton microprobe study of stinging emergences from the leaf of the common stinging nettle urtica dioica l.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, N. P.; Perry, C. C.; Williams, R. J. P.; Watt, F.; Grime, G. W.

    1988-03-01

    Proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) combined with the Oxford scanning proton microprobe (SPM) was used to investigate the abundance and spatial distribution of inorganic elements in mineralising stinging emergences from the leaf of the Common Stinging Nettle, Urtica dioica L. Elemental maps and point analytical data were collected for emergences at two stages of maturity. In all emergences calcium and silicon were spatially organised and present at high concentration. The inorganic elements K, P, S and Mn were also spatially organised during mineralisation, but at maturity these elements were present only at background levels and then showed no specific localisation. The observed changes in the inorganic content of the emergences are obviously related to the mineralisation processes. The possible biochemical significance of the distribution of the elements is discussed.

  2. WASP7 BENTHIC ALGAE - MODEL THEORY AND USER'S GUIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The standard WASP7 eutrophication module includes nitrogen and phosphorus cycling, dissolved oxygen-organic matter interactions, and phytoplankton kinetics. In many shallow streams and rivers, however, the attached algae (benthic algae, or periphyton, attached to submerged substr...

  3. From dense hot Jupiter to low-density Neptune: The discovery of WASP-127b, WASP-136b, and WASP-138b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, K. W. F.; Faedi, F.; Brown, D. J. A.; Anderson, D. R.; Delrez, L.; Gillon, M.; Hébrard, G.; Lendl, M.; Mancini, L.; Southworth, J.; Smalley, B.; Triaud, A. H. M.; Turner, O. D.; Hay, K. L.; Armstrong, D. J.; Barros, S. C. C.; Bonomo, A. S.; Bouchy, F.; Boumis, P.; Collier Cameron, A.; Doyle, A. P.; Hellier, C.; Henning, T.; Jehin, E.; King, G.; Kirk, J.; Louden, T.; Maxted, P. F. L.; McCormac, J. J.; Osborn, H. P.; Palle, E.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Prieto-Arranz, J.; Queloz, D.; Rey, J.; Ségransan, D.; Udry, S.; Walker, S.; West, R. G.; Wheatley, P. J.

    2017-03-01

    We report three newly discovered exoplanets from the SuperWASP survey. WASP-127b is a heavily inflated super-Neptune of mass 0.18±0.02 MJ and radius 1.37±0.04 RJ. This is one of the least massive planets discovered by the WASP project. It orbits a bright host star (Vmag = 10.16) of spectral type G5 with a period of 4.17 days. WASP-127b is a low-density planet that has an extended atmosphere with a scale height of 2500 ± 400 km, making it an ideal candidate for transmission spectroscopy. WASP-136b and WASP-138b are both hot Jupiters with mass and radii of 1.51 ± 0.08 MJ and 1.38 ± 0.16 RJ, and 1.22 ± 0.08 MJ and 1.09 ± 0.05 RJ, respectively. WASP-136b is in a 5.22-day orbit around an F9 subgiant star with a mass of 1.41 ± 0.07 M⊙ and a radius of 2.21 ± 0.22 R⊙. The discovery of WASP-136b could help constrain the characteristics of the giant planet population around evolved stars. WASP-138b orbits an F7 star with a period of 3.63 days. Its radius agrees with theoretical values from standard models, suggesting the presence of a heavy element core with a mass of 10 M⊕. The discovery of these new planets helps in exploring the diverse compositional range of short-period planets, and will aid our understanding of the physical characteristics of both gas giants and low-density planets. Radial velocity and photometry tables are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/599/A3

  4. Wasps robbing food from ants: a frequent behavior?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapierre, Louis; Hespenheide, Henry; Dejean, Alain

    2007-12-01

    Food robbing, or cleptobiosis, has been well documented throughout the animal kingdom. For insects, intrafamilial food robbing is known among ants, but social wasps (Vespidae; Polistinae) taking food from ants has, to the best of our knowledge, never been reported. In this paper, we present two cases involving social wasps robbing food from ants associated with myrmecophytes. (1) Polybioides tabida F. (Ropalidiini) rob pieces of prey from Tetraponera aethiops Smith (Formicidae; Pseudomyrmecinae) specifically associated with Barteria fistulosa Mast. (Passifloraceae). (2) Charterginus spp. (Epiponini) rob food bodies from myrmecophytic Cecropia (Cecropiaceae) exploited by their Azteca mutualists (Formicidae; Dolichoderinae) or by opportunistic ants (that also attack cleptobiotic wasps). We note here that wasps gather food bodies (1) when ants are not yet active; (2) when ants are active, but avoiding any contact with them by flying off when attacked; and (3) through the coordinated efforts of two to five wasps, wherein one of them prevents the ants from leaving their nest, while the other wasps freely gather the food bodies. We suggest that these interactions are more common than previously thought.

  5. Hitch-hiking parasitic wasp learns to exploit butterfly antiaphrodisiac

    PubMed Central

    Huigens, Martinus E.; Pashalidou, Foteini G.; Qian, Ming-Hui; Bukovinszky, Tibor; Smid, Hans M.; van Loon, Joop J. A.; Dicke, Marcel; Fatouros, Nina E.

    2009-01-01

    Many insects possess a sexual communication system that is vulnerable to chemical espionage by parasitic wasps. We recently discovered that a hitch-hiking (H) egg parasitoid exploits the antiaphrodisiac pheromone benzyl cyanide (BC) of the Large Cabbage White butterfly Pieris brassicae. This pheromone is passed from male butterflies to females during mating to render them less attractive to conspecific males. When the tiny parasitic wasp Trichogramma brassicae detects the antiaphrodisiac, it rides on a mated female butterfly to a host plant and then parasitizes her freshly laid eggs. The present study demonstrates that a closely related generalist wasp, Trichogramma evanescens, exploits BC in a similar way, but only after learning. Interestingly, the wasp learns to associate an H response to the odors of a mated female P. brassicae butterfly with reinforcement by parasitizing freshly laid butterfly eggs. Behavioral assays, before which we specifically inhibited long-term memory (LTM) formation with a translation inhibitor, reveal that the wasp has formed protein synthesis-dependent LTM at 24 h after learning. To our knowledge, the combination of associatively learning to exploit the sexual communication system of a host and the formation of protein synthesis-dependent LTM after a single learning event has not been documented before. We expect it to be widespread in nature, because it is highly adaptive in many species of egg parasitoids. Our finding of the exploitation of an antiaphrodisiac by multiple species of parasitic wasps suggests its use by Pieris butterflies to be under strong selective pressure. PMID:19139416

  6. Hitch-hiking parasitic wasp learns to exploit butterfly antiaphrodisiac.

    PubMed

    Huigens, Martinus E; Pashalidou, Foteini G; Qian, Ming-Hui; Bukovinszky, Tibor; Smid, Hans M; van Loon, Joop J A; Dicke, Marcel; Fatouros, Nina E

    2009-01-20

    Many insects possess a sexual communication system that is vulnerable to chemical espionage by parasitic wasps. We recently discovered that a hitch-hiking (H) egg parasitoid exploits the antiaphrodisiac pheromone benzyl cyanide (BC) of the Large Cabbage White butterfly Pieris brassicae. This pheromone is passed from male butterflies to females during mating to render them less attractive to conspecific males. When the tiny parasitic wasp Trichogramma brassicae detects the antiaphrodisiac, it rides on a mated female butterfly to a host plant and then parasitizes her freshly laid eggs. The present study demonstrates that a closely related generalist wasp, Trichogramma evanescens, exploits BC in a similar way, but only after learning. Interestingly, the wasp learns to associate an H response to the odors of a mated female P. brassicae butterfly with reinforcement by parasitizing freshly laid butterfly eggs. Behavioral assays, before which we specifically inhibited long-term memory (LTM) formation with a translation inhibitor, reveal that the wasp has formed protein synthesis-dependent LTM at 24 h after learning. To our knowledge, the combination of associatively learning to exploit the sexual communication system of a host and the formation of protein synthesis-dependent LTM after a single learning event has not been documented before. We expect it to be widespread in nature, because it is highly adaptive in many species of egg parasitoids. Our finding of the exploitation of an antiaphrodisiac by multiple species of parasitic wasps suggests its use by Pieris butterflies to be under strong selective pressure.

  7. Detailed characterization of polydnavirus immunoevasive proteins in an endoparasitoid wasp.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kohjiro; Matsumoto, Hitoshi; Hayakawa, Yoichi

    2002-05-01

    Polydnaviruses are a unique group of insect viruses in terms of their obligate and symbiotic associations with some parasitic wasps. The Cotesia kariyai polydnavirus (CkPDV) replicates only in ovarian calyx cells of C. kariyai female wasps and is injected into the wasp's host, the armyworm Pseudaletia separata, along with the eggs. A previous study indicated the possibility that one of the CkPDV surface proteins mediates immunoevasion by the wasp from the encapsulation reaction of the host insect's hemocytes. This protein was named immunoevasive protein (IEP). The present studies substantially confirmed the previous observation by showing that an anti-IEP IgG neutralizes immunoevasive activity on the wasp eggs. Further, we isolated the IEP homologue (IEP-2) cDNA and IEP (IEP-1) cDNA, sequenced them and found that both are cysteine-rich proteins, each containing epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like repeats. IEP genes were not found to reside in the CkPDV genome, but in the wasp chromosomal DNA. IEPs are synthesized in the female reproductive tract and their expression was detected from 4 days after pupation, 1 day later than expression of the virus capsid proteins. In situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry indicated that the lateral oviduct cells of the reproductive tracts produce IEP-1/IEP-2 mRNAs and secrete the proteins into the oviduct. These data suggest that the expression pattern and localization of IEPs are different from other components of CkPDV virions.

  8. Ficus (Moraceae) and fig wasps (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Bain, Anthony; Tzeng, Hsy-Yu; Wu, Wen-Jer; Chou, Lien-Siang

    2015-12-01

    Although Ficus-associated wasp fauna have been extensively researched in Australasia, information on these fauna in Taiwan is not well accessible to scientists worldwide. In this study, we compiled records on the Ficus flora of Taiwan and its associated wasp fauna. Initial agronomic research reports on Ficus were published in Japanese in 1917, followed by reports on applied biochemistry, taxonomy, and phenology in Chinese. On the basis of the phenological knowledge of 15 species of the Ficus flora of Taiwan, recent research has examined the pollinating and nonpollinating agaonid and chalcid wasps (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea). Updating records according to the current nomenclature revealed that there are 30 taxa (27 species) of native or naturalized Ficus with an unusually high proportion of dioecious species (78%). Four species were observed to exhibit mutualism with more than one pollinating wasp species, and 18 of the 27 Ficus species were reported with nonpollinating wasp species. The number of nonpollinating wasp species associated with specific Ficus species ranges from zero (F. pumila) to 24 (F. microcarpa). Approximately half of the Taiwanese fig tree species have been studied with basic information on phenology and biology described in peer-reviewed journals or theses. This review provides a solid basis for future in-depth comparative studies. This summary of knowledge will encourage and facilitate continuing research on the pollination dynamics of Ficus and the associated insect fauna in Taiwan.

  9. On the stability treatment in WAsP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giebel, G.; Gryning, S.-E.

    2003-04-01

    An assessment of the treatment of atmospheric stability in the standard package for wind resource estimation, WAsP (from Risø National Laboratory), is presented. Emphasis is on the vertical wind profiles in WAsP and the treatment of stability therein, under special consideration of the nightly situation. The study starts with an introduction to WAsP and the way it treats the vertical extrapolation, under special consideration of the stability. The two parameters available for changing the stability treatment in WAsP are identified as RMS heat flux and offset heat flux. Four years worth of data from the meteorological mast at Risø, plus data from Egypt and Bermuda, is used for the identification of the parameter settings for stable conditions. To this aim, the measured heat fluxes from the mast were used to extract three data sets with successively higher stability in four different heights. These data sets were then run through the Observed Wind Climate Wizard (part of the WAsP package), resulting in Weibull fits to the data. Using these observed wind climates, a prediction of the highest level wind climate using the lowest level wind climate under all different stable conditions is undertaken and compared with the measured data set. To expand on this study, a systematic variation of the two heat flux parameters in WAsP is done, finding the parameters yielding the lowest overall errors for the predictions. Parts of this study were financed by the Landesumweltamt Brandenburg.

  10. [Problems caused by poisonous tropical marine animals].

    PubMed

    Lääveri, Tinja; Räisänen-Sokolowski, Anne; Jama, Timo

    2014-01-01

    A Finnish physician encounters problems caused by tropical marine animals either during her/his own travelling or while treating travelers who have returned home. Certain species of medusae and cone shells as well as the stings by some fish species are life-threateningly poisonous. A person stung or bitten by any of the most dangerous species must immediately be admitted to the hospital. Foreign material remaining in tissues after stings by echinoderms and spiky fish may cause problems months after the actual injury. The injuries become easily infected, and antimicrobial drug therapy must thus cover gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria as well.

  11. Take a Bite Out of Mosquito Stings

    MedlinePlus

    ... a mosquito bite can cause anaphylaxis (an-a-fi-LAK-sis), a potentially life-threatening condition characterized ... Immunology 555 East Wells Street Suite 1100, Milwaukee , WI 53202-3823 (414) 272-6071 Additional Contact Information ...

  12. N-WASP and WAVE2 acting downstream of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase are required for myogenic cell migration induced by hepatocyte growth factor.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Kazuhiro; Takano, Kazunori; Suetsugu, Shiro; Kurisu, Shusaku; Yamazaki, Daisuke; Miki, Hiroaki; Takenawa, Tadaomi; Endo, Takeshi

    2004-12-24

    During skeletal muscle regeneration caused by injury, muscle satellite cells proliferate and migrate toward the site of muscle injury. This migration is mainly induced by hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) secreted by intact myofibers and also released from injured muscle. However, the intracellular machinery for the satellite cell migration has not been elucidated. To examine the mechanisms of satellite cell migration, we utilized satellite cell-derived mouse C2C12 skeletal muscle cells. HGF induced reorganization of actin cytoskeleton to form lamellipodia in C2C12 myoblasts. HGF treatment facilitated both nondirectional migration of the myoblasts in phagokinetic track assay and directional chemotactic migration toward HGF in a three-dimensional migration chamber assay. Endogenous N-WASP and WAVE2 were concentrated in the lamellipodia at the leading edge of the migrating cells. Moreover, exogenous expression of wild-type N-WASP or WAVE2 promoted lamellipodial formation and migration. By contrast, expression of the dominant-negative mutant of N-WASP or WAVE2 and knockdown of N-WASP or WAVE2 expression by the RNA interference prevented the HGF-induced lamellipodial formation and migration. When the cells were treated with LY294002, an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, the HGF-induced lamellipodial formation and migration were abrogated. These results imply that both N-WASP and WAVE2, which are activated downstream of phosphati-dylinositol 3-kinase, are required for the migration through the lamellipodial formation of C2C12 cells induced by HGF.

  13. WASP-117b: a 10-day-period Saturn in an eccentric and misaligned orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lendl, M.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Anderson, D. R.; Collier Cameron, A.; Delrez, L.; Doyle, A. P.; Gillon, M.; Hellier, C.; Jehin, E.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Neveu-VanMalle, M.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Ségransan, D.; Smalley, B.; Smith, A. M. S.; Udry, S.; Van Grootel, V.; West, R. G.

    2014-08-01

    We report the discovery of WASP-117b, the first planet with a period beyond 10 days found by the WASP survey. The planet has a mass of Mp = 0.2755 ± 0.0089 MJ, a radius of Rp= 1.021_{-0.065+0.076 Rjup} and is in an eccentric (e = 0.302 ± 0.023), 10.02165 ± 0.00055 d orbit around a main-sequence F9 star. The host star's brightness (V = 10.15 mag) makes WASP-117 a good target for follow-up observations, and with a periastron planetary equilibrium temperature of Teq= 1225_{-39+36} K and a low planetary mean density (ρp= 0.259_{-0.048+0.054 ρjup}) it is one of the best targets for transmission spectroscopy among planets with periods around 10 days. From a measurement of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect, we infer a projected angle between the planetary orbit and stellar spin axes of β = -44 ± 11 deg, and we further derive an orbital obliquity of ψ = 69.6 +4.7-4.1 deg. Owing to the large orbital separation, tidal forces causing orbital circularization and realignment of the planetary orbit with the stellar plane are weak, having had little impact on the planetary orbit over the system lifetime. WASP-117b joins a small sample of transiting giant planets with well characterized orbits at periods above 8 days. Based on data obtained with WASP-South, CORALIE and EulerCam at the Euler-Swiss telescope, TRAPPIST, and HARPS at the ESO 3.6 m telescope (Prog. IDs 087.C-0649, 089.C-0151, 090.C-0540)Photometric and radial velocities are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/568/A81

  14. Suppressed Far-UV Stellar Activity and Low Planetary Mass Loss in the WASP-18 System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fossati, L.; Koskinen, T.; France, K.; Cubillos, P. E.; Haswell, C. A.; Lanza, A. F.; Pillitteri, I.

    2018-03-01

    WASP-18 hosts a massive, very close-in Jupiter-like planet. Despite its young age (<1 Gyr), the star presents an anomalously low stellar activity level: the measured {log}{R}HK}{\\prime } activity parameter lies slightly below the basal level; there is no significant time-variability in the {log}{R}HK}{\\prime } value; there is no detection of the star in the X-rays. We present results of far-UV observations of WASP-18 obtained with COS on board of Hubble Space Telescope aimed at explaining this anomaly. From the star’s spectral energy distribution, we infer the extinction (E(B-V) ≈ 0.01 mag) and then the interstellar medium (ISM) column density for a number of ions, concluding that ISM absorption is not the origin of the anomaly. We measure the flux of the four stellar emission features detected in the COS spectrum (C II, C III, C IV, Si IV). Comparing the C II/C IV flux ratio measured for WASP-18 with that derived from spectra of nearby stars with known age, we see that the far-UV spectrum of WASP-18 resembles that of old (>5 Gyr), inactive stars, in stark contrast with its young age. We conclude that WASP-18 has an intrinsically low activity level, possibly caused by star–planet tidal interaction, as suggested by previous studies. Re-scaling the solar irradiance reference spectrum to match the flux of the Si IV line, yields an XUV integrated flux at the planet orbit of 10.2 erg s‑1 cm‑2. We employ the rescaled XUV solar fluxes to models of the planetary upper atmosphere, deriving an extremely low thermal mass-loss rate of 10‑20 M J Gyr‑1. For such high-mass planets, thermal escape is not energy limited, but driven by Jeans escape. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from MAST at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program #13859. Based on

  15. Signs of strong Na and K absorption in the transmission spectrum of WASP-103b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lendl, M.; Cubillos, P. E.; Hagelberg, J.; Müller, A.; Juvan, I.; Fossati, L.

    2017-09-01

    Context. Transmission spectroscopy has become a prominent tool for characterizing the atmospheric properties on close-in transiting planets. Recent observations have revealed a remarkable diversity in exoplanet spectra, which show absorption signatures of Na, K and H2O, in some cases partially or fully attenuated by atmospheric aerosols. Aerosols (clouds and hazes) themselves have been detected in the transmission spectra of several planets thanks to wavelength-dependent slopes caused by the particles' scattering properties. Aims: We present an optical 550-960 nm transmission spectrum of the extremely irradiated hot Jupiter WASP-103b, one of the hottest (2500 K) and most massive (1.5 MJ) planets yet to be studied with this technique. WASP-103b orbits its star at a separation of less than 1.2 times the Roche limit and is predicted to be strongly tidally distorted. Methods: We have used Gemini/GMOS to obtain multi-object spectroscopy throughout three transits of WASP-103b. We used relative spectrophotometry and bin sizes between 20 and 2 nm to infer the planet's transmission spectrum. Results: We find that WASP-103b shows increased absorption in the cores of the alkali (Na, K) line features. We do not confirm the presence of any strong scattering slope as previously suggested, pointing towards a clear atmosphere for the highly irradiated, massive exoplanet WASP-103b. We constrain the upper boundary of any potential cloud deck to reside at pressure levels above 0.01 bar. This finding is in line with previous studies on cloud occurrence on exoplanets which find that clouds dominate the transmission spectra of cool, low surface gravity planets while hot, high surface gravity planets are either cloud-free, or possess clouds located below the altitudes probed by transmission spectra. The spectrophotometric time series data are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc

  16. Chem I Supplement: Bee Sting: The Chemistry of an Insect Venom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Rod; Peck, Larry

    1980-01-01

    Considers various aspects of bee stings including the physical mechanism of the venom apparatus in the bee, categorization of physiological responses of nonprotected individuals to bee sting, chemical composition of bee venom and the mechanisms of venom action, and areas of interest in the synthesis of bee venom. (CS)

  17. The contribution of sting-jet windstorms to extreme wind risk in the North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, Neil C.; Gray, Suzanne L.; Clark, Peter A.

    2016-04-01

    Windstorms are a major winter weather risk for many countries in Europe. These storms are predominantly associated with explosively-developing extratropical cyclones that track across the region. A substantial body of literature exists on the synoptic-scale dynamics, predictability and climatology of such storms. More recently, interest in the mesoscale variability of the most damaging winds has led to a focus on the role of sting jets in enhancing windstorm severity. We present a present-era climatology of North Atlantic cyclones that had potential to produce sting jets. Considering only explosively-developing cyclones, those with sting-jet potential are more likely to have higher relative vorticity and associated low-level wind maxima. Furthermore, the strongest winds for sting-jet cyclones are more often in the cool sector, behind the cold front, when compared with other explosively-developing cyclones which commonly have strong warm-sector winds too. The tracks of sting-jet cyclones, and explosively-developing cyclones in general, show little offset from the climatological storm track. While rare over Europe, sting-jet cyclones are relatively frequent within the main storm track with up to one third of extratropical cyclones exhibiting sting-jet potential. Thus, the rarity and, until recently, lack of description of sting-jet windstorms is more due to the climatological storm track location away from highly-populated land masses, than due to an actual rarity of such storms in nature.

  18. Cryogenic temperature effects on sting-balance deflections in the National Transonic Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popernack, Thomas G., Jr.; Adcock, Jerry B.

    1990-01-01

    An investigation was conducted at the National Transonic Facility (NTF) to document the change in sting-balance deflections from ambient to cryogenic temperatures. Space limitations in some NTF models do not allow the use of on-board angle of attack instrumentation. In order to obtain angle of attack data, pre-determined sting-balance bending data must be combined with arc sector angle measurements. Presently, obtaining pretest sting-balance data requires several cryogenic cycles and cold loadings over a period of several days. A method of reducing the calibration time required is to obtain only ambient temperature sting-balance bending data and correct for changes in material properties at cryogenic temperatures. To validate this method, two typical NTF sting-balance combinations were tested. The test results show excellent agreement with the predicted values and the repeatability of the data was 0.01 degree.

  19. NASA Common Research Model Test Envelope Extension With Active Sting Damping at NTF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivers, Melissa B.; Balakrishna, S.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Common Research Model (CRM) high Reynolds number transonic wind tunnel testing program was established to generate an experimental database for applied Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) validation studies. During transonic wind tunnel tests, the CRM encounters large sting vibrations when the angle of attack approaches the second pitching moment break, which can sometimes become divergent. CRM transonic test data analysis suggests that sting divergent oscillations are related to negative net sting damping episodes associated with flow separation instability. The National Transonic Facility (NTF) has been addressing remedies to extend polar testing up to and beyond the second pitching moment break point of the test articles using an active piezoceramic damper system for both ambient and cryogenic temperatures. This paper reviews CRM test results to gain understanding of sting dynamics with a simple model describing the mechanics of a sting-model system and presents the performance of the damper under cryogenic conditions.

  20. An Integrated Fuselage-Sting Balance for a Sonic-Boom Wind-Tunnel Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mack, Robert J.

    2004-01-01

    Measured and predicted pressure signatures from a lifting wind-tunnel model can be compared when the lift on the model is accurately known. The model's lift can be set by bending the support sting to a desired angle of attack. This method is simple in practice, but difficult to accurately apply. A second method is to build a normal force/pitching moment balance into the aft end of the sting, and use an angle-of-attack mechanism to set model attitude. In this report, a method for designing a sting/balance into the aft fuselage/sting of a sonic-boom model is described. A computer code is given, and a sample sting design is outlined to demonstrate the method.

  1. Threshold detection of boar taint chemicals using parasitic wasps.

    PubMed

    Olson, Dawn; Wäckers, Felix; Haugen, John-Erik

    2012-10-01

    Surgical castration has been long used to prevent consumers from experiencing taint in meat from male pigs, which is a large problem in the pig husbandry industry. Due to obvious animal welfare issues, the EU now wants an alternative for castration, suggesting an urgent need for novel methods of boar taint detection. As boar taint is only a problem when taint chemicals exceed a well-defined threshold, detection methods should be concentration-specific. The wasp, Microplitis croceipes' ability to learn and respond to particular concentrations of the boar taint compounds, skatole, androstenone, and indole was tested. Also tested was the wasps' ability to discriminate between known concentrations of indole, skatole, and androstenone in real boar fat samples at room temperature. Wasps were trained using associative learning by providing food-deprived wasps with sucrose-water in the presence of specific odor concentrations. Trained wasps' responses were tested to a range of concentrations of 3 compounds. Wasps showed unidirectional generalization of learned concentration responses, whereby the direction of concentration generalization was shown to be chemical-dependent. Through both positive (sucrose) and negative feeding experiences (water only) with varying compound concentrations, the wasps can also be conditioned to respond to concentrations exceeding a defined threshold, and they were successful in reporting low, medium, and high concentrations of indole, skatole, and androstenone in boar fat at room temperature. The need for threshold detection rather than simple detection of absence/presence applies to many food quality issues, including the detection of spoilage or pest damage in crops or stored foods. An inexpensive and reliable means of detecting boar tainted pork at slaughter to avoid tainted meat on the market and dissatisfied consumers. Journal of Food Science © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists® No claim to original US government works.

  2. Studies on conducting nanocomposite with gallium nitride-doped ferrite, part - III wasp-waist formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indrakanti, Rajani; Rao, V. Brahmaji; Kiran, C. Udaya

    2018-05-01

    We report the maiden experimental observation of the formation of Wasp-waists in the Hysteresis loop, of PPY Nanocomposite with GaN doped Ferrite. Earlier this phenomenon was reported in paleo magnetic and environmental magnetic studies. It is probably the very first time we report it in our Synthesized Nanocomposites. Details supported by data are presented. Parameters like Exchange Anisotropy, Multi Domain formation, Variations in Coercivity are suspected to be prominent causes for this occurrence. Systematic analysis of our data provides substantial evidence for the existence of the phenomenon.

  3. The description of Zapatella davisae, new species, (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) a pest gall wasp of black oak (Quercus velutina) in New England

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Many species of gall wasp (Cynipidae) essentially co-exist with their host oak tree species. Occasionally, the association becomes destructive to the tree, as is the case with Zapatella davisae, new species. This species is a twig galler, and as such, in the cases of heavy infestation, cause flagg...

  4. Computational modeling and experimental validation of odor detection behaviours of classically conditioned parasitic wasp, Microplitis croceipes.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To further improve the sensitivity of odor¬ and odor concentration detection of the Wasp Hound, searching behaviors of a food-conditioned wasp in a confined area with the conditioning odor were recorded. The experiments were recorded using a video camera. First, the wasps are individually hand condi...

  5. The Exo-Atmosphere of WASP-103b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Star Cartier, Kimberly Michelle; Wright, Jason; Beatty, Thomas G.

    2017-01-01

    Spectroscopic measurements of exo-atmospheres are essential for full characterization of an exoplanet's composition, temperature, and habitability. Given the state of our current technology, transiting hot Jupiters are the best candidates for both transmission and emission spectroscopy due to their large radii, extended atmospheres, and hot equilibrium temperatures. WASP-103b is a 1.5 Jupiter-radius gas giant at the edge of tidal disruption orbiting an F-star 470 pc away. Its very-hot temperature (2890 K), ultra-short period (0.92 day), and UV-quiet host star make WASP-103b a compelling target for exo-atmosphere observations. The presence of a nearby companion star complicates analyses of the WASP-103 system, and is likely physically associated with the host star and planet. We apply state-of-the-art Gaussian process regression to provide precise solutions to faint signals, with models that are flexible enough to accommodate extreme detector systematics and unknown noise sources. Through a combination of spaced-based emission spectra and multi-telescope ground-based transmission spectra and photometry, we show that WASP-103b has no obvious molecular absorption in the near-infrared, anomalously strong Rayleigh scattering, and the potential for a stratospheric thermal inversion. WASP-103b, along with other highly-irradiated hot Jupiters, will be a key planet for validating hypotheses about the existence and origin of thermal inversions, and developing analysis methods viable for exo-atmospheric studies of the future.

  6. The discovery of WASP-151b, WASP-153b, WASP-156b: Insights on giant planet migration and the upper boundary of the Neptunian desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demangeon, O. D. S.; Faedi, F.; Hébrard, G.; Brown, D. J. A.; Barros, S. C. C.; Doyle, A. P.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Cameron, A. Collier; Hay, K. L.; Alikakos, J.; Anderson, D. R.; Armstrong, D. J.; Boumis, P.; Bonomo, A. S.; Bouchy, F.; Delrez, L.; Gillon, M.; Haswell, C. A.; Hellier, C.; Jehin, E.; Kiefer, F.; Lam, K. W. F.; Lendl, M.; Mancini, L.; McCormac, J.; Norton, A. J.; Osborn, H. P.; Palle, E.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D. L.; Prieto-Arranz, J.; Queloz, D.; Ségransan, D.; Smalley, B.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Udry, S.; West, R.; Wheatley, P. J.

    2018-03-01

    To investigate the origin of the features discovered in the exoplanet population, the knowledge of exoplanets' mass and radius with a good precision (≲10%) is essential. To achieve this purpose the discovery of transiting exoplanets around bright stars is of prime interest. In this paper, we report the discovery of three transiting exoplanets by the SuperWASP survey and the SOPHIE spectrograph with mass and radius determined with a precision better than 15%. WASP-151b and WASP-153b are two hot Saturns with masses, radii, densities and equilibrium temperatures of 0.31-0.03+0.04 MJ, 1.13-0.03+0.03 RJ, 0.22-0.02+0.03 ρJ and 1290-10+20 K, and 0.39-0.02+0.02 MJ, 1.55-0.08+0.10 RJ, 0.11-0.02+0.02 ρJ and 1700-40+40 K, respectively. Their host stars are early G type stars (with mag V 13) and their orbital periods are 4.53 and 3.33 days, respectively. WASP-156b is a super-Neptune orbiting a K type star (mag V = 11.6). It has a mass of 0.128-0.009+0.010 MJ, a radius of 0.51-0.02+0.02 RJ, a density of 1.0-0.1+0.1 ρJ, an equilibrium temperature of 970-20+30 K and an orbital period of 3.83 days. The radius of WASP-151b appears to be only slightly inflated, while WASP-153b presents a significant radius anomaly compared to a recently published model. WASP-156b, being one of the few well characterized super-Neptunes, will help to constrain the still debated formation of Neptune size planets and the transition between gas and ice giants. The estimates of the age of these three stars confirms an already observed tendency for some stars to have gyrochronological ages significantly lower than their isochronal ages. We propose that high eccentricity migration could partially explain this behavior for stars hosting a short period planet. Finally, these three planets also lie close to (WASP-151b and WASP-153b) or below (WASP-156b) the upper boundary of the Neptunian desert. Their characteristics support that the ultra-violet irradiation plays an important role in this depletion of

  7. Two new bradykinin-related peptides from the venom of the social wasp Protopolybia exigua (Saussure).

    PubMed

    Mendes, Maria Anita; Palma, Mario Sergio

    2006-11-01

    Two bradykinin-related peptides (Protopolybiakinin-I and Protopolybiakinin-II) were isolated from the venom of the social wasp Protopolybia exigua by RP-HPLC, and sequenced by Edman degradation method. Peptide sequences of Protopolybiakinin-I and Protopolybiakinin-II were DKNKKPIRVGGRRPPGFTR-OH and DKNKKPIWMAGFPGFTPIR-OH, respectively. Synthetic peptides with identical sequences to the bradykinin-related peptides and their biological functions were characterized. Protopolybiakinin-I caused less potent constriction of the isolated rat ileum muscles than bradykinin (BK). In addition, it caused degranulation of mast cells which was seven times more potent than BK. This peptide causes algesic effects due to the direct activation of B(2)-receptors. Protopolybiakinin-II is not an agonist of rat ileum muscle and had no algesic effects. However, Protopolybiakinin-II was found to be 10 times more potent as a mast cell degranulator than BK. The amino acid sequence of Protopolybiakinin-I is the longest among the known wasp kinins.

  8. Sexy faces in a male paper wasp.

    PubMed

    de Souza, André Rodrigues; Alberto Mourão Júnior, Carlos; do Nascimento, Fabio Santos; Lino-Neto, José

    2014-01-01

    Sexually selected signals are common in many animals, though little reported in social insects. We investigated the occurrence of male visual signals mediating the dominance relationships among males and female choice of sexual partner in the paper wasp Polistes simillimus. Males have three conspicuous, variable and sexually dimorphic traits: black pigmentation on the head, a pair of yellow abdominal spots and body size differences. By conducting behavioral assays, we found that none of the three visual traits are associated with male-male dominance relationship. However, males with higher proportion of black facial pigmentation and bigger yellow abdominal spots are more likely chosen as sexual partners. Also, after experimentally manipulating the proportion of black pigment on males' face, we found that females may evaluate male facial coloration during the choice of a sexual partner. Thus, the black pigmentation on P. simillimus male's head appears to play a role as a sexually selected visual signal. We suggest that sexual selection is a common force in Polistes and we highlight the importance of this group as a model for the study of visual communication in insects.

  9. Sexy Faces in a Male Paper Wasp

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, André Rodrigues; Alberto Mourão Júnior, Carlos; Santos do Nascimento, Fabio; Lino-Neto, José

    2014-01-01

    Sexually selected signals are common in many animals, though little reported in social insects. We investigated the occurrence of male visual signals mediating the dominance relationships among males and female choice of sexual partner in the paper wasp Polistes simillimus. Males have three conspicuous, variable and sexually dimorphic traits: black pigmentation on the head, a pair of yellow abdominal spots and body size differences. By conducting behavioral assays, we found that none of the three visual traits are associated with male-male dominance relationship. However, males with higher proportion of black facial pigmentation and bigger yellow abdominal spots are more likely chosen as sexual partners. Also, after experimentally manipulating the proportion of black pigment on males' face, we found that females may evaluate male facial coloration during the choice of a sexual partner. Thus, the black pigmentation on P. simillimus male's head appears to play a role as a sexually selected visual signal. We suggest that sexual selection is a common force in Polistes and we highlight the importance of this group as a model for the study of visual communication in insects. PMID:24849073

  10. A STING-activating nanovaccine for cancer immunotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Min; Wang, Hua; Wang, Zhaohui; Cai, Haocheng; Lu, Zhigang; Li, Yang; Du, Mingjian; Huang, Gang; Wang, Chensu; Chen, Xiang; Porembka, Matthew R.; Lea, Jayanthi; Frankel, Arthur E.; Fu, Yang-Xin; Chen, Zhijian J.; Gao, Jinming

    2017-07-01

    The generation of tumour-specific T cells is critically important for cancer immunotherapy. A major challenge in achieving a robust T-cell response is the spatiotemporal orchestration of antigen cross-presentation in antigen-presenting cells with innate stimulation. Here, we report a minimalist nanovaccine, comprising a simple physical mixture of an antigen and a synthetic polymeric nanoparticle, PC7A NP, which generates a strong cytotoxic T-cell response with low systemic cytokine expression. Mechanistically, the PC7A NP achieves efficient cytosolic delivery of tumour antigens to antigen-presenting cells in draining lymph nodes, leading to increased surface presentation while simultaneously activating type I interferon-stimulated genes. This effect is dependent on stimulator of interferon genes (STING), but not the Toll-like receptor or the mitochondrial antiviral-signalling protein (MAVS) pathway. The nanovaccine led to potent tumour growth inhibition in melanoma, colon cancer and human papilloma virus-E6/E7 tumour models. The combination of the PC7A nanovaccine and an anti-PD-1 antibody showed great synergy, with 100% survival over 60 days in a TC-1 tumour model. Rechallenging of these tumour-free animals with TC-1 cells led to complete inhibition of tumour growth, suggesting the generation of long-term antitumour memory. The STING-activating nanovaccine offers a simple, safe and robust strategy in boosting anti-tumour immunity for cancer immunotherapy.

  11. The Mauve Stinger Pelagia noctiluca (Forsskål, 1775). Distribution, Ecology, Toxicity and Epidemiology of Stings. A Review

    PubMed Central

    Mariottini, Gian Luigi; Giacco, Elisabetta; Pane, Luigi

    2008-01-01

    The toxicity of Cnidaria is a subject of concern due to its influence on humans. In particular, jellyfish blooms can highly affect human economical activities, such as bathing, fishery, tourism, etc., as well as the public health. Stinging structures of Cnidaria (nematocysts) produce remarkable effects on human skin, such as erythema, swelling, burning and vesicles, and at times further severe dermonecrotic, cardio- and neurotoxic effects, which are particularly dangerous in sensitive subjects. In several zones the toxicity of jellyfish is a very important health problem, thus it has stimulated the research on these organisms; to date toxicological research on Cnidarian venoms in the Mediterranean region is not well developed due to the weak poisonousness of venoms of jellyfish and anemones living in this area. In spite of this, during last decades several problems were also caused in the Mediterranean by stinging consequent to Cnidarian blooms mainly caused by Pelagia noctiluca (Forsskål, 1775) which is known to be the most venomous Mediterranean jellyfish. This paper reviews the knowledge on this jellyfish species, particularly considering its occurrence and toxicity. PMID:19005582

  12. Inherited STING-activating mutation underlies a familial inflammatory syndrome with lupus-like manifestations

    PubMed Central

    Jeremiah, Nadia; Neven, Bénédicte; Gentili, Matteo; Callebaut, Isabelle; Maschalidi, Sophia; Stolzenberg, Marie-Claude; Goudin, Nicolas; Frémond, Marie-Louis; Nitschke, Patrick; Molina, Thierry J.; Blanche, Stéphane; Picard, Capucine; Rice, Gillian I.; Crow, Yanick J.; Manel, Nicolas; Fischer, Alain; Bader-Meunier, Brigitte; Rieux-Laucat, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    Innate immunity to viral infection involves induction of the type I IFN response; however, dysfunctional regulation of this pathway leads to inappropriate inflammation. Here, we evaluated a nonconsanguineous family of mixed European descent, with 4 members affected by systemic inflammatory and autoimmune conditions, including lupus, with variable clinical expression. We identified a germline dominant gain-of-function mutation in TMEM173, which encodes stimulator of type I IFN gene (STING), in the affected individuals. STING is a key signaling molecule in cytosolic DNA-sensing pathways, and STING activation normally requires dimerization, which is induced by 2′3′ cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) produced by the cGAMP synthase in response to cytosolic DNA. Structural modeling supported constitutive activation of the mutant STING protein based on stabilized dimerization. In agreement with the model predictions, we found that the STING mutant spontaneously localizes in the Golgi of patient fibroblasts and is constitutively active in the absence of exogenous 2′3′-cGAMP in vitro. Accordingly, we observed elevated serum IFN activity and a type I IFN signature in peripheral blood from affected family members. These findings highlight the key role of STING in activating both the innate and adaptive immune responses and implicate aberrant STING activation in features of human lupus. PMID:25401470

  13. Jellyfish Stings and Their Management: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Cegolon, Luca; Heymann, William C.; Lange, John H.; Mastrangelo, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Jellyfish (cnidarians) have a worldwide distribution. Despite most being harmless, some species may cause local and also systemic reactions. Treatment of jellyfish envenomation is directed at: alleviating the local effects of venom, preventing further nematocyst discharges and controlling systemic reactions, including shock. In severe cases, the most important step is stabilizing and maintaining vital functions. With some differences between species, there seems to be evidence and consensus on oral/topical analgesics, hot water and ice packs as effective painkillers and on 30 s application of domestic vinegar (4%–6% acetic acid) to prevent further discharge of unfired nematocysts remaining on the skin. Conversely, alcohol, methylated spirits and fresh water should be carefully avoided, since they could massively discharge nematocysts; pressure immobilization bandaging should also be avoided, as laboratory studies show that it stimulates additional venom discharge from nematocysts. Most treatment approaches are presently founded on relatively weak evidence; therefore, further research (especially randomized clinical trials) is strongly recommended. Dissemination of appropriate treatment modalities should be deployed to better inform and educate those at risk. Adequate signage should be placed at beaches to notify tourists of the jellyfish risk. Swimmers in risky areas should wear protective equipment. PMID:23434796

  14. WASP-47 and the Origin of Hot Jupiters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderburg, Andrew; Becker, Juliette; Latham, David W.; Adams, Fred; Bryan, Marta; Buchhave, Lars; Haywood, Raphaelle; Khain, Tali; Lopez, Eric; Malavolta, Luca; Mortier, Annelies; HARPS-N Consortium

    2018-01-01

    WASP-47 b is a transiting hot Jupiter in a system with two additional short-period transiting planets and a long-period outer Jovian companion. WASP-47 b is the only known hot Jupiter with such close-in companions and therefore may hold clues to the origins of hot Jupiter systems. We report on precise radial velocity observations of WASP-47 to measure planet masses and determine their orbits to high precision. Using these improved masses and orbital elements, we perform a dynamical analysis to constrain the inclination of the outer planet, which we find likely orbits near the same plane as the inner transiting system. A similar dynamical analysis for five other hot Jupiter systems with long-period companions around cool host stars (Teff < 6200 K) shows that these outer companions likely also orbit close to the plane of the hot Jupiters. These constraints disfavor hot Jupiter models involving strong dynamical interactions like Kozai-Lidov migration.

  15. Severe combined immunodeficiency in Sting V154M/WT mice.

    PubMed

    Bouis, Delphine; Kirstetter, Peggy; Arbogast, Florent; Lamon, Delphine; Delgado, Virginia; Jung, Sophie; Ebel, Claudine; Jacobs, Hugues; Knapp, Anne-Marie; Jeremiah, Nadia; Belot, Alexandre; Martin, Thierry; Crow, Yanick J; André-Schmutz, Isabelle; Korganow, Anne-Sophie; Rieux-Laucat, Frédéric; Soulas-Sprauel, Pauline

    2018-05-23

    Autosomal dominant gain-of-function (GOF) mutations in human STING (Stimulator of Interferon Genes) lead to a severe autoinflammatory disease called SAVI (STING Associated Vasculopathy with onset in Infancy), associated with enhanced expression of interferon (IFN) stimulated gene (ISG) transcripts. The goal of this study was to analyze the phenotype of a new mouse model of Sting hyperactivation, and the role of type I IFN in this system. We generated a knock-in model carrying an amino acid substitution (V154M) in mouse Sting, corresponding to a recurrent mutation seen in human patients with SAVI. Hematopoietic development and tissue histology were analyzed. Lymphocyte activation and proliferation were assessed in vitro. Sting V154M/WT mice were crossed to IFNAR (IFNα/β Receptor) knock-out mice in order to evaluate the type I IFN-dependence of the mutant Sting phenotype recorded. In Sting V154M/WT mice we detected variable expression of inflammatory infiltrates in the lungs and kidneys. These mice showed a marked decrease in survival and developed a severe combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID) affecting B, T and NK cells, with an almost complete lack of antibodies and a significant expansion of monocytes and granulocytes. The blockade in B and T cell development was present from early immature stages in bone marrow and thymus. In addition, in vitro experiments revealed an intrinsic proliferative defect of mature T cells. Whilst the V154M/WT mutant demonstrated increased expression of ISGs, the SCID phenotype was not reversed in Sting V154M/WT IFNAR knock-out mice. However, the anti-proliferative defect in T cells was partially rescued by IFNAR deficiency. Sting GOF mice developed an IFN-independent SCID phenotype with a T, B and NK cell developmental defect and hypogammaglobulinemia, associated with signs of inflammation in lungs and kidneys. Only the intrinsic proliferative defect of T cells was, partially, IFN-dependent. Copyright © 2018. Published by

  16. Nettle sting of Urtica dioica for joint pain--an exploratory study of this complementary therapy.

    PubMed

    Randall, C; Meethan, K; Randall, H; Dobbs, F

    1999-09-01

    This exploratory study aims to explore the present use of the common stinging nettle to treat joint pain. Eighteen self-selected patients using the nettle sting of Urtica dioica were interviewed. Information regarding patients' use of nettle therapy was elicited, in particular mode of application, dosage and effects. All except one respondent were sure that netles had been very helpful and several considered themselves cured. No observed side effects were reported, except a transient urticarial rash. This exploratory study suggests nettle sting is a useful, safe and cheap therapy which needs further study. A randomized controlled trial is planned in collaboration with a rheumatology specialist.

  17. Discovering the nature of the star-planet interaction at WASP-12b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, Jonathan

    2013-10-01

    In 2010, COS produced a tantalising hint of a significant discovery: the magnetic field of an exoplanet. The ingress of the transiting 'hot-Jupiter' exoplanet WASP-12b apparently occurred earlier in the NUV than in the optical, and two hypotheses have been put forward as explanations. One is that this manifests dense shocked material in a magnetosheath formed in the supersonic stellar wind upstream of the planet's thus-revealed magnetic field, while the other is that this is caused in the absence of a planetary magnetic field by material overflowing the planet's Roche lobe at the L1 point. However, the previous observation, which was not designed to observe this phenomenon, is beset by scattered, sparse data and we do not yet understand the nature of the star-planet interaction. It is thus crucial that we now observe WASP-12b in a program specifically designed to unambiguously detect the early ingress, significantly improve the NUV lightcurve, and answer the question:* What is the nature of the star-planet interaction at WASP-12?No other observatory is capable of making these observations, and this proposal is highly accordant with the purpose of the Cycle 21 UV initiative. Execution in Cycle 21 is also highly desirable since the results will provide input to the LOFAR exoplanet program, which will focus on planets thought to exhibit star-planet interactions. By following a fortuitously obtained pointer, this proposal presents low risk-high impact observations, since the characterisation of star-exoplanet interactions and possibly the first detection of an exoplanetary magnetic field would be of huge scientific significance.

  18. An Analysis of Transiting Hot Jupiters Observed with K2: WASP-55b and WASP-75b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, B. J. M.; Anderson, D. R.; Hellier, C.; Turner, O. D.; Močnik, T.

    2018-03-01

    We present our analysis of the K2 short-cadence data of two previously known hot Jupiter exoplanets: WASP-55b and WASP-75b. The high precision of the K2 light curves enabled us to search for transit timing and duration variations, rotational modulation, starspots, phase-curve variations and additional transiting planets. We identified stellar variability in the WASP-75 light curve which may be an indication of rotational modulation, with an estimated period of 11.2 ± 1.5 days. We combined this with the spectroscopically measured v\\sin ({i}* ) to calculate a possible line of sight projected inclination angle of {i}* =41^\\circ +/- 16^\\circ . We also perform a global analysis of K2 and previously published data to refine the system parameters.

  19. Effects of stinging nettle root extracts and their steroidal components on the Na+,K(+)-ATPase of the benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Hirano, T; Homma, M; Oka, K

    1994-02-01

    The effects of organic-solvent extracts of Urtica dioica (Urticaceae) on the Na+,K(+)-ATPase of the tissue of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) were investigated. The membrane Na+,K(+)-ATPase fraction was prepared from a patient with BPH by a differential centrifugation of the tissue homogenate. The enzyme activity was inhibited by 10(-4)-10(-5) M of ouabain. The hexane extract, the ether extract, the ethyl acetate extract, and the butanol extract of the roots caused 27.6-81.5% inhibition of the enzyme activity at 0.1 mg/ml. In addition, a column extraction of stinging nettle roots using benzene as an eluent afforded efficient enzyme inhibiting activity. Steroidal components in stinging nettle roots, such as stigmast-4-en-3-one, stigmasterol, and campesterol inhibited the enzyme activity by 23.0-67.0% at concentrations ranging from 10(-3)-10(-6) M. These results suggest that some hydrophobic constituents such as steroids in the stinging nettle roots inhibited the membrane Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity of the prostate, which may subsequently suppress prostate-cell metabolism and growth.

  20. The cGAS-STING Defense Pathway and Its Counteraction by Viruses.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhe; Damania, Blossom

    2016-02-10

    Upon virus infection, host cells mount a concerted innate immune response involving type I interferon and pro-inflammatory cytokines to enable elimination of the pathogen. Recently, cGAS and STING have been identified as intracellular sensors that activate the interferon pathway in response to virus infection and thus mediate host defense against a range of DNA and RNA viruses. Here we review how viruses are sensed by the cGAS-STING signaling pathway as well as how viruses modulate this pathway. Mechanisms utilized by viral proteins to inhibit cGAS and/or STING are also discussed. On the flip side, host cells have also evolved strategies to thwart viral immune escape. The balance between host immune control and viral immune evasion is pivotal to viral pathogenesis, and we discuss this virus-host stand-off in the context of the cGAS-STING innate immune pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. History and management of sirex wood wasp in Australia

    Treesearch

    Angus J. Carnegie

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews the history and management of Sirex noctilio in Australia, including information from previous reviews as well as more recent data. The sirex wood wasp, Sirex noctilio, is one of the most important insect pests of Pinus radiata in Australia. Native to Europe, North Africa and Turkey, S...

  2. Use of a parasitic wasp as a biosensor

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Screening cargo for illicit substances is still in need of high-throughput inspection systems that can rapidly screen and accurately identify suspicious cargo. Here we investigate the ability of a parasitic wasp, Microplitis croceipes to detect and respond to methyl benzoate, the volatile component ...

  3. Social wasps promote social behavior in Saccharomyces spp.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This commentary provides background and an evaluation of a paper to be published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences in which social wasps were found to harbor significant populations of two species of the yeast genus Saccharomyces. Apparently, the yeasts were acquired during feed...

  4. Resistance of chestnut trees to Asia chestnut gall wasp

    Treesearch

    S. Anagnostakis; S.L. Clark; H. McNab

    2011-01-01

    Asian chestnut gall wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphihus) was introduced into Georgia (USA) in 1975 and has been spreading north throughout the range of American chestnut (Castanea dentate). This pest is now present throughout most of Tennessee. In 2003, it was found near Cleveland, Ohio and has been spreading south from there. In 1995, hybrid chestnuts with C. dentate female...

  5. Activation of the Stimulator of Interferon Genes (STING) adaptor attenuates experimental autoimmune encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Lemos, Henrique; Huang, Lei; Chandler, Phillip R.; Mohamed, Eslam; Souza, Guilherme R.; Li, Lingqian; Pacholczyk, Gabriela; Barber, Glen N.; Hayakawa, Yoshihiro; Munn, David H.; Mellor, Andrew L.

    2014-01-01

    Cytosolic DNA sensing activates the Stimulator of Interferon Genes (STING) adaptor to induce interferon type I (IFNαβ) production. Constitutive DNA sensing to induce sustained STING activation incites tolerance breakdown leading to autoimmunity. Here we show that systemic treatments with DNA nanoparticles (DNPs) induced potent immune regulatory responses via STING signaling that suppressed experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE) when administered to mice after immunization with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), at EAE onset, or at peak disease severity. DNP treatments attenuated infiltration of effector T cells into the central nervous system (CNS) and suppressed innate and adaptive immune responses to MOG immunization in spleen. Therapeutic responses were not observed in mice treated with cargo DNA or cationic polymers alone, indicating that DNP uptake and cargo DNA sensing by cells with regulatory functions was essential for therapeutic responses to manifest. Intact STING and IFNαβ receptor genes, but not IFNγ receptor genes, were essential for therapeutic responses to DNPs to manifest. Treatments with cyclic diguanylate monophosphate (c-diGMP) to activate STING also delayed EAE onset and reduced disease severity. Therapeutic responses to DNPs were critically dependent on indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO) enzyme activity in hematopoietic cells. Thus DNPs and c-diGMP attenuate EAE by inducing dominant T cell regulatory responses via the STING-IFNαβ-IDO pathway that suppress CNS-specific autoimmunity. These findings reveal dichotomous roles for the STING-IFNαβ pathway in either stimulating or suppressing autoimmunity and identify STING activating reagents as a novel class of immune modulatory drugs. PMID:24799564

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging correlates of bee sting induced multiple organ dysfunction syndrome: A case report.

    PubMed

    Das, Sushant K; Zeng, Li-Chuan; Li, Bing; Niu, Xiang-Ke; Wang, Jing-Liang; Bhetuwal, Anup; Yang, Han-Feng

    2014-09-28

    Occasionally systemic complications with high risk of death, such as multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), can occur following multiple bee stings. This case study reports a patient who presented with MODS, i.e., acute kidney injury, hepatic and cardiac dysfunction, after multiple bee stings. The standard clinical findings were then correlated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, which demonstrates that MRI may be utilized as a simpler tool to use than other multiple diagnostics.

  7. Evolution of the eukaryotic ARP2/3 activators of the WASP family: WASP, WAVE, WASH, and WHAMM, and the proposed new family members WAWH and WAML

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background WASP family proteins stimulate the actin-nucleating activity of the ARP2/3 complex. They include members of the well-known WASP and WAVE/Scar proteins, and the recently identified WASH and WHAMM proteins. WASP family proteins contain family specific N-terminal domains followed by proline-rich regions and C-terminal VCA domains that harbour the ARP2/3-activating regions. Results To reveal the evolution of ARP2/3 activation by WASP family proteins we performed a "holistic" analysis by manually assembling and annotating all homologs in most of the eukaryotic genomes available. We have identified two new families: the WAML proteins (WASP and MIM like), which combine the membrane-deforming and actin bundling functions of the IMD domains with the ARP2/3-activating VCA regions, and the WAWH protein (WASP without WH1 domain) that have been identified in amoebae, Apusozoa, and the anole lizard. Surprisingly, with one exception we did not identify any alternative splice forms for WASP family proteins, which is in strong contrast to other actin-binding proteins like Ena/VASP, MIM, or NHS proteins that share domains with WASP proteins. Conclusions Our analysis showed that the last common ancestor of the eukaryotes must have contained a homolog of WASP, WAVE, and WASH. Specific families have subsequently been lost in many taxa like the WASPs in plants, algae, Stramenopiles, and Euglenozoa, and the WASH proteins in fungi. The WHAMM proteins are metazoa specific and have most probably been invented by the Eumetazoa. The diversity of WASP family proteins has strongly been increased by many species- and taxon-specific gene duplications and multimerisations. All data is freely accessible via http://www.cymobase.org. PMID:22316129

  8. Management of stinging insect hypersensitivity: a 5-year retrospective medical record review.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Thomas; Dietrich, Jeffrey; Hagan, Larry

    2006-08-01

    The Joint Task Force on Practice Parameters for Allergy and Immunology recommends that patients with a history of a systemic reaction to an insect sting be educated on ways to avoid insect stings, carry injectable epinephrine for emergency self-treatment, undergo specific IgE testing for stinging insect sensitivity, and be considered for immunotherapy. To review frontline providers' documented care and recommendations for imported fire ant and flying insect hypersensitivity reactions. A retrospective medical record review was performed of emergency department and primary care clinic visits between November 1, 1999, and November 30, 2004. Using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, codes, medical records were selected for review to identify patients with potential insect hypersensitivity. A total of 769 medical records from patients who experienced an insect sting were reviewed. Of 120 patients with a systemic reaction, 66 (55.0%) received a prescription for injectable epinephrine, and 14 (11.7%) were given information regarding avoidance of the offending insect. Forty-seven patients with systemic reactions (39.2%) were referred to an allergist. Of 28 patients who kept their appointments and underwent skin testing, 3 had negative results and 25 (89%) had positive results and were advised to start immunotherapy. Adherence to the stinging insect hypersensitivity practice parameter recommendations is poor. Many patients who have experienced a systemic reaction after an insect sting and have sought medical care are not afforded an opportunity for potentially lifesaving therapy.

  9. HTLV-1 Tax impairs K63-linked ubiquitination of STING to evade host innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Yang, Shuai; Liu, Lu; Wang, Hui; Yang, Bo

    2017-03-15

    The cellular antiviral innate immune system is essential for host defense and viruses have evolved a variety of strategies to evade the innate immunity. Human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) belongs to the deltaretrovirus family and it can establish persistent infection in human beings for many years. However, how this virus evades the host innate immune responses remains unclear. Here we report a new strategy used by HTLV-1 to block innate immune responses. We observed that stimulator of interferon genes (STING) limited HTLV-1 protein expression and was critical to HTLV-1 reverse transcription intermediate (RTI) ssDNA90 triggered interferon (IFN)-β production in phorbol12-myristate13-acetate (PMA)-differentiated THP1 (PMA-THP1) cells. The HTLV-1 protein Tax inhibited STING overexpression induced transcriptional activation of IFN-β. Tax also impaired poly(dA:dT), interferon stimulatory DNA (ISD) or cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) -stimulated IFN-β production, which was dependent on STING activation. Coimmunoprecipitation assays and confocal microscopy indicated that Tax was associated with STING in the same complex. Mechanistic studies suggested that Tax decreased the K63-linked ubiquitination of STING and disrupted the interactions between STING and TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1). These findings may shed more light on the molecular mechanisms underlying HTLV-1 infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Gastral drumming: a nest-based food-recruitment signal in a social wasp.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Benjamin J; Jeanne, Robert L

    2018-03-21

    Many social insect species produce signals that either recruit foragers to a specific food source or simply activate more nestmates to become foragers. Both are means of enhancing resource exploitation by increasing the number of individuals devoted to gathering profitable resources. Gastral drumming (GD) has been documented in several species of yellowjackets and hornets (Vespidae: Vespinae). It has been hypothesized that it is a hunger signal, but there is little empirical evidence to support this claim. An alternative hypothesis is that GD recruits workers to forage for food. Here, we report the results of a test between the hunger-signal and food-recruitment hypotheses in the German yellowjacket wasp, Vespula germanica. We show that the rate of performance of GD decreased when colonies were deprived of food and increased when supplemental food was provided. Playback of GD caused increased rates of (1) movement in the nest, (2) trophallaxis, and (3) worker departures from the nest. Together, these results support the conclusion that GD is not a hunger signal as previously asserted but instead is a nest-based food-recruitment signal, the first to be reported for a social wasp.

  11. Gastral drumming: a nest-based food-recruitment signal in a social wasp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Benjamin J.; Jeanne, Robert L.

    2018-04-01

    Many social insect species produce signals that either recruit foragers to a specific food source or simply activate more nestmates to become foragers. Both are means of enhancing resource exploitation by increasing the number of individuals devoted to gathering profitable resources. Gastral drumming (GD) has been documented in several species of yellowjackets and hornets (Vespidae: Vespinae). It has been hypothesized that it is a hunger signal, but there is little empirical evidence to support this claim. An alternative hypothesis is that GD recruits workers to forage for food. Here, we report the results of a test between the hunger-signal and food-recruitment hypotheses in the German yellowjacket wasp, Vespula germanica. We show that the rate of performance of GD decreased when colonies were deprived of food and increased when supplemental food was provided. Playback of GD caused increased rates of (1) movement in the nest, (2) trophallaxis, and (3) worker departures from the nest. Together, these results support the conclusion that GD is not a hunger signal as previously asserted but instead is a nest-based food-recruitment signal, the first to be reported for a social wasp.

  12. High-precision photometry by telescope defocusing - VII. The ultrashort period planet WASP-103

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Southworth, John; Mancini, L.; Ciceri, S.; Budaj, J.; Dominik, M.; Figuera Jaimes, R.; Haugbølle, T.; Jørgensen, U. G.; Popovas, A.; Rabus, M.; Rahvar, S.; von Essen, C.; Schmidt, R. W.; Wertz, O.; Alsubai, K. A.; Bozza, V.; Bramich, D. M.; Calchi Novati, S.; D'Ago, G.; Hinse, T. C.; Henning, Th.; Hundertmark, M.; Juncher, D.; Korhonen, H.; Skottfelt, J.; Snodgrass, C.; Starkey, D.; Surdej, J.

    2015-02-01

    We present 17 transit light curves of the ultrashort period planetary system WASP-103, a strong candidate for the detection of tidally-induced orbital decay. We use these to establish a high-precision reference epoch for transit timing studies. The time of the reference transit mid-point is now measured to an accuracy of 4.8 s, versus 67.4 s in the discovery paper, aiding future searches for orbital decay. With the help of published spectroscopic measurements and theoretical stellar models, we determine the physical properties of the system to high precision and present a detailed error budget for these calculations. The planet has a Roche lobe filling factor of 0.58, leading to a significant asphericity; we correct its measured mass and mean density for this phenomenon. A high-resolution Lucky Imaging observation shows no evidence for faint stars close enough to contaminate the point spread function of WASP-103. Our data were obtained in the Bessell RI and the SDSS griz passbands and yield a larger planet radius at bluer optical wavelengths, to a confidence level of 7.3σ. Interpreting this as an effect of Rayleigh scattering in the planetary atmosphere leads to a measurement of the planetary mass which is too small by a factor of 5, implying that Rayleigh scattering is not the main cause of the variation of radius with wavelength.

  13. Including irrigation in niche modelling of the invasive wasp Vespula germanica (Fabricius) improves model fit to predict potential for further spread

    PubMed Central

    Kriticos, Darren J.; Veldtman, Ruan

    2017-01-01

    The European wasp, Vespula germanica (Fabricius) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae), is of Palaearctic origin, being native to Europe, northern Africa and Asia, and introduced into North America, Chile, Argentina, Iceland, Ascension Island, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand. Due to its polyphagous nature and scavenging behaviour, V. germanica threatens agriculture and silviculture, and negatively affects biodiversity, while its aggressive nature and venomous sting pose a health risk to humans. In areas with warmer winters and longer summers, queens and workers can survive the winter months, leading to the build-up of large nests during the following season; thereby increasing the risk posed by this species. To prevent or prepare for such unwanted impacts it is important to know where the wasp may be able to establish, either through natural spread or through introduction as a result of human transport. Distribution data from Argentina and Australia, and seasonal phenology data from Argentina were used to determine the potential distribution of V. germanica using CLIMEX modelling. In contrast to previous models, the influence of irrigation on its distribution was also investigated. Under a natural rainfall scenario, the model showed similarities to previous models. When irrigation is applied, dry stress is alleviated, leading to larger areas modelled climatically suitable compared with previous models, which provided a better fit with the actual distribution of the species. The main areas at risk of invasion by V. germanica include western USA, Mexico, small areas in Central America and in the north-western region of South America, eastern Brazil, western Russia, north-western China, Japan, the Mediterranean coastal regions of North Africa, and parts of southern and eastern Africa. PMID:28715452

  14. Ocellar optics in nocturnal and diurnal bees and wasps.

    PubMed

    Warrant, Eric J; Kelber, Almut; Wallén, Rita; Wcislo, William T

    2006-12-01

    Nocturnal bees, wasps and ants have considerably larger ocelli than their diurnal relatives, suggesting an active role in vision at night. In a first step to understanding what this role might be, the morphology and physiological optics of ocelli were investigated in three tropical rainforest species - the nocturnal sweat bee Megalopta genalis, the nocturnal paper wasp Apoica pallens and the diurnal paper wasp Polistes occidentalis - using hanging-drop techniques and standard histological methods. Ocellar image quality, in addition to lens focal length and back focal distance, was determined in all three species. During flight, the ocellar receptive fields of both nocturnal species are centred very dorsally, possibly in order to maximise sensitivity to the narrow dorsal field of light that enters through gaps in the rainforest canopy. Since all ocelli investigated had a slightly oval shape, images were found to be astigmatic: images formed by the major axis of the ocellus were located further from the proximal surface of the lens than images formed by the minor axis. Despite being astigmatic, images formed at either focal plane were reasonably sharp in all ocelli investigated. When compared to the position of the retina below the lens, measurements of back focal distance reveal that the ocelli of Megalopta are highly underfocused and unable to resolve spatial detail. This together with their very large and tightly packed rhabdoms suggests a role in making sensitive measurements of ambient light intensity. In contrast, the ocelli of the two wasps form images near the proximal boundary of the retina, suggesting the potential for modest resolving power. In light of these results, possible roles for ocelli in nocturnal bees and wasps are discussed, including the hypothesis that they might be involved in nocturnal homing and navigation, using two main cues: the spatial pattern of bright patches of daylight visible through the rainforest canopy, and compass information

  15. Ecology of parasite Sycophilomorpha sp. on Ficus altissima and its effect on the fig-fig wasp mutualism.

    PubMed

    Peng, Y Q; Zhao, J B; Harrison, R D; Yang, D R

    2010-11-01

    Figs and their pollinating wasps are a classic example of an obligate mutualism. In addition, figs are parasitized by a suite of non-mutualistic wasps whose basic ecology is largely undescribed. Sycophilomorpha (subfamily Epichrysomallinae) fig wasps are ovule gallers and the genus contains only 1 described species. An undescribed Sycophilomorpha species parasitized Ficus altissima at Xishuangbana, Southwestern China. The wasp was observed ovipositing on the tiny immature figs that were still concealed beneath the involucral bracts. A Sycophilomorpha wasp oviposited on more than 1 fig and spent long time-periods to lay large clutches on a single fig. The wasps naturally occurred on all 7 sampled trees, but the occurrence of wasps was significantly different among trees, crops and months. These wasps were able to prevent unpollinated figs from being aborted, and their offspring were able to develop in the figs that otherwise had no pollinator wasps or seeds. The Sycophilomorpha wasp had a detrimental effect on the fig-fig wasp mutualism. Figs in which Sycophilomorpha wasps were present, produced significantly fewer seeds, pollinators and cheaters. However, the abundance of Sycophilomorpha in a fig was only significantly negatively correlated with pollinator production and not seed or cheater production. Our study illustrates a previously unknown fig wasp niche and expands our understanding of factors that can affect the fig-fig wasp interaction.

  16. WASP7 Stream Transport - Model Theory and User's Guide: Supplement to Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP) User Documentation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The standard WASP7 stream transport model calculates water flow through a branching stream network that may include both free-flowing and ponded segments. This supplemental user manual documents the hydraulic algorithms, including the transport and hydrogeometry equations, the m...

  17. Immunosuppressant effect of IDS 30, a stinging nettle leaf extract, on myeloid dendritic cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Broer, Johanna; Behnke, Bert

    2002-04-01

    Dendritic cells are important antigen presenting cells that play a role in the initiation of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The stinging nettle leaf extract IDS 30 (Hox alpha) has been recommended for adjuvant therapy of rheumatic diseases. We investigated the immunomodulating effect of IDS 30 extract on the maturation of hematopoietic dendritic cells. Human dendritic cells were generated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells cultured in granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor and interleukin 4 (IL-4). Dendritic cell maturation was induced by keyhole limped hemocyanin (KLH). Dendritic cell phenotype was characterized by flow cytometric analysis; dendritic cell cytokine production was measured by ELISA. The ability of dendritic cells to activate naive autologous T cells was evaluated by mixed leukocyte reaction. IDS 30 prevented the maturation of dendritic cells, but did not affect their viability. IDS 30 reduced the expression of CD83 and CD86. It increased the expression of chemokine receptor 5 and CD36 in a dose dependent manner. The secretion of tumor necrosis factor-alpha was reduced. Application of IDS 30 to dendritic cells in culture caused a high endocytosis of dextran and a low capacity to stimulate T cell proliferation. Our in vitro results showed the suppressive effect of IDS 30 on the maturation of human myeloid dendritic cells, leading to reduced induction of primary T cell responses. This may contribute to the therapeutic effect of IDS 30 on T cell mediated inflammatory diseases like RA.

  18. RELATIVE ACTIN NUCLEATION PROMOTION EFFICIENCY BY WASP AND WAVE PROTEINS IN ENDOTHELIAL CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hyeran; Wang, Jingjing; Longley, Sarah J.; Tang, Jay X.; Shaw, Sunil K.

    2010-01-01

    The mammalian genome encodes multiple WASP1 (Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein)/WAVE (WASP-family Verprolin homologous) proteins. Members of this family interact with the Arp (actin related protein) 2/3 complex to promote growth of a branched actin network near the plasma membrane or the surface of moving cargos. Arp2/3 mediated branching can further lead to formation of comet tails (actin rockets). Despite their similar domain structure, different WASP/WAVE family members fulfill unique functions that depend on their subcellular location and activity levels. We measured the relative efficiency of actin nucleation promotion of full length WASP/WAVE proteins in a cytoplasmic extract from primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). In this assay WAVE2 and WAVE3 complexes showed higher nucleation efficiency than WAVE1 and N-WASP, indicating distinct cellular controls for different family members. Previously, WASP and N-WASP were the only members that were known to stimulate comet formation. We observed that in addition to N-WASP, WAVE3 also induced short actin tails, and the other WAVEs induced formation of asymmetric actin shells. Differences in shape and structure of actin-based growth may reflect varying ability of WASP/WAVE proteins to break symmetry of the actin shell, possibly by differential recruitment of actin bundling or severing (pruning or debranching) factors. PMID:20816932

  19. Host-plant species conservatism and ecology of a parasitoid fig wasp genus (Chalcidoidea; Sycoryctinae; Arachonia).

    PubMed

    McLeish, Michael J; Beukman, Gary; van Noort, Simon; Wossler, Theresa C

    2012-01-01

    Parasitoid diversity in terrestrial ecosystems is enormous. However, ecological processes underpinning their evolutionary diversification in association with other trophic groups are still unclear. Specialisation and interdependencies among chalcid wasps that reproduce on Ficus presents an opportunity to investigate the ecology of a multi-trophic system that includes parasitoids. Here we estimate the host-plant species specificity of a parasitoid fig wasp genus that attacks the galls of non-pollinating pteromalid and pollinating agaonid fig wasps. We discuss the interactions between parasitoids and the Ficus species present in a forest patch of Uganda in context with populations in Southern Africa. Haplotype networks are inferred to examine intraspecific mitochondrial DNA divergences and phylogenetic approaches used to infer putative species relationships. Taxonomic appraisal and putative species delimitation by molecular and morphological techniques are compared. Results demonstrate that a parasitoid fig wasp population is able to reproduce on at least four Ficus species present in a patch. This suggests that parasitoid fig wasps have relatively broad host-Ficus species ranges compared to fig wasps that oviposit internally. Parasitoid fig wasps did not recruit on all available host plants present in the forest census area and suggests an important ecological consequence in mitigating fitness trade-offs between pollinator and Ficus reproduction. The extent to which parasitoid fig wasps exert influence on the pollination mutualism must consider the fitness consequences imposed by the ability to interact with phenotypes of multiple Ficus and fig wasps species, but not equally across space and time.

  20. Chemical Strategies of the Beetle Metoecus Paradoxus, Social Parasite of the Wasp Vespula Vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Van Oystaeyen, Annette; van Zweden, Jelle S; Huyghe, Hilde; Drijfhout, Falko; Bonckaert, Wim; Wenseleers, Tom

    2015-12-01

    The parasitoid beetle Metoecus paradoxus frequently parasitizes colonies of the common wasp, Vespula vulgaris. It penetrates a host colony as a larva that attaches itself onto a foraging wasp's body and, once inside the nest, it feeds on a wasp larva inside a brood cell and then pupates. Avoiding detection by the wasp host is crucial when the beetle emerges. Here, we tested whether adult M. paradoxus beetles avoid detection by mimicking the cuticular hydrocarbon profile of their host. The beetles appear to be chemically adapted to their main host species, the common wasp, because they share more hydrocarbon compounds with it than they do with the related German wasp, V. germanica. In addition, aggression tests showed that adult beetles were attacked less by common wasp workers than by German wasp workers. Our results further indicated that the host-specific compounds were, at least partially, produced through recycling of the prey's hydrocarbons, and were not acquired through contact with the adult host. Moreover, the chemical profile of the beetles shows overproduction of the wasp queen pheromone, nonacosane (n-C29), suggesting that beetles might mimic the queen's pheromonal bouquet.

  1. Detection of sodium in the atmosphere of WASP-69b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casasayas-Barris, N.; Palle, E.; Nowak, G.; Yan, F.; Nortmann, L.; Murgas, F.

    2017-12-01

    Context. Transit spectroscopy is one of the most commonly used methods to characterize exoplanets' atmospheres. From the ground, these observations are very challenging due to the terrestrial atmosphere and its intrinsic variations, but high-spectral-resolution observations overcome this difficulty by resolving the spectral lines and taking advantage of the different Doppler velocities of the Earth, the host star, and the exoplanet. Aims: We analyze the transmission spectrum around the Na I doublet at 589 nm of the extrasolar planet WASP-69b, a hot Jupiter orbiting a K-type star with a period of 3.868 days, and compare the analysis to that of the well-known hot Jupiter HD 189733b. We also present the analysis of the Rossiter-McLaughlin (RM) effect for WASP-69b. Methods: We observed two transits of WASP-69b with the High Accuracy Radial velocity Planet Searcher (HARPS-North) spectrograph (R = 115 000) at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG). We perform a telluric contamination subtraction based on the comparison between the observed spectra and a telluric water model. Then, the common steps of the differential spectroscopy are followed to extract the transmission spectrum. The method is tested with archival transit data of the extensively studied exoplanet HD 189733b, obtained with the HARPS-South spectrograph at ESO 3.6 m telescope, and then applied to WASP-69b data. Results: For HD 189733b, we spectrally resolve the Na I doublet and measure line contrasts of 0.72 ± 0.05% (D2) and 0.51 ± 0.05% (D1), and full width half maximum (FWHM) values of 0.64 ± 0.04 Å (D2) and 0.60 ± 0.06 Å (D1), in agreement with previously published results. For WASP-69b only the contrast of the D2 line can be measured (5.8 ± 0.3%). This corresponds to a detection at the 5σ-level of excess absorption of 0.5 ± 0.1% in a passband of 1.5 Å. A net blueshift of 0.04 Å is measured for HD 189733b and no shift is obtained for WASP-69b. By measuring the RM effect, we get an angular

  2. Analysis of Secondary Eclipse Observations of Exoplanet WASP-34b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Challener, Ryan; Harrington, Joseph; Garland, Justin; Cubillos, Patricio; Blecic, Jasmina; Smalley, Barry

    2014-11-01

    WASP-34b is a short-period exoplanet with a mass of 0.59 +/- 0.01 Jupiter masses orbiting a sun-like star with a period of 4.3177 days and an eccentricity of 0.038 +/- 0.012 (Smalley, 2010). We observed WASP-34b using the 3.6 and 4.5 micron channels of the Infrared Array Camera aboard the Spitzer Space Telescope in 2010 (Program 60003). We present eclipse-depth measurements, estimates of infrared brightness temperatures, and refine the orbit using our secondary eclipse measurements. Spitzer is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA. This work was supported by NASA Planetary Atmospheres grant NNX12AI69G and NASA Astrophysics Data Analysis Program grant NNX13AF38G. JB holds a NASA Earth and Space Science Fellowship.

  3. Severity of Scorpion Stings in the Western Brazilian Amazon: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Queiroz, Amanda M.; Sampaio, Vanderson S.; Mendonça, Iran; Fé, Nelson F.; Sachett, Jacqueline; Ferreira, Luiz Carlos L.; Feitosa, Esaú; Wen, Fan Hui; Lacerda, Marcus; Monteiro, Wuelton

    2015-01-01

    Background Scorpion stings are a major public health problem in Brazil, with an increasing number of registered cases every year. Affecting mostly vulnerable populations, the phenomenon is not well described and is considered a neglected disease. In Brazil, the use of anti-venom formulations is provided free of charge. The associate scorpion sting case is subject to compulsory reporting. This paper describes the epidemiology and identifies factors associated with severity of scorpions stings in the state of Amazonas, in the Western Brazilian Amazon. Methodology/Principal Findings This study included all cases of scorpion stings in the state of Amazonas reported to the Brazilian Diseases Surveillance System from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2014. A case-control study was conducted to identify factors associated with scorpions sting severity. A total of 2,120 cases were reported during this period. The mean incidence rate in the Amazonas was 7.6 per 100,000 inhabitants/year. Scorpion stings showed a large spatial distribution in the state and represent a potential occupational health problem for rural populations. There was a positive correlation between the absolute number of cases and the altimetric river levels in the Central (p<0.001; Rs = 0.479 linear) and Southwest (p = 0.032; linear Rs = 0.261) regions of the state. Cases were mostly classified as mild (68.6%), followed by moderate (26.8%), and severe (4.6%). The overall lethality rate was 0.3%. Lethality rate among children ≤10 years was 1.3%. Age <10 years [OR = 2.58 (95%CI = 1.47–4.55; p = 0.001)], stings occurring in the rural area [OR = 1.97 (95%CI = 1.18–3.29; p = 0.033) and in the South region of the state [OR = 1.85 (95%CI = 1.17–2.93; p = 0.008)] were independently associated with the risk of developing severity. Conclusions/Significance Scorpion stings show an extensive distribution in the Western Brazilian Amazon threatening especially rural populations, children ≤10 in particular. Thus

  4. Absolute parameters for AI Phoenicis using WASP photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkby-Kent, J. A.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Serenelli, A. M.; Turner, O. D.; Evans, D. F.; Anderson, D. R.; Hellier, C.; West, R. G.

    2016-06-01

    Context. AI Phe is a double-lined, detached eclipsing binary, in which a K-type sub-giant star totally eclipses its main-sequence companion every 24.6 days. This configuration makes AI Phe ideal for testing stellar evolutionary models. Difficulties in obtaining a complete lightcurve mean the precision of existing radii measurements could be improved. Aims: Our aim is to improve the precision of the radius measurements for the stars in AI Phe using high-precision photometry from the Wide Angle Search for Planets (WASP), and use these improved radius measurements together with estimates of the masses, temperatures and composition of the stars to place constraints on the mixing length, helium abundance and age of the system. Methods: A best-fit ebop model is used to obtain lightcurve parameters, with their standard errors calculated using a prayer-bead algorithm. These were combined with previously published spectroscopic orbit results, to obtain masses and radii. A Bayesian method is used to estimate the age of the system for model grids with different mixing lengths and helium abundances. Results: The radii are found to be R1 = 1.835 ± 0.014 R⊙, R2 = 2.912 ± 0.014 R⊙ and the masses M1 = 1.1973 ± 0.0037 M⊙, M2 = 1.2473 ± 0.0039 M⊙. From the best-fit stellar models we infer a mixing length of 1.78, a helium abundance of YAI = 0.26 +0.02-0.01 and an age of 4.39 ± 0.32 Gyr. Times of primary minimum show the period of AI Phe is not constant. Currently, there are insufficient data to determine the cause of this variation. Conclusions: Improved precision in the masses and radii have improved the age estimate, and allowed the mixing length and helium abundance to be constrained. The eccentricity is now the largest source of uncertainty in calculating the masses. Further work is needed to characterise the orbit of AI Phe. Obtaining more binaries with parameters measured to a similar level of precision would allow us to test for relationships between helium

  5. Male killing Spiroplasma protects Drosophila melanogaster against two parasitoid wasps

    PubMed Central

    Xie, J; Butler, S; Sanchez, G; Mateos, M

    2014-01-01

    Maternally transmitted associations between endosymbiotic bacteria and insects are diverse and widespread in nature. Owing to imperfect vertical transmission, many heritable microbes have evolved compensational mechanisms to enhance their persistence in host lineages, such as manipulating host reproduction and conferring fitness benefits to host. Symbiont-mediated defense against natural enemies of hosts is increasingly recognized as an important mechanism by which endosymbionts enhance host fitness. Members of the genus Spiroplasma associated with distantly related Drosophila hosts are known to engage in either reproductive parasitism (i.e., male killing) or defense against natural enemies (the parasitic wasp Leptopilina heterotoma and a nematode). A male-killing strain of Spiroplasma (strain Melanogaster Sex Ratio Organism (MSRO)) co-occurs with Wolbachia (strain wMel) in certain wild populations of the model organism Drosophila melanogaster. We examined the effects of Spiroplasma MSRO and Wolbachia wMel on Drosophila survival against parasitism by two common wasps, Leptopilina heterotoma and Leptopilina boulardi, that differ in their host ranges and host evasion strategies. The results indicate that Spiroplasma MSRO prevents successful development of both wasps, and confers a small, albeit significant, increase in larva-to-adult survival of flies subjected to wasp attacks. We modeled the conditions under which defense can contribute to Spiroplasma persistence. Wolbachia also confers a weak, but significant, survival advantage to flies attacked by L. heterotoma. The host protective effects exhibited by Spiroplasma and Wolbachia are additive and may provide the conditions for such cotransmitted symbionts to become mutualists. Occurrence of Spiroplasma-mediated protection against distinct parasitoids in divergent Drosophila hosts suggests a general protection mechanism. PMID:24281548

  6. Performance of Copan WASP for Routine Urine Microbiology

    PubMed Central

    Quiblier, Chantal; Jetter, Marion; Rominski, Mark; Mouttet, Forouhar; Böttger, Erik C.; Keller, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    This study compared a manual workup of urine clinical samples with fully automated WASPLab processing. As a first step, two different inocula (1 and 10 μl) and different streaking patterns were compared using WASP and InoqulA BT instrumentation. Significantly more single colonies were produced with the10-μl inoculum than with the 1-μl inoculum, and automated streaking yielded significantly more single colonies than manual streaking on whole plates (P < 0.001). In a second step, 379 clinical urine samples were evaluated using WASP and the manual workup. Average numbers of detected morphologies, recovered species, and CFUs per milliliter of all 379 urine samples showed excellent agreement between WASPLab and the manual workup. The percentage of urine samples clinically categorized as positive or negative did not differ between the automated and manual workflow, but within the positive samples, automated processing by WASPLab resulted in the detection of more potential pathogens. In summary, the present study demonstrates that (i) the streaking pattern, i.e., primarily the number of zigzags/length of streaking lines, is critical for optimizing the number of single colonies yielded from primary cultures of urine samples; (ii) automated streaking by the WASP instrument is superior to manual streaking regarding the number of single colonies yielded (for 32.2% of the samples); and (iii) automated streaking leads to higher numbers of detected morphologies (for 47.5% of the samples), species (for 17.4% of the samples), and pathogens (for 3.4% of the samples). The results of this study point to an improved quality of microbiological analyses and laboratory reports when using automated sample processing by WASP and WASPLab. PMID:26677255

  7. SPITZER SECONDARY ECLIPSE DEPTHS WITH MULTIPLE INTRAPIXEL SENSITIVITY CORRECTION METHODS OBSERVATIONS OF WASP-13b, WASP-15b, WASP-16b, WASP-62b, AND HAT-P-22b

    SciTech Connect

    Kilpatrick, Brian M.; Tucker, Gregory S.; Lewis, Nikole K.

    2017-01-01

    We measure the 4.5 μ m thermal emission of five transiting hot Jupiters, WASP-13b, WASP-15b, WASP-16b, WASP-62b, and HAT-P-22b using channel 2 of the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) on the Spitzer Space Telescope . Significant intrapixel sensitivity variations in Spitzer IRAC data require careful correction in order to achieve precision on the order of several hundred parts per million (ppm) for the measurement of exoplanet secondary eclipses. We determine eclipse depths by first correcting the raw data using three independent data reduction methods. The Pixel Gain Map (PMAP), Nearest Neighbors (NNBR), and Pixel Level Decorrelation (PLD) each correct for themore » intrapixel sensitivity effect in Spitzer photometric time-series observations. The results from each methodology are compared against each other to establish if they reach a statistically equivalent result in every case and to evaluate their ability to minimize uncertainty in the measurement. We find that all three methods produce reliable results. For every planet examined here NNBR and PLD produce results that are in statistical agreement. However, the PMAP method appears to produce results in slight disagreement in cases where the stellar centroid is not kept consistently on the most well characterized area of the detector. We evaluate the ability of each method to reduce the scatter in the residuals as well as in the correlated noise in the corrected data. The NNBR and PLD methods consistently minimize both white and red noise levels and should be considered reliable and consistent. The planets in this study span equilibrium temperatures from 1100 to 2000 K and have brightness temperatures that require either high albedo or efficient recirculation. However, it is possible that other processes such as clouds or disequilibrium chemistry may also be responsible for producing these brightness temperatures.« less

  8. Spitzer Secondary Eclipse Depths with Multiple Intrapixel Sensitivity Correction Methods Observations of WASP-13b, WASP-15b, WASP-16b, WASP-62b, and HAT-P-22b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilpatrick, Brian M.; Lewis, Nikole K.; Kataria, Tiffany; Deming, Drake; Ingalls, James G.; Krick, Jessica E.; Tucker, Gregory S.

    2017-01-01

    We measure the 4.5 μm thermal emission of five transiting hot Jupiters, WASP-13b, WASP-15b, WASP-16b, WASP-62b, and HAT-P-22b using channel 2 of the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) on the Spitzer Space Telescope. Significant intrapixel sensitivity variations in Spitzer IRAC data require careful correction in order to achieve precision on the order of several hundred parts per million (ppm) for the measurement of exoplanet secondary eclipses. We determine eclipse depths by first correcting the raw data using three independent data reduction methods. The Pixel Gain Map (PMAP), Nearest Neighbors (NNBR), and Pixel Level Decorrelation (PLD) each correct for the intrapixel sensitivity effect in Spitzer photometric time-series observations. The results from each methodology are compared against each other to establish if they reach a statistically equivalent result in every case and to evaluate their ability to minimize uncertainty in the measurement. We find that all three methods produce reliable results. For every planet examined here NNBR and PLD produce results that are in statistical agreement. However, the PMAP method appears to produce results in slight disagreement in cases where the stellar centroid is not kept consistently on the most well characterized area of the detector. We evaluate the ability of each method to reduce the scatter in the residuals as well as in the correlated noise in the corrected data. The NNBR and PLD methods consistently minimize both white and red noise levels and should be considered reliable and consistent. The planets in this study span equilibrium temperatures from 1100 to 2000 K and have brightness temperatures that require either high albedo or efficient recirculation. However, it is possible that other processes such as clouds or disequilibrium chemistry may also be responsible for producing these brightness temperatures.

  9. Effects of undercover police stings of gun dealers on the supply of new guns to criminals

    PubMed Central

    Webster, D W; Bulzacchelli, M T; Zeoli, A M; Vernick, J S

    2006-01-01

    Objective To assess the effects of undercover police stings and lawsuits against gun dealers suspected of facilitating illegal gun sales in three US cities (Chicago, Detroit, Gary) on the flow of new firearms to criminals. Methods An interrupted time series design and negative binomial regression analyses were used to test for temporal change in the recovery of guns used in crimes within one year of retail sale in both intervention and comparison cities. Results The stings were associated with an abrupt 46.4% reduction in the flow of new guns to criminals in Chicago (95% confidence interval, −58.6% to −30.5%), and with a gradual reduction in new crime guns recovered in Detroit. There was no significant change associated with the stings in Gary, and no change in comparison cities that was coincident with the stings in Chicago and Detroit. Conclusions The announcement of police stings and lawsuits against suspect gun dealers appeared to have reduced the supply of new guns to criminals in Chicago significantly, and may have contributed to beneficial effects in Detroit. Given the important role that gun stores play in supplying guns to criminals in the US, further efforts of this type are warranted and should be evaluated. PMID:16887943

  10. Tolerated sting challenge in patients on Hymenoptera venom immunotherapy improves health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Koschel, D S; Schmies, M; Weber, C Nink; Höffken, G; Balck, F

    2014-01-01

    Sting challenge with a live insect remains the best test for proving the efficacy of immunotherapy in Hymenoptera allergy. We studied the impact of tolerated sting challenge on quality of life. In this prospective study, data were collected via self-report questionnaires completed by consenting patients with Hymenoptera venom allergy on venom immunotherapy before and after a sting challenge. The study population comprised 100 adult patients (82 with yellow jacket allergy and 18 with honeybee allergy) who participated between September 2009 and November 2010. After the sting challenge, the score on the Vespid Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire revealed a statistically significant improvement (mean [SD] change, 0.73 [0.98]; P < .0001; 95% CI, 0.52-0.94). This improvement was independent of the patients' gender and age and the severity of the initial anaphylactic reaction. A statistically significant improvement was documented in 2 subgroups of the Short Form 36 Health Survey (physical functioning, mean change, -5.78 [25.23]; P = .038; 95% CI, -11.22 to -0.34; vitality, mean change -4.29 [12.49]; P =.002; 95% CI, -7.02 to -1.57). Sting challenge results in a significant improvement in disease-specific quality of life and subgroups of general quality of life in patients allergic to Hymenoptera venom receiving established venom immunotherapy.

  11. Use of a Parasitic Wasp as a Biosensor

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Dawn; Rains, Glen

    2014-01-01

    Screening cargo for illicit substances is in need of rapid high-throughput inspection systems that accurately identify suspicious cargo. Here we investigate the ability of a parasitic wasp, Microplitis croceipes to detect and respond to methyl benzoate, the volatile component of cocaine, by examining their response to training concentrations, their sensitivity at low concentrations, and their ability to detect methyl benzoate when two concealment substances (green tea and ground coffee) are added to the testing arena. Utilizing classical associative learning techniques with sucrose as reward, we found that M. croceipes learns individual concentrations of methyl benzoate, and they can generalize this learning to concentrations 100× lower than the training concentration. Their sensitivity to methyl benzoate is very low at an estimated 3 ppb. They are also able to detect methyl benzoate when covered completely by green tea, but were not able to detect methyl benzoate when covered completely by coffee grounds. Habituation to the tea and coffee odors prior to testing improves their responses, resulting in effective detection of methyl benzoate covered by the coffee grounds. With the aid of the portable device called ‘the wasp hound’, the wasps appear to have potential to be effective on-site biosensors for the detection of cocaine. PMID:25587415

  12. Searching for Rapid Orbital Decay of WASP-18b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkins, Ashlee N.; Delrez, Laetitia; Barker, Adrian J.; Deming, Drake; Hamilton, Douglas; Gillon, Michael; Jehin, Emmanuel

    2017-02-01

    The WASP-18 system, with its massive and extremely close-in planet, WASP-18b (M p = 10.3M J , a = 0.02 au, P = 22.6 hr), is one of the best-known exoplanet laboratories to directly measure Q‧, the modified tidal quality factor and proxy for efficiency of tidal dissipation, of the host star. Previous analysis predicted a rapid orbital decay of the planet toward its host star that should be measurable on the timescale of a few years, if the star is as dissipative as is inferred from the circularization of close-in solar-type binary stars. We have compiled published transit and secondary eclipse timing (as observed by WASP, TRAPPIST, and Spitzer) with more recent unpublished light curves (as observed by TRAPPIST and Hubble Space Telescope) with coverage spanning nine years. We find no signature of a rapid decay. We conclude that the absence of rapid orbital decay most likely derives from Q‧ being larger than was inferred from solar-type stars and find that Q‧ ≥ 1 × 106, at 95% confidence; this supports previous work suggesting that F stars, with their convective cores and thin convective envelopes, are significantly less tidally dissipative than solar-type stars, with radiative cores and large convective envelopes.

  13. Searching for Rapid Orbital Decay of WASP-18b

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkins, Ashlee N.; Deming, Drake; Hamilton, Douglas

    2017-02-20

    The WASP-18 system, with its massive and extremely close-in planet, WASP-18b ( M{sub p} = 10.3 M{sub J}, a = 0.02 au, P = 22.6 hr), is one of the best-known exoplanet laboratories to directly measure Q ′, the modified tidal quality factor and proxy for efficiency of tidal dissipation, of the host star. Previous analysis predicted a rapid orbital decay of the planet toward its host star that should be measurable on the timescale of a few years, if the star is as dissipative as is inferred from the circularization of close-in solar-type binary stars. We have compiled publishedmore » transit and secondary eclipse timing (as observed by WASP, TRAPPIST, and Spitzer ) with more recent unpublished light curves (as observed by TRAPPIST and Hubble Space Telescope ) with coverage spanning nine years. We find no signature of a rapid decay. We conclude that the absence of rapid orbital decay most likely derives from Q ′ being larger than was inferred from solar-type stars and find that Q ′ ≥ 1 × 10{sup 6}, at 95% confidence; this supports previous work suggesting that F stars, with their convective cores and thin convective envelopes, are significantly less tidally dissipative than solar-type stars, with radiative cores and large convective envelopes.« less

  14. Kounis syndrome: a stinging case of ST-elevation myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Scherbak, Dmitriy; Lazkani, Mohamad; Sparacino, Nick; Loli, Akil

    2015-04-01

    Kounis syndrome is not a rare but an infrequently diagnosed non-thrombogenic cause of angina or myocardial infarction triggered by the release of inflammatory mediators following an allergic or anaphylactic reaction. This so-called "allergic angina" is seen in the setting of anaphylactic reactions and is believed to be due to mast cell release causing coronary vasospasm. The treatment of such cases is often with epinephrine, which has also been described in the literature as another rare cause of coronary vasospasm. We present a case of Kounis syndrome seen in a 46 year-old male who suffered two bee stings while landscaping in his yard. He developed an anaphylactic reaction and was promptly treated with IM epinephrine injection by paramedics at arrival and developed marked ST elevations on EKG in the inferior leads with reciprocal ST depressions in the anterior leads. His troponin peaked at 13 ng/mL and tryptase level was 15 ng/mL (normal <10 ng/mL). Coronary catheterisation showed non-diseased coronary arteries and a normal ejection fraction without evidence of vasospasm. He was afterwards treated with an epinephrine drip for distributive shock. Interestingly this syndrome was not provoked when re-challenged with this therapy, suggestive of an allergic reaction rather than epinephrine as the aetiology of his presumed vasospasm. This patient's ST segment elevation and troponin elevation was due to Kounis syndrome. Awareness that anaphylactic reactions can lead to Kounis syndrome can lead to prompt appropriate treatment for this life threatening condition. Copyright © 2014 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Randomized controlled trial of nettle sting for treatment of base-of-thumb pain.

    PubMed Central

    Randall, C; Randall, H; Dobbs, F; Hutton, C; Sanders, H

    2000-01-01

    There are numerous published references to use of nettle sting for arthritis pain but no randomized controlled trials have been reported. We conducted a randomized controlled double-blind crossover study in 27 patients with osteoarthritic pain at the base of the thumb or index finger. Patients applied stinging nettle leaf (Urtica dioica) daily for one week to the painful area. The effect of this treatment was compared with that of placebo, white deadnettle leaf (Lamium album), for one week after a five-week washout period. Observations of pain and disability were recorded for the twelve weeks of the study. After one week's treatment with nettle sting, score reductions on both visual analogue scale (pain) and health assessment questionnaire (disability) were significantly greater than with placebo (P = 0.026 and P = 0.0027). PMID:10911825

  16. [Scorpion stings in an area of Nordeste de Amaralina, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil].

    PubMed

    de Amorim, Andréa Monteiro; Carvalho, Fernando Martins; Lira-da-Silva, Rejâne Maria; Brazil, Tania Kobler

    2003-01-01

    An epidemiological study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of individuals who referred scorpion sting accidents in a population sample from Areal, a neighborhood northeast of Amaralina, Salvador City, State of Bahia, Brazil. A random, systematic sample of 1,367 individuals was taken, corresponding to 44.4% of the total population. Eighty-two residents referred scorpion sting since they were resident in Areal, giving a prevalence coefficient of 6% (95% CI 4.7 - 7.3). The prevalence of persons stung by scorpions increased according to greater time spent in the domicile and more advanced age. It was remarkable that 92.7% of the scorpions stings occurred within the home. The incidence coefficient estimated for the most recent period of time (January to July, 2000) was 1.15 cases/1,000 inhabitants per month, comparable to the highest ever reported for an epidemic area.

  17. Genetic structure and breeding system in a social wasp and its social parasite

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Social insects dominate ecological communities because of their sophisticated group behaviors. However, the intricate behaviors of social insects may be exploited by social parasites, which manipulate insect societies for their own benefit. Interactions between social parasites and their hosts lead to unusual coevolutionary dynamics that ultimately affect the breeding systems and population structures of both species. This study represents one of the first attempts to understand the population and colony genetic structure of a parasite and its host in a social wasp system. Results We used DNA microsatellite markers to investigate gene flow, genetic variation, and mating behavior of the facultative social parasite Vespula squamosa and its primary host, V. maculifrons. Our analyses of genetic variability uncovered that both species possessed similar amounts of genetic variation and failed to show genetic structure over the sampling area. Our analysis of mating system of V. maculifrons and V. squamosa revealed high levels of polyandry and no evidence for inbreeding in the two species. Moreover, we found no significant differences between estimates of worker relatedness in this study and a previous investigation conducted over two decades ago, suggesting that the selective pressures operating on queen mate number have remained constant. Finally, the distribution of queen mate number in both species deviated from simple expectations suggesting that mate number may be under stabilizing selection. Conclusion The general biology of V. squamosa has not changed substantially from that of a typical, nonparasitic Vespula wasp. For example, population sizes of the host and its parasite appear to be similar, in contrast to other social parasites, which often display lower population sizes than their hosts. In addition, parasitism has not caused the mating behavior of V. squamosa queens to deviate from the high levels of multiple mating that typify Vespula wasps. This

  18. Systemically applied insecticides for treatment of erythrina gall wasp, quadrastichus erythrinae kim hymenoptera: Eulophidae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doccola, J.J.; Smith, S.L.; Strom, B.L.; Medeiros, A.C.; Von Allmen, E.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The erythrina gall wasp (EGW), believed native to Africa, is a recently described species and now serious invasive pest of Erythrina (coral trees) in tropical and subtropical locales. Erythrina are favored ornamental and landscape trees, as well as native members of threatened ecosystems. The EGW is a tiny, highly mobile, highly invasive wasp that deforms (galls) host trees causing severe defoliation and tree death. The first detection of EGW in the United States was in O'ahu, Hawai'i in April 2005. It quickly spread through the Hawai'ian island chain (U.S.) killing ornamental and native Erythrina in as little as two years. At risk are endemic populations of Erythrinaas well as ornamental landscape species in the same genus, the latter of which have already been killed and removed from O'ahu at a cost of more than USD $1 million. Because EGW are so small and spread so quickly, host injury is usually detected before adult wasps are observed, making prophylactic treatments less likely than therapeutic ones. This study evaluates two stem-injected insecticides, imidacloprid (IMA-jet??) and emamectin benzoate, delivered through Arborjet Tree I.V.?? equipment, for their ability to affect E. sandwicensis (wiliwili) canopy demise under severe EGW exposure. IMA-jet, applied at a rate of 0.16 g AI/cm basal diameter (0.4 g AI/in. dia.), was the only effective treatment for maintaining canopy condition of wiliwili trees. Emamectin benzoate, applied at a rate of -0.1 g AI/cm basal diameter (-0.25 g AI/in. dia.), was not effective in this application, although it was intermediate in effect between IMA-jet and untreated trees. The relatively high concentrations of imidacloprid in leaves, and its durability for at least 13 months in native wiliwili growing on a natural, dryland site, suggest that treatment applications against EGW can impact canopy recovery even under suboptimal site and tree conditions. ?? 2009 International Society of Arboriculture.

  19. Clinico-epidemiology of arthropod stings and bites in primary hospitals of North Western province of Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Kularatne, Senanayake A M; Shahmy, Seyed; Rathnayake, Shantha S; Dawson, Andrew H

    2018-03-06

    Arthropod stinging and bites are common environmental hazards in Sri Lanka. However, their medical importance has not been fully evaluated yet. This study aims to study the burden, epidemiology, and outcome of stings and bites in primary hospitals in the Kurunegala district in North Western Province (NWP) of Sri Lanka. The study was conducted one year from 25th May 2013 to 25th May 2014. Details of all stings and bites admissions and their outcomes were retrospectively extracted from hospital records in all 44 primary hospitals in the district. There were 623 stings and bites with population incidence of 38/100,000 (95% CI 27-52). There were no deaths. Median age was 38 years (IQR: 19-53 years), and 351 (56%) were males. Most of stings and bites (75%) occurred in the daytime. Median time to hospital arrival was 55 minutes (IQR: 30 min to 2 h). The offending arthropods had been identified in 557 (89%) cases, of them, 357 (57%) were Hymenoptera (hornet and bees), 99 centipedes, 61 spiders and 40 scorpions. Local pain occurred in 346 (56%) cases - centipede 69 (70%), Scorpion 24 (60%), spider 36 (59%), Hymenoptera 187 (52%) and unidentified 30 (45%). Hymenoptera stings and spider bites occurred between 06 am to 12 noon, and scorpion stings and centipede bites mostly occurred between 06 pm to 12 midnight. Mild, moderate to severe anaphylaxis reactions occurred in 173 (28%) patients including 110 Hymenoptera stings - mild 39, moderate 62 and severe 9. From primary hospitals, 53(9%) cases had been transferred to tertiary care units for further management. Of them, 41 cases were Hymenoptera stings and 24 (58%) of them had mild, moderate to severe anaphylaxis. In the entire group, 27% severe cases received adrenaline. The primary hospitals in NW province of Sri Lanka manage large numbers of arthropod stings and bites. These include Hymenoptera (hornet and bee), centipedes, spiders, and scorpions. Pain, swellings and anaphylactic reactions were the most common adverse

  20. Mortality due to Hymenoptera stings in Costa Rica, 1985-2006.

    PubMed

    Prado, Mónica; Quirós, Damaris; Lomonte, Bruno

    2009-05-01

    To analyze mortality due to Hymenoptera stings in Costa Rica during 1985-2006. Records of deaths due to Hymenoptera stings in 1985-2006 were retrieved from Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos (National Statistics and Census Institute). Mortality rates were calculated on the basis of national population reports, as of 1 July of each year. Information for each case included age, gender, and the province in which the death occurred. In addition, reports of Hymenoptera sting accidents received by the Centro Nacional de Intoxicaciones (National Poison Center, CNI) in 1995-2006 were obtained to assess exposure to these insects. Over the 22-year period analyzed, 52 fatalities due to Hymenoptera stings were recorded. Annual mortality rates varied from 0-1.73 per 1 million inhabitants, with a mean of 0.74 (95% confidence interval: 0.46-0.93). The majority of deaths occurred in males (88.5%), representing a male to female ratio of 7.7:1. A predominance of fatalities was observed in the elderly (50 years of age and older), as well as in children less than 10 years of age. The province with the highest mortality rate was Guanacaste. The CNI documented 1,591 reports of Hymenoptera stings (mostly by bees) in 1995-2006, resulting in an annual average of 133 cases, with only a slight predominance of males over females (1.4:1). Stings by Hymenoptera, mostly by bees, constitute a frequent occurrence in Costa Rica that can be life-threatening in a small proportion of cases, most often in males and the elderly. The annual number of fatalities fluctuated from 0-6, averaging 2.4 deaths per year. Awareness should be raised not only among the general population, but also among health care personnel that should consider this risk in the clinical management of patients stung by Hymenoptera.

  1. Stinging insect identification: Are the allergy specialists any better than their patients?

    PubMed

    Baker, Troy W; Forester, Joseph P; Johnson, Monica L; Sikora, Jeremy M; Stolfi, Adrienne; Stahl, Mark C

    2016-05-01

    It has been reported that the general population is not skillful at identifying stinging insects with the exception of the honeybee. No information is available to evaluate allergy physicians' accuracy with stinging insect identification. To measure the accuracy of allergists' ability to identify stinging insects and assess their common practices for evaluating individuals with suspected insect hypersensitivity. A picture-based survey and a dried specimen insect box were constructed to determine allergists' and nonallergists' accuracy in identifying insects. Allergists attending the 2013 American College of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology meeting were invited to participate in the study. Common practice approaches for evaluating individuals with stinging insect hypersensitivity were also investigated using a brief questionnaire. Allergy physicians are collectively better at insect identification than nonallergists. Overall, the mean (SD) number of correct responses for nonallergists was 5.4 (2.0) of a total of 10. This score was significantly lower than the score for allergists (6.1 [2.0]; P = .01) who participated in the study. Most allergists (78.5%) test for all stinging insects and use skin testing (69.5%) as the initial test of choice for evaluating individuals with insect hypersensitivity. Overall, allergists are more skilled at Hymenoptera identification. Most allergy specialists reported testing for all stinging insects when evaluating insect hypersensitivity, and skin testing was the preferred testing method in nearly 70% of allergists. These data support the practice parameter's recommendation to consider testing for all flying Hymenoptera insects during venom evaluation, which most of the participating allergists surveyed incorporate into their clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Increased wind risk from sting-jet windstorms with climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Alvarado, Oscar; Gray, Suzanne L.; Hart, Neil C. G.; Clark, Peter A.; Hodges, Kevin; Roberts, Malcolm J.

    2018-04-01

    Extra-tropical cyclones dominate autumn and winter weather over western Europe. The strongest cyclones, often termed windstorms, have a large socio-economic impact on landfall due to strong surface winds and coastal storm surges. Climate model integrations have predicted a future increase in the frequency of, and potential damage from, European windstorms and yet these integrations cannot properly represent localised jets, such as sting jets, that may significantly enhance damage. Here we present the first prediction of how the climatology of sting-jet-containing cyclones will change in a future warmer climate, considering the North Atlantic and Europe. A proven sting-jet precursor diagnostic is applied to 13 year present-day and future (~2100) climate integrations from the Met Office Unified Model in its Global Atmosphere 3.0 configuration. The present-day climate results are consistent with previously-published results from a reanalysis dataset (with around 32% of cyclones exhibiting the sing-jet precursor), lending credibility to the analysis of the future-climate integration. The proportion of cyclones exhibiting the sting-jet precursor in the future-climate integration increases to 45%. Furthermore, while the proportion of explosively-deepening storms increases only slightly in the future climate, the proportion of those storms with the sting-jet precursor increases by 60%. The European resolved-wind risk associated with explosively-deepening storms containing a sting-jet precursor increases substantially in the future climate; in reality this wind risk is likely to be further enhanced by the release of localised moist instability, unresolved by typical climate models.

  3. Associative learning of food odors by the European paper wasp, Polistes dominula Christ (Hymenoptera: Vespidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We investigated associative learning of food odors by the European paper wasp Polistes dominula Christ because of consistently low rates of attraction to food materials in laboratory assays. We hypothesized that wasps in nature exhibit non-specific food-finding behavior until locating a suitable foo...

  4. Braconid wasp (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) diversity in forest plots under different silvicultural methods

    Treesearch

    C.N. Lewis; J.B. Whitfield

    1999-01-01

    Braconid wasps were used as an indicator group to test the hypothesis that the degree of disturbance in silvicultural treatments will change the total abundance and composition of species. Wasps were collected with Malaise traps on undisturbed (control), moderately disturbed (pine single-tree selection) and highly disturbed (pine-hardwood seed-tree) research plots of...

  5. Bee-hawking by the wasp, Vespa velutina, on the honeybees Apis cerana and A. mellifera.

    PubMed

    Tan, K; Radloff, S E; Li, J J; Hepburn, H R; Yang, M X; Zhang, L J; Neumann, P

    2007-06-01

    The vespine wasps, Vespa velutina, specialise in hawking honeybee foragers returning to their nests. We studied their behaviour in China using native Apis cerana and introduced A. mellifera colonies. When the wasps are hawking, A. cerana recruits threefold more guard bees to stave off predation than A. mellifera. The former also utilises wing shimmering as a visual pattern disruption mechanism, which is not shown by A. mellifera. A. cerana foragers halve the time of normal flight needed to dart into the nest entrance, while A. mellifera actually slows down in sashaying flight manoeuvres. V. velutina preferentially hawks A. mellifera foragers when both A. mellifera and A. cerana occur in the same apiary. The pace of wasp-hawking was highest in mid-summer but the frequency of hawking wasps was three times higher at A. mellifera colonies than at the A. cerana colonies. The wasps were taking A. mellifera foragers at a frequency eightfold greater than A. cerana foragers. The final hawking success rates of the wasps were about three times higher for A. mellifera foragers than for A. cerana. The relative success of native A. cerana over European A. mellifera in thwarting predation by the wasp V. velutina is interpreted as the result of co-evolution between the Asian wasp and honeybee, respectively.

  6. Early Detection Pest Advisory 2007: Identifying and managing the Erythrina Gall Wasp

    Treesearch

    R-5 and Southern Research Station U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service Forest Health Protection

    2007-01-01

    The erythrina gall wasp (EGW) was first detected in the U.S. on Oahu, HI, in April 2005. It was found on the remaining Hawaiian Islands in less than six months and now seriously threatens survival of native coral (wiliwili) trees in Hawaii's dryland forests. The wasp was detected in South Florida in October 2006, further demonstrating its invasive capabilities and...

  7. Systemically Applied Insecticides for Treatment of Erythrina Gall Wasp, Quadrastichus erythrinae Kim (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    Treesearch

    Joseph J. Doccola; Sheri L. Smith; Brian L. Strom; Arthur C. Medeiros; Erica von Allmen

    2009-01-01

    The erythrina gall wasp (EGW), believed native to Africa, is a recently described species and now serious invasive pest of Erythrina (coral trees) in tropical and subtropical locales. Erythrina are favored ornamental and landscape trees, as well as native members of threatened ecosystems. The EGW is a tiny, highly mobile, highly invasive wasp that deforms (galls) host...

  8. Mechanism of synergistic activation of Arp2/3 complex by cortactin and N-WASP

    PubMed Central

    Helgeson, Luke A; Nolen, Brad J

    2013-01-01

    Nucleation promoting factors (NPFs) initiate branched actin network assembly by activating Arp2/3 complex, a branched actin filament nucleator. Cellular actin networks contain multiple NPFs, but how they coordinately regulate Arp2/3 complex is unclear. Cortactin is an NPF that activates Arp2/3 complex weakly on its own, but with WASP/N-WASP, another class of NPFs, potently activates. We dissect the mechanism of synergy and propose a model in which cortactin displaces N-WASP from nascent branches as a prerequisite for nucleation. Single-molecule imaging revealed that unlike WASP/N-WASP, cortactin remains bound to junctions during nucleation, and specifically targets junctions with a ∼160-fold increased on rate over filament sides. N-WASP must be dimerized for potent synergy, and targeted mutations indicate release of dimeric N-WASP from nascent branches limits nucleation. Mathematical modeling shows cortactin-mediated displacement but not N-WASP recycling or filament recruitment models can explain synergy. Our results provide a molecular basis for coordinate Arp2/3 complex regulation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00884.001 PMID:24015358

  9. [Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.)--botanical characteristics, biochemical composition and health benefits].

    PubMed

    Jakubczyk, Karolina; Janda, Katarzyna; Szkyrpan, Sylwia; Gutowska, Izabela; Wolska, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) belongs to the family Urticaceae. It grows in the wild form in Asia, Europe, North America and North Africa. Stinging nettle is also a widespread ruderal plant found in Poland. Urtica dioica L., as a plant rich in biologically active compounds, is considered one of the most important plants used in phytotherapy. In vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated its antioxidant, antiplatelet, hypoglycaemic and hypocholesterolemic properties. Research conducted in recent years indicates the possibility of using nettle in chemoprevention, diabetes, benign prostatic hyperplasia and urologic diseases.

  10. A novel interference behaviour: invasive wasps remove ants from resources and drop them from a height

    PubMed Central

    Grangier, Julien; Lester, Philip J.

    2011-01-01

    This study reports a novel form of interference behaviour between the invasive wasp Vespula vulgaris and the New Zealand native ant Prolasius advenus. By videotaping interactions at bait stations, we found that wasps commonly remove ant competitors from food resources by picking up the workers in their mandibles, flying backward and dropping them unharmed some distance from the food. Both the frequency and the efficiency of the wasp behaviour significantly increased with the abundance of ant competitors. Ant removals were the most common interference events initiated by wasps when ants were numerous, while intraspecific conflicts among wasps were prominent when few ants were present. The ‘ant-dropping’ behaviour emphasizes how asymmetry in body sizes between competitors can lead to a pronounced form of interference, related to asymmetric locomotion modes. PMID:21450726

  11. Non-detection of a Helium Exosphere for the Hot Jupiter WASP-12b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreidberg, Laura; Oklopčić, Antonija

    2018-06-01

    An exosphere was recently detected around the exoplanet WASP-107b, a low-density, warm Neptune, based on an absorption feature from metastable helium (which has a vacuum wavelength of 10833 \\AA). Inspired by the WASP-107b detection, we reanalyzed archival HST observations of another evaporating exoplanet, WASP-12b, to search for signs of helium in its exosphere. We find no significant increase in transit depth at 10833 \\AA. We compare this result to theoretical predictions from a 1D model, and find that the expected helium feature amplitude is small, in agreement with the observed non-detection. We discuss possible explanations for why the helium feature is weaker for WASP-12b than WASP-107b, and conclude that the amplitude of the signal is highly sensitive to the stellar spectrum and the geometry of the evaporating gas cloud. These considerations should be taken into account in the design of future searches for helium exospheres.

  12. Discovery and Development of Chemical Attractants Used to Trap Pestiferous Social Wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae).

    PubMed

    Landolt, Peter; Zhang, Qing-He

    2016-07-01

    Chemical attractants for trapping temperate social wasps have been discovered during the screening of chemicals as attractants for flies, the study of pentatomid bug pheromones, and the testing of volatiles of fermented sweet baits. Wasp attraction to these chemicals seems to be related to either food-finding or prey-finding behavior. Of these attractive chemicals, commercial lures marketed in North America for trapping wasps generally contain heptyl butyrate, or the combination of acetic acid and 2-methyl-1-butanol. Heptyl butyrate is a very good attractant for two major pest wasp species in North America and minor wasp pests in the Vespula rufa species group. The combination of acetic acid with isobutanol attracted nearly all North American pest species of social wasps, including yellowjackets (Vespula and Dolichovespula), a hornet (Vespa crabro), and several paper wasps (Polistes spp.). The testing of wasp chemical attractants in different geographic areas demonstrated responses of many wasp taxa and showed a broad potential scope for the marketing of trap lures. Comparisons of compounds structurally similar to isobutanol revealed similar activity with 2-methyl-1-butanol, which is now used commercially because of a vapor pressure that is more favorable than isobutanol for formulations and dispensers. Doses and concentrations needed for good wasp catches were determined for heptyl butyrate, acetic acid, isobutanol, and 2-methyl-1-butanol, either formulated in water or dispensed from a controlled release device. Trap designs were developed based on consumer considerations; visual appeal, ease and safety of use, and low environmental impact. The resultant lures and traps are marketed in numerous physical and on-line retail outlets throughout the United States and southern Canada.

  13. The exotic wasp Megastigmus transvaalensis (Hymenoptera: Torymidae): first record and damage on the Brazilian peppertree, Schinus terebinthifolius drupes, in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira-Filho, Pedro J; Piña-Rodrigues, Fátima C M; Silva, José M S; Guerreiro, Julio C; Ghiotto, Thaís C; Piotrowski, Ivonir; Dias, Luiz P; Wilcken, Carlos F; Zanuncio, José C

    2015-01-01

    This paper records the first report of Megastigmus transvaalensis Hussey (Hymenoptera: Torymidae) in Brazilian peppertree, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae) drupes in Sorocaba, state of São Paulo, Brazil. This wasp is an invasive species and was found damaging S. terebinthifolius drupes in urban areas (35.0 ± 15.8%), natural forests (21.5 ± 10.2%) and restoration areas (15.8 ± 8.4%). The bio-ecology and damage caused by M. transvaalensis in the S. terebinthifolius drupes warrants further study focused upon the management of this phytophagous wasp. Megastigmus transvaalensis has a potential to be disseminated throughout Brazil and is posing a threat to the natural regeneration of S. terebinthifolius in the native forests and restoration areas and ecological regions of this country.

  14. Sex ratio in two species of Pegoscapus wasps (Hymenoptera: Agaonidae) that develop in figs: can wasps do mathematics, or play sex ratio games?

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Benavides, William; Monge-Nájera, Julián; Chavarría, Juan B

    2009-09-01

    The fig pollinating wasps (Hymenoptera: Agaonidae) have obligate arrhenotoky and a breeding structure that fits local mate competition (LMC). It has been traditionally assumed that LMC organisms adjust the sex ratio by laying a greater proportion of male eggs when there is superparasitism (several foundresses in a host). We tested the assumption with two wasp species, Pegoscapus silvestrii, pollinator of Ficus pertusa and Pegoscapus tonduzi, pollinator of Ficus eximia (= F citrifolia), in the Central Valley of Costa Rica. Total number of wasps and seeds were recorded in individual isolated naturally colonized syconia. There was a constant additive effect between the number of foundresses and the number of males produced in the brood of a syconium, while the number of females decreased. Both wasp species seem to have precise sex ratios and probably lay the male eggs first in the sequence, independently of superparasitism and clutch size: consequently, they have a non-random sex allocation. Each syconium of Ficus pertusa and of F. eximia colonized by one foundress had similar mean numbers of females, males, and seeds. The two species of wasps studied do not seem to adjust the sex ratio when there is superparasitism. Pollinating fig wasp behavior is better explained by those models not assuming that females do mathematical calculations according to other females' sex ratios, size, number of foundresses, genetic constitution, clutch size or environmental conditions inside the syconium. Our results are in agreement with the constant male number hypothesis, not with sex ratio games.

  15. Phylogeographic analysis reveals high genetic structure with uniform phenotypes in the paper wasp Protonectarina sylveirae (Hymenoptera: Vespidae)

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Swarm-founding wasps are endemic and common representatives of neotropical fauna and compose an interesting social tribe of vespids, presenting both complex social characteristics and uncommon traits for a eusocial group, such as the absence of castes with distinct morphology. The paper wasp Protonectarina sylveirae (Saussure) presents a broad distribution from Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay, occurring widespread in the Atlantic rainforest and arboreal Caatinga, being absent in the Amazon region. Given the peculiar distribution among swarm-founding wasps, an integrative approach to reconstruct the evolutionary history of P. sylveirae in a spatial-temporal framework was performed to investigate: the presence of genetic structure and its relationship with the geography, the evolution of distinct morphologic lineages and the possible historical event(s) in Neotropical region, which could explain the observed phylogeographic pattern. Individuals of P. sylveirae were obtained from populations of 16 areas throughout its distribution for DNA extraction and amplification of mitochondrial genes 12S, 16S and COI. Analysis of genetic diversity, construction of haplotype net, analysis of population structure and dating analysis of divergence time were performed. A morphometric analysis was also performed using 8 measures of the body of the adult (workers) to test if there are morphological distinction among populations. Thirty-five haplotypes were identified, most of them exclusively of a group and a high population structure was found. The possibility of genetic divergence because of isolation by distance was rejected. Morphological analysis pointed to a great uniformity in phenotypes, with only a small degree of differentiation between populations of south and the remaining. Divergence time analysis showed a Middle/Late Miocene origin, a period where an extensive marine ingression occurred in South America. Divergence of haplogroups began from the Plio/Pleistocene boundary

  16. Phylogeographic analysis reveals high genetic structure with uniform phenotypes in the paper wasp Protonectarina sylveirae (Hymenoptera: Vespidae).

    PubMed

    da Silva, Marjorie; Noll, Fernando Barbosa; E Castro, Adriana C Morales-Corrêa

    2018-01-01

    Swarm-founding wasps are endemic and common representatives of neotropical fauna and compose an interesting social tribe of vespids, presenting both complex social characteristics and uncommon traits for a eusocial group, such as the absence of castes with distinct morphology. The paper wasp Protonectarina sylveirae (Saussure) presents a broad distribution from Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay, occurring widespread in the Atlantic rainforest and arboreal Caatinga, being absent in the Amazon region. Given the peculiar distribution among swarm-founding wasps, an integrative approach to reconstruct the evolutionary history of P. sylveirae in a spatial-temporal framework was performed to investigate: the presence of genetic structure and its relationship with the geography, the evolution of distinct morphologic lineages and the possible historical event(s) in Neotropical region, which could explain the observed phylogeographic pattern. Individuals of P. sylveirae were obtained from populations of 16 areas throughout its distribution for DNA extraction and amplification of mitochondrial genes 12S, 16S and COI. Analysis of genetic diversity, construction of haplotype net, analysis of population structure and dating analysis of divergence time were performed. A morphometric analysis was also performed using 8 measures of the body of the adult (workers) to test if there are morphological distinction among populations. Thirty-five haplotypes were identified, most of them exclusively of a group and a high population structure was found. The possibility of genetic divergence because of isolation by distance was rejected. Morphological analysis pointed to a great uniformity in phenotypes, with only a small degree of differentiation between populations of south and the remaining. Divergence time analysis showed a Middle/Late Miocene origin, a period where an extensive marine ingression occurred in South America. Divergence of haplogroups began from the Plio/Pleistocene boundary

  17. Clinical consequences of toxic envenomations by Hymenoptera.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Justin O

    2018-05-19

    Many familiar Hymenoptera are brightly colored and can sting painfully-thus, their threat and clinical importance may be exaggerated. Most stinging insects only sting to defend themselves or their colonies from predators. The clinical nature of Hymenoptera envenomations contrasts that of other venomous animals, including other arthropods, primarily because allergic reaction, not direct intoxication, is the usual main concern. This review focuses mainly on the clinical features of direct toxicity to Hymenoptera envenomations, which can induce a high incidence of acute renal failure, liver failure, multiple organ failures, and death. Toxic mass envenomations by honeybees usually entail many hundreds or more stings per victim. In contrast to honeybee toxic envenomations, hornet sting envenomations can be clinically threatening with only 20-200 stings needed to cause kidney and other organ failures. Many lethal envenomations by honeybees occur in rural areas in the New World and Africa and are not recorded or documented. In contrast, deaths by hornets occur mainly to Asia. The most frequent and important envenomating taxa are honeybees, hornets, yellowjacket wasps, paper wasps, fire ants, and jack jumper ants. Occasional envenomating taxa include bumblebees, bullet ants, harvester ants, solitary wasps, solitary bees, and various ants of lesser clinical importance. Envenomations by Hymenoptera usually can be avoided if one considers that bees, wasps and ants "view" us as potential threats or predators, and that with information about the biology of stinging Hymenoptera, humans can minimize adverse incidents. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Yersinia YopJ negatively regulates IRF3-mediated antibacterial response through disruption of STING-mediated cytosolic DNA signaling.

    PubMed

    Cao, Ye; Guan, Kai; He, Xiang; Wei, Congwen; Zheng, Zirui; Zhang, Yanhong; Ma, Shengli; Zhong, Hui; Shi, Wei

    2016-12-01

    The Yersinia outer protein J (YopJ) plays a pivotal role in evading the host immune response and establishes a persistent infection in host cells after bacterial infection. YopJ is a cysteine protease and can act as a deubiquitinating enzyme that deubiquitinates several targets in multiple signaling pathways. Stimulator of interferon genes (STING) is a critical adapter for the induction of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) phosphorylation and subsequent production of the cytokines in response to nucleic acids in the cytoplasm. Our studies demonstrate that YopJ targets STING to inhibit IRF3 signaling. Specially, YopJ interacts with STING to block its ER-to-Golgi traffic and remove its K63-linked ubiquitination chains. Deubiquited STING perturbs the formation of STING-TBK1 complex and the activation of IRF3. The 172th cysteine of YopJ mediated STING deubiquitination and IRF3 signaling inhibition. Consequently, mice infected with WT and ΔYopJ/YopJ bacteria induced lower levels of IRF3 and IFN-β, decreased inflammation and reduced staining of STING as compared to ΔYopJ and ΔYopJ/YopJ C172A strains infection. The data herein reveal a previously unrecognized mechanism by which YopJ modulates innate immune signaling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Identification and isolation of stimulator of interferon genes (STING): an innate immune sensory and adaptor gene from camelids.

    PubMed

    Premraj, A; Aleyas, A G; Nautiyal, B; Rasool, T J

    2013-10-01

    The mechanism by which type I interferon-mediated antiviral response is mounted by hosts against invading pathogen is an intriguing one. Of late, an endoplasmic reticulum transmembrane protein encoded by a gene called stimulator of interferon genes (STING) is implicated in the innate signalling pathways and has been identified and cloned in few mammalian species including human, mouse and pig. In this article, we report the identification of STING from three different species of a highly conserved family of mammals - the camelids. cDNAs encoding the STING of Old World camels - dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) and bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus) and a New World camel - llama (Llama glama) were amplified using conserved primers and RACE. The complete STING cDNA of dromedary camel is 2171 bp long with a 706-bp 5' untranslated regions (UTR), an 1137-bp open reading frame (ORF) and a 328-bp 3' UTR. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the ORF of STING from these three camelids indicate high level of similarity among camelids and conservation of critical amino acid residues across different species. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed high levels of STING mRNA expression in blood, spleen, lymph node and lung. The identification of camelid STING will help in better understanding of the role of this molecule in the innate immunity of the camelids and other mammals. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Why wasp foundresses change nests: relatedness, dominance, and nest quality.

    PubMed

    Seppä, Perttu; Queller, David C; Strassmann, Joan E

    2012-01-01

    The costs and benefits of different social options are best understood when individuals can be followed as they make different choices, something that can be difficult in social insects. In this detailed study, we follow overwintered females of the social wasp Polistes carolina through different nesting strategies in a stratified habitat where nest site quality varies with proximity to a foraging area, and genetic relatedness among females is known. Females may initiate nests, join nests temporarily or permanently, or abandon nests. Females can become helpers or egglayers, effectively workers or queens. What they actually do can be predicted by a combination of ecological and relatedness factors. Advantages through increased lifetime success of individuals and nests drives foundresses of the social wasp Polistes from solitary to social nest founding. We studied reproductive options of spring foundresses of P. carolina by monitoring individually-marked wasps and assessing reproductive success of each foundress by using DNA microsatellites. We examined what behavioral decisions foundresses make after relaxing a strong ecological constraint, shortage of nesting sites. We also look at the reproductive consequences of different behaviors. As in other Polistes, the most successful strategy for a foundress was to initiate a nest as early as possible and then accept others as subordinates. A common feature for many P. carolina foundresses was, however, that they reassessed their reproductive options by actively monitoring other nests at the field site and sometimes moving permanently to new nests should that offer better (inclusive) fitness prospects compared to their original nests. A clear motivation for moving to new nests was high genetic relatedness; by the end of the foundress period all females were on nests with full sisters.

  1. WASP (Write a Scientific Paper) using Excel - 3: Plotting data.

    PubMed

    Grech, Victor

    2018-02-01

    The plotting of data into graphs should be a mandatory step in all data analysis as part of a descriptive statistics exercise, since it gives the researcher an overview of the shape and nature of the data. Moreover, outlier values may be identified, which may be incorrect data, or true outliers, from which important findings (and publications) may arise. This exercise should always precede inferential statistics, when possible, and this paper in the Early Human Development WASP series provides some pointers for doing so in Microsoft Excel™. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Forecasting and prediction of scorpion sting cases in Biskra province, Algeria, using a seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average model

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The aims of this study were to highlight some epidemiological aspects of scorpion envenomations, to analyse and interpret the available data for Biskra province, Algeria, and to develop a forecasting model for scorpion sting cases in Biskra province, which records the highest number of scorpion stings in Algeria. METHODS In addition to analysing the epidemiological profile of scorpion stings that occurred throughout the year 2013, we used the Box-Jenkins approach to fit a seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model to the monthly recorded scorpion sting cases in Biskra from 2000 to 2012. RESULTS The epidemiological analysis revealed that scorpion stings were reported continuously throughout the year, with peaks in the summer months. The most affected age group was 15 to 49 years old, with a male predominance. The most prone human body areas were the upper and lower limbs. The majority of cases (95.9%) were classified as mild envenomations. The time series analysis showed that a (5,1,0)×(0,1,1)12 SARIMA model offered the best fit to the scorpion sting surveillance data. This model was used to predict scorpion sting cases for the year 2013, and the fitted data showed considerable agreement with the actual data. CONCLUSIONS SARIMA models are useful for monitoring scorpion sting cases, and provide an estimate of the variability to be expected in future scorpion sting cases. This knowledge is helpful in predicting whether an unusual situation is developing or not, and could therefore assist decision-makers in strengthening the province’s prevention and control measures and in initiating rapid response measures. PMID:27866407

  3. Forecasting and prediction of scorpion sting cases in Biskra province, Algeria, using a seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average model.

    PubMed

    Selmane, Schehrazad; L'Hadj, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to highlight some epidemiological aspects of scorpion envenomations, to analyse and interpret the available data for Biskra province, Algeria, and to develop a forecasting model for scorpion sting cases in Biskra province, which records the highest number of scorpion stings in Algeria. In addition to analysing the epidemiological profile of scorpion stings that occurred throughout the year 2013, we used the Box-Jenkins approach to fit a seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model to the monthly recorded scorpion sting cases in Biskra from 2000 to 2012. The epidemiological analysis revealed that scorpion stings were reported continuously throughout the year, with peaks in the summer months. The most affected age group was 15 to 49 years old, with a male predominance. The most prone human body areas were the upper and lower limbs. The majority of cases (95.9%) were classified as mild envenomations. The time series analysis showed that a (5,1,0)×(0,1,1) 12 SARIMA model offered the best fit to the scorpion sting surveillance data. This model was used to predict scorpion sting cases for the year 2013, and the fitted data showed considerable agreement with the actual data. SARIMA models are useful for monitoring scorpion sting cases, and provide an estimate of the variability to be expected in future scorpion sting cases. This knowledge is helpful in predicting whether an unusual situation is developing or not, and could therefore assist decision-makers in strengthening the province's prevention and control measures and in initiating rapid response measures.

  4. Sting_RDB: a relational database of structural parameters for protein analysis with support for data warehousing and data mining.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, S R M; Almeida, G V; Souza, K R R; Rodrigues, D N; Kuser-Falcão, P R; Yamagishi, M E B; Santos, E H; Vieira, F D; Jardine, J G; Neshich, G

    2007-10-05

    An effective strategy for managing protein databases is to provide mechanisms to transform raw data into consistent, accurate and reliable information. Such mechanisms will greatly reduce operational inefficiencies and improve one's ability to better handle scientific objectives and interpret the research results. To achieve this challenging goal for the STING project, we introduce Sting_RDB, a relational database of structural parameters for protein analysis with support for data warehousing and data mining. In this article, we highlight the main features of Sting_RDB and show how a user can explore it for efficient and biologically relevant queries. Considering its importance for molecular biologists, effort has been made to advance Sting_RDB toward data quality assessment. To the best of our knowledge, Sting_RDB is one of the most comprehensive data repositories for protein analysis, now also capable of providing its users with a data quality indicator. This paper differs from our previous study in many aspects. First, we introduce Sting_RDB, a relational database with mechanisms for efficient and relevant queries using SQL. Sting_rdb evolved from the earlier, text (flat file)-based database, in which data consistency and integrity was not guaranteed. Second, we provide support for data warehousing and mining. Third, the data quality indicator was introduced. Finally and probably most importantly, complex queries that could not be posed on a text-based database, are now easily implemented. Further details are accessible at the Sting_RDB demo web page: http://www.cbi.cnptia.embrapa.br/StingRDB.

  5. Identification and expression analysis of the sting gene, a sensor of viral DNA, in common carp Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Cao, X L; Chen, J J; Cao, Y; Nie, G X; Su, J G

    2016-05-01

    Stimulator of interferon gene (sting) was identified and characterized from common carp Cyprinus carpio. The sting messenger (m)RNA encoded a polypeptide of 402 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 46·184 kDa and an isoelectronic point of 6·08. The deduced protein of sting contained a signal peptide, three transmembrane motifs in the N-terminal region and four putative motifs (RXR) found in resident endoplasmic reticulum proteins. mRNA expression of sting was present in twelve investigated tissues, and was up-regulated by koi herpesvirus (KHV) in vivo and in vitro. The transcription of sting was altered by poly(I:C) and poly(dT:dA) stimulation in vitro. The findings suggested that sting is an inducible gene involved in innate immunity against DNA- and RNA-derived pathogens. To investigate defence mechanisms in C. carpio development, sting level in embryos, larvae and juvenile fish was monitored following KHV challenge. The sting message was negligible in embryos prior to hatching, but observed at higher transcriptional levels throughout larval and juvenile stages. Investigation showed the mRNA expression profiles of genes encoding for proteins promoting various functions in the interferon pathway, from pattern recognition receptors to antiviral genes, to be significantly induced in all examined organs by in vivo infection with KHV. Following KHV infection, the ifn message was significantly downregulated in spleen, head kidney, brain and hepatopancreas but notably up-regulated in gill, intestine and skin, suggesting that ifn induction might be related to the mucosal immune system and virus anti-ifn mechanisms. These results provided the basis for further research into the role and mechanisms of sting in fishes. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  6. Processing, targeting, and antifungal activity of stinging nettle agglutinin in transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed

    Does, M P; Houterman, P M; Dekker, H L; Cornelissen, B J

    1999-06-01

    The gene encoding the precursor to stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L. ) isolectin I was introduced into tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). In transgenic plants this precursor was processed to mature-sized lectin. The mature isolectin is deposited intracellularly, most likely in the vacuoles. A gene construct lacking the C-terminal 25 amino acids was also introduced in tobacco to study the role of the C terminus in subcellular trafficking. In tobacco plants that expressed this construct, the mutant precursor was correctly processed and the mature isolectin was targeted to the intercellular space. These results indicate the presence of a C-terminal signal for intracellular retention of stinging nettle lectin and most likely for sorting of the lectin to the vacuoles. In addition, correct processing of this lectin did not depend on vacuolar deposition. Isolectin I purified from tobacco displayed identical biological activities as isolectin I isolated from stinging nettle. In vitro antifungal assays on germinated spores of the fungi Botrytis cinerea, Trichoderma viride, and Colletotrichum lindemuthianum revealed that growth inhibition by stinging nettle isolectin I occurs at a specific phase of fungal growth and is temporal, suggesting that the fungi had an adaptation mechanism.

  7. Antagonism of the STING Pathway via Activation of the AIM2 Inflammasome by Intracellular DNA.

    PubMed

    Corrales, Leticia; Woo, Seng-Ryong; Williams, Jason B; McWhirter, Sarah M; Dubensky, Thomas W; Gajewski, Thomas F

    2016-04-01

    Recent evidence has indicated that innate immune sensing of cytosolic DNA in dendritic cells via the host STING pathway is a major mechanism leading to spontaneous T cell responses against tumors. However, the impact of the other major pathway triggered by intracellular DNA, the absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) inflammasome, on the functional output from the stimulator of IFN genes (STING) pathway is poorly understood. We found that dendritic cells and macrophages deficient in AIM2, apoptosis-associated specklike protein, or caspase-1 produced markedly higher IFN-β in response to DNA. Biochemical analyses showed enhanced generation of cyclic GMP-AMP, STING aggregation, and TANK-binding kinase 1 and IFN regulatory factor 3 phosphorylation in inflammasome-deficient cells. Induction of pyroptosis by the AIM2 inflammasome was a major component of this effect, and inhibition of caspase-1 reduced cell death, augmenting phosphorylation of TANK-binding kinase 1/IFN regulatory factor 3 and production of IFN-β. Our data suggest that in vitro activation of the AIM2 inflammasome in murine macrophages and dendritic cells leads to reduced activation of the STING pathway, in part through promoting caspase-1-dependent cell death. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  8. The inhibiting effects of components of stinging nettle roots on experimentally induced prostatic hyperplasia in mice.

    PubMed

    Lichius, J J; Renneberg, H; Blaschek, W; Aumüller, G; Muth, C

    1999-10-01

    Direct implanting of fetal urogenital sinus (UGS) tissue into the ventral prostate gland of adult mice led to a 4-fold weight increase of the manipulated prostatic lobe. The induced growth could be reduced by the polysaccharide fraction (POLY-M) of the 20% methanolic extract of stinging nettle roots by 33.8%.

  9. Processing, Targeting, and Antifungal Activity of Stinging Nettle Agglutinin in Transgenic Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Does, Mirjam P.; Houterman, Petra M.; Dekker, Henk L.; Cornelissen, Ben J.C.

    1999-01-01

    The gene encoding the precursor to stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) isolectin I was introduced into tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). In transgenic plants this precursor was processed to mature-sized lectin. The mature isolectin is deposited intracellularly, most likely in the vacuoles. A gene construct lacking the C-terminal 25 amino acids was also introduced in tobacco to study the role of the C terminus in subcellular trafficking. In tobacco plants that expressed this construct, the mutant precursor was correctly processed and the mature isolectin was targeted to the intercellular space. These results indicate the presence of a C-terminal signal for intracellular retention of stinging nettle lectin and most likely for sorting of the lectin to the vacuoles. In addition, correct processing of this lectin did not depend on vacuolar deposition. Isolectin I purified from tobacco displayed identical biological activities as isolectin I isolated from stinging nettle. In vitro antifungal assays on germinated spores of the fungi Botrytis cinerea, Trichoderma viride, and Colletotrichum lindemuthianum revealed that growth inhibition by stinging nettle isolectin I occurs at a specific phase of fungal growth and is temporal, suggesting that the fungi had an adaptation mechanism. PMID:10364393

  10. Animal bites and stings reported by United States poison control centers, 2001-2005.

    PubMed

    Langley, Ricky L

    2008-01-01

    There is not a single data source for information on the extent of nonfatal injuries inflicted by animals. Although individuals bitten or stung by animals may not visit a health care provider, they may call poison control centers (PCCs) for information. These centers are one source of information on the frequency of occurrence of injuries from animals. The American Association of Poison Control Centers compiles an annual report of exposure calls to various agents, including chemicals, medications, animal bites and stings, plants, and use of antivenoms from their network of PCCs. An estimate of the severity of exposure for each call is also determined. This review examines summary data on different species of animal bites and stings reported by PCCs from 2001 to 2005. From 2001 to 2005 there were 472 760 reports of animal bites and stings, an average of 94,552 per year. There was a trend noted for increasing use of antivenom over this period. Twenty-seven deaths were recorded, most from snakebites. Poison control centers are a source of information for health care workers on management of animal bites and stings. The database maintained by the American Association of Poison Control Centers is another source of information on the magnitude and public health impact of injuries from animals.

  11. Impact of Scyphozoan Venoms on Human Health and Current First Aid Options for Stings

    PubMed Central

    Remigante, Alessia; Costa, Roberta; La Spada, Giuseppa

    2018-01-01

    Cnidaria include the most venomous animals of the world. Among Cnidaria, Scyphozoa (true jellyfish) are ubiquitous, abundant, and often come into accidental contact with humans and, therefore, represent a threat for public health and safety. The venom of Scyphozoa is a complex mixture of bioactive substances—including thermolabile enzymes such as phospholipases, metalloproteinases, and, possibly, pore-forming proteins—and is only partially characterized. Scyphozoan stings may lead to local and systemic reactions via toxic and immunological mechanisms; some of these reactions may represent a medical emergency. However, the adoption of safe and efficacious first aid measures for jellyfish stings is hampered by the diffusion of folk remedies, anecdotal reports, and lack of consensus in the scientific literature. Species-specific differences may hinder the identification of treatments that work for all stings. However, rinsing the sting site with vinegar (5% acetic acid) and the application of heat (hot pack/immersion in hot water) or lidocaine appear to be substantiated by evidence. Controlled clinical trials or reliable models of envenomation are warranted to confirm the efficacy and safety of these approaches and identify possible species-specific exceptions. Knowledge of the precise composition of Scyphozoa venom may open the way to molecule-oriented therapies in the future. PMID:29570625

  12. Epidemiological review of scorpion stings in Qatar. The need for regional management guidelines in emergency departments.

    PubMed

    Alkahlout, Baha H; Abid, Muhammad M; Kasim, Mohammad M; Haneef, Shumaila M

    2015-07-01

    To review the epidemiology of scorpion sting in Qatar, to explore both the clinical significance, and the role of the emergency department (ED) in the management of such cases. In this retrospective study, we reviewed the records of all scorpion sting cases presented to the ED of Hamad General Hospital, Doha, Qatar between October 2010 and May 2013. A total of 111 cases of scorpion stings were reviewed, 81 (72.9%) were males and 30 (27.1%) were females, with a mean age of 38 years. Localized pain was the most frequent presenting complaint (89 [80.2%]), whereas localized redness (44 [39.6%]) and swelling (38 [34.2%]) were the most common clinical signs. Abroug's classification was used, and all cases  were found to be class I. All patients received symptomatic treatment and were sent home. Scorpion sting problem in Qatar has a low clinical significance. Data from such studies should be utilized to create more specific (local) management guidelines, which should be more efficient with more rational utilization of ED resources.

  13. Variability in venom volume, flow rate and duration in defensive stings of five scorpion species.

    PubMed

    van der Meijden, Arie; Coelho, Pedro; Rasko, Mykola

    2015-06-15

    Scorpions have been shown to control their venom usage in defensive encounters, depending on the perceived threat. Potentially, the venom amount that is injected could be controlled by reducing the flow speed, the flow duration, or both. We here investigated these variables by allowing scorpions to sting into an oil-filled chamber, and recording the accreting venom droplets with high-speed video. The size of the spherical droplets on the video can then be used to calculate their volume. We recorded defensive stings of 20 specimens representing 5 species. Significant differences in the flow rate and total expelled volume were found between species. These differences are likely due to differences in overall size between the species. Large variation in both venom flow speed and duration are described between stinging events of single individuals. Both venom flow rate and flow duration correlate highly with the total expelled volume, indicating that scorpions may control both variables in order to achieve a desired end volume of venom during a sting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. THE MORPHOLOGY OF STINGING CELLS IN THE MARINE INVERTEBRATE NUDIBRANCH, CRATENA PILATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The association between the marine invertebrate nudibranch, Cratena pilata, and its food source has intrigued researchers for many years. These nudibranchs, or shell-less snails, obtain stinging cells by feeding on the jellyfish-like coelenterate, Tubularia sp. It is believed tha...

  15. Toxicity of organophosphorus pesticide sumithion on larval stages of stinging catfish Heteropneustes fossilis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahjahan, Md.; Kabir, Md. Farajul; Sumon, Kizar Ahmed; Bhowmik, Lipi Rani; Rashid, Harunur

    2017-01-01

    Sumithion is widely used to control brittle in paddy fields and tiger bug in fish larval rearing ponds. The objective of this study was to elucidate the toxic effects of sumithion on larval stages of stinging catfish Heteropneustes fossilis. Larvae were exposed to two concentrations (150 and 250 μg/L) of sumithion with one control in three replicates of each. Larvae samples were collected at 20- and 24-h intervals followed by observation under a digital microscope. Exposures of stinging catfish larvae to sumithion produced deformities including irregular head shape, lordosis, yolk sac edema, body arcuation, tissue ulceration, etc. The mortality rates of larvae were significantly increased in response to increase in sumithion concentrations. Furthermore, around 30% of the total adult stinging catfish reared in sumithiontreated aquaculture ponds were found to be deformed permanently. These findings highlight that exposure of stinging catfish to sumithion at the critical and sensitive stages in their life cycle may significantly reduce the number of returning adults. Therefore, the use of sumithion for crop protection needs to be considered carefully and alternatives to sumithion should to be developed for controlling aquatic insects in aqua-ponds during larval rearing.

  16. Inflammation-Induced, STING-Dependent Autophagy Restricts Zika Virus Infection in the Drosophila Brain.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuan; Gordesky-Gold, Beth; Leney-Greene, Michael; Weinbren, Nathan L; Tudor, Matthew; Cherry, Sara

    2018-06-09

    The emerging arthropod-borne flavivirus Zika virus (ZIKV) is associated with neurological complications. Innate immunity is essential for the control of virus infection, but the innate immune mechanisms that impact viral infection of neurons remain poorly defined. Using the genetically tractable Drosophila system, we show that ZIKV infection of the adult fly brain leads to NF-kB-dependent inflammatory signaling, which serves to limit infection. ZIKV-dependent NF-kB activation induces the expression of Drosophila stimulator of interferon genes (dSTING) in the brain. dSTING protects against ZIKV by inducing autophagy in the brain. Loss of autophagy leads to increased ZIKV infection of the brain and death of the infected fly, while pharmacological activation of autophagy is protective. These data suggest an essential role for an inflammation-dependent STING pathway in the control of neuronal infection and a conserved role for STING in antimicrobial autophagy, which may represent an ancestral function for this essential innate immune sensor. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Anti-WASP intrabodies inhibit inflammatory responses induced by Toll-like receptors 3, 7, and 9, in macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Sakuma, Chisato; Sato, Mitsuru, E-mail: mitsuru.sato@affrc.go.jp; Oshima, Takuma

    Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) is an adaptor molecule in immune cells. Recently, we showed that the WASP N-terminal domain interacted with the SH3 domain of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk), and that the complex formed by WASP and Btk was important for TLR2 and TLR4 signaling in macrophages. Several other studies have shown that Btk played important roles in modulating innate immune responses through TLRs in immune cells. Here, we evaluated the significance of the interaction between WASP and Btk in TLR3, TLR7, and TLR9 signaling. We established bone marrow–derived macrophage cell lines from transgenic (Tg) mice that expressed intracellular antibodiesmore » (intrabodies) that specifically targeted the WASP N-terminal domain. One intrabody comprised the single-chain variable fragment and the other comprised the light-chain variable region single domain of an anti-WASP N-terminal monoclonal antibody. Both intrabodies inhibited the specific interaction between WASP and Btk, which impaired the expression of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β in response to TLR3, TLR7, or TLR9 stimulation. Furthermore, the intrabodies inhibited the phosphorylation of both nuclear factor (NF)-κB and WASP in response to TLR3, TLR7, or TLR9 stimulation, in the Tg bone marrow-derived macrophages. These results suggested that WASP plays important roles in TLR3, TLR7, and TLR9 signaling by associating with Btk in macrophages. - Highlights: • The interaction between WASP and Btk is critical for TLR3, TLR7, and TLR9 signaling. • Anti-WASP intrabodies inhibited several TLR pathways that led to cytokine expression. • Phosphorylation of NF-κB via TLR signaling was inhibited by anti-WASP intrabodies. • WASP phosphorylation via several TLR ligands was inhibited by anti-WASP intrabodies.« less

  18. Reduced densities of the invasive wasp, Vespula vulgaris (Hymenoptera: Vespidae), did not alter the invertebrate community composition of Nothofagus forests in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Duthie, Catherine; Lester, Philip J

    2013-04-01

    Invasive common wasps (Vespula vulgaris L.) are predators of invertebrates in Nothofagus forests of New Zealand. We reduced wasp densities by poisoning in three sites over three y. We predicted an increase in the number of invertebrates and a change in the community composition in sites where wasps were poisoned (wasps removed) relative to nearby sites where wasps were not poisoned (wasps maintained). Wasp densities were significantly reduced by an average of 58.9% by poisoning. Despite this reduction in wasp densities, native bush ants (Prolasius advenus Forel) were the only taxa that was significantly influenced by wasp removal. However, contrary to our predictions there were more ants caught in pitfall traps where wasps were maintained. We believe that the higher abundance of these ants is probably because of the scarcity of honeydew in wasp-maintained sites and compensatory foraging by ants in these areas. Otherwise, our results indicated no significant effects of reduced wasp densities on the total number of invertebrates, or the number of invertebrate families, observed in pitfall or Malaise traps. An analysis of community composition (permutational multivariate analysis of variance) also indicated no significant difference between wasp-removed or wasp-maintained communities. The most parsimonious explanation for our results is that although we significantly reduced wasp numbers, we may not have reduced numbers sufficiently or for a sufficiently long period, to see a change or recovery in the community.

  19. Asymmetric interaction and indeterminate fitness correlation between cooperative partners in the fig–fig wasp mutualism

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rui-Wu; Sun, Bao-Fa; Zheng, Qi; Shi, Lei; Zhu, Lixing

    2011-01-01

    Empirical observations have shown that cooperative partners can compete for common resources, but what factors determine whether partners cooperate or compete remain unclear. Using the reciprocal fig–fig wasp mutualism, we show that nonlinear amplification of interference competition between fig wasps—which limits the fig wasps' ability to use a common resource (i.e. female flowers)—keeps the common resource unsaturated, making cooperation locally stable. When interference competition was manually prevented, the fitness correlation between figs and fig wasps went from positive to negative. This indicates that genetic relatedness or reciprocal exchange between cooperative players, which could create spatial heterogeneity or self-restraint, was not sufficient to maintain stable cooperation. Moreover, our analysis of field-collected data shows that the fitness correlation between cooperative partners varies stochastically, and that the mainly positive fitness correlation observed during the warm season shifts to a negative correlation during the cold season owing to an increase in the initial oviposition efficiency of each fig wasp. This implies that the discriminative sanction of less-cooperative wasps (i.e. by decreasing the egg deposition efficiency per fig wasp) but reward to cooperative wasps by fig, a control of the initial value, will facilitate a stable mutualism. Our finding that asymmetric interaction leading to an indeterminate fitness interaction between symbiont (i.e. cooperative actors) and host (i.e. recipient) has the potential to explain why conflict has been empirically observed in both well-documented intraspecific and interspecific cooperation systems. PMID:21490005

  20. Accidental Genetic Engineers: Horizontal Sequence Transfer from Parasitoid Wasps to Their Lepidopteran Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Sean E.; Thomas, James H.

    2014-01-01

    We show here that 105 regions in two Lepidoptera genomes appear to derive from horizontally transferred wasp DNA. We experimentally verified the presence of two of these sequences in a diverse set of silkworm (Bombyx mori) genomes. We hypothesize that these horizontal transfers are made possible by the unusual strategy many parasitoid wasps employ of injecting hosts with endosymbiotic polydnaviruses to minimize the host's defense response. Because these virus-like particles deliver wasp DNA to the cells of the host, there has been much interest in whether genetic information can be permanently transferred from the wasp to the host. Two transferred sequences code for a BEN domain, known to be associated with polydnaviruses and transcriptional regulation. These findings represent the first documented cases of horizontal transfer of genes between two organisms by a polydnavirus. This presents an interesting evolutionary paradigm in which host species can acquire new sequences from parasitoid wasps that attack them. Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera diverged ∼300 MYA, making this type of event a source of novel sequences for recipient species. Unlike many other cases of horizontal transfer between two eukaryote species, these sequence transfers can be explained without the need to invoke the sequences ‘hitchhiking’ on a third organism (e.g. retrovirus) capable of independent reproduction. The cellular machinery necessary for the transfer is contained entirely in the wasp genome. The work presented here is the first such discovery of what is likely to be a broader phenomenon among species affected by these wasps. PMID:25296163

  1. Giant honeybees ( Apis dorsata) mob wasps away from the nest by directed visual patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastberger, Gerald; Weihmann, Frank; Zierler, Martina; Hötzl, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    The open nesting behaviour of giant honeybees ( Apis dorsata) accounts for the evolution of a series of defence strategies to protect the colonies from predation. In particular, the concerted action of shimmering behaviour is known to effectively confuse and repel predators. In shimmering, bees on the nest surface flip their abdomens in a highly coordinated manner to generate Mexican wave-like patterns. The paper documents a further-going capacity of this kind of collective defence: the visual patterns of shimmering waves align regarding their directional characteristics with the projected flight manoeuvres of the wasps when preying in front of the bees' nest. The honeybees take here advantage of a threefold asymmetry intrinsic to the prey-predator interaction: (a) the visual patterns of shimmering turn faster than the wasps on their flight path, (b) they "follow" the wasps more persistently (up to 100 ms) than the wasps "follow" the shimmering patterns (up to 40 ms) and (c) the shimmering patterns align with the wasps' flight in all directions at the same strength, whereas the wasps have some preference for horizontal correspondence. The findings give evidence that shimmering honeybees utilize directional alignment to enforce their repelling power against preying wasps. This phenomenon can be identified as predator driving which is generally associated with mobbing behaviour (particularly known in selfish herds of vertebrate species), which is, until now, not reported in insects.

  2. HST PanCET Program: A Cloudy Atmosphere for the Promising JWST Target WASP-101b

    SciTech Connect

    Wakeford, H. R.; Mandell, A.; Stevenson, K. B.

    We present results from the first observations of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Panchromatic Comparative Exoplanet Treasury program for WASP-101b, a highly inflated hot Jupiter and one of the community targets proposed for the James Webb Space Telescope ( JWST ) Early Release Science (ERS) program. From a single HST Wide Field Camera 3 observation, we find that the near-infrared transmission spectrum of WASP-101b contains no significant H{sub 2}O absorption features and we rule out a clear atmosphere at 13 σ . Therefore, WASP-101b is not an optimum target for a JWST ERS program aimed at observing strong molecular transmissionmore » features. We compare WASP-101b to the well-studied and nearly identical hot Jupiter WASP-31b. These twin planets show similar temperature–pressure profiles and atmospheric features in the near-infrared. We suggest exoplanets in the same parameter space as WASP-101b and WASP-31b will also exhibit cloudy transmission spectral features. For future HST exoplanet studies, our analysis also suggests that a lower count limit needs to be exceeded per pixel on the detector in order to avoid unwanted instrumental systematics.« less

  3. Requirement of the basic region of N-WASP/WAVE2 for actin-based motility.

    PubMed

    Suetsugu, S; Miki, H; Yamaguchi, H; Takenawa, T

    2001-04-06

    WASP family proteins activate nucleation by the Arp2/3 complex, inducing rapid actin polymerization in vitro. Although the C-terminal portion of WASP family proteins (VCA) activates nucleation by the Arp2/3 complex in pure systems, we find that this fragment lacks activity in cell extracts. Thus, polystyrene beads coated with VCA did not move in brain cytosol, while beads coated with N-WASP or WAVE2 did move. The basic clusters between the WH1 domain and the CRIB domain of N-WASP were critical for movement since beads coated with N-WASP or WAVE2 constructs missing the basic clusters (Delta basic) also did not move. Furthermore, VCA and N-WASP/WAVE2 Delta basic constructs were much less able than wild-type N-WASP and WAVE2 to induce actin polymerization in cytosol. All of the proteins, with or without the basic domain, were potent activators of nucleation by purified Arp2/3 complex. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  4. Efficacy of fipronil for control of yellowjacket wasps in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foote, David; Hanna, Cause; King, Cynthia; Spurr, Eric

    2011-01-01

    The western yellowjacket wasp (Vespula pensylvanica) invaded Hawai`i’s national parks and refuges following its spread throughout the islands in the late 1970s. The endemic arthropod fauna of Hawai`i is thought to be especially vulnerable to these predacious social Hymenoptera, and methods of wasp control have been a priority for conservation biology in Hawai`i. The efficacy of the insecticide fipronil mixed with minced canned chicken meat for suppression of yellowjacket populations was evaluated in five experimental field trials in Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park between 1999 and 2005. Populations of Vespula were monitored in replicate twoto four- hectare study areas in mesic montane and seasonal submontane forests, before and after application of chicken bait, with and without 0.1% fipronil, and in treatment and nontreatment areas. The bait was applied in hanging bait stations for two to three days. The response of yellowjacket wasp populations was measured using at least three different metrics of abundance including instantaneous counts of wasps at bait stations, wasp traffic rates at Vespula nests, as well as heptyl butyrate trap and/or malaise trap catches in the study areas. All indices of wasp abundance exhibited significant reductions in sites treated with fipronil compared with non-treatment sites with the exception of malaise trapping, where only a limited number of traps were available to be deployed. Wasp traffic ceased at all Vespula nests in sites treated with fipronil within a month after baiting in four of the five trials. The only trial where fipronil failed to terminate yellowjacket nest activity occurred late in the fall when wasps switch from feeding on protein to carbohydrate foods. Based on these data, 0.1% fipronil in chicken bait appears to be an effective tool for suppressing local Vespula yellowjacket populations in the park and other natural areas during the period of peak wasp activity in the summer and early fall months.

  5. The occurrence of fig wasps in the fruits of female gynodioecious fig trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tao; Dunn, Derek W.; Hu, Hao-Yuan; Niu, Li-Ming; Xiao, Jin-Hua; Pan, Xian-Li; Feng, Gui; Fu, Yue-Guan; Huang, Da-Wei

    2013-01-01

    Fig trees are pollinated by wasp mutualists, whose larvae consume some of the plant's ovaries. Many fig species (350+) are gynodioecious, whereby pollinators generally develop in the figs of 'male' trees and seeds generally in the 'females.' Pollinators usually cannot reproduce in 'female' figs at all because their ovipositors cannot penetrate the long flower styles to gall the ovaries. Many non-pollinating fig wasp (NPFW) species also only reproduce in figs. These wasps can be either phytophagous gallers or parasites of other wasps. The lack of pollinators in female figs may thus constrain or benefit different NPFWs through host absence or relaxed competition. To determine the rates of wasp occurrence and abundance we surveyed 11 dioecious fig species on Hainan Island, China, and performed subsequent experiments with Ficus tinctoria subsp. gibbosa to identify the trophic relationships between NPFWs that enable development in female syconia. We found NPFWs naturally occurring in the females of Ficus auriculata, Ficus hainanensis and F. tinctoria subsp. gibbosa. Because pollinators occurred only in male syconia, when NPFWs also occurred in female syconia, overall there were more wasps in male than in female figs. Species occurrence concurred with experimental data, which showed that at least one phytophagous galler NPFW is essential to enable multiple wasp species to coexist within a female fig. Individuals of galler NPFW species present in both male and female figs of the same fig species were more abundant in females than in males, consistent with relaxed competition due to the absence of pollinator. However, these wasps replaced pollinators on a fewer than one-to-one basis, inferring that other unknown mechanisms prevent the widespread exploitation by wasps of female figs. Because some NPFW species may use the holes chewed by pollinator males to escape from their natal fig, we suggest that dispersal factors could be involved.

  6. Constraining the atmosphere of exoplanet WASP-34b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Challener, Ryan; Harrington, Joseph; Cubillos, Patricio; Garland, Justin; Foster, Andrew S. D.; Blecic, Jasmina; Foster, Austin James; Smalley, Barry

    2016-01-01

    WASP-34b is a short-period exoplanet with a mass of 0.59 +/- 0.01 Jupiter masses orbiting a G5 star with a period of 4.3177 days and an eccentricity of 0.038 +/- 0.012 (Smalley, 2010). We observed WASP-34b using the 3.6 and 4.5 micron channels of the Infrared Array Camera aboard the Spitzer Space Telescope in 2010 (Program 60003). We applied our Photometry for Orbits, Eclipses, and Transits (POET) code to present eclipse-depth measurements, estimates of infrared brightness temperatures, and a refined orbit. With our Bayesian Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (BART) code, we characterized the atmosphere's temperature and pressure profile, and molecular abundances. Spitzer is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA. This work was supported by NASA Planetary Atmospheres grant NNX12AI69G and NASA Astrophysics Data Analysis Program grant NNX13AF38G. J. Blecic holds a NASA Earth and Space Science Fellowship.

  7. Genetic incompatibility drives mate choice in a parasitic wasp.

    PubMed

    Thiel, Andra; Weeda, Anne C; de Boer, Jetske G; Hoffmeister, Thomas S

    2013-07-30

    Allelic incompatibility between individuals of the same species should select for mate choice based on the genetic make-up of both partners at loci that influence offspring fitness. As a consequence, mate choice may be an important driver of allelic diversity. A complementary sex determination (CSD) system is responsible for intraspecific allelic incompatibility in many species of ants, bees, and wasps. CSD may thus favour disassortative mating and in this, resembles the MHC of the vertebrate immune system, or the self-incompatibility (SI) system of higher plants. Here we show that in the monogamous parasitic wasp Bracon brevicornis (Wesmael), females are able to reject partners with incompatible alleles. Forcing females to accept initially rejected partners resulted in sex ratio distortion and partial infertility of offspring. CSD-disassortative mating occurred independent of kin recognition and inbreeding avoidance in our experiment. The fitness consequences of mate choice are directly observable, not influenced by environmental effects, and more severe than in comparable systems (SI or MHC), on individuals as well as at the population level. Our results thus demonstrate the strong potential of female mate choice for maintaining high offspring fitness in this species.

  8. Secondary Eclipse Observations and Orbital Analysis of WASP-32b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garland, Justin; Harrington, Joseph; Cubillos, Patricio; Blecic, Jasmina; Foster, Andrew S.; Bowman, Oliver; Maxted, Pierre F. L.

    2016-01-01

    We report two Spitzer secondary eclipses of the exoplanet WASP-32b. Discovered by Maxted et al. (2010), this hot-Jupiter planet has a mass of 3.6 ± 0.07 MJ a radius of 1.18 ± 0.07 RJ and an orbital period of 2.71865 ± 0.00008 days around a G-type star. We observed two secondary eclipses in the 3.6 μm and 4.5 μm channels using the Spitzer Space Telescope in 2010 as a part of the Spitzer Exoplanet Target of Opportunity program (program 60003). We present eclipse depth estimates of 0.0013 ± 0.00023 in the 4.5 μm band and inconclusive results in the 3.6 μm band. We also report an infrared brightness temperature of 1538 ± 110 in the 4.5 μm channel and refinements of orbital parameters for WASP-32b from our eclipse measurement as well as amatuer and professional data that closely match previous results. Spitzer is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA. This work was supported by NASA Planetary Atmospheres grant NNX12AI69G and NASA Astrophysics Data Analysis Program grant NNX13AF38G. JB holds a NASA Earth and Space Science Fellowship.

  9. Description and Flight Performance Results of the WASP Sounding Rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Pauw, J. F.; Steffens, L. E.; Yuska, J. A.

    1968-01-01

    A general description of the design and construction of the WASP sounding rocket and of the performance of its first flight are presented. The purpose of the flight test was to place the 862-pound (391-kg) spacecraft above 250 000 feet (76.25 km) on free-fall trajectory for at least 6 minutes in order to study the effect of "weightlessness" on a slosh dynamics experiment. The WASP sounding rocket fulfilled its intended mission requirements. The sounding rocket approximately followed a nominal trajectory. The payload was in free fall above 250 000 feet (76.25 km) for 6.5 minutes and reached an apogee altitude of 134 nautical miles (248 km). Flight data including velocity, altitude, acceleration, roll rate, and angle of attack are discussed and compared to nominal performance calculations. The effect of residual burning of the second stage motor is analyzed. The flight vibration environment is presented and analyzed, including root mean square (RMS) and power spectral density analysis.

  10. Chemical Communication and Reproduction Partitioning in Social Wasps.

    PubMed

    Dani, Francesca Romana; Turillazzi, Stefano

    2018-05-22

    Social wasps encompass species displaying diverse social organization regarding colony cycle, nest foundation, caste differences (from none to significant dimorphism) and number of reproductive queens. Current phylogenetic data suggests that sociality occured independently in the subfamily Stenogastrinae and in the Polistinae+Vespinae clade. In most species, including those with the simplest social organization, colony reproduction is monopolised by a single or few females. Since their nest mates can also develop ovaries and lay eggs, dominant females must somehow inhibit them from reproducing. Physical interactions in the form of open aggression or, usually, ritualised dominance by the fertile females contribute to fertility inhibition in several species, but it is unlikely to function in large colonies. In the latter case, reproduction within the colony is likely to be regulated through pheromones. Relatively little is known about these semiochemicals. Studies on all the three social wasp subfamilies, revealed that cuticular hydrocarbon components differ in abundance between egg-laying and not egg-laying females and that their composition depends on fertility status. In several species, females have been reported to manifestly react towards females with activated ovaries, but there is little evidence to support the hypothesis that fertile individuals are either recognized through their CHC composition, or that over-represented CHC constituents can inhibit fertility. Moreover, very little information exists on the possibility that exocrine glands release fertility signals or chemicals inhibiting fertility.

  11. Observation and Analysis of Secondary Eclipses of WASP-32b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garland, Justin; Harrington, Joesph; Cubillos, Patricio; Blecic, Jasmina; Foster, Andrew S.; Bowman, Matthew O.; Maxted, Pierre F. L.

    2014-11-01

    We report two Spitzer secondary eclipses of the exoplanet WASP-32b. Discovered by Maxted et al. (2010), this hot-Jupiter planet has a mass of 3.6 +/- 0.07 Mj, a radius of 1.18 +/- 0.07 Rj, and an orbital period of 2.71865 +/- 0.00008 days around a G-type star. We observed two secondary eclipses in the 3.6 micron and 4.5 micron channels using the Spitzer Space Telescope in 2010 as a part of the Spitzer Exoplanet Target of Opportunity program (program 60003). We present eclipse-depth measurements, estimates of infrared brightness temperatures, and refinements of orbital parameters for WASP-32b from our eclipse measurements as well as amatuer and professional data. Spitzer is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA. This work was supported by NASA Planetary Atmospheres grant NNX12AI69G and NASA Astrophysics Data Analysis Program grant NNX13AF38G. JB holds a NASA Earth and Space Science Fellowship.

  12. Observation and Analysis of Secondary Eclipses of WASP-32b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garland, Justin; Harrington, Joseph; Cubillos, Patricio E.; Blecic, Jasmina; Foster, Andrew S.; Bowman, Oliver; Maxted, Pierre F. L.

    2015-11-01

    We report two Spitzer secondary eclipses of the exoplanet WASP-32b. Discovered in 2010 by Maxted et al, this hot-Jupiter planet has a mass of 3.6 ± 0.07 Mj, a radius of 1.18 ± 0.07 Rj, an equilibrium temperature of 1560 ± 50 K, and an orbital period of 2.71865 ± 0.00008 days around a G-type star. We observed two secondary eclipses in the 3.6 µm and 4.5 µm channels using the Spitzer Space Telescope in 2010 as a part of the Spitzer Exoplanet Target of Opportunity program (program 60003). We present eclipse depth estimates of 0.0013 ± 0.00023 in the 4.5 µm band and inconclusive results in the 3.6 µm band. We also report an infrared brightness temperature of 1538 ± 110 in the 4.5 µm channel and refinements of orbital parameters for WASP-32b from our eclipse measurement as well as amatuer and professional data that closely match previous results. Spitzer is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA. This work was supported by NASA Planetary Atmospheres grant NNX12AI69G and NASA Astrophysics Data Analysis Program grant NNX13AF38G. JB holds a NASA Earth and Space Science Fellowship.

  13. Matricide and queen sex allocation in a yellowjacket wasp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loope, Kevin J.

    2016-08-01

    In many colonies of social insects, the workers compete with each other and with the queen over the production of the colony's males. In some species of social bees and wasps with annual societies, this intra-colony conflict even results in matricide—the killing of the colony's irreplaceable queen by a daughter worker. In colonies with low effective paternity and high worker-worker relatedness, workers value worker-laid males more than queen-laid males, and thus may benefit from queen killing. Workers gain by eliminating the queen because she is a competing source of male eggs and actively inhibits worker reproduction through policing. However, matricide may be costly to workers if it reduces the production of valuable new queens and workers. Here, I test a theoretical prediction regarding the timing of matricide in a wasp, Dolichovespula arenaria, recently shown to have facultative matricide based on intra-colony relatedness. Using analyses of collected, mature colonies and a surgical manipulation preventing queens from laying female eggs, I show that workers do not preferentially kill queens who are only producing male eggs. Instead, workers sometimes kill queens laying valuable females, suggesting a high cost of matricide. Although matricide is common and typically occurs only in low-paternity colonies, it seems that workers sometimes pay substantial costs in this expression of conflict over male parentage.

  14. Complementary Sex Determination in the Parasitic Wasp Diachasmimorpha longicaudata

    PubMed Central

    Carabajal Paladino, Leonela; Muntaabski, Irina; Lanzavecchia, Silvia; Le Bagousse-Pinguet, Yoann; Viscarret, Mariana; Juri, Marianela; Fueyo-Sánchez, Luciana; Papeschi, Alba; Cladera, Jorge; Bressa, María José

    2015-01-01

    We studied the sex determination in Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, a parasitoid braconid wasp widely used as biological control agent of fruit pest tephritid flies. We tested the complementary sex determination hypothesis (CSD) known in at least 60 species of Hymenoptera. According to CSD, male or female development depends on the allelic composition of one sex locus (single-locus CSD) or multiple sex loci (multiple-locus CSD). Hemizygote individuals are normal haploid males, and heterozygotes for at least one sex locus are normal diploid females, but homozygotes for all the sex loci are diploid males. In order to force the occurrence of diploid males in D. longicaudata, we established highly inbred lines and examined their offspring using chromosome counting, flow cytometry, and sex ratio analysis. We found that when mother-son crosses were studied, this wasp produced about 20% of diploid males out of the total male progeny. Our results suggest that this parasitoid may represent the second genus with multiple-locus CSD in Hymenoptera. Knowledge about the sex determination system in D. longicaudata is relevant for the improvement of mass rearing protocols of this species. This information also provides the necessary background for further investigations on the underlying molecular mechanisms of sex determination in this species, and a better insight into the evolution of this pathway in Hymenoptera in particular and insects in general. PMID:25789748

  15. The Apparently Decaying Orbit of WASP-12b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patra, Kishore C.; Winn, Joshua N.; Holman, Matthew J.; Yu, Liang; Deming, Drake; Dai, Fei

    2017-07-01

    We present new transit and occultation times for the hot Jupiter WASP-12b. The data are compatible with a constant period derivative: \\dot{P}=-29+/- 3 ms yr-1 and P/\\dot{P}=3.2 {Myr}. However, it is difficult to tell whether we have observed orbital decay or a portion of a 14-year apsidal precession cycle. If interpreted as decay, the star’s tidal quality parameter {Q}\\star is about 2× {10}5. If interpreted as precession, the planet’s Love number is 0.44 ± 0.10. Orbital decay appears to be the more parsimonious model: it is favored by {{Δ }}{χ }2=5.5 despite having two fewer free parameters than the precession model. The decay model implies that WASP-12 was discovered within the final ˜0.2% of its existence, which is an unlikely coincidence but harmonizes with independent evidence that the planet is nearing disruption. Precession does not invoke any temporal coincidence, but it does require some mechanism to maintain an eccentricity of ≈ 0.002 in the face of rapid tidal circularization. To distinguish unequivocally between decay and precession will probably require a few more years of monitoring. Particularly helpful will be occultation timing in 2019 and thereafter.

  16. Computer programs for the calculation of dual sting pitch and roll angles required for an articulated sting to obtain angles of attack and sideslip on wind-tunnel models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, John B., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Two programs were developed to calculate the pitch and roll position of the conventional sting drive and the pitch of a high angle articulated sting to position a wind tunnel model at the desired angle of attack and sideslip and position the model as near as possible to the centerline of the tunnel. These programs account for the effects of sting offset angles, sting bending angles, and wind-tunnel stream flow angles. In addition, the second program incorporates inputs form on-board accelerometers that measure model pitch and roll with respect to gravity. The programs are presented and a description of the numerical operation of the programs with a definition of the variables used in the programs is given.

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: WASP-103b radial velocities and light curves (Gillon+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillon, M.; Anderson, D. R.; Collier-Cameron, A.; Delrez, L.; Hellier, C.; Jehin, E.; Lendl, M.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Segransan, D.; Smith, A. M. S.; Smalley, B.; Southworth, J.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Udry, S.; Van Grootel, V.; West, R. G.

    2014-01-01

    The host star WASP-103 (1SWASPJ163715.59+071100.0 = 2MASS16371556+0711000; V=12.1, K=10.8) was observed by the southern station of the WASP survey during the 2010, 2011, and 2012 observing seasons, covering the intervals 2010 May 15 to Aug. 16, 2011 Mar. 26 to Aug. 20, and 2012 Mar. 25 to Jun. 28. Files wasp.dat, trappist.dat, euler.dat contain the photometric time-series presented in the paper. File rv.dat contains the radial velocity time-series presented in the paper. (4 data files).

  18. A newly discovered bacterium associated with parthenogenesis and a change in host selection behavior in parasitoid wasps.

    PubMed

    Zchori-Fein, E; Gottlieb, Y; Kelly, S E; Brown, J K; Wilson, J M; Karr, T L; Hunter, M S

    2001-10-23

    The symbiotic bacterium Wolbachia pipientis has been considered unique in its ability to cause multiple reproductive anomalies in its arthropod hosts. Here we report that an undescribed bacterium is vertically transmitted and associated with thelytokous parthenogenetic reproduction in Encarsia, a genus of parasitoid wasps. Although Wolbachia was found in only one of seven parthenogenetic Encarsia populations examined, the "Encarsia bacterium" (EB) was found in the other six. Among seven sexually reproducing populations screened, EB was present in one, and none harbored Wolbachia. Antibiotic treatment did not induce male production in Encarsia pergandiella but changed the oviposition behavior of females. Cured females accepted one host type at the same rate as control females but parasitized significantly fewer of the other host type. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rDNA gene sequence places the EB in a unique clade within the Cytophaga-Flexibacter-Bacteroid group and shows EB is unrelated to the Proteobacteria, where Wolbachia and most other insect symbionts are found. These results imply evolution of the induction of parthenogenesis in a lineage other than Wolbachia. Importantly, these results also suggest that EB may modify the behavior of its wasp carrier in a way that enhances its transmission.

  19. Drosophila Kette coordinates myoblast junction dissolution and the ratio of Scar-to-WASp during myoblast fusion

    PubMed Central

    Hamp, Julia; Löwer, Andreas; Dottermusch-Heidel, Christine; Beck, Lothar; Moussian, Bernard; Flötenmeyer, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The fusion of founder cells and fusion-competent myoblasts (FCMs) is crucial for muscle formation in Drosophila. Characteristic events of myoblast fusion include the recognition and adhesion of myoblasts, and the formation of branched F-actin by the Arp2/3 complex at the site of cell–cell contact. At the ultrastructural level, these events are reflected by the appearance of finger-like protrusions and electron-dense plaques that appear prior to fusion. Severe defects in myoblast fusion are caused by the loss of Kette (a homolog of Nap1 and Hem-2, also known as NCKAP1 and NCKAP1L, respectively), a member of the regulatory complex formed by Scar or WAVE proteins (represented by the single protein, Scar, in flies). kette mutants form finger-like protrusions, but the electron-dense plaques are extended. Here, we show that the electron-dense plaques in wild-type and kette mutant myoblasts resemble other electron-dense structures that are known to function as cellular junctions. Furthermore, analysis of double mutants and attempts to rescue the kette mutant phenotype with N-cadherin, wasp and genes of members of the regulatory Scar complex revealed that Kette has two functions during myoblast fusion. First, Kette controls the dissolution of electron-dense plaques. Second, Kette controls the ratio of the Arp2/3 activators Scar and WASp in FCMs. PMID:27521427

  20. Intraspecific Variation in Learning: Worker Wasps Are Less Able to Learn and Remember Individual Conspecific Faces than Queen Wasps.

    PubMed

    Tibbetts, Elizabeth A; Injaian, Allison; Sheehan, Michael J; Desjardins, Nicole

    2018-05-01

    Research on individual recognition often focuses on species-typical recognition abilities rather than assessing intraspecific variation in recognition. As individual recognition is cognitively costly, the capacity for recognition may vary within species. We test how individual face recognition differs between nest-founding queens (foundresses) and workers in Polistes fuscatus paper wasps. Individual recognition mediates dominance interactions among foundresses. Three previously published experiments have shown that foundresses (1) benefit by advertising their identity with distinctive facial patterns that facilitate recognition, (2) have robust memories of individuals, and (3) rapidly learn to distinguish between face images. Like foundresses, workers have variable facial patterns and are capable of individual recognition. However, worker dominance interactions are muted. Therefore, individual recognition may be less important for workers than for foundresses. We find that (1) workers with unique faces receive amounts of aggression similar to those of workers with common faces, indicating that wasps do not benefit from advertising their individual identity with a unique appearance; (2) workers lack robust memories for individuals, as they cannot remember unique conspecifics after a 6-day separation; and (3) workers learn to distinguish between facial images more slowly than foundresses during training. The recognition differences between foundresses and workers are notable because Polistes lack discrete castes; foundresses and workers are morphologically similar, and workers can take over as queens. Overall, social benefits and receiver capacity for individual recognition are surprisingly plastic.

  1. Risk of anaphylaxis in patients with large local reactions to hymenoptera stings: a retrospective and prospective study.

    PubMed

    Pucci, Stefano; D'Alò, Simona; De Pasquale, Tiziana; Illuminati, Ilenia; Makri, Elena; Incorvaia, Cristoforo

    2015-01-01

    In the few studies available, the risk of developing systemic reactions (SR) to hymenoptera stings in patients with previous large local reactions (LLRs) to stings ranges from 0 to 7 %. We evaluated both retrospectively and prospectively the risk of SRs in patients with LLRs to stings. An overall number of 477 patients, 396 with an SR as the first manifestation of allergy and 81 with a history of only LLRs after hymenoptera stings, were included in the study. All patients had clinical history and allergy testing (skin tests and/or specific IgE) indicative of allergy to venom of only one kind of Hymenoptera. Of the 81 patient with LLRs, 53 were followed-up for 3 years by annual control visits, while the 396 patients with SR were evaluated retrospectively. Among the 396 patients with an SR, only 17 (4.2 %) had had a previous LLR as debut of allergy, after an history of normal local reactions to Hymenoptera stings. All the 81 patients with a history of only LLRs had previously had at least two LLRs, with an overall number of 238 stings and no SR. Among the 53 patients who were prospectively evaluated we found that 31 of them (58.3 %) were restung by the same type of insect, with an overall number of 59 stings, presenting only LLRs and no SR. Our findings confirm that patients with repeated LLRs to stings had no risk of SR, while a single LLR does not exclude such risk. This has to be considered in the management of patients with LLRs.

  2. Ovarian development in a primitively eusocial wasp: social interactions affect behaviorally dominant and subordinate wasps in opposite directions relative to solitary females.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Shantanu; Pareek, Vidhi; Gadagkar, Raghavendra

    2014-07-01

    In many primitively eusocial wasp species new nests are founded either by a single female or by a small group of females. In the single foundress nests, the lone female develops her ovaries, lays eggs as well as tends her brood. In multiple foundress nests social interactions, especially dominance-subordinate interactions, result in only one 'dominant' female developing her ovaries and laying eggs. Ovaries of the remaining 'subordinate' cofoundresses remain suppressed and these individuals function as workers and tend the dominant's brood. Using the tropical, primitively eusocial polistine wasp Ropalidia marginata and by comparing wasps held in isolation and those kept as pairs in the laboratory, we demonstrate that social interactions affect ovarian development of dominant and subordinate wasps among the pairs in opposite directions, suppressing the ovaries of the subordinate member of the pair below that of solitary wasps and boosting the ovaries of dominant member of the pair above that of solitary females. In addition to being of physiological interest, such mirror image effects of aggression on the ovaries of the aggressors and their victims, suggest yet another mechanism by which subordinates can enhance their indirect fitness and facilitate the evolution of worker behavior by kin selection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. [Trends in mortality from scorpion stings in Mexico, 1979-2003].

    PubMed

    Celis, Alfredo; Gaxiola-Robles, Ramón; Sevilla-Godínez, Elizabeth; Orozco Valerio, María de Jesús; Armas, Jesús

    2007-06-01

    To describe the trends in mortality from scorpion stings in Mexico as a whole and in each of its states for the period of 1979 to 2003. We estimated the crude and standardized mortality rates due to scorpion stings and the trends during the period studied based on official mortality data for Mexico, using the codes (E905.2 and X22, respectively) from the 9th and 10th editions of the International Classification of Diseases. The results were stratified by age group. The frequencies of deaths from scorpion stings were compared using relative risk (RR), with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Between 1979 and 2003 in Mexico, 6,077 deaths from scorpion stings were registered. A statistically significant downward trend was found in standardized mortality rates (beta = -0.195; P < or = 0.001), with a total reduction of 86.5% for the period of 2001-2003 versus 1979-1982. For the 2001-2003 period, the highest mortality rates were in children under 1 year of age (7.07 per 1,000,000), children 1 to 4 years old (3.78 per 1,000,000), persons 60 and older (0.84 per 1,000,000), and males (0.81 per 1,000,000). Persons in communities with fewer than 2,500 inhabitants had a relative risk that was 11.8 times (95% CI: 7.86 to 17.72) that found in communities with more than 20,000 inhabitants. The states with the highest mortality rates were in the central and western regions of the country. Despite the sustained decline in the number of deaths from scorpion stings in the last 20 years in Mexico, there is still an important public health problem. The groups that are most affected are children under 5 and the elderly. Measures should be taken so that in all communities, especially small ones, adequate resources and information are available to provide for the prompt care of persons who suffer a scorpion sting.

  4. DNA sensing via the Stimulator of Interferon Genes (STING) adaptor in myeloid dendritic cells induces potent tolerogenic responses1

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lei; Li, Lingqian; Lemos, Henrique; Chandler, Phillip R.; Pacholczyk, Gabriela; Baban, Babak; Barber, Glen N.; Hayakawa, Yoshihiro; McGaha, Tracy L.; Ravishankar, Buvana; Munn, David H.; Mellor, Andrew L.

    2013-01-01

    Cytosolic DNA sensing via the STING adaptor incites autoimmunity by inducing type I IFN (IFNαβ). Here we show that DNA is also sensed via STING to suppress immunity by inducing indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO). STING gene ablation abolished IFNαβ and IDO induction by dendritic cells (DCs) after DNA nanoparticle (DNP) treatment. Marginal zone macrophages, some DCs and myeloid cells ingested DNPs but CD11b+ DCs were the only cells to express IFNβ, while CD11b+ non-DCs were major IL-1β producers. STING ablation also abolished DNP-induced regulatory responses by DCs and regulatory T cells (Tregs), and hallmark regulatory responses to apoptotic cells were also abrogated. Moreover, systemic cyclic diguanylate monophosphate (c-diGMP) treatment to activate STING induced selective IFNβ expression by CD11b+ DCs and suppressed Th1 responses to immunization. Thus, previously unrecognized functional diversity amongst physiologic innate immune cells regarding DNA sensing via STING is pivotal in driving immune responses to DNA. PMID:23986532

  5. Sublethal doses of imidacloprid disrupt sexual communication and host finding in a parasitoid wasp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tappert, Lars; Pokorny, Tamara; Hofferberth, John; Ruther, Joachim

    2017-02-01

    Neonicotinoids are widely used insecticides, but their use is subject of debate because of their detrimental effects on pollinators. Little is known about the effect of neonicotinoids on other beneficial insects such as parasitoid wasps, which serve as natural enemies and are crucial for ecosystem functioning. Here we show that sublethal doses of the neonicotinoid imidacloprid impair sexual communication and host finding in the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis. Depending on the dose, treated females were less responsive to the male sex pheromone or unable to use it as a cue at all. Courtship behaviour of treated couples was also impeded resulting in a reduction of mating rates by up to 80%. Moreover, treated females were no longer able to locate hosts by using olfactory cues. Olfaction is crucial for the reproductive success of parasitoid wasps. Hence, sublethal doses of neonicotinoids might compromise the function of parasitoid wasps as natural enemies with potentially dire consequences for ecosystem services.

  6. What can parasitoid wasps teach us about decision-making in insects?

    PubMed

    Libersat, Frederic; Gal, Ram

    2013-01-01

    Millions of years of co-evolution have driven parasites to display very complex and exquisite strategies to manipulate the behaviour of their hosts. However, although parasite-induced behavioural manipulation is a widespread phenomenon, the underlying neuronal mechanisms are only now beginning to be deciphered. Here, we review recent advancements in the study of the mechanisms by which parasitoid wasps use chemical warfare to manipulate the behaviour of their insect hosts. We focus on a particular case study in which a parasitoid wasp (the jewel wasp Ampulex compressa) performs a delicate brain surgery on its prey (the American cockroach Periplaneta americana) to take away its motivation to initiate locomotion. Following a brief background account of parasitoid wasps that manipulate host behaviour, we survey specific aspects of the unique effects of the A. compressa venom on the regulation of spontaneous and evoked behaviour in the cockroach host.

  7. Preliminary report on the segregation of resistance in chestnuts to infestation by oriental chestnut gall wasp

    Treesearch

    S Anagnostakis; Stacy Clark; Henry Mcnab

    2009-01-01

    In 1995, hybrid chestnuts were planted in North Carolina, (southern U.S.A.),where the introduced insect Oriental Chestnut Gall Wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus) ispresent. Of the 93 trees planted, 53 survived 12 years and were evaluated for the

  8. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Justh Querot & Company 'WaspNewsletter' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Justh Querot & Company 'Wasp-Newsletter' (December 26, 1931) San Francisco Examiner Library Hanging of John Jenkins, 1851 DESTROYED - 1850's - Mexican Custom House, Historic View, Portsmouth Square, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  9. U.S. Army soldiers' perceptions of arthropod pests and their effects on military missions.

    PubMed

    Mehr, Z A; Rutledge, L C; Echano, N M; Gupta, R K

    1997-12-01

    A survey was conducted to determine the effects of biting and stinging arthropods on military personnel, operations, and training. Nearly 70% of respondents reported experiencing problems attributable to arthropods. Arthropods obstructed movement and field position, prevented concealment and cover, disrupted maneuvers, and caused panic. Twenty percent of respondents reported attendance at sick call for treatment of bites or stings, and 4% were hospitalized or assigned to quarters. Median lost time was 2 days. Bee, wasp, and ant stings and spider and chigger bites were the most frequent causes of lost time. Additional training on biting and stinging arthropods, use of repellents and other personal protective measures, first aid for bites and stings, and conditions requiring medical attention is needed in field units to enhance mission performance and reduce time lost because of arthropods. Materials for treatment of bites and stings should be included in first-aid kits issued for field use.

  10. Functional Coordination of WAVE and WASP in C. elegans Neuroblast Migration.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhiwen; Chai, Yongping; Jiang, Yuxiang; Li, Wenjing; Hu, Huifang; Li, Wei; Wu, Jia-Wei; Wang, Zhi-Xin; Huang, Shanjin; Ou, Guangshuo

    2016-10-24

    Directional cell migration is critical for metazoan development. We define two molecular pathways that activate the Arp2/3 complex during neuroblast migration in Caenorhabditis elegans. The transmembrane protein MIG-13/Lrp12 is linked to the Arp2/3 nucleation-promoting factors WAVE or WASP through direct interactions with ABL-1 or SEM-5/Grb2, respectively. WAVE mutations partially impaired F-actin organization and decelerated cell migration, and WASP mutations did not inhibit cell migration but enhanced migration defects in WAVE-deficient cells. Purified SEM-5 and MIG-2 synergistically stimulated the F-actin branching activity of WASP-Arp2/3 in vitro. In GFP knockin animals, WAVE and WASP were largely organized into separate clusters at the leading edge, and the amount of WASP was less than WAVE but could be elevated by WAVE mutations. Our results indicate that the MIG-13-WAVE pathway provides the major force for directional cell motility, whereas MIG-13-WASP partially compensates for its loss, underscoring their coordinated activities in facilitating robust cell migration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. WASP-1, a canonical Wnt signaling potentiator, rescues hippocampal synaptic impairments induced by Aβ oligomers.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Jessica Y; Ahumada, Juan; Arrázola, Macarena S; Fuenzalida, Marco; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C

    2015-02-01

    Amyloid-β (Aβ) oligomers are a key factor in Alzheimer's disease (AD)-associated synaptic dysfunction. Aβ oligomers block the induction of hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) in rodents. The activation of Wnt signaling prevents Aβ oligomer-induced neurotoxic effects. The compound WASP-1 (Wnt-activating small molecule potentiator-1), has been described as a synergist of the ligand Wnt-3a, enhancing the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Herein, we report that WASP-1 administration successfully rescued Aβ-induced synaptic impairments both in vitro and in vivo. The activation of canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling by WASP-1 increased synaptic transmission and rescued hippocampal LTP impairments induced by Aβ oligomers. Additionally, intra-hippocampal administration of WASP-1 to the double transgenic APPswe/PS1dE9 mouse model of AD prevented synaptic protein loss and reduced tau phosphorylation levels. Moreover, we found that WASP-1 blocked Aβ aggregation in vitro and reduced pathological tau phosphorylation in vivo. These results indicate that targeting canonical Wnt signaling with WASP-1 could have value for treating AD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. WASP (Write a Scientific Paper) using Excel - 2: Pivot tables.

    PubMed

    Grech, Victor

    2018-02-01

    Data analysis at the descriptive stage and the eventual presentation of results requires the tabulation and summarisation of data. This exercise should always precede inferential statistics. Pivot tables and pivot charts are one of Excel's most powerful and underutilised features, with tabulation functions that immensely facilitate descriptive statistics. Pivot tables permit users to dynamically summarise and cross-tabulate data, create tables in several dimensions, offer a range of summary statistics and can be modified interactively with instant outputs. Large and detailed datasets are thereby easily manipulated making pivot tables arguably the best way to explore, summarise and present data from many different angles. This second paper in the WASP series in Early Human Development provides pointers for pivot table manipulation in Excel™. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Market forces influence helping behaviour in cooperatively breeding paper wasps

    PubMed Central

    Grinsted, Lena; Field, Jeremy

    2017-01-01

    Biological market theory is potentially useful for understanding helping behaviour in animal societies. It predicts that competition for trading partners will affect the value of commodities exchanged. It has gained empirical support in cooperative breeders, where subordinates help dominant breeders in exchange for group membership, but so far without considering one crucial aspect: outside options. We find support for a biological market in paper wasps, Polistes dominula. We first show that females have a choice of cooperative partners. Second, by manipulating entire subpopulations in the field, we increase the supply of outside options for subordinates, freeing up suitable nesting spots and providing additional nesting partners. We predicted that by intensifying competition for help, our manipulation would force dominants to accept a lower price for group membership. As expected, subordinates reduce their foraging effort following our treatments. We conclude that to accurately predict the amount of help provided, social units cannot be viewed in isolation: the surrounding market must also be considered. PMID:28117836

  14. LiDAR error estimation with WAsP engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingöl, F.; Mann, J.; Foussekis, D.

    2008-05-01

    The LiDAR measurements, vertical wind profile in any height between 10 to 150m, are based on assumption that the measured wind is a product of a homogenous wind. In reality there are many factors affecting the wind on each measurement point which the terrain plays the main role. To model LiDAR measurements and predict possible error in different wind directions for a certain terrain we have analyzed two experiment data sets from Greece. In both sites LiDAR and met, mast data have been collected and the same conditions are simulated with RisØ/DTU software, WAsP Engineering 2.0. Finally measurement data is compared with the model results. The model results are acceptable and very close for one site while the more complex one is returning higher errors at higher positions and in some wind directions.

  15. New records of spider wasps (Hymenoptera, Pompilidae) from Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Huertas, Valentina; Pitts, James P.; Rodriguez, Juanita; Cecilia Waichert; Fernández, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Abstract New records of genera and species of spider wasps (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae) from Colombia are provided. Agenioideus, Cryptocheilus, Evagetes, Mystacagenia, and Xerochares are newly recorded genera from Colombia. Nineteen species are first recorded from Colombia: Aimatocare vitrea (Fox); Ageniella azteca (Cameron); Ageniella curtipinus (Cameron); Ageniella fallax (Arlé); Ageniella hirsuta Banks; Ageniella pilifrons (Cameron); Ageniella pretiosa Banks; Ageniella sanguinolenta (Smith); Ageniella zeteki (Banks); Agenioideus birkmanni (Banks); Aporus (Aporus) cuzco Evans; Aporus (Cosmiaporus) diverticulus (Fox); Aporus (Notoplaniceps) canescens Smith; Euplaniceps exilis (Banks); Euplaniceps herbertii (Fox); Irenangelus clarus Evans; Mystacagenia bellula Evans; Phanochilus nobilitatus (Smith) and Xerochares expulsus Schulz. The following species and genera have their occurence ranges expanded for South America: Ageniella azteca (Cameron); Ageniella zeteki (Banks); Agenioideus birkmanni (Banks); and Xerochares expulsus Schulz; Cryptocheilus Panzer; and Xerochares Evans. PMID:25349495

  16. WASp family verprolin-homologous protein-2 (WAVE2) and Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp) engage in distinct downstream signaling interactions at the T cell antigen receptor site.

    PubMed

    Pauker, Maor H; Reicher, Barak; Joseph, Noah; Wortzel, Inbal; Jakubowicz, Shlomi; Noy, Elad; Perl, Orly; Barda-Saad, Mira

    2014-12-12

    T cell antigen receptor (TCR) engagement has been shown to activate pathways leading to actin cytoskeletal polymerization and reorganization, which are essential for lymphocyte activation and function. Several actin regulatory proteins were implicated in regulating the actin machinery, such as members of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp) family. These include WASp and the WASp family verprolin-homologous protein-2 (WAVE2). Although WASp and WAVE2 share several structural features, the precise regulatory mechanisms and potential redundancy between them have not been fully characterized. Specifically, unlike WASp, the dynamic molecular interactions that regulate WAVE2 recruitment to the cell membrane and specifically to the TCR signaling complex are largely unknown. Here, we identify the molecular mechanism that controls the recruitment of WAVE2 in comparison with WASp. Using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and novel triple-color FRET (3FRET) technology, we demonstrate how WAVE2 signaling complexes are dynamically regulated during lymphocyte activation in vivo. We show that, similar to WASp, WAVE2 recruitment to the TCR site depends on protein-tyrosine kinase, ZAP-70, and the adaptors LAT, SLP-76, and Nck. However, in contrast to WASp, WAVE2 leaves this signaling complex and migrates peripherally together with vinculin to the membrane leading edge. Our experiments demonstrate that WASp and WAVE2 differ in their dynamics and their associated proteins. Thus, this study reveals the differential mechanisms regulating the function of these cytoskeletal proteins. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. WASp Family Verprolin-homologous Protein-2 (WAVE2) and Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein (WASp) Engage in Distinct Downstream Signaling Interactions at the T Cell Antigen Receptor Site*

    PubMed Central

    Pauker, Maor H.; Reicher, Barak; Joseph, Noah; Wortzel, Inbal; Jakubowicz, Shlomi; Noy, Elad; Perl, Orly; Barda-Saad, Mira

    2014-01-01

    T cell antigen receptor (TCR) engagement has been shown to activate pathways leading to actin cytoskeletal polymerization and reorganization, which are essential for lymphocyte activation and function. Several actin regulatory proteins were implicated in regulating the actin machinery, such as members of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp) family. These include WASp and the WASp family verprolin-homologous protein-2 (WAVE2). Although WASp and WAVE2 share several structural features, the precise regulatory mechanisms and potential redundancy between them have not been fully characterized. Specifically, unlike WASp, the dynamic molecular interactions that regulate WAVE2 recruitment to the cell membrane and specifically to the TCR signaling complex are largely unknown. Here, we identify the molecular mechanism that controls the recruitment of WAVE2 in comparison with WASp. Using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and novel triple-color FRET (3FRET) technology, we demonstrate how WAVE2 signaling complexes are dynamically regulated during lymphocyte activation in vivo. We show that, similar to WASp, WAVE2 recruitment to the TCR site depends on protein-tyrosine kinase, ZAP-70, and the adaptors LAT, SLP-76, and Nck. However, in contrast to WASp, WAVE2 leaves this signaling complex and migrates peripherally together with vinculin to the membrane leading edge. Our experiments demonstrate that WASp and WAVE2 differ in their dynamics and their associated proteins. Thus, this study reveals the differential mechanisms regulating the function of these cytoskeletal proteins. PMID:25342748

  18. Epidemiological study of scorpion stings in the Rio Grande do Norte State, Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Araújo, Kaliany Adja Medeiros; Tavares, Aluska Vieira; Marques, Michael Radan de Vasconcelos; Vieira, Alecxandro Alves; Leite, Renner de Souza

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT This communication is a retrospective epidemiological study of the scorpion sting cases recorded from 2007 to 2014 in the Rio Grande do Norte State, Northeastern Brazil. The data was collected from the Injury Notification Information System database of the Health Department of Rio Grande do Norte State. A total of 20,555 cases were studied. The cases were distributed over all months of the period studied and occurred mainly in urban areas. Victims were predominantly 20-29 year-old women. Most victims were stung on the foot and received medical care within 1-3 h after being stung. The cases were mostly classified as mild and progressed to cure. Scorpion stings in Rio Grande do Norte State are an environmental public health problem that needs to be monitored and controlled throughout the year. PMID:28793026

  19. Influence of the Sting Nematode, Belonolaimus longicaudalus, on Young Citrus Trees.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, D T

    1985-10-01

    The sting nematode, Belonolaimus longicaudatus, was associated with poor growth of citrus in a central Florida nursery. Foliage of trees was sparse and chlorotic. Affected rootstocks included Changsha and Cleopatra mandarin orange; Flying Dragon, Rubidoux, and Jacobsen trifoliate orange; Macrophylla and Milam lemon; Palestine sweet lime; sour orange; and the hybrids - Carrizo, Morton, and Rusk citrange and Swingle citrumelo. Root symptoms included apical swelling, development of swollen terminals containing 3-5 apical meristems and hyperplastic tissue, coarse roots, and a reduction in the number of fibrous roots. Population densities as high as 392 sting nematodes per liter soil were detected, with 80% of the population occurring in the top 30 cm of soil; however, nematodes were detected to 107 cm deep. Although an ectoparasite, the nematode was closely associated with citrus root systems and was transported with bare root nursery stock. Disinfestation was accomplished by hot water treatment (49 C for 5 minutes).

  20. WASP-80b: a gas giant transiting a cool dwarf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Anderson, D. R.; Collier Cameron, A.; Doyle, A. P.; Fumel, A.; Gillon, M.; Hellier, C.; Jehin, E.; Lendl, M.; Lovis, C.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Ségransan, D.; Smalley, B.; Smith, A. M. S.; Udry, S.; West, R. G.; Wheatley, P. J.

    2013-03-01

    We report the discovery of a planet transiting the star WASP-80 (1SWASP J201240.26-020838.2; 2MASS J20124017-0208391; TYC 5165-481-1; BPM 80815; V = 11.9, K = 8.4). Our analysis shows this is a 0.55 ± 0.04 Mjup, 0.95 ± 0.03 Rjup gas giant on a circular 3.07 day orbit around a star with a spectral type between K7V and M0V. This system produces one of the largest transit depths so far reported, making it a worthwhile target for transmission spectroscopy. We find a large discrepancy between the vsini⋆ inferred from stellar line broadening and the observed amplitude of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect. This can be understood either by an orbital plane nearly perpendicular to the stellar spin or by an additional, unaccounted for source of broadening. Using WASP-South photometric observations, from Sutherland (South Africa), confirmed with the 60 cm TRAPPIST robotic telescope, EulerCam, and the CORALIE spectrograph on the Swiss 1.2 m Euler Telescope, and HARPS on the ESO 3.6 m (Prog ID 089.C-0151), all three located at La Silla Observatory, Chile.Radial velocity and photometric data are available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr(130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/551/A80

  1. High-precision photometry of WASP-12 b transits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciejewski, G.; Errmann, R.; Raetz, St.; Seeliger, M.; Spaleniak, I.; Neuhäuser, R.

    2011-04-01

    Aims: The transiting extrasolar planet WASP-12 b was found to be one of the most intensely irradiated exoplanets. It is unexpectedly bloated and is losing mass that may accrete into the host star. Our aim was to refine the parameters of this intriguing system and search for signs of transit timing variations. Methods: We gathered high-precision light curves for two transits of WASP-12 b. Assuming various limb-darkening laws, we generated best-fitting models and redetermined the parameters of the system. Error estimates were derived by the prayer-bead method and Monte Carlo simulations. Results: System parameters obtained by us are found to agree with previous studies within one sigma. Use of the non-linear limb-darkening laws results in the best-fitting models. With two new mid-transit times, the ephemeris was refined to BJDTDB = (2 454 508.97682 ± 0.00020) + (1.09142245 ± 0.00000033)E. Interestingly, indications of transit timing variation are detected at the level of 3.4 sigma. This signal can be induced by an additional planet in the system. Simplified numerical simulations show that a perturber could be a terrestrial-type planet if both planets are in a low-order orbital resonance. However, we emphasise that further observations are needed to confirm variation and to constrain properties of the perturber. Based on observations collected at the Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán (CAHA), operated jointly by the Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie and the Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (CSIC).Photometric data are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/528/A65

  2. WASP-ASSOCIATED FACTORS ACT IN INTERSPECIES COMPETITION DURING MULTIPARASITISM.

    PubMed

    Magdaraog, Peter M; Tanaka, Toshiharu; Harvey, Jeffrey A

    2016-06-01

    Coexistence or displacement of parasitoids in hosts during intrinsic competitive interactions between different parasitoid species (multiparasitism) may depend on their life history traits and behavior. Intense competition for possession of hosts may lead to the elimination of the inferior competitor through physical attack and/or physiological suppression. However, the mechanisms of physiological suppression during multiparasitism remain unclear. Previous work has shown that first instar larvae of the solitary endoparasitoid Meteorus pulchricornis possess well-developed mandibles that are used to kill competitors. Two gregarious endoparasitoids, Cotesia kariyai and C. rufricus, share host resources especially when the time gap of oviposition is short. Here, we investigated the physiological influence of wasp-regulatory factors of the three endoparasitoids, M. pulchricornis, C. kariyai, and C. ruficrus, in their common host Mythimna separata. We found that MpVLP alone (or with venom) deleteriously affected the development of the two gregarious species. Similarly, CkPDV plus venom had toxic effect on M. pulchricornis eggs and immature larvae, although they were not harmful to immature stages of C. ruficrus. Cotesia kariyai and C. ruficrus were able to coexist mainly through the expression of regulatory factors and both could successfully emerge from a multiparasitized host. The injection of CkPDV plus venom after oviposition in L5 host larvae facilitated C. ruficrus development and increased the rate of successful parasitism from 9% to 62%. This suggests that the two gregarious parasitoid wasps exhibit strong phylogenetic affinity, favoring their coexistence and success in multiparasitized hosts. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. ON THE ORBIT OF EXOPLANET WASP-12b

    SciTech Connect

    Campo, Christopher J.; Harrington, Joseph; Hardy, Ryan A.

    We observed two secondary eclipses of the exoplanet WASP-12b using the Infrared Array Camera on the Spitzer Space Telescope. The close proximity of WASP-12b to its G-type star results in extreme tidal forces capable of inducing apsidal precession with a period as short as a few decades. This precession would be measurable if the orbit had a significant eccentricity, leading to an estimate of the tidal Love number and an assessment of the degree of central concentration in the planetary interior. An initial ground-based secondary-eclipse phase reported by Lopez-Morales et al. (0.510 {+-} 0.002) implied eccentricity at the 4.5{sigma} level.more » The spectroscopic orbit of Hebb et al. has eccentricity 0.049 {+-} 0.015, a 3{sigma} result, implying an eclipse phase of 0.509 {+-} 0.007. However, there is a well-documented tendency of spectroscopic data to overestimate small eccentricities. Our eclipse phases are 0.5010 {+-} 0.0006 (3.6 and 5.8 {mu}m) and 0.5006 {+-} 0.0007 (4.5 and 8.0 {mu}m). An unlikely orbital precession scenario invoking an alignment of the orbit during the Spitzer observations could have explained this apparent discrepancy, but the final eclipse phase of Lopez-Morales et al. (0.510 {+-}{sup +0.007}{sub -0.006}) is consistent with a circular orbit at better than 2{sigma}. An orbit fit to all the available transit, eclipse, and radial-velocity data indicates precession at <1{sigma}; a non-precessing solution fits better. We also comment on analysis and reporting for Spitzer exoplanet data in light of recent re-analyses.« less

  4. Long-term variability of T Tauri stars using WASP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigon, Laura; Scholz, Alexander; Anderson, David; West, Richard

    2017-03-01

    We present a reference study of the long-term optical variability of young stars using data from the WASP project. Our primary sample is a group of well-studied classical T Tauri stars (CTTSs), mostly in Taurus-Auriga. WASP light curves cover time-scales of up to 7 yr and typically contain 10 000-30 000 data points. We quantify the variability as a function of time-scale using the time-dependent standard deviation 'pooled sigma'. We find that the overwhelming majority of CTTSs have a low-level variability with σ < 0.3 mag dominated by time-scales of a few weeks, consistent with rotational modulation. Thus, for most young stars, monitoring over a month is sufficient to constrain the total amount of variability over time-scales of up to a decade. The fraction of stars with a strong optical variability (σ > 0.3 mag) is 21 per cent in our sample and 21 per cent in an unbiased control sample. An even smaller fraction (13 per cent in our sample, 6 per cent in the control) show evidence for an increase in variability amplitude as a function of time-scale from weeks to months or years. The presence of long-term variability correlates with the spectral slope at 3-5 μm, which is an indicator of inner disc geometry, and with the U-B band slope, which is an accretion diagnostics. This shows that the long-term variations in CTTSs are predominantly driven by processes in the inner disc and in the accretion zone. Four of the stars with long-term variations show periods of 20-60 d, significantly longer than the rotation periods and stable over months to years. One possible explanation is cyclic changes in the interaction between the disc and the stellar magnetic field.

  5. Wasp-Waist Interactions in the North Sea Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Fauchald, Per; Skov, Henrik; Skern-Mauritzen, Mette; Johns, David; Tveraa, Torkild

    2011-01-01

    Background In a “wasp-waist” ecosystem, an intermediate trophic level is expected to control the abundance of predators through a bottom-up interaction and the abundance of prey through a top-down interaction. Previous studies suggest that the North Sea is mainly governed by bottom-up interactions driven by climate perturbations. However, few studies have investigated the importance of the intermediate trophic level occupied by small pelagic fishes. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the numeric interactions among 10 species of seabirds, two species of pelagic fish and four groups of zooplankton in the North Sea using decadal-scale databases. Linear models were used to relate the time series of zooplankton and seabirds to the time series of pelagic fish. Seabirds were positively related to herring (Clupea harengus), suggesting a bottom-up interaction. Two groups of zooplankton; Calanus helgolandicus and krill were negatively related to sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and herring respectively, suggesting top-down interactions. In addition, we found positive relationships among the zooplankton groups. Para/pseudocalanus was positively related to C. helgolandicus and C. finmarchicus was positively related to krill. Conclusion/Significance Our results indicate that herring was important in regulating the abundance of seabirds through a bottom-up interaction and that herring and sprat were important in regulating zooplankton through top-down interactions. We suggest that the positive relationships among zooplankton groups were due to selective foraging and switching in the two clupeid fishes. Our results suggest that “wasp-waist” interactions might be more important in the North Sea than previously anticipated. Fluctuations in the populations of pelagic fish due to harvesting and depletion of their predators might accordingly have profound consequences for ecosystem dynamics through trophic cascades. PMID:21829494

  6. The cGAS/STING Pathway Is Important for Dendritic Cell Activation but Is Not Essential to Induce Protective Immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection.

    PubMed

    Marinho, Fabio V; Benmerzoug, Sulayman; Rose, Stephanie; Campos, Priscila C; Marques, João T; Báfica, André; Barber, Glen; Ryffel, Bernhard; Oliveira, Sergio C; Quesniaux, Valerie F J

    2018-05-23

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection remains a major public health concern. The STING (stimulator of interferon genes) pathway contributes to the cytosolic surveillance of host cells. Most studies on the role of STING activation in Mtb infection have focused on macrophages. Moreover, a detailed investigation of the role of STING during Mtb infection in vivo is required. Here, we deciphered the involvement of STING in the activation of dendritic cells (DCs) and the host response to Mtb infection in vivo. In DCs, this adaptor molecule was important for Ifn-β expression and IL-12 production as well as for the surface expression of the activation markers CD40 and CD86. We also documented that Mtb DNA induces STING activation in murine fibroblasts. In vivo Mtb aerogenic infection induced the upregulation of the STING and cGAS (cyclic GMP-AMP synthase) genes, and Ifn-β pulmonary expression was dependent on both sensors. However, mice deficient for STING or cGAS presented a similar outcome to wild-type controls, with no major alterations in body weight gain, bacterial burden, or survival. Lung inflammation, proinflammatory cytokine production, and inflammatory cell recruitment were similar in STING- and cGAS-deficient mice compared to wild-type controls. In summary, although the STING pathway seems to be crucial for DC activation during Mtb infection, it is dispensable for host protection in vivo. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Terror Sting Operations in the Muslim Community - Developing Recommendations for Improving Public Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    Manufacturing the “Homegrown Threat” in the United States (New York University, Center for Human Rights and Global Justice, 2011), 2. 3 Petra ...Solving 4E. CQ Press, 2011. http://books.google.com/books?id=HQFBN3L7FRIC. Bartosiewicz, Petra . “Deploying Informants, the FBI Stings Muslims.” The...Demographic Perspective on the Muslim World. Springer, 2005. Jones, Seth G., and Martin C. Libicki. How Terrorist Groups End: Lessons for Countering Al

  8. Successful use of heat as first aid for tropical Australian jellyfish stings.

    PubMed

    Little, Mark; Fitzpatrick, Richard; Seymour, Jamie

    2016-11-01

    Currently the Australian Resuscitation Council (ARC) recommends dousing with vinegar followed by ice as first aid for jellyfish stings in tropical Australia, with limited evidence to support this recommendation (Li et al., 2013). We report our successful experience in using hot water immersion as first aid in treating two people stung by venomous tropical Australian jellyfish, one by Chironex fleckeri and one by Carukia barnesi. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Analysis of new high-precision transit light curves of WASP-10 b: starspot occultations, small planetary radius, and high metallicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciejewski, G.; Raetz, St.; Nettelmann, N.; Seeliger, M.; Adam, C.; Nowak, G.; Neuhäuser, R.

    2011-11-01

    Context. The WASP-10 planetary system is intriguing because different values of radius have been reported for its transiting exoplanet. The host star exhibits activity in terms of photometric variability, which is caused by the rotational modulation of the spots. Moreover, a periodic modulation has been discovered in transit timing of WASP-10 b, which could be a sign of an additional body perturbing the orbital motion of the transiting planet. Aims: We attempt to refine the physical parameters of the system, in particular the planetary radius, which is crucial for studying the internal structure of the transiting planet. We also determine new mid-transit times to confirm or refute observed anomalies in transit timing. Methods: We acquired high-precision light curves for four transits of WASP-10 b in 2010. Assuming various limb-darkening laws, we generated best-fit models and redetermined parameters of the system. The prayer-bead method and Monte Carlo simulations were used to derive error estimates. Results: Three transit light curves exhibit signatures of the occultations of dark spots by the planet during its passage across the stellar disk. The influence of stellar activity on transit depth is taken into account while determining system parameters. The radius of WASP-10 b is found to be no greater than 1.03+0.07-0.03 Jupiter radii, a value significantly smaller than most previous studies indicate. We calculate interior structure models of the planet, assuming a two-layer structure with one homogeneous envelope atop a rock core. The high value of the WASP-10 b's mean density allows one to consider the planet's internal structure including 270 to 450 Earth masses of heavy elements. Our new mid-transit times confirm that transit timing cannot be explained by a constant period if all literature data points are considered. They are consistent with the ephemeris assuming a periodic variation of transit timing. We show that possible starspot features affecting the

  10. Flee or fight: ontogenetic changes in the behavior of cobweb spiders in encounters with spider-hunting wasps.

    PubMed

    Uma, Divya B; Weiss, Martha R

    2012-12-01

    An animal's body size plays a predominant role in shaping its interspecific interactions, and, in encounters between two predators, often determines which shall be predator and which shall be prey. Spiders are top predators of insects, yet can fall prey to mud-dauber wasps that provision their larval nests with paralyzed spiders. Here we examined predator-prey interactions between Chalybion californicum (Saussure) (Sphecidae), a mud-dauber wasp, and Parasteatoda tepidariorum C. L. Koch (Theridiidae), a cobweb spider. We examined whether a spider's size influences its response to an attacking wasp, and report a size-dependent change in spider behavior: small-sized spiders fled, whereas medium- and large-sized spiders fought in response to wasp attacks. From the wasps' perspective, we examined whether spider size influences a wasp's hunting behavior and capture success. We found that wasps commonly approached small spiders, but were much less likely to approach medium and large spiders. However, wasp capture success did not vary with spider size. We also report a strategy used by Chalybion wasps toward cobweb spiders that is consistent with an interpretation of aggressive mimicry.

  11. A NEW SPECIES OF INVASIVE GALL WASP (HYMENOPTERA: EULOPHIDAE: TETRASTICHINAE) ON BLUE GUM (EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS) IN CALIFORNIA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The blue gum gall wasp, Selitrichodes globulus La Salle & Gates (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae), is described as an invasive gall inducer on blue gum, Eucalyptus globulus (Myrtaceae), in California....

  12. Direct and ecological costs of resistance and tolerance in the stinging nettle.

    PubMed

    Puustinen, Susanna; Koskela, Tanja; Mutikainen, Pia

    2004-03-01

    Plant resistance and tolerance to herbivores, parasites, pathogens, and abiotic factors may involve two types of costs. First, resistance and tolerance may be costly in terms of plant fitness. Second, resistance and tolerance to multiple enemies may involve ecological trade-offs. Our study species, the stinging nettle ( Urtica dioicaL.) has significant variation among seed families in resistance and tolerance as well as costs of resistance and tolerance to the holoparasitic plant Cuscuta europaea L. Here we report on variation among seed families (i.e. genetic) in tolerance to nutrient limitation and in resistance to both mammalian herbivores (i.e. number of stinging trichomes) and an invertebrate herbivore (i.e. inverse of the performance of a generalist snail, Arianta arbustorum). Our results indicate direct fitness costs of snail resistance in terms of host reproduction whereas we did not detect fitness costs of mammalian resistance or tolerance to nutrient limitation. We further tested for ecological trade-offs among tolerance or resistance to the parasitic plant, herbivore resistance, and tolerance to nutrient limitation in the stinging nettle. Tolerance of nettles to nutrient limitation and resistance to mammalian herbivores tended to correlate negatively. However, there were no significant correlations among resistance and tolerance to the different natural enemies (i.e. parasitic plants, snails, and mammals). The results of this greenhouse study thus suggest that resistance and tolerance of nettles to diverse enemies are free to evolve independently of each other but not completely without direct costs in terms of plant fitness.

  13. Comparison of nutritional properties of Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) flour with wheat and barley flours.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Bhaskar Mani; Bajracharya, Alina; Shrestha, Ashok K

    2016-01-01

    Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica. L) is a wild, unique herbaceous perennial flowering plant with Stinging hairs. It has a long history of use as a food sources as a soup or curries, and also used as a fiber as well as a medicinal herb. The current aim was to analyze the composition and bioactive compounds in Nepalese Stinging nettle. Chemical analysis showed the relatively higher level of crude protein (33.8%), crude fiber (9.1%), crude fat (3.6%), total ash (16.2%), carbohydrate (37.4%), and relatively lower energy value (307 kcal/100 g) as compared to wheat and barley flours. Analysis of nettle powder showed significantly higher level of bioactive compounds: phenolic compounds as 129 mg Gallic acid equivalent/g; carotenoid level 3497 μg/g; tannin 0.93 mg/100 g; anti-oxidant activity 66.3 DPPH inhibition (%), as compared to wheat and barley. This study further established that nettle plants as very good source of energy, proteins, high fiber, and a range of health benefitting bioactive compounds.

  14. Diagnosis of stinging insect allergy: utility of cellular in-vitro tests.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Kathrin; Bircher, Andreas J; Heijnen, Ingmar Afm

    2009-08-01

    Diagnosis of stinging insect allergy is based on a detailed history, venom skin tests, and detection of venom-specific IgE. As an additional diagnostic tool, basophil responsiveness to venom allergens has been shown to be helpful in selected patients. This review summarizes the current diagnostic procedures for stinging insect allergy and discusses the latest developments in cellular in-vitro tests. Cellular assays have been evaluated in patients with Hymenoptera venom allergy. The diagnostic performance of the cellular mediator release test is similar to that of the flow cytometric basophil activation test (BAT), but the BAT has been the most intensively studied. BAT offers the possibility to assess basophil reactivity to allergens in their natural environment and to simultaneously analyze surface marker expression and intracellular signaling. It has been demonstrated that BAT represents a valuable additional diagnostic tool in selected patients when used in combination with other well established tests. A major limitation is the current lack of unified, standardized protocols. Flow cytometry offers huge possibilities to enhance knowledge of basophil functions. The BAT may be used as an additional test to confirm the diagnosis of stinging insect allergy in selected patients, provided that it is performed by an experienced laboratory using a validated assay. Test results have to be interpreted by clinicians familiar with the methodological aspects. The utility of the BAT to confirm allergy diagnosis and to predict the risk of subsequent systemic reactions may be improved by combined analysis of multiple surface markers and intracellular signaling pathways.

  15. Decontamination Work and the Long-term Increase in Hospital Visits for Hymenoptera Stings Following the Fukushima Nuclear Disaster.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Akihiko; Yokota, Takeru; Nomura, Shuhei; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Leppold, Claire; Tanimoto, Tetsuya; Miura, Toru; Yamamoto, Kana; Sawano, Toyoaki; Tsukada, Manabu; Kami, Masahiro; Kanazawa, Yukio; Ohira, Hiromichi

    2017-10-01

    Animals, including arthropods, are one health threat that can be affected by disasters. This institution-based study aimed to assess trends in Hymenoptera stings following the 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster. We reviewed the medical records of patients with hymenopteran stings who visited Minamisoma Municipal General Hospital, located 23 km from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, from March 2005 to March 2016. Patient and sting characteristics of post-disaster patients were examined, and the annual incidence of hospital visits for hymenopteran stings was compared with the pre-disaster baseline, calculating an incidence rate ratio (IRR) for each year. We identified 152 pre-disaster patients (2005-2011) and 222 post-disaster patients (2011-2016). In the post-disaster period, 160 males (72.1%) were identified, with a median age of 59 years (range: 2-89 years). A total of 45 patients (20.3%) were decontamination workers. Post-disaster increases were found in the IRR for hymenopteran stings, peaking first in 2011 (IRR: 2.8; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.9-4.2) and later in 2014 (IRR: 3.2; 95% CI: 2.4-4.3) and 2015 (IRR 3.3; 95% CI: 2.5-4.4). Long-term increases were found in the IRR of hospital visits for hymenopteran stings in an institution affected by the Fukushima nuclear disaster. Decontamination workers appear to have been particularly affected by this phenomenon. Better disaster field worker monitoring and education about potential environmental health hazards may help to identify and prevent worker exposure to insect stings and other vectors in these settings. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:545-551).

  16. STING versus HIT technique of endoscopic treatment for vesicoureteral reflux: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yap, Te-Lu; Chen, Yong; Nah, Shireen A; Ong, Caroline Choo Phaik; Jacobsen, Anette; Low, Yee

    2016-12-01

    Our study aimed to compare the efficacy of two endoscopic techniques used for the correction of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR): subureteral transurethral injection (STING) and hydrodistension implantation technique (HIT). A systematic review was conducted using MEDLINE, Google scholar, and Cochrane databases from 1984 to 2015. Meta-analysis of the selected studies was performed to compare the extent of reflux resolution following both techniques. Six observational studies met the inclusion criteria for content. These comprised 632 ureters treated by STING and 895 ureters treated by HIT procedure. All included studies utilized dextranomer/hyaluronic acid (Deflux) as the bulking agent. The overall resolution of VUR was significantly higher in HIT (82.5%) compared to STING (71.4%) [pooled odds ratio (OR)=0.54; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.42-0.69; P<0.0001; I 2 =8%]. A subgroup analysis showed that HIT had better outcomes than STING for both lower grade (I-III) [OR=0.43; 95% CI 0.23-0.82; P=0.01; I 2 =0%] and high-grade VUR (IV-V) [OR=0.43; 95% CI 0.20-0.91; P=0.03; I 2 =0%]. However, there was no statistical difference in the requirement of additional injections between STING and HIT groups. HIT is superior to STING technique for resolution of VUR after Deflux injection. However, more randomized trials with longer follow-up are necessary to demonstrate the benefit of HIT compared to STING procedure. Retrospective comparative studies - level III. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Jellyfish Stings Trigger Gill Disorders and Increased Mortality in Farmed Sparus aurata (Linnaeus, 1758) in the Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Bosch-Belmar, Mar; M'Rabet, Charaf; Dhaouadi, Raouf; Chalghaf, Mohamed; Daly Yahia, Mohamed Néjib; Fuentes, Verónica; Piraino, Stefano; Kéfi-Daly Yahia, Ons

    2016-01-01

    Jellyfish are of particular concern for marine finfish aquaculture. In recent years repeated mass mortality episodes of farmed fish were caused by blooms of gelatinous cnidarian stingers, as a consequence of a wide range of hemolytic, cytotoxic, and neurotoxic properties of associated cnidocytes venoms. The mauve stinger jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca (Scyphozoa) has been identified as direct causative agent for several documented fish mortality events both in Northern Europe and the Mediterranean Sea aquaculture farms. We investigated the effects of P. noctiluca envenomations on the gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata by in vivo laboratory assays. Fish were incubated for 8 hours with jellyfish at 3 different densities in 300 l experimental tanks. Gill disorders were assessed by histological analyses and histopathological scoring of samples collected at time intervals from 3 hours to 4 weeks after initial exposure. Fish gills showed different extent and severity of gill lesions according to jellyfish density and incubation time, and long after the removal of jellyfish from tanks. Jellyfish envenomation elicits local and systemic inflammation reactions, histopathology and gill cell toxicity, with severe impacts on fish health. Altogether, these results shows P. noctiluca swarms may represent a high risk for Mediterranean finfish aquaculture farms, generating significant gill damage after only a few hours of contact with farmed S. aurata. Due to the growth of the aquaculture sector and the increased frequency of jellyfish blooms in the coastal waters, negative interactions between stinging jellyfish and farmed fish are likely to increase with the potential for significant economic losses.

  18. Jellyfish Stings Trigger Gill Disorders and Increased Mortality in Farmed Sparus aurata (Linnaeus, 1758) in the Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Dhaouadi, Raouf; Chalghaf, Mohamed; Daly Yahia, Mohamed Néjib; Fuentes, Verónica; Piraino, Stefano; Kéfi-Daly Yahia, Ons

    2016-01-01

    Jellyfish are of particular concern for marine finfish aquaculture. In recent years repeated mass mortality episodes of farmed fish were caused by blooms of gelatinous cnidarian stingers, as a consequence of a wide range of hemolytic, cytotoxic, and neurotoxic properties of associated cnidocytes venoms. The mauve stinger jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca (Scyphozoa) has been identified as direct causative agent for several documented fish mortality events both in Northern Europe and the Mediterranean Sea aquaculture farms. We investigated the effects of P. noctiluca envenomations on the gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata by in vivo laboratory assays. Fish were incubated for 8 hours with jellyfish at 3 different densities in 300 l experimental tanks. Gill disorders were assessed by histological analyses and histopathological scoring of samples collected at time intervals from 3 hours to 4 weeks after initial exposure. Fish gills showed different extent and severity of gill lesions according to jellyfish density and incubation time, and long after the removal of jellyfish from tanks. Jellyfish envenomation elicits local and systemic inflammation reactions, histopathology and gill cell toxicity, with severe impacts on fish health. Altogether, these results shows P. noctiluca swarms may represent a high risk for Mediterranean finfish aquaculture farms, generating significant gill damage after only a few hours of contact with farmed S. aurata. Due to the growth of the aquaculture sector and the increased frequency of jellyfish blooms in the coastal waters, negative interactions between stinging jellyfish and farmed fish are likely to increase with the potential for significant economic losses. PMID:27100175

  19. Costs of female odour in males of the parasitic wasp Lariophagus distinguendus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruther, Joachim; Steiner, Sven

    2008-06-01

    The display of female traits by males is widespread in the animal kingdom. In several species, this phenomenon has been shown to function adaptively as a male mating strategy to deceive sexual rivals (female mimicry). Freshly emerged males of the parasitic wasp Lariophagus distinguendus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) are perceived by other males as if they were females because of a very similar composition of cuticular hydrocarbons which function as a sex pheromone in this species inducing courtship behaviour in males. Within 32 h, however, males deactivate the pheromone and are no longer courted by other males. In this paper, behavioural experiments were performed to test hypotheses on potential costs and benefits associated with the female odour in young males. We did not find any benefits, but demonstrated that young males were significantly more often outrivaled in male-male contests when competing with two older males for a female. Also, young males were significantly more often mounted in homosexual courtship events during these contests. Thus, display of female traits by males is not necessarily beneficial, and in fact, can be disadvantageous. We suggest that these costs have favoured the evolution of the pheromone deactivation mechanism in L. distinguendus males. The function of cuticular hydrocarbons as a female courtship pheromone in L. distinguendus might have evolved secondarily from a primary function relevant for both genders, and the deactivation of the signal in males might have caused a shift of specificity of the chemical signal from the species level to the sex level.

  20. Epidemiology of asexuality induced by the endosymbiotic Wolbachia across phytophagous wasp species: host plant specialization matters.

    PubMed

    Boivin, T; Henri, H; Vavre, F; Gidoin, C; Veber, P; Candau, J-N; Magnoux, E; Roques, A; Auger-Rozenberg, M-A

    2014-05-01

    Among eukaryotes, sexual reproduction is by far the most predominant mode of reproduction. However, some systems maintaining sexuality appear particularly labile and raise intriguing questions on the evolutionary routes to asexuality. Thelytokous parthenogenesis is a form of spontaneous loss of sexuality leading to strong distortion of sex ratio towards females and resulting from mutation, hybridization or infection by bacterial endosymbionts. We investigated whether ecological specialization is a likely mechanism of spread of thelytoky within insect communities. Focusing on the highly specialized genus Megastigmus (Hymenoptera: Torymidae), we first performed a large literature survey to examine the distribution of thelytoky in these wasps across their respective obligate host plant families. Second, we tested for thelytoky caused by endosymbionts by screening in 15 arrhenotokous and 10 thelytokous species for Wolbachia, Cardinium, Arsenophonus and Rickettsia endosymbionts and by performing antibiotic treatments. Finally, we performed phylogenetic reconstructions using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to examine the evolution of endosymbiont-mediated thelytoky in Megastigmus and its possible connections to host plant specialization. We demonstrate that thelytoky evolved from ancestral arrhenotoky through the horizontal transmission and the fixation of the parthenogenesis-inducing Wolbachia. We find that ecological specialization in Wolbachia's hosts was probably a critical driving force for Wolbachia infection and spread of thelytoky, but also a constraint. Our work further reinforces the hypothesis that community structure of insects is a major driver of the epidemiology of endosymbionts and that competitive interactions among closely related species may facilitate their horizontal transmission. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Task Allocation of Wasps Governed by Common Stomach: A Model Based on Electric Circuits

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Simple regulatory mechanisms based on the idea of the saturable ‘common stomach’ can control the regulation of construction behavior and colony-level responses to environmental perturbations in Metapolybia wasp societies. We mapped the different task groups to mutual inductance electrical circuits and used Kirchoff’s basic voltage laws to build a model that uses master equations from physics, yet is able to provide strong predictions for this complex biological phenomenon. Similar to real colonies, independently of the initial conditions, the system shortly sets into an equilibrium, which provides optimal task allocation for a steady construction, depending on the influx of accessible water. The system is very flexible and in the case of perturbations, it reallocates its workforce and adapts to the new situation with different equilibrium levels. Similar to the finding of field studies, decreasing any task groups caused decrease of construction; increasing or decreasing water inflow stimulated or reduced the work of other task groups while triggering compensatory behavior in water foragers. We also showed that only well connected circuits are able to produce adequate construction and this agrees with the finding that this type of task partitioning only exists in larger colonies. Studying the buffer properties of the common stomach and its effect on the foragers revealed that it provides stronger negative feedback to the water foragers, while the connection between the pulp foragers and the common stomach has a strong fixed-point attractor, as evidenced by the dissipative trajectory. PMID:27861633

  2. Effects of environmental parameters on the chestnut gall wasp and its complex of indigenous parasitoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonsignore, Carmelo Peter; Bernardo, Umberto

    2018-04-01

    The chestnut gall wasp (CGW), Dryocosmus kuriphilus, an invasive pest native to China, has caused severe yield and economic losses to chestnut production in Europe since its arrival in 2002. In Southern Italy, the complex of indigenous parasitoids colonizing CGW was monitored between 2013 and 2015, with the aim of estimating the composition of the indigenous parasitoid complex, its ability to control CGW populations, and the interactions of both factors with several measured environmental parameters. We compared results among three differently managed field types. Results showed an increase in the rate of parasitism both when the host population density was lower and in unmanaged chestnut stands with more natural conditions. The percentage of parasitism in galls was related to morphological traits of the galls and to higher seasonal temperatures, which reduced the parasitism intensity because CGW develops earlier under such conditions. The host-parasitoid mortality inside galls varied among sites and was associated mostly with rot fungi during wet spring and summer months. Parasitoid species richness was similar among the study sites, but the proportion of parasitoid species differed between orchards and unmanaged coppice stands. The timing of attack by parasitoids followed a species-specific successional sequence throughout the larva-to-adult life cycle of the CGW. These interactions should be considered in future research on trophic relationships and when modeling invasive scenarios for new pest species.

  3. Nest paper absorbency, toughness, and protein concentration of a native vs. an invasive social wasp.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Tracy R; Aponte, Yaira; Stamp, Nancy E

    2005-05-01

    The amount of proteinaceous food that was allocated to nest construction by a native wasp (Polistes fuscatus) vs. an invasive wasp (Polistes dominulus) in North America was examined following a field experiment under natural and surplus prey foraging conditions. Wasps of the surplus prey foraging conditions were provided with prey ad libitum within an enclosed area, while wasps of the natural treatment foraged in an adjacent field-woodland site. At the end of the field experiment, each nest was tested for water absorbency, toughness, and protein concentration. The hypotheses were: (1) When all nests are equally sheltered, the invasive P. dominulus (PD) allocates less protein to nest paper construction (for waterproofing and strengthening) and more protein to developing larvae than the native P. fuscatus (PF). (2) Nests of P. dominulus are more absorbent (less waterproof) and less tough than nests of P. fuscatus. Results indicate that P. fuscatus nests from surplus prey foraging conditions were more absorbent (less waterproof) to artificial rain drops than P. dominulus nests. The toughness of nests was similar between wasp species. However, nests from the natural treatment were tougher than those from the surplus prey treatment. Nests from the natural foraging conditions had half as much protein as those from surplus prey foraging conditions. There was no correlation between nest protein concentration and the number of prey taken, the number of cells, the number of adult offspring produced, or the total wasp biomass produced per colony. For PF under surplus prey conditions, protein concentration and absorbency were negatively correlated, but for PD the correlation was positive. In conclusion, when prey were scarce, Polistes wasps allocated less protein to nest construction. Also, the introduced P. dominulus may increase production of offspring by allocating less to nest construction than that of the native P. fuscatus, and so more protein to offspring production.

  4. Same but different: Larval development and gall-inducing process of a non-pollinating fig wasp compared to that of pollinating fig-wasps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen-González, Sergio; Teixeira, Simone de Padua; Kjellberg, Finn; Pereira, Rodrigo A. Santinelo

    2014-05-01

    The receptacles of fig trees (Ficus spp.) can harbor a highly diversified and complex community of chalcid wasps. Functional groups of fig wasps (e.g. gallers, cleptoparasites and parasitoids) oviposit into the fig at different developmental stages, reflecting different feeding regimes for these insect larvae. There are few direct data available on larval feeding regimes and access to resources. We studied the gall induction and larval feeding strategy of an Idarnes (group flavicollis) species, a non-pollinating fig wasp (NPFW) associated to Ficus citrifolia P. Miller in Brazil. This Idarnes species shares with the pollinator characteristics such as time of oviposition, ovipositor insertion through flower and location of the egg inside plant ovaries. Nevertheless, we show that the gall induction differs considerably from that of the pollinating species. This Idarnes species relies on the induction of nucellus cell proliferation for gall formation and as the main larval resource. This strategy enables it to develop in both pollinated and unpollinated figs. The large differences between this NPFW and other fig wasps in how ovules are galled suggest that there are different ways to be a galler. A functional analysis of NPFW community structure may require descriptions of the histological processes associated with larval development.

  5. The DNA Inflammasome in Human Myeloid Cells Is Initiated by a STING-Cell Death Program Upstream of NLRP3

    PubMed Central

    Gaidt, Moritz M.; Ebert, Thomas S.; Chauhan, Dhruv; Ramshorn, Katharina; Pinci, Francesca; Zuber, Sarah; O’Duill, Fionan; Schmid-Burgk, Jonathan L.; Hoss, Florian; Buhmann, Raymund; Wittmann, Georg; Latz, Eicke; Subklewe, Marion; Hornung, Veit

    2018-01-01

    Summary Detection of cytosolic DNA constitutes a central event in the context of numerous infectious and sterile inflammatory conditions. Recent studies have uncovered a bipartite mode of cytosolic DNA recognition, in which the cGAS-STING axis triggers antiviral immunity, whereas AIM2 triggers inflammasome activation. Here, we show that AIM2 is dispensable for DNA-mediated inflammasome activation in human myeloid cells. Instead, detection of cytosolic DNA by the cGAS-STING axis induces a cell death program initiating potassium efflux upstream of NLRP3. Forward genetics identified regulators of lysosomal trafficking to modulate this cell death program, and subsequent studies revealed that activated STING traffics to the lysosome, where it triggers membrane permeabilization and thus lysosomal cell death (LCD). Importantly, the cGAS-STING-NLRP3 pathway constitutes the default inflammasome response during viral and bacterial infections in human myeloid cells. We conclude that targeting the cGAS-STING-LCD-NLRP3 pathway will ameliorate pathology in inflammatory conditions that are associated with cytosolic DNA sensing. PMID:29033128

  6. STING-Dependent Cytosolic DNA Sensing Promotes Radiation-Induced Type I Interferon-Dependent Antitumor Immunity in Immunogenic Tumors.

    PubMed

    Deng, Liufu; Liang, Hua; Xu, Meng; Yang, Xuanming; Burnette, Byron; Arina, Ainhoa; Li, Xiao-Dong; Mauceri, Helena; Beckett, Michael; Darga, Thomas; Huang, Xiaona; Gajewski, Thomas F; Chen, Zhijian J; Fu, Yang-Xin; Weichselbaum, Ralph R

    2014-11-20

    Ionizing radiation-mediated tumor regression depends on type I interferon (IFN) and the adaptive immune response, but several pathways control I IFN induction. Here, we demonstrate that adaptor protein STING, but not MyD88, is required for type I IFN-dependent antitumor effects of radiation. In dendritic cells (DCs), STING was required for IFN-? induction in response to irradiated-tumor cells. The cytosolic DNA sensor cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS) mediated sensing of irradiated-tumor cells in DCs. Moreover, STING was essential for radiation-induced adaptive immune responses, which relied on type I IFN signaling on DCs. Exogenous IFN-? treatment rescued the cross-priming by cGAS or STING-deficient DCs. Accordingly, activation of STING by a second messenger cGAMP administration enhanced antitumor immunity induced by radiation. Thus radiation-mediated antitumor immunity in immunogenic tumors requires a functional cytosolic DNA-sensing pathway and suggests that cGAMP treatment might provide a new strategy to improve radiotherapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Disease-associated mutations identify a novel region in human STING necessary for the control of type I interferon signaling.

    PubMed

    Melki, Isabelle; Rose, Yoann; Uggenti, Carolina; Van Eyck, Lien; Frémond, Marie-Louise; Kitabayashi, Naoki; Rice, Gillian I; Jenkinson, Emma M; Boulai, Anaïs; Jeremiah, Nadia; Gattorno, Marco; Volpi, Sefano; Sacco, Olivero; Terheggen-Lagro, Suzanne W J; Tiddens, Harm A W M; Meyts, Isabelle; Morren, Marie-Anne; De Haes, Petra; Wouters, Carine; Legius, Eric; Corveleyn, Anniek; Rieux-Laucat, Frederic; Bodemer, Christine; Callebaut, Isabelle; Rodero, Mathieu P; Crow, Yanick J

    2017-08-01

    Gain-of-function mutations in transmembrane protein 173 (TMEM173) encoding stimulator of interferon genes (STING) underlie a recently described type I interferonopathy called STING-associated vasculopathy with onset in infancy (SAVI). We sought to define the molecular and cellular pathology relating to 3 individuals variably exhibiting the core features of the SAVI phenotype including systemic inflammation, destructive skin lesions, and interstitial lung disease. Genetic analysis, conformational studies, in vitro assays and ex vivo flow-cytometry were performed. Molecular and in vitro data demonstrate that the pathology in these patients is due to amino acid substitutions at positions 206, 281, and 284 of the human STING protein. These mutations confer cGAMP-independent constitutive activation of type I interferon signaling through TBK1 (TANK-binding kinase), independent from the alternative STING pathway triggered by membrane fusion of enveloped RNA viruses. This constitutive activation was abrogated by ex vivo treatment with the janus kinase 1/2 inhibitor ruxolitinib. Structural analysis indicates that the 3 disease-associated mutations at positions 206, 281, and 284 of the STING protein define a novel cluster of amino acids with functional importance in the regulation of type I interferon signaling. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Characterization of a venom gland-associated rhabdovirus in the parasitoid wasp Diachasmimorpha longicaudata.

    PubMed

    Simmonds, Tyler J; Carrillo, Daniel; Burke, Gaelen R

    2016-01-01

    Parasitoid wasps reproduce by laying their eggs on or inside of a host insect, which triggers a defense response in the host insect that kills the developing wasp. To counteract the host's lethal response, some parasitoid wasps are associated with symbiotic viruses that alter host metabolism and development to promote successful development of the wasp embryo. These symbiotic viruses display a number of characteristics that differ from those of pathogenic viruses, but are poorly understood with the exception of one group, the polydnaviruses. Here, we characterize the genome of a non-polydnavirus associated with parasitoid wasps, Diachasmimorpha longicaudata rhabdovirus (DlRhV), and assess its role as a potential mutualistic virus. Our results show that the DlRhV genome contains six open reading frames (ORFs). Three ORFs show sequence homology to known viral genes and one ORF encodes a previously identified protein, called parasitism-specific protein 24 (PSP24), that has been hypothesized to play a role in promoting successful parasitism by D. longicaudata. We constructed a phylogeny that shows that DlRhV is most closely related to other insect-infecting rhabdoviruses. Finally, we report that DlRhV infection does not occur in all populations of D. longicaudata, and is not required for successful parasitism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Facial patterns in a tropical social wasp correlate with colony membership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baracchi, David; Turillazzi, Stefano; Chittka, Lars

    2016-10-01

    Social insects excel in discriminating nestmates from intruders, typically relying on colony odours. Remarkably, some wasp species achieve such discrimination using visual information. However, while it is universally accepted that odours mediate a group level recognition, the ability to recognise colony members visually has been considered possible only via individual recognition by which wasps discriminate `friends' and `foes'. Using geometric morphometric analysis, which is a technique based on a rigorous statistical theory of shape allowing quantitative multivariate analyses on structure shapes, we first quantified facial marking variation of Liostenogaster flavolineata wasps. We then compared this facial variation with that of chemical profiles (generated by cuticular hydrocarbons) within and between colonies. Principal component analysis and discriminant analysis applied to sets of variables containing pure shape information showed that despite appreciable intra-colony variation, the faces of females belonging to the same colony resemble one another more than those of outsiders. This colony-specific variation in facial patterns was on a par with that observed for odours. While the occurrence of face discrimination at the colony level remains to be tested by behavioural experiments, overall our results suggest that, in this species, wasp faces display adequate information that might be potentially perceived and used by wasps for colony level recognition.

  10. WASP family members and formin proteins coordinate regulation of cell protrusions in carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Sarmiento, Corina; Wang, Weigang; Dovas, Athanassios; Yamaguchi, Hideki; Sidani, Mazen; El-Sibai, Mirvat; DesMarais, Vera; Holman, Holly A.; Kitchen, Susan; Backer, Jonathan M.; Alberts, Art; Condeelis, John

    2008-01-01

    We examined the role of the actin nucleation promoters neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP) and WAVE2 in cell protrusion in response to epidermal growth factor (EGF), a key regulator in carcinoma cell invasion. We found that WAVE2 knockdown (KD) suppresses lamellipod formation and increases filopod formation, whereas N-WASP KD has no effect. However, simultaneous KD of both proteins results in the formation of large jagged protrusions with lamellar properties and increased filopod formation. This suggests that another actin nucleation activity is at work in carcinoma cells in response to EGF. A mammalian Diaphanous–related formin, mDia1, localizes at the jagged protrusions in double KD cells. Constitutively active mDia1 recapitulated the phenotype, whereas inhibition of mDia1 blocked the formation of these protrusions. Increased RhoA activity, which stimulates mDia1 nucleation, was observed in the N-WASP/WAVE2 KD cells and was shown to be required for the N-WASP/WAVE2 KD phenotype. These data show that coordinate regulation between the WASP family and mDia proteins controls the balance between lamellar and lamellipodial protrusion activity. PMID:18362183

  11. Chemical Analyses of Wasp-Associated Streptomyces Bacteria Reveal a Prolific Potential for Natural Products Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Clardy, Jon; Currie, Cameron R.

    2011-01-01

    Identifying new sources for small molecule discovery is necessary to help mitigate the continuous emergence of antibiotic-resistance in pathogenic microbes. Recent studies indicate that one potentially rich source of novel natural products is Actinobacterial symbionts associated with social and solitary Hymenoptera. Here we test this possibility by examining two species of solitary mud dauber wasps, Sceliphron caementarium and Chalybion californicum. We performed enrichment isolations from 33 wasps and obtained more than 200 isolates of Streptomyces Actinobacteria. Chemical analyses of 15 of these isolates identified 11 distinct and structurally diverse secondary metabolites, including a novel polyunsaturated and polyoxygenated macrocyclic lactam, which we name sceliphrolactam. By pairing the 15 Streptomyces strains against a collection of fungi and bacteria, we document their antifungal and antibacterial activity. The prevalence and anti-microbial properties of Actinobacteria associated with these two solitary wasp species suggest the potential role of these Streptomyces as antibiotic-producing symbionts, potentially helping defend their wasp hosts from pathogenic microbes. Finding phylogenetically diverse and chemically prolific Actinobacteria from solitary wasps suggests that insect-associated Actinobacteria can provide a valuable source of novel natural products of pharmaceutical interest. PMID:21364940

  12. Candidate genes for cooperation and aggression in the social wasp Polistes dominula.

    PubMed

    Manfredini, Fabio; Brown, Mark J F; Toth, Amy L

    2018-05-01

    Cooperation and aggression are ubiquitous in social groups, and the genetic mechanisms underlying these behaviours are of great interest for understanding how social group formation is regulated and how it evolves. In this study, we used a candidate gene approach to investigate the patterns of expression of key genes for cooperation and aggression in the brain of a primitively eusocial wasp, Polistes dominula, during colony founding, when multiple foundresses can join the same nest and establish subtle hierarchies of dominance. We used a comparative approach to select candidate genes for cooperation and aggression looking at two previously published studies on global gene expression in wasps and ants. We tested the expression of these genes in P. dominula wasps that were either displaying aggressive behaviour (dominant and single foundresses) or cooperation (subordinate foundresses and workers) towards nestmates. One gene in particular, the egg yolk protein vitellogenin, known for its reproductive role in insects, displayed patterns of expression that strongly matched wasp social rank. We characterize the genomic context of vitellogenin by building a head co-expression gene network for P. dominula, and we discuss a potential role for vitellogenin as a mediator of social interactions in wasps.

  13. Acanthopria and Mimopriella parasitoid wasps (Diapriidae) attack Cyphomyrmex fungus-growing ants (Formicidae, Attini)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Marín, Hermógenes; Zimmerman, Jess K.; Wcislo, William T.

    2006-01-01

    New World diapriine wasps are abundant and diverse, but the biology of most species is unknown. We provide the first description of the biology of diapriine wasps, Acanthopria spp. and Mimopriella sp., which attack the larvae of Cyphomyrmex fungus-growing ants. In Puerto Rico, the koinobiont parasitoids Acanthopria attack Cyphomyrmex minutus, while in Panama at least four morphospecies of Acanthopria and one of Mimopriella attack Cyphomyrmex rimosus. Of the total larvae per colony, 0 100% were parasitized, and 27 70% of the colonies per population were parasitized. Parasitism rate and colony size were negatively correlated for C. rimosus but not for C. minutus. Worker ants grasped at, bit, and in some cases, killed adult wasps that emerged in artificial nests or tried to enter natural nests. Parasitoid secondary sex ratios were female-biased for eclosing wasps, while field collections showed a male-biased sex ratio. Based on their abundance and success in attacking host ants, these minute wasps present excellent opportunities to explore how natural enemies impact ant colony demography and population biology.

  14. Nested Houses: Domestication dynamics of human-wasp relations in contemporary rural Japan.

    PubMed

    Payne, Charlotte L R; Evans, Joshua D

    2017-02-08

    Domestication is an important and contested concept. Insects are used as food worldwide, and while some have been described as domesticated and even 'semi-domesticated', the assumptions and implications of this designation are not clear. The purpose of this paper is to explore these aspects of insect domestication, and broader debates in domestication studies, through the case of edible wasps in central rural Japan. Both authors conducted ethnographic fieldwork with communities in central rural Japan. Fieldwork comprised participant observation, semi-structured interviews, quantitative surveys and a review of resources including the personal and public records of wasp collectors. The practice of keeping wasps in hive boxes has historical roots and has changed significantly within living memory. Current attempts to further develop the practice involve collectors' great efforts to keep new queens during their hibernation. Collectors have also tried, still without success, to keep wasps living within a human-made enclosure for their entire life cycle. These and other practices are costly in both time and money for collectors, who emphasise enjoyment as their primary motivation. At the same time, they also engage in practices such as pesticide use that they recognise as damaging to wasp ecology. These practices can be understood to some extent in domesticatory terms, and in terms of care. We develop a framework for understanding domesticatory practices of insect care, discuss how this case contributes to ongoing debates within domestication studies, and recommend further research to be pursued.

  15. WASP family members and formin proteins coordinate regulation of cell protrusions in carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Sarmiento, Corina; Wang, Weigang; Dovas, Athanassios; Yamaguchi, Hideki; Sidani, Mazen; El-Sibai, Mirvat; Desmarais, Vera; Holman, Holly A; Kitchen, Susan; Backer, Jonathan M; Alberts, Art; Condeelis, John

    2008-03-24

    We examined the role of the actin nucleation promoters neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP) and WAVE2 in cell protrusion in response to epidermal growth factor (EGF), a key regulator in carcinoma cell invasion. We found that WAVE2 knockdown (KD) suppresses lamellipod formation and increases filopod formation, whereas N-WASP KD has no effect. However, simultaneous KD of both proteins results in the formation of large jagged protrusions with lamellar properties and increased filopod formation. This suggests that another actin nucleation activity is at work in carcinoma cells in response to EGF. A mammalian Diaphanous-related formin, mDia1, localizes at the jagged protrusions in double KD cells. Constitutively active mDia1 recapitulated the phenotype, whereas inhibition of mDia1 blocked the formation of these protrusions. Increased RhoA activity, which stimulates mDia1 nucleation, was observed in the N-WASP/WAVE2 KD cells and was shown to be required for the N-WASP/WAVE2 KD phenotype. These data show that coordinate regulation between the WASP family and mDia proteins controls the balance between lamellar and lamellipodial protrusion activity.

  16. Trap Nesting Wasps and Bees in Agriculture: A Comparison of Sown Wildflower and Fallow Plots in Florida

    PubMed Central

    Smithers, Cherice; Irvin, Allyn; Stanley-Stahr, Cory; Daniels, Jaret C.; Ellis, James D.

    2017-01-01

    Wildflower strip plantings in intensive agricultural systems have become a widespread tool for promoting pollination services and biological conservation because of their use by wasps and bees. Many of the trap-nesting wasps are important predators of common crop pests, and cavity-nesting bees that utilize trap-nests are important pollinators for native plants and many crops. The impact of wildflower strips on the nesting frequency of trap-nesting wasps or bees within localized areas has not been thoroughly investigated. Trap-nests made of bamboo reeds (Bambusa sp.) were placed adjacent to eight 0.1 ha wildflower plots and paired fallow areas (control plots) to determine if wildflower strips encourage the nesting of wasps and bees. From August 2014 to November 2015, occupied reeds were gathered and adults were collected as they emerged from the trap-nests. Treatment (wildflower or fallow plots) did not impact the number of occupied reeds or species richness of trap-nesting wasps using the occupied reeds. The wasps Pachodynerus erynnis, Euodynerus megaera, Parancistrocerus pedestris, and Isodontia spp. were the most common trap-nesting species collected. Less than 2% of the occupied reeds contained bees, and all were from the genus Megachile. The nesting wasp and bee species demonstrated preferences for reeds with certain inside diameters (IDs). The narrow range of ID preferences exhibited by each bee/wasp may provide opportunities to take advantage of their natural histories for biological control and/or pollination purposes. PMID:28994726

  17. Water Quality Assessment Simulation Program (WASP8): Upgrades to the Advanced Toxicant Module for Simulating Dissolved Chemicals, Nanomaterials, and Solids

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP) is a dynamic, spatially-resolved, differential mass balance fate and transport modeling framework. WASP is used to develop models to simulate concentrations of environmental contaminants in surface waters and sediments. As a mo...

  18. Wavelet-enabled progressive data Access and Storage Protocol (WASP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clyne, J.; Frank, L.; Lesperance, T.; Norton, A.

    2015-12-01

    Current practices for storing numerical simulation outputs hail from an era when the disparity between compute and I/O performance was not as great as it is today. The memory contents for every sample, computed at every grid point location, are simply saved at some prescribed temporal frequency. Though straightforward, this approach fails to take advantage of the coherency in neighboring grid points that invariably exists in numerical solutions to mathematical models. Exploiting such coherence is essential to digital multimedia; DVD-Video, digital cameras, streaming movies and audio are all possible today because of transform-based compression schemes that make substantial reductions in data possible by taking advantage of the strong correlation between adjacent samples in both space and time. Such methods can also be exploited to enable progressive data refinement in a manner akin to that used in ubiquitous digital mapping applications: views from far away are shown in coarsened detail to provide context, and can be progressively refined as the user zooms in on a localized region of interest. The NSF funded WASP project aims to provide a common, NetCDF-compatible software framework for supporting wavelet-based, multi-scale, progressive data, enabling interactive exploration of large data sets for the geoscience communities. This presentation will provide an overview of this work in progress to develop community cyber-infrastructure for the efficient analysis of very large data sets.

  19. Constraints on a Second Planet in the WASP-3 System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciejewski, G.; Niedzielski, A.; Wolszczan, A.; Nowak, G.; Neuhäuser, R.; Winn, J. N.; Deka, B.; Adamów, M.; Górecka, M.; Fernández, M.; Aceituno, F. J.; Ohlert, J.; Errmann, R.; Seeliger, M.; Dimitrov, D.; Latham, D. W.; Esquerdo, G. A.; McKnight, L.; Holman, M. J.; Jensen, E. L. N.; Kramm, U.; Pribulla, T.; Raetz, St.; Schmidt, T. O. B.; Ginski, Ch.; Mottola, S.; Hellmich, S.; Adam, Ch.; Gilbert, H.; Mugrauer, M.; Saral, G.; Popov, V.; Raetz, M.

    2013-12-01

    There have been previous hints that the transiting planet WASP-3b is accompanied by a second planet in a nearby orbit, based on small deviations from strict periodicity of the observed transits. Here we present 17 precise radial velocity (RV) measurements and 32 transit light curves that were acquired between 2009 and 2011. These data were used to refine the parameters of the host star and transiting planet. This has resulted in reduced uncertainties for the radii and masses of the star and planet. The RV data and the transit times show no evidence for an additional planet in the system. Therefore, we have determined the upper limit on the mass of any hypothetical second planet, as a function of its orbital period. Partly based on (1) observations made at the Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán (CAHA), operated jointly by the Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), (2) data collected with telescopes at the Rozhen National Astronomical Observatory, and (3) observations obtained with telescopes of the University Observatory Jena, which is operated by the Astrophysical Institute of the Friedrich-Schiller-University.

  20. A new lineage of Cretaceous jewel wasps (Chalcidoidea: Diversinitidae).

    PubMed

    Haas, Michael; Burks, Roger A; Krogmann, Lars

    2018-01-01

    Jewel wasps (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) are extremely species-rich today, but have a sparse fossil record from the Cretaceous, the period of their early diversification. Three genera and three species, Diversinitus attenboroughi gen. & sp. n. , Burminata caputaeria gen. & sp. n. and Glabiala barbata gen. & sp. n. are described in the family Diversinitidae fam. n., from Lower Cretaceous Burmese amber. Placement in Chalcidoidea is supported by the presence of multiporous plate sensilla on the antennal flagellum and a laterally exposed prepectus. The new taxa can be excluded from all extant family level chalcidoid lineages by the presence of multiporous plate sensilla on the first flagellomere in both sexes and lack of any synapomorphies. Accordingly, a new family is proposed for the fossils and its probable phylogenetic position within Chalcidoidea is discussed. Morphological cladistic analyses of the new fossils within the Heraty et al. (2013) dataset did not resolve the phylogenetic placement of Diversinitidae, but indicated its monophyly. Phylogenetically relevant morphological characters of the new fossils are discussed with reference to Cretaceous and extant chalcidoid taxa. Along with mymarid fossils and a few species of uncertain phylogenetic placement, the newly described members of Diversinitidae are among the earliest known chalcidoids and advance our knowledge of their Cretaceous diversity.

  1. WASP-12b: Orbital Decay or Apsidal Precession?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winn, Joshua; Knutson, Heather

    2018-05-01

    Over the last decade, the interval between the transits of the hot Jupiter WASP-12b has been steadily shrinking by 29 milliseconds per year. This may represent the first direct detection of tidal orbital decay, a phenomenon that has long been predicted to occur for hot Jupiters and that features in many theories to explain their properties. Another viable explanation for the apparent period decrease is that the orbit is slightly eccentric and apsidally precessing, in which case the data could be used to measure the planet's Love number. This would be a rare and precious constraint on its interior density distribution. The best way to tell the difference is to combine new Spitzer observations of secondary eclipses with ongoing ground-based transit observations. Orbital decay predicts that the transit and eclipse timing residuals will have the same sign, while apsidal precession would produce anti-correlated residuals. We propose to observe 4 eclipses with Spitzer during Cycle 14, which will allow the two hypotheses to be distinguished with high confidence.

  2. Molecular basis for the specific recognition of the metazoan cyclic GMP-AMP by the innate immune adaptor protein STING

    DOE PAGES

    Shi, Heping; Wu, Jiaxi; Chen, Zhijian J.; ...

    2015-07-06

    Cyclic GMP-AMP containing a unique combination of mixed phosphodiester linkages (2'3'-cGAMP) is an endogenous second messenger molecule that activates the type-I IFN pathway upon binding to the homodimer of the adaptor protein STING on the surface of endoplasmic reticulum membrane. However, the preferential binding of the asymmetric ligand 2'3'-cGAMP to the symmetric dimer of STING represents a physicochemical enigma. In this paper, we show that 2'3'-cGAMP, but not its linkage isomers, adopts an organized free-ligand conformation that resembles the STING-bound conformation and pays low entropy and enthalpy costs in converting into the active conformation. Finally, our results demonstrate that analysesmore » of free-ligand conformations can be as important as analyses of protein conformations in understanding protein–ligand interactions.« less

  3. Role and structural mechanism of WASP-triggered conformational changes in branched actin filament nucleation by Arp2/3 complex.

    PubMed

    Rodnick-Smith, Max; Luan, Qing; Liu, Su-Ling; Nolen, Brad J

    2016-07-05

    The Arp2/3 (Actin-related proteins 2/3) complex is activated by WASP (Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein) family proteins to nucleate branched actin filaments that are important for cellular motility. WASP recruits actin monomers to the complex and stimulates movement of Arp2 and Arp3 into a "short-pitch" conformation that mimics the arrangement of actin subunits within filaments. The relative contribution of these functions in Arp2/3 complex activation and the mechanism by which WASP stimulates the conformational change have been unknown. We purified budding yeast Arp2/3 complex held in or near the short-pitch conformation by an engineered covalent cross-link to determine if the WASP-induced conformational change is sufficient for activity. Remarkably, cross-linked Arp2/3 complex bypasses the need for WASP in activation and is more active than WASP-activated Arp2/3 complex. These data indicate that stimulation of the short-pitch conformation is the critical activating function of WASP and that monomer delivery is not a fundamental requirement for nucleation but is a specific requirement for WASP-mediated activation. During activation, WASP limits nucleation rates by releasing slowly from nascent branches. The cross-linked complex is inhibited by WASP's CA region, even though CA potently stimulates cross-linking, suggesting that slow WASP detachment masks the activating potential of the short-pitch conformational switch. We use structure-based mutations and WASP-Arp fusion chimeras to determine how WASP stimulates movement toward the short-pitch conformation. Our data indicate that WASP displaces the autoinhibitory Arp3 C-terminal tail from a hydrophobic groove at Arp3's barbed end to destabilize the inactive state, providing a mechanism by which WASP stimulates the short-pitch conformation and activates Arp2/3 complex.

  4. STING activation enhances cetuximab-mediated NK cell activation and DC maturation and correlates with HPV+ status in head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shanhong; Concha-Benavente, Fernando; Shayan, Gulidanna; Srivastava, Raghvendra M; Gibson, Sandra P; Wang, Lin; Gooding, William E; Ferris, Robert L

    2018-03-01

    The intracellular DNA sensor stimulator of interferon genes (STING) has recently been shown to play a vital role in anti-viral and anti-tumor immune responses stimulating cytokine production. While human papillomavirus (HPV) is a causative agent for a subset of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) with unique etiology and clinical outcome, how the STING pathway is regulated in a virus-induced tumor microenvironment is not well understood. Since STING inactivation likely reflects immunoescape via innate immunity, we hypothesized that its restoration would improve efficacy of the immune modulatory monoclonal antibody (mAb), cetuximab. We correlated STING protein expression with clinical parameters by immunohistochemistry (n = 106) and its mRNA expression from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) in HNSCC tissue specimens. STING protein expression was tested for association with cancer-specific survival (CSS). We further examined the impact of STING activation on cetuximab-mediated immunity using an in vitro NK:DC:tumor cells co-culture system. In this study, we found that expression of STING both at the protein and mRNA level was higher in HPV positive (HPV + ) specimens but unrelated to TNM stage or cancer-specific survival. Our in vitro studies verified that STING activation enhanced cetuximab mediated NK cell activation and DC maturation. Our findings suggest a novel role of STING in HPV-related carcinogenesis, in which activation of the STING signaling pathway may facilitate anti-tumor response in HNSCC patients, particularly in combination with therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) such as cetuximab, an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Long-term follow-up of re-sting reactions in children with moderate to severe venom hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Ertoy Karagol, Hacer Ilbilge; Bakirtas, Arzu; Yilmaz, Ozlem; Topal, Erdem; Arga, Mustafa; Demirsoy, Mehmet Sadik; Turktas, Ipek

    2015-07-01

    Few data exists about re-sting reactions and their prognosis in children with moderate to severe venom hypersensitivity. The reasons behind not consenting to or prematurely ending venom immunotherapy (VIT) and the preparedness of children who refused or quit VIT for future moderate-severe systemic reaction (SR) to re-stings have not been studied. Data on children with moderate to severe SR after Hymenoptera stings was collected for a 17-year period using our database. A standardized questionnaire was administered to patients who accepted to be interviewed at the clinic. These patients were evaluated in terms of their preparedness for future moderate-severe SR to re-stings. A total of 55 children, 75 % of whom commenced on VIT, were included in the analysis. Different reasons exist for not consenting to VIT; the most common of which is living at a distance from the allergy center. There were no differences in terms of the number of re-stung patients (27.7 and 27.2 %, respectively) and moderate-severe SR (60 and 16.6 %, respectively) between children who prematurely ended or who did not consent to VIT and children who completed VIT. Sixty-four percent of the children who refused or discontinued VIT were not prepared for future moderate-severe SR to re-stings. Long-term prognosis for re-sting reactions is good in children with moderate to severe SR to venoms. Some of the reasons behind refusing or discontinuing VIT may be related to quality of life issues. Preparedness of children who refused or discontinue VIT in emergencies is very low.

  6. High C/O Chemistry and Weak Thermal Inversion in the Extremely Irradiated Atmosphere of Exoplanet WASP-12b

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madhusudhan, Nikku; Harrington, Joseph; Nymeyer, Sarah; Campo, Christopher J.; Wheatley, Peter J.; Deming, Drake; Blecie, Jasmina; Hardy, Ryan A.; Lust, Nate B.; Anderson, David R.; hide

    2010-01-01

    The carbon-to-oxygen ratio (C/O) in a planet provides critical information about its primordial origins and subsequent evolution. A primordial C/O greater than 0.8 causes a carbide-dominated interior as opposed to the silicate-dominated composition as found on Earth; the solar C/O is 0.54. Theory, shows that high C/O leads to a diversity of carbon-rich planets that can have very different interiors and atmospheres from those in the solar system. Here we report the detection of C/O greater than or equal to 1 in a planetary atmosphere. The transiting hot Jupiter WASP-12b has a dayside atmosphere depleted in water vapour and enhanced in methane by over two orders of magnitude compared to a solar-abundance chemical equilibrium model at the expected temperatures. The observed concentrations of the prominent molecules CO, CH4, and H2O are consistent with theoretical expectations for an atmosphere with the observed C/O = 1. The C/O ratios are not known for giant planets in the solar system, although they are expected to equal the solar value. If high C/O ratios are common, then extrasolar planets are likely very different in interior composition, and formed very differently, from expectations based on solar composition, potentially explaining the large diversity in observed radii. We also find that the extremely irradiated atmosphere (greater than 2500 K) of WASP-12b lacks a prominent thermal inversion, or a stratosphere, and has very efficient day-night energy circulation. The absence of a strong thermal inversion is in stark contrast to theoretical predictions for the most highly irradiated hot-Jupiter atmospheres.

  7. Specific binding of the WASP N-terminal domain to Btk is critical for TLR2 signaling in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Sakuma, Chisato; Sato, Mitsuru; Takenouchi, Takato; Kitani, Hiroshi

    2015-02-01

    Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) is an adaptor molecule in immune cells. Recently, we revealed that WASP is involved in lipopolysaccharide-TLR4 signaling in macrophages by association of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) with the WASP N-terminal domain. Btk has been shown to play important roles in the signaling of several TLRs and to modulate the inflammatory response in macrophages. In this study, we evaluated the importance of the interaction between Btk and WASP in TLR2 signaling by using bone marrow-derived macrophage cell lines from transgenic (Tg) mice expressing anti-WASP N-terminal domain single-chain variable fragment (scFv) or VL single-domain intrabodies. In this Tg bone marrow-derived macrophages, specific interaction between WASP and Btk were strongly inhibited by masking of the binding site in the WASP N-terminal domain. There was impairment of gene expression of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β and phosphorylation of inhibitor of κB α/β (IKKα/β) and nuclear factor (NF)-κB upon stimulation with TLR2 ligands. Furthermore, tyrosine phosphorylation of WASP following TLR2-ligand stimulation was severely inhibited in the Tg bone marrow-derived macrophages, as shown by the impairment in WASP tyrosine phosphorylation following lipopolysaccharide stimulation. These results strongly suggest that the association between the WASP N-terminal domain and Btk plays an important role in the TLR2-signaling pathway in macrophages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Molecular phylogenies of figs and fig-pollinating wasps in the Ryukyu and Bonin (Ogasawara) islands, Japan.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Hiroshi; Harrison, Rhett D; Nakamura, Keiko; Su, Zhi-Hui

    2010-01-01

    The interaction between figs (Ficus, Moraceae) and fig-pollinating wasps (Chalcidoidea, Agaonidae) is one of the most specific mutualisms, and thus is a model system for studying coevolution and cospeciation. In this study we focused on figs and their associated fig-wasps found in the Ryukyu and Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands, Japan, because it has been suggested that breakdown in the specificity may occur in islands or at edge of a species' distribution. We collected 136 samples of 15 native fig species and 95 samples of 13 associated fig-wasps from all major islands in the Ryukyu Islands, including two fig species and one fig-wasp species endemic to the Bonin Islands. We performed molecular phylogenetic analyses using plastid DNA and nuclear ITS sequences for the figs and nuclear 28S rRNA and mitochondrial COI genes for the fig-wasps to investigate the interspecific phylogenies and intraspecific variation within the mutualism. Our phylogenetic analyses using multiple samples per species show the single clade of each fig (except the Bonin endemic species) and fig-pollinating wasp species. Fig species belonging to the same subgenera formed well-supported clades in both plastid and ITS trees, except for the subgenus Urostigma. Likewise, fig wasps emerging from host fig species belonging to the same subgenera formed mostly well supported clades in both 28S and COI trees. Host specificity between the figs and fig-wasps functions strictly in these islands. There was very little sequence variation within species, and that no major geographic structure was found. The two Bonin endemic species (F. boninsimae and F. nishimurae) or their common ancestor and the associated fig-wasps (Blastophaga sp.) are apparently derived from F. erecta and its associated fig-wasps (B. nipponica), respectively, and probably migrated from the Ryukyu Islands.

  9. STING activation of tumor endothelial cells initiates spontaneous and therapeutic antitumor immunity.

    PubMed

    Demaria, Olivier; De Gassart, Aude; Coso, Sanja; Gestermann, Nicolas; Di Domizio, Jeremy; Flatz, Lukas; Gaide, Olivier; Michielin, Olivier; Hwu, Patrick; Petrova, Tatiana V; Martinon, Fabio; Modlin, Robert L; Speiser, Daniel E; Gilliet, Michel

    2015-12-15

    Spontaneous CD8 T-cell responses occur in growing tumors but are usually poorly effective. Understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms that drive these responses is of major interest as they could be exploited to generate a more efficacious antitumor immunity. As such, stimulator of IFN genes (STING), an adaptor molecule involved in cytosolic DNA sensing, is required for the induction of antitumor CD8 T responses in mouse models of cancer. Here, we find that enforced activation of STING by intratumoral injection of cyclic dinucleotide GMP-AMP (cGAMP), potently enhanced antitumor CD8 T responses leading to growth control of injected and contralateral tumors in mouse models of melanoma and colon cancer. The ability of cGAMP to trigger antitumor immunity was further enhanced by the blockade of both PD1 and CTLA4. The STING-dependent antitumor immunity, either induced spontaneously in growing tumors or induced by intratumoral cGAMP injection was dependent on type I IFNs produced in the tumor microenvironment. In response to cGAMP injection, both in the mouse melanoma model and an ex vivo model of cultured human melanoma explants, the principal source of type I IFN was not dendritic cells, but instead endothelial cells. Similarly, endothelial cells but not dendritic cells were found to be the principal source of spontaneously induced type I IFNs in growing tumors. These data identify an unexpected role of the tumor vasculature in the initiation of CD8 T-cell antitumor immunity and demonstrate that tumor endothelial cells can be targeted for immunotherapy of melanoma.

  10. [Clinical randomized study of bee-sting therapy for rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xi-De; Zhang, Jin-Lu; Zheng, Han-Guang; Liu, Feng-Yun; Chen, Ying

    2008-06-01

    To observe the clinical effect of bee-sting (venom) therapy in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). One hundred RA patients were randomly divided into medication (control) group and bee-venom group, with 50 cases in each. Patients of control group were treated with oral administration of Methotrexate (MTX, 7.5 mg/w), Sulfasalazine (0.5 g,t. i.d.), Meloxicam (Mobic,7. 5 mg, b. i. d.); and those of bee-venom group treated with Bee-sting of Ashi-points and the above-mentioned Western medicines. Ashi-points were selected according to the position of RA and used as the main acupoints, supplemented with other acupoints according to syndrome differentiation. The treatment was given once every other day and all the treatments lasted for 3 months. Compared with pre-treatment, scores of joint swelling degree, joint activity, pain, and pressing pain, joint-swelling number, grasp force, 15 m-walking duration, morning stiff duration in bee-venom group and medication group were improved significantly (P<0.05, 0.01). Comparison between two groups showed that after the therapy, scores of joint swelling, pain and pressing pain, joint-swelling number and morning stiff duration, and the doses of the administered MTX and Mobic in bee-venom group were all significantly lower than those in medication group (P<0.05, 0.01); whereas the grasp force in been-venom group was markedly higher than that in medication group (P<0.05). In addition, the relapse rate of bee-venom group was obviously lower than that of medication group (P<0.05; 12% vs 32%). Combined application of bee-venom therapy and medication is superior to simple use of medication in relieving RA, and when bee-sting therapy used, the commonly-taken doses of western medicines may be reduced, and the relapse rate gets lower.

  11. Populations of trap-nesting wasps near a major source of fluoride emissions in western Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.; Miller, G.W.; Fleming, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    Trap-nesting wasps were collected from eight sites at distances of from 1.2-33.0 km from an aluminum reduction plant in western Tennessee. The sites had similar topographies, soils, and vegetation, but differed in their exposure to fluoride, which was emitted in large quantities from the plant. It was postulated that if fluoride emissions had greatly changed the insect community then relative densities of their predators would have varied accordingly. However, the degree of fluoride pollution was unrelated to the relative densities of the wasps and to the number of cells provisioned with prey. Monobia quadridens, Trypargilum clavatum, and T. lactitarse were found to have two complete generations in western Tennessee. Trypargilum collinum rubrocinctum has at least two generations, and Euodynerus megaera probably has three generations. Six other wasp species and a megachilid bee were also collected.

  12. WASP: A flexible FORTRAN 4 computer code for calculating water and steam properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Peller, I. C.; Baron, A. K.

    1973-01-01

    A FORTRAN 4 subprogram, WASP, was developed to calculate the thermodynamic and transport properties of water and steam. The temperature range is from the triple point to 1750 K, and the pressure range is from 0.1 to 100 MN/m2 (1 to 1000 bars) for the thermodynamic properties and to 50 MN/m2 (500 bars) for thermal conductivity and to 80 MN/m2 (800 bars) for viscosity. WASP accepts any two of pressure, temperature, and density as input conditions. In addition, pressure and either entropy or enthalpy are also allowable input variables. This flexibility is especially useful in cycle analysis. The properties available in any combination as output include temperature, density, pressure, entropy, enthalpy, specific heats, sonic velocity, viscosity, thermal conductivity, surface tension, and the Laplace constant. The subroutine structure is modular so that the user can choose only those subroutines necessary to his calculations. Metastable calculations can also be made by using WASP.

  13. Climate warming and the potential extinction of fig wasps, the obligate pollinators of figs.

    PubMed

    Jevanandam, Nanthinee; Goh, Alexander G R; Corlett, Richard T

    2013-06-23

    Figs (Ficus) have a reciprocally obligate mutualism with tiny, short-lived (1-2 days) fig wasps (Agaonidae). The small size and short life of these pollinators is expected to make them more vulnerable to climate change than their larger and longer-lived hosts. We experimentally tested the thermal tolerances of four species of adult female fig wasp from equatorial Singapore. The results suggest that an increase of 3°C or more above the current temperatures experienced across much of the equatorial tropics would markedly decrease the active adult lifespan of all four species. Fig plants are the centre of an intricate web of specialist and generalist animals. Unless fig wasps can acclimate or adapt to warmer temperatures in time, these responses may disrupt the mutualism, potentially affecting multiple trophic levels.

  14. Subsonic sting interference on the aerodynamic characteristics of a family of slanted-base ogive-cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britcher, Colin P.; Alcorn, Charles W.; Kilgore, W. Allen

    1990-01-01

    Support interference free drag, lift, and pitching moment measurements on a range of slanted base ogive cylinders were made using the NASA Langley 13 inch magnetic suspension and balance system. Typical test Mach numbers were in the range 0.04 to 0.2. Drag results are shown to be in broad agreement with previous tests with this configuration. Measurements were repeated with a dummy sting support installed in the wind tunnel. Significant support interferences were found at all test conditions and are quantified. Further comparison is made between interference free base pressures, obtained using remote telemetry, and sting cavity pressures.

  15. Support-sting interference on boattail pressure drag for Reynolds numbers up to 70 x 10 to the 6th

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gloss, B. B.; Sewall, W. G.

    1983-01-01

    A model was tested in the Langley 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel to investigate the effects of Reynolds number on boattail pressure drag for a variety of sting shapes. The boattail pressure drag for constant Mach number increased linearly with Reynolds number over the Reynolds number range tested. The data indicated that, as the disturbance produced by the sting on the boattail increased, the boattail pressure drag became less sensitive to Reynolds number change. Also, it was found that the model base pressure versus Reynolds number curve reached a plateau within the Reynolds number range examined.

  16. Honey Bee Swarms Aboard the USNS Comfort: Recommendations for Sting Prevention, Swarm Removal, and Medical Readiness on Military Ships.

    PubMed

    Dunford, James C; Kronmann, Karl C; Peet, Luke R; Stancil, Jeffrey D

    2016-01-01

    The article provides observations of multiple honey bee (Apis mellifera) swarms aboard the USNS Comfort (TAH-20) during the Continuing Promise 2015 mission. A brief overview of swarming biology is given along with control/removal recommendations to reduce sting exposures. The observations suggest that preventive medicine personnel should provide adequate risk communications about the potential occurrence of bee swarms aboard military ships, and medical department personnel should be prepared for the possibility of treating of multiple sting exposures, especially in the Southern Command Area of Operations where the Africanized genotype of A mellifera is common.

  17. Transmission of the Diachasmimorpha longicaudata rhabdovirus (DlRhV) to wasp offspring: an ultrastructural analysis.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Pauline O; Matos, Luis F

    2005-02-01

    During oviposition, the parasitic wasp Diachasmimorpha longicaudata introduces an entomopoxvirus (DlEPV) and a rhabdovirus (DlRhV) into larvae of its tephritid fruit fly host Anastrepha suspensa. DlEPV and DlRhV replicate, respectively, in host hemocytes and epidermal cells. Both viruses, like many beneficial viruses of parasitic wasps, are retained in all wasp generations but their avenue(s) of transmission are unknown. This study tests the hypothesis that DlRhV is transmitted transovarially or through larval feeding on infected host hemolymph. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed no virions in pre-vitellogenic or vitellogenic ova, or in the lateral oviduct of D. longicaudata females. However, numerous virions occurred in subchorionic regions of 33-36-h-old oviposited eggs. This suggests that DlRhV is introduced into the egg either as (a) intact virions after chorionogenesis but prior to oviposition and/or as (b) unencapsidated RNA molecules, undetectable by TEM in pre-vitellogenic ova, that subsequently replicate and assemble into mature virions. DlRhV particles also occurred in the midgut lumen of 20-24-h-old wasp first instars, suggesting that they were ingested. These virions may have been released from the egg into the hemolymph during hatching or may have come from virions introduced by the female wasp directly into the host, separate from the egg. DlRhV particles were also evident in the intracellular vesicles and intercellular spaces of the larval midgut. Taken together, these data support the hypothesis that DlRhV is transovarially transmitted as virions and/or as unencapsidated RNA. Further studies are needed to determine whether the DlRhV that ultimately resides within the female wasp's accessory gland filaments is the progeny of the virus from the egg and/or larval midgut cells.

  18. Ultraviolet anomalies of the WASP-12 and HD 189733 systems: Trojan satellites as a plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kislyakova, Kristina; Pilat-Lohinger, Elke; Funk, Barbara; Lammer, Helmut; Fossati, Luca; Eggl, Siegfried; Schwarz, Richard; Boudyada, Mohammed; Erkaev, Nikolai

    2017-04-01

    We suggest an additional possible plasma source in the WASP-12 and HD189733b systems to explain part of the phenomena observed in ultraviolet (UV) light curves during planetary transits. In the proposed scenario, material originates from the molten surface of Trojan satellites on orbits near the Lagrange points L4 and L5. We show that the temperature at the orbital location of WASP-12b is high enough to melt the surface of rocky Trojans and to form shallow lava oceans on them. At the orbital distance of WASP-12b, this leads to the release of elements such as Mg and Ca, which are expected to surround the system. The predicted Mg and Ca outgassing rates from two Io-sized WASP-12b Trojans are ≈ 2.2 × 1027 s-1 and ≈ 2.2 × 1026 s-1, respectively. Trojan outgassing can lead to the observed lack of emission in MgII h&k and CaII H&K line cores of WASP-12. For HD 189733b, the mechanism is only marginally possible due to the lower temperature. The early ingress of HD 189733b observed in the far-UV (FUV) CII doublet couldn't be explained by this mechanism due to absence of carbon within elements outgassed by molten lava. We investigate the long-term stability region of WASP-12b and HD 189733b in case of planar and inclined motion of these satellites and show that unlike the classical exomoons orbiting the planet, Io-sized Trojans can be stable for the whole systems life time.

  19. An uneasy alliance: a nesting association between aggressive ants and equally fierce social wasps.

    PubMed

    Servigne, Pablo; Orivel, Jérôme; Azémar, Frédéric; Carpenter, James; Dejean, Alain; Corbara, Bruno

    2018-04-16

    Although the Neotropical territorially dominant arboreal ant Azteca chartifex Forel is very aggressive towards any intruder, its populous colonies tolerate the close presence of the fierce polistine wasp Polybia rejecta (F.). In French Guiana, 83.33% of the 48 P. rejecta nests recorded were found side by side with those of A. chartifex. This nesting association results in mutual protection from predators (i.e., the wasps protected from army ants; the ants protected from birds). We conducted field studies, laboratory-based behavioral experiments and chemical analyses to elucidate the mechanisms allowing the persistence of this association. Due to differences in the cuticular profiles of the two species, we eliminated thepossibility of chemical mimicry. Also, analyses of the carton nests did not reveal traces of marking on the envelopes. Because ant forager flows were not perturbed by extracts from the wasps' Dufour's and venom glands, we rejected any hypothetical action of repulsive chemicals. Nevertheless, we noted that the wasps 'scraped' the surface of the upper part of their nest envelope using their mandibles, likely removing the ants' scent trails, and an experiment showed that ant foragers were perturbed by the removal of their scent trails. This leads us to use the term 'erasure hypothesis'. Thus, this nesting association persists thanks to a relative tolerance by the ants towards wasp presence and the behavior of the wasps that allows them to 'contain' their associated ants through the elimination of their scent trails, direct attacks, 'wing-buzzing' behavior and ejecting the ants. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. HST Hot-Jupiter Transmission Spectral Survey: Clear Skies for Cool Saturn WASP-39b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Patrick D.; Knutson, Heather A.; Sing, David K.; Henry, Gregory W.; Williamson, Michael W.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Burrows, Adam S.; Kataria, Tiffany; Nikolov, Nikolay; Showman, Adam P.; Ballester, Gilda E.; Désert, Jean-Michel; Aigrain, Suzanne; Deming, Drake; Lecavelier des Etangs, Alain; Vidal-Madjar, Alfred

    2016-08-01

    We present the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) optical transmission spectroscopy of the cool Saturn-mass exoplanet WASP-39b from 0.29-1.025 μm, along with complementary transit observations from Spitzer IRAC at 3.6 and 4.5 μm. The low density and large atmospheric pressure scale height of WASP-39b make it particularly amenable to atmospheric characterization using this technique. We detect a Rayleigh scattering slope as well as sodium and potassium absorption features; this is the first exoplanet in which both alkali features are clearly detected with the extended wings predicted by cloud-free atmosphere models. The full transmission spectrum is well matched by a clear H2-dominated atmosphere, or one containing a weak contribution from haze, in good agreement with the preliminary reduction of these data presented in Sing et al. WASP-39b is predicted to have a pressure-temperature profile comparable to that of HD 189733b and WASP-6b, making it one of the coolest transiting gas giants observed in our HST STIS survey. Despite this similarity, WASP-39b appears to be largely cloud-free, while the transmission spectra of HD 189733b and WASP-6b both indicate the presence of high altitude clouds or hazes. These observations further emphasize the surprising diversity of cloudy and cloud-free gas giant planets in short-period orbits and the corresponding challenges associated with developing predictive cloud models for these atmospheres.

  1. Larger fig wasps are more careful about which figs to enter--with good reason.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cong; Yang, Da-Rong; Compton, Stephen G; Peng, Yan-Qiong

    2013-01-01

    Floral longevity reflects a balance between gains in pollinator visitation and the costs of flower maintenance. Because rewards to pollinators change over time, older flowers may be less attractive, reducing the value of extended longevity. Un-pollinated figs, the inflorescences of Ficus species, can remain receptive for long periods, but figs that are older when entered by their host-specific fig wasp pollinators produce fewer seeds and fig wasp offspring. Our field experiments with Ficushispida, a dioecious fig tree, examined how the length of time that receptive figs have remained un-pollinated influences the behaviour and reproductive success of its short-lived fig wasp pollinator, Ceratosolensolmsi marchali. The results were consistent in three different seasons, and on male and female trees, although receptivity was greatly extended during colder months. Pollinators took longer to find the ostioles of older figs, and longer to penetrate them. They also became increasingly unwilling to enter figs as they aged, and increasing numbers of the wasps became trapped in the ostiolar bracts. Larger individuals were particularly unwilling to enter older figs, resulting in older figs being pollinated by smaller wasps. On female trees, where figs produce only seeds, seed production declined rapidly with fig age. On male trees, the numbers and size of fig wasp offspring declined, and a higher proportion were male. Older male figs are harder to enter, especially for larger individuals, and offer poorer quality oviposition opportunities. This study opens an interesting new perspective on the coevolution of figs and their pollinators, especially factors influencing pollinator body size and emphasises the subtleties of interactions between mutualists.

  2. HST HOT-JUPITER TRANSMISSION SPECTRAL SURVEY: CLEAR SKIES FOR COOL SATURN WASP-39b

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Patrick D.; Knutson, Heather A.; Sing, David K.

    We present the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) optical transmission spectroscopy of the cool Saturn-mass exoplanet WASP-39b from 0.29-1.025 μ m, along with complementary transit observations from Spitzer IRAC at 3.6 and 4.5 μ m. The low density and large atmospheric pressure scale height of WASP-39b make it particularly amenable to atmospheric characterization using this technique. We detect a Rayleigh scattering slope as well as sodium and potassium absorption features; this is the first exoplanet in which both alkali features are clearly detected with the extended wings predicted by cloud-free atmosphere models. The full transmission spectrummore » is well matched by a clear H{sub 2}-dominated atmosphere, or one containing a weak contribution from haze, in good agreement with the preliminary reduction of these data presented in Sing et al. WASP-39b is predicted to have a pressure-temperature profile comparable to that of HD 189733b and WASP-6b, making it one of the coolest transiting gas giants observed in our HST STIS survey. Despite this similarity, WASP-39b appears to be largely cloud-free, while the transmission spectra of HD 189733b and WASP-6b both indicate the presence of high altitude clouds or hazes. These observations further emphasize the surprising diversity of cloudy and cloud-free gas giant planets in short-period orbits and the corresponding challenges associated with developing predictive cloud models for these atmospheres.« less

  3. A mid-Cretaceous Eccrinales infesting a primitive wasp in Myanmar amber.

    PubMed

    Poinar, George

    2016-12-01

    A mid-Cretaceous Eccrinales in Myanmar amber is described as Paleocadus burmiticus gen. et sp. nov. in the family Eccrinaceae. The fossil is represented by two types of sporangiospores formed on different thalli protruding from the anus of a primitive wasp, with secondary infestation spores multinucleate and thin walled. Its presence establishes the Eccrinales in the mid-Cretaceous and shows that at that time, lineages of this group parasitized wasps, an association unknown with extant members of the Order. Copyright © 2016 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. An introduction to parasitic wasps of Drosophila and the antiparasite immune response.

    PubMed

    Small, Chiyedza; Paddibhatla, Indira; Rajwani, Roma; Govind, Shubha

    2012-05-07

    Most known parasitoid wasp species attack the larval or pupal stages of Drosophila. While Trichopria drosophilae infect the pupal stages of the host (Fig. 1A-C), females of the genus Leptopilina (Fig. 1D, 1F, 1G) and Ganaspis (Fig. 1E) attack the larval stages. We use these parasites to study the molecular basis of a biological arms race. Parasitic wasps have tremendous value as biocontrol agents. Most of them carry virulence and other factors that modify host physiology and immunity. Analysis of Drosophila wasps is providing insights into how species-specific interactions shape the genetic structures of natural communities. These studies also serve as a model for understanding the hosts' immune physiology and how coordinated immune reactions are thwarted by this class of parasites. The larval/pupal cuticle serves as the first line of defense. The wasp ovipositor is a sharp needle-like structure that efficiently delivers eggs into the host hemocoel. Oviposition is followed by a wound healing reaction at the cuticle (Fig. 1C, arrowheads). Some wasps can insert two or more eggs into the same host, although the development of only one egg succeeds. Supernumerary eggs or developing larvae are eliminated by a process that is not yet understood. These wasps are therefore referred to as solitary parasitoids. Depending on the fly strain and the wasp species, the wasp egg has one of two fates. It is either encapsulated, so that its development is blocked (host emerges; Fig. 2 left); or the wasp egg hatches, develops, molts, and grows into an adult (wasp emerges; Fig. 2 right). L. heterotoma is one of the best-studied species of Drosophila parasitic wasps. It is a "generalist," which means that it can utilize most Drosophila species as hosts. L. heterotoma and L. victoriae are sister species and they produce virus-like particles that actively interfere with the encapsulation response. Unlike L. heterotoma, L. boulardi is a specialist parasite and the range of Drosophila

  5. A photometric study of the hot exoplanet WASP-19b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lendl, M.; Gillon, M.; Queloz, D.; Alonso, R.; Fumel, A.; Jehin, E.; Naef, D.

    2013-04-01

    Context. The sample of hot Jupiters that have been studied in great detail is still growing. In particular, when the planet transits its host star, it is possible to measure the planetary radius and the planet mass (with radial velocity data). For the study of planetary atmospheres, it is essential to obtain transit and occultation measurements at multiple wavelengths. Aims: We aim to characterize the transiting hot Jupiter WASP-19b by deriving accurate and precise planetary parameters from a dedicated observing campaign of transits and occultations. Methods: We have obtained a total of 14 transit lightcurves in the r'-Gunn, I-Cousins, z'-Gunn, and I + z' filters and 10 occultation lightcurves in z'-Gunn using EulerCam on the Euler-Swiss telescope and TRAPPIST. We also obtained one lightcurve through the narrow-band NB1190 filter of HAWK-I on the VLT measuring an occultation at 1.19 μm. We performed a global MCMC analysis of all new data, together with some archive data in order to refine the planetary parameters and to measure the occultation depths in z'-band and at 1.19 μm. Results: We measure a planetary radius of Rp = 1.376 ± 0.046 RJ, a planetary mass of Mp = 1.165 ± 0.068 MJ, and find a very low eccentricity of e = 0.0077-0.0032+0.0068, compatible with a circular orbit. We have detected the z'-band occultation at 3σ significance and measure it to be δFocc,z' = 352 ± 116 ppm, more than a factor of 2 smaller than previously published. The occultation at 1.19 μm is only marginally constrained at δFocc,NB1190 = 1711-726+745 ppm. Conclusions: We show that the detection of occultations in the visible range is within reach, even for 1 m class telescopes if a considerable number of individual events are observed. Our results suggest an oxygen-dominated atmosphere of WASP-19b, making the planet an interesting test case for oxygen-rich planets without temperature inversion. Based on photometric observations made with HAWK-I on the ESO VLT/UT4 (Prog. ID 084.C

  6. Ground-based transit observations of the HAT-P-18, HAT-P-19, HAT-P-27/WASP40 and WASP-21 systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seeliger, M.; Kitze, M.; Errmann, R.; Richter, S.; Ohlert, J. M.; Chen, W. P.; Guo, J. K.; Göğüş, E.; Güver, T.; Aydın, B.; Mottola, S.; Hellmich, S.; Fernandez, M.; Aceituno, F. J.; Dimitrov, D.; Kjurkchieva, D.; Jensen, E.; Cohen, D.; Kundra, E.; Pribulla, T.; Vaňko, M.; Budaj, J.; Mallonn, M.; Wu, Z.-Y.; Zhou, X.; Raetz, St.; Adam, C.; Schmidt, T. O. B.; Ide, A.; Mugrauer, M.; Marschall, L.; Hackstein, M.; Chini, R.; Haas, M.; Ak, T.; Güzel, E.; Özdönmez, A.; Ginski, C.; Marka, C.; Schmidt, J. G.; Dincel, B.; Werner, K.; Dathe, A.; Greif, J.; Wolf, V.; Buder, S.; Pannicke, A.; Puchalski, D.; Neuhäuser, R.

    2015-08-01

    As part of our ongoing effort to investigate transit timing variations (TTVs) of known exoplanets, we monitored transits of the four exoplanets HAT-P-18b, HAT-P-19b, HAT-P-27b/WASP-40b and WASP-21b. All of them are suspected to show TTVs due to the known properties of their host systems based on the respective discovery papers. During the past three years 46 transit observations were carried out, mostly using telescopes of the Young Exoplanet Transit Initiative. The analyses are used to refine the systems' orbital parameters. In all cases we found no hints for significant TTVs, or changes in the system parameters inclination, fractional stellar radius and planet-to-star radius ratio. However, comparing our results with those available in the literature shows that we can confirm the already published values.

  7. A study of the relationship between susceptibility to skin stinging and skin irritation.

    PubMed

    Basketter, D A; Griffiths, H A

    1993-10-01

    In an evaluation of the safety of new chemicals, of products containing them, or of novel formulations of existing chemicals which may come into contact with the skin, it is important to incorporate an assessment of specially susceptible sub-populations. Such a group is represented by those who are more likely to experience sensory effects such as stinging. Since these individuals are easily and rapidly identifiable, we investigated whether they represented a group who were also more susceptible to the effects of an irritant. The primary purpose was to discover whether 'stingers' might represent an easily and rapidly identifiable sub-population with a more generally increased tendency to give skin responses. The response to a 0.3% sodium dodecyl sulphate patch test was assessed in a group of 25 'stingers' and compared to the response in 25 'non-stingers'. There was no difference in either the pattern or strength of the irritant response assessed by subjective erythema and dryness scores. Thus the data suggest that there is no correlation between the susceptibility of an individual to a skin stinging response and an irritation reaction.

  8. Antiproliferative effect on human prostate cancer cells by a stinging nettle root (Urtica dioica) extract.

    PubMed

    Konrad, L; Müller, H H; Lenz, C; Laubinger, H; Aumüller, G; Lichius, J J

    2000-02-01

    In the present study the activity of a 20% methanolic extract of stinging nettle roots (Urtica dioica L., Urticaceae) on the proliferative activity of human prostatic epithelial (LNCaP) and stromal (hPCPs) cells was evaluated using a colorimetric assay. A concentration-dependent and significant (p < 0.05) antiproliferative effect of the extract was observed only on LNCaP cells during 7 days, whereas stromal cell growth remained unaltered. The inhibition was time-dependent with the maximum of growth reduction (30%) at a concentration of 1.0E-6 mg/ml on day 5 compared to the untreated control. On day 4 and 6, the reduction in proliferation of LNCaP cells showed the minimal effective dose at 1.0E-9 mg/ml. No cytotoxic effect of ME-20 on cell proliferation was observed. The antiproliferative effect of ME-20 of stinging nettle roots observed both in an in vivo model and in an in vitro system clearly indicates a biologically relevant effect of compounds present in the extract.

  9. Historical perspective and human consequences of Africanized bee stings in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, R S; Almeida, R A M B; Barraviera, S R C S; Barraviera, B

    2012-01-01

    In 1956, Africanized bees began to spread in the American continent from southern Brazil, where original African bees mated with European bees. A few years later, in 1990, these Africanized bees reached the United States and were found in Texas. Currently, these hybrid bees are found in several North American states and will probably reach the Canadian border in the future. Although the presence of Africanized bees had produced positive effects on Brazilian economy, including improvement in crop pollination and in honey production, turning Brazil into a major exporter, the negative impacts-such as swarming, aggressive behavior, and the ability to mass attack-resulted in serious and fatal envenomation with humans and animals. Victims of bee attacks usually develop a severe envenomation syndrome characterized by the release of a large amount of cytokines [interleukins (IL) IL-1, IL-6, IL-8], and tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Subsequently, such cytokines produce an acute inflammatory response that triggers adverse effects on skeletal muscles; bone marrow; hepatic and renal functions; and cardiovascular, central nervous, and immune systems. Finally, the aim of the present review is to study historical characteristics and current status of Africanized bees' spread, the composition of their venom, the impact of the bees on the Brazilian economy and ecology, and clinical aspects of their stings including immune response, and to suggest a protocol for bee sting management since there is no safe and effective antivenom available.

  10. Debilitating beliefs and emotional distress in patients given immunotherapy for insect sting allergy: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Confino-Cohen, Ronit; Melamed, Samuel; Goldberg, Arnon

    2009-01-01

    Patients who receive venom immunotherapy (VIT) for systemic reactions (SRs) to insect stings are advised that once they reach the maintenance dose they are almost 100% protected against future SRs. However, initial evidence indicates that some patients continue to perceive themselves as highly debilitated by the allergy and are preoccupied with the allergic event. These factors have significant impact on their emotional well-being and allergy-related quality of life (ARQOL). We aimed to explore prospectively whether patients would experience these adverse psychological outcomes after receiving VIT coupled with professional explanation and reassurance of protection. Thirty-four patients who received VIT for systemic insect allergy and were under close medical surveillance were included. Before and 1 year after initiation of treatment, patients completed a questionnaire that measured debilitating beliefs, preoccupation with the SR event, emotional distress ARQOL, and QOL in general. Physician-graded severity of the reaction was recorded as well. VIT had a beneficial effect on all allergy-related variables. Self-imposed debilitating beliefs, preoccupation with the anaphylactic event, and ARQOL significantly but modestly improved over time. No association was found between ARQOL and QOL in general. The later variable as well as emotional distress remained unchanged after the VIT. This study shows that patients with sting allergy guided by trained personnel and treated with VIT show a reduction in dysfunctional beliefs and an improvement in ARQOL. Disputing medically unfounded beliefs that persist in some patients might improve their ARQOL.

  11. Chicken DNA virus sensor DDX41 activates IFN-β signaling pathway dependent on STING.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yuqiang; Liu, Yunxia; Wang, Yingying; Niu, Qiaona; Gao, Quanxin; Fu, Qiang; Ma, Jingjiao; Wang, Hengan; Yan, Yaxian; Ding, Chan; Sun, Jianhe

    2017-11-01

    The recognition of pathogenic DNA is important to the initiation of antiviral responses. Here, we report the identification of the first avian DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box polypeptide 41 (DDX41), an important DNA sensor, in chicken cells. In our study, we confirmed that chDDX41 is not an interferon-inducible gene. Knockdown of chDDX41 expression by shRNA blocked the ability of DF-1 cells to mount an IFN-β response to DNA and associated viruses. ChDDX41 mRNAs could be upregulated by double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) analogue poly(dA:dT), but not by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) analogue poly(I:C). In poly(dA:dT) stimulation assays, the immune molecules involved in the DDX41-mediated IFN-β pathway in human cells were universally upregulated in chicken cells. Via coimmunoprecipitation (Co-IP) experiments, we found that chDDX41 could strongly interact with chicken stimulator of IFN genes (chSTING). Therefore, our results suggest that chDDX41 is involved in the dsDNA- and dsDNA virus-mediated chDDX41-chSTING-IFN-β signaling pathway in chicken cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Jellyfish stinging is driven by the moving front of the nematocyst's tubule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shavit, Uri; Park, Sinwook; Piriatinskiy, Gadi; Yossifon, Gilad; Lotan, Tamar

    2017-11-01

    Nematocysts are ultra-fast stinging organelles that are utilized by the Cnidaria phylum for prey capture, defense and locomotion. They consist of a capsule and a tubule and exert high pressure and acceleration to penetrate the target organism. Previous studies report that the ejection and elongation of the tubule are driven by a buildup of osmotic potential in the capsule. We question this explanation using a microfluidic system that controls the osmotic potential by directing the tubule through oil, where no osmotic potential can develop, while keeping the capsule in water. It was found that the time needed for elongation through oil is orders of magnitude larger than through water. Our mathematical model shows that the p γGlu concentration in the tubule is higher than in the capsule and the internal pressure that develops there serves as the elongation driving force. These findings imply that modifications of the environment along the tubule route have the potential to slow down the process and reduce its impact. This may shed light on prey defense strategies, human protection against jellyfish stinging, the use of nematocysts for drug delivery and exploration of osmotic based methods for nanotubes production and elongation.

  13. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF HONEYBEE STING CASES IN THE STATE OF CEARÁ, NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Ana Gilza Quaresma; Belmino, José Franscidavid Barbosa; Araújo, Kaliany Adja Medeiros de; Vieira, Aluska Tavares; Leite, Renner de Souza

    2016-01-01

    In the American continent, honeybee envenomation is a public health problem due to the high incidence and severity of the cases. Despite its medical importance, there is a lack of epidemiological studies on this topic in Brazil, especially referring to the Northeastern states. The present study has aimed to describe the epidemiological features of honeybee envenomation cases in the state of the Ceará, Northeastern Brazil, from 2007 to 2013. Data were collected from the Injury Notification Information System database of the Health Department of Ceará. A total of 1,307 cases were analyzed. Cases were shown to be distributed in all the months of the studied years, reaching higher frequencies in August. The majority of cases occurred in urban areas and involved men aged between 20 and 29 years. Victims were mainly stung on the head and torso, and they received medical assistance predominantly within 3 hours after being stung. Local manifestations were more frequent than systemic ones. Most cases were classified as mild and progressed to cure. The high number of honeybee sting cases shows that Ceará may be an important risk area for such injuries. Moreover, the current study provides data for the development of strategies to promote control and prevention of bee stings in this area.

  14. A review of rigid body response on sting supported models at high angles of incidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mabey, D. G.; Welsh, B. L.; Pyne, C. R.

    The new requirement to test wind tunnel models of combat aircraft at high angles of incidence and high kinetic pressures has led to a review of the factors controlling the model stability. The review suggested that dangerous motions might occur (possibly without prior warning) on models at high angles of incidence unless special preventive measures were taken. An internal tuned damper and balance bump stops were recommended to limit the responses. The bump stops would also prevent the moment limits of the strain gauge balance from being exceeded. The effectiveness of both devices was confirmed by tests on a swept wing model which experienced dangerous bending oscillations in a vertical plane at a Mach number of 0.50 in the incidence range from about 27-29° together with dangerous yawing oscillations in a horizontal plane above an incidence of about 35°. Further research is recommended to ensure the safety of other models. For sting supported models in a conventional wind tunnel, it is shown by analysis that the structural damping in the sting bending mode needs to be about 4 to 6% critical damping. In a cryogenic wind tunnel corresponding levels would need to be 7 to 10% critical damping because of the possibility of increased negative aerodynamic damping relative to ambient conditions.

  15. Multi-site campaign for transit timing variations of WASP-12 b: possible detection of a long-period signal of planetary origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciejewski, G.; Dimitrov, D.; Seeliger, M.; Raetz, St.; Bukowiecki, Ł.; Kitze, M.; Errmann, R.; Nowak, G.; Niedzielski, A.; Popov, V.; Marka, C.; Goździewski, K.; Neuhäuser, R.; Ohlert, J.; Hinse, T. C.; Lee, J. W.; Lee, C.-U.; Yoon, J.-N.; Berndt, A.; Gilbert, H.; Ginski, Ch.; Hohle, M. M.; Mugrauer, M.; Röll, T.; Schmidt, T. O. B.; Tetzlaff, N.; Mancini, L.; Southworth, J.; Dall'Ora, M.; Ciceri, S.; Zambelli, R.; Corfini, G.; Takahashi, H.; Tachihara, K.; Benkő, J. M.; Sárneczky, K.; Szabo, Gy. M.; Varga, T. N.; Vaňko, M.; Joshi, Y. C.; Chen, W. P.

    2013-03-01

    Aims: The transiting planet WASP-12 b was identified as a potential target for transit-timing studies because a departure from a linear ephemeris has been reported in the literature. Such deviations could be caused by an additional planet in the system. We attempt to confirm the claimed variations in transit timing and interpret their origin. Methods: We organised a multi-site campaign to observe transits by WASP-12 b in three observing seasons, using 0.5-2.6-metre telescopes. Results: We obtained 61 transit light curves, many of them with sub-millimagnitude precision. The simultaneous analysis of the best-quality datasets allowed us to obtain refined system parameters, which agree with values reported in previous studies. The residuals versus a linear ephemeris reveal a possible periodic signal that may be approximated by a sinusoid with an amplitude of 0.00068 ± 0.00013 d and period of 500 ± 20 orbital periods of WASP-12 b. The joint analysis of timing data and published radial velocity measurements results in a two-planet model that explains observations better than do single-planet scenarios. We hypothesise that WASP-12 b might not be the only planet in the system, and there might be the additional 0.1 MJup body on a 3.6-d eccentric orbit. A dynamical analysis indicates that the proposed two-planet system is stable on long timescales. Partly based on (1) data collected with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma jointly by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, (2) observations made at the Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán (CAHA), operated jointly by the Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), (3) data collected with telescopes at the Rozhen National Astronomical Observatory, and (4) observations obtained with telescopes of the University Observatory Jena, which is operated

  16. NLRC3, a member of the NLR family of proteins, is a negative regulator of innate immune signaling induced by the DNA sensor STING.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu; Mo, Jinyao; Swanson, Karen V; Wen, Haitao; Petrucelli, Alex; Gregory, Sean M; Zhang, Zhigang; Schneider, Monika; Jiang, Yan; Fitzgerald, Katherine A; Ouyang, Songying; Liu, Zhi-Jie; Damania, Blossom; Shu, Hong-Bing; Duncan, Joseph A; Ting, Jenny P-Y

    2014-03-20

    Stimulator of interferon genes (STING, also named MITA, MYPS, or ERIS) is an intracellular DNA sensor that induces type I interferon through its interaction with TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1). Here we found that the nucleotide-binding, leucine-rich-repeat-containing protein, NLRC3, reduced STING-dependent innate immune activation in response to cytosolic DNA, cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP), and DNA viruses. NLRC3 associated with both STING and TBK1 and impeded STING-TBK1 interaction and downstream type I interferon production. By using purified recombinant proteins, we found NLRC3 to interact directly with STING. Furthermore, NLRC3 prevented proper trafficking of STING to perinuclear and punctated region, known to be important for its activation. In animals, herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1)-infected Nlrc3(-/-) mice exhibited enhanced innate immunity and reduced morbidity and viral load. This demonstrates the intersection of two key pathways of innate immune regulation, NLR and STING, to fine tune host response to intracellular DNA, DNA virus, and c-di-GMP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. NLRC3, a member of the NLR family of proteins, is a negative regulator of innate immune signaling induced by the DNA sensor STING

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lu; Mo, Jinyao; Swanson, Karen V.; Wen, Haitao; Petrucelli, Alex; Gregory, Sean M.; Zhang, Zhigang; Schneider, Monika; Jiang, Yan; Fitzgerald, Katherine A.; Ouyang, Songying; Liu, Zhi-Jie; Damania, Blossom A; Shu, Hong-Bing; Duncan, Joseph A.; Ting, Jenny P-Y.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Stimulator of interferon genes (STING, also named MITA, MYPS or ERIS) is an intracellular DNA sensor that induces type I interferon through its interaction with TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1). Here we found that the nucleotide-binding, leucine-rich repeat containing protein, NLRC3, reduced STING-dependent innate immune activation in response to cytosolic DNA, cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) and DNA viruses. NLRC3 associated with both STING and TBK1, and impeded STING-TBK1 interaction and downstream type I interferon production. Using purified recombinant proteins NLRC3 was found to interact directly with STING. Furthermore, NLRC3 prevented proper trafficking of STING to perinuclear and punctated region, known to be important for its activation. In animals, herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1)-infected Nlrc3−/− mice exhibited enhanced innate immunity, reduced morbidity and viral load. This demonstrates the intersection of two key pathways of innate immune regulation, NLR and STING, to fine tune host response to intracellular DNA, DNA virus and c-di-GMP PMID:24560620

  18. Three-color single molecule imaging shows WASP detachment from Arp2/3 complex triggers actin filament branch formation

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Benjamin A; Padrick, Shae B; Doolittle, Lynda K; Daugherty-Clarke, Karen; Corrêa, Ivan R; Xu, Ming-Qun; Goode, Bruce L; Rosen, Michael K; Gelles, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    During cell locomotion and endocytosis, membrane-tethered WASP proteins stimulate actin filament nucleation by the Arp2/3 complex. This process generates highly branched arrays of filaments that grow toward the membrane to which they are tethered, a conflict that seemingly would restrict filament growth. Using three-color single-molecule imaging in vitro we revealed how the dynamic associations of Arp2/3 complex with mother filament and WASP are temporally coordinated with initiation of daughter filament growth. We found that WASP proteins dissociated from filament-bound Arp2/3 complex prior to new filament growth. Further, mutations that accelerated release of WASP from filament-bound Arp2/3 complex proportionally accelerated branch formation. These data suggest that while WASP promotes formation of pre-nucleation complexes, filament growth cannot occur until it is triggered by WASP release. This provides a mechanism by which membrane-bound WASP proteins can stimulate network growth without restraining it. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01008.001 PMID:24015360

  19. Three-color single molecule imaging shows WASP detachment from Arp2/3 complex triggers actin filament branch formation.

    PubMed

    Smith, Benjamin A; Padrick, Shae B; Doolittle, Lynda K; Daugherty-Clarke, Karen; Corrêa, Ivan R; Xu, Ming-Qun; Goode, Bruce L; Rosen, Michael K; Gelles, Jeff

    2013-09-03

    During cell locomotion and endocytosis, membrane-tethered WASP proteins stimulate actin filament nucleation by the Arp2/3 complex. This process generates highly branched arrays of filaments that grow toward the membrane to which they are tethered, a conflict that seemingly would restrict filament growth. Using three-color single-molecule imaging in vitro we revealed how the dynamic associations of Arp2/3 complex with mother filament and WASP are temporally coordinated with initiation of daughter filament growth. We found that WASP proteins dissociated from filament-bound Arp2/3 complex prior to new filament growth. Further, mutations that accelerated release of WASP from filament-bound Arp2/3 complex proportionally accelerated branch formation. These data suggest that while WASP promotes formation of pre-nucleation complexes, filament growth cannot occur until it is triggered by WASP release. This provides a mechanism by which membrane-bound WASP proteins can stimulate network growth without restraining it. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01008.001.

  20. Experimental and Computational Studies of the Flow Over a Sting Mounted Planetary Probe Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holden, Michael S.; Harvey, John K.; Boyd, Iain D.; George, Jyothish; Horvath, Thomas J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a series of experimental studies in the LENS shock tunnel and computations with DSMC and Navier Stokes codes which have been made to examine the aerothermal and flowfield characteristics of the flow over a sting-supported planetary probe configuration in hypervelocity air and nitrogen flows. The experimental program was conducted in the LENS hypervelocity shock tunnel at total enthalpies of 5and 10 MJkg for a range of reservoir pressure conditions from 70 to 500 bars. Heat transfer and pressure measurements were made on the front and rear face of the probe and along the supporting sting. High-speed and single shot schlieren photography were also employed to examine the flow over the model and the time to establish the flow in the base recirculation region. Predictions of the flowfield characteristics and the distributions of heat transfer and pressure were made with DSMC codes for rarefied flow conditions and with the Navier-Stokes solvers for the higher pressure conditions where the flows were assumed to be laminar. Analysis of the time history records from the heat transfer and pressure instrumentation on the face of the probe and in the base region indicated that the base flow was fully established in under 4 milliseconds from flow initiation or between 35 and 50 flow lengths based on base height. The measurements made in three different tunnel entries with two models of identical geometries but with different instrumentation packages, one prepared by NASA Langley and the second prepared by CUBRC, demonstrated good agreement between heat transfer measurements made with two different types of thin film and coaxial gage instrumentation. The measurements of heat transfer and pressure to the front face of the probe were in good agreement with theoretical predictions from both the DSMC and Navier Stokes codes. For the measurements made in low density flows, computations with the DSMC code were found to compare well with the

  1. Identification of oxalic acid and tartaric acid as major persistent pain-inducing toxins in the stinging hairs of the nettle, Urtica thunbergiana.

    PubMed

    Fu, Han Yi; Chen, Shiang Jiuun; Chen, Ruei Feng; Ding, Wang Hsien; Kuo-Huang, Ling Long; Huang, Rong Nan

    2006-07-01

    Once human skin contacts stinging hairs of Urtica spp. (stinging nettles), the irritant is released and produces pain, wheals or a stinging sensation which may last for >12 h. However, the existence of pain-inducing toxins in the stinging hairs of Urtica thunbergiana has never been systematically demonstrated. Experiments were therefore conducted to identify the persistent pain-inducing agents in the stinging hairs of U. thunbergiana. The stinging hairs of U. thunbergiana were removed and immersed in deionized water. After centrifugation, the clear supernatants were then subjected to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), enzymatic analysis and/or behavioural bioassays. The HPLC results showed that the major constituents in the stinging hairs of U. thunbergiana were histamine, oxalic acid and tartaric acid. However, the well-recognized pain-inducing agents, serotonin and formic acid, existed at a low concentration as estimated by HPLC and/or enzymatic analyses. The behavioural tests showed that 2% oxalic acid and 10% tartaric acid dramatically elicited persistent pain sensations in rats. In contrast, 10% formic acid and 2% serotonin only elicited moderate pain sensation in the first 10 min. Moreover, no significant pain-related behavioural response was observed after injecting 10% acetylcholine and histamine in rats. Oxalic acid and tartaric acid were identified, for the first time, as major long-lasting pain-inducing toxins in the stinging hairs of U. thunbergiana. The general view that formic acid, histamine and serotonin are the pain-inducing agents in the stinging hairs of U. dioica may require updating, since their concentrations in U. thunbergiana were too low to induce significant pain sensation in behavioural bioassays.

  2. Enhancement of branching efficiency by the actin filament-binding activity of N-WASP/WAVE2.

    PubMed

    Suetsugu, S; Miki, H; Yamaguchi, H; Obinata, T; Takenawa, T

    2001-12-01

    The actin-related protein (Arp) 2/3 complex is an essential regulator of de novo actin filament formation. Arp2/3 nucleates the polymerization of actin and creates branched actin filaments when activated by Arp2/3-complex activating domain (VCA) of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome proteins (WASP family proteins). We found that the branching of actin filaments on pre-existing ADP filaments mediated by the Arp2/3 complex is twice as efficient when Arp2/3 was activated by wild-type neural WASP (N-WASP) or WASP-family verprolin-homologous protein (WAVE) 2 than when activated by the VCA domain alone. By contrast, there was no difference between wild-type N-WASP or WAVE2 and VCA in the branching efficiency on de novo filaments, which are thought to consist mainly of ADP-phosphate filaments. This increased branching efficiency on ADP filaments is due to the basic region located in the center of N-WASP and WAVE2, which was found to associate with ADP actin filaments. Actin filaments and phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate (PIP2) associate with N-WASP at different sites. This association of N-WASP and WAVE2 with actin filaments enhanced recruitment of Arp2/3 to the pre-existing filaments, presumably leading to efficient nucleation and branch formation on pre-existing filaments. These data together suggest that the actin filament binding activity of N-WASP and WAVE2 in the basic region increases the number of barbed ends created on pre-existing filaments. Efficient branching on ADP filaments may be important for initiation of actin-based motility.

  3. Figs, pollinators, and parasites: A longitudinal study of the effects of nematode infection on fig wasp fitness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Goor, Justin; Piatscheck, Finn; Houston, Derek D.; Nason, John D.

    2018-07-01

    Mutualisms are interactions between two species in which the fitnesses of both symbionts benefit from the relationship. Although examples of mutualism are ubiquitous in nature, the ecology, evolution, and stability of mutualism has rarely been studied in the broader, multi-species community context in which they occur. The pollination mutualism between figs and fig wasps provides an excellent model system for investigating interactions between obligate mutualists and antagonists. Compared to the community of non-pollinating fig wasps that develop within fig inflorescences at the expense of fig seeds and pollinators, consequences of interactions between female pollinating wasps and their host-specialist nematode parasites is much less well understood. Here we focus on a tri-partite system comprised of a fig (Ficus petiolaris), pollinating wasp (Pegoscapus sp.), and nematode (Parasitodiplogaster sp.), investigating geographical variation in the incidence of attack and mechanisms through which nematodes may limit the fitness of their wasp hosts at successive life history stages. Observational data reveals that nematodes are ubiquitous across their host range in Baja California, Mexico; that the incidence of nematode infection varies across seasons within- and between locations, and that infected pollinators are sometimes associated with fitness declines through reduced offspring production. We find that moderate levels of infection (1-9 juvenile nematodes per host) are well tolerated by pollinator wasps whereas higher infection levels (≥10 nematodes per host) are correlated with a significant reduction in wasp lifespan and dispersal success. This overexploitation, however, is estimated to occur in only 2.8% of wasps in each generation. The result that nematode infection appears to be largely benign - and the unexpected finding that nematodes frequently infect non-pollinating wasps - highlight gaps in our knowledge of pollinator-Parasitodiplogaster interactions and

  4. Wolbachia in guilds of Anastrepha fruit flies (Tephritidae) and parasitoid wasps (Braconidae)

    PubMed Central

    Mascarenhas, Rodrigo O; Prezotto, Leandro F; Perondini, André Luiz P; Marino, Celso Luiz; Selivon, Denise

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The endosymbiont Wolbachia is efficiently transmitted from females to their progenies, but horizontal transmission between different taxa is also known to occur. Aiming to determine if horizontal transmission might have occurred between Anastrepha fruit flies and associated braconid wasps, infection by Wolbachia was screened by amplification of a fragment of the wsp gene. Eight species of the genus Anastrepha were analyzed, from which six species of associated parasitoid wasps were recovered. The endosymbiont was found in seven Anastrepha species and in five species of braconids. The WSP Typing methodology detected eight wsp alleles belonging to Wolbachia supergroup A. Three were already known and five were new ones, among which four were found to be putative recombinant haplotypes. Two samples of Anastrepha obliqua and one sample of Doryctobracon brasiliensis showed multiple infection. Single infection by Wolbachia was found in the majority of samples. The distribution of Wolbachia harboring distinct alleles differed significantly between fruit flies and wasps. However, in nine samples of fruit flies and associated wasps, Wolbachia harbored the same wsp allele. These congruences suggest that horizontal transfer of Wolbachia might have occurred in the communities of fruit flies and their braconid parasitoids. PMID:27648768

  5. Synonymies of wasp-mimicking species within the katydid genus Aganacris (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Phaneropterinae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Five neotropical wasp-mimicking species of the genus Aganacris—two known from females only and three from males only—are reviewed. Based on observations of interspecific interactions and morphological comparisons, sexual dimorphism is shown to occur within species, and that female species are consp...

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Transiting planet WASP-19b (Tregloan-Reed+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tregloan-Reed, J.; Southworth, J.; Tappert, C.

    2018-05-01

    Defocussed photometry for the transiting extrasolar planetary system WASP-19. The data were obtained in the Gunn r passband using the EFOSC CCD imager on the 3.6m New Technology Telescope at ESO La Silla. The observer was Claus Tappert. (1 data file).

  7. Ovipositor morphology correlates with life history evolution in agaonid fig wasps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, Larissa Galante; Kjellberg, Finn; Farache, Fernando Henrique Antoniolli; Almeida, Eduardo A. B.; Rasplus, Jean-Yves; Cruaud, Astrid; Peng, Yan-Qiong; Yang, Da-Rong; Pereira, Rodrigo Augusto Santinelo

    2018-07-01

    The high adaptive success of parasitic Hymenoptera might be related to the use of different oviposition sites, allowing niche partitioning among co-occurring species resulting in life history specialization and diversification. In this scenario, evolutionary changes in life history and resources for oviposition can be associated with changes in ovipositor structure, allowing exploitation of different substrates for oviposition. We used a formal phylogenetic framework to investigate the evolution of ovipositor morphology and life history in agaonid wasps. We sampled 24 species with different life histories belonging to all main clades of Agaonidae including representatives of all described genera of non-pollinating fig wasps (NPFW). Our results show an overall correlation between ovipositor morphology and life history in agaonid fig wasps. Ovipositor morphologies seem to be related to constraints imposed by features of the oviposition sites since ovipositor morphology has experienced convergent evolution at least four times in Sycophaginae (Agaonidae) according to the resource used. Non-galling species have more distantly spaced teeth with uneven spacing, as opposed to the observed morphology of galling species. Our results suggest that the ancestral condition for ovipositor morphology was most likely the presence of one or two apical teeth. Regarding life history, ovary galling species that oviposit in receptive figs possibly represent the ancestral condition. Different ovipositor characteristics allow exploitation of new niches and may be related to resource partitioning and species co-existence in the fig-fig wasp system.

  8. Introduced and Native Parasitoid Wasps Associated With Larch Casebearer (Lepidoptera: Coleophoridae) in Western Larch

    Treesearch

    M. Miller-Pierce; D. C. Shaw; A. Demarco; P. T. Oester

    2015-01-01

    The larch casebearer [Coleophora laricella (Hubner)], a non-native insect, continues to impact western larch (Larix occidentalis Nutt.) through defoliation events in the Pacific Northwest. Biological control programs starting in the 1960s released seven species of parasitoid wasps to control C. laricella...

  9. First Atmosphere Characterization of the Benchmark Exo-Neptune WASP-107b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreidberg, Laura

    2016-10-01

    WASP-107b is a newly announced transiting planet that is the highest signal-to-noise target for transmission spectroscopy discovered in the last decade, thanks to its low surface gravity and small, bright host star. The planet is in the intriguing transition region between ice and gas giants, with a mass comparable to Neptune and a radius similar to Jupiter. Relative to other benchmark systems, WASP-107b has a cool equilibrium temperature (780 K), where methane and water are both expected to be abundant. The planet therefore provides a unique opportunity for spectroscopic characterization of carbon and oxygen chemistry. With its large expected signal, WASP-107b also provides an excellent laboratory to study aerosol formation. The features are so large that even if thick clouds/haze are present at very high altitudes (0.1 mbar), it will still be possible to detect absorption features peeking out above them. Here we propose a reconnaissance observation of a single transit of WASP-107b. This measurement will vet the planet's atmosphere composition and test for the presence of aerosols so that the community can decide on the best follow-up strategy for this exciting system.

  10. Community Targets for JWST's Early Release Science Program: Evaluation of Transiting Exoplanet WASP-63b.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilpatrick, Brian; Cubillos, Patricio; Bruno, Giovanni; Lewis, Nikole K.; Stevenson, Kevin B.; Wakeford, Hannah; Blecic, Jasmina; Burrows, Adam Seth; Deming, Drake; Heng, Kevin; Line, Michael R.; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Morley, Caroline; Waldmann, Ingo P.; Transiting Exoplanet Early Release Science Community

    2017-06-01

    We present observations of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) ``A Preparatory Program to Identify the Single Best Transiting Exoplanet for JWST Early Release Science" for WASP-63b, one of the community targets proposed for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Early Release Science (ERS) program. A large collaboration of transiting exoplanet scientists identified a set of ``community targets" which meet a certain set of criteria for ecliptic latitude, period, host star brightness, well constrained orbital parameters, and strength of spectroscopic features. WASP-63b was one of the targets identified as a potential candidate for the ERS program. It is presented as an inflated planet with a large signal. It will be accessible to JWST approximately six months after the planned start of Cycle 1/ERS in April 2019 making it an ideal candidate should there be any delays in the JWST timetable. Here, we observe WASP-63b to evaluate its suitability as the best target to test the capabilities of JWST. Ideally, a clear atmosphere will be best suited for bench marking the instruments ability to detect spectroscopic features. We can use the strength of the water absorption feature at 1.4 μm as a way to determine the presence of obscuring clouds/hazes. The results of atmospheric retrieval are presented along with a discussion on the suitability of WASP-63b as the best target to be observed during the ERS Program.

  11. Wallops Arc Second Pointer: WASP Description Subsystems X-Calibur Flight 2017 Test Flight Current Collaborations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuchlik, David William

    2017-01-01

    WASP is a NASA developed Fine Pointing System adaptable to a variety of Science Instruments. Standardized System with Reusable Parts to Minimize the Cost to Users and NASA. Supports Multiple Science Disciplines and a wide range of Masses and Inertias. Currently Operational and Available for Science Collaborations.

  12. Use of lupin, Lupinus perennis, mango, Mangifera indica, and stinging nettle, Urtica dioica, as feed additives to prevent Aeromonas hydrophila infection in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum).

    PubMed

    Awad, E; Austin, B

    2010-05-01

    Feeding rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), with 1% lupin, Lupinus perennis, mango, Mangifera indica, or stinging nettle, Urtica dioica, for 14 days led to reductions in mortality after challenge with Aeromonas hydrophila. In addition, there was significant enhancement in serum bactericidal activity, respiratory burst and lysozyme activity in the treatment groups compared to the controls. Use of lupin and mango led to the highest number of red blood and white blood cells in recipient fish, with use of stinging nettle leading to the highest haematocrit and haemoglobin values; the highest value of mean corpuscular volume and haemoglobin was in the control groups and those fed with stinging nettle.

  13. Computer programs for calculation of sting pitch and roll angles required to obtain angles of attack and sideslip on wind tunnel models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, John B., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Two programs have been developed to calculate the pitch and roll angles of a wind-tunnel sting drive system that will position a model at the desired angle of attack and and angle of sideslip in the wind tunnel. These programs account for the effects of sting offset angles, sting bending angles and wind-tunnel stream flow angles. In addition, the second program incorporates inputs from on-board accelerometers that measure model pitch and roll with respect to gravity. The programs are presented in the report and a description of the numerical operation of the programs with a definition of the variables used in the programs is given.

  14. Vespa crabro immunotherapy versus Vespula-venom immunotherapy in Vespa crabro allergy: a comparison study in field re-stings.

    PubMed

    Macchia, Donatella; Cortellini, Gabriele; Mauro, Marina; Meucci, Elisa; Quercia, Oliviero; Manfredi, Mariangela; Massolo, Alessandro; Valentini, Maurizio; Severino, Maurizio; Passalacqua, Giovanni

    2018-01-01

    In ascertained allergic sensitization to Vespa crabro (VC) venom, the European guidelines still consider venom immunotherapy (VIT) with Vespula (VE) venom sufficient to achieve an adequate protection against VC. However, antigen 5 immunoblotting studies showed that a genuine sensitization to VC venom may exist. In such cases, a specific VC venom would be preferable for VIT treatment. Since in the last few years, VC venom extracts became available for diagnosis and desensitization, we assessed the efficacy and safety of VIT with a VC-VIT, compared to VE extract. Patients stung by VC, and carefully diagnosed for specific sensitization and indication to VIT underwent a 5-year course of immunotherapy with either VE or VC extracts . The severity of reactions at the first sting (pre-VIT) and after field re-stings (during VIT) were compared. Eighty-three patients, treated with VE extract and 130 patients treated with VC extract completed the 5-year course of VIT. Only a fraction of those patients (43,8%) were field-re-stung by VC: 64 patients on VC VIT and 69 on VE VIT. In the VC VIT group, reactions at re-sting were: 50 negative, 12 large local reactions, 4 systemic reactions (Muller grade I). In this group the VC VIT efficacy was 93,8%. In the VE VIT treated group the reactions at VC re-sting were: 51 negative, 10 large local reactions and 9 systemic reactions (5 Muller I, 3 Mueller III, 1 Muller IV). In this group the overall efficacy of VIT was 87,0%. The difference in efficacy between the two groups was not statistically significant, as previously reported in literature. Nonetheless, field sting systemic reactions Muller III and IV were recorded only in those patients receiving VE VIT. This observation suggests that in patients with ascertained VC-induced allergic reactions a specific VC VIT, where available, would be more adequate, at least concerning the safety profile.

  15. Parasitoid wasp venom SERCA regulates Drosophila calcium levels and inhibits cellular immunity.

    PubMed

    Mortimer, Nathan T; Goecks, Jeremy; Kacsoh, Balint Z; Mobley, James A; Bowersock, Gregory J; Taylor, James; Schlenke, Todd A

    2013-06-04

    Because parasite virulence factors target host immune responses, identification and functional characterization of these factors can provide insight into poorly understood host immune mechanisms. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is a model system for understanding humoral innate immunity, but Drosophila cellular innate immune responses remain incompletely characterized. Fruit flies are regularly infected by parasitoid wasps in nature and, following infection, flies mount a cellular immune response culminating in the cellular encapsulation of the wasp egg. The mechanistic basis of this response is largely unknown, but wasps use a mixture of virulence proteins derived from the venom gland to suppress cellular encapsulation. To gain insight into the mechanisms underlying wasp virulence and fly cellular immunity, we used a joint transcriptomic/proteomic approach to identify venom genes from Ganaspis sp.1 (G1), a previously uncharacterized Drosophila parasitoid species, and found that G1 venom contains a highly abundant sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA) pump. Accordingly, we found that fly immune cells termed plasmatocytes normally undergo a cytoplasmic calcium burst following infection, and that this calcium burst is required for activation of the cellular immune response. We further found that the plasmatocyte calcium burst is suppressed by G1 venom in a SERCA-dependent manner, leading to the failure of plasmatocytes to become activated and migrate toward G1 eggs. Finally, by genetically manipulating plasmatocyte calcium levels, we were able to alter fly immune success against G1 and other parasitoid species. Our characterization of parasitoid wasp venom proteins led us to identify plasmatocyte cytoplasmic calcium bursts as an important aspect of fly cellular immunity.

  16. Comparison of Inoculation with the InoqulA and WASP Automated Systems with Manual Inoculation

    PubMed Central

    Croxatto, Antony; Dijkstra, Klaas; Prod'hom, Guy

    2015-01-01

    The quality of sample inoculation is critical for achieving an optimal yield of discrete colonies in both monomicrobial and polymicrobial samples to perform identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing. Consequently, we compared the performance between the InoqulA (BD Kiestra), the WASP (Copan), and manual inoculation methods. Defined mono- and polymicrobial samples of 4 bacterial species and cloudy urine specimens were inoculated on chromogenic agar by the InoqulA, the WASP, and manual methods. Images taken with ImagA (BD Kiestra) were analyzed with the VisionLab version 3.43 image analysis software to assess the quality of growth and to prevent subjective interpretation of the data. A 3- to 10-fold higher yield of discrete colonies was observed following automated inoculation with both the InoqulA and WASP systems than that with manual inoculation. The difference in performance between automated and manual inoculation was mainly observed at concentrations of >106 bacteria/ml. Inoculation with the InoqulA system allowed us to obtain significantly more discrete colonies than the WASP system at concentrations of >107 bacteria/ml. However, the level of difference observed was bacterial species dependent. Discrete colonies of bacteria present in 100- to 1,000-fold lower concentrations than the most concentrated populations in defined polymicrobial samples were not reproducibly recovered, even with the automated systems. The analysis of cloudy urine specimens showed that InoqulA inoculation provided a statistically significantly higher number of discrete colonies than that with WASP and manual inoculation. Consequently, the automated InoqulA inoculation greatly decreased the requirement for bacterial subculture and thus resulted in a significant reduction in the time to results, laboratory workload, and laboratory costs. PMID:25972424

  17. The genomic features of parasitism, Polyembryony and immune evasion in the endoparasitic wasp Macrocentrus cingulum.

    PubMed

    Yin, Chuanlin; Li, Meizhen; Hu, Jian; Lang, Kun; Chen, Qiming; Liu, Jinding; Guo, Dianhao; He, Kang; Dong, Yipei; Luo, Jiapeng; Song, Zhenkun; Walters, James R; Zhang, Wenqing; Li, Fei; Chen, Xuexin

    2018-05-30

    Parasitoid wasps are well-known natural enemies of major agricultural pests and arthropod borne diseases. The parasitoid wasp Macrocentrus cingulum (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) has been widely used to control the notorious insect pests Ostrinia furnacalis (Asian Corn Borer) and O. nubilalis (European corn borer). One striking phenomenon exhibited by M. cingulum is polyembryony, the formation of multiple genetically identical offspring from a single zygote. Moreover, M. cingulum employs a passive parasitic strategy by preventing the host's immune system from recognizing the embryo as a foreign body. Thus, the embryos evade the host's immune system and are not encapsulated by host hemocytes. Unfortunately, the mechanism of both polyembryony and immune evasion remains largely unknown. We report the genome of the parasitoid wasp M. cingulum. Comparative genomics analysis of M. cingulum and other 11 insects were conducted, finding some gene families with apparent expansion or contraction which might be linked to the parasitic behaviors or polyembryony of M. cingulum. Moreover, we present the evidence that the microRNA miR-14b regulates the polyembryonic development of M. cingulum by targeting the c-Myc Promoter-binding Protein 1 (MBP-1), histone-lysine N-methyltransferase 2E (KMT2E) and segmentation protein Runt. In addition, Hemomucin, an O-glycosylated transmembrane protein, protects the endoparasitoid wasp larvae from being encapsulated by host hemocytes. Motif and domain analysis showed that only the hemomucin in two endoparasitoids, M. cingulum and Venturia canescens, possessing the ability of passive immune evasion has intact mucin domain and similar O-glycosylation patterns, indicating that the hemomucin is a key factor modulating the immune evasion. The microRNA miR-14b participates in the regulation of polyembryonic development, and the O-glycosylation of the mucin domain in the hemomucin confers the passive immune evasion in this wasp. These key findings provide

  18. Different patterns of oviposition learning in two closely related ectoparasitoid wasps with contrasting reproductive strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasakawa, Kôji; Uchijima, Kenta; Shibao, Harunobu; Shimada, Masakazu

    2013-02-01

    Many parasitoid wasps learn host-associated cues and use them in subsequent host-searching behavior. This associative learning, namely "oviposition learning," has been investigated in many studies. However, few studies have compared multiple species, and no comparative study has previously been conducted on ectoparasitoid species. We compared the effects of oviposition learning on host preference and offspring sex ratio in two closely related ectoparasitoid wasps with contrasting reproductive strategies, Anisopteromalus calandrae (r-strategist) and its sibling species (K-strategist). Using two bruchine hosts, Callosobruchus chinensis and Callosobruchus maculatus larvae infesting the cowpea Vigna unguiculata, oviposition choice experiments were performed at high and low host densities. In both species, no conspicuous effect on the offspring sex ratio was detected, but effects on host preference were found to differ between the species. In A. calandrae, the effects were detected only at high host density, suggesting that oviposition learning plays a role in host discrimination from a short distance but not from a long distance. In the sibling species, those effects were not detected in any of the cases, suggesting the absence of oviposition learning. These results are compatible with those of previous comparative studies of endoparasitoid wasps in that few lifetime oviposition experiences and/or low reward per foraging decision result in low or absent oviposition learning ability. This finding may indicate that ecological traits contributing to learning ability are similar between endoparasitoid and ectoparasitoid wasps. Thus, our species comparison of ectoparasitoids provides another model system for investigating learning and memory dynamics in parasitoid wasps.

  19. Role and structural mechanism of WASP-triggered conformational changes in branched actin filament nucleation by Arp2/3 complex

    PubMed Central

    Rodnick-Smith, Max; Luan, Qing; Liu, Su-Ling; Nolen, Brad J.

    2016-01-01

    The Arp2/3 (Actin-related proteins 2/3) complex is activated by WASP (Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome protein) family proteins to nucleate branched actin filaments that are important for cellular motility. WASP recruits actin monomers to the complex and stimulates movement of Arp2 and Arp3 into a “short-pitch” conformation that mimics the arrangement of actin subunits within filaments. The relative contribution of these functions in Arp2/3 complex activation and the mechanism by which WASP stimulates the conformational change have been unknown. We purified budding yeast Arp2/3 complex held in or near the short-pitch conformation by an engineered covalent cross-link to determine if the WASP-induced conformational change is sufficient for activity. Remarkably, cross-linked Arp2/3 complex bypasses the need for WASP in activation and is more active than WASP-activated Arp2/3 complex. These data indicate that stimulation of the short-pitch conformation is the critical activating function of WASP and that monomer delivery is not a fundamental requirement for nucleation but is a specific requirement for WASP-mediated activation. During activation, WASP limits nucleation rates by releasing slowly from nascent branches. The cross-linked complex is inhibited by WASP’s CA region, even though CA potently stimulates cross-linking, suggesting that slow WASP detachment masks the activating potential of the short-pitch conformational switch. We use structure-based mutations and WASP–Arp fusion chimeras to determine how WASP stimulates movement toward the short-pitch conformation. Our data indicate that WASP displaces the autoinhibitory Arp3 C-terminal tail from a hydrophobic groove at Arp3′s barbed end to destabilize the inactive state, providing a mechanism by which WASP stimulates the short-pitch conformation and activates Arp2/3 complex. PMID:27325766

  20. Thermal Phase Variations of WASP-12b: Defying Predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowan, Nicolas B.; Machalek, Pavel; Croll, Bryce; Shekhtman, Louis M.; Burrows, Adam; Deming, Drake; Greene, Tom; Hora, Joseph L.

    2012-03-01

    We report Warm Spitzer full-orbit phase observations of WASP-12b at 3.6 and 4.5 μm. This extremely inflated hot Jupiter is thought to be overflowing its Roche lobe, undergoing mass loss and accretion onto its host star, and has been claimed to have a C/O ratio in excess of unity. We are able to measure the transit depths, eclipse depths, thermal and ellipsoidal phase variations at both wavelengths. The large-amplitude phase variations, combined with the planet's previously measured dayside spectral energy distribution, are indicative of non-zero Bond albedo and very poor day-night heat redistribution. The transit depths in the mid-infrared—(Rp /R *)2 = 0.0123(3) and 0.0111(3) at 3.6 and 4.5 μm, respectively—indicate that the atmospheric opacity is greater at 3.6 than at 4.5 μm, in disagreement with model predictions, irrespective of C/O ratio. The secondary eclipse depths are consistent with previous studies: F day/F * = 0.0038(4) and 0.0039(3) at 3.6 and 4.5 μm, respectively. We do not detect ellipsoidal variations at 3.6 μm, but our parameter uncertainties—estimated via prayer-bead Monte Carlo—keep this non-detection consistent with model predictions. At 4.5 μm, on the other hand, we detect ellipsoidal variations that are much stronger than predicted. If interpreted as a geometric effect due to the planet's elongated shape, these variations imply a 3:2 ratio for the planet's longest:shortest axes and a relatively bright day-night terminator. If we instead presume that the 4.5 μm ellipsoidal variations are due to uncorrected systematic noise and we fix the amplitude of the variations to zero, the best-fit 4.5 μm transit depth becomes commensurate with the 3.6 μm depth, within the uncertainties. The relative transit depths are then consistent with a solar composition and short scale height at the terminator. Assuming zero ellipsoidal variations also yields a much deeper 4.5 μm eclipse depth, consistent with a solar composition and modest

  1. THERMAL PHASE VARIATIONS OF WASP-12b: DEFYING PREDICTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, Nicolas B.; Shekhtman, Louis M.; Machalek, Pavel

    2012-03-01

    We report Warm Spitzer full-orbit phase observations of WASP-12b at 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m. This extremely inflated hot Jupiter is thought to be overflowing its Roche lobe, undergoing mass loss and accretion onto its host star, and has been claimed to have a C/O ratio in excess of unity. We are able to measure the transit depths, eclipse depths, thermal and ellipsoidal phase variations at both wavelengths. The large-amplitude phase variations, combined with the planet's previously measured dayside spectral energy distribution, are indicative of non-zero Bond albedo and very poor day-night heat redistribution. The transit depths in the mid-infrared-(R{sub p}more » /R{sub *}){sup 2} = 0.0123(3) and 0.0111(3) at 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m, respectively-indicate that the atmospheric opacity is greater at 3.6 than at 4.5 {mu}m, in disagreement with model predictions, irrespective of C/O ratio. The secondary eclipse depths are consistent with previous studies: F{sub day}/F{sub *} = 0.0038(4) and 0.0039(3) at 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m, respectively. We do not detect ellipsoidal variations at 3.6 {mu}m, but our parameter uncertainties-estimated via prayer-bead Monte Carlo-keep this non-detection consistent with model predictions. At 4.5 {mu}m, on the other hand, we detect ellipsoidal variations that are much stronger than predicted. If interpreted as a geometric effect due to the planet's elongated shape, these variations imply a 3:2 ratio for the planet's longest:shortest axes and a relatively bright day-night terminator. If we instead presume that the 4.5 {mu}m ellipsoidal variations are due to uncorrected systematic noise and we fix the amplitude of the variations to zero, the best-fit 4.5 {mu}m transit depth becomes commensurate with the 3.6 {mu}m depth, within the uncertainties. The relative transit depths are then consistent with a solar composition and short scale height at the terminator. Assuming zero ellipsoidal variations also yields a much deeper 4.5 {mu}m eclipse depth

  2. Thermal Phase Variations of WASP-12b: Defying Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowan, Nicolas B.; Machalek, Pavel; Croll, Bryce; Shekhtman, Louis M.; Burrows, Adam; Deming, Drake; Greene, Tom; Hora, Joseph L.

    2012-01-01

    We report Warm Spitzer full-orbit phase observations of WASP-12b at 3.6 and 4.5 micrometers. This extremely inflated hot Jupiter is thought to be overflowing its Roche lobe, undergoing mass loss and accretion onto its host star, and has been claimed to have a C/O ratio in excess of unity. We are able to measure the transit depths, eclipse depths, thermal and ellipsoidal phase variations at both wavelengths. The large-amplitude phase variations, combined with the planet's previously measured dayside spectral energy distribution, are indicative of non-zero Bond albedo and very poor day-night heat redistribution. The transit depths in the mid-infrared-(R(sub p)/R(sub *))(sup 2) = 0.0123(3) and 0.0111(3) at 3.6 and 4.5 micrometers, respectively-indicate that the atmospheric opacity is greater at 3.6 than at 4.5 micrometers, in disagreement with model predictions, irrespective of C/O ratio. The secondary eclipse depths are consistent with previous studies: F(sub day)/F(sub *) = 0.0038(4) and 0.0039(3) at 3.6 and 4.5 micrometers, respectively. We do not detect ellipsoidal variations at 3.6 micrometers, but our parameter uncertainties-estimated via prayer-bead Monte Carlo-keep this non-detection consistent with model predictions. At 4.5 micrometers, on the other hand, we detect ellipsoidal variations that are much stronger than predicted. If interpreted as a geometric effect due to the planet's elongated shape, these variations imply a 3:2 ratio for the planet's longest:shortest axes and a relatively bright day-night terminator. If we instead presume that the 4.5 micrometer ellipsoidal variations are due to uncorrected systematic noise and we fix the amplitude of the variations to zero, the best-fit 4.5 micrometer transit depth becomes commensurate with the 3.6 micrometer depth, within the uncertainties. The relative transit depths are then consistent with a solar composition and short scale height at the terminator. Assuming zero ellipsoidal variations also yields a much

  3. Insect allergy in children.

    PubMed

    Tan, John W; Campbell, Dianne E

    2013-09-01

    Allergic reactions to insect bites and stings are common, and the severity of reactions range from local reaction to anaphylaxis. In children, large local reaction to bites and stings is the most common presentation. Stings from insects of the order Hymenoptera (bees, wasps and ants) are the most common cause of insect anaphylaxis; however, the proportion of insect allergic children who develop anaphylaxis to an insect sting is lower than that of insect allergic adults. History is most important in diagnosing anaphylaxis, as laboratory tests can be unreliable. Venom immunotherapy is effective, where suitable allergen extract is available, but is only warranted in children with systemic reactions to insect venom. Large local reactions are at low risk of progression to anaphylaxis on subsequent stings, and hence, venom immunotherapy is not necessary. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2013 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  4. CREB expression in the brains of two closely related parasitic wasp species that differ in long-term memory formation.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, M; Verbaarschot, P; Hontelez, S; Vet, L E M; Dicke, M; Smid, H M

    2010-06-01

    The cAMP/PKA signalling pathway and transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) play key roles in long-term memory (LTM) formation. We used two closely related parasitic wasp species, Cotesia glomerata and Cotesia rubecula, which were previously shown to be different in LTM formation, and sequenced at least nine different CREB transcripts in both wasp species. The splicing patterns, functional domains and amino acid sequences were similar to those found in the CREB genes of other organisms. The predicted amino acid sequences of the CREB isoforms were identical in both wasp species. Using real-time quantitative PCR we found that two low abundant CREB transcripts are differentially expressed in the two wasps, whereas the expression levels of high abundant transcripts are similar.

  5. EtpE Binding to DNase X Induces Ehrlichial Entry via CD147 and hnRNP-K Recruitment, Followed by Mobilization of N-WASP and Actin.

    PubMed

    Mohan Kumar, Dipu; Lin, Mingqun; Xiong, Qingming; Webber, Mathew James; Kural, Comert; Rikihisa, Yasuko

    2015-11-03

    Obligate intracellular bacteria, such as Ehrlichia chaffeensis, perish unless they can enter eukaryotic cells. E. chaffeensis is the etiological agent of human monocytic ehrlichiosis, an emerging infectious disease. To infect cells, Ehrlichia uses the C terminus of the outer membrane invasin entry-triggering protein (EtpE) of Ehrlichia (EtpE-C), which directly binds the mammalian cell surface glycosylphosphatidyl inositol-anchored protein, DNase X. How this binding drives Ehrlichia entry is unknown. Here, using affinity pulldown of host cell lysates with recombinant EtpE-C (rEtpE-C), we identified two new human proteins that interact with EtpE-C: CD147 and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP-K). The interaction of CD147 with rEtpE-C was validated by far-Western blotting and coimmunoprecipitation of native EtpE with endogenous CD147. CD147 was ubiquitous on the cell surface and also present around foci of rEtpE-C-coated-bead entry. Functional neutralization of surface-exposed CD147 with a specific antibody inhibited Ehrlichia internalization and infection but not binding. Downregulation of CD147 by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) impaired E. chaffeensis infection. Functional ablation of cytoplasmic hnRNP-K by a nanoscale intracellular antibody markedly attenuated bacterial entry and infection but not binding. EtpE-C also interacted with neuronal Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP), which is activated by hnRNP-K. Wiskostatin, which inhibits N-WASP activation, and cytochalasin D, which inhibits actin polymerization, inhibited Ehrlichia entry. Upon incubation with host cell lysate, EtpE-C but not an EtpE N-terminal fragment stimulated in vitro actin polymerization in an N-WASP- and DNase X-dependent manner. Time-lapse video images revealed N-WASP recruitment at EtpE-C-coated bead entry foci. Thus, EtpE-C binding to DNase X drives Ehrlichia entry by engaging CD147 and hnRNP-K and activating N-WASP-dependent actin polymerization. Ehrlichia chaffeensis, an

  6. Carbohydrate binding properties of the stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) rhizome lectin.

    PubMed

    Shibuya, N; Goldstein, I J; Shafer, J A; Peumans, W J; Broekaert, W F

    1986-08-15

    The interaction of the stinging nettle rhizome lectin (UDA) with carbohydrates was studied by using the techniques of quantitative precipitation, hapten inhibition, equilibrium dialysis, and uv difference spectroscopy. The Carbohydrate binding site of UDA was determined to be complementary to an N,N',N"-triacetylchitotriose unit and proposed to consist of three subsites, each of which has a slightly different binding specificity. UDA also has a hydrophobic interacting region adjacent to the carbohydrate binding site. Equilibrium dialysis and uv difference spectroscopy revealed that UDA has two carbohydrate binding sites per molecule consisting of a single polypeptide chain. These binding sites either have intrinsically different affinities for ligand molecules, or they may display negative cooperativity toward ligand binding.

  7. Concurrent environmental stressors and jellyfish stings impair caged European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) physiological performances

    PubMed Central

    Bosch-Belmar, Mar; Giomi, Folco; Rinaldi, Alessandro; Mandich, Alberta; Fuentes, Verónica; Mirto, Simone; Sarà, Gianluca; Piraino, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    The increasing frequency of jellyfish outbreaks in coastal areas has led to multiple ecological and socio-economic issues, including mass mortalities of farmed fish. We investigated the sensitivity of the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), a widely cultured fish in the Mediterranean Sea, to the combined stressors of temperature, hypoxia and stings from the jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca, through measurement of oxygen consumption rates (MO2), critical oxygen levels (PO2crit), and histological analysis of tissue damage. Higher levels of MO2, PO2crit and gill damage in treated fish demonstrated that the synergy of environmental and biotic stressors dramatically impair farmed fish metabolic performances and increase their health vulnerability. As a corollary, in the current scenario of ocean warming, these findings suggest that the combined effects of recurrent hypoxic events and jellyfish blooms in coastal areas might also threaten wild fish populations. PMID:27301314

  8. ABO blood groups, Rhesus factor, and anaphylactic reactions due to Hymenoptera stings.

    PubMed

    Pałgan, Krzysztof; Bartuzi, Zbigniew; Chrzaniecka, Elżbieta

    2017-09-21

    Numerous publications indicate that the prevalence of some infectious, neoplastic and immunological diseases are associated with ABO blood groups. The aim of this study was to verify whether ABO and Rh blood groups are associated with severe anaphylactic reactions after Hymenoptera stings. A study was undertaken of 71,441 Caucasian subjects living in the same geographic area. The study group included 353 patients with diagnosed systemic anaphylaxis to Hymenoptera venom. Control group included 71,088 healthy blood donors. Frequencies of ABO and Rhesus groups in the study and control groups were compared using univariate and multivariate analyses. No statistically significant interactions were observed between the ABO blood group and anaphylactic reactions to Hymenoptera.

  9. Bee Stings

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Privacy Practices Notice of Nondiscrimination Manage Cookies Advertising Mayo Clinic is a not-for-profit organization and proceeds from Web advertising help support our mission. Mayo Clinic does not ...

  10. Jellyfish stings

    MedlinePlus

    ... include: Lion's mane ( Cyanea capillata ). Portuguese man-of-war ( Physalia physalis in the Atlantic and Physalia utriculus ... Skin burning and blistering (severe) PORTUGUESE MAN-OF-WAR Abdominal pain Changes in pulse Chest pain Chills ...

  11. Stonefish sting

    MedlinePlus

    ... called antiserum to reverse the effect of the venom Medicine to treat symptoms X-rays Tetanus shot, if necessary ... hours. Outcome often depends on how much poisonous venom entered ... A puncture to the person's chest or abdomen may lead to death.

  12. SARS coronavirus papain-like protease inhibits the type I interferon signaling pathway through interaction with the STING-TRAF3-TBK1 complex.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaojuan; Yang, Xingxing; Zheng, Yang; Yang, Yudong; Xing, Yaling; Chen, Zhongbin

    2014-05-01

    SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) develops an antagonistic mechanism by which to evade the antiviral activities of interferon (IFN). Previous studies suggested that SARS-CoV papain-like protease (PLpro) inhibits activation of the IRF3 pathway, which would normally elicit a robust IFN response, but the mechanism(s) used by SARS PLpro to inhibit activation of the IRF3 pathway is not fully known. In this study, we uncovered a novel mechanism that may explain how SARS PLpro efficiently inhibits activation of the IRF3 pathway. We found that expression of the membrane-anchored PLpro domain (PLpro-TM) from SARS-CoV inhibits STING/TBK1/IKKε-mediated activation of type I IFNs and disrupts the phosphorylation and dimerization of IRF3, which are activated by STING and TBK1. Meanwhile, we showed that PLpro-TM physically interacts with TRAF3, TBK1, IKKε, STING, and IRF3, the key components that assemble the STING-TRAF3-TBK1 complex for activation of IFN expression. However, the interaction between the components in STING-TRAF3-TBK1 complex is disrupted by PLpro-TM. Furthermore, SARS PLpro-TM reduces the levels of ubiquitinated forms of RIG-I, STING, TRAF3, TBK1, and IRF3 in the STING-TRAF3-TBK1 complex. These results collectively point to a new mechanism used by SARS-CoV through which PLpro negatively regulates IRF3 activation by interaction with STING-TRAF3-TBK1 complex, yielding a SARS-CoV countermeasure against host innate immunity.

  13. Sexual selection and the evolution of male pheromone glands in philanthine wasps (Hymenoptera, Crabronidae).

    PubMed

    Weiss, Katharina; Herzner, Gudrun; Strohm, Erhard

    2017-06-06

    Sexual selection is thought to promote evolutionary changes and diversification. However, the impact of sexual selection in relation to other selective forces is difficult to evaluate. Male digger wasps of the tribe Philanthini (Hymenoptera, Philanthinae) scent mark territories to attract receptive females. Consequently, the organs for production and storage of the marking secretion, the mandibular gland (MG) and the postpharyngeal gland (PPG), are subject to sexual selection. In female Philanthini, these glands are most likely solely subject to natural selection and show very little morphological diversity. According to the hypothesis that sexual selection drives interspecific diversity, we predicted that the MG and PPG show higher interspecific variation in males than in females. Using histological methods, 3D-reconstructions, and multivariate statistical analysis of morphological characters, we conducted a comparative analysis of the MG and the PPG in males of 30 species of Philanthini and three species of the Cercerini and Aphilanthopsini, two related tribes within the Philanthinae. We found substantial interspecific diversity in gland morphology with regard to gland incidence, size, shape and the type of associated secretory cells. Overall there was a phylogenetic trend: Ensuing from the large MGs and small PPGs of male Cercerini and Aphilanthopsini, the size and complexity of the MG was reduced in male Philanthini, while their PPG became considerably enlarged, substantially more complex, and associated with an apparently novel type of secretory cells. In some clades of the Philanthini the MG was even lost and entirely replaced by the PPG. However, several species showed reversals of and exceptions from this trend. Head gland morphology was significantly more diverse among male than among female Philanthinae. Our results show considerable variation in male head glands including the loss of an entire gland system and the evolution of a novel kind of secretory

  14. RTVP-1 regulates glioma cell migration and invasion via interaction with N-WASP and hnRNPK

    PubMed Central

    Ziv-Av, Amotz; Giladi, Nissim David; Lee, Hae Kyung; Cazacu, Simona; Finniss, Susan; Xiang, Cunli; Pauker, Maor H.; Barda-Saad, Mira; Poisson, Laila; Brodie, Chaya

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) are characterized by increased invasion into the surrounding normal brain tissue. RTVP-1 is highly expressed in GBM and regulates the migration and invasion of glioma cells. To further study RTVP-1 effects we performed a pull-down assay using His-tagged RTVP-1 followed by mass spectrometry and found that RTVP-1 was associated with the actin polymerization regulator, N-WASP. This association was further validated by co-immunoprecipitation and FRET analysis. We found that RTVP-1 increased cell spreading, migration and invasion and these effects were at least partly mediated by N-WASP. Another protein which was found by the pull-down assay to interact with RTVP-1 is hnRNPK. This protein has been recently reported to associate with and to inhibit the effect of N-WASP on cell spreading. hnRNPK decreased cell migration, spreading and invasion in glioma cells. Using co-immunoprecipitation we validated the interactions of hnRNPK with N-WASP and RTVP-1 in glioma cells. In addition, we found that overexpression of RTVP-1 decreased the association of N-WASP and hnRNPK. In summary, we report that RTVP-1 regulates glioma cell spreading, migration and invasion and that these effects are mediated via interaction with N-WASP and by interfering with the inhibitory effect of hnRNPK on the function of this protein. PMID:26305187

  15. N-WASP and cortactin are involved in invadopodium-dependent chemotaxis to EGF in breast tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    DesMarais, Vera; Yamaguchi, Hideki; Oser, Matthew; Soon, Lilian; Mouneimne, Ghassan; Sarmiento, Corina; Eddy, Robert; Condeelis, John

    2009-01-01

    Metastatic mammary carcinoma cells, which have previously been observed to form mature, matrix degrading invadopodia on a thick ECM matrix, are able to form invadopodia with similar characteristics on glass without previously applied matrix. They form in response to EGF, and contain the usual invadopodium core proteins N-WASP, Arp2/3, cortactin, cofilin, and F-actin. The study of invadopodia on glass allows for higher resolution analysis including the use of total internal reflection microscopy and analysis of their relationship to other cell motility events, in particular, lamellipodium extension and chemotaxis toward an EGF gradient. Invadopodium formation on glass requires N-WASP and cortactin but not microtubules. In a gradient of EGF more invadopodia form on the side of the cells facing the source of EGF. In addition, depletion of N-WASP or cortactin, which blocks invadopodium fromation, inhibits chemotaxis of cells towards EGF. This appears to be a localized defect in chemotaxis since depletion of N-WASP or cortactin via siRNA had no effect on lamellipodium protrusion or barbed end generation at the lamellipodium's leading edge. Since chemotaxis to EGF by breast tumor cells is involved in metastasis, inhibiting N-WASP activity in breast tumor cells might prevent metastasis of tumor cells while not affecting chemotaxis-dependent innate immunity which depends on WASp function in macrophages. PMID:19373774

  16. Transit Timing Variation Measurements of WASP-12b and Qatar-1b: No Evidence Of Additional Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Karen A.; Kielkopf, John F.; Stassun, Keivan G.

    2017-02-01

    WASP-12b and Qatar-1b are transiting hot Jupiters for which previous works have suggested the presence of transit timing variations (TTVs) indicative of additional bodies in these systems—an Earth-mass planet in WASP-12 and a brown-dwarf mass object in Qatar-1. Here, we present 23 new WASP-12b and 18 new Qatar-1b complete (or nearly complete) transit observations. We perform global system fits to all of our light curves for each system, as well as RV and stellar spectroscopic parameters from the literature. The global fits provide refined system parameters and uncertainties for each system, including precise transit center times for each transit. The transit model residuals of the combined and five minute binned light curves have an rms of 183 and 255 parts per million (ppm) for WASP-12b and Qatar-1b, respectively. Most of the WASP-12b system parameter values from this work are consistent with values from previous studies, but have ˜40%-50% smaller uncertainties. Most of the Qatar-1b system parameter values and uncertainties from this work are consistent with values recently reported in the literature. We find no convincing evidence for sinusoidal TTVs with a semi-amplitude of more than ˜35 and ˜25 s in the WASP-12b and Qatar-1b systems, respectively.

  17. TRANSIT TIMING VARIATION MEASUREMENTS OF WASP-12b AND QATAR-1b: NO EVIDENCE OF ADDITIONAL PLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Karen A.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Kielkopf, John F.

    WASP-12b and Qatar-1b are transiting hot Jupiters for which previous works have suggested the presence of transit timing variations (TTVs) indicative of additional bodies in these systems—an Earth-mass planet in WASP-12 and a brown-dwarf mass object in Qatar-1. Here, we present 23 new WASP-12b and 18 new Qatar-1b complete (or nearly complete) transit observations. We perform global system fits to all of our light curves for each system, as well as RV and stellar spectroscopic parameters from the literature. The global fits provide refined system parameters and uncertainties for each system, including precise transit center times for each transit. Themore » transit model residuals of the combined and five minute binned light curves have an rms of 183 and 255 parts per million (ppm) for WASP-12b and Qatar-1b, respectively. Most of the WASP-12b system parameter values from this work are consistent with values from previous studies, but have ∼40%–50% smaller uncertainties. Most of the Qatar-1b system parameter values and uncertainties from this work are consistent with values recently reported in the literature. We find no convincing evidence for sinusoidal TTVs with a semi-amplitude of more than ∼35 and ∼25 s in the WASP-12b and Qatar-1b systems, respectively.« less

  18. Chemical camouflage: a key process in shaping an ant-treehopper and fig-fig wasp mutualistic network.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Lu, Min; Cook, James M; Yang, Da-Rong; Dunn, Derek W; Wang, Rui-Wu

    2018-01-30

    Different types of mutualisms may interact, co-evolve and form complex networks of interdependences, but how species interact in networks of a mutualistic community and maintain its stability remains unclear. In a mutualistic network between treehoppers-weaver ants and fig-pollinating wasps, we found that the cuticular hydrocarbons of the treehoppers are more similar to the surface chemical profiles of fig inflorescence branches (FIB) than the cuticular hydrocarbons of the fig wasps. Behavioral assays showed that the cuticular hydrocarbons from both treehoppers and FIBs reduce the propensity of weaver ants to attack treehoppers even in the absence of honeydew rewards, suggesting that chemical camouflage helps enforce the mutualism between weaver ants and treehoppers. High levels of weaver ant and treehopper abundances help maintain the dominance of pollinating fig wasps in the fig wasp community and also increase fig seed production, as a result of discriminative predation and disturbance by weaver ants of ovipositing non-pollinating fig wasps (NPFWs). Ants therefore help preserve this fig-pollinating wasp mutualism from over exploitation by NPFWs. Our results imply that in this mutualistic network chemical camouflage plays a decisive role in regulating the behavior of a key species and indirectly shaping the architecture of complex arthropod-plant interactions.

  19. Diffusive coevolution and mutualism maintenance mechanisms in a fig-fig wasp system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui-Wu; Sun, Bao-Fa; Zheng, Qi

    2010-05-01

    In reciprocal mutualism systems, the exploitation events by exploiters might disrupt the reciprocal mutualism, wherein one exploiter species might even exclude other coexisting exploiter species over an evolutionary time frame. What remains unclear is how such a community is maintained. Niche partitioning, or spatial heterogeneity among the mutualists and exploiters, is generally believed to enable stability within a mutualistic system. However, our examination of a reciprocal mutualism between a fig species (Ficus racemosa) and its pollinator wasp (Ceratosolen fusciceps) shows that spatial niche partitioning does not sufficiently prevent exploiters from overexploiting the common resource (i.e., the female flowers), because of the considerable niche overlap between the mutualists and exploiters. In response to an exploiter, our experiment shows that the fig can (1) abort syconia-containing flowers that have been galled by the exploiter, Apocryptophagus testacea, which oviposits before the pollinators do; and (2) retain syconia-containing flowers galled by Apocryptophagus mayri, which oviposit later than pollinators. However, as a result of (2), there is decreased development of adult non-pollinators or pollinator species in syconia that have not been sufficiently pollinated, but not aborted. Such discriminative abortion of figs or reduction in offspring development of exploiters while rewarding cooperative individuals with higher offspring development by the fig will increase the fitness of cooperative pollinating wasps, but decrease the fitness of exploiters. The fig-fig wasp interactions are diffusively coevolved, a case in which fig wasps diversify their genotype, phenotype, or behavior as a result of competition between wasps, while figs diverge their strategies to facilitate the evolution of cooperative fig waps or lessen the detrimental behavior by associated fig wasps. In habitats or syconia that suffer overexploitation, discriminative abortion of figs or

  20. Falling Victim to Wasps in the Air: A Fate Driven by Prey Flight Morphology?

    PubMed Central

    Ballesteros, Yolanda; Polidori, Carlo; Tormos, José; Baños-Picón, Laura; Asís, Josep D.

    2016-01-01

    In prey-predator systems where the interacting individuals are both fliers, the flight performance of both participants heavily influences the probability of success of the predator (the prey is captured) and of the prey (the predator is avoided). While the flight morphology (an estimate of flight performance) of predatory wasps has rarely been addressed as a factor that may contribute to explain prey use, how the flight morphology of potential prey influences the output of predator-prey encounters has not been studied. Here, we hypothesized that flight morphology associated with flight ability (flight muscle mass to body mass ratio (FMR) and body mass to wing area ratio (wing loading, WL)) of Diptera affect their probability of being captured by specialized Diptera-hunting wasps (Bembix merceti and B. zonata), predicting a better manoeuvrability and acceleration capacity achieved by higher FMR and lower WL, and flight speed achieved by higher WL. In addition, wasp species with better flight morphology should be less limited by an advantageous Diptera flight morphology. Overall, the abundance of dipterans in the environment explained an important part of the observed variance in prey capture rate. However, it was not the only factor shaping prey capture. First, higher prey abundance was associated with greater capture rate for one species (B. merceti), although not for the other one. Second, the interaction observed between the environmental dipteran availability and dipteran WL for B. zonata suggests that greater dipteran WL (this probably meaning high cruising speed) decreased the probability of being captured, as long as fly abundance was high in the environment. Third, greater dipteran FMR (which likely means high manoeuvrability and acceleration capacity) helped to reduce predation by B. merceti if, again, dipterans were abundant in the environment. Wasp WL only varied with body mass but not between species, thereby hardly accounting for inter

  1. Some pollinators are more equal than others: Factors influencing pollen loads and seed set capacity of two actively and passively pollinating fig wasps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjellberg, Finn; Suleman, Nazia; Raja, Shazia; Tayou, Abelouahad; Hossaert-McKey, Martine; Compton, Stephen G.

    2014-05-01

    The nursery pollination system of fig trees (Ficus) results in the plants providing resources for pollinator fig wasp larvae as part of their male reproductive investment, with selection determining relative investment into pollinating wasps and the pollen they carry. The small size of Ficus pollen suggests that the quantities of pollen transported by individual wasps often limits male reproductive success. We assessed variation in fig wasp pollen loads and its influence on seed production in actively pollinated (Ficus montana) and passively pollinated (Ficus carica) dioecious fig trees.