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Sample records for waste licl salt

  1. Study on LiCl waste salt treatment process by layer melt crystallization

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Yung-Zun; Lee, Tae-Kyo; Choi, Jung-Hoon; Eun, Hee-Chul; Park, Hwan-Seo; Kim, In-Tae; Park, Geun-Il

    2013-07-01

    Layer melt crystallization operated in a static mode has been applied to separate Group I and II chlorides from surrogate LiCl waste salt. The effects of operating conditions such as crystal growing rate(or flux) and initial impurity concentration on separation (or concentration) of cesium, strontium and barium involved in a LiCl melts were analyzed. In a layer crystallization process, separation was impaired by occlusion of impurities and by residual melt adhering to LiCl crystal after at the end of the process. The crystal growth rate strongly affects the crystal structure, therefore the separation efficiency, while the effect of the initial Cs and Sr concentration in LiCl molten salt was nearly negligible. (authors)

  2. Conditioning of Waste LiCl Salt from Pyrochemical Process Using Zeolite A

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J.G.; Lee, J.H.; Kim, E.H.; Ahn, D.H.; Kim, J.H.

    2006-07-01

    The electrolytic (LiCl-Li{sub 2}O) reduction process (Advanced spent fuel Conditioning Process; ACP) and the electrorefining process, which are being developed by the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), are to generate two types of molten salt wastes such as a LiCl salt and a LiCl-KCl eutectic salt, respectively. These waste salts must meet certain criteria for a disposal. A conditioning process composed of an immobilization and then a thermal treatment, for LiCl salt waste from the ACP has been developed using zeolite A. The immobilization of molten LiCl salt waste was conducted in a blender by mixing it with zeolite A at 923 K, producing a salt-loaded zeolite (SLZ). During the immobilization, the zeolite A was transformed to zeolite Li-A [Li{sub 2}Al{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 80}], with some minor phases such as a Li-type sodalite [Li{sub 8}Cl{sub 2}-Sod; Li{sub 8}(AlSiO{sub 4}){sub 6}Cl{sub 2}] and Nepheline for some zeolite-rich condition. In order to obtain a final ceramic waste form with Na-type sodalite [Na{sub 8}Cl{sub 2}-Sod; Na{sub 8}(AlSiO{sub 4}){sub 6}Cl{sub 2}], the very highly leach-resistant crystal phase, the SLZ with r (=LiCl/zeolite) < 0.3 should be treated in a high temperature furnace above 1173 K, which was independent from an addition of glass frit during a mixing. (authors)

  3. Separation of CsCl and SrCl2 from a ternary CsCl-SrCl2-LiCl via a zone refining process for waste salt minimization of pyroprocessing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Moonsoo; Choi, Ho Gil; Yi, Kyung Woo; Hwang, Il Soon; Lee, Jong Hyeon

    2016-11-01

    The purification of LiCl salt mixture has traditionally been carried out by a melt crystallization process. To improve the throughput of zone refining, three heaters were installed in the zone refiner. The zone refining method was used to grow pure LiCl salt ingots from LiCl-CsCl-SrCl2 salt mixture. The main investigated parameters were the heater speed and the number of passes. A change in the LiCl crystal grain size was observed according to the horizontal direction. From each zone refined salt ingot, samples were collected horizontally. To analyze the concentrations of Sr and Cs, an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer were used, respectively. The experimental results show that Sr and Cs concentrations at the initial region of the ingot were low and reached their peak at the final freezing region of the salt ingot. Concentration results of zone refined salt were compared with theoretical results yielded by the proposed model to validate its predictions. The keff of Sr and Cs were 0.13 and 0.11, respectively. The decontamination factors of Sr and Cs were 450 and 1650, respectively.

  4. Management of salt waste from electrochemical processing of used nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, M.F.; Patterson, M.N.; Lee, J.; Wang, Y.; Versey, J.; Phongikaroon, S.

    2013-07-01

    Electrochemical processing of used nuclear fuel involves operation of one or more cells containing molten salt electrolyte. Processing of the fuel results in contamination of the salt via accumulation of fission products and transuranic (TRU) actinides. Upon reaching contamination limits, the salt must be removed and either disposed or treated to remove the contaminants and recycled back to the process. During development of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II spent fuel treatment process, waste salt from the electro-refiner was to be stabilized in a ceramic waste form and disposed of in a high-level waste repository. With the cancellation of the Yucca Mountain high-level waste repository, other options are now being considered. One approach that involves direct disposal of the salt in a geologic salt formation has been evaluated. While waste forms such as the ceramic provide near-term resistance to corrosion, they may not be necessary to ensure adequate performance of the repository. To improve the feasibility of direct disposal, recycling a substantial fraction of the useful salt back to the process equipment could minimize the volume of the waste. Experiments have been run in which a cold finger is used for this purpose to crystallize LiCl from LiCl/CsCl. If it is found to be unsuitable for transportation, the salt waste could also be immobilized in zeolite without conversion to the ceramic waste form. (authors)

  5. Management of Salt Waste from Electrochemical Processing of Used Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Michael F. Simpson; Michael N. Patterson; Joon Lee; Yifeng Wang; Joshua Versey; Ammon Williams; Supathorn Phongikaroon; James Allensworth; Man-Sung Yim

    2013-10-01

    Electrochemical processing of used nuclear fuel involves operation of one or more cells containing molten salt electrolyte. Processing of the fuel results in contamination of the salt via accumulation of fission products and transuranic (TRU) actinides. Upon reaching contamination limits, the salt must be removed and either disposed or treated to remove the contaminants and recycled back to the process. During development of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II spent fuel treatment process, waste salt from the electrorefiner was to be stabilized in a ceramic waste form and disposed of in a high-level waste repository. With the cancellation of the Yucca Mountain high-level waste repository, other options are now being considered. One approach that involves direct disposal of the salt in a geologic salt formation has been evaluated. While waste forms such as the ceramic provide near-term resistance to corrosion, they may not be necessary to ensure adequate performance of the repository. To improve the feasibility of direct disposal, recycling a substantial fraction of the useful salt back to the process equipment could minimize the volume of the waste. Experiments have been run in which a cold finger is used for this purpose to crystallize LiCl from LiCl/CsCl. If it is found to be unsuitable for transportation, the salt waste could also be immobilized in zeolite without conversion to the ceramic waste form.

  6. Inclusion property of Cs, Sr, and Ba impurities in LiCl crystal formed by layer-melt crystallization

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Jung-Hoon; Cho, Yung-Zun; Lee, Tae-Kyo; Eun, Hee-Chul; Kim, Jun-Hong; Park, Hwan-Seo; Kim, In-Tae; Park, Geun-Il

    2013-07-01

    Pyroprocessing is one of the promising technologies enabling the recycling of spent nuclear fuels from a commercial light water reactor (LWR). In general, pyroprocessing uses dry molten salts as electrolytes. In particular, LiCl waste salt after pyroprocessing contains highly radioactive I/II group fission products mainly composed of Cs, Sr, and Ba impurities. Therefore, it is beneficial to reuse LiCl salt in the pyroprocessing as an electrolyte for economic and environmental issues. Herein, to understand the inclusion property of impurities within LiCl crystal, the physical properties such as lattice parameter change, bulk modulus, and substitution enthalpy of a LiCl crystal having 0-6 at% Cs{sup +} or Ba{sup 2+} impurities under existence of 1 at% Sr{sup 2+} impurity were calculated via the first-principles density functional theory. The substitution enthalpy of LiCl crystals having 1 at% Sr{sup 2+} showed slightly decreased value than those without Sr{sup 2+} impurity. Therefore, through the substitution enthalpy calculation, it is expected that impurities will be incorporated within LiCl crystal as co-existed form rather than as a single component form. (authors)

  7. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome: review.

    PubMed

    Cerdà-Esteve, M; Cuadrado-Godia, E; Chillaron, J J; Pont-Sunyer, C; Cucurella, G; Fernández, M; Goday, A; Cano-Pérez, J F; Rodríguez-Campello, A; Roquer, J

    2008-06-01

    Hyponatremia is the most frequent electrolyte disorder in critically neurological patients. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSW) is defined as a renal loss of sodium during intracranial disease leading to hyponatremia and a decrease in extracellular fluid volume. The pathogenesis of this disorder is still not completely understood. Sympathetic responses as well as some natriuretic factors play a role in this syndrome. Distinction between SIADH and CSW might be difficult. The essential point is the volemic state. It is necessary to rule out other intermediate causes. Treatment requires volume replacement and maintenance of a positive salt balance. Mineral corticoids may be useful in complicated cases.

  8. Alternative Waste Forms for Electro-Chemical Salt Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Sundaram, S. K.; Riley, Brian J.; Matyas, Josef; Arreguin, Shelly A.; Vienna, John D.

    2009-10-28

    This study was undertaken to examine alternate crystalline (ceramic/mineral) and glass waste forms for immobilizing spent salt from the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) electrochemical separations process. The AFCI is a program sponsored by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and demonstrate a process for recycling spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The electrochemical process is a molten salt process for the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel in an electrorefiner and generates spent salt that is contaminated with alkali, alkaline earths, and lanthanide fission products (FP) that must either be cleaned of fission products or eventually replaced with new salt to maintain separations efficiency. Currently, these spent salts are mixed with zeolite to form sodalite in a glass-bonded waste form. The focus of this study was to investigate alternate waste forms to immobilize spent salt. On a mole basis, the spent salt is dominated by alkali and Cl with minor amounts of alkaline earth and lanthanides. In the study reported here, we made an effort to explore glass systems that are more compatible with Cl and have not been previously considered for use as waste forms. In addition, alternate methods were explored with the hope of finding a way to produce a sodalite that is more accepting of as many FP present in the spent salt as possible. This study was done to investigate two different options: (1) alternate glass families that incorporate increased concentrations of Cl; and (2) alternate methods to produce a mineral waste form.

  9. Disposal of NORM waste in salt caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.; Smith, K.P.; Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Blunt, D.; Williams, G.P.

    1998-07-01

    Some types of oil and gas production and processing wastes contain naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). If NORM is present at concentrations above regulatory levels in oil field waste, the waste requires special disposal practices. The existing disposal options for wastes containing NORM are limited and costly. This paper evaluates the legality, technical feasibility, economics, and human health risk of disposing of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns. Cavern disposal of NORM waste is technically feasible and poses a very low human health risk. From a legal perspective, there are no fatal flaws that would prevent a state regulatory agency from approving cavern disposal of NORM. On the basis of the costs charged by caverns currently used for disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW), NORM waste disposal caverns could be cost competitive with existing NORM waste disposal methods when regulatory agencies approve the practice.

  10. Designing Advanced Ceramic Waste Forms for Electrochemical Processing Salt Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Ebert, W. L.; Snyder, C. T.; Frank, Steven; Riley, Brian

    2016-03-01

    This report describes the scientific basis underlying the approach being followed to design and develop “advanced” glass-bonded sodalite ceramic waste form (ACWF) materials that can (1) accommodate higher salt waste loadings than the waste form developed in the 1990s for EBR-II waste salt and (2) provide greater flexibility for immobilizing extreme waste salt compositions. This is accomplished by using a binder glass having a much higher Na2O content than glass compositions used previously to provide enough Na+ to react with all of the Cl– in the waste salt and generate the maximum amount of sodalite. The phase compositions and degradation behaviors of prototype ACWF products that were made using five new binder glass formulations and with 11-14 mass% representative LiCl/KCl-based salt waste were evaluated and compared with results of similar tests run with CWF products made using the original binder glass with 8 mass% of the same salt to demonstrate the approach and select a composition for further studies. About twice the amount of sodalite was generated in all ACWF materials and the microstructures and degradation behaviors confirmed our understanding of the reactions occurring during waste form production and the efficacy of the approach. However, the porosities of the resulting ACWF materials were higher than is desired. These results indicate the capacity of these ACWF waste forms to accommodate LiCl/KCl-based salt wastes becomes limited by porosity due to the low glass-to-sodalite volume ratio. Three of the new binder glass compositions were acceptable and there is no benefit to further increasing the Na content as initially planned. Instead, further studies are needed to develop and evaluate alternative production methods to decrease the porosity, such as by increasing the amount of binder glass in the formulation or by processing waste forms in a hot isostatic press. Increasing the amount of binder glass to eliminate porosity will decrease

  11. Supplemental Cooling for Nitrate Salt Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, Mitchell S.

    2015-08-19

    In July 2015, Los Alamos National Laboratory completed installation of a supplemental cooling system in the structure where remediated nitrate salt waste drums are stored. Although the waste currently is in a safe configuration and is monitored daily,controlling the temperature inside the structure adds another layer of protection for workers, the public,and the environment.This effort is among several layers of precautions designed to secure the waste.

  12. [Cerebral salt wasting syndrome in bacterial meningitis].

    PubMed

    Attout, H; Guez, S; Seriès, C

    2007-10-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage is the most common cause of cerebral salt wasting syndrome. There are few reports of this condition in infectious meningitis. We describe a patient with hyponatremia and bacterial meningitis. Hyponatremia rapidly improved after administration of sodium chloride. The purpose of this report is to alert clinicians to the fact that hyponatremic patients with central nervous system disease do not necessarily have a syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH), but may have cerebral salt wasting syndrome. By contrast with SIADH, the treatment requires saline administration.

  13. Cerebral salt wasting in a postoperative period.

    PubMed

    Janus, Dominika; Wojcik, Malgorzata; Dolezal-Oltarzewska, Katarzyna; Kalicka-Kasperczyk, Anna; Poplawska, Karolina; Starzyk, Jerzy B

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSW-cerebral salt wasting) was first described in 1950 by Peters. This syndrome can occur in patients who have sustained damage to the central nervous system (e.g. patients with subarachnoid bleeding, bacterial meningitis or after neurosurgery). Patients present with excessive natriuresis and hyponatremic dehydration. Differentiating this syndrome with the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH-syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion), which may occur in the same group of patients, is necessary in order to administer the correct treatment which consists of fluid restriction and sodium replacement in SIADH and fluid and sodium replacement as well as occasional mineralocorticoid therapy in CSW.

  14. Immobilization of IFR salt wastes in mortar

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, D.F.; Johnson, T.R.

    1988-01-01

    Portland cement-base mortars are being considered for immobilizing chloride salt wastes produced by the fuel cycles of Integral Fast Reactors (IFR). The IFR is a sodium-cooled fast reactor with metal alloy fuels. It has a close-coupled fuel cycle in which fission products are separated from the actinides in an electrochemical cell operating at 500/degree/C. This cell has a liquid cadmium anode in which the fuels are dissolved and a liquid salt electrolyte. The salt will be a mixture of either lithium, potassium, and sodium chlorides or lithium, calcium, barium, and sodium chlorides. One method being considered for immobilizing the treated nontransuranic salt waste is to disperse the salt in a portland cement-base mortar that will be sealed in corrosion-resistant containers. For this application, the grout must be sufficiently fluid that it can be pumped into canister-molds where it will solidify into a strong, leach-resistant material. The set times must be longer than a few hours to allow sufficient time for processing, and the mortar must reach a reasonable compressive strength (/approximately/7 MPa) within three days to permit handling. Because fission product heating will be high, about 0.6 W/kg for a mortar containing 10% waste salt, the effects of elevated temperatures during curing and storage on mortar properties must be considered.

  15. Calculation of NaCl, KCl and LiCl Salts Activity Coefficients in Polyethylene Glycol (PEG4000)-Water System Using Modified PHSC Equation of State, Extended Debye-Hückel Model and Pitzer Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marjani, Azam

    2016-07-01

    For biomolecules and cell particles purification and separation in biological engineering, besides the chromatography as mostly applied process, aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) are of the most favorable separation processes that are worth to be investigated in thermodynamic theoretically. In recent years, thermodynamic calculation of ATPS properties has attracted much attention due to their great applications in chemical industries such as separation processes. These phase calculations of ATPS have inherent complexity due to the presence of ions and polymers in aqueous solution. In this work, for target ternary systems of polyethylene glycol (PEG4000)-salt-water, thermodynamic investigation for constituent systems with three salts (NaCl, KCl and LiCl) has been carried out as PEG is the most favorable polymer in ATPS. The modified perturbed hard sphere chain (PHSC) equation of state (EOS), extended Debye-Hückel and Pitzer models were employed for calculation of activity coefficients for the considered systems. Four additional statistical parameters were considered to ensure the consistency of correlations and introduced as objective functions in the particle swarm optimization algorithm. The results showed desirable agreement to the available experimental data, and the order of recommendation of studied models is PHSC EOS > extended Debye-Hückel > Pitzer. The concluding remark is that the all the employed models are reliable in such calculations and can be used for thermodynamic correlation/predictions; however, by using an ion-based parameter calculation method, the PHSC EOS reveals both reliability and universality of applications.

  16. Molten salt destruction of energetic waste materials

    DOEpatents

    Brummond, William A.; Upadhye, Ravindra S.; Pruneda, Cesar O.

    1995-01-01

    A molten salt destruction process is used to treat and destroy energetic waste materials such as high explosives, propellants, and rocket fuels. The energetic material is pre-blended with a solid or fluid diluent in safe proportions to form a fluid fuel mixture. The fuel mixture is rapidly introduced into a high temperature molten salt bath. A stream of molten salt is removed from the vessel and may be recycled as diluent. Additionally, the molten salt stream may be pumped from the reactor, circulated outside the reactor for further processing, and delivered back into the reactor or cooled and circulated to the feed delivery system to further dilute the fuel mixture entering the reactor.

  17. Molten salt destruction of energetic waste materials

    DOEpatents

    Brummond, W.A.; Upadhye, R.S.; Pruneda, C.O.

    1995-07-18

    A molten salt destruction process is used to treat and destroy energetic waste materials such as high explosives, propellants, and rocket fuels. The energetic material is pre-blended with a solid or fluid diluent in safe proportions to form a fluid fuel mixture. The fuel mixture is rapidly introduced into a high temperature molten salt bath. A stream of molten salt is removed from the vessel and may be recycled as diluent. Additionally, the molten salt stream may be pumped from the reactor, circulated outside the reactor for further processing, and delivered back into the reactor or cooled and circulated to the feed delivery system to further dilute the fuel mixture entering the reactor. 4 figs.

  18. Cerebral salt wasting versus SIADH: what difference?

    PubMed

    Sterns, Richard H; Silver, Stephen M

    2008-02-01

    The term cerebral salt wasting (CSW) was introduced before the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion was described in 1957. Subsequently, CSW virtually vanished, only to reappear a quarter century later in the neurosurgical literature. A valid diagnosis of CSW requires evidence of inappropriate urinary salt losses and reduced "effective arterial blood volume." With no gold standard, the reported measures of volume depletion do not stand scrutiny. We cannot tell the difference between CSW and the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion. Furthermore, the distinction does not make a difference; regardless of volume status, hyponatremia complicating intracranial disease should be treated with hypertonic saline.

  19. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome following neurosurgical intervention in tuberculous meningitis.

    PubMed

    Nagotkar, L; Shanbag, P; Dasarwar, N

    2008-07-01

    Cerebral salt wasting is characterized by inappropriate natriuresis and volume contraction in the presence of cerebral pathology. Diagnosis can be difficult and therapy is challenging. We report two children with tuberculous meningitis and hydrocephalus who developed cerebral salt wasting following neurosurgical intervention. The first patient was managed with rigorous salt and water replacement whereas the second patient required the addition of fludrocortisone for control of salt-wasting.

  20. Physical chemistry of molten-salt batteries. Final report, October 1, 1981-September 30, 1982. LiCl precipitation from LiCl-KCl anolyte in porous Li-Al electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Vallet, C.E.; Heatherly, D.E.; Heatherly, L. Jr.; Braunstein, J.

    1983-05-01

    Composition gradients such as those predicted to occur during discharge of porous Li-Al negative electrodes of Li/S batteries with LiCl-KCl eutectic electrolyte were generated and measured in the LiCl-KCl anolyte of an electrolysis cell with Li-Al electrodes. LiCl precipitation during electrolysis was observed by two-dimensional scanning of electrolyte composition in the front part of quenched porous Li-Al anode sections using SEM/EDX. The distribution of sites of increased or decreased LiCl concentration, LiCl saturation and precipitation was mapped. Cathodic regions were observed near the cell walls. Preliminary results of analysis by Auger spectroscopy confirm LiCl precipitation in the porous anode.

  1. Cementitious Stabilization of Mixed Wastes with High Salt Loadings

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, R.D.; Burgess, M.W.; Fedorov, V.V.; Downing, D.J.

    1999-04-01

    Salt loadings approaching 50 wt % were tolerated in cementitious waste forms that still met leach and strength criteria, addressing a Technology Deficiency of low salt loadings previously identified by the Mixed Waste Focus Area. A statistical design quantified the effect of different stabilizing ingredients and salt loading on performance at lower loadings, allowing selection of the more effective ingredients for studying the higher salt loadings. In general, the final waste form needed to consist of 25 wt % of the dry stabilizing ingredients to meet the criteria used and 25 wt % water to form a workable paste, leaving 50 wt % for waste solids. The salt loading depends on the salt content of the waste solids but could be as high as 50 wt % if all the waste solids are salt.

  2. Delivery system for molten salt oxidation of solid waste

    DOEpatents

    Brummond, William A.; Squire, Dwight V.; Robinson, Jeffrey A.; House, Palmer A.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention is a delivery system for safety injecting solid waste particles, including mixed wastes, into a molten salt bath for destruction by the process of molten salt oxidation. The delivery system includes a feeder system and an injector that allow the solid waste stream to be accurately metered, evenly dispersed in the oxidant gas, and maintained at a temperature below incineration temperature while entering the molten salt reactor.

  3. Cerebral salt wasting: pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Yee, Alan H; Burns, Joseph D; Wijdicks, Eelco F M

    2010-04-01

    Cerebral salt wasting (CSW) is a syndrome of hypovolemic hyponatremia caused by natriuresis and diuresis. The mechanisms underlying CSW have not been precisely delineated, although existing evidence strongly implicates abnormal elevations in circulating natriuretic peptides. The key in diagnosis of CSW lies in distinguishing it from the more common syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone. Volume status, but not serum and urine electrolytes and osmolality, is crucial for making this distinction. Volume and sodium repletion are the goals of treatment of patients with CSW, and this can be performed using some combination of isotonic saline, hypertonic saline, and mineralocorticoids.

  4. Modeling Solute Thermokinetics in LiCI-KCI Molten Salt for Nuclear Waste Separation

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, Dane; Eapen, Jacob

    2013-10-01

    at the eutectic composition (58 mol% LiCl, 42 mol% KCl), which is used for treating spent EBR-II fuel. The same process being used for EBRII fuel is currently being studied for widespread international implementation. The methods will focus on first-principles and first- principles derived interatomic potential based simulations, primarily using molecular dynamics. Results will be validated against existing literature and parallel ongoing experimental efforts. The simulation results will be of value for interpreting experimental results, validating analytical models, and for optimizing waste separation by potentially developing new salt configurations and operating conditions.

  5. Is it cerebral or renal salt wasting?

    PubMed

    Maesaka, John K; Imbriano, Louis J; Ali, Nicole M; Ilamathi, Ekambaram

    2009-11-01

    Cerebral salt-wasting (CSW), or renal salt-wasting (RSW), has evolved from a misrepresentation of the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) to acceptance as a distinct entity. Challenges still confront us as we attempt to differentiate RSW from SIADH, ascertain the prevalence of RSW, and address reports of RSW occurring without cerebral disease. RSW is redefined as 'extracellular volume depletion due to a renal sodium transport abnormality with or without high urinary sodium concentration, presence of hyponatremia or cerebral disease with normal adrenal and thyroid function.' Our inability to differentiate RSW from SIADH lies in the clinical and laboratory similarities between the two syndromes and the difficulty of accurate assessment of extracellular volume. Radioisotopic determinations of extracellular volume in neurosurgical patients reveal renal that RSW is more common than SIADH. We review the persistence of hypouricemia and increased fractional excretion of urate in RSW as compared to correction of both in SIADH, the appropriateness of ADH secretion in RSW, and the importance of differentiating renal RSW from SIADH because of disparate treatment goals: fluid repletion in RSW and fluid restriction in SIADH. Patients with RSW are being incorrectly treated by fluid restriction, with clinical consequences. We conclude that RSW is common and occurs without cerebral disease, and propose changing CSW to RSW.

  6. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Salt Decontamination Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Demmer, Ricky Lynn; Reese, Stephen Joseph

    2015-03-01

    On February 14, 2014, americium and plutonium contamination was released in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) salt caverns. Several practical, easily deployable methods of decontaminating WIPP salt, using a surrogate contaminant and americium (241Am), were developed and tested. The effectiveness of the methods is evaluated qualitatively, and to the extent practical, quantitatively. Of the methods tested (dry brushing, vacuum cleaning, water washing, mechanical grinding, strippable coatings, and fixative barriers), the most practical seems to be water washing. Effectiveness is very high, and water washing is easy and rapid to deploy. The amount of wastewater produced (~2 L/m2) would be substantial and may not be easy to manage, but the method is the clear winner from a usability perspective. Removable surface contamination levels (smear results) from water washed coupons found no residual removable contamination. Thus, whatever contamination is left is likely adhered to (or trapped within) the salt. The other option that shows promise is the use of a fixative barrier. Bartlett Nuclear, Inc.’s Polymeric Barrier System proved the most durable of the coatings tested. The coatings were not tested for contaminant entrapment, only for coating integrity and durability.

  7. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Salt Decontamination Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Rick Demmer; Stephen Reese

    2014-09-01

    On February 14, 2014, americium and plutonium contamination was released in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) salt caverns. At the request of WIPP’s operations contractor, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) personnel developed several methods of decontaminating WIPP salt, using surrogate contaminants and also americium (241Am). The effectiveness of the methods is evaluated qualitatively, and to the extent possible, quantitatively. One of the requirements of this effort was delivering initial results and recommendations within a few weeks. That requirement, in combination with the limited scope of the project, made in-depth analysis impractical in some instances. Of the methods tested (dry brushing, vacuum cleaning, water washing, strippable coatings, and mechanical grinding), the most practical seems to be water washing. Effectiveness is very high, and it is very easy and rapid to deploy. The amount of wastewater produced (2 L/m2) would be substantial and may not be easy to manage, but the method is the clear winner from a usability perspective. Removable surface contamination levels (smear results) from the strippable coating and water washing coupons found no residual removable contamination. Thus, whatever is left is likely adhered to (or trapped within) the salt. The other option that shows promise is the use of a fixative barrier. Bartlett Nuclear, Inc.’s Polymeric Barrier System (PBS) proved the most durable of the coatings tested. The coatings were not tested for contaminant entrapment, only for coating integrity and durability.

  8. [Tubercular meningitis with severe hyponatraemia caused by cerebral salt wasting].

    PubMed

    Tinggaard, Jeanette; Schmidt, Ida Maria; Kristensen, Kim

    2011-09-12

    We describe two children, who were admitted with severe hyponatraemia and dehydration. In both children the hyponatraemia was due to cerebral salt wasting caused by tubercular meningitis. Differential diagnosis and pathophysiology is discussed. It is important to discriminate between cerebral salt wasting and inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone since the therapy required is completely different in the two conditions.

  9. Mixed Waste Salt Encapsulation Using Polysiloxane - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.M.; Loomis, G.G.; Prewett, S.W.

    1997-11-01

    A proof-of-concept experimental study was performed to investigate the use of Orbit Technologies polysiloxane grouting material for encapsulation of U.S. Department of Energy mixed waste salts leading to a final waste form for disposal. Evaporator pond salt residues and other salt-like material contaminated with both radioactive isotopes and hazardous components are ubiquitous in the DOE complex and may exceed 250,000,000 kg of material. Current treatment involves mixing low waste percentages (less than 10% by mass salt) with cement or costly thermal treatment followed by cementation to the ash residue. The proposed technology involves simple mixing of the granular salt material (with relatively high waste loadings-greater than 50%) in a polysiloxane-based system that polymerizes to form a silicon-based polymer material. This study involved a mixing study to determine optimum waste loadings and compressive strengths of the resultant monoliths. Following the mixing study, durability testing was performed on promising waste forms. Leaching studies including the accelerated leach test and the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure were also performed on a high nitrate salt waste form. In addition to this testing, the waste form was examined by scanning electron microscope. Preliminary cost estimates for applying this technology to the DOE complex mixed waste salt problem is also given.

  10. Salt disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste.

    SciTech Connect

    Leigh, Christi D.; Hansen, Francis D.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the state of salt repository science, reviews many of the technical issues pertaining to disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in salt, and proposes several avenues for future science-based activities to further the technical basis for disposal in salt. There are extensive salt formations in the forty-eight contiguous states, and many of them may be worthy of consideration for nuclear waste disposal. The United States has extensive experience in salt repository sciences, including an operating facility for disposal of transuranic wastes. The scientific background for salt disposal including laboratory and field tests at ambient and elevated temperature, principles of salt behavior, potential for fracture damage and its mitigation, seal systems, chemical conditions, advanced modeling capabilities and near-future developments, performance assessment processes, and international collaboration are all discussed. The discussion of salt disposal issues is brought current, including a summary of recent international workshops dedicated to high-level waste disposal in salt. Lessons learned from Sandia National Laboratories' experience on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and the Yucca Mountain Project as well as related salt experience with the Strategic Petroleum Reserve are applied in this assessment. Disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in a suitable salt formation is attractive because the material is essentially impermeable, self-sealing, and thermally conductive. Conditions are chemically beneficial, and a significant experience base exists in understanding this environment. Within the period of institutional control, overburden pressure will seal fractures and provide a repository setting that limits radionuclide movement. A salt repository could potentially achieve total containment, with no releases to the environment in undisturbed scenarios for as long as the region is geologically stable. Much of the experience gained from United

  11. Effects of Heat Generation on Nuclear Waste Disposal in Salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, D. J.

    2008-12-01

    Disposal of nuclear waste in salt is an established technology, as evidenced by the successful operations of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) since 1999. The WIPP is located in bedded salt in southeastern New Mexico and is a deep underground facility for transuranic (TRU) nuclear waste disposal. There are many advantages for placing radioactive wastes in a geologic bedded-salt environment. One desirable mechanical characteristic of salt is that it flows plastically with time ("creeps"). The rate of salt creep is a strong function of temperature and stress differences. Higher temperatures and deviatoric stresses increase the creep rate. As the salt creeps, induced fractures may be closed and eventually healed, which then effectively seals the waste in place. With a backfill of crushed salt emplaced around the waste, the salt creep can cause the crushed salt to reconsolidate and heal to a state similar to intact salt, serving as an efficient seal. Experiments in the WIPP were conducted to investigate the effects of heat generation on the important phenomena and processes in and around the repository (Munson et al. 1987; 1990; 1992a; 1992b). Brine migration towards the heaters was induced from the thermal gradient, while salt creep rates showed an exponential dependence on temperature. The project "Backfill and Material Behavior in Underground Salt Repositories, Phase II" (BAMBUS II) studied the crushed salt backfill and material behavior with heat generation at the Asse mine located near Remlingen, Germany (Bechthold et al. 2004). Increased salt creep rates and significant reconsolidation of the crushed salt were observed at the termination of the experiment. Using the data provided from both projects, exploratory modeling of the thermal-mechanical response of salt has been conducted with varying thermal loading and waste spacing. Increased thermal loading and decreased waste spacing drive the system to higher temperatures, while both factors are desired to

  12. [Cerbral salt wasting syndrome versus SIADH].

    PubMed

    Deslarzes, Tristan; Turini, Pierre; Friolet, Raymond; Meier, Pascal

    2009-11-11

    In the context of cerebral diseases the two main mechanisms responsible for non iatrogenic causes of hyponatremia are cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSW) and inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). Distinction between these two syndromes is difficult and is based on the assessment of the patient's volume status. In case of CSW, the volume status is low and the treatment is fluid and sodium replacement. In case of SIADH the volume status is normal or slightly expanded and the treatment is fluid restriction. To avoid centropontine myelinolysis, the speed of correction should not exceed 8 to 10 mmol/L over a 24-hour period. This article will describe practical tools to differentiate CSW from SIADH and therapeutic strategies useful in daily clinical practice.

  13. [Does cerebral salt wasting syndrome exist?].

    PubMed

    Leblanc, P-E; Cheisson, G; Geeraerts, T; Tazarourte, K; Duranteau, J; Vigué, B

    2007-11-01

    Increased natriuresis is a frequent situation after subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). It may be responsible for hyponatremia, which can be dangerous in case of severe hypo-osmolarity or hypovolemia. Inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone or cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSWS) have been incriminated for hyponatremia after SAH, but it remains difficult to distinguish between both syndromes. There are many explanations for increased natriuresis after SAH, depending on the level of blood pressure, the volemia, and the presence or not of natriuretic peptides. The cerebral insult and the treatments, which are done to fight against elevated intracranial pressure or vasospasm, can modify any of these parameters. So it appears that the word "cerebral" in CSWS is probably not a good term and it would be better to talk about appropriate or non-appropriate natriuretic response. Corticoïds or urea can be useful for controlling hypernatriuresis.

  14. Vitrification of IFR and MSBR halide salt reprocessing wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Siemer, D.D.

    2013-07-01

    Both of the genuinely sustainable (breeder) nuclear fuel cycles (IFR - Integral Fast Reactor - and MSBR - Molten Salt Breeder Reactor -) studied by the USA's national laboratories would generate high level reprocessing waste (HLRW) streams consisting of a relatively small amount ( about 4 mole %) of fission product halide (chloride or fluoride) salts in a matrix comprised primarily (about 95 mole %) of non radioactive alkali metal halide salts. Because leach resistant glasses cannot accommodate much of any of the halides, most of the treatment scenarios previously envisioned for such HLRW have assumed a monolithic waste form comprised of a synthetic analog of an insoluble crystalline halide mineral. In practice, this translates to making a 'substituted' sodalite ('Ceramic Waste Form') of the IFR's chloride salt-based wastes and fluoroapatite of the MSBR's fluoride salt-based wastes. This paper discusses my experimental studies of an alternative waste management scenario for both fuel cycles that would separate/recycle the waste's halide and immobilize everything else in iron phosphate (Fe-P) glass. It will describe both how the work was done and what its results indicate about how a treatment process for both of those wastes should be implemented (fluoride and chloride behave differently). In either case, this scenario's primary advantages include much higher waste loadings, much lower overall cost, and the generation of a product (glass) that is more consistent with current waste management practices. (author)

  15. Expected brine movement at potential nuclear waste repository salt sites

    SciTech Connect

    McCauley, V.S.; Raines, G.E.

    1987-08-01

    The BRINEMIG brine migration code predicts rates and quantities of brine migration to a waste package emplaced in a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt. The BRINEMIG code is an explicit time-marching finite-difference code that solves a mass balance equation and uses the Jenks equation to predict velocities of brine migration. Predictions were made for the seven potentially acceptable salt sites under consideration as locations for the first US high-level nuclear waste repository. Predicted total quantities of accumulated brine were on the order of 1 m/sup 3/ brine per waste package or less. Less brine accumulation is expected at domal salt sites because of the lower initial moisture contents relative to bedded salt sites. Less total accumulation of brine is predicted for spent fuel than for commercial high-level waste because of the lower temperatures generated by spent fuel. 11 refs., 36 figs., 29 tabs.

  16. Method for immobilizing mixed waste chloride salts containing radionuclides and other hazardous wastes

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Michele A.; Johnson, Terry R.

    1993-09-07

    The invention is a method for the encapsulation of soluble radioactive waste chloride salts containing radionuclides such as strontium, cesium and hazardous wastes such as barium so that they may be permanently stored without future threat to the environment. The process consists of contacting the salts containing the radionuclides and hazardous wastes with certain zeolites which have been found to ion exchange with the radionuclides and to occlude the chloride salts so that the resulting product is leach resistant.

  17. Method for immobilizing mixed waste chloride salts containing radionuclides and other hazardous wastes

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Michele A.; Johnson, Terry R.

    1993-01-01

    The invention is a method for the encapsulation of soluble radioactive waste chloride salts containing radionuclides such as strontium, cesium and hazardous wastes such as barium so that they may be permanently stored without future threat to the environment. The process consists of contacting the salts containing the radionuclides and hazardous wastes with certain zeolites which have been found to ion exchange with the radionuclides and to occlude the chloride salts so that the resulting product is leach resistant.

  18. High-temperature vacuum distillation separation of plutonium waste salts

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, E.

    1996-10-01

    In this task, high-temperature vacuum distillation separation is being developed for residue sodium chloride-potassium chloride salts resulting from past pyrochemical processing of plutonium. This process has the potential of providing clean separation of the salt and the actinides with minimal amounts of secondary waste generation. The process could produce chloride salt that could be discarded as low-level waste (LLW) or low actinide content transuranic (TRU) waste, and a concentrated actinide oxide powder that would meet long-term storage standards (DOE-DTD-3013-94) until a final disposition option for all surplus plutonium is chosen.

  19. Alternative methods of salt disposal at the seven salt sites for a nuclear waste repository

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-02-01

    This study discusses the various alternative salt management techniques for the disposal of excess mined salt at seven potentially acceptable nuclear waste repository sites: Deaf Smith and Swisher Counties, Texas; Richton and Cypress Creek Domes, Mississippi; Vacherie Dome, Louisiana; and Davis and Lavender Canyons, Utah. Because the repository development involves the underground excavation of corridors and waste emplacement rooms, in either bedded or domed salt formations, excess salt will be mined and must be disposed of offsite. The salt disposal alternatives examined for all the sites include commercial use, ocean disposal, deep well injection, landfill disposal, and underground mine disposal. These alternatives (and other site-specific disposal methods) are reviewed, using estimated amounts of excavated, backfilled, and excess salt. Methods of transporting the excess salt are discussed, along with possible impacts of each disposal method and potential regulatory requirements. A preferred method of disposal is recommended for each potentially acceptable repository site. 14 refs., 5 tabs.

  20. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome in a patient with tuberculous meningitis.

    PubMed

    Ravishankar, B; Mangala; Prakash, G K; Shetty, K J; Ballal, H S

    2006-05-01

    We report a case of a 65 year male with meningitis who had polyuria, severe hyponatremia, volume depletion and very high urinary sodium excretion. He was diagnosed to have cerebral salt wasting syndrome based on clinical and laboratory parameters.

  1. Waste disposal in a German rock-salt mine

    SciTech Connect

    Wegener, W. )

    1993-04-01

    A worked-out area of the operating Helibronn rock-salt mine is being used as a repository for fly-ash waste from incineration plants. The waste is packed in large bags, handled by fork-lifts, trucks, and cranes, and stacked 11-m-high. In addition insolubles from the re-saturation of brine for electrolysis using rock salt are stowed in bulk. Special care is taken to isolate waste-disposal activities from the salt mining and hoisting operations. Considerable interest is being shown in the underground disposal of waste in Germany, particularly as existing landfill sites are approaching the end of their lives and the establishment of new sites is meeting strong opposition from local populations. The problems encountered in the disposal of fly ash in salt mines are discussed.

  2. [Hyponatremia in acute intracranial disorders: cerebral salt wasting].

    PubMed

    Betjes, M G; Koopmans, R P

    2000-03-18

    Hyponatraemia is a frequent finding in the course of an acute intracranial disease, especially after a subarachnoid haemorrhage. The fall in plasma sodium concentration is usually mild and not below 124 mmol/l but may reach dangerously low levels with serious neurological complications. In the early 1950s the cause of the hyponatraemia was believed to be primarily excessive natriuresis and therefore named 'cerebral salt wasting'. After the description of the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) this was favoured as the most likely explanation. Only in recent years has it become evident that many hyponatraemic patients with acute brain disease are actually hypovolaemic. This is compatible with the original diagnosis of cerebral salt wasting. The increased plasma concentrations of natriuretic peptides are likely to mediate the increased natriuresis. Cerebral salt wasting can be treated with a simple regimen of water and salt suppletion. If needed a mineralocorticoid like fludrocortisone can be given to increase renal tubular sodium reabsorption.

  3. Disposition of salt-waste from pyrochemical nuclear fuel processing

    SciTech Connect

    Vance, E.R.

    2007-07-01

    Waste salts from pyrochemical processing of nuclear fuel can be immobilised in sodalite if consolidated by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) at {approx}750 deg. C/100 MPa in thick stainless steel 316 cans. Other canning materials for this purpose also look possible. Spodiosite-based waste forms do not look promising in terms of leach resistance and their incorporation of alkali ions and compatibility with other phases which could potentially accommodate fission products, such as NaZr{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} or alumino-phosphate glass. Chloro- or fluor-apatite-based waste forms however have been reported to successfully accommodate fission products and alkalis which would be derived from either chloride- or fluoride-based waste pyro-processing salts. The presence of 10 or 20 wt% of additional Whitlockite, Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}, should allow chemical flexibility to maintain the same qualitative phase assemblage when there are variations in the waste feed and in the waste/precursor ratios. Experimental verification of incorporation of the full complement of waste salts and fission products is not yet complete however. Apatite-rich samples could likely be HIPed in Inconel 600 cans. Other candidate HIP canning materials such as Alloy 22 or Inconel 625 are under study by encapsulating them in the candidate waste form and studying their interaction or otherwise with the waste form. (author)

  4. Molten salt processing of mixed wastes with offgas condensation

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.F.; Brummond, W.; Celeste, J.; Farmer, J.; Hoenig, C.; Krikorian, O.H.; Upadhye, R. ); Gay, R.L.; Stewart, A.; Yosim, S. . Energy Systems Group)

    1991-05-13

    We are developing an advanced process for treatment of mixed wastes in molten salt media at temperatures of 700--1000{degrees}C. Waste destruction has been demonstrated in a single stage oxidation process, with destruction efficiencies above 99.9999% for many waste categories. The molten salt provides a heat transfer medium, prevents thermal surges, and functions as an in situ scrubber to transform the acid-gas forming components of the waste into neutral salts and immobilizes potentially fugitive materials by a combination of particle wetting, encapsulation and chemical dissolution and solvation. Because the offgas is collected and assayed before release, and wastes containing toxic and radioactive materials are treated while immobilized in a condensed phase, the process avoids the problems sometimes associated with incineration processes. We are studying a potentially improved modification of this process, which treats oxidizable wastes in two stages: pyrolysis followed by catalyzed molten salt oxidation of the pyrolysis gases at ca. 700{degrees}C. 15 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Oil field waste disposal in salt caverns: An information website

    SciTech Connect

    Tomasko, D.; Veil, J. A.

    1999-12-10

    Argonne National Laboratory has completed the construction of a Website for the US Department of Energy (DOE) that provides detailed information on salt caverns and their use for disposing of nonhazardous oil field wastes (NOW) and naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). Specific topics in the Website include the following: descriptions of salt deposits and salt caverns within the US, salt cavern construction methods, potential types of wastes, waste emplacement, regulatory issues, costs, carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic human health risks associated with postulated cavern release scenarios, new information on cavern disposal (e.g., upcoming meetings, regulatory issues, etc.), other studies supported by the National Petroleum Technology Office (NPTO) (e.g., considerations of site location, cavern stability, development issues, and bedded salt characterization in the Midland Basin), and links to other associated Web sites. In addition, the Website allows downloadable access to reports prepared on the topic that were funded by DOE. Because of the large quantities of NOW and NORM wastes generated annually by the oil industry, information presented on this Website is particularly interesting and valuable to project managers, regulators, and concerned citizens.

  6. Transient Oliguria during Anesthesia in Cerebral Salt Wasting Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kwang Ho; Park, Jong Taek; Cho, Dong Woo; Song, Seung Woo; Lim, Hyun Kyo

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral salt wasting syndrome is a hyponatremic and hypovolemic condition caused by intracranial disorders, such as head injury, subarachnoid hemorrhage, brain tumor, and brain operations. We report a case of a 5-year-old girl that had cerebral salt wasting syndrome with marked polyuria who showed transient oliguria during general anesthesia. The patient had undergone an operation for traumatic intracranial hemorrhage three months prior and has had marked polyuria and hyponatremia since then. After induction of anesthesia for cranioplasty, the patient had oliguria during surgery and then resumed polyuria in the post-operative period. PMID:27924287

  7. Transient Oliguria during Anesthesia in Cerebral Salt Wasting Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwang Ho; Park, Jong Taek; Cho, Dong Woo; Song, Seung Woo; Lim, Hyun Kyo

    2016-09-01

    Cerebral salt wasting syndrome is a hyponatremic and hypovolemic condition caused by intracranial disorders, such as head injury, subarachnoid hemorrhage, brain tumor, and brain operations. We report a case of a 5-year-old girl that had cerebral salt wasting syndrome with marked polyuria who showed transient oliguria during general anesthesia. The patient had undergone an operation for traumatic intracranial hemorrhage three months prior and has had marked polyuria and hyponatremia since then. After induction of anesthesia for cranioplasty, the patient had oliguria during surgery and then resumed polyuria in the post-operative period.

  8. MIXING MODELING ANALYSIS FOR SRS SALT WASTE DISPOSITION

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.

    2011-01-18

    Nuclear waste at Savannah River Site (SRS) waste tanks consists of three different types of waste forms. They are the lighter salt solutions referred to as supernate, the precipitated salts as salt cake, and heavier fine solids as sludge. The sludge is settled on the tank floor. About half of the residual waste radioactivity is contained in the sludge, which is only about 8 percentage of the total waste volume. Mixing study to be evaluated here for the Salt Disposition Integration (SDI) project focuses on supernate preparations in waste tanks prior to transfer to the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) feed tank. The methods to mix and blend the contents of the SRS blend tanks were evalutaed to ensure that the contents are properly blended before they are transferred from the blend tank such as Tank 50H to the SWPF feed tank. The work consists of two principal objectives to investigate two different pumps. One objective is to identify a suitable pumping arrangement that will adequately blend/mix two miscible liquids to obtain a uniform composition in the tank with a minimum level of sludge solid particulate in suspension. The other is to estimate the elevation in the tank at which the transfer pump inlet should be located where the solid concentration of the entrained fluid remains below the acceptance criterion (0.09 wt% or 1200 mg/liter) during transfer operation to the SWPF. Tank 50H is a Waste Tank that will be used to prepare batches of salt feed for SWPF. The salt feed must be a homogeneous solution satisfying the acceptance criterion of the solids entrainment during transfer operation. The work described here consists of two modeling areas. They are the mixing modeling analysis during miscible liquid blending operation, and the flow pattern analysis during transfer operation of the blended liquid. The modeling results will provide quantitative design and operation information during the mixing/blending process and the transfer operation of the blended

  9. Gasification characteristics of organic waste by molten salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiura, Kimihiko; Minami, Keishi; Yamauchi, Makoto; Morimitsu, Shinsuke; Tanimoto, Kazumi

    Recently, along with the growth in economic development, there has been a dramatic accompanying increase in the amount of sludge and organic waste. The disposal of such is a significant problem. Moreover, there is also an increased in the consumption of electricity along with economic growth. Although new energy development, such as fuel cells, has been promoted to solve the problem of power consumption, there has been little corresponding promotion relating to the disposal of sludge and organic waste. Generally, methane fermentation comprises the primary organic waste fuel used in gasification systems. However, the methane fermentation method takes a long time to obtain the fuel gas, and the quality of the obtained gas is unstable. On the other hand, gasification by molten salt is undesirable because the molten salt in the gasification gas corrodes the piping and turbine blades. Therefore, a gasification system is proposed by which the sludge and organic waste are gasified by molten salt. Moreover, molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) are needed to refill the MCFC electrolyte volatilized in the operation. Since the gasification gas is used as an MCFC fuel, MCFC electrolyte can be provided with the fuel gas. This paper elucidates the fundamental characteristics of sludge and organic waste gasification. A crucible filled with the molten salt comprising 62 Li 2CO 3/38 K 2CO 3, is installed in the reaction vessel, and can be set to an arbitrary temperature in a gas atmosphere. In this instance, the gasifying agent gas is CO 2. Sludge or the rice is supplied as organic waste into the molten salt, and is gasified. The chemical composition of the gasification gas is analyzed by a CO/CO 2 meter, a HC meter, and a SO x meter gas chromatography. As a result, although sludge can generate CO and H 2 near the chemical equilibrium value, all of the sulfur in the sludge is not fixed in the molten salt, because the sludge floats on the surface of the carbonate by the specific

  10. Integrated demonstration of molten salt oxidation with salt recycle for mixed waste treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, P.C.

    1997-11-01

    Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a thermal, nonflame process that has the inherent capability of completely destroying organic constituents of mixed wastes, hazardous wastes, and energetic materials while retaining inorganic and radioactive constituents in the salt. For this reason, MSO is considered a promising alternative to incineration for the treatment of a variety of organic wastes. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has prepared a facility and constructed an integrated pilot-scale MSO treatment system in which tests and demonstrations are performed under carefully controlled (experimental) conditions. The system consists of a MSO processor with dedicated off-gas treatment, a salt recycle system, feed preparation equipment, and equipment for preparing ceramic final waste forms. This integrated system was designed and engineered based on laboratory experience with a smaller engineering-scale reactor unit and extensive laboratory development on salt recycle and final forms preparation. In this paper we present design and engineering details of the system and discuss its capabilities as well as preliminary process demonstration data. A primary purpose of these demonstrations is identification of the most suitable waste streams and waste types for MSO treatment.

  11. Engineering Options Assessment Report: Nitrate Salt Waste Stream Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Anast, Kurt Roy

    2015-11-18

    This report examines and assesses the available systems and facilities considered for carrying out remediation activities on remediated nitrate salt (RNS) and unremediated nitrate salt (UNS) waste containers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The assessment includes a review of the waste streams consisting of 60 RNS, 29 aboveground UNS, and 79 candidate belowground UNS containers that may need remediation. The waste stream characteristics were examined along with the proposed treatment options identified in the Options Assessment Report . Two primary approaches were identified in the five candidate treatment options discussed in the Options Assessment Report: zeolite blending and cementation. Systems that could be used at LANL were examined for housing processing operations to remediate the RNS and UNS containers and for their viability to provide repackaging support for remaining LANL legacy waste.

  12. Engineering Options Assessment Report. Nitrate Salt Waste Stream Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Anast, Kurt Roy

    2015-11-13

    This report examines and assesses the available systems and facilities considered for carrying out remediation activities on remediated nitrate salt (RNS) and unremediated nitrate salt (UNS) waste containers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The assessment includes a review of the waste streams consisting of 60 RNS, 29 above-ground UNS, and 79 candidate below-ground UNS containers that may need remediation. The waste stream characteristics were examined along with the proposed treatment options identified in the Options Assessment Report . Two primary approaches were identified in the five candidate treatment options discussed in the Options Assessment Report: zeolite blending and cementation. Systems that could be used at LANL were examined for housing processing operations to remediate the RNS and UNS containers and for their viability to provide repackaging support for remaining LANL legacy waste.

  13. Laboratory simulation of salt dissolution during waste removal

    SciTech Connect

    Wiersma, B.J.; Parish, W.R.

    1997-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were performed to support the field demonstration of improved techniques for salt dissolution in waste tanks at the Savannah River Site. The tests were designed to investigate three density driven techniques for salt dissolution: (1) Drain-Add-Sit-Remove, (2) Modified Density Gradient, and (3) Continuous Salt Mining. Salt dissolution was observed to be a very rapid process as salt solutions with densities between 1.38-1.4 were frequently removed. Slower addition and removal rates and locating the outlet line at deeper levels below the top of the saltcake provided the best contact between the dissolution water and the saltcake. It was observed that dissolution with 1 M sodium hydroxide solution resulted in salt solutions that were within the current inhibitor requirements for the prevention of stress corrosion cracking. This result was independent of the density driven technique. However, if inhibited water (0.01 M sodium hydroxide and 0.011 M sodium nitrite) was utilized, the salt solutions were frequently outside the inhibitor requirements. Corrosion testing at conditions similar to the environments expected during waste removal was recommended.

  14. Direct Grout Stabilization of High Cesium Salt Waste: Salt Alternative Phase III Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C.A.

    1998-12-07

    The direct grout alternative is a viable option for treatment/stabilization and disposal of salt waste containing Cs-137 concentrations of 1-3 Ci/gal. The composition of the direct grout salt solution is higher in sodium salts and contains up to a few hundred ppm Cs-137 more than the current reference salt solution. However it is still similar to the composition of the current reference salt solution. Consequently, the processing, setting, and leaching properties (including TCLP for Cr and Hg) of the direct grout and current saltstone waste forms are very similar. The significant difference between these waste solutions is that the high cesium salt solution will contain between 1 and 3 Curies of Cs-137 per gallon compared to a negligible amount in the current salt solution. This difference will require special engineering and shielding for a direct grout processing facility and disposal units to achieve acceptable radiation exposure conditions. The Cs-137 concentration in the direct grout salt solution will also affect the long-term curing temperature of the waste form since 4.84 Watts of energy are generated per 1000 Ci of Cs-137. The temperature rise of the direct grout during long-term curing has been calculated by A. Shaddy, SRTC.1 The effect of curing temperature on the strength, leaching and physical durability of the direct grout saltstone is described in this report. At the present time, long term curing at 90 degrees C appears to be unacceptable because of cracking which will affect the structural integrity as evaluated in the immersion test. (The experiments conducted in this feasibility study do not address the effect of cracking on leaching of contaminants other than Cr, Hg, and Cs.) No cracking of the direct grout or reference saltstone waste forms was observed for samples cured at 70 degrees C. At the present time the implications of waste form cracking at elevated curing temperatures has not been fully addressed. The direct grout falls within the

  15. Renal salt-wasting syndrome in children with intracranial disorders.

    PubMed

    Bettinelli, Alberto; Longoni, Laura; Tammaro, Fabiana; Faré, Pietro B; Garzoni, Luca; Bianchetti, Mario G

    2012-05-01

    Hypotonic hyponatremia, a serious and recognized complication of any intracranial disorder, results from extra-cellular fluid volume depletion, inappropriate anti-diuresis or renal salt-wasting. The putative mechanisms by which intracranial disorders might lead to renal salt-wasting are either a disrupted neural input to the kidney or the elaboration of a circulating natriuretic factor. The key to diagnosis of renal salt-wasting lies in the assessment of extra-cellular volume status: the central venous pressure is currently considered the yardstick for measuring fluid volume status in subjects with intracranial disorders and hyponatremia. Approximately 110 cases have been reported so far in subjects ≤18 years of age (male: 63%; female: 37%): intracranial surgery, meningo-encephalitis (most frequently tuberculous) or head injury were the most common underlying disorders. Volume and sodium repletion are the goals of treatment, and this can be performed using some combination of isotonic saline, hypertonic saline, and mineralocorticoids (fludrocortisone). It is worthy of a mention, however, that some authorities contend that cerebral salt wasting syndrome does not exist, since this diagnosis requires evidence of a reduced arterial blood volume, a concept but not a measurable variable.

  16. Effect of sodium salt on anaerobic digestion of kitchen waste.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Naveed; Wang, Wen; Zhang, Jie; Li, Yeqing; Chen, Chang; Liu, Guangqing; Zhang, Ruihong

    2016-01-01

    The effect of different sodium salt concentration on anaerobic digestion of kitchen waste was investigated. The methane production performance, the corresponding methane production model and sodium salt inhibition model were studied, and the degradation efficiency was analyzed. With the increase of sodium salt concentration, the methane yield and the maximal methane production rate decreased along with the increase of lag phase time. The highest methane yield of 594 mL/g-VSadded (VS: volatile solids) was found with no sodium salt addition while the lowest was obtained with addition of 16 g/L NaCl. The declines of the methane yield were negligible when the sodium salt concentration was below 8 g/L, which corresponded to <10% inhibiting efficiency. In contrast, a sharp decrease of methane yield was observed with addition of >8 g/L NaCl (causing 17-80% inhibition). Five kinds of regression models were developed to describe the sodium salt inhibition efficiency, and the cubic regression model of y = 0.508 + 2.401x - 0.369x(2) + 0.033x(3) showed the best fitting. The volatile fatty acids/ethanol gradually accumulated along with the increase of the sodium salt concentration, and the volatile solid removal efficiency represented a gradual decline accordingly. It is recommended that the sodium salt concentration in the anaerobic digesters should be controlled below 8 g/L in order to avoid intense methane inhibition.

  17. Injector nozzle for molten salt destruction of energetic waste materials

    DOEpatents

    Brummond, W.A.; Upadhye, R.S.

    1996-02-13

    An injector nozzle has been designed for safely injecting energetic waste materials, such as high explosives, propellants, and rocket fuels, into a molten salt reactor in a molten salt destruction process without premature detonation or back burn in the injection system. The energetic waste material is typically diluted to form a fluid fuel mixture that is injected rapidly into the reactor. A carrier gas used in the nozzle serves as a carrier for the fuel mixture, and further dilutes the energetic material and increases its injection velocity into the reactor. The injector nozzle is cooled to keep the fuel mixture below the decomposition temperature to prevent spontaneous detonation of the explosive materials before contact with the high-temperature molten salt bath. 2 figs.

  18. Injector nozzle for molten salt destruction of energetic waste materials

    DOEpatents

    Brummond, William A.; Upadhye, Ravindra S.

    1996-01-01

    An injector nozzle has been designed for safely injecting energetic waste materials, such as high explosives, propellants, and rocket fuels, into a molten salt reactor in a molten salt destruction process without premature detonation or back burn in the injection system. The energetic waste material is typically diluted to form a fluid fuel mixture that is injected rapidly into the reactor. A carrier gas used in the nozzle serves as a carrier for the fuel mixture, and further dilutes the energetic material and increases its injection velocity into the reactor. The injector nozzle is cooled to keep the fuel mixture below the decomposition temperature to prevent spontaneous detonation of the explosive materials before contact with the high-temperature molten salt bath.

  19. Cerebral salt wasting following tuberculous meningoencephalitis in an infant.

    PubMed

    Zaki, Syed Ahmed; Lad, Vijay; Shanbag, Preeti

    2012-04-01

    In patients with central nervous system disease, life-threatening hyponatremia can result from either the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone or cerebral salt wasting. Clinical manifestations of the two conditions may be similar, but their pathogeneses and management protocols are different. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome is a disorder in which excessive natriuresis and hyponatremia occurs in patients with intracranial diseases. We report a 6-month-old girl with CSWS associated with tuberculous meningoencephalitis. She was diagnosed as having CSWS on the basis of hypovolemia, polyuria, natriuresis, and the relatively high level of fractional excretion of uric acid. Aggressive replacement of urine salt and water losses using 0.9% or 3% sodium chloride was done. Fludrocortisone was started at 0.1 mg twice daily on the seventh day of admission and was continued for 17 days.

  20. Mixed Waste Encapsulation in Polyester Resins. Treatment for Mixed Wastes Containing Salts. Mixed Waste Focus Area. OST Reference #1685

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1999-09-01

    Throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex there are large inventories of homogeneous solid mixed wastes, such as treatment residues, fly ashes, and sludges that contain relatively high concentrations (greater than 15% by weight) of salts. The inherent solubility of nitrate, sulfate, and chloride salts makes traditional cement stabilization of these waste streams difficult, expensive, and challenging. Salts can effect the setting rate of cements and can react with cement hydration products to form expansive and cement damaging compounds. Many of these salt wastes are in a dry granular form and are the by-product of treating spent acidic and metal solutions used to recover and reformulate nuclear weapons materials over the past 50 years. At the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) alone, there is approximately 8,000 cubic meters of nitrate salts (potassium and sodium nitrate) stored above ground with an earthen cover. Current estimates indicate that over 200 million kg of contaminated salt wastes exist at various DOE sites. Continued primary treatment of waste water coupled with the use of mixed waste incinerators may generate an additional 5 million kg of salt-containing, mixed waste residues each year. One of the obvious treatment solutions for these salt-containing wastes is to immobilize the hazardous components to meet Environmental Protection Agency/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (EPA/RCRA) Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR), thus rendering the mixed waste to a radioactive waste only classification. One proposed solution is to use thermal treatment via vitrification to immobilize the hazardous component and thereby substantially reduce the volume, as well as provide exceptional durability. However, these melter systems involve expensive capital apparatus with complicated off-gas systems. In addition, the vitrification of high salt waste may cause foaming and usually requires extensive development to specify glass

  1. Novel waste printed circuit board recycling process with molten salt.

    PubMed

    Riedewald, Frank; Sousa-Gallagher, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the method was to prove the concept of a novel waste PCBs recycling process which uses inert, stable molten salts as the direct heat transfer fluid and, simultaneously, uses this molten salt to separate the metal products in either liquid (solder, zinc, tin, lead, etc.) or solid (copper, gold, steel, palladium, etc.) form at the operating temperatures of 450-470 °C. The PCB recovery reactor is essentially a U-shaped reactor with the molten salt providing a continuous fluid, allowing molten salt access from different depths for metal recovery. A laboratory scale batch reactor was constructed using 316L as suitable construction material. For safety reasons, the inert, stable LiCl-KCl molten salts were used as direct heat transfer fluid. Recovered materials were washed with hot water to remove residual salt before metal recovery assessment. The impact of this work was to show metal separation using molten salts in one single unit, by using this novel reactor methodology. •The reactor is a U-shaped reactor filled with a continuous liquid with a sloped bottom representing a novel reactor concept.•This method uses large PCB pieces instead of shredded PCBs as the reactor volume is 2.2 L.•The treated PCBs can be removed via leg B while the process is on-going.

  2. Novel waste printed circuit board recycling process with molten salt

    PubMed Central

    Riedewald, Frank; Sousa-Gallagher, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the method was to prove the concept of a novel waste PCBs recycling process which uses inert, stable molten salts as the direct heat transfer fluid and, simultaneously, uses this molten salt to separate the metal products in either liquid (solder, zinc, tin, lead, etc.) or solid (copper, gold, steel, palladium, etc.) form at the operating temperatures of 450–470 °C. The PCB recovery reactor is essentially a U-shaped reactor with the molten salt providing a continuous fluid, allowing molten salt access from different depths for metal recovery. A laboratory scale batch reactor was constructed using 316L as suitable construction material. For safety reasons, the inert, stable LiCl–KCl molten salts were used as direct heat transfer fluid. Recovered materials were washed with hot water to remove residual salt before metal recovery assessment. The impact of this work was to show metal separation using molten salts in one single unit, by using this novel reactor methodology. • The reactor is a U-shaped reactor filled with a continuous liquid with a sloped bottom representing a novel reactor concept. • This method uses large PCB pieces instead of shredded PCBs as the reactor volume is 2.2 L. • The treated PCBs can be removed via leg B while the process is on-going. PMID:26150977

  3. Cerebral salt wasting treated with fludrocortisone in a 17-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Choi, Min Jeong; Oh, Yoon Su; Park, Se Jin; Kim, Ji Hong; Shin, Jae Il

    2012-07-01

    Cerebral salt wasting is characterized by inappropriate natriuresis and volume contraction with associated cerebral pathology. It is distinct from the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion, which is characterized by inappropriate retention of free water. We report a patient with a porencephalic cyst who developed cerebral salt wasting. His initial treatment was supplementation of water and salt, which did not improve natriuresis or volume contraction. Fludrocortisone administration effectively managed the cerebral salt wasting.

  4. Cerebral Salt-Wasting Syndrome Caused by Minor Head Injury

    PubMed Central

    Tsurumi, Yuko; Tsurumi, Arihito

    2017-01-01

    A 34-year-old woman was admitted to hospital after sustaining a head injury in a motor vehicle accident (day 1). No signs of neurological deficit, skull fracture, brain contusion, or intracranial bleeding were evident. She was discharged without symptoms on day 4. However, headache and nausea worsened on day 8, at which time serum sodium level was noted to be 121 mEq/L. Treatment with sodium chloride was initiated, but serum sodium decreased to 116 mEq/L on day 9. Body weight decreased in proportion to the decrease in serum sodium. Cerebral salt-wasting syndrome was diagnosed. This case represents the first illustration of severe hyponatremia related to cerebral salt-wasting syndrome caused by a minor head injury. PMID:28194285

  5. Hyponatremia in acute brain disease: the cerebral salt wasting syndrome.

    PubMed

    Betjes, Michiel G.H.

    2002-02-01

    Hyponatremia in acute brain disease is a common occurrence, especially after an aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Originally, excessive natriuresis, called cerebral salt wasting, and later the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH), were considered to be the causes of hyponatremia. In recent years, it has become clear that most of these patients are volume-depleted and have a negative sodium balance, consistent with the original description of cerebral salt wasting. Elevated plasma concentrations of atrial or brain natriuretic peptide have been identified as the putative natriuretic factor. Hyponatremia and volume depletion may aggravate neurological symptoms, and timely treatment with adequate replacement of water and NaCl is essential. The use of fludrocortisone to increase sodium reabsorption by the renal tubules may be an alternative approach.

  6. Cerebral Salt-Wasting Syndrome Caused by Minor Head Injury.

    PubMed

    Fukuoka, Toshiki; Tsurumi, Yuko; Tsurumi, Arihito

    2017-01-01

    A 34-year-old woman was admitted to hospital after sustaining a head injury in a motor vehicle accident (day 1). No signs of neurological deficit, skull fracture, brain contusion, or intracranial bleeding were evident. She was discharged without symptoms on day 4. However, headache and nausea worsened on day 8, at which time serum sodium level was noted to be 121 mEq/L. Treatment with sodium chloride was initiated, but serum sodium decreased to 116 mEq/L on day 9. Body weight decreased in proportion to the decrease in serum sodium. Cerebral salt-wasting syndrome was diagnosed. This case represents the first illustration of severe hyponatremia related to cerebral salt-wasting syndrome caused by a minor head injury.

  7. Stable and efficient colour enrichment powders of nonpolar nanocrystals in LiCl.

    PubMed

    Erdem, Talha; Soran-Erdem, Zeliha; Sharma, Vijay Kumar; Kelestemur, Yusuf; Adam, Marcus; Gaponik, Nikolai; Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    2015-11-14

    In this work, we propose and develop the inorganic salt encapsulation of semiconductor nanocrystal (NC) dispersion in a nonpolar phase to make a highly stable and highly efficient colour converting powder for colour enrichment in light-emitting diode backlighting. Here the wrapping of the as-synthesized green-emitting CdSe/CdZnSeS/ZnS nanocrystals into a salt matrix without ligand exchange is uniquely enabled by using a LiCl ionic host dissolved in tetrahydrofuran (THF), which simultaneously disperses these nonpolar nanocrystals. We studied the emission stability of the solid films prepared using NCs with and without LiCl encapsulation on blue LEDs driven at high current levels. The encapsulated NC powder in epoxy preserved 95.5% of the initial emission intensity and stabilized at this level while the emission intensity of NCs without salt encapsulation continuously decreased to 34.7% of its initial value after 96 h of operation. In addition, we investigated the effect of ionic salt encapsulation on the quantum efficiency of nonpolar NCs and found the quantum efficiency of the NCs-in-LiCl to be 75.1% while that of the NCs in dispersion was 73.0% and that in a film without LiCl encapsulation was 67.9%. We believe that such ionic salt encapsulated powders of nonpolar NCs presented here will find ubiquitous use for colour enrichment in display backlighting.

  8. BLENDING ANALYSIS FOR RADIOACTIVE SALT WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.

    2012-05-10

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) evaluated methods to mix and blend the contents of the blend tanks to ensure the contents are properly blended before they are transferred from the blend tank such as Tank 21 and Tank 24 to the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) feed tank. The tank contents consist of three forms: dissolved salt solution, other waste salt solutions, and sludge containing settled solids. This paper focuses on developing the computational model and estimating the operation time of submersible slurry pump when the tank contents are adequately blended prior to their transfer to the SWPF facility. A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics approach was taken by using the full scale configuration of SRS Type-IV tank, Tank 21H. Major solid obstructions such as the tank wall boundary, the transfer pump column, and three slurry pump housings including one active and two inactive pumps were included in the mixing performance model. Basic flow pattern results predicted by the computational model were benchmarked against the SRNL test results and literature data. Tank 21 is a waste tank that is used to prepare batches of salt feed for SWPF. The salt feed must be a homogeneous solution satisfying the acceptance criterion of the solids entrainment during transfer operation. The work scope described here consists of two modeling areas. They are the steady state flow pattern calculations before the addition of acid solution for tank blending operation and the transient mixing analysis during miscible liquid blending operation. The transient blending calculations were performed by using the 95% homogeneity criterion for the entire liquid domain of the tank. The initial conditions for the entire modeling domain were based on the steady-state flow pattern results with zero second phase concentration. The performance model was also benchmarked against the SRNL test results and literature data.

  9. Disposal of oil field wastes and NORM wastes into salt caverns.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.

    1999-01-27

    Salt caverns can be formed through solution mining in the bedded or domal salt formations that are found in many states. Salt caverns have traditionally been used for hydrocarbon storage, but caverns have also been used to dispose of some types of wastes. This paper provides an overview of several years of research by Argonne National Laboratory on the feasibility and legality of using salt caverns for disposing of nonhazardous oil field wastes (NOW) and naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), the risk to human populations from this disposal method, and the cost of cavern disposal. Costs are compared between the four operating US disposal caverns and other commercial disposal options located in the same geographic area as the caverns. Argonne's research indicates that disposal of NOW into salt caverns is feasible and, in most cases, would not be prohibited by state agencies (although those agencies may need to revise their wastes management regulations). A risk analysis of several cavern leakage scenarios suggests that the risk from cavern disposal of NOW and NORM wastes is below accepted safe risk thresholds. Disposal caverns are economically competitive with other disposal options.

  10. Ceramic waste form for residues from molten salt oxidation of mixed wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Van Konynenburg, R.A.; Hopper, R.W.; Rard, J.A.

    1995-11-01

    A ceramic waste form based on Synroc-D is under development for the incorporation of the mineral residues from molten salt oxidation treatment of mixed low-level wastes. Samples containing as many as 32 chemical elements have been fabricated, characterized, and leach-tested. Universal Treatment Standards have been satisfied for all regulated elements except and two (lead and vanadium). Efforts are underway to further improve chemical durability.

  11. Stabilization Using Phosphate Bonded Ceramics. Salt Containing Mixed Waste Treatment. Mixed Waste Focus Area. OST Reference No. 117

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1999-09-01

    Throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex there are large inventories of homogeneous mixed waste solids, such as wastewater treatment residues, fly ashes, and sludges that contain relatively high concentrations (greater than 15% by weight) of salts. The inherent solubility of salts (e.g., nitrates, chlorides, and sulfates) makes traditional treatment of these waste streams difficult, expensive, and challenging. One alternative is low-temperature stabilization by chemically bonded phosphate ceramics (CBPCs). The process involves reacting magnesium oxide with monopotassium phosphate with the salt waste to produce a dense monolith. The ceramic makes a strong environmental barrier, and the metals are converted to insoluble, low-leaching phosphate salts. The process has been tested on a variety of surrogates and actual mixed waste streams, including soils, wastewater, flyashes, and crushed debris. It has also been demonstrated at scales ranging from 5 to 55 gallons. In some applications, the CBPC technology provides higher waste loadings and a more durable salt waste form than the baseline method of cementitious grouting. Waste form test specimens were subjected to a variety of performance tests. Results of waste form performance testing concluded that CBPC forms made with salt wastes meet or exceed both RCRA and recommended Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) low-level waste (LLW) disposal criteria. Application of a polymer coating to the CBPC may decrease the leaching of salt anions, but continued waste form evaluations are needed to fully assess the deteriorating effects of this leaching, if any, over time.

  12. Deep geologic disposal of mixed waste in bedded salt: The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Rempe, N.T.

    1993-12-01

    Mixed waste (i.e., waste that contains both chemically hazardous and radioactive components) poses a moral, political, and technical challenge to present and future generations. But an international consensus is emerging that harmful byproducts and residues can be permanently isolated from the biosphere in a safe and environmentally responsible manner by deep geologic disposal. To investigate and demonstrate such disposal for transuranic mixed waste, derived from defense-related activities, the US Department of Energy has prepared the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico. This research and development facility was excavated approximately at the center of a 600 m thick sequence of salt (halite) beds, 655 m below the surface. Proof of the long-term tectonic and hydrological stability of the region is supplied by the fact that these salt beds have remained essentially undisturbed since they were deposited during the Late Permian age, approximately 225 million years ago. Plutonium-239, the main radioactive component of transuranic mixed waste, has a half-life of 24,500 years. Even ten half-lives of this isotope - amounting to about a quarter million years, the time during which its activity will decline to background level represent only 0.11 percent of the history of the repository medium. Therefore, deep geologic disposal of transuranic mixed waste in Permian bedded salt appears eminently feasible.

  13. Pyrolytic conversion of plastic and rubber waste to hydrocarbons with basic salt catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Wingfield, Jr., Robert C.; Braslaw, Jacob; Gealer, Roy L.

    1985-01-01

    The invention relates to a process for improving the pyrolytic conversion of waste selected from rubber and plastic to low molecular weight olefinic materials by employing basis salt catalysts in the waste mixture. The salts comprise alkali or alkaline earth compounds, particularly sodium carbonate, in an amount of greater than about 1 weight percent based on the waste feed.

  14. [Cerebral salt wasting syndrome and traumatic vasospasm after head trauma: report of two cases].

    PubMed

    Katsuno, Makoto; Kobayashi, Shiro; Yokota, Hiroyuki; Teramoto, Akira

    2009-08-01

    While patients with cerebral salt wasting syndrome and traumatic cerebral arterial spasms have been reported, the underlying pathogenesis of these events remains unclear. We encountered 2 patients with head trauma and cerebral infarction who presented with cerebral salt-wasting syndrome and cerebral arterial spasms. Our findings suggested hypothalamic dysfunction due to venous congestion around the hypothalamus caused cerebral salt wasting syndrome and traumatic cerebral arterial spasms.

  15. Cerebral salt wasting: a report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Younas, Haroon; Sabir, Omer; Baig, Ilyas; Tarif, Nauman

    2015-01-01

    Hyponatremia secondary to the Syndrome of Inappropriate Anti-Diuretic Hormone (SIADH) secretion is commonly observed in patients with various neurological disorders. Cerebral Salt Wasting (CSW) resulting in hyponatremia is also an infrequent occurrence in some patients with neurological disorders. Confusion in differentiating CSW from SIADH may arise since both results in similar electrolyte disturbances. Herein, we report three cases of CSW with intracranial afflictions. CSW was diagnosed on the basis of fractional excretion of urinary sodium and uric acid along with extremely low serum uric acid. Improvements in serum sodium levels after saline hydration and fludrocortisone administration further supported the diagnosis.

  16. Early hyponatraemia after pituitary surgery: cerebral salt-wasting syndrome.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, R; Pumar, A; Soto, A; Pomares, M A; Palma, S; Mangas, M A; Leal, A; Villamil, F

    2007-06-01

    Hyponatraemia is a common complication in patients undergoing neurosurgery. It can be caused either by the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone or by the cerebral salt-wasting syndrome (CSWS). CSWS frequently occurs in patients suffering from subarachnoid haemorrhage and brain injury, but it is rare after pituitary tumour surgery. However, this diagnostic possibility should be considered as these disorders require specific treatment and have different prognoses. In this article, we present a case of acute and early hyponatraemia caused by CSWS after pituitary tumour surgery. We also revise the aetiology, mechanisms, differential diagnosis and treatment of hyponatraemia after pituitary surgery.

  17. Treatment of Difficult Wastes with Molten Salt Oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, P C; Kwak, S

    2003-02-21

    Molten salt oxidation (MSO) is a good alternative to incineration for the treatment of a variety of organic wastes such as explosives, low-level mixed waste streams, PCB contaminated oils, spent resins and carbon. Since mid-1990s, the U.S. Army Defense Ammunition Center (DAC) and the Department of Energy (DOE) have jointly invested in MSO development at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). LLNL first demonstrated the MSO process for the effective destruction of explosives, explosives-contaminated materials, and other wastes on a 1.5-kg/hr bench-scale unit, and then in an integrated MSO facility capable of treating 8 kg/hr of low-level radioactive mixed wastes. Several MSO systems have been built with sizes up to 10 ft in height and 16 inches in diameter. LLNL in 2001 completed a MSO plant for DAC for the destruction of explosives-contaminated sludge and explosives-contaminated carbon. We will present in this paper our latest demonstration data and our operational experience with MSO.

  18. Candidate waste forms for immobilisation of waste chloride salt from pyroprocessing of spent nuclear fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vance, E. R.; Davis, J.; Olufson, K.; Chironi, I.; Karatchevtseva, I.; Farnan, I.

    2012-01-01

    Sodalite/glass bodies prepared by hot isostatic pressing (HIPing) at ˜850 °C/100 MPa are candidates for immobilising fission product-bearing waste KCl-LiCl pyroprocessing salts. To study the capacity of sodalite to structurally incorporate such pyroprocessing salts, K, Li, Cs, Sr, Ba and La were individually targeted for substitution in a Na site in sodalite (Na vacancies targeted as charge compensators for alkaline and rare earths) and studied by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy after sintering in the range of 800-1000 °C. K and Li appeared to enter the sodalite, but Cs, Sr and Ba formed aluminosilicate phases and La formed an oxyapatite phase. However these non-sodalite phases have reasonable resistance to water leaching. Pure chlorapatite gives superior leach resistance to sodalite, and alkalis, alkaline and rare earth ions are generally known to enter chlorapatite, but attempts to incorporate simulated waste salt formulations into HIPed chlorapatite-based preparations or to substitute Cs alone into the structure of Ca-based chlorapatite were not successful on the basis of scanning electron microscopy. The materials exhibited severe water leachability, mainly in regard to Cs release. Attempts to substitute Cs into Ba- and Sr-based chlorapatites also did not look encouraging. Consequently the use of apatite alone to retain fission product-bearing waste pyroprocessing salts from electrolytic nuclear fuel reprocessing is problematical, but chlorapatite glass-ceramics may be feasible, albeit with reduced waste loadings. Spodiosite, Ca 2(PO 4)Cl, does not appear to be suitable for incorporation of Cl-bearing waste containing fission products.

  19. Identifying suitable "piercement" salt domes for nuclear waste storage sites

    SciTech Connect

    Kehle, R.

    1980-08-01

    Piercement salt domes of the northern interior salt basins of the Gulf of Mexico are being considered as permanent storage sites for both nuclear and chemically toxic wastes. The suitable domes are stable and inactive, having reached their final evolutionary configuration at least 30 million years ago. They are buried to depths far below the level to which erosion will penetrate during the prescribed storage period and are not subject to possible future reactivation. The salt cores of these domes are themselves impermeable, permitting neither the entry nor exit of ground water or other unwanted materials. In part, a stable dome may be recognized by its present geometric configuration, but conclusive proof depends on establishing its evolutionary state. The evolutionary state of a dome is obtained by reconstructing the growth history of the dome as revealed by the configuration of sedimentary strata in a large area (commonly 3,000 square miles or more) surrounding the dome. A high quality, multifold CDP reflection seismic profile across a candidate dome will provide much of the necessary information when integrated with available subsurface control. Additional seismic profiles may be required to confirm an apparent configuration of the surrounding strata and an interpreted evolutionary history. High frequency seismic data collected in the near vicinity of a dome are also needed as a supplement to the CDP data to permit accurate depiction of the configuration of shallow strata. Such data must be tied to shallow drill hole control to confirm the geologic age at which dome growth ceased. If it is determined that a dome reached a terminal configuration many millions of years ago, such a dome is incapable of reactivation and thus constitutes a stable storage site for nuclear wastes.

  20. Stable and efficient colour enrichment powders of nonpolar nanocrystals in LiCl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdem, Talha; Soran-Erdem, Zeliha; Sharma, Vijay Kumar; Kelestemur, Yusuf; Adam, Marcus; Gaponik, Nikolai; Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    2015-10-01

    In this work, we propose and develop the inorganic salt encapsulation of semiconductor nanocrystal (NC) dispersion in a nonpolar phase to make a highly stable and highly efficient colour converting powder for colour enrichment in light-emitting diode backlighting. Here the wrapping of the as-synthesized green-emitting CdSe/CdZnSeS/ZnS nanocrystals into a salt matrix without ligand exchange is uniquely enabled by using a LiCl ionic host dissolved in tetrahydrofuran (THF), which simultaneously disperses these nonpolar nanocrystals. We studied the emission stability of the solid films prepared using NCs with and without LiCl encapsulation on blue LEDs driven at high current levels. The encapsulated NC powder in epoxy preserved 95.5% of the initial emission intensity and stabilized at this level while the emission intensity of NCs without salt encapsulation continuously decreased to 34.7% of its initial value after 96 h of operation. In addition, we investigated the effect of ionic salt encapsulation on the quantum efficiency of nonpolar NCs and found the quantum efficiency of the NCs-in-LiCl to be 75.1% while that of the NCs in dispersion was 73.0% and that in a film without LiCl encapsulation was 67.9%. We believe that such ionic salt encapsulated powders of nonpolar NCs presented here will find ubiquitous use for colour enrichment in display backlighting.In this work, we propose and develop the inorganic salt encapsulation of semiconductor nanocrystal (NC) dispersion in a nonpolar phase to make a highly stable and highly efficient colour converting powder for colour enrichment in light-emitting diode backlighting. Here the wrapping of the as-synthesized green-emitting CdSe/CdZnSeS/ZnS nanocrystals into a salt matrix without ligand exchange is uniquely enabled by using a LiCl ionic host dissolved in tetrahydrofuran (THF), which simultaneously disperses these nonpolar nanocrystals. We studied the emission stability of the solid films prepared using NCs with and

  1. The treatment of cerebral salt wasting with fludrocortisone in a child with lissencephaly.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Halil; Aycan, Zehra; Degerliyurt, Aydan; Metin, Ayse

    2010-01-01

    Hyponatremia is the most frequent electrolyte disorder in critically ill neurological patients. The major differential diagnoses in this situation are the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion, marked by inappropriate retention of free water, and cerebral salt wasting, characterized by excessive urinary loss of sodium and resulting in polyuria and extracellular volume contraction. Cerebral salt wasting is a syndrome of hyponatremia due to increased urine output and excessive natriuresis described in patients with central nervous system disease. Although cerebral salt wasting has been well described in neurosurgical patients, data regarding pediatric patients is sparse. We present a 34-month-old boy with lissencephaly who developed cerebral salt wasting after brain biopsy. The patient was treated with hypertonic saline and multiple antiepileptic drugs. Fludrocortisone supplementation effectively treated cerebral salt wasting.

  2. Method to synthesize dense crystallized sodalite pellet for immobilizing halide salt radioactive waste

    DOEpatents

    Koyama, Tadafumi.

    1994-08-23

    A method is described for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing radionuclides such as cesium and strontium and hazardous materials such as barium. A sodalite intermediate is prepared by mixing appropriate amounts of silica, alumina and sodium hydroxide with respect to sodalite and heating the mixture to form the sodalite intermediate and water. Heating is continued to drive off the water to form a water-free intermediate. The water-free intermediate is mixed with either waste salt or waste salt which has been contacted with zeolite to concentrate the radionuclides and hazardous material. The waste salt-intermediate mixture is then compacted and heated under conditions of heat and pressure to form sodalite with the waste salt, radionuclides and hazardous material trapped within the sodalite cage structure. This provides a final product having excellent leach resistant capabilities.

  3. Method to synthesize dense crystallized sodalite pellet for immobilizing halide salt radioactive waste

    DOEpatents

    Koyama, Tadafumi

    1994-01-01

    A method for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing radionuclides such as cesium and strontium and hazardous materials such as barium. A sodalite intermediate is prepared by mixing appropriate amounts of silica, alumina and sodium hydroxide with respect to sodalite and heating the mixture to form the sodalite intermediate and water. Heating is continued to drive off the water to form a water-free intermediate. The water-free intermediate is mixed with either waste salt or waste salt which has been contacted with zeolite to concentrate the radionuclides and hazardous material. The waste salt-intermediate mixture is then compacted and heated under conditions of heat and pressure to form sodalite with the waste salt, radionuclides and hazardous material trapped within the sodalite cage structure. This provides a final product having excellent leach resistant capabilities.

  4. Method to synthesize dense crystallized sodalite pellet for immobilizing halide salt radioactive waste

    DOEpatents

    Koyama, T.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes a method for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing radionuclides such as cesium and strontium and hazardous materials such as barium. A sodalite intermediate is prepared by mixing appropriate amounts of silica, alumina and sodium hydroxide with respect to sodalite and heating the mixture to form the sodalite intermediate and water. Heating is continued to drive off the water to form a water-free intermediate. The water-free intermediate is mixed with either waste salt or waste salt which has been contacted with zeolite to concentrate the radionuclides and hazardous material. The waste salt-intermediate mixture is then compacted and heated under conditions of heat and pressure to form sodalite with the waste salt, radionuclides and hazardous material trapped within the sodalite cage structure. This provides a final product having excellent leach resistant capabilities.

  5. Stability High Salt Content Waste Using Sol Gel Process. Mixed Waste Focus Area. OST Reference Number 0236

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1999-09-01

    Mixed waste sludges, soils, and homogeneous solids containing high levels of salt ( ~ greater than 15% by weight ) have proven to be difficult to stabilize due to the soluble nature of the salts. The current stabilization technique for high salt waste, grouting with Portland cement, is limited to low waste loadings. The presence of salts interfere with the hydration and curing of the cement, cause waste form deteriorating mineral expansions, or result in an undesirable separate phase altogether. Improved technologies for the stabilization of salt waste must be able to accommodate higher salt loadings, while maintaining structural integrity, chemical durability, and leach resistance. In a joint collaboration supported by the Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA), the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the Arizona Materials Laboratory (AML) at the University of Arizona have developed a sol-gel (wet-chemical) based, low-temperature-processing route for the stabilization of salt-containing mixed wastes. By blending and reacting liquid precursors at room temperature with salt waste, strong, impermeable “polyceram” matrices have been formed that encapsulate the environmentally hazardous waste components. As depicted by Figure 1, polycerams are hybrid organic/inorganic materials with unique properties derived from the chemical combination of polymer (organic) and ceramic (inorganic) components. For this application, the stabilizing polyceram matrices contain polybutadiene-based polymer components and silicon dioxide (SiO2) as the inorganic component. Polybutadiene (PBD) is a strong, tough, waterresistant plastic and its use in the polyceram promotes these same characteristics in the waste form. The PBD polymer component is modified to increase its reactivity with the SiO2 precursor during sol-gel processing. When combined, the polymer and SiO2 precursors react, gel, solidify, and encapsulate the

  6. Successive dehumidification/regeneration cycles by LiCL desiccant for air-conditioning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouzenada, S.; Kaabi, A. N.; Fraikin, L.; Léonard, A.

    2017-02-01

    Dehumidification by desiccant is a new application in air-conditioning system. This technology is providing important advantages in solving many problems and brings environmentally friendly products. Desiccants are natural substances that are capable of showing a strong attraction for water vapour and can be regenerated. They can undergo continuous cycles. An experimental study is carried out on successive phases of absorption/regeneration, during 7 days by using LiCl desiccant and on separate phases. The effect of climatic parameters on moisture removal rate and salt concentration on absorption and regeneration processes is discussed. The results show that higher air humidity gives a higher mass transfer potential then a higher moisture rate absorbed dm/dt. The decrease of salt concentration affects the dm/dt and vapour pressure. Also, these results show that at regeneration temperature, the amount of water desorbed is nearly equal to the amount of water absorbed (equilibrium condition) for a complete cycle. The amount of 7.87 mg of water vapor can be absorbed in the first hour of absorption cycle for 12.6144 mg at 50% of relative humidity, and 7.004mg for 36.31 mg of initial mass subjected at 70% RH. The LiCl desiccant is able to return to almost its original concentration 31.39% during regeneration phase. Also, LiCl desiccant is able to be regenerated at low temperature 40°C which can be easily obtained by using solar energy. Then, the LiCl is a good hygroscopic material for using in liquid desiccant air-conditioning system.

  7. Polyethylene encapsulatin of nitrate salt wastes: Waste form stability, process scale-up, and economics

    SciTech Connect

    Kalb, P.D.; Heiser, J.H. III; Colombo, P.

    1991-07-01

    A polyethylene encapsulation system for treatment of low-level radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes has been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Polyethylene has several advantages compared with conventional solidification/stabilization materials such as hydraulic cements. Waste can be encapsulated with greater efficiency and with better waste form performance than is possible with hydraulic cement. The properties of polyethylene relevant to its long-term durability in storage and disposal environments are reviewed. Response to specific potential failure mechanisms including biodegradation, radiation, chemical attack, flammability, environmental stress cracking, and photodegradation are examined. These data are supported by results from extensive waste form performance testing including compressive yield strength, water immersion, thermal cycling, leachability of radioactive and hazardous species, irradiation, biodegradation, and flammability. The bench-scale process has been successfully tested for application with a number of specific problem'' waste streams. Quality assurance and performance testing of the resulting waste form confirmed scale-up feasibility. Use of this system at Rocky Flats Plant can result in over 70% fewer drums processed and shipped for disposal, compared with optimal cement formulations. Based on the current Rocky Flats production of nitrate salt per year, polyethylene encapsulation can yield an estimated annual savings between $1.5 million and $2.7 million, compared with conventional hydraulic cement systems. 72 refs., 23 figs., 16 tabs.

  8. Container materials for isolation of radioactive waste in salt

    SciTech Connect

    Streicher, M.A.; Andrews, A.

    1987-10-01

    The workshop reviewed the extensive data on the corrosion resistance of low-carbon steel in simulated salt repository environments, determined whether these data were sufficient to recommend low-carbon steel for fabrication of the container, and assessed the suitability of other materials under consideration in the SRP. The panelists determined the need for testing and research programs, recommended experimental approaches, and recommended materials based on existing technology. On the first day of the workshop, presentations were made on waste package requirements; the expected corrosion environment; degradation processes, including a review of data from corrosion tests on carbon steel; and rationales for container design and materials, modeling studies, and planned future work. The second day was devoted to a panel caucus, presentation of workshop findings, and open discussion. 76 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome in children with acute central nervous system injury.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Raquel; Casado-Flores, Juan; Nieto, Monserrat; García-Teresa, María Angeles

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to describe the causes, clinical pattern, and treatment of cerebral salt wasting syndrome in children with acute central nervous system injury. This retrospective study focused on patientssalt wasting syndrome, over a period of 7 years, in the pediatric intensive care unit of a tertiary care hospital. Selection criteria included evidence of hyponatremia (serum sodium<130 mEq/L), polyuria, elevated urine sodium (>120 mEq/L), and volume depletion. Fourteen patients were identified with cerebral salt wasting syndrome, 12 after a neurosurgical procedure (8 brain tumor, 4 hydrocephalus) and 2 after severe brain trauma. In 11 patients the cerebral salt wasting syndrome was diagnosed during the first 48 hours of admission. Prevalence of cerebral salt wasting syndrome in neurosurgical children was 11.3/1000 surgical procedures. The minimum sodium was 122+/-7 mEq/L, the maximum urine osmolarity 644+/-59 mOsm/kgH2O. The maximum sodium supply was 1 mEq/kg/h (range, 0.1-2.4). The mean duration of cerebral salt wasting syndrome was 6+/-5 days (range 1-9). In conclusion, cerebral salt wasting syndrome can complicate the postoperative course of children with brain injury; it is frequently present after surgery for brain tumors and hydrocephalus and in patients with severe head trauma. Close monitoring of salt and fluid balance is essential to prevent severe neurologic and hemodynamic complications.

  10. Preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil field waste into salt caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.; Elcock, D.; Raivel, M.; Caudle, D.; Ayers, R.C. Jr.; Grunewald, B.

    1996-06-01

    Caverns can be readily formed in salt formations through solution mining. The caverns may be formed incidentally, as a result of salt recovery, or intentionally to create an underground chamber that can be used for storing hydrocarbon products or compressed air or disposing of wastes. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the feasibility, suitability, and legality of disposing of nonhazardous oil and gas exploration, development, and production wastes (hereafter referred to as oil field wastes, unless otherwise noted) in salt caverns. Chapter 2 provides background information on: types and locations of US subsurface salt deposits; basic solution mining techniques used to create caverns; and ways in which salt caverns are used. Later chapters provide discussion of: federal and state regulatory requirements concerning disposal of oil field waste, including which wastes are considered eligible for cavern disposal; waste streams that are considered to be oil field waste; and an evaluation of technical issues concerning the suitability of using salt caverns for disposing of oil field waste. Separate chapters present: types of oil field wastes suitable for cavern disposal; cavern design and location; disposal operations; and closure and remediation. This report does not suggest specific numerical limits for such factors or variables as distance to neighboring activities, depths for casings, pressure testing, or size and shape of cavern. The intent is to raise issues and general approaches that will contribute to the growing body of information on this subject.

  11. Electrodialysis-based separation process for salt recovery and recycling from waste water

    DOEpatents

    Tsai, S.P.

    1997-07-08

    A method for recovering salt from a process stream containing organic contaminants is provided, comprising directing the waste stream to a desalting electrodialysis unit so as to create a concentrated and purified salt permeate and an organic contaminants-containing stream, and contacting said concentrated salt permeate to a water-splitting electrodialysis unit so as to convert the salt to its corresponding base and acid. 6 figs.

  12. Electrodialysis-based separation process for salt recovery and recycling from waste water

    DOEpatents

    Tsai, Shih-Perng

    1997-01-01

    A method for recovering salt from a process stream containing organic contaminants is provided, comprising directing the waste stream to a desalting electrodialysis unit so as to create a concentrated and purified salt permeate and an organic contaminants containing stream, and contacting said concentrated salt permeate to a water-splitting electrodialysis unit so as to convert the salt to its corresponding base and acid.

  13. Recovery of salt wastes in the production of propylene oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Zyablitseva, M.P.; Tyurin, B.K.; Kudinov, V.I.; Bukbulatov, I.K.; Mazanko, A.F.

    1983-02-01

    In the production of propylene oxide as much as 40 t dilute calcium chloride solution forms per ton of product in the step of saponification of propylene chlorhydrine with milk of lime. To create a zero-waste technology for production of propylene oxide, there is practical interest in saponification of propylene chlorhydrine with electrolysis brines with recovery of the resultant solution of sodium chloride after purification to remove organic impurities. The possibility of using an electrochemical method to purify wastewater from production of propylene oxide in using the purified solution as starting material for production of electrolysis brines was investigated. Experimental testing of processes of purification and recovery of wastewaters in a regime of industrial electrolysis confirmed the possibility of using purified wastewater from production of propylene oxide as brine for electrolysis. Incorporation of the developed method into industry will permit zero-waste production of propylene oxide with a closed salt cycle. The cost of purification of 1 m/sup 3/ wastewater is 1-1.5 rubles.

  14. Disposal of oil field wastes into salt caverns: Feasibility, legality, risk, and costs

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.

    1997-10-01

    Salt caverns can be formed through solution mining in the bedded or domal salt formations that are found in many states. Salt caverns have traditionally been used for hydrocarbon storage, but caverns have also been used to dispose of some types of wastes. This paper provides an overview of several years of research by Argonne National Laboratory on the feasibility and legality of using salt caverns for disposing of oil field wastes, the risks to human populations from this disposal method, and the cost of cavern disposal. Costs are compared between the four operating US disposal caverns and other commercial disposal options located in the same geographic area as the caverns. Argonne`s research indicates that disposal of oil field wastes into salt caverns is feasible and legal. The risk from cavern disposal of oil field wastes appears to be below accepted safe risk thresholds. Disposal caverns are economically competitive with other disposal options.

  15. Expedited demonstration of molten salt mixed waste treatment technology. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-02

    This final report discusses the molten salt mixed waste project in terms of the various subtasks established. Subtask 1: Carbon monoxide emissions; Establish a salt recycle schedule and/or a strategy for off-gas control for MWMF that keeps carbon monoxide emission below 100 ppm on an hourly averaged basis. Subtask 2: Salt melt viscosity; Experiments are conducted to determine salt viscosity as a function of ash composition, ash concentration, temperature, and time. Subtask 3: Determine that the amount of sodium carbonate entrained in the off-gas is minimal, and that any deposited salt can easily be removed form the piping using a soot blower or other means. Subtask 4: The provision of at least one final waste form that meets the waste acceptance criteria of a landfill that will take the waste. This report discusses the progress made in each of these areas.

  16. Cerebral salt-wasting syndrome. We need better proof of its existence.

    PubMed

    Oh, M S; Carroll, H J

    1999-06-01

    It is widely believed that the cerebral salt-wasting syndrome (CSWS) exists as an entity distinct from the syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion, and that it is characterized by evidence of severe renal salt wasting that results in volume depletion and hyponatremia. Proof of the existence of CSWS as an entity requires documentation of renal salt wasting and volume depletion. The present review has been undertaken to examine the evidence that the CSWS is a separate entity. In this effort, we have discussed various methods of documentation of volume depletion, and then reviewed reported cases of CSWS to determine whether volume depletion and renal salt wasting have been clearly demonstrated. Our review has led us to conclude that not one case of purported CSWS has demonstrated clear evidence of volume depletion and renal salt wasting. If renal salt wasting had been proven in these cases, we would conclude that the likely site of renal salt transport was the proximal tubule. The proximal site of salt transport defect has been suggested by the absence of hyperreninemia and hypokalemia, which would be a distinguishing feature of Bartter's syndrome and Gitelman's syndrome.

  17. Application of molten salt oxidation for the minimization and recovery of plutonium-238 contaminated wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Wishau, R.; Ramsey, K.B.; Montoya, A.

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents the technical and economic feasibility of molten salt oxidation technology as a volume reduction and recovery process for {sup 238}Pu contaminated waste. Combustible low-level waste material contaminated with {sup 238}Pu residue is destroyed by oxidation in a 900 C molten salt reaction vessel. The combustible waste is destroyed creating carbon dioxide and steam and a small amount of ash and insoluble {sup 2328}Pu in the spent salt. The valuable {sup 238}Pu is recycled using aqueous recovery techniques. Experimental test results for this technology indicate a plutonium recovery efficiency of 99%. Molten salt oxidation stabilizes the waste converting it to a non-combustible waste. Thus installation and use of molten salt oxidation technology will substantially reduce the volume of {sup 238}Pu contaminated waste. Cost-effectiveness evaluations of molten salt oxidation indicate a significant cost savings when compared to the present plans to package, or re-package, certify and transport these wastes to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for permanent disposal. Clear and distinct cost advantages exist for MSO when the monetary value of the recovered {sup 238}Pu is considered.

  18. Alternative Electrochemical Salt Waste Forms, Summary of FY2010 Results

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Brian J.; Rieck, Bennett T.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Matyas, Josef; McCloy, John S.; Sundaram, S. K.; Vienna, John D.

    2010-08-01

    In FY2009, PNNL performed scoping studies to qualify two waste form candidates, tellurite (TeO2-based) glasses and halide minerals, for the electrochemical waste stream for further investigation. Both candidates showed promise with acceptable PCT release rates and effective incorporation of the 10% fission product waste stream. Both candidates received reprisal for FY2010 and were further investigated. At the beginning of FY2010, an in-depth literature review kicked off the tellurite glasses study. The review was aimed at ascertaining the state-of-the-art for chemical durability testing and mixed chloride incorporation for tellurite glasses. The literature review led the authors to 4 unique binary and 1 unique ternary systems for further investigation which include TeO2 plus the following: PbO, Al2O3-B2O3, WO3, P2O5, and ZnO. Each system was studied with and without a mixed chloride simulated electrochemical waste stream and the literature review provided the starting points for the baseline compositions as well as starting points for melting temperature, compatible crucible types, etc. The most promising glasses in each system were scaled up in production and were analyzed with the Product Consistency Test, a chemical durability test. Baseline and PCT glasses were analyzed to determine their state, i.e., amorphous, crystalline, phase separated, had undissolved material within the bulk, etc. Conclusions were made as well as the proposed direction for FY2011 plans. Sodalite was successfully synthesized by the sol-gel method. The vast majority of the dried sol-gel consisted of sodalite with small amounts of alumino-silicates and unreacted salt. Upon firing the powders made by sol-gel, the primary phase observed was sodalite with the addition of varying amounts of nepheline, carnegieite, lithium silicate, and lanthanide oxide. The amount of sodalite, nepheline, and carnegieite as well as the bulk density of the fired pellets varied with firing temperature, sol

  19. Analyses of SRS waste glass buried in granite in Sweden and salt in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.P.; Wicks, G.G.; Clark, D.E.; Lodding, A.R.

    1991-12-31

    Simulated Savannah River Site (SRS) waste glass forms have been buried in the granite geology of the Stirpa mine in Sweden for two years. Analyses of glass surfaces provided a measure of the performance of the waste glasses as a function of time. Similar SRS waste glass compositions have also been buried in salt at the WIPP facility in Carlsbad, New Mexico for a similar time period. Analyses of the SRS waste glasses buried in-situ in granite will be presented and compared to the performance of these same compositions buried in salt at WIPP.

  20. Analyses of SRS waste glass buried in granite in Sweden and salt in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.P. ); Wicks, G.G. ); Clark, D.E. ); Lodding, A.R. )

    1991-01-01

    Simulated Savannah River Site (SRS) waste glass forms have been buried in the granite geology of the Stirpa mine in Sweden for two years. Analyses of glass surfaces provided a measure of the performance of the waste glasses as a function of time. Similar SRS waste glass compositions have also been buried in salt at the WIPP facility in Carlsbad, New Mexico for a similar time period. Analyses of the SRS waste glasses buried in-situ in granite will be presented and compared to the performance of these same compositions buried in salt at WIPP.

  1. Reconsolidation of salt as applied to permanent seals for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, F.D.; Callahan, G.D.; Van Sembeek, L.L.

    1993-07-01

    Reconsolidated salt is a fundamental component of the permanent seals for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. As regulations are currently understood and seal concepts envisioned, emplaced salt is the sole long-term seal component designed to prevent the shafts from becoming preferred pathways for rating gases or liquids. Studies under way in support of the sealing function of emplaced salt include laboratory testing of crushed salt small-scale in situ tests, constitutive modeling of crushed salt, calculations of the opening responses during operation and closure, and design practicalities including emplacement techniques. This paper briefly summarizes aspects of these efforts and key areas of future work.

  2. Molten salt oxidation: a versatile and promising technology for the destruction of organic-containing wastes.

    PubMed

    Yao, Zhitong; Li, Jinhui; Zhao, Xiangyang

    2011-08-01

    Molten salt oxidation (MSO), a robust thermal but non-flame process, has the inherent capability of destroying organic constituents in wastes, while retaining inorganic and radioactive materials in situ. It has been considered as an alternative to incineration and may be a solution to many waste disposal problems. The present review first describes the history and development of MSO, as well as design and engineering details, and then focuses on reaction mechanisms and its potential applications in various wastes, including hazardous wastes, medical wastes, mixed wastes, and energetic materials. Finally, the current status of and prospects for the MSO process and directions for future research are considered.

  3. [Cerebral salt wasting syndrome in a patient with viral meningoencephalitis].

    PubMed

    Namba, Tomoko; Harada, Tamaki; Sakai, Kanaki; Takeji, Masanobu; Takahara, Ken; Uzu, Takashi; Yamauchi, Atsushi

    2006-01-01

    A 53-year-old male was admitted to our hospital for a high fever. He suffered a change in personality, memory loss and disorientation as well. The findings of cerebrospinal fluid showed monocytosis, but the titers of glucose, C1 and ADA were all normal. Although there was no bacterium in the CSF, the patient's electroencephalography finding was abnormal. We diagnosed his condition as viral meningoencephalitis and started treatment with antiviral agents. Blood chemistry showed serum sodium of 130 mEq/l and plasma osmolarity was reduced to 272 mOsm/kg, while urine osmolarity was high at 353 mOsm/kg. Two potential causes of hyponatremia in this patient were the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) or cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSWS). Physical findings revealed a contracted extracellular fluid volume, strongly suggesting the presence of CSWS. The massive urine sodium loss overcoming sodium intake supported this diagnosis. After treatment with vigorous sodium and volume replacement for over 4 weeks, hyponatremia as well as meningoencephalitis were improved without any complication. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on CSWS in a patient with viral meningoencephalitis.

  4. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome after calvarial remodeling in craniosynostosis.

    PubMed

    Byeon, Jun-Hee; Yoo, Gyeol

    2005-10-01

    Hyponatremia and increased urine output after calvarial remodeling have been noted in pediatric patients with craniosynostosis. If not treated properly, patients develop hypoosmotic conditions that can lead to cerebral edema, increased intracranial pressure, and collapsed circulation. Postoperative hyponatremia after central nervous system surgery is considered as the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) secretion. Recently, however, cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSWS) instead of SIADH has been reported frequently. CSWS is associated with a decreased serum sodium level, increased urinary sodium level, increased urine output, decreased ECF volume, increased atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) level, and increased brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) level. We experienced nine patients with craniosynostosis who underwent calvarial remodeling. By postoperative day 1, the ANP and BNP levels increased by 3-6 folds compared with the preoperative levels. They returned to the normal levels by postoperative day 5. The ADH level was within the normal range even after operation. The urinary sodium level increased in all patients by postoperative day 1 and 3. But the serum sodium level, and serum and urine osmolarity were normal due to appropriate replacement of sodium and fluid. After calvarial remodeling, the potential development of CSWS should be considered and distinguished from SIADH. The patients with CSWS require normal saline resuscitation and should prophylactically receive normal saline.

  5. Salt splitting of sodium-dominated radioactive waste using ceramic membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Hollenberg, G.W.; Carlson, C.D.; Virkar, A.; Joshi, A.

    1994-08-01

    The potential for salt splitting of sodium dominated radioactive wastes by use of a ceramic membrane is reviewed. The technical basis for considering this processing technology is derived from the technology developed for battery and chlor-alkali chemical industry. Specific comparisons are made with the commercial organic membranes which are the standard in nonradioactive salt splitting. Two features of ceramic membranes are expected to be especially attractive: high tolerance to gamma irradiation and high selectivity between sodium and other ions. The objective of the salt splitting process is to separate nonradioactive sodium from contaminated sodium salts prior to other pretreatment processes in order to: (1) concentrate the waste in order to reduce the volume of subsequent additives and capacity of equipment, (2) decrease the pH of the waste in preparation for further processing, and (3) provide sodium with very low radioactivity levels for caustic washing of sludge or low level and mixed waste vitrification.

  6. Options assessment report: Treatment of nitrate salt waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Bruce Alan; Stevens, Patrice Ann

    2015-09-16

    This report documents the methodology used to select a method of treatment for the remediated nitrate salt (RNS) and unremediated nitrate salt (UNS) waste containers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The method selected should treat the containerized waste in a manner that renders the waste safe and suitable for transport and final disposal in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository, under specifications listed in the WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (DOE/CBFO, 2013). LANL recognized that the results must be thoroughly vetted with the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) and the a modification to the LANL Hazardous Waste Facility Permit is a necessary step before implementation of this or any treatment option. Likewise, facility readiness and safety basis approvals must be received from the Department of Energy (DOE). This report presents LANL's preferred option, and the documentation of the process for reaching the recommended treatment option for RNS and UNS waste, and is presented for consideration by NMED and DOE.

  7. Application of molten salt oxidation for the minimization and recovery of plutonium-238 contaminated wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Wishau, R.

    1998-05-01

    Molten salt oxidation (MSO) is proposed as a {sup 238}Pu waste treatment technology that should be developed for volume reduction and recovery of {sup 238}Pu and as an alternative to the transport and permanent disposal of {sup 238}Pu waste to the WIPP repository. In MSO technology, molten sodium carbonate salt at 800--900 C in a reaction vessel acts as a reaction media for wastes. The waste material is destroyed when injected into the molten salt, creating harmless carbon dioxide and steam and a small amount of ash in the spent salt. The spent salt can be treated using aqueous separation methods to reuse the salt and to recover 99.9% of the precious {sup 238}Pu that was in the waste. Tests of MSO technology have shown that the volume of combustible TRU waste can be reduced by a factor of at least twenty. Using this factor the present inventory of 574 TRU drums of {sup 238}Pu contaminated wastes is reduced to 30 drums. Further {sup 238}Pu waste costs of $22 million are avoided from not having to repackage 312 of the 574 drums to a drum total of more than 4,600 drums. MSO combined with aqueous processing of salts will recover approximately 1.7 kilograms of precious {sup 238}Pu valued at 4 million dollars (at $2,500/gram). Thus, installation and use of MSO technology at LANL will result in significant cost savings compared to present plans to transport and dispose {sup 238}Pu TRU waste to the WIPP site. Using a total net present value cost for the MSO project as $4.09 million over a five-year lifetime, the project can pay for itself after either recovery of 1.6 kg of Pu or through volume reduction of 818 drums or a combination of the two. These savings show a positive return on investment.

  8. Modified phosphate ceramics for stabilization and solidification of salt mixed wastes.

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, D.

    1998-06-26

    Novel chemically bonded phosphate ceramics have been investigated for stabilization and solidification of chloride and nitrate salt wastes. Using low-temperature processing, we stabilized and solidified chloride and nitrate surrogate salts (with hazardous metals) in magnesium potassium phosphate ceramics up to waste loadings of 70-80 wt.%. A variety of characterizations, including strength, microstructure, and leaching, were then conducted on the waste forms. Leaching tests show that all heavy metals in the leachant are well below the EPAs universal treatment standard limits. Long-term leaching tests, per ANS 16. 1 procedure, yields leachability index for nitrate ions > 12. Chloride ions are expected to have an even higher (i.e., better) leachability index. Structural performance of these final waste forms, as indicated by compression strength and durability in aqueous environments, satisfies the regulatory criteria. Thus, based on the results of this study, it seems that phosphate ceramics are viable option for containment of salt wastes.

  9. Risk assessment of nonhazardous oil-field waste disposal in salt caverns.

    SciTech Connect

    Elcock, D.

    1998-03-10

    Salt caverns can be formed in underground salt formations incidentally as a result of mining or intentionally to create underground chambers for product storage or waste disposal. For more than 50 years, salt caverns have been used to store hydrocarbon products. Recently, concerns over the costs and environmental effects of land disposal and incineration have sparked interest in using salt caverns for waste disposal. Countries using or considering using salt caverns for waste disposal include Canada (oil-production wastes), Mexico (purged sulfates from salt evaporators), Germany (contaminated soils and ashes), the United Kingdom (organic residues), and the Netherlands (brine purification wastes). In the US, industry and the regulatory community are pursuing the use of salt caverns for disposal of oil-field wastes. In 1988, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a regulatory determination exempting wastes generated during oil and gas exploration and production (oil-field wastes) from federal hazardous waste regulations--even though such wastes may contain hazardous constituents. At the same time, EPA urged states to tighten their oil-field waste management regulations. The resulting restrictions have generated industry interest in the use of salt caverns for potentially economical and environmentally safe oil-field waste disposal. Before the practice can be implemented commercially, however, regulators need assurance that disposing of oil-field wastes in salt caverns is technically and legally feasible and that potential health effects associated with the practice are acceptable. In 1996, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil-field wastes (NOW) into salt caverns. It investigated regulatory issues; the types of oil-field wastes suitable for cavern disposal; cavern design and location considerations; and disposal operations, closure and remediation issues. It determined

  10. Study on a regeneration process of LiCl-KCl eutectic based waste salt generated from the pyrochemical process

    SciTech Connect

    Eun, H.C.; Cho, Y.Z.; Choi, J.H.; Kim, J.H.; Lee, T.K.; Park, H.S.; Kim, I.T.; Park, G.I.

    2013-07-01

    A regeneration process of LiCl-KCl eutectic waste salt generated from the pyrochemical process of spent nuclear fuel has been studied. This regeneration process is composed of a chemical conversion process and a vacuum distillation process. Through the regeneration process, a high efficiency of renewable salt recovery can be obtained from the waste salt and rare earth nuclides in the waste salt can be separated as oxide or phosphate forms. Thus, the regeneration process can contribute greatly to a reduction of the waste volume and a creation of durable final waste forms. (authors)

  11. Alternative Electrochemical Salt Waste Forms, Summary of FY/CY2011 Results

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Brian J.; McCloy, John S.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Windisch, Charles F.; Lepry, William C.; Matyas, Josef; Westman, Matthew P.; Rieck, Bennett T.; Lang, Jesse B.; Pierce, David A.

    2011-12-01

    This report summarizes the 2011 fiscal+calendar year efforts for developing waste forms for a spent salt generated in reprocessing nuclear fuel with an electrochemical separations process. The two waste forms are tellurite (TeO2-based) glasses and sol-gel-derived high-halide mineral analogs to stable minerals found in nature.

  12. Brine migration in salt and its implications in the geologic disposal of nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Jenks, G.H.; Claiborne, H.C.

    1981-12-01

    This report respresents a comprehensive review and analysis of available information relating to brine migration in salt surrounding radioactive waste in a salt repository. The topics covered relate to (1) the characteristics of salt formations and waste packages pertinent to considerations of rates, amounts, and effects of brine migration, (2) experimental and theoretical information on brine migration, and (3) means of designing to minimize any adverse effects of brine migration. Flooding, brine pockets, and other topics were not considered, since these features will presumably be eliminated by appropriate site selection and repository design. 115 references.

  13. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome: postoperative complication in tumours of the cerebellopontine angle.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Juretschke, Fernando; Arístegui, Miguel; García-Leal, Roberto; Fernández-Carballal, Carlos; Lowy, Alejandro; Martin-Oviedo, Carlos; Panadero, Teresa

    2012-02-01

    Cerebral salt wasting (CSW) is a rare complication in posterior fossa tumour surgery. We present two patients with cerebellopontine angle (CPA) tumours who developed cerebral salt wasting postoperatively. Both patients deteriorated in spite of intensive fluid and salt replacement. On CT scan the patients presented mild to moderate ventricular dilation, which was treated with an external ventricular drainage. After the resolution of hydrocephalus, fluid balance rapidly returned to normal in both patients and the clinical status improved. Identification and treatment of secondary obstructive hydrocephalus may contribute to the management of CSW associated to posterior fossa tumour surgery.

  14. Using Aspen simulation package to determine solubility of mixed salts in TRU waste evaporator bottoms

    SciTech Connect

    Hatchell, J.L.

    1998-03-01

    Nitric acid from plutonium process waste is a candidate for waste minimization by recycling. Process simulation software packages, such as Aspen, are valuable tools to estimate how effective recovery processes can be, however, constants in equations of state for many ionic components are not in their data libraries. One option is to combine single salt solubility`s in the Aspen model for mixed salt system. Single salt solubilities were regressed in Aspen within 0.82 weight percent of literature values. These were combined into a single Aspen model and used in the mixed salt studies. A simulated nitric acid waste containing mixed aluminum, calcium, iron, magnesium and sodium nitrate was tested to determine points of solubility between 25 and 100 C. Only four of the modeled experimental conditions, at 50 C and 75 C, produced a saturated solution. While experimental results indicate that sodium nitrate is the first salt to crystallize out, the Aspen computer model shows that the most insoluble salt, magnesium nitrate, the first salt to crystallize. Possible double salt formation is actually taking place under experimental conditions, which is not captured by the Aspen model.

  15. Salt Disposal Investigations to Study Thermally Hot Radioactive Waste In A Deep Geologic Repository in Bedded Rock Salt - 12488

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Roger A.; Buschman, Nancy

    2012-07-01

    A research program is proposed to investigate the behavior of salt when subjected to thermal loads like those that would be present in a high-level waste repository. This research would build upon results of decades of previous salt repository program efforts in the US and Germany and the successful licensing and operation of a repository in salt for disposal of defense transuranic waste. The proposal includes a combination of laboratory-scale investigations, numerical simulations conducted to develop validated models that could be used for future repository design and safety case development, and a thermal field test in an underground salt formation with a configuration that replicates a small portion of a conceptual repository design. Laboratory tests are proposed to measure salt and brine properties across and beyond the range of possible repository conditions. Coupled numerical models will seek to describe phenomenology (thermal, mechanical, and hydrological) observed in the laboratory tests. Finally, the field test will investigate many phenomena that have been variously cited as potential issues for disposal of thermally hot waste in salt, including buoyancy effects and migration of pre-existing trapped brine up the thermal gradient (including vapor phase migration). These studies are proposed to be coordinated and managed by the Carlsbad Field Office of DOE, which is also responsible for the operation of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) within the Office of Environmental Management. The field test portion of the proposed research would be conducted in experimental areas of the WIPP underground, far from disposal operations. It is believed that such tests may be accomplished using the existing infrastructure of the WIPP repository at a lower cost than if such research were conducted at a commercial salt mine at another location. The phased field test is proposed to be performed over almost a decade, including instrumentation development, several years

  16. Radioactive waste isolation in salt: peer review of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's report on Functional Design Criteria for a Repository for High-Level Radioactive Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Hambley, D.F.; Russell, J.E.; Busch, J.S.; Harrison, W.; Edgar, D.E.; Tisue, M.W.

    1984-08-01

    This report summarizes Argonne's review of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's (ONWI's) draft report entitled Functional Design Criteria for High-Level Nuclear Waste Repository in Salt, dated January 23, 1984. Recommendations are given for improving the ONWI draft report.

  17. Conceptual waste package interim product specifications and data requirements for disposal of borosilicate glass defense high-level waste forms in salt geologic repositories

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-06-01

    The conceptual waste package interim product specifications and data requirements presented are applicable specifically to the normal borosilicate glass product of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). They provide preliminary numerical values for the defense high-level waste form parameters and properties identified in the waste form performance specification for geologic isolation in salt repositories. Subject areas treated include containment and isolation, operational period safety, criticality control, waste form/production canister identification, and waste package performance testing requirements. This document was generated for use in the development of conceptual waste package designs in salt. It will be revised as additional data, analyses, and regulatory requirements become available.

  18. Disposal of Soluble Salt Waste from Coal Gasification,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    evaporator, to keep the salts suspended so they do not form scale, and to prevent especially scal- ing and fouling as the salts become completely dry ... Water is recov- ered from condensates to be reused as a recovered resource. The oil evaporation technique is appropriate for a coal conversion plant, as

  19. Secondary Aluminum Processing Waste: Salt Cake Characterization and Reactivity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thirty-nine salt cake samples were collected from 10 SAP facilities across the U.S. The facilities were identified by the Aluminum Association to cover a wide range of processes. Results suggest that while the percent metal leached from the salt cake was relatively low, the leac...

  20. Cerebral salt wasting in tuberculous meningitis: Two cases and review of the literature. Case Report.

    PubMed

    Celik, Umit; Celik, Tamer; Tolunay, Orkun; Başpınar, Hüseyin; Kömür, Mustafa; Levent, Fatma

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSWS) is characterized by severe natriuresis and volume depletion in the presence of cerebral pathology. In literature, there are few reports about tuberculous meningitis and cerebral CSWS. In this article, we report two tuberculous meningitis cases with CSWS and present a review of the literature on this topic. Cerebral salt wasting diagnosis was based on hyponatraemia associated with high urinary sodium excretion and inappropriately high urine output in the presence of dehydration. Treatment was made with sodium-fluid replacement plus fludrocortisone therapy in both cases. In agreement with the literature we argue that cerebral salt wasting syndrome might be more common than the syndromes of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) in cerebral disorders. Differentiating the cerebral salt wasting syndrome from the SIADH is very important because unrecognized cerebral salt wasting syndrome can lead to inadequate management and result in unnecessary hyponatremia-related morbidity. The electrolyte and hydration status of patients should be monitored closely in patients with tuberculous meningitis.

  1. Renal salt wasting as part of dysautonomia in Guillain-Barre syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lenhard, T; Grimm, C; Ringleb, P A

    2011-09-01

    Cerebral salt-wasting syndrome and the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis (SIAD) are the most important causes of non-iatrogenic hyponatraemia that can significantly complicate various brain diseases. Salt wasting without an underlying CNS disease may have been disregarded so far by clinicians and has been described as renal salt-wasting (RSW) in patients as drug side effect (eg, cisplatin), in older people with various common diseases (eg, hip fracture, pulmonary infections) and other sporadic conditions. In Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS), however, hyponatraemia has been described mainly as SIAD. However, symptoms of hyponatraemia rarely develop in GBS. Here, we report on a woman with GBS with dominant symptoms of dysautonomia and moderate severe hyponatraemia. We could identify RSW as part of the autonomic dysfunction that significantly contributed to disease worsening.

  2. Potential vertical movement of large heat-generating waste packages in salt.

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, Daniel James; Martinez, Mario J.; Hardin, Ernest.

    2013-05-01

    With renewed interest in disposal of heat-generating waste in bedded or domal salt formations, scoping analyses were conducted to estimate rates of waste package vertical movement. Vertical movement is found to result from thermal expansion, from upward creep or heave of the near-field salt, and from downward buoyant forces on the waste package. A two-pronged analysis approach was used, with thermal-mechanical creep modeling, and coupled thermal-viscous flow modeling. The thermal-mechanical approach used well-studied salt constitutive models, while the thermal-viscous approach represented the salt as a highly viscous fluid. The Sierra suite of coupled simulation codes was used for both approaches. The waste package in all simulations was a right-circular cylinder with the density of steel, in horizontal orientation. A time-decaying heat generation function was used to represent commercial spent fuel with typical burnup and 50-year age. Results from the thermal-mechanical base case showed approximately 27 cm initial uplift of the package, followed by gradual relaxation closely following the calculated temperature history. A similar displacement history was obtained with the package density set equal to that of salt. The slight difference in these runs is attributable to buoyant displacement (sinking) and is on the order of 1 mm in 2,000 years. Without heat generation the displacement stabilizes at a fraction of millimeter after a few hundred years. Results from thermal-viscous model were similar, except that the rate of sinking was constant after cooldown, at approximately 0.15 mm per 1,000 yr. In summary, all calculations showed vertical movement on the order of 1 mm or less in 2,000 yr, including calculations using well-established constitutive models for temperature-dependent salt deformation. Based on this finding, displacement of waste packages in a salt repository is not a significant repository performance issue.

  3. Reduction of salt cake waste by removing low value oxide fines

    SciTech Connect

    Skoch, J.T.; Collins, R.L.

    1995-12-31

    With the ongoing pressure on the secondary aluminum business to limit the amount of waste generated from processing aluminum dross, it becomes very advantageous to preprocess the dross to reduce waste. The advantage of preprocessing is that it significantly reduces the oxides and salt cake generated when melted. Various products can be produced from the oxides for the steel industry. The paper will demonstrate that removal of oxide fines before melting will result in large volumes of material not being landfilled. The authors will show that the end result of this technology is to significantly reduce the amount of salt cake sent to a landfill while maximizing the recyclability of the aluminum dross.

  4. Acute hyponatraemia secondary to cerebral salt wasting syndrome in a patient with tuberculous meningitis.

    PubMed

    Ti, L K; Kang, S C; Cheong, K F

    1998-08-01

    A 30-year-old HIV-positive man presented with acute hydrocephalus secondary to tuberculous meningitis, for which an external ventricular drain was inserted. He developed marked natriuresis in the postoperative period, which resulted in acute hyponatraemia (131 to 122 mmol/l) and a contraction of his intravascular volume. A diagnosis of cerebral salt wasting syndrome was made, and he responded to sodium and fluid loading. This case highlights the differentiation of cerebral salt wasting syndrome from the more commonly occurring syndrome of inappropriate anti-diuretic hormone secretion as the aetiology of the hyponatraemia.

  5. Treatment Study Plan for Nitrate Salt Waste Remediation Revision 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    Juarez, Catherine L.; Funk, David John; Vigil-Holterman, Luciana R.; Naranjo, Felicia Danielle

    2016-03-07

    The two stabilization treatment methods that are to be examined for their effectiveness in the treatment of both the unremediated and remediated nitrate salt wastes include (1) the addition of zeolite and (2) cementation. Zeolite addition is proposed based on the results of several studies and analyses that specifically examined the effectiveness of this process for deactivating nitrate salts. Cementation is also being assessed because of its prevalence as an immobilization method used for similar wastes at numerous facilities around the DOE complex, including at Los Alamos. The results of this Treatment Study Plan will be used to provide the basis for a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permit modification request of the LANL Hazardous Waste Facility Permit for approval by the New Mexico Environment Department-Hazardous Waste Bureau (NMED-HWB) of the proposed treatment process and the associated facilities.

  6. Caustic Recycle from Hanford Tank Waste Using NaSICON Ceramic Membrane Salt Splitting Process

    SciTech Connect

    Fountain, Matthew S.; Kurath, Dean E.; Sevigny, Gary J.; Poloski, Adam P.; Pendleton, J.; Balagopal, S.; Quist, M.; Clay, D.

    2009-02-20

    A family of inorganic ceramic materials, called sodium (Na) Super Ion Conductors (NaSICON), has been studied at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to investigate their ability to separate sodium from radioactively contaminated sodium salt solutions for treating U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) tank wastes. Ceramatec Inc. developed and fabricated a membrane containing a proprietary NAS-GY material formulation that was electrochemically tested in a bench-scale apparatus with both a simulant and a radioactive tank-waste solution to determine the membrane performance when removing sodium from DOE tank wastes. Implementing this sodium separation process can result in significant cost savings by reducing the disposal volume of low-activity wastes and by producing a NaOH feedstock product for recycle into waste treatment processes such as sludge leaching, regenerating ion exchange resins, inhibiting corrosion in carbon-steel tanks, or retrieving tank wastes.

  7. Alternative Electrochemical Salt Waste Forms, Summary of FY11-FY12 Results

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Brian J.; Mccloy, John S.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Lepry, William C.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Windisch, Charles F.; Matyas, Josef; Westman, Matthew P.; Rieck, Bennett T.; Lang, Jesse B.; Olszta, Matthew J.; Pierce, David A.

    2014-01-17

    The Fuel Cycle Research and Development Program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy, is currently investigating alternative waste forms for wastes generated from nuclear fuel processing. One such waste results from an electrochemical separations process, called the “Echem” process. The Echem process utilizes a molten KCl-LiCl salt to dissolve the fuel. This process results in a spent salt containing alkali, alkaline earth, lanthanide halides and small quantities of actinide halides, where the primary halide is chloride with a minor iodide fraction. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is concurrently investigating two candidate waste forms for the Echem spent-salt: high-halide minerals (i.e., sodalite and cancrinite) and tellurite (TeO2)-based glasses. Both of these candidates showed promise in fiscal year (FY) 2009 and FY2010 with a simplified nonradioactive simulant of the Echem waste. Further testing was performed on these waste forms in FY2011 and FY2012 to assess the possibility of their use in a sustainable fuel cycle. This report summarizes the combined results from FY2011 and FY2012 efforts.

  8. A case of cerebral salt-wasting syndrome associated with aseptic meningitis in an 8-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Inatomi, Jun; Yokoyama, Yoshiki; Sekine, Takashi; Igarashi, Takashi

    2008-04-01

    Cerebral salt-wasting syndrome is a disorder in which excessive natriuresis and subsequent hyponatremic dehydration occur in patients with intracranial diseases. Cerebral salt-wasting syndrome often develops in patients with severe neurosurgical disorders, such as hydrocephalus, cerebral infarction, and tuberculous meningitis. Here, we report on the case of an 8-year-old boy with cerebral salt-wasting syndrome associated with aseptic meningitis. He showed mild developmental retardation and had a history of convulsion. Four days after his admission, cerebral salt-wasting syndrome abruptly started: natriuresis and hyponatremia gradually improved over 10 days. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on cerebral salt-wasting syndrome associated with clinically benign aseptic meningitis.

  9. Disposal of NORM-Contaminated Oil Field Wastes in Salt Caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Blunt, D.L.; Elcock, D.; Smith, K.P.; Tomasko, D.; Viel, J.A.; and Williams, G.P.

    1999-01-21

    In 1995, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, asked Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to conduct a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW) into salt caverns. That study concluded that disposal of NOW into salt caverns is feasible and legal. If caverns are sited and designed well, operated carefully, closed properly, and monitored routinely, they can be a suitable means of disposing of NOW (Veil et al. 1996). Considering these findings and the increased U.S. interest in using salt caverns for NOW disposal, the Office of Fossil Energy asked Argonne to conduct further research on the cost of cavern disposal compared with the cost of more traditional NOW disposal methods and on preliminary identification and investigation of the risks associated with such disposal. The cost study (Veil 1997) found that disposal costs at the four permitted disposal caverns in the United States were comparable to or lower than the costs of other disposal facilities in the same geographic area. The risk study (Tomasko et al. 1997) estimated that both cancer and noncancer human health risks from drinking water that had been contaminated by releases of cavern contents were significantly lower than the accepted risk thresholds. Since 1992, DOE has funded Argonne to conduct a series of studies evaluating issues related to management and disposal of oil field wastes contaminated with naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). Included among these studies were radiological dose assessments of several different NORM disposal options (Smith et al. 1996). In 1997, DOE asked Argonne to conduct additional analyses on waste disposal in salt caverns, except that this time the wastes to be evaluated would be those types of oil field wastes that are contaminated by NORM. This report describes these analyses. Throughout the remainder of this report, the term ''NORM waste'' is used to mean ''oil field waste

  10. Combined central diabetes insipidus and cerebral salt wasting syndrome in children.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jainn-Jim; Lin, Kuang-Lin; Hsia, Shao-Hsuan; Wu, Chang-Teng; Wang, Huei-Shyong

    2009-02-01

    Central diabetes insipidus, a common consequence of acute central nervous system injury, causes hypernatremia; cerebral salt wasting syndrome can cause hyponatremia. The two conditions occurring simultaneous are rarely described in pediatric patients. Pediatric cases of combined diabetes insipidus and cerebral salt wasting after acute central nervous system injury between January 2000 and December 2007 were retrospectively reviewed, and clinical characteristics were systemically assessed. Sixteen patients, aged 3 months to 18 years, met study criteria: 11 girls and 5 boys. The most common etiologies were severe central nervous system infection (n = 7, 44%) and hypoxic-ischemic event (n = 4, 25%). In 15 patients, diabetes insipidus was diagnosed during the first 3 days after acute central nervous system injury. Onset of cerebral salt wasting syndrome occurred 2-8 days after the onset of diabetes insipidus. In terms of outcome, 13 patients died (81%) and 3 survived under vegetative status (19%). Central diabetes insipidus and cerebral salt wasting syndrome may occur after acute central nervous system injury. A combination of both may impede accurate diagnosis. Proper differential diagnoses are critical, because the treatment strategy for each entity is different.

  11. Preliminary Technical and Legal Evaluation of Disposing of Nonhazardous Oil Field Waste into Salt Caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Ayers, Robert C.; Caudle, Dan; Elcock, Deborah; Raivel, Mary; Veil, John; and Grunewald, Ben

    1999-01-21

    This report presents an initial evaluation of the suitability, feasibility, and legality of using salt caverns for disposal of nonhazardous oil field wastes. Given the preliminary and general nature of this report, we recognize that some of our findings and conclusions maybe speculative and subject to change upon further research on this topic.

  12. Fluid Transport Driven by Heat-Generating Nuclear Waste in Bedded Salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, A.; Harp, D. R.; Stauffer, P. H.; Ten Cate, J. A.; Labyed, Y.; Boukhalfa, H.; Lu, Z.; Person, M. A.; Robinson, B. A.

    2013-12-01

    The question of where to safely dispose high-level nuclear waste (HLW) provides ample motivation for scientific research on deep geologic disposal options. The goal of this study is to model the dominant heat and mass transport processes that would be driven by heat generating nuclear waste buried in bedded salt. The interaction between liquid brine flow towards the heat source, establishment of a heat pipe in the mine-run salt backfill, boiling, and vapor condensation leads to changes in porosity, permeability, saturation, thermal conductivity, and rheology of the salt surrounding potential waste canisters. The Finite Element Heat and Mass transfer code (FEHM) was used to simulate these highly coupled thermal, hydrological, and chemical processes. The numerical model has been tested against recent and historical experimental data to develop and improve the salt material model. We used the validated numerical model to make predictions of temperature gradients, porosity changes, and tracer behavior that will be testable in a future 2-year field-scale heater experiment to be carried out in an experimental test bed at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site near Carlsbad, NM.

  13. Hazards Associated with Legacy Nitrate Salt Waste Drums Managed under the Container Isolation Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Funk, David John; Clark, David Lewis

    2015-01-07

    At present, there are 29 drums of nitrate waste salts (oxidizers with potentially acidic liquid bearing RCRA characteristics D001 and D002) that are awaiting processing, specifically to eliminate these characteristics and to allow for ultimate disposition at WIPP. As a result of the Feb. 14th, 2014 drum breach at WIPP, and the subsequent identification of the breached drum as a product ofLANL TRU waste disposition on May 15th, 2014, these 29 containers were moved into the Perrnacon in Dome 231 at TA-54 Area G, as part of the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) approved container isolation plan. The plan is designed to mitigate hazards associated with the nitrate salt bearing waste stream. The purpose of this document is to articulate the hazards associated with un-remediated nitrate salts while in storage at LANL. These hazards are distinctly different from the Swheat-remediated nitrate salt bearing drums, and this document is intended to support the request to remove the un-remediated drums from management under the container isolation plan. Plans to remediate and/or treat both of these waste types are being developed separately, and are beyond the scope of this document.

  14. Modeling the influence of sinking anhydrite blocks on salt diapirs targeted for hazardous waste disposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyi, Hemin A.

    2001-05-01

    Due to the low permeability and high ductility of rock salt, many salt diapirs, such as those in Germany and the Netherlands, are targeted as long-term repositories for disposal of high-level radioactive and chemical wastes. Geophysical and subsurface data show that the Gorleben salt diapir, which is one of the most extensively investigated diapirs in the world, and other salt diapirs of the Zechstein Formation in Germany contain large blocks (˜80 m thick) of high-density anhydrite inclusions. These blocks, which were carried upward by the rising salt, are considered to be detached segments of intercalated layers that initially were deposited with the salt. Results of physical and numerical models, presented here, show that such detached, high-density blocks, which were entrained and carried upward by the diapir at an earlier stage, tend to sink in the late stages of diapiric evolution when the rate of diapiric rise slows down. During their descent, these high- density competent blocks deform by folding and create shear zones at the immediate contact with the less competent salt. The descending blocks initiate a secondary internal flow within the salt diapirs they descend, and they may deform any repository built within such diapirs, which would otherwise be considered as tectonically inactive.

  15. Direct Grout Stabilization of High Cesium Salt Waste: Cesium Leaching Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C.A.

    1999-09-19

    'The direct grout alternative is a viable option for treatment/stabilization and disposal of salt waste containing Cs-137 concentrations of 1-3 Ci/gal. The significant difference between these waste solutions is that the high cesium salt solution will contain between 1 and 3 Curies of Cs-137 per gallon compared to a negligible amount in the current salt solution. This difference will require special engineering and shielding for a direct grout processing facility and disposal units to achieve acceptable radiation exposure conditions. The higher cesium concentrations in the direct grout also require that the cesium leaching be evaluated as a function of curing temperature. ANS 16.1 leaching results and distribution ratios (approximations of distribution coefficients) as a function of temperature are presented in this report.'

  16. [Hyponatraemia in patients with neurosurgical disorders: SIADH or cerebral salt wasting syndrome?].

    PubMed

    Frey, Felix J

    2009-11-01

    Patients with neurosurgical disorders often present with hyponatraemia. Two mechanisms account for hyponatraemia in these patients: the Syndrome of Inappropriate Secretion of Antidiuretic Hormone (SIADH) and Cerebral Salt Wasting Syndrome (CSWS). The two entities differ in their volume status. In SIADH, volume is expanded due to ADH-mediated renal water retention, but in CSWS, volume is diminished as a consequence of renal salt wasting, most likely attributable to an increased secretion of Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) and Artrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP). Since it is clinically difficult to distinguish between these two entities, fluid management has to be performed carefully. Salt and fluid replacement appears to be indicated in CSWS, whereas fluid restriction might be the primary approach in patients with SIADH.

  17. Options Assessment Report: Treatment of Nitrate Salt Waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Bruce Alan; Stevens, Patrice Ann

    2015-12-17

    This report documents the methodology used to select a method of treatment for the remediated nitrate salt (RNS) and unremediated nitrate salt (UNS) waste containers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The method selected should treat the containerized waste in a manner that renders the waste safe and suitable for transport and final disposal in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository, under specifications listed in the WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (DOE/CBFO, 2013). LANL recognizes that the results must be thoroughly vetted with the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) and that a modification to the LANL Hazardous Waste Facility Permit is a necessary step before implementation of this or any treatment option. Likewise, facility readiness and safety basis approvals must be received from the Department of Energy (DOE). This report presents LANL’s preferred option, and the documentation of the process for reaching the recommended treatment option for RNS and UNS waste, and is presented for consideration by NMED and DOE.

  18. Can nonhazardous oil field wastes be disposed of in salt caverns?

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.

    1996-10-01

    Solution-mined salt caverns have been used for many years for storing hydrocarbon products. This paper summarizes an Argonne National Laboratory report that reviews the legality, technical suitability, and feasibility of disposing of nonhazardous oil and gas exploration and production wastes in salt caverns. An analysis of regulations indicated that there are no outright regulatory prohibitions on cavern disposal -of oil field wastes at either the federal level or in the 11 oil-producing states that were studied. There is no actual field experience on the long-term impacts that might arise following closure of waste disposal caverns. Although research has found that pressures will build up in a closed cavern, none has specifically addressed caverns filled with oil field wastes. More field research on pressure build up in closed caverns is needed. On the basis of preliminary investigations, we believe that disposal of oil field wastes in salt caverns is legal and feasible. The technical suitability of the practice depends on whether the caverns are well-sited and well-designed, carefully operated, properly closed, and routinely monitored.

  19. New information on disposal of oil field wastes in salt caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.

    1996-10-01

    Solution-mined salt caverns have been used for many years for storing hydrocarbon products. This paper summarizes an Argonne National Laboratory report that reviews the legality, technical suitability, and feasibility of disposing of nonhazardous oil and gas exploration and production wastes in salt caverns. An analysis of regulations indicated that there are no outright regulatory prohibitions on cavern disposal of oil field wastes at either the federal level or in the 11 oil-producing states that were studied. There is no actual field experience on the long-term impacts that might arise following closure of waste disposal caverns. Although research has found that pressures will build-up in a closed cavern, none has specifically addressed caverns filled with oil field wastes. More field research on pressure build-up in closed caverns is needed. On the basis of preliminary investigations, we believe that disposal of oil field wastes in salt caverns is legal and feasible. The technical suitability of the practice depends on whether the caverns are well-sited and well-designed, carefully operated, properly closed, and routinely monitored.

  20. Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation of Sodium Salts

    SciTech Connect

    Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Moyer, Bruce A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this research involving collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is to explore new approaches to the separation of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, and other sodium salts from high-level alkaline tank waste. The principal potential benefit is a major reduction in disposed waste volume, obviating the building of expensive new waste tanks and reducing the costs of low-activity waste immobilization. Principles of ion recognition are being researched toward discovery of liquid extraction systems that selectively separate sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate from other waste components. The successful concept of pseudohydroxide extraction using fluorinated alcohols and phenols is being developed at ORNL and PNNL toward a greater understanding of the controlling equilibria, role of solvation, and of synergistic effects involving crown ethers. Studies at PNNL are directed toward new solvent formulation for the practical sodium pseudohydroxide extraction systems.

  1. X-ray diffraction of slag-based sodium salt waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C. A.; Missimer, D. M.

    2014-09-30

    The attached report documents sample preparation and x-ray diffraction results for a series of cement and blended cement matrices prepared with either water or a 4.4 M Na salt solution. The objective of the study was to provide initial phase characterization for the Cementitious Barriers Partnership reference case cementitious salt waste form. This information can be used to: 1) generate a base line for the evolution of the waste form as a function of time and conditions, 2) potentially to design new binders based on mineralogy of the binder, 3) understand and predict anion and cation leaching behavior of contaminants of concern, and 4) predict performance of the waste forms for which phase solubility and thermodynamic data are available.

  2. Molten salt oxidation of mixed waste: Preliminary bench-scale experiments without radioactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, P.A.; Rudolph, J.C.; Bell, J.T.

    1994-06-01

    Molten salt oxidation (MSO) is a process in which organic wastes are oxidized by sparging them with air through a bed of molten sodium carbonate (bp 851 {degrees}C) at {ge} 900{degrees}C. This process is readily applicable to the mixed waste because acidic products from Cl, S, P, etc., in the waste, along with most metals and most radionuclides, are retained within the melt as oxides or salts. Rockwell International has studied the application of MSO to various wastes, including some mixed waste. A unit used by Rockwell to study the mixed waste treatment is presently in use at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). ORNL`s studies to date have concentrated on chemical flowsheet questions. Concerns that were studied included carbon monoxide (CO) emissions, NO{sub x}, emissions, and metal retention under a variety of conditions. Initial experiments show that CO emissions increase with increasing NaCl content in the melt, increasing temperature, and increasing airflow. Carbon monoxide content is especially high (> 2000 ppm) with high chlorine content (> 10%). Thermal NO{sub x}, emissions are relatively low ( < 5 ppm) at temperatures < 1000{degrees}C. However, most (85--100%) of the nitrogen in the feed as organic nitrate or amine was released as NO{sub x}, The metal contents of the melt and of knockout pot samples of condensed salt show high volatilities of Cs as CsCl. Average condensed salt concentrations were 60% for barium and 100% for strontium and cobalt. The cerium disappeared -- perhaps from deposition on the alumina reactor walls.

  3. The advantages of a salt/bentonite backfill for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant disposal rooms

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, B.M.; Novak, C.F. ); Jercinovic, M. )

    1991-04-01

    A 70/30 wt% salt/bentonite mixture is shown to be preferable to pure crushed salt as backfill for disposal rooms in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This report discusses several selection criteria used to arrive at this conclusion: the need for low permeability and porosity after closure, chemical stability with the surroundings, adequate strength to avoid shear erosion from human intrusion, ease of emplacement, and sorption potential for brine and radionuclides. Both salt and salt/bentonite are expected to consolidate to a final state of impermeability (i.e., {le} 10{sup {minus}18}m{sup 2}) adequate for satisfying federal nuclear regulations. Any advantage of the salt/bentonite mixture is dependent upon bentonite's potential for sorbing brine and radionuclides. Estimates suggest that bentonite's sorption potential for water in brine is much less than for pure water. While no credit is presently taken for brine sorption in salt/bentonite backfill, the possibility that some amount of inflowing brine would be chemically bound is considered likely. Bentonite may also sorb much of the plutonium, americium, and neptunium within the disposal room inventory. Sorption would be effective only if a major portion of the backfill is in contact with radioactive brine. Brine flow from the waste out through highly localized channels in the backfill would negate sorption effectiveness. Although the sorption potentials of bentonite for both brine and radionuclides are not ideal, they are distinctly beneficial. Furthermore, no detrimental aspects of adding bentonite to the salt as a backfill have been identified. These two observations are the major reasons for selecting salt/bentonite as a backfill within the WIPP. 39 refs., 16 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Characteristics of wasteform composing of phosphate and silicate to immobilize radioactive waste salts.

    PubMed

    Park, Hwan-Seo; Cho, In-Hak; Eun, Hee Chul; Kim, In-Tae; Cho, Yong Zun; Lee, Han-Soo

    2011-03-01

    In the radioactive waste management, metal chloride wastes from a pyrochemical process is one of problematic wastes not directly applicable to a conventional solidification process. Different from a use of minerals or a specific phosphate glass for immobilizing radioactive waste salts, our research group applied an inorganic composite, SAP (SiO(2)-Al(2)O(3)-P(2)O(5)), to stabilize them by dechlorination. From this method, a unique wasteform composing of phosphate and silicate could be fabricated. This study described the characteristic of the wasteform on the morphology, chemical durability, and some physical properties. The wasteform has a unique "domain-matrix" structure which would be attributed to the incompatibility between silicate and phosphate glass. At higher amounts of chemical binder, "P-rich phase encapsulated by Si-rich phase" was a dominant morphology, but it was changed to be Si-rich phase encapsulated by P-rich phase at a lower amount of binder. The domain and subdomain size in the wasteform was about 0.5-2 μm and hundreds of nm, respectively. The chemical durability of wasteform was confirmed by various leaching test methods (PCT-A, ISO dynamic leaching test, and MCC-1). From the leaching tests, it was found that the P-rich phase had ten times lower leach-resistance than the Si-rich phase. The leach rates of Cs and Sr in the wasteform were about 10(-3)g/m(2)· day, and the leached fractions of them were about 0.04% and 0.06% at 357 days, respectively. Using this method, we could stabilize and solidify the waste salt to form a monolithic wasteform with good leach-resistance. Also, the decrease of waste volume by the dechlorination approach would be beneficial in the final disposal cost, compared with the present immobilization methods for waste salt.

  5. Subsurface geology of a potential waste emplacement site, Salt Valley Anticline, Grand County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hite, R.J.

    1977-01-01

    The Salt Valley anticline, which is located about 32 km northeast of Moab, Utah, is perhaps one of the most favorable waste emplacement sites in the Paradox basin. The site, which includes about 7.8 km 2, is highly accessible and is adjacent to a railroad. The anticline is one of a series of northwest-trending salt anticlines lying along the northeast edge of the Paradox basin. These anticlines are cored by evaporites of the Paradox Member of the Hermosa Formation of Middle Pennsylvanian age. The central core of the Salt Valley anticline forms a ridgelike mass of evaporites that has an estimated amplitude of 3,600 m. The evaporite core consists of about 87 percent halite rock, which includes some potash deposits; the remainder is black shale, silty dolomite, and anhydrite. The latter three lithologies are referred to as 'marker beds.' Using geophysical logs from drill holes on the anticline, it is possible to demonstrate that the marker beds are complexly folded and faulted. Available data concerning the geothermal gradient and heatflow at the site indicate that heat from emplaced wastes should be rapidly dissipated. Potentially exploitable resources of potash and petroleum are present at Salt Valley. Development of these resources may conflict with use of the site for waste emplacement.

  6. Molten salt destruction of energetic material wastes as an alternative to open burning. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Upadhye, R.S.; Brummond, W.A.; Pruneda, C.O.; Watkins, B.E.

    1994-11-02

    As a result of the end of the Cold War and the shift in emphasis to a smaller stockpile, many munitions, both conventional and nuclear, are scheduled for retirement and rapid dismantlement and demilitarization. Major components of these munitions are the explosives and propellants, or energetic materials. The Molten Salt Destruction (MSD) Process has been demonstrated for the destruction of HE and HE-containing wastes. MSD converts the organic constituents of the waste into non-hazardous substances such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen and water. Any inorganic constituents of the waste, such as binders and metallic particles, are retained in the molten salt. LLNL has built a small-scale (about 1 kg/hr throughput) unit to test the destruction of HE using the MSD process. The authors have demonstrated that HE`s and liquid propellants can be safely and fully destroyed using the molten salt destruction process. The authors are currently working on a number of improvements to the process. They are modifying the design of unit to obtain more throughput without any increase in salt entrainment. They are implementing an advanced nozzle design for injection of larger particles. They are defining operating envelopes for a number of high explosives and formulations. They are developing models to study the temperature profile of a top-feed nozzle for feeding larger particles into the unit.

  7. Radioactive waste isolation in salt: geochemistry of brine in rock salt in temperature gradients and gamma-radiation fields - a selective annotated bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, A.B.; Williams, L.B.

    1985-07-01

    Evaluation of the extensive research concerning brine geochemistry and transport is critically important to successful exploitation of a salt formation for isolating high-level radioactive waste. This annotated bibliography has been compiled from documents considered to provide classic background material on the interactions between brine and rock salt, as well as the most important results from more recent research. Each summary elucidates the information or data most pertinent to situations encountered in siting, constructing, and operating a mined repository in salt for high-level radioactive waste. The research topics covered include the basic geology, depositional environment, mineralogy, and structure of evaporite and domal salts, as well as fluid inclusions, brine chemistry, thermal and gamma-radiation effects, radionuclide migration, and thermodynamic properties of salts and brines. 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Cerebral salt-wasting syndrome in a child with Wernicke encephalopathy treated with fludrocortisone therapy

    PubMed Central

    Han, Min Jeong; Kim, Soon Chul; Joo, Chan Uhng; Kim, Sun Jun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Rationale for this case report: Cerebral Salt-Wasting Syndrome (CSWS) is characterized by hyponatremia and sodium wasting in the urine.[1] These conditions are triggered by various neurosurgical disorders such as subarachnoid hemorrhage, brain tumor, head injury, and brain surgery.[2,3] To our knowledge, CSWS caused by Wernicke encephalopathy (WE) has been rarely reported. Presenting concerns of the patient: A 2-year-old male patient presented to our hospital due to a seizure attack. He had been neglected and refused to take food for a long time (body weight < 3rd percentile). During admission, the patient showed low serum osmolality, high urine osmolality, dehydration state, increased urine output, and negative water balance, a diagnosis of CSWS was made. Diagnoses, interventions, and outcomes: Brain MRI displayed symmetrical lesions of T2WI and FLAIR high signal intensity in the peri-aqueductal and hypothalamic areas, which suggests Wernicke encephalopathy. For the early diagnosis of WE, neuroimaging studies can be an important marker. Thiamine hydrochloride was administered at a dose of 100 mg/day for 3 weeks. Cerebral salt-wasting syndrome was subsequently diagnosed due to persistent hyponatremia, dehydrated state, and high urine sodium with massive urination. Main lessons learned from this case: Wernicke encephalopathy is a very rare cause of cerebral salt-wasting syndrome in pediatrics patients. The patient had a good outcome after hypertonic solution and fludrocortisone therapy. PMID:27603336

  9. Hydrous mineral dehydration around heat-generating nuclear waste in bedded salt formations.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Amy B; Boukhalfa, Hakim; Caporuscio, Florie A; Robinson, Bruce A; Stauffer, Philip H

    2015-06-02

    Heat-generating nuclear waste disposal in bedded salt during the first two years after waste emplacement is explored using numerical simulations tied to experiments of hydrous mineral dehydration. Heating impure salt samples to temperatures of 265 °C can release over 20% by mass of hydrous minerals as water. Three steps in a series of dehydration reactions are measured (65, 110, and 265 °C), and water loss associated with each step is averaged from experimental data into a water source model. Simulations using this dehydration model are used to predict temperature, moisture, and porosity after heating by 750-W waste canisters, assuming hydrous mineral mass fractions from 0 to 10%. The formation of a three-phase heat pipe (with counter-circulation of vapor and brine) occurs as water vapor is driven away from the heat source, condenses, and flows back toward the heat source, leading to changes in porosity, permeability, temperature, saturation, and thermal conductivity of the backfill salt surrounding the waste canisters. Heat pipe formation depends on temperature, moisture availability, and mobility. In certain cases, dehydration of hydrous minerals provides sufficient extra moisture to push the system into a sustained heat pipe, where simulations neglecting this process do not.

  10. Equipment evaluation for low density polyethylene encapsulated nitrate salt waste at the Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, W.I.; Faucette, A.M.; Jantzen, R.C.; Logsdon, B.W.; Oldham, J.H.; Saiki, D.M.; Yudnich, R.J.

    1993-08-30

    Mixed wastes at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) are subject to regulation by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Polymer solidification is being developed as a final treatment technology for several of these mixed wastes, including nitrate salts. Encapsulation nitrate salts with low density polyethylene (LDPE) has been the preliminary focus of the RFP polymer solidification effort. Literature reviews, industry surveys, and lab-scale and pilot-scale tests have been conducted to evaluate several options for encapsulating nitrate salts with LDPE. Most of the effort has focused on identifying compatible drying and extrusion technologies. Other processing options, specifically meltration and non-heated compounding machines, were also investigated. The best approach appears to be pretreatment of the nitrate salt waste brine in either a vertical or horizontal thin film evaporator followed by compounding of the dried waste with LDPE in an intermeshing, co-rotating, twin-screw extruder. Additional pilot-scale tests planned for the fall of 1993 should further support this recommendation. Preliminary evaluation work indicates that meltration is not possible at atmospheric pressure with the LDPE (Chevron PE-1409) provided by RFP. However, meltration should be possible at atmospheric pressure using another LDPE formulation with altered physical and rheological properties: Lower molecular weight and lower viscosity (Epoline C-15). Contract modifications are now in process to allow a follow-on pilot scale demonstration. Questions regarding changed safety and physical properties of the resultant LDPE waste form due to use of the Epoline C-15 will be addressed. No additional work with non-heated mixer compounder machines is planned at this time.

  11. Testing of low temperature stabilization alternatives for salt-containing mixed wastes -- approach and results to date

    SciTech Connect

    Maio, V.; Loomis, G.; Biyani, R.K.; Smith, G.; Spence, R.; Wagh, A.

    1998-07-01

    Through its annual process of identifying technology deficiencies associated with waste treatment, the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) determined that the former DOE weapons complex lacks efficient mixed waste stabilization technologies for salt containing wastes. The current method used to stabilize salt waste for compliant disposal is grouting with Portland cement. This method is inefficient since the highly soluble and reactive chloride, nitrate, and sulfate salts interfere with the hydration and setting processes associated with grouting. The following five alternative salt waste stabilization technologies were selected for MWFA development funding in FY97 and FY98: (1) Phosphate Bonded Ceramics, (2) Sol-gel, (3) Polysiloxane, (4) Polyester Resin, and (5) Enhanced Concrete. Comparable evaluations were planned for the stabilization development efforts. Under these evaluations each technology stabilized the same type of salt waste surrogates as specified by the MWFA. Final waste form performance data such as compressive strength, waste loading, and leachability can then be equally compared to the requirements originally specified. In addition to the selected test results provided in this paper, the performance of each alternative stabilization technology, will be documented in formal MWFA Innovative Technology Summary Reports (ITSRs).

  12. Non-Radiological Air Quality Modeling for the High-Level Waste Salt Disposition

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, C.H.

    1999-11-29

    Dispersion modeling of non-radiological airborne emissions associated with the construction and operation of three alternatives for high-level waste salt disposition at the Savannah River Site has been completed. The results will be used by Department of Energy-Savannah River in the preparation of the salt disposition supplemental environmental impact statement. Estimated maximum ground-level concentrations of applicable regulated air pollutants of the site boundary and at the distance to a hypothetical, co-located onsite worker are summarized in tables. In all cases, model estimated ambient concentrations are less than regulatory standards.

  13. Considerations of the Differences between Bedded and Domal Salt Pertaining to Disposal of Heat-Generating Nuclear Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Francis D.; Kuhlman, Kristopher L.; Sobolik, Steven R.

    2016-07-07

    Salt formations hold promise for eternal removal of nuclear waste from our biosphere. Germany and the United States have ample salt formations for this purpose, ranging from flat-bedded formations to geologically mature dome structures. As both nations revisit nuclear waste disposal options, the choice between bedded, domal, or intermediate pillow formations is once again a contemporary issue. For decades, favorable attributes of salt as a disposal medium have been extoled and evaluated, carefully and thoroughly. Yet, a sense of discovery continues as science and engineering interrogate naturally heterogeneous systems. Salt formations are impermeable to fluids. Excavation-induced fractures heal as seal systems are placed or natural closure progresses toward equilibrium. Engineering required for nuclear waste disposal gains from mining and storage industries, as humans have been mining salt for millennia. This great intellectual warehouse has been honed and distilled, but not perfected, for all nuances of nuclear waste disposal. Nonetheless, nations are able and have already produced suitable license applications for radioactive waste disposal in salt. A remaining conundrum is site location. Salt formations provide isolation and geotechnical barriers reestablish impermeability after waste is placed in the geology. Between excavation and closure, physical, mechanical, thermal, chemical, and hydrological processes ensue. Positive attributes for isolation in salt have many commonalities independent of the geologic setting. In some cases, specific details of the environment will affect the disposal concept and thereby define interaction of features, events and processes, while simultaneously influencing scenario development. Here we identify and discuss high-level differences and similarities of bedded and domal salt formations. Positive geologic and engineering attributes for disposal purposes are more common among salt formations than are significant differences

  14. Conditioning matrices from high level waste resulting from pyrochemical processing in fluorine salt

    SciTech Connect

    Grandjean, Agnes; Advocat, Thierry; Bousquet, Nicolas; Jegou, Christophe

    2007-07-01

    Separating the actinides from the fission products through reductive extraction by aluminium in a LiF/AlF{sub 3} medium is a process investigated for pyrometallurgical reprocessing of spent fuel. The process involves separation by reductive salt-metal extraction. After dissolving the fuel or the transmutation target in a salt bath, the noble metal fission products are first extracted by contacting them with a slightly reducing metal. After extracting the metal fission products, then the actinides are selectively separated from the remaining fission products. In this hypothesis, all the unrecoverable fission products would be conditioned as fluorides. Therefore, this process will generate first a metallic waste containing the 'reducible' fission products (Pd, Mo, Ru, Rh, Tc, etc.) and a fluorine waste containing alkali-metal, alkaline-earth and rare earth fission products. Immobilization of these wastes in classical borosilicate glasses is not feasible due to the very low solubility of noble metals, and of fluoride in these hosts. Alternative candidates have therefore been developed including silicate glass/ceramic system for fluoride fission products and metallic ones for noble metal fission products. These waste-forms were evaluated for their confinement properties like homogeneity, waste loading, volatility during the elaboration process, chemical durability, etc. using appropriate techniques. (authors)

  15. Metals recovering from waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs) using molten salts.

    PubMed

    Flandinet, L; Tedjar, F; Ghetta, V; Fouletier, J

    2012-04-30

    Recycling of waste electrical and electronic equipments (WEEE) has been taken into consideration in the literature due to the large quantity of concerned wastes and their hazardous contents. The situation is so critical that EU published European Directives imposing collection and recycling with a minimum of material recovery [1]. Moreover, WEEEs contain precious metals, making the recycling of these wastes economically interesting, but also some critical metals and their recycling leads to resource conservation. This paper reports on a new approach for recycling waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs). Molten salts and specifically molten KOH-NaOH eutectic is used to dissolve glasses, oxides and to destruct plastics present in wastes without oxidizing the most valuable metals. This method is efficient for recovering a copper-rich metallic fraction, which is, moreover, cleared of plastics and glasses. In addition, analyses of gaseous emission show that this method is environmentally friendly since most of the process gases, such as carbon monoxide and dioxide and halogens, are trapped in the highly basic molten salt. In other respects, under operation without oxygen, a large quantity of hydrogen is produced and might be used as fuel gas or as synthesis gas, leading to a favourable energy balance for this new process.

  16. Assessment of Options for the Treatment of Nitrate Salt Wastes at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Bruce Alan; Funk, David John; Stevens, Patrice Ann

    2016-03-17

    This paper summarizes the methodology used to evaluate options for treatment of the remediated nitrate salt waste containers at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The method selected must enable treatment of the waste drums, which consist of a mixture of complex nitrate salts (oxidizer) improperly mixed with sWheat Scoop®1, an organic kitty litter and absorbent (fuel), in a manner that renders the waste safe, meets the specifications of waste acceptance criteria, and is suitable for transport and final disposal in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant located in Carlsbad, New Mexico. A Core Remediation Team was responsible for comprehensively reviewing the options, ensuring a robust, defensible treatment recommendation. The evaluation process consisted of two steps. First, a prescreening process was conducted to cull the list on the basis for a decision of feasibility of certain potential options with respect to the criteria. Then, the remaining potential options were evaluated and ranked against each of the criteria in a consistent methodology. Numerical scores were established by consensus of the review team. Finally, recommendations were developed based on current information and understanding of the scientific, technical, and regulatory situation. A discussion of the preferred options and documentation of the process used to reach the recommended treatment options are presented.

  17. RESULTS OF THE EXTRACTION-SCRUB-STRIP TESTING USING AN IMPROVED SOLVENT FORMULATION AND SALT WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY SIMULATED WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.; Washington, A.; Fink, S.

    2012-01-09

    The Office of Waste Processing, within the Office of Technology Innovation and Development, is funding the development of an enhanced solvent - also known as the next generation solvent (NGS) - for deployment at the Savannah River Site to remove cesium from High Level Waste. The technical effort is a collaborative effort between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). As part of the program, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has performed a number of Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS) tests. These batch contact tests serve as first indicators of the cesium mass transfer solvent performance with actual or simulated waste. The test detailed in this report used simulated Tank 49H material, with the addition of extra potassium. The potassium was added at 1677 mg/L, the maximum projected (i.e., a worst case feed scenario) value for the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). The results of the test gave favorable results given that the potassium concentration was elevated (1677 mg/L compared to the current 513 mg/L). The cesium distribution value, DCs, for extraction was 57.1. As a comparison, a typical D{sub Cs} in an ESS test, using the baseline solvent formulation and the typical waste feed, is {approx}15. The Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) uses the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process to remove cesium (Cs) from alkaline waste. This process involves the use of an organic extractant, BoBCalixC6, in an organic matrix to selectively remove cesium from the caustic waste. The organic solvent mixture flows counter-current to the caustic aqueous waste stream within centrifugal contactors. After extracting the cesium, the loaded solvent is stripped of cesium by contact with dilute nitric acid and the cesium concentrate is transferred to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), while the organic solvent is cleaned and recycled for further use. The Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF), under

  18. Test Results and Comparison of Triaxial Strength Testing of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Clean Salt

    SciTech Connect

    Buchholz, Stuart A.

    2016-12-01

    This memorandum documents laboratory thermomechanical triaxial strength testing of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) clean salt. The limited study completed independent, adjunct laboratory tests in the United States to assist in validating similar testing results being provided by the German facilities. The testing protocol consisted of completing confined triaxial, constant strain rate strength tests of intact WIPP clean salt at temperatures of 25°C and 100°C and at multiple confining pressures. The stratigraphy at WIPP also includes salt that has been labeled “argillaceous.” The much larger test matrix conducted in Germany included both the so-called clean and argillaceous salts. When combined, the total database of laboratory results will be used to develop input parameters for models, assess adequacy of existing models, and predict material behavior. These laboratory studies are also consistent with the goals of the international salt repository research program. The goal of this study was to complete a subset of a test matrix on clean salt from the WIPP undertaken by German research groups. The work was performed at RESPEC in Rapid City, South Dakota. A rigorous Quality Assurance protocol was applied, such that corroboration provides the potential of qualifying all of the test data gathered by German research groups.

  19. Phase Equilibrium Studies of Savannah River Tanks and Feed Streams for the Salt Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, C.F.

    2001-06-19

    A chemical equilibrium model is developed and used to evaluate supersaturation of tanks and proposed feed streams to the Salt Waste Processing Facility. The model uses Pitzer's model for activity coefficients and is validated by comparison with a variety of thermodynamic data. The model assesses the supersaturation of 13 tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS), indicating that small amounts of gibbsite and or aluminosilicate may form. The model is also used to evaluate proposed feed streams to the Salt Waste Processing Facility for 13 years of operation. Results indicate that dilutions using 3-4 M NaOH (about 0.3-0.4 L caustic per kg feed solution) should avoid precipitation and reduce the Na{sup +} ion concentration to 5.6 M.

  20. Hyponatraemia secondary to cerebral salt wasting syndrome following routine pituitary surgery.

    PubMed

    Atkin, S L; Coady, A M; White, M C; Mathew, B

    1996-08-01

    A female aged 53 years was found to have a suprasellar lesion, which was shown to be a Rathke's cyst after removal by transsphenoidal surgery. She presented 16 days postoperatively, and following two grand mal seizures was found to be profoundly hyponatraemic (sodium 101 nmol/l). She was initially thought to have the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone and was treated accordingly, but central venous pressure measurement revealed the hypovolaemia of cerebral salt wasting syndrome. The patient subsequently developed severe neurological sequelae after the correction of her hyponatraemia, following the development of extrapontine myelinolysis. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome is a rare cause of hyponatraemia following pituitary transsphenoidal surgery, which may mimic the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion. This case emphasizes the poor prognosis that may result from the rapid correction of profound hyponatraemia.

  1. Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), Modular CSSX Unit (CSSX), and Waste Transfer Line System of Salt Processing Program (U)

    SciTech Connect

    CHANG, ROBERT

    2006-02-02

    All of the waste streams from ARP, MCU, and SWPF processes will be sent to DWPF for vitrification. The impact these new waste streams will have on DWPF's ability to meet its canister production goal and its ability to support the Salt Processing Program (ARP, MCU, and SWPF) throughput needed to be evaluated. DWPF Engineering and Operations requested OBU Systems Engineering to evaluate DWPF operations and determine how the process could be optimized. The ultimate goal will be to evaluate all of the Liquid Radioactive Waste (LRW) System by developing process modules to cover all facilities/projects which are relevant to the LRW Program and to link the modules together to: (1) study the interfaces issues, (2) identify bottlenecks, and (3) determine the most cost effective way to eliminate them. The results from the evaluation can be used to assist DWPF in identifying improvement opportunities, to assist CBU in LRW strategic planning/tank space management, and to determine the project completion date for the Salt Processing Program.

  2. Estimated human health risks of disposing of nonhazardous oil field waste in salt caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Veil, J.

    1997-09-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has completed an evaluation of the possibility that adverse human health effects (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) could result from exposure to contaminants released from nonhazardous oil field wastes (NOW) disposed in domal salt caverns. In this assessment, several steps were used to evaluate potential human health risks: identifying potential contaminants of concern, determining how humans could be exposed to these contaminants, assessing the contaminants` toxicities, estimating contaminant intakes, and, finally, calculating human cancer and noncancer risks.

  3. Risk assessment of nonhazardous oil-field waste disposal in salt caverns.

    SciTech Connect

    Elcock, D.

    1998-03-05

    In 1996, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil-field wastes (NOW) into salt caverns. Argonne determined that if caverns are sited and designed well, operated carefully, closed properly, and monitored routinely, they could be suitable for disposing of oil-field wastes. On the basis of these findings, Argonne subsequently conducted a preliminary evaluation of the possibility that adverse human health effects (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) could result from exposure to contaminants released from the NOW disposed of in domal salt caverns. Steps used in this evaluation included the following: identifying potential contaminants of concern, determining how humans could be exposed to these contaminants, assessing contaminant toxicities, estimating contaminant intakes, and calculating human cancer and noncancer risk estimates. Five postclosure cavern release scenarios were assessed. These were inadvertent cavern intrusion, failure of the cavern seal, failure of the cavern through cracks, failure of the cavern through leaky interbeds, and a partial collapse of the cavern roof. Assuming a single, generic, salt cavern and generic oil-field wastes, potential human health effects associated with constituent hazardous substances (arsenic, benzene, cadmium, and chromium) were assessed under each of these scenarios. Preliminary results provided excess cancer risk and hazard index (referring to noncancer health effects) estimates that were well within the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) target range for acceptable exposure risk levels. These results led to the preliminary conclusion that from a human health perspective, salt caverns can provide an acceptable disposal method for nonhazardous oil-field wastes.

  4. Cerebral Salt Wasting Syndrome following Head Injury in a Child Managed Successfully with Fludrocortisone.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Nagendra; Pathak, Santosh; Gupta, Murli Manohar; Agrawal, Nikhil

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral salt wasting (CSW) syndrome is an important cause of hyponatremia in head injuries apart from syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). Proper diagnosis and differentiation between these two entities are necessary for management as the treatment is quite opposite in both conditions. Fludrocortisone can help in managing CSW where alone saline infusion does not work. We report a 17-month-old female child with head injury managed successfully with saline infusion and fludrocortisone.

  5. Risk analyses for disposing nonhazardous oil field wastes in salt caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Veil, J.; Caudle, D.

    1997-12-01

    Salt caverns have been used for several decades to store various hydrocarbon products. In the past few years, four facilities in the US have been permitted to dispose nonhazardous oil field wastes in salt caverns. Several other disposal caverns have been permitted in Canada and Europe. This report evaluates the possibility that adverse human health effects could result from exposure to contaminants released from the caverns in domal salt formations used for nonhazardous oil field waste disposal. The evaluation assumes normal operations but considers the possibility of leaks in cavern seals and cavern walls during the post-closure phase of operation. In this assessment, several steps were followed to identify possible human health risks. At the broadest level, these steps include identifying a reasonable set of contaminants of possible concern, identifying how humans could be exposed to these contaminants, assessing the toxicities of these contaminants, estimating their intakes, and characterizing their associated human health risks. The contaminants of concern for the assessment are benzene, cadmium, arsenic, and chromium. These were selected as being components of oil field waste and having a likelihood to remain in solution for a long enough time to reach a human receptor.

  6. ICP-MS nebulizer performance for analysis of SRS high salt simulated radioactive waste tank solutions ({number_sign}3053)

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, V.D.

    1997-11-01

    High Level Radioactive Waste Tanks at the Savannah River Site are high in salt content. The cross-flow nebulizer provided the most stable signal for all salt matrices with the smallest signal loss/suppression due to this matrix. The DIN exhibited a serious lack of tolerance for TDS; possibly due to physical de-tuning of the nebulizer efficiency.

  7. Aspects of the thermal and transport properties of crystalline salt in designing radioactive waste storages in halogen formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikitin, A. N.; Pocheptsova, O. A.; Matthies, S.

    2010-05-01

    Some of the properties of natural rock salt are described. This rock is of great practical interest, because, along with its conventional applications in the chemical and food industries, it is promising for use in engineering underground radioactive waste storages and natural gas reservoirs. The results of structural and texture studies of rock salt by neutron diffraction are discussed. The nature of the salt permeability under temperature and stress gradients is theoretically estimated.

  8. Aspects of the thermal and transport properties of crystalline salt in designing radioactive waste storages in halogen formations

    SciTech Connect

    Nikitin, A. N. Pocheptsova, O. A.; Matthies, S.

    2010-05-15

    Some of the properties of natural rock salt are described. This rock is of great practical interest, because, along with its conventional applications in the chemical and food industries, it is promising for use in engineering underground radioactive waste storages and natural gas reservoirs. The results of structural and texture studies of rock salt by neutron diffraction are discussed. The nature of the salt permeability under temperature and stress gradients is theoretically estimated.

  9. Expected environments for a defense high-level waste repository in salt

    SciTech Connect

    Rickertsen, L.D.; Claiborne, H.C.

    1981-03-01

    Expected environments for a defense high-level waste (DHLW) repository in salt have been predicted analogously to previous analyses for spent fuel (SF) and reprocessed commercial high-level wastes (CHLW). Environments predicted include near-field and far-field temperatures, fluid, pressure, and nuclear radiation fields. Some sensitivity studies have also been performed. The main results of the calculations reported here include the following: (1) rock temperatures, canister wall temperatures, and waste temperatures do not exceed 86, 94, and 101/sup 0/C, respectively; (2) the maximum brine inflow rate to an emplacement hole is 0.015 L/yr, occurring in the first 30 yr after emplacement. The total accumulation of brine migrating to the emplacement hole after 1000 yr is < 0.5 L; (3) gas pressures encountered by the waste package do not exceed 0.36 MPa prior to mine closure. After this time, it is conceivable that stress on the canister could approach the lithostatic rock stresses; (4) maximum dose rates in the salt are < 1400 rads/h.

  10. Crystallization of rhenium salts in a simulated low-activity waste borosilicate glass

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Brian J.; McCloy, John S.; Goel, Ashutosh; Liezers, Martin; Schweiger, Michael J.; Liu, Juan; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Kim, Dong-Sang

    2013-04-01

    This study presents a new method for looking at the solubility of volatile species in simulated low-activity waste glass. The present study looking at rhenium salts is also applicable to real applications involving radioactive technetium salts. In this synthesis method, oxide glass powder is mixed with the volatiles species, vacuum-sealed in a fused quartz ampoule, and then heat-treated under vacuum in a furnace. This technique restricts the volatile species to the headspace above the melt but still within the sealed ampoule, thus maximizing the volatile concentration in contact with the glass. Various techniques were used to measure the solubility of rhenium in glass and include energy dispersive spectroscopy, wavelength dispersive spectroscopy, laser ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass spectroscopy, and inductively-coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. The Re-solubility in this glass was determined to be ~3004 parts per million Re atoms. Above this concentration, the salts separated out of the melt as inclusions and as a low viscosity molten salt phase on top of the melt observed during and after cooling. This salt phase was analyzed with X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy as well as some of the other aforementioned techniques and identified to be composed of alkali perrhenate and alkali sulfate.

  11. Harvesting capacitive carbon by carbonization of waste biomass in molten salts.

    PubMed

    Yin, Huayi; Lu, Beihu; Xu, Yin; Tang, Diyong; Mao, Xuhui; Xiao, Wei; Wang, Dihua; Alshawabkeh, Akram N

    2014-07-15

    Conversion of waste biomass to value-added carbon is an environmentally benign utilization of waste biomass to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution caused by open burning. In this study, various waste biomasses are converted to capacitive carbon by a single-step molten salt carbonization (MSC) process. The as-prepared carbon materials are amorphous with oxygen-containing functional groups on the surface. For the same type of waste biomass, the carbon materials obtained in Na2CO3-K2CO3 melt have the highest Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and specific capacitance. The carbon yield decreases with increasing reaction temperature, while the surface area increases with increasing carbonization temperature. A working temperature above 700 °C is required for producing capacitive carbon. The good dissolving ability of alkaline carbonate molten decreases the yield of carbon from waste biomasses, but helps to produce high surface area carbon. The specific capacitance data confirm that Na2CO3-K2CO3 melt is the best for producing capacitive carbon. The specific capacitance of carbon derived from peanut shell is as high as 160 F g(-1) and 40 μF cm(-2), and retains 95% after 10,000 cycles at a rate of 1 A g(-1). MSC offers a simple and environmentally sound way for transforming waste biomass to highly capacitive carbon as well as an effective carbon sequestration method.

  12. Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation of Sodium Salts

    SciTech Connect

    Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Moyer, Bruce A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of this research involving collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is to explore new approaches to the separation of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, and other sodium salts from high-level alkaline tank waste. The principal potential benefit is a major reduction in disposed waste volume, obviating the building of expensive new waste tanks and reducing the costs of low-activity waste immobilization. Principles of ion recognition are being researched toward discovery of liquid-liquid extraction systems that selectively separate sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate from other waste components. The successful concept of pseudohydroxide extraction using fluorinated alcohols and phenols is being developed at ORNL and PNNL toward a greater understanding of the controlling equilibria, role of solvation, and of synergistic effects involving crown ethers. Synthesis efforts are being directed toward enhanced sodium binding by crown ethers, both neutral and proton-ionizable. Studies with real tank waste at PNNL will provide feedback toward solvent compositions that have promising properties.

  13. Disposal of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns -- Legality, technical feasibility, economics, and risk

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.; Smith, K.P.; Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Blunt, D.; Williams, G.P.

    1998-07-01

    Some types of oil and gas production and processing wastes contain naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). If NORM is present at concentrations above regulatory levels in oil field waste, the waste requires special disposal practices. The existing disposal options for wastes containing NORM are limited and costly. This paper evaluates the legality, technical feasibility, economics, and human health risk of disposing of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns. Cavern disposal of NORM waste is technically feasible and poses a very low human health risk. From a legal perspective, there are no fatal flaws that would prevent a state regulatory agency from approaching cavern disposal of NORM. On the basis of the costs charged by caverns currently used for disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW), NORM waste disposal caverns could be cost competitive with existing NORM waste disposal methods when regulatory agencies approve the practice.

  14. Transport of contaminants in geologic media: Radioactive waste in salt, corrosion of copper, and colloid migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Yong Soo

    Analytical and numerical models on mass transfer of radionuclides from a waste package to surrounding rock are analyzed. Based on developed models corresponding computer programs are developed. These models would be used to evaluate possible hazardous radionuclide release rates into the surrounding rock/biosphere. Specifically the following fields are studied. (1) Analysis on the possible copper canister pitting corrosion by sulfide intrusion is performed to predict the canister lifetime. The study includes both steady-state and time-dependent cases. (2) Analysis on the brine migration in a salt repository is studied. Brine was traditionally thought to be the major factor on radionuclide migration in salt. But results given in this dissertation provide that the brine migration velocity is small enough to be neglected. Two analyses are developed for open bore hole as well as consolidated salt cases. (3) Analysis on the radionuclide migration in a salt repository is carried out. After proving that the diffusion is a dominant migration mechanism, the time-dependent diffusive mass transfer theory is used to predict fractional release rates of low-soluble as well as highly-soluble nuclides. Also the steady-state radionuclide migration through interbeds is analyzed based on the potential flow theory. Finally assuming no advective flow inside interbeds the transient radionuclide migration into interbeds is studied. Results show that salt is a good host rock for a future high-level waste repository. (4) Analysis on the radiocolloid migration through the porous media with filtration effect is performed. Results show that due to the strong filtration radiocolloid would not migrate significant distance in geologic media. Cylindrical geometry is used. For this analysis due to the complexity of the prescribed problem the numerical analysis based on upwind scheme is developed. (5) Analysis on the radiocolloid migration through fractures with solute matrix diffusion into

  15. UK-Nuclear decommissioning authority and US Salt-stone waste management issues

    SciTech Connect

    Lawless, William; Whitton, John

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: We update two case studies of stakeholder issues in the UK and US. Earlier versions were reported at Waste Management 2006 and 2007 and at ICEM 2005. UK: The UK nuclear industry has begun to consult stakeholders more widely in recent years. Historically, methods of engagement within the industry have varied, however, recent discussions have generally been carried out with the explicit understanding that engagement with stakeholders will be 'dialogue based' and will 'inform' the final decision made by the decision maker. Engagement is currently being carried out at several levels within the industry; at the national level (via the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority's (NDA) National Stakeholder Group (NSG)); at a local site level (via Site Stakeholder Groups) and at a project level (usually via the Best Practicable Environmental Option process (BPEO)). This paper updates earlier results by the co-author with findings from a second questionnaire issued to the NSG in Phase 2 of the engagement process. An assessment is made regarding the development of stakeholder perceptions since Phase 1 towards the NDA process. US: The US case study reviews the resolution of issues on salt-stone by Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) Citizens Advisory Board (CAB), in Aiken, SC. Recently, SRS-CAB encouraged DOE and South Carolina's regulatory Department of Health and Environmental Control (SC-DHEC) to resolve a conflict preventing SC-DHEC from releasing a draft permit to allow SRS to restart salt-stone operations. It arose with a letter sent from DOE blaming the Governor of South Carolina for delay in restarting salt processing. In reply, the Governor blamed DOE for failing to assure that Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) would be built. SWPF is designed to remove most of the radioactivity from HLW prior to vitrification, the remaining fraction destined for salt-stone. (authors)

  16. Tank Waste Transport Stability: Summaries of Hanford Slurry and Salt-Solution Studies in FY 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, T.D.

    2002-07-08

    This report is a collection of summary articles on FY 2000 studies of slurry transport and salt-well pumping related to Hanford tank waste transfers. These studies are concerned with the stability (steady, uninterrupted flow) of tank waste transfers, a subset of the Department of Energy (DOE) Tanks Focus Area Tank (TFA) Waste Chemistry effort. This work is a collaborative effort of AEA Technology plc, the Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory at Mississippi State University (DIAL-MSU), the Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology at Florida International University (HCET-FIU), Numatec Hanford Corporation (NHC), and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The purpose of this report is to provide, in a single document, an overview of these studies to help the reader identify contacts and resources for obtaining more detailed information and to help promote useful interchanges between researchers and users. Despite over 50 years of experience in transporting radioactive tank wastes to and from equipment and tanks at the Department of Energy's Hanford, Savannah River, and Oak Ridge sites, waste slurry transfer pipelines and process piping become plugged on occasion. At Hanford, several tank farm pipelines are no longer in service because of plugs. At Savannah River, solid deposits in the outlet line of the 2H evaporator have resulted in an unplanned extended downtime. Although waste transfer criteria and guidelines intended to prevent pipeline plugging are in place, they are not always adequate. To avoid pipeline plugging in the future, other factors that are not currently embodied in the transfer criteria may need to be considered. The work summarized here is being conducted to develop a better understanding of the chemical and waste flow dynamics during waste transfer. The goal is to eliminate pipeline plugs by improving analysis and engineering tools in the field that incorporate this understanding.

  17. THERMAL DESTRUCTION OF HIGHLY CHLORINATED MIXED WASTES WITHOUT GENERATING CORROSIVE OFF-GASES USING MOLTEN SALT OXIDATION (1,2)

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, W.; Feizollahi, F.

    2002-02-25

    A pilot-scale MSO (Molten Salt Oxidation) system was used to process 45-gallons of a halogenated mixed waste that is difficult to treat with other thermal systems. The mixed waste was a halogenated solvent that consisted mostly of methylchloroform. The 80 weight percent of waste consisting of highly corrosive chlorine was captured in the first process vessel as sodium chloride. The sodium chloride leached chrome from that process vessel and the solidified salt exhibited the toxicity characteristic for chrome as measured by TCLP (Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure) testing. The operating ranges for parameters such as salt bed temperature, off-gas temperature, and feed rate that enable sustained operation were identified. At feed rates below the sustainable limit, both processing capacity and maintenance requirements increased with feed rate. Design and operational modifications to increase the sustainable feed rate limit and reduce maintenance requirements reduced both salt carryover and volumetric gas flows.

  18. Analytical Chemistry and Materials Characterization Results for Debris Recovered from Nitrate Salt Waste Drum S855793

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, Patrick Thomas; Chamberlin, Rebecca M.; Schwartz, Daniel S.; Worley, Christopher Gordon; Garduno, Katherine; Lujan, Elmer J. W.; Borrego, Andres Patricio; Castro, Alonso; Colletti, Lisa Michelle; Fulwyler, James Brent; Holland, Charlotte S.; Keller, Russell C.; Klundt, Dylan James; Martinez, Alexander; Martin, Frances Louise; Montoya, Dennis Patrick; Myers, Steven Charles; Porterfield, Donivan R.; Schake, Ann Rene; Schappert, Michael Francis; Soderberg, Constance B.; Spencer, Khalil J.; Stanley, Floyd E.; Thomas, Mariam R.; Townsend, Lisa Ellen; Xu, Ning

    2015-09-16

    Solid debris was recovered from the previously-emptied nitrate salt waste drum S855793. The bulk sample was nondestructively assayed for radionuclides in its as-received condition. Three monoliths were selected for further characterization. Two of the monoliths, designated Specimen 1 and 3, consisted primarily of sodium nitrate and lead nitrate, with smaller amounts of lead nitrate oxalate and lead oxide by powder x-ray diffraction. The third monolith, Specimen 2, had a complex composition; lead carbonate was identified as the predominant component, and smaller amounts of nitrate, nitrite and carbonate salts of lead, magnesium and sodium were also identified. Microfocused x-ray fluorescence (MXRF) mapping showed that lead was ubiquitous throughout the cross-sections of Specimens 1 and 2, while heteroelements such as potassium, calcium, chromium, iron, and nickel were found in localized deposits. MXRF examination and destructive analysis of fragments of Specimen 3 showed elevated concentrations of iron, which were broadly distributed through the sample. With the exception of its high iron content and low carbon content, the chemical composition of Specimen 3 was within the ranges of values previously observed in four other nitrate salt samples recovered from emptied waste drums.

  19. Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation of Sodium Salts

    SciTech Connect

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Custelcean, Radu; Delmau, Laetitia H.; Engle, Nancy L.; Kang, Hyun-Ah; Keever, Tamara J.; Marchand, Alan P.; Gadthula, Srinivas; Gore, Vinayak K.; Huang, Zilin; Sivappa, Rasapalli; Tirunahari, Pavan K.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Lumetta, Gregg J.

    2005-09-26

    The purpose of this research involving collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is to explore new approaches to the separation of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, and other sodium salts from high-level alkaline tank waste. The principal potential benefit is a major reduction in disposed waste volume, obviating the building of expensive new waste tanks and reducing the costs of vitrification. Principles of ion recognition are being researched toward discovery of liquid-liquid extraction systems that selectively separate sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate from other waste components. The successful concept of pseudo hydroxide extraction using fluorinated alcohols and phenols is being developed at ORNL and PNNL toward a greater understanding of the controlling equilibria, role of solvation, and of synergistic effects involving crown ethers. Synthesis efforts are being directed toward enhanced sodium binding by crown ethers, both neutral and proton-ionizable. Studies with real tank waste at PNNL will provide feedback toward solvent compositions that have promising properties.

  20. [Cerebral salt wasting. Half a century of a largely undefined syndrome].

    PubMed

    López Gastón, O D; Jorge, M

    2001-01-01

    Peters made the original description of the cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSWS) in 1950 in three patients with hyponatremia that he assumed to be secondary to natriuresis of cerebral mechanism. Few years later, Schwartz describe the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) in two patients with bronchial carcinoma, with characteristics similar to CSWS. Wijdicks gave clinical entity to CSWS when referring that it is the prevalent cause of hyponatremia in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage, and stressed the risk of secondary cerebral infarction if restrictive plans of water and salt were used as a consequence of a miss diagnosis. However, CSWS has been recently questioned because of its atypical characteristics, not shared by other saline wasting syndromes. The volume status of patients with hyponatremia and natriuresis determines whether the cause of this disorder is SIADH or CSWS. Nevertheless the evidence are contradictory, the vasopressin level can be recognized only in relation to the tonicity of body fluids, and the natriuresis is a common final pathway for both syndromes. In this literature review, some issues of CSWS that are associated or opposed with SIADH and other saline wasting syndrome are discussed. We conclude that the reports that sustain CSWS are insufficient in their methodology and interpretation of the results. The absence of strict metabolic studies has been negatively replaced by the original information casually quoted, and the strength of tradition. Thereafter, the paradigm generates unfounded ethical dilemmas which render difficult any further investigations with appropriate controls.

  1. High level nuclear waste repository in salt: Sealing systems status and planning report: Draft report

    SciTech Connect

    1985-09-01

    This report documents the initial conceptual design studies for a repository sealing system for a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt. The first step in the initial design studies was to review the current design level, termed schematic designs. This review identified practicality of construction and development of a design methodology as two key issues for the conceptual design. These two issues were then investigated during the initial design studies for seal system materials, seal placement, backfill emplacement, and a testing and monitoring plan. The results of these studies have been used to develop a program plan for completion of the sealing system conceptual design. 60 refs., 26 figs., 18 tabs.

  2. Prediction of contaminant migration around radioactive waste repositories in salt formations in Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Wollrath, J.

    1995-12-31

    With rock salt as host formation of a radioactive waste repository density effects on the groundwater movement have to be considered. Therefore, the assumptions, results and difficulties of modelling groundwater movement and taking into account density effects are presented and discussed with reference to the calculations performed for the Gorleben repository. The results are compared to results obtained in the safety analyses for the Konrad repository. It is shown that the consideration of variable groundwater density increases groundwater travel times and hence slows down the transport of contaminants from the repository location to the ground surface.

  3. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome in a patient affected of spontaneous frontoparietal subdural haematoma.

    PubMed

    Cerdá-Esteve, Mariaina; Badia, Mariona; Trujillano, Javier; Vilanova, Cecília; Maravall, Javier; Mauricio, Dídac

    2009-01-01

    Ever since cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSW) was first described in 1950, there have been debates over its existence and whether it has an important place in the differential diagnosis of hyponatraemia. We report the case of a neurosurgical patient with sustained hyponatraemia and abnormally high sodium loss in the urine, with signs of fluid volume depletion. Hyponatraemia was not corrected after an intravenous infusion of saline solution. Stable concentrations of blood sodium above 130 mmol/l were achieved with the administration of 100 mg of hydrocortisone daily, with an ensuing reduction in sodium elimination through the urine.

  4. Cerebral salt wasting in a patient with head trauma: management with saline hydration and fludrocortisone.

    PubMed

    Askar, Akram; Tarif, Nauman

    2007-03-01

    Hyponatremia secondary to the syndrome of inappropriate anti-diuretic hormone secretion is commonly observed in patients with various neurological disorders. Cerebral salt wasting (CSW), although uncommon, has also been reported to frequently result in hyponatremia. Here, we report a case of CSW in a patient with head trauma without evidence of cerebrovascular injury or brain edema. He was diagnosed on the basis of high fractional excretion of urinary sodium and uric acid along with extremely low serum uric acid. Improvements in serum sodium levels after saline hydration and fludrocortisone administration further supported the diagnosis, even in the presence of normal brain and atrial natriuretic peptide levels.

  5. [A case of acute limbic encephalitis with cerebral salt wasting syndrome].

    PubMed

    Nishio, Motonobu; Nishitani, Nobuyuki; Tanaka, Keiko

    2014-01-01

    A 37-year-old woman presented with psychiatric symptoms. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed pleocytosis and increased protein. The patient was diagnosed with limbic encephalitis on the basis of the clinical course. However, remarkable hyponatremia was noted throughout the clinical course, leading to a diagnosis of cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSWS). The hyponatremia was alleviated by supplementation with sodium and water. The findings seen in this case indicate that differentiation between syndrome of inappropriate of antidiuretic hormone and CSWS is important in cases of hyponatremia accompanied by central nervous system disease.

  6. Cerebral Salt-wasting Syndrome and Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Syndrome after Subarachnoid Hemorrhaging.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Hanako; Okada, Hiroshi; Hirose, Kazuki; Murakami, Toru; Shiotsu, Yayoi; Kadono, Mayuko; Inoue, Mamoru; Hasegawa, Goji

    2017-01-01

    Hyponatremia is a common finding after subarachnoid hemorrhaging (SAH) and can be caused by either cerebral salt-wasting syndrome (CSWS) or syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). Distinguishing between these two entities can be difficult because they have similar manifestations, including hyponatremia, serum hypo-osmolality, and high urine osmolality. We herein report the case of a 60-year-old man who suffered from SAH complicated by hyponatremia. During his initial hospitalization, he was diagnosed with CSWS. He was readmitted one week later with hyponatremia and was diagnosed with SIADH. This is the first report of SAH causing CSWS followed by SIADH. These two different sources of hyponatremia require different treatments.

  7. DEGRADED TBP SOLVENT REGENERATION TECHNOLOGY USING BUTYLAMINE AS A SOLVENT WASHING TO REDUCE SOLID SALT WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Asakura, T.; Itoh, Y.; Hotoku, S.; Morita, Y.; Uchiyama, G.

    2003-02-27

    Normal butylamine compounds are studied as salt-free wash reagents for degraded solvent used in PUREX process in spent fuel reprocessing. The solvent wash tests were carried out with two types of butylamine compounds, n-butylamine oxalate and n-butylamine bicarbonate, by counter-current mode using a small size mixer-settler composed of two 4-stage wash steps. Di-n-butyl phosphoric acid (HDBP), the main degradation product from TBP, was removed from real degraded solvent with decontamination factor of 2.5 {approx} 7.9. The study on electrolytic decomposition of butylamine compounds was also conducted for waste treatment.

  8. Central Diabetes Insipidus and Cisplatin-Induced Renal Salt Wasting Syndrome: A Challenging Combination.

    PubMed

    Cortina, Gerard; Hansford, Jordan R; Duke, Trevor

    2016-05-01

    We describe a 2-year-old female with a suprasellar primitive neuroectodermal tumor and central diabetes insipidus (DI) who developed polyuria with natriuresis and subsequent hyponatremia 36 hr after cisplatin administration. The marked urinary losses of sodium in combination with a negative sodium balance led to the diagnosis of cisplatin-induced renal salt wasting syndrome (RSWS). The subsequent clinical management is very challenging. Four weeks later she was discharged from ICU without neurological sequela. The combination of cisplatin-induced RSWS with DI can be confusing and needs careful clinical assessment as inaccurate diagnosis and management can result in increased neurological injury.

  9. Review of geochemical measurement techniques for a nuclear waste repository in bedded salt

    SciTech Connect

    Knauss, K.G.; Steinborn, T.L.

    1980-05-22

    A broad, general review is presented of geochemical measurement techniques that can provide data necessary for site selection and repository effectiveness assessment for a radioactive waste repository in bedded salt. The available measurement techniques are organized according to the parameter measured. The list of geochemical parameters include all those measurable geochemical properties of a sample whole values determine the geochemical characteristics or behavior of the system. For each technique, remarks are made pertaining to the operating principles of the measurement instrument and the purpose for which the technique is used. Attention is drawn to areas where further research and development are needed.

  10. Radioactive waste isolation in salt: peer review of Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's Socioeconomic Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, R.; Fenster, D.; O'Hare, M.; Zillman, D.; Harrison, W.; Tisue, M.

    1984-07-01

    The following recommendations have been abstracted from the body of this report. The Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's Socioeconomic Program Plan for the Establishment of Mined Geologic Repositories to Isolate Nuclear Waste should be modified to: (1) encourage active public participation in the decision-making processes leading to repository site selection; (2) clearly define mechanisms for incorporating the concerns of local residents, state and local governments, and other potentially interested parties into the early stages of the site selection process. In addition, the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation should carefully review the overall role that these persons and groups, including local pressure groups organized in the face of potential repository development, will play in the siting process; (3) place significantly greater emphasis on using primary socioeconomic data during the site selection process, reversing the current overemphasis on secondary data collection, description of socioeconomic conditions at potential locations, and development of analytical methodologies; (4) include additional approaches to solving socioeconomic problems. For example, a reluctance to acknowledge that solutions to socioeconomic problems need to be found jointly with interested parties is evident in the plan; (5) recognize that mitigation mechanisms other than compensation and incentives may be effective; (6) as soon as potential sites are identified, the US Department of Energy (DOE) should begin discussing impact mitigation agreements with local officials and other interested parties; and (7) comply fully with the pertinent provisions of NWPA.

  11. Independent Assessment of the Savannah River Site High-Level Waste Salt Disposition Alternatives Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    J. T. Case; M. L. Renfro

    1998-12-01

    This report presents the results of the Independent Project Evaluation (IPE) Team assessment of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company High-Level Waste Salt Disposition Systems Engineering (SE) Team's deliberations, evaluations, and selections. The Westinghouse Savannah River Company concluded in early 1998 that production goals and safety requirements for processing SRS HLW salt to remove Cs-137 could not be met in the existing In-Tank Precipitation Facility as currently configured for precipitation of cesium tetraphenylborate. The SE Team was chartered to evaluate and recommend an alternative(s) for processing the existing HLW salt to remove Cs-137. To replace the In-Tank Precipitation process, the Savannah River Site HLW Salt Disposition SE Team downselected (October 1998) 140 candidate separation technologies to two alternatives: Small-Tank Tetraphenylborate (TPB) Precipitation (primary alternative) and Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) Nonelutable Ion Exchange (backup alternative). The IPE Team, commissioned by the Department of Energy, concurs that both alternatives are technically feasible and should meet all salt disposition requirements. But the IPE Team judges that the SE Team's qualitative criteria and judgments used in their downselection to a primary and a backup alternative do not clearly discriminate between the two alternatives. To properly choose between Small-Tank TPB and CST Ion Exchange for the primary alternative, the IPE Team suggests the following path forward: Complete all essential R and D activities for both alternatives and formulate an appropriate set of quantitative decision criteria that will be rigorously applied at the end of the R and D activities. Concurrent conceptual design activities should be limited to common elements of the alternatives.

  12. Summary strategy for compliance with postclosure requirements for the waste package for the Salt Repository Project: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-03-01

    This document presents a summary of the strategy of the Salt Repository Project (SRP) to show compliance with the requirements for the waste package after permanent closure of the repository at the site in Deaf Smith County, Texas. The postclosure requirements that govern the performance of the waste package are those in 10 CFR 60.113 for substantially complete containment of the waste and for gradual release of radionuclides after the containment period, and for the postclosure design requirements in 10 CFR 60.135. Also, the waste package plays a role in showing compliance with the total system release requirement in 40 CFR 191.13. 12 refs.

  13. A Retrospective Analysis of the Growth Pattern in Patients with Salt-wasting 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Kawano, Atsuko; Kohno, Hitoshi; Miyako, Kenichi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to investigate the growth pattern of children with the salt-wasting form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia caused by 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD). We reviewed the medical records of 13 patients in whom salt-wasting 21-OHD was diagnosed during the first 2 mo of life at our hospital from 1980 through 2008. Six reached adult height. Growth patterns, bone age, biochemical data, and the hydrocortisone dose at each growth stage were analyzed retrospectively. The mean adult height was 155.1 ± 6.5 cm (mean ± SD) in females and 158.1 ± 7.1 cm in males. Although length at birth was normal or longer than the national mean in almost all patients, the mean height SD score of both boys and girls decreased to below 0 SD during infancy. Subsequently, both boys and girls transiently showed growth acceleration and reached their peak growth velocity at 3–10 yr of age. In conclusion, in addition to suppression of growth during infancy, there was inappropriate growth acceleration during childhood. Especially from 3 mo to 3 yr of age, decreasing the hydrocortisone dose in patients who exhibit slower growth may lead to satisfactory height outcomes. Also, strict adjustment of the hydrocortisone dose to avoid accelerated growth from childhood to adolescence might improve adult height outcomes of patients with 21-OHD. PMID:24790384

  14. Estimate of the risks of disposing nonhazardous oil field wastes into salt caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Veil, J.

    1997-12-31

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has completed an evaluation of the possibility that adverse human health effects (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) could result from exposure to contaminants released from nonhazardous oil field wastes (NOW) disposed in domal salt caverns. Potential human health risks associated with hazardous substances (arsenic, benzene, cadmium, and chromium) in NOW were assessed under four postclosure cavern release scenarios: inadvertent cavern intrusion, failure of the cavern seal, failure of the cavern through cracks or leaky interbeds, and a partial collapse of the cavern roof. To estimate potential human health risks for these scenarios, contaminant concentrations at the receptor were calculated using a one-dimensional solution to an advection/dispersion equation that included first order degradation. Assuming a single, generic salt cavern and generic oil-field wastes, the best-estimate excess cancer risks ranged from 1.7 {times} 10{sup {minus}12} to 1.1 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} and hazard indices (referring to noncancer health effects) ranged from 7 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} to 7 {times} 10{sup {minus}4}. Under worse-case conditions in which the probability of cavern failure is 1.0, excess cancer risks ranged from 4.9 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} to 1.7 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} and hazard indices ranged from 7.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} to 0.07. Even under worst-case conditions, the risks are within the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) target range for acceptable exposure levels. From a human health risk perspective, salt caverns can, therefore, provide an acceptable disposal method for NOW.

  15. Expected environments in high-level nuclear waste and spent fuel repositories in salt

    SciTech Connect

    Claiborne, H.C.; Rickertsen, L.D., Graham, R.F.

    1980-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the expected environments associated with high-level waste (HLW) and spent fuel (SF) repositories in salt formations. These environments include the thermal, fluid, pressure, brine chemistry, and radiation fields predicted for the repository conceptual designs. In this study, it is assumed that the repository will be a room and pillar mine in a rock-salt formation, with the disposal horizon located approx. 2000 ft (610 m) below the surface of the earth. Canistered waste packages containing HLW in a solid matrix or SF elements are emplaced in vertical holes in the floor of the rooms. The emplacement holes are backfilled with crushed salt or other material and sealed at some later time. Sensitivity studies are presented to show the effect of changing the areal heat load, the canister heat load, the barrier material and thickness, ventilation of the storage room, and adding a second row to the emplacement configuration. The calculated thermal environment is used as input for brine migration calculations. The vapor and gas pressure will gradually attain the lithostatic pressure in a sealed repository. In the unlikely event that an emplacement hole will become sealed in relatively early years, the vapor space pressure was calculated for three scenarios (i.e., no hole closure - no backfill, no hole closure - backfill, and hole closure - no backfill). It was assumed that the gas in the system consisted of air and water vapor in equilibrium with brine. A computer code (REPRESS) was developed assuming that these changes occur slowly (equilibrium conditions). The brine chemical environment is outlined in terms of brine chemistry, corrosion, and compositions. The nuclear radiation environment emphasized in this report is the stored energy that can be released as a result of radiation damage or crystal dislocations within crystal lattices.

  16. Radioactive waste isolation in salt: peer review of Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's Socioeconomic Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, R.; Fenster, D.; O'Hare, M.; Zillman, D.; Harrison, W.; Tisue, M.

    1984-02-01

    The ONWI Socioeconomic Program Plan spells out DOE's approach to analyzing the socioeconomic impacts from siting, constructing, and operating radioactive waste repositories and discusses mitigation strategies. The peer review indicated the following modifications should be made to the Plan: encourage active public participation in the decision-making processes leading to repository site selection; clearly define mechanisms for incorporating the concerns of local residents, state and local governments, and other potentially interested parties into the early stages of the site selection process; place significantly greater emphasis on using primary socioeconomic data during the site selection process, reversing the current overemphasis on secondary data collection, description of socioeconomic conditions at potential locations, and development of analytical methodologies; recognize that mitigation mechanisms other than compensation and incentives may be effective; as soon as potential sites are identified, the US Department of Energy (DOE) should begin discussing impact mitigation agreements with local officials and other interested parties; and comply fully with the pertinent provisions of NWPA.

  17. Dechlorination and stabilization of radioactive chloride salt waste in a molten state

    SciTech Connect

    In-Tae Kim; Hwan-Seo Park; Yong-Jun Cho; Hwan-Young Kim; Seong-Won Park; Eung-Ho Kim

    2007-07-01

    This study suggests a new method to stabilize the molten salt wastes generated from he pyro-processing of a LWR spent fuel. Using a conventional sol-gel process, an inorganic material (SiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, SAP) reactive to metal chlorides was prepared. In this paper, the reactivity of the SAP on the metal chlorides at 650-850 deg. C, the thermal stability of the reaction products and their leach-resistance under the PCT-A leach test were investigated. In the SAP, three different kinds of chains are available; Si-O-Si (main chain), Si-O-Al (side chain) and Al-O-P/P-O-P (reactive chain). Alkali metal chlorides were converted into metal aluminosilicate (Li{sub x}Al{sub x}Si{sub 1-x}O{sub 2-x}) and metal phosphate(Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} and Cs{sub 2}AlP{sub 3}O{sub 10}) while the alkaline earth and rare earth chlorides were changed into only metal phosphates (Sr{sub 5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}Cl and CePO{sub 4}). The conversion rate was about 96% at a salt waste/SAP weight ratio of 0.5 and a weight loss up to 1100 deg. C measured by the thermo-gravimetric analysis was below 1 Wt%. The leach rates of Cs and Sr under the PCT-A leaching condition were about 10{sup -2} and 10{sup -4} g/m{sup 3}.day, respectively. From these results, it could be concluded that the SAP developed in this study can be considered as an effective stabilizer for metal chlorides and the method of using the SAP could provide a chance to minimize the final waste volume to be disposed off. (authors)

  18. Radioactive waste isolation in salt: Peer review of the Golder Associates draft test plan for in situ testing in an exploratory shaft in salt

    SciTech Connect

    Hambley, D.F.; Mraz, D.Z.; Unterberter, R.R.; Stormont, J.C.; Neuman, S.P.; Russell, J.E.; Jacoby, C.H.; Hull, A.B.; Brady, B.H.G.; Ditmars, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    This report documents the peer review conducted by Argonne National Laboratory of a document entitled ''Draft Test Plan for In Situ Testing in an Exploratory Shaft in Salt,'' prepared for Battelle Memorial Institute's Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation by Golder Associates, Inc. In general, the peer review panelists found the test plan to be technically sound, although some deficiencies were identified. Recommendations for improving the test plan are presented in this review report. A microfiche copy of the following unpublished report is attached to the inside back cover of this report: ''Draft Test Plan for In Situ Testing in an Exploratory Shaft in Salt,'' prepared by Golder Associates, Inc., for Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation, Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, Ohio (March 1985).

  19. Nuclear waste repositories in salt mines: a new approach to safety assessment.

    PubMed

    Memmert, G

    1996-08-01

    The long-term safety of radioactive waste repositories in rock-salt mines in the deep underground benefits significantly from the barrier effect of overlying rocks. The concentrations of radioactive substances released from the repository and migrating in the aquifer up to the biosphere are greatly reduced during passage through these rocks. In former safety analyses of waste repositories this transport has generally been modelled as a combination of the involved phenomena, e.g. convection, dispersion, adsorption, etc. The data required for a numerical evaluation of the overall effect are obtained either as (conservative) estimates based on experience or are empirical, based mainly on laboratory experiments. The approach presented here is much simpler and entirely empirical, and therefore more transparent. It makes use of the fact that the groundwater in the overlying rocks always contains dissolved salt from the salt formation and carries it continuously into the receiving channels or the drainage system. The relation between the total amount of dissolved solids present in a certain subsurface catchment area and their steady-state concentration in the receiving channels is assumed to be equivalent to the relation between the given amount of radionuclides released from the repository and their concentration in the receiving channels, the latter leading to a certain radiation exposure of the population. Two versions of this approach are discussed: version (a) assumes a continuous stream of radionuclides released from the repository, and version (b) assumes a pulse release of radionuclides from the repository. A simple calculation using data from the Gorleben exploration leads to the inequality [equation: see text] where Cmax is the maximum radionuclide concentration (with respect to time) in the receiving channels and W (Bq) is the amount of radionuclides released from the respository in a very short time. Cmax obtained from (1), is supposed to be an upper limit of

  20. 76 FR 47613 - Board Meeting: September 13-14, 2011-Salt Lake City, UT; the U.S. Nuclear Waste Technical Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-05

    ... REVIEW BOARD Board Meeting: September 13-14, 2011--Salt Lake City, UT; the U.S. Nuclear Waste Technical... Technical Review Board will hold a public meeting in Salt Lake City, Utah, on Tuesday, September 13, and....m. and will be held at the Little America Hotel; 500 South Main Street; Salt Lake City, Utah...

  1. Polyacrylonitrile nanofibers prepared using coaxial electrospinning with LiCl solution as sheath fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Deng-Guang; Lu, Ping; Branford-White, Christopher; Yang, Jun-He; Wang, Xia

    2011-10-01

    A modified coaxial electrospinning process including an electrolyte solution as sheath fluid was used for preparing high quality polymer nanofibers. A series of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers were fabricated utilizing a coaxial electrospinning containing LiCl in N, N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc) as the sheath fluid. FESEM results demonstrated that the sheath LiCl solutions have a significant influence on the quality of PAN nanofibers. Nanofibers with smaller diameters, smoother surfaces and uniform structures were successfully prepared. The diameters of nanofibers were controlled by adjusting the conductivity of the sheath fluid over a suitable range and this was determined by varying LiCl concentrations. The influence of the effect of LiCl on the formation of PAN fibers is discussed and it is concluded that coaxial electrospinning with electrolyte solutions is a convenient and facile process for achieving high quality polymer nanofibers.

  2. Cerebral salt-wasting syndrome after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in adolescents: 3 case reports

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Yeon Jin; Lee, Hyun Young; Jung, In Ah; Cho, Won-Kyoung; Cho, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral salt-wasting syndrome (CSWS) is a rare disease characterized by a extracellular volume depletion and hyponatremia induced by marked natriuresis. It is mainly reported in patients who experience a central nervous system insult, such as cerebral hemorrhage or encephalitis. The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion is a main cause of severe hyponatremia after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, whereas CSWS is rarely reported. We report 3 patients with childhood acute leukemia who developed CSWS with central nervous system complication after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The diagnosis of CSW was made on the basis of severe hyponatremia accompanied by increased urine output with clinical signs of dehydration. All patients showed elevated natriuretic peptide and normal antidiuretic hormone. Aggressive water and sodium replacement treatment was instituted in all 3 patients and 2 of them were effectively recovered, the other one was required to add fludrocortisone administration. PMID:26817009

  3. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome following atlantoaxial fracture dislocation in Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Latif, Mohamed El-Amin; Chan, Patrick W-K; Goh, Adrian Yu-Teik; Lum, Lucy Chai-See

    2009-01-01

    We describe cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSWS) in a 5-year-old female child with Down syndrome who had acute myelopathy secondary to chronic atlantoaxial subluxation and fracture dislocation of the odontoid process. The patient developed hyponatraemia associated with excessive urine output and elevated urine sodium concentration following her injury. An administered volume-for-volume replacement of urine loss with 0.9% sodium chloride resulted in an excellent outcome. This patient illustrates the importance of ascertaining CSWS in children with spinal cord disorders, in addition to the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) secretion and diabetes insipidus (DI) commonly encountered following a central nervous system (CNS) injury, as the specific treatment approaches is clearly associated with an excellent outcome.

  4. Cerebral salt-wasting syndrome after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in adolescents: 3 case reports.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Yeon Jin; Lee, Hyun Young; Jung, In Ah; Cho, Won-Kyoung; Cho, Bin; Suh, Byung-Kyu

    2015-12-01

    Cerebral salt-wasting syndrome (CSWS) is a rare disease characterized by a extracellular volume depletion and hyponatremia induced by marked natriuresis. It is mainly reported in patients who experience a central nervous system insult, such as cerebral hemorrhage or encephalitis. The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion is a main cause of severe hyponatremia after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, whereas CSWS is rarely reported. We report 3 patients with childhood acute leukemia who developed CSWS with central nervous system complication after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The diagnosis of CSW was made on the basis of severe hyponatremia accompanied by increased urine output with clinical signs of dehydration. All patients showed elevated natriuretic peptide and normal antidiuretic hormone. Aggressive water and sodium replacement treatment was instituted in all 3 patients and 2 of them were effectively recovered, the other one was required to add fludrocortisone administration.

  5. [Prolonged cerebral salt wasting following craniopharyngioma surgery and posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome: a case report].

    PubMed

    Ohtonari, Tatsuya; Hashimoto, Masanori; Urasaki, Eiichiro; Yokota, Akira; Araki, Shunsuke; Asayama, Koutaro; Shirahata, Akira

    2005-01-01

    A 9-year-old boy was admitted to our hospital with daytime urinary incontinence for the past one year. MRI showed craniopharyngioma occupying the third ventricle. The tumor was excised by interhemispheric approach. Because hyponatremia and polyuria with high renal loss of sodium were observed on postoperative day 3, hydrocortisone and DDAVP were replaced. On postoperative day 24, successive general convulsions and hyponatremia recurred, and MRI FLAIR imaging showed marked brain edema in the bilateral parieto-occipital lobes. This finding disappeared late in the course of treatment, and the case was diagnosed as posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome. The pathophysiology of cerebral salt wasting and posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in a craniopharyngioma patient are also discussed in the article.

  6. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome due to tuberculous meningitis; a case report.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Syed; Majid, Zain; Mehdi, Mehwish; Mubarak, Muhammed

    2016-01-01

    A 58-year-old male presented with fever, nausea, and vomiting since 15 days along with irritability and confusion since 5 days. His laboratory reports showed low serum sodium, serum osmolality and uric acid. Computerized tomography (CT) scan of brain revealed age-related changes. While on lumbar puncture (LP) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination, CSF protein, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and total leukocyte count (predominant lymphocytes) were all increased. On his 14th day of admission, his serum sodium was 116 mEq/l and he had a high urine output. Fluid restriction was tried in order to rule out syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) but the patient did not respond to it. Keeping in view the above findings, a final diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis leading to cerebral salt wasting syndrome was made. The patient was started on 3% hypertonic saline, mineralocorticoids and anti-tuberculous therapy (ATT), to which he responded favorably and was later discharged.

  7. [Cerebral salt wasting syndrome associated with Listeria monocytogenes encephalitis. Report of one case].

    PubMed

    Vega, Jorge; Matamala, Gonzalo

    2013-01-01

    Hyponatremia is common in patients with severe neurological diseases and is often secondary to a syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). However, in some patients, hyponatremia is due to cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSWS). SIADH and CSWS treatments are opposite and misdiagnosis can lead to increased morbidity and mortality. We report a 52 years old female with a rhom-boencephalitis caused by Listeria Monocytogenes (LM), ventriculitis and abscesses in cerebellum and brainstem. It was associated with hyponatremia, hypotension, increased natriuresis, hypouricemia, and low creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels. Large amounts of sodium were needed and the condition persisted after hospital discharge. Hyponatremia is common in central nervous system involvement by LM, however we are not aware of CSWS reports of this condition.

  8. [Cerebral salt wasting syndrome in a patient with posttraumatic brain injury].

    PubMed

    Krysiak, Robert; Okopień, Bogusław

    2012-01-01

    In patients with central nervous system disease, life-threatening hyponatremia can result from either the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) or cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSWS). Both clinical entities share many similar laboratory and clinical findings, and are characterized by low serum osmolality, inappropriately high urine osmolality, and high urine sodium levels. Despite outward similarities, the pathophysiology and treatment of these two conditions are very different. The former is treated with fluid restriction because of the increased level of free water and its dilutional effect causing hyponatremia, whereas the latter is treated with fluid and sodium resuscitation because of the increased loss of high urinary sodium. We present a 24-year-old man who developed CSWS after traumatic brain injury, showing diagnostic and treatment strategies undertaken in this patient and their impact on the course of CSWS. This case report illustrates the need for clinical awareness of CSWS in patients after head trauma.

  9. Quantitative analysis of ammonium salts in coking industrial liquid waste treatment process based on Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Ya-Nan; Wang, Gui-Shi; Tan, Tu; Cai, Ting-Dong; Liu, Kun; Wang, Lei; Zhu, Gong-Dong; Mei, Jiao-Xu

    2016-10-01

    Quantitative analysis of ammonium salts in the process of coking industrial liquid waste treatment is successfully performed based on a compact Raman spectrometer combined with partial least square (PLS) method. Two main components (NH4SCN and (NH4)2S2O3) of the industrial mixture are investigated. During the data preprocessing, wavelet denoising and an internal standard normalization method are employed to improve the predicting ability of PLS models. Moreover, the PLS models with different characteristic bands for each component are studied to choose a best resolution. The internal and external calibration results of the validated model show a mass percentage error below 1% for both components. Finally, the repeatabilities and reproducibilities of Raman and reference titration measurements are also discussed. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 41405022 and 61475068).

  10. Complex electronic waste treatment - An effective process to selectively recover copper with solutions containing different ammonium salts.

    PubMed

    Sun, Z H I; Xiao, Y; Sietsma, J; Agterhuis, H; Yang, Y

    2016-11-01

    Recovery of valuable metals from electronic waste has been highlighted by the EU directives. The difficulties for recycling are induced by the high complexity of such waste. In this research, copper could be selectively recovered using an ammonia-based process, from industrially processed information and communication technology (ICT) waste with high complexity. A detailed understanding on the role of ammonium salt was focused during both stages of leaching copper into a solution and the subsequent step for copper recovery from the solution. By comparing the reactivity of the leaching solution with different ammonium salts, their physiochemical behaviour as well as the leaching efficiency could be identified. The copper recovery rate could reach 95% with ammonium carbonate as the leaching salt. In the stage of copper recovery from the solution, electrodeposition was introduced without an additional solvent extraction step and the electrochemical behaviour of the solution was figured out. With a careful control of the electrodeposition conditions, the current efficiency could be improved to be 80-90% depending on the ammonia salts and high purity copper (99.9wt.%). This research provides basis for improving the recyclability and efficiency of copper recovery from such electronic waste and the whole process design for copper recycling.

  11. Numerical Simulation of Hydrothermal Salt Separation Process and Analysis and Cost Estimating of Shipboard Liquid Waste Disposal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    which are investigating methods to produce energy from waste . One particular process being investigated is a hydrothermal process which converts...Bio-fuels motivation Another application for hydrothermal treatment is a catalytic reaction process where a variety of biomass feedstocks...the hydrothermal biomass gasification process are twofold. First, salts which can interfere with the catalytic conversion process of the organic

  12. Splicing mutation in CYP21 associated with delayed presentation of salt-wasting congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Kohn, B.; Patel, S.V.; Pelczar, J.V.

    1995-07-03

    Patients with salt-wasting congenital adrenal hyperplasia (SW-CAH) most commonly carry an A-G transition at nucleotide 656 (nt 656 A{r_arrow}G), causing abnormal splicing of exons 2 and 3 in CYP21, the gene encoding active steroid 21-hydroxylase. Affected infants are severely deficient in cortisol and aldosterone, and usually come to medical attention during the neonatal period. We report on 2 affected boys, homozygous for the nt 656 mutation, who thrived in early infancy, but suffered salt-wasting crises unusually late in infancy, at 3.5 and 5.5 months, respectively. Laboratory studies at presentation showed hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, dehydration, and acidosis; serum aldosterone was low in spite of markedly elevated plasma renin activity. Basal 17-hydroxyprogesterone levels were only moderately elevated, yet the stimulated levels were more typical of severe, classic CAH due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Genomic DNA from the patients was analyzed. Southern blot showed no major deletions or rearrangements. CYP21-specific amplification by polymerase chain reaction, coupled with allele-specific hybridization using wild-type and mutant probes at each of 9 sites for recognized disease-causing mutations, revealed a single, homozygous mutation in each patient: nt 656 A{r_arrow}G. These results were confirmed by sequence analysis. We conclude that the common nt 656 A{r_arrow}G mutation is sometimes associated with delayed phenotypic expression of SW-CAH. We speculate that variable splicing of the mutant CYP21 may modify the clinical manifestation of this disease. 22 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  13. More on Renal Salt Wasting Without Cerebral Disease: Response to Saline Infusion

    PubMed Central

    Bitew, Solomon; Imbriano, Louis; Miyawaki, Nobuyuki; Fishbane, Steven; Maesaka, John K.

    2009-01-01

    Background and objectives: The existence and prevalence of cerebral salt wasting (CSW) or the preferred term, renal salt wasting (RSW), and its differentiation from syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) have been controversial. This controversy stems from overlapping clinical and laboratory findings and an inability to assess the volume status of these patients. The authors report another case of RSW without clinical cerebral disease and contrast it to SIADH. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: Three patients with hyponatremia, hypouricemia, increased fractional excretion (FE) of urate, urine sodium >20 mmol/L, and concentrated urines were infused with isotonic saline after collection of baseline data. Results: One patient with RSW had pneumonia without cerebral disease and showed increased plasma aldosterone and FEphosphate, and two patients with SIADH had increased blood volume, low plasma renin and aldosterone, and normal FEphosphate. The patient with RSW responded to isotonic saline by excretion of dilute urines, prompt correction of hyponatremia, and normal water loading test after volume repletion. Hypouricemia and increased FEurate persisted after correction of hyponatremia. Two patients with SIADH failed to dilute their urines and remained hyponatremic during 48 and 110 h of saline infusion. Conclusions: The authors demonstrate appropriate stimulation of ADH in RSW. Differences in plasma renin and aldosterone levels and FEphosphate can differentiate RSW from SIADH, as will persistent hypouricemia and increased FEurate after correction of hyponatremia in RSW. FEphosphate was the only contrasting variable at baseline. The authors suggest an approach to treat the hyponatremic patient meeting criteria for SIADH and RSW and changing CSW to the more appropriate term, RSW. PMID:19201917

  14. Creep tests on clean and argillaceous salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Mellegard, K.D.; Pfeifle, T.W.

    1993-05-01

    Fifteen triaxial compression creep tests were performed on clean and argillaceous salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The temperatures in the tests were either 25{degrees}C or 100{degrees}C while the stress difference ranged from 3.5 MPa to 21.0 MPa. In all tests, the confining pressure was 15 MPa. Test duration ranged from 23 to 613 days with an average duration of 300 days. The results of the creep tests supplemented earlier testing and were used to estimate two parameters in the Modified Munson-Dawson constitutive law for the creep behavior of salt. The two parameters determined from each test were the steady-state strain rate and the transient strain limit. These estimates were combined with parameter estimates determined from previous testing to study the dependence of both transient and steady-state creep deformation on stress difference. The exponents on stress difference determined in this study were found to be consistent with revised estimates of the exponents reported by other investigators.

  15. Risk analyses for disposing of nonhazardous oil field wastes in salt caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Veil, J.

    1997-09-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has completed an evaluation of the possibility that adverse human health effects (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) could result from exposure to contaminants released from nonhazardous oil field wastes (NOW) disposed of in domal salt caverns. In this assessment, several steps were used to evaluate potential human health risks: identifying potential contaminants of concern; determining how humans could be exposed to these contaminants; assessing the contaminants` toxicities; estimating contaminant intakes; and, finally, calculating human cancer and noncancer risks. Potential human health risks associated with hazardous substances (arsenic, benzene, cadmium, and chromium) in NOW were assessed under four postclosure cavern release scenarios: inadvertent cavern intrusion, failure of the cavern seal, failure of the cavern through cracks or leaky interbeds, and a partial collapse of the cavern roof. To estimate potential human health risks for these scenarios, contaminant concentrations at the receptor were calculated using a one-dimensional solution to an advection/dispersion equation that included first order degradation. Even under worst-case conditions, the risks have been found to be within the US EPA target range for acceptable exposure levels. From a human health risk perspective, salt caverns can provide an acceptable disposal method for NOW.

  16. Radioactive Waste Isolation in Salt: Peer review of documents dealing with geophysical investigations

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, L.D.; Bowen, R.H.

    1987-03-01

    The Salt Repository Project, a US Department of Energy program to develop a mined repository in salt for high-level radioactive waste, is governed by a complex and sometimes inconsistent array of laws, administrative regulations, guidelines, and position papers. In conducting multidisciplinary peer reviews of contractor documents in support of this project, Argonne National Laboratory has needed to inform its expert reviewers of these governmental mandates, with particular emphasis on the relationship between issues and the technical work undertaken. This report acquaints peer review panelists with the regulatory framework as it affects their reviews of site characterization plans and related documents, including surface-based and underground test plans. Panelists will be asked to consider repository performance objectives and issues as they judge the adequacy of proposed geophysical testing. All site-specific discussions relate to the Deaf Smith County site in Texas, which was approved for site characterization by the President in May 1986. Natural processes active at the Deaf Smith County site and the status of geophysical testing near the site are reviewed briefly. 25 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Mitigation of Salinity Buildup and Recovery of Wasted Salts in a Hybrid Osmotic Membrane Bioreactor-Electrodialysis System.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yaobin; He, Zhen

    2015-09-01

    The osmotic membrane bioreactor (OMBR) is an emerging technology that uses water osmosis to accomplish separation of biomass from the treated effluent; however, accumulation of salts in the wastewater due to water flux and loss of draw solute because of reverse salt flux seriously hinder OMBR development. In this study, a hybrid OMBR-electrodialysis (ED) system was proposed and investigated to alleviate the salinity buildup. The use of an ED (3 V applied) could maintain a relatively low conductivity of 8 mS cm(-1) in the feed solution, which allowed the OMBR to operate for 24 days, about 6 times longer than a conventional OMBR without a functional ED. It was found that the higher the voltage applied to the ED, the smaller area of ion-exchange membrane was needed for salt separation. The salts recovered by the ED were successfully reused as a draw solute in the OMBR. At an energy consumption of 1.88-4.01 kWh m(-3), the hybrid OMBR-ED system could achieve a stable water flux of about 6.23 L m(-2) h(-1) and an efficient waste salt recovery of 1.26 kg m(-3). The hybrid OMBR-ED system could be potentially more advantageous in terms of less waste saline water discharge and salt recovery compared with a combined OMBR and reverse osmosis system. It also offers potential advantages over the conventional OMBR+post ED treatment in higher water flux and less wastewater discharge.

  18. Conceptual design of retrieval systems for emplaced transuranic waste containers in a salt bed depository. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fogleman, S.F.

    1980-04-01

    The US Department of Energy and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission have jurisdiction over the nuclear waste management program. Design studies were previously made of proposed repository site configurations for the receiving, processing, and storage of nuclear wastes. However, these studies did not provide operational designs that were suitable for highly reliable TRU retrieval in the deep geologic salt environment for the required 60-year period. The purpose of this report is to develop a conceptual design of a baseline retrieval system for emplaced transuranic waste containers in a salt bed depository. The conceptual design is to serve as a working model for the analysis of the performance available from the current state-of-the-art equipment and systems. Suggested regulations would be based upon the results of the performance analyses.

  19. Efficacy of backfilling and other engineered barriers in a radioactive waste repository in salt

    SciTech Connect

    Claiborne, H.C.

    1982-09-01

    In the United States, investigation of potential host geologic formations was expanded in 1975 to include hard rocks. Potential groundwater intrusion is leading to very conservative and expensive waste package designs. Recent studies have concluded that incentives for engineered barriers and 1000-year canisters probably do not exist for reasonable breach scenarios. The assumption that multibarriers will significantly increase the safety margin is also questioned. Use of a bentonite backfill for surrounding a canister of exotic materials was developed in Sweden and is being considered in the US. The expectation that bentonite will remain essentially unchanged for hundreds of years for US repository designs may be unrealistic. In addition, thick bentonite backfills will increase the canister surface temperature and add much more water around the canister. The use of desiccant materials, such as CaO or MgO, for backfilling seems to be a better method of protecting the canister. An argument can also be made for not using backfill material in salt repositories since the 30-cm-thick space will provide for hole closure for many years and will promote heat transfer via natural convection. It is concluded that expensive safety systems are being considered for repository designs that do not necessarily increase the safety margin. It is recommended that the safety systems for waste repositories in different geologic media be addressed individually and that cost-benefit analyses be performed.

  20. Development of Spheroidal Inorganic Sorbents for Treatment of Acidic Salt-Bearing Liquid Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, J.L.

    2001-09-07

    A spheroidal composite inorganic sorbent was developed for U.S. Department of Energy-Efficient Separations and Processing Crosscutting Program (USDOE-ESP) for potential use in removing radioactive cesium isotopes from acidic high-salt waste streams such as those at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The sorbent, zirconium monohydrogen phosphate (ZrHP) embedded with fine powder of ammonium molybdophosphate (AMP), was prepared using a unique internal gelation process which can be used to make porous reproducible microspheres that are structurally strong, have a low tendency for surface erosion, and improve the flow dynamics for column operations. Both ZrHP and AMP are excellent sorbent materials and, being inorganic, are stable in high radiation fields. AMP is a very effective sorbent for removing cesium from salt-bearing waste streams for a wide range of acidity. In the pH range of 2 to 10, ZrHP is also a very effective sorbent for removing Cs, Sr, Th, U(VI), Pu(IV), Am(III), Hg, and Pb from streams of lower ionic concentrations. Crucial to developing the spheroidal AMP-ZrHP sorbent was to determine the ideal weight percentage of AMP that could be embedded in the ZrHP microspheres in order to maintain the structural integrity of the microspheres and also achieve a good cesium separation. A total of 12 preparations were made. The dry weight percentage of AMP ranged from 30 to 60. Overall, the best composite microspheres prepared contained 50% AMP (by dry weight measurement). Another composite microsphere, which was composed of titanium monohydrogen phosphate (TiHP) embedded with 18 wt % (air-dried weight) potassium cobalt hexacyanoferrate (KCoCF) and developed for a different separations application, was also batch tested for comparison. It proved to be as effective in removing,the cesium as the air-dried AMP (50 wt %)-ZrHP. Granular KCoCF was also prepared and was very effective. Large samples of each of these materials were sent to

  1. SAVANNAH RIVER SITE INCIPIENT SLUDGE MIXING IN RADIOACTIVE LIQUID WASTE STORAGE TANKS DURING SALT SOLUTION BLENDING

    SciTech Connect

    Leishear, R.; Poirier, M.; Lee, S.; Steeper, T.; Fowley, M.; Parkinson, K.

    2011-01-12

    This paper is the second in a series of four publications to document ongoing pilot scale testing and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of mixing processes in 85 foot diameter, 1.3 million gallon, radioactive liquid waste, storage tanks at Savannah River Site (SRS). Homogeneous blending of salt solutions is required in waste tanks. Settled solids (i.e., sludge) are required to remain undisturbed on the bottom of waste tanks during blending. Suspension of sludge during blending may potentially release radiolytically generated hydrogen trapped in the sludge, which is a safety concern. The first paper (Leishear, et. al. [1]) presented pilot scale blending experiments of miscible fluids to provide initial design requirements for a full scale blending pump. Scaling techniques for an 8 foot diameter pilot scale tank were also justified in that work. This second paper describes the overall reasons to perform tests, and documents pilot scale experiments performed to investigate disturbance of sludge, using non-radioactive sludge simulants. A third paper will document pilot scale CFD modeling for comparison to experimental pilot scale test results for both blending tests and sludge disturbance tests. That paper will also describe full scale CFD results. The final paper will document additional blending test results for stratified layers in salt solutions, scale up techniques, final full scale pump design recommendations, and operational recommendations. Specifically, this paper documents a series of pilot scale tests, where sludge simulant disturbance due to a blending pump or transfer pump are investigated. A principle design requirement for a blending pump is UoD, where Uo is the pump discharge nozzle velocity, and D is the nozzle diameter. Pilot scale test results showed that sludge was undisturbed below UoD = 0.47 ft{sup 2}/s, and that below UoD = 0.58 ft{sup 2}/s minimal sludge disturbance was observed. If sludge is minimally disturbed, hydrogen will not be

  2. Radioactive waste isolation in salt: special advisory report on the status of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's plans for repository performance assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Ditmars, J.D.; Walbridge, E.W.; Rote, D.M.; Harrison, W.; Herzenberg, C.L.

    1983-10-01

    Repository performance assessment is analysis that identifies events and processes that might affect a repository system for isolation of radioactive waste, examines their effects on barriers to waste migration, and estimates the probabilities of their occurrence and their consequences. In 1983 Battelle Memorial Institute's Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) prepared two plans - one for performance assessment for a waste repository in salt and one for verification and validation of performance assessment technology. At the request of the US Department of Energy's Salt Repository Project Office (SRPO), Argonne National Laboratory reviewed those plans and prepared this report to advise SRPO of specific areas where ONWI's plans for performance assessment might be improved. This report presents a framework for repository performance assessment that clearly identifies the relationships among the disposal problems, the processes underlying the problems, the tools for assessment (computer codes), and the data. In particular, the relationships among important processes and 26 model codes available to ONWI are indicated. A common suggestion for computer code verification and validation is the need for specific and unambiguous documentation of the results of performance assessment activities. A major portion of this report consists of status summaries of 27 model codes indicated as potentially useful by ONWI. The code summaries focus on three main areas: (1) the code's purpose, capabilities, and limitations; (2) status of the elements of documentation and review essential for code verification and validation; and (3) proposed application of the code for performance assessment of salt repository systems. 15 references, 6 figures, 4 tables.

  3. Modeling of the T S D E Heater Test to Investigate Crushed Salt Reconsolidation and Rock Salt Creep for the Underground Disposal of High-Level Nuclear Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco Martin, L.; Rutqvist, J.; Birkholzer, J. T.; Wolters, R.; Lux, K. H.

    2014-12-01

    Rock salt is a potential medium for the underground disposal of nuclear waste because it has several assets, in particular its water and gas tightness in the undisturbed state, its ability to heal induced fractures and its high thermal conductivity as compared to other shallow-crustal rocks. In addition, the run-of-mine, granular salt, may be used to backfill the mined open spaces. We present simulation results associated with coupled thermal, hydraulic and mechanical processes in the TSDE (Thermal Simulation for Drift Emplacement) experiment, conducted in the Asse salt mine in Germany [1]. During this unique test, conceived to simulate reference repository conditions for spent nuclear fuel, a significant amount of data (temperature, stress changes and displacements, among others) was measured at 20 cross-sections, distributed in two drifts in which a total of six electrical heaters were emplaced. The drifts were subsequently backfilled with crushed salt. This test has been modeled in three-dimensions, using two sequential simulators for flow (mass and heat) and geomechanics, TOUGH-FLAC and FLAC-TOUGH [2]. These simulators have recently been updated to accommodate large strains and time-dependent rheology. The numerical predictions obtained by the two simulators are compared within the framework of an international benchmark exercise, and also with experimental data. Subsequently, a re-calibration of some parameters has been performed. Modeling coupled processes in saliniferous media for nuclear waste disposal is a novel approach, and in this study it has led to the determination of some creep parameters that are very difficult to assess at the laboratory-scale because they require extremely low strain rates. Moreover, the results from the benchmark are very satisfactory and validate the capabilities of the two simulators used to study coupled thermal, mechanical and hydraulic (multi-component, multi-phase) processes relative to the underground disposal of high

  4. A reactive distillation process for the treatment of LiCl-KCl eutectic waste salt containing rare earth chlorides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eun, H. C.; Choi, J. H.; Kim, N. Y.; Lee, T. K.; Han, S. Y.; Lee, K. R.; Park, H. S.; Ahn, D. H.

    2016-11-01

    The pyrochemical process, which recovers useful resources (U/TRU metals) from used nuclear fuel using an electrochemical method, generates LiCl-KCl eutectic waste salt containing radioactive rare earth chlorides (RECl3). It is necessary to develop a simple process for the treatment of LiCl-KCl eutectic waste salt in a hot-cell facility. For this reason, a reactive distillation process using a chemical agent was achieved as a method to separate rare earths from the LiCl-KCl waste salt. Before conducting the reactive distillation, thermodynamic equilibrium behaviors of the reactions between rare earth (Nd, La, Ce, Pr) chlorides and the chemical agent (K2CO3) were predicted using software. The addition of the chemical agent was determined to separate the rare earth chlorides into an oxide form using these equilibrium results. In the reactive distillation test, the rare earth chlorides in LiCl-KCl eutectic salt were decontaminated at a decontamination factor (DF) of more than 5000, and were mainly converted into oxide (Nd2O3, CeO2, La2O3, Pr2O3) or oxychloride (LaOCl, PrOCl) forms. The LiCl-KCl was purified into a form with a very low concentration (<1 ppm) for the rare earth chlorides.

  5. New Design for an HLW Repository (for Spent Fuel and Waste from Reprocessing) in a Salt Formation in Germany - 12213

    SciTech Connect

    Bollingerfehr, Wilhelm; Filbert, Wolfgang; Lerch, Christian; Mueller-Hoeppe, Nina; Charlier, Frank

    2012-07-01

    In autumn 2010, after a 10-year moratorium, exploration was resumed in Gorleben, the potential site for a German HLW repository. At the same time, the Federal Government launched a two-year preliminary safety analysis to assess whether the salt dome at Gorleben is suitable to host all heat-generating radioactive waste generated by German NPPs based on the waste amounts expected at that time. The revised Atomic Energy Act of June 2011 now stipulates a gradual phase-out of nuclear energy production by 2022, which is 13 years earlier than expected in 2010. A repository design was developed which took into account an updated set of data on the amounts and types of expected heat-generating waste, the documented results of the exploration of the Gorleben salt dome, and the new 'Safety Requirements Governing the Final Disposal of Heat-Generating Radioactive Waste' of 30 September, 2010. The latter has a strong influence on the conceptual designs as it requires that retrievability of all waste containers is possible within the repository lifetime. One design considered that all waste containers will be disposed of in horizontal drifts of a geologic repository, while the other design considered that all waste containers will be disposed of in deep vertical boreholes. For both options (emplacement in drifts/emplacement in vertical boreholes), the respective design includes a selection of waste containers, the layout of drifts, respectively lined boreholes, a description of emplacement fields, and backfilling and sealing measures. The design results were described and displayed and the differences between the two main concepts were elaborated and discussed. For the first time in both repository designs the requirement was implemented to retrieve waste canisters during the operational phase. The measures to fulfill this requirement and eventually the consequences were highlighted. It was pointed out that there arises the need to keep transport- and storage casks in adequate

  6. Radioactive waste isolation in salt: peer review of Westinghouse Electric Corporation's report on reference conceptual designs for a repository waste package

    SciTech Connect

    Rote, D.M.; Hull, A.B.; Was, G.S.; Macdonald, D.D.; Wilde, B.E.; Russell, J.E.; Kruger, J.; Harrison, W.; Hambley, D.F.

    1985-10-01

    This report documents the findings of the peer panel constituted by Argonne National Laboratory to review Region A of Westinghouse Electric Corporation's report entitled Waste Package Reference Conceptual Designs for a Repository in Salt. The panel determined that the reviewed report does not provide reasonable assurance that US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirements for waste packages will be met by the proposed design. It also found that it is premature to call the design a ''reference design,'' or even a ''reference conceptual design.'' This review report provides guidance for the preparation of a more acceptable design document.

  7. Costs for off-site disposal of nonhazardous oil field wastes: Salt caverns versus other disposal methods

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.

    1997-09-01

    According to an American Petroleum Institute production waste survey reported on by P.G. Wakim in 1987 and 1988, the exploration and production segment of the US oil and gas industry generated more than 360 million barrels (bbl) of drilling wastes, more than 20 billion bbl of produced water, and nearly 12 million bbl of associated wastes in 1985. Current exploration and production activities are believed to be generating comparable quantities of these oil field wastes. Wakim estimates that 28% of drilling wastes, less than 2% of produced water, and 52% of associated wastes are disposed of in off-site commercial facilities. In recent years, interest in disposing of oil field wastes in solution-mined salt caverns has been growing. This report provides information on the availability of commercial disposal companies in oil-and gas-producing states, the treatment and disposal methods they employ, and the amounts they charge. It also compares cavern disposal costs with the costs of other forms of waste disposal.

  8. Radioactive waste isolation in salt: Peer review of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's draft report on an issues hierarchy and data needs for site characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, W.; Fenster, D.F.; Ditmars, J.D.; Paddock, R.A.; Rote, D.M.; Hambley, D.F.; Seitz, M.G.; Hull, A.B.

    1986-12-01

    At the request of the Salt Repository Project (SRPO), Argonne National Laboratory conducted an independent peer review of a report by the Battelle Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation entitled ''Salt Repository Project Issues Hierarchy and Data Needs for Site Characterization (Draft).'' This report provided a logical structure for evaluating the outstanding questions (issues) related to selection and licensing of a site as a high-level waste repository. It also provided a first estimate of the information and data necessary to answer or resolve those questions. As such, this report is the first step in developing a strategy for site characterization. Microfiche copies of ''Draft Issues Hierarchy, Resolution Strategy, and Information Needs for Site Characterization and Environmental/Socioeconomic Evaluation - July, 1986'' and ''Issues Hierarchy and Data Needs for Site Characterization - February, 1985'' are included in the back pocket of this report.

  9. Diagnosis and Treatment of Cerebral Salt Wasting Syndrome With Cryptococcal Meningitis in HIV Patient.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sunggeun; Collado, Anitsira; Singla, Montish; Carbajal, Roger; Chaudhari, Ashok; Baumstein, Donald

    2016-01-01

    Hyponatremia is one of the most common electrolyte imbalances in HIV patients. The differential diagnosis may include hypovolemic hyponatremia, syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH), and adrenal insufficiency. Here, we describe a case of hyponatremia secondary to cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSWS) in an HIV patient with cryptococcal meningitis. A 52-year-old man with a history of diabetes and HIV was admitted for headache and found to have cryptococcal meningitis. He was also found to have asymptomatic hyponatremia. He had signs of hypovolemia, such as orthostatic hypotension, dry mucosa, decreased skin turgor, hemoconcentration, contraction alkalosis, and high BUN/Cr ratio. The laboratory findings revealed sodium of 125 mmol/L, potassium of 5.5 mmol/L, urine osmolality of 522 mOsm/kg, urine sodium of 162 mmol/L, and urine chloride of 162 mmol/L. We started normal saline for hypovolemia, each 1 L prior and after amphotericin therapy. However, hypovolemia did not improve significantly despite IV fluid. Cosyntropin stimulation test was negative, and renin level was 0.25 ng·mL·h, with the aldosterone level of <1 ng/dL, the serum brain natriuretic peptide of 15 pg/mL, and serum uric acid of 2.8 mg/dL. The diagnosis of CSWS was suspected, fludrocortisone was tried, and hypovolemia and hyponatremia improved. Cryptococcal meningitis in HIV patients can present with CSWS, and the distinction between CSWS and SIADH is important because the treatment for CSWS is different than that of SIADH. Both share a similar clinical picture except that CSWS presents with constant hypovolemia despite volume replacement. Salt tablets, normal saline, or fludrocortisone can be used for treatment.

  10. Prostaglandin-E2 Mediated Increase in Calcium and Phosphate Excretion in a Mouse Model of Distal Nephron Salt Wasting

    PubMed Central

    Soleimani, Manoocher; Barone, Sharon; Xu, Jie; Alshahrani, Saeed; Brooks, Marybeth; McCormack, Francis X.; Smith, Roger D.; Zahedi, Kamyar

    2016-01-01

    Contribution of salt wasting and volume depletion to the pathogenesis of hypercalciuria and hyperphosphaturia is poorly understood. Pendrin/NCC double KO (pendrin/NCC-dKO) mice display severe salt wasting under basal conditions and develop profound volume depletion, prerenal renal failure, and metabolic alkalosis and are growth retarded. Microscopic examination of the kidneys of pendrin/NCC-dKO mice revealed the presence of calcium phosphate deposits in the medullary collecting ducts, along with increased urinary calcium and phosphate excretion. Confirmatory studies revealed decreases in the expression levels of sodium phosphate transporter-2 isoforms a and c, increases in the expression of cytochrome p450 family 4a isotypes 12 a and b, as well as prostaglandin E synthase 1, and cyclooxygenases 1 and 2. Pendrin/NCC-dKO animals also had a significant increase in urinary prostaglandin E2 (PGE-2) and renal content of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) levels. Pendrin/NCC-dKO animals exhibit reduced expression levels of the sodium/potassium/2chloride co-transporter 2 (NKCC2) in their medullary thick ascending limb. Further assessment of the renal expression of NKCC2 isoforms by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) reveled that compared to WT mice, the expression of NKCC2 isotype F was significantly reduced in pendrin/NCC-dKO mice. Provision of a high salt diet to rectify volume depletion or inhibition of PGE-2 synthesis by indomethacin, but not inhibition of 20-HETE generation by HET0016, significantly improved hypercalciuria and salt wasting in pendrin/NCC dKO mice. Both high salt diet and indomethacin treatment also corrected the alterations in NKCC2 isotype expression in pendrin/NCC-dKO mice. We propose that severe salt wasting and volume depletion, irrespective of the primary originating nephron segment, can secondarily impair the reabsorption of salt and calcium in the thick ascending limb of Henle and/or proximal tubule, and reabsorption of sodium and

  11. Prostaglandin-E2 Mediated Increase in Calcium and Phosphate Excretion in a Mouse Model of Distal Nephron Salt Wasting.

    PubMed

    Soleimani, Manoocher; Barone, Sharon; Xu, Jie; Alshahrani, Saeed; Brooks, Marybeth; McCormack, Francis X; Smith, Roger D; Zahedi, Kamyar

    2016-01-01

    Contribution of salt wasting and volume depletion to the pathogenesis of hypercalciuria and hyperphosphaturia is poorly understood. Pendrin/NCC double KO (pendrin/NCC-dKO) mice display severe salt wasting under basal conditions and develop profound volume depletion, prerenal renal failure, and metabolic alkalosis and are growth retarded. Microscopic examination of the kidneys of pendrin/NCC-dKO mice revealed the presence of calcium phosphate deposits in the medullary collecting ducts, along with increased urinary calcium and phosphate excretion. Confirmatory studies revealed decreases in the expression levels of sodium phosphate transporter-2 isoforms a and c, increases in the expression of cytochrome p450 family 4a isotypes 12 a and b, as well as prostaglandin E synthase 1, and cyclooxygenases 1 and 2. Pendrin/NCC-dKO animals also had a significant increase in urinary prostaglandin E2 (PGE-2) and renal content of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) levels. Pendrin/NCC-dKO animals exhibit reduced expression levels of the sodium/potassium/2chloride co-transporter 2 (NKCC2) in their medullary thick ascending limb. Further assessment of the renal expression of NKCC2 isoforms by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) reveled that compared to WT mice, the expression of NKCC2 isotype F was significantly reduced in pendrin/NCC-dKO mice. Provision of a high salt diet to rectify volume depletion or inhibition of PGE-2 synthesis by indomethacin, but not inhibition of 20-HETE generation by HET0016, significantly improved hypercalciuria and salt wasting in pendrin/NCC dKO mice. Both high salt diet and indomethacin treatment also corrected the alterations in NKCC2 isotype expression in pendrin/NCC-dKO mice. We propose that severe salt wasting and volume depletion, irrespective of the primary originating nephron segment, can secondarily impair the reabsorption of salt and calcium in the thick ascending limb of Henle and/or proximal tubule, and reabsorption of sodium and

  12. [Case of cerebral salt wasting syndrome with difficulty in controling excessive urine volume].

    PubMed

    Fujiki, Sakiko; Kooguch, Kunihiko; Fukui, Michihiko; Osawa, Takeshi; Beppu, Satoru; Inoue, Shizuka; Yamada, Tomoki

    2007-03-01

    Symptoms of hyponatremia and diuresis due to cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSWS) are often observed after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Inadequately treated CSWS is known to work as a trigger of symptomatic vasospasm in SAH patients. Therefore, it is indispensable to detect and treat CSWS as early as possible in ICU. A 36-year-old man with SAH was admitted to our ICU. His urine volume increased excessively 3 days after ICU admission, and it reached a peak (39,250 ml x day(-1)) on the 6th day in ICU. Since infusion volume was controlled with regard to daily urinary output, hyponatremia was not noticeable and excessive urine volume stood out conspicuously. Though vasopressin and desmopressin were administered, the symptoms of natriuresis and hyponatremia were aggravated, associated with hyper secretion of natriuretic peptides (ANP 160 pg x dl(-1), BNP 172 pg x dl(-1)). Recent studies revealed that hyponatremia and hypovolemia following SAH might be caused by exaggerated secretion of natriuretic peptides. Experimental studies showed that the administration of vasopressin and desmopressin cause excessive secretion of natriuretic peptides under the circumstance of volume expansion in rats. We infer that the administration of vasopressin and desmopressin to our patient deterionated natriuresis in CSWS as in the previous experimental findings.

  13. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion and cerebral/renal salt wasting syndrome: similarities and differences.

    PubMed

    Oh, Ji Young; Shin, Jae Il

    2014-01-01

    Hyponatremia (sodium levels of <135 mEq/L) is one of the most common electrolyte imbalances in clinical practice, especially in patients with neurologic diseases. Hyponatremia can cause cerebral edema and brain herniation; therefore, prompt diagnosis and proper treatment is important in preventing morbidity and mortality. Among various causes of hyponatremia, diagnosing syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) and cerebral/renal salt wasting syndrome (C/RSW) is difficult due to many similarities. SIADH is caused by excess of renal water reabsorption through inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion, and fluid restriction is the treatment of choice. On the other hand, C/RSW is caused by natriuresis, which is followed by volume depletion and negative sodium balance and replacement of water and sodium is the mainstay of treatment. Determinating volume status in hyponatremic patients is the key point in differential between SIADH and C/RSW. However, in most situations, differential diagnosis of these two diseases is difficult because they overlap in many clinical and laboratory aspects, especially to assess differences in volume status of these patients. Although distinction between the SIADH and C/RSW is difficult, improvement of hypouricemia and an increased fractional excretion of uric acid after the correction of hyponatremia in SIADH, not in C/RSW, may be one of the helpful points in discriminating the two diseases. In this review, we compare these two diseases regarding the pathophysiologic mechanisms, diagnosis, and therapeutic point of view.

  14. Prevalence and clinical demographics of cerebral salt wasting in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Kao, Lily; Al-Lawati, Zahraa; Vavao, Joli; Steinberg, Gary K; Katznelson, Laurence

    2009-01-01

    Hyponatremia is a frequent complication following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and is commonly attributed either to the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) or cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSW). The object of this study is to elucidate the clinical demographics and sequelae of hyponatremia due to CSW in subjects with aneurysmal SAH. Retrospective chart review of patients >18 years with aneurysmal SAH admitted between January 2004 and July 2007 was performed. Subjects with moderate to severe hyponatremia (serum sodium <130 mmol l(-1)) were divided into groups consistent with CSW and SIADH based on urine output, fluid balance, natriuresis, and response to saline infusion. Clinical demographics were compared. Of 316 subjects identified, hyponatremia (serum sodium <135 mmol l(-1)) was detected in 187 (59.2%) subjects and moderate to severe hyponatremia in 48 (15.2%). Of the latter group, 35.4% were categorized with SIADH and 22.9% with CSW. Compared to eunatremic subjects, hyponatremia was associated with significantly longer hospital stay (15.7 +/- 1.9 vs. 9.6 +/- 1.1 days, p < 0.001). Subjects with CSW had similar mortality and duration of hospital stay vs. those with SIADH. Though less common than SIADH, CSW was detected in approximately 23% of patients with history of aneurysmal SAH and was not clearly associated with enhanced morbidity and mortality compared to subjects with SIADH. Further studies regarding the pathogenesis and management, along with the medical consequences, of CSW are important.

  15. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis and cerebral salt wasting syndrome: are they different and does it matter?

    PubMed

    Moritz, Michael L

    2012-05-01

    The syndrome of inappropriate antidiudresis (SIAD) and cerebral salt wasting (CSW) are similar conditions with the main difference being the absence or presence of volume depletion. The two conditions may be indistinguishable at presentation, as volume status is difficult to assess, which can lead to under-diagnosis of CSW in patients with central nervous system (CNS) disease. Carefully conducted studies in patients with CNS disease have indicated that CSW may be more common than SIAD. CSW may be differentiated from SIAD based on the persistence of hypouricemia and increased fractional excretion of urate following the correction of hyponatremia. Hyponatremia should be prevented if possible and treated promptly when discovered in patients with CNS disease as even mild hyponatremia could lead to neurological deterioration. Fluid restriction should not be used for the prevention or treatment of hyponatremia in hospitalized patients with CNS disease as it could lead to volume depletion especially if CSW is present. 0.9% sodium chloride may not be sufficiently hypertonic for the prevention of hyponatremia in hospitalized patients with CNS disease and a more hypertonic fluid may be required. The preferred therapy for the treatment of hyponatremia in patients with CNS disease is 3% sodium chloride.

  16. Cerebral salt wasting after traumatic brain injury: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Jan; Garrett, Raymond E; Salottolo, Kristin; Slone, Denetta S; Mains, Charles W; Carrick, Matthew M; Bar-Or, David

    2015-11-11

    Electrolyte imbalances are common among patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Cerebral salt wasting (CSW) is an electrolyte imbalance characterized by hyponatremia and hypovolemia. Differentiating the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone and CSW remains difficult and the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying CSW are unclear. Our intent was to review the literature on CSW within the TBI population, in order to report the incidence and timing of CSW after TBI, examine outcomes, and summarize the biochemical changes in patients who developed CSW. We searched MEDLINE through 2014, hand-reviewed citations, and searched abstracts from the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (2003-2014). Publications were included if they were conducted within a TBI population, presented original data, and diagnosed CSW. Publications were excluded if they were review articles, discussed hyponatremia but did not differentiate the etiology causing hyponatremia, or presented cases with chronic disease. Fifteen of the 47 publications reviewed met the selection criteria; nine (60%) were case reports, five (33%) were prospective and 1 (7%) was a retrospective study. Incidence of CSW varied between 0.8 - 34.6%. The populations studied were heterogeneous and the criteria used to define hyponatremia and CSW varied. Though believed to play a role in the development of CSW, increased levels of natriuretic peptides in patients diagnosed with CSW were not consistently reported. These findings reinforce the elusiveness of the CSW diagnosis and the need for strict and consistent diagnostic criteria.

  17. Two cases of cerebral salt wasting syndrome developing after cranial vault remodeling in craniosynostosis children.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soon-Ju; Huh, Eun-Ju; Byeon, Jun-Hee

    2004-08-01

    Hyponatremia has been recognized as an important postoperative metabolic complication after central nervous system (CNS) operations in children. If not appropriately treated, the postoperative hyponatremia can cause several types of CNS and circulatory disorders such as cerebral edema, increased intracranial pressure. The postoperative hyponatremia after CNS surgery has been considered as one of the underlying causes of the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). In some cases, however, the cerebral salt wasting (CSW) syndrome has been detected. CSW syndrome is far less well-known than SIADH and also different from SIADH in diagnosis and treatment. It causes an increase in urine output and urine sodium after a trauma of CNS and dehydration symptoms. The appropriate treatment of CSW syndrome is opposite the usual treatment of hyponatremia caused by SIADH. The latter is treated with fluid restriction because of the increased level of free water and its dilutional effect causing hyponatremia, whereas the former is treated with fluid and sodium resuscitation because of the unusual loss of high urinary sodium. Early diagnosis and treatment of CSW syndrome after CNS surgery are, therefore, essential. We made a diagnosis of CSW syndrome in two craniosynostosis children manifesting postoperative hyponatremia and supplied them an appropriate amount of water and sodium via intravenous route. The hyponatremia or natricuresis of the children improved and neurologic and circulatory sequelae could be prevented.

  18. Cerebral salt wasting in subarachnoid hemorrhage rats: model, mechanism, and tool.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Jun; Katayama, Yoichi; Moro, Nobuhiro; Kawai, Hiroyuki; Yoneko, Maki; Mori, Tatsuro

    2005-04-01

    Cerebral salt wasting (CSW) frequently occurs concomitantly with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). CSW induces excessive natriuresis and osmotic diuresis, and reduces total blood volume. As a result, the risk of symptomatic cerebral vasospasm may be elevated. Therefore, it is important to determine the mechanism of CSW. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the rat SAH model exhibits CSW and to investigate the relationship between CSW and natriuretic peptides. A SAH model was produced in 24 rats by perforating a cerebral artery with a nylon thread up through the common carotid artery. To evaluate CSW, urine was cumulatively collected from SAH onset to 12 hours and sodium (Na) excretion was analyzed. Body weight and hematocrit were analyzed before and after SAH onset. Concentrations of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) in plasma were also analyzed. Urine volume and total Na excretion of SAH rats were significantly higher than those of sham rats (p<0.05). Body weight of SAH rats significantly decreased and hematocrit significantly increased (p < 0.05). ANP concentration was significantly decreased in SAH rats (p<0.05). However, BNP concentrations did not change. This study demonstrated for the first time that a rat SAH model exhibited CSW. It was suggested that the cause of CSW was neither ANP nor BNP. In addition, this rat SAH model will be useful for study of CSW after SAH.

  19. Brine: a computer program to compute brine migration adjacent to a nuclear waste canister in a salt repository

    SciTech Connect

    Duckworth, G.D.; Fuller, M.E.

    1980-06-10

    This report presents a mathematical model used to predict brine migration toward a nuclear waste canister in a bedded salt repository. The mathematical model is implemented in a computer program called BRINE. The program is written in FORTRAN and executes in the batch mode on a CDC 7600. A description of the program input requirements and output available is included. Samples of input and output are given.

  20. Central neurogenic diabetes insipidus, syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone, and cerebral salt-wasting syndrome in traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    John, Cynthia A; Day, Michael W

    2012-04-01

    Central neurogenic diabetes insipidus, syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone, and cerebral salt-wasting syndrome are secondary events that affect patients with traumatic brain injury. All 3 syndromes affect both sodium and water balance; however, they have differences in pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment. Differentiating between hypernatremia (central neurogenic diabetes insipidus) and the 2 hyponatremia syndromes (syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone, and cerebral salt-wasting syndrome) is critical for preventing worsening neurological outcomes in patients with head injuries.

  1. Quantum Theoretical Study of KCl and LiCl Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koetter, Ted; Hira, Ajit; Salazar, Justin; Jaramillo, Danelle

    2014-03-01

    This research focuses on the theoretical study of molecular clusters to examine the chemical properties of small KnClnandLinCln clusters (n = 2 - 20). The potentially important role of these molecular species in biochemical and medicinal processes is well known. This work applies the hybrid ab initio methods of quantum chemistry to derive the different alkali-halide (MnHn) geometries. Of particular interest is the competition between hexagonal ring geometries and rock salt structures. Electronic energies, rotational constants, dipole moments, and vibrational frequencies for these geometries are calculated. Magic numbers for cluster stability are identified and are related to the property of cluster compactness. Mapping of the singlet, triplet, and quintet, potential energy surfaces is performed. Calculations were performed to examine the interactions of these clusters with some atoms and molecules of biological interest, including O, O2, and Fe. Potential design of new medicinal drugs is explored.

  2. Distribution of LiCl, NaCl, KCl, HCl, MgCl sub 2 , and CaCl sub 2 between octanol and water

    SciTech Connect

    Westall, J.C.; Johnson, C.A.; Zhang, Wanjia )

    1990-12-01

    The distributions of LiCl, NaCl, KCl, HCl, MgCl{sub 2}, and CaCl{sub 2} between octanol and water were determined for concentrations of the salts in the aqueous phase between 0.01 and 1 M. Evidence for both ion pairs and free ions in the water-saturated octanol was seen. For calculation of the equilibrium constants, mean salt activity coefficients in the aqueous phase were determined through the equations of Pitzer, and activity coefficients in the organic phase were set equal to unity, consistent with the very low concentrations. The specific conductivity of the organic phase was determined and found to be consistent with the speciation determined from the distributions.

  3. Production of biochar out of organic urban waste to amend salt affected soils in the basin of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavez Garcia, Elizabeth; Siebe, Christina

    2016-04-01

    Biochar is widely recognized as an efficient tool for carbon sequestration and soil fertility. The understanding of its chemical and physical properties, strongly related to the biomass and production conditions, is central to identify the most suitable application of biochar. On the other hand, salt affected soils reduce the value and productivity of extensive areas worldwide. One feasible option to recover them is to add organic amendments, which improve water holding capacity and increase sorption sites for cations as sodium. The former lake Texcoco in the basin of Mexico has been a key area for the control of surface run-off and air quality of Mexico City. However, the high concentrations of soluble salts in their soils do not allow the development of a vegetation cover that protects the soil from wind erosion, being the latter the main cause of poor air quality in the metropolitan area during the dry season. On the other hand, the population of the city produces daily 2000 t of organic urban wastes, which are currently composted. Thus, we tested if either compost or biochar made out of urban organic waste can improve the salt affected soils of former lake Texcoco to grow grass and avoid wind erosion. We examined the physico-chemical properties of biochar produced from urban organic waste under pyrolysis conditions. We also set up a field experiment to evaluate the addition of these amendments into the saline soils of Texcoco. Our preliminary analyses show biochar yield was ca. 40%, it was mainly alkaline (pH: 8-10), with a moderate salt content (electrical conductivity: 0.5-3 mS/cm). We show also results of the initial phase of the field experiment in which we monitor the electrical conductivity, pH, water content, water tension and soil GHG fluxes on small plots amended with either biochar or compost in three different doses.

  4. Effect of salts on growth and pectinase production by halotolerant yeast, Debaryomyces nepalensis NCYC 3413.

    PubMed

    Gummadi, Sathyanarayana N; Kumar, Sawan; Aneesh, C N A

    2007-06-01

    In this study, Debaryomyces nepalensis NCYC 3413 isolated from rotten apple was studied for its halotolerance and its growth was compared with that of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in high salt medium. The specific growth rate of D. nepalensis was not affected by KCl even up to a concentration of 1 M: , whereas NaCl and LiCl affected the growth of D. nepalensis. Among all tested salts, LiCl showed maximum inhibition on growth. At all conditions, halotolerance of D. nepalensis was much higher than that of S. cerevisiae. D. nepalensis showed maximum viability (80-100%) when grown in KCl, which was higher than with NaCl and LiCl. Pectinase production by D. nepalensis was noted at all high salt concentrations, namely, 2 M NaCl, 2 M KCl, and 0.5 M LiCl, and the maximum specific activity was observed when the strain was grown in 2 M NaCl.

  5. Melting of the precipitated ice IV in LiCl aqueous solution and polyamorphism of water.

    PubMed

    Mishima, Osamu

    2011-12-08

    Melting of the precipitated ice IV in supercooled LiCl-H(2)O solution was studied in the range of 0-0.6 MPa and 160-270 K. Emulsified solution was used to detect this metastable transition. Ice IV was precipitated from the aqueous solution of 2.0 mol % LiCl (or 4.8 mol % LiCl) in each emulsion particle at low-temperature and high-pressure conditions, and the emulsion was decompressed at different temperatures. The melting of ice IV was detected from the temperature change of the emulsified sample during the decompression. There was an apparently sudden change in the slope of the ice IV melting curve (liquidus) in the pressure-temperature diagram. At the high-pressure and high-temperature side of the change, the solute-induced freezing point depression was observed. At the low-pressure and low-temperature side, ice IV transformed into ice Ih on the decompression, and the transition was almost unrelated to the concentration of LiCl. These experimental results were roughly explained by the presumed existence of two kinds of liquid water (low-density liquid water and high-density liquid water), or polyamorphism in water, and by the simple assumption that LiCl dissolved maily in high-density liquid water.

  6. Renal salt wasting and chronic dehydration in claudin-7-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Tatum, Rodney; Zhang, Yuguo; Salleng, Kenneth; Lu, Zhe; Lin, Jen-Jar; Lu, Qun; Jeansonne, Beverly G.; Ding, Lei

    2010-01-01

    Claudin-7, a member of the claudin family, is highly expressed in distal nephrons of kidneys and has been reported to be involved in the regulation of paracellular Cl− permeability in cell cultures. To investigate the role of claudin-7 in vivo, we generated claudin-7 knockout mice (Cln7−/−) by the gene-targeting deletion method. Here we report that Cln7−/− mice were born viable, but died within 12 days after birth. Cln7−/− mice showed severe salt wasting, chronic dehydration, and growth retardation. We found that urine Na+, Cl−, and K+ were significantly increased in Cln7−/− mice compared with that of Cln7+/+ mice. Blood urea nitrogen and hematocrit were also significantly higher in Cln7−/− mice. The wrinkled skin was evident when Cln7−/− mice were ∼1 wk old, indicating that they suffered from chronic fluid loss. Transepidermal water loss measurements showed no difference between Cln7+/+ and Cln7−/− skin, suggesting that there was no transepidermal water barrier defect in Cln7−/− mice. Claudin-7 deletion resulted in the dramatic increase of aldosterone synthase mRNA level as early as 2 days after birth. The significant increases of epithelial Na+ channel α, Na+-Cl− cotransporter, and aquaporin 2 mRNA levels revealed a compensatory response to the loss of electrolytes and fluid in Cln7−/− mice. Na+-K+-ATPase α1 expression level was also greatly increased in distal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts where claudin-7 is normally expressed. Our study demonstrates that claudin-7 is essential for NaCl homeostasis in distal nephrons, and the paracellular ion transport pathway plays indispensable roles in keeping ionic balance in kidneys. PMID:19759267

  7. Use of zinc and copper (I) salts to reduce sulfur and nitrogen impurities during the pyrolysis of plastic and rubber waste to hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Wingfield, Jr., Robert C.; Braslaw, Jacob; Gealer, Roy L.

    1984-01-01

    An improvement in a process for the pyrolytic conversion of rubber and plastic waste to hydrocarbon products which results in reduced levels of nitrogen and sulfur impurities in these products. The improvement comprises pyrolyzing the waste in the presence of at least about 1 weight percent of salts, based on the weight of the waste, preferably chloride or carbonate salts, of zinc or copper (I). This invention was made under contract with or subcontract thereunder of the Department of Energy Contract #DE-AC02-78-ER10049.

  8. Alternative methods to manage waste salt from repository excavation in the Deaf Smith County and Swisher County locations, Texas: A scoping study: Technical report. [Salt and salt-laden material

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This report describes and qualitatively evaluates eight options for managing the large volumes of salt and salt-laden rock that would result from the excavation of a high-level radioactive waste repository in Deaf Smith County or Swisher County, Texas. The options are: distribution for commercial use; ocean disposal; deep-well injection; disposal in multilevel mines on the site; disposal in abandoned salt mines off the site; disposal off the site in abandoned mines developed for minerals other than salt; disposal in excavated landfills; and surface disposal on alkali flats. The main features of each option are described, as well as the associated environmental and economic impacts, and regulatory constraints. The options are evaluated in terms of 11 factors that jointly constitute a test of relative suitability. The results of the evaluation and implications for further study are indicated. This document does not consider or include the actual numbers, findings, or conclusions contained in the final Deaf Smith County Environmental Assessment (DOE, 1986). 43 refs., 8 tabs.

  9. Preservation of artifacts in salt mines as a natural analog for the storage of transuranic wastes at the WIPP repository

    SciTech Connect

    Martell, M.A.; Hansen, F.; Weiner, R.

    1998-10-01

    Use of nature`s laboratory for scientific analysis of complex systems is a largely untapped resource for understanding long-term disposal of hazardous materials. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the US is a facility designed and approved for storage of transuranic waste in a salt medium. Isolation from the biosphere must be ensured for 10,000 years. Natural analogs provide a means to interpret the evolution of the underground disposal setting. Investigations of ancient sites where manmade materials have experienced mechanical and chemical processes over millennia provide scientific information unattainable by conventional laboratory methods. This paper presents examples of these pertinent natural analogs, provides examples of features relating to the WIPP application, and identifies potential avenues of future investigations. This paper cites examples of analogical information pertaining to the Hallstatt salt mine in Austria and Wieliczka salt mine in Poland. This paper intends to develop an appreciation for the applicability of natural analogs to the science and engineering of a long-term disposal facility in geomedia.

  10. Results of screening activities in salt states prior to the enactment of the Nationall Waste Policy Act

    SciTech Connect

    Carbiener, W.A.

    1983-01-01

    The identification of potential sites for a nuclear waste repository through screening procedures in the salt states is a well-established, deliberate process. This screening process has made it possible to carry out detailed studies of many of the most promising potential sites, and general studies of all the sites, in anticipation of the siting guidelines specified in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act. The screening work completed prior to the passage of the Act allowed the Secretary of Energy to identify seven salt sites as potentially acceptable under the provisions of Section 116(a) of the Act. These sites were formally identified by letters from Secretary Hodel to the states of Texas, Utah, Mississippi, and Louisiana on February 2, 1983. The potentially acceptable salt sites were in Deaf Smith and Swisher Counties in Texas; Davis and Lavender Canyons in the Gibson Dome location in Utah; Richton and Cypress Creek Domes in Mississippi; and Vacherie Dome in Louisiana. Further screening will include comparison of each potentially acceptable site against disqualification factors and selection of a preferred site in each of the three geohydrologic settings from those remaining, in accordance with the siting guidelines. These steps will be documented in statutory Environmental Assessments prepared for each site to be nominated for detailed characterization. 9 references.

  11. Radioactive waste isolation in salt: Peer review of the Fluor Technology, Inc. , report and position paper concerning waste emplacement mode and its effect on repository conceptual design

    SciTech Connect

    Hambley, D.F.; Russell, J.E.; Whitfield, R.G.; McGinnis, L.D.; Harrison, W.; Jacoby, C.H.; Bump, T.R.; Mraz, D.Z.; Busch, J.S.; Fischer, L.E.

    1987-02-01

    Recommendations for revising the Fluor Technology, Inc., draft position paper entitled Evaluation of Waste Emplacement Mode and the final report entitled Waste Package/Repository Impact Study include: reevaluate the relative rankings for the various emplacement modes; delete the following want objectives: maximize ability to locate the package horizon because sufficient flexibility exists to locate rooms in the relatively clean San Andres Unit 4 Salt and maximize far-field geologic integrity during retrieval because by definition the far field will be unaffected by thermal and stress perturbations caused by remining; give greater emphasis to want objectives regarding cost and use of present technology; delete the following statements from pages 1-1 and 1-2 of the draft position paper: ''No thought or study was given to the impacts of this configuration (vertical emplacement) on repository construction or short and long-term performance of the site'' and ''Subsequent salt repository designs adopted the vertical emplacement configuration as the accepted method without further evaluation.''; delete App. E and lines 8-17 of page 1-4 of the draft position paper because they are inappropriate; adopt a formal decision-analysis procedure for the 17 identified emplacement modes; revise App. F of the impact study to more accurately reflect current technology; consider designing the underground layout to take advantage of stress-relief techniques; consider eliminating reference to fuel assemblies <10 yr ''out-of-reactor''; model the temperature distribution, assuming that the repository is constructed in an infinitely large salt body; state that the results of creep analyses must be considered tentative until they can be validated by in situ measurements; and reevaluate the peak radial stresses on the waste package so that the calculated stress conditions more closely approximate expected in situ conditions.

  12. Stabilization of 238Pu-contaminated combustible waste by molten salt oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stimmel, Jay J.; Remerowski, Mary Lynn; Ramsey, Kevin B.; Heslop, J. Mark

    2000-07-01

    Surrogate studies were conducted using the molten salt oxidation system at the Naval Surface Warfare Center-Indian Head Division. This system uses a rotary feed system and an alumina molten salt oxidation vessel. The combustible materials were tested individually and together in a homogenized mixture. A slurry containing pyrolyzed cheesecloth ash spiked with cerium oxide, which is used as a surrogate for plutonium, and ethylene glycol were also treated in the molten salt oxidation vessel.

  13. Biochemical solubilization of toxic salts from residual geothermal brines and waste waters

    DOEpatents

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.

    1994-11-22

    A method of solubilizing metal salts such as metal sulfides in a geothermal sludge using mutant Thiobacilli selected for their ability to metabolize metal salts at high temperature is disclosed. The method includes the introduction of mutated Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Thiobacillus thiooxidans to a geothermal sludge or brine. The microorganisms catalyze the solubilization of metal salts. For instance, in the case of metal sulfides, the microorganisms catalyze the solubilization to form soluble metal sulfates. 54 figs.

  14. Biochemical solubilization of toxic salts from residual geothermal brines and waste waters

    DOEpatents

    Premuzic, Eugene T.; Lin, Mow S.

    1994-11-22

    A method of solubilizing metal salts such as metal sulfides in a geothermal sludge using mutant Thiobacilli selected for their ability to metabolize metal salts at high temperature is disclosed, The method includes the introduction of mutated Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Thiobacillus thiooxidans to a geothermal sludge or brine. The microorganisms catalyze the solubilization of metal salts, For instance, in the case of metal sulfides, the microorganisms catalyze the solubilization to form soluble metal sulfates.

  15. Emissions from energetic material waste during the Molten Salt Destruction process

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, B.E.; Upadhye, R.S.; Pruneda, C.O.; Brummond, W.A.

    1994-07-05

    The Molten Salt Destruction (MSD) process is an alternative to open burn/open detonation for destroying energetic materials; MSD has inherently low gaseous emissions, and the salt bath can scrub both acidic gases and particulates. It was demonstrated that high explosives and a liquid propellant can be safely and completely destroyed using MSD. Gaseous emissions of NOx and CO are very low. Nitrate builds up in the salt bath when nitrate-rich materials are destroyed, but addition fuel reduces the nitrate to NO. A program has been begun to add catalytic materials to the bed to further reduce emissions; a small molten salt bath has been constructed for chemical kinetic studies.

  16. Highlights of the Salt Extraction Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasalizadeh, Aida; Seetharaman, Seshadri; Teng, Lidong; Sridhar, Seetharaman; Grinder, Olle; Izumi, Yukari; Barati, Mansoor

    2013-11-01

    This article presents the salient features of a new process for the recovery of metal values from secondary sources and waste materials such as slag and flue dusts. It is also feasible in extracting metals such as nickel and cobalt from ores that normally are difficult to enrich and process metallurgically. The salt extraction process is based on extraction of the metals from the raw materials by a molten salt bath consisting of NaCl, LiCl, and KCl corresponding to the eutectic composition with AlCl3 as the chlorinating agent. The process is operated in the temperature range 973 K (700°C) to 1173 K (900°C). The process was shown to be successful in extracting Cr and Fe from electric arc furnace (EAF) slag. Electrolytic copper could be produced from copper concentrate based on chalcopyrite in a single step. Conducting the process in oxygen-free atmosphere, sulfur could be captured in the elemental form. The method proved to be successful in extracting lead from spent cathode ray tubes. In order to prevent the loss of AlCl3 in the vapor form and also chlorine gas emission at the cathode during the electrolysis, liquid aluminum was used. The process was shown to be successful in extracting Nd and Dy from magnetic scrap. The method is a highly promising process route for the recovery of strategic metals. It also has the added advantage of being environmentally friendly.

  17. Zr electrorefining process for the treatment of cladding hull waste in LiCl-KCl molten salts

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Chang Hwa; Lee, You Lee; Jeon, Min Ku; Kang, Kweon Ho; Choi, Yong Taek; Park, Geun Il

    2013-07-01

    Zr electrorefining for the treatment of Zircaloy-4 cladding hull waste is demonstrated in LiCl-KCl-ZrCl{sub 4} molten salts. Although a Zr oxide layer thicker than 5 μm strongly inhibits the Zr dissolution process, pre-treatment processes increases the dissolution kinetics. For 10 g-scale experiments, the purities of the recovered Zr were 99.54 wt.% and 99.74 wt.% for fresh and oxidized cladding tubes, respectively, with no electrical contact issue. The optimal condition for Zr electrorefining has been found to improve the morphological feature of the recovered Zr, which reduces the salt incorporation by examining the effect of the process parameters such as the ZrCl{sub 4} concentration and the applied potential.

  18. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome following brain injury in three pediatric patients: suggestions for rapid diagnosis and therapy.

    PubMed

    Berkenbosch, John W; Lentz, Christopher W; Jimenez, David F; Tobias, Joseph D

    2002-02-01

    The association between hyponatremia and intracranial pathology has been well described. When accompanied by natriuresis, hyponatremia has most commonly been attributed to inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone. However, there is growing evidence to suggest that many of these patients may actually have cerebral mediated salt losses, a disorder referred to as the cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSWS). While this syndrome has been reasonably well described in adults, data regarding CSWS in pediatric-aged patients remains sparse. Since fluid management of these disorders is different, it is important that the clinician be able to rapidly differentiate between them. We report three cases of CSWS in acutely brain-injured children and comment on the role that early quantitation of urine volume and urine sodium concentration had in rapidly establishing the correct diagnosis.

  19. Observations regarding the stability of bentonite backfill in a high-level waste (HLW) repository in rock salt

    SciTech Connect

    Krumhansl, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Consideration of bentonite as a component of the engineered barrier system surrounding high-level nuclear waste (HLW) canisters in rock salt raised several questions regarding the stability of this clay. Dehydration studies pertinent to the period immediately following waste emplacement showed a partial loss in swelling ability, the extent of which depended on the composition of the rehydrating brine and increased with temperature from 150/sup 0/ to 320/sup 0/C. At a later date, hydrothermal reactions between brine and bentonite may occur as pressure in the repository rises and the backfill saturates with brine. In pure sodium chloride brines little change in the bentonite was observed after two months at 250/sup 0/C. In the same amount of time, brines rich in potassium formed mixed-layer, illite-smectite clays. Adding magnesium to the brine arrested mixed-layer clay formation; instead, a magnesium-enriched montmorillonite formed and the brine pH dropped. Radiation stability studies to 10/sup 10/ rads were conducted in both wet and dry environments, but caused no detectable alteration of the clay. In contrast, fluid-phase compositions changed significantly. Gamma irradiation of dry bentonite produced an oxygen-depleted atmosphere which was enriched in both hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Mixed bentonite-brine slurries produced copious amounts of both hydrogen and oxygen gas when irradiated. These irradiated slurries generally had posttest pH values between 4 and 6. Solutions made by exposing preirradiated salt and bentonite to unirradiated water, or brine, had pH values between 6 and 8.5 and, in the case of salt solutions, were highly oxidizing. Although more research is needed for a complete performance assessment, it appears that such backfills may prove useful in a variety of rock-salt environments.

  20. Demonstration of natriuretic activity in urine of neurosurgical patients with renal salt wasting

    PubMed Central

    Youmans, Steven J; Fein, Miriam R; Wirkowski, Elizabeth; Maesaka, John K

    2013-01-01

    We have utilized the persistent elevation of fractional excretion (FE) of urate, > 10%, to differentiate cerebral/renal salt wasting (RSW) from the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH), in which a normalization of FEurate occurs after correction of hyponatremia.  Previous studies suggest as well  that an elevated FEurate with normonatremia, without pre-existing hyponatremia, is also consistent with RSW, including studies demonstrating induction of RSW in rats infused with plasma from normonatremic neurosurgical and Alzheimer’s disease patients.  The present studies were designed to test whether precipitates from the urine of normonatremic neurosurgical patients, with either normal or elevated FEurate, and patients with SIADH, display natriuretic activity.   Methods: Ammonium sulfate precipitates from the urine of 6 RSW and 5 non-RSW Control patients were dialyzed (10 kDa cutoff) to remove the ammonium sulfate, lyophilized, and the reconstituted precipitate was tested for its effect on transcellular transport of 22Na across LLC-PK1 cells grown to confluency in transwells. Results: Precipitates from 5 of the 6 patients with elevated FEurate and normonatremia significantly inhibited the in vitro transcellular transport of 22Na above a concentration of 3 μg protein/ml, by 10-25%, versus to vehicle alone, and by 15-40% at concentrations of 5-20 μg/ml as compared to precipitates from 4 of the 5 non-RSW patients with either normal FEurate and normonatremia (2 patients) or with SIADH (2 patients). Conclusion: These studies provide further evidence that an elevated FEurate with normonatremia is highly consistent with RSW.  Evidence in the urine of natriuretic activity suggests significant renal excretion of the natriuretic factor. The potentially large source of the natriuretic factor that this could afford, coupled with small analytical sample sizes required by the in-vitro bioassay used here, should facilitate future experimental

  1. Myelodysplastic syndrome complicated by central diabetes insipidus and cerebral salt wasting syndrome with peculiar change in magnetic resonance images.

    PubMed

    Sano, Soichi; Yamagami, Keiko; Morikawa, Takashi; Yoshioka, Katsunobu

    2010-01-01

    Central diabetes insipidus (CDI) could occurs in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or acute myeloid leukemia (AML), because of infiltration of leukemic cells into the neurohypophysis or some other reason and it is closely associated with abnormalities of chromosome 7. We report a case of MDS with abnormalities of chromosome 7, presenting as CDI followed by deterioration of polyuria and hyponatremia with a decreased extracellular fluid volume. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed symmetrically enhanced lesions in the hypothalamus. Fludrocortisone treatment normalized his serum sodium level and cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSWS) was suspected.

  2. Solution-based approaches for making high-density sodalite waste forms to immobilize spent electrochemical salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepry, William C.; Riley, Brian J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Pierce, David A.

    2013-11-01

    Three different solution-based approaches were taken to make sodalite minerals as a host for a mixed salt simulating the waste in the electrochemical separations process of nuclear fuel reprocessing. The methods used an aqueous solution of mixed chlorides (simulated waste) but the other reactants varied: (1) Al(OH)3 + NaOH + CS, (2) NaAlO2 + CS, and (3) Al2Si2O7 + NaOH, (CS = colloidal silica). The products were dried, ground, pressed into pellets, and fired at 650-950 °C. In some cases, either 5 or 10 mass% of a Si-Na-B oxide glass sintering aid was introduced at different stages in the process. Method (2) proved the most successful at producing high sodalite fractions (up to 100%) with minimal sintering aid additions and showed high consolidation potential (up to 91.4% of theoretical density) at reduced firing temperatures.

  3. Regulatory Framework for Salt Waste Disposal and Tank Closure at the Savannah River Site - 13663

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Steve; Dickert, Ginger

    2013-07-01

    The end of the Cold War has left a legacy of approximately 37 million gallons of radioactive waste in the aging waste tanks at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS). A robust program is in place to remove waste from these tanks, treat the waste to separate into a relatively small volume of high-level waste and a large volume of low-level waste, and to actively dispose of the low-level waste on-site and close the waste tanks and associated ancillary structures. To support performance-based, risk-informed decision making and to ensure compliance with all regulatory requirements, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its current and past contractors have worked closely with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to develop and implement a framework for on-site low-level waste disposal and closure of the SRS waste tanks. The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, provides DOE the authority to manage defense-related radioactive waste. DOE Order 435.1 and its associated manual and guidance documents detail this radioactive waste management process. The DOE also has a requirement to consult with the NRC in determining that waste that formerly was classified as high-level waste can be safely managed as either low-level waste or transuranic waste. Once DOE makes a determination, NRC then has a responsibility to monitor DOE's actions in coordination with SCDHEC to ensure compliance with the Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 61 (10CFR61), Subpart C performance objectives. The management of hazardous waste substances or components at SRS is regulated by SCDHEC and the EPA. The foundation for the interactions between DOE, SCDHEC and EPA is the SRS Federal Facility Agreement (FFA). Managing this array of requirements and successfully interacting with regulators, consultants and stakeholders is a challenging task but ensures

  4. Experimental investigation on the sensible effectiveness of LiCl wheel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabah, A. A.; Fekete, A.; Kabelac, S.

    2011-04-01

    Experimental investigation on the sensible effectiveness of LiCl wheel is reported. The measurements were made for balanced flow (C* = 1) for a wide range of rotational speed 0-10 rpm, regeneration temperature of 50-70°C and airflow rate 150-550 kg/h. The results revealed that the operation rotational speed for LiCl wheel is about 5 rpm which is significantly lower that for Silica gel wheel. It is also found that the sensible effectiveness is independent of the regeneration temperature. The experimental results are also fitted to the existing correlation of Simonson et al. (ASHRAE Trans 106(1):301-310, 2000). For the range of the applicability of the correlation, most of the experimental data fit the correlation within an error band of ±5%.

  5. Radioactive waste isolation in salt: peer review of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's reports on preferred repository sites within the Palo Duro Basin, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Fenster, D.; Edgar, D.; Gonzales, S.; Domenico, P.; Harrison, W.; Engelder, T.; Tisue, M.

    1984-04-01

    Documents are being submitted to the Salt Repository Project Office (SRPO) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) by Battelle Memorial Institute's Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) to satisfy milestones of the Salt Repository Project of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. Some of these documents are being reviewed by multidisciplinary groups of peers to ensure DOE of their adequacy and credibility. Adequacy of documents refers to their ability to meet the standards of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, as enunciated in 10 CFR 60, and the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act and the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. Credibility of documents refers to the validity of the assumptions, methods, and conclusions, as well as to the completeness of coverage. This report summarizes Argonne's review of ONWI's two-volume draft report entitled Identification of Preferred Sites within the Palo Duro Basin: Vol. 1 - Palo Duro Location A, and Vol. 2 - Palo Duro Location B, dated January 1984. Argonne was requested by DOE to review these documents on January 17 and 24, 1984 (see App. A). The review procedure involved obtaining written comments on the reports from three members of Argonne's core peer review staff and three extramural experts in related research areas. The peer review panel met at Argonne on February 6, 1984, and reviewer comments were integrated into this report by the review session chairman, with the assistance of Argonne's core peer review staff. All of the peer review panelists concurred in the way in which their comments were represented in this report (see App. B). A letter report and a draft of this report were sent to SRPO on February 10, 1984, and April 17, 1984, respectively. 5 references.

  6. Salton Sea Geothermal Field, California, as a near-field natural analog of a radioactive waste repository in salt

    SciTech Connect

    Elders, W.A.; Cohen, L.H.

    1983-11-01

    Since high concentrations of radionuclides and high temperatures are not normally encountered in salt domes or beds, finding an exact geologic analog of expected near-field conditions in a mined nuclear waste repository in salt will be difficult. The Salton Sea Geothermal Field, however, provides an opportunity to investigate the migration and retardation of naturally occurring U, Th, Ra, Cs, Sr and other elements in hot brines which have been moving through clay-rich sedimentary rocks for up to 100,000 years. The more than thirty deep wells drilled in this field to produce steam for electrical generation penetrate sedimentary rocks containing concentrated brines where temperatures reach 365/sup 0/C at only 2 km depth. The brines are primarily Na, K, Ca chlorides with up to 25% of total dissolved solids; they also contain high concentrations of metals such as Fe, Mn, Li, Zn, and Pb. This report describes the geology, geophysics and geochemistry of this system as a prelude to a study of the mobility of naturally occurring radionuclides and radionuclide analogs within it. The aim of this study is to provide data to assist in validating quantitative models of repository behavior and to use in designing and evaluating waste packages and engineered barriers. 128 references, 33 figures, 13 tables.

  7. Effect of temperature, anaerobiosis, stirring and salt addition on natural fermentation silage of sardine and sardine wastes in sugarcane molasses.

    PubMed

    Zahar, M; Benkerroum, N; Guerouali, A; Laraki, Y; El Yakoubi, K

    2002-04-01

    Conditions for a natural fermentation during ensilage of sardines or their waste in sugarcane molasses (60:40 w/w) were evaluated regarding the effect of temperature (15, 25 and 35 degrees C), anaerobiosis (closed vs. open jars), daily stirring of the mixture, and salt addition to the initial mix at 5% (w/w) level. Successful natural fermentation took place in sardine silages incubated at 25 or 35 degrees C in open jars to reach a pH of 4.4 in about 2 and 1 weeks, respectively. For samples kept at 15 degrees C, the pH decline was very slow and pH did not decrease below 5.5 after one month of incubation. At 25 degrees C, the most favorable conditions for silage of sardine waste in cane molasses, as evidenced by the fastest decline in pH to a stable value of about 4.4, were achieved in closed jars and with daily stirring of the mix. The pH 4.4 was reached in one week with an advance of at least 3 days compared to the other conditions (open jars and closed jars without daily stirring). Addition of salt at 5% (w/w) in the mix before incubation inhibited the fermentation process.

  8. Reoxidation of uranium metal immersed in a Li2O-LiCl molten salt after electrolytic reduction of uranium oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Eun-Young; Jeon, Min Ku; Lee, Jeong; Kim, Sung-Wook; Lee, Sang Kwon; Lee, Sung-Jai; Heo, Dong Hyun; Kang, Hyun Woo; Jeon, Sang-Chae; Hur, Jin-Mok

    2017-03-01

    We present our findings that uranium (U) metal prepared by using the electrolytic reduction process for U oxide (UO2) in a Li2O-LiCl salt can be reoxidized into UO2 through the reaction between the U metal and Li2O in LiCl. Two salt types were used for immersion of the U metal: one was the salt used for electrolytic reduction, and the other was applied to the unused LiCl salts with various concentrations of Li2O and Li metal. Our results revealed that the degree of reoxidation increases with the increasing Li2O concentration in LiCl and that the presence of the Li metal in LiCl suppresses the reoxidation of the U metal.

  9. Tank Waste Transport Stability: Summary of Slurry and Salt-Solution Studies for FY 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, T.D.

    2002-06-07

    Despite over 50 years of experience in transporting radioactive tank wastes to and from equipment and tanks at the Department of Energy's Hanford, Savannah River, and Oak Ridge sites, waste slurry transfer pipelines and process piping become plugged on occasion. At Hanford, several tank farm pipelines are no longer in service because of plugs. At Savannah River, solid deposits in the outlet line of the 2H evaporator have resulted in an unplanned extended downtime. Although waste transfer criteria and guidelines intended to prevent pipeline plugging are in place, they are not always adequate. To avoid pipeline plugging in the future, other factors that are not currently embodied in the transfer criteria may need to be considered. The work summarized here is being conducted to develop a better understanding of the chemical and waste flow dynamics during waste transfer. The goal is to eliminate pipeline plugs by improving analysis and engineering tools in the field that incorporate this understanding.

  10. Recycle waste salt as reagent: a one-pot substitution/Krapcho reaction sequence to α-fluorinated esters and sulfones.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Feng; Xu, Peng-Wei; Zhou, Feng; Wang, Cui-Hong; Zhou, Jian

    2015-02-20

    A "one-pot" tandem substitution/Krapcho reaction is reported for the facile synthesis of α-fluorinated esters and sulfones, which utilizes the byproduct salt formed in the substitution step as an indispensible reagent to facilitate the Krapcho reaction step. This represents the first sustainable tandem reaction that internally recycles the waste salt formed in the upstream step as the reagent for the downstream step.

  11. Electrochemistry and Spectroelectrochemistry of Europium(III) chloride in 3 LiCl – 2KCl from 643 to 1123 K

    SciTech Connect

    Schroll, Cynthia A.; Chatterjee, Sayandev; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Heineman, William R.; Bryan, Samuel A.

    2013-09-09

    The electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical behavior of Europium(III) chloride in a molten salt eutectic, 3 LiCl – 2 KCl, over a temperature range of 643 – 1123 K using differential pulse voltammetry, cyclic voltammetry, potential step chronoabsorptometry, and thin-layer spectroelectrochemistry is reported. The electrochemical reaction was determined to be the one electron reduction of Eu3+ to Eu2+ at all temperatures. The redox potential of Eu3+/2+ shifts to more positive potentials and the diffusion coefficient for Eu3+ increases as temperature increases. The results for the number of electrons transferred, redox potential and diffusion coefficient are in good agreement between the electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical techniques.

  12. Thermal Properties of LiCl-KCl Molten Salt for Nuclear Waste Separation

    SciTech Connect

    Sridharan, Kumar; Allen, Todd; Anderson, Mark; Simpson, Mike

    2012-11-30

    This project addresses both practical and fundamental scientific issues of direct relevance to operational challenges of the molten LiCl-KCl salt pyrochemical process, while providing avenues for improvements in the process. In order to understand the effects of the continually changing composition of the molten salt bath during the process, the project team will systematically vary the concentrations of rare earth surrogate elements, lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, and neodymium, which will be added to the molten LiCl-KCl salt. They will also perform a limited number of focused experiments by the dissolution of depleted uranium. All experiments will be performed at 500 deg C. The project consists of the following tasks. Researchers will measure density of the molten salts using an instrument specifically designed for this purpose, and will determine the melting points with a differential scanning calorimeter. Knowledge of these properties is essential for salt mass accounting and taking the necessary steps to prevent melt freezing. The team will use cyclic voltammetry studies to determine redox potentials of the rare earth cations, as well as their diffusion coefficients and activities in the molten LiCl-KCl salt. In addition, the team will perform anodic stripping voltammetry to determine the concentration of the rare earth elements and their solubilities, and to develop the scientific basis for an on-line diagnostic system for in situ monitoring of the cation species concentration (rare earths in this case). Solubility and activity of the cation species are critically important for the prediction of the salt's useful lifetime and disposal.

  13. Separation of CsCl from a Ternary CsCl-LiCl-KCl Salt via a Melt Crystallization Technique for Pyroprocessing Waste Minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Ammon Williams; Supathorn Phongikaroon; Michael Simpson

    2013-02-01

    A parametric study has been conducted to identify the effects of several parameters on the separation of CsCl from molten LiCl-KCl salt via a melt crystallization process. A reverse vertical Bridgman technique was used to grow the salt crystals. The investigated parameters were: (1) the advancement rate, (2) the crucible lid configuration, (3) the amount of salt mixture, (4) the initial composition of CsCl, and (5) the temperature difference between the high and low furnace zones. From each grown crystal, samples were taken axially and analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results show that CsCl concentrations at the top of the crystals were low and increased to a maximum at the bottom of the salt. Salt (LiCl-KCl) recycle percentages for the experiments ranged from 50% to 75% and the CsCl composition in the waste salt was low. To increase the recycle percentage and the concentration of CsCl in the waste form, the possibility of using multiple crystallization stages was explored to further optimize the process. Results show that multiple crystallization stages are practical and the optimal experimental conditions should be operated at 5.0 mm/hr rate with a lid configuration and temperature difference of 200 °C for a total of five crystallization stages. Under these conditions, up to 88% of the salt can be recycled.

  14. Technetium in alkaline, high-salt, radioactive tank waste supernate: Preliminary characterization and removal

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, D.L. Jr.; Brown, G.N.; Conradson, S.D.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the initial work conducted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to study technetium (Tc) removal from Hanford tank waste supernates and Tc oxidation state in the supernates. Filtered supernate samples from four tanks were studied: a composite double shell slurry feed (DSSF) consisting of 70% from Tank AW-101, 20% from AP-106, and 10% from AP-102; and three complexant concentrate (CC) wastes (Tanks AN-107, SY-101, ANS SY-103) that are distinguished by having a high concentration of organic complexants. The work included batch contacts of these waste samples with Reillex{trademark}-HPQ (anion exchanger from Reilly Industries) and ABEC 5000 (a sorbent from Eichrom Industries), materials designed to effectively remove Tc as pertechnetate from tank wastes. A short study of Tc analysis methods was completed. A preliminary identification of the oxidation state of non-pertechnetate species in the supernates was made by analyzing the technetium x-ray absorption spectra of four CC waste samples. Molybdenum (Mo) and rhenium (Re) spiked test solutions and simulants were tested with electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry to evaluate the feasibility of the technique for identifying Tc species in waste samples.

  15. Molten Salt Oxidation: A Thermal Technology for Waste Treatment and Demilitarization

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, P C; Watkins, B; Pruneda, C; Kwak, S

    2001-08-23

    MSO is a good alternative to incineration for the treatment of a variety of organic wastes including obsolete explosives, low-level mixed waste streams, PCB contaminated oils, spent resins and carbon. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has demonstrated the MSO process for the effective destruction of explosives, explosives-contaminated materials, and other wastes on a 1.5 kg/hr bench-scale unit and in an integrated MSO facility capable of treating 8 kg/hr of low-level radioactive mixed wastes. LLNL, under the direction and support of the Joint Demilitarization Technology (JDT) program, is currently building an integrated MSO plant for destroying explosives, explosives-contaminated sludge and explosives-contaminated activated charcoal. In a parallel effort, LLNL also provides technical support to DOE for the implementation of the MSO technology at industrial scale at Richland, Washington. Over 30 waste streams have been demonstrated with LLNL-built MSO systems. In this paper we will present our latest experimental data, our operational experience with MSO and also discuss its process capabilities.

  16. Resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering at double core excitations in solid LiCl

    SciTech Connect

    Agaaker, Marcus; Ahuja, Rajeev; Soederstroem, Johan; Rubensson, Jan-Erik; Kaeaembre, Tanel; Glover, Chris; Schmitt, Thorsten; Mattesini, Maurizio

    2006-06-15

    Inelastic soft x-ray scattering in LiCl, resonantly enhanced at states with two Li 1s vacancies, is investigated. States in which both excited electrons are localized during the double core hole lifetime, in which one of the electrons delocalize, as well as triply excited states in which the double core excitation is accompanied by a valence-to-conduction band excitation, contribute to the scattering. The angular momentum symmetry of the involved states and the vibronic coupling during the scattering process are reflected in the angular anisotropy. The effect on the local electronic structure of multiple core holes is theoretically studied by means of supercell band calculations.

  17. Radioactive waste isolation in salt: rationale and methodology for Argonne-conducted reviews of site characterization programs

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, W.; Ditmars, J.D.; Tisue, M.W.; Hambley, D.F.; Fenster, D.F.; Rote, D.M.

    1985-07-01

    Both regulatory and technical concerns must be addressed in Argonne-conducted peer reviews of site characterization programs for individual sites for a high-level radioactive waste repository in salt. This report describes the regulatory framework within which reviews must be conducted and presents background information on the structure and purpose of site characterization programs as found in US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guide 4.17 and Title 10, Part 60, of the Code of Federal Regulations. It also presents a methodology to assist reviewers in addressing technical concerns relating to their respective areas of expertise. The methodology concentrates on elements of prime importance to the US Department of Energy's advocacy of a given salt repository system during the NRC licensing process. Instructions are given for reviewing 12 site characterization program elements, starting with performance objectives, performance issues, and levels of performance of repository subsystem components; progressing through performance assessment; and ending with plans for data acquisition and evaluation. The success of a site characterization program in resolving repository performance issues will be determined by judging the likelihood that the proposed data acquisition activities will reduce uncertainties in the performance predictions. 8 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Costs for Off-Site Disposal of Nonhazardous Oil Field Wastes: Salt Caverns Versus other Disposal Methods.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-04-01

    May. IOGCC, 1995, Natural Gas Storage in Salt Caverns - A Guide for State Regulators, Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission, Oklahoma City...Idealized Cavern in a Salt Dome Formation -- Incoming wastem I Displaced brine Fia aigSurface casing Top of salt formation Overlying formations...Major U.S. Rock Salt Deposits ................................... 15 2 Idealized Cavern in a Salt Dome Formation

  19. Solution-based approaches for making high-density sodalite waste forms to immobilize spent electrochemical salts

    SciTech Connect

    Lepry, William C.; Riley, Brian J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Pierce, David A.

    2013-08-29

    Three different solution-based approaches were taken to make sodalite minerals as a host for a mixed salt simulating the waste generated during the electrochemical separations process of nuclear fuel reprocessing that contains alkali, alkaline earth, and lanthanide chlorides plus trace iodine and actinides. All of the approaches included an aqueous solution of mixed chlorides (simulated waste) but the other reactants varied: (1) Al(OH)3 + NaOH + CS, (2) NaAlO2 + CS, and (3) Al2Si2O7 + NaOH, (CS = colloidal silica). The products were dried, ground, pressed into pellets, fired (650–950 °C), and characterized. Both 5 and 10 mass% of a Si-Na-B glass binder were introduced at different stages in the process. Route (2) proved the most successful at producing high sodalite fractions (up to 100%) with minimal glass binder additions and showed high consolidation potential (up to 91.4% of theoretical density). Detailed comparisons are provided of the results.

  20. Summary Report of Laboratory Testing to Establish the Effectiveness of Proposed Treatment Methods for Unremediated and Remediated Nitrate Salt Waste Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Anast, Kurt Roy; Funk, David John

    2016-05-12

    The inadvertent creation of transuranic waste carrying hazardous waste codes D001 and D002 requires the treatment of the material to eliminate the hazardous characteristics and allow its eventual shipment and disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This report documents the effectiveness of two treatment methods proposed to stabilize both the unremediated and remediated nitrate salt waste streams (UNS and RNS, respectively). The two technologies include the addition of zeolite (with and without the addition of water as a processing aid) and cementation. Surrogates were developed to evaluate both the solid and liquid fractions expected from parent waste containers, and both the solid and liquid fractions were tested. Both technologies are shown to be effective at eliminating the characteristic of ignitability (D001), and the addition of zeolite was determined to be effective at eliminating corrosivity (D002), with the preferred option1 of zeolite addition currently planned for implementation at the Waste Characterization, Reduction, and Repackaging Facility. During the course of this work, we established the need to evaluate and demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed remedy for debris material, if required. The evaluation determined that Wypalls absorbed with saturated nitrate salt solutions exhibit the ignitability characteristic (all other expected debris is not classified as ignitable). Follow-on studies will be developed to demonstrate the effectiveness of stabilization for ignitable Wypall debris. Finally, liquid surrogates containing saturated nitrate salts did not exhibit the characteristic of ignitability in their pure form (those neutralized with Kolorsafe and mixed with sWheat did exhibit D001). As a result, additional nitrate salt solutions (those exhibiting the oxidizer characteristic) will be tested to demonstrate the effectiveness of the remedy.

  1. Properties of salt-saturated concrete and grout after six years in situ at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Wakeley, L.D.; Harrington, P.T.; Weiss, C.A. Jr.

    1993-06-01

    Samples of concrete and grout were recovered from short boreholes in the repository floor at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant more than six years after the concrete and grout were placed. Plugs from the Plug Test Matrix of the Plugging and Sealing Program of Sandia National Laboratories were overcored to include a shell of host rock. The cores were analyzed at the Waterways Experiment Station to assess their condition after six years of service, having potentially been exposed to those aspects of their service environment (salt, brine, fracturing, anhydrite, etc.) that could cause deterioration. Measured values of compressive strength and pulse velocity of both the grout and the concrete equaled or exceeded values from tests performed on laboratory-tested samples of the same mixtures at ages of one month to one year after casting. The phase assemblages had changed very little. Materials performed as intended and showed virtually no chemical or physical evidence of deterioration. The lowest values for strength and pulse velocity were measured for samples taken from the Disturbed Rock Zone, indicating the influence of cracking in this zone on the properties of enclosed seal materials. There was evidence of movement of brine in the system. Crystalline phases containing magnesium, potassium, sulfate, and other ions had been deposited on free surfaces in fractures and pilot holes. There was a reaction rim in the anhydrite immediately surrounding each recovered borehole plug, suggesting interaction between grout or concrete and host rock. However, the chemical changes apparent in this reaction rim were not reflected in the chemical composition of the adjacent concrete or grout. The grout and concrete studied here showed no signs of the deterioration found to have occurred in some parts of the concrete liner of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant waste handling shaft.

  2. Long-Term Modeling of Coupled Processes in a Generic Salt Repository for Heat-Generating Nuclear Waste: Analysis of the Impacts of Halite Solubility Constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco Martin, L.; Rutqvist, J.; Battistelli, A.; Birkholzer, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    Rock salt is a potential medium for the underground disposal of nuclear waste because it has several assets, such as its ability to creep and heal fractures and its water and gas tightness in the undisturbed state. In this research, we focus on disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste and we consider a generic salt repository with in-drift emplacement of waste packages and crushed salt backfill. As the natural salt creeps, the crushed salt backfill gets progressively compacted and an engineered barrier system is subsequently created [1]. The safety requirements for such a repository impose that long time scales be considered, during which the integrity of the natural and engineered barriers have to be demonstrated. In order to evaluate this long-term integrity, we perform numerical modeling based on state-of-the-art knowledge. Here, we analyze the impacts of halite dissolution and precipitation within the backfill and the host rock. For this purpose, we use an enhanced equation-of-state module of TOUGH2 that properly includes temperature-dependent solubility constraints [2]. We perform coupled thermal-hydraulic-mechanical modeling and we investigate the influence of the mentioned impacts. The TOUGH-FLAC simulator, adapted for large strains and creep, is used [3]. In order to quantify the importance of salt dissolution and precipitation on the effective porosity, permeability, pore pressure, temperature and stress field, we compare numerical results that include or disregard fluids of variable salinity. The sensitivity of the results to some parameters, such as the initial saturation within the backfill, is also addressed. References: [1] Bechthold, W. et al. Backfilling and Sealing of Underground Repositories for Radioactive Waste in Salt (BAMBUS II Project). Report EUR20621 EN: European Atomic Energy Community, 2004. [2] Battistelli A. Improving the treatment of saline brines in EWASG for the simulation of hydrothermal systems. Proceedings, TOUGH Symposium 2012

  3. On the importance of coupled THM processes to predict the long-term response of a generic salt repository for high-level nuclear waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco Martin, L.; Rutqvist, J.; Birkholzer, J. T.

    2013-12-01

    Salt is a potential medium for the underground disposal of nuclear waste because it has several assets, in particular its ability to creep and heal fractures generated by excavation and its water and gas tightness in the undisturbed state. In this research, we focus on disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste (such as spent fuel) and we consider a generic salt repository with in-drift emplacement of waste packages and subsequent backfill of the drifts with run-of-mine crushed salt. As the natural salt creeps, the crushed salt backfill gets progressively compacted and an engineered barrier system is subsequently created. In order to evaluate the integrity of the natural and engineered barriers over the long-term, it is important to consider the coupled effects of the thermal, hydraulic and mechanical processes that take place. In particular, the results obtained so far show how the porosity reduction of the crushed salt affects the saturation and pore pressure evolution throughout the repository, both in time and space. Such compaction is induced by the stress and temperature regime within the natural salt. Also, transport properties of the host rock are modified not only by thermo-mechanically and hydraulically-induced damaged processes, but also by healing/sealing of existing fractures. In addition, the THM properties of the backfill evolve towards those of the natural salt during the compaction process. All these changes are based on dedicated laboratory experiments and on theoretical considerations [1-3]. Different scenarios are modeled and compared to evaluate the relevance of different processes from the perspective of effective nuclear waste repositories. The sensitivity of the results to some parameters, such as capillarity, is also addressed. The simulations are conducted using an updated version of the TOUGH2-FLAC3D simulator, which is based on a sequential explicit method to couple flow and geomechanics [4]. A new capability for large strains and creep

  4. Autosomal recessive hyponatremia due to isolated salt wasting in sweat associated with a mutation in the active site of Carbonic Anhydrase 12.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Emad; Leventhal, Neta; Parvari, Galit; Hanukoglu, Aaron; Hanukoglu, Israel; Chalifa-Caspi, Vered; Feinstein, Yael; Weinbrand, Jenny; Jacoby, Harel; Manor, Esther; Nagar, Tal; Beck, John C; Sheffield, Val C; Hershkovitz, Eli; Parvari, Ruti

    2011-04-01

    Genetic disorders of excessive salt loss from sweat glands have been observed in pseudohypoaldosteronism type I (PHA) and cystic fibrosis that result from mutations in genes encoding epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) subunits and the transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), respectively. We identified a novel autosomal recessive form of isolated salt wasting in sweat, which leads to severe infantile hyponatremic dehydration. Three affected individuals from a small Bedouin clan presented with failure to thrive, hyponatremic dehydration and hyperkalemia with isolated sweat salt wasting. Using positional cloning, we identified the association of a Glu143Lys mutation in carbonic anhydrase 12 (CA12) with the disease. Carbonic anhydrase is a zinc metalloenzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide to form a bicarbonate anion and a proton. Glu143 in CA12 is essential for zinc coordination in this metalloenzyme and lowering of the protein-metal affinity reduces its catalytic activity. This is the first presentation of an isolated loss of salt from sweat gland mimicking PHA, associated with a mutation in the CA12 gene not previously implicated in human disorders. Our data demonstrate the importance of bicarbonate anion and proton production on salt concentration in sweat and its significance for sodium homeostasis.

  5. Influence of Salts on the Partitioning of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural in Water/MIBK.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Sultan; Held, Christoph; Altuntepe, Emrah; Köse, Tülay; Sadowski, Gabriele

    2016-04-28

    This study investigates the influence of electrolytes on the performance of extracting 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) from aqueous media using methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). For that purpose, liquid-liquid phase equilibria (LLE) of quaternary systems containing HMF, water, MIBK and salts were measured at atmospheric pressure and 298.15 K. The salts under investigation were composed of one of the anions NO(3-), SO4(2-), Cl(-), or CH3COO(-) and of one of the alkali cations Li(+), Na(+), or K(+). On the basis of these LLE data, the partition coefficient of HMF between the aqueous and the MIBK phase KHMF was determined. It could be shown that KHMF significantly depends on the kind and concentration of the added salt. Weak electrolytes (e.g., sulfates, acetates) caused salting-out, whereas nitrates caused salting-in of HMF to the aqueous phase. Unexpectedly, LiCl caused salting-out at low LiCl concentrations and salting-in at LiCl concentrations higher than 3 mol/kgH2O. The model electrolyte perturbed-chain SAFT (ePC-SAFT) was used to predict the salt influence on the LLE in the quaternary systems water/MIBK/HMF/salt in good agreement with the experimental data. On the basis of ePC-SAFT, it could be concluded that the different salting-out/salting-in behavior of the various salts is mainly caused by their different tendency to form ion pairs in aqueous solutions.

  6. Electrolytic LiCl precipitation from LiCl-KCl melt in porous Li-Al anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Vallet, C.E.; Heatherly, D.E.; Heatherly, L. Jr.; Braunstein, J.

    1983-12-01

    Composition gradients such as those predicted to occur during discharge of porous Li-Al negative electrodes of Li/S batteries with LiCl-KCl eutectic electrolyte were generated and measured in the LiCl-KCl anolyte of an electrolysis cell with Li-Al electrodes. Precipitation of lithium chloride during electrolysis was observed by two-dimensional scanning of electrolyte composition in the front part of quenched porous Li-Al anode sections using SEM/EDX. The distribution of sites of increased or decreased LiCl concentration, LiCl saturation and precipitation was mapped. Cathodic regions were observed near the cell walls. Preliminary results of analysis by Auger spectroscopy confirm LiCl precipitation in the porous anode. 16 references, 7 figures, 1 table.

  7. Electrolytic LiCl precipitation from LiCl-KCl melt in porous Li-Al anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallet, C. E.; Heatherly, D. E.; Heatherly, L., Jr.; Braunstein, J.

    1983-12-01

    Composition gradients such as those predicted to occur during discharge of porous Li-Al negative electrodes of Li/S batteries with LiCl-KCl eutectic electrolyte were generated and measured in the LiCl-KCl anolyte of an electrolysis cell with Li-Al electrodes. Precipitation of lithium chloride during electrolysis was observed by two-dimensional scanning of electrolyte composition in the front part of quenched porous Li-Al anode sections using SEM/EDX. The distribution of sites of increased or decreased LiCl concentration, LiCl saturation and precipitation was mapped. Cathodic regions were observed near the cell walls. Preliminary results of analysis by Auger spectroscopy confirm LiCl precipitation in the porous anode.

  8. Repository environmental parameters and models/methodologies relevant to assessing the performance of high-level waste packages in basalt, tuff, and salt

    SciTech Connect

    Claiborne, H.C.; Croff, A.G.; Griess, J.C.; Smith, F.J.

    1987-09-01

    This document provides specifications for models/methodologies that could be employed in determining postclosure repository environmental parameters relevant to the performance of high-level waste packages for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) at Richland, Washington, the tuff at Yucca Mountain by the Nevada Test Site, and the bedded salt in Deaf Smith County, Texas. Guidance is provided on the identify of the relevant repository environmental parameters; the models/methodologies employed to determine the parameters, and the input data base for the models/methodologies. Supporting studies included are an analysis of potential waste package failure modes leading to identification of the relevant repository environmental parameters, an evaluation of the credible range of the repository environmental parameters, and a summary of the review of existing models/methodologies currently employed in determining repository environmental parameters relevant to waste package performance. 327 refs., 26 figs., 19 tabs.

  9. Site characterization plan conceptual design report for a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt, vertical emplacement mode: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-12-01

    This Conceptual Design Report describes the conceptual design of a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt at a proposed site in Deaf Smith County, Texas. Waste receipt, processing, packing, and other surface facility operations are described. Operations in the shafts underground are described, including waste hoisting, transfer, and vertical emplacement. This report specifically addresses the vertical emplacement mode, the reference design for the repository. Waste retrieval capability is described. The report includes a description of the layout of the surface, shafts, and underground. Major equipment items are identified. The report includes plans for decommissioning and sealing of the facility. The report discusses how the repository will satisfy performance objectives. Chapters are included on basis for design, design analyses, and data requirements for completion of future design efforts. 105 figs., 52 tabs.

  10. Effects of combustion and operating conditions on PCDD/PCDF emissions from power boilers burning salt-laden wood waste.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, Denys; Duo, Wen Li; Vessey, Michelle

    2006-04-01

    This paper discusses the effects of combustion conditions on PCDD/PCDF emissions from pulp and paper power boilers burning salt-laden wood waste. We found no correlation between PCDD/PCDF emissions and carbon monoxide emissions. A good correlation was, however, observed between PCDD/PCDF emissions and the concentration of stack polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the absence of TDF addition. Thus, poor combustion conditions responsible for the formation of products of incomplete combustion (PICs), such as PAHs and PCDD/PCDF precursors, increase PCDD/PCDF emissions. PAH concentrations increased with higher boiler load and/or low oxygen concentrations at the boiler exit, probably because of lower available residence times and insufficient excess air. Our findings are consistent with the current understanding that high ash carbon content generally favours heterogeneous reactions leading to either de novo synthesis of PCDD/PCDFs or their direct formation from precursors. We also found that, in grate-fired boilers, a linear increase in the grate/lower furnace temperature produces an exponential decrease in PCDD/PCDF emissions. Although the extent of this effect appears to be mill-specific, particularly at low temperatures, the results indicate that increasing the combustion temperature may decrease PCDD/PCDF emissions. It must be noted, however, that there are other variables, such as elevated ESP and stack temperatures, a high hog salt content, the presence of large amounts of PICs and a high Cl/S ratio, which contribute to higher PCDD/PCDFs emissions. Therefore, higher combustion temperatures, by themselves, will not necessarily result in low PCDD/PCDFs emissions.

  11. Effect of biosolid waste compost on soil respiration in salt-affected soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raya, Silvia; Gómez, Ignacio; García, Fuensanta; Navarro, José; Jordán, Manuel Miguel; Belén Almendro, María; Martín Soriano, José

    2013-04-01

    A great part of mediterranean soils are affected by salinization. This is an important problem in semiarid areas increased by the use of low quality waters, the induced salinization due to high phreatic levels and adverse climatology. Salinization affects 25% of irrigated agriculture, producing important losses on the crops. In this situation, the application of organic matter to the soil is one of the possible solutions to improve their quality. The main objective of this research was to asses the relation between the salinity level (electrical conductivity, EC) in the soil and the response of microbial activity (soil respiration rate) after compost addition. The study was conducted for a year. Soil samples were collected near to an agricultural area in Crevillente and Elche, "El Hondo" Natural Park (Comunidad de Regantes from San Felipe Neri). The experiment was developed to determine and quantify the soil respiration rate in 8 different soils differing in salinity. The assay was done in close pots -in greenhouse conditions- containing soil mixed with different doses of sewage sludge compost (2, 4 and 6%) besides the control. They were maintained at 60% of water holding capacity (WHC). Soil samples were analyzed every four months for a year. The equipment used to estimate the soil respiration was a Bac-Trac and CO2 emitted by the soil biota was measured and quantified by electrical impedance changes. It was observed that the respiration rate increases as the proportion of compost added to each sample increases as well. The EC was incremented in each sampling period from the beginning of the experiment, probably due to the fact that soils were in pots and lixiviation was prevented, so the salts couldńt be lost from soil. Over time the compost has been degraded and, it was more susceptible to be mineralized. Salts were accumulated in the soil. Also it was observed a decrease of microbial activity with the increase of salinity in the soil. Keywords: soil

  12. Potential for the localized corrosion of alloy 22 Waste Packages in Multiple-Salt Deliquescent Brines in the Yucca Mountain Repository

    SciTech Connect

    King, F.; Arthur, R.; Apted, M.; Kessler, J.H.

    2007-07-01

    It has been postulated that the deliquescence of multiple-salt systems in dust deposits and the consequent localized corrosion in high-temperature brines could lead to premature failure of the Alloy 22 waste packages in the Yucca Mountain repository. EPRI has developed a decision tree approach to determine if the various stages leading to waste package failure are possible and whether the safety of the repository system could be compromised as a result. Through a series of arguments, EPRI has shown that it is highly unlikely that the multiple-salt deliquescent brines will form in the first place and, even if they did, that they would not be thermodynamically stable, that the postulated brines are not corrosive and would not lead to the initiation of localized corrosion of Alloy 22, that even if localized corrosion did initiate that the propagation would stifle and cease long before penetration of the waste package outer barrier, and that even if premature waste package failures did occur from this cause that the safety of the overall system would not be compromised. EPRI concludes, therefore, that the postulated localized corrosion of the waste packages due to high-temperature deliquescent brines is neither a technical nor a safety issue of concern for the Yucca Mountain repository. (authors)

  13. LiCl Dehumidifier LiBr absorption chiller hybrid air conditioning system with energy recovery

    DOEpatents

    Ko, Suk M.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to a hybrid air conditioning system that combines a solar powered LiCl dehumidifier with a LiBr absorption chiller. The desiccant dehumidifier removes the latent load by absorbing moisture from the air, and the sensible load is removed by the absorption chiller. The desiccant dehumidifier is coupled to a regenerator and the desiccant in the regenerator is heated by solar heated hot water to drive the moisture therefrom before being fed back to the dehumidifier. The heat of vaporization expended in the desiccant regenerator is recovered and used to partially preheat the driving fluid of the absorption chiller, thus substantially improving the overall COP of the hybrid system.

  14. Electronic excitations of bulk LiCl from many-body perturbation theory.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yun-Feng; Wang, Neng-Ping; Rohlfing, Michael

    2013-12-07

    We present the quasiparticle band structure and the optical excitation spectrum of bulk LiCl, using many-body perturbation theory. Density-functional theory is used to calculate the ground-state geometry of the system. The quasiparticle band structure is calculated within the GW approximation. Taking the electron-hole interaction into consideration, electron-hole pair states and optical excitations are obtained by solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation for the electron-hole two-particle Green function. The calculated band gap is 9.5 eV, which is in good agreement with the experimental result of 9.4 eV. And the calculated optical absorption spectrum, which contains an exciton peak at 8.8 eV and a resonant-exciton peak at 9.8 eV, is also in good agreement with experimental data.

  15. Electronic excitations of bulk LiCl from many-body perturbation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Yun-Feng; Wang, Neng-Ping; Rohlfing, Michael

    2013-12-07

    We present the quasiparticle band structure and the optical excitation spectrum of bulk LiCl, using many-body perturbation theory. Density-functional theory is used to calculate the ground-state geometry of the system. The quasiparticle band structure is calculated within the GW approximation. Taking the electron-hole interaction into consideration, electron-hole pair states and optical excitations are obtained by solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation for the electron-hole two-particle Green function. The calculated band gap is 9.5 eV, which is in good agreement with the experimental result of 9.4 eV. And the calculated optical absorption spectrum, which contains an exciton peak at 8.8 eV and a resonant-exciton peak at 9.8 eV, is also in good agreement with experimental data.

  16. [Increased urinary sodium excretion in the early phase of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage as a predictor of cerebral salt wasting syndrome].

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Ichiro; Kurokawa, Shinichiro; Takayama, Katsutoshi; Wada, Takeshi; Nakase, Hiroyuki

    2009-12-01

    Cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSWS) in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is considered to correlate with delayed ischemic neurological deficits (DIND) induced by cerebral vasospasm; however, its exact mechanism is still not well-known. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the relationship between hyponatremia caused by CSWS and the increase of the urinary sodium excretion in early phase following SAH. Fifty-four patients with SAH were divided into 2 groups, normonatremia group and hyponatremia group which suffered hyponatremia after SAH. The hyponatremia group comprise 14 patients (26%) in whom the hyponatremia developed of the SAH. In this group, the serum level of sodium significantly decreased 7 days after SAH and then gradually normalised. Further, excretion of sodium in the urine tended to increase 3 days after SAH and significantly increased 7 days after SAH. In conclusion, the increased urinary sodium excretion in the early phase of SAH would serve as a predictive factor for CSWS after SAH. We consider that it is important to start sodium and fluid supplementation and inhibit natriuresis by fludrocortisone acetate administration before hyponatremia occurs in order to prevention delayed ischemic neurological deficits in SAH patients.

  17. Effects of metal salt addition on odor and process stability during the anaerobic digestion of municipal waste sludge.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Timothy; Eskicioglu, Cigdem

    2015-12-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is an effective way to recover energy and nutrients from organic waste; however, several issues including the solubilization of bound nutrients and the production of corrosive, highly odorous and toxic volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) in AD biogas can limit its wider adoption. This study explored the effects of adding two different doses of ferric chloride, aluminum sulfate and magnesium hydroxide directly to the feed of complete mix semi-continuously fed mesophilic ADs on eight of the most odorous VSCs in AD biogas at three different organic loading rates (OLR). Ferric chloride was shown to be extremely effective in reducing VSCs by up to 87%, aluminum sulfate had the opposite effect and increased VSC levels by up to 920%, while magnesium hydroxide was not shown to have any significant impact. Ferric chloride, aluminum sulfate and magnesium hydroxide were effective in reducing the concentration of orthophosphate in AD effluent although both levels of alum addition caused digester failure at elevated OLRs. Extensive foaming was observed within the magnesium hydroxide dosed digesters, particularly at higher doses and high OLRs. Certain metal salt additions may be a valuable tool in overcoming barriers to AD and to meet regulatory targets.

  18. [Successful treatment for cryptococcal meningoencephalitis complicated by cerebral salt-wasting syndrome in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia: A clinical case].

    PubMed

    Potapenko, V G; Konovalenko, I B; Oksema, E V; Filippova, L N; Dulaeva, E N; Derevyannykh, N A; Krasnoruzhsky, A I; Klimovich, A V; Klimko, N N; Medvedeva, N V

    2015-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is a common agent of fungal meningoencephalitis in immunocompromised patients. Cerebral salt-wasting syndrome is one of the rare causes of severe hyponatremia in patients with CNS diseases. The paper describes the first clinical case of a patient, whose onset of chronic lymphocytic leukemia was complicated by cryptococcal meningoencephalitis presenting with mental disorders and severe electrolytic imbalance. Antifungal treatment with amphotericin B and fluconazole could alleviate an infectious process and metabolic disturbances.

  19. Differentiating SIADH from Cerebral/Renal Salt Wasting: Failure of the Volume Approach and Need for a New Approach to Hyponatremia.

    PubMed

    Maesaka, John K; Imbriano, Louis; Mattana, Joseph; Gallagher, Dympna; Bade, Naveen; Sharif, Sairah

    2014-12-08

    Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte abnormality. Its diagnostic and therapeutic approaches are in a state of flux. It is evident that hyponatremic patients are symptomatic with a potential for serious consequences at sodium levels that were once considered trivial. The recommendation to treat virtually all hyponatremics exposes the need to resolve the diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma of deciding whether to water restrict a patient with the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) or administer salt and water to a renal salt waster. In this review, we briefly discuss the pathophysiology of SIADH and renal salt wasting (RSW), and the difficulty in differentiating SIADH from RSW, and review the origin of the perceived rarity of RSW, as well as the value of determining fractional excretion of urate (FEurate) in differentiating both syndromes, the high prevalence of RSW which highlights the inadequacy of the volume approach to hyponatremia, the importance of changing cerebral salt wasting to RSW, and the proposal to eliminate reset osmostat as a subtype of SIADH, and finally propose a new algorithm to replace the outmoded volume approach by highlighting FEurate. This algorithm eliminates the need to assess the volume status with less reliance on determining urine sodium concentration, plasma renin, aldosterone and atrial/brain natriuretic peptide or the BUN to creatinine ratio.

  20. Differentiating SIADH from Cerebral/Renal Salt Wasting: Failure of the Volume Approach and Need for a New Approach to Hyponatremia

    PubMed Central

    Maesaka, John K.; Imbriano, Louis; Mattana, Joseph; Gallagher, Dympna; Bade, Naveen; Sharif, Sairah

    2014-01-01

    Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte abnormality. Its diagnostic and therapeutic approaches are in a state of flux. It is evident that hyponatremic patients are symptomatic with a potential for serious consequences at sodium levels that were once considered trivial. The recommendation to treat virtually all hyponatremics exposes the need to resolve the diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma of deciding whether to water restrict a patient with the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) or administer salt and water to a renal salt waster. In this review, we briefly discuss the pathophysiology of SIADH and renal salt wasting (RSW), and the difficulty in differentiating SIADH from RSW, and review the origin of the perceived rarity of RSW, as well as the value of determining fractional excretion of urate (FEurate) in differentiating both syndromes, the high prevalence of RSW which highlights the inadequacy of the volume approach to hyponatremia, the importance of changing cerebral salt wasting to RSW, and the proposal to eliminate reset osmostat as a subtype of SIADH, and finally propose a new algorithm to replace the outmoded volume approach by highlighting FEurate. This algorithm eliminates the need to assess the volume status with less reliance on determining urine sodium concentration, plasma renin, aldosterone and atrial/brain natriuretic peptide or the BUN to creatinine ratio. PMID:26237607

  1. Ceramicrete stabilization of radioactive-salt-containing liquid waste and sludge water. Final CRADA report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ehst, D.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2010-08-04

    It was found that the Ceramicrete Specimens incorporated the Streams 1 and 2 sludges with the adjusted loading about 41.6 and 31.6%, respectively, have a high solidity. The visible cracks in the matrix materials and around the anionite AV-17 granules included could not obtain. The granules mentioned above fixed by Ceramicrete matrix very strongly. Consequently, we can conclude that irradiation of Ceramecrete matrix, goes from the high radioactive elements, not result the structural degradation. Based on the chemical analysis of specimens No.462 and No.461 used it was shown that these matrix included the formation elements (P, K, Mg, O), but in the different samples their correlations are different. These ratios of the content of elements included are about {+-} 10%. This information shows a great homogeneity of matrix prepared. In the list of the elements founded, expect the matrix formation elements, we detected also Ca and Si (from the wollastonite - the necessary for Ceramicrete compound); Na, Al, S, O, Cl, Fe, Ni also have been detected in the Specimen No.642 from the waste forms: NaCl, Al(OH){sub 3}, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. Fe(OH){sub 3}, nickel ferrocyanide and Ni(NO{sub 3})2. The unintelligible results also were found from analysis of an AV-17 granules, in which we obtain the great amount of K. The X-ray radiographs of the Ceramicrete specimens with loading 41.4 % of Stream 1 and 31.6% of Stream 2, respectively showed that the realization of the advance technology, created at GEOHKI, leads to formation of excellent ceramic matrix with high amount of radioactive streams up to 40% and more. Really, during the interaction with start compounds MgO and KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4} with the present of H{sub 3}BO{sub 3} and Wollastonite this process run with high speed under the controlled regimes. That fact that the Ceramicrete matrix with 30-40% of Streams 1 and 2 have a crystalline form, not amorphous matter, allows to permit that these matrix should be very stable, reliable

  2. Chemistry of brines in salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), southeastern New Mexico: a preliminary investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, C.L.; Krumhansl, J.L.

    1986-03-01

    We present here analyses of macro- and microscopic (intracrystalline) brines observed within the WIPP facility and in the surrounding halite, with interpretations regarding the origin and history of these fluids and their potential effect(s) on long-term waste storage. During excavation, several large fluid inclusions were recovered from an area of highly recrystallized halite in a thick salt bed at the repository horizon (2150 ft below ground level). In addition, 52 samples of brine ''weeps'' were collected from walls of recently excavated drifts at the same stratigraphic horizon from which the fluid inclusion samples are assumed to have been taken. Analyses of these fluids show that they differ substantially in composition from the inclusion fluids and cannot be explained by mixing of the fluid inclusion populations. Finally, holes in the facility floor that filled with brine were sampled but with no stratographic control; therefore it is not possible to interpret the compositions of these brines with any accuracy, except insofar as they resemble the weep compositions but with greater variation in both K/Mg and Na/Cl ratios. However, the Ca and SO/sub 4/ values for the floor holes are relatively close to the gypsum saturation curve, suggesting that brines filling floor holes have been modified by the presence of gypsum or anhydrite, possibly even originating in one or more of the laterally continuous anhydrite units referred to in the WIPP literature as marker beds. In conclusion, the wide compositional variety of fluids found in the WIPP workings suggest that (1) an interconnected hydrologic system which could effectively transport radonuclides away from the repository does not exist; (2) brine migration studies and experiments must consider the mobility of intergranular fluids as well as those in inclusions; and (3) near- and far-field radionuclide migration testing programs need to consider a wide range of brine compositions rather than a few reference brines.

  3. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia. II: Gender-related behavior and attitudes in female salt-wasting and simple-virilizing patients.

    PubMed

    Dittmann, R W; Kappes, M H; Kappes, M E; Börger, D; Meyer-Bahlburg, H F; Stegner, H; Willig, R H; Wallis, H

    1990-01-01

    The salt-wasting (SW) and simple-virilizing (SV) forms of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) are characterized by distinct prenatal hormonal milieus. To test whether these hormonal milieus differentially influence the development of a "more masculine" behavioral pattern in female CAH patients (Dittmann et al., 1990), SW patients (N = 13) were compared both to SV patients (N = 20) and healthy sisters of both groups (N = 16). The data are based on semi-structured interviews in which subjects (11-41 yr) and mothers were asked about aspects of "Gender-related interests and behavior," "Level of activity," "Social behavior," (reflecting e.g., assertiveness, dominance, and acceptance by peer groups) and "Appearance"; these areas of interest were represented by composite scales. On most scales, and by both mother-assessment and self-assessment, SW patients differed significantly from both SV patients and sisters in having a "more masculine" orientation. SW patients also showed a higher "Level of activity." These SW group results probably account for much of the CAH/sister differences reported in the companion article (Dittmann et al., 1990). In contrast, SV patients differed from the sister sample on only a few scales. There were no significant differences between SV and SW subjects in the degree of virilization of the external genitalia (indicating no group difference in prenatal androgenization). SW patients were treated "earlier" and "better" after birth (indicating less postnatal androgenization). However, these medical conditions, as well as several psychosocial/demographic variables, could not explain the group behavioral differences. These results do not support a primarily psychosocial explanation of behavioral development in CAH patients, especially those with the SW condition; they rather suggest differential organizational effects of two different hormonal environments (SV vs. SW) during critical periods of prenatal CNS development.

  4. Expected near-field thermal environments in a sequentially loaded spent-fuel or high-level waste repository in salt

    SciTech Connect

    Rickertsen, L.D.; Arbital, J.G.; Claiborne, H.C.

    1982-01-01

    This report describes the effect of realistic waste emplacement schedules on repository thermal environments. Virtually all estimates to date have been based on instantaneous loading of wastes having uniform properties throughout the repository. However, more realistic scenarios involving sequential emplacement of wastes reflect the gradual filling of the repository over its lifetime. These cases provide temperatures that can be less extreme than with the simple approximation. At isolated locations in the repository, the temperatures approach the instantaneous-loading limit. However, for most of the repository, temperature rises in the near-field are 10 to 40 years behind the conservative estimates depending on the waste type and the location in the repository. Results are presented for both spent-fuel and high-level reprocessing waste repositories in salt, for a regional repository concept, and for a single national repository concept. The national repository is filled sooner and therefore more closely approximates the instantaneously loaded repository. However, temperatures in the near-field are still 20/sup 0/C or more below the values in the simple model for 40 years after startup of repository emplacement operations. The results suggest that current repository design concepts based on the instantaneous-loading predictions are very conservative. Therefore, experiments to monitor temperatures in a test and evaluation facility, for example, will need to take into account the reduced temperatures in order to provide data used in predicting repository performance.

  5. Results of brine flow testing and disassembly of a crushed salt/bentonite block seal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Finley, R.E.; Jones, R.L.

    1994-03-01

    The Small-Scale Seal Performance Tests, Series C, a set of in situ experiments conducted at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, are designed to evaluate the performance of various seal materials emplaced in large (0.9-m-diameter) boreholes. This report documents the results of fluid (brine) flow testing and water and clay content analyses performed on one emplaced seal comprised of 100% salt blocks and 50%/50% crushed salt/bentonite blocks and disassembled after nearly three years of brine injection testing. Results from the water content analyses of 212 samples taken from within this seal show uniform water content throughout the 50%/50% salt/bentonite blocks with saturations about 100%. Clay content analyses from the 100% salt endcaps of the seal show a background clay content of about 1% by weight uniformly distributed, with the exception of samples taken at the base of the seal at the borehole wall interface. These samples show clay contents up to 3% by weight, which suggests some bentonite may have migrated under pressure to that interface. Results of the brine-flow testing show that the permeability to brine for this seal was about 2 to 3 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} darcy (2 to 3 {times} 10{sup {minus}16} m{sup 2}).

  6. Rheology Of MonoSodium Titanate (MST) And Modified Mst (mMST) Mixtures Relevant To The Salt Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, D. C.; Martino, C. J.; Shehee, T. C.; Poirier, M. R.

    2013-07-31

    The Savannah River National Laboratory performed measurements of the rheology of suspensions and settled layers of treated material applicable to the Savannah River Site Salt Waste Processing Facility. Suspended solids mixtures included monosodium titanate (MST) or modified MST (mMST) at various solid concentrations and soluble ion concentrations with and without the inclusion of kaolin clay or simulated sludge. Layers of settled solids were MST/sludge or mMST/sludge mixtures, either with or without sorbed strontium, over a range of initial solids concentrations, soluble ion concentrations, and settling times.

  7. Prolonged cerebral salt wasting syndrome associated with the intraventricular dissemination of brain tumors. Report of two cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Oruckaptan, H H; Ozisik, P; Akalan, N

    2000-07-01

    Hyponatremia is a frequent event in neurosurgery practice and is usually associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage, head trauma, infections and neoplasms. The two common clinical manifestations are the inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) and the cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSWS), which were usually attributed to each other due to identical clinical presentation. In contrast to the better-recognized SIADH, there has not been a uniform consensus over the humoral and neural mechanisms of CSWS and functional aspects of renal response. In this article, we report on 2 cases of a primitive neuroectodermal tumor with prolonged CSWS manifested during the intraventricular dissemination of primary disease and the high catabolic stage.

  8. Doping of Ion Irradiated Polyethylenterephtalate from Water Solution of LiCl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hnatowicz, V.; Vacík, J.; Ervená, J.; Vorík, V.; Rybka, V.; Fink, D.; Klett, R.

    1997-02-01

    Polyethylenterephtalate foils (10 m thick with the density of = 1.3 g cm - 3) were irradiated with 150 keV Ar+ ions to fluences from 5×1011 to 1×1015 cm - 2 and one year after the irradiation they were exposed to a 5 M water solution of LiCl at the boiling point for times ranging from 15 s up to 8 h. The depth profiles of incorporated Li atoms as a function of the ion fluence and the doping time were determined using the neutron depth profiling technique based on the 6Li(nth, α)3H nuclear reaction. The Li content in the 600 nm thick surface layer achieves saturation very rapidly, already after 15 s doping time, and it exhibits a local, pronounced maximum at 2 or 4 h doping times for the specimens irradiated to fluences below and above 5×1014 cm - 2, respectively. The concentration depth profiles of incorporated Li atoms consist of a pronounced surface component, obviously connected with radiation damages created by the ion irradiation and a long inward tail which is due to regular diffusion in pristine polymer. As a function of ion fluence, the Li content increases up to the fluence of 5×1013 cm - 2 and then declines in most cases. The surface component of the Li depth profiles changes dramatically with increasing ion fluence from bell-shaped ones for fluences below 5×1014 cm×2 to those characterized by a depleted surface layer and a rather sharp concentration maximum at depths significantly exceeding the calculated ion projected range.

  9. Long-term cement corrosion in chloride-rich solutions relevant to radioactive waste disposal in rock salt - Leaching experiments and thermodynamic simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bube, C.; Metz, V.; Bohnert, E.; Garbev, K.; Schild, D.; Kienzler, B.

    Low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes are frequently solidified in a cement matrix. In a potential repository for nuclear wastes, the cementitious matrix is altered upon contact with solution and the resulting secondary phases may provide for significant retention of the radionuclides incorporated in the wastes. In order to assess the secondary phases formed upon corrosion in chloride-rich solutions, which are relevant for nuclear waste disposal in rock salt, leaching experiments were performed. Conventional laboratory batch experiments using powdered hardened cement paste in MgCl2-rich solutions were left to equilibrate for up to three years and full-scale cemented waste products were exposed to NaCl-rich and MgCl2-rich solutions for more than twenty years, respectively. Solid phase analyses revealed that corrosion of hardened cement in MgCl2-rich solutions advanced faster than in NaCl-rich solutions due to the extensive exchange of Mg from solution against Ca from the cementitious solid. Thermodynamic equilibrium simulations compared well to results at the final stages of the respective experiments indicating that close to equilibrium conditions were reached. At high cement product to brine ratios (>0.65 g mL-1), the solution composition in the laboratory-scale experiments was close to that of the full-scale experiments (cement to brine ratio of 2.5 g mL-1) in the MgCl2 systems. The present study demonstrates the applicability of thermodynamic methods used in this approach to adequately describe full-scale long-term experiments with cemented waste simulates.

  10. Radioactive waste isolation in salt: Peer review of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's draft report on a multifactor test design to investigate uniform corrosion of low-carbon steel

    SciTech Connect

    Paddock, R.A.; Lerman, A.; Ditmars, J.D.; Macdonald, D.D.; Peerenboom, J.P.; Was, G.S.; Harrison, W.

    1987-01-01

    This report documents Argonne National Laboratory's review of an internal technical memorandum prepared by Battelle Memorial Institute's Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) entitled Multifactor Test Design to Investigate Uniform Corrosion of Low-Carbon Steel in a Nuclear Waste Salt Repository Environment. The several major areas of concern identified by peer review panelists are important to the credibility of the test design proposed in the memorandum and are to adequately addressed there. These areas of concern, along with specific recommendations to improve their treatment, are discussed in detail in Sec. 2 of this report. The twenty recommendations, which were abstracted from those discussions, are presented essentially in the order in which they are introduced in Sec. 2.

  11. Radioactive waste isolation in salt: peer review of the D'Appolonia report on Schematic Designs for Penetration Seals for a Repository in the Permian Basin, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Hambley, D.F.; Stormont, J.C.; Russell, J.E.; Edgar, D.E.; Fenster, D.F.; Harrison, W.; Tisue, M.W.

    1984-09-01

    Argonne made the following recommedations for improving the reviewed reports. The authors of the report should: state the major assumptions of the study in Sec. 1.1 rather than later in the report; consider using salt for the shaft seals in salt horizons; reconsider whether keys are needed for the bulkheads; provide for interface grouting because use of expansive cement will not guarantee that interfaces will be impermeable; discuss the sealing schedule and, where appropriate, consider what needs to be done to ensure that emplaced radioactive waste could be retrieved if necessary; describe in more detail the sealing of the Dockum and Ogallala aquifers; consider an as low as reasonably achievable approach to performance requirements for the initial design phase; address the concerns in the 1983 US Nuclear Regulatory Commission document entitled Draft Technical Position: Borehole and Shaft Sealing of High-Level Nuclear Waste Repositories; cite the requirements for release of radioactivity by referring to specific clauses in the regulations of the US Environmental Protection Agency; and provide further explanation in the outline of future activities about materials development and verification testing. More emphasis on development of accelerated testing programs is also required.

  12. Enhanced tolerance to NaCl and LiCl stresses by over-expressing Caragana korshinskii sodium/proton exchanger 1 (CkNHX1) and the hydrophilic C terminus is required for the activity of CkNHX1 in Atsos3-1 mutant and yeast.

    PubMed

    Yang, Da-Hai; Song, Li-Ying; Hu, Jun; Yin, Wei-Bo; Li, Zhi-Guo; Chen, Yu-Hong; Su, Xiao-Hua; Wang, Richard R-C; Hu, Zan-Min

    2012-01-13

    Sodium/proton exchangers (NHX antiporters) play important roles in plant responses to salt stress. Previous research showed that hydrophilic C-terminal region of Arabidopsis AtNHX1 negatively regulates the Na(+)/H(+) transporting activity. In this study, CkNHX1 were isolated from Caragana korshinskii, a pea shrub with high tolerance to salt, drought, and cold stresses. Transcripts of CkNHX1 were detected predominantly in roots, and were significantly induced by NaCl stress in stems. Transgenic yeast and Arabidopsisthalianasos3-1 (Atsos3-1) mutant over-expressing CkNHX1 and its hydrophilic C terminus-truncated derivative, CkNHX1-ΔC, were generated and subjected to NaCl and LiCl stresses. Expression of CkNHX1 significantly enhanced the resistance to NaCl and LiCl stresses in yeast and Atsos3-1 mutant. Whereas, compared with expression of CkNHX1, the expression of CkNHX1-ΔC had much less effect on NaCl tolerance in Atsos3-1 and LiCl tolerance in yeast and Atsos3-1. All together, these results suggest that the predominant expression of CkNHX1 in roots might contribute to keep C. korshinskii adapting to the high salt condition in this plant's living environment; CkNHX1 could recover the phenotype of Atsos3-1 mutant; and the hydrophilic C-terminal region of CkNHX1 should be required for Na(+)/H(+) and Li(+)/H(+) exchanging activity of CkNHX1.

  13. Hyponatremia in the postoperative craniofacial pediatric patient population: a connection to cerebral salt wasting syndrome and management of the disorder.

    PubMed

    Levine, J P; Stelnicki, E; Weiner, H L; Bradley, J P; McCarthy, J G

    2001-11-01

    Hyponatremia after cranial vault remodeling has been noted in a pediatric patient population. If left untreated, the patients may develop a clinical hypoosmotic condition that can lead to cerebral edema, increased intracranial pressure, and eventually, to central nervous system and circulatory compromise. The hyponatremia has traditionally been attributed to the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH); however, in our patients the treatment has been resuscitation with normal saline as opposed to fluid restriction (the accepted treatment of SIADH), thus placing the diagnosis of SIADH in question. Patients who developed hyponatremia after intracranial injury or surgery were, until recently, grouped together as having SIADH. However, there are diagnosis and treatment differences between SIADH and another distinct but poorly understood disorder that is designated cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSW). CSW is associated with increased urine output and increased urine sodium concentration and volume contraction, and it is frequently seen after a central nervous system trauma. We therefore developed a prospective study to evaluate the cause of the sodium imbalance.Ten consecutive pediatric patients who underwent intracranial surgery for various craniosynostotic disorders were postoperatively monitored in the pediatric intensive care unit for hemodynamic, respiratory, and fluid management. The first four patients were evaluated for electrolyte changes and overall fluid balance to determine the consistency with which these changes occurred. The remaining six patients had daily (including preoperative) measurement of serum electrolytes, urine electrolytes, urine osmolarity, serum antidiuretic hormone (ADH), aldosterone, and atrial natriuretic hormone (ANH). All patients received normal saline intravenous replacement fluid in the postoperative period. All of the patients developed a transient hyponatremia postoperatively, despite normal saline

  14. Clean Salt integrated flowsheet

    SciTech Connect

    Lunsford, T.R.

    1994-09-27

    The Clean Salt Process (CSP) is a novel waste management scheme that removes sodium nitrate and aluminum nitrate nonahydrate as decontaminated (low specific activity) salts from Hanford`s high-level waste (HLW). The full scale process will separate the bulk of the waste that exists as sodium salts from the small portion of the waste that is by definition radioactive and dangerous. This report presents initial conceptual CSP flowsheets and demonstrates the benefit of integrating the process into the Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) Reference Flowsheet. Total HLW and low-level (LLW) volumes are reported for two different CSP integration options and are compared to the TWRS Reference Flowsheet values. The results for a single glass option eliminating LLW disposal are also reported.

  15. Enhanced tolerance to NaCl and LiCl stresses by over-expressing Caragana korshinskii sodium/proton exchanger 1 (CkNHX1) and the hydrophilic C terminus is required for the activity of CkNHX1 in Atsos3-1 mutant and yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Da-Hai; Song, Li-Ying; Hu, Jun; Yin, Wei-Bo; Li, Zhi-Guo; Chen, Yu-Hong; Su, Xiao-Hua; Wang, Richard R.-C.; Hu, Zan-Min

    2012-01-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CkNHX1 was isolated from Caragana korshinskii. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CkNHX1 was expressed mainly in roots, and significantly induced by NaCl in stems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of CkNHX1 enhanced the resistance to NaCl and LiCl in yeast and Atsos3-1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of CkNHX1-{Delta}C had little effect on NaCl/LiCl tolerance in Atsos3-1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer C-terminal region of CkNHX1 is required for its Na{sup +} and Li{sup +} transporting activity. -- Abstract: Sodium/proton exchangers (NHX antiporters) play important roles in plant responses to salt stress. Previous research showed that hydrophilic C-terminal region of Arabidopsis AtNHX1 negatively regulates the Na{sup +}/H{sup +} transporting activity. In this study, CkNHX1 were isolated from Caragana korshinskii, a pea shrub with high tolerance to salt, drought, and cold stresses. Transcripts of CkNHX1 were detected predominantly in roots, and were significantly induced by NaCl stress in stems. Transgenic yeast and Arabidopsisthalianasos3-1 (Atsos3-1) mutant over-expressing CkNHX1 and its hydrophilic C terminus-truncated derivative, CkNHX1-{Delta}C, were generated and subjected to NaCl and LiCl stresses. Expression of CkNHX1 significantly enhanced the resistance to NaCl and LiCl stresses in yeast and Atsos3-1 mutant. Whereas, compared with expression of CkNHX1, the expression of CkNHX1-{Delta}C had much less effect on NaCl tolerance in Atsos3-1 and LiCl tolerance in yeast and Atsos3-1. All together, these results suggest that the predominant expression of CkNHX1 in roots might contribute to keep C. korshinskii adapting to the high salt condition in this plant's living environment; CkNHX1 could recover the phenotype of Atsos3-1 mutant; and the hydrophilic C-terminal region of CkNHX1 should be required for Na{sup +}/H{sup +} and Li{sup +}/H{sup +} exchanging activity of CkNHX1.

  16. Influence of soil properties on trace element availability and plant accumulation in a Mediterranean salt marsh polluted by mining wastes: implications for phytomanagement.

    PubMed

    Conesa, H M; María-Cervantes, A; Alvarez-Rogel, J; González-Alcaraz, M N

    2011-09-15

    The aims of this study were to determine the factors which control metal and As phytoavailability in the different microenvironments (Sand Dunes, Salt Flat, Dry River and Shrubs) present at a Mediterranean salt marsh polluted by mining wastes. We performed a field study following a plot sampling survey. The analyses of soil parameters (pH, electrical conductivity (EC), organic carbon contents, etc.), total metal and As concentrations and their phytoavailability assessed with EDTA were related to each microenvironment and the corresponding plant species uptake. The averages of pH and EC were slightly alkaline (pH ≈ 7.5) and saline (≈ 2.2 to 17.1 dS m(-1)) respectively. The soil samples from the Salt Flat subzone showed the highest metal concentrations (e.g. 51 mg kg(-1) Cd, 11,600 mg kg(-1) Pb) while for As, the highest concentrations occurred in the Dry River (380 mg kg(-1) As). The total metal and EDTA-extractable concentrations occurred as it follows: Salt Flat>Dry River>Degraded Dunes>Shrubs. In relation to plant metal and As accumulation, the highest root concentrations were obtained in the species from the Salt Flat subzone: ~17 mg kg(-1) As, ~620 mg kg(-1) Pb, for both, Juncus maritimus and Arthrocnemum macrostachyum. However the highest metal and As shoot concentrations occurred in species from the Sand Dunes: ~23 mg kg(-1) As ~270 mg kg(-1) Pb for Dittrichia viscosa; ~23 mg kg(-1) As, ~390 mg kg(-1) Zn for Crucianella maritima. The occurrence of edaphic gradients including salinity and texture determined the vegetation distribution. However, it cannot be concluded that there was a disturbance due to metal(loid)s soil concentrations in terms of vegetation composition except in the Degraded Dunes and Dry River. The higher EDTA-extractable concentrations were coincidental with the most saline soils but this did not result in higher metal(loid)s plant accumulation.

  17. The Microbiology of Subsurface, Salt-Based Nuclear Waste Repositories: Using Microbial Ecology, Bioenergetics, and Projected Conditions to Help Predict Microbial Effects on Repository Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, Juliet S.; Cherkouk, Andrea; Arnold, Thuro; Meleshyn, Artur; Reed, Donald T.

    2016-11-17

    This report summarizes the potential role of microorganisms in salt-based nuclear waste repositories using available information on the microbial ecology of hypersaline environments, the bioenergetics of survival under high ionic strength conditions, and “repository microbiology” related studies. In areas where microbial activity is in question, there may be a need to shift the research focus toward feasibility studies rather than studies that generate actual input for performance assessments. In areas where activity is not necessary to affect performance (e.g., biocolloid transport), repository-relevant data should be generated. Both approaches will lend a realistic perspective to a safety case/performance scenario that will most likely underscore the conservative value of that case.

  18. Interaction of water with LiCl, LiBr, and LiI in the deeply supercooled region.

    PubMed

    Souda, Ryutaro

    2007-12-07

    The hydration mechanism of lithium halides was studied using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry as a function of temperature. The lithium halides embedded in thin films of amorphous solid water segregate to the surface at temperatures higher than 135-140 K, with efficiency increasing in the order of LiCl, LiBr, and LiI. A monolayer of LiCl and LiI adsorbed on the surface of amorphous solid water tends to diffuse into the bulk at 160 K. The infrared absorption band revealed that the aqueous lithium-halide solutions and crystals are formed simultaneously at 160 K; these phenomena are explicable as a consequence of the evolution of supercooled liquid water. The strong surfactant effect is inferred to arise from hydration of a contact ion pair having hydrophilic (lithium) and hydrophobic (halide) moieties. Furthermore, bulk diffusion of lithium halides might result from the formation of a solvent-separated ion pair in supercooled liquid water. The presence of two liquid phases of water with different local structures is probably responsible for the formation of these two hydrates, consistent with the calculated result reported by Jungwirth and Tobias[J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 6361 (2002)].

  19. Elevated yield of monacolin K in Monascus purpureus by fungal elicitor and mutagenesis of UV and LiCl.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jia-Long; Zou, Xiao; Liu, Ai-Ying; Xiao, Tang-Fu

    2011-01-01

    In China, Monascus spp., a traditional fungus used in fermentation, is used as a natural food additive. Monascus spp. can produce a secondary metabolite, monacolin K namely, which is proven to be a cholesterol-lowering and hypotensive agent. Hence, recently, many researchers have begun focusing on how to increase the production of monacolin K by Monascus purpureus. In the present study, we investigated the effect of the fungal elicitor and the mutagenesis of UV & LiCl on the amount of monacolin K produced by Monascus purpureus. The fugal elicitor, Sporobolomyces huaxiensis, was isolated from tea leaves and its filtrate was added into the culture filtrate of Monascus purpureus during growth to induct the production of monacolin K. The results showed that the highest amount of monacolin K produced by the liquid fermentation was 446.92 mg/mL, which was produced after the fungal elicitor was added to the culture filtrate of Monascus purpureus on the day 4; this amount was approximately 6 times greater than that of the control culture filtrate, whereas the highest amount of monacolin K produced by the mutated strain was 3 times greater than the control culture after the irradiation of UV light in the presence of 1.0 % LiCl in the medium.

  20. The combined use of liming and Sarcocornia fruticosa development for phytomanagement of salt marsh soils polluted by mine wastes.

    PubMed

    González-Alcaraz, María Nazaret; Conesa, Héctor Miguel; Tercero, María del Carmen; Schulin, Rainer; Alvarez-Rogel, José; Egea, Consuelo

    2011-02-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the combined effects of liming and behaviour of Sarcocornia fruticosa as a strategy of phytomanagement of metal polluted salt marsh soils. Soils were taken from two polluted salt marshes (one with fine texture and pH∼6.4 and the other one with sandy texture and pH∼3.1). A lime amendment derived from the marble industry was added to each soil at a rate of 20 g kg(-1), giving four treatments: neutral soil with/without liming and acidic soil with/without liming. Cuttings of S. fruticosa were planted in pots filled with these substrates and grown for 10 months. The pots were irrigated with eutrophicated water. As expected, lime amendment decreased the soluble metal concentrations. In both soils, liming favoured the growth of S. fruticosa and enhanced the capacity of the plants to phytostabilise metals in roots.

  1. Radioactive waste isolation in salt: peer review of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's report on the Organic Geochemistry of Deep Groundwaters from the Palo Duro Basin, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Fenster, D.F.; Brookins, D.G.; Harrison, W.; Seitz, M.G.; Lerman, A.; Stamoudis, V.C.

    1984-08-01

    This report summarizes Argonne's review of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's (ONWI's) final report entitled The Organic Geochemistry of Deep Ground Waters from the Palo Duro Basin, Texas, dated September 1983. Recommendations are made for improving the ONWI report. The main recommendation is to make the text consistent with the title and with the objective of the project as stated in the introduction. Three alternatives are suggested to accomplish this.

  2. Electrodialysis technology for salt recovery from aluminum salt cake

    SciTech Connect

    Hryn, J. N.; Krumdick, G.; Graziano, D.; Sreenivasarao, K.

    2000-02-02

    Electrodialysis technology for recovering salt from aluminum salt cake is being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. Salt cake, a slag-like aluminum-industry waste stream, contains aluminum metal, salt (NaCl and KCl), and nonmetallics (primarily aluminum oxide). Salt cake can be recycled by digesting with water and filtering to recover the metal and oxide values. A major obstacle to widespread salt cake recycling is the cost of recovering salt from the process brine. Electrodialysis technology developed at Argonne appears to be a cost-effective approach to handling the salt brines, compared to evaporation or disposal. In Argonne's technology, the salt brine is concentrated until salt crystals are precipitated in the electrodialysis stack; the crystals are recovered downstream. The technology is being evaluated on the pilot scale using Eurodia's EUR 40-76-5 stack.

  3. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) responses for sub-surface salt contamination and solid waste: modeling and controlled lysimeter studies.

    PubMed

    Wijewardana, Y N S; Shilpadi, A T; Mowjood, M I M; Kawamoto, K; Galagedara, L W

    2017-02-01

    The assessment of polluted areas and municipal solid waste (MSW) sites using non-destructive geophysical methods is timely and much needed in the field of environmental monitoring and management. The objectives of this study are (i) to evaluate the ground-penetrating radar (GPR) wave responses as a result of different electrical conductivity (EC) in groundwater and (ii) to conduct MSW stratification using a controlled lysimeter and modeling approach. A GPR wave simulation was carried out using GprMax2D software, and the field test was done on two lysimeters that were filled with sand (Lysimeter-1) and MSW (Lysimeter-2). A Pulse EKKO-Pro GPR system with 200- and 500-MHz center frequency antennae was used to collect GPR field data. Amplitudes of GPR-reflected waves (sub-surface reflectors and water table) were studied under different EC levels injected to the water table. Modeling results revealed that the signal strength of the reflected wave decreases with increasing EC levels and the disappearance of the subsurface reflection and wave amplitude reaching zero at higher EC levels (when EC >0.28 S/m). Further, when the EC level was high, the plume thickness did not have a significant effect on the amplitude of the reflected wave. However, it was also found that reflected signal strength decreases with increasing plume thickness at a given EC level. 2D GPR profile images under wet conditions showed stratification of the waste layers and relative thickness, but it was difficult to resolve the waste layers under dry conditions. These results show that the GPR as a non-destructive method with a relatively larger sample volume can be used to identify highly polluted areas with inorganic contaminants in groundwater and waste stratification. The current methods of MSW dumpsite investigation are tedious, destructive, time consuming, costly, and provide only point-scale measurements. However, further research is needed to verify the results under heterogeneous aquifer

  4. Ab initio MRSDCI study on the low-lying electronic states of the lithium chloride molecule (LiCl)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurosaki, Yuzuru; Yokoyama, Keiichi

    2012-08-01

    Potential energy curves (PECs) for the low-lying states of the lithium chloride molecule (LiCl) have been calculated using the internally contracted multireference single- and double-excitation configuration interaction (MRSDCI) method with the aug-cc-PVnZ (AVnZ) and aug-cc-PCVnZ (ACVnZ) basis sets, where n = T, Q, and 5. First, we calculate PECs for 7 spin-orbit (SO)-free Λ-S states, X1Σ+, A1Σ+, 3Σ+, 1Π, and 3Π, and then obtain PECs for 13 SO Ω states, X0+, A0+, B0+, 0-(I), 0-(II), 1(I), 1(II), 1(III), and 2, by diagonalizing the matrix of the electronic Hamiltonian plus the Breit-Pauli SO Hamiltonian. The MRSDCI calculations not including core orbital correlation through the single and double excitations are also performed with the AV5Z and ACV5Z basis sets. The Davidson corrections (Q0) are added to both the Λ-S and Ω state energies. Vibrational eigenstates for the obtained X1Σ+ and X0+ PECs are calculated by solving the time-independent Schrödinger equation with the grid method. Thus, the effects of basis set, core orbital correlation, and the Davidson correction on the X1Σ+ and X0+ PECs of LiCl are investigated by comparing the spectroscopic constants calculated from the PECs with one another and with experiment. It is confirmed that to accurately predict the spectroscopic constants we need to include core-electron correlation in the CI expansion and use the basis sets designed to describe core-valence correlation, i.e., ACVnZ. The SO PECs presented in this paper will be of help in the future study of diatomic alkali halide dynamics.

  5. Theoretical Study of NaCl and LiCl Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, Bridget; Hira, Ajit; McKeough, James; Koetter, Ted

    This research is a Quantum Mechanical study of molecular clusters that examines the chemical properties of small NanCln and LinCln clusters (n = 2 - 20). The potentially important role of these molecular species in biochemical and medicinal processes is well known. This work applies the hybrid ab initio methods to derive the different alkali-halide (MnHn) geometries. Of particular interest is the competition between hexagonal ring geometries and rock salt structures. Electronic energies, rotational constants, dipole moments, and vibrational frequencies for these geometries are calculated. Magic numbers for cluster stability are identified and are related to the property of cluster compactness. Mapping of the singlet, triplet, and quintet, potential energy surfaces is performed. Calculations were performed to examine the interactions of these clusters with some atoms and molecules of biological interest, including O, O2, and Fe. Potential design of new medicinal drugs is explored. We will also investigate model and material dependence of the results.

  6. Purification of used eutectic (LiCl-KCl) salt electrolyte from pyroprocessing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Yung-Zun; Lee, Tae-Kyo; Eun, Hee-Chul; Choi, Jung-Hoon; Kim, In-Tae; Park, Geun-Il

    2013-06-01

    The separation characteristics of surrogate rare-earth fission products in a eutectic (LiCl-KCl) molten salt were investigated. This system is based on the eutectic salt used for the pyroprocessing treatment of used nuclear fuel (UNF). The investigation was performed using an integrated rare-earth separation apparatus comprising a precipitation reactor, a solid detachment device, and a layer separation device. To separate rare-earth fission products, a phosphate precipitation method using both Li3PO4 and K3PO4 as a precipitant was performed. The use of an equivalent phosphate precipitant composed of 0.408 molar ratio-K3PO4 and 0.592 molar ratio-Li3PO4 can preserve the original eutectic ratio, LiCl-0.592 molar ratio (or 45.2 wt%), as well as provide a high separation efficiency of over 99.5% under conditions of 550 °C and Ar sparging when using La, Nd, Ce, and Pr chlorides. The mixture of La, Nd, Ce, and Pr phosphate had a typical monoclinic (or monazite) structure, which has been proposed as a reliable host matrix for the permanent disposal of a high-level waste form. To maximize the reusability of purified eutectic waste salt after rare-earth separation, the successive rare-earth separation process, which uses both phosphate precipitation and an oxygen sparging method, were introduced and tested with eight rare-earth (Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu and Gd) chlorides. In the successive rare-earth separation process, the phosphate reaction was terminated within 1 h at 550 °C, and a 4-8 h oxygen sparging time were required to obtain over a 99% separation efficiency at 700-750 °C. The mixture of rare-earth precipitates separated by the successive rare-earth separation process was found to be phosphate, oxychloride, and oxide. Through the successive rare-earth separation process, the eutectic ratio of purified salt maintained its original value, and impurity content including the residual precipitant of purified salt can be minimized.

  7. Heavy metals, salts and organic residues in old solid urban waste landfills and surface waters in their discharge areas: determinants for restoring their impact.

    PubMed

    Pastor, J; Hernández, A J

    2012-03-01

    This study was designed to determine the state of polluted soils in the main landfills of the Community of Madrid (central Spain), as part of a continuous assessment of the impacts of urban solid waste (USW) landfills that were capped with a layer of soil 20 years ago. Our analysis of this problem has been highly conditioned by the constant re-use of many of the USW landfills, since they have never been the target of any specific restoration plan. Our periodical analysis of cover soils and soils from discharge areas of the landfills indicates soil pollution has worsened over the years. Here, we examined heavy metal, salts, and organic compounds in soil and surface water samples taken from 15 landfills in the Madrid region. Impacts of the landfill soil covers on nematode and plant diversity were also evaluated. These analyses continue to reveal the presence of heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, Cd) in soils, and salts (sulphates, chlorides and nitrates) in soils and surface waters. In addition, non-agricultural organic compounds, mainly aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons, often appeared in very high concentrations, and high levels of insecticides such as gamma-HCH (lindane) were also detected in soils. Around 50% of the water samples collected showed chemical demand of oxygen (CDO) values in excess of 150 mg/l. Traces of phenolic compounds were detected in some landfills, some of which exhibited high levels of 2-chlorophenol and pentachlorophenol. All these factors are conditioning both the revegetation of the landfill systems and the remediation of their slopes and terrestrial ecosystems arising in their discharge areas. This work updates the current situation and discusses risks for the health of the ecosystems, humans, domestic animals and wildlife living close to these landfills.

  8. Ondansetron prevents changes in respiratory pattern provoked by LiCl: a new approach for studying pro-emetic states in rodents?

    PubMed

    Ngampramuan, S; Baumert, M; Czippelova, B; Nalivaiko, E

    2013-08-29

    There are a limited number of biological indices for assessing pro-emetic states in laboratory rodents as they do not possess the vomiting response. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that in rats, pro-emetic intervention would affect the respiratory pattern. To this end, using whole-body plethysmography, in adult male Wistar rats we recorded respiration after i.p. administration of either the emetic agent LiCl or Ringer. Quantification of respiratory signals (from 5 to 35 min post-injection) revealed that post-LiCl, mean respiratory rate was significantly lower (126 ± 9 vs. 178 ± 10 cpm, p < 0.005) and less variable (Kvar 59 ± 8% vs. 73 ± 3%; p<0.05) compared to the post-Ringer condition. Furthermore, while mode values of respiratory rate histograms did not differ between the treatments (indicating that the dominant respiratory frequency remained unchanged), LiCl reduced the fraction of time spent at high respiratory rate (>200 cpm) from 25 ± 3% to 9 ± 2% (p = 0.004). Thus, reduction of the mean respiratory rate by LiCl was predominantly due to reduced contribution of high-frequency breathing that is normally associated with motor activity and/or arousal. Non-linear multifractal analysis of respiratory signals revealed that post-LiCl, respiration becomes less random and more orderly. 5-HT3 antagonist ondansetron prevented respiratory changes elicited by LiCl. We conclude that the observed changes likely reflect effects of LiCl on animals' motion, and that this effect is mediated via 5-HT3 receptors. Providing that the effects observed in our study were quite robust, we suggest that simple and non-invasive respiratory monitoring may be a promising approach for studying emesis in rodents.

  9. Coexistence of central diabetes insipidus and salt wasting: the difficulties in diagnosis, changes in natremia, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Laredo, S; Yuen, K; Sonnenberg, B; Halperin, M L

    1996-12-01

    Both central diabetes insipidus (DI) and a high rate of excretion of sodium (Na) and chloride (Cl) contributed to the development of polyuria and dysnatremia in two patients during the acute postoperative period after neurosurgery. To minimize difficulties in diagnosis and projections for therapy, two available (but not often used) clinical tools were helpful. First, the osmole excretion rate early on revealed the co-existence of central DI and an osmotic diuresis. The osmoles excreted were largely Na salts; after antidiuretic hormone acted, this electrolyte diuresis caused the urine flow rate to be much higher than otherwise anticipated. Interestingly, part of this saline diuresis occurred when the extracellular fluid volume was contracted. The tool to explain the basis for the dysnatremias was a tonicity balance. Hypernatremia, which developed before treatment of central DI, was primarily a result of a positive balance for Na rather than a large negative balance for water. Moreover, hyponatremia that developed once antidiuretic hormone acted was primarily a result of a negative balance for Na; the urine volume was large and its Na concentration was hypertonic. To prevent a further decline in the plasma Na concentration, either the Na concentration in the urine should be decreased by provision of urea or a loop diuretic while replacing all unwanted water and electrolyte losses; alternatively, the fluid infused should have a similar Na concentration and volume as the urine (infuse hypertonic saline).

  10. Modeling and Field Test Planning Activities in Support of Disposal of Heat-Generating Waste in Salt

    SciTech Connect

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Blanco Martin, Laura; Mukhopadhyay, Sumit; Houseworth, Jim; Birkholzer, Jens

    2014-09-26

    The modeling efforts in support of the field test planning conducted at LBNL leverage on recent developments of tools for modeling coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes in salt and their effect on brine migration at high temperatures. This work includes development related to, and implementation of, essential capabilities, as well as testing the model against relevant information and published experimental data related to the fate and transport of water. These are modeling capabilities that will be suitable for assisting in the design of field experiment, especially related to multiphase flow processes coupled with mechanical deformations, at high temperature. In this report, we first examine previous generic repository modeling results, focusing on the first 20 years to investigate the expected evolution of the different processes that could be monitored in a full-scale heater experiment, and then present new results from ongoing modeling of the Thermal Simulation for Drift Emplacement (TSDE) experiment, a heater experiment on the in-drift emplacement concept at the Asse Mine, Germany, and provide an update on the ongoing model developments for modeling brine migration. LBNL also supported field test planning activities via contributions to and technical review of framework documents and test plans, as well as participation in workshops associated with field test planning.

  11. Mitigation of the inhibitory effect of soap by magnesium salt treatment of crude glycerol--a novel approach for enhanced biohydrogen production from the biodiesel industry waste.

    PubMed

    Sarma, Saurabh Jyoti; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Le Bihan, Yann; Buelna, Gerardo; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Owing to its inhibitory effect on microbial growth, soap present in crude glycerol (CG) is a concern in biological valorization of the biodiesel manufacturing waste. By salting out strategy, up to 42% of the soap has been removed and the approach has beneficial effect on H2 production; however, removal of more than 7% of the soap was found to be inhibitory. Actually, soap is utilized as a co-substrate and due to removal; the carbon-nitrogen ratio of the medium might have decreased to reduce the production. Alternatively, without changing the carbon-nitrogen ratio of CG, MgSO4 treatment can convert the soap to its inactive form (scum). The approach was found to increase the H2 production rate (33.82%), cumulative H2 production (34.70%) as well as glycerol utilization (nearly 2.5-folds). Additionally, the treatment can increase the Mg (a nutrient) content of the medium from 0.57 ppm to 201.92 ppm.

  12. Salt dependence of DNA translocation dynamics through silicon nanopores detected by ultraviolet excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Shintaro; Yamazaki, Hirohito; Tsukahara, Mutsumi; Esashika, Keiko; Saiki, Toshiharu

    2016-04-01

    DNA translocation through nanopores was observed using ultraviolet excitation to investigate the effect of salt concentration and counterion species on the translocation speed. The translocation of 9.6-kbp DNA molecules was measured in an aqueous solvent containing KCl, NaCl, or LiCl. An increase in the KCl concentration from 0.5 to 2 M increased the DNA translocation time. Maintaining the salt concentration at 1.0 M but replacing KCl with NaCl or LiCl also increased the translocation time. These results suggest that the effective charge on the DNA changed due to the binding of counterions, decreasing the DNA electrophoretic mobility. Significant correlation was observed between the translocation time and the dwell time in the observation volume (time needed to move out of the observation volume), and a possible explanation for this observation is provided.

  13. Combining piracetam and lithium salts: ionic co-crystals and co-drugs?

    PubMed

    Braga, Dario; Grepioni, Fabrizia; Maini, Lucia; Capucci, Davide; Nanna, Saverio; Wouters, Johan; Aerts, Luc; Quéré, Luc

    2012-08-25

    Mechanochemical reaction of solid piracetam with the inorganic salts LiCl and LiBr yields ionic co-crystals which are also co-drugs, characterized by markedly different thermal properties with respect to pure components, also depending on the method for preparation and/or conditions of measurements; single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction at variable temperatures, DSC, TGA, hot stage microscopy (HSM) and intrinsic dissolution rate have been used to fully characterize the solid products.

  14. Metals removal from spent salts

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, Peter C.; Von Holtz, Erica H.; Hipple, David L.; Summers, Leslie J.; Brummond, William A.; Adamson, Martyn G.

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus for removing metal contaminants from the spent salt of a molten salt oxidation (MSO) reactor is described. Spent salt is removed from the reactor and analyzed to determine the contaminants present and the carbonate concentration. The salt is dissolved in water, and one or more reagents may be added to precipitate the metal oxide and/or the metal as either metal oxide, metal hydroxide, or as a salt. The precipitated materials are filtered, dried and packaged for disposal as waste or can be immobilized as ceramic pellets. More than about 90% of the metals and mineral residues (ashes) present are removed by filtration. After filtration, salt solutions having a carbonate concentration >20% can be spray-dried and returned to the reactor for re-use. Salt solutions containing a carbonate concentration <20% require further clean-up using an ion exchange column, which yields salt solutions that contain less than 1.0 ppm of contaminants.

  15. Actinide removal from spent salts

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, Peter C.; von Holtz, Erica H.; Hipple, David L.; Summers, Leslie J.; Adamson, Martyn G.

    2002-01-01

    A method for removing actinide contaminants (uranium and thorium) from the spent salt of a molten salt oxidation (MSO) reactor is described. Spent salt is removed from the reactor and analyzed to determine the contaminants present and the carbonate concentration. The salt is dissolved in water, and one or more reagents are added to precipitate the thorium as thorium oxide and/or the uranium as either uranium oxide or as a diuranate salt. The precipitated materials are filtered, dried and packaged for disposal as radioactive waste. About 90% of the thorium and/or uranium present is removed by filtration. After filtration, salt solutions having a carbonate concentration >20% can be dried and returned to the reactor for re-use. Salt solutions containing a carbonate concentration <20% require further clean-up using an ion exchange column, which yields salt solutions that contain less than 0.1 ppm of thorium or uranium.

  16. Summary of Remediated and Unremediated Nitrate Salt Surrogate Testing in Support of the Waste Treatment Permit Application to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED)

    SciTech Connect

    Funk, David John

    2016-06-22

    The inadvertent creation of transuranic waste carrying hazardous waste codes D001 and D002 requires the treatment of the material to eliminate the hazardous characteristics and allow its eventual shipment and disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This report briefly summarizes the surrogate testing that was done in support of our understanding of this waste form.

  17. Salt repository design approach

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, S.C.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents a summary discussion of the approaches that have been and will be taken in design of repository facilities for use with disposal of radioactive wastes in salt formations. Since specific sites have yet to be identified, the discussion is at a general level, supplemented with illustrative examples where appropriate. 5 references, 1 figure.

  18. Influence of Single Skimmer Versus Dual Funnel Transfer on the Appearance of ESI-Generated LiCl Cluster/ß-Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellner, Ina D.; Drewello, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    Singly and doubly charged adducts of LiCl with β-cyclodextrin (βCD) of the type (βCD)(LiCl)nLi+ and (βCD)2(LiCl)pLi2 2+ were studied using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Insight into their structural composition was gained by analysis of their collision-induced dissociation (CID) mass spectra. The conditions the ions experience in the transfer region interfacing the ESI source and the mass analyzer were found to have a marked influence on the nature of the detected ions. In one instrument incorporating a single skimmer, individually attached LiCl ion pairs were observed, whereas the dual funnel ion guides of the second instrument allow the detection of previously unknown labile inclusion complexes of (LiCl)n clusters in βCD.

  19. Pseudo-binary electrolyte, LiBH4-LiCl, for bulk-type all-solid-state lithium-sulfur battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unemoto, Atsushi; Chen, ChunLin; Wang, Zhongchang; Matsuo, Motoaki; Ikeshoji, Tamio; Orimo, Shin-ichi

    2015-06-01

    The ionic conduction and electrochemical and thermal stabilities of the LiBH4-LiCl solid-state electrolyte were investigated for use in bulk-type all-solid-state lithium-sulfur batteries. The LiBH4-LiCl solid-state electrolyte exhibiting a lithium ionic conductivity of log ≤ft( σ /S c{{m}-1} \\right)=-3.3 at 373 K, forms a reversible interface with a lithium metal electrode and has a wide electrochemical potential window up to 5 V. By means of the high-energy mechanical ball-milling technique, we prepared a composite powder consisting of elemental sulfur and mixed conductive additive, i.e., Ketjen black and Maxsorb. In that composite powder, homogeneous dispersion of the materials is achieved on a nanometer scale, and thereby a high concentration of the interface among them is induced. Such nanometer-scale dispersals of both elemental sulfur and carbon materials play an important role in enhancing the electrochemical reaction of elemental sulfur. The highly deformable LiBH4-LiCl electrolyte assists in the formation of a high concentration of tight interfaces with the sulfur-carbon composite powder. The LiBH4-LiCl electrolyte also allows the formation of the interface between the positive electrode and the electrolyte layers, and thus the Li-ion transport paths are established at that interface. As a result, our battery exhibits high discharge capacities of 1377, 856, and 636 mAh g-1 for the 1st, 2nd, and 5th discharges, respectively, at 373 K. These results imply that complex hydride-based solid-state electrolytes that contain Cl-ions in the crystal would be integrated into rechargeable batteries.

  20. Pseudo-binary electrolyte, LiBH4-LiCl, for bulk-type all-solid-state lithium-sulfur battery.

    PubMed

    Unemoto, Atsushi; Chen, ChunLin; Wang, Zhongchang; Matsuo, Motoaki; Ikeshoji, Tamio; Orimo, Shin-Ichi

    2015-01-26

    The ionic conduction and electrochemical and thermal stabilities of the LiBH4-LiCl solid-state electrolyte were investigated for use in bulk-type all-solid-state lithium-sulfur batteries. The LiBH4-LiCl solid-state electrolyte exhibiting a lithium ionic conductivity of [Formula: see text] at 373 K, forms a reversible interface with a lithium metal electrode and has a wide electrochemical potential window up to 5 V. By means of the high-energy mechanical ball-milling technique, we prepared a composite powder consisting of elemental sulfur and mixed conductive additive, i.e., Ketjen black and Maxsorb. In that composite powder, homogeneous dispersion of the materials is achieved on a nanometer scale, and thereby a high concentration of the interface among them is induced. Such nanometer-scale dispersals of both elemental sulfur and carbon materials play an important role in enhancing the electrochemical reaction of elemental sulfur. The highly deformable LiBH4-LiCl electrolyte assists in the formation of a high concentration of tight interfaces with the sulfur-carbon composite powder. The LiBH4-LiCl electrolyte also allows the formation of the interface between the positive electrode and the electrolyte layers, and thus the Li-ion transport paths are established at that interface. As a result, our battery exhibits high discharge capacities of 1377, 856, and 636 mAh g(-1) for the 1st, 2nd, and 5th discharges, respectively, at 373 K. These results imply that complex hydride-based solid-state electrolytes that contain Cl-ions in the crystal would be integrated into rechargeable batteries.

  1. Castable cements to prevent corrosion of metals in molten salts

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez-Vidal, J. C.; Morton, E.

    2016-08-01

    Castable cements on metals form a protective barrier that is able to prevent permeation of molten salts towards metallic surfaces. Silica-based castable cements are capable of protecting containment metallic alloys from the corrosive attack of molten chlorides at temperatures as high as 650 degrees C. Boron nitride (BN) blocking the pores in the cured cement prevents permeation of the molten chloride towards the metal surface. The cements tested are not chemically stable in molten carbonates, because the bonding components dissolved into molten carbonates salt. The corrosion rate is 7.72+/-0.32 mm/year for bare stainless steel 347 in molten eutectic NaCl - 65.58 wt% LiCl at 650 degrees C, which is the baseline used for determining how well the cement protects the metallic surfaces from corrosion. In particular the metal fully encapsulated with Aremco 645-N with pores filled with boron nitride immersed in molten eutectic NaCl - 65.58 wt% LiCl at 650 degrees C shows a corrosion rate of 9E-04 mm/year. The present study gives initial corrosion rates. Long-term tests are required to determine if Aremco 645-N with BN coating on metal has long term chemical stability for blocking salt permeation through coating pores.

  2. Reconsolidated Salt as a Geotechnical Barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Francis D.; Gadbury, Casey

    2015-11-01

    Salt as a geologic medium has several attributes favorable to long-term isolation of waste placed in mined openings. Salt formations are largely impermeable and induced fractures heal as stress returns to equilibrium. Permanent isolation also depends upon the ability to construct geotechnical barriers that achieve nearly the same high-performance characteristics attributed to the native salt formation. Salt repository seal concepts often include elements of reconstituted granular salt. As a specific case in point, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant recently received regulatory approval to change the disposal panel closure design from an engineered barrier constructed of a salt-based concrete to one that employs simple run-of-mine salt and temporary bulkheads for isolation from ventilation. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant is a radioactive waste disposal repository for defense-related transuranic elements mined from the Permian evaporite salt beds in southeast New Mexico. Its approved shaft seal design incorporates barrier components comprising salt-based concrete, bentonite, and substantial depths of crushed salt compacted to enhance reconsolidation. This paper will focus on crushed salt behavior when applied as drift closures to isolate disposal rooms during operations. Scientific aspects of salt reconsolidation have been studied extensively. The technical basis for geotechnical barrier performance has been strengthened by recent experimental findings and analogue comparisons. The panel closure change was accompanied by recognition that granular salt will return to a physical state similar to the halite surrounding it. Use of run-of-mine salt ensures physical and chemical compatibility with the repository environment and simplifies ongoing disposal operations. Our current knowledge and expected outcome of research can be assimilated with lessons learned to put forward designs and operational concepts for the next generation of salt repositories. Mined salt

  3. Rheological properties and molecular structure of tunicate cellulose in LiCl/1,3-dimethyl-2-imidazolidinone.

    PubMed

    Tamai, Nobutake; Tatsumi, Daisuke; Matsumoto, Takayoshi

    2004-01-01

    Solution properties and molecular structure of tunicate cellulose (TC), an animal cellulose from Halocynthia roretzi, were investigated in terms of rheological and dilute solution properties. The solvent used is 8 wt % LiCl/1,3-dimethyl-2-imidazolidinone (DMI). A solution of dissolving pulp (DP), derived from plant, was also used for comparison. The weight-average molecular weight, Mw, and the limiting viscosity number, [eta], of the TC were evaluated to be 413 x 10(6) and 2645 mL/g, respectively. The TC solution showed the same concentration dependence of GN (GN=5.49 x 10(6)phiw(2.1)4 Pa; phiw: weight fraction of cellulose in solution; GN: plateau modulus) as the DP solution and, moreover, also as the solution of cotton linter (CC) in 8 wt % LiCl/N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc). This exponent of 2.1(4) indicates that network structure by entanglements was formed in these solutions. According to the theory of Fetters et al., moreover, such identity means that all of these celluloses have the identical chain structure though their biological origins are far different. On the other hand, the phiw-dependence of eta0-etas (eta0=zero shear rate viscosity of solution; etas=solvent viscosity) was different between the TC and the DP solution in the semidilute regime: the TC solution exhibited eta0-etas proportional, variant phiw(7.5) and the DP solution eta0-etas proportional, variant phiw4. According to the theory of Doi-Edwards, this exponent of 4 (the DP solution) indicates that the DP behaves as flexible polymers in the solution. In contrast, the dependence for the TC solution seems unexplainable on the basis of molecular theories. This difference probably signifies the difference in the relaxation process or mechanism in entanglement systems.

  4. Preparation of Simulated Waste Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, D.D.

    1999-06-08

    Waste Processing Technology personnel routinely prepare 0.5 to 10 L batches of salt solutions simulating Savannah River Site (SRS) soluble waste. This report describes the compositions and preparation methods.

  5. Univalent salts as modifiers in micellar capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    McLaren, David G; Boulat, Olivier; Chen, David D Y

    2002-06-01

    The influence of three univalent salts (LiCl, NaCl and RbCl) on the separation of amino acids labelled with 3-(4-carboxybenzoyl)-quinoline-2-carboxaldehyde (CBQCA) in micellar capillary electrophoresis has been studied. Capacity factors for a series of eight CBQCA-labelled amino acids in a sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micellar system containing different concentrations of salt were measured and were found to be related to both the hydrodynamic radius of the salt counter-ion (Li(+), Na(+), Rb(+)) and the relative hydrophobicity of the amino acid. Affinities of the analytes for the micelles were generally observed to decrease as the salt concentration in the background electrolyte was increased from 10 to 50 mM. This decrease in affinity was greatest in the presence of the salt counter-ion with the smallest hydrodynamic radius and is primarily due to an increased resistance to mass transfer. Furthermore, interaction of hydrophobic analytes with the micelles is greater than that of hydrophilic analytes at all salt concentrations due to the greater strength of the hydrophobic interactions and this effect is also enhanced in the presence of a smaller counter-ion. No negative effects due to Joule heating or electromigrative dispersion were observed for low to moderate concentrations of salt, which suggests that the use of simple univalent salts to modify analyte/micelle affinities can be a practical method for improving the separation of complex mixtures.

  6. [Bio-oil production from biomass pyrolysis in molten salt].

    PubMed

    Ji, Dengxiang; Cai, Tengyue; Ai, Ning; Yu, Fengwen; Jiang, Hongtao; Ji, Jianbing

    2011-03-01

    In order to investigate the effects of pyrolysis conditions on bio-oil production from biomass in molten salt, experiments of biomass pyrolysis were carried out in a self-designed reactor in which the molten salt ZnCl2-KCl (with mole ratio 7/6) was selected as heat carrier, catalyst and dispersion agent. The effects of metal salt added into ZnCl2-KCl and biomass material on biomass pyrolysis were discussed, and the main compositions of bio-oil were determined by GC-MS. Metal salt added into molten salt could affect pyrolysis production yields remarkably. Lanthanon salt could enhance bio-oil yield and decrease water content in bio-oil, when mole fraction of 5.0% LaCl3 was added, bio-oil yield could reach up to 32.0%, and water content of bio-oil could reduce to 61.5%. The bio-oil and char yields were higher when rice straw was pyrolysed, while gas yield was higher when rice husk was used. Metal salts showed great selectivity on compositions of bio-oil. LiCl and FeCl2 promoted biomass to pyrolyse into smaller molecular weight compounds. CrCl3, CaCl2 and LaCl3 could restrain second pyrolysis of bio-oil. The research provided a scientific reference for production of bio-oil from biomass pyrolysis in molten salt.

  7. Studies of the plasticizing effect of different hydrophilic inorganic salts on starch/poly (vinyl alcohol) films.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiancai; Li, Hongmei; Luo, Yong; Zhao, Yulai; Hou, Linxi

    2016-01-01

    The effects of different inorganic salts LiCl, MgCl2·6H2O, CaCl2, and AlCl3·6H2O on the crystalline, thermal, water vapor barrier, and tensile properties of starch/PVA films were studied. The high plasticizing efficiency of all these four inorganic salts for starch/PVA film was confirmed by the obtained results. These four salts all had a good compatibility with starch/PVA within the content of 15 wt% and starch/PVA became completely miscible with the addition of 15 wt% inorganic salts. All these four salts had a strong destroying effect on the crystals of starch and PVA. Among these four salts, AlCl3·6H2O had the largest negative effect on the thermal stability of starch/PVA and LiCl had the largest improving effect on the water sorption rate of starch/PVA film. On the whole MgCl2·6H2O and CaCl2 were the more suitable plasticizer for starch/PVA film among these four inorganic salts. With the addition of 15 wt% MgCl2·6H2O and CaCl2, the elongation at break of starch/PVA film could reach to 418.83% and 434.80%, respectively.

  8. IR spectroscopy of aqueous alkali halide solutions: Pure salt-solvated water spectra and hydration numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Max, Jean-Joseph; Chapados, Camille

    2001-08-01

    Extrapolation techniques were used to obtain pure salt-solvated water spectra from the attenuated total reflection infrared spectra (ATR-IR) of aqueous solutions of the nine alkali halide salts LiCl, NaCl, KCl, CsCl, NaBr, KBr, NaI, KI, and CsI and the alkaline-earth chloride salt MgCl2. These salts ionize completely in water. The ions by themselves do not absorb in the IR, but their interactions with water can be observed and analyzed. A pure salt-solvated water spectrum is easier to analyze than that of a combined solution of pure water and salt-solvated water. Although the salt-solvated water spectra examined have distinctive signatures, they can be classified in three categories: those similar to NaCl; those not similar to NaCl; and MgCl2, in a class by itself. Each of the pure salt-solvated water spectra differs from that of liquid water, though the number of bands is the same. From the Gaussian band fitting, we found that the positions of the bands were fairly constant, whereas their intensities differed. The salt hydration numbers were determined: for NaCl, KCl, NaBr, KBr, and CsI solutions it is 5; for KI and MgCL2 it is 4; for NaI it is 3.5; for CsCl it is 3; and for LiCl it is 2. From these results we found that each pair of ions (monoatomic ions) of the ten salt solutions studied are close bound and form a complex in a cluster organization with a fixed number of water molecules.

  9. Temporal and qualitative dynamics of conditioned taste aversions in C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice self-administering LiCl.

    PubMed

    Rebecca Glatt, A; St John, Steven J; Lu, Lianyi; Boughter, John D

    2016-01-01

    Self-administration of LiCl solution has been shown to result in the formation of a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) that generalizes to NaCl in rats. This paradigm may have considerable ecological validity as it models CTA learning in natural settings, and also allows for the investigation of drinking microstructure as an assay of potential shifts in stimulus palatability. We used this paradigm to examine possible mouse strain differences in CTA acquisition, generalization, and extinction. In the first experiment, C57BL/6J (B6) and DBA/2J (D2) mice self-administered LiCl (or control NaCl) over a 20-minute free access acquisition period and were tested on the following day with a panel of taste solutions available in brief (5-s) trials delivered in random order. In the second experiment, mice again self-administered LiCl or NaCl (at low, 0.12 M, or high, 0.24 M concentrations) in a 20-minute session, and on the following day received a 20-minute free access period to equimolar NaCl. Strain differences were found for aspects of ingestive behavior, with B6 mice showing greater consumption of all stimuli, including water, while D2 mice lick faster, in less frequent but longer bursts. We did not, however, find evidence of a robust strain difference in taste aversion learning. Both strains demonstrated profound alterations in licking microstructure in the generalization session relative to controls. We suggest that a decrease in "lick efficiency" (the percentage of inter-lick intervals within a burst of short duration vs. longer duration) reflects avoidance behavior, and signals a shift in palatability of a stimulus following CTA.

  10. Application of lithium in molten-salt reduction processes.

    SciTech Connect

    Gourishankar, K. V.

    1998-11-11

    Metallothermic reductions have been extensively studied in the field of extractive metallurgy. At Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), we have developed a molten-salt based reduction process using lithium. This process was originally developed to reduce actinide oxides present in spent nuclear fuel. Preliminary thermodynamic considerations indicate that this process has the potential to be adapted for the extraction of other metals. The reduction is carried out at 650 C in a molten-salt (LiCl) medium. Lithium oxide (Li{sub 2}O), produced during the reduction of the actinide oxides, dissolves in the molten salt. At the end of the reduction step, the lithium is regenerated from the salt by an electrowinning process. The lithium and the salt from the electrowinning are then reused for reduction of the next batch of oxide fuel. The process cycle has been successfully demonstrated on an engineering scale in a specially designed pyroprocessing facility. This paper discusses the applicability of lithium in molten-salt reduction processes with specific reference to our process. Results are presented from our work on actinide oxides to highlight the role of lithium and its effect on process variables in these molten-salt based reduction processes.

  11. Process to separate transuranic elements from nuclear waste

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Terry R.; Ackerman, John P.; Tomczuk, Zygmunt; Fischer, Donald F.

    1989-01-01

    A process for removing transuranic elements from a waste chloride electrolytic salt containing transuranic elements in addition to rare earth and other fission product elements so the salt waste may be disposed of more easily and the valuable transuranic elements may be recovered for reuse. The salt is contacted with a cadmium-uranium alloy which selectively extracts the transuranic elements from the salt. The waste salt is generated during the reprocessing of nuclear fuel associated with the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR).

  12. Treatment of organic waste

    DOEpatents

    Grantham, LeRoy F.

    1979-01-01

    An organic waste containing at least one element selected from the group consisting of strontium, cesium, iodine and ruthenium is treated to achieve a substantial reduction in the volume of the waste and provide for fixation of the selected element in an inert salt. The method of treatment comprises introducing the organic waste and a source of oxygen into a molten salt bath maintained at an elevated temperature to produce solid and gaseous reaction products. The gaseous reaction products comprise carbon dioxide and water vapor, and the solid reaction products comprise the inorganic ash constituents of the organic waste and the selected element which is retained in the molten salt. The molten salt bath comprises one or more alkali metal carbonates, and may optionally include from 1 to about 25 wt.% of an alkali metal sulfate.

  13. Conceptual designs for waste packages for horizontal or vertical emplacement in a repository in salt for reference in the site characterization plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-01

    This report includes the options of horizontal and vertical emplacement, the addition of a phased repository, an additional waste form (intact spent fuel), revised geotechnical data appropriate for the Deaf Smith County site, new corrosion data for the container, and new repository design data. The waste package consists of waste form and canister within a thick-walled, low-carbon steel container surrounded by packing. The container is a hollow cylinder with a flat head welded to each end. The design concepts for the waste container or vertical and horizontal emplacement are identical. This report discusses the results of analyses of aspects of the reference waste package concept needing changes because of new data and information believed applicable to the Deaf Smith County site. Included are waste package conceptual designs or (1) the reference defense high-level waste form from the Savannah River Plant; (2) intact spent fuel with our pressurized-water-reactor or nine boiling-water-reactor assemblies per package for emplacement during Phase 1 of repository operation; and (3) spent fuel which has been disassembled and consolidated into a segmented cylindrical canister with rods from either 12 pressurized-water-reactor or 30 boiling-water-reactor assemblies per package for emplacement during Phase 2. 30 refs., 61 figs., 30 tabs.

  14. Understanding radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, R.L.

    1981-12-01

    This document contains information on all aspects of radioactive wastes. Facts are presented about radioactive wastes simply, clearly and in an unbiased manner which makes the information readily accessible to the interested public. The contents are as follows: questions and concerns about wastes; atoms and chemistry; radioactivity; kinds of radiation; biological effects of radiation; radiation standards and protection; fission and fission products; the Manhattan Project; defense and development; uses of isotopes and radiation; classification of wastes; spent fuels from nuclear reactors; storage of spent fuel; reprocessing, recycling, and resources; uranium mill tailings; low-level wastes; transportation; methods of handling high-level nuclear wastes; project salt vault; multiple barrier approach; research on waste isolation; legal requiremnts; the national waste management program; societal aspects of radioactive wastes; perspectives; glossary; appendix A (scientific American articles); appendix B (reference material on wastes). (ATT)

  15. Determination of the structural properties of the aqueous electrolyte LiCl6H 2 O at the supercooled state using the Reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ZIANE, M.; HABCHI, M.; DEROUICHE, A.; MESLI, S. M.; BENZOUINE, F.; KOTBI, M.

    2017-03-01

    A structural study of an aqueous electrolyte whose experimental results are available. It is a solution of A structural study of an aqueous electrolyte whose experimental results are available. It is a solution LiCl6H 2 O type at supercooled state (162K) contrasted with pure water at room temperature by means of Partial Distribution Functions (PDF) issue from neutron scattering technique. The aqueous electrolyte solution of the chloride lithium LiCl presents interesting properties which is studied by different methods at different concentration and thermodynamical states: This system possesses the property to become a glass through a metastable supercooled state when the temperature decreases. Based on these partial functions, the Reverse Monte Carlo method (RMC) computes radial correlation functions which allow exploring a number of structural features of the system. The purpose of the RMC is to produce a consistent configuration with the experimental data. They are usually the most important in the limit of systematic errors (of unknown distribution).

  16. Solid phase transitions and fast ion transport in LiNaSO[sub 4]: LiCl: Na[sub 2]WO[sub 4] mixed systems

    SciTech Connect

    Prabaharan, S.R.S.; Muthusubramanian, P. ); Kulandainathan, M.A.; Kapali, V. )

    1993-10-01

    LiNaSO[sub 4]: LiCl: Na[sub 2]WO[sub 4] composites of a few different compositions have been prepared by quenching the melt and studied for the first time with a view to improve the ionic conductivity of LiNaSO[sub 4] at the lowest possible temperature. The phase formations of the composites have been analyzed by means of X-ray powder diffraction technique. The transport properties have been studied by DSC and complex ac impedance analysis (to extract the dc electrical conductivity, [sigma][sub dc]). The X-ray diffractograms show evidence for solid solutions (ss) as well as second dispersed phase due to indissolved excess compound (LiCl). The [sigma] enhancement may be attributed to the increase in interfacial conductivity due to the increase in concentration of the charge carriers (ions or vacancies) forming a diffuse space charge layer between the two ion conductors, i.e., the solid solution of LiNaSO[sub 4] with dissolved chloride and tungstate fractions and a chloride phase with dissolved sulfate fraction. DSC measurements show improved thermal properties with respect to [alpha]-LiNaSO[sub 4]. The present composite mixtures offer the choice of lower transition temperatures, but these are accompanied by lower transition enthalpies.

  17. Electrical double layers and differential capacitance in molten salts from density functional theory

    DOE PAGES

    Frischknecht, Amalie L.; Halligan, Deaglan O.; Parks, Michael L.

    2014-08-05

    Classical density functional theory (DFT) is used to calculate the structure of the electrical double layer and the differential capacitance of model molten salts. The DFT is shown to give good qualitative agreement with Monte Carlo simulations in the molten salt regime. The DFT is then applied to three common molten salts, KCl, LiCl, and LiKCl, modeled as charged hard spheres near a planar charged surface. The DFT predicts strong layering of the ions near the surface, with the oscillatory density profiles extending to larger distances for larger electrostatic interactions resulting from either lower temperature or lower dielectric constant. Inmore » conclusion, overall the differential capacitance is found to be bell-shaped, in agreement with recent theories and simulations for ionic liquids and molten salts, but contrary to the results of the classical Gouy-Chapman theory.« less

  18. Electrical double layers and differential capacitance in molten salts from density functional theory

    SciTech Connect

    Frischknecht, Amalie L.; Halligan, Deaglan O.; Parks, Michael L.

    2014-08-05

    Classical density functional theory (DFT) is used to calculate the structure of the electrical double layer and the differential capacitance of model molten salts. The DFT is shown to give good qualitative agreement with Monte Carlo simulations in the molten salt regime. The DFT is then applied to three common molten salts, KCl, LiCl, and LiKCl, modeled as charged hard spheres near a planar charged surface. The DFT predicts strong layering of the ions near the surface, with the oscillatory density profiles extending to larger distances for larger electrostatic interactions resulting from either lower temperature or lower dielectric constant. In conclusion, overall the differential capacitance is found to be bell-shaped, in agreement with recent theories and simulations for ionic liquids and molten salts, but contrary to the results of the classical Gouy-Chapman theory.

  19. Oxygen isotope activities and concentrations in aqueous salt solutions at elevated temperatures: Consequences for isotope geochemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Truesdell, A.H.

    1974-01-01

    Studies of the effect of dissolved salts on the oxygen isotope activity ratio of water have been extended to 275??C. Dehydrated salts were added to water of known isotope composition and the solutions were equilibrated with CO2 which was sampled for analysis. For comparison similar studies were made using pure water. Results on water nearly coincide with earlier calculations. Salt effects diminish with increasing temperature only for solutions of MgCl2 and LiCl. Other salt solutions show complex behavior due to the temperature-dependent formation of ion pairs of changing character. Equilibrium fractionations (103 ln ??) between 1 molal solutions and pure water at 25, 100, and 275??C are: NaCl 0.0, -1.5, +1.0; KCl 0.0, -1.0, +2.0; LiCl -1.0, -0.6, -0.5; CaCl2 -0.4, -1.8, +0.8; MgCl2 -1.1, -0.7, -0.3; MgSO4 -1.1, +0.1, -; NaF (0.8 m) 0.0, -1.5, -0.3; and NH4Cl (0.55 m) 0.0, -1.2, -1.3. These effects are significant in the isotope study of hot saline fluids responsible for ore deposition and of fluids found in certain geothermal systems. Minor modification of published isotope geothermometers may be required. ?? 1974.

  20. Radioactive waste isolation in salt: peer review of the Texas Bureau of Economic Geology's report on the Petrographic, Stratigraphic, and Structural Evidence for Dissolution of Upper Permian Bedded Salt, Texas Panhandle

    SciTech Connect

    Fenster, D.F.; Anderson, R.Y.; Gonzales, S.; Baker, V.R.; Edgar, D.E.; Harrison, W.

    1984-08-01

    The following recommendations for improving the Texas Bureau of Economic Geology (TBEG) report entitled Petrographic, Stratigraphic, and Structural Evidence for Dissolution of Upper Permian Bedded Salt, Texas Panhandle have been abstracted from the body of this review report. The TBEG report should be resided to conform to one of the following alternatives: (1) If the report is intended to be a review or summary of previous work, it should contain more raw data, be edited to give equal treatment to all types of data, and include summary tables and additional figures. (2) If the report is intended to be a description and interpretation of petrographic evidence for salt dissolution, supported by collateral stratigraphic and structural evidence, the relevant indirect and direct data should become the focal point of the report. The following recommendations apply to one or both of the options listed above. (1) The text should differentiate more carefully between the data and inferences based on those data. (2) The authors should retain the qualifiers present in cited works. Statements in the report that are based on earlier papers are sometimes stronger than those in the papers themselves. (3) The next revision should present more complete data. (4) The authors should achieve a more balanced presentation of alternative hypotheses and interpretations. They could then discuss the relative merits of the alternative interpretations. (5) More attention should be given to clear exposition.

  1. Nuclear waste solutions

    DOEpatents

    Walker, Darrel D.; Ebra, Martha A.

    1987-01-01

    High efficiency removal of technetium values from a nuclear waste stream is achieved by addition to the waste stream of a precipitant contributing tetraphenylphosphonium cation, such that a substantial portion of the technetium values are precipitated as an insoluble pertechnetate salt.

  2. 238Pu recovery and salt disposition from the molten salt oxidation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remerowski, M. L.; Stimmel, Jay J.; Wong, Amy S.; Ramsey, Kevin B.

    2000-07-01

    We have begun designing and optimizing our recovery and recycling processes by experimenting with samples of "spent salt" produced by MSO treatment of surrogate waste in the reaction vessel at the Naval Surface Warfare Center-Indian Head. One salt was produced by treating surrogate waste containing pyrolysis ash spiked with cerium. The other salt contains residues from MSO treatment of materials similar to those used in 238Pu processing, e.g., Tygon tubing, PVC bagout bags, HDPE bottles. Using these two salt samples, we will present results from our investigations.

  3. A new compound heterozygous frameshift mutation in the type II 3{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3{beta}-HSD gene causes salt-wasting 3{beta}-HSD deficiency congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, L.; Sakkal-Alkaddour, S.; Chang, Ying T.; Yang, Xiaojiang; Songya Pang

    1996-01-01

    We report a new compound heterozygous frameshift mutation in the type II 3{Beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3{beta}-HSD) gene in a Pakistanian female child with the salt-wasting form of 3{Beta}-HSD deficiency congenital adrenal hyperplasia. The etiology for her congenital adrenal hyperplasia was not defined. Although the family history suggested possible 3{beta}-HSd deficiency disorder, suppressed adrenal function caused by excess glucocorticoid therapy in this child at 7 yr of age did not allow hormonal diagnosis. To confirm 3{beta}-HSD deficiency, we sequenced the type II 3{beta}-HSD gene in the patient, her family, and the parents of her deceased paternal cousins. The type II 3{beta}-HSD gene region of a putative promotor, exons I, II, III, and IV, and exon-intron boundaries were amplified by PCR and sequenced in all subjects. The DNA sequence of the child revealed a single nucleotide deletion at codon 318 [ACA(Thr){r_arrow}AA] in exon IV in one allele, and two nucleotide deletions at codon 273 [AAA(Lys){r_arrow}A] in exon IV in the other allele. The remaining gene sequences were normal. The codon 318 mutation was found in one allele from the father, brother, and parents of the deceased paternal cousins. The codon 273 mutation was found in one allele of the mother and a sister. These findings confirmed inherited 3{beta}-HSD deficiency in the child caused by the compound heterozygous type II 3{beta}-HSD gene mutation. Both codons at codons 279 and 367, respectively, are predicted to result in an altered and truncated type II 3{beta}-HSD protein, thereby causing salt-wasting 3{beta}-HSD deficiency in the patient. 21 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Nitrate Salt Surrogate Blending Scoping Test Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Anast, Kurt Roy

    2015-11-13

    Test blending equipment identified in the “Engineering Options Assessment Report: Nitrate Salt Waste Stream Processing”. Determine if the equipment will provide adequate mixing of zeolite and surrogate salt/Swheat stream; optimize equipment type and operational sequencing; impact of baffles and inserts on mixing performance; and means of validating mixing performance

  5. Thermophysical properties of reconsolidating crushed salt.

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Stephen J.; Urquhart, Alexander

    2014-03-01

    Reconsolidated crushed salt is being considered as a backfilling material placed upon nuclear waste within a salt repository environment. In-depth knowledge of thermal and mechanical properties of the crushed salt as it reconsolidates is critical to thermal/mechanical modeling of the reconsolidation process. An experimental study was completed to quantitatively evaluate the thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt as a function of porosity and temperature. The crushed salt for this study came from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). In this work the thermal conductivity of crushed salt with porosity ranging from 1% to 40% was determined from room temperature up to 300°C, using two different experimental methods. Thermal properties (including thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and specific heat) of single-crystal salt were determined for the same temperature range. The salt was observed to dewater during heating; weight loss from the dewatering was quantified. The thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt decreases with increasing porosity; conversely, thermal conductivity increases as the salt consolidates. The thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt for a given porosity decreases with increasing temperature. A simple mixture theory model is presented to predict and compare to the data developed in this study.

  6. Application to ship nonmixed transuranic waste to the Nevada Test Site for interim storage. Waste Cerification Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    This report documents various regulations on radioactive waste processing and discusses how the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant will comply with and meet these requirements. Specific procedures are discussed concerning transuranic, metal scrap, salt block, solid, and glove box wastes.

  7. Listeria phage and phage tail induction triggered by components of bacterial growth media (phosphate, LiCl, nalidixic acid, and acriflavine).

    PubMed

    Lemaître, Jean-Paul; Duroux, Amandine; Pimpie, Romain; Duez, Jean-Marie; Milat, Marie-Louise

    2015-03-01

    The detection of Listeria monocytogenes from food is currently carried out using a double enrichment. For the ISO methodology, this double enrichment is performed using half-Fraser and Fraser broths, in which the overgrowth of L. innocua can occur in samples where both species are present. In this study, we analyzed the induction of phages and phage tails of Listeria spp. in these media and in two brain heart infusion (BHI) broths (BHIM [bioMérieux] and BHIK [Biokar]) to identify putative effectors. It appears that Na2HPO4 at concentrations ranging from 1 to 40 g/liter with an initial pH of 7.5 can induce phage or phage tail production of Listeria spp., especially with 10 g/liter of Na2HPO4 and a pH of 7.5, conditions present in half-Fraser and Fraser broths. Exposure to LiCl in BHIM (18 to 21 g/liter) can also induce phage and phage tail release, but in half-Fraser and Fraser broths, the concentration of LiCl is much lower (3 g/liter). Low phage titers were induced by acriflavine and/or nalidixic acid. We also show that the production of phages and phage tails can occur in half-Fraser and Fraser broths. This study points out that induction of phages and phage tails could be triggered by compounds present in enrichment media. This could lead to a false-negative result for the detection of L. monocytogenes in food products.

  8. Salt splitting with ceramic membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Kurath, D.

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this task is to develop ceramic membrane technologies for salt splitting of radioactively contaminated sodium salt solutions. This technology has the potential to reduce the low-level waste (LLW) disposal volume, the pH and sodium hydroxide content for subsequent processing steps, the sodium content of interstitial liquid in high-level waste (HLW) sludges, and provide sodium hydroxide free of aluminum for recycle within processing plants at the DOE complex. Potential deployment sites include Hanford, Savannah River, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The technical approach consists of electrochemical separation of sodium ions from the salt solution using sodium (Na) Super Ion Conductors (NaSICON). As the name implies, sodium ions are transported rapidly through these ceramic crystals even at room temperatures.

  9. Military nuclear waste disposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robb, David W.

    1984-04-01

    A National Research Council (NRC) panel has endorsed a plan for a proposed underground military nuclear waste disposal facility located on a site near Carlsbad, N.M. The Department of Energy (DOE) asked NRC to evaluate the geologic suitability of the site.The NRC panel, chaired by Frank L. Parker of Vanderbilt University, concluded in its final report that “the important issues about the geology of the site have been resolved…” Those issues include the purity and volume of salt, the absence of brine pockets at the repository horizon in the areas excavated, the absence of breccia pipes and of toxic gases, and the nearly horizontal bedding of the salt. Thick underground salt beds have long been considered prime candidates for nuclear waste repositories. The existence of salt beds is believed to indicate long-term stability. In addition, the salt is flexible and will seal cracks and discontinuities over time.

  10. Electrodialysis-ion exchange for the separation of dissolved salts

    SciTech Connect

    Baroch, C.J.; Grant, P.J.

    1995-10-01

    The Department of Energy generates and stores a significant quantity of low level, high level, and mixed wastes. As some of the DOE facilities are decontaminated and decommissioned, additional and possibly different forms of wastes will be generated. A significant portion of these wastes are aqueous streams containing acids, bases, and salts, or are wet solids containing inorganic salts. Some of these wastes are quite dilute solutions, whereas others contain large quantities of nitrates either in the form of dissolved salts or acids. Many of the wastes are also contaminated with heavy metals, radioactive products, or organics. Some of these wastes are in storage because a satisfactory treatment and disposal processes have not been developed. There is considerable interest in developing processes that remove or destroy the nitrate wastes. Electrodialysis-Ion Exchange (EDIX) is a possible process that should be more cost effective in treating aqueous waste steams. This report describes the EDIX process.

  11. Thermodynamic Properties of Magnesium Chloride Hydroxide Hydrate (Mg3Cl(OH)5:4H2O, Phase 5), and Its importance to Nuclear Waste Isolation in Geological Repositories in Salt Formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Y.; Deng, H.; Nemer, M. B.; Johnsen, S.

    2009-12-01

    MgO (bulk, pure MgO corresponding to the mineral periclase) is the only engineered barrier certified by the Environmental Protection Agency for emplacement in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the US, and an Mg(OH)2-based engineered barrier (bulk, pure Mg(OH)2 corresponding to brucite) is to be employed in the Asse repository in Germany. Both the WIPP and the Asse are located in salt formations. The WIPP is a U.S. Department of Energy geological repository being used for the permanent disposal of defense-related transuranic waste (TRU waste). The repository is 655 m below the surface, and is situated in the Salado Formation, a Permian salt bed mainly composed of halite, and of lesser amounts of polyhalite, anhydrite, gypsum, magnesite, clays and quartz. The WIPP Generic Weep Brine (GWB), a Na-Mg-Cl dominated brine, is associated with the Salado Formation. The previous vendor for MgO for the WIPP was Premier Chemicals and the current vendor is Martin Marietta Materials. Experimental studies of both Premier MgO and Martin Marietta MgO with the GWB at SNL indicate the formation of magnesium chloride hydroxide hydrate, Mg3Cl(OH)5:4H2O, termed as phase 5. However, this important phase is lacking in the existing thermodynamic database. In this study, the solubility constant of phase 5 is determined from a series of solubility experiments in MgCl2-NaCl solutions. The solubility constant at 25 oC for the following reaction, Mg3Cl(OH)5:4H2O + 5H+ = 3Mg2+ + 9H2O(l) + Cl- is recommended as 43.21±0.33 (2σ) based on the Specific Interaction Theory (SIT) model for extrapolation to infinite dilution. The log K obtained via the Pitzer equations is identical to the above value within the quoted uncertainty. The Gibbs free energy and enthalpy of formation for phase 5 at 25 oC are derived as -3384±2 (2σ) kJ mol-1 and -3896±6 (2σ) kJ mol-1, respectively. The standard entropy and heat capacity of phase 5 at 25 oC are estimated as 393±20 J mol-1 K-1 and 374±19 J mol-1 K

  12. Effect of hygroscopicity of the metal salt on the formation and air stability of lyotropic liquid crystalline mesophases in hydrated salt-surfactant systems.

    PubMed

    Albayrak, Cemal; Barım, Gözde; Dag, Ömer

    2014-11-01

    It is known that alkali, transition metal and lanthanide salts can form lyotropic liquid crystalline (LLC) mesophases with non-ionic surfactants (such as CiH2i+1(OCH2CH2)jOH, denoted as CiEj). Here we combine several salt systems and show that the percent deliquescence relative humidity (%DRH) value of a salt is the determining parameter in the formation and stability of the mesophases and that the other parameters are secondary and less significant. Accordingly, salts can be divided into 3 categories: Type I salts (such as LiCl, LiBr, LiI, LiNO3, LiClO4, CaCl2, Ca(NO3)2, MgCl2, and some transition metal nitrates) have low %DRH and form stable salt-surfactant LLC mesophases in the presence of a small amount of water, type II salts (such as some sodium and potassium salts) that are moderately hygroscopic form disordered stable mesophases, and type III salts that have high %DRH values, do not form stable LLC mesophases and leach out salt crystals. To illustrate this effect, a large group of salts from alkali and alkaline earth metals were investigated using XRD, POM, FTIR, and Raman techniques. Among the different salts investigated in this study, the LiX (where X is Cl(-), Br(-), I(-), NO3(-), and ClO4(-)) and CaX2 (X is Cl(-), and NO3(-)) salts were more prone to establish LLC mesophases because of their lower %DRH values. The phase behavior with respect to concentration, stability, and thermal behavior of Li(I) systems were investigated further. It is seen that the phase transitions among different anions in the Li(I) systems follow the Hofmeister series.

  13. Phosphate salts

    MedlinePlus

    ... sodium if you have heart disease. Fluid retention (edema): Avoid using phosphate salts that contain sodium if ... heart failure, or other conditions that can cause edema. High levels of calcium in the blood (hypercalcemia): ...

  14. Bath Salts

    MedlinePlus

    ... panic attacks depression suicidal thoughts paranoia delusions and hallucinations distorted sense of reality decreased ability to think ... of bath salts may cause people to have hallucinations, hear voices, feel paranoid, and develop a psychosis ...

  15. SOLUTION MINING IN SALT DOMES OF THE GULF COAST EMBAYMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Griswold, G. B.

    1981-02-01

    Following a description of salt resources in the salt domes of the gulf coast embayment, mining, particularly solution mining, is described. A scenario is constructed which could lead to release of radioactive waste stored in a salt dome via inadvertent solution mining and the consequences of this scenario are analyzed.

  16. Efficacy of a Solution-Based Approach for Making Sodalite Waste Forms for an Oxide Reduction Salt Utilized in the Reprocessing of Used Uranium Oxide Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Brian J.; Pierce, David A.; Frank, Steven M.; Matyas, Josef; Burns, Carolyn A.

    2015-04-01

    This paper describes various approaches for making sodalite with a LiCl-Li2O oxide reduction salt used to recover uranium from used oxide fuel. The approaches include sol-gel and solution-based synthesis processes. As-made products were mixed with 5 and 10 mass% of a Na2O-B2O3-SiO2 glass binder and these, along with product without a binder, were heated using either a cold-press-and-sinter method or hot uniaxial pressing. The results demonstrate the limitation of sodalite yield due to the fast intermediate reactions between Na+ and Cl- to form halite in solution and Li2O and SiO2 to form lithium silicates (e.g., Li2SiO3 or Li2Si2O5) in the calcined and sintered pellets. The results show that pellets can be made with high sodalite fractions (~92 mass%) and low porosities using a solution-based approach and this LiCl-Li2O salt.

  17. Efficacy of a solution-based approach for making sodalite waste forms for an oxide reduction salt utilized in the reprocessing of used uranium oxide fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Brian J.; Pierce, David A.; Frank, Steven M.; Matyáš, Josef; Burns, Carolyne A.

    2015-04-01

    This paper describes the various approaches attempted to make solution-derived sodalite with a LiCl-Li2O oxide reduction salt used to dissolve used uranium oxide fuel so the uranium can be recovered and recycled. The approaches include modified sol-gel and solutionbased synthesis processes. As-made products were mixed with 5 and 10 mass% of a Na2O-B2O3- SiO2 glass binder and these, along with product without a binder, were heated using either a cold-press-and-sinter method or hot uniaxial pressing. The results demonstrate the limitation of sodalite yield due to the fast intermediate reactions between Na+ and Cl- to form halite in solution and Li2O and SiO2 to form lithium silicates (e.g., Li2SiO3 or Li2Si2O5) in the calcined and sintered pellets. The results show that pellets can be made with high sodalite fractions in the crystalline product (~92 mass%) and low porosities using a solution-based approach and this LiCl-Li2O salt but that the incorporation of Li into the sodalite is low.

  18. Efficacy of a solution-based approach for making sodalite waste forms for an oxide reduction salt utilized in the reprocessing of used uranium oxide fuel

    DOE PAGES

    Riley, Brian J.; Pierce, David A.; Frank, Steven M.; ...

    2015-04-01

    This paper describes the various approaches attempted to make solution-derived sodalite with a LiCl-Li2O oxide reduction salt used to dissolve used uranium oxide fuel so the uranium can be recovered and recycled. The approaches include modified sol-gel and solutionbased synthesis processes. As-made products were mixed with 5 and 10 mass% of a Na2O-B2O3- SiO2 glass binder and these, along with product without a binder, were heated using either a cold-press-and-sinter method or hot uniaxial pressing. The results demonstrate the limitation of sodalite yield due to the fast intermediate reactions between Na+ and Cl- to form halite in solution and Li2Omore » and SiO2 to form lithium silicates (e.g., Li2SiO3 or Li2Si2O5) in the calcined and sintered pellets. The results show that pellets can be made with high sodalite fractions in the crystalline product (~92 mass%) and low porosities using a solution-based approach and this LiCl-Li2O salt but that the incorporation of Li into the sodalite is low.« less

  19. Efficacy of a solution-based approach for making sodalite waste forms for an oxide reduction salt utilized in the reprocessing of used uranium oxide fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, Brian J.; Pierce, David A.; Frank, Steven M.; Matyáš, Josef; Burns, Carolyne A.

    2015-04-01

    This paper describes the various approaches evaluated for making solution-derived sodalite with a LiCl-Li2O oxide reduction salt selected to dissolve used uranium oxide fuel so the uranium can be recovered and recycled. The approaches include modified sol-gel and solution-based synthesis processes. As-made products were mixed with 5 and 10 mass% of a Na2O-B2O3-SiO2 glass binder and these, along with product without a binder, were heated using either a cold-press-and-sinter method or hot uniaxial pressing. The results demonstrate the limitation of sodalite yield due to the fast intermediate reactions between Na+ and Cl- to form halite in solution and Li2O and SiO2 to form lithium silicates (e.g., Li2SiO3 or Li2Si2O5) in the calcined and sintered pellets. The results show that pellets can be made with high sodalite fractions in the crystalline product (∼92 mass%) and low porosities using a solution-based approach and this LiCl-Li2O salt but that the incorporation of Li into the sodalite is low.

  20. Salt brickwork as long-term sealing in salt formations

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, F.; Yaramanci, U.

    1993-12-31

    Radioactive wastes can be disposed of in deep salt formations. Rock salt is a suitable geologic medium because of its unique characteristics. Open boreholes, shafts and drifts are created to provide physical access to the repository. Long-term seals must be emplaced in these potential pathways to prevent radioactive release into the biosphere. The sealing materials must be mechanically and, most important, geochemically stable within the host rock. Salt bricks made from compressed salt-powder are understood to be the first choice long-term sealing material. Seals built of salt bricks will be ductile. Large sealing systems are built by combining the individual bricks with mortar. Raw materials for mortar are fine-grained halite powder and ground saliferous clay. This provides for the good adhesive strength of the mortar to the bricks and the high shear-strength of the mortar itself. To test the interaction of rock salt with an emplaced long-term seal, experiments will be carried out in situ, in the Asse salt mine in Germany. Simple borehole sealing experiments will be performed in horizontal holes and a complicated drift sealing experiment is planned, to demonstrate the technology of sealing a standard size drift or shaft inside a disturbed rock mass. Especially, the mechanical stability of the sealing system has to be demonstrated.

  1. Bases, Assumptions, and Results of the Flowsheet Calculations for the Decision Phase Salt Disposition Alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Elder, H.H.

    2001-07-11

    The HLW salt waste (salt cake and supernate) now stored at the SRS must be treated to remove insoluble sludge solids and reduce the soluble concentration of radioactive cesium radioactive strontium and transuranic contaminants (principally Pu and Np). These treatments will enable the salt solution to be processed for disposal as saltstone, a solid low-level waste.

  2. Brine Transport Experiments in Granular Salt

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, Amy B.; Boukhalfa, Hakim; Caporuscio, Florie Andre; Stauffer, Philip H.

    2016-06-06

    To gain confidence in the predictive capability of numerical models, experimental validation must be performed to ensure that parameters and processes are correctly simulated. The laboratory investigations presented herein aim to address knowledge gaps for heat-generating nuclear waste (HGNW) disposal in bedded salt that remain after examination of prior field and laboratory test data. Primarily, we are interested in better constraining the thermal, hydrological, and physicochemical behavior of brine, water vapor, and salt when moist salt is heated. The target of this work is to use run-of-mine (RoM) salt; however during FY2015 progress was made using high-purity, granular sodium chloride.

  3. Anomalous ion effects on rupture and lifetime of aqueous foam films from monovalent salt solutions up to saturation concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakashev, S. I.; Nguyen, P. T.; Tsekov, R.; Hampton, M. A.; Nguyen, A. V.

    2008-09-01

    We report the effects of ions on rupture and lifetime of aqueous foam films formed from sodium chloride (NaCl), lithium chloride (LiCl), sodium acetate (NaAc), and sodium chlorate (NaClO 3) using microinterferometry. In the case of NaCl and LiCl, the foam films prepared from the salt solutions below 0.1 M were unstable they thinned until rupturing. The film lifetime measured from the first interferogram (appearing at a film thickness on the order of 500 nm) until the film rupture was only a second or so. However, relatively long lasting and nondraining films prepared from salt solutions above 0.1 M were observed. The film lifetime was significantly longer by 1 to 2 orders of magnitude, i.e., from 10 to 100 s. Importantly, both the film lifetime and the (average) thickness of the nondraining films increased with increasing salt concentration. This effect has not been observed with foam films stabilized by surfactants. The film lifetime and thickness also increased with increasing film radius. The films exhibited significant surface corrugations. The films with large radii often contained standing dimples. There was a critical film radius below which the films thinned until rupturing. In the cases of NaAc and NaClO 3, the films were unstable at all radii and salt concentrations they thinned until rupturing, ruling out the effect of solution viscosity on stabilizing the films.

  4. Experimental determination of the solubility constant for magnesium chloride hydroxide hydrate (Mg 3Cl(OH) 5·4H 2O, phase 5) at room temperature, and its importance to nuclear waste isolation in geological repositories in salt formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Yongliang; Deng, Haoran; Nemer, Martin; Johnsen, Shelly

    2010-08-01

    In this study, the solubility constant of magnesium chloride hydroxide hydrate, Mg 3Cl(OH) 5·4H 2O, termed as phase 5, is determined from a series of solubility experiments in MgCl 2-NaCl solutions. The solubility constant in logarithmic units at 25 °C for the following reaction, MgCl(OH)·4HO+5H=3Mg+9HO(l)+Cl is calculated as 43.21 ± 0.33 (2 σ) based on the specific interaction theory (SIT) model for extrapolation to infinite dilution. The Gibbs free energy and enthalpy of formation for phase 5 at 25 °C are derived as -3384 ± 2 (2 σ) kJ mol -1 and -3896 ± 6 (2 σ) kJ mol -1, respectively. MgO (bulk, pure MgO corresponding to the mineral periclase) is the only engineered barrier certified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for emplacement in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the US, and an Mg(OH) 2-based engineered barrier (bulk, pure Mg(OH) 2 corresponding to brucite) is to be employed in the Asse repository in Germany. Phase 5, and its similar phase, phase 3 (Mg 2Cl(OH) 3·4H 2O), could have a significant role in influencing the geochemical conditions in geological repositories for nuclear waste in salt formations where MgO or brucite is employed as engineered barriers. Based on our solubility constant for phase 5 in combination with the literature value for phase 3, we predict that the composition for the invariant point of phase 5 and phase 3 would be mMg = 1.70 and pmH = 8.94 in the Mg-Cl binary system. The recent WIPP Compliance Recertification Application Performance Assessment Baseline Calculations indicate that phase 5, instead of phase 3, is indeed a stable phase when the WIPP Generic Weep Brine (GWB), a Na-Mg-Cl-dominated brine associated with the Salado Formation, equilibrates with actinide-source-term phases, brucite, magnesium carbonates, halite and anhydrite. Therefore, phase 5 is important to the WIPP, and potentially important to other repositories in salt formations.

  5. Treatment of high salt oxidized modified starch waste water using micro-electrolysis, two-phase anaerobic aerobic and electrolysis for reuse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Xuenong; Wang, Yulin

    2016-08-01

    A combined process of micro-electrolysis, two-phase anaerobic, aerobic and electrolysis was investigated for the treatment of oxidized modified starch wastewater (OMSW). Optimum ranges for important operating variables were experimentally determined and the treated water was tested for reuse in the production process of corn starch. The optimum hydraulic retention time (HRT) of micro-electrolysis, methanation reactor, aerobic process and electrolysis process were 5, 24, 12 and 3 h, respectively. The addition of iron-carbon fillers to the acidification reactor was 200 mg/L while the best current density of electrolysis was 300 A/m2. The biodegradability was improved from 0.12 to 0.34 by micro-electrolysis. The whole treatment was found to be effective with removal of 96 % of the chemical oxygen demand (COD), 0.71 L/day of methane energy recovery. In addition, active chlorine production (15,720 mg/L) was obtained by electrolysis. The advantage of this hybrid process is that, through appropriate control of reaction conditions, effect from high concentration of salt on the treatment was avoided. Moreover, the process also produced the material needed in the production of oxidized starch while remaining emission-free and solved the problem of high process cost.

  6. Salt splitting using ceramic membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Kurath, D.E.

    1997-10-01

    Many radioactive aqueous wastes in the DOE complex have high concentrations of sodium that can negatively affect waste treatment and disposal operations. Sodium can decrease the durability of waste forms such as glass and is the primary contributor to large disposal volumes. Waste treatment processes such as cesium ion exchange, sludge washing, and calcination are made less efficient and more expensive because of the high sodium concentrations. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Ceramatec Inc. (Salt Lake City UT) are developing an electrochemical salt splitting process based on inorganic ceramic sodium (Na), super-ionic conductor (NaSICON) membranes that shows promise for mitigating the impact of sodium. In this process, the waste is added to the anode compartment, and an electrical potential is applied to the cell. This drives sodium ions through the membrane, but the membrane rejects most other cations (e.g., Sr{sup +2}, Cs{sup +}). The charge balance in the anode compartment is maintained by generating H{sup +} from the electrolysis of water. The charge balance in the cathode is maintained by generating OH{sup {minus}}, either from the electrolysis of water or from oxygen and water using an oxygen cathode. The normal gaseous products of the electrolysis of water are oxygen at the anode and hydrogen at the cathode. Potentially flammable gas mixtures can be prevented by providing adequate volumes of a sweep gas, using an alternative reductant or destruction of the hydrogen as it is generated. As H{sup +} is generated in the anode compartment, the pH drops. The process may be operated with either an alkaline (pH>12) or an acidic anolyte (pH <1). The benefits of salt splitting using ceramic membranes are (1) waste volume reduction and reduced chemical procurement costs by recycling of NaOH; and (2) direct reduction of sodium in process streams, which enhances subsequent operations such as cesium ion exchange, calcination, and vitrification.

  7. Molten salt-based growth of bulk GaN and InN for substrates.

    SciTech Connect

    Waldrip, Karen Elizabeth

    2007-08-01

    An atmospheric pressure approach to growth of bulk group III-nitrides is outlined. Native III-nitride substrates for optoelectronic and high power, high frequency electronics are desirable to enhance performance and reliability of these devices; currently, these materials are available in research quantities only for GaN, and are unavailable in the case of InN. The thermodynamics and kinetics of the reactions associated with traditional crystal growth techniques place these activities on the extreme edges of experimental physics. The novel techniques described herein rely on the production of the nitride precursor (N{sup 3-}) by chemical and/or electrochemical methods in a molten halide salt. This nitride ion is then reacted with group III metals in such a manner as to form the bulk nitride material. The work performed during the period of funding (February 2006-September 2006) focused on establishing that mass transport of GaN occurs in molten LiCl, the construction of a larger diameter electrochemical cell, the design, modification, and installation of a made-to-order glove box (required for handling very hygroscopic LiCl), and the feasibility of using room temperature molten salts to perform nitride chemistry experiments.

  8. The effect of ferrocyanide ions on sodium chloride crystallization in salt mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Sonia; Pel, Leo; Steiger, Michael; Kopinga, Klaas

    2015-01-01

    The use of crystallization inhibitors has been proposed as a potential preventive treatment method against damage and is extensively tested for crystallization of single salts. However, in practice salt mixtures are present. Therefore, before using inhibitors in practice there is a strong need to explore their effect on salt mixtures. In this research, we studied the effect of ferrocyanide ions ([Fe(CN)6]4-) on NaCl crystallization in single salt and in salt mixtures of NaCl-KCl and NaCl-LiCl. A series of micro droplet drying experiments were undertaken. Time lapse microscopy of the crystallization was performed along with NMR measurements of hydrogen, sodium and lithium ions. This gives the possibility to visualize the drying of the droplet while simultaneously obtaining information of both NaCl and LiCl concentration in the droplet. For a NaCl solution droplet, in the presence of inhibitor, a significantly higher supersaturation prior to the onset of crystallization and a change in crystal morphology were observed. On the other hand, for salt mixtures, lower supersaturation compared to single salt and dendritic crystal morphology was seen in the presence of inhibitor. In a porous material, such a type of morphology can promote the formation of efflorescence that causes only little structural damage.

  9. [Destruction of aromatic hydrocarbons by the Rhodococcus wratislaviensis KT112-7 strain isolated from waste products of a salt-mining factory].

    PubMed

    Egorova, D O; Korsakova, E S; Demakov, V A; Plotnikova, E G

    2013-01-01

    The destruction of aromatic hydrocarbons by the Rhodococcus wratislaviensis KT112-7 strain isolated from technogenic mineral waste products of the BKRU1 Uralkalii factory has been investigated (city of Berezniki, Perm krai). The R. wratislaviensis KT112-7 was shown to utilize increased concentrations of ophthalic (o-PA) (8 g/L) and benzoic (BA) (3.4 g/L) acids. The strain grows with o-FA, BA, and biphenyl at a NaCl content of up to 50, 90, and 75 g/L in the culture medium, respectively. Based on an analysis of the metabolic profile and nucleotide sequences of the bphA1, benA, and phtB genes, the KT112-7 strain was established to decompose o-PA via the formation of 3,4-dihydroxyphthalic and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acids. The decomposition of biphenyl is carried out via the formation of BA and then at low concentrations of NaCl (up to 50 g/L) via the formation of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid followed by its oxidation; at high concentrations of NaCl (over 60 g/L), via the direct oxidation of benzoic acid with the production of catechol. These data indicate that the Rhodococcus wratislaviensis KT112-7 destructor strain is a promising strain for the development of new biotechnologies directed at the utilization (transformation) of aromatic compounds, including under the conditions of increased mineralization.

  10. Polyethylene encapsulation of molten salt oxidation mixed low-level radioactive salt residues

    SciTech Connect

    Lageraaen, P.R.; Kalb, P.D.; Grimmett, D.L.; Gay, R.L.; Newman, C.D.

    1995-10-01

    A limited scope treatability study was conducted for polyethylene encapsulation of salt residues generated by a Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) technology demonstration at the Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), operated by Rockwell International for the US Department of Energy (DOE). During 1992 and 1993, ETEC performed a demonstration with a prototype MSO unit and treated approximately 50 gallons of mixed waste comprised of radioactively contaminated oils produced by hot cell operations. A sample of the mixed waste contaminated spent salt was used during the BNL polyethylene encapsulation treatability study. A nominal waste loading of 50 wt % was successfully processed and waste form test specimens were made for Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) testing. The encapsulated product was compared with base-line TCLP results for total chromium and was found to be well within allowable EPA guidelines.

  11. A Rich Morphological Diversity of Biosaline Drying Patterns Is Generated by Different Bacterial Species, Different Salts and Concentrations: Astrobiological Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez Gómez, José María; Medina, Jesús; Rull, Fernando

    2016-07-01

    Biosaline formations (BSFs) are complex self-organized biomineral patterns formed by "hibernating" bacteria as the biofilm that contains them dries out. They were initially described in drying biofilms of Escherichia coli cells + NaCl. Due to their intricate 3-D morphology and anhydrobiosis, these biomineralogical structures are of great interest in astrobiology. Here we report experimental data obtained with various alkali halide salts (NaF, NaCl, NaBr, LiCl, KCl, CsCl) on BSF formation with E. coli and Bacillus subtilis bacteria at two saline concentrations: 9 and 18 mg/mL. Our results indicate that, except for LiCl, which is inactive, all the salts assayed are active during BSF formation and capable of promoting the generation of distinctive drying patterns at each salt concentration. Remarkably, the BSFs produced by these two bacterial species produce characteristic architectural hallmarks as the BSF dries. The potential biogenicity of these biosaline drying patterns is studied, and the astrobiological implications of these findings are discussed.

  12. Pressure-driven brine migration in a salt repository

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Y.; Chambre, P.L.; Pigford, T.H.; Lee, W.W.L.

    1989-01-01

    The traditional view is that salt is the ideal rock for isolation of nuclear waste because it is ''dry'' and probably ''impermeable.'' The existence of salt through geologic time is prima facie evidence of such properties. Experiments and experience at potential salt sites for geologic repositories have indicated that while porosity and permeability of salt are low, the salt may be saturated with brine. If this hypothesis is correct, then it is possible to have brine flow due to pressure differences within the salt. If there is pressure-driven brine migration in salt repositories then it is paramount to know the magnitude of such flow because inward brine flow would affect the corrosion rate of nuclear waste containers and outward brine flow might affect radionuclide transport rates. Brine exists in natural salt as inclusions in salt crystals and in grain boundaries. Brine inclusions in crystals move to nearby grain boundaries when subjected to a temperature gradient, because of temperature-dependent solubility of salt. Brine in grain boundaries moves under the influence of a pressure gradient. When salt is mined to create a waste repository, brine from grain boundaries will migrate into the rooms, tunnels and boreholes because these cavities are at atmospheric pressure. After a heat-emitting waste package is emplaced and backfilled, the heat will impose a temperature gradient in the surrounding salt that will cause inclusions in the nearby salt to migrate to grain boundaries within a few years, adding to the brine that was already present in the grain boundaries. The formulation of brine movement with salt as a thermoelastic porous medium, in the context of the continuum theory of mixtures, has been described. In this report we show the mathematical details and discuss the results predicted by this analysis.

  13. Catalytic oxidation of waste materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jagow, R. B.

    1977-01-01

    Aqueous stream of human waste is mixed with soluble ruthenium salts and is introduced into reactor at temperature where ruthenium black catalyst forms on internal surfaces of reactor. This provides catalytically active surface to convert oxidizable wastes into breakdown products such as water and carbon dioxide.

  14. Molten Salt Electrolytically Produced Carbon/Tin Nanomaterial as the Anode in a Lithium Ion Battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das Gupta, Rajshekar; Schwandt, Carsten; Fray, Derek J.

    2017-03-01

    A carbon/tin nanomaterial, consisting of predominantly Sn-filled carbon nanotubes and nanoparticles, is prepared by molten salt electrochemistry, using electrodes of graphite and an electrolyte of LiCl salt containing a small admixture of SnCl2. The C/Sn hybrid material generated is incorporated into the active anode material of a lithium ion battery and tested with regard to storage capacity and cycling behavior. The results demonstrate that the C/Sn material has favorable properties, in terms of energy density and in particular long-term stability, that exceed those of the individual components alone. The initial irreversible capacity of the material is somewhat larger than that of conventional battery graphite which is due to its unique nanostructure. Overall the results would indicate the suitability of this material for use in the anodes of lithium ion batteries with high rate capability.

  15. Process to separate transuranic elements from nuclear waste

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, T.R.; Ackerman, J.P.; Tomczuk, Z.; Fischer, D.F.

    1989-03-21

    A process is described for removing transuranic elements from a waste chloride electrolytic salt containing transuranic elements in addition to rare earth and other fission product elements so the salt waste may be disposed of more easily and the valuable transuranic elements may be recovered for reuse. The salt is contacted with a cadmium-uranium alloy which selectively extracts the transuranic elements from the salt. The waste salt is generated during the reprocessing of nuclear fuel associated with the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR). 2 figs.

  16. Process to separate transuranic elements from nuclear waste

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, T.R.; Ackerman, J.P.; Tomczuk, Z.; Fischer, D.F.

    1988-07-12

    A process for removing transuranic elements from a waste chloride electrolytic salt containing transuranic elements in addition to rare earth and other fission product elements so the salt waste may be disposed of more easily and the valuable transuranic elements may be recovered for reuse. The salt is contacted with a cadmium-uranium alloy which selectively extracts the transuranic elements from the salt. The waste salt is generated during the reprocessing of nuclear fuel associated with the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR). 2 figs.

  17. Concept for Underground Disposal of Nuclear Waste

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowyer, J. M.

    1987-01-01

    Packaged waste placed in empty oil-shale mines. Concept for disposal of nuclear waste economically synergistic with earlier proposal concerning backfilling of oil-shale mines. New disposal concept superior to earlier schemes for disposal in hard-rock and salt mines because less uncertainty about ability of oil-shale mine to contain waste safely for millenium.

  18. Ammoniated salt heat pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, W. R.; Jaeger, F. J.; Giordano, T. J.

    A thermochemical heat pump/energy storage system using liquid ammoniate salts is described. The system, which can be used for space heating or cooling, provides energy storage for both functions. The bulk of the energy is stored as chemical energy and thus can be stored indefinitely. The system is well suited to use with a solar energy source or industrial waste heat. Several liquid ammoniates are identified and the critical properties of three of the most promising are presented. Results of small scale (5000 Btu) system tests are discussed and a design concept for a prototype system is given. This system represents a significant improvement over the system using solid ammoniates investigated previously because of the increase in heat transfer rates (5 to 60 Btu/hr sq ft F) and the resulting reduction in heat exchanger size. As a result the concept shows promise of being cost competitive with conventional systems.

  19. Technical review of Molten Salt Oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The process was reviewed for destruction of mixed low-level radioactive waste. Results: extensive development work and scaleup has been documented on coal gasification and hazardous waste which forms a strong experience base for this MSO process; it is clearly applicable to DOE wastes such as organic liquids and low-ash wastes. It also has potential for processing difficult-to-treat wastes such as nuclear grade graphite and TBP, and it may be suitable for other problem waste streams such as sodium metal. MSO operating systems may be constructed in relatively small units for small quantity generators. Public perceptions could be favorable if acceptable performance data are presented fairly; MSO will likely require compliance with regulations for incineration. Use of MSO for offgas treatment may be complicated by salt carryover. Figs, tabs, refs.

  20. Constitutive representation of damage development and healing in WIPP salt

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, K.S.; Bodner, S.R.; Fossum, A.F

    1994-12-31

    There has been considerable interest in characterizing and modeling the constitutive behavior of rock salt with particular reference to long-term creep and creep failure. The interest is motivated by the projected use of excavated rooms in salt rock formations as repositories for nuclear waste. It is presumed that closure of those rooms by creep ultimately would encapsulate the waste material, resulting in its effective isolation. A continuum mechanics approach for treating damage healing is formulated as part of a constitutive model for describing coupled creep, fracture, and healing in rock salt. Formulation of the healing term is, described and the constitutive model is evaluated against experimental data of rock salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site. The results indicate that healing anistropy in WIPP salt can be modeled with an appropriate power-conjugate equivalent stress, kinetic equation, and evolution equation for damage healing.

  1. Waste immobilization process development at the Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Charlesworth, D L

    1986-01-01

    Processes to immobilize various wasteforms, including waste salt solution, transuranic waste, and low-level incinerator ash, are being developed. Wasteform characteristics, process and equipment details, and results from field/pilot tests and mathematical modeling studies are discussed.

  2. Powder XRD, SEM, and Multinuclear MAS-NMR Investigations of the Interactions Between Glass and Crystalline Phases of Li, Na, or K Ceramic Waste Forms

    SciTech Connect

    Lambregts, Marsha J.; Frank, Steve M.

    2005-08-01

    Interactions between the glass and crystalline phases of ceramic waste forms were investigated via powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and Si-29, Al-27, Na-23, Li-7, and Cl-35 magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. LiCl, NaCl, or KCl waste form samples were made with or without glass. The waste forms containing glass consist of sodalite and glass phases with minor amounts of nepheline. Samples without glass form varying amounts of sodalite and nepheline. The glass frit, intended to bind the zeolite particles together, changes in composition, showing marked increases in aluminum and alkali content.

  3. SALT CORE SAMPLING EVOLUTION AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Nance, T; Daniel Krementz, D; William Cheng, W

    2007-11-29

    The Savannah River Site (SRS), a Department of Energy (DOE) facility, has over 30 million gallons of legacy waste from its many years of processing nuclear materials. The majority of waste is stored in 49 buried tanks. Available underground piping is the primary and desired pathway to transfer waste from one tank to another until the waste is delivered to the glass plant, DWPF, or the grout plant, Saltstone. Prior to moving the material, the tank contents need to be evaluated to ensure the correct destination for the waste is chosen. Access ports are available in each tank top in a number of locations and sizes to be used to obtain samples of the waste for analysis. Material consistencies vary for each tank with the majority of waste to be processed being radioactive salts and sludge. The following paper describes the progression of equipment and techniques developed to obtain core samples of salt and solid sludge at SRS.

  4. Deformation-assisted fluid percolation in rock salt.

    PubMed

    Ghanbarzadeh, Soheil; Hesse, Marc A; Prodanović, Maša; Gardner, James E

    2015-11-27

    Deep geological storage sites for nuclear waste are commonly located in rock salt to ensure hydrological isolation from groundwater. The low permeability of static rock salt is due to a percolation threshold. However, deformation may be able to overcome this threshold and allow fluid flow. We confirm the percolation threshold in static experiments on synthetic salt samples with x-ray microtomography. We then analyze wells penetrating salt deposits in the Gulf of Mexico. The observed hydrocarbon distributions in rock salt require that percolation occurred at porosities considerably below the static threshold due to deformation-assisted percolation. Therefore, the design of nuclear waste repositories in salt should guard against deformation-driven fluid percolation. In general, static percolation thresholds may not always limit fluid flow in deforming environments.

  5. Low-salt diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... you cook, replace salt with other seasonings. Pepper, garlic, herbs, and lemon are good choices. Avoid packaged spice blends. They often contain salt. Use garlic and onion powder, not garlic and onion salt. ...

  6. Salt repository project closeout status report

    SciTech Connect

    1988-06-01

    This report provides an overview of the scope and status of the US Department of Energy (DOE`s) Salt Repository Project (SRP) at the time when the project was terminated by the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987. The report reviews the 10-year program of siting a geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste in rock salt formations. Its purpose is to aid persons interested in the information developed during the course of this effort. Each area is briefly described and the major items of information are noted. This report, the three salt Environmental Assessments, and the Site Characterization Plan are the suggested starting points for any search of the literature and information developed by the program participants. Prior to termination, DOE was preparing to characterize three candidate sites for the first mined geologic repository for the permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The sites were in Nevada, a site in volcanic tuff; Texas, a site in bedded salt (halite); and Washington, a site in basalt. These sites, identified by the screening process described in Chapter 3, were selected from the nine potentially acceptable sites shown on Figure I-1. These sites were identified in accordance with provisions of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. 196 refs., 21 figs., 11 tabs.

  7. Removal of uranium from spent salt from the moltensalt oxidation process

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, L.; Hsu, P. C.; Holtz, E. V.; Hipple, D.; Wang, F.; Adamson, M.

    1997-03-01

    Molten salt oxidation (MSO) is a thermal process that has the capability of destroying organic constituents of mixed wastes, hazardous wastes, and energetic materials. In this process, combustible waste and air are introduced into the molten sodium carbonate salt. The organic constituents of the waste materials are oxidized to carbon dioxide and water, while most of the inorganic constituents, including toxic metals, minerals, and radioisotopes, are retained in the molten salt bath. As these impurities accumulate in the salt, the process efficiency drops and the salt must be replaced. An efficient process is needed to separate these toxic metals, minerals, and radioisotopes from the spent carbonate to avoid generating a large volume of secondary waste. Toxic metals such as cadmium, chromium, lead, and zinc etc. are removed by a method described elsewhere. This paper describes a separation strategy developed for radioisotope removal from the mixed spent salt, as well as experimental results, as part of the spent salt cleanup. As the MSO system operates, inorganic products resulting from the reaction of halides, sulfides, phosphates, metals and radionuclides with carbonate accumulate in the salt bath. These must be removed to prevent complete conversion of the sodium carbonate, which would result in eventual losses of destruction efficiency and acid scrubbing capability. There are two operational modes for salt removal: (1) during reactor operation a slip-stream of molten salt is continuously withdrawn with continuous replacement by carbonate, or (2) the spent salt melt is discharged completely and the reactor then refilled with carbonate in batch mode. Because many of the metals and/or radionuclides captured in the salt are hazardous and/or radioactive, spent salt removed from the reactor would create a large secondary waste stream without further treatment. A spent salt clean up/recovery system is necessary to segregate these materials and minimize the amount of

  8. Molten Salt-Based Growth of Bulk GaN and InN for Substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Waldrip, Karen Elizabeth; Tsao, Jeffrey Yeenien; Kerley, Thomas M.

    2006-09-01

    An atmospheric pressure approach to growth of bulk group III-nitrides is outlined. Native III-nitride substrates for optoelectronic and high power, high frequency electronics are desirable to enhance performance and reliability of these devices; currently, these materials are available in research quantities only for GaN, and are unavailable in the case of InN. The thermodynamics and kinetics of the reactions associated with traditional crystal growth techniques place these activities on the extreme edges of experimental physics. The technique described herein relies on the production of the nitride precursor (N3-) by chemical and/or electrochemical methods in a molten halide salt. This nitride ion is then reacted with group III metals in such a manner as to form the bulk nitride material. The work performed during the period of funding (July 2004-September 2005) focused on the initial measurement of the solubility of GaN in molten LiCl as a function of temperature, the construction of electrochemical cells, the modification of a commercial glove box (required for handling very hygroscopic LiCl), and on securing intellectual property for the technique.

  9. Ammonia Solubility in High Concentration Salt Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    HEDENGREN, D.C.

    2000-02-01

    Solubility data for ammonia in water and various dilute solutions are abundant in the literature. However, there is a noticeable lack of ammonia solubility data for high salt, basic solutions of various mixtures of salts including those found in many of the Hanford Washington underground waste tanks. As a result, models based on solubility data for dilute salt solutions have been used to extrapolate to high salt solutions. These significant extrapolations need to be checked against actual laboratory data. Some indirect vapor measurements have been made. A more direct approach is to determine the ratio of solubility of ammonia in water to its solubility in high salt solutions. In various experiments, pairs of solutions, one of which is water and the other a high salt solution, are allowed to come to equilibrium with a common ammonia vapor pressure. The ratio of concentrations of ammonia in the two solutions is equal to the ratio of the respective ammonia solubilities (Henry's Law constants) at a given temperature. This information can then be used to refine the models that predict vapor space compositions of ammonia. Ammonia at Hanford is of concern because of its toxicity in the environment and its contribution to the flammability of vapor space gas mixtures in waste tanks.

  10. Crushed salt reconsolidation at elevated temperatures.

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, David Joseph; Clayton, Daniel James; Lee, Moo Yul; Bronowski, David R.

    2010-06-01

    There is a long history of testing crushed salt as backfill for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant program, but testing was typically done at 100 C or less. Future applications may involve backfilling crushed salt around heat-generating waste packages, where near-field temperatures could reach 250 C or hotter. A series of experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of hydrostatic stress on run-of-mine salt at temperatures up to 250 C and pressures to 20 MPa. The results of these tests were compared with analogous modeling results. By comparing the modeling results at elevated temperatures to the experimental results, the adequacy of the current crushed salt reconsolidation model was evaluated. The model and experimental results both show an increase in the reconsolidation rate with temperature. The current crushed salt model predicts the experimental results well at a temperature of 100 C and matches the overall trends, but over-predicts the temperature dependence of the reconsolidation. Further development of the deformation mechanism activation energies would lead to a better prediction of the temperature dependence by the crushed salt reconsolidation model.

  11. CPh3 as a functional group in P-heterocyclic chemistry: elimination of HCPh3 in the reaction of P-CPh3 substituted Li/Cl phosphinidenoid complexes with Ph2C=O.

    PubMed

    García, C Murcia; Ferao, A Espinosa; Schnakenburg, G; Streubel, R

    2016-02-14

    P-CPh3 substituted oxaphosphirane complexes 3 were prepared using Li/Cl phosphinidenoid complexes 2 (M = Cr, Mo, W) and benzaldehyde. Employing 2 and benzophenone resulted in the formation of oxaphospholane complexes 4 and 5, the former bearing a benzo[c]-1,2-oxaphospholane and the latter a novel pentacyclic P-ligand. According to DFT studies the latter P-heterocycle arises from formal dimerization of a transient benzofused 2-phosphafurane complex 8, one of the fragments undergoing water-catalyzed [1,3]H shift (4) and the other (11) formed via elimination of HCPh3.

  12. MSO spent salt clean-up recovery process

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, M G; Brummond, W A; Hipple, D L; Hsu, P C; Summers, L J; Von Holtz, E H; Wang, F T

    1997-02-01

    An effective process has been developed to separate metals, mineral residues, and radionuclides from spent salt, a secondary waste generated by Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO). This process includes salt dissolution, pH adjustment, chemical reduction and/or sulfiding, filtration, ion exchange, and drying. The process uses dithionite to reduce soluble chromate and/or sulfiding agent to suppress solubilities of metal compounds in water. This process is capable of reducing the secondary waste to less than 5% of its original weight. It is a low temperature, aqueous process and has been demonstrated in the laboratory [1].

  13. Fracture and Healing of Rock Salt Related to Salt Caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, K.S.; Fossum, A.F.; Munson, D.E.

    1999-03-01

    In recent years, serious investigations of potential extension of the useful life of older caverns or of the use of abandoned caverns for waste disposal have been of interest to the technical community. All of the potential applications depend upon understanding the reamer in which older caverns and sealing systems can fail. Such an understanding will require a more detailed knowledge of the fracture of salt than has been necessary to date. Fortunately, the knowledge of the fracture and healing of salt has made significant advances in the last decade, and is in a position to yield meaningful insights to older cavern behavior. In particular, micromechanical mechanisms of fracture and the concept of a fracture mechanism map have been essential guides, as has the utilization of continuum damage mechanics. The Multimechanism Deformation Coupled Fracture (MDCF) model, which is summarized extensively in this work was developed specifically to treat both the creep and fracture of salt, and was later extended to incorporate the fracture healing process known to occur in rock salt. Fracture in salt is based on the formation and evolution of microfractures, which may take the form of wing tip cracks, either in the body or the boundary of the grain. This type of crack deforms under shear to produce a strain, and furthermore, the opening of the wing cracks produce volume strain or dilatancy. In the presence of a confining pressure, microcrack formation may be suppressed, as is often the case for triaxial compression tests or natural underground stress situations. However, if the confining pressure is insufficient to suppress fracture, then the fractures will evolve with time to give the characteristic tertiary creep response. Two first order kinetics processes, closure of cracks and healing of cracks, control the healing process. Significantly, volume strain produced by microfractures may lead to changes in the permeability of the salt, which can become a major concern in

  14. The effect of the salt viscosity on future evolution of the Gorleben salt diapir, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chemia, Z.; Schmeling, H.; Koyi, H.

    2009-08-01

    The Gorleben diapir, which has been targeted for radioactive waste disposal, contains large blocks of anhydrite. Numerical models that depict the geometrical configuration of the Gorleben diapir are used to understand internal structure of diapir caused by movement of the anhydrite blocks for various salt rheologies. It is shown that the rheology of the salt plays a significant role in how and at which rate the anhydrite blocks sink within the diapir. The mobility of anhydrite blocks depends on the effective viscosity of salt which has to be lower than threshold value of around 10 18-10 19 Pa s. Decreasing salt viscosity allows the previously "stationary" anhydrite blocks to sink. If the effective viscosity of salt in post-depositional stage of the Gorleben diapir falls below this threshold value, induced internal flow due to the present anhydrite layer might disturb any repository within the diapir.

  15. Pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from an electrolyte salt

    DOEpatents

    Mullins, L.J.; Christensen, D.C.

    1982-09-20

    A pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from a plutonium-bearing salt is disclosed. The process is particularly useful in the recovery of plutonium for electrolyte salts which are left over from the electrorefining of plutonium. In accordance with the process, the plutonium-bearing salt is melted and mixed with metallic calcium. The calcium reduces ionized plutonium in the salt to plutonium metal, and also causes metallic plutonium in the salt, which is typically present as finely dispersed metallic shot, to coalesce. The reduced and coalesced plutonium separates out on the bottom of the reaction vessel as a separate metallic phase which is readily separable from the overlying salt upon cooling of the mixture. Yields of plutonium are typically on the order of 95%. The stripped salt is virtually free of plutonium and may be discarded to low-level waste storage.

  16. Pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from an electrolyte salt

    DOEpatents

    Mullins, Lawrence J.; Christensen, Dana C.

    1984-01-01

    A pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from a plutonium-bearing salt is disclosed. The process is particularly useful in the recovery of plutonium from electrolyte salts which are left over from the electrorefining of plutonium. In accordance with the process, the plutonium-bearing salt is melted and mixed with metallic calcium. The calcium reduces ionized plutonium in the salt to plutonium metal, and also causes metallic plutonium in the salt, which is typically present as finely dispersed metallic shot, to coalesce. The reduced and coalesced plutonium separates out on the bottom of the reaction vessel as a separate metallic phase which is readily separable from the overlying salt upon cooling of the mixture. Yields of plutonium are typically on the order of 95%. The stripped salt is virtually free of plutonium and may be discarded to low-level waste storage.

  17. Electrolyte salts for power sources

    DOEpatents

    Doddapaneni, N.; Ingersoll, D.

    1995-11-28

    Electrolyte salts are disclosed for power sources comprising salts of phenyl polysulfonic acids and phenyl polyphosphonic acids. The preferred salts are alkali and alkaline earth metal salts, most preferably lithium salts. 2 figs.

  18. Electrolyte salts for power sources

    DOEpatents

    Doddapaneni, Narayan; Ingersoll, David

    1995-01-01

    Electrolyte salts for power sources comprising salts of phenyl polysulfonic acids and phenyl polyphosphonic acids. The preferred salts are alkali and alkaline earth metal salts, most preferably lithium salts.

  19. 24. VIEW SHOWING WASTE GATES ON GRAND CANAL AT JUNCTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. VIEW SHOWING WASTE GATES ON GRAND CANAL AT JUNCTION WITH OLD CROSSCUT NE/4, Sec. 7, TIN, R4E; LOOKING WEST. OLD CROSSCUT CANAL ENTERS FROM RIGHT. WASTE GATE ON LEFT EMPTIES INTO SALT RIVER BED Photographer: Kevin Kreisel-Coons, May 1990 - Grand Canal, North side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  20. Current and proposed regulations for salt-water disposal wells

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, T.

    1994-12-31

    In recent years, all aspects of hydrocarbon exploration and production (E&P) activities have drawn closer scrutiny in terms of existing and potential impairment of the environment. In addition to drilling, production, and transportation activities, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has focused on the nature of E&P wastes. Approximately 98% of the volume of wastes generated by E&P activities is salt water associated with the recovery of hydrocarbons. By far the majority of this waste is reinjected in Class II wells as a nonhazardous waste. Due to the tremendous volume of salt water disposed of in Class II injection wells, the USEPA continues to reevaluate the Federal salt-water injection well program, offering comments, revising its interpretation of existing regulations, and promulgating new regulations. The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of existing Federal Class II injection well regulations and to provide an overview of potential of newly promulgated regulations.

  1. The synthesis of a new family of boron-based anion receptors and the study of their effect on ion pair dissociation and conductivity of lithium salts in nonaqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H.S.; Yang, X.Q.; Xiang, C.L.; McBreen, J.; Choi, L.S.

    1998-08-01

    A new family of anion receptors based on boron compounds has been synthesized. These compounds can be used as anion receptors in lithium battery electrolytes. This family includes various borane and borate compounds with different fluorinated aryl and fluorinated alkyl groups. When these anion receptors are used as additives in 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME) solutions containing various lithium salts, the ionic conductivities of these solutions are greatly increased. The electrolytes tested in this study were DME solutions containing the following lithium salts: LiF, LiCl, LiBr, LiI, CF{sub 3}COOLi, and C{sub 2}F{sub 5}COOLi. Without the additive the solubility of LiF in DME (and all other nonaqueous solvents) is very low. With some of these boron compounds as additives, LiF solutions in DME with concentration as high as 1 M were obtained. The solubilities of the other salts were also increased by these additives. Near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy studies show that Cl{sup {minus}} and I{sup {minus}} anions are complexed with these compounds in DME solutions containing LiCl or LiI salts. The degree of complexation is also closely related to the structures of the fluorinated aryl and alkyl groups, which act as electron-withdrawing groups. The NEXAFS results are in good agreement with ionic conductivity studies.

  2. Hanford's Simulated Low Activity Waste Cast Stone Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Young

    2013-08-20

    Cast Stone is undergoing evaluation as the supplemental treatment technology for Hanford’s (Washington) high activity waste (HAW) and low activity waste (LAW). This report will only cover the LAW Cast Stone. The programs used for this simulated Cast Stone were gradient density change, compressive strength, and salt waste form phase identification. Gradient density changes show a favorable outcome by showing uniformity even though it was hypothesized differently. Compressive strength exceeded the minimum strength required by Hanford and greater compressive strength increase seen between the uses of different salt solution The salt waste form phase is still an ongoing process as this time and could not be concluded.

  3. Brines formed by multi-salt deliquescence

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, S; Rard, J; Alai, M; Staggs, K

    2005-11-04

    The FY05 Waste Package Environment testing program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory focused on determining the temperature, relative humidity, and solution compositions of brines formed due to the deliquescence of NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} and NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3}-Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} salt mixtures. Understanding the physical and chemical behavior of these brines is important because they define conditions under which brines may react with waste canister surfaces. Boiling point experiments show that NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} and NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3}-Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} salt mixtures form brines that transform to hydrous melts that do not truly 'dry out' until temperatures exceed 300 and 400 C, respectively. Thus a conducting solution is present for these salt assemblages over the thermal history of the repository. The corresponding brines form at lower relative humidity at higher temperatures. The NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture has a mutual deliquescence relative humidity (MDRH) of 25.9% at 120 C and 10.8% at 180 C. Similarly, the KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture has MDRH of 26.4% at 120 C and 20.0% at 150 C. The KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture salts also absorb some water (but do not appear to deliquesce) at 180 C and thus may also contribute to the transfer of electrons at interface between dust and the waste package surface. There is no experimental evidence to suggest that these brines will degas and form less deliquescent salt assemblages. Ammonium present in atmospheric and tunnel dust (as the chloride, nitrate, or sulfate) will readily decompose in the initial heating phase of the repository, and will affect subsequent behavior of the remaining salt mixture only through the removal of a stoichiometric equivalent of one or more anions. Although K-Na-NO{sub 3}-Cl brines form at high temperature and low relative humidity, these brines are dominated by nitrate, which is known to inhibit corrosion at lower temperature

  4. Development of Polymeric Waste Forms for the Encapsulation of Toxic Wastes Using an Emulsion-Encapsulation Based Process

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, R.; Quach, A.; Birnie, D. P.; Saez, A. E.; Ela, W. P.; Zeliniski, B. J. J.; Xia, G.; Smith, H.

    2003-01-01

    Developed technologies in vitrification, cement, and polymeric materials manufactured using flammable organic solvents have been used to encapsulate solid wastes, including low-level radioactive materials, but are impractical for high salt-content waste streams (Maio, 1998). In this work, we investigate an emulsification process for producing an aqueous-based polymeric waste form as a preliminary step towards fabricating hybrid organic/inorganic polyceram matrices. The material developed incorporates epoxy resin and polystyrene-butadiene (PSB) latex to produce a waste form that is non-flammable, light weight, of relatively low cost, and that can be loaded to a relatively high weight content of waste materials. Sodium nitrate was used as a model for the salt waste. Small-scale samples were manufactured and analyzed using leach tests designed to measure the diffusion coefficient and leachability index for the fastest diffusing species in the waste form, the salt ions. The microstructure and composition of the samples were probed using SEM/EDS techniques. The results show that some portion of the salt migrates towards the exterior surfaces of the waste forms during the curing process. A portion of the salt in the interior of the sample is contained in polymer corpuscles or sacs. These sacs are embedded in a polymer matrix phase that contains fine, well-dispersed salt crystals. The diffusion behavior observed in sections of the waste forms indicates that samples prepared using this emulsion process meet or exceed the leachability criteria suggested for low level radioactivity waste forms.

  5. Waste package/repository impact study: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-09-01

    The Waste Package/Repository Impact Study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using the current reference salt waste package in the salt repository conceptual design. All elements of the repository that may impact waste package parameters, i.e., (size, weight, heat load) were evaluated. The repository elements considered included waste hoist feasibility, transporter and emplacement machine feasibility, subsurface entry dimensions, feasibility of emplacement configuration, and temperature limits. The evaluations are discussed in detail with supplemental technical data included in Appendices to this report, as appropriate. Results and conclusions of the evaluations are discussed in light of the acceptability of the current reference waste package as the basis for salt conceptual design. Finally, recommendations are made relative to the salt project position on the application of the reference waste package as a basis for future design activities. 31 refs., 11 figs., 11 tabs.

  6. Microscopic evidence of grain boundary moisture during granular salt reconsolidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, M. M.; Hansen, F.; Bauer, S. J.; Stormont, J.

    2015-12-01

    Very low permeability is a principal reason salt formations are considered viable hosts for disposal of nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel. Granular salt is likely to be used as back-fill material and a seal system component. Salt formation pressures will promote reconsolidation of granular salt, eventually resulting in low permeabilities, comparable to native salt. Understanding the consolidation processes, dependent on the stress state, moisture availability and temperature, is important for demonstrating sealing functions and long-term repository performance. As granular salt consolidates, initial void reduction is achieved by brittle processes of grain rearrangement and cataclastic flow. At porosities less than 10%, grain boundary processes and crystal-plastic mechanisms govern further porosity reduction. When present, fluid assists in grain boundary processes and recrystallization. Fluid inclusions are typically found in abundance within bedded salt crystal structure and along grain boundaries, but are rarely observed internal to domal salt grains. We have observed fluid canals and evidence of moisture along grain boundaries in domal salt. In this research, we investigate grain boundary moisture in granular salt that has been reconsolidated under high temperatures to relatively low porosity. Mine-run salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and Avery Island was used to create cylindrical samples, vented and unvented, which were reconsolidated at 250°C and stresses to 20 MPa. Unvented reconsolidation retains essentially all the grain boundary moisture as found ubiquitously on scanning electron photomicrographs of consolidated samples which revealed an inhomogeneous distribution of canals from residual moisture. This contrasts significantly with the vented samples, which had virtually no grain boundary moisture after consolidation. Microstructural techniques include scanning electron, stereo-dynascopic, and optical microscopy. The observations will be used

  7. Mechanical and hydrological characterization of the near-field surrounding excavations in a geologic salt formation

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, Clifford L.

    2014-09-01

    The technical basis for salt disposal of nuclear waste resides in salt’s favorable physical, mechanical and hydrological characteristics. Undisturbed salt formations are impermeable. Upon mining, the salt formation experiences damage in the near-field rock proximal to the mined opening and salt permeability increases dramatically. The volume of rock that has been altered by such damage is called the disturbed rock zone (DRZ).

  8. Sinking of anhydrite blocks within a Newtonian salt diapir: modelling the influence of block aspect ratio and salt stratification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burchardt, Steffi; Koyi, Hemin; Schmeling, Harro; Fuchs, Lukas

    2012-03-01

    2-D Finite Differences models are used to analyse the strain produced by gravity-driven sinking of dense rectangular inclusions through homogeneous and vertically stratified Newtonian salt. We systematically modelled the descent of dense blocks of different sizes and initial orientations (aspect ratios) representing the Main Anhydrite fragments documented within, for example, the Gorleben salt diapir. Model results demonstrate that size of the blocks is a governing parameter which dictates the amount of strain produced within the block and in the surrounding host salt. Initial block orientation (aspect ratio), on the other hand, causes fundamental differences in block deformation, while the resulting structures produced in the salt are principally the same in all models with homogeneous salt, covering shear zones and folding of passive markers. In models with vertically stratified salt with different viscosities, block descent takes place along complex paths. This results from greater strain accommodation by the 'salt formation' with the lowest viscosity and an asymmetrical distribution of initial vertical shear stresses around the block. Consequently, in these models, block strain is lower compared with the models with homogeneous salt (for the same viscosity as the high-viscosity salt), and sinking is accompanied by block rotation. The latter causes diapir-scale disturbance of the pre-sinking salt stratigraphy and complex sinking paths of the blocks. In particular, vertically oriented blocks sink into high-viscosity salt and drag with them some low-viscosity salt, while horizontal blocks sink in the low-viscosity salt. The resultant sinking velocities vary strongly depending on the sinking path of the block. Based on model results and observed structural configuration within the Gorleben salt diapir, we conclude that the internal complexity of a salt diapir governs its post-ascent deformation. Salt structure and its interaction with dense blocks should hence be

  9. Distribution of saccharides and salts on amphoteric ion-exchange resin.

    PubMed

    Sha, Yuki; Hasegawa, Ayako; Aimoto, Utano; Adachi, Shuji

    2017-04-01

    An amphoteric ion-exchange resin hardly shrank in 550 and 300 g/L glucose and sodium chloride solutions, respectively; however, the bed packed with a cation-exchange resin shrank considerably. From the distribution coefficients of some saccharides, the swelling pressure of the amphoteric ion-exchange resin was estimated to be 2.0 MPa at 25 °C. The distribution coefficients of glucose, galactose, fructose, and mannose were independent of their concentration and were about 0.621. On the other hand, the apparent distribution coefficients of NaF, NaCl, NaBr, NaI, LiCl, KCl, and CsCl largely depended on concentration. A model for the distribution of salts on the amphoteric resin was proposed, assuming an interaction between the anion of the salt and the positively charged fixed ions with binding constant B. The B values of the chloride salts were nearly the same (1.69-2.94 L/mol), while the values of the sodium salts were largely different depending on the anion.

  10. Characterization of an extremely salt-tolerant and thermostable phytase from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens US573.

    PubMed

    Boukhris, Ines; Farhat-Khemakhem, Ameny; Blibech, Monia; Bouchaala, Kameleddine; Chouayekh, Hichem

    2015-09-01

    The extracellular phytase produced by the Bacillus amyloliquefaciens US573 strain, isolated from geothermal soil located in Southern Tunisia was purified and characterized. This calcium-dependent and bile-stable enzyme (PHY US573) was optimally active at pH 7.5 and 70 °C. It showed a good stability at pH ranging from 4 to 10, and especially, an exceptional thermostability as it recovered 50 and 62% of activity after heating for 10 min at 100 and 90 °C, respectively. In addition, PHY US573 was found to be extremely salt-tolerant since it preserved 80 and 95% of activity in the presence of 20 g/l of NaCl and LiCl, respectively. The gene corresponding to PHY US573 was cloned. It encodes a 383 amino acids polypeptide exhibiting 99% identity with the highly thermostable phytases from Bacillus sp. MD2 and B. amyloliquefaciens DS11 (3 and 5 residues difference, respectively), suggesting the existence of common molecular determinants responsible for their remarkable heat stability. Overall, our findings illustrated that in addition to its high potential for application in feed industry, the salt tolerance of the PHY US573 phytase, may represent an exciting new avenue for improvement of phosphorus-use efficiency of salt-tolerant plants in soils with high salt and phytate content.

  11. Preconceptual design of a salt splitting process using ceramic membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Kurath, D.E.; Brooks, K.P.; Hollenberg, G.W.; Clemmer, R.; Balagopal, S.; Landro, T.; Sutija, D.P.

    1997-01-01

    Inorganic ceramic membranes for salt splitting of radioactively contaminated sodium salt solutions are being developed for treating U. S. Department of Energy tank wastes. The process consists of electrochemical separation of sodium ions from the salt solution using sodium (Na) Super Ion Conductors (NaSICON) membranes. The primary NaSICON compositions being investigated are based on rare- earth ions (RE-NaSICON). Potential applications include: caustic recycling for sludge leaching, regenerating ion exchange resins, inhibiting corrosion in carbon-steel tanks, or retrieving tank wastes; reducing the volume of low-level wastes volume to be disposed of; adjusting pH and reducing competing cations to enhance cesium ion exchange processes; reducing sodium in high-level-waste sludges; and removing sodium from acidic wastes to facilitate calcining. These applications encompass wastes stored at the Hanford, Savannah River, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory sites. The overall project objective is to supply a salt splitting process unit that impacts the waste treatment and disposal flowsheets and meets user requirements. The potential flowsheet impacts include improving the efficiency of the waste pretreatment processes, reducing volume, and increasing the quality of the final waste disposal forms. Meeting user requirements implies developing the technology to the point where it is available as standard equipment with predictable and reliable performance. This report presents two preconceptual designs for a full-scale salt splitting process based on the RE-NaSICON membranes to distinguish critical items for testing and to provide a vision that site users can evaluate.

  12. Comparison of risks due to HLW and SURF repositories in bedded salt

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, M.S.Y.; Ortiz, N.R.; Wahi, K.K.

    1983-01-01

    A methodology was developed for use in the analysis of risks from geologic disposal of nuclear wastes. This methodology is applied to two conceptual nuclear waste repositories in bedded salt containing High-Level Waste (HLW) and Spent Un-Reprocessed Fuel (SURF), respectively. A comparison of the risk estimated from the HLW and SURF repositories is presented.

  13. Salt tectonics on Venus

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, C.A.; Amsbury, D.

    1986-05-01

    The discovery of a surprisingly high deuterium/hydrogen ratio on Venus immediately led to the speculation that Venus may have once had a volume of surface water comparable to that of the terrestrial oceans. The authors propose that the evaporation of this putative ocean may have yielded residual salt deposits that formed various terrain features depicted in Venera 15 and 16 radar images. By analogy with models for the total evaporation of the terrestrial oceans, evaporite deposits on Venus should be at least tens to hundreds of meters thick. From photogeologic evidence and in-situ chemical analyses, it appears that the salt plains were later buried by lava flows. On Earth, salt diapirism leads to the formation of salt domes, anticlines, and elongated salt intrusions - features having dimensions of roughly 1 to 100 km. Due to the rapid erosion of salt by water, surface evaporite landforms are only common in dry regions such as the Zagros Mountains of Iran, where salt plugs and glaciers exist. Venus is far drier than Iran; extruded salt should be preserved, although the high surface temperature (470/sup 0/C) would probably stimulate rapid salt flow. Venus possesses a variety of circular landforms, tens to hundreds of kilometers wide, which could be either megasalt domes or salt intrusions colonizing impact craters. Additionally, arcurate bands seen in the Maxwell area of Venus could be salt intrusions formed in a region of tectonic stress. These large structures may not be salt features; nonetheless, salt features should exist on Venus.

  14. Characterization of salt cake from secondary aluminum production.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiao-Lan; Badawy, Amro El; Arambewela, Mahendranath; Ford, Robert; Barlaz, Morton; Tolaymat, Thabet

    2014-05-30

    Salt cake is a major waste component generated from the recycling of secondary aluminum processing (SAP) waste. Worldwide, the aluminum industry produces nearly 5 million tons of waste annually and the end-of-life management of these wastes is becoming a challenge in the U.S. and elsewhere. In this study, the mineral phases, metal content and metal leachability of 39 SAP waste salt cake samples collected from 10 different facilities across the U.S. were determined. The results showed that aluminum (Al), aluminum oxide, aluminum nitride and its oxides, spinel and elpasolite are the dominant aluminum mineral phases in salt cake. The average total Al content was 14% (w/w). The overall percentage of the total leachable Al in salt cake was 0.6% with approximately 80% of the samples leaching at a level less than 1% of the total aluminum content. The extracted trace metal concentrations in deionized water were relatively low (μgL(-1) level). The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) was employed to further evaluate leachability and the results indicated that the leached concentrations of toxic metals from salt cake were much lower than the EPA toxicity limit set by USEPA.

  15. Molten salt electrolyte separator

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1996-01-01

    A molten salt electrolyte/separator for battery and related electrochemical systems including a molten electrolyte composition and an electrically insulating solid salt dispersed therein, to provide improved performance at higher current densities and alternate designs through ease of fabrication.

  16. What Are Bath Salts?

    MedlinePlus

    ... risks of using synthetic cathinones (bath salts)? Another danger of bath salts is that they might contain ... Drugs: Is There a Way to Reduce the Dangers? June 09, 2015 / The NIDA Blog Team Concert ...

  17. Utah: Salt Lake Region

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Winter and Summer Views of the Salt Lake Region     View Larger Image Magnificent views of the region surrounding Salt Lake City, Utah are captured in these winter and summer images from the ...

  18. Retrospective salt tectonics

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, M.P.A.

    1996-12-31

    The conceptual breakthroughs in understanding salt tectonics can be recognized by reviewing the history of salt tectonics, which divides naturally into three parts: the pioneering era, the fluid era, and the brittle era. The pioneering era (1856-1933) featured the search for a general hypothesis of salt diapirism, initially dominated by bizarre, erroneous notions of igneous activity, residual islands, in situ crystallization, osmotic pressures, and expansive crystallization. Gradually data from oil exploration constrained speculation. The effects of buoyancy versus orogeny were debated, contact relations were characterized, salt glaciers were discovered, and the concepts of downbuilding and differential loading were proposed as diapiric mechanisms. The fluid era (1933-{approximately}1989) was dominated by the view that salt tectonics resulted from Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities in which a dense fluid overburden having negligible yield strength sinks into a less dense fluid salt layer, displacing it upward. Density contrasts, viscosity contrasts, and dominant wavelengths were emphasized, whereas strength and faulting of the overburden were ignored. During this era, palinspastic reconstructions were attempted; salt upwelling below thin overburdens was recognized; internal structures of mined diapirs were discovered; peripheral sinks, turtle structures, and diapir families were comprehended; flow laws for dry salt were formulated; and contractional belts on divergent margins and allochthonous salt sheets were recognized. The 1970s revealed the basic driving force of salt allochthons, intrasalt minibasins, finite strains in diapirs, the possibility of thermal convection in salt, direct measurement of salt glacial flow stimulated by rainfall, and the internal structure of convecting evaporites and salt glaciers. The 1980`s revealed salt rollers, subtle traps, flow laws for damp salt, salt canopies, and mushroom diapirs.

  19. Salt Composition Derived from Veazey Composition by Thermodynamic Modeling and Predicted Composition of Drum Contents

    SciTech Connect

    Weisbrod, Kirk Ryan; Veirs, Douglas Kirk; Funk, David John; Clark, David Lewis

    2016-03-11

    This report describes the derivation of the salt composition from the Veazey salt stream analysis. It also provides an estimate of the proportions of the kitty litter, nitrate salt and neutralizer that was contained in drum 68660. While the actinide content of waste streams was judiciously followed in the 1980s in TA-55, no record of the salt composition could be found. Consequently, a salt waste stream produced from 1992 to 1994 and reported by Gerry Veazey provided the basis for this study. While chemical analysis of the waste stream was highly variable, an average analysis provided input to the Stream Analyzer software to calculate a composition for a concentrated solid nitrate salt and liquid waste stream. The calculation predicted the gas / condensed phase compositions as well as solid salt / saturated liquid compositions. The derived composition provides an estimate of the nitrate feedstream to WIPP for which kinetic measurements can be made. The ratio of salt to Swheat in drum 68660 contents was estimated through an overall mass balance on the parent and sibling drums. The RTR video provided independent confirmation concerning the volume of the mixture. The solid salt layer contains the majority of the salt at a ratio with Swheat that potentially could become exothermic.

  20. Engineered waste-package-system design specification

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-05-01

    This report documents the waste package performance requirements and geologic and waste form data bases used in developing the conceptual designs for waste packages for salt, tuff, and basalt geologies. The data base reflects the latest geotechnical information on the geologic media of interest. The parameters or characteristics specified primarily cover spent fuel, defense high-level waste, and commercial high-level waste forms. The specification documents the direction taken during the conceptual design activity. A separate design specification will be developed prior to the start of the preliminary design activity.

  1. 21 CFR 100.155 - Salt and iodized salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Salt and iodized salt. 100.155 Section 100.155... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION GENERAL Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 100.155 Salt and iodized salt. (a) For the purposes of this section, the term iodized salt or iodized table salt is...

  2. 21 CFR 100.155 - Salt and iodized salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salt and iodized salt. 100.155 Section 100.155... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION GENERAL Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 100.155 Salt and iodized salt. (a) For the purposes of this section, the term iodized salt or iodized table salt is...

  3. 21 CFR 100.155 - Salt and iodized salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Salt and iodized salt. 100.155 Section 100.155... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION GENERAL Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 100.155 Salt and iodized salt. (a) For the purposes of this section, the term iodized salt or iodized table salt is...

  4. 21 CFR 100.155 - Salt and iodized salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Salt and iodized salt. 100.155 Section 100.155... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION GENERAL Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 100.155 Salt and iodized salt. (a) For the purposes of this section, the term iodized salt or iodized table salt is...

  5. 21 CFR 100.155 - Salt and iodized salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Salt and iodized salt. 100.155 Section 100.155... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION GENERAL Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 100.155 Salt and iodized salt. (a) For the purposes of this section, the term iodized salt or iodized table salt is...

  6. Treatment for hydrazine-containing waste water solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yade, N.

    1986-01-01

    The treatment for waste solutions containing hydrazine is presented. The invention attempts oxidation and decomposition of hydrazine in waste water in a simple and effective processing. The method adds activated charcoal to waste solutions containing hydrazine while maintaining a pH value higher than 8, and adding iron salts if necessary. Then, the solution is aerated.

  7. Development of iron phosphate ceramic waste form to immobilize radioactive waste solution

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Jongkwon; Um, Wooyong; Choung, Sungwook

    2014-05-09

    The objective of this research was to develop an iron phosphate ceramic (IPC) waste form using converter slag obtained as a by-product of the steel industry as a source of iron instead of conventional iron oxide. Both synthetic off-gas scrubber solution containing technetium-99 (or Re as a surrogate) and LiCl-KCl eutectic salt, a final waste solution from pyrochemical processing of spent nuclear fuel, were used as radioactive waste streams. The IPC waste form was characterized for compressive strength, reduction capacity, chemical durability, and contaminant leachability. Compressive strengths of the IPC waste form prepared with different types of waste solutions were 16 MPa and 19 MPa for LiCl-KCl eutectic salt and the off-gas scrubber simulant, respectively, which meet the minimum compressive strength of 3.45 MPa (500 psi) for waste forms to be accepted into the radioactive waste repository. The reduction capacity of converter slag, a main dry ingredient used to prepare the IPC waste form, was 4,136 meq/kg by the Ce(IV) method, which is much higher than those of the conventional Fe oxides used for the IPC waste form and the blast furnace slag materials. Average leachability indexes of Tc, Li, and K for the IPC waste form were higher than 6.0, and the IPC waste form demonstrated stable durability even after 63-day leaching. In addition, the Toxicity Characteristic Leach Procedure measurements of converter slag and the IPC waste form with LiCl-KCl eutectic salt met the universal treatment standard of the leachability limit for metals regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. This study confirms the possibility of development of the IPC waste form using converter slag, showing its immobilization capability for radionuclides in both LiCl-KCl eutectic salt and off-gas scrubber solutions with significant cost savings.

  8. Development of iron phosphate ceramic waste form to immobilize radioactive waste solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jongkwon; Um, Wooyong; Choung, Sungwook

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this research was to develop an iron phosphate ceramic (IPC) waste form using converter slag obtained as a by-product of the steel industry as a source of iron instead of conventional iron oxide. Both synthetic off-gas scrubber solution containing technetium-99 (or Re as a surrogate) and LiCl-KCl eutectic salt, a final waste solution from pyrochemical processing of spent nuclear fuel, were used as radioactive waste streams. The IPC waste form was characterized for compressive strength, reduction capacity, chemical durability, and contaminant leachability. Compressive strengths of the IPC waste form prepared with different types of waste solutions were 16 MPa and 19 MPa for LiCl-KCl eutectic salt and the off-gas scrubber simulant, respectively, which meet the minimum compressive strength of 3.45 MPa (500 psi) for waste forms to be accepted into the radioactive waste repository. The reduction capacity of converter slag, a main dry ingredient used to prepare the IPC waste form, was 4136 meq/kg by the Ce(IV) method, which is much higher than those of the conventional Fe oxides used for the IPC waste form and the blast furnace slag materials. Average leachability indexes of Tc, Li, and K for the IPC waste form were higher than 6.0, and the IPC waste form demonstrated stable durability even after 63-day leaching. In addition, the Toxicity Characteristic Leach Procedure measurements of converter slag and the IPC waste form with LiCl-KCl eutectic salt met the universal treatment standard of the leachability limit for metals regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. This study confirms the possibility of development of the IPC waste form using converter slag, showing its immobilization capability for radionuclides in both LiCl-KCl eutectic salt and off-gas scrubber solutions with significant cost savings.

  9. Sex-specific effects of LiCl treatment on preservation of renal function and extended life-span in murine models of SLE: perspective on insights into the potential basis for survivorship in NZB/W female mice.

    PubMed

    Hart, David A

    2016-01-01

    Considerable research effort has been invested in attempting to understand immune dysregulation leading to autoimmunity and target organ damage. In systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), patients can develop a systemic disease with a number of organs involved. One of the major target organs is the kidney, but patients vary in the progression of the end-organ targeting of this organ. Some patients develop glomerulonephritis only, while others develop rapidly progressive end organ failure. In murine models of SLE, renal involvement can also occur. Studies performed over the past several years have indicated that treatment with LiCl of females, but not males of the NZB/W model, at an early age during the onset of disease, can prevent development of end-stage renal disease in a significant percentage of the animals. While on Li treatment, up to 80 % of the females can exhibit long-term survival with evidence of mild glomerulonephritis which does not progress to renal failure in spite of on-going autoimmunity. Stopping the treatment led to a reactivation of the disease and renal failure. Li treatment of other murine models of SLE was less effective and decreased survivorship in male BxSB mice, exhibited little effect on male MRL-lpr mice, and only modestly improved survivorship in female MRL-lpr mice. This perspective piece discusses the findings of several related studies which support the concept that protecting target organs such as the kidney, even in the face of continued immune insults and some inflammation, can lead to prolonged survival with retention of organ function. Some possible mechanisms for the effectiveness of Li treatment in this context are also discussed. However, the detailed mechanistic basis for the sex-specific effects of LiCl treatment particularly in the NZB/W model remains to be elucidated. Elucidating such details may provide important clues for development of effective treatment for patients with SLE, ~90 % of which are females.

  10. Topical reports on Louisiana salt domes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-09-01

    The Institute for Environmental Studies at Louisiana State University conducted research into the potential use of Louisiana salt domes for disposal of nuclear waste material. Topical reports generated in 1981 and 1982 related to Vacherie and Rayburn's domes are compiled and presented, which address palynological studies, tiltmeter monitoring, precise releveling, saline springs, and surface hydrology. The latter two are basically a compilation of references related to these topics. Individual reports are abstracted.

  11. ENVIROCARE OF UTAH: EXPANDING WASTE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA TO PROVIDE LOW-LEVEL AND MIXED WASTE DISPOSAL OPTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, B.; Loveland, K.

    2003-02-27

    Envirocare of Utah operates a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility 80 miles west of Salt Lake City in Clive, Utah. Accepted waste types includes NORM, 11e2 byproduct material, Class A low-level waste, and mixed waste. Since 1988, Envirocare has offered disposal options for environmental restoration waste for both government and commercial remediation projects. Annual waste receipts exceed 12 million cubic feet. The waste acceptance criteria (WAC) for the Envirocare facility have significantly expanded to accommodate the changing needs of restoration projects and waste generators since its inception, including acceptable physical waste forms, radiological acceptance criteria, RCRA requirements and treatment capabilities, PCB acceptance, and liquids acceptance. Additionally, there are many packaging, transportation, and waste management options for waste streams acceptable at Envirocare. Many subcontracting vehicles are also available to waste generators for both government and commercial activities.

  12. Brine flow in heated geologic salt.

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhlman, Kristopher L.; Malama, Bwalya

    2013-03-01

    This report is a summary of the physical processes, primary governing equations, solution approaches, and historic testing related to brine migration in geologic salt. Although most information presented in this report is not new, we synthesize a large amount of material scattered across dozens of laboratory reports, journal papers, conference proceedings, and textbooks. We present a mathematical description of the governing brine flow mechanisms in geologic salt. We outline the general coupled thermal, multi-phase hydrologic, and mechanical processes. We derive these processes governing equations, which can be used to predict brine flow. These equations are valid under a wide variety of conditions applicable to radioactive waste disposal in rooms and boreholes excavated into geologic salt.

  13. Salt deposition studies in a supercritical water oxidation reactor

    SciTech Connect

    LaJeunesse, C.A.; Rice, S.F.; Hanush, R.G.; Aiken, J.D.

    1993-10-01

    Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO), a method for destroying aqueous organic waste, is a relatively new technology discovered about fifteen years ago. SCWO occurs at moderate temperatures and pressures where the ability of water to dissolve hydrocarbons and other organic chemicals is greatly enhanced. Depending on the feed stream and residence time, the dissolved organic waste reacts with an oxidizer to produce innocuous combustion products. However, oxidation of organic material containing heteroatoms, such as sulfur or phosphorous, forms sulfuric or phosphoric acid in the absence of metal ions. In situ neutralization with sodium hydroxide then forms salts that are insoluble at supercritical conditions. These salts deposit in the reactor affecting the processing of the organic material. To design a system that can accommodate the formation of these salts, it is important to understand the deposition process quantitatively. This paper is an interim report on an experimental program designed to understand the salt deposition phenomena.

  14. Salt-thermal zeolitization of fly ash.

    PubMed

    Choi, C L; Park, M; Lee, D H; Kim, I E; Park, B Y; Choi, J

    2001-07-01

    The molten-salt method has been recently proposed as a new approach to zeolitization of fly ash. Unlike the hydrothermal method, this method employs salt mixtures as the reaction medium without any addition of water. In this study, systematic investigation has been conducted on zeolitization of fly ash in a NaOH-NaNO3 system in order to elucidate the mechanism of zeolite formation and to achieve its optimization. Zeolitization of fly ash was conducted by thermally treating a powder mixture of fly ash, NaOH, and NaNO3. Zeolitization of fly ash took place above 200 degrees C, a temperature lower than the melting points of salt and base in the NaOH-NaNO3 system. However, it was uncertain whether the reactions took place in a local molten state or in a solid state. Therefore, the proposed method is renamed the "salt-thermal" method rather than the "molten-salt" method. Mainly because of difficulty in mobility of components in salt mixtures, zeolitization seems to occur within a local reaction system. In situ rearrangement of activated components seems to lead to zeolite formation. Particle growth, rather than crystal growth through agglomeration, resulted in no distinct morphologies of zeolite phases. Following are the optimal zeolitization conditions of the salt-thermal method: temperature, 250-350 degrees C; time, 3-12 h; weight ratio of NaOH/NaNO3, 0.3-0.5; weight ratio of NaNO3/fly ash, 0.7-1.4. Therefore, it is clear from this work that the salt-thermal method could be applied to massive zeolitization of fly ash as a new alternative method for recycling this waste.

  15. Reference repository design concept for bedded salt

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, D.W.; Martin, R.W.

    1980-10-08

    A reference design concept is presented for the subsurface portions of a nuclear waste repository in bedded salt. General geologic, geotechnical, hydrologic and geochemical data as well as descriptions of the physical systems are provided for use on generic analyses of the pre- and post-sealing performance of repositories in this geologic medium. The geology of bedded salt deposits and the regional and repository horizon stratigraphy are discussed. Structural features of salt beds including discontinuities and dissolution features are presented and their effect on repository performance is discussed. Seismic hazards and the potential effects of earthquakes on underground repositories are presented. The effect on structural stability and worker safety during construction from hydrocarbon and inorganic gases is described. Geohydrologic considerations including regional hydrology, repository scale hydrology and several hydrological failure modes are presented in detail as well as the hydrological considerations that effect repository design. Operational phase performance is discussed with respect to operations, ventilation system, shaft conveyances, waste handling and retrieval systems and receival rates of nuclear waste. Performance analysis of the post sealing period of a nuclear repository is discussed, and parameters to be used in such an analysis are presented along with regulatory constraints. Some judgements are made regarding hydrologic failure scenarios. Finally, the design and licensing process, consistent with the current licensing procedure is described in a format that can be easily understood.

  16. New public information resources on salt caverns.

    SciTech Connect

    Tomasko, D.; Veil, J. A.

    1999-08-25

    For the past decade, interest has been growing in using underground salt caverns for disposing of wastes. The Railroad Commission of Texas has permitted a few caverns for disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW) and one cavern for disposal of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) from oil field activities. Several salt caverns in Canada have also been permitted for disposal of NOW. In addition, oil and gas agencies in Louisiana and New Mexico are developing cavern disposal regulations. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has funded several studies to evaluate the technical feasibility, legality, economic viability, and risk of disposing of NOW and NORM in caverns. The results of these studies have been disseminated to the scientific and regulatory communities. However, as use of caverns for waste disposal increases, more government and industry representatives and members of the public will become aware of this practice and will need adequate information about how disposal caverns operate and the risks they pose. In anticipation of this need, DOE has fi.mded Argonne National Laboratory to develop a salt cavern public outreach program. Key components of this program are an informational brochure designed for nontechnical persons and a website that provides greater detail on cavern operations and allows downloadable access to the reports on the topic funded by DOE. This paper provides an overview of the public outreach program.

  17. New public information resources on salt caverns.

    SciTech Connect

    Tomasko, D.; Veil, J. A.

    1999-08-25

    For the past decade, interest has been growing in using underground salt caverns for disposing of wastes. The Railroad Commission of Texas has permitted a few caverns for disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW) and one cavern for disposal of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) from oil field activities. Several salt caverns in Canada have also been permitted for disposal of NOW. In addition, oil and gas agencies in Louisiana and New Mexico are developing cavern disposal regulations. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has funded several studies to evaluate the technical feasibility, legality, economic viability, and risk of disposing of NOW and NORM in caverns. The results of these studies have been disseminated to the scientific and regulatory communities. However, as use of caverns for waste disposal increases, more government and industry representatives and members of the public will become aware of this practice and will need adequate information about how disposal caverns operate and the risks they pose. In anticipation of this need, DOE has funded Argonne National Laboratory to develop a salt cavern public outreach program. Key components of this program are an informational brochure designed for nontechnical persons and a website that provides greater detail on cavern operations and allows downloadable access to the reports on the topic funded by DOE. This paper provides an overview of the public outreach program.

  18. Hazardous Waste

    MedlinePlus

    ... you throw these substances away, they become hazardous waste. Some hazardous wastes come from products in our homes. Our garbage can include such hazardous wastes as old batteries, bug spray cans and paint ...

  19. Supercritical waste oxidation of aqueous wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Modell, M.

    1986-01-01

    For aqueous wastes containing 1 to 20 wt% organics, supercritical water oxidation is less costly than controlled incineration or activated carbon treatment and far more efficient than wet oxidation. Above the critical temperature (374 C) and pressure (218 atm) of water, organic materials and gases are completely miscible with water. In supercritical water oxidation, organics, air and water are brought together in a mixture at 250 atm and temperatures above 400 C. Organic oxidation is initiated spontaneously at these conditions. The heat of combustion is released within the fluid and results in a rise in temperature 600 to 650 C. Under these conditions, organics are destroyed rapidly with efficiencies in excess of 99.999%. Heteroatoms are oxidized to acids, which can be precipitated out as salts by adding a base to the feed. Examples are given for process configurations to treat aqueous wastes with 10 and 2 wt% organics.

  20. Laboratory investigation of crushed salt consolidation and fracture healing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    A laboratory test program was conducted to investigate the consolidation behavior of crushed salt and fracture healing in natural and artificial salt. Crushed salt is proposed for use as backfill in a nuclear waste repository in salt. Artificial block salt is proposed for use in sealing a repository. Four consolidation tests were conducted in a hydrostatic pressure vessel at a maximum pressure of 2500 psi (17.2 MPa) and at room temperature. Three 1-month tests were conducted on salt obtained from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and one 2-month test was conducted on salt from Avery Island. Permeability was obtained using argon and either a steady-state or transient method. Initial porosities ranged from 0.26 to 0.36 and initial permeabilities from 2000 to 50,000 md. Final porosities and permeabilities ranged from 0.05 to 0.19 and from <10/sup -5/ md to 110 md, respectively. The lowest final porosity (0.05) and permeability (<10/sup -5/ md) were obtained in a 1-month test in which 2.3% moisture was added to the salt at the beginning of the test. The consolidation rate was much more rapid than in any of the dry salt tests. The fracture healing program included 20 permeability tests conducted on fractured and unfractured samples. The tests were conducted in a Hoek cell at hydrostatic pressures up to 3000 psi (20.6 MPa) with durations up to 8 days. For the natural rock salt tested, permeability was strongly dependent on confining pressure and time. The effect of confining pressure was much weaker in the artificial salt. In most cases the combined effects of time and pressure were to reduce the permeability of fractured samples to the same order of magnitude (or less) as the permeability measured prior to fracturing.

  1. Hazardous solid waste from agriculture.

    PubMed Central

    Loehr, R C

    1978-01-01

    Large quantities of food processing, crop, forestry, and animal solid wastes are generated in the United States each year. The major components of these wastes are biodegradable. However, they also contain components such as nitrogen, human and animal pathogens, medicinals, feed additives, salts, and certain metals, that under uncontrolled conditions can be detrimental to aquatic, plant, animal, or human life. The most common method of disposal of these wastes is application to the land. Thus the major pathways for transmission of hazards are from and through the soil. Use of these wastes as animal feed also can be a pathway. While at this time there are no crises associated with hazardous materials in agricultural solid wastes, the potential for problems should not be underestimated. Manpower and financial support should be provided to obtain more detailed information in this area, esepcially to better delineate transport and dispersal and to determine and evaluate risks. PMID:367770

  2. Novel ternary molten salt electrolytes for intermediate-temperature sodium/nickel chloride batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Coyle, Christopher A.; Kim, Jin Y.; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Yang, Zhenguo

    2012-12-01

    The sodium-nickel chloride (ZEBRA) battery is operated at relatively high temperature (250-350 °C) to achieve adequate electrochemical performance. Reducing the operating temperature in the range of 150200 °C can not only lead to enhanced cycle life by suppressing temperature-related degradations, but also allow the use of lower cost materials for construction. To achieve adequate electrochemical performance at lower operating temperatures, reduction in ohmic losses is required, including the reduced ohmic resistance of β″-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) and the incorporation of low melting point secondary electrolytes. In present work, planar-type Na/NiCl2 cells with a thin BASE (600 μm) and low melting point secondary electrolyte were evaluated at reduced temperatures. Molten salts used as secondary electrolytes were fabricated by the partial replacement of NaCl in the standard secondary electrolyte (NaAlCl4) with other lower melting point alkali metal salts such as NaBr, LiCl, and LiBr. Electrochemical characterization of these ternary molten salts demonstrated improved ionic conductivity and sufficient electrochemical window at reduced temperatures. Furthermore, Na/NiCl2 cells with 50 mol% NaBr-containing secondary electrolyte exhibited reduced polarizations at 175 °C compared to the cell with the standard NaAlCl4 catholyte. The cells also exhibited stable cycling performance even at 150 °C.

  3. Novel ternary molten salt electrolytes for intermediate-temperature sodium/nickel chloride batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Coyle, Christopher A.; Kim, Jin Y.; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Yang, Zhenguo

    2012-12-15

    The sodium–nickel chloride (ZEBRA) battery is operated at relatively high temperature (250–350 °C) to achieve adequate electrochemical performance. Reducing the operating temperature in the range of 150200 °C can not only lead to enhanced cycle life by suppressing temperature-related degradations, but also allow the use of lower cost materials for construction. To achieve adequate electrochemical performance at lower operating temperatures, reduction in ohmic losses is required, including the reduced ohmic resistance of β"-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) and the incorporation of low melting point secondary electrolytes. In present work, planar-type Na/NiCl2 cells with a thin BASE (600 μm) and low melting point secondary electrolyte were evaluated at reduced temperatures. Molten salts used as secondary electrolytes were fabricated by the partial replacement of NaCl in the standard secondary electrolyte (NaAlCl4) with other lower melting point alkali metal salts such as NaBr, LiCl, and LiBr. Electrochemical characterization of these ternary molten salts demonstrated improved ionic conductivity and sufficient electrochemical window at reduced temperatures. Furthermore, Na/NiCl2 cells with 50 mol% NaBr-containing secondary electrolyte exhibited reduced polarizations at 175 °C compared to the cell with the standard NaAlCl4 catholyte. Finally, the cells also exhibited stable cycling performance even at 150 °C.

  4. Effect of salts on the electrospinning of poly(vinyl alcohol)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanger, Jonathan J.; Tucker, Nick; Staiger, Mark; Kirwan, Kerry; Coles, Stuart; Jacobs, Daniel; Larsen, Nigel

    2009-07-01

    Fibres with a diameter in the nanometer range were electrospun from aqueous poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVOH). In order to improve the mass deposition rate and decrease the final fibre diameter salts (NaCl, LiCl, LiBr and LiF) were added to the solution. The aim was to increase the charge density and hence increase the electrostatic forces on the fluid. It was found that with increasing salt concentration the charge density did increase. However the mass deposition rate was found to decrease and the final fibre diameter was found to increase. The decrease in mass deposition rate is explained by considering the concept of a virtual orifice. The increase in the final fibre diameter is explained by considering the charge distribution in the jet when it behaves like a conductor compared to when it behaves like an insulator. Both mechanisms result from the increase in conductivity of the PVOH solution without significantly modifying other solution properties when salt is added.

  5. Investigation of concentration-dependence of thermodynamic properties of lanthanum, yttrium, scandium and terbium in eutectic LiCl-KCl molten salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yafei; Zhou, Wentao; Zhang, Jinsuo

    2016-09-01

    Thermodynamic properties of rare earth metals in LiCl-KCl molten salt electrolyte are crucial to the development of electrochemical separation for the treatment of used nuclear fuels. In the present study, activity coefficient, apparent potential, and diffusion coefficient of lanthanum, yttrium, scandium, and terbium in the molten salt (58 at% LiCl and 42 at% KCl) were calculated by the method of molecular dynamics simulation up to a concentration around 3 at% at temperatures of 723 K and 773 K. It was found that the activity coefficient and the apparent potential increase with the species concentration while diffusion coefficient shows a trend of increase followed by decrease. The calculated results were validated by available measurement data of dilution cases. This research extends the range of data to a wide component and would provide further insight to the pyroprocessing design and safeguards.

  6. SALT Science Conference 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, David; Schroeder, Anja

    2015-06-01

    The Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) has seen great changes in the last years following the beginning of full time science operations in 2011. The three first generation instruments, namely the SALTICAM imager, the Robert Stobie Spectrograph (RSS) and its multiple modes and finally in 2014, the new High Resolution Spectrograph (HRS), have commissioned it. The SALT community now eagerly anticipate the installation and commissioning of the near-infrared arm of RSS, likely to commence in 2016. The the third "Science with SALT" conference was held at the Stellenbosch Institute of Advanced Study from 1-5 June 2015. The goals of this conference were to: -Present and discuss recent results from SALT observations; -Anticipate scientific programs that will be carried out with new SALT instrumentation such as RSS-NIR; -Provide a scientific environment in which to foster inter-institutional and inter-facility collaborations between scientists at the different SALT partners; -Provide an opportunity for students and postdocs to become more engaged in SALT science and operations; -Encourage the scientific strategic planning that will be necessary to insure an important role for SALT in an era of large astronomical facilities in the southern hemisphere such as MeerKAT, the SKA, LSST, and ALMA; -Consider options for future instrumentation and technical development of SALT; and, -Present, discuss, and engage in the SALT Collateral Benefits program led by SAAO. Conference proceedings editors: David Buckley and Anja Schroeder

  7. Tank 37H Salt Removal Batch Process and Salt Dissolution Mixing Study

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, K.C.

    2001-09-18

    Tank 30H is the receipt tank for concentrate from the 3H Evaporator. Tank 30H has had problems, such as cooling coil failure, which limit its ability to receive concentrate from the 3H Evaporator. SRS High Level Waste wishes to use Tank 37H as the receipt tank for the 3H Evaporator concentrate. Prior to using Tank 37H as the 3H Evaporator concentrate receipt tank, HLW must remove 50 inches of salt cake from the tank. They requested SRTC to evaluate various salt removal methods for Tank 37H. These methods include slurry pumps, Flygt mixers, the modified density gradient method, and molecular diffusion.

  8. Photochemistry of triarylsulfonium salts

    SciTech Connect

    Dektar, J.L.; Hacker, N.P. )

    1990-08-01

    The photolysis of triphenylsulfonium, tris(4-methylphenyl)sulfonium, tris(4-chlorophenyl)sulfonium, several monosubstituted (4-F, 4-Cl, 4-Me, 4-MeO, 4-PhS, and 4-PhCO), and disubstituted (4,4{prime}-Me{sub 2} and 4,4{prime}-(MeO){sub 2}) triphenylsulfonium salts was examined in solution. It was found that direct irradiation of triphenylsulfonium salts produced new rearrangement products, phenylthiobiphenyls, along with diphenyl sulfide, which had been previously reported. Similarly, the triarylsulfonium salts, with the exception of the (4-(phenylthio)phenyl)diphenylsulfonium salts produced new rearrangement products, phenylthiobiphenyls, along with diphenyl sulfide, which had been previously reported. Similarly, the triarylsulfonium salts, with the exception of the (4-(phenylthio)phenyl)diphenylsulfonium salts, gave the new rearrangement products. The mechanism for direct photolysis is proposed to occur from the singlet excited states to give a predominant heterolytic cleavage along with some homolytic cleavage.

  9. Bedded-salt repository analysis. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Guiffre, M.S.; Kaplan, M.F.; Ensminger, D.A.; Oston, S.G.; Nalbandian, J.Y.

    1980-03-31

    This report contains a description of an analysis of generic nuclear waste repository in bedded salt. This analysis was performed by TASC for inclusion in a major Lawrence Livermore Laboratory report to NRC; this report therefore should be viewed as providing more complete and detailed information about this analysis than was possible to include in the LLL report. The analysis is performed with the NUTRAN computer codes which are described in the report. The model to be analyzed is defined, and the results of a series of possible waste migration scenarios are presented. Several of these scenarios are used as the basis for a sensitivity analysis, and an uncertainty analysis utilizing Monte Carlo techniques is also performed. A new method for defining the consequences to users of a well drilled near the repository is also described, and results are presented based on two of the waste migration scenarios.

  10. Molten Salt Electrochemical Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-31

    metal tetrafluoroborates were examined for similar behavior. Commercial samples of the lithium, sodium and potassium salts were used, while the...REPORT a PERID C £0 inal, 1 June 1980-31 March Molten Salt Electrochemical Systems 1983 6 PERFORMING OŘG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(a) I CONTRACT OR...dilfferent from Reporl) IS. KEY WORDS (Continue ora ow... side 55 n~cssay and Identify by block number ) Molten Salt , Phase Diagram, Electrolyte 30

  11. A history of salt.

    PubMed

    Cirillo, M; Capasso, G; Di Leo, V A; De Santo, N G

    1994-01-01

    The medical history of salt begins in ancient times and is closely related to different aspects of human history. Salt may be extracted from sea water, mineral deposits, surface encrustations, saline lakes and brine springs. In many inland areas, wood was used as a fuel source for evaporation of brine and this practice led to major deafforestation in central Europe. Salt played a central role in the economies of many regions, and is often reflected in place names. Salt was also used as a basis for population censuses and taxation, and salt monopolies were practised in many states. Salt was sometimes implicated in the outbreak of conflict, e.g. the French Revolution and the Indian War of Independence. Salt has also been invested with many cultural and religious meanings, from the ancient Egyptians to the Middle Ages. Man's innate appetite for salt may be related to his evolution from predominantly vegetarian anthropoids, and it is noteworthy that those people who live mainly on protein and milk or who drink salty water do not generally salt their food, whereas those who live mainly on vegetables, rice and cereals use much more salt. Medicinal use tended to emphasize the positive aspects of salt, e.g. prevention of putrefaction, reduction of tissue swelling, treatment of diarrhea. Evidence was also available to ancient peoples of its relationship to fertility, particularly in domestic animals. The history of salt thus represents a unique example for studying the impact of a widely used dietary substance on different important aspects of man's life, including medical philosophy.

  12. Engineered Option Treatment of Remediated Nitrate Salts: Surrogate Batch-Blending Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Anast, Kurt Roy

    2016-03-11

    This report provides results from batch-blending test work for remediated nitrate salt (RNS) treatment. Batch blending was identified as a preferred option for blending RNS and unremediated nitrate salt (UNS) material with zeolite to effectively safe the salt/Swheat material identified as ignitable (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency code D001). Blending with zeolite was the preferred remediation option identified in the Options Assessment Report and was originally proposed as the best option for remediation by Clark and Funk in their report, Chemical Reactivity and Recommended Remediation Strategy for Los Alamos Remediated Nitrate Salt (RNS) Wastes, and also found to be a preferred option in the Engineering Options Assessment Report: Nitrate Salt Waste Stream Processing. This test work evaluated equipment and recipe alternatives to achieve effective blending of surrogate waste with zeolite.

  13. Dosimetry using silver salts

    DOEpatents

    Warner, Benjamin P.

    2003-06-24

    The present invention provides a method for detecting ionizing radiation. Exposure of silver salt AgX to ionizing radiation results in the partial reduction of the salt to a mixture of silver salt and silver metal. The mixture is further reduced by a reducing agent, which causes the production of acid (HX) and the oxidized form of the reducing agent (R). Detection of HX indicates that the silver salt has been exposed to ionizing radiation. The oxidized form of the reducing agent (R) may also be detected. The invention also includes dosimeters employing the above method for detecting ionizing radiation.

  14. Update on cavern disposal of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.

    1998-09-22

    Some types of oil and gas production and processing wastes contain naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). If NORM is present at concentrations above regulatory levels in oil field waste, the waste requires special disposal practices. The existing disposal options for wastes containing NORM are limited and costly. Argonne National Laboratory has previously evaluated the feasibility, legality, risk and economics of disposing of nonhazardous oil field wastes, other than NORM waste, in salt caverns. Cavern disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste, other than NORM waste, is occurring at four Texas facilities, in several Canadian facilities, and reportedly in Europe. This paper evaluates the legality, technical feasibility, economics, and human health risk of disposing of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns as well. Cavern disposal of NORM waste is technically feasible and poses a very low human health risk. From a legal perspective, a review of federal regulations and regulations from several states indicated that there are no outright prohibitions against NORM disposal in salt caverns or other Class II wells, except for Louisiana which prohibits disposal of radioactive wastes or other radioactive materials in salt domes. Currently, however, only Texas and New Mexico are working on disposal cavern regulations, and no states have issued permits to allow cavern disposal of NORM waste. On the basis of the costs currently charged for cavern disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW), NORM waste disposal in caverns is likely to be cost competitive with existing NORM waste disposal methods when regulatory agencies approve the practice.

  15. Salt Weathering on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagoutz, E.

    2006-12-01

    Large well rounded boulders and angular rock fragments characterizes the Martian landscape as seen on the recent excellent quality photos. Analyzing the different rock-shapes indicates a time sequence of emplacement, fragmentation and transport of different rocks on Mars, which might give interesting insight into transport and weathering processes. Larger commonly well rounded boulders were emplaced onto gravel plains. After emplacement, these rocks were fragmented and disassembled. Nests of angular rock fragments are marking the locations of preexisting larger rocks. Frequently it is possible to reconstruct larger rounded rocks from smaller angular fragments. In other cases transport after fragmentation obscured the relationship of the fragments. However, a strewn field of fragments is still reminiscent of the preexisting rock. Mechanical salt weathering could be a plausible explanation for the insitu fragmentation of larger rounded blocks into angular fragments. Impact or secondary air fall induced fragmentation produces very different patterns, as observed around impact crates on Earth. Salt weathering of rocks is a common process in terrestrial environments. Salt crystallization in capillaries causes fragmentation of rocks, irrespective of the process of salt transportation and concentration. On Earth significant salt weathering can be observed in different climatic environments: in the transition zone of alluvial aprons and salt playas in desserts and in dry valleys of Antarctica. In terrestrial semi-arid areas the salt is transported by salt solution, which is progressively concentrated by evaporation. In Antarctic dry valleys freeze-thaw cycles causes salt transportation and crystallization resulting in rock fragmentation. This salt induced process can lead to complete destruction of rocks and converts rocks to fine sand. The efficient breakdown of rocks is dominating the landscape in some dry valleys of the Earth but possibly also on Mars. (Malin, 1974

  16. Results of water quality sampling near Richton, Cypress Creek and Lampton Salt Domes, Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gandl, L.A.; Spiers, C.A.

    1980-01-01

    In the Mississippi salt basin in southern Mississippi, chemical quality studies of surface water and ground water have been made to determine present water-quality conditions near three salt domes being studied by the Department of Energy as potential repositories for radioactive wastes. Chloride concentrations in excess of 60 milligrams per liter in surface water and ground water in Perry County indicate that contamination could be occurring from industrial wastes, oil test wells, or dissolution of Richton or Cypress Creek domes. (USGS)

  17. Experiences with treatment of mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Dziewinski, J.; Marczak, S.; Smith, W.H.; Nuttall, E.

    1996-04-10

    During its many years of research activities involving toxic chemicals and radioactive materials, Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos) has generated considerable amounts of waste. Much of this waste includes chemically hazardous components and radioisotopes. Los Alamos chose to use an electrochemical process for the treatment of many mixed waste components. The electro-chemical process, which the authors are developing, can treat a great variety of waste using one type of equipment built at a moderate expense. Such a process can extract heavy metals, destroy cyanides, dissolve contamination from surfaces, oxidize toxic organic compounds, separate salts into acids and bases, and reduce the nitrates. All this can be accomplished using the equipment and one crew of trained operating personnel. Results of a treatability study of chosen mixed wastes from Los Alamos Mixed Waste Inventory are presented. Using electrochemical methods cyanide and heavy metals bearing wastes were treated to below disposal limits.

  18. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Information System (Public Access)

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a DOE facility located in the desert outside Carlsbad, New Mexico. Its mission is to safely dispose of defense-related transuranic radioactive waste. Disposal ôroomsö are carved out of the Permian Salt Formation deep below the desertÆs surface. The WIPP Waste Information Service (WWIS) was established in accordance with an Agreement between the United States Department of Energy and the New Mexico Environment Department, dated February 11, 2005, Docket Number HWB 04-07 (CO). The service provides information the containers emplaced at WIPP and the waste products they hold. The public may query by shipment number, location of waste stream or location of the container after it is placed at WIPP, date placed, and Haz Codes or other information about the waste stream profiles. For example, choosing the waste stream identified as ID-SDA-SLUDGE reveals that it may contain more than 20 chemical waste products, including arsenic, spent halogenated solvents, potassium cyanide, and chloroform. The system then tells you each numbered container that has this kind of sludge. Container data is available within 14 days after the containerÆs emplacement in the WIPP Repository.

  19. Integrated Salt Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urai, Janos L.; Kukla, Peter A.

    2015-04-01

    The growing importance of salt in the energy, subsurface storage, and chemical and food industries also increases the challenges with prediction of geometries, kinematics, stress and transport in salt. This requires an approach, which integrates a broader range of knowledge than is traditionally available in the different scientific and engineering disciplines. We aim to provide a starting point for a more integrated understanding of salt, by presenting an overview of the state of the art in a wide range of salt-related topics, from (i) the formation and metamorphism of evaporites, (ii) rheology and transport properties, (iii) salt tectonics and basin evolution, (iv) internal structure of evaporites, (v) fluid flow through salt, to (vi) salt engineering. With selected case studies we show how integration of these domains of knowledge can bring better predictions of (i) sediment architecture and reservoir distribution, (ii) internal structure of salt for optimized drilling and better cavern design, (iii) reliable long-term predictions of deformations and fluid flow in subsurface storage. A fully integrated workflow is based on geomechanical models, which include all laboratory and natural observations and links macro- and micro-scale studies. We present emerging concepts for (i) the initiation dynamics of halokinesis, (ii) the rheology and deformation of the evaporites by brittle and ductile processes, (iii) the coupling of processes in evaporites and the under- and overburden, and (iv) the impact of the layered evaporite rheology on the structural evolution.

  20. Molten salt electrolyte separator

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, T.D.

    1996-07-09

    The patent describes a molten salt electrolyte/separator for battery and related electrochemical systems including a molten electrolyte composition and an electrically insulating solid salt dispersed therein, to provide improved performance at higher current densities and alternate designs through ease of fabrication. 5 figs.

  1. SALT for Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bancroft, W. Jane

    1996-01-01

    Discusses Schuster's Suggestive-Accelerative Learning Techniques (SALT) Method, which combines Lozanov's Suggestopedia with such American methods as Asher's Total Physical Response and Galyean's Confluent Education. The article argues that students trained with the SALT Method have higher achievement scores and better attitudes than others. (14…

  2. Hydroxycarboxylic acids and salts

    DOEpatents

    Kiely, Donald E; Hash, Kirk R; Kramer-Presta, Kylie; Smith, Tyler N

    2015-02-24

    Compositions which inhibit corrosion and alter the physical properties of concrete (admixtures) are prepared from salt mixtures of hydroxycarboxylic acids, carboxylic acids, and nitric acid. The salt mixtures are prepared by neutralizing acid product mixtures from the oxidation of polyols using nitric acid and oxygen as the oxidizing agents. Nitric acid is removed from the hydroxycarboxylic acids by evaporation and diffusion dialysis.

  3. Progress in Studying Salt Secretion from the Salt Glands in Recretohalophytes: How Do Plants Secrete Salt?

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Fang; Leng, Bingying; Wang, Baoshan

    2016-01-01

    To survive in a saline environment, halophytes have evolved many strategies to resist salt stress. The salt glands of recretohalophytes are exceptional features for directly secreting salt out of a plant. Knowledge of the pathway(s) of salt secretion in relation to the function of salt glands may help us to change the salt-tolerance of crops and to cultivate the extensive saline lands that are available. Recently, ultrastructural studies of salt glands and the mechanism of salt secretion, particularly the candidate genes involved in salt secretion, have been illustrated in detail. In this review, we summarize current researches on salt gland structure, salt secretion mechanism and candidate genes involved, and provide an overview of the salt secretion pathway and the asymmetric ion transport of the salt gland. A new model recretohalophyte is also proposed. PMID:27446195

  4. Linking external and internal salt geometries - a key to understanding salt dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukla, Peter; Urai, Janos

    2014-05-01

    Considering the growing importance of salt in the energy, food and waste disposal industries, this paper reviews the status quo and major developments in salt research over the last decade. As a way forward in order to close identified gaps in knowledge, an integrated salt basin evaluation concept is proposed appreciating both external and internal geometries and properties. Examples of key studies in the Central European Basin and the South Oman Salt basin show that such a model may improve our understanding of the multi-scale processes operating in salt terrains. The workflow proposed allows to better asses (i) the initiation and maintenance of salt dynamics, (ii) the evolution of the internal structure of evaporites during halokinesis in salt giants, (iii) the coupling of processes in the evaporites and the salt's under- and overburden. It will lead to a better integration of the different data sets and resulting models, which will provide new insights into the structural evolution of salt giants. Finally it will also stimulate new concepts for (i) the initiation dynamics of halokinesis, (ii) the rheology and mechanics of the evaporites by brittle and ductile processes, (iii) the coupling of processes in the evaporites and the under- and overburden, and (iv) the impact of the layered evaporite rheology on the structural evolution. As an outlook for future research to be initiated in salt terrains we still need to improve our database on evaporite rocks especially the ones which take changes of properties in time into account. This includes for example the dependencies of thermal and mechanical properties on changes in strain, pressure and temperature or external and internal geometry changes relating to slow geological processes. Also geomechanical modelling efforts can be significantly improved by making full use of the data available on the effects of water, and some of the discrepancies seen in experimental data on different salts can probably be explained in

  5. [Salt and cancer].

    PubMed

    Strnad, Marija

    2010-05-01

    Besides cardiovascular disease, a high salt intake causes other adverse health effects, i.e., gastric and some other cancers, obesity (risk factor for many cancer sites), Meniere's disease, worsening of renal disease, triggering an asthma attack, osteoporosis, exacerbation of fluid retention, renal calculi, etc. Diets containing high amounts of food preserved by salting and pickling are associated with an increased risk of cancers of the stomach, nose and throat. Because gastric cancer is still the most common cancer in some countries (especially in Japan), its prevention is one of the most important aspects of cancer control strategy. Observations among Japanese immigrants in the U.S.A. and Brazil based on the geographic differences, the trend in cancer incidence with time, and change in the incidence patterns indicate that gastric cancer is closely associated with dietary factors such as the intake of salt and salted food. The findings of many epidemiological studies suggest that high dietary salt intake is a significant risk factor for gastric cancer and this association was found to be strong in the presence of Helicobacter (H.) pylori infection with atrophic gastritis. A high-salt intake strips the lining of the stomach and may make infection with H. pylori more likely or may exacerbate the infection. Salting, pickling and smoking are traditionally popular ways of preparing food in Japan and some parts of Asia. In addition to salt intake, cigarette smoking and low consumption of fruit and vegetables increase the risk of stomach cancer. However, it is not known whether it is specifically the salt in these foods or a combination of salt and other chemicals that can cause cancer. One study identified a mutagen in nitrite-treated Japanese salted fish, and chemical structure of this mutagen suggests that it is derived from methionine and that salt and nitrite are precursors for its formation. Working under conditions of heat stress greatly increased the workers

  6. Salt and nephrolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Ticinesi, Andrea; Nouvenne, Antonio; Maalouf, Naim M; Borghi, Loris; Meschi, Tiziana

    2016-01-01

    Dietary sodium chloride intake is nowadays globally known as one of the major threats for cardiovascular health. However, there is also important evidence that it may influence idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis onset and recurrence. Higher salt intake has been associated with hypercalciuria and hypocitraturia, which are major risk factors for calcium stone formation. Dietary salt restriction can be an effective means for secondary prevention of nephrolithiasis as well. Thus in this paper, we review the complex relationship between salt and nephrolithiasis, pointing out the difference between dietary sodium and salt intake and the best methods to assess them, highlighting the main findings of epidemiologic, laboratory and intervention studies and focusing on open issues such as the role of dietary salt in secondary causes of nephrolithiasis.

  7. Preparation of Simulated Waste Solutions for Solvent Extraction Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, R.A.

    2000-06-27

    Personnel will need to routinely prepare 0.5 to 10 L batches of salt solutions simulating Savannah River Site (SRS) soluble waste for solvent extraction testing. This report describes the compositions and preparation methods.

  8. Mass transport in salt repositories: Steady-state transport through interbeds

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Y.; Lee, W.W.-L.; Chambre, P.L.; Pigford, T.H. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering)

    1989-03-01

    Salt has long been a candidate for geologic disposal of nuclear waste. Because salt is extremely soluble in water, the existence of rock salt in the ground atest to the long-term stability of the salt. Both bedded salt and salt domes have been considered for nuclear waste disposal in the United States and Europe. While the salt is known to be quite pure in salt domes, bedded salt is interlaced with beds of sediments. Traditionally rock salt has not been considered water-conducting, but sediments layers would be classical porous media, capable of conducting water. Therefore there is interest in determining whether interbeds in bedded salt constitute pathway for radionuclide migration. In this report we consider steady-state migration of radionuclides from a single waste cylinder into a single interbed. Two approaches are used. In 1982 Neretnieks proposed an approach for calculating the steady-state transport of oxidants to a copper container. We have adapted that approach for calculating steady-state radionuclide migration away from the waste package, as a first approximation. We have also analyzed the problem of time-dependent radionuclide diffusion from a container through a backfill layer into a fracture, and we used the steady-state solution from that problem for comparison. Section 2 gives a brief summary of the geology of interbeds in bedded salt. Section 3 presents the mass transfer resistances approach of Neretnieks, summarizing the formulation and giving numerical illustrations of the steady-state two-dimensional diffusion analysis. Section 4 gives a brief statement of the steady-state result from a related analysis. Conclusions are stated in Section 5. 13 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Solidification of DOE problem wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Franz, E.M.; Heiser, J.H. III; Colombo, P.

    1986-01-01

    Sodium nitrate waste has been successfully solidified in two types of polymeric materials: polyethylene, a thermoplastic material, and polyester styrene (PES), a thermosetting material. Waste form property evaluation tests such as ANS 16.1 leaching test and compressive strength measurements were performed on the waste forms containing various amounts of sodium nitrate. A single-screw extruder was employed for incorporating dry waste into polyethylene at its melt temperature of 120/sup 0/C to produce a homogenous mixture. Results of the leaching test for polyethylene waste forms containing 30, 50, 60 and 70 wt% sodium nitrate are presented as cumulative fraction leached and leaching indices ranging from 11 to 7.8. Two PES systems are discussed. The first is for solidification of dry salt wastes and the second is a water extendible system that is compatible with wet waste streams. Leaching data for PES and water extendible PES waste forms containing 30 wt% sodium nitrate are presented as cumulative fraction leached and leaching indices of approximately 9. Results from compressive strength measurements are also included.

  10. Water purification using organic salts

    DOEpatents

    Currier, Robert P.

    2004-11-23

    Water purification using organic salts. Feed water is mixed with at least one organic salt at a temperature sufficiently low to form organic salt hydrate crystals and brine. The crystals are separated from the brine, rinsed, and melted to form an aqueous solution of organic salt. Some of the water is removed from the aqueous organic salt solution. The purified water is collected, and the remaining more concentrated aqueous organic salt solution is reused.

  11. Polymer solidification of mixed wastes at the Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Faucette, A.M.; Logsdon, B.W.; Lucerna, J.J.; Yudnich, R.J.

    1994-02-01

    The Rocky Flats Plant is pursuing polymer solidification as a viable treatment option for several mixed waste streams that are subject to land disposal restrictions within the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act provisions. Tests completed to date using both surrogate and actual wastes indicate that polyethylene microencapsulation is a viable treatment option for several mixed wastes at the Rocky Flats Plant, including nitrate salts, sludges, and secondary wastes such as ash. Treatability studies conducted on actual salt waste demonstrated that the process is capable of producing waste forms that comply with all applicable regulatory criteria, including the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure. Tests have also been conducted to evaluate the feasibility of macroencapsulating certain debris wastes in polymers. Several methods and plastics have been tested for macroencapsulation, including post-consumer recycle and regrind polyethylene.

  12. From science to compliance: Geomechanics studies of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    HANSEN,FRANCIS D.

    2000-06-05

    Mechanical and hydrological properties of salt provide excellent bases for geological isolation of hazardous materials. Regulatory certification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) testifies to the nearly ideal characteristics of bedded salt deposits in southeast New Mexico. The WIPP history includes decades of testing and scientific investigations, which have resulted in a comprehensive understanding of salt's mechanical deformational and hydrological properties over an applicable range of stresses and temperatures. Comprehensive evaluation of salt's favorable characteristics helped demonstrate regulatory compliance and ensure isolation of radioactive waste placed in a salt geological setting.

  13. Stress, salt and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Henry, J P

    1988-01-01

    Reasons are given why calcium, obesity and genetics cannot be considered primary factors in the etiology of essential hypertension. This leaves the major protagonists as salt and neuroendocrine responses to the emotions aroused by the social environment. Most essential hypertension is renin dependent and associated with the physiological changes induced by arousal of the defence response. The psychosocial stimulation associated with this arousal induces an increase in salt appetite. This makes the salt consumption of society a measure of the social stress to which it is exposed. Primitive people whose blood pressure remains normal throughout their lives may lack modern societies' physically protective achievements but their religiously prescribed social solidarity may protect them from psychosocial stress. Our chronic suppression of awareness of emotional arousal together with loss of the ritualized support of affiliative behavior may result in repressed emotional responses which find somatic expression in diseases such as essential hypertension. Hypertensiologist George Pickering proposed that the primitive's ritual and taboo (the equivalent in our society might be the Alcoholic's Anonymous belief in a 'Higher Power') protect them from much anger and despair. He gave this precedence over salt as the primary factor in essential hypertension. New evidence supports this. Despite a high salt diet the blood pressure of socially adjusted rodents remains normal throughout their lifespan. On the other hand, the hypertension that develops when they are psychosocially stimulated is not abated by a low salt diet. In humans, the blood pressure of cloistered, secluded Italian nuns on a high salt diet has remained normal for 20 years while that of nearby village women has risen at a startling 2 mmHg/annum during the same period. On the other hand, in rapidly changing Malawi mature adult, rural and urban blood pressures are rising fast despite a low salt intake. Thus the

  14. Increased salt appetite in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia 21-hydroxylase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Kochli, A; Tenenbaum-Rakover, Y; Leshem, M

    2005-06-01

    Salt appetite was investigated in 14 patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia of the salt-wasting form (SW group), 12 patients with the simple virilized form who are not salt losing, and 18 healthy siblings. Salt appetite was evaluated by questionnaire, preference tests, and dietary analyses. The findings showed that SW who were not therapeutically normalized showed increased salt appetite but no change in sweet preference. Their salt appetite correlated with symptoms of salt wasting, namely, plasma renin activity, plasma K(+), and urine Na(+) and (inversely) with blood pressure. Sensitivity to the taste of NaCl was not altered. Factor analyses of a larger group confirmed the distinction between salt appetite and sweet preference, but intake of dietary Na(+) and sweet carbohydrates and intake of salty and sweet snacks did not reflect distinct salt or sweet preferences. We confirm that putative perinatal dehydration, due to maternal nausea and vomiting during pregnancy, childhood vomiting, and diarrhea with occasional saline infusion, was related to increased salt appetite in adolescence. The findings suggest that salt appetite in humans is determined by interdependent, innate, physiological, and acquired attributes. Salt appetite in SW patients is an adaptive response mediated by the renin-angiotensin system, an innate predisposition to acquire salt preference (in anticipation of both sodium loss and its consequence), and imprinting by perinatal hyponatremic occurrences. Our findings contribute to understanding human salt intake, provide insight into the motivation for salt in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia 21-OH deficiency, and may point the way to improvements in therapeutic compliance in these patients.

  15. Fracture toughness measurements on a glass bonded sodalite high-level waste form.

    SciTech Connect

    DiSanto, T.; Goff, K. M.; Johnson, S. G.; O'Holleran, T. P.

    1999-05-19

    The electrometallurgical treatment of metallic spent nuclear fuel produces two high-level waste streams; cladding hulls and chloride salt. Argonne National Laboratory is developing a glass bonded sodalite waste form to immobilize the salt waste stream. The waste form consists of 75 Vol.% crystalline sodalite (containing the salt) with 25 Vol.% of an ''intergranular'' glassy phase. Microindentation fracture toughness measurements were performed on representative samples of this material using a Vickers indenter. Palmqvist cracking was confirmed by post-indentation polishing of a test sample. Young's modulus was measured by an acoustic technique. Fracture toughness, microhardness, and Young's modulus values are reported, along with results from scanning electron microscopy studies.

  16. Laboratory scale vitrification of low-level radioactive nitrate salts and soils from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, P.; Anderson, B.; Davis, D.

    1993-07-01

    INEL has radiologically contaminated nitrate salt and soil waste stored above and below ground in Pad A and the Acid Pit at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Pad A contain uranium and transuranic contaminated potassium and sodium nitrate salts generated from dewatered waste solutions at the Rocky Flats Plant. The Acid Pit was used to dispose of liquids containing waste mineral acids, uranium, nitrate, chlorinated solvents, and some mercury. Ex situ vitrification is a high temperature destruction of nitrates and organics and immobilizes hazardous and radioactive metals. Laboratory scale melting of actual radionuclides containing INEL Pad A nitrate salts and Acid Pit soils was performed. The salt/soil/additive ratios were varied to determine the range of glass compositions (resulted from melting different wastes); maximize mass and volume reduction, durability, and immobilization of hazardous and radioactive metals; and minimize viscosity and offgas generation for wastes prevalent at INEL and other DOE sites. Some mixtures were spiked with additional hazardous and radioactive metals. Representative glasses were leach tested and showed none. Samples spiked with transuranic showed low nuclide leaching. Wasteforms were two to three times bulk densities of the salt and soil. Thermally co-processing soils and salts is an effective remediation method for destroying nitrate salts while stabilizing the radiological and hazardous metals they contain. The measured durability of these low-level waste glasses approached those of high-level waste glasses. Lab scale vitrification of actual INEL contaminated salts and soils was performed at General Atomics Laboratory as part of the INEL Waste Technology Development and Environmental Restoration within the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program.

  17. Novel 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphatases from extremely halotolerant Hortaea werneckii reveal insight into molecular determinants of salt tolerance of black yeasts.

    PubMed

    Vaupotic, Tomaz; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina; Plemenitas, Ana

    2007-11-01

    The 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphatase encoded by HAL2 gene, is a ubiquitous enzyme required for the removal of the cytotoxic 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphate produced during sulfur assimilation in eukaryotes. Salt toxicity in yeast and plants results from Hal2 inhibition by sodium or lithium ions. Two novel HAL2-like genes, HwHAL2A and HwHAL2B, have been cloned from saltern-inhabited extremely halotolerant black yeast Hortaea werneckii. Expression of both HwHAL2 isoforms was differentially inducible upon salt. When the HwHAL2 genes were transferred from such a halotolerant species into the salt sensitive Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the resulting organism can tolerate 1.8M NaCl or 0.8M LiCl, the highest reported salt concentrations at which S. cerevisiae can grow. With genetic and biochemical validation we demonstrated the critical HwHal2B sequence motif--the META sequence--common only to Dothideales fungi, with evident effect on the HwHal2B-dependent salt tolerance. These results may have significance for biosaline agriculture in coastal environments.

  18. Salt weathering on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagoutz, E.

    Large well rounded boulders and angular rock fragments characterizes the Martian landscape as seen on the recent excellent quality photos. Analyzing the different rock-shapes indicates a time sequence of emplacement, fragmentation and transport of different rocks on Mars, which might give interesting insight into transport and weathering processes. Larger commonly well rounded boulders were emplaced onto gravel plains. After emplacement, these rocks were fragmented and disassembled. Nests of angular rock fragments are marking the locations of preexisting larger rocks. Frequently it is possible to reconstruct larger rounded rocks from smaller angular fragments. In other cases transport after fragmentation obscured the relationship of the fragments. However, a strewn field of fragments is still reminiscent of the preexisting rock. Mechanical salt weathering could be a plausible explanation for the insitu fragmentation of larger rounded blocks into angular fragments. Impact or secondary air fall induced fragmentation produces very different patterns, as observed around impact crates on Earth. Salt weathering of rocks is a common process in terrestrial environments. Salt crystallization in capillaries causes fragmentation of rocks, irrespective of the process of salt transportation and concentration. On Earth significant salt weathering can be observed in different climatic environments: in the transition zone of alluvial aprons and salt playas in desserts and in dry valleys of Antarctica. In terrestrial semi-arid areas the salt is transported by salt solution, which is progressively concentrated by evaporation. In Antarctic dry valleys freeze-thaw cycles causes salt transportation and crystallization resulting in rock fragmentation. This salt induced process can lead to complete destruction of rocks and converts rocks to fine sand. The efficient breakdown of rocks is dominating the landscape in some dry valleys of the Earth but possibly also on Mars. (Malin, 1974

  19. Textile Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbot, R. S.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from textile industry, covering publications of 1977. This review covers studies such as removing heavy metals in textile wastes, and the biodegradability of six dyes. A list of references is also presented. (HM)

  20. Accelerators for Subcritical Molten-Salt Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Roland

    2011-08-03

    Accelerator parameters for subcritical reactors have usually been based on using solid nuclear fuel much like that used in all operating critical reactors as well as the thorium burning accelerator-driven energy amplifier proposed by Rubbia et al. An attractive alternative reactor design that used molten salt fuel was experimentally studied at ORNL in the 1960s, where a critical molten salt reactor was successfully operated using enriched U235 or U233 tetrafluoride fuels. These experiments give confidence that an accelerator-driven subcritical molten salt reactor will work better than conventional reactors, having better efficiency due to their higher operating temperature, having the inherent safety of subcritical operation, and having constant purging of volatile radioactive elements to eliminate their accumulation and potential accidental release in dangerous amounts. Moreover, the requirements to drive a molten salt reactor can be considerably relaxed compared to a solid fuel reactor, especially regarding accelerator reliability and spallation neutron targetry, to the point that much of the required technology exists today. It is proposed that Project-X be developed into a prototype commercial machine to produce energy for the world by, for example, burning thorium in India and nuclear waste from conventional reactors in the USA.