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Sample records for waste minimization applications

  1. Technology applications for radioactive waste minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Devgun, J.S.

    1994-07-01

    The nuclear power industry has achieved one of the most successful examples of waste minimization. The annual volume of low-level radioactive waste shipped for disposal per reactor has decreased to approximately one-fifth the volume about a decade ago. In addition, the curie content of the total waste shipped for disposal has decreased. This paper will discuss the regulatory drivers and economic factors for waste minimization and describe the application of technologies for achieving waste minimization for low-level radioactive waste with examples from the nuclear power industry.

  2. Waste minimization applications at a remediation site

    SciTech Connect

    Allmon, L.A.

    1995-01-23

    The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) owned by the Department of Energy was used for the processing of uranium. In 1989 Fernald suspended production of uranium metals and was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL). The site`s mission has changed from one of production to environmental restoration. Many groups necessary for producing a product were deemed irrelevant for remediation work, including Waste Minimization. Waste Minimization does not readily appear to be applicable to remediation work. Environmental remediation is designed to correct adverse impacts to the environment from past operations and generates significant amounts of waste requiring management. The premise of pollution prevention is to avoid waste generation, thus remediation is in direct conflict with this premise. Although greater amounts of waste will be generated during environmental remediation, treatment capacities are not always available and disposal is becoming more difficult and costly. This creates the need for pollution prevention and waste minimization. Applying waste minimization principles at a remediation site is an enormous challenge. If the remediation site is also radiologically contaminated it is even a bigger challenge. Innovative techniques and ideas must be utilized to achieve reductions in the amount of waste that must be managed or dispositioned. At Fernald the waste minimization paradigm was shifted from focusing efforts on source reduction to focusing efforts on recycle/reuse by inverting the EPA waste management hierarchy. A fundamental difference at remediation sites is that source reduction has limited applicability to legacy wastes but can be applied successfully on secondary waste generation. The bulk of measurable waste reduction will be achieved by the recycle/reuse of primary wastes and by segregation and decontamination of secondary wastestreams. Each effort must be measured in terms of being economically and ecologically beneficial.

  3. Waste Minimization Crosscut Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-13

    On November 27, 1991, the Secretary of Energy directed that a Department of Energy (DOE) crosscut plan for waste minimization (WMin) be prepared and submitted by March 1, 1992. This Waste Minimization Crosscut Plan responds to the Secretary's direction and supports the National Energy Strategy (NES) goals of achieving greater energy security, increasing energy and economic efficiency, and enhancing environmental quality. It provides a DOE-wide planning framework for effective coordination of all DOE WMin activities. This Plan was jointly prepared by the following Program Secretarial Officer (PSO) organizations: Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (RW); Conservation and Renewable Energy (CE); Defense Programs (DP); Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM), lead; Energy Research (ER); Fossil Energy (FE); Nuclear Energy (NE); and New Production Reactors (NP). Assistance and guidance was provided by the offices of Policy, Planning, and Analysis (PE) and Environment, Safety and Health (EH). Comprehensive application of waste minimization within the Department and in both the public and private sectors will provide significant benefits and support National Energy Strategy goals. These benefits include conservation of a substantial proportion of the energy now used by industry and Government, improved environmental quality, reduced health risks, improved production efficiencies, and longer useful life of disposal capacity. Taken together, these benefits will mean improved US global competitiveness, expanded job opportunities, and a better quality of life for all citizens.

  4. Waste Minimization Crosscut Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-13

    On November 27, 1991, the Secretary of Energy directed that a Department of Energy (DOE) crosscut plan for waste minimization (WMin) be prepared and submitted by March 1, 1992. This Waste Minimization Crosscut Plan responds to the Secretary`s direction and supports the National Energy Strategy (NES) goals of achieving greater energy security, increasing energy and economic efficiency, and enhancing environmental quality. It provides a DOE-wide planning framework for effective coordination of all DOE WMin activities. This Plan was jointly prepared by the following Program Secretarial Officer (PSO) organizations: Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (RW); Conservation and Renewable Energy (CE); Defense Programs (DP); Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM), lead; Energy Research (ER); Fossil Energy (FE); Nuclear Energy (NE); and New Production Reactors (NP). Assistance and guidance was provided by the offices of Policy, Planning, and Analysis (PE) and Environment, Safety and Health (EH). Comprehensive application of waste minimization within the Department and in both the public and private sectors will provide significant benefits and support National Energy Strategy goals. These benefits include conservation of a substantial proportion of the energy now used by industry and Government, improved environmental quality, reduced health risks, improved production efficiencies, and longer useful life of disposal capacity. Taken together, these benefits will mean improved US global competitiveness, expanded job opportunities, and a better quality of life for all citizens.

  5. Waste minimization handbook, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Boing, L.E.; Coffey, M.J.

    1995-12-01

    This technical guide presents various methods used by industry to minimize low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated during decommissioning and decontamination (D and D) activities. Such activities generate significant amounts of LLW during their operations. Waste minimization refers to any measure, procedure, or technique that reduces the amount of waste generated during a specific operation or project. Preventive waste minimization techniques implemented when a project is initiated can significantly reduce waste. Techniques implemented during decontamination activities reduce the cost of decommissioning. The application of waste minimization techniques is not limited to D and D activities; it is also useful during any phase of a facility`s life cycle. This compendium will be supplemented with a second volume of abstracts of hundreds of papers related to minimizing low-level nuclear waste. This second volume is expected to be released in late 1996.

  6. POLLUTION BALANCE METHOD AND THE DEMONSTRATION OF ITS APPLICATION TO MINIMIZING WASTE IN A BIOCHEMICAL PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, we introduced several modifications to the WAR (waste reduction) algorithm developed earlier. These modifications were made for systematically handling sensitivity analysis and various tasks of waste minimization. A design hierarchy was formulated to promote appro...

  7. POLLUTION BALANCE METHOD AND THE DEMONSTRATION OF ITS APPLICATION TO MINIMIZING WASTE IN A BIOCHEMICAL PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, we introduced several modifications to the WAR (waste reduction) algorithm developed earlier. These modifications were made for systematically handling sensitivity analysis and various tasks of waste minimization. A design hierarchy was formulated to promote appro...

  8. Application of geographic information systems to waste minimization efforts at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Lyttle, T.W.; Smith, D.M.; Burns, M.; Weinrach, J.B.

    1993-01-01

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), facility waste streams tend to be small but highly diverse. Initial characterization of such waste streams is often difficult in part due to a lack of tools to assist the generators themselves in completing such assessments. A methodology has been developed at LANL to allow process knowledgeable field personnel to develop baseline waste generation assessments and to evaluate potential waste minimization technology. This Process Waste Assessment (PWA) system is an application constructed within the Process Modeling System and currently being integrated with the InFoCAD Geographic Information System (GIS) . The Process Modeling System (PMS) is an object-oriented, mass balance-based, discrete-event simulation framework written using the Common Lisp Object System (CLOS) . Analytical capabilities supported within the PWA system include: complete mass balance specifications, historical characterization of selected waste streams and generation of facility profiles for materials consumption, resource utilization and worker exposure. Development activities include integration with the LANL facilities management Geographic Information System (GIS) and provisions for a Best Available Technologies (BAT) database. The environments used to develop these assessment tools will be discussed in addition to a review of initial implementation results.

  9. Guidelines for mixed waste minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, C.

    1992-02-01

    Currently, there is no commercial mixed waste disposal available in the United States. Storage and treatment for commercial mixed waste is limited. Host States and compacts region officials are encouraging their mixed waste generators to minimize their mixed wastes because of management limitations. This document provides a guide to mixed waste minimization.

  10. Minimizing waste in environmental restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Moos, L.; Thuot, J.R.

    1996-07-01

    Environmental restoration, decontamination and decommissioning and facility dismantelment projects are not typically known for their waste minimization and pollution prevention efforts. Typical projects are driven by schedules and milestones with little attention given to cost or waste minimization. Conventional wisdom in these projects is that the waste already exists and cannot be reduced or minimized. In fact, however, there are three significant areas where waste and cost can be reduced. Waste reduction can occur in three ways: beneficial reuse or recycling; segregation of waste types; and reducing generation of secondary waste. This paper will discuss several examples of reuse, recycle, segregation, and secondary waste reduction at ANL restoration programs.

  11. Mixed waste minimization/mixed waste avoidance

    SciTech Connect

    Todisco, L.R.

    1994-12-31

    This presentation describes methods for the minimization and volume reduction of low-level radioactive and mixed wastes. Many methods are presented including: source reduction, better waste monitoring activities, waste segregation, recycling, administrative controls, and optimization of waste-generating processes.

  12. Pollution balance method and the demonstration of its application to minimizing waste in a biochemical process

    SciTech Connect

    Hilaly, A.K.; Sikdar, S.K.

    1995-06-01

    In this study, the authors introduced several modifications to the WAR (waste reduction) algorithm developed earlier. These modifications were made for systematically handling sensitivity analysis and various tasks of waste minimization. A design hierarchy was formulated to promote appropriate waste reduction tasks at designated levels of the hierarchy. A sensitivity coefficient was used to measure the relative impacts of process variables on the pollution index of a process. The use of the WAR algorithm was demonstrated by a fermentation process for making penicillin.

  13. Analysis of the application of decontamination technologies to radioactive metal waste minimization using expert systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bayrakal, S.

    1993-09-30

    Radioactive metal waste makes up a significant portion of the waste currently being sent for disposal. Recovery of this metal as a valuable resource is possible through the use of decontamination technologies. Through the development and use of expert systems a comparison can be made of laser decontamination, a technology currently under development at Ames Laboratory, with currently available decontamination technologies for applicability to the types of metal waste being generated and the effectiveness of these versus simply disposing of the waste. These technologies can be technically and economically evaluated by the use of expert systems techniques to provide a waste management decision making tool that generates, given an identified metal waste, waste management recommendations. The user enters waste characteristic information as input and the system then recommends decontamination technologies, determines residual contamination levels and possible waste management strategies, carries out a cost analysis and then ranks, according to cost, the possibilities for management of the waste. The expert system was developed using information from literature and personnel experienced in the use of decontamination technologies and requires validation by human experts and assignment of confidence factors to the knowledge represented within.

  14. LLNL Waste Minimization Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-02-14

    This document is the February 14, 1990 version of the LLNL Waste Minimization Program Plan (WMPP). The Waste Minimization Policy field has undergone continuous changes since its formal inception in the 1984 HSWA legislation. The first LLNL WMPP, Revision A, is dated March 1985. A series of informal revision were made on approximately a semi-annual basis. This Revision 2 is the third formal issuance of the WMPP document. EPA has issued a proposed new policy statement on source reduction and recycling. This policy reflects a preventative strategy to reduce or eliminate the generation of environmentally-harmful pollutants which may be released to the air, land surface, water, or ground water. In accordance with this new policy new guidance to hazardous waste generators on the elements of a Waste Minimization Program was issued. In response to these policies, DOE has revised and issued implementation guidance for DOE Order 5400.1, Waste Minimization Plan and Waste Reduction reporting of DOE Hazardous, Radioactive, and Radioactive Mixed Wastes, final draft January 1990. This WMPP is formatted to meet the current DOE guidance outlines. The current WMPP will be revised to reflect all of these proposed changes when guidelines are established. Updates, changes and revisions to the overall LLNL WMPP will be made as appropriate to reflect ever-changing regulatory requirements. 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Eleventh annual Department of Energy low-level waste management conference. Volume 3: Waste characterization, waste reduction and minimization, prototype licensing application

    SciTech Connect

    1989-11-01

    Thirteen papers are presented in volume 3. The seven papers on waste characterization discuss sampling, analysis, and certification techniques for low-level radioactive wastes. Three papers discuss US DOE waste minimization policies and regulations, Y-12 Plant`s reduction of chlorinated solvents, and C-14 removal from spent resins. The last three papers discuss the licensing studies for earth-mounded concrete bunkers for LLW disposal. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  16. National Institutes of Health: Mixed waste minimization and treatment

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The Appalachian States Low-Level Radioactive Waste Commission requested the US Department of Energy`s National Low-Level Waste Management Program (NLLWMP) to assist the biomedical community in becoming more knowledgeable about its mixed waste streams, to help minimize the mixed waste stream generated by the biomedical community, and to identify applicable treatment technologies for these mixed waste streams. As the first step in the waste minimization process, liquid low-level radioactive mixed waste (LLMW) streams generated at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) were characterized and combined into similar process categories. This report identifies possible waste minimization and treatment approaches for the LLMW generated by the biomedical community identified in DOE/LLW-208. In development of the report, on site meetings were conducted with NIH personnel responsible for generating each category of waste identified as lacking disposal options. Based on the meetings and general waste minimization guidelines, potential waste minimization options were identified.

  17. The OTD Robotics Waste Minimization Program

    SciTech Connect

    Couture, S.A.

    1992-04-01

    The danger to human health and safety posed by exposure to transuranic (TRU) and Pu contaminated materials necessitates remote processing in confined environments. Currently these operations are carried out in gloveboxes and hot-cells by human operators using lead- lined gloves or teleoperated manipulators. Protective clothing worn by operators during gloved operations has contributed significantly to the waste problems currently facing site remediators. The DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER/WM) Program is in the process of developing and demonstrating technologies to assist in the remediation of sites that have accumulated wastes generated using these processes over the past five decades. Recognizing that continued use of existing production, recovery and waste treatment systems will compound the remediation problem, DOE has made a commitment to waste minimization. To reduce waste generation during weapons production and waste processing operations, automated processes are being developed and demonstrated for use in future DOE processing facilities as part of OTD's Robotics Technology Development Program. These technologies are currently being applied to pyrochemical processing systems to demonstrate conversion of plutonium oxide to metal. However, these technologies are expected to have applications in a variety of waste processing systems including those used to treat high-level tank wastes, buried wastes requiring remote processing, mixed wastes, and unknown hazardous materials. In addition to reducing the future waste burden of DOE, automated processes are an effective way to comply with existing and anticipated federal, state, and local regulations related to personal health and safety and the health of the environment.

  18. Waste minimization in environmental sampling and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Brice, D.A.; Nixon, J. . Fernald Environmental Management Project); Lewis, E.T. )

    1992-01-01

    Environmental investigations of the extent and effect of contamination, and projects to remediate such contamination, are designed to mitigate perceived threats to human health and the environment. During the course of these investigations, excavations, borings, and monitoring wells are constructed: monitoring wells are developed and purged prior to sampling; samples are collected; equipment is decontaminated; constituents extracted and analyzed; and personal protective equipment is used to keep workers safe. All of these activities generate waste. A large portion of this waste may be classified as hazardous based on characteristics or constituent components. Waste minimization is defined as reducing the volume and/or toxicity of waste generated by a process. Waste minimization has proven to be an effective means of cost reduction and improving worker health, safety, and environmental awareness in the industrial workplace through pollution prevention. Building waste minimization goals into a project during the planning phase is both cost effective and consistent with total quality management principles. Application of waste minimization principles should be an integral part of the planning and conduct of environmental investigations. Current regulatory guidance on planning environmental investigations focuses on data quality and risk assessment objectives. Waste minimization should also be a scoping priority, along with meeting worker protection requirements, protection of human health and the environment, and achieving data quality objectives. Waste volume or toxicity can be reduced through the use of smaller sample sizes, less toxic extraction solvents, less hazardous decontamination materials, smaller excavations and borings, smaller diameter monitoring wells, dedicated sampling equipment, well-fitting personal protective equipment, judicious use of screening technologies, and analyzing only for parameters of concern.

  19. Waste minimization in environmental sampling and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Brice, D.A.; Nixon, J.; Lewis, E.T.

    1992-03-01

    Environmental investigations of the extent and effect of contamination, and projects to remediate such contamination, are designed to mitigate perceived threats to human health and the environment. During the course of these investigations, excavations, borings, and monitoring wells are constructed: monitoring wells are developed and purged prior to sampling; samples are collected; equipment is decontaminated; constituents extracted and analyzed; and personal protective equipment is used to keep workers safe. All of these activities generate waste. A large portion of this waste may be classified as hazardous based on characteristics or constituent components. Waste minimization is defined as reducing the volume and/or toxicity of waste generated by a process. Waste minimization has proven to be an effective means of cost reduction and improving worker health, safety, and environmental awareness in the industrial workplace through pollution prevention. Building waste minimization goals into a project during the planning phase is both cost effective and consistent with total quality management principles. Application of waste minimization principles should be an integral part of the planning and conduct of environmental investigations. Current regulatory guidance on planning environmental investigations focuses on data quality and risk assessment objectives. Waste minimization should also be a scoping priority, along with meeting worker protection requirements, protection of human health and the environment, and achieving data quality objectives. Waste volume or toxicity can be reduced through the use of smaller sample sizes, less toxic extraction solvents, less hazardous decontamination materials, smaller excavations and borings, smaller diameter monitoring wells, dedicated sampling equipment, well-fitting personal protective equipment, judicious use of screening technologies, and analyzing only for parameters of concern.

  20. Annual Waste Minimization Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Alfred J. Karns

    2007-01-01

    This report summarizes the waste minimization efforts undertaken by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), for the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), during CY06. This report was developed in accordance with the requirements of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Permit (No. NEV HW0021) and as clarified in a letter dated April 21, 1995, from Paul Liebendorfer of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection to Donald Elle of the DOE, Nevada Operations Office. The NNSA/NSO Pollution Prevention (P2) Program establishes a process to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste generated by the NNSA/NSO and ensures that proposed methods of treatment, storage, and/or disposal of waste minimize potential threats to human health and the environment. The following information provides an overview of the P2 Program, major P2 accomplishments during the reporting year, a comparison of the current year waste generation to prior years, and a description of efforts undertaken during the year to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste generated by the NNSA/NSO.

  1. Mixed waste minimization in a research environment

    SciTech Connect

    Kirner, N.

    1994-12-31

    This presentation describes minimization efforts and processes for mixed waste generated by research facilities. Waste stream assessment and treatment, and database management for various research-related waste streams is detailed.

  2. 40 CFR 262.27 - Waste minimization certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE The Manifest § 262.27 Waste minimization certification. A generator who initiates a shipment of hazardous waste must certify to one of the following statements in Item 15 of the uniform hazardous waste manifest: (a) “I am a large quantity generator. I have a...

  3. 40 CFR 262.27 - Waste minimization certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE The Manifest § 262.27 Waste minimization certification. A generator who initiates a shipment of hazardous waste must certify to one of the following statements in Item 15 of the uniform hazardous waste manifest: (a) “I am a large quantity generator. I have a...

  4. 40 CFR 262.27 - Waste minimization certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE The Manifest § 262.27 Waste minimization certification. A generator who initiates a shipment of hazardous waste must certify to one of the following statements in Item 15 of the uniform hazardous waste manifest: (a) “I am a large quantity generator. I have a...

  5. 40 CFR 262.27 - Waste minimization certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE The Manifest § 262.27 Waste minimization certification. A generator who initiates a shipment of hazardous waste must certify to one of the following statements in Item 15 of the uniform hazardous waste manifest: (a) “I am a large quantity generator. I have a...

  6. 40 CFR 262.27 - Waste minimization certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE The Manifest § 262.27 Waste minimization certification. A generator who initiates a shipment of hazardous waste must certify to one of the following statements in Item 15 of the uniform hazardous waste manifest: (a) “I am a large quantity generator. I have a...

  7. The OTD Robotics Waste Minimization Program

    SciTech Connect

    Couture, S.A.

    1992-04-01

    The danger to human health and safety posed by exposure to transuranic (TRU) and Pu contaminated materials necessitates remote processing in confined environments. Currently these operations are carried out in gloveboxes and hot-cells by human operators using lead- lined gloves or teleoperated manipulators. Protective clothing worn by operators during gloved operations has contributed significantly to the waste problems currently facing site remediators. The DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER/WM) Program is in the process of developing and demonstrating technologies to assist in the remediation of sites that have accumulated wastes generated using these processes over the past five decades. Recognizing that continued use of existing production, recovery and waste treatment systems will compound the remediation problem, DOE has made a commitment to waste minimization. To reduce waste generation during weapons production and waste processing operations, automated processes are being developed and demonstrated for use in future DOE processing facilities as part of OTD`s Robotics Technology Development Program. These technologies are currently being applied to pyrochemical processing systems to demonstrate conversion of plutonium oxide to metal. However, these technologies are expected to have applications in a variety of waste processing systems including those used to treat high-level tank wastes, buried wastes requiring remote processing, mixed wastes, and unknown hazardous materials. In addition to reducing the future waste burden of DOE, automated processes are an effective way to comply with existing and anticipated federal, state, and local regulations related to personal health and safety and the health of the environment.

  8. Waste Minimization Measurement and Progress Reporting

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, K.A.

    1995-02-13

    Westinghouse Savannah River Company is implementing productivity improvement concepts into the Waste Minimization Program by focusing on the positive initiatives taken to reduce waste generation at the Savannah River Site. Previous performance measures, based only on waste generation rates, proved to be an ineffective metric for measuring performance and promoting continuous improvements within the Program. Impacts of mission changes and non-routine operations impeded development of baseline waste generation rates and often negated waste generation trending reports. A system was developed to quantify, document and track innovative activities that impact waste volume and radioactivity/toxicity reductions. This system coupled with Management-driven waste disposal avoidance goals is proving to be a powerful tool to promote waste minimization awareness and the implementation of waste reduction initiatives. Measurement of waste not generated, in addition to waste generated, increases the credibility of the Waste Minimization Program, improves sharing of success stories, and supports development of regulatory and management reports

  9. Application of molten salt oxidation for the minimization and recovery of plutonium-238 contaminated wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Wishau, R.; Ramsey, K.B.; Montoya, A.

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents the technical and economic feasibility of molten salt oxidation technology as a volume reduction and recovery process for {sup 238}Pu contaminated waste. Combustible low-level waste material contaminated with {sup 238}Pu residue is destroyed by oxidation in a 900 C molten salt reaction vessel. The combustible waste is destroyed creating carbon dioxide and steam and a small amount of ash and insoluble {sup 2328}Pu in the spent salt. The valuable {sup 238}Pu is recycled using aqueous recovery techniques. Experimental test results for this technology indicate a plutonium recovery efficiency of 99%. Molten salt oxidation stabilizes the waste converting it to a non-combustible waste. Thus installation and use of molten salt oxidation technology will substantially reduce the volume of {sup 238}Pu contaminated waste. Cost-effectiveness evaluations of molten salt oxidation indicate a significant cost savings when compared to the present plans to package, or re-package, certify and transport these wastes to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for permanent disposal. Clear and distinct cost advantages exist for MSO when the monetary value of the recovered {sup 238}Pu is considered.

  10. Application of molten salt oxidation for the minimization and recovery of plutonium-238 contaminated wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Wishau, R.

    1998-05-01

    Molten salt oxidation (MSO) is proposed as a {sup 238}Pu waste treatment technology that should be developed for volume reduction and recovery of {sup 238}Pu and as an alternative to the transport and permanent disposal of {sup 238}Pu waste to the WIPP repository. In MSO technology, molten sodium carbonate salt at 800--900 C in a reaction vessel acts as a reaction media for wastes. The waste material is destroyed when injected into the molten salt, creating harmless carbon dioxide and steam and a small amount of ash in the spent salt. The spent salt can be treated using aqueous separation methods to reuse the salt and to recover 99.9% of the precious {sup 238}Pu that was in the waste. Tests of MSO technology have shown that the volume of combustible TRU waste can be reduced by a factor of at least twenty. Using this factor the present inventory of 574 TRU drums of {sup 238}Pu contaminated wastes is reduced to 30 drums. Further {sup 238}Pu waste costs of $22 million are avoided from not having to repackage 312 of the 574 drums to a drum total of more than 4,600 drums. MSO combined with aqueous processing of salts will recover approximately 1.7 kilograms of precious {sup 238}Pu valued at 4 million dollars (at $2,500/gram). Thus, installation and use of MSO technology at LANL will result in significant cost savings compared to present plans to transport and dispose {sup 238}Pu TRU waste to the WIPP site. Using a total net present value cost for the MSO project as $4.09 million over a five-year lifetime, the project can pay for itself after either recovery of 1.6 kg of Pu or through volume reduction of 818 drums or a combination of the two. These savings show a positive return on investment.

  11. Waste minimization in the oil and gas industries

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.P.

    1992-09-01

    Recent legislative actions place an emphasis on waste minimization as opposed to traditional end-of-pipe waste management. This new philosophy, coupled with increasing waste disposal costs and associated liabilities, sets the stage for investigating waste minimization opportunities in all industries wastes generated by oil and gas exploration and production (E&P) and refuting activities are regulated as non-hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Potential reclassification of these wastes as hazardous would make minimization of these waste streams even more desirable. Oil and gas E&P activities generate a wide variety of wastes, although the bulk of the wastes (98%) consists of a single waste stream: produced water. Opportunities to minimize E&P wastes through point source reduction activities are limited by the extractive nature of the industry. Significant waste minimization is possible, however, through recycling. Recycling activities include underground injection of produced water, use of closed-loop drilling systems, reuse of produced water and drilling fluids in other oilfield activities, use of solid debris as construction fill, use of oily wastes as substitutes for road mix and asphalt, landspreading of produced sand for soil enhancement, and roadspreading of suitable aqueous wastes for dust suppression or deicing. Like the E&P wastes, wastes generated by oil and gas treatment and refining activities cannot be reduced substantially at the point source but can be reduced through recycling. For the most part, extensive recycling and reprocessing of many waste streams already occurs at most petroleum refineries. A variety of innovative waste treatment activities have been developed to minimize the toxicity or volume of oily wastes generated by both E&P and refining activities. These treatments include bioremediation, oxidation, biooxidation, incineration, and separation. Application of these treatment processes is still limited.

  12. Waste minimization in the oil and gas industries

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.P.

    1992-01-01

    Recent legislative actions place an emphasis on waste minimization as opposed to traditional end-of-pipe waste management. This new philosophy, coupled with increasing waste disposal costs and associated liabilities, sets the stage for investigating waste minimization opportunities in all industries wastes generated by oil and gas exploration and production (E P) and refuting activities are regulated as non-hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Potential reclassification of these wastes as hazardous would make minimization of these waste streams even more desirable. Oil and gas E P activities generate a wide variety of wastes, although the bulk of the wastes (98%) consists of a single waste stream: produced water. Opportunities to minimize E P wastes through point source reduction activities are limited by the extractive nature of the industry. Significant waste minimization is possible, however, through recycling. Recycling activities include underground injection of produced water, use of closed-loop drilling systems, reuse of produced water and drilling fluids in other oilfield activities, use of solid debris as construction fill, use of oily wastes as substitutes for road mix and asphalt, landspreading of produced sand for soil enhancement, and roadspreading of suitable aqueous wastes for dust suppression or deicing. Like the E P wastes, wastes generated by oil and gas treatment and refining activities cannot be reduced substantially at the point source but can be reduced through recycling. For the most part, extensive recycling and reprocessing of many waste streams already occurs at most petroleum refineries. A variety of innovative waste treatment activities have been developed to minimize the toxicity or volume of oily wastes generated by both E P and refining activities. These treatments include bioremediation, oxidation, biooxidation, incineration, and separation. Application of these treatment processes is still limited.

  13. DUPONT CHAMBERS WORKS WASTE MINIMIZATION PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In a joint U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and DuPont waste minimization project, fifteen waste streams were-selected for assessment. The intent was to develop assessments diverse in terms of process type, mode of operation, waste type, disposal needed, and relative s...

  14. DUPONT CHAMBERS WORKS WASTE MINIMIZATION PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In a joint U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and DuPont waste minimization project, fifteen waste streams were-selected for assessment. The intent was to develop assessments diverse in terms of process type, mode of operation, waste type, disposal needed, and relative s...

  15. Waste minimization in an autobody repair shop

    SciTech Connect

    Baria, D.N.; Dorland, D.; Bergeron, J.T.

    1994-12-31

    This work was done to document the waste minimization incorporated in a new autobody repair facility in Hermantown, Minnesota. Humes Collision Center incorporated new waste reduction techniques when it expanded its old facilities in 1992 and it was able to achieve the benefits of cost reduction and waste reduction. Humes Collision Center repairs an average of 500 cars annually and is a very small quantity generator (VSQG) of hazardous waste, as defined by the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA). The hazardous waste consists of antifreeze, batteries, paint sludge, refrigerants, and used oil, while the nonhazardous waste consists of cardboard, glass, paint filters, plastic, sanding dust, scrap metal, and wastewater. The hazardous and nonhazardous waste output were decreased by 72%. In addition, there was a 63% reduction in the operating costs. The waste minimization includes antifreeze recovery and recycling, reduction in unused waste paint, reduction, recovery and recycle of waste lacquer thinner for cleaning spray guns and paint cups, elimination of used plastic car bags, recovery and recycle of refrigerant, reduction in waste sandpaper and elimination of sanding dust, and elimination of waste paint filters. The rate of return on the investment in waste minimization equipment is estimated from 37% per year for the distillation unit, 80% for vacuum sanding, 146% for computerized paint mixing, 211% for the refrigerant recycler, to 588% per year for the gun washer. The corresponding payback time varies from 3 years to 2 months.

  16. Applications of supercritical fluid technology to pollution prevention and waste minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, R.J.

    1995-10-01

    One approach to the prevention of pollution and the reduction of worker exposure from conventional solvents is the use of less hazardous substitutes. One of the more novel substitutes is carbon dioxide. Although carbon dioxide is a gas at ordinary conditions, it can be liquified by application of pressure. In its supercritical state, it exhibits good solvent properties. Separation of the carbon dioxide from the extracted materials can be accomplished by pressure reduction, adsorption onto activated carbon, or with a membrane process, e.g., decaffeination of coffee. This paper presents a brief overview of the university and federal laboratory collaborative efforts focusing on processes using supercritical carbon dioxide as a substitute for hazardous solvents. The SCCO2 technology applications under this program include extraction of natural pharmaceutical materials, phase-transfer catalysis, solvent replacement in chemical synthesis, temperature-solubility relationships, and separation of organic materials from soils and slurries. A paper on the extraction of heavy metals with SCCO2 was presented by Ataai et.al. at the 87th National Meeting, A&WMA. This work is also supported by the EPA.

  17. Hazardous waste minimization report for CY 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Kendrick, C.M.

    1990-12-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a multipurpose research and development facility. Its primary role is the support of energy technology through applied research and engineering development and scientific research in basic and physical sciences. ORNL also is a valuable resource in the solution of problems of national importance, such as nuclear and chemical waste management. In addition, useful radioactive and stable isotopes which are unavailable from the private sector are produced at ORNL. As a result of these activities, hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes are generated at ORNL. A formal hazardous waste minimization program for ORNL was launched in mid 1985 in response to the requirements of Section 3002 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). During 1986, a task plan was developed. The six major tasks include: planning and implementation of a laboratory-wide chemical inventory and the subsequent distribution, treatment, storage, and/or disposal (TSD) of unneeded chemicals; establishment and implementation of a distribution system for surplus chemicals to other (internal and external) organizations; training and communication functions necessary to inform and motivate laboratory personnel; evaluation of current procurement and tracking systems for hazardous materials and recommendation and implementation of improvements; systematic review of applicable current and proposed ORNL procedures and ongoing and proposed activities for waste volume and/or toxicity reduction potential; and establishment of criteria by which to measure progress and reporting of significant achievements. 8 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  18. Waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-05-31

    The purpose of this plan is to document the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program. The plan specifies those activities and methods that are or will be employed to reduce the quantity and toxicity of wastes generated at the site. The intent of this plan is to respond to and comply with (DOE's) policy and guidelines concerning the need for pollution prevention. The Plan is composed of a LLNL Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan and, as attachments, Program- and Department-specific waste minimization plans. This format reflects the fact that waste minimization is considered a line management responsibility and is to be addressed by each of the Programs and Departments. 14 refs.

  19. Utilization of biocatalysts in cellulose waste minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Woodward, J.; Evans, B.R.

    1996-09-01

    Cellulose, a polymer of glucose, is the principal component of biomass and, therefore, a major source of waste that is either buried or burned. Examples of biomass waste include agricultural crop residues, forestry products, and municipal wastes. Recycling of this waste is important for energy conservation as well as waste minimization and there is some probability that in the future biomass could become a major energy source and replace fossil fuels that are currently used for fuels and chemicals production. It has been estimated that in the United States, between 100-450 million dry tons of agricultural waste are produced annually, approximately 6 million dry tons of animal waste, and of the 190 million tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated annually, approximately two-thirds is cellulosic in nature and over one-third is paper waste. Interestingly, more than 70% of MSW is landfilled or burned, however landfill space is becoming increasingly scarce. On a smaller scale, important cellulosic products such as cellulose acetate also present waste problems; an estimated 43 thousand tons of cellulose ester waste are generated annually in the United States. Biocatalysts could be used in cellulose waste minimization and this chapter describes their characteristics and potential in bioconversion and bioremediation processes.

  20. Waste minimization and waste avoidance -- what are the success stories?

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, P.G.

    1994-12-31

    This presentation describes actions that can be taken to minimize the amount of low-level radioactive wastes generated by a facility. Compaction, treatment, recycling, reuse, and process modifications or elimination are some of the waste volume reduction methods described. Success stories from several DOE facilities are also included.

  1. Commercial radioactive waste minimization program development guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, D.K.

    1991-01-01

    This document is one of two prepared by the EG&G Idaho, Inc., Waste Management Technical Support Program Group, National Low-Level Waste Management Program Unit. One of several Department of Energy responsibilities stated in the Amendments Act of 1985 is to provide technical assistance to compact regions Host States, and nonmember States (to the extent provided in appropriations acts) in establishing waste minimization program plans. Technical assistance includes, among other things, the development of technical guidelines for volume reduction options. Pursuant to this defined responsibility, the Department of Energy (through EG&G Idaho, Inc.) has prepared this report, which includes guidance on defining a program, State/compact commission participation, and waste minimization program plans.

  2. Commercial radioactive waste minimization program development guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, D.K.

    1991-01-01

    This document is one of two prepared by the EG G Idaho, Inc., Waste Management Technical Support Program Group, National Low-Level Waste Management Program Unit. One of several Department of Energy responsibilities stated in the Amendments Act of 1985 is to provide technical assistance to compact regions Host States, and nonmember States (to the extent provided in appropriations acts) in establishing waste minimization program plans. Technical assistance includes, among other things, the development of technical guidelines for volume reduction options. Pursuant to this defined responsibility, the Department of Energy (through EG G Idaho, Inc.) has prepared this report, which includes guidance on defining a program, State/compact commission participation, and waste minimization program plans.

  3. Advanced pyrochemical technologies for minimizing nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Bronson, M.C.; Dodson, K.E.; Riley, D.C.

    1994-12-31

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is seeking to reduce the size of the current nuclear weapons complex and consequently minimize operating costs. To meet this DOE objective, the national laboratories have been asked to develop advanced technologies that take uranium and plutonium from retired weapons and prepare it for new weapons, long-term storage, and/or final disposition. Current pyrochemical processes generate residue salts and ceramic wastes that require aqueous processing to remove and recover the actinides. However, the aqueous treatment of these residues generates an estimated 100 l of acidic transuranic (TRU) waste per kilogram of plutonium in the residue. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is developing pyrochemical techniques to eliminate, minimize, or more efficiently treat these residue streams. This paper presents technologies being developed at LLNL on advanced materials for actinide containment, reactors that minimize residues, and pyrochemical processes that remove actinides from waste salts.

  4. Hazardous waste minimization challenge in autocomponent industry, West Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handayani, L.; Moersidik, S. S.

    2017-05-01

    Modern industries have managed their hazardous waste through hazardous waste management with End of Pipe approach. As part of the most robust industry, autocomponent industry have to manage their hazardous waste from production process. To meet sustainable manufacturing, waste minimization is required. Hazardous waste minimization in practice is relatively difficult to implemented. This paper explore hazardous waste management and waste minimization activity in one of autocomponent industry in Indonesia. Hazardous waste minimization regulation also explain in this paper. Regarding waste minimization implementation there were some obstacle such as lack of awareness and knowledge, lack of time and economic factor

  5. MULTIOBJECTIVE PARALLEL GENETIC ALGORITHM FOR WASTE MINIMIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this research we have developed an efficient multiobjective parallel genetic algorithm (MOPGA) for waste minimization problems. This MOPGA integrates PGAPack (Levine, 1996) and NSGA-II (Deb, 2000) with novel modifications. PGAPack is a master-slave parallel implementation of a...

  6. MULTIOBJECTIVE PARALLEL GENETIC ALGORITHM FOR WASTE MINIMIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this research we have developed an efficient multiobjective parallel genetic algorithm (MOPGA) for waste minimization problems. This MOPGA integrates PGAPack (Levine, 1996) and NSGA-II (Deb, 2000) with novel modifications. PGAPack is a master-slave parallel implementation of a...

  7. Environmental projects. Volume 16: Waste minimization assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (GDSCC), located in the MoJave Desert, is part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Deep Space Network (DSN), the world's largest and most sensitive scientific telecommunications and radio navigation network. The Goldstone Complex is operated for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. At present, activities at the GDSCC support the operation of nine parabolic dish antennas situated at five separate locations known as 'sites.' Each of the five sites at the GDSCC has one or more antennas, called 'Deep Space Stations' (DSS's). In the course of operation of these DSS's, various hazardous and non-hazardous wastes are generated. In 1992, JPL retained Kleinfelder, Inc., San Diego, California, to quantify the various streams of hazardous and non-hazardous wastes generated at the GDSCC. In June 1992, Kleinfelder, Inc., submitted a report to JPL entitled 'Waste Minimization Assessment.' This present volume is a JPL-expanded version of the Kleinfelder, Inc. report. The 'Waste Minimization Assessment' report did not find any deficiencies in the various waste-management programs now practiced at the GDSCC, and it found that these programs are being carried out in accordance with environmental rules and regulations.

  8. Waste management news: Nalco unveils commitment to waste minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-01

    On September 27, 1989, Nalco Chemical Company held a press event in Detroit, Michigan, to announce the Company's growing commitment to waste minimization. The Nalco HEC Management Services Program was described as instrumental in the Company's efforts to provide waste minimization products and services to the automotive industry. The HEC Management Services Program is a unique waste minimization process. This program combines technology, sales and service in water treatment. The HEC Management Services Program uses an emulsion in place of conventional water/chemical paint spray booth programs. The emulsion is able to attract paint overspray, keep it in a liquid form, and prevent the resulting sludge from being sticky and tacky. This, in turn, improves paint spray booth efficiencies, negates the need for paint sludge landfilling and provides a clean, manageable system with minimal maintenance costs. With this program, spent emulsion is transported to RTR, Inc., a facility in Detroit, Michigan, designed exclusively for recycling HEC spent emulsion. The recovered oil/emulsion is returned to the spray booth as a recycled product while the paint solids and various solvents are processed as waste-derived fuels.

  9. Waste minimization for commercial radioactive materials users generating low-level radioactive waste. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, D.K.; Gitt, M.; Williams, G.A.; Branch, S.; Otis, M.D.; McKenzie-Carter, M.A.; Schurman, D.L.

    1991-07-01

    The objective of this document is to provide a resource for all states and compact regions interested in promoting the minimization of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). This project was initiated by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, and Massachusetts waste streams have been used as examples; however, the methods of analysis presented here are applicable to similar waste streams generated elsewhere. This document is a guide for states/compact regions to use in developing a system to evaluate and prioritize various waste minimization techniques in order to encourage individual radioactive materials users (LLW generators) to consider these techniques in their own independent evaluations. This review discusses the application of specific waste minimization techniques to waste streams characteristic of three categories of radioactive materials users: (1) industrial operations using radioactive materials in the manufacture of commercial products, (2) health care institutions, including hospitals and clinics, and (3) educational and research institutions. Massachusetts waste stream characterization data from key radioactive materials users in each category are used to illustrate the applicability of various minimization techniques. The utility group is not included because extensive information specific to this category of LLW generators is available in the literature.

  10. Waste minimization for commercial radioactive materials users generating low-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, D.K.; Gitt, M.; Williams, G.A.; Branch, S. ); Otis, M.D.; McKenzie-Carter, M.A.; Schurman, D.L. )

    1991-07-01

    The objective of this document is to provide a resource for all states and compact regions interested in promoting the minimization of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). This project was initiated by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, and Massachusetts waste streams have been used as examples; however, the methods of analysis presented here are applicable to similar waste streams generated elsewhere. This document is a guide for states/compact regions to use in developing a system to evaluate and prioritize various waste minimization techniques in order to encourage individual radioactive materials users (LLW generators) to consider these techniques in their own independent evaluations. This review discusses the application of specific waste minimization techniques to waste streams characteristic of three categories of radioactive materials users: (1) industrial operations using radioactive materials in the manufacture of commercial products, (2) health care institutions, including hospitals and clinics, and (3) educational and research institutions. Massachusetts waste stream characterization data from key radioactive materials users in each category are used to illustrate the applicability of various minimization techniques. The utility group is not included because extensive information specific to this category of LLW generators is available in the literature.

  11. Cultural change and support of waste minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Boylan, M.S.

    1991-12-31

    The process of bringing a subject like pollution prevention to top of mind awareness, where designed to prevent waste becomes part of business as usual, is called cultural change. With Department of Energy orders and management waste minimization commitment statements on file, the REAL work is just beginning at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL); shaping the attitudes of 11,000+ employees. The difficulties of such a task are daunting. The 890 square mile INEL site and in-town support offices mean a huge diversity of employee jobs and waste streams; from cafeteria and auto maintenance wastes to high-level nuclear waste casks. INEL is pursuing a three component cultural change strategy: training, publicity, and public outreach. To meet the intent of DOE orders, all INEL employees are slated to receive pollution prevention orientation training. More technical training is given to targeted groups like purchasing and design engineering. To keep newly learned pollution prevention concepts top-of-mind, extensive site-wide publicity is being developed and conducted, culminating in the April Pollution Prevention Awareness Week coinciding with Earth Day 1992. Finally, news of INEL pollution prevention successes is shared with the public to increase their overall environmental awareness and their knowledge of INEL activities. An important added benefit is the sense of pride the program instills in INEL employees to have their successes displayed so publicly.

  12. Analysis of a Waste Minimization Program for Nonhazardous Solid Wastes Utilizing Source Reduction and Recycling Techniques and Its Application to Air Force Installations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    Municipal Solid Waste Generated...waste problem. Exerts have estimated that by the year 2000 the United States will generate 190 million tons of municipal solid waste (19:9-54). Municipal ...and child (19:9-54). Using 1988 figures, Table 1 depicts the materials generated in municipal solid waste by weight. TABLE 1 BREAKDOWN OF MUNICIPAL

  13. Mixed low-level waste minimization at Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    Starke, T.P.

    1998-12-01

    During the first six months of University of California 98 Fiscal Year (July--December) Los Alamos National Laboratory has achieved a 57% reduction in mixed low-level waste generation. This has been accomplished through a systems approach that identified and minimized the largest MLLW streams. These included surface-contaminated lead, lead-lined gloveboxes, printed circuit boards, and activated fluorescent lamps. Specific waste minimization projects have been initiated to address these streams. In addition, several chemical processing equipment upgrades are being implemented. Use of contaminated lead is planned for several high energy proton beam stop applications and stainless steel encapsulated lead is being evaluated for other radiological control area applications. INEEL is assisting Los Alamos with a complete systems analysis of analytical chemistry derived mixed wastes at the CMR building and with a minimum life-cycle cost standard glovebox design. Funding for waste minimization upgrades has come from several sources: generator programs, waste management, the generator set-aside program, and Defense Programs funding to INEEL.

  14. One hospital's road to waste minimization.

    PubMed

    Hooper, D M

    1994-05-01

    There are many new and exciting waste minimization programs being offered to healthcare facilities. Companies are now making reusable operating packs and gowns that are more efficient than disposables. The selling point is that the system will save healthcare money! The reusable programs do save disposal costs for an institution. Shore Memorial has scheduled a trial evaluation for reusable operating room linens to begin May 1, 1994. The concept has not been difficult to sell to physicians and staff. Perhaps this is because people are generally more aware of their environment and the reasons why it should be protected. The hospital will also be evaluating an IV bottle and bag recycling program. The New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection Agency has given approval to proceed with this type of recycling program, and Shore Memorial is in the process of scheduling this trial program with a local vendor. Waste reduction and recycling in healthcare settings will continue to be challenging because of the diversity of the wastestream and the changing environment facing healthcare. Certainly, healthcare has as much of a responsibility to the well-being of patients as it does to keeping the environment healthy. Returning to the "old way" of doing things, such as reusables, does not have a negative impact on people, but it does have an impact on the environment. Shore Memorial believes it is moving in the right direction with its waste minimization program to make a positive environmental impact.

  15. Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention Crosscut Plan, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-28

    This plan establishes a Department-wide goal to reduce total releases of toxic chemicals to the environment and off-site transfers of such toxic chemicals by 50 percent by December 31, 1999, in compliance with Executive Order 12856. Each site that meets the threshold quantities of toxic chemicals established in the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) will participate in this goal. In addition, each DOE site will establish site-specific goals to reduce generation of hazardous, radioactive, radioactive mixed, and sanitary wastes and pollutants, as applicable. Implementation of this plan will represent a major step toward the environmental risks and costs associated with DOE operations and increasing the Department`s use of preventive environmental management practices. Investing in Waste Minimization Pollution Prevention (WMin/PP) steadily reduce hazardous and radioactive waste generation and will reduce the need for waste management and unnecessary expenditures for waste treatment, storage, and disposal. A preventive approach to waste management will help solve current environmental and regulatory issues and reduce the need for costly future corrective actions. The purpose of this plan is to establish the strategic framework for integrating WMin/PP into all DOE internal activities. This program includes setting DOE policy and goals for reducing the generation of wastes and pollutants, increasing recycling activities, and establishing an infrastructure to achieve and measure the goals throughout the DOE complex. Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Plans, submitted to Headquarters by DOE field sites, will incorporate the WMin/PP activities and goals outlined in this plan. Success of the DOE WMin/PP program is dependent upon each field operation becoming accountable for resources used, wastes and pollutants generated, and wastes recycled.

  16. Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of this plan is to document Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) projections for present and future waste minimization and pollution prevention. The plan specifies those activities and methods that are or will be used to reduce the quantity and toxicity of wastes generated at the site. It is intended to satisfy Department of Energy (DOE) requirements. This Plan provides an overview of projected activities from FY 1994 through FY 1999. The plans are broken into site-wide and problem-specific activities. All directorates at LLNL have had an opportunity to contribute input, to estimate budget, and to review the plan. In addition to the above, this plan records LLNL`s goals for pollution prevention, regulatory drivers for those activities, assumptions on which the cost estimates are based, analyses of the strengths of the projects, and the barriers to increasing pollution prevention activities.

  17. Waste minimization assessment procedures: Module 3. Waste minimization in the metal finishing industry

    SciTech Connect

    Kindschy, J.W.; Ringwald, D.; Carpenter, M.

    1991-05-01

    This module outlines the processes involved in metal cleaning, metal finishing, and printed circuit board manufacturing and the potential for waste minimization within each of these activities. It is intended to provide the key concepts necessary to familiarize the inspector with the scope of the metal finishing industry and the search for viable waste minimization options. It describes the two major categories of metal finishing operations, metal cleaning and stripping, and surface treatment and plating. An allied industry, printed circuit boar manufacuring, are also discussed.

  18. Waste Minimization Study on Pyrochemical Reprocessing Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Boussier, H.; Conocar, O.; Lacquement, J.

    2006-07-01

    ' new block diagram allowing internal solvent recycling, and self eliminating reactants. This new flowsheet minimizes the quantity of inactive inlet flows that would have inevitably to be incorporated in a final waste form. The study identifies all knowledge gaps to be filled and suggest some possible R and D issues to confirm or infirm the feasibility of the proposed process fittings. (authors)

  19. Facility-specific waste minimization plans at Westinghouse Hanford Company

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, P.A.

    1990-06-01

    A waste minimization program is required by public law and federal and state regulations for hazardous waste generators and treatment, storage, and disposal facilities. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has directed its contractors to develop an effective strategy to minimize the generation of hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes at the Hanford Site in compliance with state and federal regulations. Since Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) has a large and diversified operation, a key component of the Westinghouse Hanford waste minimization program is facility-specific waste minimization plans which document present and future activities to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste generated. Preparation and implementation of these plans will demonstrate facility compliance to Westinghouse Hanford and DOE requirements, as well as state and federal regulations. The plans include both the goals and the activities for their achievement and provide a basis for evaluation. Preparation of the plans is divided into two phases. The first phase involves writing the general'' plan which describes the facility operations, the types of waste produced, and the administrative controls used by the facility to ensure waste minimization. The second phase involves a detailed characterization of each waste stream. This characterization includes baselining the quantity of waste generated, brainstorming possible options to minimize waste, and documenting other factors such as cost and environmental and safety issues involved with the generation of the waste. This section is ever-changing as more information is obtained and as the waste minimization program evolves. 2 figs.

  20. 40 CFR 63.1213 - How can the compliance date be extended to install pollution prevention or waste minimization...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... extended to install pollution prevention or waste minimization controls? 63.1213 Section 63.1213 Protection... extended to install pollution prevention or waste minimization controls? (a) Applicability. You may request... pollution prevention or waste minimization measures will significantly reduce the amount and/or toxicity...

  1. 40 CFR 63.1213 - How can the compliance date be extended to install pollution prevention or waste minimization...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... extended to install pollution prevention or waste minimization controls? 63.1213 Section 63.1213 Protection... extended to install pollution prevention or waste minimization controls? (a) Applicability. You may request... pollution prevention or waste minimization measures will significantly reduce the amount and/or toxicity of...

  2. Waste minimization: The planned-parenthood-to-grave'' philosophy

    SciTech Connect

    Cash, K.M. ); Ostergaard, A.P. Corp. )

    1992-02-11

    Until 1985, the Y-12 Plant, a DOE facility, had concentrated waste minimization efforts on select large waste streams. However, during the past seven years, Y-12 has been faced with the challenge of complying with all of these requirements as well as striving to develop and implement a comprehensive proactive program to reduce waste. Thus, the Y-12 Plant Waste Minimization Program has gradually developed toward an all encompassing program. The overall strategy and structure of the Y-12 program is centered around four basic elements: Waste Minimization Process Waste Assessments (PWAs), Opportunities, and Projects; Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Promotional Campaign; Waste Tracking; and Information Exchange and Technology Transfer. Activities within each of these elements are described in this report.

  3. Waste minimization: The ``planned-parenthood-to-grave`` philosophy

    SciTech Connect

    Cash, K.M.; Ostergaard, A.P.

    1992-02-11

    Until 1985, the Y-12 Plant, a DOE facility, had concentrated waste minimization efforts on select large waste streams. However, during the past seven years, Y-12 has been faced with the challenge of complying with all of these requirements as well as striving to develop and implement a comprehensive proactive program to reduce waste. Thus, the Y-12 Plant Waste Minimization Program has gradually developed toward an all encompassing program. The overall strategy and structure of the Y-12 program is centered around four basic elements: Waste Minimization Process Waste Assessments (PWAs), Opportunities, and Projects; Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Promotional Campaign; Waste Tracking; and Information Exchange and Technology Transfer. Activities within each of these elements are described in this report.

  4. Minimization of combustion by-products: Characteristics of hazardous waste

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.C.; Huffman, G.L.

    1990-11-01

    It has been well recognized that, although there are many potential solid waste treatment technologies, none are as universally applicable as incineration for the treatment of the many types of waste which are governed by the many different Federal laws and State regulations. However, incinerators may release trace amounts of unwanted combustion by-products, particularly if the incinerators are not well designed or properly operated. Control of emissions of combustion by-products (CBPs) is one of the major technical and sociological issues surrounding the implementation of incineration as a waste treatment alternative. Much of this is due to the lack of detailed knowledge about CBPs. The Clean Air Act Amendment is emphasizing the control of toxic air pollutants from all combustion sources; some of these pollutants are CBPs. CBPs include: (1) unburned principal organic hazardous constituents (POHCs); (2) products of incomplete combustion (PICs); (3) metals emissions; and (4) residuals/ashes. The Paper is a part of a series of writings on the subject of the CBP issue from EPA's Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory in Cincinnati, Ohio. It specifically addresses the aspect of hazardous waste characteristics. The main objective of the series is to compare combustion by-products from all combustion sources including fossil fuel combustion and waste incineration, which hopefully will serve as an initial step in the eventual minimization of the release of CBPs to the environment.

  5. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF PRINTED LABELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at sel...

  6. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF REFURBISHED RAILCAR ASSEMBLIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected ...

  7. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF PRINTED LABELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at sel...

  8. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF SPEED REDUCTION EQUIPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at sel...

  9. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF REFURBISHED RAILCAR ASSEMBLIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected ...

  10. Waste Minimization Assessment for Multilayered Printed Circuit Board Manufacturing

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium- size manu facturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at s...

  11. Waste Minimization Assessment for Multilayered Printed Circuit Board Manufacturing

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium- size manu facturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at s...

  12. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF SHEET METAL COMPONENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization ssessment Cente...

  13. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF SHEET METAL COMPONENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization ssessment Cente...

  14. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF SPEED REDUCTION EQUIPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at sel...

  15. Pollution balance. A new methodology for minimizing waste production in manufacturing processes

    SciTech Connect

    Hilaly, A.K.; Sikdar, S.K.

    1994-11-01

    A new methodology based on a generic pollution balance equation has been developed for minimizing waste production in manufacturing processes. A `pollution index,` defined as the mass of waste produced per unit mass of a product, has been introduced to provide a quantitative measure of waste generation in a process. A waste reduction algorithm also has been developed from the pollution balance equation. This paper explains this methodology and demonstrates the applicability of the method by a case study. 8 refs., 7 figs.

  16. Hazardous-waste minimization assessment: Fort Campbell, Kentucky. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Dharmavaram, S.; Knowlton, D.A.; Heflin, C.; Donahue, B.A.

    1991-03-01

    Waste minimization is the process of reducing the net outflow of hazardous materials that may be solid, liquid, or gaseous effluents from a given source or generating process. It involves reducing air pollution emissions, contamination of surface and ground water, and land disposal by means of source reduction, waste recycling processes, and treatment leading to complete destruction. Among Federal regulations is a requirement that every generator of hazardous wastes producing in excess of 2205 pounds per month certify that a hazardous waste minimization program is in operation. Generators are required to submit biennial reports to the USEPA that describe efforts taken to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste generated during the year. The objective of this research was to develop a hazardous waste minimization plan for Fort Campbell, Kentucky, to include actions necessary to reduce the generation of hazardous wastes. Reduction should be in both volume and toxicity.

  17. Food waste minimization from a life-cycle perspective.

    PubMed

    Bernstad Saraiva Schott, A; Andersson, T

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates potentials and environmental impacts related to household food waste minimization, based on a case study in Southern Sweden. In the study, the amount of avoidable and unavoidable food waste currently being disposed of by households was assessed through waste composition analyses and the different types of avoidable food waste were classified. Currently, both avoidable and unavoidable food waste is either incinerated or treated through anaerobic digestion. A hypothetical scenario with no generation of avoidable food waste and either anaerobic digestion or incineration of unavoidable food waste was compared to the current situation using the life-cycle assessment method, limited to analysis of global warming potential (GWP). The results from the waste composition analyses indicate that an average of 35% of household food waste is avoidable. Minimization of this waste could result in reduction of greenhouse gas emissions of 800-1400 kg/tonne of avoidable food waste. Thus, a minimization strategy would result in increased avoidance of GWP compared to the current situation. The study clearly shows that although modern alternatives for food waste treatment can result in avoidance of GWP through nutrient and energy recovery, food waste prevention yields far greater benefits for GWP compared to both incineration and anaerobic digestion.

  18. 2016 Los Alamos National Laboratory Hazardous Waste Minimization Report

    SciTech Connect

    Salzman, Sonja L.; English, Charles Joe

    2016-12-02

    Waste minimization and pollution prevention are goals within the operating procedures of Los Alamos National Security, LLC (LANS). The US Department of Energy (DOE), inclusive of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and the Office of Environmental Management, and LANS are required to submit an annual hazardous waste minimization report to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) in accordance with the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit. The report was prepared pursuant to the requirements of Section 2.9 of the LANL Hazardous Waste Facility Permit. This report describes the hazardous waste minimization program, which is a component of the overall Pollution Prevention (P2) Program, administered by the Environmental Stewardship Group (EPC-ES). This report also supports the waste minimization and P2 goals of the Associate Directorate of Environmental Management (ADEM) organizations that are responsible for implementing remediation activities and describes its programs to incorporate waste reduction practices into remediation activities and procedures. This report includes data for all waste shipped offsite from LANL during fiscal year (FY) 2016 (October 1, 2015 – September 30, 2016). LANS was active during FY2016 in waste minimization and P2 efforts. Multiple projects were funded that specifically related to reduction of hazardous waste. In FY2016, there was no hazardous, mixed-transuranic (MTRU), or mixed low-level (MLLW) remediation waste shipped offsite from the Laboratory. More non-remediation hazardous waste and MLLW was shipped offsite from the Laboratory in FY2016 compared to FY2015. Non-remediation MTRU waste was not shipped offsite during FY2016. These accomplishments and analysis of the waste streams are discussed in much more detail within this report.

  19. Waste minimization opportunity assessment: A photofinishing facility. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    A waste minimization opportunity assessment was performed which identified areas for waste reduction at a photofinishing facility. The study followed procedures in the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual. The report identifies potential options to achieve further waste minimization progress. A number of waste producing processes were initially screened, and detailed technical evaluations were performed on wastes associated with process solutions and wash waters. Options identified were as follows: (1) wash water control; (2) silver recovery--metal replacement cartridges; (3) silver recovery--electrowinning (4) electrowinning with MRC tailing; (5) recovery of silver--ion exchange; (6) recovery of fixer; (7) recovery of bleach fix; and (8) recovery of developer. Based on the results of the assessment phase, Options 1-4 and 7 were selected for further evaluation in the feasibility phase. The results of the study indicate the fastest payback would be realized from Options 1 and 7 assuming Accuphoto's willingness to recycle bleach and no production increases.

  20. 2013 Los Alamos National Laboratory Hazardous Waste Minimization Report

    SciTech Connect

    Salzman, Sonja L.; English, Charles J.

    2015-08-24

    Waste minimization and pollution prevention are inherent goals within the operating procedures of Los Alamos National Security, LLC (LANS). The US Department of Energy (DOE) and LANS are required to submit an annual hazardous waste minimization report to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) in accordance with the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit. The report was prepared pursuant to the requirements of Section 2.9 of the LANL Hazardous Waste Facility Permit. This report describes the hazardous waste minimization program (a component of the overall Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention [WMin/PP] Program) administered by the Environmental Stewardship Group (ENV-ES). This report also supports the waste minimization and pollution prevention goals of the Environmental Programs Directorate (EP) organizations that are responsible for implementing remediation activities and describes its programs to incorporate waste reduction practices into remediation activities and procedures. LANS was very successful in fiscal year (FY) 2013 (October 1-September 30) in WMin/PP efforts. Staff funded four projects specifically related to reduction of waste with hazardous constituents, and LANS won four national awards for pollution prevention efforts from the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). In FY13, there was no hazardous, mixedtransuranic (MTRU), or mixed low-level (MLLW) remediation waste generated at the Laboratory. More hazardous waste, MTRU waste, and MLLW was generated in FY13 than in FY12, and the majority of the increase was related to MTRU processing or lab cleanouts. These accomplishments and analysis of the waste streams are discussed in much more detail within this report.

  1. Savannah River Site Radiological Technology Center's Efforts Supporting Waste Minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberger, K. H.; Smith, L. S.; Bates, R. L.

    2003-02-25

    This paper describes the efforts of the newly formed Radiological Technology Center (RTC) at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS) to support waste minimization. The formation of the RTC was based upon the highly successful ALARA Center at the DOE Hanford Site. The RTC is tasked with evaluation and dissemination of new technologies and techniques for radiological hazard reduction and waste minimization. Initial waste minimization efforts have focused on the promotion of SRS containment fabrication capabilities, new personal protective equipment and use of recyclable versus disposable materials.

  2. Hazardous waste minimization at Oak Ridge National Laboratory during 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Kendrick, C.M.

    1988-03-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a multipurpose research and development facility owned and operated by the Department of Energy (DOE) and managed under subcontract by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. Its primary role is the support of energy technology through applied research and engineering development and scientific research in basic and physical sciences. ORNL also is a valuable resource in the solution of problems of national importance, such as nuclear and chemical waste management. In addition, useful radioactive and stable isotopes which are unavailable from the private sector are produced at ORNL. A formal hazardous waste minimization program for ORNL was launched in mid-1985 in response to the requirements of Section 3002 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The plan for waste minimization has been modified several times and continues to be dynamic. During 1986, a task plan was developed. The six major tasks include: planning and implementation of a laboratory-wide chemical inventory and the subsequent distribution, treatment, storage, and/or disposal (TSD) of unneeded chemicals; establishment and implementation of a system for distributing surplus chemicals to other (internal and external) organizations; training and communication functions necessary to inform and motivate laboratory personnel; evaluation of current procurement and tracking systems for hazardous materials and recommendation and implementation of improvements; systematic review of applicable current and proposed ORNL procedures and ongoing and proposed activities for waste volume and/or toxicity reduction potential; and establishment of criteria by which to measure progress and reporting of significant achievements. Progress is being made toward completing these tasks and is described in this report. 13 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  3. Waste Minimization Policy at the Romanian Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Andrei, V.; Daian, I.

    2002-02-26

    The radioactive waste management system at Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) in Romania was designed to maintain acceptable levels of safety for workers and to protect human health and the environment from exposure to unacceptable levels of radiation. In accordance with terminology of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), this system consists of the ''pretreatment'' of solid and organic liquid radioactive waste, which may include part or all of the following activities: collection, handling, volume reduction (by an in-drum compactor, if appropriate), and storage. Gaseous and aqueous liquid wastes are managed according to the ''dilute and discharge'' strategy. Taking into account the fact that treatment/conditioning and disposal technologies are still not established, waste minimization at the source is a priority environmental management objective, while waste minimization at the disposal stage is presently just a theoretical requirement for future adopted technologies . The necessary operational and maintenance procedures are in place at Cernavoda to minimize the production and contamination of waste. Administrative and technical measures are established to minimize waste volumes. Thus, an annual environmental target of a maximum 30 m3 of radioactive waste volume arising from operation and maintenance has been established. Within the first five years of operations at Cernavoda NPP, this target has been met. The successful implementation of the waste minimization policy has been accompanied by a cost reduction while the occupational doses for plant workers have been maintained at as low as reasonably practicable levels. This paper will describe key features of the waste management system along with the actual experience that has been realized with respect to minimizing the waste volumes at the Cernavoda NPP.

  4. Hazardous Waste Minimization Assessment: Fort Ord, CA

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    include:2 activated sludge digestion , aerobic processes, composting, trickling filtration, and waste stabilization. Biological treatment processes rely...creates two types of wastes: lead dross , and spent sulfuric acid contaminated with lead. The electrolyte, if drained, must be neutralizc:d and tested for...batteries; automobile, truck, tracked lead dross , less than 3 percent used lead-acid batteries, strong recharging, repair, draining vehicle, and other

  5. WASTE MINIMIZATION PRACTICES AT TWO CCA WOOD TREATMENT PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two chromated copper arsenate (CCA) wood-treatment plants were assessed for their waste minimization practices. These practices have been reflected in several areas, including facility designs, process controls, and management practices. he objectives were to estimate the amount...

  6. Annual Waste Minimization Summary Report, Calendar Year 2008

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2009-02-01

    This report summarizes the waste minimization efforts undertaken by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), during calendar year 2008.

  7. Process development accomplishments: Waste and hazard minimization, FY 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Homan, D.A.

    1991-11-04

    This report summarizes significant technical accomplishments of the Mound Waste and Hazard Minimization Program for FY 1991. The accomplishments are in one of eight major areas: environmentally responsive cleaning program; nonhalogenated solvent trials; substitutes for volatile organic compounds; hazardous material exposure minimization; nonhazardous plating development; explosive processing waste reduction; tritium capture without conversion to water; and robotic assembly. Program costs have been higher than planned.

  8. Secondary waste minimization in analytical methods

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D.W.; Smith, L.L.; Crain, J.S.; Boparai, A.S.; Kiely, J.T.; Yaeger, J.S.; Schilling, J.B.

    1995-07-01

    The characterization phase of site remediation is an important and costly part of the process. Because toxic solvents and other hazardous materials are used in common analytical methods, characterization is also a source of new waste, including mixed waste. Alternative analytical methods can reduce the volume or form of hazardous waste produced either in the sample preparation step or in the measurement step. The authors are examining alternative methods in the areas of inorganic, radiological, and organic analysis. For determining inorganic constituents, alternative methods were studied for sample introduction into inductively coupled plasma spectrometers. Figures of merit for the alternative methods, as well as their associated waste volumes, were compared with the conventional approaches. In the radiological area, the authors are comparing conventional methods for gross {alpha}/{beta} measurements of soil samples to an alternative method that uses high-pressure microwave dissolution. For determination of organic constituents, microwave-assisted extraction was studied for RCRA regulated semivolatile organics in a variety of solid matrices, including spiked samples in blank soil; polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in soils, sludges, and sediments; and semivolatile organics in soil. Extraction efficiencies were determined under varying conditions of time, temperature, microwave power, moisture content, and extraction solvent. Solvent usage was cut from the 300 mL used in conventional extraction methods to about 30 mL. Extraction results varied from one matrix to another. In most cases, the microwave-assisted extraction technique was as efficient as the more common Soxhlet or sonication extraction techniques.

  9. International waste minimization approaches and policies to metal plating

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    This technical report on metal plating provides an industry overview, detailed descriptions of wastes generated by metal plating operations, known waste minimization methods employed or being development by the industry, and tools for evaluating pollution prevention opportunities. This document is also a review and evaluation of the relevant policies used by the United States and other organization for economic cooperation and development (OECD) member countries to promote or mandate waste minimization. Appendices include international policy approaches, implication and evaluation of policies, U.S. federal and state pollution prevention policy/plans, and a list of pollution prevention contacts.

  10. Cleaner production: Minimizing hazardous waste in Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Bratasida, D.L.

    1996-12-31

    In the second long-term development plan, industry plays a significant role in economic growth. In Indonesia, industries grow very fast; such fast growth can adversely effect the environment. Exploitation of assets can mean depletion of natural resources and energy, which, if incorrectly managed, can endanger human life and the environment. The inefficient use of natural resources will accelerate their exhaustion and generate pollution, resulting in environmental damage and threats to economic development and human well being. In recent years, changes in the approach used to control pollution have been necessary because of the increasing seriousness of the problems. Initial environmental management strategies were based on a carrying capacity approach; the natural assimilative capacity accommodated the pollution load that was applied. The environmental management strategies adopted later included technologies applied to the end of the discharge point (so-called {open_quotes}end-of-pipe{close_quotes} treatments). Until now, environmental management strategies focused on end-of-pipe approaches that control pollutants after they are generated. These approaches concentrate on waste treatment and disposal to control pollution and environmental degradation. However, as industry develops, waste volumes continue to increase, thereby creating further environmental problems. In addition, the wastes produced tend to have more complex characteristics and are potentially more difficult to treat for a reasonable cost. There are often technical and financial obstacles to regulatory compliance if waste treatment is relied on as the only means of achieving environmental objectives. Consequently, the reactive end-of-pipe treatment approach has been changed to a proactive cleaner production approach. This approach is based on the concept of sustainable development and is designed to prevent pollution as well as to protect natural resources and the quality of the environment.

  11. Hazardous Waste Minimization Assessment: Fort Carson, CO

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    pack ) was deactivated when helicopters arrived. The 10th Mountain Division was formed and trained at Camp Hale (20 miles west of Leadville, CO) to move...toxicity of the waste stream. Propylene glycol is a nontoxic compound commonly used as a food additive.’ Antifreeze Solution - P-ocess Change...implementing better operating practices. Only the required amount of ink must be put in an ink fountain before starting a print job. Resealing the ink

  12. Hazardous Waste Minimization Assessment: Fort Meade, MD

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    Proper Ventilation 81 Phosphate Sludge/Coating Solution - Process Change - Bath Loading 52 All Wastes- Better Operating Practices - Proper Maintenance...fuel oil. diesel fuel. thinners, paints, lacquers, cleaning solvents. nichloroethylene (TCE), I..-richloethane. JP.4, crankcase oils...am stored nea the fuel distribution am. The fuels and used crankcase oils are mixed and accumulated in a 2000-gal undergapwnd soae tank. The mixture

  13. Adoption of waste minimization technology to benefit electroplaters

    SciTech Connect

    Ching, E.M.K.; Li, C.P.H.; Yu, C.M.K.

    1996-12-31

    Because of increasingly stringent environmental legislation and enhanced environmental awareness, electroplaters in Hong Kong are paying more heed to protect the environment. To comply with the array of environmental controls, electroplaters can no longer rely solely on the end-of-pipe approach as a means for abating their pollution problems under the particular local industrial environment. The preferred approach is to adopt waste minimization measures that yield both economic and environmental benefits. This paper gives an overview of electroplating activities in Hong Kong, highlights their characteristics, and describes the pollution problems associated with conventional electroplating operations. The constraints of using pollution control measures to achieve regulatory compliance are also discussed. Examples and case studies are given on some low-cost waste minimization techniques readily available to electroplaters, including dragout minimization and water conservation techniques. Recommendations are given as to how electroplaters can adopt and exercise waste minimization techniques in their operations. 1 tab.

  14. Minimization and management of wastes from biomedical research.

    PubMed Central

    Rau, E H; Alaimo, R J; Ashbrook, P C; Austin, S M; Borenstein, N; Evans, M R; French, H M; Gilpin, R W; Hughes, J; Hummel, S J; Jacobsohn, A P; Lee, C Y; Merkle, S; Radzinski, T; Sloane, R; Wagner, K D; Weaner, L E

    2000-01-01

    Several committees were established by the National Association of Physicians for the Environment to investigate and report on various topics at the National Leadership Conference on Biomedical Research and the Environment held at the 1--2 November 1999 at the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland. This is the report of the Committee on Minimization and Management of Wastes from Biomedical Research. Biomedical research facilities contribute a small fraction of the total amount of wastes generated in the United States, and the rate of generation appears to be decreasing. Significant reductions in generation of hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes have recently been reported, even at facilities with rapidly expanding research programs. Changes in the focus of research, improvements in laboratory techniques, and greater emphasis on waste minimization (volume and toxicity reduction) explain the declining trend in generation. The potential for uncontrolled releases of wastes from biomedical research facilities and adverse impacts on the general environment from these wastes appears to be low. Wastes are subject to numerous regulatory requirements and are contained and managed in a manner protective of the environment. Most biohazardous agents, chemicals, and radionuclides that find significant use in research are not likely to be persistent, bioaccumulative, or toxic if they are released. Today, the primary motivations for the ongoing efforts by facilities to improve minimization and management of wastes are regulatory compliance and avoidance of the high disposal costs and liabilities associated with generation of regulated wastes. The committee concluded that there was no evidence suggesting that the anticipated increases in biomedical research will significantly increase generation of hazardous wastes or have adverse impacts on the general environment. This conclusion assumes the positive, countervailing trends of enhanced pollution prevention

  15. Minimization and management of wastes from biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Rau, E H; Alaimo, R J; Ashbrook, P C; Austin, S M; Borenstein, N; Evans, M R; French, H M; Gilpin, R W; Hughes, J; Hummel, S J; Jacobsohn, A P; Lee, C Y; Merkle, S; Radzinski, T; Sloane, R; Wagner, K D; Weaner, L E

    2000-12-01

    Several committees were established by the National Association of Physicians for the Environment to investigate and report on various topics at the National Leadership Conference on Biomedical Research and the Environment held at the 1--2 November 1999 at the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland. This is the report of the Committee on Minimization and Management of Wastes from Biomedical Research. Biomedical research facilities contribute a small fraction of the total amount of wastes generated in the United States, and the rate of generation appears to be decreasing. Significant reductions in generation of hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes have recently been reported, even at facilities with rapidly expanding research programs. Changes in the focus of research, improvements in laboratory techniques, and greater emphasis on waste minimization (volume and toxicity reduction) explain the declining trend in generation. The potential for uncontrolled releases of wastes from biomedical research facilities and adverse impacts on the general environment from these wastes appears to be low. Wastes are subject to numerous regulatory requirements and are contained and managed in a manner protective of the environment. Most biohazardous agents, chemicals, and radionuclides that find significant use in research are not likely to be persistent, bioaccumulative, or toxic if they are released. Today, the primary motivations for the ongoing efforts by facilities to improve minimization and management of wastes are regulatory compliance and avoidance of the high disposal costs and liabilities associated with generation of regulated wastes. The committee concluded that there was no evidence suggesting that the anticipated increases in biomedical research will significantly increase generation of hazardous wastes or have adverse impacts on the general environment. This conclusion assumes the positive, countervailing trends of enhanced pollution prevention

  16. Economic Analysis of Hazardous Waste Minimization Alternatives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-01

    OF REPORT OF THIS PP,,E OF ABSTRACT Unclassified Unclassilied Unclassified SAR NSN 7540 01-280 5500 SuxVl form t (Rev 2- R ]I Pe•nbed or ANSi Srd 2r39...Consulting Associates, Inc.. 15 June 1987). Chapter 7. T . Page, R . Harris, and J. Bruser, Removal of Carcinogens from Drinking Water: A Cost-Benefit Analysis...Pretreatment of Hazardous Waste, EPA/600/D-87/047 (EPA, January 1987), pp 58-70. Page, T ., R . Harris, and J. Bruser. Removal of Carcinogens from Drinking Water

  17. Hazardous Waste Minimization Guide for Shipyards

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued) Surface Preparation 54 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 Vessel 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 Abrasive Blasting 54...operation that involves a cutting tool or some other type of abrasive material to shape a piece of metal. The most common types of metal cutting processes...properly clean the part, and a sequence of steps involving acids, abrasive , and other substances may be needed. The importance of solvent waste

  18. Redox alloy media as a water treatment technology for the removal and minimization of waste

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Kharusy, I.S.

    1996-12-31

    Oxidation/reduction (REDOX) alloy media, as used in wastewater treatment, is founded on the exchange of electrons. Because of this electron exchange, many contaminants are converted to harmless components which require no further treatment. Other types of contaminants are removed from the waste stream by electrochemically bonding to the alloy medium. This paper discusses the REDOX reactions, the role of the alloy medium in various treatment processes, and describes specific applications of REDOX alloy media for the removal and minimization of waste. The characteristics and handling of spent treatment media is also reviewed as a further consideration in waste minimization.

  19. Lessons in waste minimization from nuclear industry experience

    SciTech Connect

    Devgun, J.S.; Thuot, J.R.; Vrtis, J.

    1996-07-01

    The nuclear power industry has been very successful at reducing waste volumes and waste sources. The success has been driven by escalating cost, decreasing disposal ability, and a desire by the industry to achieve excellence. The result has been a cycle of continuing improvement resulting in reduced cost. Many of the examples of Dry Active Waste reduction are applicable to the Department of Energy in both operations and remedial activities. This paper discusses several successful examples of utility applications in this area.

  20. Hanford site waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness program

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkendall, J.R.

    1996-09-23

    This plan documents the requirements of the Hanford Site Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention (WMin/P2) Program. The plan specifies requirements for Hanford contractors to prevent pollution from entering the environment, to conserve resources and energy, and to reduce the quantity and toxicity of hazardous, radioactive, mixed, and sanitary waste generated at Hanford. The Pollution Prevention Awareness Program required by DOE 5400.1 (DOE 1988A) is included in the Hanford WMin/P2 Program.

  1. JSC Metal Finishing Waste Minimization Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Erica

    2003-01-01

    THe paper discusses the following: Johnson Space Center (JSC) has achieved VPP Star status and is ISO 9001 compliant. The Structural Engineering Division in the Engineering Directorate is responsible for operating the metal finishing facility at JSC. The Engineering Directorate is responsible for $71.4 million of space flight hardware design, fabrication and testing. The JSC Metal Finishing Facility processes flight hardware to support the programs in particular schedule and mission critical flight hardware. The JSC Metal Finishing Facility is operated by Rothe Joint Venture. The Facility provides following processes: anodizing, alodining, passivation, and pickling. JSC Metal Finishing Facility completely rebuilt in 1998. Total cost of $366,000. All new tanks, electrical, plumbing, and ventilation installed. Designed to meet modern safety, environmental, and quality requirements. Designed to minimize contamination and provide the highest quality finishes.

  2. 40 CFR 63.1213 - How can the compliance date be extended to install pollution prevention or waste minimization...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to install pollution prevention or waste minimization controls? 63.1213 Section 63.1213 Protection of... pollution prevention or waste minimization controls? (a) Applicability. You may request from the.... An extension may be granted if you can reasonably document that the installation of pollution...

  3. 40 CFR 63.1213 - How can the compliance date be extended to install pollution prevention or waste minimization...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... to install pollution prevention or waste minimization controls? 63.1213 Section 63.1213 Protection of... pollution prevention or waste minimization controls? (a) Applicability. You may request from the.... An extension may be granted if you can reasonably document that the installation of...

  4. 40 CFR 63.1213 - How can the compliance date be extended to install pollution prevention or waste minimization...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... extended to install pollution prevention or waste minimization controls? 63.1213 Section 63.1213 Protection... pollution prevention or waste minimization controls? (a) Applicability. You may request from the.... An extension may be granted if you can reasonably document that the installation of...

  5. National Ignition Facility pollution prevention and waste minimization plan

    SciTech Connect

    Cantwell, B.; Celeste, J.

    1998-09-01

    This document is the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) National Ignition Facility (NIF) Pollution Prevention and Waste Minimization Plan. It will not only function as the planning document for anticipating, minimizing, and mitigating NIF waste generation, but it is also a Department of Energy (DOE) milestone document specified in the facility's Mitigation Action Plan (MAP). As such, it is one of the ''living'' reference documents that will guide NIF operations through all phases of the project. This document will be updated periodically to reflect development of the NIF, from construction through lifetime operations.

  6. Annual Report on Waste Generation and Waste Minimization Progress, 1991--1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    This report is DOE`s first annual report on waste generation and waste minimization progress. Data presented in this report were collected from all DOE sites which met minimum threshold criteria established for this report. The fifty-seven site submittals contained herein represent data from over 100 reporting sites within 25 states. Radioactive, hazardous and sanitary waste quantities and the efforts to minimize these wastes are highlighted within the fifty-seven site submittals. In general, sites have made progress in moving beyond the planning phase of their waste minimization programs. This is evident by the overall 28 percent increase in the total amount of materials recycled from 1991 to 1992, as well as individual site initiatives. During 1991 and 1992, DOE generated a total of 279,000 cubic meters of radioactive waste and 243,000 metric tons of non-radioactive waste. These waste amounts include significant portions of process wastewater required to be reported to regulatory agencies in the state of Texas and the state of Tennessee. Specifically, the Pantex Plant in Texas treats an industrial wastewater that is considered by the Texas Water Commission to be a hazardous waste. In 1992, State regulated wastewater from the Pantex Plant represented 3,620 metric tons, 10 percent of the total hazardous waste generated by DOE. Similarly, mixed low-level wastewater from the TSCA Incinerator Facility at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site in Tennessee represented 55 percent of the total radioactive waste generated by DOE in 1992.

  7. WASTE MINIMIZATION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT: SCOTT AIR FORCE BASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes a waste minimization assessment of three operations at Scott AFB. ircuit board manufacturing, non-destructive wheel inspection, and paint shipping/painting/parts cleaning are the operations addressed in this assessment. he primary focus of the assessment was...

  8. WASTE MINIMIZATION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT: SCOTT AIR FORCE BASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes a waste minimization assessment of three operations at Scott AFB. ircuit board manufacturing, non-destructive wheel inspection, and paint shipping/painting/parts cleaning are the operations addressed in this assessment. he primary focus of the assessment was...

  9. Pollution prevention and waste minimization tools workshops: Proceedings. Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    The purpose of the second workshop was to bring together representatives of DOE and DOE contractor organizations to discuss four topics: process waste assessments (PWAs), a continuation of one of the sessions held at the first workshop in Clearwater; waste minimization reporting requirements; procurement systems for waste minimization; and heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) and replacements for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). The topics were discussed in four concurrent group sessions. Participants in each group were encouraged to work toward achieving two main objectives: establish a ``clear vision`` of the overall target for their session`s program, focusing not just on where the program is now but on where it should go in the long term; and determine steps to be followed to carry out the target program.

  10. Waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The purpose of this plan is to document Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) projections for present and future waste minimization and pollution prevention. The plan specifies those activities and methods that are or will be used to reduce the quantity and toxicity of wastes generated at the site. It is intended to satisfy Department of Energy (DOE) requirements. This Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Plan provides an overview of projected activities from FY 1994 through FY 1999. The plans are broken into site-wide and problem-specific activities. All directorates at LLNL have had an opportunity to contribute input, estimate budgets, and review the plan. In addition to the above, this plan records LLNL`s goals for pollution prevention, regulatory drivers for those activities, assumptions on which the cost estimates are based, analyses of the strengths of the projects, and the barriers to increasing pollution prevention activities.

  11. Using benchmarking to minimize common DOE waste streams. Volume 1, Methodology and liquid photographic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, V.

    1994-04-01

    Finding innovative ways to reduce waste streams generated at Department of Energy (DOE) sites by 50% by the year 2000 is a challenge for DOE`s waste minimization efforts. This report examines the usefulness of benchmarking as a waste minimization tool, specifically regarding common waste streams at DOE sites. A team of process experts from a variety of sites, a project leader, and benchmarking consultants completed the project with management support provided by the Waste Minimization Division EM-352. Using a 12-step benchmarking process, the team examined current waste minimization processes for liquid photographic waste used at their sites and used telephone and written questionnaires to find ``best-in-class`` industrv partners willing to share information about their best waste minimization techniques and technologies through a site visit. Eastman Kodak Co., and Johnson Space Center/National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) agreed to be partners. The site visits yielded strategies for source reduction, recycle/recovery of components, regeneration/reuse of solutions, and treatment of residuals, as well as best management practices. An additional benefit of the work was the opportunity for DOE process experts to network and exchange ideas with their peers at similar sites.

  12. Radioactive waste minimization implications of clinically-indicated exsanguination procedures.

    PubMed

    Costello, R G; Emery, R J; Pakala, R B; Charlton, M A

    2000-09-01

    Exsanguination is a method of animal euthanasia approved for use in specific circumstances. Animals undergoing exsanguination are fully anesthetized, and the blood is removed resulting in hypovolemia. In situations where radioactive materials are used as part of a research protocol that remain predominantly suspended in the blood, the exsanguination procedure can result in a significant lowering of residual radioactivity content. This reduction can greatly affect the types of waste management and minimization options that can be subsequently applied. In this study, data were collected from 20 rabbits injected with approximately 29.6 MBq (0.8 mCi) of tritiated thymidine as part of a percutaneous transluminal carotid artery angioplasty study. Residual concentrations of radioactivity were consistently reduced by an average of 88%. The reduction was very significant in this instance, since the residual activities were below the established exemption limit of 1.85 kBq g(-1) (0.05 microCi g(-1)) for disposal of these wastes as non-radioactive. Although the exsanguination procedure can result in significant waste minimization opportunities in certain circumstances, this should not be the rationale for its use. Rather, the method of euthanasia should be based exclusively on sound animal care and use principles, and waste management strategies should then be made following that decision. Health Phys. 79(3):291-293; 2000 Key words: waste, low-level; waste management; radiation protection; blood

  13. Low-level waste minimization at the Y-12 Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Koger, J.

    1993-03-01

    The Y-12 Development Waste Minimization Program is used as a basis for defining new technologies and processes that produce minimum low-level wastes (hazardous, mixed, radioactive, and industrial) for the Y-12 Plant in the future and for Complex-21 and that aid in decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) efforts throughout the complex. In the past, the strategy at the Y-12 Plant was to treat the residues from the production processes using chemical treatment, incineration, compaction, and other technologies, which often generated copious quantities of additional wastes and, with the exception of highly valuable materials such as enriched uranium, incorporated very little recycle in the process. Recycle, in this context, is defined as material that is put back into the process before it enters a waste stream. Additionally, there are several new technology drivers that have recently emerged with the changing climate in the Nuclear Weapons Complex such as Complex 21 and D and D technologies and an increasing number of disassemblies. The hierarchies of concern in the waste minimization effort are source reduction, recycle capability, treatment simplicity, and final disposal difficulty with regard to Complex 21, disassembly efforts, D and D, and, to a lesser extent, weapons production. Source reduction can be achieved through substitution of hazardous substances for nonhazardous materials, and process changes that result in less generated waste.

  14. Molten salt treatment to minimize and optimize waste

    SciTech Connect

    Gat, U.; Crosley, S.M.; Gay, R.L.

    1993-07-01

    A combination molten salt oxidizer (MSO) and molten salt reactor (MSR) is described for treatment of waste. The MSO is proposed for contained oxidization of organic hazardous waste, for reduction of mass and volume of dilute waste by evaporation of the water. The NTSO residue is to be treated to optimize the waste in terms of its composition, chemical form, mixture, concentration, encapsulation, shape, size, and configuration. Accumulations and storage are minimized, shipments are sized for low risk. Actinides, fissile material, and long-lived isotopes are separated and completely burned or transmuted in an MSR. The MSR requires no fuel element fabrication, accepts the materials as salts in arbitrarily small quantities enhancing safety, security, and overall acceptability.

  15. Good Practice Guide Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention

    SciTech Connect

    J Dorsey

    1999-10-14

    This Good Practice Guide provides tools, information, and examples for promoting the implementation of pollution prevention during the design phases of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) projects. It is one of several Guides for implementing DOE Order 430.1, Life-cycle Asset Management. DOE Order 430.1 provides requirements for DOE, in partnership with its contractors, to plan, acquire, operate, maintain, and dispose of physical assets. The goals of designing for pollution prevention are to minimize raw material consumption, energy consumption, waste generation, health and safety impacts, and ecological degradation over the entire life of the facility (EPA 1993a). Users of this Guide will learn to translate national policy and regulatory requirements for pollution prevention into action at the project level. The Guide was written to be applicable to all DOE projects, regardless of project size or design phase. Users are expected to interpret the Guide for their individual project's circumstances, applying a graded approach so that the effort is consistent with the anticipated waste generation and resource consumption of the physical asset. This Guide employs a combination of pollution prevention opportunity assessment (PPOA) methods and design for environment (DfE) philosophies. The PPOA process was primarily developed for existing products, processes, and facilities. The PPOA process has been modified in this Guide to address the circumstances of the DOE design process as delineated in DOE Order 430.1 and its associated Good Practice Guides. This modified form of the PPOA is termed the Pollution Prevention Design Assessment (P2DA). Information on current nationwide methods and successes in designing for the environment also have been reviewed and are integrated into this guidance.

  16. Annual Waste Minimization Summary Report, Calendar Year 2009

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2010-02-07

    This report summarizes the waste minimization efforts undertaken by National Security Technologies, LLC, for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), during calendar year 2009. This report was developed in accordance with the requirements of the Nevada Test Site Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit (No. NEV HW0021), and as clarified in a letter dated April 21, 1995, from Paul Liebendorfer of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection to Donald Elle of the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office. The NNSA/NSO Pollution Prevention (P2) Program establishes a process to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste generated by NNSA/NSO activities and ensures that proposed methods of treatment, storage, and/or disposal of waste minimize potential threats to human health and the environment. The following information provides an overview of the P2 Program, major P2 accomplishments during the reporting year, a comparison of the current year waste generation to prior years, and a description of efforts undertaken during the year to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste generated by NNSA/NSO.

  17. Annual Waste Minimization Summary Report Calendar Year 2007

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2008-02-01

    This report summarizes the waste minimization efforts undertaken by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), during calendar year (CY) 2007. This report was developed in accordance with the requirements of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Permit (number NEV HW0021), and as clarified in a letter dated April 21, 1995, from Paul Liebendorfer of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection to Donald Elle of the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office. The NNSA/NSO Pollution Prevention (P2) Program establishes a process to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste generated by the NNSA/NSO and ensures that proposed methods of treatment, storage, and/or disposal of waste minimize potential threats to human health and the environment. The following information provides an overview of the P2 Program, major P2 accomplishments during the reporting year, a comparison of the current year waste generation to prior years, and a description of efforts undertaken during the year to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste generated by the NNSA/NSO.

  18. Pollution prevention and waste minimization opportunity assessment in environmental restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Roybal, J.A.; Willison, C.P.

    1997-10-01

    The Environmental Restoration (ER) Project at Sandia National Laboratories implicitly subscribed to the philosophy of pollution prevention and waste minimization. As a result of a Department of Energy (DOE) offer, Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessments (PPOA) were conducted at two ER sites and a decontamination and Demolition (D and D) site. The purpose of one of the PPOAs was to identify pollution prevention (P2) opportunities during environmental remediation at the Classified Waste Landfill located at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM). The remediation activities at this site are scheduled to begin in the fall of 1997. The PPOA included presentations by the team members, a tour of the site, and a brainstorming session to list the waste streams, identify P2 opportunities and rank them in order of priority. Twenty-five P2 opportunities were identified during the brainstorming session of which twenty-two opportunities were selected for further investigation. Those twenty-two opportunities are discussed in this paper. A cost benefit analysis was performed for each P2 opportunity based on the estimated waste volume, feasibility, and cost. Pollution Prevention by Design (P2D) was incorporated into the PPOA to introduce waste minimization techniques that can be used during the planning phase of restoration projects.

  19. Pollution prevention/waste minimization guidelines for facility design

    SciTech Connect

    Encke, D.B.

    1993-04-01

    The mission of the 560 square mile (1450 sq Km) Hanford site, located in south eastern Washington, was changed from defense production to environmental restoration and waste management in 1989. The Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) signed in 1989 between DOE, EPA and Washington State, agreed to clean up most of the Hanford site within 30 years. To accomplish the clean-up and comply with the schedule established in the TPA, a number of treatment and support facilities will have to be built. While these facilities are designed to treat wastes that have already been generated, the routine operation and maintenance of these facilities will generate their own wastes. With careful planning, new facilities or modifications to existing facilities can be designed in a manor such that little pollution or waste is generated through normal operation and maintenance. The project the author is working on is concerned with avoiding or reducing the generation of new waste by assuring that pollution prevention and waste minimization are considered in the design phase of these facilities.

  20. Waste minimization/pollution prevention study of high-priority waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Ogle, R.B.

    1994-03-01

    Although waste minimization has been practiced by the Metals and Ceramics (M&C) Division in the past, the effort has not been uniform or formalized. To establish the groundwork for continuous improvement, the Division Director initiated a more formalized waste minimization and pollution prevention program. Formalization of the division`s pollution prevention efforts in fiscal year (FY) 1993 was initiated by a more concerted effort to determine the status of waste generation from division activities. The goal for this effort was to reduce or minimize the wastes identified as having the greatest impact on human health, the environment, and costs. Two broad categories of division wastes were identified as solid/liquid wastes and those relating to energy use (primarily electricity and steam). This report presents information on the nonradioactive solid and liquid wastes generated by division activities. More specifically, the information presented was generated by teams of M&C staff members empowered by the Division Director to study specific waste streams.

  1. Material Recycling and Waste Minimization by Freeze Crystallization. Phase 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-05-01

    from cleaning operations, primarily in the propulsion command. The industrial waste pretreatment system can’t handle the loads, and thus the wastes...are primarily nitric and sulfuric acids used for pickling, cleaning, or surface pretreatment . Water is absorbed from the atmosphere and produced as a...and/or recycle opportunity. 2. List these potential applications and work with TPO and Tinker AFB staff to develop a prioritization of these

  2. Waste heat boiler optimization by entropy minimization principle

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, B.V.; Murali, J.; Satheesh, V.S.; Nag, P.K.

    1996-12-31

    A second law analysis has been undertaken for a waste heat boiler having an economizer, evaporator and superheater. Following the principle of minimization of entropy generation, a general equation for entropy generation number is derived, which incorporates all the operating variables. By differentiating the entropy generation number equation with respect to the operating parameters, various optimization parameters can be obtained. Few illustrations have been made to see the effect of various parameters on entropy generation number.

  3. Summary of research on waste minimization studies by Japan Waste Research Foundation (JWRF)

    SciTech Connect

    Nabeshima, Yoshiro

    1996-12-31

    Japan is trying to provide a qualitatively better environment and the treatment of incinerator gas emissions is an indispensable part of pollution prevention programs. Therefore, a large part of incinerator wastes will be disposed of in landfills for municipal solid waste, and volume reduction and stabilization are major items on the technology agenda. For these reasons, the purpose of this research is waste minimization, namely reducing the volume of wastes that must be disposed of in landfills. This is being done by studying ways to use heat treatment to reduce the volume of incinerator ash, to develop technology for the effective use of treated material and to render fly ash and fused salts harmless. In addition, the author seeks to establish more advanced municipal solid waste treatment systems that reduce (slim) waste by using space efficiently and recovering metals in incinerator residue and fly ash for recycling.

  4. Using benchmarking to minimize common DOE waste streams: Volume 5. Office paper waste

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, V.

    1995-10-01

    Finding innovative ways to reduce waste streams generated at US Department of Energy (DOE) sites by 50% by the year 2000 is a challenge for DOE`s waste minimization efforts. A team composed of members from several DOE facilities used the quality tool known as benchmarking to improve waste minimization efforts. First the team examined office waste generation and handling processes at their sites. Then team members developed telephone and written questionnaires to help identify potential ``best-in-class`` industry partners willing to share information about their best waste minimization techniques and technologies. The team identified two benchmarking partners, NIKE, Inc., in Beaverton, Oregon, and Microsoft, Inc., in Redmond, Washington. Both companies have proactive, employee-driven environmental issues programs. Both companies report strong employee involvement, management commitment, and readily available markets for recyclable materials such as white paper and nonwhite assorted paper. The availability of markets, the initiative and cooperation of employees, and management support are the main enablers for their programs. At both companies, recycling and waste reduction programs often cut across traditional corporate divisions such as procurement, janitorial services, environmental compliance, grounds maintenance, cafeteria operations, surplus sales, and shipping and receiving. These companies exhibited good cooperation between these functions to design and implement recycling and waste reduction programs.

  5. A model to minimize joint total costs for industrial waste producers and waste management companies.

    PubMed

    Tietze-Stöckinger, Ingela; Fichtner, Wolf; Rentz, Otto

    2004-12-01

    The model LINKopt is a mixed-integer, linear programming model for mid- and long-term planning of waste management options on an inter-company level. There has been a large increase in the transportation of waste material in Germany, which has been attributed to the implementation of the European Directive 75/442/EEC on waste. Similar situations are expected to emerge in other European countries. The model LINKopt has been developed to determine a waste management system with minimal decision-relevant costs considering transportation, handling, storage and treatment of waste materials. The model can serve as a tool to evaluate various waste management strategies and to obtain the optimal combination of investment options. In addition to costs, ecological aspects are considered by determining the total mileage associated with the waste management system. The model has been applied to a German case study evaluating different investment options for a co-operation between Daimler-Chrysler AG at Rastatt, its suppliers, and the waste management company SITA P+R GmbH. The results show that the installation of waste management facilities at the premises of the waste producer would lead to significant reductions in costs and transportation.

  6. Metal decontamination for waste minimization using liquid metal refining technology

    SciTech Connect

    Joyce, E.L. Jr.; Lally, B.; Ozturk, B.; Fruehan, R.J.

    1993-09-01

    The current Department of Energy Mixed Waste Treatment Project flowsheet indicates that no conventional technology, other than surface decontamination, exists for metal processing. Current Department of Energy guidelines require retrievable storage of all metallic wastes containing transuranic elements above a certain concentration. This project is in support of the National Mixed Low Level Waste Treatment Program. Because of the high cost of disposal, it is important to develop an effective decontamination and volume reduction method for low-level contaminated metals. It is important to be able to decontaminate complex shapes where surfaces are hidden or inaccessible to surface decontamination processes and destruction of organic contamination. These goals can be achieved by adapting commercial metal refining processes to handle radioactive and organic contaminated metal. The radioactive components are concentrated in the slag, which is subsequently vitrified; hazardous organics are destroyed by the intense heat of the bath. The metal, after having been melted and purified, could be recycled for use within the DOE complex. In this project, we evaluated current state-of-the-art technologies for metal refining, with special reference to the removal of radioactive contaminants and the destruction of hazardous organics. This evaluation was based on literature reports, industrial experience, plant visits, thermodynamic calculations, and engineering aspects of the various processes. The key issues addressed included radioactive partitioning between the metal and slag phases, minimization of secondary wastes, operability of the process subject to widely varying feed chemistry, and the ability to seal the candidate process to prevent the release of hazardous species.

  7. Chelating water-soluble polymers for waste minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, B.; Cournoyer, M.; Duran, B.; Ford, D.; Gibson, R.; Lin, M.; Meck, A.; Robinson, P.; Robison, T.

    1996-11-01

    Within the DOE complex and in industry there is a tremendous need for advanced metal ion recovery and waste minimization techniques. This project sought to employ capabilities for ligand-design and separations chemistry in which one can develop and evaluate water- soluble chelating polymers for recovering actinides and toxic metals from various process streams. Focus of this work was (1) to develop and select a set of water-soluble polymers suitable for a selected waste stream and (2) demonstrate this technology in 2 areas: removal of (a) actinides and toxic RCRA metals from waste water and (b) recovery of Cu and other precious metals from industrial process streams including from solid catalysts and aqueous waste streams. The R&D was done in 4 phases for each of the 2 target areas: polymer synthesis for scaleup, equipment assembly, process demonstration at a DOE or industrial site, and advanced ligand/polymer synthesis. The TA- 50 site at Los Alamos was thought to be appropriate due to logistics and to its being representative of similar problems throughout the DOE complex.

  8. Waste transmutation with minimal fuel cycle long-term risk

    SciTech Connect

    Slessarev, I.; Salvatores, M.; Uematsu, M.

    1995-10-01

    Hybrid systems (source-driven subcritical reactors), are investigated at CEA, mainly from a conceptual point of view, in order to assess their potential to transmute radioactive wastes (mainly long-lived fission products, LLFP) and their potential to insure a minimal long-term radiological risk related both to the fuel inventory inside the system and to the full fuel cycle (mass flows, reprocessing transport, waste disposal). The physics of these systems has been explored and work is in progress both in the field of basic data and INC code validation, in the frame of international collaborations and in the field of conceptual design studies. The most interesting feature of subcritical source-driven system is related to the possibility to obtain an {open_quotes}excess{close_quotes} of neutrons per fission, which can be used to reduce the long-term radiological risk. A specific example will be discussed here.

  9. Gas cylinder disposal pit remediation waste minimization and management

    SciTech Connect

    Alas, C.A.; Solow, A.; Criswell, C.W.; Spengler, D.; Brannon, R.; Schwender, J.M.; Eckman, C.K.; Rusthoven, T.

    1995-02-01

    A remediation of a gas cylinder disposal pit at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico has recently been completed. The cleanup prevented possible spontaneous releases of hazardous gases from corroded cylinders that may have affected nearby active test areas at Sandia`s Technical Area III. Special waste management, safety, and quality plans were developed and strictly implemented for this project. The project was conceived from a waste management perspective, and waste minimization and management were built into the planning and implementation phases. The site layout was planned to accommodate light and heavy equipment, storage of large quantities of suspect soil, and special areas to stage and treat gases and reactive chemicals removed from the pit, as well as radiation protection areas. Excavation was a tightly controlled activity using experienced gas cylinder and reactive chemical specialists. Hazardous operations were conducted at night under lights, to allow nearby daytime operations to function unhindered. The quality assurance plan provided specific control of, and documentation for, critical decisions, as well as the record of daily operations. Both hand and heavy equipment excavation techniques were utilized. Hand excavation techniques were utilized. Hand excavation techniques allows sealed glass containers to be exhumed unharmed. In the end, several dozen thermal batteries; 5 pounds (2.3 kg) of lithium metal; 6.6 pounds (3.0 kg) of rubidium metal; several kilograms of unknown chemicals; 140 cubic yards (107 cubic meters) of thorium-contaminated soil; 270 cubic yards (205 cubic meters) of chromium-contaminated soil; and 450 gas cylinders, including 97 intact cylinders containing inert, flammable, toxic, corrosive, or oxidizing gases were removed and effectively managed to minimize waste.

  10. Pollution prevention and waste minimization in metal finishing

    SciTech Connect

    Stimetz, C.J.

    1994-12-01

    This study was done to identify pollution prevention and waste minimization opportunities in the general plating department and the printed circuit board processing department. Recommendations for certain recycle and recovery technologies were mad in order to reduce usage of acids and the volume of heavy metal sludge that is formed at the industrial Wastewater Pretreatment Facility (IWPF). Some of these technologies discussed were acid purification, electrowinning, and ion exchange. Specific technologies are prescribed for specific processes. Those plating processes where the metals can be recovered are copper, nickel, gold, cadmium, tin, lead, and rhodium.

  11. Electroplating waste minimization at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Dini, J.W.; Steffani, C.P.

    1992-04-01

    This paper describes efforts on waste minimization in the electroplating facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Issues that are covered include: elimination of cadmium plating, copper cyanide plating, hexavalent chromium plating and vapor degreasing, segregation of cyanide solutions, changing rinsing practices, recycling of rinse water, changing cleaning of aluminum parts and rejuvenation of gold plating solutions. Discussion is also presented on other issues currently being worked and these include: combining electroplating and physical vapor deposition, elimination of all cyanide plating processes, and recycling of electroless nickel and spent acid solutions.

  12. 360 Degree Photography to Decrease Exposure, Increase Safety & Minimize Waste

    SciTech Connect

    LEBARON, G.J.

    2002-01-31

    High-resolution digital cameras, in conjunction with software techniques. make possible 360{sup o} photos that allow a person to look all around, up and dawn, and zoom in or out. The software provides the opportunity to attach other information to a 360{sup o} photo such as sound tiles, flat photos (providing additional detail about what is behind a panel or around a corner) and text (Information which can be used to show radiological conditions or identify other hazards not readily visible). The software also allows other 360{sup o} photos to be attached creating a virtual tour where the user can move from area to area, and stop, study and zoom in on areas of interest. A virtual tour of a building or room can be used for facility documentation, informing management and others, work planning and orientation, and training, thus minimizing the need to re-enter hazardous radioactive areas. Reducing entries decreases exposure, increases safety and minimizes waste.

  13. Waste minimization value engineering workshop for the Los Alamos National Laboratory Omega West Reactor Decommissioning Project

    SciTech Connect

    Hartnett, S.; Seguin, N.; Burns, M.

    1995-12-31

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory Pollution Prevention Program Office sponsored a Value Engineering (VE) Workshop to evaluate recycling options and other pollution prevention and waste minimization (PP/WMin) practices to incorporate into the decommissioning of the Omega West Reactor (OWR) at the laboratory. The VE process is an organized, systematic approach for evaluating a process or design to identify cost saving opportunities, or in this application, waste reduction opportunities. This VE Workshop was a facilitated process that included a team of specialists in the areas of decontamination, decommissioning, PP/WMin, cost estimating, construction, waste management, recycling, Department of Energy representatives, and others. The uniqueness of this VE Workshop was that it used an interdisciplinary approach to focus on PP/WMin practices that could be included in the OWR Decommissioning Project Plans and specifications to provide waste reduction. This report discusses the VE workshop objectives, summarizes the OWR decommissioning project, and describes the VE workshop activities, results, and lessons learned.

  14. Hanford Site waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Place, B.G.

    1998-09-24

    This plan, which is required by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400. 1, provides waste minimization and pollution prevention guidance for all Hanford Site contractors. The plan is primary in a hierarchical series that includes the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan, Prime contractor implementation plans, and the Hanford Site Guide for Preparing and Maintaining Generator Group Pollution Prevention Program Documentation (DOE-RL, 1997a) describing programs required by Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) 3002(b) and 3005(h) (RCRA and EPA, 1994). Items discussed include the pollution prevention policy and regulatory background, organizational structure, the major objectives and goals of Hanford Site`s pollution prevention program, and an itemized description of the Hanford Site pollution prevention program. The document also includes US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office`s (RL`s) statement of policy on pollution prevention as well as a listing of regulatory drivers that require a pollution prevention program.

  15. Waste minimization in analytical chemistry through innovative sample preparation techniques.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L. L.

    1998-05-28

    Because toxic solvents and other hazardous materials are commonly used in analytical methods, characterization procedures result in significant and costly amount of waste. We are developing alternative analytical methods in the radiological and organic areas to reduce the volume or form of the hazardous waste produced during sample analysis. For the radiological area, we have examined high-pressure, closed-vessel microwave digestion as a way to minimize waste from sample preparation operations. Heated solutions of strong mineral acids can be avoided for sample digestion by using the microwave approach. Because reactivity increases with pressure, we examined the use of less hazardous solvents to leach selected contaminants from soil for subsequent analysis. We demonstrated the feasibility of this approach by extracting plutonium from a NET reference material using citric and tartaric acids with microwave digestion. Analytical results were comparable to traditional digestion methods, while hazardous waste was reduced by a factor often. We also evaluated the suitability of other natural acids, determined the extraction performance on a wider variety of soil types, and examined the extraction efficiency of other contaminants. For the organic area, we examined ways to minimize the wastes associated with the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in environmental samples. Conventional methods for analyzing semivolatile organic compounds are labor intensive and require copious amounts of hazardous solvents. For soil and sediment samples, we have a method to analyze PCBs that is based on microscale extraction using benign solvents (e.g., water or hexane). The extraction is performed at elevated temperatures in stainless steel cells containing the sample and solvent. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to quantitate the analytes in the isolated extract. More recently, we developed a method utilizing solid-phase microextraction (SPME) for natural

  16. Hazardous Waste Minimization through Life Cycle Cost Analysis at Federal Facilities.

    PubMed

    Ray, Chittaranjan; Jain, Ravi K; Donahue, Bernard A; Smith, E Dean

    1999-01-01

    In response to the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments, many federal facilities are carefully examining hazardous waste minimization issues. A hazardous waste minimization assessment was conducted recently at five military installations. Sources and types of waste somewhat varied among the installations. Major waste sources included motor pools and vehicle maintenance facilities; industrial maintenance and small arms shops; aviation maintenance facilities; paint shops; photography, arts and crafts shops; and hospitals, clinics, and laboratories. Typical waste streams included used engine oil, cleaning and degreasing solvents, paint thinners, antifreeze and coolants, batteries, inks, and pathological wastes. Source reduction, recycling, and treatment were considered as the three major modes of waste minimization. Through life-cycle cost analysis, feasible modes of waste minimization are presented.

  17. RCRA Permit for a Hazardous Waste Management Facility, Permit Number NEV HW0101, Annual Summary/Waste Minimization Report

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, Patrick

    2014-02-14

    This report summarizes the EPA identification number of each generator from which the Permittee received a waste stream, a description and quantity of each waste stream in tons and cubic feet received at the facility, the method of treatment, storage, and/or disposal for each waste stream, a description of the waste minimization efforts undertaken, a description of the changes in volume and toxicity of waste actually received, any unusual occurrences, and the results of tank integrity assessments. This Annual Summary/Waste Minimization Report is prepared in accordance with Section 2.13.3 of Permit Number NEV HW0101.

  18. Proceedings of pollution prevention and waste minimization tools workshop

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    Pollution Prevention (P2) has evolved into one of DOE`s sprime strategies to meet environmental, fiscal, and worker safety obligations. P2 program planning, opportunity identification, and implementation tools were developed under the direction of the Waste Minimization Division (EM-334). Forty experts from EM, DP, ER and DOE subcontractors attended this 2-day workshop to formulate the incentives to drive utilization of these tools. Plenary and small working group sessions were held both days. Working Group 1 identified incentives to overcoming barriers in the area of P2 program planning and resource allocation. Working Group 2 identified mechanisms to drive the completion of P2 assessments and generation of opportunities. Working Group 3 compiled and documented a broad range of potential P2 incentives that address fundamental barriers to implementation of cost effective opportunities.

  19. Evaluation of Practicing sustainable Industrial Solid Waste Minimization by Manufacturing Firms in Malaysia: Strengths and Weaknesses.

    PubMed

    Mallak, Shadi Kafi; Bakri Ishak, Mohd; Mohamed, Ahmad Fariz

    2016-09-13

    Malaysia is facing an increasing trend in industrial solid waste generation due to industrial development.Thus there is a paramount need in taking a serious action to move toward sustainable industrial waste management. The main aim of this study is to assess practicing solid waste minimization by manufacturing firms in Shah Alam industrial state, Malaysia. This paper presents a series of descriptive and inferential statistical analysis regarding the level and effects of practicing waste minimization methods, and seriousness of barriers preventing industries from practicing waste minimization methods. For this purpose the survey questions were designed such that both quantitative (questionnaire) and qualitative (semi-structures interview) data were collected concurrently. Analysis showed that, the majority of firms (92%) dispose their wastes rather than practice other sustainable waste management options. Also waste minimization methods such as segregation of wastes, on-site recycle and reuse, improve housekeeping and equipment modification were found to have significant contribution in waste reduction (p<0.05). Lack of expertise (M=3.50), lack of enough information (M= 3.54), lack of equipment modification (M= 3.16) and lack of specific waste minimization guidelines (M=3.49) have higher mean scores comparing with other barriers in different categories. These data were interpreted for elaborating of SWOT and TOWS matrix to highlight strengths, weaknesses, threats and opportunities. Accordingly, ten policies were recommended for improvement of practicing waste minimization by manufacturing firms as the main aim of this research. Implications This manuscript critically analysis waste minimization practices by manufacturing firms in Malaysia. Both qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis were conducted to formulate SWOT and TOWS matrix in order to recommend policies and strategies for improvement of solid waste minimization by manufacturing industries

  20. Actinide removal from wastewater applying waste minimization techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Covey, J.R.; Midkiff, W.S. ); Cadena, F. )

    1992-01-01

    A major concern at LANL is the large volume of low level radioactive sludge that is generated by the current treatment technology. The plant meets current discharge limits but annually produces 200 55-gallon drums of sludge (approximately 60 tons) during the process of removing only few grants of radioactive isotopes. Most of the sludge results from the coagulants, iron and lime, added at the plant at a concentration of 10,000 parts-per-million (ppm). If the principal actinides in the influent could be separated and reduced to pure metallic form, the annual volume of plutonium would be about the size of a marble and the americium would be about the size of a BB. Waste minimization will be a key design criteria for the new facility. Records of total suspended solids (TSS) in the influent average about 1000 Kg per year (approximately 1 ton). Therefore, the theoretical sludge volume reduction is near 98%. Research is underway to develop and evaluate technologies that achieve the desired removal efficiency with a minimum of produced waste volume.

  1. Actinide removal from wastewater applying waste minimization techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Covey, J.R.; Midkiff, W.S.; Cadena, F.

    1992-07-01

    A major concern at LANL is the large volume of low level radioactive sludge that is generated by the current treatment technology. The plant meets current discharge limits but annually produces 200 55-gallon drums of sludge (approximately 60 tons) during the process of removing only few grants of radioactive isotopes. Most of the sludge results from the coagulants, iron and lime, added at the plant at a concentration of 10,000 parts-per-million (ppm). If the principal actinides in the influent could be separated and reduced to pure metallic form, the annual volume of plutonium would be about the size of a marble and the americium would be about the size of a BB. Waste minimization will be a key design criteria for the new facility. Records of total suspended solids (TSS) in the influent average about 1000 Kg per year (approximately 1 ton). Therefore, the theoretical sludge volume reduction is near 98%. Research is underway to develop and evaluate technologies that achieve the desired removal efficiency with a minimum of produced waste volume.

  2. The IFR pyroprocessing for high-level waste minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Laidler, J.J. )

    1993-01-01

    The process developed for the recycle of integral fast reactor (IFR) spent fuel utilizes a combination of pyrometallurgical and electrochemical methods and has been termed pyroprocessing. The process has been operated at full scale with simulated spent fuel using nonradioactive fission product elements. A comprehensive demonstration of the pyroprocessing of irradiated IFR fuel will begin later this year. Pyroprocessing involves the anodic dissolution of all the constituent elements of the IFR spent fuel and controlled electrotransport (electrorefining) to separate the actinide elements from the fission products present in the spent fuel. The process be applied to the processing of spent light water reactor (LWR) fuel as well, requiring only the addition of a reduction step to convert the LWR fuel as well, requiring only the addition of a reduction step to convert the LWR oxide fuel to metallic form and a separation step to separate uranium from the transuranic (TRU) elements. The TRU elements are then recovered by electroefining in the same manner as the actinides from the IFR high-level wastes arising from pyroprocessing are virtually free of actinides, and the volume of the wastes is minimized by the intrinsic characteristics of the processing of the processing method.

  3. Industrial flue gas desulfurization waste may offer an opportunity to facilitate SANI® application for significant sludge minimization in freshwater wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Qian, J; Jiang, F; Chui, H K; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Chen, G H

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports an exploratory study on the use of a sulfite-rich industrial effluent to enable the integration of a sulfite-sulfide-sulfate cycle to the conventional carbon and nitrogen cycles in wastewater treatment to achieve sludge minimization through the non-sludge-producing Sulfate reduction, Autotrophic denitrification and Nitrification Integrated (SANI) process. A laboratory-scale sulfite reduction reactor was set up for treating sulfite-rich synthetic wastewater simulating the wastewater from industrial flue gas desulfurization (FGD) units. The results indicated that the sulfite reduction reactor can be started up within 11 d, which was much faster than that using sulfate. Thiosulfate was found to be the major sulfite reduction intermediate, accounting for about 30% of the total reduced sulfur in the reactor effluent, which may enable additional footprint reduction of the autotrophic denitrification reactor in the SANI process. This study indicated that it was possible to make use of the FGD effluent for applying the FGD-SANI process in treating freshwater-based sewage.

  4. Development and pilot demonstration program of a waste minimization plan at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, R.W.; Wentz, C.A.; Thuot, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    In response to US Department of Energy directives, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has developed a waste minimization plan aimed at reducing the amount of wastes at this national research and development laboratory. Activities at ANL are primarily research- oriented and as such affect the amount and type of source reduction that can be achieved at this facility. The objective of ANL's waste minimization program is to cost-effectively reduce all types of wastes, including hazardous, mixed, radioactive, and nonhazardous wastes. The ANL Waste Minimization Plan uses a waste minimization audit as a systematic procedure to determine opportunities to reduce or eliminate waste. To facilitate these audits, a computerized bar-coding procedure is being implemented at ANL to track hazardous wastes from where they are generated to their ultimate disposal. This paper describes the development of the ANL Waste Minimization Plan and a pilot demonstration of the how the ANL Plan audited the hazardous waste generated within a selected divisions of ANL. It includes quantitative data on the generation and disposal of hazardous waste at ANL and describes potential ways to minimize hazardous wastes. 2 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  5. Selected waste minimization opportunities for the Koziarske Zavody Leather Tanning facility. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-28

    The report, written by ICF, Inc., was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency on behalf of the Slovak Ministry of Economy. This volume of the report discusses the possibilities for waste minimization at the Koziarske Zavody Leather Tanning Facility. It is divided into the following sections: (1) Introduction; (2) Description of the Processes and Current Status of the Facility; (3) Waste Minimization Options and Recommendations; (4) Potential Suppliers of Required Equipment and Materials; (5) Establishing a Waste Minimization Program.

  6. Applicability of a field-portable toxic heavy metal detector, using a radioisotope-tagged metalloprotein, to DOE environmental remediation and waste minimization initiatives

    SciTech Connect

    Randles, K.E.; Bragg, D.J.; Bodette, D.E.; Lipinski, R.J.; Luera, T.F.

    1998-08-01

    A system based on the metal-binding kidney protein, metallothionein, bound with a trace quantity of radioactive metal, has been shown to be capable of detecting parts-per-million (ppm) to parts-per-billion (ppb) concentrations of some heavy metals in liquid solution. The main objective of this study was to determine if this type of system has adequate sensitivity and selectivity for application in detecting a number of metallic species of concern to DOE, such as mercury, lead, and chromium. An affinity-displacement study is reported here using the heavy metal radiotracers {sup 65}Zn and {sup 109}Cd bound to metallothionein immobilized on an Affi-Gel 10 filter support. When a heavy metal solution with a greater affinity than the tracer for the protein is poured through the filter the radiotracer is displaced by a mechanism similar to ion exchange. The main objective of this study was to verify previous internal experimental parameters and results, and to determine the specific affinities of metallothionein for the metallic species of most concern to DOE.

  7. ALPHA WASTE MINIMIZATION IN TERMS OF VOLUME AND RADIOACTIVITY AT COGEMA'S MELOX AND LA HAGUE PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    ARSLAN, M.; DUMONT, J.C.; LONDRES, V.; PONCELET, F.J.

    2003-02-27

    This paper describes the management of alpha waste that cannot be stored in surface repositories under current French regulations. The aim of the paper is to provide an overview of COGEMA's Integrated Waste Management Strategy. The topics discussed include primary waste minimization, from facility design to operating feedback; primary waste management by the plant operator, including waste characterization; waste treatment options that led to building waste treatment industrial facilities for plutonium decontamination, compaction and cement solidification; and optimization of industrial tools, which is strongly influenced by safety and financial considerations.

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF ALUMINUM CANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium- size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at se...

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF BRAZED ALUMINUM OIL COOLERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at sel...

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTUERE OF OUTDOOR ILLUMINATED SIGNS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium- size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at se...

  11. WASTE MINIMIZATION OPPORTUNITY: U.S. COAST GUARD SUPPORT CENTER - GOVERNORS ISLAND, NEW YORK

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report focuses on a waste minimization assessment of a U.S. Coast Guard facility located on Governors Island in New York. The assessment details both management initiatives and technical changes that can be made to minimize waste. The technical areas that were assessed were p...

  12. Waste-minimization opportunity assessment: US Coast Guard Support Center, Governors Island, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The report focuses on a waste minimization assessment of a U.S. Coast Guard facility located on Governors Island in New York. The assessment details both management initiatives and technical changes that can be made to minimize waste. The technical areas that were assessed were paint removal operations using blasting grit, buoy painting, and on-site solvent recovery.

  13. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF SILICON-CONTROLLED RECTIFIERS AND SCHOTTKY RECTIFIERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Ce...

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF HEATING, VENTILATING, AND AIR CONDITIONING EQUIPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at sel...

  15. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF CUSTOM MOLDED PLASTIC PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected ...

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF ALUMINUM CANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium- size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at se...

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF PRINTED PLASTIC BAGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established ...

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF HEATING, VENTILATING, AND AIR CONDITIONING EQUIPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at sel...

  19. WASTE MINIMIZATION OPPORTUNITY: U.S. COAST GUARD SUPPORT CENTER - GOVERNORS ISLAND, NEW YORK

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report focuses on a waste minimization assessment of a U.S. Coast Guard facility located on Governors Island in New York. The assessment details both management initiatives and technical changes that can be made to minimize waste. The technical areas that were assessed were p...

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A PAINT MANUFACTURING PLANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium- size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at se...

  1. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF CUSTOM MOLDED PLASTIC PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected ...

  2. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF CORN SYRUP AND CORN STARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S.Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their geneation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers, Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A METAL PARTS COATING PLANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at sel...

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF BRAZED ALUMINUM OIL COOLERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at sel...

  5. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF PROTOTYPE PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at sel...

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR A MANUFACTURER OF COMPRESSED AIR EQUIPMENT COMPONENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at sel...

  7. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF CORN SYRUP AND CORN STARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S.Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their geneation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers, Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR A MANUFACTURER OF COMPRESSED AIR EQUIPMENT COMPONENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at sel...

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium- size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at se...

  10. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF SILICON-CONTROLLED RECTIFIERS AND SCHOTTKY RECTIFIERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Ce...

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF PRINTED PLASTIC BAGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established ...

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTUERE OF OUTDOOR ILLUMINATED SIGNS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium- size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at se...

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A BUMPER REFINISHING PLANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at se...

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF REBUILT RAILWAY CARS AND COMPONENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium- size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at se...

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF REBUILT RAILWAY CARS AND COMPONENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium- size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at se...

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A BUMPER REFINISHING PLANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at se...

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A PAINT MANUFACTURING PLANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium- size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at se...

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A METAL PARTS COATING PLANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at sel...

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium- size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at se...

  20. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF PROTOTYPE PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at sel...

  1. Assessment of pre-competitive research and development needs for industrial waste minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J.K.; Fassbender, L.L. ); Sen, R.K. and Associates, Washington, DC )

    1992-02-01

    This report summarizes the findings of the first phase of a study undertaken to define a role for the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Division of the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) in developing waste minimization technologies for the industrial sector. The report describes the results of an industrial waste characterization based mainly on the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) 1989 Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) database. IN addition, it contains the results of interviews with personnel from trade associations, environmental advocacy groups, federal agencies, and industrial firms regarding pre-competitive research and development needs for industrial waste minimization. Recommendations for future AIC waste minimization activities are provided.

  2. Assessment of pre-competitive research and development needs for industrial waste minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J.K.; Fassbender, L.L.; Sen, R.K.

    1992-02-01

    This report summarizes the findings of the first phase of a study undertaken to define a role for the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Division of the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) in developing waste minimization technologies for the industrial sector. The report describes the results of an industrial waste characterization based mainly on the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) 1989 Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) database. IN addition, it contains the results of interviews with personnel from trade associations, environmental advocacy groups, federal agencies, and industrial firms regarding pre-competitive research and development needs for industrial waste minimization. Recommendations for future AIC waste minimization activities are provided.

  3. Waste Minimization Improvements Achieved Through Six Sigma Analysis Result In Significant Cost Savings

    SciTech Connect

    Mousseau, Jeffrey, D.; Jansen, John, R.; Janke, David, H.; Plowman, Catherine, M.

    2003-02-26

    Improved waste minimization practices at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) are leading to a 15% reduction in the generation of hazardous and radioactive waste. Bechtel, BWXT Idaho, LLC (BBWI), the prime management and operations contractor at the INEEL, applied the Six Sigma improvement process to the INEEL Waste Minimization Program to review existing processes and define opportunities for improvement. Our Six Sigma analysis team: composed of an executive champion, process owner, a black belt and yellow belt, and technical and business team members used this statistical based process approach to analyze work processes and produced ten recommendations for improvement. Recommendations ranged from waste generator financial accountability for newly generated waste to enhanced employee recognition programs for waste minimization efforts. These improvements have now been implemented to reduce waste generation rates and are producing positive results.

  4. Waste-minimization audit report: case studies of corrosive and heavy-metal waste minimization at a specialty steel-manufacturing complex

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-08-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is expanding its efforts to promote waste-minimization activity in the private sector by providing technical assistance to generators of hazardous waste. As part of the effort, the EPA Office of Research and Development/Hazardous Waste Engineering Research Laboratory (ORD/HWERL), Cincinnati, Ohio, is promoting the development of a generalized or model waste-minimization audit (WMA) procedure and testing this procedure in actual production facilities agreeing to cooperate with the audit teams selected for this task. In the report, results are presented of WMAs conducted at generators of corrosive heavy metals wastes. A specialty steel manufacturing complex employing electric arc furnaces (EAFs) for the manufacture of stainless and electrical steels, hot and cold rolling facilities for fabrication of the various steel grades into strip, and annealing and pickling facilities for finishing the strip, agreed to provide host facilities for the WMA effort reported herein.

  5. Potentials for food waste minimization and effects on potential biogas production through anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Schott, Anna Bernstad Saraiva; Vukicevic, Sanita; Bohn, Irene; Andersson, Tova

    2013-08-01

    Several treatment alternatives for food waste can result in both energy and nutrient recovery, and thereby potential environmental benefits. However, according to the European Union waste management hierarchy, waste prevention should be the prioritized strategy to decrease the environmental burdens from all solid waste management. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate the potential for food waste minimization among Swedish households through an investigation of the amount of avoidable food waste currently disposed of. A further aim was to investigate the effect on the national biogas production potential through anaerobic digestion of food waste, considering minimization potentials. A method for waste composition analyses of household food waste, where a differentiation between avoidable and unavoidable food waste is made, was used in a total of 24 waste composition analyses of household waste from Swedish residential areas. The total household food waste generation reached 3.4 kg (household and week)(-1), on average, of which 34% is avoidable. The theoretical methane (CH4) potential in unavoidable food waste reached 442 Ndm(3) (kg VS)(-1) or 128 Nm(3) tonne(-1) wet waste, while the measured (mesophilic CH4 batch tests) CH4 production reached 399 Ndm(3) (kg VS)(-1), which is lower than several previous assessments of CH4 production from household food waste. According to this study the combination of a decrease in food waste generation-in case of successful minimization-and decreased CH4 production from unavoidable food waste will thus result in lower total potential energy recovery from household food waste through anaerobic digestion CH4 potential than previously stated.

  6. Westinghouse Hanford Company waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, P.A.; Nichols, D.H.; Lindsey, D.W.

    1991-08-01

    The purpose of this plan is to establish the Westinghouse Hanford Company's Waste Minimization Program. The plan specifies activities and methods that will be employed to reduce the quantity and toxicity of waste generated at Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford). It is designed to satisfy the US Department of Energy (DOE) and other legal requirements that are discussed in Subsection C of the section. The Pollution Prevention Awareness Program is included with the Waste Minimization Program as permitted by DOE Order 5400.1 (DOE 1988a). This plan is based on the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan, which directs DOE Field Office, Richland contractors to develop and maintain a waste minimization program. This waste minimization program is an organized, comprehensive, and continual effort to systematically reduce waste generation. The Westinghouse Hanford Waste Minimization Program is designed to prevent or minimize pollutant releases to all environmental media from all aspects of Westinghouse Hanford operations and offers increased protection of public health and the environment. 14 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Calciner Pilot Plant waste minimization practices at the ICPP

    SciTech Connect

    Brewer, K.N.

    1991-07-30

    Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear operates the DOE`s Idaho Chemical Processing Plant to recover uranium from spent Navy fuel. The high level radioactive liquid waste generated recovery operations is solidified in a fluidized bed calciner. Two calciner pilot plants at the Idaho Chemicaling plant are used to: (1) produce calcine, (2) develop new chemical flowsheets, and (3) optimize full-scale operations for the calcination of highly radioactive liquid waste at the ICPP`s New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF). As a consequence of the pilot plants operations, non-radioactive solid and liquid waste is ted by the calciner Pilot Plants during their operation. Solid and liquid waste volume data between 1980--1990 have been gathered and evaluated. This data shows that solid hazardous generation volumes have been reduced by 59% and liquid waste (hazardous and non-hazardous) generation volumes have been reduced by an average of 58% over this time period. The improvements are a results of: (1) segregating potentially hazardous contaminated waste as non-hazardous after verification by random sampling (59% reduction), (2) reducing liquid waste at the source and (3) recycling the liquid waste (58% reduction).

  8. Strategic Minimization of High Level Waste from Pyroprocessing of Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, Michael F.; Benedict, Robert W.

    2007-09-01

    The pyroprocessing of spent nuclear fuel results in two high-level waste streams--ceramic and metal waste. Ceramic waste contains active metal fission product-loaded salt from the electrorefining, while the metal waste contains cladding hulls and undissolved noble metals. While pyroprocessing was successfully demonstrated for treatment of spent fuel from Experimental Breeder Reactor-II in 1999, it was done so without a specific objective to minimize high-level waste generation. The ceramic waste process uses “throw-away” technology that is not optimized with respect to volume of waste generated. In looking past treatment of EBR-II fuel, it is critical to minimize waste generation for technology developed under the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP). While the metal waste cannot be readily reduced, there are viable routes towards minimizing the ceramic waste. Fission products that generate high amounts of heat, such as Cs and Sr, can be separated from other active metal fission products and placed into short-term, shallow disposal. The remaining active metal fission products can be concentrated into the ceramic waste form using an ion exchange process. It has been estimated that ion exchange can reduce ceramic high-level waste quantities by as much as a factor of 3 relative to throw-away technology.

  9. Environmental Restoration Program waste minimization and pollution prevention self-assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The Environmental Restoration (ER) Program within Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. is currently developing a more active waste minimization and pollution prevention program. To determine areas of programmatic improvements within the ER Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program, the ER Program required an evaluation of the program across the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, the Paducah Environmental Restoration and Waste Minimization Site, and the Portsmouth Environmental Restoration and Waste Minimization Site. This document presents the status of the overall program as of fourth quarter FY 1994, presents pollution prevention cost avoidance data associated with FY 1994 activities, and identifies areas for improvement. Results of this assessment indicate that the ER Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program is firmly established and is developing rapidly. Several procedural goals were met in FY 1994 and many of the sites implemented ER waste minimization options. Additional growth is needed, however, for the ER Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program.

  10. [Integrating technologies for urban communities' municipal solid waste minimization].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chuan-Bin; Liu, Jing-Ru; Wang, Ru-Song; Zhang, Yi-Shan

    2010-11-01

    Municipal solid waste management of urban communities has difficulties of insufficient source separation and food waste's high moisture content, an integrating technology of manual separation, simple compression of food waste, reclaim of food waste and composting leachate was studied. Manual separating rate was 36.8 kg/h, and would increase when the worker became sophisticated. Community separated food waste had high organic matter content of 44.493%, nutrients N, P, K contents of 2.586%, 0.649% and 1.274%, C/N ratio of 17.427, but 0.07-0.82 times lower heavy metals contents compared to centralized separation of mixed municipal solid waste. Moisture content of food waste was still 78.7%, high enough to have negative impacts of composting processes. Composting leachate processing with biological stabilization and dilution showed a fertilizer efficiency, and dry weight of impatiens irrigated with composting leachate was 1.46-2.49 times of tap water irrigation. Integrating technology based on community's manual separation could decrease 52.6% municipal solid waste.

  11. Zone Freezing Study for Pyrochemical Process Waste Minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Ammon Williams

    2012-05-01

    Pyroprocessing technology is a non-aqueous separation process for treatment of used nuclear fuel. At the heart of pyroprocessing lies the electrorefiner, which electrochemically dissolves uranium from the used fuel at the anode and deposits it onto a cathode. During this operation, sodium, transuranics, and fission product chlorides accumulate in the electrolyte salt (LiCl-KCl). These contaminates change the characteristics of the salt overtime and as a result, large volumes of contaminated salt are being removed, reprocessed and stored as radioactive waste. To reduce the storage volumes and improve recycling process for cost minimization, a salt purification method called zone freezing has been proposed at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). Zone freezing is melt crystallization process similar to the vertical Bridgeman method. In this process, the eutectic salt is slowly cooled axially from top to bottom. As solidification occurs, the fission products are rejected from the solid interface and forced into the liquid phase. The resulting product is a grown crystal with the bulk of the fission products near the bottom of the salt ingot, where they can be easily be sectioned and removed. Despite successful feasibility report from KAERI on this process, there were many unexplored parameters to help understanding and improving its operational routines. Thus, this becomes the main motivation of this proposed study. The majority of this work has been focused on the CsCl-LiCl-KCl ternary salt. CeCl3-LiCl-KCl was also investigated to check whether or not this process is feasible for the trivalent species—surrogate for rare-earths and transuranics. For the main part of the work, several parameters were varied, they are: (1) the retort advancement rate—1.8, 3.2, and 5.0 mm/hr, (2) the crucible lid configurations—lid versus no-lid, (3) the amount or size of mixture—50 and 400 g, (4) the composition of CsCl in the salt—1, 3, and 5 wt%, and (5) the

  12. Waste minimization charges up recycling of spent lead-acid batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Queneau, P.B.; Troutman, A.L. )

    1993-08-01

    Substantial strides are being made to minimize waste generated form spent lead-acid battery recycling. The Center for Hazardous Materials Research (Pittsburgh) recently investigated the potential for secondary lead smelters to recover lead from battery cases and other materials found at hazardous waste sites. Primary and secondary lead smelters in the U.S. and Canada are processing substantial tons of lead wastes, and meeting regulatory safeguards. Typical lead wastes include contaminated soil, dross and dust by-products from industrial lead consumers, tetraethyl lead residues, chemical manufacturing by-products, leaded glass, china clay waste, munitions residues and pigments. The secondary lead industry also is developing and installing systems to convert process inputs to products with minimum generation of liquid, solid and gaseous wastes. The industry recently has made substantial accomplishments that minimize waste generation during lead production from its bread and butter feedstock--spent lead-acid batteries.

  13. Drilling fluids waste minimization and stabilization using polymer technology

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L.F.

    1994-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to address environmental issues associated with generated waste through drilling. Polymers have been proven to be extremely effective in the waste reduction in drilling closed system without the use of solids control equipment with shale shakers optional and the stabilization of drilling discharges using additional polymer technology. The objective is to demonstrate that with the proper use of polymers, waste can be reduced and stabilized without an increase in volume and with a very cost effective method. The result is that the environment will be enhanced while reducing risks and costs.

  14. INVESTIGATION OF CLEANER TECHNOLOGIES TO MINIMIZE AUTOMOTIVE COOLANT WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Environmental Protection Agency in cooperation with the State of New Jersey evaluated chemical filtration and distillation technologies designed to recycle automotive and heavy-duty engine coolants. These evaluations addressed the product quality, waste reduction and econo...

  15. INVESTIGATION OF CLEANER TECHNOLOGIES TO MINIMIZE AUTOMOTIVE COOLANT WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Environmental Protection Agency in cooperation with the State of New Jersey evaluated chemical filtration and distillation technologies designed to recycle automotive and heavy-duty engine coolants. These evaluations addressed the product quality, waste reduction and econo...

  16. Hazardous Waste Minimization Assessment: Fort Sam Houston, Texas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    neutralization, ozonation, and photolysis. Biological treatment techniques include:2° activated sludge digestion , aerobic processes, composting, trickling...system, a sludge digester , sludge drying beds, and a tertiary filter. This treatment plant did not perform very efficiently because of high loadings...hazardous waste if they are sold to a recycler. Draining the batteries creates two types of wastes: lead dross , and spent sulfuric acid contaminated with

  17. Waste minimization policies, regulations, and practices within the U.S. Department of Energy defense programs

    SciTech Connect

    Mathur, S.P.

    1989-11-01

    In 1984 the US Congress enacted the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). One of the goals of this legislation was to focus attention on the need to reduce or eliminate hazardous waste so as to minimize the threat to human health and the environment. Subsequently, in September of 1988, DOE issued a Radioactive Waste Management Policy, DOE Order 5820.2A, and in November a General Environmental Program Order, DOE Order 5400.1. These documents embrace the principles set forth in RCRA, and expand their scope to include radioactive, mixed, and pollutant waste, and all actions for reducing waste from the point of generation through waste treatment, storage, transportation and disposal. This paper will present an overview of the legislation and policies for waste reduction and, in addition, give site responsibilities for implementing waste reduction program activities.

  18. Extraction and processing for the treatment and minimization of wastes: 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Hager, J.P.; Hansen, B.J.; Imrie, W.P.; Pusateri, J.F.; Ramachandran, V.

    1993-01-01

    This volume contains 78 papers presented at the International Symposium on Extraction and Processing for the Treatment and Minimization of Wastes. The symposium was held in conjunction with the 1994 Annual Meeting of The Minerals, Metals, and Materials Society in San Francisco, California, February 27--March 3, 1994. The symposium was organized by the Extraction and Processing Division (EPD) of TMS with the co-sponsorship of the 16 groups shown on the Title Page. Over a third of the papers have been contributed by authors from outside the United States. The papers are arranged under these topics: treatment of heavy metal waste; liquid effluent treatment; treatment of contaminated soils; treatment of steel industry waste; treatment of aluminum industry waste; mining waste; pyro-process waste; radioactive waste; thermal processing systems; and waste characterization. Each of the 78 papers has been prepared individually for inclusion to the appropriate data bases.

  19. INTELLIGENT DECISION SUPPORT FOR WASTE MINIMIZATION IN ELECTROPLATING PLANTS. (R824732)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Wastewater, spent solvent, spent process solutions, and sludge are the major waste streams generated in large volumes daily in electroplating plants. These waste streams can be significantly minimized through process modification and operational improvement. I...

  20. An Exploration of Healthcare Inventory and Lean Management in Minimizing Medical Supply Waste in Healthcare Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Rodney

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand how lean thinking and inventory management technology minimize expired medical supply waste in healthcare organizations. This study was guided by Toyota's theory of lean and Mintzberg's theory of management development to explain why the problem of medical supply waste exists. Government…

  1. High-pressure microwave digestion: A waste-minimization tool for the radiochemistry laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L.L.; Yaeger, J.S.

    1996-11-01

    High-pressure, closed-vessel microwave systems are an important waste-minimization tool for the radiochemistry laboratory. This approach offers significant improvements in the sample-preparation process for the radiochemical analyses of soil. These microwave systems dramatically reduce secondary wastes from the sample-preparation process can be decreased by factors of ten or more.

  2. Implementation of Waste Minimization at a complex R&D site

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, R.E.; Thuot, J.R.; Devgun, J.S.

    1995-03-01

    Under the 1994 Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention Crosscut Plan, the Department of Energy (DOE) has set a goal of 50% reduction in waste at its facilities by the end of 1999. Each DOE site is required to set site-specific goals to reduce generation of all types of waste including hazardous, radioactive, and mixed. To meet these goals, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL, has developed and implemented a comprehensive Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization (PP/WMin) Program. The facilities and activities at the site vary from research into basic sciences and research into nuclear fuel cycle to high energy physics and decontamination and decommissioning projects. As a multidisciplinary R&D facility and a multiactivity site, ANL generates waste streams that are varied, in physical form as well as in chemical constituents. This in turn presents a significant challenge to put a cohesive site-wide PP/WMin Program into action. In this paper, we will describe ANL`s key activities and waste streams, the regulatory drivers for waste minimization, and the DOE goals in this area, and we will discuss ANL`s strategy for waste minimization and it`s implementation across the site.

  3. INTELLIGENT DECISION SUPPORT FOR WASTE MINIMIZATION IN ELECTROPLATING PLANTS. (R824732)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Wastewater, spent solvent, spent process solutions, and sludge are the major waste streams generated in large volumes daily in electroplating plants. These waste streams can be significantly minimized through process modification and operational improvement. I...

  4. An Exploration of Healthcare Inventory and Lean Management in Minimizing Medical Supply Waste in Healthcare Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Rodney

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand how lean thinking and inventory management technology minimize expired medical supply waste in healthcare organizations. This study was guided by Toyota's theory of lean and Mintzberg's theory of management development to explain why the problem of medical supply waste exists. Government…

  5. POLLUTION BALANCE: A NEW METHODOLOGY FOR MINIMIZING WASTE PRODUCTION IN MANUFACTURING PROCESSES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new methodolgy based on a generic pollution balance equation, has been developed for minimizing waste production in manufacturing processes. A "pollution index," defined as the mass of waste produced per unit mass of a product, has been introduced to provide a quantitative meas...

  6. Six Strategies for Chemical Waste Minimization in Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matteson, Gary C.; Hadley, Cheri R.

    1991-01-01

    Guidelines are offered to research administrators for reducing the volume of hazardous laboratory waste. Suggestions include a chemical location inventory, a chemical reuse facility, progressive contracts with chemical suppliers, internal or external chemical recycling mechanisms, a "chemical conservation" campaign, and laboratory fees for…

  7. Barriers to development and deployment of innovative waste minimization technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Flores, E.A.; Donaghue, J.F.

    1994-08-01

    Increasing regulation and scrutiny is driving waste generators towards reducing the use of scarce natural resources and reducing or eliminating was streams. There is increasing emphasis on developing and deploying technologies that meet industry needs for recovering valuable materials in a cost-effective manner. At the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site, Battelle operates Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). PNL`s mission is to develop technologies to clean up the environment, and to assist industry in being competitive on a global scale. One such technology developed by PNL is the Waste Acid Detoxification and Reclamation (WADR) process. This technology recovers acids from metal-bearing spent solutions, separating out the metals (which are a valuable byproduct of the acid recycling operation) from the acids. WADR uses selective precipitation and distillation together in an innovative waste recycling technology. Selective precipitation removes the heavy metals, and vacuum distillation recovers clean acid. However, WADR and other innovative waste reduction technologies face numerous barriers to successful development and deployment in the field.

  8. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF PENNY BLANKS AND ZINC PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EnvIronmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected u...

  9. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF PENNY BLANKS AND ZINC PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EnvIronmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected u...

  10. The Los Alamos National Laboratory Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Facility upgrades project - A model for waste minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, M.L.; Durrer, R.E.; Kennicott, M.A.

    1996-07-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Chemistry and Metallurgy Research (CMR) Facility, constructed in 1952, is currently undergoing a major, multi-year construction project. Many of the operations required under this project (i.e., design, demolition, decontamination, construction, and waste management) mimic the processes required of a large scale decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) job and are identical to the requirements of any of several upgrades projects anticipated for LANL and other Department of Energy (DOE) sites. For these reasons the CMR Upgrades Project is seen as an ideal model facility - to test the application, and measure the success of - waste minimization techniques which could be brought to bear on any of the similar projects. The purpose of this paper will be to discuss the past, present, and anticipated waste minimization applications at the facility and will focus on the development and execution of the project`s {open_quotes}Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention Strategic Plan.{close_quotes}

  11. Small-quantity generator's handbook for managing RCRA (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act) wastes. Pesticide application

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-06-01

    This RCRA Handbook was developed for pesticide applicators to provide assistance in complying with pertinent sections of the RCRA requirements. Section 2 summarizes operations of pesticide users and describes potential waste types that could be generated from these operations. Section 3 provides a guide for determining if a particular pesticide waste is subject to these regulations. Section 4 discusses the RCRA generator requirements, while Section 5 describes waste-management strategies for minimizing the amount of hazardous waste generated by the pesticide applicators. Appendix A lists hazardous wastes. Appendix B summarizes RCRA characteristic wastes. Appendix C contains a list of references and contacts for obtaining more information about hazardous wastes and their regulation.

  12. Hanford Site waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness program plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The Hanford Site WMin/P2 program is an organized, comprehensive, and continual effort to systematically reduce the quantity and toxicity of hazardous, radioactive, mixed, and sanitary wastes; conserve resources; and prevent or minimize pollutant releases to all environmental media from all Site activities. The Hanford Site WMin/P2 program plan reflects national and DOE waste minimization and pollution prevention goals and policies, and represents an ongoing effort to make WMin/P2 part of the Site operating philosophy. In accordance with these policies, a hierarchical approach to environmental management has been adopted and is applied to all types of polluting and waste generating activities. Pollution prevention and waste minimization through source reduction are first priority in the Hanford WMin/P2 program, followed by environmentally safe recycling. Treatment to reduce the quantity, toxicity, and/or mobility will be considered only when prevention or recycling are not possible or practical. Environmentally safe disposal is the last option.

  13. 1994 Annual report on waste generation and waste minimization progress as required by DOE Order 5400.1, Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    Many Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention successes at the Hanford Site occur every day without formal recognition. A few of the successful projects are: T-Plant helps facilities reuse equipment by offering decontamination services for items such as gas cylinders, trucks, and railcars, thus saving disposal and equipment replacement costs. Custodial Services reviewed its use of 168 hazardous cleaning products, and, through a variety of measures, replaced them with 38 safer substitutes, one for each task. Scrap steel contaminated with low level radioactivity from the interim stabilization of 107-K and 107-C was decontaminated and sold to a vendor for recycling. Site-wide programs include the following: the Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (P2OA) program at the Hanford site was launched during 1994, including a training class, a guidance document, technical assistance, and goals; control over hazardous materials purchased was achieved by reviewing all purchase requisitions of a chemical nature; the Office Supply Reuse Program was established to redeploy unused or unwanted office supply items. In 1994, pollution prevention activities reduced approximately 274,000 kilograms of hazardous waste, 2,100 cubic meters of radioactive and mixed waste, 14,500,000 kilograms of sanitary waste, and 215,000 cubic meters off liquid waste and waste water. Pollution Prevention activities also saved almost $4.2 million in disposal, product, and labor costs. Overall waste generation increased in 1994 due to increased work and activity typical for a site with an environmental restoration mission. However, without any Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention activities, solid radioactive waste generation at Hanford would have been 25% higher, solid hazardous waste generation would have been 30% higher, and solid sanitary waste generation would have been 60% higher.

  14. Sandia National Laboratories/Production Agency Weapon Waste Minimization Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Skinrood, A.C.; Radosevich, L.G.

    1991-07-01

    This Plan describes activities to reduce the usage of hazardous materials and the production of hazardous material waste during the development, production, stockpile, and retirement phases of war reserve nuclear weapons and nuclear weapon test units. Activities related to the development and qualification of more benign materials and processes for weapon production and the treatment and disposal of these materials from weapon retirement are described in separate plans.

  15. 2.75-Inch Motor Manufacturing Waste Minimization Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-19

    reaching the end of the grain support table. The guillotine cutter was inoperative so the TSE operator stopped the run and began to reduce the live pellet...are foreseen. 6.3 End -User Issues In general, the end -users for this technology are procuring officers of any double -base propellant grain...manufacturing process that reduces the amount of waste and pollution generated in the manufacture of the Mk 90 double -base propellant grain used in the Mk

  16. Investigation of cleaner technologies to minimize automotive coolant wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Randall, P.M.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in cooperation with the State of New Jersey evaluated chemical filtration and distillation technologies designed to recycle automotive and heavy-duty engine coolants. These evaluations addressed the product quality, waste reduction, and economic issues. In addition, the authors examined the potential for substituting propylene glycol for ethylene glycol based engine coolant formulations. (Copyright (c) 1993 Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd.)

  17. Critical management practices influencing on-site waste minimization in construction projects.

    PubMed

    Ajayi, Saheed O; Oyedele, Lukumon O; Bilal, Muhammad; Akinade, Olugbenga O; Alaka, Hafiz A; Owolabi, Hakeem A

    2017-01-01

    As a result of increasing recognition of effective site management as the strategic approach for achieving the required performance in construction projects, this study seeks to identify the key site management practices that are requisite for construction waste minimization. A mixed methods approach, involving field study and survey research were used as means of data collection. After confirmation of construct validity and reliability of scale, data analysis was carried out through a combination of Kruskal-Wallis test, descriptive statistics and exploratory factor analysis. The study suggests that site management functions could significantly reduce waste generation through strict adherence to project drawings, and by ensuring fewer or no design changes during construction process. Provision of waste skips for specific materials and maximisation of on-site reuse of materials are also found to be among the key factors for engendering waste minimization. The result of factor analysis suggests four factors underlying on-site waste management practices with 96.093% of total variance. These measures include contractual provisions for waste minimization, waste segregation, maximisation of materials reuse and effective logistic management. Strategies through which each of the underlying measures could be achieved are further discussed in the paper. Findings of this study would assist construction site managers and other site operatives in reducing waste generated by construction activities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Laboratory waste minimization during the operation startup phase

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, J.A.

    1995-05-01

    The Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility (WSCF) Laboratory was opened for occupancy in October, 1994. It is the first of its kind on the Hanford Site, a low level lab located in an area of high level radiological material. The mission of the facility is to analyze process samples from two on-line effluent treatment plants. One of these plants is operating and the other is due to begin operations by the end of 1995. The VSCF also performs air sampling analysis for routine radiological surveillance filter papers drawn from around the Hanford Site. Because this type of laboratory had not been in operation before, there was only speculation about the types and amounts of waste that would be generated. The laboratory personnel assigned to WSCF were assembled from existing labs on the Hanford Site and from outside the Hanford Site community. For some, it was a first time experience working on a site where a twenty mile drive is sometimes required to visit another building. For others, it was a change in the way business is conducted using state-of-the-art equipment, a new building, and a chance to approach issues as a team from the beginning. It is how this team came together and the issues that were discussed, sometimes uncomfortably, that lead to the current success. The outcome of this process is discussed in this paper.

  19. Second international symposium on extraction and processing for the treatment and minimization of wastes - 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Ramachandran, V.; Nesbitt, C.C.

    1996-12-31

    This volume contains 71 papers presented at the Second International symposium on Extraction and Processing for the Treatment and Minimization of Wastes. 21 papers were selected for the database. The papers selected covered topics in chemical, environmental, and mechanical engineering related to radioactive and nonradioactive wastes. Specific topics include spent catalyst processing of petroleum refinery wastes; redox alloy for water treatment; thermodynamic modeling of uranium fluoride waste processing; calcination of radioactive wastes; geochemical modeling of radioactive waste processing; removal and/or stabilization of arsenic, selenium, mercury, lead and other metals from soils and ground water; pond dredging and dewatering; options for complying with water quality based metal limitations; removal of thorium from ilmenite; and electroslag remelting of fusion reactor vanadium alloy.

  20. Potential pollution prevention and waste minimization for Department of Energy operations

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, J.; Ischay, C.; Kennicott, M.; Pemberton, S.; Tull, D.

    1995-10-01

    With the tightening of budgets and limited resources, it is important to ensure operations are carried out in a cost-effective and productive manner. Implementing an effective Pollution Prevention strategy can help to reduce the costs of waste management and prevent harmful releases to the environment. This document provides an estimate of the Department of Energy`s waste reduction potential from the implementation of Pollution Prevention opportunities. A team of Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention professionals was formed to collect the data and make the estimates. The report includes a list of specific reduction opportunities for various waste generating operations and waste types. A generic set of recommendations to achieve these reduction opportunities is also provided as well as a general discussion of the approach and assumptions made for each waste generating operation.

  1. An analysis of radioactive waste minimization efforts at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Voit, S.L.; Boerigter, S.T.

    1997-09-30

    LANL will be the primary DOE facility for plutonium research and development and plutonium processing. A summary of the currently generated waste types, volumes, generating facilities or programs, and disposal costs are given in this report along with future waste generation projections. Several key existing technologies have been identified that could be introduced to reduce the generated waste at LANL. Four of these are discussed in detail in this report: (1) electrolytic surface decontamination, (2) electrochemical treatment of mixed wastes, (3) Long Range Alpha Detection (LRAD), and (4) Segmented Gate and Containerized Vat Leach System (SGS/CVL). These technologies may be implemented as modifications in upstream processes as well as more efficient volume reduction and segregation. The four technologies are mature enough to be implemented in the next two to three years and can be done so with the support for capital and operational costs. Also discussed in this report is a small sample of some of the recent waste minimization success stories that have been implemented. Several technologies are presented that are either currently being investigated or on hold due to lack of funding at LANL but show potential for making significant gains in waste minimization. This report is intended to provide a review of the waste minimization issues and analysis of the impact of implementing a few of these technologies.

  2. INNOVATIVE PRACTICES FOR TREATING WASTE STREAMS CONTAINING HEAVY METALS: A WASTE MINIMIZATION APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Innovative practices for treating waste streams containing heavy metals often involve technologies or systems that either reduce the amount of waste generated or recover reusable resources. With the land disposal of metal treatment residuals becoming less of an accepted waste man...

  3. INNOVATIVE PRACTICES FOR TREATING WASTE STREAMS CONTAINING HEAVY METALS: A WASTE MINIMIZATION APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Innovative practices for treating waste streams containing heavy metals often involve technologies or systems that either reduce the amount of waste generated or recover reusable resources. With the land disposal of metal treatment residuals becoming less of an accepted waste man...

  4. Waste minimization study for a printed circuit board manufacturing facility in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, Shen-yann; Huang, Hann S.; Peters, R.W.; Tsai, S.Y. ); Tsai, Wen-Tien; Shieh, Shih-Shien; Hsieh, Te-Yuan; Hwang, Li-Shyong ); Liu, Solo; Peng, Chien-Tang ); Wu, Min H. )

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a demonstration of industrial waste minimization sponsored by the Environmental Protection Administration, Taiwan, Republic of China. Waste reduction opportunities are identified and evaluated for a printed circuit board manufacturing facility in Taiwan. Plant audits were conducted on various processes, such as deburring, alkaline etching, black oxidation, desmearing, electroless copper, and copper and tin/lead plating. Specific areas in which the wastes could be minimized, such as reducing the amount of dragout and rinse water requirements in the plating and etchant lines, and on-site treatment and reuse of spent bath solutions were identified, assessed, and implemented. Jar tests on the wastewater were performed, and the results were used to improve the efficiency of the wastewater treatment plant for removal of heavy metals and reduction of sludge generation. In addition, administrative controls of hazardous wastes designed to reduce associated health and environmental hazards were recommended. 4 figs., 9 tabs.

  5. Function of nurses and other staff to minimize hospital waste in selected hospitals in Isfahan

    PubMed Central

    Maroufi, Maryam; Javadi, Marzieh; yaghoubi, Maryam; Karimi, Saied

    2012-01-01

    Context: Medical waste (MW) is all waste materials generated at health care facilities. MW naturally is hazardous for environment and subsequently for human. Waste minimization (WM) is the latest alternative for risk reduction. All hospital staff generally and nurses specially can play an active role through education and the implementation of measures to reduce medical wastage and their environmental effects. Aims: This study is aimed to compare nurses and other staff functions in selected hospitals in Isfahan about waste minimization strategies. Settings and Design: This is a descriptive analytical study. The study tool was a researcher -designed questionnaire in five area of waste minimization based on WHO recommendation. Materials and Methods: There were 90 nurses and other staff from randomized selected public and private hospitals of Isfahan as the sample of this research. This study was done in 2009. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were analyzed by t-test using SPSS16. Results: Nurses mean score of WM performance was 58.16 (12), and others was 58.56 (12.18) (of max 100). There was no significant difference between nurses and others mean score of WM performance according to t-test. There was not significant difference between WM performances of two studied groups in public and private hospitals based on t-test. Comparing between two studied groups mean scores by waste minimization areas indicated that nurses have done significantly better in source reduction area and other staffs have acted better in waste segregation (P < 0.05). Conclusions: All of hospital staff specially, nurses have an important role in qualified waste management practice of hospitals. Totally mean score of WM performance in hospitals (nurses and other) was average. With regard to other countries activities, this result is disappointing. So, it is necessary to plan educational programs for hospital staff, especially nurses. PMID:23922587

  6. Substitute conversion coatings on aluminum for waste minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Buchheit, R.G.; Bode, M.D.; Stoner, G.E.

    1991-09-01

    Chromate conversion coatings such as Parker Company`s Alodine coatings are widely used to increase the corrosion resistance of aluminum and aluminum alloys. The primary disadvantage of chromate-based processes is that they use and produce as waste hexavalent chromium (Cr{sup 6+}). We have discovered that the corrosion resistance of Al can be increased by forming an inorganic barrier coating using chemicals that pose a relatively small environmental hazard. These new coatings are formed using a process that is procedurally identical to the basic chromate conversion process. We have prepared new and conventional coatings on 1100 (99.0 Al minimum), 2024-T3 (Al-Cu-Mg) and 7075-T6 (Al-Zn-Mg) commercial sheet stock for accelerated electrochemical testing and coating conductivity testing. Results show that the new coatings offer increased corrosion resistance compared to uncoated Al, but do not yet match the performance of the chromate conversion coatings. The conductivity of these new films on 1100 Al is comparable to that of Alodine coatings; however, the new coatings are more resistive than Alodine coatings on 2024-T3 and 7075-T6.

  7. MIN-CYANIDE: An expert system for cyanide waste minimization in electroplating plants

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Y.L.; Sundar, G.; Fan, L.T. )

    1991-05-01

    An expert system, MIN-CYANIDE, has been constructed to assist engineers and technicians in the source reduction of cyanide-waste solutions in an electroplating plant by resorting to these techniques and experience, and to train plant operators in the application of the techniques. MIN-CYANIDE evaluates options, such as drag-out minimization, bath-life extension, rinse-water reduction, replacement with a non-cyanide solution, use of an alternative plating technique, and improvement of the operating procedure; furthermore, it identifies the most effective among them. The knowledge about the cyanide source reduction is acquired from available publications, represented by numerous fuzzy or non-fuzzy heuristic rules, and codified into a commercial export system shell, Personal Consultant Plus, on an IBM PC/AT compatible computer. MIN-CYANIDE provides a user friendly interface; in operating it, the user answers various questions concerning the operational situations of the production and/or current equipment and techniques in the plant. In response, MIN-CYANIDE will present instantaneously a series of options for cyanide minimization and eventually rank them.

  8. Waste minimization and pollution prevention: Metal finishing. A self audit manual

    SciTech Connect

    1990-09-01

    The purpose of the manual is to provide metal finishers with a tool with which to audit their metal finishing operations. The manual should be of use even to metal finishers who do not feel that they have the expertise to proceed beyond the data collection phase of an audit. The format of the manual has been designed from our experience with more than fifty metal finishing industry waste minimization audits. Completion of all the enclosed forms will provide the audit team with all the information required to establish a thorough waste minimization program.

  9. Identifying industrial best practices for the waste minimization of low-level radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, V.

    1996-04-01

    In US DOE, changing circumstances are affecting the management and disposal of solid, low-level radioactive waste (LLW). From 1977 to 1991, the nuclear power industry achieved major reductions in solid waste disposal, and DOE is interested in applying those practices to reduce solid waste at DOE facilities. Project focus was to identify and document commercial nuclear industry best practices for radiological control programs supporting routine operations, outages, and decontamination and decommissioning activities. The project team (DOE facility and nuclear power industry representatives) defined a Work Control Process Model, collected nuclear power industry Best Practices, and made recommendations to minimize LLW at DOE facilities.

  10. Trash-to-Gas: Using Waste Products to Minimize Logistical Mass During Long Duration Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hintze, Paul. E.; Caraccio, Anne J.; Anthony, Stephen M.; Tsoras, Alexandra N.; Nur, Monoita; Devor, Robert; Captain, James G.

    2013-01-01

    Just as waste-to-energy processes utilizing municipal landftll and biomass wastes are finding increased terrestrial uses, the Trash-to-Gas (TtG) project seeks to convert waste generated during spaceflight into high value commodities. These include methane for propulsion and water for life support in addition to a variety of other gasses. TtG is part of the Logistic Reduction and Repurposing (LRR) project under the NASA Advanced Exploration Systems Program. The LRR project will enable a largely mission-independent approach to minimize logistics contributions to total mission architecture mass. LRR includes technologies that reduce the amount of consumables that need to be sent to space, repurpose items sent to space, or convert wastes to commodities. Currently, waste generated on the International Space Station is stored inside a logistic module which is de-orbited into Earth's atmosphere for destruction. The waste consists of food packaging, food, clothing and other items. This paper will discuss current results on incineration as a waste processing method. Incineration is part of a two step process to produce methane from waste: first the waste is converted to carbon oxides; second, the carbon oxides are fed to a Sabatier reactor where they are converted to methane. The quantities of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane and water were measured under the different thermal degradation conditions. The overall carbon conversion efficiency and water recovery are discussed.

  11. Trash-to-Gas: Using Waste Products to Minimize Logistical Mass During Long Duration Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hintze, Paul E.; Caraccio, A. J.; Anthony, S. M.; Tsoras, A. N.; Devor, Robert; Captain, James G.; Nur, Mononita

    2013-01-01

    Just as waste-to-energy processes utilizing municipal landftll and biomass wastes are finding increased terrestrial uses, the Trash-to-Gas (TtG) project seeks to convert waste generated during spaceflight into high value commodities. These include methane for propulsion and water for life support in addition to a variety of other gasses. TtG is part of the Logistic Reduction and Repurposing (LRR) project under the NASA Advanced Exploration Systems Program. The LRR project will enable a largely mission-independent approach to minimize logistics contributions to total mission architecture mass. LRR includes technologies that reduce the amount of consumables that need to be sent to space, repurpose items sent to space, or convert wastes to commodities. Currently, waste generated on the International Space Station is stored inside a logistic module which is de-orbited into Earth's atmosphere for destruction. The waste consists of food packaging, food, clothing and other items. This paper will discuss current results on incineration as a waste processing method. Incineration is part of a two step process to produce methane from waste: first the waste is converted to carbon oxides; second, the carbon oxides are fed to a Sabatier reactor where they are converted to methane. The quantities of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane and water were measured under the different thermal degradation conditions. The overall carbon conversion efficiency and water recovery are discussed

  12. A waste minimization study of a chelated copper complex in wastewater -- Treatability and process analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, L.Y.

    1995-12-01

    This study demonstrated an integrated waste minimization approach for the printed circuit board manufacturing shop of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). It included process waste assessment, process optimization and treatability analysis of the treatment system, and source reduction assessment. The results of a process waste assessment indicated that over 99.5% of the waste stream was rinsewater and less than 0.5% was characterized as hazardous waste. This finding led to a thorough source reduction assessment. From the process and treatability analysis, it was found that an organic chelating ligand in the wastewater was causing a copper precipitation problem. The results of a series of bench and process experiments indicated that optimization of pH, chemical dosage, and addition of ferrous sulfate were needed to destabilize the complexed copper. The destabilization mechanism of Cu-EDTA with ferrous sulfate at pH 6--9 was discussed. Different separation/recycling technologies were also evaluated through the source reduction assessment. A closed-loop process was simulated and designed. Through the source reduction and treatment process optimization efforts, at least 90% reduction of total acid wastes and wastewater and more than 99% metal removal were achieved. A material life-cycle analysis was also performed. The results indicated that a total quality control strategy is crucial to minimize wastes and reduce product rejection rate.

  13. RCRA Permit for a Hazardous Waste Management Facility Permit Number NEV HW0101 Annual Summary/Waste Minimization Report Calendar Year 2012, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, P. M.

    2013-02-21

    This report summarizes the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) identification number of each generator from which the Permittee received a waste stream, a description and quantity of each waste stream in tons and cubic feet received at the facility, the method of treatment, storage, and/or disposal for each waste stream, a description of the waste minimization efforts undertaken, a description of the changes in volume and toxicity of waste actually received, any unusual occurrences, and the results of tank integrity assessments. This Annual Summary/Waste Minimization Report is prepared in accordance with Section 2.13.3 of Permit Number NEV HW0101, issued 10/17/10.

  14. RCRA Permit for a Hazardous Waste Management Facility Permit Number NEV HW0101 Annual Summary/Waste Minimization Report - Calendar Year 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, Patrick

    2015-02-17

    This report summarizes the EPA identification number of each generator from which the Permittee received a waste stream, a description and quantity of each waste stream in tons and cubic feet received at the facility, the method of treatment, storage, and/or disposal for each waste stream, a description of the waste minimization efforts undertaken, a description of the changes in volume and toxicity of waste actually received, any unusual occurrences, and the results of tank integrity assessments. This Annual Summary/Waste Minimization Report is prepared in accordance with Section 2.13.3 of Permit Number NEV HW0101.

  15. RCRA Permit for a Hazardous Waste Management Facility Permit Number NEV HW0101 Annual Summary/Waste Minimization Report Calendar Year 2011

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2012-02-16

    This report summarizes the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) identification number of each generator from which the Permittee received a waste stream; a description and quantity of each waste stream in tons and cubic feet received at the facility; the method of treatment, storage, and/or disposal for each waste stream; a description of the waste minimization efforts undertaken; a description of the changes in volume and toxicity of waste actually received; any unusual occurrences; and the results of tank integrity assessments. This Annual Summary/Waste Minimization Report is prepared in accordance with Section 2.13.3 of Permit Number NEV HW0101.

  16. A Minimal Periods Algorithm with Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhi

    Kosaraju in "Computation of squares in a string" briefly described a linear-time algorithm for computing the minimal squares starting at each position in a word. Using the same construction of suffix trees, we generalize his result and describe in detail how to compute the minimal α power, with a period of length longer than s, starting at each position in a word w for arbitrary exponent α> 1 and integer s ≥ 0. The algorithm runs in O(α|w|)-time for s = 0 and in O(|w|2)-time otherwise. We provide a complete proof of the correctness and computational complexity of the algorithm. The algorithm can be used to detect certain types of pseudo-patterns in words, which was our original goal in studying this generalization.

  17. Waste minimization assessment for a manufacturer of iron castings and fabricated sheet metal parts

    SciTech Connect

    Fleischman, M.; Harris, J.J.; Handmaker, A.; Looby, G.P.

    1995-08-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected universities and procedures were adapted from the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual. That document has been superseded by the Facility Pollution Prevention Guide. The WMAC team at the University of Louisville performed an assessment at a plant that manufactures iron castings and fabricated sheet metal parts. Foundry operations include mixing and mold formation, core making, metal pouring, shakeout, finishing, and painting. Cutting, shaping, and welding are the principal metal fabrication operations. The team`s report, detailing findings and recommendations indicated that paint-related wastes are generated in large quantities, and that significant waste reduction and cost savings could be realized by installing a dry powder coating system or by replacing conventional air spray paint guns with high-volume low-pressure spray guns. This research brief was developed by the principal investigators and EPA`s National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH, to announce key findings of an ongoing research project that is fully documented in a separate report of the same title available from University City Science Center.

  18. Waste-minimization assessment for a manufacturer of rebuilt railway cars and components. Environmental research brief

    SciTech Connect

    Kirsch, F.W.; Looby, G.P.

    1991-07-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected universities and procedures were adapted from the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual (EPA/625/7-88/003, July 1988). The WMAC team at the University of Tennessee inspected a plant that rebuilds approximately 2,000 railway cars (open, flat, and freight) each year and that refurbishes wheel assemblies and air brake systems. The team's report, detailing their findings and recommendations, indicated that the greatest opportunities to minimize waste came from the railcar painting operation where paint and primer solids and sludge are generated. The team recommended installing an electrostatic spray paint system for priming and painting to reduce the overspray losses. The Research Brief was developed by the principal investigators and EPA's Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH, to announce key findings of an ongoing research project that is fully documented in a separate report of the same title available from the authors.

  19. FY 1993 Projection Capability Assurance Program waste and hazard minimization. Quarterly report, October--December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Haws, L.D.; Homan, D.A.

    1993-01-15

    Waste and hazard minimization efforts in the following areas are described: (1) environmentally responsive cleaning, (2) hazardous material exposure, (3) explosive processing, (4) flex circuit manufacturing, (5) tritium capture w/o conversion to water, (6) ES&H compatible pyrotechnic materials, and (7) remote explosive component assembly.

  20. Waste minimization in a non-production oriented metal finishing operation

    SciTech Connect

    Dini, J.W.; Steffani, C.P.

    1991-11-01

    This paper provides information on activities undertaken in a non- production oriented metal finishing operation to minimize waste and conserve resources. The facility is a 6000 sq foot shop that typically only deals with prototype parts. Utilizing a plan that includes employee awareness, common sense and existing technology, a noticeable reduction in waste volume has been obtained. Initiatives that are covered include: segregation of cyanide plating solutions, elimination of copper cyanide plating, elimination of hexavalent chromium plating, elimination of vapor degreasing, changing of rinsing practices, and changing a process for cleaning of aluminum parts. Some discussion is also presented on the effectiveness of combining the technologies of physical vapor deposition and electrodeposition to help minimize waste. Plans for additional initiatives including water recycling, elimination of cyanide plating and substitution of electrodeposition for electroless deposition of Ni-P alloys are also covered.

  1. Waste minimization in a non-production oriented metal finishing operation

    SciTech Connect

    Dini, J.W.; Steffani, C.P.

    1991-11-01

    This paper provides information on activities undertaken in a non- production oriented metal finishing operation to minimize waste and conserve resources. The facility is a 6000 sq foot shop that typically only deals with prototype parts. Utilizing a plan that includes employee awareness, common sense and existing technology, a noticeable reduction in waste volume has been obtained. Initiatives that are covered include: segregation of cyanide plating solutions, elimination of copper cyanide plating, elimination of hexavalent chromium plating, elimination of vapor degreasing, changing of rinsing practices, and changing a process for cleaning of aluminum parts. Some discussion is also presented on the effectiveness of combining the technologies of physical vapor deposition and electrodeposition to help minimize waste. Plans for additional initiatives including water recycling, elimination of cyanide plating and substitution of electrodeposition for electroless deposition of Ni-P alloys are also covered.

  2. Minimizing Characterization - Derived Waste at the Department of Energy Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Van Pelt, R. S.; Amidon, M. B.; Reboul, S. H.

    2002-02-25

    Environmental restoration activities at the Department of Energy Savannah River Site (SRS) utilize innovative site characterization approaches and technologies that minimize waste generation. Characterization is typically conducted in phases, first by collecting large quantities of inexpensive data, followed by targeted minimally invasive drilling to collect depth-discrete soil/groundwater data, and concluded with the installation of permanent multi-level groundwater monitoring wells. Waste-reducing characterization methods utilize non-traditional drilling practices (sonic drilling), minimally intrusive (geoprobe, cone penetrometer) and non-intrusive (3-D seismic, ground penetration radar, aerial monitoring) investigative tools. Various types of sensor probes (moisture sensors, gamma spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, laser induced and X-ray fluorescence) and hydrophobic membranes (FLUTe) are used in conjunction with depth-discrete sampling techniques to obtain high-resolution 3-D plume profiles. Groundwater monitoring (short/long-term) approaches utilize multi-level sampling technologies (Strata-Sampler, Cone-Sipper, Solinst Waterloo, Westbay) and low-cost diffusion samplers for seepline/surface water sampling. Upon collection of soil and groundwater data, information is portrayed in a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) format for interpretation and planning purposes. At the SRS, the use of non-traditional drilling methods and minimally/non intrusive investigation approaches along with in-situ sampling methods has minimized waste generation and improved the effectiveness and efficiency of characterization activities.

  3. WESF hot cells waste minimization criteria hot cells window seals evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Walterskirchen, K.M.

    1997-03-31

    WESF will decouple from B Plant in the near future. WESF is attempting to minimize the contaminated solid waste in their hot cells and utilize B Plant to receive the waste before decoupling. WESF wishes to determine the minimum amount of contaminated waste that must be removed in order to allow minimum maintenance of the hot cells when they are placed in ''laid-up'' configuration. The remaining waste should not cause unacceptable window seal deterioration for the remaining life of the hot cells. This report investigates and analyzes the seal conditions and hot cell history and concludes that WESF should remove existing point sources, replace cerium window seals in F-Cell and refurbish all leaded windows (except for A-Cell). Work should be accomplished as soon as possible and at least within the next three years.

  4. Chelation technology: a promising green approach for resource management and waste minimization.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Garima; Pant, K K; Nigam, K D P

    2015-01-01

    Green chemical engineering recognises the concept of developing innovative environmentally benign technologies to protect human health and ecosystems. In order to explore this concept for minimizing industrial waste and for reducing the environmental impact of hazardous chemicals, new greener approaches need to be adopted for the extraction of heavy metals from industrial waste. In this review, a range of conventional processes and new green approaches employed for metal extraction are discussed in brief. Chelation technology, a modern research trend, has shown its potential to develop sustainable technology for metal extraction from various metal-contaminated sites. However, the interaction mechanism of ligands with metals and the ecotoxicological risk associated with the increased bioavailability of heavy metals due to the formation of metal-chelant complexes is still not sufficiently explicated in the literature. Therefore, a need was felt to provide a comprehensive state-of-the-art review of all aspects associated with chelation technology to promote this process as a green chemical engineering approach. This article elucidates the mechanism and thermodynamics associated with metal-ligand complexation in order to have a better understanding of the metal extraction process. The effects of various process parameters on the formation and stability of complexes have been elaborately discussed with respect to optimizing the chelation efficiency. The non-biodegradable attribute of ligands is another important aspect which is currently of concern. Therefore, biotechnological approaches and computational tools have been assessed in this review to illustrate the possibility of ligand degradation, which will help the readers to look for new environmentally safe mobilizing agents. In addition, emerging trends and opportunities in the field of chelation technology have been summarized and the diverse applicability of chelation technology in metal extraction from

  5. Waste-minimization assessment for a manufacturer producing treated wood products. Environmental research brief

    SciTech Connect

    Kirsch, F.W.; Maginn, J.C.

    1992-05-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected universities and procedures were adapted from the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual (EPA/625/7-88/003, July 1988). The WMAC team at Colorado State University performed an assessment at a plant producing treated wood products--approximately 1,700,000 cu.ft./yr. Railroad crossties and poles are treated with creosote in pressure cylinders to increase their serviceability under conditions that promote decay, weathering, insect destruction, or exposure to fire. Lumber is treated by Wolmanizing, a closed loop process in which a 2% chromated copper arsenate solution is used for treatment in a pressure cylinder. The team's report, detailing findings and recommendations, indicated that most waste was generated in the creosote treatment process, and also that cost savings could be obtained by arranging an exchange of accumulated bark and wood chips with others who use wood scrap as a raw material.

  6. Minimal Technologies Application Project: Planning and installation

    SciTech Connect

    Zellmer, S.D.; Hinchman, R.R.; Severinghaus, W.D.; Johnson, D.O.; Brent, J.J.

    1989-03-01

    Intensive and continuous tactical training during the last 35 years at the Hohenfels Training Area in West Germany has caused the loss of vegetative ground cover and has accelerated soil erosion rates, resulting in extensive environmental damage, safety hazards, and unrealistic training habitats. The objectives of this project are to develop and evaluate revegetation procedures for establishing adequate vegetative cover to control erosion at minimal costs and disruption to training activities. This project involved the development and installation of 12 revegetation procedures that combined four seedbed preparation methods and seeding options with three site-closure periods. In March 1987, the four seedbed preparation/seeding options and closure periods were selected, a study site design and location chosen, and specifications for the revegetation procedures developed. A German rehabilitation contractor attempted the specified seedbed preparation and seeding on the 13.5-ha site in June, but abnormally high rainfall, usually wet site conditions, and lack of adequate equipment prevented the contractor from completing six of the 12 planned procedures. Planning and execution of the project has nonetheless provided valuable information on the importance and use of soil analytical results, seed availability and cost data, contractor equipment requirements, and time required for planning future revegetation efforts. Continued monitoring of vegetative ground cover at the site for the next two years, combined with cost information, will provide necessary data to determine which of the six revegetation procedures is the most effective. These data will be used in planning future rehabilitation efforts on tactical training areas.

  7. Unrestricted disposal of minimal activity levels of radioactive wastes: exposure and risk calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, D.E.; Emerson, C.J.

    1984-08-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is currently considering revision of rule 10 CFR Part 20, which covers disposal of solid wastes containing minimal radioactivity. In support of these revised rules, we have evaluated the consequences of disposing of four waste streams at four types of disposal areas located in three different geographic regions. Consequences are expressed in terms of human exposures and associated health effects. Each geographic region has its own climate and geology. Example waste streams, waste disposal methods, and geographic regions chosen for this study are clearly specified. Monetary consequences of minimal activity waste disposal are briefly discussed. The PRESTO methodology was used to evaluate radionuclide transport and health effects. This methodology was developed to assess radiological impacts to a static local population for a 1000-year period following disposal. Pathways and processes of transit from the trench to exposed populations included the following considerations: groundwater transport, overland flow, erosion, surface water dilution, resuspension, atmospheric transport, deposition, inhalation, and ingestion of contaminated beef, milk, crops, and water. 12 references, 2 figures, 8 tables.

  8. Waste-minimization assessment for a manufacturer of printed-circuit boards. Environmental research brief

    SciTech Connect

    Kirsch, F.W.; Looby, G.P.

    1991-07-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected universities and procedures were adapted from the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual (EPA/625/7-88/003, July 1988). The WMAC team at Colorado State University inspected a plant producing printed circuit boards -- a plant that already had taken steps to control its hazardous wastes. Producing a circuit board involves many major processes and subprocesses: preparing the board; depositing copper on the board by electroless plating; applying dry film; electrolytically plating copper; electrolytically plating tin; etching and stripping; applying solder; and, perhaps, plating gold on connectors. Each of these steps produces hazardous wastes, e.g., electrolytic copper plating results in acid soap dumps, copper and tin drag-out, and sulfuric acid. The main sources of metallic contamination (copper (both dissolved and metallic), tin, lead, gold) are the rinses after scrubbing, plating, and etching. Although the greatest amount of waste can be reduced by reusing effluent from the MEMTEK (with some further treatment), the greatest dollar savings can be found by changing the dry film developer. The present brand adheres strongly to the unexposed film and requires an aggressive acid soap; a less aggressive, nonhazardous soap could be used with a less-adhering dry film developer. The Research Brief was developed by the principal investigators and EPA's Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH, to announce key findings of an ongoing research project that is fully documented in a separate report of the same title available from the authors.

  9. Annual Waste Minimization Summary Report, Calendar Year 2010, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Identification No. NV3890090001

    SciTech Connect

    Haworth, D.M.

    2011-01-30

    This report summarizes the waste minimization efforts undertaken by National Security TechnoIogies, LLC, for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), during calendar year 2010. The NNSA/NSO Pollution Prevention Program establishes a process to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste generated by NNSA/NSO activities and ensures that proposed methods of treatment, storage, and/or disposal of waste minimize potential threats to human health and the environment.

  10. Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill permit application

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Daily activities at the Hanford Site generate sanitary solid waste (nonhazardous and nonradioactive) that is transported to and permanently disposed of at the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill. This permit application describes the manner in which the solid Waste Landfill will be operated under Washington State Department of Ecology Minimum Functional Standards for Solid Waste Handling, Washington Administrative Code 173-304. The solid Waste Landfill is owned by the US Department of Energy -- Richland Operations Office and is used for disposal of solid waste generated at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site. The jurisdictional health department's permit application form for the Solid Waste Landfill is provided in Chapter 1.0. Chapter 2.0 provides a description of the Hanford Site and the Solid Waste Landfill and reviews applicable locational, general facility, and landfilling standards. Chapter 3.0 discusses the characteristics and quantity of the waste disposed of in the Solid Waste Landfill. Chapter 4.0 reviews the regional and site geology and hydrology and the groundwater and vadose zone quality beneath the landfill. Chapters 5.0, 6.0, and 7.0 contain the plan of operation, closure plan, and postclosure plan, respectively. The plan of operation describes the routine operation and maintenance of the Solid Waste Landfill, the environmental monitoring program, and the safety and emergency plans. Chapter 5.0 also addresses the operational cover, environmental controls, personnel requirements, inspections, recordkeeping, reporting, and site security. The postclosure plan describes requirements for final cover maintenance and environmental monitoring equipment following final closure. Chapter 8.0 discusses the integration of closure and postclosure activities between the Solid Waste Landfill and adjacent Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill. 76 refs., 48 figs, 15 tabs.

  11. Development of waste minimization and decontamination technologies at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, R.L.; Archibald, K.E.; Demmer, R.L.

    1995-11-01

    Emphasis on the minimization of decontamination secondary waste has increased because of restrictions on the use of hazardous chemicals and Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) waste handling issues. The Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co. (LITCO) Decontamination Development Subunit has worked to evaluate and introduce new performed testing, evaluations, development and on-site demonstrations for a number of novel decontamination techniques that have not yet previously been used at the ICPP. This report will include information on decontamination techniques that have recently been evaluated by the Decontamination Development Subunit.

  12. Waste minimization in the poultry processing industry. Process and water quality aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Gelman, S.R.; Scott, S.; Davis, H.

    1989-11-09

    The poultry processing industry is a large, water intensive industry. In a typical week in Alabama up to 15 million birds are processed, and Arkansas, Georgia, and North Carolina have similar processing volumes. This presentation will focus on issues surrounding waste minimization in the live processing industry as well as provide a brief look at the prepared foods segment, mainly cooked chicken products. The case study also reviews water quality issues that require us to examine waste treatment in a new light. This information will also apply to other industries facing more stringent treatment requirements as a result of stiffer water quality regulations.

  13. Microscale Transformations of Some Lead Compounds. A Cycle for Lead Minimizing the Production of Wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnáiz, Francisco J.; Pedrosa, María R.

    1999-12-01

    Lead and its more common salts have for a long time been used to perform a number of experiments. In recent years, owing to the importance of minimizing the production of hazardous chemicals, there is a tendency to replace experiments involving toxic compounds by others that, while illustrating the same principles, make use of products more environmentally friendly. Although in many instances this replacement can be made without significant loss of educational value, we consider it necessary to acquaint students with techniques used in the processing of hazardous chemicals. This set of basic experiments emphasizes that toxic products can be conveniently studied by using a combination of microscale techniques and simple schemes to recycle wastes. Here we propose a basic cycle for lead involving the consecutive transformation of lead(II) acetate to lead(II) formate, lead powder, and lead(II) oxide, with special emphasis on minimizing the production of wastes.

  14. Waste minimization assessment for a manufacturer of baseball bats and golf clubs. Environmental research brief

    SciTech Connect

    Fleischman, M.; Kirsch, F.W.; Maginn, J.C.

    1993-09-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Center (WMAC) at the University of Louisville performed an assessment at a plant manufacturing baseball bats and golf clubs -- approximately 1,500,000 bats/yr and 550,000 golf clubs/yr. To make the bats, wood billets are oven-dried and machined to a standard dimension. After sanding they are branded and finished. The golf clubs are made by finishing and assembling purchased heads and shafts. The team's report detailing findings and recommendations, indicated that the most waste, other than rinse water discharged to the publicly owned treatment works (POTW) and wood turnings which are sold, consists of scrap cardboard and paper from the shop and offices, and that the greatest savings, including new income, could be obtained by segregating the cardboard and paper wastes for sale to a local recycler.

  15. In situ vitrification: application analysis for stabilization of transuranic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Oma, K.H.; Farnsworth, R.K.; Rusin, J.M.

    1982-09-01

    The in situ vitrification process builds upon the electric melter technology previously developed for high-level waste immobilization. In situ vitrification converts buried wastes and contaminated soil to an extremely durable glass and crystalline waste form by melting the materials, in place, using joule heating. Once the waste materials have been solidified, the high integrity waste form should not cause future ground subsidence. Environmental transport of the waste due to water or wind erosion, and plant or animal intrusion, is minimized. Environmental studies are currently being conducted to determine whether additional stabilization is required for certain in-ground transuranic waste sites. An applications analysis has been performed to identify several in situ vitrification process limitations which may exist at transuranic waste sites. Based on the process limit analysis, in situ vitrification is well suited for solidification of most in-ground transuranic wastes. The process is best suited for liquid disposal sites. A site-specific performance analysis, based on safety, health, environmental, and economic assessments, will be required to determine for which sites in situ vitrification is an acceptable disposal technique. Process economics of in situ vitrification compare favorably with other in-situ solidification processes and are an order of magnitude less than the costs for exhumation and disposal in a repository. Leachability of the vitrified product compares closely with that of Pyrex glass and is significantly better than granite, marble, or bottle glass. Total release to the environment from a vitrified waste site is estimated to be less than 10/sup -5/ parts per year. 32 figures, 30 tables.

  16. Waste Minimization Protocols for the Process of Synthesizing Zeolites from South African Coal Fly Ash

    PubMed Central

    Du Plessis, Pieter W.; Ojumu, Tunde V.; Petrik, Leslie F.

    2013-01-01

    Production of a high value zeolite from fly ash has been shown to be an avenue for the utilization of South African fly ash which presently constitutes a huge disposal problem. The synthesis of zeolites Na-P1 and analcime on a micro-scale has been successful and preliminary investigation shows that scale-up synthesis is promising. However, the post-synthesis supernatant waste generated contains high levels of NaOH that may constitute a secondary disposal problem. A waste minimization protocol was developed to reduce the volume of waste generated with a view to enhancing the feasibility of the scale synthesis. Series of experiments were conducted in 100 mL jacketed batch reactors. Fly ash was reacted with 5 Mol NaOH on a 1:1 mass basis during the aging step, followed by hydrothermal treatment in which ultrapure water was added to the slurry. This study shows that by re-introducing the supernatant waste into the experiments in such a way that it supplies the required reagent (NaOH) for the zeolite synthesis, zeolite Na-P1 and analcime can be synthesized. It also shows that the synthesis process can be altered to allow up to 100% re-use of the supernatant waste to yield high value zeolitic products. This study effectively constructed two protocols for the minimization of waste generated during the synthesis of zeolites from South African coal fly ash. This result could be used to establish a basis for legal and environmental aspects involved in the commission of a full-scale plant synthesizing zeolites NaP1 and analcime. PMID:28809236

  17. Scheduled oil sampling: A proactive approach towards pollution prevention and waste minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Reece, C.; Zirker, L.

    1995-11-01

    The Waste Reduction Operations Complex (WROC) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) maintains an emergency fire protection system which provides fire water during emergency conditions. The diesel engine driving this system receives regular preventative maintenance (PM) and servicing. The Waste Minimization Plan for WROC requires that all systems and processes be given a regular assessment to verify any Pollution Prevention (P2) or Waste Minimization (Waste Min.) activities. The WROC Maintenance group has implemented a proactive or best management practice (BMP) that reflects this P2/Waste Min. awareness. The diesel engine is operated for 30 minutes each week to maintain its readiness. A typical owner`s manual for industrial engines require that the oil be changed every 100-hours of operation or 6-months; only 13-hours of operation occur during the 6-months before the required oil change. Thirteen hours of operation would not warrant changing the oil. The WROC proactive approach to this problem is to perform an annual Scheduled Oil Sampling (SOS). An 8-ounce sample of oil is obtained and sent to a SOS lab. The SOS lab analyzes the condition (breakdown) of the oil and, provides a detailed analysis of metal particulates (from engine wear), and checks for impurities, such as, sulphur, water, coolant, and fuel in the system. The oil is changed only when the sampling results warrant that an oil change is necessary. The actual costs of the oil, filters, and labor far exceed the costs of performing the SOS. The projected cost savings after 8 years is about $12,000 in labor, oil changing costs, and hazardous waste analysis.

  18. 1994 annual report on waste generation and waste minimization progress as required by DOE Order 5400.1

    SciTech Connect

    Irwin, E.F.; Poligone, S.E.

    1995-10-16

    The Y-12 Plant serves as a key manufacturing technology center for the development and demonstration of unique materials, components, and services of importance to the Department of Energy (DOE) and the nation. This is accomplished through the reclamation and storage of nuclear materials, manufacture of nuclear materials, manufacture of components for the nation`s defense capabilities, support to national security programs, and services provided to other customers as approved by DOE. We are recognized by our people, the community, and our customers as innovative, responsive, and responsible. We are a leader in worker health and safety, environmental protection, and stewardship of our national resources. As a DOE facility, Y-12 also supports DOE`s waste minimization mission. Data contained in this report represents waste generation in Tennessee.

  19. Standard data report. 1997 annual report on waste generation and waste minimization progress

    SciTech Connect

    Wilburn, D.

    1998-04-07

    The Laboratory`s central mission of Reducing the Global Nuclear Danger supports core competencies that enable the Laboratory to contribute to defense, civilian, and industrial needs. In turn, the intellectual challenges of civilian and industrial problems strengthen and help support the core competencies required for the national security mission. The ability to do great science underpins all of the applied work. There are five core competencies which support this mission: (1) Stockpile Stewardship ensures the US has safe, secure and reliable nuclear weapons; (2) Stockpile Management provides capabilities ranging from dismantling to remanufacturing of the enduring stockpile; (3) Nuclear Materials Management ensures the availability and safe disposition of plutonium, highly enriched uranium, and tritium; (4) Nonproliferation and Counterproliferation help to deter, detect, and respond to the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction; and (5) Environmental Stewardship provides for the remediation and reduction of wastes from the nuclear weapons complex. This report contains data on volumes of waste generated as part of routine and cleanup/stabilization activities of the lab.

  20. Evidence-Based Integrated Environmental Solutions For Secondary Lead Smelters: Pollution Prevention And Waste Minimization Technologies And Practices

    EPA Science Inventory

    An evidence-based methodology was adopted in this research to establish strategies to increase lead recovery and recycling via a systematic review and critical appraisal of the published literature. In particular, the research examines pollution prevention and waste minimization...

  1. Evidence-Based Integrated Environmental Solutions For Secondary Lead Smelters: Pollution Prevention And Waste Minimization Technologies And Practices

    EPA Science Inventory

    An evidence-based methodology was adopted in this research to establish strategies to increase lead recovery and recycling via a systematic review and critical appraisal of the published literature. In particular, the research examines pollution prevention and waste minimization...

  2. Gunite and associated tanks remediation project recycling and waste minimization effort

    SciTech Connect

    Van Hoesen, S.D.; Saunders, A.D.

    1998-05-01

    The Department of Energy`s Environmental Management Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has initiated clean up of legacy waste resulting from the Manhattan Project. The gunite and associated tanks project has taken an active pollution prevention role by successfully recycling eight tons of scrap metal, reusing contaminated soil in the Area of Contamination, using existing water (supernate) to aid in sludge transfer, and by minimizing and reusing personal protective equipment (PPE) and on-site equipment as much as possible. Total cost savings for Fiscal Year 1997 activities from these efforts are estimated at $4.2 million dollars.

  3. Systematic process synthesis and design methods for cost effective waste minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Biegler, L.T.; Grossman, I.E.; Westerberg, A.W.

    1995-12-31

    We present progress on our work to develop synthesis methods to aid in the design of cost effective approaches to waste minimization. Work continues to combine the approaches of Douglas and coworkers and of Grossmann and coworkers on a hierarchical approach where bounding information allows it to fit within a mixed integer programming approach. We continue work on the synthesis of reactors and of flexible separation processes. In the first instance, we strive for methods we can use to reduce the production of potential pollutants, while in the second we look for ways to recover and recycle solvents.

  4. Minimal cut-set methodology for artificial intelligence applications

    SciTech Connect

    Weisbin, C.R.; de Saussure, G.; Barhen, J.; Oblow, E.M.; White, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    This paper reviews minimal cut-set theory and illustrates its application with an example. The minimal cut-set approach uses disjunctive normal form in Boolean algebra and various Boolean operators to simplify very complicated tree structures composed of AND/OR gates. The simplification process is automated and performed off-line using existing computer codes to implement the Boolean reduction on the finite, but large tree structure. With this approach, on-line expert diagnostic systems whose response time is critical, could determine directly whether a goal is achievable by comparing the actual system state to a concisely stored set of preprocessed critical state elements.

  5. Minimizing Waste from the Oil Industry: Scale Treatment and Scrap Recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Lindberg, M.

    2002-02-26

    Naturally occurring radioactive material is technologically concentrated in the piping in systems in the oil and gas industry, especially in the offshore facilities. The activity, mainly Ra-226, in the scales in the systems are often at levels classified as low level radioactive waste (LSA) in the industry. When the components and pipes are descaled for maintenance or recycling purposes, usually by high-pressure water jetting, the LSA scales arising constitute a significant quantity of radioactive waste for disposal. A new process is under development for the treatment of scales, where the radioactive solids are separated from the inactive. This would result in a much smaller fraction to be deposited as radioactive waste. The radioactive part recovered from the scales will be reduced to a stable non-metallic salt and because the volume is significantly smaller then the original material, will minimize the cost for disposal. The pipes, that have been cleaned by high pressure water jetting can either be reused or free released by scrapping and melting for recycling.

  6. Waste minimization opportunity assessment, U.S. Coast Guard Support Center, Governors Island, New York. Project summary

    SciTech Connect

    1991-02-01

    The U.S. Coast Guard facility at Governors Island, New York, was chosen for a waste reduction assessment under the Waste Reduction Evaluations at Federal Sites (WREAFS) Program. The Coast Guard mission on the Island, which serves as a support center for Coast Guard activities in the New York area, generates a substantial amount of hazardous waste (e.g., lead-acid batteries, lead-contaminated blast grit, paint, and paint-related materials). Opportunities to minimize waste through technology included substituting plastic for steel shot when removing paint and rust from buoys and using high volume/low pressure paint guns to reduce overspray.

  7. Characterization, minimization and disposal of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes during cleanup and rransition of the Tritium Research Laboratory (TRL) at Sandia National Laboratories/California (SNL/CA)

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, T.B.; Gorman, T.P.

    1996-12-01

    This document provides an outline of waste handling practices used during the Sandia National Laboratory/California (SNL/CA), Tritium Research Laboratory (TRL) Cleanup and Transition project. Here we provide background information concerning the history of the TRL and the types of operations that generated the waste. Listed are applicable SNL/CA site-wide and TRL local waste handling related procedures. We describe personnel training practices and outline methods of handling and disposal of compactible and non-compactible low level waste, solidified waste water, hazardous wastes and mixed wastes. Waste minimization, reapplication and recycling practices are discussed. Finally, we provide a description of the process followed to remove the highly contaminated decontamination systems. This document is intended as both a historical record and as a reference to other facilities who may be involved in similar work.

  8. A case-study of landfill minimization and material recovery via waste co-gasification in a new waste management scheme.

    PubMed

    Tanigaki, Nobuhiro; Ishida, Yoshihiro; Osada, Morihiro

    2015-03-01

    This study evaluates municipal solid waste co-gasification technology and a new solid waste management scheme, which can minimize final landfill amounts and maximize material recycled from waste. This new scheme is considered for a region where bottom ash and incombustibles are landfilled or not allowed to be recycled due to their toxic heavy metal concentration. Waste is processed with incombustible residues and an incineration bottom ash discharged from existent conventional incinerators, using a gasification and melting technology (the Direct Melting System). The inert materials, contained in municipal solid waste, incombustibles and bottom ash, are recycled as slag and metal in this process as well as energy recovery. Based on this new waste management scheme with a co-gasification system, a case study of municipal solid waste co-gasification was evaluated and compared with other technical solutions, such as conventional incineration, incineration with an ash melting facility under certain boundary conditions. From a technical point of view, co-gasification produced high quality slag with few harmful heavy metals, which was recycled completely without requiring any further post-treatment such as aging. As a consequence, the co-gasification system had an economical advantage over other systems because of its material recovery and minimization of the final landfill amount. Sensitivity analyses of landfill cost, power price and inert materials in waste were also conducted. The higher the landfill costs, the greater the advantage of the co-gasification system has. The co-gasification was beneficial for landfill cost in the range of 80 Euro per ton or more. Higher power prices led to lower operation cost in each case. The inert contents in processed waste had a significant influence on the operating cost. These results indicate that co-gasification of bottom ash and incombustibles with municipal solid waste contributes to minimizing the final landfill amount and has

  9. Application of visible spectroscopy in waste sorting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiga, Philippe; Bourely, Antoine

    2011-10-01

    Today, waste recycling, (bottles, papers...), is a mechanical operation: the waste are crushed, fused and agglomerated in order to obtain new manufactured products (e.g. new bottles, clothes ...). The plastics recycling is the main application in the color sorting process. The colorless plastics recovered are more valuable than the colored plastics. Other emergent applications are in the paper sorting, where the main goal is to sort dyed paper from white papers. Up to now, Pellenc Selective Technologies has manufactured color sorting machines based on RGB cameras. Three dimensions (red, green and blue) are no longer sufficient to detect low quantities of dye in the considered waste. In order to increase the efficiency of the color detection, a new sorting machine, based on visible spectroscopy, has been developed. This paper presents the principles of the two approaches and their difference in terms of sorting performance, making visible spectroscopy a clear winner.

  10. Waste minimization through high-pressure microwave digestion of soils for gross {alpha}/{beta} analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Yaeger, J.S.; Smith, L.L.

    1995-04-01

    As a result of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) environmental restoration and waste management activities, laboratories receive numerous analytical requests for gross {alpha}/{beta} analyses. Traditional sample preparation methods for gross {alpha}/{beta} analysis of environmental and mixed waste samples require repetitive leaching, which is time consuming and generates large volumes of secondary wastes. An alternative to leaching is microwave digestion. In the past. microwave technology has had limited application in the radiochemical laboratory because of restrictions on sample size resulting from vessel pressure limitations. However, new microwave vessel designs allow for pressures on the order of 11 MPa (1500 psi). A procedure is described in which microwave digestion is used to prepare environmental soil samples for gross {alpha}/{beta} analysis. Results indicate that the described procedure meets performance requirements for several soil types and is equivalent to traditional digestion techniques. No statistical differences at the 95% confidence interval exist between the measurement on samples prepared from the hot plate and microwave digestion procedures for those soils tested. Moreover, microwave digestion allows samples to be prepared in a fraction of the time with significantly less acid and with lower potential of cross-contamination. In comparison to the traditional hot plate method, the waste volumes required for the microwave procedure are a factor of 10 lower, while the analyst time for sample processing is at least a factor of three lower.

  11. Application of trajectory optimization principles to minimize aircraft operating costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorensen, J. A.; Morello, S. A.; Erzberger, H.

    1979-01-01

    This paper summarizes various applications of trajectory optimization principles that have been or are being devised by both government and industrial researchers to minimize aircraft direct operating costs (DOC). These costs (time and fuel) are computed for aircraft constrained to fly over a fixed range. Optimization theory is briefly outlined, and specific algorithms which have resulted from application of this theory are described. Typical results which demonstrate use of these algorithms and the potential savings which they can produce are given. Finally, need for further trajectory optimization research is presented.

  12. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application

    SciTech Connect

    1991-09-18

    This document, Set 2, the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Part B Permit Application, consists of 15 chapters that address the content of the Part B checklists prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology 1987) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR 270), with additional information requirements mandated by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 and revisions of WAC 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington State Department of Ecology checklist section numbers, in brackets, follow the chapter headings and subheadings. This permit application contains umbrella- type'' documentation with overall application to the Hanford Facility. This documentation is broad in nature and applies to all TSD units that have final status under the Hanford Facility Permit.

  13. Energy minimization in medical image analysis: Methodologies and applications.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Feng; Xie, Xianghua

    2016-02-01

    Energy minimization is of particular interest in medical image analysis. In the past two decades, a variety of optimization schemes have been developed. In this paper, we present a comprehensive survey of the state-of-the-art optimization approaches. These algorithms are mainly classified into two categories: continuous method and discrete method. The former includes Newton-Raphson method, gradient descent method, conjugate gradient method, proximal gradient method, coordinate descent method, and genetic algorithm-based method, while the latter covers graph cuts method, belief propagation method, tree-reweighted message passing method, linear programming method, maximum margin learning method, simulated annealing method, and iterated conditional modes method. We also discuss the minimal surface method, primal-dual method, and the multi-objective optimization method. In addition, we review several comparative studies that evaluate the performance of different minimization techniques in terms of accuracy, efficiency, or complexity. These optimization techniques are widely used in many medical applications, for example, image segmentation, registration, reconstruction, motion tracking, and compressed sensing. We thus give an overview on those applications as well.

  14. From waste minimization to ISO 14000: Taiwan`s experience and prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Wen-Huei Chen; Wain-Sun Hou

    1996-12-31

    Taiwan has completed a very successful five-year industrial waste minimization (IWM) demonstration and promotion project sponsored by the government. From 1990 to 1995, the project successfully disseminated the IWM concept of pollution prevention (P2) to industries. It effectively reduced industrial waste while significantly benefitting the economy by assisting industries in implementing in-plant IWM programs. In July 1995, the second stage of the five-year IWM and ISO 14000 promotion project was initiated for further promoting the IWM, P2, and cleaner production and, in particular, coping with the upcoming international environmental management standards (ISO 14000). To assist industries in establishing an environmental management system (EMS) and accumulating related experience, an EMS pilot demonstration project of five model industries and an ISO 14001 EMS demonstration and promotion project for 22 factories in 13 industries were initiated in October 1995 and August 1996, respectively. These projects can assist Taiwan`s industries in changing the constitution of their enterprises, enhancing competition in the international market, and helping our nation achieve the forerunner`s profits in sustainable development. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  15. Feasibility Studies on Pipeline Disposal of Concentrated Copper Tailings Slurry for Waste Minimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senapati, Pradipta Kumar; Mishra, Barada Kanta

    2017-06-01

    The conventional lean phase copper tailings slurry disposal systems create pollution all around the disposal area through seepage and flooding of waste slurry water. In order to reduce water consumption and minimize pollution, the pipeline disposal of these waste slurries at high solids concentrations may be considered as a viable option. The paper presents the rheological and pipeline flow characteristics of copper tailings samples in the solids concentration range of 65-72 % by weight. The tailings slurry indicated non-Newtonian behaviour at these solids concentrations and the rheological data were best fitted by Bingham plastic model. The influence of solids concentration on yield stress and plastic viscosity for the copper tailings samples were discussed. Using a high concentration test loop, pipeline experiments were conducted in a 50 mm nominal bore (NB) pipe by varying the pipe flow velocity from 1.5 to 3.5 m/s. A non-Newtonian Bingham plastic pressure drop model predicted the experimental data reasonably well for the concentrated tailings slurry. The pressure drop model was used for higher size pipes and the operating conditions for pipeline disposal of concentrated copper tailings slurry in a 200 mm NB pipe with respect to specific power consumption were discussed.

  16. Feasibility Studies on Pipeline Disposal of Concentrated Copper Tailings Slurry for Waste Minimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senapati, Pradipta Kumar; Mishra, Barada Kanta

    2016-06-01

    The conventional lean phase copper tailings slurry disposal systems create pollution all around the disposal area through seepage and flooding of waste slurry water. In order to reduce water consumption and minimize pollution, the pipeline disposal of these waste slurries at high solids concentrations may be considered as a viable option. The paper presents the rheological and pipeline flow characteristics of copper tailings samples in the solids concentration range of 65-72 % by weight. The tailings slurry indicated non-Newtonian behaviour at these solids concentrations and the rheological data were best fitted by Bingham plastic model. The influence of solids concentration on yield stress and plastic viscosity for the copper tailings samples were discussed. Using a high concentration test loop, pipeline experiments were conducted in a 50 mm nominal bore (NB) pipe by varying the pipe flow velocity from 1.5 to 3.5 m/s. A non-Newtonian Bingham plastic pressure drop model predicted the experimental data reasonably well for the concentrated tailings slurry. The pressure drop model was used for higher size pipes and the operating conditions for pipeline disposal of concentrated copper tailings slurry in a 200 mm NB pipe with respect to specific power consumption were discussed.

  17. I-NERI-2007-004-K, DEVELOPMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NEW HIGH-LEVEL WASTE FORMS FOR ACHIEVING WASTE MINIMIZATION FROM PYROPROCESSING

    SciTech Connect

    S.M. Frank

    2011-09-01

    Work describe in this report represents the final year activities for the 3-year International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (I-NERI) project: Development and Characterization of New High-Level Waste Forms for Achieving Waste Minimization from Pyroprocessing. Used electrorefiner salt that contained actinide chlorides and was highly loaded with surrogate fission products was processed into three candidate waste forms. The first waste form, a high-loaded ceramic waste form is a variant to the CWF produced during the treatment of Experimental Breeder Reactor-II used fuel at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The two other waste forms were developed by researchers at the Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). These materials are based on a silica-alumina-phosphate matrix and a zinc/titanium oxide matrix. The proposed waste forms, and the processes to fabricate them, were designed to immobilize spent electrorefiner chloride salts containing alkali, alkaline earth, lanthanide, and halide fission products that accumulate in the salt during the processing of used nuclear fuel. This aspect of the I-NERI project was to demonstrate 'hot cell' fabrication and characterization of the proposed waste forms. The outline of the report includes the processing of the spent electrorefiner salt and the fabrication of each of the three waste forms. Also described is the characterization of the waste forms, and chemical durability testing of the material. While waste form fabrication and sample preparation for characterization must be accomplished in a radiological hot cell facility due to hazardous radioactivity levels, smaller quantities of each waste form were removed from the hot cell to perform various analyses. Characterization included density measurement, elemental analysis, x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and the Product Consistency Test, which is a leaching method to measure chemical durability. Favorable results from this demonstration project

  18. Lessons Learned at Envirocare of Utah's Containerized Waste Facility (CWF): Dose Minimization Through ALARA Techniques and Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Heckman, J.; Gardner, J.; Ledoux, M. R.

    2003-02-24

    Envirocare of Utah, Inc. (Envirocare) commenced operation of its Class A Containerized Waste Facility (CWF) on October 25, 2001. The opening of this facility began a new era for Envirocare, in that; their core business had always been low level, high volume, bulk radioactive waste. The CWF commenced operations to dispose of low level, low volume, high activity, containerized radioactive waste. Due to the potential for high dose rates on the waste disposal containers, the ALARA principle (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) plays an important role in the operation of the CWF and its mission to properly dispose of waste while minimizing doses to the workers, public, and the environment. This paper will enumerate some of the efforts made by the management and staff of the CWF that have contributed to significant dose reductions.

  19. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, 616 Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Storage Facility. Revision 2A

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, R.C.

    1994-04-01

    This permit application for the 616 Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Storage Facility consists for 15 chapters. Topics of discussion include the following: facility description and general provisions; waste characteristics; process information; personnel training; reporting and record keeping; and certification.

  20. In-situ vitrification of transuranic wastes: systems evaluation and applications assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Oma, K.H.; Brown, D.R.; Buelt, J.L.; FitzPatrick, V.F.; Hawley, K.A.; Mellinger, G.B.; Napier, B.A.; Silviera, D.J.; Stein, S.L.; Timmerman, C.L.

    1983-09-01

    Major advantages of in-situ vitrification (ISV) as a means of stabilizing radioactive waste are: long term durability of the waste form; cost effectiveness; safety in terms of minimizing worker and public exposure; and applicability to different kinds of soils and buried wastes. This document describes ISV technology that is available as another viable tool for in place stabilization of waste sites. The following sections correspond to the chapters in the body of this document: description of the ISV process; analysis of the performane of the ISV tests conducted thus far; parameters of the ISV process; cost analysis for the ISV process; analysis of occupational and public exposure; and assessment of waste site applications.

  1. PUREX Storage Tunnels dangerous waste permit application

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    The Hanford Site is operated by the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office. The PUREX Storage Tunnels are a storage unit located on the Hanford Site. The unit consists of two earth-covered railroad tunnels that are used for storage of process equipment (some containing dangerous waste) removed from the PUREX Plant. Radioactively contaminated equipment is loaded on railroad cars and remotely transferred into the tunnels for long-term storage. Westinghouse Hanford Company is a major contractor to the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office and serves as a co-operator of the PUREX Storage Tunnels, the waste management unit addressed by this permit application. The PUREX Storage Tunnels Dangerous Waste Permit Application (Revision O) consists of both a Part A and Part B permit application and is based on information available as of August 31, 1990. An explanation of the Part A revision submitted with this document is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. In this Part A revision, the PUREX Storage Tunnels have been redesignated as a miscellaneous unit. The Part B consists of 15 chapters addressing the organization and content of the Part B checklist prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology.

  2. A case-study of landfill minimization and material recovery via waste co-gasification in a new waste management scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Tanigaki, Nobuhiro; Ishida, Yoshihiro; Osada, Morihiro

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • A new waste management scheme and the effects of co-gasification of MSW were assessed. • A co-gasification system was compared with other conventional systems. • The co-gasification system can produce slag and metal with high-quality. • The co-gasification system showed an economic advantage when bottom ash is landfilled. • The sensitive analyses indicate an economic advantage when the landfill cost is high. - Abstract: This study evaluates municipal solid waste co-gasification technology and a new solid waste management scheme, which can minimize final landfill amounts and maximize material recycled from waste. This new scheme is considered for a region where bottom ash and incombustibles are landfilled or not allowed to be recycled due to their toxic heavy metal concentration. Waste is processed with incombustible residues and an incineration bottom ash discharged from existent conventional incinerators, using a gasification and melting technology (the Direct Melting System). The inert materials, contained in municipal solid waste, incombustibles and bottom ash, are recycled as slag and metal in this process as well as energy recovery. Based on this new waste management scheme with a co-gasification system, a case study of municipal solid waste co-gasification was evaluated and compared with other technical solutions, such as conventional incineration, incineration with an ash melting facility under certain boundary conditions. From a technical point of view, co-gasification produced high quality slag with few harmful heavy metals, which was recycled completely without requiring any further post-treatment such as aging. As a consequence, the co-gasification system had an economical advantage over other systems because of its material recovery and minimization of the final landfill amount. Sensitivity analyses of landfill cost, power price and inert materials in waste were also conducted. The higher the landfill costs, the greater the

  3. Soil physicochemical properties after 10 years of animal waste applications

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Application of animal waste to cropland provides a method of waste disposal and benefits both soil and crops. The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of land application of animal waste and inorganic fertilizer on selected soil chemical and physical properties. The animal w...

  4. Removal of Contaminants from Equipment and Debris and Waste Minimization Using the TECHXTRACT(TM) Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Jorg Schwitzgebel; Klaus Schwitzgebel; Michael W. Bonem; Ronald E. Borah

    1998-12-09

    From September, 1996 through July, 1997, EET, Inc. conducted a series of experiments under a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Program Research and Development Agreement (PRDA). This project, entitled "Removal of Contaminants from Equipment and Debris and Waste Minimization Using the TECHXTRACT â Technology" was conducted under DOE Contract DE-AC21- 96MC33138, administered by the Federal Energy Technology Center. The contract is divided into two phases - a base phase during which bench scale testing was conducted; and an optional phase for a field demonstration of a full-scale system. This report documents the results from the base phase of the contract. The base phase included the following major elements: - Evaluation of the effectiveness of various decontamination options, using both surrogate and radioactively contaminated samples. - Evaluation of various methods for the treatment of the secondary waste streams from the preferred decontamination system(s). - Evaluation of decontamination effectiveness for concrete rubble. - Preliminary engineering design and cost estimation for a full-scale system. - Preliminary economic analysis of the proposed system versus other currently available options for disposition of the materials. Results from the base phase, which are described in the following report, are very positive. Testing has shown that free release requirements and extremely high decontamination factors can be achieved for a variety of materials and radionuclides. Results for concrete rubble decontamination were less conclusive. The bench scale testing has led to the design of two different systems, both based on the TECHXTRACT â chemistry, for potential full-scale demonstration. Based on the preliminary economic analysis, this system compares favorably with currently available commercial options, including disposal.

  5. Minimal Residual Disease Assessment in Lymphoma: Methods and Applications.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Alex F; Armand, Philippe

    2017-09-21

    Standard methods for disease response assessment in patients with lymphoma, including positron emission tomography and computed tomography scans, are imperfect. In other hematologic malignancies, particularly leukemias, the ability to detect minimal residual disease (MRD) is increasingly influencing treatment paradigms. However, in many subtypes of lymphoma, the application of MRD assessment techniques, like flow cytometry or polymerase chain reaction-based methods, has been challenging because of the absence of readily detected circulating disease or canonic chromosomal translocations. Newer MRD detection methods that use next-generation sequencing have yielded promising results in a number of lymphoma subtypes, fueling the hope that MRD detection may soon be applicable in clinical practice for most patients with lymphoma. MRD assessment can provide real-time information about tumor burden and response to therapy, noninvasive genomic profiling, and monitoring of clonal dynamics, allowing for many possible applications that could significantly affect the care of patients with lymphoma. Further validation of MRD assessment methods, including the incorporation of MRD assessment into clinical trials in patients with lymphoma, will be critical to determine how best to deploy MRD testing in routine practice and whether MRD assessment can ultimately bring us closer to the goal of personalized lymphoma care. In this review article, we describe the methods available for detecting MRD in patients with lymphoma and their relative advantages and disadvantages. We discuss preliminary results supporting the potential applications for MRD testing in the care of patients with lymphoma and strategies for including MRD assessment in lymphoma clinical trials.

  6. PUREX Storage Tunnels dangerous waste permit application

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    The Hanford Site is operated by the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office. The PUREX Storage Tunnels are a storage unit located on the Hanford Site. The unit consists of two earth-covered railroad tunnels that are used for storage of process equipment (some containing dangerous waste) removed from the PUREX Plant. Radioactively contaminated equipment is loaded on railroad cars and remotely transferred into the tunnels for long-term storage. Westinghouse Hanford Company is a major contractor to the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office and serves as a co-operator of the PUREX Storage Tunnels, the waste management unit addressed by this permit application. This appendix contains Tunnel 1 Construction Specifications, HWS-5638, consisting of 49 pages.

  7. Processing of historic high radioactive waste coming from nuclear applications

    SciTech Connect

    Van Velzen, L.P.M.; Vos, R.M. de; Roobol, L.P.; IJpelaan, R.; Van Tongeren, R.

    2007-07-01

    At ECN-NRG irradiations of materials have been performed with the aid of the High Flux Reactor at the site for investigations of their properties under different conditions as well for nuclear isotope productions since 1967 e.g. molybdenum. The high radioactive waste (HRW) coming from these nuclear applications are stored since the start in an interim storage facility located at the site. Due to the site license the HRW has to be transported to COVRA. Therefore a project has been set-up to transport all the HRW to COVRA. However, COVRA accepts a limited number of HLW containers among the CASTOR{sup R} MTR-2 container and thus all temporary stored drums have to be over packed. As the existing infra structure at the site is not suited a new facility has to be build. This also creates the opportunity to minimize, by separation of the HRW in low- and intermediate level waste, the amount of waste that has to be classified as HLW. The applied methodology, design and specifications of the HRW-ILW non-destructive assay characterization and separation system will be described. (authors)

  8. [Analysis of mass minimization of Thermoelectric Integrated Membrane Evaporation Subsystem in waste water processing].

    PubMed

    Ren, J X; Ji, C Y; Zhang, X R; Wang, S; Liang, X G; Guo, Z Y

    2001-02-01

    To minimize in the system level the designed mass of Thermoelectric Integrated Membrane Evaporation Subsystem (TIMES) of Environment Control Life Support System (ECLSS) in manned spacecraft, when the requirement of the production rate of fresh water and its hygiene is fulfilled. According to the characteristics of the operational process of TIMES, the physical and mathematical model for fluid flow, heat transfer and mass composition in its main parts were established to investigate numerically the relation between the system mass and those parameters associated with the structure and operation of the system. The system mass depended not only on the structural parameters and operational parameters of TIMES, but also on the operational characteristics of power subsystem and thermal control subsystem. The relative mass covered a large part of the system mass. There existed an optimum of the number of thermoelectric cooling parts and flow rate of circular waste water of the TIMES when the designed system mass was minimum. Moreover, higher condensation pressure in the system contributed to lower system mass.

  9. REGULATORY STRATEGIES TO MINIMIZE GENERATION OF REGULATED WASTES FROM CLEANUP, CONTINUED USE OR DECOMMISSIONING OF NUCLEAR FACILITIES CONTAMINATED WITH POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS) - 11198

    SciTech Connect

    Lowry, N.

    2010-11-05

    Disposal costs for liquid PCB radioactive waste are among the highest of any category of regulated waste. The high cost is driven by the fact that disposal options are extremely limited. Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) regulations require most liquids with PCBs at concentration of {ge} 50 parts-per-million to be disposed by incineration or equivalent destructive treatment. Disposal fees can be as high as $200 per gallon. This figure does not include packaging and the cost to transport the waste to the disposal facility, or the waste generator's labor costs for managing the waste prior to shipment. Minimizing the generation of liquid radioactive PCB waste is therefore a significant waste management challenge. PCB spill cleanups often generate large volumes of waste. That is because the removal of PCBs typically requires the liberal use of industrial solvents followed by a thorough rinsing process. In a nuclear facility, the cleanup process may be complicated by the presence of radiation and other occupational hazards. Building design and construction features, e.g., the presence of open grating or trenches, may also complicate cleanup. In addition to the technical challenges associated with spill cleanup, selection of the appropriate regulatory requirements and approach may be challenging. The TSCA regulations include three different sections relating to the cleanup of PCB contamination or spills. EPA has also promulgated a separate guidance policy for fresh PCB spills that is published as Subpart G of 40 CFR 761 although it is not an actual regulation. Applicability is based on the circumstances of each contamination event or situation. Other laws or regulations may also apply. Identification of the allowable regulatory options is important. Effective communication with stakeholders, particularly regulators, is just as important. Depending on the regulatory path that is taken, cleanup may necessitate the generation of large quantities of regulated waste

  10. USER'S GUIDE: Strategic Waste Minimization Initiative (SWAMI) Version 2.0 - A Software Tool to Aid in Process Analysis for Pollution Prevention

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Strategic WAste Minimization Initiative (SWAMI) Software, Version 2.0 is a tool for using process analysis for identifying waste minimization opportunities within an industrial setting. The software requires user-supplied information for process definition, as well as materia...

  11. USER'S GUIDE: Strategic Waste Minimization Initiative (SWAMI) Version 2.0 - A Software Tool to Aid in Process Analysis for Pollution Prevention

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Strategic WAste Minimization Initiative (SWAMI) Software, Version 2.0 is a tool for using process analysis for identifying waste minimization opportunities within an industrial setting. The software requires user-supplied information for process definition, as well as materia...

  12. Organic rankine cycle waste heat applications

    DOEpatents

    Brasz, Joost J.; Biederman, Bruce P.

    2007-02-13

    A machine designed as a centrifugal compressor is applied as an organic rankine cycle turbine by operating the machine in reverse. In order to accommodate the higher pressures when operating as a turbine, a suitable refrigerant is chosen such that the pressures and temperatures are maintained within established limits. Such an adaptation of existing, relatively inexpensive equipment to an application that may be otherwise uneconomical, allows for the convenient and economical use of energy that would be otherwise lost by waste heat to the atmosphere.

  13. DISCRISET: a battery of tests for fast waste classification--application of tests on waste extracts.

    PubMed

    Deprez, K; Robbens, J; Nobels, I; Vanparys, C; Vanermen, G; Tirez, K; Michiels, L; Weltens, R

    2012-12-01

    The Hazardous Waste Directive (HWD, Council Directive 91/689/EC, 1991) provides a framework for classification of hazardous waste, based on 15 Hazard (H)-criteria. For complex wastes the HWD foresees the application of toxicity tests on the waste material itself to assess its toxic properties. However, these proposed test methods often involve mammalian testing, which is not acceptable from an ethical point of view, nor is it feasible economically. The DISCRISET project was initiated to investigate the use of alternative chemical and biological fast screening tests for waste hazard classification. In the first part of the project, different methods were reviewed and a testing strategy was proposed to minimize time and cost of analysis by a tiered approach. This includes as a first tier chemical analysis followed by a general acute toxicity screen as a second tier and as a third tier mechanistic toxicity tests to assess chronic toxicity (genotoxicity, hormone disturbance, teratogenic effects, immunologic activity). In this phase of the project, selected methods were applied to 16 different waste samples from various sources and industries. The first tier chemical tests are recommended for the full characterization of the leachate fraction (inorganics) but not for the organic fraction of samples. Here the chemical characterization is only useful if toxic content is known or suspected. As second tier the fast bacterial test Microtox is validated as a general toxicity screen for the organic fraction (worst case organic extract). Samples that are not classified in tier 1 or 2 are then further investigated in the third tier by the mechanistic toxicity tests and tested for their potential chronic toxicity: immune activity (TNF-α upregulation) is indicative for corrosive, irritating or sensitising effects (H4/H8/H15), reproductive effects (H10) are indicated by hormone disturbance and early life stage abnormalities in fish larvae when exposed to the extracts and

  14. Application of neutron multiplicity counting to waste assay

    SciTech Connect

    Pickrell, M.M.; Ensslin, N.; Sharpe, T.J.

    1997-11-01

    This paper describes the use of a new figure of merit code that calculates both bias and precision for coincidence and multiplicity counting, and determines the optimum regions for each in waste assay applications. A {open_quotes}tunable multiplicity{close_quotes} approach is developed that uses a combination of coincidence and multiplicity counting to minimize the total assay error. An example is shown where multiplicity analysis is used to solve for mass, alpha, and multiplication and tunable multiplicity is shown to work well. The approach provides a method for selecting coincidence, multiplicity, or tunable multiplicity counting to give the best assay with the lowest total error over a broad spectrum of assay conditions. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  15. Natural gas applications in waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Tarman, P.B.

    1991-01-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) is engaged in several projects related to the use of natural gas for waste management. These projects can be classified into four categories: cyclonic incineration of gaseous, liquid, and solid wastes; fluidized-bed reclamation of solid wastes; two-stage incineration of liquid and solid wastes; natural gas injection for emissions control. 5 refs., 8 figs.

  16. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, 325 hazardous waste treatment units. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    This report contains the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application for the 325 Hazardous Waste Treatment Units (325 HWTUs) which consist of the Shielded Analytical Laboratory, the 325 Building, and the 325 Collection/Loadout Station Tank. The 325 HWTUs receive, store, and treat dangerous waste generated by Hanford Facility programs. Routine dangerous and/or mixed waste treatment that will be conducted in the 325 HWTUs will include pH adjustment, ion exchange, carbon absorption, oxidation, reduction, waste concentration by evaporation, precipitation, filtration, solvent extraction, solids washing, phase separation, catalytic destruction, and solidification/stabilization.

  17. 1997 annual report on waste generation and waste minimization progress as required by DOE Order 5400.1, Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Segall, P.

    1998-04-13

    Hanford`s missions are to safely clean up and manage the site`s legacy wastes, and to develop and deploy science and technology. Through these missions Hanford will contribute to economic diversification of the region. Hanford`s environmental management or cleanup mission is to protect the health and safety of the public, workers, and the environment; control hazardous materials; and utilize the assets (people, infra structure, site) for other missions. Hanford`s science and technology mission is to develop and deploy science and technology in the service of the nation including stewardship of the Hanford Site. Pollution Prevention is a key to the success of these missions by reducing the amount of waste to be managed and identifying/implementing cost effective waste reduction projects. Hanford`s original mission, the production of nuclear materials for the nation`s defense programs, lasted more than 40 years, and like most manufacturing operations, Hanford`s operations generated large quantities of waste and pollution. However, the by-products from Hanford operations pose unique problems like radiation hazards, vast volumes of contaminated water and soil, and many contaminated structures including reactors, chemical plants and evaporation ponds. The cleanup activity is an immense and challenging undertaking, which includes characterization and decommissioning of 149 single shell storage tanks, treating 28 double shell tanks, safely disposing of over 2,100 metric tons of spent nuclear fuel stored on site, removing numerous structures, and dealing with significant solid waste, ground water, and land restoration issues.

  18. State Waste Discharge Permit application: 400 Area Septic System

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affects groundwater or has the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 400 Area Septic System. The influent to the system is domestic waste water. Although the 400 Area Septic System is not a Public Owned Treatment Works, the Public Owned Treatment Works application is more applicable than the application for industrial waste water. Therefore, the State Waste Discharge Permit application for Public Owned Treatment Works Discharges to Land was used.

  19. 78 FR 36196 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Biologics License Applications for Minimally Manipulated, Unrelated...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ... for Minimally Manipulated, Unrelated Allogeneic Placental/Umbilical Cord Blood Intended for...: Biologics License Applications for Minimally Manipulated, Unrelated Allogeneic Placental/Umbilical Cord.../umbilical cord blood, for hematopoietic and immunologic reconstitution. The guidance document is intended to...

  20. Investigation of Fission Product Transport into Zeolite-A for Pyroprocessing Waste Minimization

    SciTech Connect

    James R. Allensworth; Michael F. Simpson; Man-Sung Yim; Supathorn Phongikaroon

    2013-02-01

    Methods to improve fission product salt sorption into zeolite-A have been investigated in an effort to reduce waste associated with the electrochemical treatment of spent nuclear fuel. It was demonstrated that individual fission product chloride salts were absorbed by zeolite-A in a solid-state process. As a result, recycling of LiCl-KCl appears feasible via adding a zone-freezing technique to the current treatment process. Ternary salt molten-state experiments showed the limiting kinetics of CsCl and SrCl2 sorption into the zeolite. CsCl sorption occurred rapidly relative to SrCl2 with no observed dependence on zeolite particle size, while SrCl2 sorption was highly dependent on particle size. The application of experimental data to a developed reaction-diffusion-based sorption model yielded diffusivities of 8.04 × 10-6 and 4.04 × 10-7 cm2 /s for CsCl and SrCl2, respectively. Additionally, the chemical reaction term in the developed model was found to be insignificant compared to the diffusion term.

  1. PUREX Storage Tunnels dangerous waste permit application

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    The PUREX Storage Tunnels are a mixed waste storage unit consisting of two underground railroad tunnels: Tunnel Number 1 designated 218-E-14 and Tunnel Number 2 designated 218-E-15. The two tunnels are connected by rail to the PUREX Plant and combine to provide storage space for 48 railroad cars (railcars). The PUREX Storage Tunnels provide a long-term storage location for equipment removed from the PUREX Plant. Transfers into the PUREX Storage Tunnels are made on an as-needed basis. Radioactively contaminated equipment is loaded on railcars and remotely transferred by rail into the PUREX Storage Tunnels. Railcars act as both a transport means and a storage platform for equipment placed into the tunnels. This report consists of part A and part B. Part A reports on amounts and locations of the mixed water. Part B permit application consists of the following: Facility Description and General Provisions; Waste Characteristics; Process Information; Groundwater Monitoring; Procedures to Prevent Hazards; Contingency Plan; Personnel Training; Exposure Information Report.

  2. Land Application of Wastes: An Educational Program - Introduction and Script.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarkson, W. W.; And Others

    This is the introductory module to the Land Application of Wastes educational program. The module contains information on the content, structure, and dynamics of the program. Also included with the module is a script to accompany a slide presentation. The Land Application of Wastes program consists of twenty-five modules and audio-visual…

  3. Waste minimization measures associated with the analysis of {sup 137}Cs in coconut milk collected from the Marshall Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, T.; Jones, H.; Wong, K.; Robinson, W.

    1998-05-01

    The Marshall Islands Environmental Characterization and Dose Assessment Program has recently implemented waste minimization measures to reduce low level radioactive (LLW) and low level mixed (LLWMIXED) waste streams at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Several thousand environmental samples are collected annually from former US nuclear test sites in the Marshall Islands, and returned to LLNL for processing and radiometric analysis. In the past, we analyzed coconut milk directly by gamma-spectrometry after adding formaldehyde (as preservative) and sealing the fluid in metal cans. This procedure was not only tedious and time consuming but generated storage and waste disposal problems. We have now reduced the number of coconut milk samples required for analysis from 1500 per year to approximately 250, and developed a new analytical procedure which essentially eliminates the associated mixed radioactive waste stream. Coconut milk samples are mixed with a few grams of ammonium-molydophosphate (AMP) which quantitatively scavenges the target radionuclide cesium 137 in an ion-exchange process. The AMP is then separated from the mixture and sealed in a plastic container. The bulk sample material can be disposed of as a non- radioactive non-hazardous waste, and the relatively small amount of AMP conveniently counted by gamma-spectrometry, packaged and stored for future use.

  4. Proceedings of the tenth annual DOE low-level waste management conference: Session 4: Waste treatment minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    This document contains eleven papers on various aspects of low-level radioactive waste management. Topics in this volume include: volume reduction plans; incentitives; and cost proposals; acid detoxification and reclamation; decontamination of lead; leach tests; West Valley demonstration project status report; and DOE's regional management strategies. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base. (TEM)

  5. Process for treating fission waste. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Rohrmann, C.A.; Wick, O.J.

    1981-11-17

    A method is described for the treatment of fission waste. A glass forming agent, a metal oxide, and a reducing agent are mixed with the fission waste and the mixture is heated. After melting, the mixture separates into a glass phase and a metal phase. The glass phase may be used to safely store the fission waste, while the metal phase contains noble metals recovered from the fission waste.

  6. Military wastes-to-energy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawaoka, K. E.

    1980-11-01

    This analysis focuses on the military waste material and byproduct stream and the potential for energy recovery and utilization. Feedstock material includes municipal-type solid waste, selected installation hazardous waste, and biomass residue. The study objectives are to (1) analyze the characteristics of the military waste stream; (2) identify potential energy recovery options; and (3) examine and assess the technical and economic feasibility and environmental and institutional impacts of various energy recovery approaches. Total energy recoverable from DOD solid waste could provide about 2 percent of DOD's facility energy demand. The energy potential available to DOD from biomass and hazardous waste was not available. Available waste-to-energy systems are thermal conversion processes such as incineration with heat recovery. The significance of this recoverable energy from military wastes is put in proper perspective when the benefits and barriers in using waste-derived energy are considered. Some of the benefits of waste-to-energy conversion are as follows: waste energy is a readily available and inexhaustible resource that greatly reduces dependence on imported energy.

  7. Minimizing asynchronism to improve the performances of anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and corn stover.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qi; Shen, Fei; Yuan, Hairong; Zou, Dexun; Liu, Yanping; Zhu, Baoning; Jaffu, Muhanmad; Chufo, Akiber; Li, Xiujin

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the existence of the asynchronism during the anaerobic co-digestion of different substrates, two typical substrates of food waste and corn stover were anaerobically digested with altering organic loadings (OL). The results indicated that the biodegradability of food waste and corn stover was calculated to be 81.5% and 55.1%, respectively, which was main reason causing the asynchronism in the co-digestion. The asynchronism was minimized by NaOH-pretreatment for corn stover, which could improve the biodegradability by 36.6%. The co-digestion with pretreatment could increase the biomethane yield by 12.2%, 3.2% and 0.6% comparing with the co-digestion without pretreatment at C/N ratios of 20, 25 and 30 at OL of 35 g-VS/L, respectively. The results indicated that the digestibility synchronism of food waste and corn stover was improved through enhancing the accessibility and digestibility of corn stover. The biomethane production could be increased by minimizing the asynchronism of two substrates in co-digestion.

  8. Hazardous Waste Minimization and Treatment Opportunities in the Eighth U.S. Army and the U.S. Army, Japan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-01

    34industrial wastes" as the wastes compri d of ashes, sludge, waste oil, waste acid and alkali, waste plastics resulting from business activities arad any...defined by Article 2 of the Cabinet Order for Implementing the Air Pollution Law, and facilities incinerating sludge, waste oil, waste acid and waste...alkali, waste plastics, and PCB-applied paper and metal 10. Substances processed from cinders, sludge, and waste oil, waste acid and alkali, and

  9. Virtual environmental applications for buried waste characterization technology evaluation report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The project, Virtual Environment Applications for Buried Waste Characterization, was initiated in the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program in fiscal year 1994. This project is a research and development effort that supports the remediation of buried waste by identifying and examining the issues, needs, and feasibility of creating virtual environments using available characterization and other data. This document describes the progress and results from this project during the past year.

  10. Proceedings of waste stream minimization and utilization innovative concepts: An experimental technology exchange. Volume 2, Industrial liquid waste processing, industrial gaseous waste processing

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, V.E.; Watts, R.L.

    1993-04-01

    This two-volume proceedings summarize the results of fifteen innovations that were funded through the US Department of Energy`s Innovative Concept Program. The fifteen innovations were presented at the sixth Innovative Concepts Fair, held in Austin, Texas, on April 22--23, 1993. The concepts in this year`s fair address innovations that can substantially reduce or use waste streams. Each paper describes the need for the proposed concept, the concept being proposed, and the concept`s economics and market potential, key experimental results, and future development needs. The papers are divided into two volumes: Volume 1 addresses innovations for industrial solid waste processing and municipal waste reduction/recycling, and Volume 2 addresses industrial liquid waste processing and industrial gaseous waste processing. Individual reports are indexed separately.

  11. Proceedings of waste stream minimization and utilization innovative concepts: An experimental technology exchange. Volume 1, Industrial solid waste processing municipal waste reduction/recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, V.E.; Watts, R.L.

    1993-04-01

    This two-volume proceedings summarizes the results of fifteen innovations that were funded through the US Department of Energy`s Innovative Concept Program. The fifteen innovations were presented at the sixth Innovative Concepts Fair, held in Austin, Texas, on April 22--23, 1993. The concepts in this year`s fair address innovations that can substantially reduce or use waste streams. Each paper describes the need for the proposed concept, the concept being proposed, and the concept`s economics and market potential, key experimental results, and future development needs. The papers are divided into two volumes: Volume 1 addresses innovations for industrial solid waste processing and municipal waste reduction/recycling, and Volume 2 addresses industrial liquid waste processing and industrial gaseous waste processing. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  12. Proceedings of waste stream minimization and utilization innovative concepts: An experimental technology exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, V.E.

    1991-04-01

    This two-volume proceedings summarizes the results of fifteen innovations that were funded through the US Department of Energy's Innovative Concept Program. The fifteen innovations were presented at the fifth Innovative Concepts Fair, held in Washington, DC, on April 25-26, 1991. The concepts in this year's fair address innovations that can substantially reduce or use waste streams. Each paper describes the need for the proposed concept, the concept being proposed, and the concept's economics and market potential, key experimental results, and future development needs. The papers are divided into two volumes; Volume 1 addresses innovations for mining and metals remediation that can reduce or use waste streams, and Volume 2 addresses general industrial innovations that can reduce or use waste streams. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  13. RCRA/UST, superfund and EPCRA hotline training module. Introduction to: Strategy for hazardous waste minimization and combustion, updated as of July 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The module presents a general overview of the issues EPA has addressed in the hazardous waste minization and combustion strategy. It provides a detailed description of the history and goals of the strategy. It presents an in-depth discussion of hazardous waste minimization and combustion issues and includes a section on environmental justice.

  14. State Waste Discharge Permit application, 100-N Sewage Lagoon

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations (Ecology et al. 1994), the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173--216 (or 173--218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered into Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177, (Ecology and DOE-RL 1991). This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 100-N Sewage Lagoon. Since the influent to the sewer lagoon is domestic waste water, the State Waste Discharge Permit application for Public Owned Treatment Works Discharges to Land was used. Although the 100-N Sewage Lagoon is not a Public Owned Treatment Works, the Public Owned Treatment Works application is more applicable than the application for industrial waste water. The 100-N Sewage Lagoon serves the 100-N Area and other Hanford Site areas by receiving domestic waste from two sources. A network of sanitary sewer piping and lift stations transfers domestic waste water from the 100-N Area buildings directly to the 100-N Sewage Lagoon. Waste is also received by trucks that transport domestic waste pumped from on site septic tanks and holding tanks. Three ponds comprise the 100-N Sewage Lagoon treatment system. These include a lined aeration pond and stabilization pond, as well as an unlined infiltration pond. Both piped-in and trucked-in domestic waste is discharged directly into the aeration pond.

  15. Minimizing N2O fluxes from full-scale municipal solid waste landfill with properly selected cover soil.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Houhu; He, Pinjing; Shao, Liming; Qu, Xian; Lee, Duujong

    2008-01-01

    Municipal solid waste landfills emit nitrous oxide (N2O) gas. Assuming that the soil cover is the primary N2O source from landfills, this study tested, during a four-year project, the hypothesis that the proper use of chosen soils with fine texture minimizes N2O emissions. A full-scale sanitary landfill, a full-scale bioreactor landfill and a cell planted with Nerium indicum or Festuca arundinacea Schreb, at the Hangzhou Tianziling landfill in Hangzhou City were the test sites. The N2O emission rates from all test sites were considerably lower than those reported in the published reports. Specifically, the N2O emission rate was dependent on soil water content and nitrate concentrations in the cover soil. The effects of leachate recirculation and irrigation were minimal. Properly chosen cover soils applied to the landfills reduced N2O flux.

  16. Agent Regeneration and Hazardous Waste Minimization and Teaching Note. IBM Case Study. Doc #93-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliker, L. Richard; And Others

    The manufacturing process used to produce printbands for International Business Machines, Inc. involves a photolithographic process in which the stainless steel panels are chemically machined using strong ferric chloride etching solution containing hydrochloric acid. The waste material that results from this chemical reaction is a solution…

  17. POLLUTION PREVENTION STRATEGIES FOR THE MINIMIZING OF INDUSTRIAL WASTES IN THE VCM-PVC INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    In many U.S. companies, pollution prevention strategies coincide with economic interests. Typically a company strives to be the lowest-cost producer, to be competitive, and to reduce wastes. In this paper, the author reviews pollution prevention strategies in the vinyl chloride m...

  18. AN INNOVATIVE INTEGRATED APPROACH TO MINIMIZING GYPSUM AND PYRITE WASTES BY CONVERSION TO MARKETABLE PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel Tao

    2000-06-27

    The objective of this research program is to develop a novel integrated process to eliminate millions of tons of gypsum and pyrite wastes generated annually by the U.S. energy industries and reduce the emission of millions of tons of greenhouse gas carbon dioxide. This was accomplished by converting gypsum and pyrite wastes to marketable products such as lime, direct reduced iron (DRI), and sulfur products and obviating the need to calcine millions of tons of limestone for use in utility scrubbers. Specific objectives included: (1) Develop a novel, integrated process for utilizing two major wastes generated by mining and energy industries to produce lime for recycling and other marketable products. (2) Study individual chemical reactions involved in pyrite decomposition, DRI production, and Muller-Kuhne process for lime regeneration to determine optimum process variables such as temperature, time, and reactant composition. (3) Investigate techniques for effective concentration of pyrite from tailing waste and methods for effective separation of DRI from calcium sulfide.

  19. Minimization of actinide waste by multi-recycling of thoriated fuels in the EPR reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, S. J.; Wilson, J. N.; Capellan, N.; David, S.; Guillemin, P.; Ivanov, E.; Méplan, O.; Nuttin, A.; Siem, S.

    2012-02-01

    The multi-recycling of innovative uranium/thorium oxide fuels for use in the European Pressurized water Reactor (EPR) has been investigated. If increasing quantities of 238U, the fertile isotope in standard UO2 fuel, are replaced by 232Th, then a greater yield of new fissile material (233U) is produced during the cycle than would otherwise be the case. This leads to economies of natural uranium of around 45% if the uranium in the spent fuel is multi-recycled. In addition we show that minor actinide and plutonium waste inventories are reduced and hence waste radio-toxicities and decay heats are up to a factor of 20 lower after 103 years. Two innovative fuel types named S90 and S20, ThO2 mixed with 90% and 20% enriched UO2 respectively, are compared as an alternative to standard uranium oxide (UOX) and uranium/plutonium mixed oxide (MOX) fuels at the longest EPR fuel discharge burn-ups of 65 GWd/t. Fissile and waste inventories are examined, waste radio-toxicities and decay heats are extracted and safety feedback coefficients are calculated.

  20. POLLUTION PREVENTION STRATEGIES FOR THE MINIMIZING OF INDUSTRIAL WASTES IN THE VCM-PVC INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    In many U.S. companies, pollution prevention strategies coincide with economic interests. Typically a company strives to be the lowest-cost producer, to be competitive, and to reduce wastes. In this paper, the author reviews pollution prevention strategies in the vinyl chloride m...

  1. Agent Regeneration and Hazardous Waste Minimization and Teaching Note. IBM Case Study. Doc #93-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliker, L. Richard; And Others

    The manufacturing process used to produce printbands for International Business Machines, Inc. involves a photolithographic process in which the stainless steel panels are chemically machined using strong ferric chloride etching solution containing hydrochloric acid. The waste material that results from this chemical reaction is a solution…

  2. WASTE MINIMIZATION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT: OPTICAL FABRICATION LABORATORY - FITZSIMMONS ARMY MEDICAL CENTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under the Waste Reduction Evaluations at Federal Sites (WREAFS) program, RREL has taken the initiative to merge the experience and resources of the EPA with other Federal agencies. At the Fitzsimmons Army Medical Center (FAMC) in Aurora, Colorado, the Army and the EPA cooperated ...

  3. WASTE MINIMIZATION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT: OPTICAL FABRICATION LABORATORY - FITZSIMMONS ARMY MEDICAL CENTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under the Waste Reduction Evaluations at Federal Sites (WREAFS) program, RREL has taken the initiative to merge the experience and resources of the EPA with other Federal agencies. At the Fitzsimmons Army Medical Center (FAMC) in Aurora, Colorado, the Army and the EPA cooperated ...

  4. Pilot studies to achieve waste minimization and enhance radioactive liquid waste treatment at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Freer, J.; Freer, E.; Bond, A.

    1996-07-01

    The Radioactive and Industrial Wastewater Science Group manages and operates the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The RLWTF treats low-level radioactive liquid waste generated by research and analytical facilities at approximately 35 technical areas throughout the 43-square-mile site. The RLWTF treats an average of 5.8 million gallons (21.8-million liters) of liquid waste annually. Clarifloculation and filtration is the primary treatment technology used by the RLWTF. This technology has been used since the RLWTF became operable in 1963. Last year the RLWTF achieved an average of 99.7% removal of gross alpha activity in the waste stream. The treatment process requires the addition of chemicals for the flocculation and subsequent precipitation of radionuclides. The resultant sludge generated during this process is solidified in drums and stored or disposed of at LANL.

  5. R D activities at DOE applicable to mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, M.D.; Devgun, J.S.; Brown, J.J.; Beskid, N.J.

    1991-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has established the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. Within the new organization, the Office of Technology Development (OTD) is responsible for research, development, demonstration, testing and evaluation (RDDT E) activities aimed at meeting DOE cleanup goals, while minimizing cost and risk. Because of US governmental activities dating back to the Manhattan project, mixed radioactive and hazardous waste is an area of particular concern to DOE. The OTD is responsible for a number of R D activities aimed at improving capabilities to characterize, control, and properly dispose of mixed waste. These activities and their progress to date will be reviewed. In addition, needs for additional R D on managing mixed waste will be presented. 5 refs., 2 tabs.

  6. A review of mechanochemistry applications in waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Guo Xiuying; Xiang Dong; Duan Guanghong; Mou Peng

    2010-01-15

    Mechanochemistry is defined to describe the chemical and physicochemical transformation of substances during the aggregation caused by the mechanical energy. Mechanochemical technology has several advantages, such as simple process, ecological safety and the possibility of obtaining a product in the metastable state. It potentially has a prospective application in pollution remediation and waste management. Therefore, this paper aims to give an overall review of the mechanochemistry applications in waste management and the related mechanisms. Based on our study, the modification of fly ash and asbestos-containing wastes (ACWs) can be achieved by mechanochemical technology. Waste metal oxides can be transformed into easily recyclable sulfide by mechanochemical sulfidization. Besides, the waste plastics and rubbers, which are usually very difficult to be recycled, can also be recycled by mechanochemical technology.

  7. Potential industrial applications for direct contact waste heat recuperator systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semler, T. T.

    1981-02-01

    Four potential applications were chosen for economic analysis. They are: stack gas from diesel electric generation, boiler stack gas, waste heat stream from the hydraulic cement dry process dryer, and stack gas from the fire polishing of glass. The waste heat streams studied ranged from 175 to 7500 F. A physical analogue of the direct contact waste heat recuperator system was devised and used for costing purposes. Payback calculations were performed for these applications. Only the stack gas from the fire polishing of glass failed to show significant economic promise. A waste heat stream regime of greater than 10,000 cfm and between 400 and 7500 F was identified as most economically promising for direct contact waste heat recuperation and hot process water delivery.

  8. A review of mechanochemistry applications in waste management.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiuying; Xiang, Dong; Duan, Guanghong; Mou, Peng

    2010-01-01

    Mechanochemistry is defined to describe the chemical and physicochemical transformation of substances during the aggregation caused by the mechanical energy. Mechanochemical technology has several advantages, such as simple process, ecological safety and the possibility of obtaining a product in the metastable state. It potentially has a prospective application in pollution remediation and waste management. Therefore, this paper aims to give an overall review of the mechanochemistry applications in waste management and the related mechanisms. Based on our study, the modification of fly ash and asbestos-containing wastes (ACWs) can be achieved by mechanochemical technology. Waste metal oxides can be transformed into easily recyclable sulfide by mechanochemical sulfidization. Besides, the waste plastics and rubbers, which are usually very difficult to be recycled, can also be recycled by mechanochemical technology.

  9. Decontamination of Nuclear Liquid Wastes Status of CEA and AREVA R and D: Application to Fukushima Waste Waters - 12312

    SciTech Connect

    Fournel, B.; Barre, Y.; Lepeytre, C.; Peycelon, H.; Grandjean, A.; Prevost, T.; Valery, J.F.; Shilova, E.; Viel, P.

    2012-07-01

    standard effluents resulting from nuclear activities; - To develop reversible solid adsorbents for cartridge-type applications in order to minimize wastes. (authors)

  10. An interval-based possibilistic programming method for waste management with cost minimization and environmental-impact abatement under uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Li, Y P; Huang, G H

    2010-09-15

    Considerable public concerns have been raised in the past decades since a large amount of pollutant emissions from municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal of processes pose risks on surrounding environment and human health. Moreover, in MSW management, various uncertainties exist in the related costs, impact factors and objectives, which can affect the optimization processes and the decision schemes generated. In this study, an interval-based possibilistic programming (IBPP) method is developed for planning the MSW management with minimized system cost and environmental impact under uncertainty. The developed method can deal with uncertainties expressed as interval values and fuzzy sets in the left- and right-hand sides of constraints and objective function. An interactive algorithm is provided for solving the IBPP problem, which does not lead to more complicated intermediate submodels and has a relatively low computational requirement. The developed model is applied to a case study of planning a MSW management system, where mixed integer linear programming (MILP) technique is introduced into the IBPP framework to facilitate dynamic analysis for decisions of timing, sizing and siting in terms of capacity expansion for waste-management facilities. Three cases based on different waste-management policies are examined. The results obtained indicate that inclusion of environmental impacts in the optimization model can change the traditional waste-allocation pattern merely based on the economic-oriented planning approach. The results obtained can help identify desired alternatives for managing MSW, which has advantages in providing compromised schemes under an integrated consideration of economic efficiency and environmental impact under uncertainty. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Removal of contaminants from equipment and debris and waste minimization using TechXtract{reg_sign} technology

    SciTech Connect

    Bonem, M.W.

    1997-10-01

    Under this Program Research and Development Agreement (PRDA), EET, Inc., is extending its proprietary TechXtract{reg_sign} chemical decontamination technology into an effective, economical, integrated contaminant removal system. This integrated system will consist of a series of decontamination baths using the TechXtract{reg_sign} chemical formulas, followed by a waste treatment process that will remove the contaminants from the spent chemicals. Sufficient decontamination will result so that materials can be released without restriction after they have been treated, even those materials that have traditionally been considered to be {open_quotes}undecontaminable.{close_quotes} The secondary liquid waste will then be treated to separate any hazardous and radioactive contaminants, so that the spent chemicals and wastewater can be discharged through conventional, permitted outlets. The TechXtract{reg_sign} technology is a unique process that chemically extracts hazardous contaminants from the surface and substrate of concrete, steel, and other solid materials. This technology has been used successfully to remove contaminants as varied as PCBs, radionuclides, heavy metals, and hazardous organics. The process` advantage over other alternatives is its effectiveness in safe and consistent extraction of subsurface contamination. TechXtract{reg_sign} is a proprietary process developed, owned, and provided by EET, Inc. The objective of the PRDA is to demonstrate on a full-scale basis an economical system for decontaminating equipment and debris, with further treatment of secondary waste streams to minimize waste volumes. Contaminants will be removed from the contaminated items to levels where they can be released for unrestricted use. The entire system will be designed with maximum flexibility and automation in mind.

  12. Minimizing masses in explosively driven two-shockwave physics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buttler, William; Cherne, Frank; Furlanetto, Michael; Payton, Jeremy; Stone, Joseph; Tabaka, Leonard; Vincent, Samuel

    2015-06-01

    We have experimentally investigated different two-shockwave high-explosives (HE) physics package designs to maximize the variability of the second shockwave peak stress, while minimizing the total HE load of the physics tool. A critical requirement is to also have a large radial diameter of the second shockwave to maintain its value as an HE driven two-shockwave drive. We have previously shown that we could vary the peak-stress of the second-shockwave with a 76 mm diameter HE lens driving different composite boosters of PBX 9501 and TNT. Here we report on our results with a 56- and 50-mm diameter HE lens driving Baritol. The results indicate that the 56-mm diameter HE lens works well, as does the Baritol, giving total HE loads of about 250 mg TNT equivalent explosives.

  13. MSW management for waste minimization in Taiwan: The last two decades

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, L.-T. . E-mail: luliteh@ms13.hinet.net; Hsiao, T.-Y.; Shang, N.-C.; Yu, Y.-H.; Ma, H.-W.

    2006-07-01

    Taiwan is the second most densely populated country in the world; its 22.604 million residents (2002) live in an area of 35,967 km{sup 2} (628 people/km{sup 2}). Taiwan's economy has grown rapidly during the last 20 years, resulting in a corresponding increase in the amount of municipal solid waste (MSW). This study describes and evaluates the municipal solid waste management system in Taiwan. The study's results indicate that the amount of MSW began to decline after 1997, when the government enforced aggressive MSW management policies. By 2002, total MSW production had dropped by 27%, and the average daily per capita weight of MSW had fallen from 1.14 kg in 1997 to 0.81 kg in 2002. Summarizing the successful experience of MSW reduction in Taiwan, the most important factor was the government's combining of the MSW collection system with reduction/recycling programs. The second most important factor was the policy of extended producer responsibility, which laid a foundation of recycling by producers and retailers and promoted public recycling.

  14. MSW management for waste minimization in Taiwan: the last two decades.

    PubMed

    Lu, Li-Teh; Hsiao, Teng-Yuan; Shang, Neng-Chou; Yu, Yue-Hwa; Ma, Hwong-Wen

    2006-01-01

    Taiwan is the second most densely populated country in the world; its 22.604 million residents (2002) live in an area of 35,967 km2 (628 people/km2). Taiwan's economy has grown rapidly during the last 20 years, resulting in a corresponding increase in the amount of municipal solid waste (MSW). This study describes and evaluates the municipal solid waste management system in Taiwan. The study's results indicate that the amount of MSW began to decline after 1997, when the government enforced aggressive MSW management policies. By 2002, total MSW production had dropped by 27%, and the average daily per capita weight of MSW had fallen from 1.14 kg in 1997 to 0.81 kg in 2002. Summarizing the successful experience of MSW reduction in Taiwan, the most important factor was the government's combining of the MSW collection system with reduction/recycling programs. The second most important factor was the policy of extended producer responsibility, which laid a foundation of recycling by producers and retailers and promoted public recycling.

  15. Implementing waste minimization at an active plutonium processing facility: Successes and progress at technical area (TA) -55 of the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Balkey, J.J.; Robinson, M.A.; Boak, J.

    1997-12-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory has ongoing national security missions that necessitate increased plutonium processing. The bulk of this activity occurs at Technical Area -55 (TA-55), the nations only operable plutonium facility. TA-55 has developed and demonstrated a number of technologies that significantly minimize waste generation in plutonium processing (supercritical CO{sub 2}, Mg(OH){sub 2} precipitation, supercritical H{sub 2}O oxidation, WAND), disposition of excess fissile materials (hydride-dehydride, electrolytic decontamination), disposition of historical waste inventories (salt distillation), and Decontamination & Decommissioning (D&D) of closed nuclear facilities (electrolytic decontamination). Furthermore, TA-55 is in the process of developing additional waste minimization technologies (molten salt oxidation, nitric acid recycle, americium extraction) that will significantly reduce ongoing waste generation rates and allow volume reduction of existing waste streams. Cost savings from reduction in waste volumes to be managed and disposed far exceed development and deployment costs in every case. Waste minimization is also important because it reduces occupational exposure to ionizing radiation, risks of transportation accidents, and transfer of burdens from current nuclear operations to future generations.

  16. Synthetic/biosynthetic phase transfer polymers for pollution minimization, remediation, and waste management. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, C.L.; Cannon, G.C.; Lochhead, R.Y.

    1994-01-01

    The ultimate goal of this interdisciplinary proposal is the development of phase transfer polymers capable of efficient removal of water-borne pollutants from inadvertent spills or waste discharge in naval environments. Targets include petroleum based fuels and lubricants and gray water contaminants such as surfactants and oils. The polymers will be specifically tailored by synthetic or biosynthetic techniques to possess pH-responsive, hydrophobic domains which would allow capture, sequestration, and subsequent separation of foulants from water. The polymers can be recovered in the separation stage by simple pH change and can be recycled; the biopolymers proposed have the additional attribute of being biodegradable. By contrast, traditional small molecule surfactants are ineffective at high dilution for phase transfer, are virtually unrecoverable, and resist biodegradation.

  17. State Waste Discharge Permit application: 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit

    SciTech Connect

    Atencio, B.P.

    1994-06-01

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations; the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit. The 200-W Powerhouse Ash Waste Water discharges to the 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit via dedicated pipelines. The 200-W Powerhouse Ash Waste Water is the only discharge to the 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit. The 200-W Powerhouse is a steam generation facility consisting of a coal-handling and preparation section and boilers.

  18. State Waste Discharge Permit application: 200-E Powerhouse Ash Pit

    SciTech Connect

    Atencio, B.P.

    1994-06-01

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations, the US Department and Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 200-E Powerhouse Ash Pit. The 200-E Powerhouse Ash Waste Water discharges to the 200-E Powerhouse Ash Pit via dedicated pipelines. The 200-E Ash Waste Water is the only discharge to the 200-E Powerhouse Ash Pit. The 200-E Powerhouse is a steam generation facility consisting of a coal-handling and preparation section and boilers.

  19. Conversion of finished leather waste incorporated with plant fibers into value added consumer products - An effort to minimize solid waste in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Teklay, A; Gebeyehu, G; Getachew, T; Yaynshet, T; Sastry, T P

    2017-10-01

    Presently, the leftovers from leather product industries are discarded as waste in Ethiopia. The objective of the present study was therefore, to prepare composite sheets by incorporating various plant fibers like enset (Ensete ventricosum), hibiscus (Hibiscus cannabinus), jute (Corchorus trilocularis L.), palm (Phoenix dactylifera) and sisal (Agave sisal) in various proportions into the leather waste. Resin binder (RB) and natural rubber latex (NRL) were used as binding agents for the preparation of the composite sheets. The composite sheets prepared were characterized for their physicochemical properties (tensile strength, elongation at break, stitch tear strength, water absorption, water desorption and flexing strength). Composite sheets prepared using RB having 10% hibiscus, 20% palm and 40% sisal fibers showed better mechanical properties than their respective controls. In composite sheets prepared using NRL having 30% jute fiber exhibited better mechanical properties than its control. Most of the plant fibers used in this study played a role in increasing the performance of the sheets. However, as seen from the results, the contribution of these plant fibers on performance of the composite sheets prepared is dependent on the ratio used and the nature of binder. The SEM studies have exhibited the composite nature of the sheets and FTIR studies have shown the functional groups of collagen protein, cellulose and binders. The prepared sheets were used as raw materials for preparation of items like stiff hand bags, ladies' purse, keychain, chappal upper, wallet, wall cover, mouse pad and other interior decorating products. By preparing such value added products, we can reduce solid waste; minimize environmental pollution and thereby securing environmental sustainability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Selecting Map Projections in Minimizing Area Distortions in GIS Applications

    PubMed Central

    Yildirim, Faruk; Kaya, Ahmet

    2008-01-01

    Various software for Geographical Information Systems (GISs) have been developed and used in many different engineering projects. In GIS applications, map coverage is important in terms of performing reliable and meaningful queries. Map projections can be conformal, equal-area and equidistant. The goal of an application plays an important role in choosing one of those projections. Choosing the equal-area projection for an application in which area information is used (forestry, agriculture, ecosystem etc) reduces the amount of distortion on the area, but many users using GIS ignore this fact and continue to use applications with present map sheets no matter in what map projection it is. For example, extracting area information from data whose country system's map sheet is in conformal projection is relatively more distorted, compared to an equal-area projection one. The goal of this study is to make the best decision in choosing the most proper equal-area projection among the choices provided by ArcGIS 9.0, which is a popular GIS software package, and making a comparison on area errors when conformal projection is used. In this study, the area of parcels chosen in three different regions and geographic coordinates and whose sizes vary between 0.01 to 1,000,000 ha are calculated according to Transversal Mercator (TM, 3°), Universal Transversal Mercator (UTM, 6°) and 14 different equal-area projections existing in the ArcGIS 9.0 GIS software package. The parcel areas calculated with geographical coordinates are accepted as definite. The difference between the sizes calculated according to projection coordinates and real sizes of the parcels are determined. Consequently, the appropriate projections are decided for the areas smaller and equal than 1,000 ha and greater than 1,000 ha in the GIS software package. PMID:27873959

  1. Selecting Map Projections in Minimizing Area Distortions in GIS Applications.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Faruk; Kaya, Ahmet

    2008-12-03

    Varioussoftware for Geographical Information Systems (GISs) have been developed and used in many different engineering projects. In GIS applications, map coverage is important in terms of performing reliable and meaningful queries. Map projections can be conformal, equal-area and equidistant. The goal of an application plays an important role in choosing one of those projections. Choosing the equal-area projection for an application in which area information is used (forestry, agriculture, ecosystem etc) reduces the amount of distortion on the area, but many users using GIS ignore this fact and continue to use applications with present map sheets no matter in what map projection it is. For example, extracting area information from data whose country system's map sheet is in conformal projection is relatively more distorted, compared to an equal-area projection one. The goal of this study is to make the best decision in choosing the most proper equal-area projection among the choices provided by ArcGIS 9.0, which is a popular GIS software package, and making a comparison on area errors when conformal projection is used. In this study, the area of parcels chosen in three different regions and geographic coordinates and whose sizes vary between 0.01 to 1,000,000 ha are calculated according to Transversal Mercator (TM, 3°), Universal Transversal Mercator (UTM, 6°) and 14 different equal-area projections existing in the ArcGIS 9.0 GIS software package. The parcel areas calculated with geographical coordinates are accepted as definite. The difference between the sizes calculated according to projection coordinates and real sizes of the parcels are determined. Consequently, the appropriate projections are decided for the areas smaller and equal than 1,000 ha and greater than 1,000 ha in the GIS software package.

  2. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, general information portion

    SciTech Connect

    Hays, C.B.

    1998-05-19

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. Both the General Information and Unit-Specific portions of the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application address the content of the Part B permit application guidance prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology 1996) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information needed by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments and revisions of Washington Administrative Code 173-303. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units (e.g., the glossary provided in this report).

  3. Application of glove box robotics to hazardous waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Dennison, D.K.; Hurd, R.L.; Merrill, R.D.; Reitz, T.C.

    1995-02-01

    Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLNL) is developing a semi-automated system for handling, characterizing, processing, sorting, and repackaging hazardous wastes containing tritium. The system combines an IBM developed gantry robot with a special glove box enclosure designed to protect the operators and minimize the potential release of tritium to the atmosphere. All hazardous waste handling and processing will be performed remotely using the robot in a telerobotic mode for one-of-a-kind functions and in an autonomous mode for repetitive type operations. The system will initially be used in conjunction with a portable gas system designed to capture any gaseous phase tritium released into the glove box. This paper presents the objectives of this program, provides background related to LLNL`s robotics and waste handling program, describes the major system components, outlines system operation, and discusses current status and plans.

  4. 78 FR 36194 - Draft Guidance for Industry and FDA Staff: Investigational New Drug Applications for Minimally...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ... New Drug Applications for Minimally Manipulated, Unrelated Allogeneic Placental/Umbilical Cord Blood..., Unrelated Allogeneic Placental/Umbilical Cord Blood Intended for Hematopoietic and Immunologic... Allogeneic Placental/Umbilical Cord Blood Intended for Hematopoietic Reconstitution for Specified Indications...

  5. Application of Epoxy Based Coating Instacote on Waste Tank Tops

    SciTech Connect

    Pike, J.A.

    1998-03-18

    This evaluation examines the compatibility of coating Instacote with existing High-Level Waste facilities and safety practices. No significant incompatibilities are identified. The following actions need to be completed as indicated when applying Instacote on waste tank tops:(1) Prior to application in ITP facilities, the final product should be tested for chemical resistance to sodium tetraphenylborate solutions or sodium titanate slurries.(2) Any waste contaminated with Part A or B that can not be removed by the vendor such as for radiological contamination, HLW must hold the waste until HLW completes a formal assessment of the waste, disposal criteria, and impact.(3) Prior to the start of any application of the coating, each riser needs to be evaluated for masking and masking applied if needed.(4) At the conclusion of an application actual total weight of material applied to a waste tank needs to documented and sent to the tank top loading files for reference purposes.(5) Verify that the final product contains less than 250 ppm chloride.

  6. Economical disposal of municipal solid waste with minimal discharges to the atmosphere and maximum recycling of energy and metal values

    SciTech Connect

    Grohse, E.W.; Steinberg, M.; Koppel, P.E.; Stone and Webster Engineering Corp., Boston, MA )

    1989-03-01

    A process has been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory for the disposal of municipal solid wastes with minimal discharges to the atmosphere and maximum recycling of the energy and metal values contained therein. The energy values are recovered as zero ash, zero sulfur, zero nitrogen, zero chlorine particulate carbon (carbon black) fuels and a hydrogen-rich (or methane-rich) gaseous co-product. The process is especially adaptable to the disposal of plastic wastes and recycling of its energy values. Also, the inclusion of medical wastes should be no problem. The process consists of hydrogasifying prepared MSW (or any carbonaceous feedstock) to form a methane-rich process gas, which is then thermally decomposed (cracked) to form the primary product, carbon black, and hydrogen which is recycled to the hydrogasifier. Oxygen in the MSW is presently removed as water from the hydrogasifier effluent before it enters the methane decomposer. Any remaining hydrogen in the MSW feed is ultimately removed from the process as a co-product gas as hydrogen per se and/or methane (SNG). Chlorine in feed containing PVCs, for example, is removed as relatively minute amounts of hydrogen chloride in the condensed water discharged from the recuperative partial condenser. Desulfurization is not required to produce sulfur-free carbon black per se. Various options are available for desulfurization of the co-product gas. Since the process operates under a highly-reducing hydrogen atmosphere, toxic oxygenated compounds such as dioxins cannot form and metals entering with the MSW are removed with the ash'' as metals, not oxides.

  7. Minimal Technologies Application Project, Hohenfels Training Area, Germany: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Zellmer, S.D.; Hinchman, R.R.; Johnson, D.O. . Energy Systems Div.); Severinghaus, W.D. ); Brent, J.J. )

    1991-12-01

    At the US Army Hohenfels Training Area in Germany, more than 30 years of continuous and intensive tactical training has caused extensive environmental damage because of the loss of vegetative cover and accelerated soil erosion. A project was conducted to evaluate the cost-effectiveness and relative benefits of various revegetation procedures. These procedures involved amendment and seedbed preparation options that were combined with three different durations of site closure. The point-intercept method was used to measure the types and amounts of vegetation established and changes in the vegetative community. Over three growing seasons, applications of fertilizer and seed increased the percent grass, legume, and total vegetative cover. The duration of site closure had no influence on the types or amounts of ground cover established. Materials made up only 10% of the total cost of the fertilization and seeding operations. The results of the research indicate that less expensive methods of amendment application should be evaluated. The data also show that site closure is not practical, economical, or necessary. The results of this project suggest that a regular maintenance program consisting of seeding and fertilization is required to maintain adequate vegetative cover and control erosion on tactical training areas.

  8. Altering textile manufacture to minimize treatment needed for waste-water reclamation

    SciTech Connect

    Beja Neves, M.E.C.

    1989-01-01

    The research involved the uses of water and chemicals in the textile industry. A linear programming model was developed, capable of minimizing the cost of treatment needed for wastewater reclamation. This was accomplished through the selection of the optimum set of chemicals in respect to their removal from a wastewater by biodegradation, and by so doing, preventing the accumulation of inorganic dissolved solids in the reused wastewater, even with prolonged reuse. Different values were tested for the wastewater reclamation rate, and for the percentage of biodegradable materials used by the industry. The industrial processes themselves were considered as blocks, with different manufacturing objectives and using different kinds and quantities of chemicals. The cost of wastewater treatment was influenced by the nature of the chemicals and by the wastewater reclamation rate.

  9. Application countermeasures of non-incineration technologies for medical waste treatment in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yang; Ding, Qiong; Yang, Xiaoling; Peng, Zhengyou; Xu, Diandou; Feng, Qinzhong

    2013-12-01

    By the end of 2012, there were 272 modern, high-standard, centralized medical waste disposal facilities operating in various cities in China. Among these facilities nearly 50% are non-incineration treatment facilities, including the technologies of high temperature steam, chemical disinfection and microwave. Each of the non-incineration technologies has its advantages and disadvantages, and any single technology cannot offer a panacea because of the complexity of medical waste disposal. Although non-incineration treatment of medical waste can avoid the release of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans, it is still necessary to decide how to best meet the local waste management needs while minimizing the impact on the environment and public health. There is still a long way to go to establish the sustainable application and management mode of non-incineration technologies. Based on the analysis of typical non-incineration process, pollutant release, and the current tendency for technology application and development at home and abroad, this article recommends the application countermeasures of non-incineration technologies as the best available techniques and best environmental practices in China.

  10. New synthetic approaches in energetic materials field to minimize waste production

    SciTech Connect

    Kwok, T.J.; Jayasuriya, K.

    1995-12-31

    The nitration of aromatic compounds is an important process in both industrial and academic research. In particular, the nitration of toluene is found to be useful for producing military explosives such as 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and pharmaceutical intermediates such as para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA). The conventional methods for nitration of aromatic compounds require corrosive nitric and sulfuric acids that afford a mixture of mono and poly-nitroaromatics. Under these conditions, the nitration of alkyl substituted aromatics such as toluene or xylenes, often leads to oxidation of the alkyl side groups, and this could produce a mixture of by-products. Developments in solid acid catalysts such as Nafion and other polysulfonic acid resins have reduced the corrosive nature and by-product formation of the existing process. However, the separation and removal of unwanted isomers from the product stream can be costly. Unfortunately, these sulfonic acid resin catalysts offer no significant contribution toward controlling regioselection in mononitration of alkyl aromatics such as toluene. The para-nitrotoluene isomer is highly desirable over the ortho and meta isomers because of its high commercial value. Current trends in the nitration of aromatic compounds emphasize minimizing by-product formation and improving region-control of the desired isomer product using catalysts. Zeclites have well defined pore structures and channels that are derived from the networking of SiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} making them attractive candidates for shape selective catalysis. In most cases zeolites are found to have both Lewis and Bronstead acidic sites throughout the inner and outer surfaces that can function as a solid acid. This would be advantageous in large preparative scale reactions because of the ease in separation of catalyst from the product mixture and having minimal environmental impact.

  11. Minimizing draining waste through extending the lifetime of pilot jobs in Grid environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sfiligoi, I.; Martin, T.; Bockelman, B. P.; Bradley, D. C.; Würthwein, F.

    2014-06-01

    The computing landscape is moving at an accelerated pace to many-core computing. Nowadays, it is not unusual to get 32 cores on a single physical node. As a consequence, there is increased pressure in the pilot systems domain to move from purely single-core scheduling and allow multi-core jobs as well. In order to allow for a gradual transition from single-core to multi-core user jobs, it is envisioned that pilot jobs will have to handle both kinds of user jobs at the same time, by requesting several cores at a time from Grid providers and then partitioning them between the user jobs at runtime. Unfortunately, the current Grid ecosystem only allows for relatively short lifetime of pilot jobs, requiring frequent draining, with the relative waste of compute resources due to varying lifetimes of the user jobs. Significantly extending the lifetime of pilot jobs is thus highly desirable, but must come without any adverse effects for the Grid resource providers. In this paper we present a mechanism, based on communication between the pilot jobs and the Grid provider, that allows for pilot jobs to run for extended periods of time when there are available resources, but also allows the Grid provider to reclaim the resources in a short amount of time when needed. We also present the experience of running a prototype system using the above mechanism on a few US-based Grid sites.

  12. A Novel and Cost Effective Approach to the Decommissioning and Decontamination of Legacy Glove Boxes - Minimizing TRU Waste and Maximizing LLW Waste - 13634

    SciTech Connect

    Pancake, Daniel; Rock, Cynthia M.; Creed, Richard; Donohoue, Tom; Martin, E. Ray; Mason, John A.; Norton, Christopher J.; Crosby, Daniel; Nachtman, Thomas J.

    2013-07-01

    determine the TRU content of the boxes by assessing the activity of Am-241 (59 keV) and Pu-241 (414 keV). Using the data generated it was possible for qualified subject matter experts (SME) to assess that the gloveboxes could be consigned for disposition as LLW and not as TRU. Once this determination was assessed and accepted the gloveboxes were prepared for final disposition to the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) - formerly the Nevada Test Site (NTS). This preparation involved fixing any remaining radioactive contamination within the gloveboxes by filling them with a foam compound, prior to transportation. Once the remaining contamination was fixed the gloveboxes were removed from the laboratory and prepared for transported by road to NNSS. This successful glovebox decontamination and decommissioning process illustrates the means by which TRU waste generation has been minimized, LLW generation has been maximized, and risk has been effectively managed. The process minimizes the volume of TRU waste and reduced the decommissioning time with significant cost savings as the result. (authors)

  13. Alloy 45TM in waste incineration applications

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, D.C.; Kloewer, J.; Grossmann, G.K.

    1997-08-01

    Industrial and municipal wastes produced in the western society are being increasingly destroyed and managed by controlled high temperature incineration. Depending on the chemical make-up of the waste stream and operational parameters of the incinerator, a variety of high temperature corrosive environments are generated. Typically most of the modern incineration systems consist of a high temperature incinerator chamber, a heat recovery system, a quench section to further reduce the temperature of the flue gas stream and a host of air pollution control equipment to scrub acidic gases and control the particulate emissions. This paper describes the development of a new nickel-base high chromium-high silicon alloy, which has shown good resistance to high temperature corrosion in incinerator environments. Some field test data are also presented.

  14. Study on the strategies of waste solvent minimization in automobile production industry

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, C.T.; Lin, K.L.; Wu, Y.P.; Lan, W.L.; Jeng, F.T.

    1998-12-31

    There are six automobile manufacturers who produce several kinds of vehicles in Taiwan. To meet the consumer`s needs, the automobile coating processes are necessary for the basic functions of anti-rust protection, weatherproofing and appearance. Some kinds of solvents are added as thinners and additives to avoid excessive viscosity of the coating materials and to increase facility productivity. The total consumption of volatile organic solvents is about 407,000 ton/year of which about 100,700 ton/year is used in surface coating. It is worthy of attention that solvents used in automobile industries account for 7,200 ton/year in major coating processes, including electrodeposition coating, primer coating, top coating, and bar coating, according to statistics of VOCs emission rate calculated from the data of consumption provided by each automobile plant. The amount of solvents used for washing spray gun and base coating are about 3,350 ton/year; and about 1,700 ton/year for primer coat and clear coat. The species of organic solvents include toluene, xylene, ethylacetate, n-butyl acetate, ketone, etc. VOCs emission factor from each plant lies between 500 to 650 g-VOCs/L coating. To reduce the amount of coating and waste liquor, the suggested methods include increasing gun spray efficiency, lengthening same colors painting period, reducing the solvent content in paint, and adding treatment equipment. The high solid content painting, waterborne coat, and powder coat should be used for traditional painting. Additionally, a carbon adsorption bed and zeolite rotator recovery system can replace scrubbers since they can be used as solvent recovery equipment.

  15. Waste Minimization in Circuit Board Manufacturing by PARMOD(TM) Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    been the basis of further development and evaluation in selected markets . A Dual Use application to prototyping printed wiring boards and metallizing...Results 59 Conclusions 61 Commercialization Technical Activities 62 Technology Management & Funding (TMF) 62 Sales & Marketing Process Management...C-03 54 June, 1998 Methods. Assumptions and Procedures Sample Circuit Preparation Ink Paste Preparation The ink components are mixed in a glove

  16. APPLICATION OF NONSPHERICAL FISSILE CONFIGURATION IN WASTE CONTAINERS AT SRS

    SciTech Connect

    Eghbali, D; Michelle Abney, M

    2007-01-03

    Transuranic (TRU) solid waste that has been generated as a result of the production of nuclear material for the United States defense program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has been stored in more than 30,000 55-gallon drums and carbon steel boxes since 1953. Nearly two thirds of those containers have been processed and shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Among the containers assayed so far, the results indicate several drums with fissile inventories significantly higher (600-1000 fissile grams equivalent (FGE) {sup 239}Pu) than their original assigned values. While part of this discrepancy can be attributed to the past limited assay capabilities, human errors are believed to be the primary contributor. This paper summarizes the application of nonspherical fissile material configuration in waste containers, resulting in less restrictive mass and spacing limits, increased storage capacity, and several administrative controls for handling and storage of waste containers being modified without compromising safety.

  17. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, PUREX storage tunnels

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, C. R.

    1997-09-08

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation submitted for individual, `operating` treatment, storage, and/or disposal units, such as the PUREX Storage Tunnels (this document, DOE/RL-90-24).

  18. Waste disposal by hydrofracture and application of the technology to the management of hazardous wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Stow, S.H.; Haase, C.S.; Weeren, H.O.

    1985-01-01

    A unique disposal method, involving hydrofracturing, has been used for management of liquid low-level radioactive wastes at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Wastes are mixed with cement and other solids and injected along bedding plane fractures into highly impermeable shale at a depth of 300 m forming a grout sheet. The process has operated successfully for 20 years and may be applicable to disposal of hazardous wastes. The cement grout represents the primary barrier for immobilization of the wastes; the hydrologically isolated injection horizon represents a secondary barrier. At ORNL work has been conducted to characterize the geology of the disposal site and to determine its relationship to the injection process. The site is structurally quite complex. Research has also been conducted on the development of methods for monitoring the extent and orientation of the grout sheets; these methods include gamma-ray logging of cased observation wells, leveling surveys of benchmarks, tiltmeter surveys, and microseismic arrays. These methods, some of which need further development, offer promise for real-time and post-injection monitoring. Initial suggestions are offered for possible application of the technology to hazardous waste management and technical and regulatory areas needing attention are addressed. 11 refs., 1 fig.

  19. Impact of Climate Change on Soil and Groundwater Chemistry Subject to Process Waste Land Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNab, W. W.

    2013-12-01

    Nonhazardous aqueous process waste streams from food and beverage industry operations are often discharged via managed land application in a manner designed to minimize impacts to underlying groundwater. Process waste streams are typically characterized by elevated concentrations of solutes such as ammonium, organic nitrogen, potassium, sodium, and organic acids. Land application involves the mixing of process waste streams with irrigation water which is subsequently applied to crops. The combination of evapotranspiration and crop salt uptake reduces the downward mass fluxes of percolation water and salts. By carefully managing application schedules in the context of annual climatological cycles, growing seasons, and process requirements, potential adverse environmental impacts to groundwater can be mitigated. However, climate change poses challenges to future process waste land application efforts because the key factors that determine loading rates - temperature, evapotranspiration, seasonal changes in the quality and quantity of applied water, and various crop factors - are all likely to deviate from current averages. To assess the potential impact of future climate change on the practice of land application, coupled process modeling entailing transient unsaturated fluid flow, evapotranspiration, crop salt uptake, and multispecies reactive chemical transport was used to predict changes in salt loading if current practices are maintained in a warmer, drier setting. As a first step, a coupled process model (Hydrus-1D, combined with PHREEQC) was calibrated to existing data sets which summarize land application loading rates, soil water chemistry, and crop salt uptake for land disposal of process wastes from a food industry facility in the northern San Joaquin Valley of California. Model results quantify, for example, the impacts of evapotranspiration on both fluid flow and soil water chemistry at shallow depths, with secondary effects including carbonate mineral

  20. Application of cryogenic grinding to achieve homogenization of transuranic wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Atkins, W.H.; Hill, D.D.; Lucero, M.E.; Jaramillo, L.; Martinez, H.E.

    1996-08-01

    This paper describes work done at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in collaboration with the Department of Energy Rocky Flats Field Office (DOE/RFFO) and with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, Colorado. Researchers on this project have developed a method for cryogenic grinding of mixed wastes to homogenize and, thereby, to acquire a representative sample of the materials. There are approximately 220,000 waste drums owned by the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS)-50,000 at RFETS and 170,000 at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The cost of sampling the heterogeneous distribution of waste in each drum is prohibitive. In an attempt to produce a homogeneous mixture of waste that would reduce greatly the cost of sampling, researchers at NIST and RFETS are developing a cryogenic grinder. The Los Alamos work herein described addresses the implementation issues of the task. The first issue was to ascertain whether samples of the {open_quotes}small particle{close_quotes} mixtures of materials present in the waste drums at RFETS were representative of actual drum contents. Second, it was necessary to determine at what temperature the grinding operation must be performed in order to minimize or to eliminate the release of volatile organic compounds present in the waste. Last, it was essential to evaluate any effect the liquid cryogen might have on the structural integrity and ventilation capacity of the glovebox system. Results of this study showed that representative samples could be and had been obtained, that some release of organics occurred below freezing because of sublimation, and that operation of the cryogenic grinding equipment inside the glovebox was feasible.

  1. Natural Zeolites and Application in Liquid Waste Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeritsyan, H. N.; Sahakyan, A. A.; Harutunyan, V. V.; Nikoghosyan, S. K.; Hakhverdyan, E. A.; Grigoryan, N. E.

    Zeolite-clinoptilolite minerals crystal structures and their main properties are presented depending on property structure relation particular attention is given on irradiated clinoptilolite properties in connection w3ith application for radioactive waste water treatment. It was shown the high effiency for reducing the radioactivity of waters by electron irradiated Armenian clinoptilolite more than 1700 times.

  2. Evidence-based integrated environmental solutions for secondary lead smelters: pollution prevention and waste minimization technologies and practices.

    PubMed

    Genaidy, A M; Sequeira, R; Tolaymat, T; Kohler, J; Rinder, M

    2009-05-01

    An evidence-based methodology was adopted in this research to establish strategies to increase lead recovery and recycling via a systematic review and critical appraisal of the published literature. In particular, the research examines pollution prevention and waste minimization practices and technologies that meet the following criteria: (a) reduce/recover/recycle the largest quantities of lead currently being disposed of as waste, (b) technically and economically viable, that is, ready to be diffused and easily transferable, and (c) strong industry interest (i.e., industry would consider implementing projects with higher payback periods). The following specific aims are designed to achieve the study objectives: Aim 1 - To describe the recycling process of recovering refined lead from scrap; Aim 2 - To document pollution prevention and waste management technologies and practices adopted by US stakeholders along the trajectory of LAB and lead product life cycle; Aim 3 - To explore improved practices and technologies which are employed by other organizations with an emphasis on the aforementioned criteria; Aim 4 - To demonstrate the economic and environmental costs and benefits of applying improved technologies and practices to existing US smelting operations; and Aim 5 - To evaluate improved environmental technologies and practices using an algorithm that integrates quantitative and qualitative criteria. The process of identifying relevant articles and reports was documented. The description of evidence was presented for current practices and technologies used by US smelters as well as improved practices and technologies. Options for integrated environmental solutions for secondary smelters were introduced and rank ordered on the basis of costs (i.e., capital investment) and benefits (i.e., production increases, energy and flux savings, and reduction of SO(2) and slag). An example was provided to demonstrate the utility of the algorithm by detailing the costs and

  3. CHARACTERIZATION OF DEFENSE NUCLEAR WASTE USING HAZARDOUS WASTE GUIDANCE. APPLICATIONS TO HANFORD SITE ACCELERATED HIGH-LEVEL WASTE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL MISSION0

    SciTech Connect

    Hamel, William; Huffman, Lori; Lerchen, Megan; Wiemers, Karyn

    2003-02-27

    Federal hazardous waste regulations were developed for management of industrial waste. These same regulations are also applicable for much of the nation's defense nuclear wastes. At the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in southeast Washington State, one of the nation's largest inventories of nuclear waste remains in storage in large underground tanks. The waste's regulatory designation and its composition and form constrain acceptable treatment and disposal options. Obtaining detailed knowledge of the tank waste composition presents a significant portion of the many challenges in meeting the regulatory-driven treatment and disposal requirements for this waste. Key in applying the hazardous waste regulations to defense nuclear wastes is defining the appropriate and achievable quality for waste feed characterization data and the supporting evidence demonstrating that applicable requirements have been met at the time of disposal. Application of a performance-based approach to demonstrating achievable quality standards will be discussed in the context of the accelerated high-level waste treatment and disposal mission at the Hanford Site.

  4. Land Application of Wastes: An Educational Program. Design Procedures for Land Application of Wastes - Module 6, Objectives, Script and Figures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarkson, W. W.; And Others

    The purpose of this module is to develop a general procedure to decide the feasibility of land application as a waste management alternative, given a specific problem situation. This information provides a framework within which to apply the information presented in all other modules in the program. An outline of the general procedure followed in…

  5. Land Application of Wastes: An Educational Program. Design Procedures for Land Application of Wastes - Module 6, Objectives, Script and Figures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarkson, W. W.; And Others

    The purpose of this module is to develop a general procedure to decide the feasibility of land application as a waste management alternative, given a specific problem situation. This information provides a framework within which to apply the information presented in all other modules in the program. An outline of the general procedure followed in…

  6. [Application progress of minimally invasive technique in treatment of calcaneus fractures].

    PubMed

    Yu, Tao; Yang, Yunfeng; Yu, Guangrong

    2013-02-01

    To review the application progress of minimally invasive technique in the treatment of calcaneus fractures and to analyze the advantages and disadvantages of each method as well as to predict the trend of development in the field. Domestic and abroad literature concerning the minimally invasive technique applied in calcaneus fractures in recent years was reviewed extensively and analyzed thoroughly. There are both advantages and limitations of each minimally invasive technique including percutaneous reduction and fixation, limited incision, external fixator, arthroscopic assisted reduction, and balloon expansion reduction. But every technique is developing rapidly and becoming more and more effective. A variety of minimally invasive technique can not only be used independently but also can be applied jointly to complement one another. It needs further study how to improve the effectiveness and expand the indications. And the theoretical basis of evidence-based medicine needs to be provided more.

  7. The National Shipbuilding Research Program. Environmental Training Modules. Module 8 - Generation/Treatment/Minimization of Hazardous Waste

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-05-01

    facility that generates 1,000 kilograms (2,200 lbs) or more per month. The federal hazardous waste regulations also recognize other smaller categories of...training is the first step to both ensuring compliance with the hazardous waste regulations , as well as facility and worker safety. Training for the...buildings, and waste container marking and labeling requirements. Subpart D - Recordkeeping and Reporting: The hazardous waste regulations require that a

  8. Review of LLNL Mixed Waste Streams for the Application of Potential Waste Reduction Controls

    SciTech Connect

    Belue, A; Fischer, R P

    2007-01-08

    In July 2004, LLNL adopted the International Standard ISO 14001 as a Work Smart Standard in lieu of DOE Order 450.1. In support of this new requirement the Director issued a new environmental policy that was documented in Section 3.0 of Document 1.2, ''ES&H Policies of LLNL'', in the ES&H Manual. In recent years the Environmental Management System (EMS) process has become formalized as LLNL adopted ISO 14001 as part of the contract under which the laboratory is operated for the Department of Energy (DOE). On May 9, 2005, LLNL revised its Integrated Safety Management System Description to enhance existing environmental requirements to meet ISO 14001. Effective October 1, 2005, each new project or activity is required to be evaluated from an environmental aspect, particularly if a potential exists for significant environmental impacts. Authorizing organizations are required to consider the management of all environmental aspects, the applicable regulatory requirements, and reasonable actions that can be taken to reduce negative environmental impacts. During 2006, LLNL has worked to implement the corrective actions addressing the deficiencies identified in the DOE/LSO audit. LLNL has begun to update the present EMS to meet the requirements of ISO 14001:2004. The EMS commits LLNL--and each employee--to responsible stewardship of all the environmental resources in our care. The generation of mixed radioactive waste was identified as a significant environmental aspect. Mixed waste for the purposes of this report is defined as waste materials containing both hazardous chemical and radioactive constituents. Significant environmental aspects require that an Environmental Management Plan (EMP) be developed. The objective of the EMP developed for mixed waste (EMP-005) is to evaluate options for reducing the amount of mixed waste generated. This document presents the findings of the evaluation of mixed waste generated at LLNL and a proposed plan for reduction.

  9. 40 CFR 266.205 - Standards applicable to the storage of solid waste military munitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... solid waste military munitions. 266.205 Section 266.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS... applicable to the storage of solid waste military munitions. (a) Criteria for hazardous waste regulation of...

  10. 40 CFR 266.205 - Standards applicable to the storage of solid waste military munitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... solid waste military munitions. 266.205 Section 266.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS... applicable to the storage of solid waste military munitions. (a) Criteria for hazardous waste regulation of...

  11. 40 CFR 266.203 - Standards applicable to the transportation of solid waste military munitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... transportation of solid waste military munitions. 266.203 Section 266.203 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS... applicable to the transportation of solid waste military munitions. (a) Criteria for hazardous waste...

  12. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, PUREX storage tunnels

    SciTech Connect

    Price, S.M.

    1997-09-08

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation submitted for individual, operating treatment, storage, and/or disposal units, such as the PUREX Storage Tunnels (this document, DOE/RL-90-24). Both the General Information and Unit-Specific portions of the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application address the content of the Part B permit application guidance prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology 1996) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information needs defined by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments and revisions of Washington Administrative Code 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington State Department of Ecology alpha-numeric section identifiers from the permit application guidance documentation (Ecology 1996) follow, in brackets, the chapter headings and subheadings. A checklist indicating where information is contained in the PUREX Storage Tunnels permit application documentation, in relation to the Washington State Department of Ecology guidance, is located in the Contents Section. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Wherever appropriate, the PUREX Storage Tunnels permit application documentation makes cross-reference to the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating text. Information provided in this PUREX Storage Tunnels permit application documentation is current as of April 1997.

  13. State waste discharge permit application, 200-E chemical drain field

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations (Ecology et al. 1994), the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect ground would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered into Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177, (Ecology and DOE-RL 1991). The Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177 requires a series of permitting activities for liquid effluent discharges. This document presents the State Waste Discharge Permit (SWDP) application for the 200-E Chemical Drain Field. Waste water from the 272-E Building enters the process sewer line directly through a floor drain, while waste water from the 2703-E Building is collected in two floor drains, (north and south) that act as sumps and are discharged periodically. The 272-E and 2703-E Buildings constitute the only discharges to the process sewer line and the 200-E Chemical Drain Field.

  14. An Efficient Augmented Lagrangian Method with Applications to Total Variation Minimization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-17

    history. It was introduced into imaging denoising problems by Rudin , Osher and Fatemi in 1992 [30]. From then on, TV minimizing models have become one 3...Powell applied to convex program- ming, Journal of Optimization Theory and Applications, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 555–562, 1973. [30] L. Rudin , S. Osher and E

  15. Trust Management in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks for Bias Minimization and Application Performance Maximization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-26

    analysis Application-level trust optimization Reliability assessment a b s t r a c t Trust management for mobile ad hoc networks ( MANETs ) has emerged as...this paper we address the performance issue of trust management protocol design for MANETs in two important areas: trust bias minimization and...application performance maximization. By means of a novel model- based approach to model the ground truth status of mobile nodes in MANETs as the basis for

  16. Potential applications of nanostructured materials in nuclear waste management.

    SciTech Connect

    Braterman, Paul S. (The University of North Texas, Denton, TX); Phol, Phillip Isabio; Xu, Zhi-Ping (The University of North Texas, Denton, TX); Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Yang, Yi; Bryan, Charles R.; Yu, Kui; Xu, Huifang (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Wang, Yifeng; Gao, Huizhen

    2003-09-01

    This report summarizes the results obtained from a Laboratory Directed Research & Development (LDRD) project entitled 'Investigation of Potential Applications of Self-Assembled Nanostructured Materials in Nuclear Waste Management'. The objectives of this project are to (1) provide a mechanistic understanding of the control of nanometer-scale structures on the ion sorption capability of materials and (2) develop appropriate engineering approaches to improving material properties based on such an understanding.

  17. Application of neural networks to waste site screening

    SciTech Connect

    Dabiri, A.E.; Garrett, M.; Kraft, T.; Hilton, J.; VanHammersveld, M.

    1993-02-01

    Waste site screening requires knowledge of the actual concentrations of hazardous materials and rates of flow around and below the site with time. The present approach consists primarily of drilling boreholes near contaminated sites and chemically analyzing the extracted physical samples and processing the data. This is expensive and time consuming. The feasibility of using neural network techniques to reduce the cost of waste site screening was investigated. Two neural network techniques, gradient descent back propagation and fully recurrent back propagation were utilized. The networks were trained with data received from Westinghouse Hanford Corporation. The results indicate that the network trained with the fully recurrent technique shows satisfactory generalization capability. The predicted results are close to the results obtained from a mathematical flow prediction model. It is possible to develop a new tool to predict the waste plume, thus substantially reducing the number of the bore sites and samplings. There are a variety of applications for this technique in environmental site screening and remediation. One of the obvious applications would be for optimum well siting. A neural network trained from the existing sampling data could be utilized to decide where would be the best position for the next bore site. Other applications are discussed in the report.

  18. Hanford Facility dangerous waste permit application, general information. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The current Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (this document, number DOE/RL-91-28) and a treatment, storage, and/or disposal Unit-Specific Portion, which includes documentation for individual TSD units (e.g., document numbers DOE/RL-89-03 and DOE/RL-90-01). Both portions consist of a Part A division and a Part B division. The Part B division consists of 15 chapters that address the content of the Part B checklists prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology 1987) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information requirements mandated by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 and revisions of Washington Administrative Code 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington State Department of Ecology checklist section numbers, in brackets, follow the chapter headings and subheadings. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion (i.e., this document, number DOE/RL-91-28) is broader in nature and applies to all treatment, storage, and/or disposal units for which final status is sought. Because of its broad nature, the Part A division of the General Information Portion references the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Part A Permit Application (document number DOE/RL-88-21), a compilation of all Part A documentation for the Hanford Facility.

  19. Recycling metals from wastes: a novel application of mechanochemistry.

    PubMed

    Tan, Quanyin; Li, Jinhui

    2015-05-19

    Recycling metals from wastes is essential to a resource-efficient economy, and increasing attention from researchers has been devoted to this process in recent years, with emphasis on mechanochemistry technology. The mechanochemical method can make technically feasible the recycling of metals from some specific wastes, such as cathode ray tube (CRT) funnel glass and tungsten carbide waste, while significantly improving recycling efficiency. Particle size reduction, specific surface area increase, crystalline structure decomposition and bond breakage have been identified as the main processes occurring during the mechanochemical operations in the studies. The activation energy required decreases and reaction activity increases, after these changes with activation progress. This study presents an overall review of the applications of mechanochemistry to metal recycling from wastes. The reaction mechanisms, equipment used, method procedures, and optimized operating parameters of each case, as well as methods enhancing the activation process are discussed in detail. The issues to be addressed and perspectives on the future development of mechanochemistry applied for metal recycling are also presented.

  20. Risk Reduction from Minimization of Persistent, Bioaccumulative, and Toxic Waste Materials Within the U.S. Industrial Solid Waste Management System

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study addressed three questions of interest in national-scale solid and hazardous waste management decision-making within the United States: 1) can we quantify the reduction in risk to human and ecological receptors resulting from the reduction of certain industrial waste s...

  1. Domestic applications for aerospace waste and water management technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Disanto, F.; Murray, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    Some of the aerospace developments in solid waste disposal and water purification, which are applicable to specific domestic problems are explored. Also provided is an overview of the management techniques used in defining the need, in utilizing the available tools, and in synthesizing a solution. Specifically, several water recovery processes will be compared for domestic applicability. Examples are filtration, distillation, catalytic oxidation, reverse osmosis, and electrodialysis. Solid disposal methods will be discussed, including chemical treatment, drying, incineration, and wet oxidation. The latest developments in reducing household water requirements and some concepts for reusing water will be outlined.

  2. Programmable multi-timer for TRU waste analysis applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, R.S.; Nieschmidt, E.B.; Tsang, F.Y.

    1981-01-01

    A programmable, multiple-function timing module has been developed for use in transuranic (TRU) waste analysis applications at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The Programmable Multi-Timer (PRMT) is an expanded version of a module originally built for accelerator-based active photon interrogation experiments. During the course of the experiments, it became obvious that a more versatile timer was needed to meet several unforeseen requirements. The PRMT was designed to meet the new requirements and to serve as a general-purpose timing module for other applications.

  3. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, general information portion

    SciTech Connect

    Price, S.M., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-29

    The `Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application` is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (this document, DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit- Specific Portion. The scope of the General Information Portion includes information that could be used to discuss operating units, units undergoing closure, or units being dispositioned through other options. Documentation included in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units. A checklist indicating where information is contained in the General Information Portion, in relation to the Washington State Department of Ecology guidance documentation, is located in the Contents Section. The intent of the General Information Portion is: (1) to provide an overview of the Hanford Facility; and (2) to assist in streamlining efforts associated with treatment, storage, and/or disposal unit-specific Part B permit application, preclosure work plan, closure work plan, closure plan, closure/postclosure plan, or postclosure permit application documentation development, and the `Hanford Facility Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit` modification process. Revision 2 of the General Information Portion of the `Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application` contains information current as of May 1, 1996. This document is a complete submittal and supersedes Revision 1.

  4. Reducing sugar-producing bacteria from guts of Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus (yellow mealworm) for lignocellulosic waste minimization.

    PubMed

    Qi, Wei; Chen, Chia-Lung; Wang, Jing-Yuan

    2011-01-01

    The guts of Tenebrio Molitor Linnaeus (yellow mealworm) were used as inocula to isolate reducing sugar-producing bacteria during bioconversion of lignocellulose to reducing sugars in this study. Three carbon sources, i.e., carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), filter paper (FP), and lignocellulosic waste (LIG), were specifically selected; and two types of culturing media (M1 and M2) were used. After 6 months of sequential cultivation, lignocellulose (i.e., polysaccharides) degradation of enrichments M1-CMC (47.5%), M1-FP (73.3%), M1-LIG (70.4%), M2-CMC (55.7%), M2-FP (73.1%) and M2-LIG (71.7%) was achieved, respectively, with incubation for 48 h. Furthermore, seven bacterial strains were successfully isolated corresponding to most of the major bands detected by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis. The maximum reducing sugars yield by the combination of Agromyces sp. C42 and Stenotrophomonas sp. A10b was 56.7 mg g·LIG(-1) of 48 h, which is approximate 2-5 times higher than the original enrichments and individual microbial strains. These findings suggest that bioconversion by microorganisms from mealworm guts has great application potential for lignocellulose hydrolysis.

  5. Incorporation of gypsum waste in ceramic block production: Proposal for a minimal battery of tests to evaluate technical and environmental viability of this recycling process.

    PubMed

    Godinho-Castro, Alcione P; Testolin, Renan C; Janke, Leandro; Corrêa, Albertina X R; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2012-01-01

    Civil engineering-related construction and demolition debris is an important source of waste disposed of in municipal solid waste landfills. After clay materials, gypsum waste is the second largest contributor to the residential construction waste stream. As demand for sustainable building practices grows, interest in recovering gypsum waste from construction and demolition debris is increasing, but there is a lack of standardized tests to evaluate the technical and environmental viability of this solid waste recycling process. By recycling gypsum waste, natural deposits of gypsum might be conserved and high amounts of the waste by-product could be reused in the civil construction industry. In this context, this paper investigates a physical property (i.e., resistance to axial compression), the chemical composition and the ecotoxicological potential of ceramic blocks constructed with different proportions of clay, cement and gypsum waste, and assesses the feasibility of using a minimal battery of tests to evaluate the viability of this recycling process. Consideration of the results for the resistance to axial compression tests together with production costs revealed that the best formulation was 35% of plastic clay, 35% of non-plastic clay, 10% of Portland cement and 20% of gypsum waste, which showed a mean resistance of 4.64MPa. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry showed calcium and sulfur to be the main elements, while quartz, gypsum, ettringite and nacrite were the main crystalline compounds found in this formulation. Ecotoxicity tests showed that leachate from this formulation is weakly toxic toward daphnids and bacteria (EC(20%)=69.0 and 75.0, respectively), while for algae and fish the leachate samples were not toxic at the EC(50%) level. Overall, these results show that the addition of 20% of gypsum waste to the ceramic blocks could provide a viable substitute for clay in the ceramics industry and the tests applied in this study proved to be a useful tool

  6. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, 616 Nonradioactive dangerous waste storage facility

    SciTech Connect

    Price, S.M.

    1997-04-30

    This chapter provides information on the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of the waste stored at the 616 NRDWSF. A waste analysis plan is included that describes the methodology used for determining waste types.

  7. Importance of biological systems in industrial waste treatment potential application to the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Revis, Nathaniel; Holdsworth, George

    1990-01-01

    In addition to having applications for waste management issues on planet Earth, microbial systems have application in reducing waste volumes aboard spacecraft. A candidate for such an application is the space station. Many of the planned experiments generate aqueous waste. To recycle air and water the contaminants from previous experiments must be removed before the air and water can be used for other experiments. This can be achieved using microorganisms in a bioreactor. Potential bioreactors (inorganics, organics, and etchants) are discussed. Current technologies that may be applied to waste treatment are described. Examples of how biological systems may be used in treating waste on the space station.

  8. Timing of foliar Zn application plays a vital role in minimizing Cd accumulation in wheat.

    PubMed

    Saifullah; Javed, Hina; Naeem, Asif; Rengel, Zed; Dahlawi, Saad

    2016-08-01

    Due to chemical and biochemical similarities between cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn), application of Zn may minimize Cd uptake by plants and ameliorate its toxicity. However, there is poor understanding of the comparative effectiveness of the foliar Zn application at different growth stages on Cd toxicity and accumulation in wheat. The present study was carried out to compare the effectiveness of foliarly applied Zn at different stages of plant growth to minimize Cd accumulation in wheat grains. Wheat (cv AARI-2011) was grown at three levels of soil Cd (0, 2.5, and 5.0 mg kg(-1)). Foliar application of Zn was carried out at either tillering, jointing, booting, heading, or grain filling stage using 0.05 % w/v aqueous solution of ZnSO4 · 7H2O. Increasing soil Cd had a negative effect on growth and yield attributes, including tiller production, root length and dry weight, plant height, 100-grain weight and grain and straw yield. Zinc foliar spray increased grain yield by increasing tiller production; importantly, an application at booting was more effective than at other stages. Foliarly applied Zn decreased Cd concentration in the roots, straw, and grain. Similar to grain yield, the largest decrease (74 %) in Cd concentration was associated with Zn foliar spray at booting. Grain yield was negatively related to grain Cd concentration which in turn showed a negative relationship with Zn concentration in leaves and grains. It is concluded that the booting stage is the suitable time for foliar application of Zn to (i) effectively minimize a Cd-induced loss in grain yield and (ii) decrease grain Cd concentration.

  9. Sources and potential application of waste heat utilization at a gas processing facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alshehhi, Alyas Ali

    Waste heat recovery (WHR) has the potential to significantly improve the efficiency of oil and gas plants, chemical and other processing facilities, and reduce their environmental impact. In this Thesis a comprehensive energy audit at Abu Dhabi Gas Industries Ltd. (GASCO) ASAB gas processing facilities is undertaken to identify sources of waste heat and evaluate their potential for on-site recovery. Two plants are considered, namely ASAB0 and ASAB1. Waste heat evaluation criteria include waste heat grade (i.e., temperature), rate, accessibility (i.e., proximity) to potential on-site waste heat recovery applications, and potential impact of recovery on installation performance and safety. The operating parameters of key waste heat source producing equipment are compiled, as well as characteristics of the waste heat streams. In addition, potential waste heat recovery applications and strategies are proposed, focusing on utilities, i.e., enhancement of process cooling/heating, electrical/mechanical power generation, and steam production. The sources of waste heat identified at ASAB facilities consist of gas turbine and gas generator exhaust gases, flared gases, excess propane cooling capacity, excess process steam, process gas air-cooler heat dissipation, furnace exhaust gases and steam turbine outlet steam. Of the above waste heat sources, exhaust gases from five gas turbines and one gas generator at ASAB0 plant, as well as from four gas turbines at ASAB1 plant, were found to meet the rate (i.e., > 1 MW), grade (i.e., > 180°C), accessibility (i.e., < 50 m from potential on-site WHR applications) and minimal impact criteria on the performance and safety of existing installations, for potential waste heat recovery. The total amount of waste heat meeting these criteria were estimated at 256 MW and 289 MW at ASAB0 and ASAB1 plants, respectively, both of which are substantial. Of the 289 MW waste generated at ASAB1, approximately 173 MW are recovered by waste heat

  10. Hydromechanical modelling with application in sealing for underground waste deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Hasal, Martin Michalec, Zdeněk; Blaheta, Radim

    2015-03-10

    Hydro-mechanical models appear in simulation of many environmental problems related to construction of engineering barriers for contaminant spreading. The presented work aims in modelling bentonite-sand barriers, which can be used for nuclear waste isolation and similar problems. Particularly, we use hydro-mechanical model coupling unsaturated flow and (nonlinear) elasticity, implement such model in COMSOL software and show application in simulation of an infiltration test (2D axisymmetric model) and the SEALEX Water test WT1 experiment (3D model). Finally, we discuss the needs and possibilities of parallel high performance computing.

  11. State waste discharge permit application: 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (Project W-049H)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    As part of the original Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Concent Order negotiations, US DOE, US EPA and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground to the Hanford Site are subject to permitting in the State Waste Discharge Permit Program (SWDP). This document constitutes the SWDP Application for the 200 Area TEDF stream which includes the following streams discharged into the area: Plutonium Finishing Plant waste water; 222-S laboratory Complex waste water; T Plant waste water; 284-W Power Plant waste water; PUREX chemical Sewer; B Plant chemical sewer, process condensate, steam condensate; 242-A-81 Water Services waste water.

  12. Bilinear Factor Matrix Norm Minimization for Robust PCA: Algorithms and Applications.

    PubMed

    Shang, Fanhua; Cheng, James; Liu, Yuanyuan; Luo, Zhi-Quan; Lin, Zhouchen

    2017-09-04

    The heavy-tailed distributions of corrupted outliers and singular values of all channels in low-level vision have proven effective priors for many applications such as background modeling, photometric stereo and image alignment. And they can be well modeled by a hyper-Laplacian. However, the use of such distributions generally leads to challenging non-convex, non-smooth and non-Lipschitz problems, and makes existing algorithms very slow for large-scale applications. Together with the analytic solutions to Lp-norm minimization with two specific values of p, i.e., p=1/2 and p=2/3, we propose two novel bilinear factor matrix norm minimization models for robust principal component analysis. We first define the double nuclear norm and Frobenius/nuclear hybrid norm penalties, and then prove that they are in essence the Schatten-1/2 and 2/3 quasi-norms, respectively, which lead to much more tractable and scalable Lipschitz optimization problems. Our experimental analysis shows that both our methods yield more accurate solutions than original Schatten quasi-norm minimization, even when the number of observations is very limited. Finally, we apply our penalties to various low-level vision problems, e.g. moving object detection, image alignment and inpainting, and show that our methods usually outperform the state-of-the-art methods.

  13. 75 FR 79328 - Technical Corrections to the Standards Applicable to Generators of Hazardous Waste; Alternative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 262 Technical Corrections to the Standards Applicable to Generators of Hazardous Waste...: EPA is proposing six technical corrections to an alternative set of hazardous waste generator... requirements, but rather makes technical corrections to subpart K of the hazardous waste generator regulations...

  14. 40 CFR 266.205 - Standards applicable to the storage of solid waste military munitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... (e) Amendments to DDESB storage standards. The DDESB storage standards applicable to waste military... solid waste military munitions. 266.205 Section 266.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC...

  15. I-NERI Annual Technical Progress Report 2007-004-K Development and Characterization of New High-Level Waste Forms for Achieving Waste Minimization from Pyroprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    S. Frank

    2010-09-01

    The current method for the immobilization of fission products that accumulate in electrorefiner salt during the electrochemical processing of used metallic nuclear fuel is to encapsulate the electrorefiner salt in a glass-bonded sodalite ceramic waste form. This process was developed by Argonne National Laboratory in the USA and is currently performed at the Idaho National Laboratory for the treatment of Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) used fuel. This process utilizes a “once-through” option for the disposal of spent electrorefiner salt; where, after the treatment of the EBR-II fuel, the electrorefiner salt containing the active fission products will be disposed of in the ceramic waste form (CWF). The CWF produced will have low fission product loading of approximately 2 to 5 weight percent due to the limited fuel inventory currently being processed. However; the design and implementation of advanced electrochemical processing facilities to treat used fuel would process much greater quantities fuel. With an advanced processing facility, it would be necessary to selectively remove fission products from the electrorefiner salt for salt recycle and to concentrate the fission products to reduce the volume of high-level waste from the treatment facility. The Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute and the Idaho National Laboratory have been collaborating on I-NERI research projects for a number of years to investigate both aspects of selective fission product separation from electrorefiner salt, and to develop advanced waste forms for the immobilization of the collected fission products. The first joint KAERI/INL I-NERI project titled: 2006-002-K, Separation of Fission Products from Molten LiCl-KCl Salt Used for Electrorefining of Metal Fuels, was successfully completed in 2009 by concentrating and isolating fission products from actual electrorefiner salt used for the treated used EBR-II fuel. Two separation methods were tested and from these tests were

  16. Land Application of Wastes: An Educational Program. Waste Application Systems - Module 12, Objectives, and Script.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarkson, W. W.; And Others

    Land application systems are discussed with reference to the options available for applying wastewater and sludge to the site. Spray systems, surface flow methods, and sludge application schemes are all included with discussions of the advantages and disadvantages of each option within these categories. A distinction is made between the choice of…

  17. Land Application of Wastes: An Educational Program. Waste Application Systems - Module 12, Objectives, and Script.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarkson, W. W.; And Others

    Land application systems are discussed with reference to the options available for applying wastewater and sludge to the site. Spray systems, surface flow methods, and sludge application schemes are all included with discussions of the advantages and disadvantages of each option within these categories. A distinction is made between the choice of…

  18. State waste discharge permit application: 400 Area secondary cooling water

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    This document constitutes the Washington Administrative Code 173-216 State Waste Discharge Permit Application that serves as interim compliance as required by the Consent Order DE 91NM-177, for the 400 Area Secondary Cooling Water stream. As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permitting Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered in to Consent Order DE 91NM-177. The Consent Order DE 91NM-177 requires a series of permitting activities for liquid effluent discharges.

  19. State Waste Discharge Permit application, 183-N Backwash Discharge Pond

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations (Ecology et al. 1994), the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173--216 (or 173--218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered into Consent Order No. DE91NM-177, (Ecology and DOE-RL 1991). The Consent Order No. DE91NM-177 requires a series of permitting activities for liquid effluent discharges. Liquid effluents on the Hanford Site have been classified as Phase I, Phase II, and Miscellaneous Streams. The Consent Order No. DE91NM-177 establishes milestones for State Waste Discharge Permit application submittals for all Phase I and Phase II streams, as well as the following 11 Miscellaneous Streams as identified in Table 4 of the Consent Order No. DE91NM-177.

  20. Minimization of organic and metallic industrial waste via lemna minor concentration. Final report, 1 September 1991-1 December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers-Irons, G.L.

    1992-12-30

    In recent years, new strict environmental laws have required improved and cost-effective water purification methods by Air Force complexes. Naturally assisted primary units (microbiological) and secondary units (macrophyte) could bring waste treatment systems into tighter compliance. Aquatic macrophytes which have rapid growth rates and absorb large quantities of nutrients could provide a practical and economic method for more complete wastewater maintenance, hazardous waste clean-up or river, lake and ground water purification. This work has shown that Lemna minor, or Common Duckweed, can successfully and thoroughly accumulate organics and metals from Air Force wastewaters.

  1. Closing the Loop: Integrated Waste Management Activities for School & Home. K-12 Edition. A School-Based Waste Minimization and Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for Environmental Education, Chagrin Falls, OH.

    Increased human population has led to more frequent interactions with the environment. The results of those interactions have affected the Earth's ecosystem. This manual contains hands-on, problem-centered activities to help students develop an environmental ethic and stewardship regarding waste management. The activities are grouped under three…

  2. Closing the Loop: Integrated Waste Management Activities for School & Home. K-12 Edition. A School-Based Waste Minimization and Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for Environmental Education, Chagrin Falls, OH.

    Increased human population has led to more frequent interactions with the environment. The results of those interactions have affected the Earth's ecosystem. This manual contains hands-on, problem-centered activities to help students develop an environmental ethic and stewardship regarding waste management. The activities are grouped under three…

  3. Impact of technology applications to the management of low-level radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Devgun, J.S. )

    1989-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes are generated from reactor sources (nuclear power reactors) as well as from nonreactor sources (academic, medical, governmental, and industrial). In recent years, about 50,000 m{sup 3} per year of such wastes have been generated in the United States and about 10,000 m{sup 3} per year in Canada. Direct disposal of these wastes in shallow ground has been a favored method in both countries in the past. In the United States, three operating commercial sites at Barnwell, South Carolina; Beatty, Nevada; and Richland, Washington, receive most of the commercial low-level waste generated. However, with recent advances in waste management, technologies are being applied to achieve optimum goals in terms of protection of human health and safety and the environment, as well as cost-effectiveness. These technologies must be applied from the generation sources through waste minimization and optimum segregation -- followed by waste processing, conditioning, storage, and disposal. A number of technologies that are available and can be applied as appropriate -- given the physical, chemical, and radiological characteristics of the waste -- include shredding, baling, compaction, supercompaction, decontamination, incineration, chemical treatment/conditioning, immobilization, and packaging. Interim and retrievable storage can be accomplished in a wide variety of storage structures, and several types of engineered disposal facility designs are now available. By applying an integrated approach to radioactive waste management, potential adverse impacts on human health and safety and the environment can be minimized. 15 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  4. Ecological applications for flood hazard minimization in the Siwaliks region of Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhital, Y. P.; Tang, Q.

    2015-12-01

    Water-induced disaster problems including soil erosion, debris flow, landslides and flooding are common due to the unstable landscape of Siwaliks region of Nepal. Ecological applications especially focused on soil bioengineering techniques have been used in Nepal for nearly four decades to deal with erosion problems on slopes, in high way construction and riverbank stabilization. In this study, both vegetative check dams and wire net check dams along with vegetation were used for flood hazard minimization. After three growing seasons, the banks of the ephemeral stream were almost fully stabilized. Vegetation based solutions are found to be more effective than the mechanical methods of stream bank stabilization. Bamboo combinations for check dam construction and planting of bamboo behind check dam are both very useful for stream bank stabilization. Vegetation application on flood damaged bare ground was also found to be very successful. Furthermore, some plants species showed almost equal growth performances on both flood-affected and unaffected bare ground. However, more scientific implementation of ecological applications for flood hazard minimization in those affected areas is essential in future.

  5. Atmospheric flux of ammonia from sprinkler application of dairy waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumburg, Brian; Mount, George H.; Yonge, David; Lamb, Brian; Westberg, Hal; Filipy, Jenny; Bays, Jay; Kincaid, Ron; Johnson, Kristen

    Atmospheric ammonia (NH3) emissions are a growing environmental and human health concern in the U.S. This paper describes an experiment to measure NH3 emissions from the sprinkler application of dairy slurry to a grass field. The slurry was from milking cows that are housed in a freestall barn that is scraped daily and the waste is stored in a series of anaerobic lagoons that are emptied annually. Atmospheric measurements of NH3 were made using differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) and tracer ratio flux experiments were used to determine field fluxes after application. An area source tracer ratio method was used to determine NH3 field fluxes, it involved releasing SF6 as the tracer gas from the upwind edge of the applied slurry and measuring the tracer concentration downwind along with the DOAS NH3 measurements. The flux is calculated from the ratio of the NH3 and SF6 concentrations and the SF6 release rate and taking into account the differences in area and dispersion. An emissions model was also developed for NH3 volatilization after application based upon tracer flux data and modeling of the concentration data. Of the total ammonical nitrogen entering from the sprinkler pump, 18% volatilized before reaching the ground. The initial flux during the tracer experiment was 47μgm-2s-1 and this decreased to 17μgm-2s-1 during the experiment. Ambient measurements showed an exponential decay with time. An empirical exponential equation was fit to the measurement data and it had a mean bias of -0.10ppbv and a normalized mean bias of -0.050%. A theoretical model had a mean bias of -11ppbv and a normalized mean bias of -5.5%. Overall sprinkler waste application emissions for the 175 milking cows was 5900 kg NH3yr-1 or 34 kg NH3cow-1yr-1.

  6. A Regulatory Analysis and Reassessment of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Listed Hazardous Waste Numbers for Applicability to the INTEC Liquid Waste System

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, K.L.; Venneman, T.E.

    1998-12-01

    This report concludes that there are four listed hazardous waste numbers (F001, F002, F005, and U134) applicable to the waste in the Process Equipment Waste Evaporator (PEWE) liquid waste system at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The chemical constituents associated with these listed hazardous waste numbers, including those listed only for ignitability are identified. The RCRA Part A permit application hazardous waste numbers identify chemical constituents that may be treated or stored by the PEWE liquid waste system either as a result of a particular characteristic (40 CFR, Subpart C) or as a result of a specific process (40 CFR 261, Subpart D). The RCRA Part A permit application for the PEWE liquid waste system identifies the universe of Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) hazardous waste numbers [23 characteristic (hazardous waste codes) numbers and 105 listed numbers (four F-listed hazardous waste numbers, 20 P-listed hazardous waste numbers, and 81 U-listed hazardous waste numbers)] deemed acceptable for storage and treatment. This evaluation, however, identifies only listed wastes (and their chemical constituents) that have actually entered the PEWE liquid waste system and would, therefore, be assigned to the PEWE liquids and treatment residuals.

  7. Application of Sequential Quadratic Programming to Minimize Smart Active Flap Rotor Hub Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kottapalli, Sesi; Leyland, Jane

    2014-01-01

    In an analytical study, SMART active flap rotor hub loads have been minimized using nonlinear programming constrained optimization methodology. The recently developed NLPQLP system (Schittkowski, 2010) that employs Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP) as its core algorithm was embedded into a driver code (NLP10x10) specifically designed to minimize active flap rotor hub loads (Leyland, 2014). Three types of practical constraints on the flap deflections have been considered. To validate the current application, two other optimization methods have been used: i) the standard, linear unconstrained method, and ii) the nonlinear Generalized Reduced Gradient (GRG) method with constraints. The new software code NLP10x10 has been systematically checked out. It has been verified that NLP10x10 is functioning as desired. The following are briefly covered in this paper: relevant optimization theory; implementation of the capability of minimizing a metric of all, or a subset, of the hub loads as well as the capability of using all, or a subset, of the flap harmonics; and finally, solutions for the SMART rotor. The eventual goal is to implement NLP10x10 in a real-time wind tunnel environment.

  8. Use of depleted uranium silicate glass to minimize release of radionuclides from spent nuclear fuel waste packages

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1996-01-20

    A Depleted Uranium Silicate Container Backfill System (DUSCOBS) is proposed that would use small, isotopically-depleted uranium silicate glass beads as a backfill material inside repository waste packages containing spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The uranium silicate glass beads would fill the void space inside the package including the coolant channels inside SNF assemblies. Based on preliminary analysis, the following benefits have been identified. DUSCOBS improves repository waste package performance by three mechanisms. First, it reduces the radionuclide releases from SNF when water enters the waste package by creating a local uranium silicate saturated groundwater environment that suppresses (a) the dissolution and/or transformation of uranium dioxide fuel pellets and, hence, (b) the release of radionuclides incorporated into the SNF pellets. Second, the potential for long-term nuclear criticality is reduced by isotopic exchange of enriched uranium in SNF with the depleted uranium (DU) in the glass. Third, the backfill reduces radiation interactions between SNF and the local environment (package and local geology) and thus reduces generation of hydrogen, acids, and other chemicals that degrade the waste package system. Finally, DUSCOBS provides a potential method to dispose of significant quantities of excess DU from uranium enrichment plants at potential economic savings. DUSCOBS is a new concept. Consequently, the concept has not been optimized or demonstrated in laboratory experiments.

  9. A Novel Water Delivery System for Administering Volatile Chemicals while Minimizing Chemical Waste in Rodent Toxicity Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rodent toxicity studies typically use water bottles to administer test chemicals via drinking water. However, water bottles provide inconsistent exposure of volatile chemicals due to varying headspace, as well as lead to excessive waste of test material. In order to refine drin...

  10. A novel water delivery system for administering volatile chemicals while minimizing chemical waste in rodent toxicity sutdies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rodent toxicity studies typically use water bottles to administer test chemicals via drinking water. However, water bottles provide inconsistent exposure of volatile chemicals due to varying headspace, as well as lead to excessive waste of test material. In order to refine drinki...

  11. A novel water delivery system for administering volatile chemicals while minimizing chemical waste in rodent toxicity sutdies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rodent toxicity studies typically use water bottles to administer test chemicals via drinking water. However, water bottles provide inconsistent exposure of volatile chemicals due to varying headspace, as well as lead to excessive waste of test material. In order to refine drinki...

  12. A Novel Water Delivery System for Administering Volatile Chemicals while Minimizing Chemical Waste in Rodent Toxicity Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rodent toxicity studies typically use water bottles to administer test chemicals via drinking water. However, water bottles provide inconsistent exposure of volatile chemicals due to varying headspace, as well as lead to excessive waste of test material. In order to refine drin...

  13. Real processing (RP) I: The principle of minimal entropy production (PME) of irreversible thermodynamics and the principle of minimal deformation (PMD) of hydrodynamics, their dependence and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiser, Bernhard

    1996-02-01

    The principle of minimal entropy production (PME) of irreversible thermodynamics is generalized to determine process parameters in process engineering with well-known mathematical methods. This useful instrument applied to industrial processes is called real processing (RP). A special form of the PME is the principle of minimal deformation (PMD) which allows for applications in hydrodynamics (HD). A second and independent derivation of the PMD takes a similar way as the derivation of the statement of Helmholtz and Rayleigh (SHR). The generalization of SHR then leads to the PMD derived within HD. Next in a similar way. starting directly from the Navier-Stokes equation (NSE) can lead in a third way to the PMD. Several applications of the PMD are given: An analytical and numerical application of PMD is given for the entrance flow of tubes. Physical and analytical applications are the Crocco-Vazsonyi-type equations opening new possibilities of analytical treatment of process engineering problems. Process engineering models may be replaced by applications of PMD. In particular, turbulence may be treated as the answer of nature on PMD. A basic mathematical treatment of these subjects is possible by the gradient field theory (GFT), a particular method of vector analysis stemming from the Clebsch Ansatz for vector fields, which can be ordered from the author together with an advanced detailed mathematical treatment of these subjects.

  14. A hybrid neural network structure for application to nondestructive TRU waste assay

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, G.

    1995-12-31

    The determination of transuranic (TRU) and associated radioactive material quantities entrained in waste forms is a necessary component. of waste characterization. Measurement performance requirements are specified in the National TRU Waste Characterization Program quality assurance plan for which compliance must be demonstrated prior to the transportation and disposition of wastes. With respect to this criterion, the existing TRU nondestructive waste assay (NDA) capability is inadequate for a significant fraction of the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex waste inventory. This is a result of the general application of safeguard-type measurement and calibration schemes to waste form configurations. Incompatibilities between such measurement methods and actual waste form configurations complicate regulation compliance demonstration processes and illustrate the need for an alternate measurement interpretation paradigm. Hence, it appears necessary to supplement or perhaps restructure the perceived solution and approach to the waste NDA problem. The first step is to understand the magnitude of the waste matrix/source attribute space associated with those waste form configurations in inventory and how this creates complexities and unknowns with respect to existing NDA methods. Once defined and/or bounded, a conceptual method must be developed that specifies the necessary tools and the framework in which the tools are used. A promising framework is a hybridized neural network structure. Discussed are some typical complications associated with conventional waste NDA techniques and how improvements can be obtained through the application of neural networks.

  15. Minimizing losses in bio-electrochemical systems: the road to applications.

    PubMed

    Clauwaert, Peter; Aelterman, Peter; Pham, The Hai; De Schamphelaire, Liesje; Carballa, Marta; Rabaey, Korneel; Verstraete, Willy

    2008-07-01

    Bio-electrochemical systems (BESs) enable microbial catalysis of electrochemical reactions. Plain electrical power production combined with wastewater treatment by microbial fuel cells (MFCs) has been the primary application purpose for BESs. However, large-scale power production and a high chemical oxygen demand conversion rates must be achieved at a benchmark cost to make MFCs economical competitive in this context. Recently, a number of valuable oxidation or reduction reactions demonstrating the versatility of BESs have been described. Indeed, BESs can produce hydrogen, bring about denitrification, or reductive dehalogenation. Moreover, BESs also appear to be promising in the field of online biosensors. To effectively apply BESs in practice, both biological and electrochemical losses need to be further minimized. At present, the costs of reactor materials have to be decreased, and the volumetric biocatalyst activity in the systems has to be increased substantially. Furthermore, both the ohmic cell resistance and the pH gradients need to be minimized. In this review, these losses and constraints are discussed from an electrochemical viewpoint. Finally, an overview of potential applications and innovative research lines is given for BESs.

  16. Controlled Landfill Project in Yolo County, California for Environmental Benefits of Waste Stabilization and Minimization of Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdani, R.; Augenstein, D.; Kieffer, J.; Cohen, K.

    2003-12-01

    The Department of Public Works of Yolo County, California, USA has been testing an advanced approach to landfill bioreactors, controlled (or "enhanced") landfilling, at its Yolo County Central Landfill site near Davis, CA, since 1994. Overall objectives have been the management of waste landfilling for: (1) rapid completion of total gas generation; (2) maximum, high-efficiency gas capture; (3) waste volume reduction; and (4) maximum greenhouse gas and carbon sequestration benefits. Methane generation is controlled and enhanced through carefully managed moisture additions, and by taking advantage of landfill temperature elevation. The generated landfill methane, an important greenhouse gas, is recovered with high efficiency through extraction from a porous recovery layer beneath a surface geomembrane cover. Instrumentation included a total of 56 moisture and 15 temperature sensors in the two cells, gas flow monitoring by positive displacement gas meters, and accurate quantification of liquid inputs and outputs. Gas composition, waste volume reduction, base hydrostatic head, and a range of environmental compliance parameters has been monitored since 1995. Partitioning gas tracer tests using the injection of two gases at dilute concentrations in the landfill have also been initiated to compute the fraction of pore space occupied by water between the points of tracer injection and tracer measurement. There has been rapid waste volume reduction in the enhanced cell that corresponds to the solids' reduction to gas. Monitoring is planned for the next several years, until stabilization parameters are determined complete. Encouraging performance is indicated by: (1) sensor data; (2) gas generation results; (3) data from landfill cores; and (4) decomposition-related indicators including rapid volume reduction. When data are synthesized, project results have attractive implications for new approaches to landfill management. Over seven-years, methane recoveries have averaged

  17. State Waste Discharge Permit Application: Electric resistance tomography testing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    This permit application documentation is for a State Waste Discharge Permit issued in accordance with requirements of Washington Administrative Code 173-216. The activity being permitted is a technology test using electrical resistance tomography. The electrical resistance tomography technology was developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and has been used at other waste sites to track underground contamination plumes. The electrical resistance tomography technology measures soil electrical resistance between two electrodes. If a fluid contaminated with electrolytes is introduced into the soil, the soil resistance is expected to drop. By using an array of measurement electrodes in several boreholes, the areal extent of contamination can be estimated. At the Hanford Site, the purpose of the testing is to determine if the electrical resistance tomography technology can be used in the vicinity of large underground metal tanks without the metal tank interfering with the test. It is anticipated that the electrical resistance tomography technology will provide a method for accurately detecting leaks from the bottom of underground tanks, such as the Hanford Site single-shell tanks.

  18. The application of waste management systems for long duration spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Oglesby, James M

    2012-01-01

    In the future planned interplanetary expedition mission to Mars, spaceflight crewmembers will be exposed to an environment that is completely unique from anything they are accustomed to on Earth. Due to the characteristics of these missions, a challenge will be to design an environment that allows crewmembers to easily work and live in for extended durations. One of the challenges associated with these future missions is supplying the crew with essential resources for survivability such as food and water. In this case, the waste management system can play a role in a closed-loop life support system, as provisions sent with the crew will be severely limited with no opportunity for resupply. The following looks at the rationale of designing a system for collecting, storing, and recycling human bodily waste that (1) is considered user-friendly by crewmembers in regard to habitability in spaceflight, and (2) provides applications for a self sustaining closed-loop life support system that will aid the crew during the mission. Future design processes should consider adhering to these guidelines to help in the spaceflight crew's living environment and the conduction of the interplanetary expedition.

  19. NITRATE CONTAMINATION OF GROUND WATER FROM LAND APPLICATION OF SWINE WASTE: CASE STUDY AND GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Guidelines for land application of CAFO waste may not be sufficient to prevent ground water contamination by nitrate. A case study is presented illustrating the problem for one field site disposing of swine waste. Data are discussed in context with documented land application ...

  20. NITRATE CONTAMINATION OF GROUND WATER FROM LAND APPLICATION OF SWINE WASTE: CASE STUDY AND GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Guidelines for land application of CAFO waste may not be sufficient to prevent ground water contamination by nitrate. A case study is presented illustrating the problem for one field site disposing of swine waste. Data are discussed in context with documented land application ...

  1. Application of woven tires waste as soft clay subgrade reinforcement for preventing highway structural failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apriyono, Arwan; Sumiyanto, Gusmawan, Dadan Deri

    2017-03-01

    This study presents the application of woven waste tires as soft clay subgrade reinforcement for preventing highway structural failure, reducing construction cost and minimizing environmental hazards associated with the increasingly large amount of waste tires in Indonesia. To his end, we performed experiments using five stripe distance variations of woven tires - i.e. 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5 and 4 cm. Five soft clay samples were made and each was reinforced using each of these woven tires. The California Bearing Ratio (CBR) test was conducted on each softclay sample and the CBR value was determined from the stress on the displacement of 0.10 and 0.20 inch. The correlation between CBR value and strip distance was used to infer the optimum woven tires strip distance, indicated by the largest CBR value. The result suggests that the strip distance of 3 cm is optimum with corresponding CBR value of ˜20%, which is 115% increase compared to softclay without reinforcement.

  2. A new process and equipment for waste minimization: Conversion of NO(x) scrubber liquor to fertilizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde F.; Barile, Ronald G.; Gamble, Paul H.; Lueck, Dale E.; Young, Rebecca C.

    1995-01-01

    A new emissions control system for the oxidizer scrubbers that eliminates the current oxidizer liquor waste and lowers the NO(x) emissions is described. Since fueling and deservicing spacecraft constitute the primary operations in which environmental emissions occur, this will eliminate the second largest waste stream at KSC. This effort is in accord with Executive Order No. 12856 (Federal Compliance with Right-to-Know Laws and Pollution Prevention Requirements, data 6 Aug. 1993) and Executive Order No. 12873 (Federal Acquisition, Recycling, and Waste Prevention, dated 20 Oct. 1993). A recent study found that the efficiencies of the oxidizer scrubbers during normal operations ranged from 70 percent to 99 percent. The new scrubber liquor starts with 1% hydrogen peroxide at a pH of 7 and the process control system adds hydrogen peroxide and potassium hydroxide to the scrubber liquor to maintain those initial conditions. The result is the formation of a solution of potassium nitrate, which is sold as a fertilizer. This report describes the equipment and procedures used to monitor and control the conversion of the scrubber liquor to fertilizer, while reducing the scrubber emissions.

  3. Field scale manure born animal waste management : GIS application

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Intensive beef backgrounding often accumulate manure born soil nutrients, microbes, and pharmaceuticals at different site locations. Unless properly managed, such waste materials can pollute surrounding soil and water sources. Soil sampling from these sites helps determining waste material levels bu...

  4. Applications of Computer-Assisted Navigation for the Minimally Invasive Reduction of Isolated Zygomatic Arch Fractures.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi; Yang, Rong-Tao; Li, Zu-Bing

    2015-09-01

    Computer-assisted navigation has been widely used in oral and maxillofacial surgery. The purpose of this study was to describe the applications of computer-assisted navigation for the minimally invasive reduction of isolated zygomatic arch fractures. All patients identified as having isolated zygomatic arch fractures presenting to the authors' department from April 2013 through November 2014 were included in this prospective study. Minimally invasive reductions of isolated zygomatic arch fractures were performed on these patients under the guidance of computer-assisted navigation. The reduction status was evaluated by postoperative computed tomography (CT) 1 week after the operation. Postoperative complications and facial contours were evaluated during follow-up. Functional recovery was evaluated by the difference between the preoperative maximum interincisal mouth opening and that at the final follow-up. Twenty-three patients were included in this case series. The operation proceeded well in all patients. Postoperatively, all patients displayed uneventful healing without postoperative complication. Postoperative CT showed exact reduction in all cases. Satisfactory facial contour and functional recovery were observed in all patients. The preoperative maximal mouth opening ranged from 8 to 25 mm, and the maximal mouth opening at the final follow-up ranged from 36 to 42 mm. Computer-assisted navigation can be used not only for guiding zygomatic arch fracture reduction, but also for assessing reduction. Computer-assisted navigation is an effective and minimally invasive technique that can be applied in the reduction of isolated zygomatic arch fractures. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Waste minimization in the remediation of contaminated sites: using the oil belt skimmer technology for the removal of heavy hydrocarbons from groundwater.

    PubMed

    De Gisi, Sabino; Notarnicola, Michele

    2016-12-01

    Modern society increasingly requires achieving the goal of remediation and at the same time minimizing the waste to be disposed. Although the pump and treat is a consolidated technology option for the decontamination of groundwater polluted by heavy hydrocarbons, it generates an excessive amount of waste (typically, dangerous). With the intent of reducing such waste, our study is concerned with the verification of the oil belt skimmer technology for the decontamination of a heavy hydrocarbon-polluted groundwater. For this purpose, several tests at laboratory scale and full-scale experimentations with duration greater than 1 year were carried out. The obtained results showed the feasibility of the investigated technology for groundwater decontamination in the cases where the water mobility (of the aquifer) was low and in the presence of oil thicknesses greater than 2 cm. The heavy hydrocarbon recovery capacities were in the range of 33.3-85.5 l/h with the best performances in the cases of supernatant thickness ≥2 cm and pumping of the water table in such a way that the oil acquires a higher mobility in the aquifer. Moreover, the recovery capacity was found to be dependent on the rainfall pattern as well as on the groundwater fluctuation. Compared to the pump-and-treat system, the investigated technology allowed reducing by 98.7 % the amount of waste to be disposed suggesting the use in presence of high thickness of the oils. Finally, in a view of system optimization, treatment trains based on the combination of the oil belt skimmer technology and the pump-and-treat system should be carefully assessed.

  6. Implementation of flowsheet change to minimize hydrogen and ammonia generation during chemical processing of high level waste in the Defense Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, Dan P.; Woodham, Wesley H.; Williams, Matthew S.; Newell, J. David; Luther, Michelle C.; Brandenburg, Clayton H.

    2016-09-27

    Testing was completed to develop a chemical processing flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), designed to vitrify and stabilize high level radioactive waste. DWPF processing uses a reducing acid (formic acid) and an oxidizing acid (nitric acid) to rheologically thin the slurry and complete the necessary acid base and reduction reactions (primarily mercury and manganese). Formic acid reduces mercuric oxide to elemental mercury, allowing the mercury to be removed during the boiling phase of processing through steam stripping. In runs with active catalysts, formic acid can decompose to hydrogen and nitrate can be reduced to ammonia, both flammable gases, due to rhodium and ruthenium catalysis. Replacement of formic acid with glycolic acid eliminates the generation of rhodium- and ruthenium-catalyzed hydrogen and ammonia. In addition, mercury reduction is still effective with glycolic acid. Hydrogen, ammonia and mercury are discussed in the body of the report. Ten abbreviated tests were completed to develop the operating window for implementation of the flowsheet and determine the impact of changes in acid stoichiometry and the blend of nitric and glycolic acid as it impacts various processing variables over a wide processing region. Three full-length 4-L lab-scale simulations demonstrated the viability of the flowsheet under planned operating conditions. The flowsheet is planned for implementation in early 2017.

  7. Application of Design of Experiment Method for Thrust Force Minimization in Step-feed Micro Drilling

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong-Woo; Cho, Myeong-Woo; Seo, Tae-Il; Lee, Eung-Sug

    2008-01-01

    Micro drilled holes are utilized in many of today's fabrication processes. Precision production processes in industries are trending toward the use of smaller holes with higher aspect ratios, and higher speed operation for micro deep hole drilling. However, undesirable characteristics related to micro drilling such as small signal-to-noise ratios, wandering drill motion, high aspect ratio, and excessive cutting forces can be observed when cutting depth increases. In this study, the authors attempt to minimize the thrust forces in the step-feed micro drilling process by application of the DOE (Design of Experiment) method. Taking into account the drilling thrust, three cutting parameters, feedrate, step-feed, and cutting speed, are optimized based on the DOE method. For experimental studies, an orthogonal array L27(313) is generated and ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) is carried out. Based on the results it is determined that the sequence of factors affecting drilling thrusts corresponds to feedrate, step-feed, and spindle rpm. A combination of optimal drilling conditions is also identified. In particular, it is found in this study that the feedrate is the most important factor for micro drilling thrust minimization. PMID:27879704

  8. Secondary Zinc Waste Sludge: Resource Material with Potential Application.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohd Akram; Shrivastava, Rajnish

    2014-01-01

    The waste sludge generated during secondary zinc extraction process of an industry was studied for the recovery of electrolytic grade zinc and copper. The physical, chemical and mineralogical properties of the secondary zinc waste were studied in detail. Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) test was carried out for the sample and concentrations of heavy metals present in the waste were estimated. The engineering properties of the samples prepared through high temperature fired route provided important information on the characteristics and composition of the waste. Different binders like fly ash and yellow clay were used in different formulations using Indian Standard sand to prepare the samples and to study the Solidification-Stabilisation (S/S) mechanism of the encapsulated waste mass. The leachability studies and engineering properties of the samples were evaluated to study the abatement of hazardous potential of waste and to explore better utilisation options for the secondary zinc waste sludge.

  9. Minimal Residual Disease in Acute Myeloid Leukemia of Adults: Determination, Prognostic Impact and Clinical Applications.

    PubMed

    Del Principe, Maria Ilaria; Buccisano, Francesco; Maurillo, Luca; Sconocchia, Giuseppe; Cefalo, Mariagiovanna; Consalvo, Maria Irno; Sarlo, Chiara; Conti, Consuelo; De Santis, Giovanna; De Bellis, Eleonora; Di Veroli, Ambra; Palomba, Patrizia; Attrotto, Cristina; Zizzari, Annagiulia; Paterno, Giovangiacinto; Voso, Maria Teresa; Del Poeta, Giovanni; Lo-Coco, Francesco; Arcese, William; Amadori, Sergio; Venditti, Adriano

    2016-01-01

    Pretreatment assessment of cytogenetic/genetic signature of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has been consistently shown to play a major prognostic role but also to fail at predicting outcome on individual basis, even in low-risk AML. Therefore, we are in need of further accurate methods to refine the patients' risk allocation process, distinguishing more adequately those who are likely to recur from those who are not. In this view, there is now evidence that the submicroscopic amounts of leukemic cells (called minimal residual disease, MRD), measured during the course of treatment, indicate the quality of response to therapy. Therefore, MRD might serve as an independent, additional biomarker to help to identify patients at higher risk of relapse. Detection of MRD requires the use of highly sensitive ancillary techniques, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and multiparametric flow cytometry(MPFC). In the present manuscript, we will review the current approaches to investigate MRD and its clinical applications in AML management.

  10. Applications of thermal energy storage to waste heat recovery in the food processing industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trebilcox, G. J.; Lundberg, W. L.

    1981-03-01

    The canning segment of the food processing industry is a major energy user within that industry. Most of its energy demand is met by hot water and steam and those fluids, in addition to product cooling water, eventually flow from the processes as warm waste water. To minimize the possibility of product contamination, a large percentage of that waste water is sent directly to factory drains and sewer systems without being recycled and in many cases the thermal energy contained by the waste streams also goes unreclaimed and is lost from further use. Waste heat recovery in canning facilities can be performed economically using systems that employ thermal energy storage (TES). A project was proposed in which a demonstration waste heat recovery system, including a TES feature, would be designed, installed and operated.

  11. Poly-urea spray elastomer for waste containment applications

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.J.; Cheng, S.C.J.; Tanis, R.

    1997-12-31

    Geomembrane usage in environmental applications has increased dramatically following the promulgation of federal regulations resulting from the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA). Subtitle D rules, formulated under the authority of RCRA, call for minimum performance standards to limit adverse effects of a solid waste disposal facility on human health or the environment (40 CFR 257,258, August 30, 1988). These rules set minimum standards requiring new landfill designs to include liner systems and final cover systems. Each state has the responsibility to develop rules that are at least as stringent as the Subtitle D rules. There are several types of geomembranes currently available for landfill applications, each offering particular advantages and disadvantages. For example, PVC does not show the yield point (point of instability) that HDPE shows, HDPE has a higher puncture resistance than PVC, and PVC will deform much more than HDPE before barrier properties of the geomembrane are lost. Because each geomembrane material exhibits its own particular characteristics the material selected should be chosen based on the individual project requirements. It is preferable to select a design that uses the least expensive material and meets the performance specifications of the project.

  12. Strategies to enhance waste minimization and energy conservation within organizations: a case study from the UK construction sector.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jo; Jackson, Janet; Tudor, Terry; Bates, Margaret

    2012-09-01

    Strategies for enhancing environmental management are a key focus for the government in the UK. Using a manufacturing company from the construction sector as a case study, this paper evaluates selected interventionist techniques, including environmental teams, awareness raising and staff training to improve environmental performance. The study employed a range of methods including questionnaire surveys and audits of energy consumption and generation of waste to examine the outcomes of the selected techniques. The results suggest that initially environmental management was not a focus for either the employees or the company. However, as a result of employing the techniques, the company was able to reduce energy consumption, increase recycling rates and achieve costs savings in excess of £132,000.

  13. Survey of computer codes applicable to waste facility performance evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Alsharif, M.; Pung, D.L.; Rivera, A.L.; Dole, L.R.

    1988-01-01

    This study is an effort to review existing information that is useful to develop an integrated model for predicting the performance of a radioactive waste facility. A summary description of 162 computer codes is given. The identified computer programs address the performance of waste packages, waste transport and equilibrium geochemistry, hydrological processes in unsaturated and saturated zones, and general waste facility performance assessment. Some programs also deal with thermal analysis, structural analysis, and special purposes. A number of these computer programs are being used by the US Department of Energy, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and their contractors to analyze various aspects of waste package performance. Fifty-five of these codes were identified as being potentially useful on the analysis of low-level radioactive waste facilities located above the water table. The code summaries include authors, identification data, model types, and pertinent references. 14 refs., 5 tabs.

  14. Application of transformational roasting to the treatment of metallurgical wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holloway, Preston Carl

    Transformational roasting involves the heating of a material along with specific additives to induce mineralogical changes in the starting material. By controlling the chemical composition, roasting atmosphere, temperature and time of reaction, the mineral transformations induced during roasting can be engineered to control the distribution of valuable or harmful metals and to produce new mineral assemblages that are more amenable to conventional methods of metals recovery or to environmentally safe disposal. However, to date, transformational roasting processes have only been applied to the recovery of a limited number of metals from a limited number of materials. A generalized procedure for the application of transformational roasting techniques to the treatment of new materials was proposed that utilized a combination of thermodynamic analysis, scoping tests, Design of Experiments (DOE) testing, mineralogical studies, process optimization and analysis of the deportment of minor elements to identify promising roasting systems for further study. This procedure was developed, tested and refined through the application of these techniques to four different industrial metallurgical wastes, including oil sands fly ash from Suncor in northern Alberta, zinc ferrite residue from Doe Run Peru, electric are furnace (EAF) dust from Altasteel's operations in Edmonton, Alberta, and copper-nickel-arsenic sulphide residue from Inco's refinery in Thompson, Manitoba. A large number of potential reagents were identified and tested for the latter three materials and transformational roasting was effectively used to induce mineral transformations during the roasting of these wastes which increased the solubility of valuable elements, decreased the solubility of major impurities, produced a differential solubility between valuable and harmful elements or controlled the volatilization of harmful elements. Comprehensive studies of these mineralogical transformations and the solubility

  15. Certification Plan, Radioactive Mixed Waste Hazardous Waste Handling Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, R.

    1992-06-30

    The purpose of this plan is to describe the organization and methodology for the certification of radioactive mixed waste (RMW) handled in the Hazardous Waste Handling Facility at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). RMW is low-level radioactive waste (LLW) or transuranic (TRU) waste that is co-contaminated with dangerous waste as defined in the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) and the Washington State Dangerous Waste Regulations, 173-303-040 (18). This waste is to be transferred to the Hanford Site Central Waste Complex and Burial Grounds in Hanford, Washington. This plan incorporates the applicable elements of waste reduction, which include both up-front minimization and end-product treatment to reduce the volume and toxicity of the waste; segregation of the waste as it applies to certification; an executive summary of the Waste Management Quality Assurance Implementing Management Plan (QAIMP) for the HWHF (Section 4); and a list of the current and planned implementing procedures used in waste certification.

  16. A 4-DOF haptic master using ER fluid for minimally invasive surgery system application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Jong-Seok; Han, Young-Min; Lee, Sang-Rock; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents a novel 4-degrees-of-freedom (4-DOF) haptic master using a electrorheological (ER) fluid which is applicable to minimally invasive surgery (MIS) systems. By adopting a controllable ER fluid, the master can easily generate 4-DOF repulsive forces with the advantages of a simple mechanism and continuous force control capability. The proposed master consists of two actuators: an ER spherical joint for 3-DOF rotational motion and an ER piston device for 1-DOF translational motion. The generated torque/force models are mathematically derived by analyzing the mechanism geometry and using the Bingham characteristics of an ER Fluid. The haptic master is optimally designed and manufactured based on the mathematical torque/force models. The repulsive torque/force responses are experimentally evaluated and expressed by the first-order and second-order dynamic equations for each motion. A sliding mode controller (SMC), which is known to be robust to uncertainties, is then designed and empirically implemented to achieve the desired torque/force trajectories. It is demonstrated by presenting torque/force tracking results of both rotational and translational motions that the proposed 4-DOF ER haptic master integrated with the SMC can provide an effective haptic control performance for MIS applications.

  17. Global error minimization in image mosaicing using graph connectivity and its applications in microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Khurd, Parmeshwar; Grady, Leo; Oketokoun, Rafiou; Sundar, Hari; Gajera, Tejas; Gibbs-Strauss, Summer; Frangioni, John V.; Kamen, Ali

    2011-01-01

    Several applications such as multiprojector displays and microscopy require the mosaicing of images (tiles) acquired by a camera as it traverses an unknown trajectory in 3D space. A homography relates the image coordinates of a point in each tile to those of a reference tile provided the 3D scene is planar. Our approach in such applications is to first perform pairwise alignment of the tiles that have imaged common regions in order to recover a homography relating the tile pair. We then find the global set of homographies relating each individual tile to a reference tile such that the homographies relating all tile pairs are kept as consistent as possible. Using these global homographies, one can generate a mosaic of the entire scene. We derive a general analytical solution for the global homographies by representing the pair-wise homographies on a connectivity graph. Our solution can accommodate imprecise prior information regarding the global homographies whenever such information is available. We also derive equations for the special case of translation estimation of an X-Y microscopy stage used in histology imaging and present examples of stitched microscopy slices of specimens obtained after radical prostatectomy or prostate biopsy. In addition, we demonstrate the superiority of our approach over tree-structured approaches for global error minimization. PMID:22811964

  18. Design and fabrication of an IPMC-embedded tube for minimally invasive surgery applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiayu; Wang, Yanjie; Zhao, Dongxu; Zhang, Chi; Chen, Hualing; Li, Dichen

    2014-03-01

    Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) is receiving much attention for a number of reasons, including less trauma, faster recovery and enhanced precision. The traditional robotic actuators do not have the capabilities required to fulfill the demand for new applications in MIS. Ionic Polymer-Metal Composite (IPMC), one of the most promising smart materials, has extensive desirable characteristics such as low actuation voltage, large bending deformation and high functionality. Compared with traditional actuators, IPMCs can mimic biological muscle and are highly promising for actuation in robotic surgery. In this paper, a new approach which involves molding and integrating IPMC actuators into a soft silicone tube to create an active actuating tube capable of multi-degree-of-freedom motion is presented. First, according to the structure and performance requirements of the actuating tube, the biaxial bending IPMC actuators fabricated by using solution casting method have been implemented. The silicone was cured at a suitable temperature to form a flexible tube using molds fabricated by 3D Printing technology. Then an assembly based fabrication process was used to mold or integrate biaxial bending IPMC actuators into the soft silicone material to create an active control tube. The IPMC-embedded tube can generate multi-degree-of-freedom motions by controlling each IPMC actuator. Furthermore, the basic performance of the actuators was analyzed, including the displacement and the response speed. Experimental results indicate that IPMC-embedded tubes are promising for applications in MIS.

  19. WASTE MINIZATION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT: A CLASS 8 TRUCK ASSEMBLY PLANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has developed a systematic approach to identify and implement options to reduce or eliminate hazardous waste. he approach is presented in a report entitled, "Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual" (EPA/625/7-88/O03). his report describes the application of the wast...

  20. WASTE MINIZATION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT: A CLASS 8 TRUCK ASSEMBLY PLANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has developed a systematic approach to identify and implement options to reduce or eliminate hazardous waste. he approach is presented in a report entitled, "Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual" (EPA/625/7-88/O03). his report describes the application of the wast...

  1. Up-cycling waste glass to minimal water adsorption/absorption lightweight aggregate by rapid low temperature sintering: optimization by dual process-mixture response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Velis, Costas A; Franco-Salinas, Claudia; O'Sullivan, Catherine; Najorka, Jens; Boccaccini, Aldo R; Cheeseman, Christopher R

    2014-07-01

    Mixed color waste glass extracted from municipal solid waste is either not recycled, in which case it is an environmental and financial liability, or it is used in relatively low value applications such as normal weight aggregate. Here, we report on converting it into a novel glass-ceramic lightweight aggregate (LWA), potentially suitable for high added value applications in structural concrete (upcycling). The artificial LWA particles were formed by rapidly sintering (<10 min) waste glass powder with clay mixes using sodium silicate as binder and borate salt as flux. Composition and processing were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) modeling, and specifically (i) a combined process-mixture dual RSM, and (ii) multiobjective optimization functions. The optimization considered raw materials and energy costs. Mineralogical and physical transformations occur during sintering and a cellular vesicular glass-ceramic composite microstructure is formed, with strong correlations existing between bloating/shrinkage during sintering, density and water adsorption/absorption. The diametrical expansion could be effectively modeled via the RSM and controlled to meet a wide range of specifications; here we optimized for LWA structural concrete. The optimally designed LWA is sintered in comparatively low temperatures (825-835 °C), thus potentially saving costs and lowering emissions; it had exceptionally low water adsorption/absorption (6.1-7.2% w/wd; optimization target: 1.5-7.5% w/wd); while remaining substantially lightweight (density: 1.24-1.28 g.cm(-3); target: 0.9-1.3 g.cm(-3)). This is a considerable advancement for designing effective environmentally friendly lightweight concrete constructions, and boosting resource efficiency of waste glass flows.

  2. A primal-dual fixed point algorithm for convex separable minimization with applications to image restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Peijun; Huang, Jianguo; Zhang, Xiaoqun

    2013-02-01

    Recently, the minimization of a sum of two convex functions has received considerable interest in a variational image restoration model. In this paper, we propose a general algorithmic framework for solving a separable convex minimization problem from the point of view of fixed point algorithms based on proximity operators (Moreau 1962 C. R. Acad. Sci., Paris I 255 2897-99). Motivated by proximal forward-backward splitting proposed in Combettes and Wajs (2005 Multiscale Model. Simul. 4 1168-200) and fixed point algorithms based on the proximity operator (FP2O) for image denoising (Micchelli et al 2011 Inverse Problems 27 45009-38), we design a primal-dual fixed point algorithm based on the proximity operator (PDFP2Oκ for κ ∈ [0, 1)) and obtain a scheme with a closed-form solution for each iteration. Using the firmly nonexpansive properties of the proximity operator and with the help of a special norm over a product space, we achieve the convergence of the proposed PDFP2Oκ algorithm. Moreover, under some stronger assumptions, we can prove the global linear convergence of the proposed algorithm. We also give the connection of the proposed algorithm with other existing first-order methods. Finally, we illustrate the efficiency of PDFP2Oκ through some numerical examples on image supper-resolution, computerized tomographic reconstruction and parallel magnetic resonance imaging. Generally speaking, our method PDFP2O (κ = 0) is comparable with other state-of-the-art methods in numerical performance, while it has some advantages on parameter selection in real applications.

  3. 78 FR 45578 - Application For a License to Export Radioactive Waste

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Application For a License to Export Radioactive Waste Pursuant to 10 CFR 110.70 (b) ``Public... quantity Storage or Canada. June 4, 2013, June 5, 2013, radioactive waste authorized for disposal by the...

  4. 77 FR 73054 - Application for a License To Export Radioactive Waste

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Application for a License To Export Radioactive Waste Pursuant to 10 CFR 110.70(b) ``Public Notice.... 2012, October 25, 2012, XW020, radioactive 1178 pounds disposal by the 11006061. waste in the...

  5. Characterization of waste streams and suspect waste from largest Los Alamos National Laboratory generators

    SciTech Connect

    Soukup, J.D.; Erpenbeck, G.J.

    1995-12-31

    A detailed waste stream characterization of 4 primary generators of low level waste at LANL was performed to aid in waste minimization efforts. Data was compiled for these four generators from 1988 to the present for analyses. Prior waste minimization efforts have focused on identifying waste stream processes and performing source materials substitutions or reductions where applicable. In this historical survey, the generators surveyed included an accelerator facility, the plutonium facility, a chemistry and metallurgy research facility, and a radiochemistry research facility. Of particular interest in waste minimization efforts was the composition of suspect low level waste in which no radioactivity is detected through initial survey. Ultimately, this waste is disposed of in the LANL low level permitted waste disposal pits (thus filling a scarce and expensive resource with sanitary waste). Detailed analyses of the waste streams from these 4 facilities, have revealed that suspect low level waste comprises approximately 50% of the low level waste by volume and 47% by weight. However, there are significant differences in suspect waste density when one considers the radioactive contamination. For the 2 facilities that deal primarily with beta emitting activation and spallation products (the radiochemistry and accelerator facilities), the suspect waste is much lower density than all low level waste coming from those facilities. For the 2 facilities that perform research on transuranics (the chemistry and metallurgy research and plutonium facilities), suspect waste is higher in density than all the low level waste from those facilities. It is theorized that the low density suspect waste is composed primarily of compactable lab trash, most of which is not contaminated but can be easily surveyed. The high density waste is theorized to be contaminated with alpha emitting radionuclides, and in this case, the suspect waste demonstrates fundamental limits in detection.

  6. Radiolytically-induced novel materials and their application to waste processing

    SciTech Connect

    Massimo Bertino, Akira Tokuhiro, Tadashi Tokuhiro

    2007-12-05

    In the present NEER project we investigated two different types of gel materials with respect to potential applications in environmental remediation, including mixed waste generated from the nuclear fuel cycles. The materials under study were: (1) silica-polymer based aerogel composites into which specific metallic cations diffuse into and remain, and (2) polymer gels made of thermo-sensitive polymer networks, whose functional groups can be ''tailored'' to have a preferred affinity for specific cations, again diffusing into and remaining in the network under a volumetrically, contractive phase-transition. The molecular, diffusion of specific cations, including those of concern in low-level waste streams, into the gel materials studied here indicates that a scaled, engineered system can be designed so that it is passive; that is, minimal (human) intervention and risk would be involved in encapsulating LLW species. In addition, the gel materials hold potential significance in environmental remediation of and recovery of metallic cations identified in respective domains and physico-chemical processes. In brief, silica gels start as aqueous/liquid solutions of base catalyzed silica hydrogels and metal ions (targeted species), such as silver. The metal ions are reduced radiolytically and migrate through the solution to form clusters. Upon post-irradiation processing, aerogel monoliths, extremely lightweight but mechanically strong, that encapsulate the metals are produced. Interestingly the radiolytic or photonic source can be gamma-rays and/or other rays from ''artificial sources'', such as reactors, or ''inherent sources'' like those characterizing mixed waste. Polymer gels, in contrast exhibit thermally-induced volumetric contraction at 20-50 C by expelling water from the gels physical state. Further, some functional groups that capture di- or tri-valent cations from aqueous solutions can be incorporated into the polymer networks on synthesis, including by radiolytic

  7. Application of value of information of tank waste characterization: A new paradigm for defining tank waste characterization requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Fassbender, L.L.; Brewster, M.E.; Brothers, A.J.

    1996-11-01

    This report presents the rationale for adopting a recommended characterization strategy that uses a risk-based decision-making framework for managing the Tank Waste Characterization program at Hanford. The risk-management/value-of-information (VOI) strategy that is illustrated explicitly links each information-gathering activity to its cost and provides a mechanism to ensure that characterization funds are spent where they can produce the largest reduction in risk. The approach was developed by tailoring well-known decision analysis techniques to specific tank waste characterization applications. This report illustrates how VOI calculations are performed and demonstrates that the VOI approach can definitely be used for real Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) characterization problems.

  8. SU-E-J-167: Dosimetric Consequences From Minimal Displacements in APBI with SAVI Applicators

    SciTech Connect

    Chandrasekara, S; Dumitru, N; Hyvarinen, M; Pella, S

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To determine the importance of providing proper solid immobilization in every fraction of treatment in APBI with brachytherapy. Methods: 125 patients treated with APBI brachytherapy with SAVI applicators at SFRO Boca Raton, from 2013–2015 were considered for this retrospective study. The CT scans of each patient, which were taken before each treatment, were imported in to the Oncentra treatment planning system. Then they were compared with the initial CT scan which was used for the initial plan. Deviation in displacements in reference to ribs and skin surface was measured and dosimetric evaluations respective to the initial image were performed. Results: Small deviations in displacements were observed from the SAVI applicator to the ribs and the skin surface. Dosimetric evaluations revealed, very small changes in the inter-fractionation position make significant differences in the maximum dose to critical organs. Additionally, the volume of the cavity also changed between fractions. As a Result, the maximum dose manifested variance between 10% and 32% in ribs and skin surface respectively. Conclusion: It appears that taking a CT scan before each treatment is necessary to minimize the risk of delivering undesired high doses to the critical organs. This study indicates, in 30% of the cases re-planning was necessary between treatments. We conclude that, treatment planning teams should evaluate the placement of the device by analyzing the CT images before each treatment and they must be prepared for re-planning if needed. This study also reveals the urgent need of improving the immobilization methods with APBI when treating with the SAVI applicator.

  9. Economical and environmental implications of solid waste compost applications to agricultural fields in Punjab, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Qazi, M Akram; Akram, M; Ahmad, N; Artiola, Janick F; Tuller, M

    2009-09-01

    Application of municipal solid waste compost (MSWC) to agricultural soils is becoming an increasingly important global practice to enhance and sustain soil organic matter (SOM) and fertility levels. Potential risks associated with heavy metals and phosphorus accumulations in surface soils may be minimized with integrated nutrient management strategies that utilize MSWC together with mineral fertilizers. To explore the economic feasibility of MSWC applications, nutrient management plans were developed for rice-wheat and cotton-wheat cropping systems within the Punjab region of Pakistan. Three-year field trials were conducted to measure yields and to determine the economic benefits using three management strategies and two nutrient doses. Management strategies included the application of mineral fertilizers as the sole nutrient source and application of mineral fertilizers in combination with MSWC with and without pesticide/herbicide treatments. Fertilizer doses were either based on standard N, P and K recommendations or on measured site-specific soil plant available phosphorus (PAP) levels. It was found that combining MSWC and mineral fertilizer applications based on site-specific PAP levels with the use of pesticides and herbicides is an economically and environmentally viable management strategy. Results show that incorporation of MSWC improved soil physical properties such as bulk density and penetration resistance. The PAP levels in the surface layer increased by the end of the trials relative to the initial status. No potential risks of heavy metal (Zn, Cd, Cr, Pb and Ni) accumulation were observed. Treatments comprised of MSWC and mineral fertilizer adjusted to site-specific PAP levels and with common pest management showed highest cumulative yields. A basic economic analysis revealed a significantly higher cumulative net profit and value-to-cost ratio (VCR) for all site-specific doses.

  10. A step by step selection method for the location and the size of a waste-to-energy facility targeting the maximum output energy and minimization of gate fee.

    PubMed

    Kyriakis, Efstathios; Psomopoulos, Constantinos; Kokkotis, Panagiotis; Bourtsalas, Athanasios; Themelis, Nikolaos

    2017-06-23

    This study attempts the development of an algorithm in order to present a step by step selection method for the location and the size of a waste-to-energy facility targeting the maximum output energy, also considering the basic obstacle which is in many cases, the gate fee. Various parameters identified and evaluated in order to formulate the proposed decision making method in the form of an algorithm. The principle simulation input is the amount of municipal solid wastes (MSW) available for incineration and along with its net calorific value are the most important factors for the feasibility of the plant. Moreover, the research is focused both on the parameters that could increase the energy production and those that affect the R1 energy efficiency factor. Estimation of the final gate fee is achieved through the economic analysis of the entire project by investigating both expenses and revenues which are expected according to the selected site and outputs of the facility. In this point, a number of commonly revenue methods were included in the algorithm. The developed algorithm has been validated using three case studies in Greece-Athens, Thessaloniki, and Central Greece, where the cities of Larisa and Volos have been selected for the application of the proposed decision making tool. These case studies were selected based on a previous publication made by two of the authors, in which these areas where examined. Results reveal that the development of a «solid» methodological approach in selecting the site and the size of waste-to-energy (WtE) facility can be feasible. However, the maximization of the energy efficiency factor R1 requires high utilization factors while the minimization of the final gate fee requires high R1 and high metals recovery from the bottom ash as well as economic exploitation of recovered raw materials if any.

  11. Application of phytoscreening to three hazardous waste sites in Arizona.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Candice M; Mainhagu, Jon; Virgone, Kayla; Ramírez, Denise Moreno; Brusseau, Mark L

    2017-12-31

    The great majority of prior phytoscreening applications have been conducted in humid and temperate environments wherein groundwater is relatively shallow (~1-6m deep). The objective of this research is to evaluate its use in semi-arid environments for sites with deeper groundwater (>10m). To that end, phytoscreening is applied to three chlorinated-solvent hazardous-waste sites in Arizona. Contaminant concentrations were quantifiable in tree-tissue samples collected from two of the sites (Nogales, Park-Euclid). Contaminant concentrations were detectable, but not quantifiable, for the third site. Tree-tissue concentrations of tetrachloroethene (PCE) ranged from approximately 400-5000ug/kg wet weight for burrobrush, cottonwood, palo verde, and velvet mesquite at the Nogales site. In addition to standard trunk-core samples, leaf samples were collected to test the effectiveness of a less invasive sampling method. Leaf-sample concentrations were quantifiable, but several times lower than the corresponding core-sample concentrations. Comparison of results obtained for the test sites to those reported in the literature suggest that tree species is a major factor mediating observed results. One constraint faced for the Arizona sites was the relative scarcity of mature trees available for sampling, particularly in areas adjacent to industrial zones. The results of this study illustrate that phytoscreening can be used effectively to characterize the presence of groundwater contamination for semi-arid sites with deeper groundwater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Waste minimization and pollution prevention initiatives within Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) boiler house operations

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The mission of ANL-E Plant Facility and Services-Utilities and Systems (PFS-US) is to operate and maintain utility services in a cost-effective manner, while utilizing new and innovative methods whenever possible. PFS-US operates an on-site coal burning boiler plant that generates steam for use throughout the Laboratory as a source to heat buildings, as well as for use in research experiments. In the recent past, PFS-US has embarked upon a series of initiatives to improve operating efficiency of boiler house operations. The results of these projects have had the following impacts on boiler house performance and operations: (1) boiler house efficiency and operations have improved, (2) boiler house operating costs have been reduced, (3) specific operating and maintenance costs have been avoided or eliminated, and (4) the amount of waste and pollution generated has been reduced. Through the implementation of these initiatives, over $250,000 of revenue and cost savings have been incurred by ANL-E. In addition, the Laboratory and DOE will benefit annually from revenues, cost savings, and the reduction of environmental liability resulting from these initiatives.

  13. Production of Enzymes From Agricultural Wastes and Their Potential Industrial Applications.

    PubMed

    Bharathiraja, S; Suriya, J; Krishnan, M; Manivasagan, P; Kim, S-K

    2017-01-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis is the significant technique for the conversion of agricultural wastes into valuable products. Agroindustrial wastes such as rice bran, wheat bran, wheat straw, sugarcane bagasse, and corncob are cheapest and plentifully available natural carbon sources for the production of industrially important enzymes. Innumerable enzymes that have numerous applications in industrial processes for food, drug, textile, and dye use have been produced from different types of microorganisms from agricultural wastes. Utilization of agricultural wastes offers great potential for reducing the production cost and increasing the use of enzymes for industrial purposes. This chapter focuses on economic production of actinobacterial enzymes from agricultural wastes to make a better alternative for utilization of biomass generated in million tons as waste annually.

  14. Chemically treated carbon black waste and its potential applications.

    PubMed

    Dong, Pengwei; Maneerung, Thawatchai; Ng, Wei Cheng; Zhen, Xu; Dai, Yanjun; Tong, Yen Wah; Ting, Yen-Peng; Koh, Shin Nuo; Wang, Chi-Hwa; Neoh, Koon Gee

    2017-01-05

    In this work, carbon black waste - a hazardous solid residue generated from gasification of crude oil bottom in refineries - was successfully used for making an absorbent material. However, since the carbon black waste also contains significant amounts of heavy metals (especially nickel and vanadium), chemical leaching was first used to remove these hazardous impurities from the carbon black waste. Acid leaching with nitric acid was found to be a very effective method for removal of both nickel and vanadium from the carbon black waste (i.e. up to 95% nickel and 98% vanadium were removed via treatment with 2M nitric acid for 1h at 20°C), whereas alkali leaching by using NaOH under the same condition was not effective for removal of nickel (less than 10% nickel was removed). Human lung cells (MRC-5) were then used to investigate the toxicity of the carbon black waste before and after leaching. Cell viability analysis showed that the leachate from the original carbon black waste has very high toxicity, whereas the leachate from the treated samples has no significant toxicity. Finally, the efficacy of the carbon black waste treated with HNO3 as an absorbent for dye removal was investigated. This treated carbon black waste has high adsorption capacity (∼361.2mg dye/g carbonblack), which can be attributed to its high specific surface area (∼559m(2)/g). The treated carbon black waste with its high adsorption capacity and lack of cytotoxicity is a promising adsorbent material. Moreover, the carbon black waste was found to show high electrical conductivity (ca. 10S/cm), making it a potentially valuable source of conductive material.

  15. Application of remote Raman screening to processing of mixed wastes in drums

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, B.A.; Jewett, J.R.; Parker, K.E.; Petersen, C.A.

    1993-02-01

    Disposal of transuranic and low-level drum waste involves decisions based on transportation restrictions, Waste Isolation Pilot Project - Waste Acceptance Criteria, and regulation resulting from the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 and the Washington State Department of Ecology. To support the decisions made concerning final disposition of these wastes, characterization protocols must be established that ultimately aid in defining the environmental impact. Under current methods, Intensive and expensive laboratory analyses are requested to support these decisions. Alternative screening analyses have been investigated to support characterization and reduce costs and sample turn-around times. One promising screening technique involves application of remote Raman spectroscopy for identification of unknown salts, sludges, and solids in wastes. Raman spectroscopy when used with real-time radiography and visual documentation expands the information base available for making real-time decisions for treatment of diverse drummed radioactive solid waste in a waste processing facility. Fourier Transform Raman spectroscopy has been successfully employed to identify oxidizing reagent waste solutions disposed on vermiculite. In addition, it has been proven that low concentrations of material in binary salt mixtures can be detected by using fiber optic remote Fourier Transform Raman spectroscopy. Development of an extensive solid waste libraryis a key element in the deployment of this technology in the process environment of solid waste drums and barrels.

  16. Field application of innovative grouting agents for in situ stabilization of buried waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Loomis, G.G.; Farnsworth, R.K.

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents field applications for two innovative grouting agents that were used to in situ stabilize buried waste sites, via jet grouting. The two grouting agents include paraffin and a proprietary iron oxide based cement grout called TECT. These materials were tested in specially designed cold test pits that simulate buried transuranic waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The field demonstrations were performed at the INEL in an area referred to as the Cold Test Pit, which is adjacent to the INEL Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). At the RWMC, 56,000 m{sup 3} of transuranic (TRU) waste is co-mingled with over 170,000 m{sup 3} of soil in shallow land burial. Improving the confinement of this waste is one of the options for final disposition of this waste. Using jet-grouting technology to inject these materials into the pore spaces of buried waste sites results in the creation of buried monolithic waste forms that simultaneously protect the waste from subsidence, while eliminating the migratory potential of hazardous and radioactive contaminants in the waste.

  17. Nonradioactive Air Emissions Notice of Construction (NOC) Application for the Central Waste Complex (CSC) for Storage of Vented Waste Containers

    SciTech Connect

    KAMBERG, L.D.

    2000-04-01

    This Notice of Construction (NOC) application is submitted for the storage and management of waste containers at the Central Waste Complex (CWC) stationary source. The CWC stationary source consists of multiple sources of diffuse and fugitive emissions, as described herein. This NOC is submitted in accordance with the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-400-110 (criteria pollutants) and 173-460-040 (toxic air pollutants), and pursuant to guidance provided by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology). Transuranic (TRU) mixed waste containers at CWC are vented to preclude the build up of hydrogen produced as a result of radionuclide decay, not as safety pressure releases. The following activities are conducted within the CWC stationary source: Storage and inspection; Transfer and staging; Packaging; Treatment; and Sampling. This NOC application is intended to cover all existing storage structures within the current CWC treatment, storage, and/or disposal (TSD) boundary, as well as any storage structures, including waste storage pads and staging areas, that might be constructed in the future within the existing CWC boundary.

  18. Potential Applicability of Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment Technologies to RCRA Waste Streams and Contaminated Media (PDF)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report provides an evaluation of the potential applicability of Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment (ACWA) technologies to RCRA waste streams and contaminated media found at RCRA and Superfund sites.

  19. Waste minimization opportunities at the U.S. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project, Rifle, Colorado, site

    SciTech Connect

    Hartmann, G.L.; Arp, S.; Hempill, H.

    1993-12-31

    At two uranium mill sites in Rifle, Colorado, the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is removing uranium mill tailings and contaminated subgrade soils. This remediation activity will result in the production of groundwater contaminated with uranium, heavy metals, ammonia, sulfates, and total dissolved solids (TDS). The initial remediation plan called for a wastewater treatment plant for removal of the uranium, heavy metals, and ammonia, with disposal of the treated water, which still includes the sulfates and TDSS, to the Colorado River. The National Pollutant Discharge Elimination (NPDES) permit issued by the Colorado Department of Health for the two Rifle sites contained more restrictive discharge limits than originally anticipated. During the detailed review of alternate treatment systems to meet these more restrictive limits, the proposed construction procedures were reviewed emphasizing the methods to minimize groundwater production to reduce the size of the water treatment facility, or to eliminate it entirely. It was determined that with changes to the excavation procedures and use of the contaminated groundwater for use in dust suppression at the disposal site, discharge to the river could be eliminated completely.

  20. Ultrasound-based navigation for minimally invasive surgical atrial fibrillation treatment: workflow and application prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hastenteufel, Mark; Yang, Siwei; Christoph, Carsten; Vetter, Marcus; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Wolf, Ivo

    2005-04-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia and results in an increased risk of ischemic stroke. Recently, a european consortium has developed a new minimally invasive device for surgical AF treatment. It consists of a micro-robot holding an end-effector called "umbrella" containing 22 radiofrequency powered electrodes. Surgery using this new device can only be performed having an appropriate navigation technique. Therefore, we have developed an image-based navigation workflow and a prototypic navigation application. First, a navigation workflow including an appropriate intra-operative image-modality was defined. Intraoperative ultrasound became the imaging modality of choice. Once the umbrella is unfolded inside the left atrium, data is acquired and segmented. Using a reliable communication protocol, mobility values are transferred from the control software to the navigation system. A deformation model predicts the behavior of the umbrella during repositioning. Prior to surgery, desired ablation lines can be interactively planned and actually made ablation lines are visualized during surgery. Several in-vitro tests were performed. The navigation prototype has been integrated and tested within the overall system successfully. Image acquisitions of the umbrella showed the feasibility of the navigation procedure. More in-vitro and in-vivo tests are currently performed to make the new device and the described navigation procedure ready for clinical use.

  1. Minimal Residual Disease in Acute Myeloid Leukemia of Adults: Determination, Prognostic Impact and Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Del Principe, Maria Ilaria; Buccisano, Francesco; Maurillo, Luca; Sconocchia, Giuseppe; Cefalo, Mariagiovanna; Consalvo, Maria Irno; Sarlo, Chiara; Conti, Consuelo; De Santis, Giovanna; De Bellis, Eleonora; Di Veroli, Ambra; Palomba, Patrizia; Attrotto, Cristina; Zizzari, Annagiulia; Paterno, Giovangiacinto; Voso, Maria Teresa; Del Poeta, Giovanni; Lo-Coco, Francesco; Arcese, William; Amadori, Sergio; Venditti, Adriano

    2016-01-01

    Pretreatment assessment of cytogenetic/genetic signature of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has been consistently shown to play a major prognostic role but also to fail at predicting outcome on individual basis, even in low-risk AML. Therefore, we are in need of further accurate methods to refine the patients’ risk allocation process, distinguishing more adequately those who are likely to recur from those who are not. In this view, there is now evidence that the submicroscopic amounts of leukemic cells (called minimal residual disease, MRD), measured during the course of treatment, indicate the quality of response to therapy. Therefore, MRD might serve as an independent, additional biomarker to help to identify patients at higher risk of relapse. Detection of MRD requires the use of highly sensitive ancillary techniques, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and multiparametric flow cytometry(MPFC). In the present manuscript, we will review the current approaches to investigate MRD and its clinical applications in AML management. PMID:27872732

  2. Minimal interference beam size/profile measurement techniques applicable to the Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Nexsen, W.; Dutt, S.; Kauffmann, S.; Lebedev, V.; Maschke, A.; Mokhov, N.; Richardson, R.; Tsyganov, E.; Zinchenko, A.

    1993-05-01

    The imaging of synchrotron radiation (SR) has been suggested as a technique for providing a continuous, non-interfering monitor of the beam profile in the Collider rings at the Superconducting Super Collider. A closer examination has raised questions concerning the applicability of SR imaging in this case because of the diffraction broadening of the image, the requirements for axial space and location in the lattice, and the complexity of the system. We have surveyed the known, alternative, minimal interference techniques for measuring beam size and have evaluated them for possible Collider usage. We conclude that of the approaches that appear feasible, all require at least some development for our usage and that the development of an electron beam probe offers the best promise. We recommend that flying wires be used for cross-checking and calibrating the electron beam probe diagnostic and for luminosity measurements when the highest accuracy is required, but flying wires should not be used as the primary diagnostic because of their limited lifetime.

  3. Plasma ARC/SCWO Sysems for Waste-to-Energy Applications Utilizing Milwaste Fuels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    AFRL-RX-WP-TR-2013-00213 PLASMA ARC/SCWO SYSTEMS FOR WASTE-TO- ENERGY APPLICATIONS UTILIZING MILWASTE FUELS Ralph H. Yates General...APPLICATIONS UTILIZING MILWASTE FUELS 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8651-04-C-0158 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 0909999F 6. AUTHOR(S...program was a research and development program aimed at developing a solid waste treatment technology to compliment General Atomics’ (GA’s) existing

  4. Overview of resuspension model: application to low level waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Healy, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    Resuspension is one of the potential pathways to man for radioactive or chemical contaminants that are in the biosphere. In waste management, spills or other surface contamination can serve as a source for resuspension during the operational phase. After the low-level waste disposal area is closed, radioactive materials can be brought to the surface by animals or insects or, in the long term, the surface can be removed by erosion. Any of these methods expose the material to resuspension in the atmosphere. Intrusion into the waste mass can produce resuspension of potential hazard to the intruder. Removal of items from the waste mass by scavengers or archeologists can result in potential resuspension exposure to others handling or working with the object. The ways in which resuspension can occur are wind resuspension, mechanical resuspension and local resuspension. While methods of predicting exposure are not accurate, they include the use of the resuspension factor, the resuspension rate and mass loading of the air.

  5. NOX CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES APPLICABLE TO MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents the key design and operating parameters, commercial status, demonstrated performance, and cost of three technologies available for reducing nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from municipal waste combustors (MWCs), and identifies technology research and developme...

  6. NOX CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES APPLICABLE TO MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents the key design and operating parameters, commercial status, demonstrated performance, and cost of three technologies available for reducing nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from municipal waste combustors (MWCs), and identifies technology research and developme...

  7. Land Application of Wastes: An Educational Program. Legal Aspects - Module 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarkson, W. W.; And Others

    This module summarizes laws that are relevant to the land application of wastes, focusing on the applicable Federal laws and representative state regulations from different areas of the country. The module describes the 10 points of Public Law 92-500, the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972, that relate to land application. It…

  8. Land Application of Wastes: An Educational Program. Legal Aspects - Module 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarkson, W. W.; And Others

    This module summarizes laws that are relevant to the land application of wastes, focusing on the applicable Federal laws and representative state regulations from different areas of the country. The module describes the 10 points of Public Law 92-500, the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972, that relate to land application. It…

  9. Thermal destruction of organic waste hydrophobicity for agricultural soils application.

    PubMed

    Comino, Francisco; Aranda, Víctor; Domínguez-Vidal, Ana; Ayora-Cañada, María José

    2017-11-01

    Use of organic amendments is a good strategy for combating the growing problem of soil degradation due to deterioration of organic matter content, particularly severe in semi-arid European Mediterranean regions, while at the same time providing an opportunity for recycling organic wastes. Olive mill pomace (OMP), the main by-product of the olive oil industry, is being used increasingly in olive grove soils for this purpose. Although the positive effects of OMP amendments have been widely studied, they also have some negative effects on soil. One of the most critical is that they increase water repellency (WR) due to the presence of poorly evolved, strongly aliphatic compounds. This detrimental effect has received very little attention, although it may impair plant water availability and infiltration rates, increase erosion and lower long-term soil quality. This study proposed, for the first time, thermal treatment as an effective way of reducing WR in organic amendments (i.e. mixtures of OMP, olive tree pruning, chicken manure and spent coffee grounds) prior to their application to soil. Thermal treatment at 275 °C proved effective in removing WR, while lower temperatures (175 or 225 °C) can even increase it. Changes by thermal treatment in the characteristics of the organic amendments studied with FTIR and UV-Vis spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis showed that it strongly reduced the aliphatic compounds mainly responsible for their hydrophobicity, concentrated aromatic compounds and increased thermostability. Heating also reduced phytotoxicity, making all of the organic amendments usable in the field (germination index over 100%). Therefore, heating at 275 °C could be an acceptable option for removing WR from organic amendments, enhancing their quality with more stable evolved characteristics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Solid waste management in primary healthcare centers: application of a facilitation tool 1

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Ana Maria Maniero; Günther, Wanda Maria Risso

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: to propose a tool to facilitate diagnosis, formulation and evaluation of the Waste Management Plan in Primary Healthcare Centers and to present the results of the application in four selected units. Method: descriptive research, covering the stages of formulation /application of the proposed instrument and the evaluation of waste management performance at the units. Results: the tool consists in five forms; specific indicators of waste generation for outpatients healthcare units were proposed, and performance indicators that give scores for compliance with current legislation. In the studied units it is generated common waste (52-60%), infectious-sharps (31-42%) and recyclable (5-17%). The average rates of generation are: 0,09kg of total waste/outpatient assistance and 0,09kg of infectious-sharps waste/outpatient procedure. The compliance with regulations, initially 26-30%, then reached 30-38% a year later. Conclusion: the tool showed to be easy to use, bypassing the existence of a complex range of existing regulatory requirements, allowed to identify non-conformities, pointed out corrective measures and evaluated the performance of waste management. In this sense, it contributes to decision making and management practices relating to waste, tasks usually assigned to nurses. It is recommended that the tool be applied in similar healthcare units for comparative studies, and implementation of necessary adaptations for other medical services. PMID:27556874

  11. Iron and aluminium oxides containing industrial wastes as adsorbents of heavy metals: Application possibilities and limitations.

    PubMed

    Jacukowicz-Sobala, Irena; Ociński, Daniel; Kociołek-Balawejder, Elżbieta

    2015-07-01

    Industrial wastes with a high iron or aluminium oxide content are produced in huge quantities as by-products of water treatment (water treatment residuals), bauxite processing (red mud) and hard and brown coal burning in power plants (fly ash). Although they vary in their composition, the wastes have one thing in common--a high content of amorphous iron and/or aluminium oxides with a large specific surface area, whereby this group of wastes shows very good adsorbability towards heavy metals, arsenates, selenates, etc. But their physical form makes their utilisation quite difficult, since it is not easy to separate the spent sorbent from the solution and high bed hydraulic resistances occur in dynamic regime processes. Nevertheless, because of the potential benefits of utilising the wastes in industrial effluent treatment, this issue attracts much attention today. This study describes in detail the waste generation processes, the chemical structure of the wastes, their physicochemical properties, and the mechanisms of fixing heavy metals and semimetals on the surface of iron and aluminium oxides. Typical compositions of wastes generated in selected industrial plants are given. A detailed survey of the literature on the adsorption applications of the wastes, including methods of their thermal and chemical activation, as well as regeneration of the spent sorbents, is presented. The existing and potential ways of modifying the physical form of the discussed group of wastes, making it possible to overcome the basic limitation on their practical use, are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Partial Sum Minimization of Singular Values in Robust PCA: Algorithm and Applications.

    PubMed

    Oh, Tae-Hyun; Tai, Yu-Wing; Bazin, Jean-Charles; Kim, Hyeongwoo; Kweon, In So

    2016-04-01

    Robust Principal Component Analysis (RPCA) via rank minimization is a powerful tool for recovering underlying low-rank structure of clean data corrupted with sparse noise/outliers. In many low-level vision problems, not only it is known that the underlying structure of clean data is low-rank, but the exact rank of clean data is also known. Yet, when applying conventional rank minimization for those problems, the objective function is formulated in a way that does not fully utilize a priori target rank information about the problems. This observation motivates us to investigate whether there is a better alternative solution when using rank minimization. In this paper, instead of minimizing the nuclear norm, we propose to minimize the partial sum of singular values, which implicitly encourages the target rank constraint. Our experimental analyses show that, when the number of samples is deficient, our approach leads to a higher success rate than conventional rank minimization, while the solutions obtained by the two approaches are almost identical when the number of samples is more than sufficient. We apply our approach to various low-level vision problems, e.g., high dynamic range imaging, motion edge detection, photometric stereo, image alignment and recovery, and show that our results outperform those obtained by the conventional nuclear norm rank minimization method.

  13. RCRA Part B Permit Application for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory - Volume 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Pamela R. Cunningham

    1992-07-01

    This section of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) Part B permit application describes the waste characteristics Of the transuranic (TRU) mixed wastes at the RWMC waste management units to be permitted: the Intermediate-Level Transuranic Storage Facility (ILTSF) and the Waste Storage Facility (WSF). The ILTSF is used to store radioactive remote-handled (RH) wastes. The WSF will be used to store radioactive contact-handled (CH) wastes. The Transuranic Storage Area (TSA) was established at the RWMC to provide interim storage of TRU waste. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A defines TRU waste as waste contaminated with alpha-emitting transuranium radionuclides with half-lives greater than 20 years in concentrations greater than 100 nanocuries per gram (nCi/g) o f waste material. The TSA serves generators both on and off the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The ILTSF is located at the TSA, and the WSF will be located there also. Most of the wastes managed at the TSA are mixed wastes, which are radioactive wastes regulated under the Atomic Energy Act (AEA) that also contain hazardous materials regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Idaho Hazardous Waste Management Regulations. These wastes include TRU mixed wastes and some low-level mixed wastes. Accordingly, the TSA is subject to the permitting requirements of RCRA and the Idaho Administrative Procedures Act (IDAPA). Prior to 1982, DOE orders defined TRU wastes as having transuranium radionuclides in concentrations greater than 10 nCi/g, The low-level mixed wastes managed at the TSA are those wastes with 10 to 100 nCi/g of TRU radionuclides that prior to 1982 were considered TRU waste.

  14. Novel Acid Catalysts from Waste-Tire-Derived Carbon: Application in Waste-to-Biofuel Conversion

    DOE PAGES

    Hood, Zachary D.; Adhikari, Shiba P.; Li, Yunchao; ...

    2017-06-21

    Many inexpensive biofuel feedstocks, including those containing free fatty acids (FFAs) in high concentrations, are typically disposed of as waste due to our inability to efficiently convert them into usable biofuels. Here we demonstrate that carbon derived from waste tires could be functionalized with sulfonic acid (-SO3H) to effectively catalyze the esterification of oleic acid or a mixture of fatty acids to usable biofuels. Waste tires were converted to hard carbon, then functionalized with catalytically active -SO3H groups on the surface through an environmentally benign process that involved the sequential treatment with L-cysteine, dithiothreitol, and H2O2. In conclusion, when benchmarkedmore » against the same waste-tire derived carbon material treated with concentrated sulfuric acid at 150 °C, similar catalytic activity was observed. Both catalysts could also effectively convert oleic acid or a mixture of fatty acids and soybean oil to usable biofuels at 65 °C and 1 atm without leaching of the catalytic sites.« less

  15. Citizen involvement in waste management: An application of the STOPER model via an informed consensus approach

    SciTech Connect

    Connick, P. de; Seguin, M.; Chornet, E.; Laramee, L.; Twizeyemariya, A.; Abatzoglou, N.; Racine, L.

    1999-01-01

    Waste management planning and implementation is not only a technological issue, but a social and political one as well. In this paper, the authors discuss a proposal to rethink certain aspects about waste management planning and implementation. Specifically, they present a framework whereby the ordinary citizen can proactively and constructively participate in the decision-making process. After briefly discussing the STOPER research team and certain limits inherent in current waste-management practices, the authors propose a mode of consultation known as the informed consensus approach. They assert that this approach incorporates social perceptions of key intervenors such as experts, decision makers, interest groups, and ordinary citizens and that this can enrich the decision-making process concerning complex environmental issues such as waste management. The authors focus their presentation on the results of the application of an informed consensus approach to waste management strategies in the municipality of Sherbrooke (Quebec, Canada).

  16. Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application documentation consists of both Part A and a Part B permit application documentation. An explanation of the Part A revisions associated with this treatment and storage unit, including the current revision, is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. Once the initial Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit is issued, the following process will be used. As final, certified treatment, storage, and/or disposal unit-specific documents are developed, and completeness notifications are made by the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Washington State Department of Ecology, additional unit-specific permit conditions will be incorporated into the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit through the permit modification process. All treatment, storage, and/or disposal units that are included in the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application will operate under interim status until final status conditions for these units are incorporated into the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit. The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility contains information current as of May 1, 1993.

  17. Considerations in selecting conveyors for solid waste applications

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Z.; Renard, M.L.; Campbell, J.

    1982-09-01

    An engineering evaluation and experimental program involving several types of conveyors applied to processed fractions of municipal solid wastes was conducted by the National Center for Resource Recovery. This final project report discusses the properties and characteristics of waste affecting conveyability and presents experimentally determined values or observed characteristics. A procedure is developed for the selection, assessment and operation of belt conveyors based on spillage rate. Corroborating experimental results from a recirculating test rig operated with six waste fractions over a range of belt configurations, velocities and flow rates are presented. Experiments conducted on a vibrating pan conveyor with six feedstocks and over a range of frequencies and stroke length, and on a small apron conveyor (batch basis on two feedstocks), are described and the test results analyzed.

  18. Chemistry of application of calcination/dissolution to the Hanford tank waste inventory

    SciTech Connect

    Delegard, C.H.; Elcan, T.D.; Hey, B.E.

    1994-05-01

    Approximately 330,000 metric tons of sodium-rich radioactive waste originating from separation of plutonium from irradiated uranium fuel are stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Fractionation of the waste into low-level waste (LLW) and high-level waste (HLW) streams is envisioned via partial water dissolution and limited radionuclide extraction operations. Under optimum conditions, LLW would contain most of the chemical bulk while HLW would contain virtually all of the transuranic and fission product activity. Calcination at around 850 C, followed by water dissolution, has been proposed as an alternative initial treatment of Hanford Site waste to improve waste dissolution and the envisioned LLW/HLW split. Results of literature and laboratory studies are reported on the application of calcination/dissolution (C/D) to the fractionation of the Hanford Site tank waste inventory. Both simulated and genuine Hanford Site waste materials were used in the lab tests. To evaluation confirmed that C/D processing reduced the amount of several components from the waste. The C/D dissolutions of aluminum and chromium allow redistribution of these waste components from the HLW to the LLW fraction. Comparisons of simple water-washing with C/D processing of genuine Hanford Site waste are also reported based on material (radionuclide and chemical) distributions to solution and solid residue phases. The lab results show that C/D processing yielded superior dissolution of aluminum and chromium sludges compared to simple water dissolution. 57 refs., 26 figs., 18 tabs.

  19. Minimal Pairs: Minimal Importance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Adam

    1995-01-01

    This article argues that minimal pairs do not merit as much attention as they receive in pronunciation instruction. There are other aspects of pronunciation that are of greater importance, and there are other ways of teaching vowel and consonant pronunciation. (13 references) (VWL)

  20. The Auburn Engineering Technical Assistance Program investigation of polyvinyl alcohol film developments pertaining to radioactive particle decontamination and industrial waste minimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mole, Tracey Lawrence

    In this work, an effective and systematic model is devised to synthesize the optimal formulation for an explicit engineering application in the nuclear industry, i.e. radioactive decontamination and waste reduction. Identification of an optimal formulation that is suitable for the desired system requires integration of all the interlacing behaviors of the product constituents. This work is unique not only in product design, but also in these design techniques. The common practice of new product development is to design the optimized product for a particular industrial niche and then subsequent research for the production process is conducted, developed and optimized separately from the product formulation. In this proposed optimization design technique, the development process, disposal technique and product formulation is optimized simultaneously to improve production profit, product behavior and disposal emissions. This "cradle to grave" optimization approach allowed a complex product formulation development process to be drastically simplified. The utilization of these modeling techniques took an industrial idea to full scale testing and production in under 18 months by reducing the number of subsequent laboratory trials required to optimize the formula, production and waste treatment aspects of the product simultaneously. This particular development material involves the use of a polymer matrix that is applied to surfaces as part of a decontamination system. The polymer coating serves to initially "fix" the contaminants in place for detection and ultimate elimination. Upon mechanical entrapment and removal, the polymer coating containing the radioactive isotopes can be dissolved in a solvent processor, where separation of the radioactive metallic particles can take place. Ultimately, only the collection of divided solids should be disposed of as nuclear waste. This creates an attractive alternative to direct land filling or incineration. This philosophy also

  1. A methodology for optimal MSW management, with an application in the waste transportation of Attica Region, Greece

    SciTech Connect

    Economopoulou, M.A.; Economopoulou, A.A.; Economopoulos, A.P.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • A two-step (strategic and detailed optimal planning) methodology is used for solving complex MSW management problems. • A software package is outlined, which can be used for generating detailed optimal plans. • Sensitivity analysis compares alternative scenarios that address objections and/or wishes of local communities. • A case study shows the application of the above procedure in practice and demonstrates the results and benefits obtained. - Abstract: The paper describes a software system capable of formulating alternative optimal Municipal Solid Wastes (MSWs) management plans, each of which meets a set of constraints that may reflect selected objections and/or wishes of local communities. The objective function to be minimized in each plan is the sum of the annualized capital investment and annual operating cost of all transportation, treatment and final disposal operations involved, taking into consideration the possible income from the sale of products and any other financial incentives or disincentives that may exist. For each plan formulated, the system generates several reports that define the plan, analyze its cost elements and yield an indicative profile of selected types of installations, as well as data files that facilitate the geographic representation of the optimal solution in maps through the use of GIS. A number of these reports compare the technical and economic data from all scenarios considered at the study area, municipality and installation level constituting in effect sensitivity analysis. The generation of alternative plans offers local authorities the opportunity of choice and the results of the sensitivity analysis allow them to choose wisely and with consensus. The paper presents also an application of this software system in the capital Region of Attica in Greece, for the purpose of developing an optimal waste transportation system in line with its approved waste management plan. The formulated plan was able to

  2. Survey of agents and techniques applicable to the solidification of low-level radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Fuhrmann, M.; Neilson, R.M. Jr.; Colombo, P.

    1981-12-01

    A review of the various solidification agents and techniques that are currently available or potentially applicable for the solidification of low-level radioactive wastes is presented. An overview of the types and quantities of low-level wastes produced is presented. Descriptions of waste form matrix materials, the wastes types for which they have been or may be applied and available information concerning relevant waste form properties and characteristics follow. Also included are descriptions of the processing techniques themselves with an emphasis on those operating parameters which impact upon waste form properties. The solidification agents considered in this survey include: hydraulic cements, thermoplastic materials, thermosetting polymers, glasses, synthetic minerals and composite materials. This survey is part of a program supported by the United States Department of Energy's Low-Level Waste Management Program (LLWMP). This work provides input into LLWMP efforts to develop and compile information relevant to the treatment and processing of low-level wastes and their disposal by shallow land burial.

  3. Determination of triazine herbicides: development of an electroanalytical method utilizing a solid amalgam electrode that minimizes toxic waste residues, and a comparative study between voltammetric and chromatographic techniques.

    PubMed

    De Souza, Djenaine; de Toledo, Renata A; Galli, Andressa; Salazar-Banda, Giancarlo R; Silva, Maria R C; Garbellini, Gustavo S; Mazo, Luiz H; Avaca, Luis A; Machado, Sergio A S

    2007-03-01

    The use of a copper solid amalgam electrode (CuSAE) for the analytical determination of triazine herbicides (atrazine and ametryne) instead of the conventional hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE) is reported. The results obtained using electroanalytical methods utilizing each of these electrodes were also compared with those provided by the HPLC technique. The results indicated that the CuSAE electrode can be used to detect the herbicides studied, since the detection limits reached using the electrode (3.06 microg L-1 and 3.78 microg L-1 for atrazine and ametryne, respectively) are lower than the maximum values permitted by CONAMA (Brazilian National Council for the Environment) for wastewaters (50 microg L-1) and by the US EPA (Environmental Protection Agency of the United States) in natural water samples (10.00 microg L-1). An electroanalytical methodology employing CuSAE and square wave voltammetry (SWV) was successfully applied to the determination of atrazine and ametryne in natural water samples, yielding good recoveries (70.30%-79.40%). This indicates that the CuSAE provides a convenient substitute for the HMDE, particularly since the CuSAE minimizes the toxic waste residues produced by the use of mercury in HDME-based analyses.

  4. Water recovery and solid waste processing for aerospace and domestic applications. Volume 1: Final report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    A comprehensive study of advanced water recovery and solid waste processing techniques employed in both aerospace and domestic or commercial applications is reported. A systems approach was used to synthesize a prototype system design of an advanced water treatment/waste processing system. Household water use characteristics were studied and modified through the use of low water use devices and a limited amount of water reuse. This modified household system was then used as a baseline system for development of several water treatment waste processing systems employing advanced techniques. A hybrid of these systems was next developed and a preliminary design was generated to define system and hardware functions.

  5. Application of a narrow-surface cage in full endoscopic minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion.

    PubMed

    He, Er-Xing; Guo, Jing; Ling, Qin-Jie; Yin, Zhi-Xun; Wang, Ying; Li, Ming

    2017-06-01

    Spinal endoscopy has been widely applied in lumbar discectomy and decompression. However, endoscopic lumbar interbody fusion still remains a technical challenge due to the limited space within the working trocar for cage implantation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility and effectiveness of using a narrow-surface fusion cage in full endoscopic minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-TLIF) for the treatment of lumbar degenerative disease. From Jun 2013 to Dec 2014, a total of 42 patients (23 males, 19 females) underwent full endoscopic MIS-TLIF at our hospital was recruited. An 8-mm-wide narrow-surface fusion cage was selected for all cases. Perioperative parameters and complications were recorded. Comparisons on visual analog scale (VAS) and oswestry disability index (ODI) scores before and after surgery were performed. At the last follow-up, Nakai grading system was applied to assess patients' satisfaction; meanwhile, interbody fusion was evaluated by computed tomography. Mean operation time was 233.1 ± 69.5 min, and mean blood loss during surgery was 221.8 ± 98.5 ml. Two patients (4.8%) developed neurological complications. Postoperative follow-up ranged from 24 to 36 months (mean 27.6 ± 3.8 months). VAS and ODI scores were significantly improved 3 months after surgery and at the final follow-up, respectively (P < 0.05). Outcome of surgery was graded as excellent for 32 patients, good for 8 patients, and acceptable for 2 patients, corresponding to a success rate ("good" and "excellent") of 95.2%. Thirty-nine of the 42 patients demonstrated solid interbody fusion at the last follow-up, indicating a fusion rate of 92.9%. Application of a narrow-surface fusion cage in full endoscopic MIS-TLIF for the treatment of lumbar degenerative disease is feasible and effective. The clinical outcome and fusion success of this procedure were acceptable and promising. Copyright © 2017 IJS Publishing Group Ltd

  6. Stochastic quasi-Newton method: Application to minimal model for proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chau, C. D.; Sevink, G. J. A.; Fraaije, J. G. E. M.

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of protein folding pathways and inherent structures is of utmost importance for our understanding of biological function, including the rational design of drugs and future treatments against protein misfolds. Computational approaches have now reached the stage where they can assess folding properties and provide data that is complementary to or even inaccessible by experimental imaging techniques. Minimal models of proteins, which make possible the simulation of protein folding dynamics by (systematic) coarse graining, have provided understanding in terms of descriptors for folding, folding kinetics, and folded states. Here we focus on the efficiency of equilibration on the coarse-grained level. In particular, we applied a new regularized stochastic quasi-Newton (S-QN) method, developed for accelerated configurational space sampling while maintaining thermodynamic consistency, to analyze the folding pathway and inherent structures of a selected protein, where regularization was introduced to improve stability. The adaptive compound mobility matrix B in S-QN, determined by a factorized secant update, gives rise to an automated scaling of all modes in the protein, in particular an acceleration of protein domain dynamics or principal modes and a slowing down of fast modes or “soft” bond constraints, similar to lincs/shake algorithms, when compared to conventional Langevin dynamics. We used and analyzed a two-step strategy. Owing to the enhanced sampling properties of S-QN and increased barrier crossing at high temperatures (in reduced units), a hierarchy of inherent protein structures is first efficiently determined by applying S-QN for a single initial structure and T=1>Tθ, where Tθ is the collapse temperature. Second, S-QN simulations for several initial structures at very low temperature (T=0.01

  7. Application Guide for Waste Heat Recovery with Organic Rankine Cycle Equipment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-15

    organic Rankine cycle technology could greatly expand waste heat recovery opportunities because of its ability to produce mechanical or electrical work...efficiency of an engine receiving heat from a 200OF source and rejecting to a 70OF sink is only 19.7 percent). The organic Rankine cycle offers a...estimate organic Rankine cycle (ORC) equipment for waste-heat recovery applications. The intention is to provide a technique whereby the field engineer

  8. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B permit application [for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)]. Volume 1, Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    This volume includes the following chapters: Waste Isolation Pilot Plant RCRA A permit application; facility description; waste analysis plan; groundwater monitoring; procedures to prevent hazards; RCRA contingency plan; personnel training; corrective action for solid waste management units; and other Federal laws.

  9. Land Application of Wastes: An Educational Program. Pathogens - Module 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarkson, W. W.; And Others

    This module is intended to help engineers evaluate the relative health risks from pathogens at land treatment sites versus conventional waste treatment systems. Among the topics considered are the following: (1) the relationship between survival time of pathogens and the chance of disease transmission to humans; (2) the factors that favor survival…

  10. APPLICATION OF PULSE COMBUSTION TO INCINERATION OF LIQUID HAZARDOUS WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study to determine the effect of acoustic pulsations on the steady-state operation of a pulse combustor burning liquid hazardous waste. A horizontal tunnel furnace was retrofitted with a liquid injection pulse combustor that burned No. 2 fuel oil. Th...

  11. APPLICATION OF PULSE COMBUSTION TO INCINERATION OF LIQUID HAZARDOUS WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study to determine the effect of acoustic pulsations on the steady-state operation of a pulse combustor burning liquid hazardous waste. A horizontal tunnel furnace was retrofitted with a liquid injection pulse combustor that burned No. 2 fuel oil. Th...

  12. Land Application of Wastes: An Educational Program. Pathogens - Module 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarkson, W. W.; And Others

    This module is intended to help engineers evaluate the relative health risks from pathogens at land treatment sites versus conventional waste treatment systems. Among the topics considered are the following: (1) the relationship between survival time of pathogens and the chance of disease transmission to humans; (2) the factors that favor survival…

  13. State waste discharge permit application for cooling water and condensate discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Haggard, R.D.

    1996-08-12

    The following presents the Categorical State Waste Discharge Permit (SWDP) Application for the Cooling Water and Condensate Discharges on the Hanford Site. This application is intended to cover existing cooling water and condensate discharges as well as similar future discharges meeting the criteria set forth in this document.

  14. RCRA Part A Permit Application for Waste Management Activities at the Nevada Test Site, Part B Permit Application Hazardous Waste Storage Unit, Nevada Test Site, and Part B Permit Application - Explosives Ordnance Disposal Unit (EODU)

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Programs

    2010-06-17

    The Area 5 Hazardous Waste Storage Unit (HWSU) was established to support testing, research, and remediation activities at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), a large-quantity generator of hazardous waste. The HWSU, located adjacent to the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS), is a prefabricated, rigid steel-framed, roofed shelter used to store hazardous nonradioactive waste generated on the NTS. No offsite generated wastes are managed at the HWSU. Waste managed at the HWSU includes the following categories: Flammables/Combustibles; Acid Corrosives; Alkali Corrosives; Oxidizers/Reactives; Toxics/Poisons; and Other Regulated Materials (ORMs). A list of the regulated waste codes accepted for storage at the HWSU is provided in Section B.2. Hazardous wastes stored at the HWSU are stored in U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) compliant containers, compatible with the stored waste. Waste transfer (between containers) is not allowed at the HWSU and containers remain closed at all times. Containers are stored on secondary containment pallets and the unit is inspected monthly. Table 1 provides the metric conversion factors used in this application. Table 2 provides a list of existing permits. Table 3 lists operational Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) units at the NTS and their respective regulatory status.

  15. Animal waste utilization: Effective use of manure as a soil resource

    SciTech Connect

    Hatfield, J.L.; Stewart, B.A.

    1998-12-31

    This unique book examines the beneficial aspects of animal waste as a soil resource--not simply as an agricultural by-product with minimal practical use. Topics include: types of livestock waste--swine, poultry, dairy; methods and management of waste utilization; storage, handling, processing and application of animal waste; economics of waste utilization; new modeling and management techniques; and nonpoint source pollution, water quality, leaching, and air quality.

  16. SITE DEMONSTRATION CAPSULE --MATCON MODIFIED ASPHALT FOR WASTE CONTAINMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    MatCon is a polymer modified asphalt material designed specifically for waste contaminment applications. The modifications to the material differentiate it from conventional paving asphalt by minimizing the damaging effects of environmental exposure that could detract from the d...

  17. A differential equations approach to l1-minimization with applications to array imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moscoso, Miguel; Novikov, Alexei; Papanicolaou, George; Ryzhik, Lenya

    2012-10-01

    We present an ordinary differential equation approach to the analysis of algorithms for constructing l1 minimizing solutions to underdetermined linear systems of full rank. It involves a relaxed minimization problem whose minimum is independent of the relaxation parameter. An advantage of using the ordinary differential equations is that energy methods can be used to prove convergence. The connection to the discrete algorithms is provided by the Crandall-Liggett theory of monotone nonlinear semigroups. We illustrate the effectiveness of the discrete optimization algorithm in some sparse array imaging problems.

  18. Application of optimization techniques to spacecaft fuel usage minimization in deep space navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Tseng-Chan; Sunseri, Richard F.; Stanford, Richard H.; Gray, Donald L.; Breckheimer, Peter J.

    1987-01-01

    Mathematical analysis of the minimization of spacecraft fuel usage for both impulsive and finite motor burns is presented. A high precision integrated trajectory search program (SEPV) and several optimization software libraries are used to solve minimum fuel usage problems. The SEPV program has the capacity to vary either the initial spacecraft state or the finite burn parameters to acquire a specified set of target values. Several test examples for the Voyager 2 Uranus Encounter and the Galileo Jupiter Orbiter are presented to show that spacecraft fuel consumption can be minimized in targeting maneuver strategies. The fuel savings achieved by the optimum solution can be significant.

  19. Compaction of Space Mission Wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, John; Pisharody, Suresh; Wignarajah, K.

    2004-01-01

    The current solid waste management system employed on the International Space Station (ISS) consists of compaction, storage, and disposal. Wastes such plastic food packaging and trash are compacted manually and wrapped in duct tape footballs by the astronauts. Much of the waste is simply loaded either into the empty Russian Progress vehicle for destruction on reentry or into Shuttle for return to Earth. This manual method is wasteful of crew time and does not transition well to far term missions. Different wastes onboard spacecraft vary considerably in their characteristics and in the appropriate method of management. In advanced life support systems for far term missions, recovery of resources such as water from the wastes becomes important. However waste such as plastic food packaging, which constitutes a large fraction of solid waste (roughly 21% on ISS, more on long duration missions), contains minimal recoverable resource. The appropriate management of plastic waste is waste stabilization and volume minimization rather than resource recovery. This paper describes work that has begun at Ames Research Center on development of a heat melt compactor that can be used on near term and future missions, that can minimize crew interaction, and that can handle wastes with a significant plastic composition. The heat melt compactor takes advantage of the low melting point of plastics to compact plastic materials using a combination of heat and pressure. The US Navy has demonstrated successful development of a similar unit for shipboard application. Ames is building upon the basic approach demonstrated by the Navy to develop an advanced heat melt type compactor for space mission type wastes.

  20. Compaction of Space Mission Wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, John; Pisharody, Suresh; Wignarajah, K.

    2004-01-01

    The current solid waste management system employed on the International Space Station (ISS) consists of compaction, storage, and disposal. Wastes such plastic food packaging and trash are compacted manually and wrapped in duct tape footballs by the astronauts. Much of the waste is simply loaded either into the empty Russian Progress vehicle for destruction on reentry or into Shuttle for return to Earth. This manual method is wasteful of crew time and does not transition well to far term missions. Different wastes onboard spacecraft vary considerably in their characteristics and in the appropriate method of management. In advanced life support systems for far term missions, recovery of resources such as water from the wastes becomes important. However waste such as plastic food packaging, which constitutes a large fraction of solid waste (roughly 21% on ISS, more on long duration missions), contains minimal recoverable resource. The appropriate management of plastic waste is waste stabilization and volume minimization rather than resource recovery. This paper describes work that has begun at Ames Research Center on development of a heat melt compactor that can be used on near term and future missions, that can minimize crew interaction, and that can handle wastes with a significant plastic composition. The heat melt compactor takes advantage of the low melting point of plastics to compact plastic materials using a combination of heat and pressure. The US Navy has demonstrated successful development of a similar unit for shipboard application. Ames is building upon the basic approach demonstrated by the Navy to develop an advanced heat melt type compactor for space mission type wastes.