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Sample records for wastewater discharge standard

  1. Wastewater discharge and water quality standards in Brazil--implications for the selection of wastewater treatment technologies.

    PubMed

    von Sperling, M

    2000-01-01

    The paper describes and comments the Brazilian standards for water quality and effluent discharge (CONAMA Directive No. 20, 1986). The emphasis of the paper is on the conventional parameters which characterise domestic wastewater (BOD, SS, NH4+, N, P and coliforms). The wastewater treatment systems for achieving compliance are analysed with two perspectives: requirements for the discharge standards and requirements for the receiving water standards. The main treatment technologies available are listed, together with their capability to remove the major pollutants included in the Brazilian legislation. The analysis for the receiving water standards are given for different dilution ratios (river/discharge flows): 1/10, 1/1, 10/1 and 100/1. The difficulty in complying with the receiving water standards for BOD, phosphate and coliforms is highlighted and the cost implications for the adoption of more sophisticated technologies in order to achieve compliance are also provided. Although the specific quantitative values cited in the paper are associated with the Brazilian legislation, it is believed that the major conceptual issues are applicable to a large number of urban areas in other countries. PMID:10842806

  2. Estimated discharge of treated wastewater in Florida, 1990

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marella, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    According to the Florida Department of Environ- mental Protection, 5,100 wastewater treatment systems were in operation during 1990. Of this total, 72 percent were domestic wastewater facilities and 28 percent were industrial waste- water facilities. The number of wastewater systems inventoried for 1990 was 1,062 (systems that treated and discharged more than 0.01 Mgal/d or had a plant capacity of greater than 0.04 Mgal/d. Based on this inventory, the estimated discharge of treated wastewater in Florida during 1990 totaled 1,638 million gallons per day. Approxi- mately 65 percent of this water was discharged to surface water during 1990 and the remaining 35 percent was discharged to ground water. Discharge to surface water includes effluent outfalls into the Atlantic Ocean (32 percent), while the re- maining (68 percent) is discharged into the Gulf of Mexico, bays, rivers, wetlands, and other surface water bodies throughout Florida. Discharge to ground-water includes treated effluent outfalls to land application systems (reuse systems and spray fields), drain fields, percolation ponds (51 percent), and to injection wells (49 percent). An estimated 322 million gallons per day of the treated domestic and industrial wastewater was reused during 1990. Discharge of treated domestic wastewater from the 994 systems inventoried in Florida during 1990 totaled 1,353 million gallons per day and served an estimated 8.58 million people (66 percent of the population of Florida in 1990). The remaining 34 percent of the popu- lation (4.36 million) are served by the 2,700 smaller domestic wastewater systems or have individual septic tanks. In 1990, there were 1.56 million septic tanks in Florida. Discharge of industrial wastewater was inventoried for 68 systems in 1990 and totaled 285 million gallons per day. Discharge of domestic wastewater in- creased more than 20 percent and industrial wastewater discharge increased 5 percent from 1985 to 1990. (USGS)

  3. 40 CFR 63.1256 - Standards: Wastewater.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National... or operator of any affected source (existing or new) shall comply with the general wastewater... affected wastewater generated at the source. (i) Determine characteristics of a wastewater stream. At...

  4. 40 CFR 63.1256 - Standards: Wastewater.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National... or operator of any affected source (existing or new) shall comply with the general wastewater... affected wastewater generated at the source. (i) Determine characteristics of a wastewater stream. At...

  5. Field measurements and monitoring of wastewater discharge in sea water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mossa, Michele

    2006-07-01

    This paper reports a study of the field measurements and monitoring of wastewater discharge in sea water at Bari East (Italy). A wastewater sea outfall system is an integral and fundamental part of each wastewater treatment with ultimate sink in the sea water. The design of a water treatment plant and wastewater outfall must take into account the use of the environmental water, the values of physicochemical parameters to be respected in order to safeguard the use itself and the quality of the environmental water where wastewater is issued. In the present study measurements of sea current velocity components were carried out with a VM-ADP (Vessel-Mounted Acoustic Doppler Profiler). Salinity, wind directions and velocities were assessed with, for one survey, the total faecal coliforms and other biochemical parameters. It was emphasized that the measurements necessary for monitoring cannot be concentrated in the wastewater outfall pipe zone only, but should be extended to a neighbouring area of the outfall pipe, with an extension depending on the wastewater discharge, the polluting charge and the magnitude of the sea currents and the winds typical of the zone of interest. The analyses presented in this paper confirm that the sea zones close to the wastewater outfall pipe are particularly sensitive and vulnerable. Such results must be considered in the planning of a wastewater outfall pipe.

  6. Standards for discharge measurement with standardized nozzles and orifices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1940-01-01

    The following standards give the standardized forms for two throttling devices, standard nozzles and standard orifices, and enable them to be used in circular pipes without calibration. The definition of the standards are applicable in principle to the calibration and use of nonstandardized throttling devices, such as the venturi tube. The standards are valid, likewise, as a basis for discharge measurements in the German acceptance standards.

  7. Treatment of Wastewater with High Conductivity by Pulsed Discharge Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhaojun; Jiang, Song; Liu, Kefu

    2014-07-01

    A wastewater treatment system was established by means of pulsed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). The main advantage of this system is that the wastewater is employed as one of the electrodes for the degradation of rhodamine B, which makes use of the high conductivity and lessenes its negative influence on the discharge process. At the same time, the reactive species like ozone and ultraviolet (UV) light generated by the DBD can be utilized for the treatment of wastewater. The effects of some factors like conductivity, peak pulse voltage, discharge frequency and pH values were investigated. The results show that the combination of these reactive species could enhance the degradation of the dye while the ozone played the most important role in the process. The degradation efficiency was enhanced with the increase of energy supplied. The reduction in the concentration of rhodamine B was much more effective with high solution conductivity; under the highest conductivity condition, the degradation rate could rise to 99%.

  8. Degradation of Synthetic Dyeing Wastewater by Underwater Electrical Discharge Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D. Kim, S.; I. Jang, D.; J. Lim, B.; B. Lee, S.; S. Mok, Y.

    2013-07-01

    Electrical discharge treatments of synthetic dyeing wastewater were carried out with two different systems: underwater pulsed electrical discharge (UPED) and underwater dielectric barrier discharge (UDBD). Reactive Blue 4 (RB4) and Acid Red 4 (AR4) were used as model contaminants for the synthetic wastewater. The performance of the aforementioned systems was compared with respect to the chromaticity removal and the energy requirement. The results showed that the present electrical discharge systems were very effective for degradation of the dyes. The dependences of the dye degradation rate on treatment time, initial dye concentration, electrical energy, and the type of working gas including air, O2, and N2 were examined. The change in the initial dye concentration did not largely affect the degradation of either RB4 or AR4. The energy delivered to the UPED system was only partially utilized for generating reactive species capable of degrading the dyes, leading to higher energy requirement than the UDBD system. Among the working gases, the best performance was observed with O2. As the degradation proceeded, the concentration of total dissolved solids and the solution conductivity kept increasing while pH showed a decreasing trend, revealing that the dyes were effectively mineralized.

  9. Integration of chemical and biological treatments for textile industry wastewater: a possible zero-discharge system.

    PubMed

    Lee, H H; Chen, G; Yue, P L

    2001-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental studies have established that integrated treatment systems (mostly chemical and biological) for various industrial wastewaters can achieve better quality of treatment and can be cost-effective. In the present study, the objective is to minimize the use of process water in the textile industry by an economical recycle and reuse scheme. The textile wastewater was first characterized in terms of COD, BOD5, salinity and color. In order to recycle such wastewater, the contaminants should be mineralized and/or removed according to the reusable textile water quality standards. Typical results show that this is achievable. An economic analysis has been conducted on the proposed integrated system. The economic analysis shows that the integrated system is economically more attractive than any of the single treatment technologies for achieving the same target of treatment. The information presented in this paper provides a feasible option for the reduction of effluent discharges in the textile industry.

  10. Treatment of Dyeing Wastewater by Using Positive Pulsed Corona Discharge to Water Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Sun Mok; Hyun, Tae Ahn; Joeng, Tai Kim

    2007-02-01

    This study investigated the treatment of textile-dyeing wastewater by using an electrical discharge technique (positive pulsed corona discharge). The high-voltage electrode was placed above the surface of the wastewater while the ground electrode was submerged in the wastewater. The electrical discharge starting at the tip of the high voltage electrode propagated toward the surface of the wastewater, producing various oxidative radicals and ozone. Oxygen was used as the working gas instead of air to prevent nitrogen oxides from forming. The simulated wastewater was made up with amaranth, which is a kind of azo dye. The results obtained showed that the chromaticity of the wastewater was almost completely removed within an hour. The ultraviolet/visible spectra of the wastewater treated by the electrical discharge revealed that the total hydrocarbon level also decreased significantly.

  11. 33 CFR 158.250 - Standard discharge connection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Reception Facilities: Oily Mixtures § 158.250 Standard discharge connection. Each reception facility that received bilge water containing oily mixtures must have a standard discharge connection that— (a) Meets... oily mixtures from oceangoing ships....

  12. Effects of wastewater effluent discharge on stream quality in Indian Creek, Johnson County, Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graham, Jennifer L.; Foster, Guy M.

    2014-01-01

    Contaminants from point and other urban sources affect stream quality in Indian Creek, which is one of the most urban drainage basins in Johnson County, Kansas. The Johnson County Douglas L. Smith Middle Basin and Tomahawk Creek Wastewater Treatment Facilities discharge to Indian Creek. Data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Johnson County Wastewater, during June 2004 through June 2013 were used to evaluate stream quality in Indian Creek. This fact sheet summarizes the effects of wastewater effluent discharge on physical, chemical, and biological conditions in Indian Creek downstream from the Douglas L. Smith Middle Basin and Tomahawk Creek Wastewater Treatment Facilities.

  13. Determining a sustainable and economically optimal wastewater treatment and discharge strategy.

    PubMed

    Hardisty, Paul E; Sivapalan, Mayuran; Humphries, Robert

    2013-01-15

    Options for treatment and discharge of wastewater in regional Western Australia (WA) are examined from the perspective of overall sustainability and social net benefit. Current practice in the state has typically involved a basic standard of treatment deemed to be protective of human health, followed by discharge to surface water bodies. Community and regulatory pressure to move to higher standards of treatment is based on the presumption that a higher standard of treatment is more protective of the environment and society, and thus is more sustainable. This analysis tests that hypothesis for Western Australian conditions. The merits of various wastewater treatment and discharge strategies are examined by quantifying financial costs (capital and operations), and by monetising the wider environmental and social costs and benefits of each option over an expanded planning horizon (30 years). Six technical treatment-disposal options were assessed at a test site, all of which met the fundamental criterion of protecting human health. From a financial perspective, the current business-as-usual option is preferred - it is the least cost solution. However, valuing externalities such as water, greenhouse gases, ecological impacts and community amenity, the status quo is revealed as sub-optimal. Advanced secondary treatment with stream disposal improves water quality and provides overall net benefit to society. All of the other options were net present value (NPV) negative. Sensitivity analysis shows that the favoured option outperforms all of the others under a wide range of financial and externality values and assumptions. Expanding the findings across the state reveals that moving from the identified socially optimal level of treatment to higher (tertiary) levels of treatment would result in a net loss to society equivalent to several hundred million dollars. In other words, everyone benefits from improving treatment to the optimum point. But society, the environment, and

  14. Determining a sustainable and economically optimal wastewater treatment and discharge strategy.

    PubMed

    Hardisty, Paul E; Sivapalan, Mayuran; Humphries, Robert

    2013-01-15

    Options for treatment and discharge of wastewater in regional Western Australia (WA) are examined from the perspective of overall sustainability and social net benefit. Current practice in the state has typically involved a basic standard of treatment deemed to be protective of human health, followed by discharge to surface water bodies. Community and regulatory pressure to move to higher standards of treatment is based on the presumption that a higher standard of treatment is more protective of the environment and society, and thus is more sustainable. This analysis tests that hypothesis for Western Australian conditions. The merits of various wastewater treatment and discharge strategies are examined by quantifying financial costs (capital and operations), and by monetising the wider environmental and social costs and benefits of each option over an expanded planning horizon (30 years). Six technical treatment-disposal options were assessed at a test site, all of which met the fundamental criterion of protecting human health. From a financial perspective, the current business-as-usual option is preferred - it is the least cost solution. However, valuing externalities such as water, greenhouse gases, ecological impacts and community amenity, the status quo is revealed as sub-optimal. Advanced secondary treatment with stream disposal improves water quality and provides overall net benefit to society. All of the other options were net present value (NPV) negative. Sensitivity analysis shows that the favoured option outperforms all of the others under a wide range of financial and externality values and assumptions. Expanding the findings across the state reveals that moving from the identified socially optimal level of treatment to higher (tertiary) levels of treatment would result in a net loss to society equivalent to several hundred million dollars. In other words, everyone benefits from improving treatment to the optimum point. But society, the environment, and

  15. Analysis of 16S Sediment Microbial Communities from a Southern California Wastewater-Treatment Discharge Field

    EPA Science Inventory

    Treated sewage effluent from several large wastewater treatment plants in the Los Angeles metropolitan area is discharged into the Pacific Ocean through a network of outfalls located between 5 and 7 miles offshore. To support development of new indicators of wastewater effects o...

  16. A national discharge load of perfluoroalkyl acids derived from industrial wastewater treatment plants in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee-Young; Seok, Hyun-Woo; Kwon, Hye-Ok; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Seok, Kwang-Seol; Oh, Jeong Eun

    2016-09-01

    Levels of 11 perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), were measured in wastewater (influent and effluent) and sludge samples collected from 25 industrial wastewater treatment plants (I-WWTPs) in five industrial sectors (chemicals, electronics, metals, paper, and textiles) in South Korea. The highest ∑11PFAAs concentrations were detected in the influent and effluent from the paper (median: 411ng/L) and textile (median: 106ng/L) industries, and PFOA and PFOS were the predominant PFAAs (49-66%) in wastewater. Exceptionally high levels of PFAAs were detected in the sludge associated with the electronics (median: 91.0ng/g) and chemical (median: 81.5ng/g) industries with PFOS being the predominant PFAA. The discharge loads of 11 PFAAs from I-WWTP were calculated that total discharge loads for the five industries were 0.146ton/yr. The textile industry had the highest discharge load with 0.055ton/yr (PFOA: 0.039ton/yr, PFOS: 0.010ton/yr). Municipal wastewater contributed more to the overall discharge of PFAAs (0.489ton/yr) due to the very small industrial wastewater discharge compared to municipal wastewater discharge, but the contribution of PFAAs from I-WWTPs cannot be ignored.

  17. A national discharge load of perfluoroalkyl acids derived from industrial wastewater treatment plants in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee-Young; Seok, Hyun-Woo; Kwon, Hye-Ok; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Seok, Kwang-Seol; Oh, Jeong Eun

    2016-09-01

    Levels of 11 perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), were measured in wastewater (influent and effluent) and sludge samples collected from 25 industrial wastewater treatment plants (I-WWTPs) in five industrial sectors (chemicals, electronics, metals, paper, and textiles) in South Korea. The highest ∑11PFAAs concentrations were detected in the influent and effluent from the paper (median: 411ng/L) and textile (median: 106ng/L) industries, and PFOA and PFOS were the predominant PFAAs (49-66%) in wastewater. Exceptionally high levels of PFAAs were detected in the sludge associated with the electronics (median: 91.0ng/g) and chemical (median: 81.5ng/g) industries with PFOS being the predominant PFAA. The discharge loads of 11 PFAAs from I-WWTP were calculated that total discharge loads for the five industries were 0.146ton/yr. The textile industry had the highest discharge load with 0.055ton/yr (PFOA: 0.039ton/yr, PFOS: 0.010ton/yr). Municipal wastewater contributed more to the overall discharge of PFAAs (0.489ton/yr) due to the very small industrial wastewater discharge compared to municipal wastewater discharge, but the contribution of PFAAs from I-WWTPs cannot be ignored. PMID:27152994

  18. Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma-Induced Photocatalysis and Ozonation for the Treatment of Wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mok, Young Sun; Jo, Jin-Oh; Lee, Heon-Ju

    2008-02-01

    The physicochemical processes of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) such as in-situ formation of chemically active species and emission of ultraviolet (UV)/visible light were utilized for the treatment of a simulated wastewater formed with Acid Red 4 as the model organic contaminant. The chemically active species (mostly ozone) produced in the DBD reactor were well distributed in the wastewater using a porous gas diffuser, thereby increasing the gas-liquid contact area. For the purpose of making the best use of the light emission, a titanium oxide-based photocatalyst was incorporated in the wastewater treating system. The experimental parameters chosen were the voltage applied to the DBD reactor, the initial pH of the wastewater, and the concentration of hydrogen peroxide added to the wastewater. The results have clearly shown that the present system capable of degrading organic contaminants in two ways (photocatalysis and ozonation) may be a promising wastewater treatment technology.

  19. Comparison of spectrolyser device measurements with standard analysis of wastewater samples in Novi Sad, Serbia.

    PubMed

    Mihajlović, I; Pap, S; Sremački, M; Brborić, M; Babunski, D; Dogo, M

    2014-09-01

    On-line monitoring was performed using spectrolyser equipment, coupled with laboratory analysis for samples collected from wastewater discharge in the city of Novi Sad, Serbia, during first 24 h of three and 48 h of six monitoring campaigns from December of 2012 to April of 2013. Significant correlation with R(2) > 0.9 was observed between laboratory analysis and spectrolyser measurements for chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD) concentrations. COD/BOD5 ratio in combined industrial and municipal wastewater ranged from 1.2 to 2.0 indicating the presence of biodegradable organic matter which could be easily removed using aeration treatment process. Micro/trace element and/or heavy metals in wastewater samples were within the limits as per the standard prescribed for wastewater, and should not pose any serious hazard risk. However BOD, COD, ammonia and total phosphorus concentrations were measured above the limit value according to Serbian and EU legislation and should be reduced before discharging wastewater directly into the Danube River. PMID:24990395

  20. Assessment of current status of zinc in wastewater treatment plants to set effluent standards for protecting aquatic organisms in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamagata, Hiroki; Yoshizawa, Masahiro; Minamiyama, Mizuhiko

    2010-10-01

    New environmental standards for protecting aquatic organisms for zinc (e.g., 0.03 mg/L) in surface waters were set in Japan in 2003. Although wastewater effluent might be one of the major pathways of zinc to public water bodies in Japan, current status of concentration of zinc in wastewater effluent was not clear due to higher detection limits (e.g., 0.5 mg/L) than the level required by the new regulations. This study aims at assessing current status of zinc in wastewater effluent in Japan to revise wastewater effluent standards for protecting aquatic organisms. Survey of zinc in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) was carried out in Japan in 2005, setting the detection limits at least 0.01 mg/L. The results of the survey suggested the difficulty to remove zinc (especially dissolved zinc) with conventional activated sludge treatment if concentration of zinc in influent was relatively low. And it was suggested that high concentration of dissolved zinc might be derived from some industries discharging high concentration of zinc. The concentration of zinc in wastewater influent without industrial discharges was about 0.1 mg/L which might be lower than that in wastewater from industries discharging high concentration of zinc. Finally, effluent standards for point sources including WWTPs to public water bodies were set at 2 mg/L in 2006. Based on the results of the survey that it was difficult to remove dissolved zinc discharged from industries at WWTPs, the effluent standards from industries to sewerage were set at the same value of the effluent standards from WWTPs to public water bodies.

  1. Implementation of EU discharge guidelines at IVAR's Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant of North Jaeren, Stavanger, Norway.

    PubMed

    Tornes, O

    2001-01-01

    Norway is a leading country on wastewater treatment comprising chemical precipitation processes. This is because Norwegian effluent standards to the North Sea have traditionally focused on phosphorus removal. In most cases, chemical treatment therefore has been considered to give lower investment and operating costs than biological treatment. Norwegian wastewater policy and management is based on the EU guidelines resulting from the EEA (European Economic Area) Agreement. According to the 1991 Urban Wastewater Treatment Directive, this will in most cases require secondary treatment. However, primary treatment can be accepted for plants larger than 10,000 PT with effluents to less sensitive coastal areas, if no negative environmental impacts can be proved. The main objective of the Regional Water, Sewerage and Waste Company (IVAR) is to comply with the prevailing effluent limits at lowest possible cost. During the past four years, IVAR has therefore undertaken comprehensive optimising of the precipitation process including full-scale experiments with different coagulant dosing control systems and different types of coagulants. IVAR also accomplished a feasibility study of introducing biological treatment as an alternative to chemical treatment. Under the prevailing frame conditions of discharge requirements and sludge deposit costs, it is not economically feasible to change to organic coagulants or biological treatment. This conclusion might have to be altered resulting from the implementation of new EU regulations and increasing sludge deposit costs. This paper presents results from full-scale experiments, extracts from the feasibility study and a comparison of costs. Furthermore, the practical consequences of implementing the EU-guidelines are discussed.

  2. Municipal wastewater characteristics in Thailand and effects of soft intervention measures in households on pollutant discharge reduction.

    PubMed

    Tsuzuki, Y; Koottatep, T; Jiawkok, S; Saengpeng, S

    2010-01-01

    In developing countries with large Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) sanitation indicator, pollutant discharge reduction function of wastewater treatment systems should be considered. In this paper, pollutant generations per capita (PGCs) and pollutant discharges per capita (PDCs) are estimated as a base dataset for wastewater management in Thailand. PDCs of black water, i.e. toilet wastewater, are found to be much smaller than PGCs of black water. However, PDCs of gray water, i.e. municipal wastewater other than toilet wastewater are large. Gray water is often discharged without treatment and contributes much to ambient water deterioration. Moreover, possible 5-day biological oxygen demand (BOD5) discharge reductions with "soft interventions", i.e. measurements in households to reduce wastewater pollutant discharge such as using a paper filter or a plastic net in kitchen sinks and so on, are estimated as 39, 21 and 34% for BOD5, total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) and phosphate (PO4-P), respectively. For the estimation, environmental accounting housekeeping (EAH) books of domestic wastewater, spreadsheets with pollutant discharges by water usages and possible effects of "soft interventions" are applied. The framework of this study with "soft intervention" effects on pollutant discharge reductions should enhance wastewater management especially in the areas under development of wastewater treatment systems. PMID:20651426

  3. 32 CFR 70.9 - Discharge review standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... discharge and to effect changes, if necessary. The standards of review and the underlying factors that aid... determining honorable service. No factors shall be established that require automatic change or denial of a change in discharge. Neither a DRB nor the Secretary of the Military Department concerned shall be...

  4. 32 CFR 865.120 - Discharge review standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....120 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ORGANIZATION AND... equity of the applicant's discharge and to effect changes, if necessary. The standards of review and the... automatic change or denial of a change in a discharge. Neither the DRB nor the Secretary of the Air...

  5. Evaluation and Optimization of Electrode Configuration of Multi-Channel Corona Discharge Plasma for Dye-Containing Wastewater Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Jingyu; Wang, Tiecheng; Qu, Guangzhou; Liang, Dongli; Hu, Shibin

    2015-12-01

    A discharge plasma reactor with a point-to-plane structure was widely studied experimentally in wastewater treatment. In order to improve the utilization efficiency of active species and the energy efficiency of this kind of discharge plasma reactor during wastewater treatment, the electrode configuration of the point-to-plane corona discharge reactor was studied by evaluating the effects of discharge spacing and adjacent point distance on discharge power and discharge energy density, and then dye-containing wastewater decoloration experiments were conducted on the basis of the optimum electrode configuration. The experimental results of the discharge characteristics showed that high discharge power and discharge energy density were achieved when the ratio of discharge spacing to adjacent point distance (d/s) was 0.5. Reactive Brilliant Blue (RBB) wastewater treatment experiments presented that the highest RBB decoloration efficiency was observed at d/s of 0.5, which was consistent with the result obtained in the discharge characteristics experiments. In addition, the biodegradability of RBB wastewater was enhanced greatly after discharge plasma treatment under the optimum electrode configuration. RBB degradation processes were analyzed by GC-MS and IC, and the possible mechanism for RBB decoloration was also discussed. supported by China's Postdoctoral Science Foundation (No. 2014M562460), the Initiative Funding Programs for Doctoral Research of Northwest A&F University (No. 2013BSJJ121), and National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 21107085)

  6. The effects of wastewater discharge on the microbiological nitrogen cycle of the lake sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saarenheimo, Jatta; Aalto, Sanni L.; Tiirola, Marja

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic wastewater inputs alter the natural dynamics of nitrogen (N) cycle by providing high concentrations of nitrate and organic matter to the sediment microbes. It can also change the microbial community composition and N removal potential but this is currently not that well studied. To study these aspects, we conducted ecosystem-scale experiment in Lake Keurusselkä, Finland. In the experiment, the wastewater discharge to the recipient lake was optimized with sediment filtration, which increased the surface and retention time of the nitrified wastewater with the sediment. In addition to N transformation rates, which showed that optimization enhanced denitrification, we studied the microbial responses at the sediment. Genetic potential of nitrogen transformation processes, such as denitrification, dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) and nitrification were studied by targeting the functional genes (i.e. nirS, nirK, nosZI, nosZII, nrfA, amoAarchaea and amoAbacteria) with quantitative PCR and digital droplet PCR. In addition, changes in the microbial community composition along the wastewater gradient were examined by using next generation sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes. In line with our hypothesis, the relative abundance of denitrifying genes followed the observed denitrification rates, being highest near the nitrate-rich wastewater discharge. Furthermore the microbial community composition in the discharge point differed clearly from the control and downstream sites, having also the highest numbers of rare OTUs. Abundance of nitrifying bacteria was higher than nitrifying archaea near the waste water discharge, whereas the opposite was seen at the control site. The results indicate that wastewater is not only increasing the denitrification rates, but can also alter the structure and genetic potential microbial communities.

  7. Nitrogen transport and transformations in a shallow aquifer receiving wastewater discharge: A mass balance approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeSimone, L.A.; Howes, B.L.

    1998-01-01

    Nitrogen transport and transformations were followed over the initial 3 years of development of a plume of wastewater-contaminated groundwater in Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Ammonification and nitrification in the unsaturated zone and ammonium sorption in the saturated zone were predominant, while loss of fixed nitrogen through denitrification was minor. The major effect of transport was the oxidation of discharged organic and inorganic forms to nitrate, which was the dominant nitrogen form in transit to receiving systems. Ammonification and nitrification in the unsaturated zone transformed 16-19% and 50-70%, respectively, of the total nitrogen mass discharged to the land surface during the study but did not attenuate the nitrogen loading. Nitrification in the unsaturated zone also contributed to a pH decrease of 2 standard units and to an N2O increase (46-660 ??g N/L in the plume). Other processes in the unsaturated zone had little net effect: Ammonium sorption removed <1% of the total discharged nitrogen mass; filtering of particulate organic nitrogen was less than 3%; ammonium and nitrate assimilation was less than 6%; and ammonia volatilization was less than 0.25%. In the saturated zone a central zone of anoxic groundwater (DO ??? 0.05 mg/L) was first detected 17 months after effluent discharge to the aquifer began, which expanded at about the groundwater-flow velocity. Although nitrate was dominant at the water table, the low, carbon-limited rates of denitrification in the anoxic zone (3.0-9.6 (ng N/cm3)/d) reduced only about 2% of the recharged nitrogen mass to N2. In contrast, ammonium sorption in the saturated zone removed about 16% of the recharged nitrogen mass from the groundwater. Ammonium sorption was primarily limited to anoxic zone, where nitrification was prevented, and was best described by a Langmuir isotherm in which effluent ionic concentrations were simulated. The initial nitrogen load discharged from the groundwater system may depend largely on

  8. Evaluating the vulnerability of surface waters to antibiotic contamination from varying wastewater treatment plant discharges.

    PubMed

    Batt, Angela L; Bruce, Ian B; Aga, Diana S

    2006-07-01

    Effluents from three wastewater treatment plants with varying wastewater treatment technologies and design were analyzed for six antibiotics and caffeine on three sampling occasions. Sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, and clindamycin were detected in the effluents at concentrations ranging from 0.090 to 6.0 microg/L. Caffeine was detected in all effluents at concentrations ranging from 0.19 to 9.9 microg/L. These findings indicate that several conventional wastewater management practices are not effective in the complete removal of antibiotics, and their discharges have a large potential to affect the aquatic environment. To evaluate the persistence of antibiotics coming from the wastewater discharges on the surrounding surface waters, samples were collected from the receiving streams at 10-, 20- and 100-m intervals. Ciprofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, and clindamycin (0.043 to 0.076 microg/L) were found as far as 100 m from the discharge point, which indicates the persistence of these drugs in surface waters.

  9. Causal modelling applied to the risk assessment of a wastewater discharge.

    PubMed

    Paul, Warren L; Rokahr, Pat A; Webb, Jeff M; Rees, Gavin N; Clune, Tim S

    2016-03-01

    Bayesian networks (BNs), or causal Bayesian networks, have become quite popular in ecological risk assessment and natural resource management because of their utility as a communication and decision-support tool. Since their development in the field of artificial intelligence in the 1980s, however, Bayesian networks have evolved and merged with structural equation modelling (SEM). Unlike BNs, which are constrained to encode causal knowledge in conditional probability tables, SEMs encode this knowledge in structural equations, which is thought to be a more natural language for expressing causal information. This merger has clarified the causal content of SEMs and generalised the method such that it can now be performed using standard statistical techniques. As it was with BNs, the utility of this new generation of SEM in ecological risk assessment will need to be demonstrated with examples to foster an understanding and acceptance of the method. Here, we applied SEM to the risk assessment of a wastewater discharge to a stream, with a particular focus on the process of translating a causal diagram (conceptual model) into a statistical model which might then be used in the decision-making and evaluation stages of the risk assessment. The process of building and testing a spatial causal model is demonstrated using data from a spatial sampling design, and the implications of the resulting model are discussed in terms of the risk assessment. It is argued that a spatiotemporal causal model would have greater external validity than the spatial model, enabling broader generalisations to be made regarding the impact of a discharge, and greater value as a tool for evaluating the effects of potential treatment plant upgrades. Suggestions are made on how the causal model could be augmented to include temporal as well as spatial information, including suggestions for appropriate statistical models and analyses. PMID:26832914

  10. An obstacle to China's WWTPs: the COD and BOD standards for discharge into municipal sewers.

    PubMed

    Liao, Zhenliang; Hu, Tiantian; Roker, Scott Albert C

    2015-11-01

    In 2001, a construction campaign regarding wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) occurred in China. Unfortunately, the treatment has not yet achieved anticipated effectiveness. A critical reason for this is that the influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) concentrations in WWTPs are unacceptably low. This paper indicates that a fundamental, but commonly overlooked contributing factor to this problem is that a large portion of easily degradable COD and BOD is degraded prematurely before entering municipal sewers, and this is directly correlated to China's standards for pollutant discharging into municipal sewers. This perspective is further unfolded through retrospection of the history of Chinese wastewater treatment and the investigation of standards among developed zones and districts. This paper suggests that in China, the standards for pollutant discharging into municipal sewers should be relaxed. Meanwhile, unnecessary pretreatment of COD and BOD should cease for the purpose of ensuring that easily degradable COD and BOD can be transferred to WWTPs to improve treatment efficiency. Moreover, additional alternatives are presented to resolve this problem.

  11. Desulphurization and simultaneous treatment of wastewater from blast furnace by pulsed corona discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Li, S.L.; Feng, Q.B.; Li, L.; Xie, C.L.; Zhen, L.P.

    2009-03-15

    Laboratory tests were conducted for removal of SO{sub 2} from simulated flue gas and simultaneous treatment of wastewater from blast furnace by pulsed corona discharge. Tests were conducted for the flue gas flow from 12 to 18 Nm{sup 3}/h, the simulated gas temperature from 80 to 120 {sup o}C, the inlet flux of wastewater from 33 to 57 L/h, applied voltage from 0 to 27 kV, and SO{sub 2} initial concentration was about 1,430 mg/m{sup 3}. Results showed that wastewater from blast furnace has an excellent ability of desulphurization (about 90%) and pulsed corona discharge can enhance the desulphurization efficiency. Meanwhile, it was observed that the SO{sub 2} removal ratio decreased along with increased cycle index, while it increased as the flux of flue gas was reduced, and increased when the flux of wastewater from blast furnace was increased. In addition, results demonstrated that the content of sulfate radical produced in wastewater increase with an increment of applied pulsed voltage, cycle index, or the flux of flue gas. Furthermore, the results indicated that the higher the inlet content of cyanide the better removal effect of it, and the removal rate can reach 99.9% with a residence time of 2.1 s in the pulsed corona zone during the desulphurization process when the inlet content was higher, whereas there was almost no removal effect when the inlet content was lower. This research may attain the objective of waste control, and can provide a new way to remove SO{sub 2} from flue gas and simultaneously degrade wastewater from blast furnace for integrated steel plants.

  12. Organic compounds downstream from a treated-wastewater discharge near Dallas, Texas, March 1987

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buszka, P.M.; Barber, L.B.; Schroeder, M.P.; Becker, L.D.

    1994-01-01

    Comparison of instantaneous flux values of selected organic compounds in water from downstream sites indicates: (1) the formation of chloroform in the stream following the discharge of the treated effluent, and that (2) instream biodegradation may be decreasing concentrations of linear alkylbenzene compounds in water. The relative persistence of many of the selected organic compounds in Rowlett Creek downstream from the municipal wastewater-treatment plant indicates that they could be transported into Lake Ray Hubbard, a source of municipal water supply.

  13. Treatment of Dye Wastewater by Using a Hybrid Gas/Liquid Pulsed Discharge Plasma Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Na; Li, Jie; Wu, Yan; Masayuki, Sato

    2012-02-01

    A hybrid gas/liquid pulsed discharge plasma reactor using a porous ceramic tube is proposed for dye wastewater treatment. High voltage pulsed discharge plasma was generated in the gas phase and simultaneously the plasma channel was permeated through the tiny holes of the ceramic tube into the water phase accompanied by gas bubbles. The porous ceramic tube not only separated the gas phase and liquid phase but also offered an effective plasma spreading channel. The effects of the peak pulse voltage, additive gas varieties, gas bubbling rate, solution conductivity and TiO2 addition were investigated. The results showed that this reactor was effective for dye wastewater treatment. The decoloration efficiency of Acid Orange II was enhanced with an increase in the power supplied. Under the studied conditions, 97% of Acid Orange II in aqueous solution was effectively decolored with additive oxygen gas, which was 51% higher than that with argon gas, and the increasing O2 bubbling rate also benefited the decoloration of dye wastewater. Water conductivity had a small effect on the level of decoloration. Catalysis of TiO2 could be induced by the pulsed discharge plasma and addition of TiO2 aided the decoloration of Acid Orange II.

  14. Reducing the discharge of micropollutants in the aquatic environment: the benefits of upgrading wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Eggen, Rik I L; Hollender, Juliane; Joss, Adriano; Schärer, Michael; Stamm, Christian

    2014-07-15

    Micropollutants (MPs) as individual compounds or in complex mixtures are relevant for water quality and may trigger unwanted ecological effects. MPs originate from different point and diffuse sources and enter water bodies via different flow paths. Effluents from conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), in which various MPs are not or not completely removed, is one major source. To improve the water quality and avoid potential negative ecological effects by micropollutants, various measures to reduce the discharge should be taken. In this feature we discuss one of these measures; the benefits of upgrading WWTPs toward reduced MP loads and toxicities from wastewater effluents, using the recently decided Swiss strategy as an example. Based on (i) full-scale case studies using ozonation or powder activated carbon treatment, showing substantial reduction of MP discharges and concomitant reduced toxicities, (ii) social and political acceptance, (iii) technical feasibility and sufficient cost-effectiveness, the Swiss authorities recently decided to implement additional wastewater treatment steps as mitigation strategy to improve water quality. Since MPs are of growing global concern, the concepts and considerations behind the Swiss strategy are explained in this feature, which could be of use for other countries as well. It should be realized that upgrading WWTPs is not the only solution to reduce the discharge of MPs entering the environment, but is part of a broader, multipronged mitigation strategy. PMID:24915506

  15. Approaches to setting organism-based ballast water discharge standards.

    PubMed

    Henry, Lee; Reusser, Deborah A; Frazier, Melanie

    2013-03-01

    As a vector by which foreign species invade coastal and freshwater waterbodies, ballast water discharge from ships is recognized as a major environmental threat. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) drafted an international treaty establishing ballast water discharge standards based on the number of viable organisms per volume of ballast discharge for different organism size classes. Concerns that the IMO standards are not sufficiently protective have initiated several state and national efforts in the United States to develop more stringent standards. We evaluated seven approaches to establishing discharge standards for the > 50-microm size class: (1) expert opinion/management consensus, (2) zero detectable living organisms, (3) natural invasion rates, (4) reaction-diffusion models, (5) population viability analysis (PVA) models, (6) per capita invasion probabilities (PCIP), and (7) experimental studies. Because of the difficulty in synthesizing scientific knowledge in an unbiased and transparent fashion, we recommend the use of quantitative models instead of expert opinion. The actual organism concentration associated with a "zero detectable organisms" standard is defined by the statistical rigor of its monitoring program; thus it is not clear whether such a standard is as stringent as other standards. For several reasons, the natural invasion rate, reaction-diffusion, and experimental approaches are not considered suitable for generating discharge standards. PVA models can be used to predict the likelihood of establishment of introduced species but are limited by a lack of population vital rates for species characteristic of ballast water discharges. Until such rates become available, PVA models are better suited to evaluate relative efficiency of proposed standards rather than predicting probabilities of invasion. The PCIP approach, which is based on historical invasion rates at a regional scale, appears to circumvent many of the indicated problems

  16. Approaches to setting organism-based ballast water discharge standards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Henry; Reusser, Deborah A.; Frazier, Melanie

    2013-01-01

    As a vector by which foreign species invade coastal and freshwater waterbodies, ballast water discharge from ships is recognized as a major environmental threat. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) drafted an international treaty establishing ballast water discharge standards based on the number of viable organisms per volume of ballast discharge for different organism size classes. Concerns that the IMO standards are not sufficiently protective have initiated several state and national efforts in the United States to develop more stringent standards. We evaluated seven approaches to establishing discharge standards for the >50-μm size class: (1) expert opinion/management consensus, (2) zero detectable living organisms, (3) natural invasion rates, (4) reaction–diffusion models, (5) population viability analysis (PVA) models, (6) per capita invasion probabilities (PCIP), and (7) experimental studies. Because of the difficulty in synthesizing scientific knowledge in an unbiased and transparent fashion, we recommend the use of quantitative models instead of expert opinion. The actual organism concentration associated with a “zero detectable organisms” standard is defined by the statistical rigor of its monitoring program; thus it is not clear whether such a standard is as stringent as other standards. For several reasons, the natural invasion rate, reaction–diffusion, and experimental approaches are not considered suitable for generating discharge standards. PVA models can be used to predict the likelihood of establishment of introduced species but are limited by a lack of population vital rates for species characteristic of ballast water discharges. Until such rates become available, PVA models are better suited to evaluate relative efficiency of proposed standards rather than predicting probabilities of invasion. The PCIP approach, which is based on historical invasion rates at a regional scale, appears to circumvent many of the indicated problems

  17. 33 CFR 151.2030 - Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... achieve a significant improvement in ballast water treatment efficacy could be practicably implemented... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ballast water discharge standard... COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in...

  18. 33 CFR 151.1511 - Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... achieve a significant improvement in ballast water treatment efficacy could be practicably implemented... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ballast water discharge standard... COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in...

  19. 33 CFR 151.2030 - Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS). 151.2030 Section 151.2030 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER...

  20. 33 CFR 151.2030 - Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS). 151.2030 Section 151.2030 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER...

  1. 33 CFR 151.1511 - Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS). 151.1511 Section 151.1511 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER...

  2. 33 CFR 151.1511 - Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ballast water discharge standard (BWDS). 151.1511 Section 151.1511 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER...

  3. The effects of wastewater discharges on the functioning of a small temporarily open/closed estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrie, Robynne A.; Stretch, Derek D.; Perissinotto, Renzo

    2010-04-01

    Wastewater discharges affect the functioning of small temporarily open/closed estuaries (TOCEs) through two main mechanisms: (1) they can significantly change the water balance by altering the quantity of water inflows, and (2) they can significantly change the nutrient balance and hence the water quality. This study investigated the bio-physical responses of a typical, small TOCE on the east coast of South Africa, the Mhlanga Estuary. This estuary receives significant inflows of treated effluent from upstream wastewater treatment works. Water and nutrient budgets were used together with biological sampling to investigate changes in the functioning of the system. The increase in inflows due to the effluent discharges has significantly increased the mouth breaching frequency. Furthermore, when the mouth closes, the accumulation of nutrients leads to eutrophication and algal blooms. A grey water index, namely the proportion of effluent in the estuary and an indicator of the additional nutrient inputs into the estuary, reached high values (≳50%) during low flow regimes and when the mouth was closed. In these hyper-eutrophic conditions (DIN and DIP concentrations up to 457 μM and 100 μM respectively), field measurements showed that algal blooms occurred within about 14 days following closure of the mouth (chlorophyll-a concentrations up to 375 mg chl-a m -3). Water and nutrient balance simulations for alternative scenarios suggest that further increases in wastewater discharges would result in more frequent breaching events and longer open mouth conditions, but the occurrence of hyper-eutrophic conditions would initially intensify despite more frequent openings. The study indicates how water and nutrient balance simulations can be used in the planning and impact assessment of wastewater treatment facilities.

  4. Wastewater discharge degrades coastal waters and reef communities in southern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Reopanichkul, Pasinee; Carter, R W; Worachananant, Suchai; Crossland, C J

    2010-06-01

    Runoff and sewage discharge from land developments can cause significant changes in water quality of coastal waters, resulting in coral degradation. Coastal waters around Phuket, Thailand are influenced by numerous sewage outfalls associated with rapid tourism development. Water quality and biological monitoring around the Phuket region was undertaken to quantify water quality and biotic characteristics at various distances from sewage outfalls. The surveys revealed strong gradients in water quality and biotic characteristics associated with tourism concentration levels as well as seasonal variability. Water and reef quality tended to decrease with increasing tourist intensity, but improved with increasing distance from sewage discharge within each of the three study locations. In addition, the effect of wastewater discharge was not localised around the source of pollution, but appeared to be transported to non-developed sites by currents, and exacerbated in the wet season.

  5. Effects of high salinity wastewater discharges on unionid mussels in the Allegheny River, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kathleen Patnode,; Hittle, Elizabeth A.; Robert Anderson,; Lora Zimmerman,; Fulton, John W.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effect of high salinity wastewater (brine) from oil and natural gas drilling on freshwater mussels in the Allegheny River, Pennsylvania, during 2012. Mussel cages (N = 5 per site) were deployed at two sites upstream and four sites downstream of a brine treatment facility on the Allegheny River. Each cage contained 20 juvenile northern riffleshell mussels Epioblasma torulosa rangiana). Continuous specific conductance and temperature data were recorded by water quality probes deployed at each site. To measure the amount of mixing throughout the entire study area, specific conductance surveys were completed two times during low-flow conditions along transects from bank to bank that targeted upstream (reference) reaches, a municipal wastewater treatment plant discharge upstream of the brine-facility discharge, the brine facility, and downstream reaches. Specific conductance data indicated that high specific conductance water from the brine facility (4,000–12,000 µS/cm; mean 7,846) compared to the reference reach (103–188 µS/cm; mean 151) is carried along the left descending bank of the river and that dilution of the discharge via mixing does not occur until 0.5 mi (805 m) downstream. Juvenile northern riffleshell mussel survival was severely impaired within the high specific conductance zone (2 and 34% at and downstream of the brine facility, respectively) and at the municipal wastewater treatment plant (21%) compared to background (84%). We surveyed native mussels (family Unionidae) at 10 transects: 3 upstream, 3 within, and 4 downstream of the high specific conductance zone. Unionid mussel abundance and diversity were lower for all transects within and downstream of the high conductivity zone compared to upstream. The results of this study clearly demonstrate in situ toxicity to juvenile northern riffleshell mussels, a federally endangered species, and to the native unionid mussel assemblage located downstream of a brine discharge to the

  6. Reducing phosphate discharges: the role of the 1991 EC urban wastewater treatment directive.

    PubMed

    Farmer, A M

    2001-01-01

    This paper reviews the status of implementation of the 1991 EC urban wastewater treatment Directive in relation to its requirements for phosphate removal from wastewater discharges. Transposition of the Directive is satisfactory in most Member States as is implementation of requirements regarding collection and secondary treatment of sewage, with the notable exceptions of Belgium and Italy. A range of approaches has been adopted for the designation of sensitive areas under the Directive and designation is still not complete. It is likely that most Member States will have met the treatment requirements for sensitive areas by the end of 1998. Exceptions will include France and Spain (where implementation will be incomplete), the UK (which designated more sensitive areas in 1998 and will meet requirements for these at a later date) and Greece and Italy (for which sensitive area designation is lacking or uncertain). The Commission has indicated that it will examine compliance for both designation and treatment closely. This may place further pressure on Member States to designate further sensitive areas. It is estimated that currently in ten EU Member States, containing 90% of the EU population, about 375,000 tonnes of phosphorus are produced in domestic wastewater each year. In 1994 39-45% of this was removed in wastewater treatment works. PMID:11496676

  7. Ecotoxicity and genotoxicity relating to fish in wastewaters discharged from the Vilnius treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Vosylienė, M Z; Kazlauskienė, N; Baršienė, J; Andreikėnaitė, L; Milukaitė, A; Taujanskis, E

    2010-01-01

    The toxicity and genotoxicity of untreated raw (RWW) and treated wastewaters (TWW) samples from Vilnius wastewater treatment plant was assessed using fish (rainbow trout) at different stages of development. The survival of larvae and fish exposed to RWW in short-term and longterm tests reduced, whereas gill ventilation frequency, heart rate and relative body mass increase of larvae decreased significantly. The long-term exposure of fish to TWW induced significant decreases in white blood cell count and significant increases in micronuclei in blood of treated Oncorhynchus mykiss. The physical, chemical analysis of oil products (C₁₄-C₂₈), benzo(a)pyrene, suspended solids, and heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Hg) in RWW demonstrated that the concentrations of xenobiotics and some heavy metals did not exceed their Maximum Permissible Concentrations in the sewerage system and concentrations of substances in TWW corresponded to their criteria for effluents discharged into receiving waters.

  8. FY 1993 environmental sampling and analysis report for wastewater discharge at McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Crockett, A.B.

    1994-04-01

    Wastewater impact assessment at McMurdo has been or is being conducted by four organizations: Antarctic Support Associates (ASA), which conducts the effluent monitoring; Moss Landing Marine Laboratories, which conducts all of the benthic monitoring and most of the biological monitoring; Montana State University, which conducted water quality and water current measurements; and EG&G Idaho, which conducted water quality and sea ice monitoring. All four programs are interrelated and were needed to determine the impact of the wastewater discharge on the marine environment. This report summarizes the relevant monitoring work being conducted by Antarctic Support Associates, Moss Landing, and Montana State personnel, and specifically documents the results of EG&G Idaho`s efforts.

  9. Acetamiprid removal in wastewater by the low-temperature plasma using dielectric barrier discharge.

    PubMed

    Li, Shanping; Ma, Xiaolong; Jiang, Yanyan; Cao, Xiaohong

    2014-08-01

    Degradation of acetamiprid in wastewater was studied in a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor. This reactor produces ultraviolet light and reactive species like ozone (O₃) can be used for the treatment of wastewater. We examined the factors that could affect the degradation process, including the discharge power, and the initial concentrations of acetamiprid, and O₃ which is generated by the DBD reactor. We also investigated the effect of adding Na₂B₄O₇ as a radical scavenger to probe the role of hydroxyl radical in the reaction. The results indicated that acetamiprid could be removed from aqueous solution effectively and hydroxyl radicals played an important role during the degradation by the low temperature plasma. The degradation process of acetamiprid fits the first-order kinetics. The degradation efficiency was 83.48 percent at 200 min when the discharge power was 170 W and the initial acetamiprid concentration was 50 mg/L. The removal efficiency of acetamiprid decreased with the increasing concentration of Na₂B₄O₇ because B₄O₇(2-) is an excellent radical scavenger that inhibited the generation of OH during the DBD process. The removal efficiency of acetamiprid improved in the presence of O₃. The main reason was that O₃ can oxidize certain organic compounds directly or indirectly by generating hydroxyl radicals. The degradation products of acetamiprid were characterized qualitatively and quantitatively using high performance liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry and UV-vis spectroscopy. PMID:24840877

  10. In-Stream Microbial Denitrification Potential at Wastewater Treatment Plant Discharge Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, N. B.; Rahm, B. G.; Shaw, S. B.; Riha, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    Reactive nitrogen loading from municipal sewage discharge provides point sources of nitrate (NO3-) to rivers and streams. Through microbially-mediated denitrification, NO3- can be converted to dinitrogen (N2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) gases, which are released to the atmosphere. Preliminary observations made throughout summer 2011 near a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) outfall in the Finger Lakes region of New York indicated that NO3- concentrations downstream of the discharge pipe were lower relative to upstream concentrations. This suggested that nitrate processing was occurring more rapidly and completely than predicted by current models and that point "sources" can in some cases be point "sinks". Molecular assays and stable isotope analyses were combined with laboratory microcosm experiments and water chemistry analyses to better understand the mechanism of nitrate transformation. Nitrite reductase (nirS and nirK) and nitrous oxide reductase (nosZ) genes were detected in water and sediment samples using qPCR. Denitrifcation genes were present attached to stream sediment, in pipe biofilm, and in WWTP discharge water. A comparison of δ18-O and δ15-N signatures also supported the hypothesis that stream NO3- had been processed biotically. Results from microcosm experiments indicated that the NO3- transformations occur at the sediment-water interface rather than in the water column. In some instances, quantities of denitrification genes were at higher concentrations attached to sediment downstream of the discharge pipe than upstream of the pipe suggesting that the wastewater discharge may be enriching the downstream sediment and could promote in-stream denitrification.

  11. Treatment and Reuse of Wastewaters Discharged by Petroleum Industries (HMD/Algeria)

    SciTech Connect

    Sellami, MH; Loudiyi, K; Boubaker, MC; Habbaz, H

    2015-12-23

    Industrial wastewaters discharged by petroleum industries contains: oil, heavy metals and chemicals used in the process of oil separation and treatment. These waters are a source of soil, water and air pollution, and lead a mortal danger to the ecosystem. Our aim in this work has an aspect that can contribute to the collective effort to address the enormous amount of water purges storage bins and reuse them to avoid any environmental damage. This was achieved by chemical treating of these wastewaters discharged from three different locations of Hassi Messaoud (HMD) petroleum field by flocculation with (C-5563) followed by coagulation with (C-2061) using two different acids as sequestering namely: Ascorbic and Citric acid. After experiments, the results showed that the wastewater can be treated without sequestering by adding 40 ppm of activated silicates. The best result was obtained by addition of 160 ppm of Ascorbic acid as sequestering agent and 20 ppm of activated silicates; resulting in removal of 92.81 % of suspended matter and 95.53 % of turbidity. Finally we concluded that this wastewater was satisfactorily treated and we recommend either inject it for enhanced oil recovery in industrial closest field (North field) to maintain the reservoir pressure and the improved rate recovery of oil reserves or reuse it in garden irrigation. In order to see the impact of the treated water on plants, irrigation tests have conducted on two types of plants (date palm and shaft apocalyptic) for one year. The tests showed that the thick layer of 5 cm and 0.08mm of particles diameter of dune sand removes most of remaining oil. The sand layer that fills the basin surrounding the shaft is removed and replaced every 06 months. So, Dune sand plays the role of natural filter. The garden plants appear and grow normally.

  12. Degradation of Aniline Wastewater Using Dielectric Barrier Discharges at Atmospheric Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    WU, Haixia; FANG, Zhi; XU, Yanhua

    2015-03-01

    Aniline is a toxic water pollutant detected in drinking water and surface water, and this chemical is harmful to both human and aquatic life. A dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor was designed in this study to investigate the treatment of aniline in aqueous solution. Discharge characteristics were assessed by measuring voltage and current waveforms, capturing light emission images, and obtaining optical emission spectra. The effects of several parameters were analyzed, including treatment distance, discharge power, DBD treatment time, initial pH of aniline solutions, and addition of sodium carbonate and hydrogen peroxide to the treatment. Aniline degradation increased with increasing discharge power. Under the same conditions, higher degradation was obtained at a treatment distance of 0 mm than at other treatment distances. At a discharge power of 21.5 W, 84.32% of aniline was removed after 10 min of DBD treatment. Initial pH significantly influenced aniline degradation. Adding a certain dosage of sodium carbonate and hydrogen peroxide to the wastewater can accelerate the degradation rate of aniline. Possible degradation pathways of aniline by DBD plasmas were proposed based on the analytical data of GC/MS and TOC. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51377075), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province of China (No. BK20131412), the Environmental Protection Scientific Foundation of Jiangsu Province of China (No. 201004)

  13. Application of ICP-OES for evaluating energy extraction and production wastewater discharge impacts on surface waters in Western Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Pancras, Joseph Patrick; Norris, Gary A; Landis, Matthew S; Kovalcik, Kasey D; McGee, John K; Kamal, Ali S

    2015-10-01

    Oil and gas extraction and coal-fired electrical power generating stations produce wastewaters that are treated and discharged to rivers in Western Pennsylvania with public drinking water system (PDWS) intakes. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) was used to quantify inorganic species in wastewater and river samples using a method based on EPA Method 200.7 rev4.4. A total of 53 emission lines from 30 elements (Al, As, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, S, Sb, Se, Si, Sn, Sr, Ti, Tl, V, and Zn) were investigated. Samples were prepared by microwave-assisted acid digestion using a mixture of 2% HNO3 and 0.5% HCl. Lower interferences and better detection characteristics resulted in selection of alternative wavelengths for Al, As, Sb, Mg, Mo, and Na. Radial view measurements offered accurate determinations of Al, Ba, K, Li, Na, and Sr in high-brine samples. Spike recovery studies and analyses of reference materials showed 80-105% recoveries for most analytes. This method was used to quantify species in samples with high to low brine concentrations with method detection limits a factor of 2 below the maximum contaminant limit concentrations of national drinking water standards. Elements B, Ca, K, Li, Mg, Na, and Sr were identified as potential tracers for the sources impacting PDWS intakes. Usability of the ICP-OES derived data for factor analytic model applications was also demonstrated.

  14. Application of ICP-OES for evaluating energy extraction and production wastewater discharge impacts on surface waters in Western Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Pancras, Joseph Patrick; Norris, Gary A; Landis, Matthew S; Kovalcik, Kasey D; McGee, John K; Kamal, Ali S

    2015-10-01

    Oil and gas extraction and coal-fired electrical power generating stations produce wastewaters that are treated and discharged to rivers in Western Pennsylvania with public drinking water system (PDWS) intakes. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) was used to quantify inorganic species in wastewater and river samples using a method based on EPA Method 200.7 rev4.4. A total of 53 emission lines from 30 elements (Al, As, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, S, Sb, Se, Si, Sn, Sr, Ti, Tl, V, and Zn) were investigated. Samples were prepared by microwave-assisted acid digestion using a mixture of 2% HNO3 and 0.5% HCl. Lower interferences and better detection characteristics resulted in selection of alternative wavelengths for Al, As, Sb, Mg, Mo, and Na. Radial view measurements offered accurate determinations of Al, Ba, K, Li, Na, and Sr in high-brine samples. Spike recovery studies and analyses of reference materials showed 80-105% recoveries for most analytes. This method was used to quantify species in samples with high to low brine concentrations with method detection limits a factor of 2 below the maximum contaminant limit concentrations of national drinking water standards. Elements B, Ca, K, Li, Mg, Na, and Sr were identified as potential tracers for the sources impacting PDWS intakes. Usability of the ICP-OES derived data for factor analytic model applications was also demonstrated. PMID:26005746

  15. Electrolytic treatment of Standard Malaysian Rubber process wastewater.

    PubMed

    Vijayaraghavan, Krishnan; Ahmad, Desa; Yazid, Ahmad Yuzri Ahmad

    2008-01-31

    A new method of Standard Malaysian Rubber (SMR) process wastewater treatment was developed based on in situ hypochlorous acid generation. The hypochlorous acid was generated in an undivided electrolytic cell consisting of two sets of graphite as anode and stainless sheets as cathode. The generated hypochlorous acid served as an oxidizing agent to destroy the organic matter present in the SMR wastewater. For an influent COD concentration of 2960 mg/L at an initial pH 4.5+/-0.1, current density 74.5 mA/cm(2), sodium chloride content 3% and electrolysis period of 75 min, resulted in the following residual values pH 7.5, COD 87 mg/L, BOD(5) 60 mg/L, TOC 65 mg/L, total chlorine 146 mg/L, turbidity 7 NTU and temperature 48 degrees C, respectively. In the case of 2% sodium chloride as an electrolyte for the above said operating condition resulted in the following values namely: pH 7.2, COD 165 mg/L, BOD(5) 105 mg/L, TOC 120 mg/L, total chlorine 120 mg/L, turbidity 27 NTU and temperature 53 degrees C, respectively. The energy requirement were found to be 30 and 46 Wh/L, while treating 24 L of SMR wastewater at 2 and 3% sodium chloride concentration at a current density 74.5 mA/cm(2). The observed energy difference was due to the improved conductivity at high sodium chloride content. PMID:17543454

  16. Dielectric barrier discharge-based investigation and analysis of wastewater treatment and pollutant removal.

    PubMed

    Ramdani, N; Lousdad, A; Tilmatine, A; Nemmich, S

    2016-01-01

    Current research reveals that the oxidation by ozone is considered as an effective solution and offers irrefutable advantages in wastewater treatment. It is also well known that ozone is used to treat different types of water due to its effectiveness in water purification and for its oxidation potential. This process of ozonation is becoming progressively an alternative technology and is inscribed in a sustainable development perspective in Algeria. In this regards, the present paper investigates the wastewater treatment process by ozone produced by dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) under high potential. Three (DBD) ozone generators of cylindrical form have been used, at a laboratory scale, for treating collected samples from the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) of the city of Sidi-Bel-Abbes located in the west of Algeria. Our experimental results reveal the efficiency of this type of treatment on the basis of the physicochemical analysis (pH, turbidity, chemical oxygen demand, biological oxygen demand, heavy metals) and microbial analysis downstream of the WWTP, which showed a high rate of elimination of all the parameters. PMID:27332830

  17. Influence of Wastewater Discharge on the Metabolic Potential of the Microbial Community in River Sediments.

    PubMed

    Li, Dong; Sharp, Jonathan O; Drewes, Jörg E

    2016-01-01

    To reveal the variation of microbial community functions during water filtration process in river sediments, which has been utilized widely in natural water treatment systems, this study investigates the influence of municipal wastewater discharge to streams on the phylotype and metabolic potential of the microbiome in upstream and particularly various depths of downstream river sediments. Cluster analyses based on both microbial phylogenetic and functional data collectively revealed that shallow upstream sediments grouped with those from deeper subsurface downstream regions. These sediment samples were distinct from those found in shallow downstream sediments. Functional genes associated with carbohydrate, xenobiotic, and certain amino acid metabolisms were overrepresented in upstream and deep downstream samples. In contrast, the more immediate contact with wastewater discharge in shallow downstream samples resulted in an increase in the relative abundance of genes associated with nitrogen, sulfur, purine and pyrimidine metabolisms, as well as restriction-modification systems. More diverse bacterial phyla were associated with upstream and deep downstream sediments, mainly including Actinobacteria, Planctomycetes, and Firmicutes. In contrast, in shallow downstream sediments, genera affiliated with Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria were enriched with putative functions that included ammonia and sulfur oxidation, polyphosphate accumulation, and methylotrophic bacteria. Collectively, these results highlight the enhanced capabilities of microbial communities residing in deeper stream sediments for the transformation of water contaminants and thus provide a foundation for better design of natural water treatment systems to further improve the removal of contaminants.

  18. Denitrification and nitrogen transport in a coastal aquifer receiving wastewater discharge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeSimone, L.A.; Howes, B.L.

    1996-01-01

    Denitrification and nitrogen transport were quantified in a sandy glacial aquifer receiving wastewater from a septage-treatment facility on Cape Cod, MA. The resulting groundwater plume contained high concentrations of NO3- (32 mg of NL-1), total dissolved nitrogen (40.5 mg of N L-1), and dissolved organic carbon (1.9 mg of C L-1) and developed a central anoxic zone after 17 months of effluent discharge. Denitrifying activity was measured using four approaches throughout the major biogeochemical zones of the plume. Three approaches that maintained the structure of aquifer materials yielded comparable rates: acetylene block in intact sediment cores, 9.6 ng of N cm-3 d-1 (n = 61); in situ N2 production, 3.0 ng of N cm-3 d-1 (n = 11); and in situ NO3- depletion, 7.1 ng of N cm-3 d-1 (n = 3). In contrast, the mixing of aquifer materials using a standard slurry method yielded rates that were more than 15-fold higher (150 ng of N cm-3 d-1, n = 16) than other methods. Concentrations and ??15N of groundwater and effluent N2, NO3-, and NH4+ were consistent with the lower rates of denitrification determined by the intact-core or in situ methods. These methods and a plumewide survey of excess N2 indicate that 2-9% of the total mass of fixed nitrogen recharged to the anoxic zone of the plume was denitrified during the 34-month study period. Denitrification was limited by organic carbon (not NO3-) concentrations, as evidenced by a nitrate and carbon addition experiment, the correlation of denitrifying activity with in situ concentrations of dissolved organic carbon, and the assessments of available organic carbon in plume sediments. Carbon limitation is consistent with the observed conservative transport of 85-96% of the nitrate in the anoxic zone. Although denitrifying activity removed a significant amount (46250 kg) of fixed nitrogen during transport, the effects of aquifer denitrification on the nitrogen load to receiving ecosystems are likely to be small (<10%).

  19. AOX in sewer slime -- Identification of industrial wastewater discharges into public sewers

    SciTech Connect

    Antusch, E.; Ripp, C.; Hahn, H.H.

    1995-12-31

    In this study, the authors present the measurements of halogenated organic compounds in sewer slimes. Many of the halogenated organic substances are anthropogenic origin, and, although only some are hazardous, their emission into the natural environment should be avoided. Therefore, the summary parameter AOX has become one of the most important criteria for regulating industrial wastewater discharge in German water quality legislation. The discharge limits have a preventative character, as there is no quantitative relation between the concentration of AOX and its toxicity. If an exceeding value is found in the sewer system, one should look for single components to indicate or to exclude toxic substances. The authors used this method to determine total organic halides as chloride by active carbon adsorption and microcoulometric-titration detection. All samples had been run in duplicate and the reliable limit of sensitivity under these conditions was 5 {micro}g/L. The ``sewer-slime-method`` is explained as a useful tool for localization and identification of indirect discharges.

  20. 40 CFR 63.11498 - What are the standards and compliance requirements for wastewater systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Chemical Manufacturing Area Sources Standards and Compliance Requirements § 63.11498 What are the standards... each wastewater stream using process knowledge, engineering assessment, or test data. Also, you...

  1. 40 CFR 63.11498 - What are the standards and compliance requirements for wastewater systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Chemical Manufacturing Area Sources Standards and Compliance Requirements § 63.11498 What are the standards... each wastewater stream using process knowledge, engineering assessment, or test data. Also, you...

  2. 40 CFR 63.11498 - What are the standards and compliance requirements for wastewater systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Chemical Manufacturing Area Sources Standards and Compliance Requirements § 63.11498 What are the standards... each wastewater stream using process knowledge, engineering assessment, or test data. Also, you...

  3. ETV Program Report: Coatings for Wastewater Collection Systems - Standard Cement Materials, Epoxy Coating 4553

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Standard Cement Materials, Inc. Standard Epoxy Coating 4553™ (SEC 4553) epoxy coating used for wastewater collection system rehabilitation was evaluated by EPA’s Environmental Technology Verification Program under laboratory conditions at the Center for Innovative Grouting Ma...

  4. Direct Discharges of Domestic Wastewater are a Major Source of Phosphorus and Nitrogen to the Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Powley, Helen R; Dürr, Hans H; Lima, Ana T; Krom, Michael D; Van Cappellen, Philippe

    2016-08-16

    Direct discharges of treated and untreated wastewater are important sources of nutrients to coastal marine ecosystems and contribute to their eutrophication. Here, we estimate the spatially distributed annual inputs of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) associated with direct domestic wastewater discharges from coastal cities to the Mediterranean Sea (MS). According to our best estimates, in 2003 these inputs amounted to 0.9 × 10(9) mol P yr(-1) and 15 × 10(9) mol N yr(-1), that is, values on the same order of magnitude as riverine inputs of P and N to the MS. By 2050, in the absence of any mitigation, population growth plus higher per capita protein intake and increased connectivity to the sewer system are projected to increase P inputs to the MS via direct wastewater discharges by 254, 163, and 32% for South, East, and North Mediterranean countries, respectively. Complete conversion to tertiary wastewater treatment would reduce the 2050 inputs to below their 2003 levels, but at an estimated additional cost of over €2 billion yr(-1). Management of coastal eutrophication may be best achieved by targeting tertiary treatment upgrades to the most affected near-shore areas, while simultaneously implementing legislation limiting P in detergents and increasing wastewater reuse across the entire basin. PMID:27409146

  5. Effect of wastewater discharge on root anatomy and radial oxygen loss (ROL) patterns of three mangrove species in southern China.

    PubMed

    Pi, N; Tam, N F Y; Wong, M H

    2010-07-01

    The effects of wastewater discharge on radial oxygen loss (ROL) and root anatomy varied among mangrove species. ROL of Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (L) increased from 22.44 ng cm(-2) min(-1) in the control (just fresh water) to 31.09 ng cm(-2) min(-1) when received normal wastewater (NW) and to 44.22 ng cm(-2) min(-1) when treated with strong wastewater (10NW). However, discharge of both NW and 10NW caused 28% decreases of ROL in the root tip of Excoecaria agallocha L., and the decreases in Acanthus ilicifolius L were even more significant, with 45% when treated by 10NW The changes of ROL were related to the root anatomy. Among three species, A. ilicifolius had the highest proportional cross-sectional area of aerenchyma air spaces, suggesting that the internal oxygen transfer to root tip was the fastest. However, the area of aerenchyma air spaces in the root tip of 10NW treated A. ilicifolius was significantly reduced while area of epidermis and hypodermis (E + H) increased leading to less oxygen supply to root tip. Compared to B. gymnorrhiza and E. agallocha, the (E + H) layer of A. ilicifolius was the thinnest, and the cells without suberized walls were loosely packed in all three treatments. These results suggested that the root anatomy and ROL of B. gymnorrhiza was least affected by wastewater discharge, followed by E. agallocha, and A. ilicifolius was the most susceptible species thus was not suitable for treating strong wastewater. PMID:21166289

  6. Application of ICP-OES for Evaluating Energy Extraction and Production Wastewater Discharge Impacts on Surface Waters in Western Pennsylvania

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oil and gas extraction and coal-fired electrical power generating stations produce wastewaters that are treated and discharged to rivers in Western Pennsylvania with public drinking water system (PDWS) intakes. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) w...

  7. Direct evidence of histopathological impacts of wastewater discharge on resident Antarctic fish (Trematomus bernacchii) at Davis Station, East Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Corbett, Patricia A; King, Catherine K; Stark, Jonathan S; Mondon, Julie A

    2014-10-15

    During the 2009/2010 summer, a comprehensive environmental impact assessment (EIA) of the wastewater discharge at Davis Station, East Antarctica was completed. As part of this, histological alteration of gill and liver tissue in Antarctic Rock-cod (Trematomus bernacchii) from four sites along a spatial gradient from the wastewater outfall were assessed. All fish within 800 m of the outfall exhibited significant histological changes in both tissues. Common pathologies observed in fish closest to the outfall include proliferation of epithelial cells with associated secondary lamellar fusion in the gills and multifocal granulomata with inflammation and necrosis as well as cysts in the liver. Fish from sites >800 m from the outfall also exhibited alterations but to a lesser degree, with prevalence and severity decreasing with increasing distance from the outfall. This study highlights the value of histopathological investigations as part of EIAs and provides the first evidence of sub-lethal alteration associated with wastewater discharge in East Antarctica.

  8. The Global Rise of Zero Liquid Discharge for Wastewater Management: Drivers, Technologies, and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Tong, Tiezheng; Elimelech, Menachem

    2016-07-01

    Zero liquid discharge (ZLD)-a wastewater management strategy that eliminates liquid waste and maximizes water usage efficiency - has attracted renewed interest worldwide in recent years. Although implementation of ZLD reduces water pollution and augments water supply, the technology is constrained by high cost and intensive energy consumption. In this critical review, we discuss the drivers, incentives, technologies, and environmental impacts of ZLD. Within this framework, the global applications of ZLD in the United States and emerging economies such as China and India are examined. We highlight the evolution of ZLD from thermal- to membrane-based processes, and analyze the advantages and limitations of existing and emerging ZLD technologies. The potential environmental impacts of ZLD, notably greenhouse gas emission and generation of solid waste, are discussed and the prospects of ZLD technologies and research needs are highlighted. PMID:27275867

  9. The Global Rise of Zero Liquid Discharge for Wastewater Management: Drivers, Technologies, and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Tong, Tiezheng; Elimelech, Menachem

    2016-07-01

    Zero liquid discharge (ZLD)-a wastewater management strategy that eliminates liquid waste and maximizes water usage efficiency - has attracted renewed interest worldwide in recent years. Although implementation of ZLD reduces water pollution and augments water supply, the technology is constrained by high cost and intensive energy consumption. In this critical review, we discuss the drivers, incentives, technologies, and environmental impacts of ZLD. Within this framework, the global applications of ZLD in the United States and emerging economies such as China and India are examined. We highlight the evolution of ZLD from thermal- to membrane-based processes, and analyze the advantages and limitations of existing and emerging ZLD technologies. The potential environmental impacts of ZLD, notably greenhouse gas emission and generation of solid waste, are discussed and the prospects of ZLD technologies and research needs are highlighted.

  10. Effects of a nearshore wastewater discharge: Water column and sediment pore water toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Krause, P.R.; Carr, R.S.

    1995-12-31

    The relationship between water column and sediment pore water toxicity was investigated near a municipal-industrial wastewater discharge in southern Texas. Toxicity associated with effluent distributions in the water column are known to vary in both time and space. Toxicity of sediment, however, is often more stable over time. Sediment can serve as a long-term integrator of toxicity in areas subject to chronic exposure of effluents. This study addressed the relationship between water column toxicity and that found in the sediments on both spatial and temporal scales. Four 2 Km transacts were established around a nearshore wastewater outfall. Eight stations along each transact were sampled for both surface waters and sediment pore water toxicity. Toxicity was determined using a modified sea urchin fertilization test. Surface waters were sampled and tested for eight consecutive months, while sediment pore waters were sampled on three occasions over the length of this study. Results have shown that toxicity in receiving waters was a good indicator to trace movements of the highly variable effluent plume. The distribution of effluent in the water column, and hence water column toxicity, was primarily driven by local wind conditions. Toxicity in sediment porewater was, much less variable and more evenly distributed over the study site. Sediment pore water toxicity was also a good predictor of the distribution of benthic infaunal invertebrates over much of the study site.

  11. Pollutant removal from oily wastewater discharged from car washes through sedimentation-coagulation.

    PubMed

    Rubí, H; Fall, C; Ortega, R E

    2009-01-01

    Wastewater from car washes represents a potential problem for the sewer system due to its emulsified oils and suspended material. Treatment of wastewater discharged from four car washes was investigated by sedimentation and coagulation. The effect of the coagulants Servical P (aluminium hydroxychloride), Servican 50 (poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)), aluminium sulfate and ferric chloride was evaluated. The achieved removal using sedimentation was of 82%, 88% 73% and 51% for oils, total suspended solids, COD, and turbidity, respectively. In the treatment by coagulation we achieved average efficiencies nearly to 74% for COD removal, greater than 88% in the case of total suspended solids removal and 92% in the case of turbidity and except the performance of Servican 50 greater than 90% in oil removal. We concluded that the oil residual concentration and COD in the treated water allows pouring it in the sewer system complying with the limits of the Mexican rule NOM-002-ECOL-1996 and it is possible even its reuse, at least in the case of the chassis washing of cars. PMID:19542641

  12. Pollutant removal from oily wastewater discharged from car washes through sedimentation-coagulation.

    PubMed

    Rubí, H; Fall, C; Ortega, R E

    2009-01-01

    Wastewater from car washes represents a potential problem for the sewer system due to its emulsified oils and suspended material. Treatment of wastewater discharged from four car washes was investigated by sedimentation and coagulation. The effect of the coagulants Servical P (aluminium hydroxychloride), Servican 50 (poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)), aluminium sulfate and ferric chloride was evaluated. The achieved removal using sedimentation was of 82%, 88% 73% and 51% for oils, total suspended solids, COD, and turbidity, respectively. In the treatment by coagulation we achieved average efficiencies nearly to 74% for COD removal, greater than 88% in the case of total suspended solids removal and 92% in the case of turbidity and except the performance of Servican 50 greater than 90% in oil removal. We concluded that the oil residual concentration and COD in the treated water allows pouring it in the sewer system complying with the limits of the Mexican rule NOM-002-ECOL-1996 and it is possible even its reuse, at least in the case of the chassis washing of cars.

  13. Assessment of biomarkers for contaminants of emerging concern on aquatic organisms downstream of a municipal wastewater discharge.

    PubMed

    Jasinska, Edyta J; Goss, Greg G; Gillis, Patricia L; Van Der Kraak, Glen J; Matsumoto, Jacqueline; de Souza Machado, Anderson A; Giacomin, Marina; Moon, Thomas W; Massarsky, Andrey; Gagné, Francois; Servos, Mark R; Wilson, Joanna; Sultana, Tamanna; Metcalfe, Chris D

    2015-10-15

    Contaminants of emerging concern (CECs), including pharmaceuticals, personal care products and estrogens, are detected in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) discharges. However, analytical monitoring of wastewater and surface water does not indicate whether CECs are affecting the organisms downstream. In this study, fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and freshwater mussels Pyganodon grandis Say, 1829 (synonym: Anodonta grandis Say, 1829) were caged for 4 weeks in the North Saskatchewan River, upstream and downstream of the discharge from the WWTP that serves the Edmonton, AB, Canada. Passive samplers deployed indicated that concentrations of pharmaceuticals, personal care products, an estrogen (estrone) and an androgen (androstenedione) were elevated at sites downstream of the WWTP discharge. Several biomarkers of exposure were significantly altered in the tissues of caged fathead minnows and freshwater mussels relative to the upstream reference sites. Biomarkers altered in fish included induction of CYP3A metabolism, an increase in vitellogenin (Vtg) gene expression in male minnows, elevated ratios of oxidized to total glutathione (i.e. GSSG/TGSH), and an increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes (i.e. glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase). In mussels, there were no significant changes in biomarkers of oxidative stress and the levels of Vtg-like proteins were reduced, not elevated, indicating a generalized stress response. Immune function was altered in mussels, as indicated by elevated lysosomal activity per hemocyte in P. grandis caged closest to the wastewater discharge. This immune response may be due to exposure to bacterial pathogens in the wastewater. Multivariate analysis indicated a response to the CECs Carbamazepine (CBZ) and Trimethoprim (TPM). Overall, these data indicate that there is a 1 km zone of impact for aquatic organisms downstream of WWTP discharge. However, multiple stressors in municipal wastewater make measurement and

  14. Comparison of contaminants of emerging concern removal, discharge, and water quality hazards among centralized and on-site wastewater treatment system effluents receiving common wastewater influent.

    PubMed

    Du, Bowen; Price, Amy E; Scott, W Casan; Kristofco, Lauren A; Ramirez, Alejandro J; Chambliss, C Kevin; Yelderman, Joe C; Brooks, Bryan W

    2014-01-01

    A comparative understanding of effluent quality of decentralized on-site wastewater treatment systems, particularly for contaminants of emerging concern (CECs), remains less understood than effluent quality from centralized municipal wastewater treatment plants. Using a novel experimental facility with common influent wastewater, effluent water quality from a decentralized advanced aerobic treatment system (ATS) and a typical septic treatment system (STS) coupled to a subsurface flow constructed wetland (WET) were compared to effluent from a centralized municipal treatment plant (MTP). The STS did not include soil treatment, which may represent a system not functioning properly. Occurrence and discharge of a range of CECs were examined using isotope dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry during fall and winter seasons. Conventional parameters, including total suspended solids, carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand and nutrients were also evaluated from each treatment system. Water quality of these effluents was further examined using a therapeutic hazard modeling approach. Of 19 CECs targeted for study, the benzodiazepine pharmaceutical diazepam was the only CEC not detected in all wastewater influent and effluent samples over two sampling seasons. Diphenhydramine, codeine, diltiazem, atenolol, and diclofenac exhibited significant (p<0.05) seasonal differences in wastewater influent concentrations. Removal of CECs by these wastewater treatment systems was generally not influenced by season. However, significant differences (p<0.05) for a range of water quality indicators were observed among the various treatment technologies. For example, removal of most CECs by ATS was generally comparable to MTP. Lowest removal of most CECs was observed for STS; however, removal was improved when coupling the STS to a WET. Across the treatment systems examined, the majority of pharmaceuticals observed in on-site and municipal effluent discharges were predicted

  15. Transport of nitrogen in a treated-wastewater plume to coastal discharge areas, Ashumet Valley, Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barbaro, Jeffrey R.; Walter, Donald A.; LeBlanc, Denis R.

    2013-01-01

    Land disposal of treated wastewater from a treatment plant on the Massachusetts Military Reservation in operation from 1936 to 1995 has created a plume of contaminated groundwater that is migrating toward coastal discharge areas in the town of Falmouth, Massachusetts. To develop a better understanding of the potential impact of the treated-wastewater plume on coastal discharge areas, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Air Force Center for Engineering and the Environment, evaluated the fate of nitrogen (N) in the plume. Groundwater samples from two large sampling events in 1994 and 2007 were used to map the size and location of the plume, calculate the masses of nitrate-N and ammonium-N, evaluate changes in mass since cessation of disposal in 1995, and create a gridded dataset suitable for use in nitrogen-transport simulations. In 2007, the treated-wastewater plume was about 1,200 meters (m) wide, 30 m thick, and 7,700 m long and contained approximately 87,000 kilograms (kg) nitrate-N and 31,600 kg total ammonium-N. An analysis of previous studies and data from 1994 and 2007 sampling events suggests that most of biologically reactive nitrogen in the plume in 2007 will be transported to coastal discharge areas as either nitrate or ammonium with relatively little transformation to an environmentally nonreactive end product such as nitrogen gas. Nitrogen-transport simulations were conducted with a previously calibrated regional three-dimensional MODFLOW groundwater flow model. Mass-loaded particle tracking was used to simulate the advective transport of nitrogen to discharge areas (or receptors) along the coast. In the simulations, nonreactive transport (no mass loss in the aquifer) was assumed, providing an upper-end estimate of nitrogen loads to receptors. Simulations indicate that approximately 95 percent of the nitrate-N and 99 percent of the ammonium-N in the wastewater plume will eventually discharge to the Coonamessett River, Backus River, Green

  16. Simulation of effects of wastewater discharges on Sand Creek and lower Caddo Creek near Ardmore, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wesolowski, Edwin A.

    1999-01-01

    A streamflow and water-quality model was developed for reaches of Sand and Caddo Creeks in south-central Oklahoma to simulate the effects of wastewater discharge from a refinery and a municipal treatment plant. The purpose of the model was to simulate condi tions during low streamflow when the conditions controlling dissolved-oxygen concentrations are most severe. Data collected to calibrate and verify the streamflow and water-quality model include continuously monitored streamflow and water-quality data at two gaging stations and three temporary monitoring stations; wastewater discharge from two wastewater plants; two sets each of five water-quality samples at nine sites during a 24-hour period; dye and propane samples; periphyton samples; and sediment oxygen demand measurements. The water-quality sampling, at a 6-hour frequency, was based on a Lagrangian reference frame in which the same volume of water was sampled at each site. To represent the unsteady streamflows and the dynamic water-quality conditions, a transport modeling system was used that included both a model to route streamflow and a model to transport dissolved conservative constituents with linkage to reaction kinetics similar to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency QUAL2E model to simulate nonconservative constituents. These model codes are the Diffusion Analogy Streamflow Routing Model (DAFLOW) and the branched Lagrangian transport model (BLTM) and BLTM/QUAL2E that, collectively, as calibrated models, are referred to as the Ardmore Water-Quality Model. The Ardmore DAFLOW model was calibrated with three sets of streamflows that collectively ranged from 16 to 3,456 cubic feet per second. The model uses only one set of calibrated coefficients and exponents to simulate streamflow over this range. The Ardmore BLTM was calibrated for transport by simulating dye concentrations collected during a tracer study when streamflows ranged from 16 to 23 cubic feet per second. Therefore, the model is expected

  17. Predicting fate of the contraceptive pill in wastewater treatment and discharge.

    PubMed

    Mastrup, M; Schäfer, A I; Khan, S J

    2005-01-01

    The risk of endocrine disrupters to humans and wildlife is to date poorly understood, although evidence of effects is now widespread. In understanding the risk, an important step is the determination of the partitioning, as well as chemical and biochemical transformation, of compounds in the environment, the water cycle and the food chain. This is a complex task and this paper is a first step towards estimating some of these factors from a largely theoretical approach. A chemical fate model is used to predict the fate of the contraceptive drug 17alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE2). The example of the contraceptive pill is chosen to follow the journey of the drug from human ingestion and excretion to treatment in a sewage treatment plant (STP) using fugacity-based fate models, followed by discharge into a receiving river and eventually into the estuary/sea. The model predicts how EE2 will partition into the different compartments during each stage of this journey and thereby infiltrate into the food chain. The results suggest that a person would have to ingest more than 30,000 portions of fish to consume an equivalent to a single average dose of the contraceptive pill. While this scenario is highly unlikely, the biochemical consequence of the contraceptive pill is greatly significant. Furthermore, there are many identified similarly estrogenic compounds in the environment while this study only considers one. Cumulative effects of such compounds as well as degradation into other potent compounds may be anticipated. An important message in this paper is the interrelation of wastewater effluent discharge and eventual human exposure of marginally degradable and lipophilic chemicals. While at present the main concerns regarding endocrine disrupters appear to be the fear of their occurrence in drinking water sources, it is clear that the domains of wastewater treatment and discharge, water supply and contamination of food should not be treated as separate issues. The model

  18. 32 CFR 865.120 - Discharge review standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... developed by or as a direct result of complusory urinalysis testing was introduced in the discharge... discharge. (2) The full complement of procedural protections that are required by current regulations....

  19. The effectiveness of a multi-spark electric discharge system in the destruction of microorganisms in domestic and industrial wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Anpilov, A M; Barkhudarov, E M; Christofi, N; Kop'ev, V A; Kossyi, I A; Taktakishvili, M I; Zadiraka, Yu V

    2004-12-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effectiveness of a high voltage multi-spark electric discharge, with pulse energy of 1 Joule, in killing microorganisms in wastewater. Wastewater from primary treated effluent arising from domestic and industrial sources was abstracted for continuous pulsed discharge disinfection. The wastewater contained a large mixed population of microorganisms (approximately 10(7) CFU ml(-1) [10(9) CFU 100 ml(-1)] total aerobic heterotrophic bacteria) including vegetative cells and spores. The electrical conductivity of the wastewater ranged from 900-1400 microS cm(-1) and it was shown that a specific energy of 1.25-1.5 J cm(-3) was required to achieve 1 log reduction in bacterial (faecal coliforms/total aerobic heterotrophs) content. This is higher than that previously shown to reduce the population of E. coli in tap water of low conductivity, demonstrating the role of total wastewater constituents, including dissolved and particulate substances, water colour and the presence of microbial spores, in effective disinfection. The system can be engineered to eradicate microbial populations to levels governed by legislation by increasing treatment time or energy input.

  20. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Hhhhh of... - Emission Limits and Work Practice Standards for Wastewater Streams

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and treat the wastewater as a hazardous waste in accordance with 40 CFR part 264, 265, or 266 either... Standards for Wastewater Streams 4 Table 4 to Subpart HHHHH of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Part 63—Emission Limits and Work Practice Standards for Wastewater Streams As required in §...

  1. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Hhhhh of... - Emission Limits and Work Practice Standards for Wastewater Streams

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and treat the wastewater as a hazardous waste in accordance with 40 CFR part 264, 265, or 266 either... Standards for Wastewater Streams 4 Table 4 to Subpart HHHHH of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Part 63—Emission Limits and Work Practice Standards for Wastewater Streams As required in §...

  2. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Hhhhh of... - Emission Limits and Work Practice Standards for Wastewater Streams

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and treat the wastewater as a hazardous waste in accordance with 40 CFR part 264, 265, or 266 either... Standards for Wastewater Streams 4 Table 4 to Subpart HHHHH of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Part 63—Emission Limits and Work Practice Standards for Wastewater Streams As required in §...

  3. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Hhhhh of... - Emission Limits and Work Practice Standards for Wastewater Streams

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and treat the wastewater as a hazardous waste in accordance with 40 CFR part 264, 265, or 266 either... Standards for Wastewater Streams 4 Table 4 to Subpart HHHHH of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Part 63—Emission Limits and Work Practice Standards for Wastewater Streams As required in §...

  4. Preoperational Subsurface Conditions at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Service Wastewater Discharge Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Ansley, Shannon L.

    2002-02-20

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) Service Wastewater Discharge Facility replaces the existing percolation ponds as a disposal facility for the INTEC Service Waste Stream. A preferred alternative for helping decrease water content in the subsurface near INTEC, closure of the existing ponds is required by the INTEC Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Record of Decision (ROD) for Waste Area Group 3 Operable Unit 3-13 (DOE-ID 1999a). By August 2002, the replacement facility was constructed approximately 2 miles southwest of INTEC, near the Big Lost River channel. Because groundwater beneath the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is protected under Federal and State of Idaho regulations from degradation due to INEEL activities, preoperational data required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 were collected. These data include preexisting physical, chemical, and biological conditions that could be affected by the discharge; background levels of radioactive and chemical components; pertinent environmental and ecological parameters; and potential pathways for human exposure or environmental impact. This document presents specific data collected in support of DOE Order 5400.1, including: four quarters of groundwater sampling and analysis of chemical and radiological parameters; general facility description; site specific geology, stratigraphy, soils, and hydrology; perched water discussions; and general regulatory requirements. However, in order to avoid duplication of previous information, the reader is directed to other referenced publications for more detailed information. Documents that are not readily available are compiled in this publication as appendices. These documents include well and borehole completion reports, a perched water evaluation letter report, the draft INEEL Wellhead Protection Program Plan, and the Environmental Checklist.

  5. The mussel caging approach in assessing biological effects of wastewater treatment plant discharges in the Gulf of Finland (Baltic Sea).

    PubMed

    Turja, Raisa; Lehtonen, Kari K; Meierjohann, Axel; Brozinski, Jenny-Maria; Vahtera, Emil; Soirinsuo, Anna; Sokolov, Alexander; Snoeijs, Pauline; Budzinski, Hélène; Devier, Marie-Hélène; Peluhet, Laurent; Pääkkönen, Jari-Pekka; Viitasalo, Markku; Kronberg, Leif

    2015-08-15

    Biological effects of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents were investigated in Baltic mussels (Mytilus trossulus) caged for one month 800m and 1100m from the WWTP discharge site and at a reference site 4km away. Significant antioxidant, genotoxic and lysosomal responses were observed close to the point of the WWTP discharge. Passive samplers (POCIS) attached to the cages indicated markedly higher water concentrations of various pharmaceuticals at the two most impacted sites. Modeling the dispersal of a hypothetical passive tracer compound from the WWTP discharge site revealed differing frequencies and timing of the exposure periods at different caging sites. The study demonstrated for the first time the effectiveness of the mussel caging approach in combination with passive samplers and the application of passive tracer modeling to examine the true exposure patterns at point source sites such as WWTP pipe discharges in the Baltic Sea.

  6. 32 CFR 865.120 - Discharge review standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... determined that: (1) There exists an error of fact, law, procedures, or discretion associated with the... service which is the subject of the discharge review. (K) Convictions by court-martial. (L) Record of non.... (O) Records relating to a discharge in lieu of court-martial. (ii) Capability to Serve, as...

  7. 32 CFR 865.120 - Discharge review standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... determined that: (1) There exists an error of fact, law, procedures, or discretion associated with the... service which is the subject of the discharge review. (K) Convictions by court-martial. (L) Record of non.... (O) Records relating to a discharge in lieu of court-martial. (ii) Capability to Serve, as...

  8. 32 CFR 865.120 - Discharge review standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... determined that: (1) There exists an error of fact, law, procedures, or discretion associated with the... service which is the subject of the discharge review. (K) Convictions by court-martial. (L) Record of non.... (O) Records relating to a discharge in lieu of court-martial. (ii) Capability to Serve, as...

  9. Transport and transformation of pharmaceuticals and other contaminants of emerging concern from wastewater discharge through surface water to drinking water intake and treatment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ubiquitous presence of pharmaceuticals, hormones, and other contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) in surface-water resources have necessitated research that better elucidates pathways of transport and transformation for these compounds from their discharged wastewater, thro...

  10. Understanding the hydrologic impacts of wastewater treatment plant discharge to shallow groundwater: before and after plant shutdown

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hubbard, Laura E.; Keefe, Steffanie H.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Barber, Larry B.; Duris, Joseph; Hutchinson, Kasey J.; Bradley, Paul M.

    2016-01-01

    Effluent-impacted surface water has the potential to transport not only water, but wastewater-derived contaminants to shallow groundwater systems. To better understand the effects of effluent discharge on in-stream and near-stream hydrologic conditions in wastewater-impacted systems, water-level changes were monitored in hyporheic-zone and shallow-groundwater piezometers in a reach of Fourmile Creek adjacent to and downstream of the Ankeny (Iowa, USA) wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Water-level changes were monitored from approximately 1.5 months before to 0.5 months after WWTP closure. Diurnal patterns in WWTP discharge were closely mirrored in stream and shallow-groundwater levels immediately upstream and up to 3 km downstream of the outfall, indicating that such discharge was the primary control on water levels before shutdown. The hydrologic response to WWTP shutdown was immediately observed throughout the study reach, verifying the far-reaching hydraulic connectivity and associated contaminant transport risk. The movement of WWTP effluent into alluvial aquifers has implications for potential WWTP-derived contamination of shallow groundwater far removed from the WWTP outfall.

  11. BENCH-SCALE EVALUATION OF AMMONIA REMOVAL FROM WASTEWATER BY STEAM STRIPPING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the study was to generate laboratory data to support the development of wastewater discharge standards for ammonia in nonferrous metal winning processes. The objective was accomplished by studying ammonia removal from synthetically compounded 'wastewater' samples u...

  12. Approaches to setting organism-based ballast water discharge standards

    EPA Science Inventory

    As a major vector by which foreign species invade coastal and freshwater waterbodies, ballast water discharge from ships is recognized as a major environmental threat. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) drafted an international ballast water treaty establishing ballast...

  13. Density Matters: Review of Approaches to Setting Organism-Based Ballast Water Discharge Standards

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of their effort to develop national ballast water discharge standards under NPDES permitting, the Office of Water requested that WED scientists identify and review existing approaches to generating organism-based discharge standards for ballast water. Six potential appro...

  14. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Primary Sedimentation Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles County Community Coll., La Plata, MD.

    This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the primary sedimentation process of wastewater treatment plants. The primary sedimentation process involves removing settleable and suspended solids, in part, from wastewater by gravitational forces, and scum and other floatable solids from wastewater by mechanical means. Step-by-step…

  15. Decomposition analysis of wastewater pollutant discharges in industrial sectors of China (2001-2009) using the LMDI I Method.

    PubMed

    Lei, Hongjun; Xia, Xunfeng; Li, Changjia; Xi, Beidou

    2012-06-01

    China's industry accounts for 46.8% of the national Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and plays an important strategic role in its economic growth. On the other hand, industrial wastewater is also the major source of water pollution. In order to examine the relationship between the underlying driving forces and various environmental indicators, values of two critical industrial wastewater pollutant discharge parameters (Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and ammonia nitrogen (NH(4)-N)), between 2001 and 2009, were decomposed into three factors: i.e., production effects (caused by change in the scale of economic activity), structure effects (caused by change in economic structure) and intensity effects (caused by change in technological level of each sector), using additive version of the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI I) decomposition method. Results showed that: (1) the average annual effect of COD discharges in China was -2.99%, whereas the production effect, the structure effect, and the intensity effect were 14.64%, -1.39%, and -16.24%, respectively. Similarly, the average effect of NH(4)-N discharges was -4.03%, while the production effect, the structure effect, and the intensity effect were 16.18%, -2.88%, and -17.33%, respectively; (2) the production effect was the major factor responsible for the increase in COD and NH(4)-N discharges, accounting for 45% and 44% of the total contribution, respectively; (3) the intensity effect, which accounted for 50% and 48% of the total contribution, respectively, exerted a dominant decremental effect on COD and NH(4)-N discharges; intensity effect was further decomposed into cleaner production effect and pollution abatement effect with the cleaner production effect accounting for 60% and 55% of the reduction of COD and NH(4)-N, respectively; (4) the major contributors to incremental COD and NH(4)-N discharges were divided among industrial sub-sectors and the top contributors were identified. Potential restructuring and

  16. Assessment of the interactions between economic growth and industrial wastewater discharges using co-integration analysis: a case study for China's Hunan Province.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Qiang; Gao, Yang; Hu, Dan; Tan, Hong; Wang, Tianxiang

    2011-07-01

    We have investigated the interactions between economic growth and industrial wastewater discharge from 1978 to 2007 in China's Hunan Province using co-integration theory and an error-correction model. Two main economic growth indicators and four representative industrial wastewater pollutants were selected to demonstrate the interaction mechanism. We found a long-term equilibrium relationship between economic growth and the discharge of industrial pollutants in wastewater between 1978 and 2007 in Hunan Province. The error-correction mechanism prevented the variable expansion for long-term relationship at quantity and scale, and the size of the error-correction parameters reflected short-term adjustments that deviate from the long-term equilibrium. When economic growth changes within a short term, the discharge of pollutants will constrain growth because the values of the parameters in the short-term equation are smaller than those in the long-term co-integrated regression equation, indicating that a remarkable long-term influence of economic growth on the discharge of industrial wastewater pollutants and that increasing pollutant discharge constrained economic growth. Economic growth is the main driving factor that affects the discharge of industrial wastewater pollutants in Hunan Province. On the other hand, the discharge constrains economic growth by producing external pressure on growth, although this feedback mechanism has a lag effect. Economic growth plays an important role in explaining the predicted decomposition of the variance in the discharge of industrial wastewater pollutants, but this discharge contributes less to predictions of the variations in economic growth.

  17. Assessment of the Interactions between Economic Growth and Industrial Wastewater Discharges Using Co-integration Analysis: A Case Study for China’s Hunan Province

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Qiang; Gao, Yang; Hu, Dan; Tan, Hong; Wang, Tianxiang

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated the interactions between economic growth and industrial wastewater discharge from 1978 to 2007 in China’s Hunan Province using co-integration theory and an error-correction model. Two main economic growth indicators and four representative industrial wastewater pollutants were selected to demonstrate the interaction mechanism. We found a long-term equilibrium relationship between economic growth and the discharge of industrial pollutants in wastewater between 1978 and 2007 in Hunan Province. The error-correction mechanism prevented the variable expansion for long-term relationship at quantity and scale, and the size of the error-correction parameters reflected short-term adjustments that deviate from the long-term equilibrium. When economic growth changes within a short term, the discharge of pollutants will constrain growth because the values of the parameters in the short-term equation are smaller than those in the long-term co-integrated regression equation, indicating that a remarkable long-term influence of economic growth on the discharge of industrial wastewater pollutants and that increasing pollutant discharge constrained economic growth. Economic growth is the main driving factor that affects the discharge of industrial wastewater pollutants in Hunan Province. On the other hand, the discharge constrains economic growth by producing external pressure on growth, although this feedback mechanism has a lag effect. Economic growth plays an important role in explaining the predicted decomposition of the variance in the discharge of industrial wastewater pollutants, but this discharge contributes less to predictions of the variations in economic growth. PMID:21845167

  18. Discharge rating equation and hydraulic characteristics of standard Denil fishways

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Odeh, M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces a new equation to predict discharge capacity in the commonly used Denil fishway using water surface elevation in the upstream reservoir and fishway width and slope as the independent variables. A dimensionless discharge coefficient based only on the physical slope of the fishway is introduced. The discharge equation is based on flow physics, dimensional analysis, and experiments with three full-scale fishways of different sizes. Hydraulic characteristics of flow inside these fishways are discussed. Water velocities decreased by more than 50% and remained relatively unchanged in the fully developed flow downstream of the vena contracta region, near the upstream baffle where fish exit the fishway. Engineers and biologists need to be aware of this fact and ensure that fish can negotiate the vena contracta velocities rather than velocities within the developed flow region only. Discharge capacity was directly proportional to the fishway width and slope. The new equation is a design tool for engineers and field biologists, especially when designing a fishway based on flow availability in conjunction with the swimming capabilities of target fish species.

  19. 40 CFR 403.5 - National pretreatment standards: Prohibited discharges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... test methods specified in 40 CFR 261.21; (2) Pollutants which will cause corrosive structural damage to... prohibitions. A User may not introduce into a POTW any pollutant(s) which cause Pass Through or Interference... or discharges from other sources, would cause Pass Through or Interference; and (ii)(A) A local...

  20. 40 CFR 403.5 - National pretreatment standards: Prohibited discharges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... test methods specified in 40 CFR 261.21; (2) Pollutants which will cause corrosive structural damage to... prohibitions. A User may not introduce into a POTW any pollutant(s) which cause Pass Through or Interference... or discharges from other sources, would cause Pass Through or Interference; and (ii)(A) A local...

  1. 40 CFR 403.5 - National pretreatment standards: Prohibited discharges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... test methods specified in 40 CFR 261.21; (2) Pollutants which will cause corrosive structural damage to... prohibitions. A User may not introduce into a POTW any pollutant(s) which cause Pass Through or Interference... or discharges from other sources, would cause Pass Through or Interference; and (ii)(A) A local...

  2. Effects of wastewater discharge on formation of Fe plaque on root surface and radial oxygen loss of mangrove roots.

    PubMed

    Pi, N; Tam, N F Y; Wong, M H

    2010-02-01

    Effects of wastewater discharge on radial oxygen loss (ROL), formation of iron (Fe) plaque on root surface, and their correlations in Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (L.) Poir and Excoecaria agallocha L. were investigated. ROL along a lateral root increased more rapidly in control than that in strong wastewater (with pollutant concentrations ten times of that in municipal sewage, 10NW) treatment, but less Fe plaque was formed in control for both plants. For B. gymnorrhiza receiving 10NW, Fe plaque formation was more at basal and mature zones than at root tip, while opposite trend was shown in E. agallocha. At day 0, the correlation between ROL and Fe plaque was insignificant, but negative and positive correlations were found in 10NW and control, respectively, at day 105, suggesting that more ROL was induced leading to more Fe plaque. However, excess Fe plaque also served as a 'barrier' to prevent excessive ROL in 10NW plants. PMID:19782449

  3. Degradation of organic pollutants and microorganisms from wastewater using different dielectric barrier discharge configurations--a critical review.

    PubMed

    Mouele, Emile S Massima; Tijani, Jimoh O; Fatoba, Ojo O; Petrik, Leslie F

    2015-12-01

    The growing global drinking water crisis requires the development of novel advanced, sustainable, and cost-effective water treatment technologies to supplement the existing conventional methods. One such technology is advanced oxidation based on dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). DBD such as single and double planar and single and double cylindrical dielectric barrier configurations have been utilized for efficient degradation of recalcitrant organic pollutants. The overall performance of the different DBD system varies and depends on several factors. Therefore, this review was compiled to give an overview of different DBD configurations vis-a-viz their applications and the in situ mechanism of generation of free reactive species for water and wastewater treatment. Our survey of the literature indicated that application of double cylindrical dielectric barrier configuration represents an ideal and viable route for achieving greater water and wastewater purification efficiency.

  4. 40 CFR 461.23 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) BATTERY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Subcategory § 461.23... discharge for process wastewater pollutants from any battery manufacturing operations....

  5. 40 CFR 461.23 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) BATTERY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Subcategory § 461.23... discharge for process wastewater pollutants from any battery manufacturing operations....

  6. 40 CFR 461.23 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) BATTERY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Subcategory § 461.23... discharge for process wastewater pollutants from any battery manufacturing operations....

  7. Effects of wastewater-lagoon discharge through wetlands on water quality in Bonifas Creek, Gogebic County, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aichele, Stephen Scranton; Ellis, James M.

    2000-01-01

    The Lac Vieux Desert Band of the Superior Chippewa (LVD) recently constructed a wastewater-treatment facility that discharges effluent twice annually from settling lagoons to wooded wetland areas adjoining the channel of Bonifas Creek, a small stream that flows near the LVD community in Watersmeet, Michigan. This report describes the hydrology of the site and the results of analyses of water samples from Bonifas Creek and the settling lagoons. Water samples were collected from sites on the creek upstream and downstream of the effluent-receiving area, before and after discharge from the lagoons. The concentrations of calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate increased from the upstream to the downstream site, but the concentrations of sodium, chloride, and sulfate decreased. These changes in water chemistry, however, were similar both before and after the release from the lagoons, and are consistent with known pattern of influxes of ground water into Bonifas Creek. Therefore, it appears that the discharge of wastewater into the area adjoining Bonifas Creek is unlikely to have any immediate effect on the quality of water in the creek. 

  8. Multiple Discharges of Treated Municipal Wastewater Have a Small Effect on the Quantities of Numerous Antibiotic Resistance Determinants in the Upper Mississippi River.

    PubMed

    LaPara, Timothy M; Madson, Matthew; Borchardt, Spencer; Lang, Kevin S; Johnson, Timothy J

    2015-10-01

    This study evaluated multiple discharges of treated wastewater on the quantities of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the Upper Mississippi River. Surface water and treated wastewater samples were collected along the Mississippi River during three different periods of 4 days during the summer of 2012, and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was used to enumerate several ARGs and related targets. Even though the wastewater effluents contained 75- to 831-fold higher levels of ARGs than the river water, the quantities of ARGs in the Mississippi River did not increase with downstream distance. Plasmids from the incompatibility group A/C were detected at low levels in the wastewater effluents but not in the river water; synthetic DNA containing an ampicillin resistance gene (bla) from cloning vectors was not detected in either the wastewater effluent or river samples. A simple 1D model suggested that the primary reason for the small impact of the wastewater discharges on ARG levels was the large flow rate of the Mississippi River compared to that of the wastewater discharges. Furthermore, this model generally overpredicted the ARG levels in the Mississippi River, suggesting that substantial loss mechanisms (e.g., decay or deposition) were occurring in the river.

  9. Multiple Discharges of Treated Municipal Wastewater Have a Small Effect on the Quantities of Numerous Antibiotic Resistance Determinants in the Upper Mississippi River.

    PubMed

    LaPara, Timothy M; Madson, Matthew; Borchardt, Spencer; Lang, Kevin S; Johnson, Timothy J

    2015-10-01

    This study evaluated multiple discharges of treated wastewater on the quantities of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the Upper Mississippi River. Surface water and treated wastewater samples were collected along the Mississippi River during three different periods of 4 days during the summer of 2012, and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was used to enumerate several ARGs and related targets. Even though the wastewater effluents contained 75- to 831-fold higher levels of ARGs than the river water, the quantities of ARGs in the Mississippi River did not increase with downstream distance. Plasmids from the incompatibility group A/C were detected at low levels in the wastewater effluents but not in the river water; synthetic DNA containing an ampicillin resistance gene (bla) from cloning vectors was not detected in either the wastewater effluent or river samples. A simple 1D model suggested that the primary reason for the small impact of the wastewater discharges on ARG levels was the large flow rate of the Mississippi River compared to that of the wastewater discharges. Furthermore, this model generally overpredicted the ARG levels in the Mississippi River, suggesting that substantial loss mechanisms (e.g., decay or deposition) were occurring in the river. PMID:26325533

  10. Are standard wastewater treatment plant design methods suitable for any municipal wastewater?

    PubMed

    Insel, G; Güder, B; Güneş, G; Ubay Cokgor, E

    2012-01-01

    The design and operational parameters of an activated sludge system were analyzed treating the municipal wastewaters in Istanbul. The design methods of ATV131, Metcalf & Eddy together with model simulations were compared with actual plant operational data. The activated sludge model parameters were determined using 3-month dynamic data for the biological nutrient removal plant. The ATV131 method yielded closer sludge production, total oxygen requirement and effluent nitrogen levels to the real plant after adopting correct influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) fractionation. The enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) could not easily be predicted with ATV131 method due to low volatile fatty acids (VFA) potential.

  11. Bioaugmentation: An Emerging Strategy of Industrial Wastewater Treatment for Reuse and Discharge.

    PubMed

    Nzila, Alexis; Razzak, Shaikh Abdur; Zhu, Jesse

    2016-01-01

    A promising long-term and sustainable solution to the growing scarcity of water worldwide is to recycle and reuse wastewater. In wastewater treatment plants, the biodegradation of contaminants or pollutants by harnessing microorganisms present in activated sludge is one of the most important strategies to remove organic contaminants from wastewater. However, this approach has limitations because many pollutants are not efficiently eliminated. To counterbalance the limitations, bioaugmentation has been developed and consists of adding specific and efficient pollutant-biodegrading microorganisms into a microbial community in an effort to enhance the ability of this microbial community to biodegrade contaminants. This approach has been tested for wastewater cleaning with encouraging results, but failure has also been reported, especially during scale-up. In this review, work on the bioaugmentation in the context of removal of important pollutants from industrial wastewater is summarized, with an emphasis on recalcitrant compounds, and strategies that can be used to improve the efficiency of bioaugmentation are also discussed. This review also initiates a discussion regarding new research areas, such as nanotechnology and quorum sensing, that should be investigated to improve the efficiency of wastewater bioaugmentation. PMID:27571089

  12. Bioaugmentation: An Emerging Strategy of Industrial Wastewater Treatment for Reuse and Discharge

    PubMed Central

    Nzila, Alexis; Razzak, Shaikh Abdur; Zhu, Jesse

    2016-01-01

    A promising long-term and sustainable solution to the growing scarcity of water worldwide is to recycle and reuse wastewater. In wastewater treatment plants, the biodegradation of contaminants or pollutants by harnessing microorganisms present in activated sludge is one of the most important strategies to remove organic contaminants from wastewater. However, this approach has limitations because many pollutants are not efficiently eliminated. To counterbalance the limitations, bioaugmentation has been developed and consists of adding specific and efficient pollutant-biodegrading microorganisms into a microbial community in an effort to enhance the ability of this microbial community to biodegrade contaminants. This approach has been tested for wastewater cleaning with encouraging results, but failure has also been reported, especially during scale-up. In this review, work on the bioaugmentation in the context of removal of important pollutants from industrial wastewater is summarized, with an emphasis on recalcitrant compounds, and strategies that can be used to improve the efficiency of bioaugmentation are also discussed. This review also initiates a discussion regarding new research areas, such as nanotechnology and quorum sensing, that should be investigated to improve the efficiency of wastewater bioaugmentation. PMID:27571089

  13. Bioaugmentation: An Emerging Strategy of Industrial Wastewater Treatment for Reuse and Discharge.

    PubMed

    Nzila, Alexis; Razzak, Shaikh Abdur; Zhu, Jesse

    2016-08-25

    A promising long-term and sustainable solution to the growing scarcity of water worldwide is to recycle and reuse wastewater. In wastewater treatment plants, the biodegradation of contaminants or pollutants by harnessing microorganisms present in activated sludge is one of the most important strategies to remove organic contaminants from wastewater. However, this approach has limitations because many pollutants are not efficiently eliminated. To counterbalance the limitations, bioaugmentation has been developed and consists of adding specific and efficient pollutant-biodegrading microorganisms into a microbial community in an effort to enhance the ability of this microbial community to biodegrade contaminants. This approach has been tested for wastewater cleaning with encouraging results, but failure has also been reported, especially during scale-up. In this review, work on the bioaugmentation in the context of removal of important pollutants from industrial wastewater is summarized, with an emphasis on recalcitrant compounds, and strategies that can be used to improve the efficiency of bioaugmentation are also discussed. This review also initiates a discussion regarding new research areas, such as nanotechnology and quorum sensing, that should be investigated to improve the efficiency of wastewater bioaugmentation.

  14. Responses of macroinvertebrate community metrics to a wastewater discharge in the Upper Blue River of Kansas and Missouri, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poulton, Barry C.; Graham, Jennifer; Rasmussen, Teresa J.; Stone, Mandy L.

    2015-01-01

    The Blue River Main wastewater treatment facility (WWTF) discharges into the upper Blue River (725 km2), and is recently upgraded to implement biological nutrient removal. We measured biotic condition upstream and downstream of the discharge utilizing the macroinvertebrate protocol developed for Kansas streams. We examined responses of 34 metrics to determine the best indicators for discriminating site differences and for predicting biological condition. Significant differences between sites upstream and downstream of the discharge were identified for 15 metrics in April and 12 metrics in August. Upstream biotic condition scores were significantly greater than scores at both downstream sites in April (p = 0.02), and in August the most downstream site was classified as non-biologically supporting. Thirteen EPT taxa (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera) considered intolerant of degraded stream quality were absent at one or both downstream sites. Increases in tolerance metrics and filtering macroinvertebrates, and a decline in ratio of scrapers to filterers all indicated effects of increased nutrient enrichment. Stepwise regressions identified several significant models containing a suite of metrics with low redundancy (R2 = 0.90 - 0.99). Based on the rapid decline in biological condition downstream of the discharge, the level of nutrient removal resulting from the facility upgrade (10% - 20%) was not enough to mitigate negative effects on macroinvertebrate communities.

  15. Response of Nereis diversicolor (Polychaeta, Nereidae) populations to reduced wastewater discharge in the polluted estuary of Oued Souss, Bay of Agadir, Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ait Alla, A.; Gillet, P.; Deutsch, B.; Moukrim, A.; Bergayou, H.

    2006-12-01

    Field investigations on the population dynamics of Nereis diversicolor were carried out from January 2002 to December 2003 in the estuary of Oued Souss (southwestern Morocco) to determine the changes caused by setting up of a domestic and industrial wastewater purification plant (M'zar) before and after by the end of wastewater discharges in November 2002 on the structure of the ecosystem. Samples of N. diversicolor were collected monthly in the intertidal zone at low tide before (during 2002) and after (during 2003) the end of wastewater discharges. Separation of cohorts using the Algorithm EM method (McLachlan, G.J., Krishnan, T., 1997. The EM algorithm and extensions. Wiley Series in Probability and Statistics. Wiley, New York, 274 pp.) allowed determination of the growth rate (mm day -1) by cohort and the annual production. The data showed significant differences between populations of Nereis diversicolor before and after the end of wastewater discharges. During the wastewater discharge period (2002), the population had a mean annual density of 1992 ind m -2, a mean annual biomass of 75.52 g DW m -2 and an annual secondary production of 141.3 g DW m -2 with a P/ B ratio of 1.87. After the end of discharges (2003), density, biomass and secondary production decreased significantly. The annual averages for these parameters were 740 ind m -2, 14.16 g DW m -2 and 23.83 g DW m -2, respectively, with a P/ B ratio of 1.68. The important decrease observed in density, biomass and secondary production of Nereis diversicolor may be attributed (a) to the environmental changes observed after the end of wastewater discharges in the estuary of Oued Souss, namely the increase of salinity and the decrease of organic matter content, and (b) to the migration of this species towards other areas.

  16. Counting at low concentrations: the statistical challenges of verifying ballast water discharge standards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frazier, Melanie; Miller, A. Whitman; Lee, Henry; Reusser, Deborah A.

    2013-01-01

    Discharge from the ballast tanks of ships is one of the primary vectors of nonindigenous species in marine environments. To mitigate this environmental and economic threat, international, national, and state entities are establishing regulations to limit the concentration of living organisms that may be discharged from the ballast tanks of ships. The proposed discharge standards have ranged from zero detectable organisms to 3. If standard sampling methods are used, verifying whether ballast discharge complies with these stringent standards will be challenging due to the inherent stochasticity of sampling. Furthermore, at low concentrations, very large volumes of water must be sampled to find enough organisms to accurately estimate concentration. Despite these challenges, adequate sampling protocols comprise a critical aspect of establishing standards because they help define the actual risk level associated with a standard. A standard that appears very stringent may be effectively lax if it is paired with an inadequate sampling protocol. We describe some of the statistical issues associated with sampling at low concentrations to help regulators understand the uncertainties of sampling as well as to inform the development of sampling protocols that ensure discharge standards are adequately implemented.

  17. Decomposition Analysis of Wastewater Pollutant Discharges in Industrial Sectors of China (2001-2009) Using the LMDI I Metho

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Hongjun; Xia, Xunfeng; Li, Changjia; Xi, Beidou

    2012-01-01

    China’s industry accounts for 46.8% of the national Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and plays an important strategic role in its economic growth. On the other hand, industrial wastewater is also the major source of water pollution. In order to examine the relationship between the underlying driving forces and various environmental indicators, values of two critical industrial wastewater pollutant discharge parameters (Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and ammonia nitrogen (NH4-N)), between 2001 and 2009, were decomposed into three factors: i.e., production effects (caused by change in the scale of economic activity), structure effects (caused by change in economic structure) and intensity effects (caused by change in technological level of each sector), using additive version of the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI I) decomposition method. Results showed that: (1) the average annual effect of COD discharges in China was −2.99%, whereas the production effect, the structure effect, and the intensity effect were 14.64%, −1.39%, and −16.24%, respectively. Similarly, the average effect of NH4-N discharges was −4.03%, while the production effect, the structure effect, and the intensity effect were 16.18%, −2.88%, and −17.33%, respectively; (2) the production effect was the major factor responsible for the increase in COD and NH4-N discharges, accounting for 45% and 44% of the total contribution, respectively; (3) the intensity effect, which accounted for 50% and 48% of the total contribution, respectively, exerted a dominant decremental effect on COD and NH4-N discharges; intensity effect was further decomposed into cleaner production effect and pollution abatement effect with the cleaner production effect accounting for 60% and 55% of the reduction of COD and NH4-N, respectively; (4) the major contributors to incremental COD and NH4-N discharges were divided among industrial sub-sectors and the top contributors were identified. Potential restructuring and

  18. 40 CFR 403.5 - National pretreatment standards: Prohibited discharges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GENERAL PRE-TREAT-MENT REGULATIONS FOR EXIST-ING AND NEW... requirements and, in the case of Interference, applicable requirements for sewage sludge use or disposal. (b... test methods specified in 40 CFR 261.21; (2) Pollutants which will cause corrosive structural damage...

  19. 40 CFR 403.5 - National pretreatment standards: Prohibited discharges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GENERAL PRE-TREAT-MENT REGULATIONS FOR EXIST-ING AND NEW... requirements and, in the case of Interference, applicable requirements for sewage sludge use or disposal. (b... test methods specified in 40 CFR 261.21; (2) Pollutants which will cause corrosive structural damage...

  20. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Tertiary Multimedia Filtration Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrasek, Al, Jr.

    This guide describes the standard operating job procedures for the tertiary multimedia filtration process of wastewater treatment plants. The major objective of the filtration process is the removal of suspended solids from the reclaimed wastewater. The guide gives step-by-step instructions for pre-start up, start-up, continuous operation, and…

  1. National water quality assessment of the Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain study unit; water withdrawals and treated wastewater discharges, 1990

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marella, R.L.; Fanning, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    ,293 million gallons per day, of which 69 percent was ground water and 31 percent was surface water. An estimated 1.254 millon acres were irrigated within the study unit during 1990. Water withdrawn for thermoelectric power generation in the study unit in 1990 totaled 1,552 million gallons per day, of which 99 percent was surface water and 1 percent was ground water. An additional 6,919 million gallons per day of saline surface water were withdrawn for thermoelectric power generation in 1990, solely for cooling purposes. Treated wastewater discharged within the Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain study unit totaled nearly 1,187 million gallons per day in 1990. Of the total water discharged, 58 percent was discharged directly into surface water and the remaining 42 percent was discharged to ground water (through drain fields, injection wells, percolation ponds or spray fields). Domestic wastewater facilities discharged in the study unit totaled nearly 789 million gallons per day, industrial wastewater facilities discharged 213 million gallons per day, and releases from septic tanks was estimated at 185 million gallons per day. More than 1.3 million septic tanks were estimated in use within the study unit in 1990.

  2. Standardizing ICU management of pediatric traumatic brain injury is associated with improved outcomes at discharge.

    PubMed

    O'Lynnger, Thomas M; Shannon, Chevis N; Le, Truc M; Greeno, Amber; Chung, Dai; Lamb, Fred S; Wellons, John C

    2016-01-01

    OBJECT The goal of critical care in treating traumatic brain injury (TBI) is to reduce secondary brain injury by limiting cerebral ischemia and optimizing cerebral blood flow. The authors compared short-term outcomes as defined by discharge disposition and Glasgow Outcome Scale scores in children with TBI before and after the implementation of a protocol that standardized decision-making and interventions among neurosurgeons and pediatric intensivists. METHODS The authors performed a retrospective pre- and postprotocol study of 128 pediatric patients with severe TBI, as defined by Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores < 8, admitted to a tertiary care center pediatric critical care unit between April 1, 2008, and May 31, 2014. The preprotocol group included 99 patients, and the postprotocol group included 29 patients. The primary outcome of interest was discharge disposition before and after protocol implementation, which took place on April 1, 2013. Ordered logistic regression was used to assess outcomes while accounting for injury severity and clinical parameters. Favorable discharge disposition included discharge home. Unfavorable discharge disposition included discharge to an inpatient facility or death. RESULTS Demographics were similar between the treatment periods, as was injury severity as assessed by GCS score (mean 5.43 preprotocol, mean 5.28 postprotocol; p = 0.67). The ordered logistic regression model demonstrated an odds ratio of 4.0 of increasingly favorable outcome in the postprotocol cohort (p = 0.007). Prior to protocol implementation, 63 patients (64%) had unfavorable discharge disposition and 36 patients (36%) had favorable discharge disposition. After protocol implementation, 9 patients (31%) had unfavorable disposition, while 20 patients (69%) had favorable disposition (p = 0.002). In the preprotocol group, 31 patients (31%) died while 6 patients (21%) died after protocol implementation (p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS Discharge disposition and mortality

  3. Organic matter in a subtropical mangrove-estuary subjected to wastewater discharge: Origin and utilisation by two macrozoobenthic species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meziane, Tarik; Tsuchiya, Makoto

    2002-02-01

    Total lipid amounts, fatty acid signature analysis, and C:N measurements were used to investigate the sources of organic matter in an Okinawan estuary (Okukubi, Japan) during the 1999 rainy season. This estuary has a mangrove forest and receives agricultural wastewater. Highest concentrations of total lipids and lowest C:N values were simultaneously found near the pipe where the agricultural water is discharged. Fatty acid profiles in the sediments varied among the stations, indicating differences in the contributing organic sources. Small amounts of lipids and low relative contributions of long-chain fatty acids, markers of vascular plants, were found at stations within and adjacent to the mangrove. These results indicate that the export of organic matter from the mangrove litter to the intertidal flat was limited and spatially restricted. The wastewater seems to induce high amounts of bacteria, macroalgae and benthic diatoms, as indicated by their respective fatty acid markers. The fatty acid profiles of the tissues of two dominant intertidal invertebrates, the crab Uca vocans and the gastropod Terebralia sulcata, indicated that their diet was largely comprised of bacteria. Green macroalgae were important food sources for the gastropods; diatoms and mangrove biomass contributed to the nutrition of the crabs, although their contributions were smaller.

  4. Assessment of the quality and toxicity of the discharges of a wastewater treatment plant and alternatives to improve its operation.

    PubMed

    Robles-Vargas, Daniel; Montoya-Castillo, Sandra Margarita; Avelar-González, Francisco Javier; Jauregui-Rincón, Juan; Rodríguez-Valadez, Francisco Javier; Rico-Martínez, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Wastewater discharges into freshwater bodies represent a serious ecological problem worldwide. In underdeveloped and developing countries wastewater treatment plants (WTP) only count with basic treatment, leading to the pollution of important aquatic reservoirs causing critical situations. In the present work, a one year evaluation of toxicity and main physical and chemical parameters of one of the major WTP of the state of Aguascalientes was conducted fortnightly, and to assess treatment alternatives for this WTP we tested: a) three white rot fungi (WRF), b) a photo-electrochemical process, c) ion-exchangers resins and activated carbon. The 3 WRF exhibited high COD removal from influents (72 - 95 %) but only Phanerochaete chrysosporium reached significant toxicity removals (70 and 55 %, for an influent and an effluent, respectively). Treatments with electrochemical advanced oxidation processes resulted with the highest toxicity and COD removals (96 % for both parameters) in comparison to biological and physicochemical treatments. Adsorption with activated carbon, zeolite and chelex ion-exchange resins removed 60 - 90 % of COD and 60 - 99 % toxicity. These results could be used to improve operation of the Industrial Park WTP and to plan future modifications to the plant. PMID:22375542

  5. Calibration, verification, and use of a water-quality model to simulate effects of discharging treated wastewater to the Red River of the North at Fargo, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wesolowski, E.A.

    1994-01-01

    A 30.8-mile reach of the Red River of the North receives treated wastewater from plants at Fargo, North Dakota, and Moorhead, Minnesota, and streamflows from the Sheyenne River. A one-dimensional, steady-state, stream water-quality model, the Enhanced Stream Water Quality Model (QUAL2E), was calibrated and verified for summer stream flow conditions to simulate some of the biochemical processes that result from discharging treated wastewater into this reach of the river. Data obtained to define the river's transport conditions are measurements of channel geometry, streamflow, traveltime, specific conductance, and temperature. Data obtained to define the river's water-quality conditions are measurements of concentrations of selected water-quality constituents and estimates of various reaction coefficients. Most of the water-quality data used to calibrate and verify the model were obtained during two synoptic samplings in August 1989 and August 1990. The water-quality model simulates specific conductance, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, ultimate carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand, total nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, total ammonia as nitrogen, total organic nitrogen as nitrogen, total phosphorus as phosphorus, and algal biomass as chlorophyll a. Of the nine properties and constituents that the calibrated model simulates, all except algae were verified. When increases in dissolved-oxygen concentration are considered, model sensitivity analyses indicate that dissolved-oxygen concentration is most sensitive to maximum specific algal growth rate. When decreases in dissolved-oxygen concentration are considered, model sensitivity analyses indicate that dissolved-oxygen concentration is most sensitive to point-source ammonia. Model simulations indicate nitrification and sediment oxygen demand consume most of the dissolved oxygen in the study reach. The Red River at Fargo Water-Quality Model and the verification data set, including associated reaction

  6. Effects of wastewater effluent discharge and treatment facility upgrades on environmental and biological conditions of Indian Creek, Johnson County, Kansas, June 2004 through June 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graham, Jennifer L.; Stone, Mandy L.; Rasmussen, Teresa J.; Foster, Guy M.; Poulton, Barry C.; Paxson, Chelsea R.; Harris, Theodore D.

    2014-01-01

    Indian Creek is one of the most urban drainage basins in Johnson County, Kansas, and environmental and biological conditions of the creek are affected by contaminants from point and other urban sources. The Johnson County Douglas L. Smith Middle Basin (hereafter referred to as the “Middle Basin”) and Tomahawk Creek Wastewater Treatment Facilities (WWTFs) discharge to Indian Creek. In summer 2010, upgrades were completed to increase capacity and include biological nutrient removal at the Middle Basin facility. There have been no recent infrastructure changes at the Tomahawk Creek facility; however, during 2009, chemically enhanced primary treatment was added to the treatment process for better process settling before disinfection and discharge with the added effect of enhanced phosphorus removal. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Johnson County Wastewater, assessed the effects of wastewater effluent on environmental and biological conditions of Indian Creek by comparing two upstream sites to four sites located downstream from the WWTFs using data collected during June 2004 through June 2013. Environmental conditions were evaluated using previously and newly collected discrete and continuous data and were compared with an assessment of biological community composition and ecosystem function along the upstream-downstream gradient. This study improves the understanding of the effects of wastewater effluent on stream-water and streambed sediment quality, biological community composition, and ecosystem function in urban areas. After the addition of biological nutrient removal to the Middle Basin WWTF in 2010, annual mean total nitrogen concentrations in effluent decreased by 46 percent, but still exceeded the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) wastewater effluent permit concentration goal of 8.0 milligrams per liter (mg/L); however, the NPDES wastewater effluent permit total phosphorus concentration goal of 1.5 mg/L or less was

  7. Impact of wastewater treatment plant discharge of lidocaine, tramadol, venlafaxine and their metabolites on the quality of surface waters and groundwater.

    PubMed

    Rúa-Gómez, Paola C; Püttmann, Wilhelm

    2012-05-01

    The presence of the anesthetic lidocaine (LDC), the analgesic tramadol (TRA), the antidepressant venlafaxine (VEN) and the metabolites O-desmethyltramadol (ODT) and O-desmethylvenlafaxine (ODV) was investigated in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents, in surface waters and in groundwater. The analytes were detected in all effluent samples and in only 64% of the surface water samples. The mean concentrations of the analytes in effluent samples from WWTPs with wastewater from only households and hospitals were 107 (LDC), 757 (TRA), 122 (ODT), 160 (VEN) and 637 ng L(-1) (ODV), while the mean concentrations in effluents from WWTPs treating additionally wastewater from pharmaceutical industries as indirect dischargers were for some pharmaceuticals clearly higher. WWTP effluents were identified as important sources of the analyzed pharmaceuticals and their metabolites in surface waters. The concentrations of the compounds found in surface waters ranged from wastewater in the recipient water, the mean flow rate of the surface water, and the proximity of the sampling point to the WWTP discharge point. The dependence of the concentrations of the target compounds in the surface water on the distance between the sampling points and the points of WWTP discharge into the recipient rivers and streams indicates possible degradation of the compounds in the surface waters. Infiltration of the target analytes into groundwater was not observed.

  8. 77 FR 17253 - Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-23

    ... Water Discharged in U.S. Waters'' in the Federal Register (74 FR 44632). In response, we received 662... Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal...' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The...

  9. Water withdrawals, wastewater discharge, and water consumption in the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River Basin, 2005, and water-use trends, 1970-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marella, Richard L.; Fanning, Julia L.

    2011-01-01

    In 2000, an estimated 49 percent of the water withdrawn for public supply in the basin was consumed, and the remaining 51 percent was returned to the hydrologic system through wastewater treatment systems. In 2005, an estimated 38 percent was consumed and 62 percent was returned to the hydrologic system. This contrast between water withdrawals and wastewater discharges for these years was caused primarily by below-average rainfall during 2000 (a dry year) and above-average rainfall during 2005 (a wet year).

  10. Organic Wastewater Compounds, Pharmaceuticals, andColiphage in Ground Water Receiving Discharge from OnsiteWastewater Treatment Systems near La Pine, Oregon:Occurrence and Implications for Transport

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinkle, Stephen J.; Weick, Rodney J.; Johnson, Jill M.; Cahill, Jeffery D.; Smith, Steven G.; Rich, Barbara J.

    2005-01-01

    The occurrence of organic wastewater compounds (components of 'personal care products' and other common household chemicals), pharmaceuticals (human prescription and nonprescription medical drugs), and coliphage (viruses that infect coliform bacteria, and found in high concentrations in municipal wastewater) in onsite wastewater (septic tank effluent) and in a shallow, unconfined, sandy aquifer that serves as the primary source of drinking water for most residents near La Pine, Oregon, was documented. Samples from two types of observation networks provided basic occurrence data for onsite wastewater and downgradient ground water. One observation network was a group of 28 traditional and innovative (advanced treatment) onsite wastewater treatment systems and associated downgradient drainfield monitoring wells, referred to as the 'innovative systems network'. The drainfield monitoring wells were located adjacent to or under onsite wastewater treatment system drainfield lines. Another observation network, termed the 'transect network', consisted of 31 wells distributed among three transects of temporary, stainless-steel-screened, direct-push monitoring wells installed along three plumes of onsite wastewater. The transect network, by virtue of its design, also provided a basis for increased understanding of the transport of analytes in natural systems. Coliphage were frequently detected in onsite wastewater. Coliphage concentrations in onsite wastewater were highly variable, ranging from less than 1 to 3,000,000 plaque forming units per 100 milliliters. Coliphage were occasionally detected (eight occurrences) at low concentrations in samples from wells located downgradient from onsite wastewater treatment system drainfield lines. However, coliphage concentrations were below method detection limits in replicate or repeat samples collected from the eight sites. The consistent absence of coliphage detections in the replicate or repeat samples is interpreted to indicate

  11. Transport of chemical and microbial compounds from known wastewater discharges: Potential for use as indicators of human fecal contamination

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glassmeyer, S.T.; Furlong, E.T.; Kolpin, D.W.; Cahill, J.D.; Zaugg, S.D.; Werner, S.L.; Meyer, M.T.; Kryak, D.D.

    2005-01-01

    The quality of drinking and recreational water is currently (2005) determined using indicator bacteria. However, the culture tests used to analyze for these bacteria require a long time to complete and do not discriminate between human and animal fecal material sources. One complementary approach is to use chemicals found in human wastewater, which would have the advantages of (1) potentially shorter analysis times than the bacterial culture tests and (2) being selected for human-source specificity. At 10 locations, water samples were collected upstream and at two successive points downstream from a wastewaster treatment plant (WWTP); a treated effluent sample was also collected at each WWTP. This sampling plan was used to determine the persistence of a chemically diverse suite of emerging contaminants in streams. Samples were also collected at two reference locations assumed to have minimal human impacts. Of the 110 chemical analytes investigated in this project, 78 were detected at least once. The number of compounds in a given sample ranged from 3 at a reference location to 50 in a WWTP effluent sample. The total analyte load at each location varied from 0.018 μg/L at the reference location to 97.7 μg/L in a separate WWTP effluent sample. Although most of the compound concentrations were in the range of 0.01−1.0 μg/L, in some samples, individual concentrations were in the range of 5−38 μg/L. The concentrations of the majority of the chemicals present in the samples generally followed the expected trend:  they were either nonexistent or at trace levels in the upstream samples, had their maximum concentrations in the WWTP effluent samples, and then declined in the two downstream samples. This research suggests that selected chemicals are useful as tracers of human wastewater discharge.

  12. Particulate and colloidal silver in sewage effluent and sludge discharged from British wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Andrew C; Jürgens, Monika D; Lawlor, Alan J; Cisowska, Iwona; Williams, Richard J

    2014-10-01

    Differential filtration was used to measure silver (>2 nm) entering and leaving nine sewage treatment plants (STPs). The mean concentration of colloidal (2-450 nm) silver, which includes nanosilver, was found to be 12 ng L(-1) in the influent and 6 ng L(-1) in the effluent. For particulate silver (>450 nm) the mean values were 3.3 μg L(-1) for influent and 0.08 μg L(-1) for effluent. Thus, removal was around 50% and 98% for colloidal and particulate silver respectively. There was no significant difference in performance between the different types of STP investigated (three examples each of activated sludge, biological filter and biological filter with tertiary treatment located across England, UK). In addition, treated sewage sludge samples (biosolids) were taken from several STPs to measure the total silver likely to be discharged to soils. Total silver was 3-14 mg kg(-1) DW in the sludge (median 3.6), which if the sludge were added at the recommended rate to soil, would add 11 μg kg(-1) yr(-1) to the top 20 cm soil layer. Predicted concentrations using the LF2000-WQX model for all the rivers of England and Wales for nanosilver were typically in the 0-1 ng L(-1) range but levels up to 4 ng L(-1) are possible in a high discharge and low flow scenario. Predicted concentrations for the total particulate forms were mostly below 50 ng L(-1) except for a high discharge and low flow scenario where concentrations could reach 135 ng L(-1).

  13. Effects of wastewater effluent discharge and treatment facility upgrades on environmental and biological conditions of Indian Creek, Johnson County, Kansas, June 2004 through June 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graham, Jennifer L.; Stone, Mandy L.; Rasmussen, Teresa J.; Foster, Guy M.; Poulton, Barry C.; Paxson, Chelsea R.; Harris, Theodore D.

    2014-01-01

    Indian Creek is one of the most urban drainage basins in Johnson County, Kansas, and environmental and biological conditions of the creek are affected by contaminants from point and other urban sources. The Johnson County Douglas L. Smith Middle Basin (hereafter referred to as the “Middle Basin”) and Tomahawk Creek Wastewater Treatment Facilities (WWTFs) discharge to Indian Creek. In summer 2010, upgrades were completed to increase capacity and include biological nutrient removal at the Middle Basin facility. There have been no recent infrastructure changes at the Tomahawk Creek facility; however, during 2009, chemically enhanced primary treatment was added to the treatment process for better process settling before disinfection and discharge with the added effect of enhanced phosphorus removal. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Johnson County Wastewater, assessed the effects of wastewater effluent on environmental and biological conditions of Indian Creek by comparing two upstream sites to four sites located downstream from the WWTFs using data collected during June 2004 through June 2013. Environmental conditions were evaluated using previously and newly collected discrete and continuous data and were compared with an assessment of biological community composition and ecosystem function along the upstream-downstream gradient. This study improves the understanding of the effects of wastewater effluent on stream-water and streambed sediment quality, biological community composition, and ecosystem function in urban areas. After the addition of biological nutrient removal to the Middle Basin WWTF in 2010, annual mean total nitrogen concentrations in effluent decreased by 46 percent, but still exceeded the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) wastewater effluent permit concentration goal of 8.0 milligrams per liter (mg/L); however, the NPDES wastewater effluent permit total phosphorus concentration goal of 1.5 mg/L or less was

  14. Influence of wastewater treatment plant discharges on microplastic concentrations in surface water.

    PubMed

    Estahbanati, Shirin; Fahrenfeld, N L

    2016-11-01

    The abundance of microplastic particles in the marine environment is well documented, but less is known about microplastics in the freshwater environment. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) may not effectively remove microplastics allowing for their release to the freshwater environment. To investigate concentration of microplastic in fresh water and the impact of WWTP effluent, samples were collected upstream and downstream of four major municipal WWTPs on the Raritan River, NJ. Microplastics were categorized into three quantitative categories (500-2000 μm, 250-500 μm, 125-250 μm), and one semi-quantitative category (63-125 μm). Then, microplastics were classified as primary (manufactured in small size) or secondary (derived from larger plastics) based on morphology. The concentration of microplastics in the 125-250 and 250-500 μm size categories significantly increased downstream of WWTP. The smaller size classes, often not quantified in microplastic studies, were in high relative abundance across sampling sites. While primary microplastics significantly increased downstream of WWTP, secondary microplastic was the dominant type in the quantitative size categories (66-88%). A moderate correlation between microplastic and distance downstream was observed. These results have implications for understanding the fate and transport of microplastics in the freshwater environment. PMID:27508863

  15. Influence of wastewater treatment plant discharges on microplastic concentrations in surface water.

    PubMed

    Estahbanati, Shirin; Fahrenfeld, N L

    2016-11-01

    The abundance of microplastic particles in the marine environment is well documented, but less is known about microplastics in the freshwater environment. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) may not effectively remove microplastics allowing for their release to the freshwater environment. To investigate concentration of microplastic in fresh water and the impact of WWTP effluent, samples were collected upstream and downstream of four major municipal WWTPs on the Raritan River, NJ. Microplastics were categorized into three quantitative categories (500-2000 μm, 250-500 μm, 125-250 μm), and one semi-quantitative category (63-125 μm). Then, microplastics were classified as primary (manufactured in small size) or secondary (derived from larger plastics) based on morphology. The concentration of microplastics in the 125-250 and 250-500 μm size categories significantly increased downstream of WWTP. The smaller size classes, often not quantified in microplastic studies, were in high relative abundance across sampling sites. While primary microplastics significantly increased downstream of WWTP, secondary microplastic was the dominant type in the quantitative size categories (66-88%). A moderate correlation between microplastic and distance downstream was observed. These results have implications for understanding the fate and transport of microplastics in the freshwater environment.

  16. Standardizing admission and discharge processes to improve patient flow: A cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate how hospital capacity was managed focusing on standardizing the admission and discharge processes. Methods This study was set in a 900-bed university affiliated hospital of the National Health Service, near Barcelona (Spain). This is a cross-sectional study of a set of interventions which were gradually implemented between April and December 2008. Mainly, they were focused on standardizing the admission and discharge processes to improve patient flow. Primary administrative data was obtained from the 2007 and 2009 Hospital Database. Main outcome measures were median length of stay, percentage of planned discharges, number of surgery cancellations and median number of delayed emergency admissions at 8:00 am. For statistical bivariate analysis, we used a Chi-squared for linear trend for qualitative variables and a Wilcoxon signed ranks test and a Mann–Whitney test for non-normal continuous variables. Results The median patients’ global length of stay was 8.56 days in 2007 and 7.93 days in 2009 (p < 0.051). The percentage of patients admitted the same day as surgery increased from 64.87% in 2007 to 86.01% in 2009 (p < 0.05). The number of cancelled interventions due to lack of beds was 216 patients in 2007 and 42 patients in 2009. The median number of planned discharges went from 43.05% in 2007 to 86.01% in 2009 (p < 0.01). The median number of emergency patients waiting for an in-hospital bed at 8:00 am was 5 patients in 2007 and 3 patients in 2009 (p < 0.01). Conclusions In conclusion, standardization of admission and discharge processes are largely in our control. There is a significant opportunity to create important benefits for increasing bed capacity and hospital throughput. PMID:22741542

  17. The occurrence and fate of chemicals of emerging concern in coastal urban rivers receiving discharge of treated municipal wastewater effluent.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Ashmita; Lyons, J Michael; Smith, Deborah J; Drewes, Jörg E; Snyder, Shane A; Heil, Ann; Maruya, Keith A

    2014-02-01

    To inform future monitoring and assessment of chemicals of emerging concern (CECs) in coastal urban watersheds, the occurrence and fate of more than 60 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), commercial/household chemicals, current-use pesticides, and hormones were characterized in 2 effluent-dominated rivers in southern California (USA). Water samples were collected during 2 low-flow events at locations above and below the discharge points of water reclamation plants (WRPs) and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Approximately 50% of targeted CECs were detectable at stations downstream from WRPs, compared with <31% and <10% at the reference stations above the WRPs. Concentrations of chlorinated phosphate flame retardants were highest among the CECs tested, with mean total aggregate concentrations of tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCPP), and tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) of 3400 ng/L and 2400 ng/L for the 2 rivers. Maximum in-stream concentrations of pyrethroids (bifenthrin and permethrin), diclofenac, and galaxolide exceeded risk-based thresholds established for monitoring of CECs in effluent-dominated receiving waters. In contrast, maximum concentrations of PPCPs commonly detected in treated wastewater (e.g., acetaminophen, N,N,diethyl-meta-toluamide [DEET], and gemfibrozil) were less than 10% of established thresholds. Attenuation of target CECs was not observed downstream of WRP discharge until dilution by seawater occurred in the tidal zone, partly because of the short hydraulic residence times in these highly channelized systems (<3 d). In addition to confirming CECs for future in-stream monitoring, these results suggest that conservative mass transport is an important boundary condition for assessment of the input, fate, and effects of CECs in estuaries at the bottom of these watersheds. PMID:24399464

  18. The occurrence and fate of chemicals of emerging concern in coastal urban rivers receiving discharge of treated municipal wastewater effluent.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Ashmita; Lyons, J Michael; Smith, Deborah J; Drewes, Jörg E; Snyder, Shane A; Heil, Ann; Maruya, Keith A

    2014-02-01

    To inform future monitoring and assessment of chemicals of emerging concern (CECs) in coastal urban watersheds, the occurrence and fate of more than 60 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), commercial/household chemicals, current-use pesticides, and hormones were characterized in 2 effluent-dominated rivers in southern California (USA). Water samples were collected during 2 low-flow events at locations above and below the discharge points of water reclamation plants (WRPs) and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Approximately 50% of targeted CECs were detectable at stations downstream from WRPs, compared with <31% and <10% at the reference stations above the WRPs. Concentrations of chlorinated phosphate flame retardants were highest among the CECs tested, with mean total aggregate concentrations of tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCPP), and tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) of 3400 ng/L and 2400 ng/L for the 2 rivers. Maximum in-stream concentrations of pyrethroids (bifenthrin and permethrin), diclofenac, and galaxolide exceeded risk-based thresholds established for monitoring of CECs in effluent-dominated receiving waters. In contrast, maximum concentrations of PPCPs commonly detected in treated wastewater (e.g., acetaminophen, N,N,diethyl-meta-toluamide [DEET], and gemfibrozil) were less than 10% of established thresholds. Attenuation of target CECs was not observed downstream of WRP discharge until dilution by seawater occurred in the tidal zone, partly because of the short hydraulic residence times in these highly channelized systems (<3 d). In addition to confirming CECs for future in-stream monitoring, these results suggest that conservative mass transport is an important boundary condition for assessment of the input, fate, and effects of CECs in estuaries at the bottom of these watersheds.

  19. Will stringent total nitrogen wastewater treatment plant discharge regulations achieve stream water quality goals?

    PubMed

    Son, Ji-Hee; Carlson, Kenneth H

    2012-11-01

    The Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment (CDPHE) proposed the in-stream numeric nutrient criteria as 2 mg TN per L and 0.16 mg TP per L for warm surface waters and 0.40 mg TN per L and 0.11 mg TP per L for cold surface waters. Consequently the department presented the nutrient limits for the municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) as annual averages of 0.7 mg TP per L and 5.7 mg TIN per L and quarterly averages of 1.0 mg TP per L and 9.0 mg TIN per L. Implementing stringent nutrient reduction at point sources is unlikely to result in improvements to the environment without non-point source controls. In this study, total nitrogen (TN) load inputs from known point source, WWTPs, and other non-point sources at six sub-basins of the Cache La Poudre (CLP) River Basin were estimated and compared under various hydrologic conditions. Significant loading exceedance from the proposed limits was observed during lower flow conditions and other sources dominated during events when the exceedance was observed except for one point. The point receives direct TN inputs from a WWTP which has the highest TN concentration in its effluent among all WWTPs in the study area; however, TN loads entered the point from other sources were significant during higher flow conditions. TN loads in the CLP River were simulated to determine whether the loads meet the proposed in-stream limits in a case in which all WWTPs comply with the proposed regulations for WWTPs. From this study, it was observed that reducing TN concentrations only at WWTPs merely impacts total TN loads in the river. PMID:23032438

  20. Research on dye wastewater decoloration by pulse discharge plasma combined with charcoal derived from spent tea leaves.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tiecheng; Qu, Guangzhou; Pei, Shuzhao; Liang, Dongli; Hu, Shibin

    2016-07-01

    Pulsed discharge plasma (PDP) combined with charcoal (PDP-charcoal) was employed to treat dye wastewater, with methyl orange (MO) as the model pollutant. The charcoal was prepared using spent tea leaves and was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and Boehm titration to investigate the adsorption and catalytic characteristics before and after adsorption and PDP treatment. The prepared charcoal exhibited a high MO adsorption capacity, and the adsorption process followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and the Freundlich model. The MO decoloration efficiency reached 69.8 % within 7.5 min of treatment in the PDP-charcoal system, whereas values of 29.2 and 25.9 % were achieved in individual PDP and charcoal systems, respectively. The addition of n-butanol and H2PO4 (-) presented inhibitive effects on MO decoloration in the PDP system. However, these effects were much weaker in the PDP-charcoal system. In addition, the effects of charcoal on O3 and H2O2 formation were evaluated, and the results showed that both the O3 and H2O2 concentrations decreased in the presence of charcoal. The MO decomposition intermediates were analyzed using UV-Vis spectrometry and GC-MS. 1,4-Benzoquinone, 4-nitrophenol, 4-hydroxyaniline, and N,N'-dimethylaniline were detected. A possible pathway for MO decomposition in this system was proposed. PMID:27026548

  1. Research on dye wastewater decoloration by pulse discharge plasma combined with charcoal derived from spent tea leaves.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tiecheng; Qu, Guangzhou; Pei, Shuzhao; Liang, Dongli; Hu, Shibin

    2016-07-01

    Pulsed discharge plasma (PDP) combined with charcoal (PDP-charcoal) was employed to treat dye wastewater, with methyl orange (MO) as the model pollutant. The charcoal was prepared using spent tea leaves and was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and Boehm titration to investigate the adsorption and catalytic characteristics before and after adsorption and PDP treatment. The prepared charcoal exhibited a high MO adsorption capacity, and the adsorption process followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and the Freundlich model. The MO decoloration efficiency reached 69.8 % within 7.5 min of treatment in the PDP-charcoal system, whereas values of 29.2 and 25.9 % were achieved in individual PDP and charcoal systems, respectively. The addition of n-butanol and H2PO4 (-) presented inhibitive effects on MO decoloration in the PDP system. However, these effects were much weaker in the PDP-charcoal system. In addition, the effects of charcoal on O3 and H2O2 formation were evaluated, and the results showed that both the O3 and H2O2 concentrations decreased in the presence of charcoal. The MO decomposition intermediates were analyzed using UV-Vis spectrometry and GC-MS. 1,4-Benzoquinone, 4-nitrophenol, 4-hydroxyaniline, and N,N'-dimethylaniline were detected. A possible pathway for MO decomposition in this system was proposed.

  2. Novel industrial wastewater treatment integrated with recovery of water and salt under a zero liquid discharge concept.

    PubMed

    Rajamani, Sengodagounder

    2016-03-01

    Conventional industrial effluent treatment systems are designed to reduce biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD) but not total dissolved solids (TDS), mainly contributed by chlorides. In addition to the removal of TDS, it is necessary to recover water for reuse to meet the challenges of shortage of quality water. To recover water, the wastewater needs to be further treated by adopting treatment systems including microfilters, low pressure membrane units such as ultrafiltration (UF), membrane bioreactors (MBR), etc., for the application of reverse osmosis (RO) systems. By adopting the RO system, 75%-80% of quality water with <500 mg/L of TDS is recovered from treated effluent. The management of 20%-25% of the saline water rejected from the RO system with high TDS concentration is being addressed by methods such as forced evaporation systems. The recovery of water from domestic and industrial waste for reuse has become a reality. The membrane system has been used for different applications. It has become mandatory to achieve zero liquid discharge (ZLD) in many states in India and other countries such as Spain, China, etc., and resulted in development of new treatment technologies to suit the local conditions. PMID:26982606

  3. Standardized Discharge Information After Short-Stay Hysterectomy and Relationships With Self-Care Confidence, Perceived Recovery, and Satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Kate M; LeFort, Sandra M

    2016-01-01

    We report on the development and investigation of standardized, nurse-delivered discharge information to women after same-day hysterectomy, including the relationships among discharge information, self-care confidence, perceived recovery, and satisfaction. Fifty-one women reported high levels of self-care confidence and various levels of perceived recovery 48 to 72 hours after surgery. They were satisfied to highly satisfied with their experiences and with the discharge information provided. The important role of standardized patient discharge information is highlighted.

  4. Assessment of gastroenteric viruses from wastewater directly discharged into Uruguay River, Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Victoria, M; Tort, L F L; García, M; Lizasoain, A; Maya, L; Leite, J P G; Miagostovich, M P; Cristina, J; Colina, R

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the viral contamination of group A rotavirus (RVA), norovirus (NoV), and human astrovirus (HAstV) in sewage directly discharged into Uruguay River and to characterize RVA genotypes circulating in Uruguay. For this purpose, sewage samples (n = 96) were collected biweekly from March 2011 to February 2012 in four Uruguayan cities: Bella Unión, Salto, Paysandú, and Fray Bentos. Each sample was concentrated by ultracentrifugation method. Qualitative and quantitative RT-PCR for RVA, NoV, and HAstV were performed. A wide dissemination of gastroenteric viruses was observed in the sewage samples analyzed with 80% of positivity, being NoV (51%) the most frequently detected followed by RVA with a frequency of 49% and HAstV with 45%. Genotypes of RVA were typed using multiplex semi-nested RT-PCR as follows: P[8] (n = 15), P[4] (n = 8), P[10] (n = 1), P[11] (n = 1), G2 (n = 29), and G3 (n = 2). The viral load ranged from 10(3) to 10(7) genomic copies/liter, and they were detected roughly with the same frequency in all participant cities. A peak of RVA and HAstV detection was observed in colder months (June to September), whereas no seasonality was observed for NoV. This study demonstrates for the first time, the high degree of gastroenteric viral contamination in the country; highlighting the importance of developing these analyses as a tool to determine the viral contamination in this hydrographic boundary region used by the local populations for recreation and consumption, establishing an elevated risk of gastroenteric diseases for human health. PMID:24777819

  5. Assessment of gastroenteric viruses from wastewater directly discharged into Uruguay River, Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Victoria, M; Tort, L F L; García, M; Lizasoain, A; Maya, L; Leite, J P G; Miagostovich, M P; Cristina, J; Colina, R

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the viral contamination of group A rotavirus (RVA), norovirus (NoV), and human astrovirus (HAstV) in sewage directly discharged into Uruguay River and to characterize RVA genotypes circulating in Uruguay. For this purpose, sewage samples (n = 96) were collected biweekly from March 2011 to February 2012 in four Uruguayan cities: Bella Unión, Salto, Paysandú, and Fray Bentos. Each sample was concentrated by ultracentrifugation method. Qualitative and quantitative RT-PCR for RVA, NoV, and HAstV were performed. A wide dissemination of gastroenteric viruses was observed in the sewage samples analyzed with 80% of positivity, being NoV (51%) the most frequently detected followed by RVA with a frequency of 49% and HAstV with 45%. Genotypes of RVA were typed using multiplex semi-nested RT-PCR as follows: P[8] (n = 15), P[4] (n = 8), P[10] (n = 1), P[11] (n = 1), G2 (n = 29), and G3 (n = 2). The viral load ranged from 10(3) to 10(7) genomic copies/liter, and they were detected roughly with the same frequency in all participant cities. A peak of RVA and HAstV detection was observed in colder months (June to September), whereas no seasonality was observed for NoV. This study demonstrates for the first time, the high degree of gastroenteric viral contamination in the country; highlighting the importance of developing these analyses as a tool to determine the viral contamination in this hydrographic boundary region used by the local populations for recreation and consumption, establishing an elevated risk of gastroenteric diseases for human health.

  6. The impact of treated sewage wastewater discharges on the phosphorus levels and hydrology of two second order rivers flowing into the Thames.

    PubMed

    Millier, Helen K G R; Hooda, Peter S; Downward, Stuart R

    2010-06-01

    Rivers Bourne and Hogsmill, urban tributaries of the Thames, were sampled up and downstream of sewage treatment works (STWs) wastewaters outflows. River water was analysed for total phosphorus (TP) and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and, in conjunction with river flow data, this study aimed to assess the impact of treated wastewaters on P concentrations in rivers where wastewater volumes frequently exceed those of the underlying river and to consider whether these rivers are likely to achieve "good ecological status" under the Water Framework Directive (WFD). P concentrations downstream of the STW discharge points were generally an order of magnitude greater than upstream, the flow weighted mean concentration in the River Bourne increased from 0.078 mg SRP l(-1) to 0.45 mg SRP l(-1) downstream of the input source. In the Hogsmill, the flow weighted mean concentration rose from 0.19 mg SRP l(-1) to 1.78 mg SRP l(-1) downstream of the input source prior to the introduction of P removal at the STW. Once P removal commenced, flow weighted mean concentrations downstream of the STW reduced to 0.56 mg SRP l(-1). Headwaters in the River Bourne, upstream of the STW outflow showed evidence of irregular, minor, diffuse inputs but overall mean figures indicate that the proposed UK Technical Advisory Group (UK TAG) for the WFD limit of 0.12 mg SRP l(-1) would be met. Headwaters in the Hogsmill are subject to small, continuous discharges of sewage effluent, sufficient to raise SRP levels above the UK TAG limit. Downstream, neither river meets the UKTAG recommendations in terms of P, despite the use of P-stripping processes at both STWs, an indication that current discharge consents for P concentrations in wastewaters are too high.

  7. Discharge and referral data exchange using global standards--the SCIPHOX project in Germany.

    PubMed

    Heitmann, Kai U; Schweiger, Ralf; Dudeck, Joachim

    2003-07-01

    The goal of the German project "Standardization of Communication between Information Systems in Physician Offices and Hospitals using XML" (aka SCIPHOX) in its first phase is to provide information exchange based on the Extended Markup Language XML between Hospital Information Systems (HIS) and Physician Office Systems (POS). The Clinical Document Architecture (CDA), a standard developed by the Health Level Seven organization (HL7), was chosen to serve as the "backbone" specification. The CDA is an ANSI approved document architecture for exchange of clinical information using XML. In phase I of the SCIPHOX project the proposal specifies the use of the CDA as a generalized international standard in the national context of discharge and referral letters in Germany. The specification defines how to use the CDA header and associated vocabularies by providing a translation and interpretation of the CDA header tags and provides a solution for taking local needs (insurance information etc.) into account.

  8. The behaviour and fate of Nitrate and Phosphate present in treated wastewater when discharged to the Chalk aquifer of SE England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Richard; Smith, Martin; Pope, David

    2013-04-01

    The Chalk aquifer of South East England is a major groundwater resource and regionally supplies up to 70% of all water abstracted for potable purposes. The two main pressures on groundwater resources are considered to be climate change and population growth. As the demand for water increases, so does the volume of wastewater that has to be treated to acceptable levels before being discharged back into the environment. Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is form of groundwater resource management whereby water is pumped or injected into the ground and allowed to percolate through to the saturated zone before being abstracted at a later date. By injecting water into the ground during periods of high precipitation (i.e. winter months) an increased volume of water is made available for later abstraction (i.e. during summer months) helping water resource planners better manage the supply demand balance. In the case of using treated wastewater as a source for artificial recharge, there is little published research on the behaviour and fate of the main contaminants of concern that are found in treated wastewater when they are discharged to the principal aquifer (the Chalk) of SE England. Nitrate and Phosphate are listed (amongst others) as the main contaminants of concern that are present in treated wastewater and discharged to the Chalk aquifer when this practice occurs. The CLIMAWAT project is an EU-Regional Development Fund Interreg IV funded research programme to study the impacts of climate change on groundwater resources and groundwater quality from the Chalk aquifer of SE England. The use of treated wastewater for artificial recharge has been extensively studied in both the field and laboratory to better assess how sustainable this practice is in terms of risk of pollution to the groundwater body. The results of the laboratory programme include breakthrough curves for Nitrate and Phosphate in the Chalk matrix under unsaturated and saturated conditions. Whilst

  9. 33 CFR 155.430 - Standard discharge connections for oceangoing ships of 400 gross tons and above.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Vessel Equipment § 155.430 Standard discharge connections for... bilges or ballast water containing an oily mixture from fuel oil tanks. The discharge connection...

  10. 77 FR 33969 - Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ...; telephone 202-372-1402, email environmental_standards@uscg.mil . If you have questions on viewing material... FR 17254), entitled ``Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S... March 23, 2012 (77 FR 17254), entitled ``Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast...

  11. Enhanced degradation of azo dye in wastewater by pulsed discharge plasma coupled with MWCNTs-TiO2/γ-Al2O3 composite photocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Wang, Tiecheng; Qu, Guangzhou; Liang, Dongli; Hu, Shibin

    2016-05-01

    In order to improve the photocatalytic performance of TiO2 in pulsed discharge plasma systems, easily recycled multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)-TiO2 supported on γ-Al2O3 (MWCNTs-TiO2/γ-Al2O3) composite photocatalyst were prepared. The morphology and physicochemical properties of the prepared catalysts were investigated using XRD, SEM, FTIR and UV-vis spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by degradation of azo dye acid orange II (AO7) in wastewater under pulsed discharge plasma. The results indicate that the MWCNTs-TiO2/γ-Al2O3 composite catalyst possesses enhanced photocatalytic activity facilitating the decomposition of AO7 compared with TiO2/γ-Al2O3 composite in pulsed discharge plasma systems. Under pulsed discharge plasma, almost 100% AO7 is degraded by the MWCNTs-TiO2/γ-Al2O3 composite after 60 min at optimal conditions. The degradation efficiency of AO7 is also affected by the dosage of the composite catalyst and pulsed discharge peak voltage. As the amount of MWCNTs-TiO2/γ-Al2O3 composite and pulsed discharge peak voltage increases, the degradation efficiency of AO7 increases. The photocatalyst was implemented for 6 cycles and the degradation efficiency of AO7 remains higher than 85% under pulsed discharge plasma. Results indicate that the catalyst displays easy separation and minimal deactivation after several uses. Possible decomposition mechanisms were also investigated. MWCNTs are capable of improving the photocatalytic activity of TiO2/γ-Al2O3 composite in pulsed discharge plasma systems primarily due to the photo-induced-electron absorption effect and the electron trap effect of MWCNTs. The results of this study establish the feasibility and potential implementation of MWCNTs-TiO2/γ-Al2O3 composites in pulsed discharge plasma systems for the degradation of dye wastewater. PMID:26946167

  12. Enhanced degradation of azo dye in wastewater by pulsed discharge plasma coupled with MWCNTs-TiO2/γ-Al2O3 composite photocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Wang, Tiecheng; Qu, Guangzhou; Liang, Dongli; Hu, Shibin

    2016-05-01

    In order to improve the photocatalytic performance of TiO2 in pulsed discharge plasma systems, easily recycled multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)-TiO2 supported on γ-Al2O3 (MWCNTs-TiO2/γ-Al2O3) composite photocatalyst were prepared. The morphology and physicochemical properties of the prepared catalysts were investigated using XRD, SEM, FTIR and UV-vis spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by degradation of azo dye acid orange II (AO7) in wastewater under pulsed discharge plasma. The results indicate that the MWCNTs-TiO2/γ-Al2O3 composite catalyst possesses enhanced photocatalytic activity facilitating the decomposition of AO7 compared with TiO2/γ-Al2O3 composite in pulsed discharge plasma systems. Under pulsed discharge plasma, almost 100% AO7 is degraded by the MWCNTs-TiO2/γ-Al2O3 composite after 60 min at optimal conditions. The degradation efficiency of AO7 is also affected by the dosage of the composite catalyst and pulsed discharge peak voltage. As the amount of MWCNTs-TiO2/γ-Al2O3 composite and pulsed discharge peak voltage increases, the degradation efficiency of AO7 increases. The photocatalyst was implemented for 6 cycles and the degradation efficiency of AO7 remains higher than 85% under pulsed discharge plasma. Results indicate that the catalyst displays easy separation and minimal deactivation after several uses. Possible decomposition mechanisms were also investigated. MWCNTs are capable of improving the photocatalytic activity of TiO2/γ-Al2O3 composite in pulsed discharge plasma systems primarily due to the photo-induced-electron absorption effect and the electron trap effect of MWCNTs. The results of this study establish the feasibility and potential implementation of MWCNTs-TiO2/γ-Al2O3 composites in pulsed discharge plasma systems for the degradation of dye wastewater.

  13. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Sludge Thickening Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwing, Carl M.

    This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the screening and grinding process of wastewater treatment facilities. The objective of this process is the removal of coarse materials from the raw waste stream for the protection of subsequent equipment and processes. The guide gives step-by-step instructions for safety inspection,…

  14. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Screening & Grinding Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deal, Gerald A.; Montgomery, James A.

    This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the screening and grinding process of wastewater treatment facilities. The objective of this process is the removal of coarse materials from the raw waste stream for the protection of subsequent equipment and processes. The guide gives step-by-step instructions for safety inspection,…

  15. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Pump Station Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perley, Gordon F.

    This is a guide for standard operating job procedures for the pump station process of wastewater treatment plants. Step-by-step instructions are given for pre-start up inspection, start-up procedures, continuous routine operation procedures, and shut-down procedures. A general description of the equipment used in the process is given. Two…

  16. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Grit Removal Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deal, Gerald A.; Montgomery, James A.

    This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the grit removal process of wastewater treatment plants. Step-by-step instructions are given for pre-start up inspection, start-up, continuous operation, and shut-down procedures. A description of the equipment used in the process is given. Some theoretical material is presented. (BB)

  17. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Sludge Conditioning & Dewatering Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwing, Carl M.

    This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the sludge conditioning and dewatering process of wastewater treatment facilities. In this process, sludge is treated with chemicals to make the sludge coagulate and give up its water more easily. The treated sludge is then dewatered using a vacuum filter. The guide gives step-by-step…

  18. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Digestion Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwing, Carl M.

    This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the digestion process of wastewater treatment facilities. This process is for reducing the volume of sludge to be treated in subsequent units and to reduce the volatile content of sludge. The guide gives step-by-step instructions for pre-startup, startup, continuous operating, shutdown,…

  19. Discharges of produced waters from oil and gas extraction via wastewater treatment plants are sources of disinfection by-products to receiving streams.

    PubMed

    Hladik, Michelle L; Focazio, Michael J; Engle, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Fluids co-produced with oil and gas production (produced waters) are often brines that contain elevated concentrations of bromide. Bromide is an important precursor of several toxic disinfection by-products (DBPs) and the treatment of produced water may lead to more brominated DBPs. To determine if wastewater treatment plants that accept produced waters discharge greater amounts of brominated DBPs, water samples were collected in Pennsylvania from four sites along a large river including an upstream site, a site below a publicly owned wastewater treatment plant (POTW) outfall (does not accept produced water), a site below an oil and gas commercial wastewater treatment plant (CWT) outfall, and downstream of the POTW and CWT. Of 29 DBPs analyzed, the site at the POTW outfall had the highest number detected (six) ranging in concentration from 0.01 to 0.09 μg L(-1) with a similar mixture of DBPs that have been detected at POTW outfalls elsewhere in the United States. The DBP profile at the CWT outfall was much different, although only two DBPs, dibromochloronitromethane (DBCNM) and chloroform, were detected, DBCNM was found at relatively high concentrations (up to 8.5 μg L(-1)). The water at the CWT outfall also had a mixture of inorganic and organic precursors including elevated concentrations of bromide (75 mg L(-1)) and other organic DBP precursors (phenol at 15 μg L(-1)). To corroborate these DBP results, samples were collected in Pennsylvania from additional POTW and CWT outfalls that accept produced waters. The additional CWT also had high concentrations of DBCNM (3.1 μg L(-1)) while the POTWs that accept produced waters had elevated numbers (up to 15) and concentrations of DBPs, especially brominated and iodinated THMs (up to 12 μg L(-1) total THM concentration). Therefore, produced water brines that have been disinfected are potential sources of DBPs along with DBP precursors to streams wherever these wastewaters are discharged.

  20. Discharges of produced waters from oil and gas extraction via wastewater treatment plants are sources of disinfection by-products to receiving streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hladik, Michelle L.; Focazio, Michael J.; Engle, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Fluids co-produced with oil and gas production (produced waters) are often brines that contain elevated concentrations of bromide. Bromide is an important precursor of several toxic disinfection by-products (DBPs) and the treatment of produced water may lead to more brominated DBPs. To determine if wastewater treatment plants that accept produced waters discharge greater amounts of brominated DBPs, water samples were collected in Pennsylvania from four sites along a large river including an upstream site, a site below a publicly owned wastewater treatment plant (POTW) outfall (does not accept produced water), a site below an oil and gas commercial wastewater treatment plant (CWT) outfall, and downstream of the POTW and CWT. Of 29 DBPs analyzed, the site at the POTW outfall had the highest number detected (six) ranging in concentration from 0.01 to 0.09 μg L− 1 with a similar mixture of DBPs that have been detected at POTW outfalls elsewhere in the United States. The DBP profile at the CWT outfall was much different, although only two DBPs, dibromochloronitromethane (DBCNM) and chloroform, were detected, DBCNM was found at relatively high concentrations (up to 8.5 μg L− 1). The water at the CWT outfall also had a mixture of inorganic and organic precursors including elevated concentrations of bromide (75 mg L− 1) and other organic DBP precursors (phenol at 15 μg L− 1). To corroborate these DBP results, samples were collected in Pennsylvania from additional POTW and CWT outfalls that accept produced waters. The additional CWT also had high concentrations of DBCNM (3.1 μg L− 1) while the POTWs that accept produced waters had elevated numbers (up to 15) and concentrations of DBPs, especially brominated and iodinated THMs (up to 12 μg L− 1 total THM concentration). Therefore, produced water brines that have been disinfected are potential sources of DBPs along with DBP precursors to streams wherever these wastewaters are discharged.

  1. Residue levels and discharge loads of antibiotics in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), hospital lagoons, and rivers within Lake Victoria Basin, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kimosop, Selly Jemutai; Getenga, Z M; Orata, F; Okello, V A; Cheruiyot, J K

    2016-09-01

    The detection of antibiotics in water systems has instigated great environmental concern due to the toxicological effects associated with these compounds. Their discharge into the environment results from the ubiquity of use in medical, veterinary, and agricultural practices. Some of the effects of antibiotics include development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, making it difficult to treat diseases, variation in natural microbial communities, and enzyme activities. In this study, the first comprehensive survey of some frequently used antibiotics namely ampicillin (AMP), amoxicillin (AMX), sulfamethoxazole (SMX), chloramphenicol (CAP), and ciprofloxacin (CPF) within Lake Victoria Basin of Kenya is presented. Sludge and wastewater samples were collected from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and hospital lagoons within the study area. Samples were extracted and cleaned by solid-phase extraction, and analysis was carried out using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). All wastewater samples and sludge collected contained quantifiable levels of the selected antibiotics. The highest concentrations were recorded for AMP with WWTPs and hospitals having 0.36 ± 0.04 and 0.79 ± 0.07 μg/L, respectively. In sludge samples, SMX recorded the highest concentrations of 276 ± 12 ng/g. The high levels in sludge indicate the preferential partition of antibiotics onto solid phase, posing great danger to consumers of crops grown in biosolid-amended soils. The daily discharge loads of antibiotics from nine WWTPs ranged between 80.75 and 3044.9 mg day(-1) with a total discharge of 6395.85 mg day(-1), signifying a high potential of water resource pollution within the region. This report will aid in the assessment of the risks posed by antibiotics released into the environment.

  2. Residue levels and discharge loads of antibiotics in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), hospital lagoons, and rivers within Lake Victoria Basin, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kimosop, Selly Jemutai; Getenga, Z M; Orata, F; Okello, V A; Cheruiyot, J K

    2016-09-01

    The detection of antibiotics in water systems has instigated great environmental concern due to the toxicological effects associated with these compounds. Their discharge into the environment results from the ubiquity of use in medical, veterinary, and agricultural practices. Some of the effects of antibiotics include development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, making it difficult to treat diseases, variation in natural microbial communities, and enzyme activities. In this study, the first comprehensive survey of some frequently used antibiotics namely ampicillin (AMP), amoxicillin (AMX), sulfamethoxazole (SMX), chloramphenicol (CAP), and ciprofloxacin (CPF) within Lake Victoria Basin of Kenya is presented. Sludge and wastewater samples were collected from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and hospital lagoons within the study area. Samples were extracted and cleaned by solid-phase extraction, and analysis was carried out using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). All wastewater samples and sludge collected contained quantifiable levels of the selected antibiotics. The highest concentrations were recorded for AMP with WWTPs and hospitals having 0.36 ± 0.04 and 0.79 ± 0.07 μg/L, respectively. In sludge samples, SMX recorded the highest concentrations of 276 ± 12 ng/g. The high levels in sludge indicate the preferential partition of antibiotics onto solid phase, posing great danger to consumers of crops grown in biosolid-amended soils. The daily discharge loads of antibiotics from nine WWTPs ranged between 80.75 and 3044.9 mg day(-1) with a total discharge of 6395.85 mg day(-1), signifying a high potential of water resource pollution within the region. This report will aid in the assessment of the risks posed by antibiotics released into the environment. PMID:27553946

  3. Vancouver Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement Clinical Pathway: Minimalist Approach, Standardized Care, and Discharge Criteria to Reduce Length of Stay.

    PubMed

    Lauck, Sandra B; Wood, David A; Baumbusch, Jennifer; Kwon, Jae-Yung; Stub, Dion; Achtem, Leslie; Blanke, Philipp; Boone, Robert H; Cheung, Anson; Dvir, Danny; Gibson, Jennifer A; Lee, Bobby; Leipsic, Jonathan; Moss, Robert; Perlman, Gidon; Polderman, Jopie; Ramanathan, Krishnan; Ye, Jian; Webb, John G

    2016-05-01

    We describe the development, implementation, and evaluation of a standardized clinical pathway to facilitate safe discharge home at the earliest time after transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve replacement. Between May 2012 and October 2014, the Heart Team developed a clinical pathway suited to the unique requirements of transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve replacement in contemporary practice. The components included risk-stratified minimalist periprocedure approach, standardized postprocedure care with early mobilization and reconditioning, and criteria-driven discharge home. Our aim was to reduce variation in care, identify a subgroup of patients suitable for early discharge (≤48 hours), and decrease length of stay for all patients. We addressed barriers related to historical practices, complex multidisciplinary stakeholder engagement, and adoption of length of stay as a quality indicator. We retrospectively reviewed the experiences of 393 consecutive patients; 150 (38.2%) were discharged early. At baseline, early discharge patients had experienced less previous balloon aortic valvuloplasty, had higher left ventricular ejection fraction, better cognitive function, and were less frail than the standard discharge group (>48 hours). Early discharge was associated with the use of local anesthesia, implantation of balloon expandable device, avoidance of urinary catheter, and early removal of temporary pacemaker. Median length of stay was 1 day for early discharge and 3 days for other patients; 97.7% were discharged home. There were no differences in 30-day mortality (1.3%), disabling stroke (0.8%), or readmission (10.7%). The implementation of a transcatheter aortic valve replacement clinical pathway shifted the program's approach to combine standardized processes and individual risk stratification. The Vancouver transcatheter aortic valve replacement clinical pathway requires a rigorous assessment to determine its efficacy, safety, and reproducibility. PMID

  4. Environmental harm assessment of a wastewater discharge from Hammerfest LNG: a study with biomarkers in mussels (Mytilus sp.) and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua).

    PubMed

    Beyer, Jonny; Aarab, Nadia; Tandberg, Anne Helene; Ingvarsdottir, Anna; Bamber, Shaw; Børseth, Jan Fredrik; Camus, Lionel; Velvin, Roger

    2013-04-15

    Biologically treated wastewater (WW) from the Hammerfest LNG (liquefied natural gas) plant is discharged to the sea. A study using biomarkers in mussels and Atlantic cod was performed to examine whether this discharge meets a zero harmful emission requirement. Caging of mussels close to the outfall and exposure of mussels and fish to WW in the laboratory were conducted, and a suite of contaminant responsive markers was assessed in exposed animals. In mussels the markers included chemical contaminant levels, haemocyte lysosomal instability and nucleus integrity, cellular energy allocation, digestive gland and gonad histopathology and shell-opening behaviour. In fish, biliary PAH metabolites and gill histopathology biomarkers were measured. A consistent cause-effect relationship between WW treatments and markers measured in test animals was not found. The results therefore indicate that the WW emission is unlikely to represent a significant stress factor for the local marine environment under the conditions studied.

  5. Environmental harm assessment of a wastewater discharge from Hammerfest LNG: a study with biomarkers in mussels (Mytilus sp.) and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua).

    PubMed

    Beyer, Jonny; Aarab, Nadia; Tandberg, Anne Helene; Ingvarsdottir, Anna; Bamber, Shaw; Børseth, Jan Fredrik; Camus, Lionel; Velvin, Roger

    2013-04-15

    Biologically treated wastewater (WW) from the Hammerfest LNG (liquefied natural gas) plant is discharged to the sea. A study using biomarkers in mussels and Atlantic cod was performed to examine whether this discharge meets a zero harmful emission requirement. Caging of mussels close to the outfall and exposure of mussels and fish to WW in the laboratory were conducted, and a suite of contaminant responsive markers was assessed in exposed animals. In mussels the markers included chemical contaminant levels, haemocyte lysosomal instability and nucleus integrity, cellular energy allocation, digestive gland and gonad histopathology and shell-opening behaviour. In fish, biliary PAH metabolites and gill histopathology biomarkers were measured. A consistent cause-effect relationship between WW treatments and markers measured in test animals was not found. The results therefore indicate that the WW emission is unlikely to represent a significant stress factor for the local marine environment under the conditions studied. PMID:23419752

  6. Ocean current observations near McMurdo Station, Antarctica from 1991 to 1993: Relation to wastewater discharge dispersal

    SciTech Connect

    Barry, J.P.

    1994-08-01

    Analyses of ocean currents in the vicinity of McMurdo Station, Antarctica, are relevant to the transport and dispersal of wastewater from the McMurdo Station sewage outfall pipe. Observations of ocean currents during the initial phases of this study have been presented by Howington and McFeters. These studies, using coliform bacterial counts as an indicator of dispersion of the wastewater plume and current meters to measure flow patterns, indicated that dispersal of the plume by local currents does not effectively remove the plume from the vicinity of McMurdo Sound, under the present outfall pipe location. Moreover, these studies suggest that, although the flow pattern is generally consistent with transport of the plume away from McMurdo Station, episodes of current reversal are sufficient to transport the wastewater plume along the shore toward the southeast, eventually overlapping the seawater intake area near the McMurdo jetty. Several concerns included (a) impacts of wastewater inputs to nearshore benthic and pelagic habitats adjacent to McMurdo Station, (b) effects of wastewater input to the McMurdo Station fresh water intake source, and (c) reduction in human impacts on the McMurdo Sound ecosystem. These concerns motivated studies to characterize nearshore currents more extensively in relation to dispersal of the wastewater plume. This report discusses analysis results of current observations from November 1992 to November 1993.

  7. Characterization of Stormflows and Wastewater Treatment-Plant Effluent Discharges on Water Quality, Suspended Sediment, and Stream Morphology for Fountain and Monument Creek Watersheds, Colorado, 1981-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mau, David P.; Stogner, Robert W.; Edelmann, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    In 1998, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Colorado Springs City Engineering, began a study of the Fountain and Monument Creek watersheds to characterize water quality and suspended-sediment conditions in the watershed for different flow regimes, with an emphasis on characterizing water quality during storm runoff. Water-quality and suspended-sediment samples were collected in the Fountain and Monument Creek watersheds from 1981 through 2006 to evaluate the effects of stormflows and wastewater-treatment effluent on Fountain and Monument Creeks in the Colorado Springs, Colorado, area. Water-quality data were collected at 11 sites between 1981 and 2001, and 14 tributary sites were added in 2003 to increase spatial coverage and characterize water quality throughout the watersheds. Suspended-sediment samples collected daily at 7 sites from 1998 through 2001, 6 sites daily from 2003 through 2006, and 13 tributary sites intermittently from 2003 through 2006 were used to evaluate the effects of stormflow on suspended-sediment concentrations, discharges, and yields. Data were separated into three flow regimes: base flow, normal flow, and stormflow. Stormflow concentrations from 1998 through 2006 were compared to Colorado acute instream standards and, with the exception of a few isolated cases, did not exceed water-quality standards for inorganic constituents that were analyzed. However, stormflow concentrations of both fecal coliform and Escherichia coli (E. coli) frequently exceeded water-quality standards during 1998 through 2006 on main-stem and tributary sites by more than an order of magnitude. There were two sites on Cottonwood Creek, a tributary to Monument Creek, with elevated concentrations of dissolved nitrite plus nitrate: site 07103985 (TbCr), a tributary to Cottonwood Creek and site 07103990 (lower_CoCr), downstream from site 07103985 (TbCr), and near the confluence with Monument Creek. During base-flow and normal-flow conditions, the median

  8. Impact assessment of treated/untreated wastewater toxicants discharged by sewage treatment plants on health, agricultural, and environmental quality in the wastewater disposal area.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kunwar P; Mohan, Dinesh; Sinha, Sarita; Dalwani, R

    2004-04-01

    Studies were undertaken to assess the impact of wastewater/sludge disposal (metals and pesticides) from sewage treatment plants (STPs) in Jajmau, Kanpur (5 MLD) and Dinapur, Varanasi (80 MLD), on health, agriculture and environmental quality in the receiving/application areas around Kanpur and Varanasi in Uttar Pradesh, India. The raw, treated and mixed treated urban wastewater samples were collected from the inlet and outlet points of the plants during peak (morning and evening) and non-peak (noon) hours. The impact of the treated wastewater toxicants (metals and pesticides) on the environmental quality of the disposal area was assessed in terms of their levels in different media samples viz., water, soil, crops, vegetation, and food grains. The data generated show elevated levels of metals and pesticides in all the environmental media, suggesting a definite adverse impact on the environmental quality of the disposal area. The critical levels of the heavy metals in the soil for agricultural crops are found to be much higher than those observed in the study areas receiving no effluents. The sludge from the STPs has both positive and negative impacts on agriculture as it is loaded with high levels of toxic heavy metals and pesticides, but also enriched with several useful ingredients such as N, P, and K providing fertilizer values. The sludge studied had cadmium, chromium and nickel levels above tolerable levels as prescribed for agricultural and lands application. Bio-monitoring of the metals and pesticides levels in the human blood and urine of the different population groups under study areas was undertaken. All the different approaches indicated a considerable risk and impact of heavy metals and pesticides on human health in the exposed areas receiving the wastewater from the STPs.

  9. 40 CFR 63.11498 - What are the standards and compliance requirements for wastewater systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... from a CMPU subject to this subpart. If the partially soluble HAP concentration in a wastewater stream... wastewater stream. Partially soluble HAP are listed in Table 7 to this subpart. (1) Except as specified in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, you must determine the total concentration of partially soluble HAP...

  10. 40 CFR 63.11498 - What are the standards and compliance requirements for wastewater systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... from a CMPU subject to this subpart. If the partially soluble HAP concentration in a wastewater stream... wastewater stream. Partially soluble HAP are listed in Table 7 to this subpart. (1) Except as specified in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, you must determine the total concentration of partially soluble HAP...

  11. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Activated Sludge - Aeration & Sedimentation Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, George J.

    This guide for developing standard operating job procedures for wastewater treatment facilities is devoted to the activated sludge aeration and sedimentation process. This process is for conversion of nonsettleable and nonfloatable materials in wastewater to settleable, floculated biological groups and separation of the settleable solids from the…

  12. Environmental loads from water-sprinkled softwood timber. 2: Influence of tree species and water characteristics on wastewater discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Borga, P.; Elowson, T.; Liukko, K.

    1996-09-01

    The concentration patterns of a number of compounds in the inlet water and wastewater from sprinkling of timber from Scotch pine and Norway spruce have been studied. The timber was separated with respect to species and sprinkled with water from a eutrophic or an oligotrophic receiving water for 18 weeks. Organic and inorganic compounds including dissolved organic carbon (DOC), distillable phenols, resin acids, bacterial phospholipid fatty acids, organic and inorganic phosphorus, nitrogen and sulfur, and a number of metal ions were monitored in the inlet water and wastewater. The toxicity of the wastewater was estimated during the first 2 weeks using a Microtox{reg_sign} test and appeared to decline in parallel with DOC. Most compounds showed both an environmental net load and an absorption by the timber, the loads being smaller and the absorption larger when using eutrophic water. At both sites the loads were generally largest during the first 2 weeks and larger in magnitude at the oligotrophic site and in the spruce wastewater. The initial growth of the bacterial biomass in the pile system was slower at the oligotrophic site, and the results indicated that a rapid growth of the bacterial biomass reduces the initial environmental loads and that this process is associated with the nutrient status of the receiving water.

  13. Effects of wastewater effluent discharge and treatment facility upgrades on environmental and biological conditions of the upper Blue River, Johnson County, Kansas and Jackson County, Missouri, January 2003 through March 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graham, Jennifer L.; Stone, Mandy L.; Rasmussen, Teresa J.; Poulton, Barry C.

    2010-01-01

    The Johnson County Blue River Main Wastewater Treatment Facility discharges into the upper Blue River near the border between Johnson County, Kansas and Jackson County, Missouri. During 2005 through 2007 the wastewater treatment facility underwent upgrades to increase capacity and include biological nutrient removal. The effects of wastewater effluent on environmental and biological conditions of the upper Blue River were assessed by comparing an upstream site to two sites located downstream from the wastewater treatment facility. Environmental conditions were evaluated using previously and newly collected discrete and continuous data, and were compared with an assessment of biological community composition and ecosystem function along the upstream-downstream gradient. This evaluation is useful for understanding the potential effects of wastewater effluent on water quality, biological community structure, and ecosystem function. In addition, this information can be used to help achieve National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) wastewater effluent permit requirements after additional studies are conducted. The effects of wastewater effluent on the water-quality conditions of the upper Blue River were most evident during below-normal and normal streamflows (about 75 percent of the time), when wastewater effluent contributed more than 20 percent to total streamflow. The largest difference in water-quality conditions between the upstream and downstream sites was in nutrient concentrations. Total and inorganic nutrient concentrations at the downstream sites during below-normal and normal streamflows were 4 to 15 times larger than at the upstream site, even after upgrades to the wastewater treatment facility were completed. However, total nitrogen concentrations decreased in wastewater effluent and at the downstream site following wastewater treatment facility upgrades. Similar decreases in total phosphorus were not observed, likely because the biological

  14. 77 FR 55417 - Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ... Guard; telephone 202-372-1402, email environmental_standards@uscg.mil . If you have questions about... Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters (BWDS) Final Rule (77 FR 35268). The rulemaking... (77 FR 17254). The Coast Guard is now publishing a document to advise the public that we received...

  15. 77 FR 35268 - Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ...On March 23, 2012, the Coast Guard published in the Federal Register a Final Rule entitled ``Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters''. The rulemaking triggered new information collection requirements affecting vessel owners and their potential requests for an extension of the compliance date if they cannot practicably comply with the compliance date......

  16. Ecotoxicological risk assessment of hospital wastewater: a proposed framework for raw effluents discharging into urban sewer network.

    PubMed

    Emmanuel, E; Perrodin, Y; Keck, G; Blanchard, J-M; Vermande, P

    2005-01-14

    In hospitals a large variety of substances are in use for medical purposes such as diagnostics and research. After application, diagnostic agents, disinfectants and excreted non-metabolized pharmaceuticals by patients, reach the wastewater. This form of elimination may generate risks for aquatic organisms. The aim of this study was to present: (i) the steps of an ecological risk assessment and management framework related to hospital effluents evacuating into wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) without preliminary treatment; and (ii) the results of its application on wastewater from an infectious and tropical diseases department of a hospital of a large city in southeastern France. The characterization of effects has been made under two assumptions, which were related to: (a) the effects of hospital wastewater on biological treatment process of WWTP, particularly on the community of organisms in charge of the biological decomposition of the organic matter; (b) the effects on aquatic organisms. COD and BOD5 have been measured for studying global organic pollution. Assessment of halogenated organic compounds was made using halogenated organic compounds absorbable on activated carbon (AOX) concentrations. Heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, chrome, copper, mercury, nickel, lead and zinc) were measured. Low most probable number (MPP) for faecal coliforms has been considered as an indirect detection of antibiotics and disinfectants presence. For toxicity assessment, bioluminescence assay using Vibrio fischeri photobacteria, 72-h EC50 algae growth Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and 24-h EC50 on Daphnia magna were used. The scenario allows to a semi-quantitative risk characterization. It needs to be improved on some aspects, particularly those linked to: long term toxicity assessment on target organisms (bioaccumulation of pollutants, genotoxicity, etc.); ecotoxicological interactions between pharmaceuticals, disinfectants used both in diagnostics and in cleaning of surfaces

  17. Characterization and assessment of Al Ruwais refinery wastewater.

    PubMed

    Al Zarooni, Mohamed; Elshorbagy, Walid

    2006-08-25

    An extensive bulk parameters and component-based analysis was carried out for Al Ruwais refinery wastewater during the period of June 2002-June 2003. The program included identification of major process and utilities wastewater streams and quantification of these streams relative to the total wastewater generated from all refinery processes. In addition to the high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) reported levels, the analysis showed high concentrations of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and phenolic compounds in the major wastewater streams. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were also detected in few streams. The caustic water was found to have the highest levels of the pollutants mentioned above. Dilution of the wastewater with process cooling water serves as the main treatment approach applied to the effluent wastewater before disposal into the sea. Primary as well as secondary treatment units are thought to be essential and strongly recommended to reduce the pollutants to levels below the United Arab Emirates (UAE) standards for marine discharge.

  18. Comparison of Limulus assay, standard plate count, and total coliform count for microbiological assessment of renovated wastewater.

    PubMed

    Jorgensen, J H; Lee, J C; Alexander, G A; Wolf, H W

    1979-05-01

    The Limulus endotoxin assay was compared to the standard plate count and total coliform count for assessment of the bacteriological quality of reclaimed wastewater. A total of 48 water samples from an advanced waste treatment plant in Dallas, Tex. were examined by the three techniques. Limulus assays were technically simpler to perform and provided results much sooner than conventional culture methods. However, the endotoxin values did not correlate extremely well with determinations of viable bacterial numbers. This lack of correlation may have been due to alterations in the normal ratio of viable gram-negative cells to endotoxin caused by water reclamation procedures.

  19. Geophysical and hydrogeological characterisation of the impacts of on-site wastewater treatment discharge to groundwater in a poorly productive bedrock aquifer.

    PubMed

    Donohue, Shane; McCarthy, Valerie; Rafferty, Patrick; Orr, Alison; Flynn, Raymond

    2015-08-01

    Contaminants discharging from on-site wastewater treatment systems (OSWTSs) can impact groundwater quality, threatening human health and surface water ecosystems. Risk of negative impacts becomes elevated in areas of extreme vulnerability with high water tables, where thin unsaturated intervals limit vadose zone attenuation. A combined geophysical/hydrogeological investigation into the effects of an OSWTS, located over a poorly productive aquifer (PPA) with thin subsoil cover, aimed to characterise effluent impacts on groundwater. Groundwater, sampled from piezometers down-gradient of the OSWTS percolation area displayed spatially erratic, yet temporally consistent, contaminant distributions. Electrical resistivity tomography identified an area of gross groundwater contamination close to the percolation area and, when combined with seismic refraction and water quality data, indicated that infiltrating effluent reaching the water table discharged to a deeper more permeable zone of weathered shale resting on more competent bedrock. Subsurface structure, defined by geophysics, indicated that elevated chemical and microbiological contaminant levels encountered in groundwater samples collected from piezometers, down-gradient of sampling points with lower contaminant levels, corresponded to those locations where piezometers were screened close to the weathered shale/competent rock interface; those immediately up-gradient were too shallow to intercept this interval, and thus the more impacted zone of the contaminant plume. Intermittent occurrence of faecal indicator bacteria more than 100m down gradient of the percolation area suggested relatively short travel times. Study findings highlight the utility of geophysics as part of multidisciplinary investigations for OSWTS contaminant plume characterisation, while also demonstrating the capacity of effluent discharging to PPAs to impact groundwater quality at distance. Comparable geophysical responses observed in similar

  20. Geophysical and hydrogeological characterisation of the impacts of on-site wastewater treatment discharge to groundwater in a poorly productive bedrock aquifer.

    PubMed

    Donohue, Shane; McCarthy, Valerie; Rafferty, Patrick; Orr, Alison; Flynn, Raymond

    2015-08-01

    Contaminants discharging from on-site wastewater treatment systems (OSWTSs) can impact groundwater quality, threatening human health and surface water ecosystems. Risk of negative impacts becomes elevated in areas of extreme vulnerability with high water tables, where thin unsaturated intervals limit vadose zone attenuation. A combined geophysical/hydrogeological investigation into the effects of an OSWTS, located over a poorly productive aquifer (PPA) with thin subsoil cover, aimed to characterise effluent impacts on groundwater. Groundwater, sampled from piezometers down-gradient of the OSWTS percolation area displayed spatially erratic, yet temporally consistent, contaminant distributions. Electrical resistivity tomography identified an area of gross groundwater contamination close to the percolation area and, when combined with seismic refraction and water quality data, indicated that infiltrating effluent reaching the water table discharged to a deeper more permeable zone of weathered shale resting on more competent bedrock. Subsurface structure, defined by geophysics, indicated that elevated chemical and microbiological contaminant levels encountered in groundwater samples collected from piezometers, down-gradient of sampling points with lower contaminant levels, corresponded to those locations where piezometers were screened close to the weathered shale/competent rock interface; those immediately up-gradient were too shallow to intercept this interval, and thus the more impacted zone of the contaminant plume. Intermittent occurrence of faecal indicator bacteria more than 100m down gradient of the percolation area suggested relatively short travel times. Study findings highlight the utility of geophysics as part of multidisciplinary investigations for OSWTS contaminant plume characterisation, while also demonstrating the capacity of effluent discharging to PPAs to impact groundwater quality at distance. Comparable geophysical responses observed in similar

  1. 40 CFR 422.45 - Standards of performance for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... performance for new sources: There shall be no discharge of process wastewater pollutants to navigable waters... discharged, after treatment to the standards set forth in paragraph (c) of this section, whenever chronic or... waste water must be treated and discharged whenever the water level equals or exceeds the mid point...

  2. The influence of wastewater discharge on water quality in Hawai'i: A comparative study for Lahaina and Kihei, Maui.

    PubMed

    Miller-Pierce, Mailea R; Rhoads, Neil A

    2016-02-15

    In Maui, Hawai'i, wastewater reclamation facilities (WWRFs) dispose of partially treated effluent into injection wells connected to the nearshore environment. Hawai'i State Department of Health data from 2004-2015 were assessed for qualitative trends in nutrient, turbidity, and Chlorophyll a water quality (WQ) impairments for fourteen marine sites on Maui Island. We introduce a novel method, the Qualitative Impact Percentage (QIP), to facilitate a qualitative comparison of disparate factors contributing to WQ impairment. Sites near the Lahaina WWRF in West Maui, which was found in violation of the Clean Water Act in 2014, had fewer exceedances and lower geometric means compared to sites near the Kihei WWRF. Our results suggest that WQ impairments may be a greater concern in Kihei than previously acknowledged. This paper attempts to raise the awareness of policymakers and the public and to encourage further research assessing the effects of the Kihei WWRF on the marine environment. PMID:26778501

  3. Ocean current observations near McMurdo Station, Antarctica, 1993 to 1994: Relation to wastewater discharge dispersal

    SciTech Connect

    Barry, J.P.

    1995-09-01

    This report presents analyses of current measurements from McMurdo Sound, Antarctica during December, 1993 to November, 1994, in relation to dispersal of the McMurdo Station wastewater plume. Data collected from 1991 to 1993 are also discussed here. Six current meters were deployed near McMurdo Station, Antarctica, from December 1993 to November 1994. Five functioned properly throughout the observation period, and one failed. Analyses of 5 data series include: (1) summaries of current speed and direction, (2) directional analyses of flow, (3) time series current vectors averaged over 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h, (4) principal axes of flow, (5) maps of mean seasonal flow, (6) progressive vector plots, (7) spectral analyses, and (8) low-pass filtered (30h) time series of currents at McMurdo Station. Observations of flow near McMurdo Station during 1994 were generally similar to 1993. Short term variation in flow was related principally to diurnal tidal motions. Longer period oscillations in flow such as seasonal shifts, and non-periodic changes in current speed and direction were likely related to changes in ice cover and wind stress in the vicinity of McMurdo Station or over much larger scales or both. Three distinct oceanographic {open_quote}seasons{close_quote} were apparent in time series from 1992 to 1994, from stations furthest offshore, where the effects of local topography are minimal. The spring-summer (Oct.-Jan.) period of both years was dominated by regional southward flow, which generates a counter-clockwise eddy (McMurdo Gyre) adjacent to McMurdo Station. With regard to dispersal of the wastewater plume from McMurdo Station, observations of currents during 1994 generally corroborate those from 1993, and the recommendation that the outfall pipe should be repositioned offshore of the McMurdo Gyre is supported.

  4. Investigation of the decolorization efficiency of two pin-to-plate corona discharge plasma system for industrial wastewater treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Tayeb, A.; El-Shazly, A. H.; Elkady, M. F.; Abdel-Rahman, A. B.

    2016-09-01

    In this article, a dual pin-to-plate high-voltage corona discharge system is introduced to study experimentally the gap distance, the contact time, the effect of pin and plate materials, the thickness of ground plate and the conductivity on the amount of Acid Blue 25 dye color removal efficiency from polluted water. A study for the optimum air gap distance between dual pin and surface of Acid Blue 25 dye solution is carried out using 3D-EM simulator to find maximum electric field intensity at the tip of both pins. The outcomes display that the best gap for corona discharge is approximately 5 mm for 15-kV source. This separation is constant during the study of other factors. In addition, an investigation of the essential reactive species responsible for oxidation of the dye organic compounds (O3 in air discharge, O3 in water, and H2O2) during the experimental time is conducted. Three various materials such as: stainless steel, copper and aluminum are used for pins and plate. The maximum color removal efficiencies of Acid Blue 25 dyes are 99.03, 82.04, and 90.78% after treatment time 15 min for stainless steel, copper, and aluminum, respectively. Measurement results for the impact of thickness of an aluminum ground plate on color removal competence show color removal efficiencies of 86.3, 90.78, and 98.06% after treatment time 15 min for thicknesses of 2, 0.5, and 0.1 mm, respectively. The increasing of the solution conductivity leads to the reduction of decolorization efficiency. A kinetic model is used to define the performance of corona discharge system. The models of pseudo-zero-order, pseudo-first-order, and pseudo-second-order reaction kinetics are utilized to investigate the decolorization of Acid Blue 25 dye. The rate of degradation of Acid Blue 25 dye follows the pseudo-first-order kinetics in the dye concentration.

  5. Counting at low concentrations: the statistical challenges of verifying ballast water discharge standards

    EPA Science Inventory

    Discharge from the ballast tanks of ships is one of the primary vectors of nonindigenous species in marine environments. To mitigate this environmental and economic threat, the U.S. Coast Guard and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency will regulate the concentration of livin...

  6. 40 CFR 414.111 - Toxic pollutant standards for indirect discharge point sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... in the following table. (b) In the case of lead, zinc, and total cyanide the discharge quantity (mass... times the flow from metal-bearing waste streams for metals and times the flow from the cyanide-bearing waste streams for total cyanide. The metal-bearing waste streams and cyanide-bearing waste streams...

  7. Environmental profile of typical anaerobic/anoxic/oxic wastewater treatment systems meeting increasingly stringent treatment standards from a life cycle perspective.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Liu, Junxin; Ren, Nan-Qi; Duan, Zuoshan

    2012-12-01

    Stringent new legislation for wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is currently motivating innovation and optimization of wastewater treatment technologies. Evaluating the environmental performance of a wastewater treatment system is a necessary precursor before proposing implementation of WWTPs designed to address the global requirements for reduced resource use, energy consumption and environmental emissions. However, developing overly-sophisticated treatment methods may lead to negative environmental effects. This study was conducted to employ a process modeling approach from a life cycle perspective to construct and evaluate six anaerobic/anoxic/oxic wastewater treatment systems that include a water line, sludge line and bioenergy recovery system and was designed to meet different treatment standards in China. The results revealed that improved treatments optimized for local receiving watercourses can be realized at the cost of higher resource consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Optimal Scenarios were also identified from different positive perspectives. PMID:23073087

  8. A concept for planning and management of on-site and centralised municipal wastewater treatment systems, a case study in Bangkok, Thailand. I: pollutant discharge indicators and pollutant removal efficiency functions.

    PubMed

    Tsuzuki, Yoshiaki; Koottatep, Thammarat; Sinsupan, Thitiphon; Jiawkok, Supattra; Wongburana, Chira; Wattanachira, Suraphong; Sarathai, Yuttachai

    2013-01-01

    The concept of pollution load indicators for planning and management of the mixture conditions of centralised and on-site wastewater treatment systems has not been discussed in detail so far. In this paper, pollutant discharge (load) indicators and pollutant removal efficiencies were quantitatively analysed to develop a part of a strategy for planning and management of municipal wastewater treatment systems (WWTSs) under the mixture conditions in Bangkok, Thailand, as a case study. Pollutant discharge indicators of on-site WWTSs were estimated based on the relevant literature. Three kinds of pollutant removal efficiency function at centralised wastewater treatment plants (CWWTPs) were empirically developed for biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, total coliforms and faecal coliforms based on the existing CWWTP management data. These results will be integrated into the scenario-based analysis in the second paper in the series. The results will be base datasets, and the concept and estimation methods can be applied for wastewater treatment planning and management in other areas.

  9. Occurrence of tetracycline-resistant fecal coliforms and their resistance genes in an urban river impacted by municipal wastewater treatment plant discharges.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chong-Miao; Du, Cong; Xu, Huan; Miao, Yan-Hui; Cheng, Yan-Yan; Tang, Hao; Zhou, Jin-Hong; Wang, Xiao-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance of fecal coliforms in an urban river poses great threats to both human health and the environment. To investigate the occurrence and distribution of antibiotic resistant bacteria in an urban river, water samples were collected from the Chanhe River in Xi'an, China. After membrane filtration of water samples, the tetracycline resistance rate of fecal coliforms and their resistance genes were detected by plating and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively. We found that fecal coliforms were generally resistant to tetracycline and saw average resistance rates of 44.7%. The genes tetA and tetB were widely detected, and their positive rate was 60%-100% and 40%-90%, respectively. We found few strains containing tetC, tetK, tetQ and tetX, and we did not identify any strains containing tetG, tetM or tetO. The prevalence of tetA and tetB over other genes indicated that the main mechanism for resistance to tetracycline is by changes to the efflux pump. Our analysis of the types and proportion of tetracycline resistance genes in the Chanhe River at locations upstream and downstream of the urban center suggests that the increased number of tetracycline-resistant fecal coliforms and spatial variation of tetracycline resistance genes diversity were related to municipal wastewater treatment plant discharge.

  10. Disinfection of tertiary wastewater effluent prior to river discharge using peracetic acid; treatment efficiency and results on by-products formed in full scale tests.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Per Overgaard; Brodersen, Erling; Cecil, David

    2013-01-01

    This is an investigation of chemical disinfection, with peracetic acid (PAA), in a tertiary sand filter at a full scale activated sludge plant with nitrification/denitrification and P-removal. The reduction efficiency of Escherichia coli and intestinal enterococci in the sand filter is reported. E. coli log reductions of between 0.4 and 2.2 were found with contact times from 6 to 37 min and with dosing from 0 to 4.8 mg L(-1). The average log reduction was 1.3. The decomposition products, bromophenols, chlorophenols and formaldehyde and residual H2O2 were measured before and after the sand filter. The residual H2O2 concentration in the effluent was critical at short contact times and high dosages of PAA due to the discharge limit of 25 μg L(-1). The other three products could not be detected at 0.1 μg L(-1) levels. The chemical cost of PAA dosing is estimated to be 0.039 US$ m(-3) treated wastewater.

  11. Treatment and Disposal of Unanticipated 'Scavenger' Wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, W.L.

    2003-09-15

    The Savannah River Site often generates wastewater for disposal that is not included as a source to one of the site's wastewater treatment facilities that are permitted by the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control. The techniques used by the SRS contract operator (Westinghouse Savannah River Company) to evaluate and treat this unanticipated 'scavenger' wastewater may benefit industries and municipalities who experience similar needs. Regulations require that scavenger wastewater be treated and not just diluted. Each of the pollutants that are present must meet effluent permit limitations and/or receiving stream water quality standards. if a scavenger wastewater is classified as 'hazardous' under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) its disposal must comply with RCRA regulations. Westinghouse Savannah River Company obtained approval from SCDHEC to dispose of scavenger wastewater under specific conditions that are included within the SRS National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit. Scavenger wastewater is analyzed in a laboratory to determine its constituency. Pollutant values are entered into spreadsheets that calculate treatment plant removal capabilities and instream concentrations. Disposal rates are computed, ensuring compliance with regulatory requirements and protection of treatment system operating units. Appropriate records are maintained in the event of an audit.

  12. 40 CFR 440.44 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mercury Ore Subcategory § 440.44 New... pollutants discharged in mine drainage from mines, either open pit or underground, that produce mercury ores... discharge of process wastewater to navigable waters from mills beneficiating mercury ores by...

  13. The GREAT-ER model in China: Evaluating the risk of both treated and untreated wastewater discharges and a consideration to the future.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Benjamin; Jones, Kevin; Sweetman, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    agreement between modelled and observed concentrations. Unlike many other water quality models, GREAT-ER is relatively simple to setup and use. This provides value for catchment managers, and for chemical end-users and manufacturers alike. As of yet, GREAT-ER has not been used in Chinese catchments, but there is much potential. Our study involves the creation and validation of a model for the Dongjiang catchment, South China. The Dongjiang catchment is a highly populated area, draining into Guangzhou and the Pearl River delta. The catchment area is 25,325 km2 (above Boluo gauging station), of which approximately 90% resides in Guangdong Province. The downstream section of the catchment is densely populated, whilst upstream there is a more significant rural population. This study focuses upon chemical ingredients found in personal care products and pharmaceuticals and the potential risk they may impose upon the catchment. The relative impact of rural discharges has also been examined along with the potential effect of a range of future wastewater upgrade scenarios. The model has been validated with measurement data collected over a number of sampling campaigns. We believe that this study provides insights into the challenges faced by China as it drives to improve water quality.

  14. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Hhhhh of... - Emission Limits and Work Practice Standards for Wastewater Streams

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., such as pressure/vacuum vent or j-pipe vent. 2. Group 1 wastewater stream a. Convey using hard-piping and treat the wastewater as a hazardous waste in accordance with 40 CFR part 264, 265, or 266...

  15. Water quality, hydrology, and simulated response to changes in phosphorus loading of Mercer Lake, Iron County, Wisconsin, with special emphasis on the effects of wastewater discharges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robertson, Dale M.; Garn, Herbert S.; Rose, William J.; Juckem, Paul F.; Reneau, Paul C.

    2012-01-01

    Mercer Lake is a relatively shallow drainage lake in north-central Wisconsin. The area near the lake has gone through many changes over the past century, including urbanization and industrial development. To try to improve the water quality of the lake, actions have been taken, such as removal of the lumber mill and diversion of all effluent from the sewage treatment plant away from the lake; however, it is uncertain how these actions have affected water quality. Mercer Lake area residents and authorities would like to continue to try to improve the water quality of the lake; however, they would like to place their efforts in the actions that will have the most beneficial effects. To provide a better understanding of the factors affecting the water quality of Mercer Lake, a detailed study of the lake and its watershed was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in collaboration with the Mercer Lake Association. The purposes of the study were to describe the water quality of the lake and the composition of its sediments; quantify the sources of water and phosphorus loading to the lake, including sources associated with wastewater discharges; and evaluate the effects of past and future changes in phosphorus inputs on the water quality of the lake using eutrophication models (models that simulate changes in phosphorus and algae concentrations and water clarity in the lake). Based on analyses of sediment cores and monitoring data collected from the lake, the water quality of Mercer Lake appears to have degraded as a result of the activities in its watershed over the past 100 years. The water quality appears to have improved, however, since a sewage treatment plant was constructed in 1965 and its effluent was routed away from the lake in 1995. Since 2000, when a more consistent monitoring program began, the water quality of the lake appears to have changed very little. During the two monitoring years (MY) 2008-09, the average summer near-surface concentration of total

  16. Water quality, hydrology, and simulated response to changes in phosphorus loading of Mercer Lake, Iron County, Wisconsin, with special emphasis on the effects of wastewater discharges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robertson, Dale M.; Garn, Herbert S.; Rose, William J.; Juckem, Paul F.; Reneau, Paul C.

    2012-01-01

    Mercer Lake is a relatively shallow drainage lake in north-central Wisconsin. The area near the lake has gone through many changes over the past century, including urbanization and industrial development. To try to improve the water quality of the lake, actions have been taken, such as removal of the lumber mill and diversion of all effluent from the sewage treatment plant away from the lake; however, it is uncertain how these actions have affected water quality. Mercer Lake area residents and authorities would like to continue to try to improve the water quality of the lake; however, they would like to place their efforts in the actions that will have the most beneficial effects. To provide a better understanding of the factors affecting the water quality of Mercer Lake, a detailed study of the lake and its watershed was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in collaboration with the Mercer Lake Association. The purposes of the study were to describe the water quality of the lake and the composition of its sediments; quantify the sources of water and phosphorus loading to the lake, including sources associated with wastewater discharges; and evaluate the effects of past and future changes in phosphorus inputs on the water quality of the lake using eutrophication models (models that simulate changes in phosphorus and algae concentrations and water clarity in the lake). Based on analyses of sediment cores and monitoring data collected from the lake, the water quality of Mercer Lake appears to have degraded as a result of the activities in its watershed over the past 100 years. The water quality appears to have improved, however, since a sewage treatment plant was constructed in 1965 and its effluent was routed away from the lake in 1995. Since 2000, when a more consistent monitoring program began, the water quality of the lake appears to have changed very little. During the two monitoring years (MY) 2008-09, the average summer near-surface concentration of total

  17. Treatment of hydraulic fracturing wastewater by wet air oxidation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Yan, Xiuyi; Zhou, Jinghui; Ma, Jiuli

    2016-01-01

    Wastewater produced by hydraulic fracturing for oil and gas production is characterized by high salinity and high chemical oxygen demand (COD). We applied a combination of flocculation and wet air oxidation technology to optimize the reduction of COD in the treatment of hydraulic fracturing wastewater. The experiments used different values of flocculant, coagulant, and oxidizing agent added to the wastewater, as well as different reaction times and treatment temperatures. The use of flocculants for the pretreatment of fracturing wastewater was shown to improve treatment efficiency. The addition of 500 mg/L of polyaluminum chloride (PAC) and 20 mg/L of anionic polyacrylamide (APAM) during pretreatment resulted in a COD removal ratio of 8.2% and reduced the suspended solid concentration of fracturing wastewater to 150 mg/L. For a solution of pretreated fracturing wastewater with 12 mL of added H2O2, the COD was reduced to 104 mg/L when reacted at 300 °C for 75 min, and reduced to 127 mg/L when reacted at the same temperature for 45 min while using a 1 L autoclave. An optimal combination of these parameters produced treated wastewater that met the GB 8978-1996 'Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard' level I emission standard. PMID:26942530

  18. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Tertiary Chemical Treatment - Lime Precipitation Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrasek, Al, Jr.

    This guide describes the standard operating job procedures for the tertiary chemical treatment - lime precipitation process of wastewater treatment plants. Step-by-step instructions are given for pre-start up, start-up, continuous operation, and shut-down procedures. In addition, some theoretical material is presented along with some relevant…

  19. Improving the quality of discharge summaries: implementing updated Academy of Medical Royal Colleges standards at a district general hospital.

    PubMed

    May-Miller, Hannah; Hayter, Joanne; Loewenthal, Lola; Hall, Louis; Hilbert, Rebecca; Quinn, Michael; Pearson, Nicola; Patel, Alisha; Law, Rebekah

    2015-01-01

    Quality of documentation is harder to quantify and incentivise, but it has a significant impact on patient care. Good discharge summaries facilitate continuity between secondary and primary care. The junior doctors' forum led this project to improve the quality of electronic discharge summaries (eDS). Baseline measurement revealed significant room for improvement. We measured the quality of 10 summaries per month (across all inpatient specialties), against 23 indicators from the revised Academy of Medical Royal Colleges (AoMRC) standards (2013) that were prioritised by GPs as a "minimum dataset". Junior doctors felt that the Trust's dual eDS systems were responsible for great variation in quality. This was confirmed by the results of a comparison audit of the systems in April 2014: one system greatly outperformed the other (57% mean compliance with iSoft clinical management (iCM) based system vs. 77% with InfoPath-based system). We recommended that the Trust move to a single eDS system, decommissioning the iCM-based system, and this proposal was approved by several Trust committees. We worked with information services, junior doctors, general practitioners and hospital physicians to develop and implement a generic template to further improve compliance with AoMRC standards. In August 2014, the iCM-based system was withdrawn, the new template went live, and training was delivered, coinciding with the changeover of junior doctors to minimise disruption. Median compliance increased from 66.7% to 77.8%. Quality of discharge summaries had improved across the specialties. There was a reduction in the number of complaints and positive qualitative feedback from general practitioners and junior doctors. Completion of discharge summaries within 24 hours was not affected by this change. There is still more to be done to improve quality; average compliance with the full AoMRC standards (39 indicators) is 59.5%. With the approval of the Trust executive committee further plan

  20. Affects of wastewater discharge from mining on soil heavy metal pollution and enzyme activities in northern Hunan province, Central South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ying; Hu, Xue-Feng; Shu, Ying; Yan, Xiao-Juan; Luo, Fan

    2013-04-01

    Hunan province, Central South China, is rich in mineral resources and also a well-known nonferrous metal base in China. Mining and ore processing there, however, are mostly conducted in indigenous methods, and thus causing heavy metal pollution of abundant farmland. Situated in northern Hunan province, Y county has antimony, manganese, vanadium, and pyrite mines, but still belongs to a region of rice cultivation, of which, paddy fields make up 84.5% of the total farmland. Our investigations found that irrigation water is threatened by the release of mining wastewater in the county. For example, a stream used for irrigation turns dark-red after long-term receiving wastewater discharged from a pyrite company at HS Town of the county. Concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Fe and Mn in the stream water reach 0.03 mg kg-1, 2.14 mg kg-1, 0.02 mg kg-1, 96.0 mg kg-1 and 11.5 mg kg-1, respectively; these in the paddy soils nearby are 67.3 mg kg-1, 297 mg kg-1, 4.0 mg kg-1, 33.1 mg g-1 and 463 mg kg-1 on average, respectively, with a maximum of Cd reaching 16.8 mg kg-1. Microbial biomass and activities are significantly reduced by metal toxicity in the soils. The counts of fungal, actinomycin and bacterial colonies in the polluted soils are 8.8×103 /g (Fresh soil), 4.9×105 /g (Fresh soil) and 6.4×105 /g (Fresh soil), respectively, which are only 4.68%, 10.3% and 20.9% of these in non-polluted soils in Y county, respectively. Likewise, the microbial biomass (MB) - C and MB - N of the polluted soils are only 36.8% and 50.3% of these in the non-polluted, respectively. The activities of dehydrogenase, urease, catalase, acid and neutral phosphatase and sucrase in the polluted soils are only 41.2%, 49.8%, 56.8%, 69.9%, 80.7% and 81.0% of these in the non-polluted, respectively. There are significant negative correlations between Cu, Zn and Cd contents and the activities of dehydrogenase and catalase, suggesting that the two enzymes are the most sensitive to heavy metal toxicity in the

  1. Rates of Microbial Transformation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Water and Sediments in the Vicinity of a Coal-Coking Wastewater Discharge

    PubMed Central

    Herbes, Stephen E.

    1981-01-01

    To facilitate predictions of the transport and fate of contaminants at future coal conversion facilities, rates of microbial transformation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were measured in stream water and sediment samples collected in the vicinity of a coal-coking treated wastewater discharge from November 1977 through August 1979. Six radiolabeled polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were incubated with sediment and water samples; 14CO2, cell-bound 14C, and polar transformation products were isolated and quantified. Whereas 14CO2 and bound 14C were major transformation products in sediment assays, soluble polar 14C dominated transformation in water samples. Mean rate constants (measured at 20°C) in sediments collected downstream from the effluent outfall were 7.8 × 10−2 h−1 (naphthalene), 1.6 × 10−2 h−1 (anthracene), and 3.3 × 10−3 h−1 [benz(a)anthracene], which corresponded to turnover times of 13, 62, and 300 h, respectively. No unequivocal evidence for transformation of benzo(a)pyrene or dibenz(a,h)anthracene was obtained. Only naphthalene and anthracene transformations were observed in water samples; rate constants were consistently 5- and 20-fold lower, respectively, than in the corresponding sediment samples. The measured rate constants for anthracene transformation in July 1978 sediment samples were not related to total heterotroph numbers. In late July 1978, the effluent was diverted from the primary study area; however, no differences were observed either in transformation rate constants or in the downstream/upstream sediment rate constant ratio. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that continuous inputs of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons result in an increased ability within a microbial community to utilize certain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. However, because transformation rates remained elevated for more than 1 year after removal of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon source, microbial communities may shift only

  2. Capacitance discharge system for ignition of Single Bridge Apollo Standard Initiators (SBASI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, R. D.

    1974-01-01

    The design support data developed during the single bridge Apollo standard initiator (SBASI) program are presented. A circuit was designed and bread-board tested to verify operational capabilities of the circuit. Test data, design criteria, weight, and reliability trade-off considerations, and final design recommendations are reported.

  3. Automatable on-line generation of calibration curves and standard additions in solution-cathode glow discharge optical emission spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Andrew J.; Ray, Steven J.; Hieftje, Gary M.

    2015-03-01

    Two methods are described that enable on-line generation of calibration standards and standard additions in solution-cathode glow discharge optical emission spectrometry (SCGD-OES). The first method employs a gradient high-performance liquid chromatography pump to perform on-line mixing and delivery of a stock standard, sample solution, and diluent to achieve a desired solution composition. The second method makes use of a simpler system of three peristaltic pumps to perform the same function of on-line solution mixing. Both methods can be computer-controlled and automated, and thereby enable both simple and standard-addition calibrations to be rapidly performed on-line. Performance of the on-line approaches is shown to be comparable to that of traditional methods of sample preparation, in terms of calibration curves, signal stability, accuracy, and limits of detection. Potential drawbacks to the on-line procedures include signal lag between changes in solution composition and pump-induced multiplicative noise. Though the new on-line methods were applied here to SCGD-OES to improve sample throughput, they are not limited in application to only SCGD-OES-any instrument that samples from flowing solution streams (flame atomic absorption spectrometry, ICP-OES, ICP-mass spectrometry, etc.) could benefit from them.

  4. Mastectomy - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Breast removal surgery - discharge; Nipple-sparing mastectomy - discharge; Total mastectomy - discharge; Simple mastectomy - discharge; Modified radical mastectomy - discharge; Breast cancer - mastectomy -discharge

  5. Relative invasion risk for plankton across marine and freshwater systems: examining efficacy of proposed international ballast water discharge standards.

    PubMed

    Casas-Monroy, Oscar; Linley, Robert D; Adams, Jennifer K; Chan, Farrah T; Drake, D Andrew R; Bailey, Sarah A

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the implications of different management strategies is necessary to identify best conservation trajectories for ecosystems exposed to anthropogenic stressors. For example, science-based risk assessments at large scales are needed to understand efficacy of different vector management approaches aimed at preventing biological invasions associated with commercial shipping. We conducted a landscape-scale analysis to examine the relative invasion risk of ballast water discharges among different shipping pathways (e.g., Transoceanic, Coastal or Domestic), ecosystems (e.g., freshwater, brackish and marine), and timescales (annual and per discharge event) under current and future management regimes. The arrival and survival potential of nonindigenous species (NIS) was estimated based on directional shipping networks and their associated propagule pressure, environmental similarity between donor-recipient ecosystems (based on salinity and temperature), and effects of current and future management strategies (i.e., ballast water exchange and treatment to meet proposed international biological discharge standards). Our findings show that current requirements for ballast water exchange effectively reduce invasion risk to freshwater ecosystems but are less protective of marine ecosystems because of greater environmental mismatch between source (oceanic) and recipient (freshwater) ecoregions. Future requirements for ballast water treatment are expected to reduce risk of zooplankton NIS introductions across ecosystem types but are expected to be less effective in reducing risk of phytoplankton NIS. This large-scale risk assessment across heterogeneous ecosystems represents a major step towards understanding the likelihood of invasion in relation to shipping networks, the relative efficacy of different invasion management regimes and seizing opportunities to reduce the ecological and economic implications of biological invasions.

  6. Relative invasion risk for plankton across marine and freshwater systems: examining efficacy of proposed international ballast water discharge standards.

    PubMed

    Casas-Monroy, Oscar; Linley, Robert D; Adams, Jennifer K; Chan, Farrah T; Drake, D Andrew R; Bailey, Sarah A

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the implications of different management strategies is necessary to identify best conservation trajectories for ecosystems exposed to anthropogenic stressors. For example, science-based risk assessments at large scales are needed to understand efficacy of different vector management approaches aimed at preventing biological invasions associated with commercial shipping. We conducted a landscape-scale analysis to examine the relative invasion risk of ballast water discharges among different shipping pathways (e.g., Transoceanic, Coastal or Domestic), ecosystems (e.g., freshwater, brackish and marine), and timescales (annual and per discharge event) under current and future management regimes. The arrival and survival potential of nonindigenous species (NIS) was estimated based on directional shipping networks and their associated propagule pressure, environmental similarity between donor-recipient ecosystems (based on salinity and temperature), and effects of current and future management strategies (i.e., ballast water exchange and treatment to meet proposed international biological discharge standards). Our findings show that current requirements for ballast water exchange effectively reduce invasion risk to freshwater ecosystems but are less protective of marine ecosystems because of greater environmental mismatch between source (oceanic) and recipient (freshwater) ecoregions. Future requirements for ballast water treatment are expected to reduce risk of zooplankton NIS introductions across ecosystem types but are expected to be less effective in reducing risk of phytoplankton NIS. This large-scale risk assessment across heterogeneous ecosystems represents a major step towards understanding the likelihood of invasion in relation to shipping networks, the relative efficacy of different invasion management regimes and seizing opportunities to reduce the ecological and economic implications of biological invasions. PMID:25763859

  7. Relative Invasion Risk for Plankton across Marine and Freshwater Systems: Examining Efficacy of Proposed International Ballast Water Discharge Standards

    PubMed Central

    Casas-Monroy, Oscar; Linley, Robert D.; Adams, Jennifer K.; Chan, Farrah T.; Drake, D. Andrew R.; Bailey, Sarah A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the implications of different management strategies is necessary to identify best conservation trajectories for ecosystems exposed to anthropogenic stressors. For example, science-based risk assessments at large scales are needed to understand efficacy of different vector management approaches aimed at preventing biological invasions associated with commercial shipping. We conducted a landscape-scale analysis to examine the relative invasion risk of ballast water discharges among different shipping pathways (e.g., Transoceanic, Coastal or Domestic), ecosystems (e.g., freshwater, brackish and marine), and timescales (annual and per discharge event) under current and future management regimes. The arrival and survival potential of nonindigenous species (NIS) was estimated based on directional shipping networks and their associated propagule pressure, environmental similarity between donor-recipient ecosystems (based on salinity and temperature), and effects of current and future management strategies (i.e., ballast water exchange and treatment to meet proposed international biological discharge standards). Our findings show that current requirements for ballast water exchange effectively reduce invasion risk to freshwater ecosystems but are less protective of marine ecosystems because of greater environmental mismatch between source (oceanic) and recipient (freshwater) ecoregions. Future requirements for ballast water treatment are expected to reduce risk of zooplankton NIS introductions across ecosystem types but are expected to be less effective in reducing risk of phytoplankton NIS. This large-scale risk assessment across heterogeneous ecosystems represents a major step towards understanding the likelihood of invasion in relation to shipping networks, the relative efficacy of different invasion management regimes and seizing opportunities to reduce the ecological and economic implications of biological invasions. PMID:25763859

  8. 40 CFR 422.55 - Standards of performance for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... performance for new sources: There shall be no discharge of process wastewater pollutants to navigable waters. (b) Process waste water pollutants from a cooling water recirculation system designed, constructed... may be discharged, after treatment to the standards set forth in paragraph (c) of this...

  9. Combined physical, chemical and biological treatments of wastewater containing organics from a semiconductor plant.

    PubMed

    Lin, Sheng H; Kiang, Chang D

    2003-02-28

    Wastewater containing organics from a semiconductor plant was experimentally investigated in this study. The wastewater is characterized by strong color, high chemical oxygen demand (COD), a large amount of refractory volatile organic compounds and low biodegradability. Because of these characteristics, treatment of this wastewater by traditional activated sludge method is essentially impossible. In the present work, combined physical, chemical and biological methods were synergistically utilized to tackle the wastewater. The combined treatment consisted of air stripping, modified Fenton oxidation and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) method. Air stripping was employed to remove the majority of volatile organic components (notably isopropyl alcohol) from the wastewater, while the Fenton treatment decomposed the remaining refractory organics leading to simultaneous reductions of wastewater COD and color. After proper dilution with other low-strength, organics-containing wastewater stream, the wastewater effluent was finally treated by the SBR method. Experimental tests were conducted to determine the effectiveness and the optimum operating conditions of each treatment process. Test results clearly demonstrated the advantages of the combined treatments. The treatment train was found capable of lowering the wastewater COD concentration from as high as 80,000 mg/l to below 100mg/l and completely eliminating the wastewater color. The overall water quality of the final effluent exceeded the direct discharge standard and the effluent can even be considered for reuse.

  10. Water Hyacinths for Upgrading Sewage Lagoons to Meet Advanced Wastewater Treatment Standards, Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    Water hyacinths, Eichhornia crassipes Mart. Solms, have demonstrated the ability to function as an efficient and inexpensive final filtration system in a secondary domestic sewage lagoon during a three month test period. These plants reduced the suspended solids, biochemical oxygen demanding substances, and other chemical parameters to levels below the standards set by the state pollution control agency. The water hyacinth-covered secondary lagoon utilized in this experiment had a surface area of 0.28 hectare (0.70 acre) with a total capacity of 6.8 million liters (1.5 million gallons), receiving an inflow of 522,100 liters (115,000 gallons) per day from a 1.1 hectare (3.8 acre) aerated primary sewage lagoon. These conditions allowed a retention time of 14 to 21 days depending on the water hyacinth evapotranspiration rates. The desired purity of final sewage effluent can be controlled by the water hyacinth surface area, harvest rate, and the retention time.

  11. Water hyacinths for upgrading sewage lagoons to meet advanced wastewater treatment standards, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R. C.

    1976-01-01

    Field tests using water hyacinths as biological filtration agents were conducted in the Mississippi gulf coast region. The plants were installed in one single cell and one multiple cell sewage lagoon systems. Water hyacinths demonstrated the ability to maintain BOD5 and total suspended solid (TSS) levels within the Environmental Protection Agency's prescribed limits of 30 mg/lBOD5 and 30 mg/l TSS. A multiple cell sewage lagoon system consisting of two aerated and one water hyacinth covered cell connected in series demonstrated the ability to maintain BOD5 and TSS levels below 30 mg/l year-round. A water hyacinth covered lagoon with a surface area of 0.28 hectare containing a total volume of 6.8 million liters demonstrated the capacity to treat 437,000 to 1,893,000 liters of sewage influent from 2.65 hectares of aerated lagoons daily and produce an effluent that met or exceeded standards year-round.

  12. Wastewater quality relationships with reuse options.

    PubMed

    Patterson, R A

    2001-01-01

    The trend towards reuse of effluent for land application of domestic and industrial wastewater is driven by the need to maximise limited water resources and benefit from the plant nutrients available in the effluent. Of significant impact upon the value of the wastewater for reuse is its chemical properties as well as biochemical oxygen demand and suspended solids. While the sewage treatment plant is expected to treat all wastewater received to a minimum environmental standard, no efforts are given to reducing the chemical load derived from uses of chemicals in the domestic household. That the regulation of industry and commerce far exceeds those of the combined effects of thousands of household is remiss of environmental regulators. This paper examines the results of research into the more common sources of chemical additives to the wastewater stream. Twenty five potable water supplies are examined for their salt load, 20 liquid and 40 powder laundry detergents and five dishwashing products were used to simulate discharges to the sewer, measured for their phosphorus, salt and sodium concentrations. The results of the research indicate that choices in the products available for general use within the house can be made only where product labelling and consumer education is improved. Technical improvements in wastewater treatment are not the answer. The improvement in effluent quality will have significant beneficial effects upon land application areas and expand the range of reuse options available for commercial operations.

  13. Comparison of a novel passive sampler to standard water-column sampling for organic contaminants associated with wastewater effluents entering a New Jersey stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alvarez, D.A.; Stackelberg, P.E.; Petty, J.D.; Huckins, J.N.; Furlong, E.T.; Zaugg, S.D.; Meyer, M.T.

    2005-01-01

    Four water samples collected using standard depth and width water-column sampling methodology were compared to an innovative passive, in situ, sampler (the polar organic chemical integrative sampler or POCIS) for the detection of 96 organic wastewater-related contaminants (OWCs) in a stream that receives agricultural, municipal, and industrial wastewaters. Thirty-two OWCs were identified in POCIS extracts whereas 9-24 were identified in individual water-column samples demonstrating the utility of POCIS for identifying contaminants whose occurrence are transient or whose concentrations are below routine analytical detection limits. Overall, 10 OWCs were identified exclusively in the POCIS extracts and only six solely identified in the water-column samples, however, repetitive water samples taken using the standard method during the POCIS deployment period required multiple trips to the sampling site and an increased number of samples to store, process, and analyze. Due to the greater number of OWCs detected in the POCIS extracts as compared to individual water-column samples, the ease of performing a single deployment as compared to collecting and processing multiple water samples, the greater mass of chemical residues sequestered, and the ability to detect chemicals which dissipate quickly, the passive sampling technique offers an efficient and effective alternative for detecting OWCs in our waterways for wastewater contaminants.

  14. Physicochemical treatments of anionic surfactants wastewater: Effect on aerobic biodegradability.

    PubMed

    Aloui, Fathi; Kchaou, Sonia; Sayadi, Sami

    2009-05-15

    The effect of different physicochemical treatments on the aerobic biodegradability of an industrial wastewater resulting from a cosmetic industry has been investigated. This industrial wastewater contains 11423 and 3148mgL(-1) of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and anionic surfactants, respectively. The concentration of COD and anionic surfactants were followed throughout the diverse physicochemical treatments and biodegradation experiments. Different pretreatments of this industrial wastewater using chemical flocculation process with lime and aluminium sulphate (alum), and also advanced oxidation process (electro-coagulation (Fe and Al) and electro-Fenton) led to important COD and anionic surfactants removals. The best results were obtained using electro-Fenton process, exceeding 98 and 80% of anionic surfactants and COD removals, respectively. The biological treatment by an isolated strain Citrobacter braakii of the surfactant wastewater, as well as the pretreated wastewater by the various physicochemical processes used in this study showed that the best results were obtained with electro-Fenton pretreated wastewater. The characterization of the treated surfactant wastewater by the integrated process (electro-coagulation or electro-Fenton)-biological showed that it respects Tunisian discharge standards. PMID:18799262

  15. Physicochemical treatments of anionic surfactants wastewater: Effect on aerobic biodegradability.

    PubMed

    Aloui, Fathi; Kchaou, Sonia; Sayadi, Sami

    2009-05-15

    The effect of different physicochemical treatments on the aerobic biodegradability of an industrial wastewater resulting from a cosmetic industry has been investigated. This industrial wastewater contains 11423 and 3148mgL(-1) of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and anionic surfactants, respectively. The concentration of COD and anionic surfactants were followed throughout the diverse physicochemical treatments and biodegradation experiments. Different pretreatments of this industrial wastewater using chemical flocculation process with lime and aluminium sulphate (alum), and also advanced oxidation process (electro-coagulation (Fe and Al) and electro-Fenton) led to important COD and anionic surfactants removals. The best results were obtained using electro-Fenton process, exceeding 98 and 80% of anionic surfactants and COD removals, respectively. The biological treatment by an isolated strain Citrobacter braakii of the surfactant wastewater, as well as the pretreated wastewater by the various physicochemical processes used in this study showed that the best results were obtained with electro-Fenton pretreated wastewater. The characterization of the treated surfactant wastewater by the integrated process (electro-coagulation or electro-Fenton)-biological showed that it respects Tunisian discharge standards.

  16. Uncertainty analysis of the simulations of effects of discharging treated wastewater to the Red River of the North at Fargo, North Dakota, and Moorhead, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wesolowski, E.A.

    1996-01-01

    Two separate studies to simulate the effects of discharging treated wastewater to the Red River of the North at Fargo, North Dakota, and Moorhead, Minnesota, have been completed. In the first study, the Red River at Fargo Water-Quality Model was calibrated and verified for ice-free conditions. In the second study, the Red River at Fargo Ice-Cover Water-Quality Model was verified for ice-cover conditions. To better understand and apply the Red River at Fargo Water-Quality Model and the Red River at Fargo Ice-Cover Water-Quality Model, the uncertainty associated with simulated constituent concentrations and property values was analyzed and quantified using the Enhanced Stream Water Quality Model-Uncertainty Analysis. The Monte Carlo simulation and first-order error analysis methods were used to analyze the uncertainty in simulated values for six constituents and properties at sites 5, 10, and 14 (upstream to downstream order). The constituents and properties analyzed for uncertainty are specific conductance, total organic nitrogen (reported as nitrogen), total ammonia (reported as nitrogen), total nitrite plus nitrate (reported as nitrogen), 5-day carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand for ice-cover conditions and ultimate carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand for ice-free conditions, and dissolved oxygen. Results are given in detail for both the ice-cover and ice-free conditions for specific conductance, total ammonia, and dissolved oxygen. The sensitivity and uncertainty of the simulated constituent concentrations and property values to input variables differ substantially between ice-cover and ice-free conditions. During ice-cover conditions, simulated specific-conductance values are most sensitive to the headwater-source specific- conductance values upstream of site 10 and the point-source specific-conductance values downstream of site 10. These headwater-source and point-source specific-conductance values also are the key sources of uncertainty. Simulated total

  17. Environmental Assessment for the High Explosives Wastewater Treatment Facility, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-03

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has identified a need to improve the management of wastewater resulting from high explosives (HE) research and development work at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). LANL`s current methods off managing HE-contaminated wastewater cannot ensure that discharged HE wastewater would consistently meet the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) standards for wastewater discharge. The DOE needs to enhance He wastewater management to e able to meet both present and future regulatory standards for wastewater discharge. The DOE also proposes to incorporate major pollution prevention and waste reduction features into LANL`s existing HE production facilities. Currently, wastewater from HE processing buildings at four Technical Areas (TAs) accumulates in sumps where particulate HE settles out and barium is precipitated. Wastewater is then released from the sumps to the environment at 15 permitted outfalls without treatment. The released water may contain suspended and dissolved contaminants, such as HE and solvents. This Environmental Assessment (EA) analyzes two alternatives, the Proposed Action and the Alternative Action, that would meet the purpose and need for agency action. Both alternatives would treat all HE process wastewater using sand filters to remove HE particulates and activated carbon to adsorb organic solvents and dissolved HE. Under either alternative, LANL would burn solvents and flash dried HE particulates and spent carbon following well-established procedures. Burning would produce secondary waste that would be stored, treated, and disposed of at TA-54, Area J. This report contains the Environmental Assessment, as well as the Finding of No Significant Impact and Floodplain Statement of Findings for the High Explosives Wastewater Treatment Facility.

  18. Analysis of Industrial Wastewaters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mancy, K. H.; Weber, W. J., Jr.

    A comprehensive, documented discussion of certain operating principles useful as guidelines for the analysis of industrial wastewaters is presented. Intended primarily for the chemist, engineer, or other professional person concerned with all aspects of industrial wastewater analysis, it is not to be considered as a substitute for standard manuals…

  19. Removal of a wide range of emerging pollutants from wastewater treatment plant discharges by micro-grain activated carbon in fluidized bed as tertiary treatment at large pilot scale.

    PubMed

    Mailler, R; Gasperi, J; Coquet, Y; Buleté, A; Vulliet, E; Deshayes, S; Zedek, S; Mirande-Bret, C; Eudes, V; Bressy, A; Caupos, E; Moilleron, R; Chebbo, G; Rocher, V

    2016-01-15

    Among the solutions to reduce micropollutant discharges into the aquatic environment, activated carbon adsorption is a promising technique and a large scale pilot has been tested at the Seine Centre (240,000 m(3)/d - Paris, France) wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). While most of available works studied fixed bed or contact reactors with a separated separation step, this study assesses a new type of tertiary treatment based on a fluidized bed containing a high mass of activated carbon, continuously renewed. For the first time in the literature, micro-grain activated carbon (μGAC) was studied. The aims were (1) to determine the performances of fluidized bed operating with μCAG on both emerging micropollutants and conventional wastewater quality parameters, and (2) to compare its efficiency and applicability to wastewater to former results obtained with PAC. Thus, conventional wastewater quality parameters (n=11), pharmaceuticals and hormones (PPHs; n=62) and other emerging pollutants (n=57) have been monitored in μGAC configuration during 13 campaigns. A significant correlation has been established between dissolved organic carbon (DOC), PPHs and UV absorbance at 254 nm (UV-254) removals. This confirms that UV-254 could be used as a tertiary treatment performance indicator to monitor the process. This parameter allowed identifying that the removals of UV-254 and DOC reach a plateau from a μGAC retention time (SRT) of 90-100 days. The μGAC configuration substantially improves the overall quality of the WWTP discharges by reducing biological (38-45%) and chemical oxygen demands (21-48%), DOC (13-44%) and UV-254 (22-48%). In addition, total suspended solids (TSS) are retained by the μGAC bed and a biological activity (nitratation) leads to a total elimination of NO2(-). For micropollutants, PPHs have a good affinity for μGAC and high (>60%) or very high (>80%) removals are observed for most of the quantified compounds (n=22/32), i.e. atenolol (92

  20. Removal of a wide range of emerging pollutants from wastewater treatment plant discharges by micro-grain activated carbon in fluidized bed as tertiary treatment at large pilot scale.

    PubMed

    Mailler, R; Gasperi, J; Coquet, Y; Buleté, A; Vulliet, E; Deshayes, S; Zedek, S; Mirande-Bret, C; Eudes, V; Bressy, A; Caupos, E; Moilleron, R; Chebbo, G; Rocher, V

    2016-01-15

    Among the solutions to reduce micropollutant discharges into the aquatic environment, activated carbon adsorption is a promising technique and a large scale pilot has been tested at the Seine Centre (240,000 m(3)/d - Paris, France) wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). While most of available works studied fixed bed or contact reactors with a separated separation step, this study assesses a new type of tertiary treatment based on a fluidized bed containing a high mass of activated carbon, continuously renewed. For the first time in the literature, micro-grain activated carbon (μGAC) was studied. The aims were (1) to determine the performances of fluidized bed operating with μCAG on both emerging micropollutants and conventional wastewater quality parameters, and (2) to compare its efficiency and applicability to wastewater to former results obtained with PAC. Thus, conventional wastewater quality parameters (n=11), pharmaceuticals and hormones (PPHs; n=62) and other emerging pollutants (n=57) have been monitored in μGAC configuration during 13 campaigns. A significant correlation has been established between dissolved organic carbon (DOC), PPHs and UV absorbance at 254 nm (UV-254) removals. This confirms that UV-254 could be used as a tertiary treatment performance indicator to monitor the process. This parameter allowed identifying that the removals of UV-254 and DOC reach a plateau from a μGAC retention time (SRT) of 90-100 days. The μGAC configuration substantially improves the overall quality of the WWTP discharges by reducing biological (38-45%) and chemical oxygen demands (21-48%), DOC (13-44%) and UV-254 (22-48%). In addition, total suspended solids (TSS) are retained by the μGAC bed and a biological activity (nitratation) leads to a total elimination of NO2(-). For micropollutants, PPHs have a good affinity for μGAC and high (>60%) or very high (>80%) removals are observed for most of the quantified compounds (n=22/32), i.e. atenolol (92

  1. Current status of urban wastewater treatment plants in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Q H; Yang, W N; Ngo, H H; Guo, W S; Jin, P K; Dzakpasu, Mawuli; Yang, S J; Wang, Q; Wang, X C; Ao, D

    2016-01-01

    The study reported and analyzed the current state of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in urban China from the perspective of treatment technologies, pollutant removals, operating load and effluent discharge standards. By the end of 2013, 3508 WWTPs have been built in 31 provinces and cities in China with a total treatment capacity of 1.48×10(8)m(3)/d. The uneven population distribution between China's east and west regions has resulted in notably different economic development outcomes. The technologies mostly used in WWTPs are AAO and oxidation ditch, which account for over 50% of the existing WWTPs. According to statistics, the efficiencies of COD and NH3-N removal are good in 656 WWTPs in 70 cities. The overall average COD removal is over 88% with few regional differences. The average removal efficiency of NH3-N is up to 80%. Large differences exist between the operating loads applied in different WWTPs. The average operating loading rate is approximately 83%, and 52% of WWTPs operate at loadings of <80%, treating up to 40% of the wastewater generated. The implementation of discharge standards has been low. Approximately 28% of WWTPs that achieved the Grade I-A Discharge Standard of Pollutants for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant (GB 18918-2002) were constructed after 2010. The sludge treatment and recycling rates are only 25%, and approximately 15% of wastewater is inefficiently treated. Approximately 60% of WWTPs have capacities of 1×10(4)m(3)/d-5×10(4)m(3)/d. Relatively high energy consumption is required for small-scale processing, and the utilization rate of recycled wastewater is low. The challenges of WWTPs are discussed with the aim of developing rational criteria and appropriate technologies for water recycling. Suggestions regarding potential technical and administrative measures are provided.

  2. Current status of urban wastewater treatment plants in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Q H; Yang, W N; Ngo, H H; Guo, W S; Jin, P K; Dzakpasu, Mawuli; Yang, S J; Wang, Q; Wang, X C; Ao, D

    2016-01-01

    The study reported and analyzed the current state of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in urban China from the perspective of treatment technologies, pollutant removals, operating load and effluent discharge standards. By the end of 2013, 3508 WWTPs have been built in 31 provinces and cities in China with a total treatment capacity of 1.48×10(8)m(3)/d. The uneven population distribution between China's east and west regions has resulted in notably different economic development outcomes. The technologies mostly used in WWTPs are AAO and oxidation ditch, which account for over 50% of the existing WWTPs. According to statistics, the efficiencies of COD and NH3-N removal are good in 656 WWTPs in 70 cities. The overall average COD removal is over 88% with few regional differences. The average removal efficiency of NH3-N is up to 80%. Large differences exist between the operating loads applied in different WWTPs. The average operating loading rate is approximately 83%, and 52% of WWTPs operate at loadings of <80%, treating up to 40% of the wastewater generated. The implementation of discharge standards has been low. Approximately 28% of WWTPs that achieved the Grade I-A Discharge Standard of Pollutants for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant (GB 18918-2002) were constructed after 2010. The sludge treatment and recycling rates are only 25%, and approximately 15% of wastewater is inefficiently treated. Approximately 60% of WWTPs have capacities of 1×10(4)m(3)/d-5×10(4)m(3)/d. Relatively high energy consumption is required for small-scale processing, and the utilization rate of recycled wastewater is low. The challenges of WWTPs are discussed with the aim of developing rational criteria and appropriate technologies for water recycling. Suggestions regarding potential technical and administrative measures are provided. PMID:27045705

  3. 40 CFR 461.25 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... comply with 40 CFR part 403 and achieve the pretreatment standards for new sources listed below. (b) There shall be no discharge for process wastewater pollutants from any battery manufacturing operations. ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) BATTERY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...

  4. 40 CFR 461.25 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... comply with 40 CFR part 403 and achieve the pretreatment standards for new sources listed below. (b) There shall be no discharge for process wastewater pollutants from any battery manufacturing operations. ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) BATTERY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...

  5. 40 CFR 461.25 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... comply with 40 CFR part 403 and achieve the pretreatment standards for new sources listed below. (b) There shall be no discharge for process wastewater pollutants from any battery manufacturing operations. ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) BATTERY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...

  6. 40 CFR 420.44 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... steelmaking—semi-wet; and electric arc furnace steelmaking—semi-wet. No discharge of process wastewater... steelmaking—wet open combustion; and electric arc furnace steelmaking—wet. Subpart D Pollutant or pollutant... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Steelmaking Subcategory §...

  7. 40 CFR 420.44 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... steelmaking—semi-wet; and electric arc furnace steelmaking—semi-wet. No discharge of process wastewater... steelmaking—wet open combustion; and electric arc furnace steelmaking—wet. Subpart D Pollutant or pollutant... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Steelmaking Subcategory §...

  8. 40 CFR 420.44 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... steelmaking—semi-wet; and electric arc furnace steelmaking—semi-wet. No discharge of process wastewater... steelmaking—wet open combustion; and electric arc furnace steelmaking—wet. Subpart D Pollutant or pollutant... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Steelmaking Subcategory §...

  9. Development and optimization of a sequencing batch reactor for nitrogen and phosphorus removal from abattoir wastewater to meet irrigation standards.

    PubMed

    Pijuan, Maite; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2010-01-01

    A sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was used for the treatment of abattoir wastewater to produce effluent with desirable nitrogen and phosphorus levels for irrigation. The SBR cycle consisted of an anaerobic phase with wastewater feeding, a relatively short aerobic period (allowing full ammonium oxidation), a second anoxic period with feeding, followed by settling and decanting. This design of operation allowed biological nitrification and denitrification via nitrite, and therefore with reduced demand for aeration and COD for nitrogen removal. The design also allowed ammonium, rather than oxidized nitrogen, being the primary nitrogen species in the effluent. Biological phosphorus removal was also achieved, with an effluent level desirable for irrigation. A high-level of nitrite accumulation (40 mg N/L) in the reactor caused inhibition to the biological P uptake. This problem was solved through process optimization. The cycle time of the SBR was reduced, with the wastewater load per cycle also reduced, while the daily hydraulic loading maintained. This modification proved to be an effective method to ensure reliable N and P removal. N(2)O accumulation was measured in two experiments simulating the anoxic phase of the SBR and using nitrite and nitrate respectively as electron donors. The estimated N(2)O emissions for both experiments were very low.

  10. 77 FR 17082 - Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters: Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-23

    ... notice regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316... preventing the introduction and spread of NIS via discharged ballast water (68 FR 55559). On July 28, 2004... of the United States, which was authorized under NISA (69 FR 44952). This program is currently...

  11. 40 CFR 414.91 - Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the case of chromium, copper, lead, nickel, zinc, and total cyanide, the discharge quantity (mass... times the flow from metal-bearing waste streams for the metals and times the flow from cyanide bearing waste streams for total cyanide. The metal-bearing waste streams and cyanide-bearing waste streams...

  12. 40 CFR 414.101 - Toxic pollutant effluent limitations and standards for direct discharge point sources that do not...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... table. (b) In the case of chromium, copper, lead, nickel, zinc, and total cyanide, the discharge... these pollutants times the flow from metal bearing waste streams for the metals and times the cyanide-bearing waste streams for total cyanide. The metal-bearing waste streams and cyanide-bearing waste...

  13. Modeling trihalomethane formation potential from wastewater chlorination. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, C.A.

    1994-09-01

    The deletion of federally mandated fecal coliform limits has led many states to review and modify their wastewater disinfection requirements. One issue in analyzing wastewater disinfection is the discharge of potentially carcinogenic halogenated organics formed during the chlorination process. This research investigates the formation of one class of the halogenated organics, the trihalomethanes. The applicability of using drinking water trihalomethane formation models for use with wastewater effluent is examined. Three models are compared for predictive capability by using measured trihalomethane values from previous research data. The results show that a previously developed model is applicable for use based on assumptions stated. Results provide environmental managers with worst case predictions for a range of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) parameters. Predictions indicate that trihalomethane formation from the chlorination of wastewater is typically lower than the Safe Drinking Water Act trihalomethane standard of 100 ug/L. The worst case model predictions reach, and in certain extreme cases, pass the standard of 100 ug/L. This level of trihalomethanes formed is minimized if aeration of the receiving bodies of water occurs. Based on this research, the risk of forming trihalomethanes as disinfection by-products from chlorination do not outweigh the benefits gained from proper chlorine disinfection of effluent.

  14. Effects of salinity on treatment of municipal wastewater by constructed mangrove wetland microcosms.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yan; Tam, N F Y; Wong, M H

    2008-01-01

    The effects of salinity on the removal of dissolved organic carbon and nutrients from municipal wastewater by constructed mangrove microcosms planted with Aegiceras corniculatum were investigated. During the four-month wastewater treatment, the treatment efficiency was reduced by high salinity, and the removal percentages of dissolved organic carbon, ammonia-N and inorganic N dropped from 91% to 71%, from 98% to 83% and from 78% to 56%, respectively, with salinity increasing from 0 to 30 parts per thousands (ppt). In spite of such inhibition at high salinity, 100% of the effluents discharge from the constructed mangrove microcosms still complied with the discharge standards set by the Hong Kong Government for Coastal Water Control Zones. These results suggested that constructed mangrove wetland treatment systems were promising to effectively treat municipal wastewater, even those with high salinity. In addition, the denitrification potential in soil was found to be retarded by the high salinity while mangrove plants grew best at 15 ppt salinity condition.

  15. Reproductive health of bass in the potomac, USA, drainage: Part 1. exploring the effects of proximity to wastewater treatment plant discharge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iwanowicz, L.R.; Blazer, V.S.; Guy, C.P.; Pinkney, A.E.; Mullcan, J.E.; Alvarezw, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract-Intersex (specifically, testicular oocytes) has been observed in male smalimouth bass (SMB; Micropterus dolomieu) and other centrarchids in the South Branch of the Potomac River, USA, and forks of the Shenandoah River, USA. during the past five years. This condition often is associated with exposure to estrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemicals in some fish species, but such chemicals and their sources have yet to be identified in the Potomac. In an attempt to better understand the plausible causes of this condition, we investigated the reproductive health of bass sampled up- and downstream of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent point sources on the Potomac River in Maryland, USA. Smallmouth bass were sampled from the Conococheague Creek and the Monocacy River, and largemouth bass (LMB; Micropterus salmoides) were collected near the Blue Plains WWTP on the mainstem of the Potomac River. Chemical analyses of compounds captured in passive samplers at these locations also were conducted. A high prevalence of intersex (82-l00%) was identified in male SMB at all sites regardless of collection area. A lower prevalence of intersex (23%) was identified in male LMB collected at the Blue Plains site. When up- and downstream fish were compared, significant differences were noted only in fish from the Conococheague. Differences included condition factor, gonadosomatic index, plasma vitellogenin concentration, and estrogen to testosterone ratio. In general, chemicals associated with wastewater effluent, storm-water runoff, and agriculture were more prevalent at the downstream sampling sites. An exception was atrazine and its associated metabolites, which were present in greater concentrations at the upstream sites. It appears that proximity to effluent from WWTPs may influence the reproductive health of bass in the Potomac watershed, but inputs from other sources likely contribute to the widespread, high incidence of testicular oocytes. ?? 2009 SETAC.

  16. Potential public health risks related to mercury/amalgam discharge from dental offices.

    PubMed

    Rowe, N H; Sidhu, K S; Chadzynski, L; Babcock, R F

    1996-02-01

    Mercury is a toxic and bioaccumulative metal. It exists in elemental, inorganic and organic forms. The use of mercury by the dental profession represents approximately 6 percent of the total annual domestic consumption and is estimated to contribute significantly to the discharge of mercury (14 percent in one study) to waste-water streams. Publicly owned treatment works (POTW) must obtain and comply with a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System waste-water discharge permit. When minimal mercury discharge limits into surface waters are exceeded, an upstream search for contributors of mercury to the waste stream may result. Given the present sociopolitical environment, mercury discharge from dental offices will increasingly receive scrutiny. Strategies to minimize discharge of mercury/amalgam waste include engineering controls such as changes in the discharge process, changes in the composition of commercial products, and changes in control equipment. Governmental strategies include an outright ban, the setting of discharge standards, and educational efforts. Study of these strategies with evaluation of effectiveness is needed. PMID:9520646

  17. Reliability analysis of wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Sílvia C; Von Sperling, Marcos

    2008-02-01

    This article presents a reliability analysis of 166 full-scale wastewater treatment plants operating in Brazil. Six different processes have been investigated, comprising septic tank+anaerobic filter, facultative pond, anaerobic pond+facultative pond, activated sludge, upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors alone and UASB reactors followed by post-treatment. A methodology developed by Niku et al. [1979. Performance of activated sludge process and reliability-based design. J. Water Pollut. Control Assoc., 51(12), 2841-2857] is used for determining the coefficients of reliability (COR), in terms of the compliance of effluent biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and fecal or thermotolerant coliforms (FC) with discharge standards. The design concentrations necessary to meet the prevailing discharge standards and the expected compliance percentages have been calculated from the COR obtained. The results showed that few plants, under the observed operating conditions, would be able to present reliable performances considering the compliance with the analyzed standards. The article also discusses the importance of understanding the lognormal behavior of the data in setting up discharge standards, in interpreting monitoring results and compliance with the legislation. PMID:17897694

  18. Reliability analysis of wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Sílvia C; Von Sperling, Marcos

    2008-02-01

    This article presents a reliability analysis of 166 full-scale wastewater treatment plants operating in Brazil. Six different processes have been investigated, comprising septic tank+anaerobic filter, facultative pond, anaerobic pond+facultative pond, activated sludge, upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors alone and UASB reactors followed by post-treatment. A methodology developed by Niku et al. [1979. Performance of activated sludge process and reliability-based design. J. Water Pollut. Control Assoc., 51(12), 2841-2857] is used for determining the coefficients of reliability (COR), in terms of the compliance of effluent biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and fecal or thermotolerant coliforms (FC) with discharge standards. The design concentrations necessary to meet the prevailing discharge standards and the expected compliance percentages have been calculated from the COR obtained. The results showed that few plants, under the observed operating conditions, would be able to present reliable performances considering the compliance with the analyzed standards. The article also discusses the importance of understanding the lognormal behavior of the data in setting up discharge standards, in interpreting monitoring results and compliance with the legislation.

  19. Pancreatitis - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Chronic pancreatitis - discharge; Pancreatitis - chronic - discharge; Pancreatic insufficiency - discharge; Acute pancreatitis - discharge ... fluids through an intravenous (IV) tube in your vein and nutrition through a feeding tube or IV. ...

  20. Knee arthroscopy - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... retinacular release - discharge; Synovectomy - discharge; Patellar debridement - discharge; Meniscus repair - discharge; Lateral release - discharge; Collateral ligament repair - discharge; Knee surgery - ...

  1. Effects of Wastewater Discharges on Endocrine and Reproductive Function of Western Mosquitofish (Gambusia spp.) and Implications for the Threatened Santa Ana Sucker (Catostomus santaanae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, Jill A.; Goodbred, Steven L.; Olivier, Heather M.; Draugelis-Dale, Rassa O.; Alvarez, David A.

    2009-01-01

    The Santa Ana River (SAR) in southern California is impacted by effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), which are sources of organic wastewater compounds (OWCs) and urban runoff. The Santa Ana River is one of only three river basins supporting native populations of the federally listed Santa Ana sucker (Catostomus santaanae) at the time the fish was included on the list 2000. In 2004 and 2005, a U.S. Geological Survey and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service study was undertaken to determine if the threatened Santa Ana sucker was potentially exposed to OWCs and endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in the SAR by using the western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) as a surrogate fish model. Four Santa Ana River sites were chosen along a gradient of proximity to WWTP effluents: (1) a point source of tertiary treated wastewater effluent (TTWE), (2) Rialto Drain (just below a WWTP), (3) Prado Dam (11 kilometers [km] below WWTPs), and (4) Sunnyslope Creek (no WWTP but having urban runoff influence). A reference site having no WWTPs or urban runoff, Thousand Palms, was also sampled. Chemical analyses of passive sampler extracts results showed that 15 OWCs and EDCs were detected in water from the Santa Ana River sites. Many of these compounds contributed to activity from an estrogenic in-vitro assay that showed a significant potential for impacting endocrine and reproductive systems compared to the 25 organochlorine compounds detected in aquatic biota. The site showing compounds having highest influence on sex steroid hormone activities was the point source for TTWE. Sex steroid hormone levels, secondary sex characteristics, organosomatic indices, and sperm quality parameters indicated impairment of endocrine and reproductive function of male western mosquitofish in the Santa Ana River. Exposure to EDCs and consequent impairment in mosquitofish followed the gradient of proximity to WWTP effluents, where the most significant effects were found at TTWE point source and

  2. Stereotactic radiosurgery - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Gamma knife - discharge; Cyberknife - discharge; Stereotactic radiotherapy - discharge; Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy- discharge; Cyclotrons- discharge; Linear accelerator- discharge; Lineacs - discharge; Proton beam radiosurgery - discharge

  3. Standardized application of yeast bioluminescent reporters as endocrine disruptor screen for comparative analysis of wastewater effluents from membrane bioreactor and traditional activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Eldridge, Melanie; Menn, Fu-min; Dykes, Todd; Sayler, Gary

    2015-12-01

    A standardized protocol is demonstrated for bioluminescent strains Saccharomyces cerevisiae BLYES, BLYAS and BLYR as high-throughput screening tools to monitor the estrogenic, androgenic and toxic potencies in wastewater. The sensitivity and reproducibility of the assay in wastewater monitoring was evaluated for 7 day semi-continuous batch reactor using activated sludge with hormones spiked raw sewage. Yeast bioluminescent assay successfully captured the rapid removal of estrogenic and androgenic activities in the bioreactors, and demonstrated rapid response (≤4 h) with good reproducibility. This standardized protocol was then applied in a 12 months monitoring of the effluent of a WWTP located at Powell, TN, USA featuring parallel-operated full-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) and traditional activated sludge (TAS) treatment. Monitoring results showed that estrogenic activity was persistent in all TAS and most MBR effluent samples, while residual androgenic activity was non-detectable throughout the monitored period. The estrogenic equivalents (EEQ) in TAS effluent ranged from 21.61 ng/L to 0.04 pg/L and averaged 3.25 ng/L. The EEQ in MBR effluent ranged from 2.88 ng/L to 0.0134 pg/L and averaged ~10 fold less (0.32 ng/L) than TAS. Despite the large temporal variation, MBR effluent EEQ was consistently lower than TAS on any given sampling date. Most MBR effluent samples also exhibited less cytotoxicity than TAS. Further analysis did not demonstrate significant correlation between effluent EEQ level and WWTP operational parameters including MLSS, SRT, HRT and BOD. PMID:26471181

  4. Standardized application of yeast bioluminescent reporters as endocrine disruptor screen for comparative analysis of wastewater effluents from membrane bioreactor and traditional activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Eldridge, Melanie; Menn, Fu-min; Dykes, Todd; Sayler, Gary

    2015-12-01

    A standardized protocol is demonstrated for bioluminescent strains Saccharomyces cerevisiae BLYES, BLYAS and BLYR as high-throughput screening tools to monitor the estrogenic, androgenic and toxic potencies in wastewater. The sensitivity and reproducibility of the assay in wastewater monitoring was evaluated for 7 day semi-continuous batch reactor using activated sludge with hormones spiked raw sewage. Yeast bioluminescent assay successfully captured the rapid removal of estrogenic and androgenic activities in the bioreactors, and demonstrated rapid response (≤4 h) with good reproducibility. This standardized protocol was then applied in a 12 months monitoring of the effluent of a WWTP located at Powell, TN, USA featuring parallel-operated full-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) and traditional activated sludge (TAS) treatment. Monitoring results showed that estrogenic activity was persistent in all TAS and most MBR effluent samples, while residual androgenic activity was non-detectable throughout the monitored period. The estrogenic equivalents (EEQ) in TAS effluent ranged from 21.61 ng/L to 0.04 pg/L and averaged 3.25 ng/L. The EEQ in MBR effluent ranged from 2.88 ng/L to 0.0134 pg/L and averaged ~10 fold less (0.32 ng/L) than TAS. Despite the large temporal variation, MBR effluent EEQ was consistently lower than TAS on any given sampling date. Most MBR effluent samples also exhibited less cytotoxicity than TAS. Further analysis did not demonstrate significant correlation between effluent EEQ level and WWTP operational parameters including MLSS, SRT, HRT and BOD.

  5. [Follow-up of cancer treatment activities at the University Teaching Hospital in Dijon: the value of data from standardized discharge summaries].

    PubMed

    Titton, Monique; Binquet, Christine; Vourc'h, Michèle; Martin, Laurent; Girodon, François; Quantin, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    This work aimed to assess the feasibility of coalescing data sources to follow up on the management and delivery of cancer patient care using both anatomical-pathological data and a medical record information system based on the "Medicalisation of Information Systems Programme" which is administered by an independent source. The study group was comprised of all hospitalised cancer patients in the Dijon university teaching hospital during the first quarter of 2001. Data were obtained from a cross-analysis of medical records with pathological information and standard discharge files. A manual validation was then carried out to ensure a valid synthesis. Overall, 1377 abstracts were created and selected for cancer patients hospitalized for the first time. Among these, 60% were validated by the compatibility and concordance of data between the medical record discharge issued and the pathological record, less than 5% were identified only through looking at the anatomical-pathological data in the medical record, and 24% identified by exploring the patient discharge forms. These results demonstrate the difficulty and challenge as well as the benefits of crossing multiple sources of patient information and combine them to more thoroughly and appropriately assess the hospital's activity for caring for cancer patients.

  6. Plasma Discharge Process in a Pulsed Diaphragm Discharge System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Jianjin; Hu, Jue; Zhang, Chao; Wen, Yuanbin; Meng, Yuedong; Zhang, Chengxu

    2014-12-01

    As one of the most important steps in wastewater treatment, limited study on plasma discharge process is a key challenge in the development of plasma applications. In this study, we focus on the plasma discharge process of a pulsed diaphragm discharge system. According to the analysis, the pulsed diaphragm discharge proceeds in seven stages: (1) Joule heating and heat exchange stage; (2) nucleated site formation; (3) plasma generation (initiation of the breakdown stage); (4) avalanche growth and plasma expansion; (5) plasma contraction; (6) termination of the plasma discharge; and (7) heat exchange stage. From this analysis, a critical voltage criterion for breakdown is obtained. We anticipate this finding will provide guidance for a better application of plasma discharges, especially diaphragm plasma discharges.

  7. Removal of color from textile dyeing wastewater by foam separation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ke; Zhang, Xiao-Long; Zhao, Yan-Li; Wu, Zhao-Liang

    2010-10-15

    The feasibility of foam separation for color removal from direct dyes-containing wastewater was assessed using actual textile wastewater as the research system and cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) as the collector. The influences of liquid loading volume, air flow rate, surfactant concentration, and initial pH on the removal efficiency and reuse of CTAB in the foamate were studied. The results indicated that using CTAB as a collector for foam separation can provide good foaming quality and effectively remove color from textile wastewater. Under optimum operational conditions (liquid loading volume 450 mL, gas flow rate of 500 mL/min, CTAB concentration 20 mg/L, and an initial pH of 7.0), the removal efficiency reached 88.9%. The residual dye content met the discharge standard for the dyeing and finishing textile industry (GB4287-92) published by the Ministry of Environmental Protection of the People's Republic of China. Using recycled foamate in untreated wastewater, the removal efficiency of 87.5% was obtained with CTAB concentration 10 mg/L of the wastewater.

  8. Removal of color from textile dyeing wastewater by foam separation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ke; Zhang, Xiao-Long; Zhao, Yan-Li; Wu, Zhao-Liang

    2010-10-15

    The feasibility of foam separation for color removal from direct dyes-containing wastewater was assessed using actual textile wastewater as the research system and cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) as the collector. The influences of liquid loading volume, air flow rate, surfactant concentration, and initial pH on the removal efficiency and reuse of CTAB in the foamate were studied. The results indicated that using CTAB as a collector for foam separation can provide good foaming quality and effectively remove color from textile wastewater. Under optimum operational conditions (liquid loading volume 450 mL, gas flow rate of 500 mL/min, CTAB concentration 20 mg/L, and an initial pH of 7.0), the removal efficiency reached 88.9%. The residual dye content met the discharge standard for the dyeing and finishing textile industry (GB4287-92) published by the Ministry of Environmental Protection of the People's Republic of China. Using recycled foamate in untreated wastewater, the removal efficiency of 87.5% was obtained with CTAB concentration 10 mg/L of the wastewater. PMID:20599321

  9. Non-targeted analyses of organic compounds in urban wastewater.

    PubMed

    Alves Filho, Elenilson G; Sartori, Luci; Silva, Lorena M A; Silva, Bianca F; Fadini, Pedro S; Soong, Ronald; Simpson, Andre; Ferreira, Antonio G

    2015-09-01

    A large number of organic pollutants that cause damage to the ecosystem and threaten human health are transported to wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The problems regarding water pollution in Latin America have been well documented, and there is no evidence of substantive efforts to change the situation. In the present work, two methods to study wastewater samples are employed: non-targeted 1D ((13)C and (1)H) and 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis to characterize the largest possible number of compounds from urban wastewater and analysis by HPLC-(UV/MS)-SPE-ASS-NMR to detect non-specific recalcitrant organic compounds in treated wastewater without the use of common standards. The set of data is composed of several compounds with the concentration ranging considerably with treatment and seasonality. An anomalous discharge, the influence of stormwater on the wastewater composition and the presence of recalcitrant compounds (linear alkylbenzene sulfonate surfactant homologs) in the effluent were further identified. The seasonal variations and abnormality in the composition of organic compounds in sewage indicated that the procedure that was employed can be useful in the identification of the pollution source and to enhance the effectiveness of WWTPs in designing preventive action to protect the equipment and preserve the environment.

  10. Air stripping industrial wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Lamarre, B.; Shearouse, D.

    1994-09-01

    Industrial wastewater can be quickly, efficiently and economically treated using air strippers. Air stripping removes a range of volatile and semi-volatile contaminants from water. And the performance of various types and sizes of tray-type air stripper for treating contaminated water now is highly predictable because of laboratory studies. Air stripping can be a fast, efficient and economical approach to treating industrial wastewater. However, since every industrial wastewater stream is unique, each must be evaluated to determine its constituents, its potentially adverse effects on treatability, and any pretreatment steps necessary to ensure desired results. The general principles of air stripping are simple. In an air stripper, the surfaces area of a film of contaminated water is maximized while air is directed across it. Contaminants at the air/water interface volatilize and are discharged to the atmosphere or to an off-gas treatment system.

  11. Occurrence of contaminants of emerging concern in mussels (Mytilus spp.) along the California coast and the influence of land use, storm water discharge, and treated wastewater effluent.

    PubMed

    Dodder, Nathan G; Maruya, Keith A; Lee Ferguson, P; Grace, Richard; Klosterhaus, Susan; La Guardia, Mark J; Lauenstein, Gunnar G; Ramirez, Juan

    2014-04-30

    Contaminants of emerging concern were measured in mussels collected along the California coast in 2009-2010. The seven classes were alkylphenols, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE), other flame retardants, current use pesticides, perfluorinated compounds (PFC), and single walled carbon nanotubes. At least one contaminant was detected at 67 of the 68 stations (98%), and 67 of the 167 analytes had at least one detect (40%). Alkylphenol, PBDE, and PFC concentrations increased with urbanization and proximity to storm water discharge; pesticides had higher concentrations at agricultural stations. These results suggest that certain compounds; for example, alkylphenols, lomefloxacin and PBDE, are appropriate for inclusion in future coastal bivalve monitoring efforts based on maximum concentrations >50 ng/g dry weight and detection frequencies >50%. Other compounds, for example PFC and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), may also be suggested for inclusion due to their >25% detection frequency and potential for biomagnification. PMID:23849955

  12. Occurrence of contaminants of emerging concern in mussels (Mytilus spp.) along the California coast and the influence of land use, storm water discharge, and treated wastewater effluent.

    PubMed

    Dodder, Nathan G; Maruya, Keith A; Lee Ferguson, P; Grace, Richard; Klosterhaus, Susan; La Guardia, Mark J; Lauenstein, Gunnar G; Ramirez, Juan

    2014-04-30

    Contaminants of emerging concern were measured in mussels collected along the California coast in 2009-2010. The seven classes were alkylphenols, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE), other flame retardants, current use pesticides, perfluorinated compounds (PFC), and single walled carbon nanotubes. At least one contaminant was detected at 67 of the 68 stations (98%), and 67 of the 167 analytes had at least one detect (40%). Alkylphenol, PBDE, and PFC concentrations increased with urbanization and proximity to storm water discharge; pesticides had higher concentrations at agricultural stations. These results suggest that certain compounds; for example, alkylphenols, lomefloxacin and PBDE, are appropriate for inclusion in future coastal bivalve monitoring efforts based on maximum concentrations >50 ng/g dry weight and detection frequencies >50%. Other compounds, for example PFC and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), may also be suggested for inclusion due to their >25% detection frequency and potential for biomagnification.

  13. Development of pilot scale nanofiltration system for yeast industry wastewater treatment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of the yeast industry wastewater was investigated by nanofiltration (NF) membrane process on a pilot scale. Two wastewaters were used as feed: (i) dilute wastewater with COD 2000 mg/L and (ii) concentrate wastewater with COD 8000 mg/L. The permeate flux, COD retention, color and electrical conductivity (EC) removal were evaluated in relation to trans-membrane pressure and long-term filtration. A linear growth in permeate flux was found with increasing in trans-membrane pressure for wastewaters. In addition, the COD retention, color and EC removal increased with trans-membrane pressure enhancement. The results obtained from the long-term nanofiltration of dilute wastewater indicated that the permeate flux decreased from 2300 L/day to 1250 L/day and COD retention increased from 86% to 92%. The quality of the permeate in term of COD is lower than the discharge standard in river (200 mg/L). Thus, this process is useful for treatment of wastewaters produced by yeast industry. PMID:24593865

  14. Toxicity evaluation of wastewater collected at different treatment stages from a pharmaceutical industrial park wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ke; Qin, Zhe; Zhao, Zhongqing; Zhao, Chunxia; Liang, Shuxuan

    2016-09-01

    The toxicity of water-receiving bodies, the effluent and other treatment stages in wastewater treatment plants has recently been of interest to the public due to the lack of a regulated toxicity-based index for wastewater discharge in China. This study aimed to evaluate the conventional pollution parameters and toxicities of wastewaters collected at different treatment stages from a pharmaceutical industrial park wastewater treatment plant through dehydrogenase activity (DHA) and bioluminescent bacteria (Vibrio qinghaiensis) tests. The results of an analysis of conventional parameters indicated that the total suspended solids (TSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), ammonia nitrogen (NH3N), and total phosphorus (TP) were largely removed after various treatments. However, the TN, NH3N and COD still exceeded the regulated standards. The tested pharmaceutical park effluents were mainly polluted with organic pollutants and nitrogenous. The toxicity test results indicated that the toxicities could be markedly reduced after treatment, with the toxicities of two out of the six effluent samples at different treatment stages being greater than the influent toxicity. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients indicated a significantly positive correlation between the toxicity values obtained using the DHA and Vibrio qinghaiensis tests. Compared with the DHA measurement, the Vibrio qinghaiensis test was faster and more sensitive. Meanwhile, the toxicity indicators were significantly and positively correlated with the TSS, TN, TP and COD concentrations. These results may aid the understanding of the toxicity of pharmaceutical industrial park wastewaters and toxicity removal using the treatment techniques that are currently utilized in China.

  15. Toxicity evaluation of wastewater collected at different treatment stages from a pharmaceutical industrial park wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ke; Qin, Zhe; Zhao, Zhongqing; Zhao, Chunxia; Liang, Shuxuan

    2016-09-01

    The toxicity of water-receiving bodies, the effluent and other treatment stages in wastewater treatment plants has recently been of interest to the public due to the lack of a regulated toxicity-based index for wastewater discharge in China. This study aimed to evaluate the conventional pollution parameters and toxicities of wastewaters collected at different treatment stages from a pharmaceutical industrial park wastewater treatment plant through dehydrogenase activity (DHA) and bioluminescent bacteria (Vibrio qinghaiensis) tests. The results of an analysis of conventional parameters indicated that the total suspended solids (TSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), ammonia nitrogen (NH3N), and total phosphorus (TP) were largely removed after various treatments. However, the TN, NH3N and COD still exceeded the regulated standards. The tested pharmaceutical park effluents were mainly polluted with organic pollutants and nitrogenous. The toxicity test results indicated that the toxicities could be markedly reduced after treatment, with the toxicities of two out of the six effluent samples at different treatment stages being greater than the influent toxicity. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients indicated a significantly positive correlation between the toxicity values obtained using the DHA and Vibrio qinghaiensis tests. Compared with the DHA measurement, the Vibrio qinghaiensis test was faster and more sensitive. Meanwhile, the toxicity indicators were significantly and positively correlated with the TSS, TN, TP and COD concentrations. These results may aid the understanding of the toxicity of pharmaceutical industrial park wastewaters and toxicity removal using the treatment techniques that are currently utilized in China. PMID:27262686

  16. Chemical industrial wastewater treated by combined biological and chemical oxidation process.

    PubMed

    Guomin, Cao; Guoping, Yang; Mei, Sheng; Yongjian, Wang

    2009-01-01

    Wastewaters from phenol and rubber synthesis were treated by the activated sludge process in a large-scale chemical factory in Shanghai, but the final effluent quality cannot conform with the local discharge limit without using river water for dilution. Therefore, this chemical factory had to upgrade its wastewater treatment plant. To fully use the present buildings and equipment during upgrading of the chemical factory's wastewater treatment plant and to save operation costs, a sequential biological pre-treatement, chemical oxidation, and biological post-treatment (or BCB for short) process had been proposed and investigated in a pilot trial. The pilot trial results showed that about 80% COD in the chemical wastewater could be removed through anoxic and aerobic degradation in the biological pre-treatement section, and the residual COD in the effluent of the biological pre-treatment section belongs to refractory chemicals which cannot be removed by the normal biological process. The refractory chemicals were partial oxidized using Fenton's reagent in the chemical oxidation section to improve their biodegradability; subsequently the wastewater was treated by the SBR process in the biological post-treatment section. The final effluent COD reached the first grade discharge limit (<100 mg l(-1)) of Chinese Notational Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard (GB8978-1996) even if without using any dilution water. Compared with the original dilution and biological process, the operation cost of the BCB process increased by about 0.5 yuan (RMB) per cubic metre wastewater, but about 1,240,000 m(3) a(-1) dilution water could be saved and the COD emission could be cut down by 112 tonne each year.

  17. Microalgae and wastewater treatment

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Raouf, N.; Al-Homaidan, A.A.; Ibraheem, I.B.M.

    2012-01-01

    Organic and inorganic substances which were released into the environment as a result of domestic, agricultural and industrial water activities lead to organic and inorganic pollution. The normal primary and secondary treatment processes of these wastewaters have been introduced in a growing number of places, in order to eliminate the easily settled materials and to oxidize the organic material present in wastewater. The final result is a clear, apparently clean effluent which is discharged into natural water bodies. This secondary effluent is, however, loaded with inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus and causes eutrophication and more long-term problems because of refractory organics and heavy metals that are discharged. Microalgae culture offers an interesting step for wastewater treatments, because they provide a tertiary biotreatment coupled with the production of potentially valuable biomass, which can be used for several purposes. Microalgae cultures offer an elegant solution to tertiary and quandary treatments due to the ability of microalgae to use inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus for their growth. And also, for their capacity to remove heavy metals, as well as some toxic organic compounds, therefore, it does not lead to secondary pollution. In the current review we will highlight on the role of micro-algae in the treatment of wastewater. PMID:24936135

  18. Apparatus for treating wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, W.E.

    1981-06-09

    Apparatus for treating wastewater includes a settling tank, a sludge digester and a holding tank. Solids from the settling tank are delivered uniformly throughout the seed sludge in the digester and combustible gas is drawn off the top. Sludge from the digester is delivered to the holding tank where further combustible gas evolves and is removed for other uses. The sludge from the holding tank is recycled through the digester or discharged from the system for drying and/or subsequent use.

  19. Impact of ozonation in removing organic micro-pollutants in primary and secondary municipal wastewater: effect of process parameters.

    PubMed

    Mecha, Achisa C; Onyango, Maurice S; Ochieng, Aoyi; Momba, Maggy N B

    2016-01-01

    The study investigates the influence of process parameters on the effectiveness of ozonation in the removal of organic micro-pollutants from wastewater. Primary and secondary municipal wastewater containing phenol was treated. The effect of operating parameters such as initial pH, ozone dosage, and initial contaminant concentration was studied. An increase in contaminant decomposition with pH (3-11) was observed. The contaminant removal efficiencies increased with an increase in ozone dose rate (5.5-36.17 mg L(-1) min(-1)). Furthermore, the ultraviolet absorbance (UV 254 nm) of the wastewater decreased during ozonation indicating the breakdown of complex organic compounds into low molecular weight organics. Along the reaction, the pH of wastewater decreased from 11 to around 8.5 due to the formation of intermediate acidic species. Moreover, the biodegradability of wastewaters, measured as biological and chemical oxygen demand (BOD5/COD), increased from 0.22 to 0.53. High ozone utilization efficiencies of up to 95% were attained thereby increasing the process efficiency; and they were dependent on the ozone dosage and pH of solution. Ozonation of secondary wastewater attained the South African water standards in terms of COD required for wastewater discharge and dissolved organic carbon in drinking water and increased significantly the biodegradability of primary wastewater. PMID:27508381

  20. ROLE OF TOXICITY ASSESSMENT AND MONITORING IN MANAGING THE RECOVERY OF A WASTEWATER RECEIVING STREAM

    SciTech Connect

    Greeley Jr, Mark Stephen; Kszos, Lynn A; Stewart, Arthur J; Smith, John G

    2011-01-01

    We evaluate the roles of a long-term comprehensive toxicity assessment and monitoring program in management and for ecological recovery of a freshwater receiving stream impacted by industrial discharges and legacy contamination. National Pollution Discharge Elimination Permit (NPDES)-driven whole effluent toxicity (WET) tests using Ceriodaphnia and fathead minnows were conducted for more than twenty years to characterize wastewaters at the US National Nuclear Security Agency s Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Ambient toxicity tests also were conducted to assess water samples from EFPC, the stream receiving the wastewater discharges. The ambient tests were conducted as part of an extensive biological monitoring program that included routine surveys of fish, invertebrate and periphyton communities. WET testing, associated toxicant identification evaluations (TIEs), and ambient toxicity monitoring were instrumental in identifying toxicants and their sources at the Y-12 Complex, guiding modifications to wastewater treatment procedures, and assessing the success of various pollution-abatement actions. Through time, as requirements changed and water quality improved, the toxicity monitoring program became more focused. Ambient testing with Ceriodaphnia and fathead minnow larvae also was supplemented with less-standardized but more-sensitive alternative laboratory and in situ bioassays. The Y-12 Complex biological monitoring experience demonstrates the significant roles effluent and ambient toxicity testing can have in controlling and managing toxic discharges to receiving waters. It also emphasizes the value of supplementing WET and standardized ambient toxicity tests with alternative laboratory and in situ toxicity tests tailored to address specific problems.

  1. 40 CFR 442.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... standards for new sources (PSNS). (a) Except as provided in 40 CFR 403.7 and 403.13 or in paragraph (b) of... section may have a pollution prevention allowable discharge of wastewater pollutants, as defined in § 442... modifying its individual control mechanism or pretreatment agreement of its intent to achieve the...

  2. Skimming oily wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Hobson, T.

    1996-10-01

    As large generators of oily wastewater tighten effluent controls, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is targeting smaller generators. Some of the firms receiving their attention are smaller manufacturing plants, automotive garages, mobile equipment service shops and truck farms. Many of these firms do not have access to a sanitary sewer system that will accept oily wastewater. One EPA concern is that oily wastewater will find its way into an underground aquifer that is a source of drinking water. Many oily wastes contain organic and inorganic chemicals in concentrations that exceed the primary drinking water standards established by the Safe Drinking Water Act. So the focus of one EPA program is aimed at preventing contamination of groundwater by controlling oil wastewater at the generator`s site.

  3. Lung surgery - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Thoracotomy - discharge; Lung tissue removal - discharge; Pneumonectomy - discharge; Lobectomy - discharge; Lung biopsy - discharge; Thoracoscopy - discharge; Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery - discharge; VATS - ...

  4. Kidney stones - lithotripsy - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy - discharge; Shock wave lithotripsy - discharge; Laser lithotripsy - discharge; Percutaneous lithotripsy - discharge; Endoscopic lithotripsy - discharge; ESWL - ...

  5. Radical prostatectomy - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... prostatectomy - discharge; Laparoscopic radical prostatectomy - discharge; LRP - discharge; Robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy - discharge ; RALP - discharge; Pelvic lymphadenectomy - ...

  6. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Vvvvvv... - Emission Limits and Compliance Requirements for Wastewater Systems

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... . . . And you must . . . 1. Wastewater stream a. Discharge to onsite or offsite wastewater treatment or hazardous waste treatment i. Maintain records identifying each wastewater stream and documenting the type of treatment that it receives. Multiple wastewater streams with similar characteristics and from the same...

  7. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Vvvvvv... - Emission Limits and Compliance Requirements for Wastewater Systems

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... . . . And you must . . . 1. Wastewater stream a. Discharge to onsite or offsite wastewater treatment or hazardous waste treatment i. Maintain records identifying each wastewater stream and documenting the type of treatment that it receives. Multiple wastewater streams with similar characteristics and from the same...

  8. [Selection of Suitable Microalgal Species for Sorption of Uranium in Radioactive Wastewater Treatment].

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Hu, Hong-ying; Yu, Jun-yi; Zhao, Wen-yu

    2016-05-15

    The amount of radioactive wastewater discharge was increasing year by year, with the quick development of nuclear industry. Therefore, the proper treatment and disposal of radioactive wastewater are essentially important for environmental safety and human health. Microalgal biosorption of nuclide has drawn much attention in the area of radioactive wastewater treatment recently, and the selection of a proper microalgal species for uranium biosorption is the basis for the research and application of this technology. The selection principle was set up from the view of practical application, and 11 species of microalgae were prepared for the selection work. Scenedesmus sp. LX1 has the highest biosorption capacity of 40.7 mg · g⁻¹ for uranium; and its biomass production in mBG11 medium (simulating the nitrogen and phosphorus limits in the first-class A discharge standard of pollutants for municipal wastewater treatment plant) was 0.32 g · L⁻¹, which was relatively high among the 11 microalgal species; when grown into stable phase it also showed a good precipitation capability with the precipitation ratio of 45.3%. Above all, in our selection range of the 11 microalgal species, Scenedesmus sp. LX1 could be considered as the suitable species for uranium biosorption in radioactive wastewater treatment. PMID:27506041

  9. Characterization of Wastewater Effluents Releasing from Slaughterhouses in and around Hyderabad City (India).

    PubMed

    Kumar, E; Madhava Rao, T; Prabhuprasadini; Krishnaiah, N; Vijaya, Kumar A

    2014-07-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the pollution load to the environment causing by the wastewater effluents releasing from organized and unorganized slaughterhouses in and around Hyderabad city. The wastewater effluents collected from three slaughterhouses, at the sites of releasing out to the surrounding environment,were characterized in terms of physico-chemical and microbiological parameters. The physico-chemical parameters, such as temperature, pH, alkalinity, turbidity, total suspended solids, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon, calcium, NH4-N, nitrates and phosphates were estimated in the wastewater effluents collected from three different slaughterhouses. The heavy metals, such as lead, nickel and cadmium contents were detected. The microbiological characteristics, such as total viable count, total coliform count recorded and also the pathogens of public health significance, such as Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Streptococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Listeria monocytogenes were isolated and identified. The results revealed significantly much higher values of almost all pollution parameters both physicochemical and microbiological of wastewater effluents collected from three slaughterhouses, and these values exceeding the effluent discharge standards for releasing the effluents into public sewers and inland surface waters, recommended by the pollution control board. The slaughterhouses must maintain the wastewater collection and treatment facilities and modify the existing treatment systems in order to comply the general effluents discharge standardsrecommended by the pollution control board.

  10. [Selection of Suitable Microalgal Species for Sorption of Uranium in Radioactive Wastewater Treatment].

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Hu, Hong-ying; Yu, Jun-yi; Zhao, Wen-yu

    2016-05-15

    The amount of radioactive wastewater discharge was increasing year by year, with the quick development of nuclear industry. Therefore, the proper treatment and disposal of radioactive wastewater are essentially important for environmental safety and human health. Microalgal biosorption of nuclide has drawn much attention in the area of radioactive wastewater treatment recently, and the selection of a proper microalgal species for uranium biosorption is the basis for the research and application of this technology. The selection principle was set up from the view of practical application, and 11 species of microalgae were prepared for the selection work. Scenedesmus sp. LX1 has the highest biosorption capacity of 40.7 mg · g⁻¹ for uranium; and its biomass production in mBG11 medium (simulating the nitrogen and phosphorus limits in the first-class A discharge standard of pollutants for municipal wastewater treatment plant) was 0.32 g · L⁻¹, which was relatively high among the 11 microalgal species; when grown into stable phase it also showed a good precipitation capability with the precipitation ratio of 45.3%. Above all, in our selection range of the 11 microalgal species, Scenedesmus sp. LX1 could be considered as the suitable species for uranium biosorption in radioactive wastewater treatment.

  11. [Anaerobic membrane bioreactors for treating agricultural and food processing wastewater at high strength].

    PubMed

    Wei, Yuan-Song; Yu, Da-Wei; Cao, Lei

    2014-04-01

    As the second largest amounts of COD discharged in 41 kinds of industrial wastewater, it is of great urgency for the agricultural and food processing industry to control water pollution and reduce pollutants. Generally the agricultural and food processing industrial wastewater with high strength COD of 8 000-30 000 mg x L(-1), is mainly treated with anaerobic and aerobic processes in series, but which exists some issues of long process, difficult maintenance and high operational costs. Through coupling anaerobic digestion and membrane separation together, anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) has typical advantages of high COD removal efficiency (92%-99%), high COD organic loading rate [2.3-19.8 kg x (m3 x d)(-1)], little sludge discharged (SRT > 40 d) and low cost (HRT of 8-12 h). According to COD composition of high strength industrial wastewater, rate-limiting step of methanation could be either hydrolysis and acidification or methanogenesis. Compared with aerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR), membrane fouling of AnMBR is more complicated in characterization and more difficult in control. Measures for membrane fouling control of AnMBR are almost the same as those of MBR, including cross flow, air sparging and membrane relaxation. For meeting discharging standard of food processing wastewater with high strength, AnMBR is a promising technology with very short process, by enhancing COD removal efficiency, controlling membrane fouling and improving energy recovery.

  12. Occurrence of human-associated Bacteroidetes genetic source tracking markers in raw and treated wastewater of municipal and domestic origin and comparison to standard and alternative indicators of faecal pollution

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, R.E.; Bofill-Mas, S.; Egle, L.; Reischer, G.H.; Schade, M.; Fernandez-Cassi, X.; Fuchs, W.; Mach, R.L.; Lindner, G.; Kirschner, A.; Gaisbauer, M.; Piringer, H.; Blaschke, A.P.; Girones, R.; Zessner, M.; Sommer, R.; Farnleitner, A.H.

    2016-01-01

    This was a detailed investigation of the seasonal occurrence, dynamics, removal and resistance of human-associated genetic Bacteroidetes faecal markers (GeBaM) compared with ISO-based standard faecal indicator bacteria (SFIB), human-specific viral faecal markers and one human-associated Bacteroidetes phage in raw and treated wastewater of municipal and domestic origin. Characteristics of the selected activated sludge wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) from Austria and Germany were studied in detail (WWTPs, n = 13, connected populations from 3 to 49000 individuals), supported by volume-proportional automated 24-h sampling and chemical water quality analysis. GeBaM were consistently detected in high concentrations in raw (median log10 8.6 marker equivalents (ME) 100 ml−1) and biologically treated wastewater samples (median log10 6.2–6.5 ME 100 ml−1), irrespective of plant size, type and time of the season (n = 53–65). GeBaM, Escherichia coli, and enterococci concentrations revealed the same range of statistical variability for raw (multiplicative standard deviations s* = 2.3–3.0) and treated wastewater (s* = 3.7–4.5), with increased variability after treatment. Clostridium perfringens spores revealed the lowest variability for raw wastewater (s* = 1.5). In raw wastewater correlations among microbiological parameters were only detectable between GeBaM, C. perfringens and JC polyomaviruses. Statistical associations amongst microbial parameters increased during wastewater treatment. Two plants with advanced treatment were also investigated, revealing a minimum log10 5.0 (10th percentile) reduction of GeBaM in the activated sludge membrane bioreactor, but no reduction of the genetic markers during UV irradiation (254 nm). This study highlights the potential of human-associated GeBaM to complement wastewater impact monitoring based on the determination of SFIB. In addition, human-specific JC polyomaviruses and adenoviruses seem to be a valuable support if

  13. Occurrence of human-associated Bacteroidetes genetic source tracking markers in raw and treated wastewater of municipal and domestic origin and comparison to standard and alternative indicators of faecal pollution.

    PubMed

    Mayer, R E; Bofill-Mas, S; Egle, L; Reischer, G H; Schade, M; Fernandez-Cassi, X; Fuchs, W; Mach, R L; Lindner, G; Kirschner, A; Gaisbauer, M; Piringer, H; Blaschke, A P; Girones, R; Zessner, M; Sommer, R; Farnleitner, A H

    2016-03-01

    This was a detailed investigation of the seasonal occurrence, dynamics, removal and resistance of human-associated genetic Bacteroidetes faecal markers (GeBaM) compared with ISO-based standard faecal indicator bacteria (SFIB), human-specific viral faecal markers and one human-associated Bacteroidetes phage in raw and treated wastewater of municipal and domestic origin. Characteristics of the selected activated sludge wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) from Austria and Germany were studied in detail (WWTPs, n = 13, connected populations from 3 to 49000 individuals), supported by volume-proportional automated 24-h sampling and chemical water quality analysis. GeBaM were consistently detected in high concentrations in raw (median log10 8.6 marker equivalents (ME) 100 ml(-1)) and biologically treated wastewater samples (median log10 6.2-6.5 ME 100 ml(-1)), irrespective of plant size, type and time of the season (n = 53-65). GeBaM, Escherichia coli, and enterococci concentrations revealed the same range of statistical variability for raw (multiplicative standard deviations s* = 2.3-3.0) and treated wastewater (s* = 3.7-4.5), with increased variability after treatment. Clostridium perfringens spores revealed the lowest variability for raw wastewater (s* = 1.5). In raw wastewater correlations among microbiological parameters were only detectable between GeBaM, C. perfringens and JC polyomaviruses. Statistical associations amongst microbial parameters increased during wastewater treatment. Two plants with advanced treatment were also investigated, revealing a minimum log10 5.0 (10th percentile) reduction of GeBaM in the activated sludge membrane bioreactor, but no reduction of the genetic markers during UV irradiation (254 nm). This study highlights the potential of human-associated GeBaM to complement wastewater impact monitoring based on the determination of SFIB. In addition, human-specific JC polyomaviruses and adenoviruses seem to be a valuable support

  14. Electrocoagulation treatment of metal finishing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Odongo, Isabel E; McFarland, Michael J

    2014-07-01

    Electrocoagulation has been found to be a consistent and reliable industrial wastewater treatment process capable of removing heavy metals to levels well below pretreatment discharge standards. Results from the testing of a 113 L/min pilot scale electrocoagulation unit indicated that electrocoagulation was capable of decreasing the cadmium, chromium, and nickel concentrations from 0.14, 18.1, and 0.06 parts per million (ppm) to 0.029, 0.039, and 0.020 ppm respectively, at a 1-min hydraulic retention time. In the presence of a strong chelating substance, electrocoagulation performance was found to be effective in reducing both chromium and nickel concentrations to levels well below discharge limits. At a pH of 8.0, chromium and nickel influent concentrations of 0.328 and 0.062 ppm, respectively, were reduced to 0.005 and 0.04 ppm. The electrocoagulation removal efficiency for chromium remained high at over 98% and appeared to be unaffected by the presence of chelating substances. Utilizing aluminum as the sacrificial anode improved the removal efficiency of targeted heavy metals when the industrial wastewater was treated under acidic conditions. At a pH of 5.6, the influent concentrations of the regulated heavy metals cadmium, chromium, and nickel were reduced from 0.55, 49.7, and 13.7 ppm, respectively, to 0.013, 2.7, and 0.8 ppm at a 1-min hydraulic retention time. The results of these tests suggest that the formation of ferric hydroxide and aluminum hydroxide through the electrocoagulation process may be an effective approach for treating metal finishing wastewaters.

  15. Priorities for toxic wastewater management in Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, A.

    1996-12-31

    This study assesses the number of industries in Pakistan, the total discharge of wastewater, the biological oxygen demand (BOD) load, and the toxicity of the wastewater. The industrial sector is a major contributor to water pollution, with high levels of BOD, heavy metals, and toxic compounds. Only 30 industries have installed water pollution control equipment, and most are working at a very low operational level. Priority industrial sectors for pollution control are medium- to large-scale textile industries and small-scale tanneries and electroplating industries. Each day the textile industries discharge about 85,000 m{sup 3} of wastewater with a high BOD, while the electroplating industries discharge about 23,000 m{sup 3} of highly toxic and hazardous wastewater. Various in-plant modifications can reduce wastewater discharges. Economic incentives, like tax rebates, subsidies, and soft loans, could be an option for motivating medium- to large-scale industries to control water pollution. Central treatment plants may be constructed for treating wastewater generated by small-scale industries. The estimated costs for the treatment of textile and electroplating wastewater are given. The legislative structure in Pakistan is insufficient for control of industrial pollution; not only do existing laws need revision, but more laws and regulations are needed to improve the state of affairs, and enforcement agencies need to be strengthened. 15 refs., 1 fig., 9 tabs.

  16. [The fate of pathogens in waste-waters].

    PubMed

    Patti, A M; Pana, A

    1989-01-01

    A large variety of pathogenic organisms capable of transmission by the faecal-oral route may be found in wastewaters. Among the bacteria Salmonella, Shigella, Vibrio cholerae, Yersinia and Campylobacter are the important agents of concern. Also the human enteric viruses (Poliovirus, Coxsackievirus, Echovirus, Hepatitis A virus, Rotavirus) have been shown to be present in domestic waste and may not be completely removed by conventional sewage treatment processes, including chlorination. Discharge of sludge and raw wastewaters in coastal waters is, therefore, potentially hazardous to human health. Enteric viruses generally survive longer than faecal indicator bacteria in water receiving waste and they are detected in seawater which meets current standards for shellfish harvesting. The survival of viruses in seawater depends on a large variety of physico-chemical and biological factors. Viral inactivation process is very complex in nature but it can be interesting to study this phenomenon for better evaluating the true extent of health risk of viruses present in the coastal waters.

  17. A California Winery Wastewater Survey: Assessing the Salinity Challenge for Wastewater Reuse

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The increasing scarcity of water and tighter regulations for discharge make onsite wastewater reuse an attractive prospect for the California wine industry. This study reports winery wastewater (WW) data from eighteen Northern California (Northern CA) wineries. The current study provides a baseline ...

  18. The treatment gap in coronary artery disease and heart failure: community standards and the post-discharge patient.

    PubMed

    Pearson, T A; Peters, T D

    1997-10-30

    Progress in vascular biology, epidemiology, clinical trials, and cost-effectiveness analyses have allowed development of guidelines for risk reduction in patients with vascular disease and congestive heart failure. However, these advances appear necessary but not sufficient to promote implementation of these guidelines for treating coronary artery disease (CAD) and congestive heart failure (CHF). Evidence from the United Kingdom and Europe, and estimates from the United States, suggest that a large "treatment gap" exists between recommended therapies for patients with cardiovascular disease and the care that they are actually receiving. Despite known interventions with proven efficacy to reduce disease recurrence and death from CAD and CHF, only a minority of patients are receiving any intervention whatsoever. A second problem is that, among those receiving care, many are undertreated resulting in a very small number of patients reaching goals and recommended levels of therapy. Third, the levels of intervention and the proportion of patients at goal that should be attainable (i.e., community standards) are not known. A variety of barriers exist for implementation of preventive cardiology services. Although the patient has a chain of opportunities for risk reduction, it is not clear which of the links in this chain (inpatient/hospital programs, specialist/generalist communication, ambulatory care, or patient compliance) is the major reason for the treatment gap. An ongoing project, the American College of Cardiology Evaluation of Preventive Therapeutics (ACCEPT), will attempt to quantify the treatment gap in coronary disease patients in the United States and will try to identify those barriers playing the greatest role in limiting the optimal care of the coronary disease patient.

  19. Enhancement of biodegradability of real textile and dyeing wastewater by electron beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Shijun; Sun, Weihua; Wang, Jianlong; Chen, Lvjun; Zhang, Youxue; Yu, Jiang

    2016-07-01

    A textile and dyeing wastewater treatment plant is going to be upgraded due to the stringent discharge standards in Jiangsu province, China, and electron beam irradiation is considering to be used. In order to determine the suitable location of the electron accelerator in the process of wastewater treatment plant, the effects of electron beam (EB) irradiation on the biodegradability of various real wastewater samples collecting from the different stages of the wastewater treatment plant, the values of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), and the ratio of BOD5 and COD (BOD5/COD), were compared before and after EB irradiation. During EB irradiation process, color indices and absorbance at 254 nm wavelength (UV254) of wastewater were also determined. The results showed that EB irradiation pre-treatment cannot improve the biodegradability of raw textile and dyeing wastewater, which contains a large amount of biodegradable organic matters. In contrast, as to the final effluent of biological treatment process, EB irradiation can enhance the biodegradability to 224%. Therefore, the promising way is to apply EB irradiation as a post-treatment of the conventional biological process.

  20. Two-stage SBR for treatment of oil refinery wastewater.

    PubMed

    Lee, L Y; Hu, J Y; Ong, S L; Ng, W J; Ren, J H; Wong, S H

    2004-01-01

    A two-stage sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system was used for treatment of oily wastewater with COD and oil and grease (O&G) concentrations ranging from 1,722-7,826 mg/L and 5,365-13,350 mg/L, respectively. A suitable start-up protocol was developed using gradual increase in oily wastewater composition with methanol as the co-substrate. This strategy enabled a short acclimation period of 12 days for the sludge in the two-stage SBR to adapt to the oily wastewater. After acclimation, the 1st stage and 2nd stage SBRs were able to achieve COD removals of 47.0+/-2.4% and 95.3+/-0.5%, respectively. The 1st stage SBR was able to achieve 99.8+/-0.1% of O&G removal and effluent O&G from the 1st stage SBR was only 6+/-2 mg/L. The 2nd stage SBR was used to further remove COD in the effluent from the 1st stage SBR. The final effluent from the 2nd stage SBR had a COD concentration of 97+/-16 mg/L with no detectable O&G content. Thus, a two-stage SBR system was shown to be feasible for treating high strength oily wastewater to meet the local discharge standards.

  1. Slaughterhouse Wastewater Treatment by Combined Chemical Coagulation and Electrocoagulation Process

    PubMed Central

    Bazrafshan, Edris; Kord Mostafapour, Ferdos; Farzadkia, Mehdi; Ownagh, Kamal Aldin; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Slaughterhouse wastewater contains various and high amounts of organic matter (e.g., proteins, blood, fat and lard). In order to produce an effluent suitable for stream discharge, chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation techniques have been particularly explored at the laboratory pilot scale for organic compounds removal from slaughterhouse effluent. The purpose of this work was to investigate the feasibility of treating cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater by combined chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation process to achieve the required standards. The influence of the operating variables such as coagulant dose, electrical potential and reaction time on the removal efficiencies of major pollutants was determined. The rate of removal of pollutants linearly increased with increasing doses of PACl and applied voltage. COD and BOD5 removal of more than 99% was obtained by adding 100 mg/L PACl and applied voltage 40 V. The experiments demonstrated the effectiveness of chemical and electrochemical techniques for the treatment of slaughterhouse wastewaters. Consequently, combined processes are inferred to be superior to electrocoagulation alone for the removal of both organic and inorganic compounds from cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater. PMID:22768233

  2. Towards a benchmarking model for winery wastewater treatment and disposal.

    PubMed

    Aybar, M; Carvallo, M; Fabacher, F; Pizarro, G; Pizarr, G; Pastén, P

    2007-01-01

    We propose a benchmarking model for winery wastewater treatment systems and use it to quantitatively compare the performance of Chilean wine-making operations. The benchmarking model integrates three components: the influent characteristics, the wastewater treatment alternatives, and the location constraints. Four performance levels may be defined when plotting the available data of the wine production versus the ratio of wastewater to wine, for the French, US, and Chilean industries. Knowing where a certain system lies in this diagram helps to quantify the gap between the current and a target performance, and to set performance goals for planned expansions. The analysis of construction and operating costs of treatment systems currently in operation in Chile shows that similar compliance levels can be achieved at remarkably different costs. A steep decrease in the unitary cost is observed as wastewater flow increases; yet, the treatment alternative for achieving that cost may change. Further selection is obtained when location constraints are considered, including stringent discharge standards and proximity to urban settlements. The application of this simple benchmark model to three Chilean winery facilities shows how it produces meaningful quantitative and qualitative results. However, there is still ample room to improve this benchmarking model by considering additional complexity, including technical detail in the treatment options and costs related to technology conversion.

  3. Slaughterhouse wastewater treatment by combined chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation process.

    PubMed

    Bazrafshan, Edris; Kord Mostafapour, Ferdos; Farzadkia, Mehdi; Ownagh, Kamal Aldin; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Slaughterhouse wastewater contains various and high amounts of organic matter (e.g., proteins, blood, fat and lard). In order to produce an effluent suitable for stream discharge, chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation techniques have been particularly explored at the laboratory pilot scale for organic compounds removal from slaughterhouse effluent. The purpose of this work was to investigate the feasibility of treating cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater by combined chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation process to achieve the required standards. The influence of the operating variables such as coagulant dose, electrical potential and reaction time on the removal efficiencies of major pollutants was determined. The rate of removal of pollutants linearly increased with increasing doses of PACl and applied voltage. COD and BOD(5) removal of more than 99% was obtained by adding 100 mg/L PACl and applied voltage 40 V. The experiments demonstrated the effectiveness of chemical and electrochemical techniques for the treatment of slaughterhouse wastewaters. Consequently, combined processes are inferred to be superior to electrocoagulation alone for the removal of both organic and inorganic compounds from cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater.

  4. Seafood wastewater treatment in constructed wetland: tropical case.

    PubMed

    Sohsalam, Prapa; Englande, Andrew Joseph; Sirianuntapiboon, Suntud

    2008-03-01

    A series of investigations were conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using constructed wetlands to remove pollutants from seafood processing wastewater. Six emergent plant species; Cyperus involucratus, Canna siamensis, Heliconia spp., Hymenocallis littoralis, Typha augustifolia and Thalia deabata J. Fraser were planted in surface flow wetland. They were fed with seafood wastewater that was 50% diluted with treated seafood wastewater from an aerated lagoon. All macrophytes were found to meet satisfying treatment efficiency (standard criteria for discharged wastewater) at 5 days hydraulic retention time (HRT). While C. involucratus, T. deabata and T. augustifolia met acceptable treatment efficacy at 3 days HRT. Nutrient uptake rate of these species was observed in the range of 1.43-2.30 g Nitrogen/m(2)day and 0.17-0.29 g Phosphorus/m(2)day, respectively at 3 days HRT. The highest treatment performances were found at 5 days HRT. Average removal efficiencies were 91-99% for BOD(5), 52-90% for SS, 72-92% for TN and 72-77% for TP. Plant growth and nitrogen assimilation were experienced to be most satisfactory for C. involucratus, T. deabata and T. augustifolia. Lower HRTs affected contaminant removal efficiency for all species. C. involucratus, T. deabata and T. augustifolia can remove all contaminants efficiently even at the lowest hydraulic retention time (1 day).

  5. Wastewater Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatterjee, Samar; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastewater collection systems and components. This review covers: (1) planning, (2) construction; (3) sewer system evaluation; (4) maintenance; (5) rehabilitation; (6) overview prevention; and (7) wastewater pumping. A list of 111 references is also presented. (HM)

  6. Full-scale blending treatment of fresh MSWI leachate with municipal wastewater in a wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zhi-Long; Xie, Xiaoqing; Dai, Lanhua; Wang, Ziwen; Wu, Wenhua; Zhao, Fuyi; Xie, Xiaoming; Huang, Shiqing; Liu, Meiling; Chen, Shaohua

    2014-11-01

    Fresh leachate, generated in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) plants, contains various pollutants with extremely high strength organics, which usually requires expensive and complex treatment processes. This study investigated the feasibility of blending treatment of MSWI leachate with municipal wastewater. Fresh MSWI leachate was pretreated by coagulation-flocculation with FeCl3 2 g/L and CaO 25 g/L, plate-and-frame filter press, followed by ammonia stripping at pH above 12. After that, blending treatment was carried out in a full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) for approximately 3 months. Different operational modes consisting of different pretreated leachate and methanol addition levels were tested, and their performances were evaluated. Results showed that throughout the experimental period, monitored parameters in the WWTP effluent, including COD (<60 mg/L), BOD5 (<20 mg/L), ammonium (<8 mg/L), phosphorus (<1.5 mg/L) and heavy metals, generally complied with the Chinese sewage discharged standard. Under the experimental conditions, a certain amount of methanol was needed to fulfill TN removal. An estimation of the operation cost revealed that the expenditure of blending treatment was much lower than the total costs of respective treatment of MSWI leachate and municipal wastewater. The outcomes indicated that blending treatment could not only improve the treatability of the MSWI leachate, but also reduce the treatment cost of the two different wastewaters.

  7. Vaginal Discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... also be on the lookout for symptoms of yeast infections, bacterial vaginosis and trichomoniasis, 3 infections that ... cause changes in your vaginal discharge. Signs of yeast infections White, cottage cheese-like discharge Swelling and ...

  8. Review of wastewater problems and wastewater-management planning in the San Francisco Bay region, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hines, Walter G.

    1973-01-01

    The San Francisco Bay region has suffered adverse environmental effects related to the discharge of municipal-, industrial-, and agricultural- wastewater and storm-water runoff. Specific pollutional properties of theses discharges are not well understood in all cases although the toxic materials and aquatic-plant nutrients (biostimulants) found in municipal and industrial waterwater are considered to be a major cause of regional water-quality problems. Other water-quality problems in the region are commonly attributed to pesticides found in agricultural wastewater and potentially pathogenic bacteria in municipal-wastewater discharges and in storm-water runoff. The geographical distribution and magnitude of wastewater discharges in the bay region, particularly those from municipalities and industries, is largely a function of population, economic growth, and urban development. As might be expected, the total volume of wastewater has increased in a trend paralleling this growth and development. More significant, perhaps, is the fact that the total volume parameters such as BOD (biochemical oxygen demand), biostimulant concentrations, and toxicity, has increased despite large expenditures on new and improved municipal- and industrial-wastewater-treatment plants. Also, pollutant loadings from other major source, such as agriculture and storm-water runoff, have increased. At the time of writing (1972), many Federal, State, regional, and local agencies are engaged in a comprehensive wastewater-management-planning effort for the entire bay region. Initial objectives of this planning effort are: (1) the consolidation and coordination of loosely integrated wastewater-management facilities and (2) the elimination of wastewater discharges to ecologically sensitive areas, such as fresh-water streams and shallow extremities of San Francisco Bay. There has been some investigation of potential long-range wastewater-management alternatives based upon disposal in deep water in the

  9. Organic contaminants in onsite wastewater treatment systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conn, K.E.; Siegrist, R.L.; Barber, L.B.; Brown, G.K.

    2007-01-01

    Wastewater from thirty onsite wastewater treatment systems was sampled during a reconnaissance field study to quantify bulk parameters and the occurrence of organic wastewater contaminants including endocrine disrupting compounds in treatment systems representing a variety of wastewater sources and treatment processes and their receiving environments. Bulk parameters ranged in concentrations representative of the wide variety of wastewater sources (residential vs. non-residential). Organic contaminants such as sterols, surfactant metabolites, antimicrobial agents, stimulants, metal-chelating agents, and other consumer product chemicals, measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry were detected frequently in onsite system wastewater. Wastewater composition was unique between source type likely due to differences in source water and chemical usage. Removal efficiencies varied by engineered treatment type and physicochemical properties of the contaminant, resulting in discharge to the soil treatment unit at ecotoxicologically-relevant concentrations. Organic wastewater contaminants were detected less frequently and at lower concentrations in onsite system receiving environments. Understanding the occurrence and fate of organic wastewater contaminants in onsite wastewater treatment systems will aid in minimizing risk to ecological and human health.

  10. Feasibility study, conceptual design and bid package preparation for the treatment and effluent reuse of domestic wastewater discharges from saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico. Final report. Volume 1. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    The study, conducted by Freese and Nichols, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency on behalf of the State of Coahuila, Mexico. The report presents the findings of the feasibility study and conceptual design for the treatment and effluent reuse of wastewater from Saltillo, Coahuila. The main objective of the study is to determine the most feasible alternative for wastewater treatment. This is the first of two volumes and it is divided into the following sections: (1) Project Background; (2) Summary of Wastewater Management Regulations; (3) Current and Historic Conditions; (4) Projections and Development of Design Criteria; (5) Wastewater Treatment Plant Site Selection; (6) Applicable Technologies; (7) Development, Evaluation and Selection of Alternatives; (8) Environmental Impact; (9) Conceptual Design of Selected Alternative; (10) Project Financing; (11) Project Implementation.

  11. Wastewater and sludge control-technology options for synfuels industries

    SciTech Connect

    Castaldi, F.J.; Harrison, W.; Ford, D.L.

    1981-02-01

    The options examined were those of zero discharge, partial water reuse with restricted discharge of treated effluents, and unrestricted discharge of treated effluents. Analysis of cost data and performance-analyses data for several candidate secondary-wastewater-treatment unit processes indicated that combined activated-sludge/powdered-activated-carbon (AS/PAC) treatment incorporating wet-air-oxidation carbon regeneration is the most cost-effective control technology available for the removal of organic material from slagging, fixed-bed process wastewaters. Bench-scale treatability and organic-constituent removal studies conducted on process quench waters from a pilot-scale, slagging, fixed-bed gasifer using lignite as feedstock indicated that solvent extraction followed by AS/PAC treatment reduces levels of extractable and chromatographable organics to less than 1 ..mu..g/L in the final effluent. Levels of conventional pollutants also were effectively reduced by AS/PAC to the minimum water-quality standards for most receiving waters. The most favored and most cost-effective treatment option is unrestricted discharge of treated effluents with ultimate disposal of biosludges and landfilling of gasifier ash and slag. This option requires a capital expenditure of $8,260,000 and an annual net operating cost of $2,869,000 in 1978 dollars, exclusive of slag disposal. The net energy requirement of 19.6 x 10/sup 6/ kWh/year, or 15.3 kWh/1000 gal treated, is less than 6% of the equivalent energy demand associated with the zero-discharge option.

  12. Genotoxicity Evaluation of Irrigative Wastewater from Shijiazhuang City in China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lixue; Zhang, Xiaolin; Wang, Liqin; Yu, Fengxue; Liu, Yi; Chen, Qing; Liu, Dianwu

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the wastewater sample collected from the Dongming discharging river in Shijiazhuang city was analysed using both chemical analysis and biological assays including the Salmonella mutagenicity test, micronucleus test and single-cell gel electrophoresis. Chemical analysis of the sample was performed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The Salmonella mutagenicity test was performed on Salmonella typhimurium TA97, TA98, TA100 and TA102 strains with and without S9 mixture. The mice received the wastewater in natura through drinking water at concentrations of 25%, 50%, and 100%. One group of mice was exposed for 2 consecutive days, and the other group of mice was exposed for 15 consecutive days. To establish the levels of primary DNA damage, single-cell gel electrophoresis was performed on treated mouse liver cell. The concentrations of chromium and lead in the sample exceeded the national standard (GB20922-2007) by 0.78 and 0.43-fold, respectively. More than 30 organic compounds were detected, and some of the detected compounds were mutagens, carcinogens and environmental endocrine disrupters. A positive response for Salmonella typhimurium TA98 strain was observed. Mouse exposure via drinking water containing 50% and 100% of wastewater for 15 consecutive days caused a significant increase of MN frequencies in a dose-response manner. Mouse exposure via drinking water containing 50% and 100% of wastewater for 15 consecutive days caused a significant increase of the Olive tail moments in a dose-response manner. All the results indicated that the sample from the Dongming discharging river in Shijiazhuang city exhibited genotoxicity and might pose harmful effects on the local residents. PMID:26658348

  13. Genotoxicity Evaluation of Irrigative Wastewater from Shijiazhuang City in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuehui; Tang, Longmei; Yang, Lixue; Zhang, Xiaolin; Wang, Liqin; Yu, Fengxue; Liu, Yi; Chen, Qing; Liu, Dianwu

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the wastewater sample collected from the Dongming discharging river in Shijiazhuang city was analysed using both chemical analysis and biological assays including the Salmonella mutagenicity test, micronucleus test and single-cell gel electrophoresis. Chemical analysis of the sample was performed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The Salmonella mutagenicity test was performed on Salmonella typhimurium TA97, TA98, TA100 and TA102 strains with and without S9 mixture. The mice received the wastewater in natura through drinking water at concentrations of 25%, 50%, and 100%. One group of mice was exposed for 2 consecutive days, and the other group of mice was exposed for 15 consecutive days. To establish the levels of primary DNA damage, single-cell gel electrophoresis was performed on treated mouse liver cell. The concentrations of chromium and lead in the sample exceeded the national standard (GB20922-2007) by 0.78 and 0.43-fold, respectively. More than 30 organic compounds were detected, and some of the detected compounds were mutagens, carcinogens and environmental endocrine disrupters. A positive response for Salmonella typhimurium TA98 strain was observed. Mouse exposure via drinking water containing 50% and 100% of wastewater for 15 consecutive days caused a significant increase of MN frequencies in a dose-response manner. Mouse exposure via drinking water containing 50% and 100% of wastewater for 15 consecutive days caused a significant increase of the Olive tail moments in a dose-response manner. All the results indicated that the sample from the Dongming discharging river in Shijiazhuang city exhibited genotoxicity and might pose harmful effects on the local residents. PMID:26658348

  14. Chromate reduction by waste iron from electroplating wastewater using plug flow reactor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shiao-Shing; Hsu, Bao-Chrung; Hung, Li-Wei

    2008-04-15

    Waste iron was used to treat high concentration chromate (534 mg/L as Cr) from electroplating wastewater by plug flow reactor (PFR) due to the following reasons: (1) two wastes are treated simultaneously, (2) low pH of the electroplating wastewater ( approximately 2) benefits the reaction between these two wastes, (3) effluent pH is elevated in the PFR, reducing the base requirement to meet the pH discharge standard for wastewater (pH 6-9). Complete chromate reductions were achieved at pH 1.7 for hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 98 min, pH 1.5 for HRT of 40 min and pH 1.3 for HRT of 20 min. Consequently, optimum HRT for complete chromate reduction was obtained for different pHs. Although more acids were used to lower influent pH to reduce HRT, effluent pH was higher due to more hydrogen ion reacting with chromate. Eventually, fewer bases are required to fulfill the discharge pH requirement of wastewater. Effluent pH 3-5 was observed with high turbidity, indicating the precipitations of chromium oxide and hydroxide were enhanced by the dissolved iron coagulation. X-ray diffraction was conducted to examine the remaining species. Other than chromium oxide and hydroxide species, an iron-chromium complex (Cr2FeO4) was also observed.

  15. Wastewater Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoltek, J., Jr.; Melear, E. L.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. This review covers: (1) process application; (2) coagulation and solids separation; (3) adsorption; (4) ion exchange; (5) membrane processes; and (6) oxidation processes. A list of 123 references is also presented. (HM)

  16. Comprehensive life cycle inventories of alternative wastewater treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Foley, Jeffrey; de Haas, David; Hartley, Ken; Lant, Paul

    2010-03-01

    Over recent decades, the environmental regulations on wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) have trended towards increasingly stringent nutrient removal requirements for the protection of local waterways. However, such regulations typically ignore other environmental impacts that might accompany apparent improvements to the WWTP. This paper quantitatively defines the life cycle inventory of resources consumed and emissions produced in ten different wastewater treatment scenarios (covering six process configurations and nine treatment standards). The inventory results indicate that infrastructure resources, operational energy, direct greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and chemical consumption generally increase with increasing nitrogen removal, especially at discharge standards of total nitrogen <5 mgN L(-1). Similarly, infrastructure resources and chemical consumption increase sharply with increasing phosphorus removal, but operational energy and direct GHG emissions are largely unaffected. These trends represent a trade-off of negative environmental impacts against improved local receiving water quality. However, increased phosphorus removal in WWTPs also represents an opportunity for increased resource recovery and reuse via biosolids applied to agricultural land. This study highlights that where biosolids displace synthetic fertilisers, a negative environmental trade-off may also occur by increasing the heavy metals discharged to soil. Proper analysis of these positive and negative environmental trade-offs requires further life cycle impact assessment and an inherently subjective weighting of competing environmental costs and benefits. PMID:20022351

  17. Reliability analysis of a wastewater treatment plant using fault tree analysis and Monte Carlo simulation.

    PubMed

    Taheriyoun, Masoud; Moradinejad, Saber

    2015-01-01

    The reliability of a wastewater treatment plant is a critical issue when the effluent is reused or discharged to water resources. Main factors affecting the performance of the wastewater treatment plant are the variation of the influent, inherent variability in the treatment processes, deficiencies in design, mechanical equipment, and operational failures. Thus, meeting the established reuse/discharge criteria requires assessment of plant reliability. Among many techniques developed in system reliability analysis, fault tree analysis (FTA) is one of the popular and efficient methods. FTA is a top down, deductive failure analysis in which an undesired state of a system is analyzed. In this study, the problem of reliability was studied on Tehran West Town wastewater treatment plant. This plant is a conventional activated sludge process, and the effluent is reused in landscape irrigation. The fault tree diagram was established with the violation of allowable effluent BOD as the top event in the diagram, and the deficiencies of the system were identified based on the developed model. Some basic events are operator's mistake, physical damage, and design problems. The analytical method is minimal cut sets (based on numerical probability) and Monte Carlo simulation. Basic event probabilities were calculated according to available data and experts' opinions. The results showed that human factors, especially human error had a great effect on top event occurrence. The mechanical, climate, and sewer system factors were in subsequent tier. Literature shows applying FTA has been seldom used in the past wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) risk analysis studies. Thus, the developed FTA model in this study considerably improves the insight into causal failure analysis of a WWTP. It provides an efficient tool for WWTP operators and decision makers to achieve the standard limits in wastewater reuse and discharge to the environment.

  18. Bone marrow transplant - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Transplant - bone marrow - discharge; Stem cell transplant - discharge; Hematopoietic stem cell transplant - discharge; Reduced intensity; Non-myeloablative transplant - discharge; Mini transplant - discharge; Allogenic bone marrow transplant - ...

  19. Pediatric heart surgery - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Congenital heart surgery - discharge; Patent ductus arteriosus ligation - discharge; Hypoplastic left heart repair - discharge; Tetralogy of Fallot repair - discharge; Coarctation of the aorta repair - discharge; ...

  20. Deep vein thrombosis - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    DVT - discharge; Blood clot in the legs - discharge; Thromboembolism - discharge; Venous thromboembolism - deep vein thrombosis; Post-phlebitic syndrome - discharge; Post-thrombotic syndrome - discharge

  1. Necessity of toxicity assessment in Turkish industrial discharges (examples from metal and textile industry effluents).

    PubMed

    Sponza, Delia Teresa

    2002-01-01

    Toxicity of some organic and inorganic chemicals to microorganisms is an important consideration in assessing their environmental impact against their economic benefits. Microorganisms play an important role in several environmental processes, both natural and engineered. Some organic and inorganics at toxic levels have been detected in industrial discharges resulting in plant upsets and discharge permit violations. In addition to this, even though in some cases the effluent wastewater does not exceed the discharge limits, the results of toxicity tests show potential toxicity. Toxicity knowledge of effluents can benefit treatment plant operators in optimising plant operation, setting pre-treatment standards, and protecting receiving water quality and in establishing sewer discharge permits to safeguard the plant. In the Turkish regulations only toxicity dilution factor (TDF) with fish is part of the toxicity monitoring program of permissible wastewater discharge. In various countries, laboratory studies involving the use of different organisms and protocol for toxicity assessment was conducted involving a number of discharges. In this study, it was aimed to investigate the acute toxicity of textile and metal industry wastewaters by traditional and enrichment toxicity tests and emphasize the importance of toxicity tests in wastewater discharge regulations. The enrichment toxicity tests are novel applications and give an idea whether there is potential toxicity or growth limiting and stimulation conditions. Different organisms were used such as bacteria (Floc and Coliform bacteria) algae (Chlorella sp.). fish (Lepistes sp.) and protozoan (Vorticella sp.) to represent four tropic levels. The textile industry results showed acute toxicity for at least one organism in 8 out of 23 effluent samples. Acute toxicity for at least two organisms in 7 out of 23 effluent sampling was observed for the metal industry. The toxicity test results were assessed with chemical analyses

  2. An isotope dilution-precipitation process for removing radioactive cesium from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Harold; Bowers, John; Gates-Anderson, Dianne

    2012-12-01

    A novel isotope dilution-precipitation method has been developed to remove cesium-137 from radioactive wastewater. The process involves adding stable cesium chloride to wastewater in order to raise the total cesium concentration, which then allows both the stable and radioactive cesium ions to be precipitated together using sodium tetraphenylborate. This process was investigated utilizing laboratory solutions to determine stable cesium dose rates, mixing times, effects of pH, and filtration requirements. Once optimized, the process was then tested on synthetic wastewater and aqueous low-level waste. Experiments showed the reaction to be very quick and stable in the pH range tested, 2.5-11.5. The wastewater may need to be filtered using a 0.45-μm filter, though ferric sulfate has been shown to promote coagulation and settling, thereby eliminating the necessity for filtration. This investigation showed that this isotope dilution-precipitation process can remove Cs-37 levels below the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Derived Concentration Standard (DCS) of 3.0 × 10(-6) μCi/mL using a single dosage, potentially allowing the wastewater to be discharged directly to sanitary sewers.

  3. Wastewater reclamation and reuse in China: Opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Sidan; Chen, Weiping; Zhang, Weiling; Fan, Yupeng; Jiao, Wentao

    2016-01-01

    The growing water stress both in terms of water scarcity and quality deterioration promotes the development of reclaimed water as a new water resource use. This paper reviewed wastewater reuse practices in China, and the opportunities and challenges of expanding reclaimed water use were analyzed. Rapid urbanization with the increasing of water demand and wastewater discharge provides an opportunity for wastewater reuse. The vast amount of wastewater discharge and low reclaimed water production mean that wastewater reuse still has a great potential in China. Many environmental and economic benefits and successful reclamation technologies also provide opportunities for wastewater reuse. In addition, the overall strategy in China is also encouraging for wastewater reuse. In the beginning stage of wastewater reclamation and reuse, there are many significant challenges to expand wastewater reuse in China including slow pace in adopting urban wastewater reuse programs, the establishment of integrated water resources management framework and guidelines for wastewater reuse programs, incoherent water quality requirements, the limited commercial development of reclaimed water and the strengthening of public awareness and cooperation among stakeholders.

  4. Wastewater reclamation and reuse in China: Opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Sidan; Chen, Weiping; Zhang, Weiling; Fan, Yupeng; Jiao, Wentao

    2016-01-01

    The growing water stress both in terms of water scarcity and quality deterioration promotes the development of reclaimed water as a new water resource use. This paper reviewed wastewater reuse practices in China, and the opportunities and challenges of expanding reclaimed water use were analyzed. Rapid urbanization with the increasing of water demand and wastewater discharge provides an opportunity for wastewater reuse. The vast amount of wastewater discharge and low reclaimed water production mean that wastewater reuse still has a great potential in China. Many environmental and economic benefits and successful reclamation technologies also provide opportunities for wastewater reuse. In addition, the overall strategy in China is also encouraging for wastewater reuse. In the beginning stage of wastewater reclamation and reuse, there are many significant challenges to expand wastewater reuse in China including slow pace in adopting urban wastewater reuse programs, the establishment of integrated water resources management framework and guidelines for wastewater reuse programs, incoherent water quality requirements, the limited commercial development of reclaimed water and the strengthening of public awareness and cooperation among stakeholders. PMID:26899648

  5. 40 CFR 60.692-1 - Standards: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-1 Standards: General. (a) Each owner or operator subject to... separate from the wastewater system and does not come in contact with or store oily wastewater, is...

  6. Evaluation of rural wastewater treatment processes in a county of eastern China.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hui-Yu; Qiang, Zhi-Min; Wang, Wei-Dong; Jin, Hui

    2012-07-01

    With the rapid urbanization and industrialization in China, wastewater treatment in rural areas has become an increasing national concern. The selection of appropriate treatment processes closely based on the actual local status is crucial for the prevention of water quality deterioration in rural areas of China. This study presents a full year survey on the performances of various rural wastewater treatment processes at a county level in eastern China including seven three-chamber septic tanks (ST), five micro-power biological facilities (MP), seven constructed wetlands (CW), three stabilization ponds (SP) and five centralized activated sludge treatment plants (AS). It was found that although ST could remove a notable portion of total suspended solids (TSS) and chemical oxygen demand (COD(Cr)), it was ineffective in reducing nutrients and pathogens. Reliability and stability analyses showed that the centralized AS and decentralized CW processes outperformed the SP and MP processes. There were obvious discrepancies between the mean design concentrations, which ensure that 95% of the effluents meet the discharge standards, and the actual effluent concentrations determined for each process. The expected compliance with the tentatively adopted second-grade discharge standards (GB 18918-2002) was unsatisfactory for most of the water quality parameters examined, indicating an urgent need to design more practical discharge standards for decentralized treatment processes. Based on an overall assessment of reliability, stability and cost-effectiveness, the centralized AS was suitable for densely populated towns while the decentralized CW was suitable for sparsely populated villages. PMID:22378384

  7. Presence and hazards of nutrients and emerging organic micropollutants from sewage lagoon discharges into Dead Horse Creek, Manitoba, Canada.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Jules C; Anderson, Julie C; Low, Jennifer E; Cardinal, Pascal; MacKenzie, Scott D; Beattie, Sarah A; Challis, Jonathan K; Bennett, Renee J; Meronek, Stephanie S; Wilks, Rebecca P A; Buhay, William M; Wong, Charles S; Hanson, Mark L

    2013-02-15

    Nutrient enrichment and loadings of pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals into freshwater systems are common concerns, especially for water bodies receiving wastewater inputs. In the rural communities of Morden and Winkler of Manitoba, Canada, sewage lagoons discharge their wastewater directly into Dead Horse Creek, a small tributary of the Red River that empties into Lake Winnipeg. This lagoon approach to managing rural wastewaters is common across the North American Prairies. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the hazards of lagoon treatment releases at this model site. This was done by characterizing the nutrients, organic micropollutants (i.e., pesticides, pharmaceuticals) and standard water quality parameters in the creek prior to and following lagoon discharge events over a number of years (2009-2011). Measured concentrations of nutrients were compared to regulatory expectations and micropollutants were assessed using hazard quotients. As expected, concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus species were greatest in sites downstream of the sewage outfall immediately following discharge events. Pharmaceutical and agricultural chemicals were detected at concentrations between 0.5 and 90 ng/L. Detection frequencies and concentrations matched typical use patterns. Those compounds used predominately for human medicine were detected at downstream sites following discharge events, while those used in an agricultural setting were detected at relatively consistent levels over time at sites both upstream and downstream of the outfall location. Hazard quotients calculated for micropollutants of interest indicated minimal toxicological risk to aquatic biota in the creek, with only erythromycin and diazinon presenting a potential concern to aquatic algae and invertebrates. Concentrations of nutrients exceeded Canadian guideline thresholds during release, but returned to background levels once discharges ceased. Therefore, it is advisable that wastewater treatment and

  8. Freshwater wetlands for wastewater management: environmental assessment handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-09-01

    The Freshwater Wetlands Handbook provides institutional, scientific and engineering guidance for the use of natural, freshwater wetlands for wastewater management. Wetlands have long been recognized for their pollutant removal capabilities and many have been used for wastewater management for some time. Little technical or institutional guidance currently exists for regulating these systems or for planning new systems. This Handbook provides guidance for state and federal regulatory agencies and potential dischargers evaluating wetlands for wastewater disposal or pollutant removal.

  9. Chromium toxicity to nitrifying bacteria: implications to wastewater treatment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chromium, a heavy metal that enters wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) through industrial discharges, can be toxic to microorganisms carrying out important processes within biological wastewater treatment systems. The effect of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) on ammonia dependent specific ox...

  10. CERCLA Site discharges to POTWs CERCLA site sampling program: Detailed data report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    The document contains wastewater data obtained from sampling at seventeen CERCLA sites during a study of wastewater discharges from CERCLA sites to publicly owned treatment works (POTWs). The document serves as an appendix to the report summarizing the findings of the CERCLA site sampling program in Section 3 (CERCLA Site Data Report) in the USEPA CERCLA Site Discharges to POTWs Treatability Manual.

  11. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Vvvvvv... - Emission Limits and Compliance Requirements for Wastewater Systems

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... each * * * You must * * * And you must * * * 1. Wastewater stream a. Discharge to onsite or offsite treatment i. Maintain records identifying each wastewater stream and documenting the type of treatment that it receives. Multiple wastewater streams with similar characteristics and from the same type...

  12. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Vvvvvv... - Emission Limits and Compliance Requirements for Wastewater Systems

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... each * * * You must * * * And you must * * * 1. Wastewater stream a. Discharge to onsite or offsite treatment i. Maintain records identifying each wastewater stream and documenting the type of treatment that it receives. Multiple wastewater streams with similar characteristics and from the same type...

  13. Combined photo-Fenton-SBR process for antibiotic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Elmolla, Emad S; Chaudhuri, Malay

    2011-09-15

    The study examined combined photo-Fenton-SBR treatment of an antibiotic wastewater containing amoxicillin and cloxacillin. Optimum H(2)O(2)/COD and H(2)O(2)/Fe(2+) molar ratio of the photo-Fenton pretreatment were observed to be 2.5 and 20, respectively. Complete degradation of the antibiotics occurred in one min. The sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was operated at different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) with the wastewater treated under different photo-Fenton operating conditions (H(2)O(2)/COD and H(2)O(2)/Fe(2+) molar ratio). The SBR performance was found to be very sensitive to BOD(5)/COD ratio of the photo-Fenton treated wastewater. Statistical analysis of the results indicated that it was possible to reduce the Fe(2+) dose and increase the irradiation time of the photo-Fenton pretreatment. The best operating conditions of the combined photo-Fenton-SBR treatment were observed to be H(2)O(2)/COD molar ratio 2, H(2)O(2)/Fe(2+) molar ratio 150, irradiation time 90 min and HRT of 12h. Under the best operating conditions, 89% removal of sCOD with complete nitrification was achieved and the SBR effluent met the discharge standards. PMID:21767911

  14. 40 CFR 63.647 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries § 63.647 Wastewater provisions... wastewater stream shall comply with the requirements of §§ 61.340 through 61.355 of 40 CFR part 61, subpart... CFR part 61, subpart FF, § 61.341. (c) Each owner or operator required under subpart FF of 40 CFR...

  15. Subsurface Treatment of Domestic Wastewater Using Single Domicile Constructed Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aseltyne, T.; Steer, D.; Fraser, L.

    2001-05-01

    Analysis of one year of input versus output water quality monitoring data from nine household wastewater treatment wetlands in western Ohio indicates that these systems substantially reduce effluent loads delivered to the local watershed. Overall performance as measured by output water quality improvement varies widely between the nine systems despite their close proximity and identical design. These three-cell systems (septic tank with 2 subsurface wetland cells) are found to reduce biological oxygen demand (BOD) 70-98%, fecal coliform 60-99.9%, NH3 29-97%, Phosphorus 21-99.9% and total suspended solids (TSS) up to 97%. NO3/NO2 readings were only taken at the second wetland cell, but show that NO3/NO2 levels are at 0.005-5.01 mg/l and well below the USEPA standards for discharge from a wetland. On average, the pH of the wastewater increases from 6.6 at the septic tank to 8.7 at the wetland output. Nearly all the monitoring data indicate clear decreases in nutrient loads and bacteria though individual systems are found to non-systematically fail to meet EPA discharge guidelines for one or more of the monitored loads. Preliminary analysis of the data indicates a decrease in overall efficiency of the wetlands in April that may be related to seasonal factors. These systems will be monitored for the next three years in order to relate changing performance trends to seasonal variability.

  16. Prostate resection - minimally invasive - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Laser prostatectomy - discharge; Transurethral needle ablation - discharge; TUNA - discharge; Transurethral incision - discharge; TUIP - discharge; Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate - discharge; HoLep - discharge; Interstitial laser ...

  17. [Nipple discharge].

    PubMed

    Deodato, G; Consoli, A; Riggi, M; Longo, G; Finocchiaro, G B

    1981-02-01

    The Authors examine the various types of breast discharge concentrating in particular on the secretions due to inherent pathology. After having studied origin, they concentrate on the diagnostic significance and the limits of exfoliative cytology and contrast mammography. The Authors conclude by presenting an original protocol of treatment of the afflicted breast illustrating in addition, the various surgical techniques proposed for the cure of the sicknesses of intramammary origin that cause abnormal discharge. PMID:7261200

  18. Evaluation of residual antibacterial potency in antibiotic production wastewater using a real-time quantitative method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Yu; Yang, Min; Liu, Miaomiao

    2015-11-01

    While antibiotic pollution has attracted considerable attention due to its potential in promoting the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes in the environment, the antibiotic activity of their related substances has been neglected, which may underestimate the environmental impacts of antibiotic wastewater discharge. In this study, a real-time quantitative approach was established to evaluate the residual antibacterial potency of antibiotics and related substances in antibiotic production wastewater (APW) by comparing the growth of a standard bacterial strain (Staphylococcus aureus) in tested water samples with a standard reference substance (e.g. oxytetracycline). Antibiotic equivalent quantity (EQ) was used to express antibacterial potency, which made it possible to assess the contribution of each compound to the antibiotic activity in APW. The real-time quantitative method showed better repeatability (Relative Standard Deviation, RSD 1.08%) compared with the conventional fixed growth time method (RSD 5.62-11.29%). And its quantification limits ranged from 0.20 to 24.00 μg L(-1), depending on the antibiotic. We applied the developed method to analyze the residual potency of water samples from four APW treatment systems, and confirmed a significant contribution from antibiotic transformation products to potent antibacterial activity. Specifically, neospiramycin, a major transformation product of spiramycin, was found to contribute 13.15-22.89% of residual potency in spiramycin production wastewater. In addition, some unknown related substances with antimicrobial activity were indicated in the effluent. This developed approach will be effective for the management of antibacterial potency discharge from antibiotic wastewater and other waste streams.

  19. Evaluation of residual antibacterial potency in antibiotic production wastewater using a real-time quantitative method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Yu; Yang, Min; Liu, Miaomiao

    2015-11-01

    While antibiotic pollution has attracted considerable attention due to its potential in promoting the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes in the environment, the antibiotic activity of their related substances has been neglected, which may underestimate the environmental impacts of antibiotic wastewater discharge. In this study, a real-time quantitative approach was established to evaluate the residual antibacterial potency of antibiotics and related substances in antibiotic production wastewater (APW) by comparing the growth of a standard bacterial strain (Staphylococcus aureus) in tested water samples with a standard reference substance (e.g. oxytetracycline). Antibiotic equivalent quantity (EQ) was used to express antibacterial potency, which made it possible to assess the contribution of each compound to the antibiotic activity in APW. The real-time quantitative method showed better repeatability (Relative Standard Deviation, RSD 1.08%) compared with the conventional fixed growth time method (RSD 5.62-11.29%). And its quantification limits ranged from 0.20 to 24.00 μg L(-1), depending on the antibiotic. We applied the developed method to analyze the residual potency of water samples from four APW treatment systems, and confirmed a significant contribution from antibiotic transformation products to potent antibacterial activity. Specifically, neospiramycin, a major transformation product of spiramycin, was found to contribute 13.15-22.89% of residual potency in spiramycin production wastewater. In addition, some unknown related substances with antimicrobial activity were indicated in the effluent. This developed approach will be effective for the management of antibacterial potency discharge from antibiotic wastewater and other waste streams. PMID:26395288

  20. Heart attack - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Myocardial infarction - discharge; MI - discharge; Coronary event - discharge; Infarct - discharge ... patients with unstable angina/non-ST-Elevation myocardial infarction: a report of the American College of Cardiology/ ...

  1. Pollutant removal from aquaculture wastewater using the biopolymer chitosan at different molecular weights.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ying-Chien; Li, Yi-He; Chen, Chiing-Chang

    2005-01-01

    Removal of organic compounds, inorganic nutrients, and bacteria from aquaculture wastewaters before discharge cannot only minimize deterioration of receiving water quality, but can also make possible the reuse of the original water in the culture of prawn, fish, and shellfish. In this study, the feasibility of using chitosan, a multifunctional environmentally friendly biopolymer, at different molecular weights to simultaneously remove various pollutants from the discharge of an eel culture pond is evaluated. Experimental results indicated chitosan with a high molecular weight was best at removing turbidity, suspended solids, and biological and chemical oxygen demand (BOD and COD). In contrast, chitosan of a low molecular weight excelled at removing NH3 and PO4(3-) from wastewater. Additionally, chitosan with a high molecular weight did well at eliminating suspended solids of various particle sizes relative to chitosan with a low molecular weight. The best performance of chitosan in removing turbidity, suspended solids, BOD, COD, NH3, PO4(3-), and bacteria was 87.7%, 62.6%, 52.3%, 62.8%, 91.8%, 99.1%, and 99.998% removal, respectively. When chitosan with a high molecular weight was added at 12 mg/L, the quality of treated wastewater successfully complied with government discharge standards. Furthermore, the relatively low bacteria amount in the wastewater after treatment with chitosan was confirmed by both the plate count method and molecular analysis technique. These results indicated that the application of chitosan is feasible in an effort to recycle the effluents of a culture pond.

  2. Toxicity identification evaluation of cosmetics industry wastewater.

    PubMed

    de Melo, Elisa Dias; Mounteer, Ann H; Leão, Lucas Henrique de Souza; Bahia, Renata Cibele Barros; Campos, Izabella Maria Ferreira

    2013-01-15

    The cosmetics industry has shown steady growth in many developing countries over the past several years, yet little research exists on toxicity of wastewaters it generates. This study describes a toxicity identification evaluation conducted on wastewater from a small Brazilian hair care products manufacturing plant. Physicochemical and ecotoxicological analyses of three wastewater treatment plant inlet and outlet samples collected over a six month period revealed inefficient operation of the treatment system and thus treated wastewater organic matter, suspended solids and surfactants contents consistently exceeded discharge limits. Treated wastewater also presented high acute toxicity to Daphnia similis and chronic toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. This toxicity was associated with suspended solids, volatile or sublatable and non-polar to moderately polar organic compounds that could be recovered in filtration and aeration residues. Seven surfactants used in the largest quantities in the production process were highly toxic to P. subcapitata and D. similis. These results indicated that surfactants, important production raw materials, are a probable source of toxicity, although other possible sources, such as fragrances, should not be discarded. Improved treatment plant operational control may reduce toxicity and lower impact of wastewater discharge to receiving waters.

  3. Combined Sewer Overflows: An Environmental Source of Hormones and Wastewater Micropollutants

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Data were collected at a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Burlington, Vermont, USA, (serving 30,000 people) to assess the relative contribution of CSO (combined sewer overflow) bypass flows and treated wastewater effluent to the load of steroid hormones and other wastewater micropollutants (WMPs) from a WWTP to a lake. Flow-weighted composite samples were collected over a 13 month period at this WWTP from CSO bypass flows or plant influent flows (n = 28) and treated effluent discharges (n = 22). Although CSO discharges represent 10% of the total annual water discharge (CSO plus treated plant effluent discharges) from the WWTP, CSO discharges contribute 40–90% of the annual load for hormones and WMPs with high (>90%) wastewater treatment removal efficiency. By contrast, compounds with low removal efficiencies (<90%) have less than 10% of annual load contributed by CSO discharges. Concentrations of estrogens, androgens, and WMPs generally are 10 times higher in CSO discharges compared to treated wastewater discharges. Compound concentrations in samples of CSO discharges generally decrease with increasing flow because of wastewater dilution by rainfall runoff. By contrast, concentrations of hormones and many WMPs in samples from treated discharges can increase with increasing flow due to decreasing removal efficiency. PMID:22540536

  4. Combined sewer overflows: an environmental source of hormones and wastewater micropollutants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, P.J.; Chalmers, A.T.; Gray, J.L.; Kolpin, D.W.; Foreman, W.T.; Wall, G.R.

    2012-01-01

    Data were collected at a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Burlington, Vermont, USA, (serving 30,000 people) to assess the relative contribution of CSO (combined sewer overflow) bypass flows and treated wastewater effluent to the load of steroid hormones and other wastewater micropollutants (WMPs) from a WWTP to a lake. Flow-weighted composite samples were collected over a 13 month period at this WWTP from CSO bypass flows or plant influent flows (n = 28) and treated effluent discharges (n = 22). Although CSO discharges represent 10% of the total annual water discharge (CSO plus treated plant effluent discharges) from the WWTP, CSO discharges contribute 40–90% of the annual load for hormones and WMPs with high (>90%) wastewater treatment removal efficiency. By contrast, compounds with low removal efficiencies (<90%) have less than 10% of annual load contributed by CSO discharges. Concentrations of estrogens, androgens, and WMPs generally are 10 times higher in CSO discharges compared to treated wastewater discharges. Compound concentrations in samples of CSO discharges generally decrease with increasing flow because of wastewater dilution by rainfall runoff. By contrast, concentrations of hormones and many WMPs in samples from treated discharges can increase with increasing flow due to decreasing removal efficiency.

  5. Combined sewer overflows: an environmental source of hormones and wastewater micropollutants.

    PubMed

    Phillips, P J; Chalmers, A T; Gray, J L; Kolpin, D W; Foreman, W T; Wall, G R

    2012-05-15

    Data were collected at a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Burlington, Vermont, USA, (serving 30,000 people) to assess the relative contribution of CSO (combined sewer overflow) bypass flows and treated wastewater effluent to the load of steroid hormones and other wastewater micropollutants (WMPs) from a WWTP to a lake. Flow-weighted composite samples were collected over a 13 month period at this WWTP from CSO bypass flows or plant influent flows (n = 28) and treated effluent discharges (n = 22). Although CSO discharges represent 10% of the total annual water discharge (CSO plus treated plant effluent discharges) from the WWTP, CSO discharges contribute 40-90% of the annual load for hormones and WMPs with high (>90%) wastewater treatment removal efficiency. By contrast, compounds with low removal efficiencies (<90%) have less than 10% of annual load contributed by CSO discharges. Concentrations of estrogens, androgens, and WMPs generally are 10 times higher in CSO discharges compared to treated wastewater discharges. Compound concentrations in samples of CSO discharges generally decrease with increasing flow because of wastewater dilution by rainfall runoff. By contrast, concentrations of hormones and many WMPs in samples from treated discharges can increase with increasing flow due to decreasing removal efficiency. PMID:22540536

  6. Implementation of China`s three synchronizations policy: Case studies of wastewater treatment measures at new and renovated factories

    SciTech Connect

    Sinkule, B.J.

    1994-03-01

    The Three Synchronizations Policy requires that the design, construction, and operation of a new factory, or an existing factory that expands or changes production processes, be synchronized with the design, construction and operation of appropriate waste treatment facilities. Under this policy, when a new factory is designed, wastewater treatment facilities must be included as part of the overall factory design: when the factory is constructed, the wastewater treatment facilities must be constructed along with construction of the production facilities; and finally, when the factory begins to operate, the waste treatment facilities must begin operation as well. This research includes case studies of wastewater treatment measures at sixteen factories in the Pearl River Delta Region of China. Implementation of the Three Synchronizations Policy is examined in detail for two of the factories: Fengfu Weaving and Dyeing Plant and Zhongguan Printing and Dyeing Plant. The results of this research suggest that the Three Synchronizations Policy has been an effective means of forcing new and renovated factories to comply with wastewater discharge standards, mainly because the Three Synchronizations Policy gives environmental protection bureaus authority to regulate at each step of a new industrial facility`s development. In practice, this authority has been exercised through formalizing the {open_quotes}synchronizations{close_quotes} into a management system with specific regulatory requirements, each of which requires EPB approval. EPBs ran stall operation by withholding its approval of certification of a factory`s wastewater treatment facilities; EPBs also use fines and limited time treatment orders to enforce the Three Synchronizations Policy. The research results demonstrate that the Three Synchronizations Policy was more important than the Pollutant Discharge Fee Program in motivating existing factories to build wastewater treatment facilities.

  7. Role of a Comprehensive Toxicity Assessment and Monitoring Program in the Management and Ecological Recovery of a Wastewater Receiving Stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greeley, Mark S.; Kszos, Lynn A.; Morris, Gail W.; Smith, John G.; Stewart, Arthur J.

    2011-06-01

    National Pollution Discharge Elimination Permit (NPDES)-driven effluent toxicity tests using Ceriodaphnia dubia and fathead minnows were conducted for more than 20 years to assess and monitor the effects of wastewaters at the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Toxicity testing was also conducted on water samples from East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC), the wastewater receiving stream, as part of a comprehensive biological monitoring and assessment program. In this paper, we evaluate the roles of this long-term toxicity assessment and monitoring program in the management and ecological recovery of EFPC. Effluent toxicity testing, associated toxicant evaluation studies, and ambient toxicity monitoring were instrumental in identifying toxicant sources at the Y-12 Complex, guiding modifications to wastewater treatment procedures, and assessing the success of various pollution-abatement actions. The elimination of untreated wastewater discharges, the dechlorination of remaining wastewater streams, and the implementation of flow management at the stream headwaters were the primary actions associated with significant reductions in the toxicity of stream water in the upper reaches of EFPC from the late 1980s through mid 1990s. Through time, as regulatory requirements changed and water quality improved, emphasis shifted from comprehensive toxicity assessments to more focused toxicity monitoring efforts. Ambient toxicity testing with C. dubia and fathead minnows was supplemented with less-standardized but more sensitive alternative laboratory toxicity tests and in situ bioassays. The Y-12 Complex biological monitoring experience demonstrates the value of toxicity studies to the management of a wastewater receiving stream.

  8. Estimating hyperconcentrated flow discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-02-01

    Determining flow discharge in torrential mountain floods can help in managing flood risk. However, standard methods of estimating discharge have significant uncertainties. To reduce these uncertainties, Bodoque et al. developed an iterative methodological approach to flow estimation based on a method known as the critical depth method along with paleoflood evidence. They applied the method to study a flash flood that occurred on 17 December 1997 in the Arroyo Cabrera catchment in central Spain. This large flow event, triggered by torrential rains, was complex and included hyperconcentrated flows, which are flows of water mixed with significant amounts of sediment.

  9. Treatment of Ammonia Nitrogen Wastewater in Low Concentration by Two-Stage Ozonization.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xianping; Yan, Qun; Wang, Chunying; Luo, Caigui; Zhou, Nana; Jian, Chensheng

    2015-09-23

    Ammonia nitrogen wastewater (about 100 mg/L) was treated by two-stage ozone oxidation method. The effects of ozone flow rate and initial pH on ammonia removal were studied, and the mechanism of ammonia nitrogen removal by ozone oxidation was discussed. After the primary stage of ozone oxidation, the ammonia removal efficiency reached 59.32% and pH decreased to 6.63 under conditions of 1 L/min ozone flow rate and initial pH 11. Then, the removal efficiency could be over 85% (the left ammonia concentration was lower than 15 mg/L) after the second stage, which means the wastewater could have met the national discharge standards of China. Besides, the mechanism of ammonia removal by ozone oxidation was proposed by detecting the products of the oxidation: ozone oxidation directly and ·OH oxidation; ammonia was mainly transformed into NO₃(-)-N, less into NO₂(-)-N, not into N₂.

  10. Integrated catalytic wet air oxidation and biological treatment of wastewater from Vitamin B 6 production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jianxiong; Zhan, Wei; Li, Daosheng; Wang, Xiaocong; Song, Jing; Liu, Dongqi

    This study investigated the feasibility of coupling a catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO), with CuO/Al 2O 3 as catalyst, and an anaerobic/aerobic biological process to treat wastewater from Vitamin B 6 production. Results showed that the CWAO enhanced the biodegradability (BOD 5/COD) from 0.10 to 0.80. The oxidized effluents with COD of 10,000 mg l -1 was subjected to subsequent continuous anaerobic/aerobic oxidation, and 99.3% of total COD removal was achieved. The quality of the effluent obtained met the discharge standards of water pollutants for pharmaceutical industry Chemical Synthesis Products Category (GB21904-2008), and thereby it implies that the integrated CWAO and anaerobic/aerobic biological treatment may offer a promising process to treat wastewater from Vitamin B 6 production.

  11. Bioremediation of wastewater using microalgae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalivendra, Saikumar

    Population expansion and industrial development has deteriorated the quality of freshwater reservoirs around the world and has caused freshwater shortages in certain areas. Discharge of industrial effluents containing toxic heavy metals such as Cd and Cr into the environment have serious impact on human, animal and aquatic life. In order to solve these problems, the present study was focused on evaluating and demonstrating potential of microalgae for bioremediation of wastewater laden with nitrogen (N) in the form of nitrates, phosphorous (P) in the form of phosphates, chromium (Cr (VI)) and cadmium (Cd (II)). After screening several microalgae, Chlorella vulgaris and algae taken from Pleasant Hill Lake were chosen as candidate species for this study. The viability of the process was demonstrated in laboratory bioreactors and various experimental parameters such as contact time, initial metal concentration, algae concentration, pH and temperature that would affect remediation rates were studied. Based on the experimental results, correlations were developed to enable customizing and designing a commercial Algae based Wastewater Treatment System (AWTS). A commercial AWTS system that can be easily customized and is suitable for integration into existing wastewater treatment facilities was developed, and capital cost estimates for system including installation and annual operating costs were determined. The work concludes that algal bioremediation is a viable alternate technology for treating wastewater in an economical and sustainable way when compared to conventional treatment processes. The annual wastewater treatment cost to remove N,P is ~26x lower and to remove Cr, Cd is 7x lower than conventional treatment processes. The cost benefit analysis performed shows that if this technology is implemented at industrial complexes, Air Force freight and other Department of Defense installations with wastewater treatment plants, it could lead to millions of dollars in

  12. Identification of relevant micropollutants in Austrian municipal wastewater and their behaviour during wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Clara, M; Windhofer, G; Weilgony, P; Gans, O; Denner, M; Chovanec, A; Zessner, M

    2012-06-01

    The European Union has defined environmental quality standards (EQSs) for surface waters for priority substances and several other pollutants. Furthermore national EQSs for several chemicals are valid in Austria. The study investigated the occurrence of these compounds in municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents. In a first screening of 15 WWTPs relevant substances were identified, which subsequently were monitored in 9 WWTPs over 1 year (every 2 months). Out of 77 substances or groups of substances (including more than 90 substances) 13 were identified as potentially relevant in respect to water pollution and subjected to the monitoring, whereas most other compounds were detected in concentrations far below the respective EQS for surface waters and therefore not further considered. The preselected 13 compounds for monitoring were cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), selenium (Se), zinc (Zn), diuron, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), di(ethyl-hydroxyl)phthalate (DEHP), tributyltin compounds (TBT), nonylphenoles (NP), adsorbable organic halogens (AOX) and the complexing agents ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as well as nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA). In the effluents of WWTPs the concentrations of the priority substances Cd, NP, TBT and diuron frequently exceeded the respective EQS, whereas the concentrations for DEHP and Ni were below the respective EQS. The effluent concentrations for AOX, EDTA, NTA, Cu, Se and Zn frequently are in the range or above the Austrian EQS for surface waters. Besides diuron and EDTA all compounds are removed at least partially during wastewater treatment and for most substances the removal via the excess sludge is the major removal pathway. For the 13 compounds which were monitored in WWTP effluents population equivalent specific discharges were calculated. Since for many compounds no or only few information is available, these population equivalent specific discharges can be used to assess emissions from

  13. Water-quality control, monitoring and wastewater treatment in Lithuania 1950 to 1999.

    PubMed

    Cetkauskaite, A; Zarkov, D; Stoskus, L

    2001-08-01

    The Lithuanian water-management system developed on the basis of Soviet regulations in 1950-1990. Surface-water quality monitoring started in the 1950s, and the system was improved in the 1960s. Today, 48 rivers are being monitored using up to 70 parameters. Statutory monitoring of discharges started in 1962, wastewater standards were issued in 1957 and 1966, and then revised in 1996. Wastewater-treatment plants were built first in rural areas, in factories since the 1950s, and later in towns. Since 1991, large capacity municipal plants have been constructed with foreign assistance. Water quality has improved in some rivers since 1970, but Lithuania's main river, Nemunas, remains moderately polluted. The lower Nemunas is especially affected by discharges of municipal and industrial wastewater from Sovietsk and Neman (Russia), which account for half of the total loading. Hydrobiological data of 1994-1998 indicated the eutrophication of the Curonian Lagoon, and bacteriological pollution and blue-green algae blooms in the Baltic Sea north of Klaipeda.

  14. Hungry microbes eat away wastewater sludge problem

    SciTech Connect

    Kratch, K.

    1995-09-01

    Accumulations of diluted resin solids and sludge in an equalization pond were reducing a White City, Ore., chemical plant`s wastewater treatment capacity by 90%. Dyno Polymers, a division of Norway-based Dyno Industries, manufacturers formaldehyde, urea-formaldehyde and phenol-formaldehyde resins for the wood products industry. High-solids and biosolids bulking in the plant`s aeration pond overloaded the clarifier, and an overabundance of solids in the excess-wastewater holding pond made pumping nearly impossible. The plant`s drains carry production wastewater, truck washout water and equipment rinsewater flows to a central sump. The wastewater is pumped to the facility`s biological treatment system, where it enters an equalization pond and flows to an aeration pond equipped with two 50-horsepower aerators. The water then flows to a clarifier, where solids are settled out and removed before the water is reused or discharged to a public sewer system.

  15. Comparative evaluations of organic matters and nitrogen removal capacities of integrated vertical-flow constructed wetlands: Domestic and nitrified wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jun J; Liang, Kang; Wu, Su Q; Zhang, Sheng H; Liang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Two groups of integrated vertical-flow constructed wetland (IVCW) microcosms were established for treating two types of representative wastewater: domestic and nitrified wastewater under two loading rates (LRs) over about two years. Their removal capacities of organic substance and nitrogen as well as the effects of loading rate (LR), outflow temperature and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration were investigated and compared. Efficient chemical oxygen demand (COD) eliminations were achieved by the IVCWs, with the mass removal rates increasing linearly with the increasing LRs strongly, achieving average value of 56.07 g m(-2) d(-1) at the highest loading rate. Nevertheless, the effluent COD concentrations also increased, with the average value exceeding Class I A discharge standard (< 50 mg L(-1)) for municipal wastewater treatment plants in China at the highest loading rate. Greater total nitrogen (TN) mass removal rates but lower efficiencies were obtained at the high LR for both types of wastewater, and better removal was achieved for nitrified wastewater (NW) in comparison to domestic wastewater (DW), probably due to the prevailing anoxic conditions inside the IVCW beds restricted nitrification process of DW. The influences of LR, temperature and DO on COD removal were slight, but all remarkable on TN reduction. As compared to DO, temperature was more crucial for nitrogen removal, and the temperature dependence coefficient for TN removal of low LR of NW was significantly greater than others. PMID:25901854

  16. Zero discharge programs require careful planning

    SciTech Connect

    Buecker, B.

    1997-05-01

    Environmental regulations, increasing scarcity of fresh water supplies and rising costs of clean water production have contributed to greater water conservation throughout the country. Reduced or zero discharge programs have become much more commonplace at electric utilities, chemical process industries and manufacturing facilities. Water conservation can be a very complicated issue, with methods varying considerably from site to site. The issues that influence water reduction programs include: quality, quantity and cost of fresh water available to the plant; quality of water needed for various plant processes; ability to recycle wastewater streams to other plant processes; techniques for water treatment; capital, operations, maintenance and labor costs, and floor space and construction requirements for water treatment equipment, pilot testing of proposed treatment methods and environmental restrictions on the quantity and quality of any wastewater that may be discharged. This article describes several water discharge programs available to address the complex needs of each unique plant site.

  17. Occurrence and treatment of wastewater-derived organic nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Chen, Baiyang; Kim, Youngil; Westerhoff, Paul

    2011-10-01

    Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) derived from wastewater effluent can participate in reactions that lead to formation of nitrogenous chlorination by-products, membrane fouling, eutrophication, and nitrification issues, so management of DON is important for both wastewater reuse applications and nutrient-sensitive watersheds that receive discharges from treated wastewater. This study documents DON occurrence in full-scale water/wastewater (W/WW) treatment plant effluents and assesses the removal of wastewater-derived DON by several processes (biodegradation, coagulation, softening, and powdered activated carbon [PAC] adsorption) used for advanced treatment in wastewater reuse applications. After varying levels of wastewater treatment, the dominant aqueous nitrogenous species shifts from ammonia to nitrate after aerobic processes and nitrate to DON in tertiary treatment effluents. The fraction of DON in total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) accounts for at most 52% in tertiary treated effluents (median=13%) and 54% in surface waters impacted by upstream wastewater discharges (median=31%). The 5-day biodegradability/bioavailability of DON (39%) was higher, on average, than that of dissolved organic carbon (DOC, 26%); however, upon chlorination, the DON removal (3%) decreased significantly. Alum coagulation (with ≥8 mg/L alum per mg/L DOC) and lime softening (with pH 11.3-11.5) removed<25% of DON and DOC without selectivity. PAC adsorption preferentially removed more DOC than DON by 10% on average. The results provided herein hence shed light on approaches for reducing organic nitrogen content in treated wastewater. PMID:21741064

  18. 2012 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Lewis

    2013-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (WRU-I-0160-01, formerly LA 000160 01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from November 1, 2011 through October 31, 2012. The report contains the following information: • Facility and system description • Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates • Groundwater monitoring data • Status of special compliance conditions • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2012 reporting year, an estimated 11.84 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 17 million gallons per year. The concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Primary and Secondary Constituent Standards.

  19. 2014 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Mike

    2015-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (WRU-I-0160-01, formerly LA 000160 01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from November 1, 2013 through October 31, 2014. The report contains the following information; Facility and system description; Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates; Groundwater monitoring data; Status of special compliance conditions; Noncompliance issues; and Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2014 reporting year, an estimated 10.11 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 17 million gallons per year. The concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the applicable Idaho Department of Environmental Quality’s groundwater quality standard levels.

  20. 2010 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect

    David B. Frederick

    2011-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA 000160 01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from May 1, 2010 through October 31, 2010. The report contains the following information: • Facility and system description • Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates • Groundwater monitoring data • Status of special compliance conditions • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2010 partial reporting year, an estimated 3.646 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 13 million gallons per year. The concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Primary and Secondary Constituent Standards.

  1. 2011 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect

    David Frederick

    2012-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA-000160-01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from November 1, 2010 through October 31, 2011. The report contains the following information: (1) Facility and system description; (2) Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates; (3) Groundwater monitoring data; (4) Status of special compliance conditions; and (5) Discussion of the facility's environmental impacts. During the 2011 reporting year, an estimated 6.99 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 13 million gallons per year. Using the dissolved iron data, the concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Primary and Secondary Constituent Standards.

  2. Advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coking wastewater by electrochemical oxidation using boron-doped diamond electrodes.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiuping; Ni, Jinren; Lai, Peng

    2009-09-01

    Electrochemical oxidation is a promising technology to treatment of bio-refractory wastewater. Coking wastewater contains high concentration of refractory and toxic compounds and the water quality usually cannot meet the discharge standards after conventional biological treatment processes. This paper initially investigated the electrochemical oxidation using boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode for advanced treatment of coking wastewater. Under the experimental conditions (current density 20-60mAcm(-2), pH 3-11, and temperature 20-60 degrees C) using BDD anode, complete mineralization of organic pollutants was almost achieved, and surplus ammonia-nitrogen (NH(3)-N) was further removed thoroughly when pH was not adjusted or at alkaline value. Moreover, the TOC and NH(3)-N removal rates in BDD anode cell were much greater than those in other common anode systems such as SnO(2) and PbO(2) anodes cells. Given the same target to meet the National Discharge Standard of China, the energy consumption of 64kWhkgCOD(-1) observed in BDD anode system was only about 60% as much as those observed in SnO(2) and PbO(2) anode systems. Further investigation revealed that, in BDD anode cell, organic pollutants were mainly degraded by reaction with free hydroxyl radicals and electrogenerated oxidants (S(2)O(8)(2-), H(2)O(2), and other oxidants) played a less important role, while direct electrochemical oxidation and indirect electrochemical oxidation mediated by active chlorine can be negligible. These results showed great potential of BDD anode system in engineering application as a final treatment of coking wastewater.

  3. 32 CFR 724.903 - Equity of the discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Equity of the discharge. 724.903 Section 724.903 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL NAVAL DISCHARGE REVIEW BOARD Standards for Discharge Review § 724.903 Equity of the discharge. A discharge shall be deemed...

  4. [AOX Pollution in Wastewater Treatment Process of Dyeing and Dyestuff Chemical Industries].

    PubMed

    Shen, Yang-yang; Liu, Rui; Xu, Can-can; Shu, Xiao-ming; Xu, Jiang-jun; Lan, Ya-qiong; Chen, Lü-jun

    2015-09-01

    Selecting six large-scale dyeing factories and four large-scale dyestuff chemical factories in the well-developed Yangtze River Delta region, this study aimed to investigate the AOX pollution status in the raw wastewater as well as in the activated sludge treatment system. The components of AOX were characterized by GC-MS. Results showed that AOX concentration was low in wastewater from the six dyeing enterprises, ranging 0. 15-1. 62 mg.L-1 in the raw wastewater and 0. 06-1. 30 mg.L-1 in the biologically treated effluent. All the biologically treated effluent met the emission limits of 8 mg.L-1 in the Discharge Standard of Water Pollutants for Dyeing and Finishing of Textile Industry. Sludge in five factories with AOX was below 621 mg.kg-1, only one factory was with high AOX concentration of 3 280 mg.kg-1. By comparison, AOX concentration greatly varied between the wastewater from dyestuff chemical factories, was 1. 70 mg.L-1 to 78. 72 mg.L-1 in the raw wastewater and was 1. 88 mg.L-1 to 33. 11 mg.L-1 in the biologically treated effluent. AOX concentration in the activated sludge was as high as 960-2,297 mg.kg-1. Chlorobenzenes, chloronitrobenzenes, chloroanilines, chlorine nitroanilines and halophenols were typical TOX components detectable in the dyestuff chemical wastewater. Halophenols and chlorine nitroanilines could be efficiently removed. Single chloroanilines and single chloronitrobenzenes seemed to be easier removable than polychlorinated anilines and polychlorinated nitrobenzenes. Polychlorinated benzenes were also easily removal but the products chlorobenzene was hard to remove. PMID:26717692

  5. Effects of wastewater on forested wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doyle, Thomas W.

    2002-01-01

    Cycling nutrient-enriched wastewater from holding ponds through natural, forested wetlands is a practice that municipal waste treatment managers are considering as a viable option for disposing of wastewater. In this wastewater cycling process, sewer effluent that has been circulated through aerated ponds is discharged into neighboring wetland systems. To understand how wastewater cycling affects forest and species productivity, researchers at the USGS National Wetlands Research Center conducted dendroecological investigations in a swamp system and in a bog system that have been exposed to wastewater effluent for many decades. Dendroecology involves the study of forest changes over time as interpreted from tree rings. Tree-ring chronologies describe the pattern and history of growth suppression and release that can be associated with aging and disturbances such as hurricanes, floods, and fires. But because of limited monitoring, little is known about the potential for long-term effects on forested wetlands as a result of wastewater flooding. USGS researchers used tree rings to detect the effect of wastewater cycling on tree growth. Scientists expected to find that tree-ring width would be increased as a result of added nutrients.

  6. Energy-nutrients-water nexus: integrated resource recovery in municipal wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Mo, Weiwei; Zhang, Qiong

    2013-09-30

    Wastewater treatment consumes large amounts of energy and materials to comply with discharge standards. At the same time, wastewater contains resources, which can be recovered for secondary uses if treated properly. Hence, the goal of this paper is to review the available resource recovery methods onsite or offsite of municipal wastewater treatment plants. These methods are categorized into three major resource recovery approaches: onsite energy generation, nutrient recycling and water reuse. Under each approach, the review provides the advantages and disadvantages, recovery potentials and current application status of each method, as well as the synthesized results of the life cycle studies for each approach. From a comprehensive literature review, it was found that, in addition to technology improvements, there is also a need to evaluate the applications of the resource recovery methods in wastewater treatment plants from a life cycle perspective. Future research should investigate the integration of the resource recovery methods to explore the combined benefits and potential tradeoffs of these methods under different scales.

  7. Biosensor-based control of nitrification inhibitor in municipal wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Okayasu, Y; Tanaka, H; Inui, T; Tanaka, Y

    2006-01-01

    The effect of potassium cyanide (KCN) on nitrification processes in municipal wastewater treatment plants was studied by batch nitrification tests, which indicated that nitrification processes tend to be inhibited at a lower KCN concentration than the present discharge standard to sewerage. The experiment of the biosensor using nitrifying bacteria was also conducted for continuous monitoring of nitrification inhibitor in influent wastewater, and demonstrated that the biosensor can detect KCN at as low as EC10 of the abovementioned batch nitrification test. Moreover, to determine the effectiveness of application of the biosensor to avoid the impact of KCN due to an accidental spillage in a sewerage system, KCN was intentionally injected into the experimental models of activated sludge process equipped both with and without the biosensor. The model with the biosensor that could detect KCN could divert the wastewater including KCN to a refuge tank, which resulted in the avoidance of upset of the activated sludge process. On the other hand, the model without the biosensor was upset in the nitrification process due to KCN. Such differences demonstrate the effectiveness of the biosensor applied to countermeasures of an accidental spillage of toxic chemicals to avoid upset of nitrification in municipal wastewater treatment plants.

  8. Management of wastewater from soap and food industries: a case study.

    PubMed

    el-Gohary, F A; Abo-Elela, S I; Ali, H I

    1987-10-01

    This paper presents the wastewater management of an industrial complex which produces different products, i.e. soap, perfume extract, macaroni, jam and juices. A continuous monitoring programme for departmental as well as final effluents was carried out for almost 3 months. Characterization of the composite wastewater from both soap and food processing plants indicated that the waste was highly contaminated with organic compounds as indicated by COD and BOD values. Moreover, effluent from the soap manufacturing plant contains significant concentrations of oil and grease amounting to 563 mg l-1. Soap manufacturing effluent and the combined wastes discharged from the whole industrial complex were subjected to different treatment processes, namely dissolved air flotation, chemical coagulation-sedimentation, and biological treatment via a completely mixed activated sludge process. Although coagulation using alum followed by sedimentation removed 52% of COD, residual values did not comply with the regulatory standards. Biological treatment of the composite combined wastewater significantly removed the organic contaminants in wastewater. Average residual BOD, COD, oil and grease values were 30, 92 and 8.3 mg l-1 respectively. Based on the laboratory results a final process design was developed.

  9. A review on characterization and bioremediation of pharmaceutical industries' wastewater: an Indian perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rana, Rajender Singh; Singh, Prashant; Kandari, Vikash; Singh, Rakesh; Dobhal, Rajendra; Gupta, Sanjay

    2014-08-01

    During the past few decades, pharmaceutical industries have registered a quantum jump contributing to high economic growth, but simultaneously it has also given rise to severe environmental pollution. Untreated or allegedly treated pharmaceutical industrial wastewater (PIWW) creates a need for time to time assessment and characterization of discharged wastewater as per the standards provided by the regulatory authorities. To control environmental pollution, pharmaceutical industries use different treatment plans to treat and reuse wastewater. The characterization of PIWW using advanced and coupled techniques has progressed to a much advanced level, but in view of new developments in drug manufacture for emerging diseases and the complexities associated with them, better sophisticated instrumentation and methods of treatment are warranted. The bioremediation process to treat PIWW has undergone more intense investigation in recent decade. This results in the complete mineralization of pharmaceutical industries' wastewater and no waste product is obtained. Moreover, high efficiency and low operation cost prove it to be an effective tool for the treatment of PIWW. The present review focuses on the characterization as well as bioremediation aspects of PIWW.

  10. Removal Efficiency of Faecal Indicator Organisms, Nutrients and Heavy Metals from a Peri-Urban Wastewater Treatment Plant in Thohoyandou, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Edokpayi, Joshua N.; Odiyo, John O.; Msagati, Titus A. M.; Popoola, Elizabeth O.

    2015-01-01

    Wastewater treatment facilities are known sources of fresh water pollution. This study was carried out from January to June 2014 to assess the reduction efficiency of some selected contaminants in the Thohoyandou wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The pH and electrical conductivity of the effluent fell within the South African wastewater discharge guidelines. The WWTP showed the chemical oxygen demand reduction efficiency required by the Department of Water Affairs (DWA) guidelines of 75 mg/L for the months of April and June, although it was below this standard in March and May. Free chlorine concentration varied between 0.26–0.96 mg/L and exceeded the DWA guideline value of 0.25 mg/L. The concentration of nitrate-nitrogen (NO3− N) in the influent and effluent varied between 0.499–2.31 mg/L and 7.545–19.413 mg/L, respectively. The concentration of NO3− N in the effluent complied with DWA effluent discharge standard of 15 mg/L, except in April and May. Phosphate concentrations in the influent and effluent were in the ranges of 0.552–42.646 mg/L and 1.572–32.554 mg/L, respectively. The WWTP showed reduction efficiencies of E. coli and Enterococci during some sampling periods but the level found in the effluent exceeded the recommended guideline value of 1000 cfu/100 mL for faecal indicator organisms in wastewater effluents. Consistent removal efficiencies were observed for Al (32–74%), Fe (7–32%) and Zn (24–94%) in most of the sampling months. In conclusion, the Thohoyandou WWTP is inefficient in treating wastewater to the acceptable quality before discharge. PMID:26132481

  11. Removal Efficiency of Faecal Indicator Organisms, Nutrients and Heavy Metals from a Peri-Urban Wastewater Treatment Plant in Thohoyandou, Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Edokpayi, Joshua N; Odiyo, John O; Msagati, Titus A M; Popoola, Elizabeth O

    2015-07-01

    Wastewater treatment facilities are known sources of fresh water pollution. This study was carried out from January to June 2014 to assess the reduction efficiency of some selected contaminants in the Thohoyandou wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The pH and electrical conductivity of the effluent fell within the South African wastewater discharge guidelines. The WWTP showed the chemical oxygen demand reduction efficiency required by the Department of Water Affairs (DWA) guidelines of 75 mg/L for the months of April and June, although it was below this standard in March and May. Free chlorine concentration varied between 0.26-0.96 mg/L and exceeded the DWA guideline value of 0.25 mg/L. The concentration of nitrate-nitrogen (NO3(-) N) in the influent and effluent varied between 0.499-2.31 mg/L and 7.545-19.413 mg/L, respectively. The concentration of NO3- N in the effluent complied with DWA effluent discharge standard of 15 mg/L, except in April and May. Phosphate concentrations in the influent and effluent were in the ranges of 0.552-42.646 mg/L and 1.572-32.554 mg/L, respectively. The WWTP showed reduction efficiencies of E. coli and Enterococci during some sampling periods but the level found in the effluent exceeded the recommended guideline value of 1000 cfu/100 mL for faecal indicator organisms in wastewater effluents. Consistent removal efficiencies were observed for Al (32-74%), Fe (7-32%) and Zn (24-94%) in most of the sampling months. In conclusion, the Thohoyandou WWTP is inefficient in treating wastewater to the acceptable quality before discharge. PMID:26132481

  12. Non-storm water discharges technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Mathews, S.

    1994-07-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) submitted a Notice of Intent to the California State Water Resources Control Board (hereafter State Board) to discharge storm water associated with industrial activities under the California General Industrial Activity Storm Water National Pollutant Elimination System Discharge Permit (hereafter General Permit). As required by the General Permit, LLNL provided initial notification of non-storm water discharges to the Central Valley Regional Water Quality Control Board (hereafter Regional Board) on October 2, 1992. Additional findings and progress towards corrective actions were reported in subsequent annual monitoring reports. LLNL was granted until March 27, 1995, three years from the Notice of Intent submission date, to eliminate or permit the non-storm water discharges. On May 20, 1994, the Regional Board issued Waste Discharge Requirements (WDR Board Order No. 94-131, NPDES No. CA0081396) to LLNL for discharges of non-contact cooling tower wastewater and storm water related to industrial activities. As a result of the issuance of WDR 94-131, LLNL rescinded its coverage under the General Permit. WDR 94-131 allowed continued non-storm water discharges and requested a technical report describing the discharges LLNL seeks to permit. For the described discharges, LLNL anticipates the Regional Board will either waive Waste Discharge Requirements as allowed for in The Water Quality Control Plan for the California Regional Water Quality Control Board, Central Valley Region (hereafter Basin Plan) or amend Board Order 94-131 as appropriate.

  13. 33 CFR 159.319 - Fecal coliform and total suspended solids standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... standards. (a) Treated sewage effluent discharges. Until such time as the Administrator promulgates effluent discharge standards for treated sewage, treated sewage effluent discharges in the applicable waters...

  14. 33 CFR 159.319 - Fecal coliform and total suspended solids standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... standards. (a) Treated sewage effluent discharges. Until such time as the Administrator promulgates effluent discharge standards for treated sewage, treated sewage effluent discharges in the applicable waters...

  15. 33 CFR 159.319 - Fecal coliform and total suspended solids standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... standards. (a) Treated sewage effluent discharges. Until such time as the Administrator promulgates effluent discharge standards for treated sewage, treated sewage effluent discharges in the applicable waters...

  16. 33 CFR 159.319 - Fecal coliform and total suspended solids standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... standards. (a) Treated sewage effluent discharges. Until such time as the Administrator promulgates effluent discharge standards for treated sewage, treated sewage effluent discharges in the applicable waters...

  17. 40 CFR 63.647 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries § 63.647 Wastewater provisions... permitted limits shall constitute a violation of the emission standards. Failure to perform required...

  18. 40 CFR 63.647 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries § 63.647 Wastewater provisions... permitted limits shall constitute a violation of the emission standards. Failure to perform required...

  19. Algal-based, single-step treatment of urban wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Henkanatte-Gedera, S M; Selvaratnam, T; Caskan, N; Nirmalakhandan, N; Van Voorhies, W; Lammers, Peter J

    2015-08-01

    Currently, urban wastewaters (UWW) laden with organic carbon (BOD) and nutrients (ammoniacal nitrogen, N, and phosphates, P) are treated in multi-stage, energy-intensive process trains to meet the mandated discharge standards. This study presents a single-step process based on mixotrophic metabolism for simultaneous removal of carbon and nutrients from UWWs. The proposed system is designed specifically for hot, arid environments utilizing an acidophilic, thermotolerant algal species, Galdieria sulphuraria, and an enclosed photobioreactor to limit evaporation. Removal rates of BOD, N, and P recorded in this study (14.93, 7.23, and 1.38 mg L(-1) d(-1), respectively) are comparable to literature reports. These results confirm that the mixotrophic system can reduce the energy costs associated with oxygen supply in current UWW treatment systems, and has the potential to generate more energy-rich biomass for net energy extraction from UWW.

  20. Electrocoagulation of vegetable oil refinery wastewater using aluminum electrodes.

    PubMed

    Tezcan Un, Umran; Koparal, A Savas; Bakir Ogutveren, Ulker

    2009-01-01

    Electrocoagulation with aluminum electrodes was used to treat the vegetable oil refinery wastewater (VORW) in a batch reactor. The effects of operating parameters such as pH, current density, PAC (poly aluminum chloride) dosage and Na(2)SO(4) dosage on the removal of organics and COD removal efficiency have been investigated. It has been shown that the removal efficiency of COD increased with the increasing applied current density and increasing PAC and Na(2)SO(4) dosage and the most effective removal capacity was achieved at the pH 7. The results indicate that electrocoagulation is very efficient and able to achieve 98.9% COD removal in 90 min at 35 mAcm(-2) with a specific electrical energy consumption of 42 kWh(kgCOD(removed))(-1). The effluent was very clear and its quality exceeded the direct discharge standard.

  1. Modified Whole Effluent Toxicity Test to Assess and Decouple Wastewater Effects from Environmental Gradients

    PubMed Central

    Sauco, Sebastián; Gómez, Julio; Barboza, Francisco R.; Lercari, Diego; Defeo, Omar

    2013-01-01

    Environmental gradients and wastewater discharges produce aggregated effects on marine populations, obscuring the detection of human impact. Classical assessment methods do not include environmental effects in toxicity tests designs, which could lead to incorrect conclusions. We proposed a modified Whole Effluent Toxicity test (mWET) that includes environmental gradients in addition to effluent dilutions, together with the application of Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMM) to assess and decouple those effects. We tested this approach, analyzing the lethal effects of wastewater on a marine sandy beach bivalve affected by an artificial canal freshwater discharge used for rice crops irrigation. To this end, we compared bivalve mortality between canal water dilutions (CWd) and salinity controls (SC: without canal water). CWd were prepared by diluting the water effluent (sampled during the pesticide application period) with artificial marine water. The salinity gradient was included in the design by achieving the same final salinities in both CWd and SC, allowing us to account for the effects of salinity by including this variable as a random factor in the GLMM. Our approach detected significantly higher mortalities in CWd, indicating potential toxic effects of the effluent discharge. mWET represents an improvement over the internationally standardized WET tests, since it considers environmental variability and uses appropriate statistical analyses. PMID:23755304

  2. Discharge borders wars

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, N.J. )

    1991-05-01

    This article discusses the impact of a downstream state's standards on the application for a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit by a downstream state as recently explained in a federal court of appeals decision. The litigation discussed included the EPA and the states of Oklahoma and Arkansas. Topics covered include a description of the situation that brought about the litigation, the initial ruling by the EPA and the federal court's reasoning for the final outcome.

  3. Life cycle water consumption and wastewater generation impacts of a Marcellus shale gas well.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Mohan; Hendrickson, Chris T; VanBriesen, Jeanne M

    2014-01-01

    This study estimates the life cycle water consumption and wastewater generation impacts of a Marcellus shale gas well from its construction to end of life. Direct water consumption at the well site was assessed by analysis of data from approximately 500 individual well completion reports collected in 2010 by the Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources. Indirect water consumption for supply chain production at each life cycle stage of the well was estimated using the economic input-output life cycle assessment (EIO-LCA) method. Life cycle direct and indirect water quality pollution impacts were assessed and compared using the tool for the reduction and assessment of chemical and other environmental impacts (TRACI). Wastewater treatment cost was proposed as an additional indicator for water quality pollution impacts from shale gas well wastewater. Four water management scenarios for Marcellus shale well wastewater were assessed: current conditions in Pennsylvania; complete discharge; direct reuse and desalination; and complete desalination. The results show that under the current conditions, an average Marcellus shale gas well consumes 20,000 m(3) (with a range from 6700 to 33,000 m(3)) of freshwater per well over its life cycle excluding final gas utilization, with 65% direct water consumption at the well site and 35% indirect water consumption across the supply chain production. If all flowback and produced water is released into the environment without treatment, direct wastewater from a Marcellus shale gas well is estimated to have 300-3000 kg N-eq eutrophication potential, 900-23,000 kg 2,4D-eq freshwater ecotoxicity potential, 0-370 kg benzene-eq carcinogenic potential, and 2800-71,000 MT toluene-eq noncarcinogenic potential. The potential toxicity of the chemicals in the wastewater from the well site exceeds those associated with supply chain production, except for carcinogenic effects. If all the Marcellus shale well wastewater is

  4. Life Cycle Water Consumption and Wastewater Generation Impacts of a Marcellus Shale Gas Well

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    wastewater is treated to surface discharge standards by desalination, $59 000–270 000 per well would be required. The life cycle study results indicate that when gas end use is not considered hydraulic fracturing is the largest contributor to the life cycle water impacts of a Marcellus shale gas well. PMID:24380628

  5. 96 h LC50, behavioural alterations and histopathological effects due to wastewater toxicity in a freshwater fish Channa punctatus.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Rajbir; Dua, Anish

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the toxic impact of wastewater from sites 1 and 2 of Tung Dhab drain in the state of Punjab, India, on fish behaviour, morphology and gill histopathological biomarkers in comparison to control group. Static non-renewal tests were conducted for 96 h to determine LC50 of the wastewater for both sites using five concentrations (6.25-100%). Fish were regularly noticed for any deviation in behaviour and external morphology. Physico-chemical analysis of wastewater was done using standard methods recommended by APHA/AWWA/WEF (2005). Chronic toxicity tests were conducted for 15 and 30 days with sublethal concentrations of wastewater (50-90% of LC50) and gill histopathology was assessed. Wastewater near a paper mill was more toxic as observed from LC50 values of 72.45%. There was evident deterioration of water quality as the recorded values of some parameters were higher than the standard discharge limits. The test fish exhibited increased air gulping and surfacing, erratic movements initially and decreased opercular movements as the exposure period increased. Morphological observations include increased body colouration, mucus secretion, scale loss and haemorrhages on the skin and lower lip. Alterations in the gill histology such as complete lamellar fusion, epithelial lifting and intraepithelial oedema, haemorrhages, lamellar necrosis and aneurysm were noted in the test fish. Results demonstrate that the fish exposed to wastewater from both sites showed significantly greater change in gill organ index (IG) as compared to control fish for 15 and 30 days.

  6. Simplified Laboratory Procedures for Wastewater Examination. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Water Pollution Control Federation, Washington, DC.

    This booklet is for wastewater treatment plant operators who find it difficult to follow the detailed discussions and procedures found in "Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater." It is intended to be used with "Standard Methods" available for reference. Included in this publication are chapters on laboratory procedures,…

  7. Ulcerative colitis - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Inflammatory bowel disease - ulcerative colitis - discharge; Ulcerative proctitis - discharge; Colitis - discharge ... were in the hospital because you have ulcerative colitis. This is a swelling of the inner lining ...

  8. Winery wastewater treatment using the land filter technique.

    PubMed

    Christen, E W; Quayle, W C; Marcoux, M A; Arienzo, M; Jayawardane, N S

    2010-08-01

    This study outlines a new approach to the treatment of winery wastewater by application to a land FILTER (Filtration and Irrigated cropping for Land Treatment and Effluent Reuse) system. The land FILTER system was tested at a medium size rural winery crushing approximately 20,000 tonnes of grapes. The approach consisted of a preliminary treatment through a coarse screening and settling in treatment ponds, followed by application to the land FILTER planted to pasture. The land FILTER system efficiently dealt with variable volumes and nutrient loads in the wastewater. It was operated to minimize pollutant loads in the treated water (subsurface drainage) and provide adequate leaching to manage salt in the soil profile. The land FILTER system was effective in neutralizing the pH of the wastewater and removing nutrient pollutants to meet EPA discharge limits. However, suspended solids (SS) and biological oxygen demand (BOD) levels in the subsurface drainage waters slightly exceeded EPA limits for discharge. The high organic content in the wastewater initially caused some soil blockage and impeded drainage in the land FILTER site. This was addressed by reducing the hydraulic loading rate to allow increased soil drying between wastewater irrigations. The analysis of soil characteristics after the application of wastewater found that there was some potassium accumulation in the profile but sodium and nutrients decreased after wastewater application. Thus, the wastewater application and provision of subsurface drainage ensured adequate leaching, and so was adequate to avoid the risk of soil salinisation.

  9. Impact of sewage discharges on coastal water quality of Mumbai, India: present and future scenarios.

    PubMed

    Vijay, Ritesh; Mardikar, Trupti; Kumar, Rakesh

    2016-07-01

    The simulation study assesses the impact of sewage discharges on the present and predicted water quality of the Mumbai coast using MIKE 21. Water quality parameters in terms of dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and faecal coliform (FC) are checked against specified standards. The simulation is validated for the present coastal hydrodynamics and observed water quality parameters. The validated model is further used for predicting scenarios in terms of upgradation in a pumping station and improvement in wastewater collection, treatment level and disposal systems. The water quality of the existing coastal environment does not conform to the stipulated standards but improves considerably in the prediction scenarios. However, despite a marked improvement in FC, it is not as per desired standards as no treatment for bacteria removal is considered. The simulation study emphasizes the need for exploring options like the reuse or recycle of treated effluent, as an effort for water conservation.

  10. Removal of organic pollutants from 2,2',5,5'-tetrachlorobenzidine (TCB) industrial wastewater by micro-electrochemical oxidation and air-stripping.

    PubMed

    Shibin, Xia; Shuichun, Xia; Changqing, Zhu

    2007-06-01

    A feasible method for treatment of the wastewater from the two-staged neutralization in 2,2',5,5'-tetrachlorobenzidine (TCB) manufacturing processes, a refractory dye intermediate effluents, based on combined micro-electrochemical oxidation or iron-chipping filtration (ICF) and air-stripping reactor (ASR), was developed. On conditions of HRT 1h, pH 3.0 in ICF and HRT 38 h, gas-liquid ratio 15, pH 6.0-8.65, temperature 26 degrees C in ASR, the overall COD, color, TCB and NH(4)(+)-N removal were 96.8%, 91%, 87.61% and 62%, respectively, during the treatment of TCB wastewater from the two-staged neutralization dissolved by methanol. The averaged 18.3%, 81.7% of the total degraded COD, 35.2%, 64.8% of TCB were carried out in ICF and ASR, respectively. NH(4)(+)-N removal was finished mainly in ASR. The experimental results indicated that the combined micro-electrochemical oxidation and air-stripping process performed good treatment of COD, color, TCB and NH(4)(+)-N removal in TCB wastewater from the two-staged neutralization dissolved by ethanol or acetone, came up the discharge standard in China. But the TCB wastewater from the two-staged neutralization dissolved by methanol should be deeply treated before discharged.

  11. Removal of organic pollutants from 2,2',5,5'-tetrachlorobenzidine (TCB) industrial wastewater by micro-electrochemical oxidation and air-stripping.

    PubMed

    Shibin, Xia; Shuichun, Xia; Changqing, Zhu

    2007-06-01

    A feasible method for treatment of the wastewater from the two-staged neutralization in 2,2',5,5'-tetrachlorobenzidine (TCB) manufacturing processes, a refractory dye intermediate effluents, based on combined micro-electrochemical oxidation or iron-chipping filtration (ICF) and air-stripping reactor (ASR), was developed. On conditions of HRT 1h, pH 3.0 in ICF and HRT 38 h, gas-liquid ratio 15, pH 6.0-8.65, temperature 26 degrees C in ASR, the overall COD, color, TCB and NH(4)(+)-N removal were 96.8%, 91%, 87.61% and 62%, respectively, during the treatment of TCB wastewater from the two-staged neutralization dissolved by methanol. The averaged 18.3%, 81.7% of the total degraded COD, 35.2%, 64.8% of TCB were carried out in ICF and ASR, respectively. NH(4)(+)-N removal was finished mainly in ASR. The experimental results indicated that the combined micro-electrochemical oxidation and air-stripping process performed good treatment of COD, color, TCB and NH(4)(+)-N removal in TCB wastewater from the two-staged neutralization dissolved by ethanol or acetone, came up the discharge standard in China. But the TCB wastewater from the two-staged neutralization dissolved by methanol should be deeply treated before discharged. PMID:17118553

  12. [Source identification of toxic wastewaters in a petrochemical industrial park].

    PubMed

    Yang, Qian; Yu, Yin; Zhou, Yue-Xi; Chen, Xue-Min; Fu, Xiao-Yong; Wang, Miao

    2014-12-01

    Petrochemical wastewaters have toxic impacts on the microorganisms in biotreatment processes, which are prone to cause deterioration of effluent quality of the wastewater treatment plants. In this study, the inhibition effects of activated sludge's oxygen consumption were tested to evaluate the toxicity of production wastewaters in a petrochemical industrial park. The evaluation covered the wastewaters from not only different production units in the park, but also different production nodes in each unit. No direct correlation was observed between the toxicity effects and the organic contents, suggesting that the toxic properties of the effluents could not be predicted by the organic contents. In view of the variation of activated sludge sensitivity among different tests, the toxicity data were standardized according to the concentration-effect relationships of the standard toxic substance 3, 5-dichlorophenol on each day, in order to improve the comparability among the toxicity data. Furthermore, the Quality Emission Load (QEL) of corresponding standard toxic substance was calculated by multiplying the corresponding 3, 5-dichlorophenol concentration and the wastewater flow quantity, to indicate the toxicity emission contribution of each wastewater to the wastewater treatment plant. According to the rank list of the toxicity contribution of wastewater from different units and nodes, the sources of toxic wastewater in the petrochemical industrial park were clearly identified. This study provides effective guidance for source control of wastewater toxicity in the large industrial park.

  13. Toxicity Appraisal of Untreated Dyeing Industry Wastewater Based on Chemical Characterization and Short Term Bioassays.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Muhammad Furqan; Ashraf, Muhammad; Javeed, Aqeel; Anjum, Aftab Ahmad; Sharif, Ali; Saleem, Ammara; Akhtar, Bushra; Khan, Abdul Muqeet; Altaf, Imran

    2016-04-01

    Characterizing wastewaters only on a chemical basis may be insufficient owing to their complex nature. The purpose of this study was to assess toxicity of textile dyeing wastewater based on analytical techniques and short term toxicity based bioassays. In this study, screening of the fractionated wastewater through GC-MS showed the presence of phenols, phthalic acid derivatives and chlorpyrifos. Metal analysis revealed that chromium, arsenic and mercury were present in amounts higher than the wastewater discharge limits. Textile dyeing wastewater was found to be highly mutagenic in the Ames test. DNA damage in sheep lymphocytes decreased linearly with an increase in the dilution of wastewater. MTT assay showed that 8.3 percent v/v wastewater decreased cell survival percentage to 50 %. It can be concluded from this study that short term toxicity tests such as Ames test, in vitro comet assay, and cytotoxicity assays may serve as useful indicators of wastewater pollution along with their organic and inorganic chemical characterizations.

  14. Gastroesophageal reflux - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Peptic esophagitis - discharge; Reflux esophagitis - discharge; GERD - discharge; Heartburn - chronic - discharge ... You have gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). This is a condition in which food or liquid travels backwards from the stomach to the ...

  15. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... ventriculoperitoneal - discharge; VP shunt - discharge; Shunt revision - discharge; Hydrocephalus shunt placement - discharge ... Your child has hydrocephalus and needed a shunt placed to drain excess fluid and relieve pressure in the brain. This buildup of brain ...

  16. Gastric bypass surgery - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... bypass - discharge; Gastric bypass - Roux-en-Y - discharge; Obesity gastric bypass discharge; Weight loss - gastric bypass discharge ... al. Bariatric surgery versus non-surgical treatment for obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised ...

  17. Textile wastewater treatment: aerobic granular sludge vs activated sludge systems.

    PubMed

    Lotito, Adriana Maria; De Sanctis, Marco; Di Iaconi, Claudio; Bergna, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    Textile effluents are characterised by high content of recalcitrant compounds and are often discharged (together with municipal wastewater to increase their treatability) into centralized wastewater treatment plants with a complex treatment scheme. This paper reports the results achieved adopting a granular sludge system (sequencing batch biofilter granular reactor - SBBGR) to treat mixed municipal-textile wastewater. Thanks to high average removals in SBBGR (82.1% chemical oxygen demand, 94.7% total suspended solids, 87.5% total Kjeldahl nitrogen, 77.1% surfactants), the Italian limits for discharge into a water receiver can be complied with the biological stage alone. The comparison with the performance of the centralized plant treating the same wastewater has showed that SBBGR system is able to produce an effluent of comparable quality with a simpler treatment scheme, a much lower hydraulic residence time (11 h against 30 h) and a lower sludge production.

  18. A framework for the decentralised management of wastewater in Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nhapi, Innocent

    The traditional wastewater management style is now presenting some problems, having evolved from a situation of small communities, little industrial activities, and abundance of freshwater. The style is characterized by high water consumption and large treatment plants that employ sophisticated treatment systems with final effluent discharged to rivers. This paper focuses on analysis and development of an alternative strategy of decentralised wastewater management in Zimbabwe. Serious pollution problems related to inappropriate effluent discharges are prevalent necessitating an efficient and reliable strategy of controlling environmental pollution whilst obtaining optimal benefits from wastewater reuse. A conceptual plan for the decentralised strategy was developed taking into account capital and operational costs, wastewater generation patterns and quality, and urban agriculture. Maize cultivation was used to illustrate the implications of water and nutrient utilisation potential of the strategy. It was concluded that the strategy would suit high and medium density dwellings in Zimbabwe and that greywater separation can be used as part of the strategy.

  19. Verification of water-quality model to simulate effects of discharging treated wastewater during ice-cover conditions to the Red River of the North at Fargo, North Dakota, and Moorhead, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wesolowski, E.A.

    1995-01-01

    The Red River at Fargo Water-Quality (RRatFGO QW) Model, which used the Enhanced Stream Water Quality Model (QUAL2E) computer program, was calibrated and verified for ice-free conditions. The purpose of this study was to verify the model for ice-cover conditions using the same Red River of the North study reach that was used for ice-free conditions. The study reach begins about 0.1 mile downstream of the 12th Avenue North bridge in Fargo, North Dakota, and extends 30.8 miles downstream to a site 0.8 mile upstream of the confluence of the Buffalo River and the Red River of the North. The study reach receives treated wastewater outflow from municipal wastewater-treatment plants at Fargo, North Dakota, and Moorhead, Minnesota, and inflow from the Sheyenne River. For simulations conducted for ice-cover conditions, the RRatFGO QW Model will be referred to as the Red River at Fargo Ice-Cover Water-Quality (RRatFGOIC QW) Model. Streamflow measurements were made at 10 sites during February 21-24, 1995, and water-quality samples were collected and field properties were measured at 12 sites during February 23-24, 1995. Properties and constituents analyzed for include specific conductance, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, 5-day carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand, total nitrite (reported as nitrogen), total nitrite plus nitrate (reported as nitrogen), total ammonia (reported as nitrogen), total organic nitrogen (reported as nitrogen), total phosphorus (reported as phosphorus), chlorophyll a, and algal biomass. The RRatFGOIC QW Model simulated streamflow, specific conductance, total organic nitrogen, total ammonia, total nitrite, total nitrite plus nitrate, 5-day carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand, and dissolved oxygen. The model was considered verified for ice-cover conditions for all of the values or concentrations simulated except for the total organic nitrogen concentrations. Based on the results of this study, the QUAL2E Model computer program that was

  20. Interstitial lung disease - adults - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Diffuse parenchymal lung disease - discharge; Alveolitis - discharge; Idiopathic pulmonary pneumonitis - discharge; IPP - discharge; Chronic interstitial lung - discharge; Chronic respiratory interstitial lung - ...

  1. Treatment of car wash wastewater by UF membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Istirokhatun, Titik; Destianti, Puti; Hargianintya, Adenira; Oktiawan, Wiharyanto; Susanto, Heru

    2015-12-01

    The existence of car wash service facilitates car owners to remove dirt and grime from their vehicles. However, the dirt washed off vehicles as well as the cleaning materials themselves may be harmful to the environment if they are not properly managed and discharged. Many technologies have been proposed to treat car wash wastewater such as coagulation flocculation, tricking filter and flocculation-flotation. Nevertheless, these technologies have low efficiency to eliminate oil and small organic compounds. Ultrafiltration (UF) membranes were used in this study to treat car wash wastewater. This study investigated the performance of UF membranes under various pressures to remove COD, oil and grease, and also turbidity from car wash waste water. The membrane performance was examined by investigation of permeate flux and membrane rejection. The results meet the standard of environmental regulation and it is possible to be reused. The highest rejection was shown by PES10 (polyethersulfone 10 kDa) in 1 bar operation with complete rejection for both turbidity and oil and grace and 95% rejection for COD.

  2. Poultry slaughterhouse wastewater treatment plant for high quality effluent.

    PubMed

    Del Nery, V; Damianovic, M H Z; Moura, R B; Pozzi, E; Pires, E C; Foresti, E

    2016-01-01

    This paper assesses a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) regarding the technology used, as well as organic matter and nutrient removal efficiencies aiming to optimize the treatment processes involved and wastewater reclamation. The WWTP consists of a dissolved air flotation (DAF) system, an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor, an aerated-facultative pond (AFP) and a chemical-DAF system. The removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD) (97.9 ± 1.0%), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) (98.6 ± 1.0%) and oil and grease (O&G) (91.1 ± 5.2%) at the WWTP, the nitrogen concentration of 17 ± 11 mg N-NH3 and phosphorus concentration of 1.34 ± 0.93 mg PO4(-3)/L in the final effluent indicate that the processes used are suitable to comply with discharge standards in water bodies. Nitrification and denitrification tests conducted using biomass collected at three AFP points indicated that nitrification and denitrification could take place in the pond.

  3. Poultry slaughterhouse wastewater treatment plant for high quality effluent.

    PubMed

    Del Nery, V; Damianovic, M H Z; Moura, R B; Pozzi, E; Pires, E C; Foresti, E

    2016-01-01

    This paper assesses a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) regarding the technology used, as well as organic matter and nutrient removal efficiencies aiming to optimize the treatment processes involved and wastewater reclamation. The WWTP consists of a dissolved air flotation (DAF) system, an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor, an aerated-facultative pond (AFP) and a chemical-DAF system. The removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD) (97.9 ± 1.0%), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) (98.6 ± 1.0%) and oil and grease (O&G) (91.1 ± 5.2%) at the WWTP, the nitrogen concentration of 17 ± 11 mg N-NH3 and phosphorus concentration of 1.34 ± 0.93 mg PO4(-3)/L in the final effluent indicate that the processes used are suitable to comply with discharge standards in water bodies. Nitrification and denitrification tests conducted using biomass collected at three AFP points indicated that nitrification and denitrification could take place in the pond. PMID:26819386

  4. Central treatment of different emulsion wastewaters by an integrated process of physicochemically enhanced ultrafiltration and anaerobic-aerobic biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weijun; Xiao, Ping; Wang, Dongsheng

    2014-05-01

    The feasibility of an integrated process of ultrafiltration (UF) enhanced by combined chemical emulsion breaking with vibratory shear and anaerobic/aerobic biofilm reactor for central treatment of different emulsion wastewaters was investigated. Firstly, it was found that calcium chloride exhibited better performance in oil removal than other inorganic salts. Chemical demulsification pretreatment could efficiently improve oil removal and membrane filtration in emulsion wastewater treatment by VSEP. According to aerobic batch bioassay, UF permeate exhibited good biodegradability and could be further treated with biological process. Additionally, pilot test indicated that anaerobic-aerobic biofilm exhibited an excellent ability against rise in organic loading and overall chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of biological system was more than 93% of which 82% corresponded to the anaerobic process and 11% to the aerobic degradation. The final effluent of integrated process could meet the "water quality standards for discharge to municipal sewers" in China.

  5. A study on influential factors of high-phosphorus wastewater treated by electrocoagulation-ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiangping; Song, Chen; Su, Yixin; Long, Hai; Huang, Ta; Yeabah, Trokon Omarley; Wu, Wei

    2013-08-01

    A combined treatment of electrocoagulation and ultrasound was proposed to solve some problems which exist in the phosphorus removal processes in fine chemical industry. The intermittently discharged wastewater has the features of high initial phosphorus concentration and wide initial pH variation. The electrocoagulation-ultrasound effective performance for the removal of phosphorus was investigated. The results obtained from synthetic wastewater showed that the total phosphorus (TP) decreased from 86 to about 0.4 mg/L, and the removal efficiency reached about 99.6 %, when ultrasound was applied to the electrocoagulation cell under the optimum working conditions in 10 min. Comparatively, the TP removal efficiency of electrocoagulation group was 81.3 % and the ultrasound group has almost no change. Therefore, we can conclude that the electrocoagulation and ultrasound synergistic effect can effectively degrade high-phosphorus wastewater. We have discussed the impact of various parameters on the electrocoagulation-ultrasound based on the phosphorus removal efficiency. The results obtained from synthetic wastewater showed that the optimum working pH was found to be 6, allowing the effluent to be met the emission standards without pH adjustment. An increased current enhanced the speed of treatment significance, but higher current (>40 mA/cm(2)) enhanced ultrasonic cavitation effect causing flocculation ineffective. In addition, it was found that the optimum ultrasonic power was 4 W/cm(2) and the frequency was 20 kHz. The best ultrasound intervention and ultrasonic irradiation time were processed with electrocoagulation simultaneously. The results indicated that the electrocoagulation-ultrasound could be utilized as an attractive technique for removal of phosphate in the real wastewater.

  6. Wastewater irrigation and environmental health: implications for water governance and public policy.

    PubMed

    Hanjra, Munir A; Blackwell, John; Carr, Gemma; Zhang, Fenghua; Jackson, Tamara M

    2012-04-01

    Climate change is a large-scale and emerging environmental risk. It challenges environmental health and the sustainability of global development. Wastewater irrigation can make a sterling contribution to reducing water demand, recycling nutrients, improving soil health and cutting the amount of pollutants discharged into the waterways. However, the resource must be carefully managed to protect the environment and public health. Actions promoting wastewater reuse are every where, yet the frameworks for the protection of human health and the environment are lacking in most developing countries. Global change drivers including climate change, population growth, urbanization, income growth, improvements in living standard, industrialization, and energy intensive lifestyle will all heighten water management challenges. Slowing productivity growth, falling investment in irrigation, loss of biodiversity, risks to public health, environmental health issues such as soil salinity, land degradation, land cover change and water quality issues add an additional layer of complexity. Against this backdrop, the potential for wastewater irrigation and its benefits and risks are examined. These include crop productivity, aquaculture, soil health, groundwater quality, environmental health, public health, infrastructure constraints, social concerns and risks, property values, social equity, and poverty reduction. It is argued that, wastewater reuse and nutrient capture can contribute towards climate change adaptation and mitigation. Benefits such as avoided freshwater pumping and energy savings, fertilizer savings, phosphorous capture and prevention of mineral fertilizer extraction from mines can reduce carbon footprint and earn carbon credits. Wastewater reuse in agriculture reduces the water footprint of food production on the environment; it also entails activities such as higher crop yields and changes in cropping patterns, which also reduce carbon footprint. However, there is a

  7. Performance of an overland flow system for advanced treatment of wastewater plant effluent.

    PubMed

    Taebi, Amir; Droste, Ronald L

    2008-09-01

    Overland flow (OF) systems were evaluated and compared for advanced treatment of municipal and industrial effluents, including nutrients and nondegradable chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal. Three pilot plants were constructed at the Shahin Shahr Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP), Isfahan, Iran. Each pilot was assigned a specific wastewater and all were simultaneously operated for 8 months. Treatment of primary effluent, activated sludge secondary effluent, and lagoon effluent of textile wastewater was investigated at application rates (ARs) of 0.15, 0.25, and 0.35 m(3)m(-1)h(-1). During 5 months of stable operation after a 3-month acclimation period, mean removals of total 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (TBOD(5)), total COD (TCOD), total suspended solids (TSS), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and turbidity were 74.5%, 54.8%, 66.2%, 39.4%, 35.8%, and 67.7% for primary effluent; 52.9%, 52.9%, 66.5%, 44.4%, 39.8%, and 50.1% for activated sludge effluent; 65.7%, 58.7%, 70.3%, 41.7%, 41.3%, and 54.9% for textile wastewater lagoon effluent, respectively. The model of Smith and Schroeder, 1985. Field studies of the overland flow process for the treatment of raw and primary treated municipal wastewater. Journal of Water Pollution Control Federation 57, 785-794] was satisfactory for TBOD(5). For all treatment parameters a standard first-order removal model was inadequate to represent the data but a modified first-order model provided a satisfactory fit to the data. Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that an OF system as advanced treatment had the ability to meet effluent discharge permit limits and was an economical replacement for stabilization ponds and mechanical treatment options. PMID:17499907

  8. Wastewater irrigation and environmental health: implications for water governance and public policy.

    PubMed

    Hanjra, Munir A; Blackwell, John; Carr, Gemma; Zhang, Fenghua; Jackson, Tamara M

    2012-04-01

    Climate change is a large-scale and emerging environmental risk. It challenges environmental health and the sustainability of global development. Wastewater irrigation can make a sterling contribution to reducing water demand, recycling nutrients, improving soil health and cutting the amount of pollutants discharged into the waterways. However, the resource must be carefully managed to protect the environment and public health. Actions promoting wastewater reuse are every where, yet the frameworks for the protection of human health and the environment are lacking in most developing countries. Global change drivers including climate change, population growth, urbanization, income growth, improvements in living standard, industrialization, and energy intensive lifestyle will all heighten water management challenges. Slowing productivity growth, falling investment in irrigation, loss of biodiversity, risks to public health, environmental health issues such as soil salinity, land degradation, land cover change and water quality issues add an additional layer of complexity. Against this backdrop, the potential for wastewater irrigation and its benefits and risks are examined. These include crop productivity, aquaculture, soil health, groundwater quality, environmental health, public health, infrastructure constraints, social concerns and risks, property values, social equity, and poverty reduction. It is argued that, wastewater reuse and nutrient capture can contribute towards climate change adaptation and mitigation. Benefits such as avoided freshwater pumping and energy savings, fertilizer savings, phosphorous capture and prevention of mineral fertilizer extraction from mines can reduce carbon footprint and earn carbon credits. Wastewater reuse in agriculture reduces the water footprint of food production on the environment; it also entails activities such as higher crop yields and changes in cropping patterns, which also reduce carbon footprint. However, there is a

  9. Ion exchange extraction of heavy metals from wastewater sludges.

    PubMed

    Al-Enezi, G; Hamoda, M F; Fawzi, N

    2004-01-01

    Heavy metals are common contaminants of some industrial wastewater. They find their way to municipal wastewaters due to industrial discharges into the sewerage system or through household chemicals. The most common heavy metals found in wastewaters are lead, copper, nickel, cadmium, zinc, mercury, arsenic, and chromium. Such metals are toxic and pose serious threats to the environment and public health. In recent years, the ion exchange process has been increasingly used for the removal of heavy metals or the recovery of precious metals. It is a versatile separation process with the potential for broad applications in the water and wastewater treatment field. This article summarizes the results obtained from a laboratory study on the removal of heavy metals from municipal wastewater sludges obtained from Ardhiya plant in Kuwait. Data on heavy metal content of the wastewater and sludge samples collected from the plant are presented. The results obtained from laboratory experiments using a commercially available ion exchange resin to remove heavy metals from sludge were discussed. A technique was developed to solubilize such heavy metals from the sludge for subsequent treatment by the ion exchange process. The results showed high efficiency of extraction, almost 99.9%, of heavy metals in the concentration range bound in wastewater effluents and sludges. Selective removal of heavy metals from a contaminated wastewater/sludge combines the benefits of being economically prudent and providing the possibility of reuse/recycle of the treated wastewater effluents and sludges.

  10. Evaluation of removal efficiency for acute toxicity and genotoxicity on zebrafish in anoxic-oxic process from selected municipal wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Yaobin; Liu, Wei; Quan, Xie; Chen, Shuo; Zhao, Huimin; Jin, Yihe; Zhang, Wenjuan

    2013-03-01

    The anoxic-oxic (A/O) process has been extensively applied for simultaneous removal of organic contaminants and nitrogen in wastewater treatment. However, very little is known about its ability to remove toxic materials. Municipal wastewater contains various kinds of pollutants, some of which have recalcitrant genotoxicity and may cause potential threat to environment, and even can lead to extinction of many species. In this study, we have selected three municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) employing anoxic-oxic (A/O) process to evaluate their ability to remove acute toxicity and genotoxicity of wastewater. Mortality rate of zebrafish (Danio rerio) was used to evaluate acute toxicity, while micronucleus (MN) and comet assays were used to detect genotoxicity. Results showed that in this process the acute toxicity was completely removed as the treatment proceeded along with decrease in chemical oxygen demand (COD) (<50 mgL(-1)) in the effluent. However, in these treatment processes the genotoxicity was not significantly reduced, but an increase in genotoxicity was observed. Both MN and comet assays showed similar results. The eliminated effluent may pose genotoxic threaten although its COD level has met the Chinese Sewage Discharge Standard. This study suggests that further treatment of the wastewater is required after the A/O process to remove the genotoxicity and minimize the ecotoxicological risk. PMID:23260253

  11. Catalytic reduction of nitrate in secondary effluent of wastewater treatment plants by Fe(0) and Pd-Cu/γ-Al2O3.

    PubMed

    Yun, Yupan; Li, Zifu; Chen, Yi-Hung; Saino, Mayiani; Cheng, Shikun; Zheng, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Total nitrogen, in which NO3(-) is dominant in the effluent of most wastewater treatment plants, cannot meet the requirements of the Chinese wastewater discharge standard (<15 mg/L), making nitrate (NO3(-)) elimination attract considerable attention. In this study, reductant iron (Fe(0)) and γ-Al2O3 supported palladium-copper bimetallic catalysts (Pd-Cu/γ-Al2O3) were innovatively used for the chemical catalytic reduction of nitrate in wastewater. A series of specific operational conditions (such as mass ratio of Pd:Cu, catalyst amounts, reaction time and pH of solution) were optimized for nitrate reduction in the artificial solution, and then the selected optimal conditions were further applied for investigating the nitrate elimination of secondary effluent of a wastewater treatment plant in Beijing, China. Results indicated that a better catalytic performance (74% of nitrate removal and 62% of N2 selectivity) could be obtained under the optimal condition: 5 g/L Fe(0), 3:1 mass ratio (Pd:Cu), 4 g/L catalyst, 2 h reaction time and pH 5.1. It is noteworthy to point out that nitrogen gas (N2) predominated in the byproducts without another system to treat ammonium and nitrite. Therefore, the chemical catalytic reduction combining Fe(0) with Pd-Cu/γ-Al2O3 could be regarded as a better alternative for nitrate removal in wastewater treatment. PMID:27232406

  12. Pinellas Plant Accidental Discharge Protection/Slug Control Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1997-07-01

    This Accidental Discharge Protection/Slug Control Plan is in accordance with the requirements of Pinellas County Code, Chapter 126, and 40 CFR 403.8(f)(2)(v), Pretreatment Program Requirements. The plan provides guidance for the prevention of accidental slug discharges and for emergency response and cleanup measures in the event of accidental slug discharges. The plan also specifies procedures for the discharge of other substances regulated by Pinellas Plant Industrial Wastewater Permit, 153-IE, issued by the Pinellas County Utilities (PCU).

  13. Review of the wastewater situation in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Mandi, L

    2000-01-01

    Recent estimations of the wastewater production of Morocco amounted to 370 million m3 per year, and this is expected to increase to 900 million m3 by the year 2020. In most cases wastewater is discharged directly into the environment, either to the sea via short outfalls or onto farmland for irrigation or infiltration. Major improvements in the quality of wastewater are needed urgently because of the strong migration of the rural population towards the towns and the very rapid demographic expansion. Studies for Sanitation Master Plans for the main towns are currently in progress and are a first step towards meeting these requirements. Development of a national master plan for liquid sewage is a way of extending this procedure over the whole territory.

  14. Organic synthetic dye degradation by modified pinhole discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lončarić Božić, A.; Koprivanac, N.; Šunka, P.; Člupek, M.; Babický, V.

    2004-03-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the possibility of applying a high voltage pulsed electrical discharges for dye wastewater treatment. Commercial organic monochlorotriazine reactive dye of the anthraquinone type C.I. Reactive Blue 49 (RB49) was chosen as a representative of persistent and recalcitrant wastewater pollutant. The modified pinhole discharge flow-through reactor was used to treat such type of contaminant. Applying HV pulses 30 kV, 3.15 J/pulse, 50 Hz repetition rate, complete decolorisation and partial mineralization of RB49 has been reached and demonstrated by means of UV/VIS absorption, TOC and AOX measurements.

  15. Robust optimization approach to regional wastewater system planning.

    PubMed

    Zeferino, João A; Cunha, Maria C; Antunes, António P

    2012-10-30

    Wastewater systems are subject to several sources of uncertainty. Different scenarios can occur in the future, depending on the behavior of a variety of demographic, economic, environmental, and technological variables. Robust optimization approaches are aimed at finding solutions that will perform well under any likely scenario. The planning decisions to be made about wastewater system planning involve two main issues: the setup and operation costs of sewer networks, treatment plants, and possible pump stations; and the water quality parameters to be met in the water body where the (treated) wastewater is discharged. The source of uncertainty considered in this article is the flow of the river that receives the wastewater generated in a given region. Three robust optimization models for regional wastewater system planning are proposed. The models are solved using a simulated annealing algorithm enhanced with a local improvement procedure. Their application is illustrated through a case study representing a real-world situation, with the results being compared and commented upon.

  16. Wastewater reclamation for use in snow-making within an alpine resort in Australia--resource rather than waste.

    PubMed

    Tonkovic, Z; Jeffcoat, S

    2002-01-01

    The Mt Buller Alpine Resort is located approximately 200 km north of Melbourne, in Victoria, Australia. A wastewater treatment plant services the resort and currently treats to advanced nutrient removal standards. The treated effluent is presently discharged into the Howqua River. Most Australian ski resorts are not blessed with abundant snow cover on a regular basis. Artificial snow allows most of the popular ski runs to operate for the whole of the season. At the Mt Buller resort, snow-making is presently limited by lack of water supply in the catchment. The conditions at Mt Buller resort present a unique opportunity to utilise reclaimed wastewater to allow increased snow-making capacity. It is one of the unique opportunities where the wastewater is valued as a resource rather than merely viewed as a waste problem. Wastewater reclamation for snow-making will require additional treatment for pathogen removal. It is proposed that following advanced nutrient removal, the effluent will require further treatment, including membrane ultrafiltration, so as to ensure a minimum of four barriers for pathogen removal. Pilot plant operation of a membrane ultrafiltration system commenced in June 2000 and will continue until the end of 2001, to primarily demonstrate the extent of pathogen removal.

  17. 30 CFR 817.47 - Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures. 817...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.47 Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures. Discharge from sedimentation... the hydrologic balance. Discharge structures shall be designed according to standard...

  18. 30 CFR 816.47 - Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures. 816...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.47 Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures. Discharge from sedimentation... the hydrologic balance. Discharge structures shall be designed according to standard...

  19. 30 CFR 816.47 - Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures. 816...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.47 Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures. Discharge from sedimentation... the hydrologic balance. Discharge structures shall be designed according to standard...

  20. 30 CFR 816.47 - Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures. 816...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.47 Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures. Discharge from sedimentation... the hydrologic balance. Discharge structures shall be designed according to standard...

  1. 30 CFR 817.47 - Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures. 817...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.47 Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures. Discharge from sedimentation... the hydrologic balance. Discharge structures shall be designed according to standard...

  2. 30 CFR 817.47 - Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures. 817...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.47 Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures. Discharge from sedimentation... the hydrologic balance. Discharge structures shall be designed according to standard...

  3. 30 CFR 817.47 - Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures. 817...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.47 Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures. Discharge from sedimentation... the hydrologic balance. Discharge structures shall be designed according to standard...

  4. 30 CFR 816.47 - Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures. 816...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.47 Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures. Discharge from sedimentation... the hydrologic balance. Discharge structures shall be designed according to standard...

  5. 30 CFR 817.47 - Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures. 817...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.47 Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures. Discharge from sedimentation... the hydrologic balance. Discharge structures shall be designed according to standard...

  6. 30 CFR 816.47 - Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures. 816...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.47 Hydrologic balance: Discharge structures. Discharge from sedimentation... the hydrologic balance. Discharge structures shall be designed according to standard...

  7. 40 CFR 263.31 - Discharge clean up.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Discharge clean up. 263.31 Section 263...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO TRANSPORTERS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Hazardous Waste Discharges § 263.31 Discharge clean up. A transporter must clean up any hazardous waste discharge that occurs during transportation...

  8. 40 CFR 263.31 - Discharge clean up.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Discharge clean up. 263.31 Section 263...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO TRANSPORTERS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Hazardous Waste Discharges § 263.31 Discharge clean up. A transporter must clean up any hazardous waste discharge that occurs during transportation...

  9. 40 CFR 263.31 - Discharge clean up.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Discharge clean up. 263.31 Section 263...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO TRANSPORTERS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Hazardous Waste Discharges § 263.31 Discharge clean up. A transporter must clean up any hazardous waste discharge that occurs during transportation...

  10. 40 CFR 263.31 - Discharge clean up.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Discharge clean up. 263.31 Section 263...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO TRANSPORTERS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Hazardous Waste Discharges § 263.31 Discharge clean up. A transporter must clean up any hazardous waste discharge that occurs during transportation...

  11. 40 CFR 263.31 - Discharge clean up.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discharge clean up. 263.31 Section 263...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO TRANSPORTERS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Hazardous Waste Discharges § 263.31 Discharge clean up. A transporter must clean up any hazardous waste discharge that occurs during transportation...

  12. Principles of Design And Operations Of Wastewater Treatment Pond Systems For Plant Operators, Engineers, And Managers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wastewater pond systems provide reliable, low cost, and relatively low maintenance treatment for municipal and industrial discharges. However, they do have certain design, operations, and maintenance requirements. While the basic models have not changed in the 30-odd years sinc...

  13. [Cultivating an oleaginous microalgae with municipal wastewater].

    PubMed

    Lü, Sujuan; Zhang, Wei; Peng, Xiaowei; Chen, Xiaolin; Liu, Tianzhong

    2011-03-01

    Municipal wastewater is usually problematic for the environment. The process of oleaginous microalgal culture requires large amounts of nutrients and water. Therefore, we studied the feasibility of oleaginous microalgal culture of Scenedesmus dimorphus in bubbled column photobioreactor with municipal wastewater added with different nutrients. S. dimorphus could adapt municipal nutrient-rich wastewater by adding some nutrients as nitrogen, phosphorus, ferric ammonium citrate and trace elements, and the amounts of such nutrients have significant effects on cell growth, biomass yield and lipid accumulation. At optimum compositions of wastewater medium, the algal cell concentration could reach 8.0 g/L, higher than that of 5.0 g/L in standard BG11. Furthermore, S. dimorphus had strong capacity to absorb inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus from its culture water. There was almost no total nitrogen and phosphorus residues in culture medium after three or four days culturing when the adding mounts of nitrate and phosphate in wastewater medium were no more than 185.2 mg/L and 16.1 mg/L respectively under the experimental conditions. As a conclusion, it was feasible to cultivate oleaginous microalgae with municipal nutrient-rich wastewater, not only producing feedstock for algal biodiesel, but also removing inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus from wastewater.

  14. Potential endocrine disrupting organic chemicals in treated municipal wastewater and river water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barber, L.B.; Brown, G.K.; Zaugg, S.D.

    2000-01-01

    Select endocrine disrupting organic chemicals were measured in treated wastewater from Chicago, IL, Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN, Detroit, MI, and Milwaukee, WI, and in the Des Plaines, Illinois, and Minnesota Rivers during the fall of 1997 and the spring of 1998. Emphasis was given to alkylphenolpolyethoxylate (APEO) derived compounds, although 17-??-estradiol, bisphenol A, caffeine, total organic carbon, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and other compounds also were measured. Contaminants were isolated by continuous liquid-liquid extraction (CLLE) with methylene chloride and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in full scan and selected ion monitoring modes. The extracts were derivatized to form the methyl esters of alkylphenolethoxycarboxylates (APEC), and EDTA was isolated by evaporation and derivatized to form the tetrapropyl ester. The mass spectra of nonylphenol (NP) and octylphenol (OP) compounds are complex and show variations among the different ethoxylate and carboxylate homologs, reflecting variations in the ethylene oxide chain length. Recoveries for target compounds and surrogate standards ranged from 20-130%, with relative standard deviations of 9.9-53%. Detection limits for the various compounds ranged from 0.06-0.35 ??g/L. Analysis of the wastewater effluents detected a number of compounds including NP, NPEO, OP, OPEO, NPEC, caffeine, and EDTA at concentrations ranging from <1-439 ??g/L, with EDTA and NPEC being most abundant. There was variability in compound distributions and concentrations between the various sewage treatment plants, indicating differences in treatment type and influent composition. Several wastewater-derived compounds were detected in the river samples, with EDTA and NPEC persisting for considerable distance downstream from wastewater discharges, and NP and NPEO being attenuated more rapidly.

  15. Determination of potentially bioaccumulating complex mixtures of organochlorine compounds in wastewater: a review.

    PubMed

    Contreras López, M Concepción

    2003-03-01

    Organic chlorine compounds can be persistent environmental contaminants and may be accumulated through the food chain to the aquatic organisms, to fish and humans, depending basically on their hydrophobic properties. Consequently, there is an interest to measure these organic compounds from both the scientific and regulatory communities. The analytical essays have been improved for measuring specific organic chlorine compounds that present the most toxicological potential (polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], certain pesticides and dioxins), although they are tedious and time-consuming procedures. The existing tests to measure adsorbable organic halogens (AOX) or extractable organic halogens (EOX) do not distinguish the more hydrophobic organic chlorine matter. The intention of this paper is to make a review of the existing methods to measure the potentially bioaccumulating organochlorine compounds (OCs) from wastewater and propose a methodology to a standardisation procedure for complex mixtures of OCs in wastewater, such as pulp mill effluents. A new method has been proposed for determining the most hydrophobic part of the extractable organic halogens (EOX(fob)), the lowest reported value is 0.6 microg/l, expressed as chloride, and the relative standard deviation at 20 microg/l is 7% on laboratory samples and 30% on real effluents. This new procedure could be a valuable tool to complement environmental risk assessment studies of wastewater discharges. PMID:12605924

  16. Coal cinder filtration as pretreatment with biological processes to treat pharmaceutical wastewater.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wei; Li, Xiao-ming; Hao, Zhi-ming; Wang, Dong-bo; Yang, Qi; Zeng, Guang-ming

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at coupling coal cinder filter with biological process to improve pharmaceutical wastewater quality and reduce the disposal cost. In the coal cinder filter, the removal efficiencies of COD, BOD(5), SS and color were 90+/-2%, 72+/-2%, 95+/-2% and 80+/-2%, respectively. The results attribute to the big specific surface area and strong adsorption ability. Coal cinder filter removes a large portion of the pollutants in the influent wastewater, which would strongly stable the effluent waste water quality, and reduce the load of follow-up biological treatment process. The average removal efficiencies for COD, BOD(5), SS and color of the combined process were about 99.7+/-3%, 98.2+/-4%, 98.5+/-3% and 96.3+/-2%, respectively, with the average effluent quality of COD 16+/-1 mg/L, BOD(5) 11+/-1 mg/L, SS 10+/-0.6 mg/L and color 22+/-1 (multiple), which are consistent with the national requirements of the waste pollutants for pharmaceutical industry of chinese traditional medicine discharge standard (GB 21906-2008). The results indicated that the combined procedure could offer an attractive solution for pharmaceutical wastewater treatment with considerable low cost.

  17. 40 CFR 63.105 - Maintenance wastewater requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maintenance wastewater requirements. 63... Standards for Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry § 63.105 Maintenance wastewater requirements. (a) Each owner or operator of a source subject to...

  18. Impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall on water quality in the coastal zone of Salvador (Bahia, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Roth, F; Lessa, G C; Wild, C; Kikuchi, R K P; Naumann, M S

    2016-05-15

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopic signatures of suspended particulate organic matter and seawater biological oxygen demand (BOD) were measured along a coastal transect during summer 2015 to investigate pollution impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall close to Salvador, Brazil. Impacts of untreated sewage discharge were evident at the outfall site by depleted δ(13)Corg and δ(15)N signatures and 4-fold increased BOD rates. Pollution effects of a sewage plume were detectable for more than 6km downstream from the outfall site, as seasonal wind- and tide-driven shelf hydrodynamics facilitated its advective transport into near-shore waters. There, sewage pollution was detectable at recreational beaches by depleted stable isotope signatures and elevated BOD rates at high tides, suggesting high bacterial activity and increased infection risk by human pathogens. These findings indicate the urgent necessity for appropriate wastewater treatment in Salvador to achieve acceptable standards for released effluents and coastal zone water quality.

  19. Impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall on water quality in the coastal zone of Salvador (Bahia, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Roth, F; Lessa, G C; Wild, C; Kikuchi, R K P; Naumann, M S

    2016-05-15

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopic signatures of suspended particulate organic matter and seawater biological oxygen demand (BOD) were measured along a coastal transect during summer 2015 to investigate pollution impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall close to Salvador, Brazil. Impacts of untreated sewage discharge were evident at the outfall site by depleted δ(13)Corg and δ(15)N signatures and 4-fold increased BOD rates. Pollution effects of a sewage plume were detectable for more than 6km downstream from the outfall site, as seasonal wind- and tide-driven shelf hydrodynamics facilitated its advective transport into near-shore waters. There, sewage pollution was detectable at recreational beaches by depleted stable isotope signatures and elevated BOD rates at high tides, suggesting high bacterial activity and increased infection risk by human pathogens. These findings indicate the urgent necessity for appropriate wastewater treatment in Salvador to achieve acceptable standards for released effluents and coastal zone water quality. PMID:27038882

  20. Asthma - child - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Pediatric asthma - discharge; Wheezing - discharge; Reactive airway disease - discharge ... Your child has asthma , which causes the airways of the lungs to swell and narrow. In the hospital, the doctors and nurses helped ...

  1. Tubal ligation - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tubal sterilization - discharge; Tube tying - discharge; Tying the tubes - discharge; Contraception - tubal ... You had tubal ligation (or tying the tubes) surgery to close your fallopian tubes. These tubes connect the ovaries to the uterus. After tubal ...

  2. Concussion - child - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... discharge; Mild traumatic brain injury - child - discharge; Closed head injury - child - discharge ... mild brain injury that can result when the head hits an object or a moving object strikes ...

  3. Laparoscopic gastric banding - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... laparoscopic gastric banding - discharge; Obesity gastric banding discharge; Weight loss - gastric banding discharge ... as your body gets used to your weight loss and your weight becomes stable. Weight loss may be slower after ...

  4. Tennis elbow surgery - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Lateral epicondylitis surgery - discharge; Lateral tendinosis surgery - discharge; Lateral tennis elbow surgery - discharge ... Soon after surgery, severe pain will decrease, but you may have mild soreness for 3 to 6 months.

  5. Concussion - adults - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Brain injury - concussion - discharge; Traumatic brain injury - concussion - discharge; Closed head injury - concussion - discharge ... Play contact sports, such as football, hockey, and soccer Ride a bicycle, motorcycle, or off-road vehicle ...

  6. 40 CFR 60.692-2 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-2 Standards: Individual drain systems. (a)(1... section. (e) Refinery wastewater routed through new process drains and a new first common...

  7. 40 CFR 60.692-2 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-2 Standards: Individual drain systems. (a)(1... section. (e) Refinery wastewater routed through new process drains and a new first common...

  8. Exploring discharge prescribing errors and their propagation post-discharge: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Riordan, Ciara O'; Delaney, Tim; Grimes, Tamasine

    2016-10-01

    Background Discharge prescribing error is common. Little is known about whether it persists post-discharge. Objective To explore the relationship between discharge prescribing error and post-discharge medication error. Setting This was a prospective observational study (March-May 2013) at an adult academic hospital in Ireland. Method Patients using three or more chronic medications pre-admission, with a clinical pharmacist documented gold-standard pre-admission medication list, having a chronic medication stopped or started in hospital and discharged to home were included. Within 10-14 days after discharge a gold standard discharge medication was prepared and compared to the discharge prescription to identify differences. Patients were telephoned to identify actual medication use. Community pharmacists, general practitioners and hospital prescribers were contacted to corroborate actual and intended medication use. Post-discharge medication errors were identified and the relationship to discharge prescribing error was explored. Main outcome measured Incidence, type, and potential severity of post-discharge medication error, and the relationship to discharge prescribing. Results Some 36 (43 %) of 83 patients experienced post-discharge medication error(s), for whom the majority (n = 31, 86 %) were at risk of moderate harm. Most (58 of 66) errors were discharge prescribing errors that persisted post-discharge. Unintentional prescription of an intentionally stopped medication; error in the dose, frequency or formulation and unintentional omission of active medication are the error types most likely to persist after discharge. Conclusion There is a need to implement discharge medication reconciliation to support medication optimisation post-hospitalisation.

  9. Water-quality assessment and wastewater-management alternatives for Dardenne Creek in St Charles County, Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berkas, W.R.; Lodderhose, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    The quality of water in the 15 mile downstream reach of Dardenne Creek in St. Charles County, Missouri, was assessed to determine if it met the Missouri water quality standards. Concentrations of dissolved oxygen and total ammonia failed to meet water quality standards downstream from the Harvester-Dardenne and St. Peters Wastewater-Treatment Plants. The QUAL-II SEMCOG water quality model was calibrated and verified using two independent data sets from Dardenne Creek. Management alternatives using current, design capacity, and future expansion wastewater discharges from the St. Peters Wastewater-Treatment Plant were evaluated. Results of the computer simulation indicate that a nitrification-type advanced-treatment facility installed at the plant would produce a 5-day carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand of 10 mg/L. An effluent limit of 5.0 mg/L of 5-day carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand would further improve the water quality of Dardenne Creek; however, an additional treatment process, such as sand filtration, would be needed to meet this criterion. (USGS)

  10. State Waste Discharge Permit application for industrial discharge to land: 200 East Area W-252 streams

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    This document constitutes the WAC 173-216 State Waste Discharge Permit application for six W-252 liquid effluent streams at the Hanford Site. Appendices B through H correspond to Section B through H in the permit application form. Within each appendix, sections correspond directly to the respective questions on the application form. The appendices include: Product or service information; Plant operational characteristics; Water consumption and waterloss; Wastewater information; Stormwater; Other information; and Site assessment.

  11. Methods for Estimating Annual Wastewater Nutrient Loads in the Southeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMahon, Gerard; Tervelt, Larinda; Donehoo, William

    2007-01-01

    This report describes an approach for estimating annual total nitrogen and total phosphorus loads from point-source dischargers in the southeastern United States. Nutrient load estimates for 2002 were used in the calibration and application of a regional nutrient model, referred to as the SPARROW (SPAtially Referenced Regression On Watershed attributes) watershed model. Loads from dischargers permitted under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System were calculated using data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Permit Compliance System database and individual state databases. Site information from both state and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency databases, including latitude and longitude and monitored effluent data, was compiled into a project database. For sites with a complete effluent-monitoring record, effluent-flow and nutrient-concentration data were used to develop estimates of annual point-source nitrogen and phosphorus loads. When flow data were available but nutrient-concentration data were missing or incomplete, typical pollutant-concentration values of total nitrogen and total phosphorus were used to estimate load. In developing typical pollutant-concentration values, the major factors assumed to influence wastewater nutrient-concentration variability were the size of the discharger (the amount of flow), the season during which discharge occurred, and the Standard Industrial Classification code of the discharger. One insight gained from this study is that in order to gain access to flow, concentration, and location data, close communication and collaboration are required with the agencies that collect and manage the data. In addition, the accuracy and usefulness of the load estimates depend on the willingness of the states and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to provide guidance and review for at least a subset of the load estimates that may be problematic.

  12. The carbon-sequestration potential of municipal wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Rosso, Diego; Stenstrom, Michael K

    2008-02-01

    The lack of proper wastewater treatment results in production of CO(2) and CH(4) without the opportunity for carbon sequestration and energy recovery, with deleterious effects for global warming. Without extending wastewater treatment to all urban areas worldwide, CO(2) and CH(4) emissions associated with wastewater discharges could reach the equivalent of 1.91 x 10(5) t(CO2)d(-1) in 2025, with even more dramatic impact in the short-term. The carbon sequestration benefits of wastewater treatment have enormous potential, which adds an energy conservation incentive to upgrading existing facilities to complete wastewater treatment. The potential greenhouse gases discharges which can be converted to a net equivalent CO(2) credit can be as large as 1.91 x 10(5) t(CO2)d(-1) in 2025 by 2025. Biomass sequestration and biogas conversion energy recovery are the two main strategies for carbon sequestration and emission offset, respectively. The greatest potential for improvement is outside Europe and North America, which have largely completed treatment plant construction. Europe and North America can partially offset their CO(2) emissions and receive benefits through the carbon emission trading system, as established by the Kyoto protocol, by extending existing technologies or subsidizing wastewater treatment plant construction in urban areas lacking treatment. This strategy can help mitigate global warming, in addition to providing a sustainable solution for extending the health, environmental, and humanitarian benefits of proper sanitation. PMID:17923147

  13. The carbon-sequestration potential of municipal wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Rosso, Diego; Stenstrom, Michael K

    2008-02-01

    The lack of proper wastewater treatment results in production of CO(2) and CH(4) without the opportunity for carbon sequestration and energy recovery, with deleterious effects for global warming. Without extending wastewater treatment to all urban areas worldwide, CO(2) and CH(4) emissions associated with wastewater discharges could reach the equivalent of 1.91 x 10(5) t(CO2)d(-1) in 2025, with even more dramatic impact in the short-term. The carbon sequestration benefits of wastewater treatment have enormous potential, which adds an energy conservation incentive to upgrading existing facilities to complete wastewater treatment. The potential greenhouse gases discharges which can be converted to a net equivalent CO(2) credit can be as large as 1.91 x 10(5) t(CO2)d(-1) in 2025 by 2025. Biomass sequestration and biogas conversion energy recovery are the two main strategies for carbon sequestration and emission offset, respectively. The greatest potential for improvement is outside Europe and North America, which have largely completed treatment plant construction. Europe and North America can partially offset their CO(2) emissions and receive benefits through the carbon emission trading system, as established by the Kyoto protocol, by extending existing technologies or subsidizing wastewater treatment plant construction in urban areas lacking treatment. This strategy can help mitigate global warming, in addition to providing a sustainable solution for extending the health, environmental, and humanitarian benefits of proper sanitation.

  14. Environmental Compliance Guide. Guidance manual for Department of Energy compliance with the Clean Water Act: National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-07-01

    This manual provides general guidance for Department of Energy (DOE) officials for complying with Sect. 402 of the Clean Water Act (CWA) of 1977 and amendments. Section 402 authorizes the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) or states with EPA approved programs to issue National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits for the direct discharge of waste from a point source into waters of the United States. Although the nature of a project dictates the exact information requirements, every project has similar information requirements on the environmental setting, type of discharge(s), characterization of effluent, and description of operations and wastewater treatment. Additional information requirements for projects with ocean discharges, thermal discharges, and cooling water intakes are discussed. Guidance is provided in this manual on general methods for collecting, analyzing, and presenting information for an NPDES permit application. The NPDES program interacts with many sections of the CWA; therefore, background material on pertinent areas such as effluent limitations, water quality standards, toxic substances, and nonpoint source pollutants is included in this manual. Modifications, variances, and extensions applicable to NPDES permits are also discussed.

  15. Cost-Based Optimization of a Papermaking Wastewater Regeneration Recycling System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Long; Feng, Xiao; Chu, Khim H.

    2010-11-01

    Wastewater can be regenerated for recycling in an industrial process to reduce freshwater consumption and wastewater discharge. Such an environment friendly approach will also lead to cost savings that accrue due to reduced freshwater usage and wastewater discharge. However, the resulting cost savings are offset to varying degrees by the costs incurred for the regeneration of wastewater for recycling. Therefore, systematic procedures should be used to determine the true economic benefits for any water-using system involving wastewater regeneration recycling. In this paper, a total cost accounting procedure is employed to construct a comprehensive cost model for a paper mill. The resulting cost model is optimized by means of mathematical programming to determine the optimal regeneration flowrate and regeneration efficiency that will yield the minimum total cost.

  16. Low-Carbon Watershed Management: Potential of Greenhouse Gas Reductions from Wastewater Treatment in Rural Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Geetha; Jian, Pu; Takemoto, Kazuhiko; Fukushi, Kensuke

    2016-01-01

    Currently in many cities and rural areas of Vietnam, wastewater is discharged to the environment without any treatment, which emits considerable amount of greenhouse gas (GHG), particularly methane. In this study, four GHG emission scenarios were examined, as well as the baseline scenario, in order to verify the potential of GHG reduction from domestic wastewater with adequate treatment facilities. The ArcGIS and ArcHydro tools were employed to visualize and analyze GHG emissions resulting from discharge of untreated wastewater, in rural areas of Vu Gia Thu Bon river basin, Vietnam. By applying the current IPCC guidelines for GHG emissions, we found that a reduction of GHG emissions can be achieved through treatment of domestic wastewater in the studied area. Compared with baseline scenario, a maximum 16% of total GHG emissions can be reduced, in which 30% of households existing latrines are substituted by Japanese Johkasou technology and other 20% of domestic wastewater is treated by conventional activated sludge.

  17. Low-Carbon Watershed Management: Potential of Greenhouse Gas Reductions from Wastewater Treatment in Rural Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Geetha; Jian, Pu; Takemoto, Kazuhiko; Fukushi, Kensuke

    2016-01-01

    Currently in many cities and rural areas of Vietnam, wastewater is discharged to the environment without any treatment, which emits considerable amount of greenhouse gas (GHG), particularly methane. In this study, four GHG emission scenarios were examined, as well as the baseline scenario, in order to verify the potential of GHG reduction from domestic wastewater with adequate treatment facilities. The ArcGIS and ArcHydro tools were employed to visualize and analyze GHG emissions resulting from discharge of untreated wastewater, in rural areas of Vu Gia Thu Bon river basin, Vietnam. By applying the current IPCC guidelines for GHG emissions, we found that a reduction of GHG emissions can be achieved through treatment of domestic wastewater in the studied area. Compared with baseline scenario, a maximum 16% of total GHG emissions can be reduced, in which 30% of households existing latrines are substituted by Japanese Johkasou technology and other 20% of domestic wastewater is treated by conventional activated sludge. PMID:27699202

  18. 40 CFR 63.105 - Maintenance wastewater requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... National Emission Standards for Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry § 63.105 Maintenance wastewater requirements. (a) Each owner or operator of a...

  19. 40 CFR 63.105 - Maintenance wastewater requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... National Emission Standards for Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry § 63.105 Maintenance wastewater requirements. (a) Each owner or operator of a...

  20. Isolation and Identification of Two Novel Escherichia coli Bacteriophages and Their Application in Wastewater Treatment and Coliform's Phage Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Beheshti Maal, Keivan; Soleimani Delfan, Abbas; Salmanizadeh, Sharareh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Phage therapy or use of lytic bacteriophages for eliminating bacterial populations has been developed for several aspects of human affairs such as medicine, agriculture and food industries. Objectives: The high load of coliforms of treated wastewater effluents that are discharged into the rivers or agricultural lands is a serious concern of the Iran Department of Environment and the reduction of coliforms using phages to overcome this problem is an asset. This research aimed to isolate and identify specific lytic coliphages and investigate their effects on native and standard Escherichia coli strains as well as coliform populations in municipal wastewater. Materials and Methods: The wastewater sample was cultured on selective culture media to isolate a native coliform strain and characterized using molecular methods. River water was centrifuged and passed through a 0.45 μm filter and its lytic coliphages were enriched and purified against a native E. coli as well as a standard E. coli strain. Municipal wastewater was treated with isolated lytic coliphages and most probable number (MPN) reduction was examined. Results: E. coli SBSWF27, which is a native strain of E. coli from Isfahan municipal wastewater treatment plant, was isolated and characterized. Also two novel bacteriophages related to Myoviridae and Podoviridae families of bacteriophages from Zayandehrood River (Isfahan, Iran) were isolated. These coliphages had lytic effects on E. coli PTCC1399 and E. coli SBSWF27 as coliform's index. The myovirus had a hexagonal head measuring 27.28 nm and a noncontractile tail measuring 204.5 × 13.63 nm. The podovirus had an oval head measuring 98 × 35 nm and a tail, 14 nm in diameter. The treatment of municipal sewage with the coliphage mixture resulted in a 22-fold decrease of the coliform's MPN from 2400 to 110 after two hours of incubation. Conclusions: This is the first report on isolation and identification of two novel lytic myovirus and podovirus

  1. Modeling the performance of biodegradation of textile wastewater using polyurethane foam sponge cube as a supporting medium.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yen-Hui

    2010-01-01

    A pilot-scale fixed-biofilm reactor (FBR) was established to treat textile wastewater to evaluate the feasibility of replacing conventional treatment processes that involve activated sludge and coagulation units. A kinetic model was developed to describe the biodegradation of textile wastewater by FBR. Batch kinetic tests were performed to evaluate the biokinetic parameters that are used in the model. FBR column test was fed with a mean COD of 692 mg/L of textile wastewater from flow equalization unit. The influent flow rate was maintained at 48.4 L/h for FBR column test. Experimental data and model-predicted data for substrate effluent concentration (as COD), concentration of suspended biomass in effluent and the amount of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) produced in the effluent agree closely with each other. Microscopic observations demonstrated that the biofilm exhibited a uniform distribution on the surface of polyurethane foam sponge. Under a steady-state condition, the effluent COD from FBR was about 14.7 mg COD/L (0.0213 S(b0)), meeting the discharge standard (COD < 100 mg/L) that has been set by the government of Taiwan for textile wastewater effluent. The amount of biofilm and suspended biomass reached a maximal value in the steady state when the substrate flux reached a constant value and remained maximal. Approximately 33% of the substrate concentration (as COD) was converted to CO(2) during biodegradation in the FBR test. The experimental and modeling schemes proposed in this study could be employed to design a full-scale FBR to treat textile wastewater.

  2. Antibiotic Susceptibilities of Enterococcus Species Isolated from Hospital and Domestic Wastewater Effluents in Alice, Eastern Cape Province of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Iweriebor, Benson Chuks; Gaqavu, Sisipho; Obi, Larry Chikwelu; Nwodo, Uchechukwu U.; Okoh, Anthony I.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Antimicrobial resistance in microorganisms are on the increase worldwide and are responsible for substantial cases of therapeutic failures. Resistance of species of Enterococcus to antibiotics is linked to their ability to acquire and disseminate antimicrobial resistance determinants in nature, and wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are considered to be one of the main reservoirs of such antibiotic resistant bacteria. We therefore determined the antimicrobial resistance and virulence profiles of some common Enterococcus spp that are known to be associated with human infections that were recovered from hospital wastewater and final effluent of the receiving wastewater treatment plant in Alice, Eastern Cape. Methods: Wastewater samples were simultaneously collected from two sites (Victoria hospital and final effluents of a municipal WWTP) in Alice at about one to two weeks interval during the months of July and August 2014. Samples were screened for the isolation of enterococci using standard microbiological methods. The isolates were profiled molecularly after targeted generic identification and speciation for the presence of virulence and antibiotic resistance genes. Results: Out of 66 presumptive isolates, 62 were confirmed to belong to the Enterococcus genusof which 30 were identified to be E. faecalis and 15 E. durans. The remaining isolates were not identified by the primers used in the screening procedure. Out of the six virulence genes that were targeted only three of them; ace, efaA, and gelE were detected. There was a very high phenotypic multiple resistance among the isolates and these were confirmed by genetic analyses. Conclusions: Analyses of the results obtained indicated that hospital wastewater may be one of the sources of antibiotic resistant bacteria to the receiving WWTP. Also, findings revealed that the final effluent discharged into the environment was contaminated with multi-resistant enterococci species thus posing a health hazard

  3. Retrospective analyses of inputs of municipal wastewater effluent and coupled impacts on an urban lake.

    PubMed

    Effler, Steven W; O'Donnell, Susan M; Prestigiacomo, Anthony R; Matthews, David A; Auer, Martin T

    2013-01-01

    A retrospective review and analysis are presented of the evolution of treatment, point of discharge considerations, and constituent loading from the Metropolitan Syracuse Wastewater Treatment Plant (Metro), and the coupled water quality effects on the receiving urban lake (Onondaga Lake, New York) from the early 1970s to 2010. The analysis is based on long-term monitoring of the discharge, Onondaga Lake, and a nearby river system considered as a potential alternate to receive the effluent. The Metro discharge is extraordinarily large relative to the lake's hydrologic budget, representing approximately 25% of the total inflow, greater than for any other lake in the United States. The large loads of nitrogen and phosphorus received from the facility resulted in severe water quality effects in the lake during the early portion of record, including (1) violations of standards to protect against toxic effects of ammonia and nitrite, (2) violations of the water clarity standard for swimming safety, (3) exceedances of a limit for the summer average concentration of total phosphorus in the upper waters, and (4) lakewide violations of the oxygen standard during fall turnover. The effects of Metro were compounded by effects of discharges from soda ash/chlor-alkali and pharmaceutical manufacturing facilities. The sedimentary record of the lake indicates that even greater levels of cultural eutrophication prevailed before the monitoring commenced. Dramatic improvements in the water quality of the lake were achieved in recent years by implementing advanced treatment technologies. Exceedances of receiving water limits in the lake were eliminated, with the exception of the total phosphorus limit. A zebra mussel invasion compromised the oxygen resources and assimilative capacity of the nearby river for more than 15 years. This eliminated an option, previously supported by managers, of full diversion of the Metro effluent to the river. PMID:23409450

  4. Wastewater services for small communities.

    PubMed

    Gray, S; Booker, N

    2003-01-01

    Connection to centralised regional sewage systems has been too expensive for small-dispersed communities, and these townships have traditionally been serviced by on-site septic tank systems. The conventional on-site system in Australia has consisted of an anaerobic holding tank followed by adsorption trenches. This technique relies heavily on the uptake of nutrients by plants for effective removal of nitrogen and phosphorus from the effluent, and is very seasonal in its efficiency. Hence, as these small communities have grown in size, the environmental effects of the septic tank discharges have become a problem. In locations throughout Australia, such as rural Victoria and along the Hawkesbury-Nepean River, septic tanks as being replaced with the transport of sewage to regional treatment plants. For some isolated communities, this can mean spending 20,000 dollars-40,000 dollars/household, as opposed to more common connection prices of 7,000 dollars/household. This paper explores some alternative options that might be suitable for these small communities, and attempts to identify solutions that provide acceptable environmental outcomes at lower cost. The types of alternative systems that are assessed in the paper include local treatment systems, separate blackwater and greywater collection and treatment systems both with and without non-potable water recycling, a small township scale treatment plant compared to either existing septic tank systems or pumping to a remote regional treatment facility. The work demonstrated the benefits of a scenario analysis approach for the assessment of a range of alternative systems. It demonstrated that some of the alternatives systems can achieve better than 90% reductions in the discharge of nutrients to the environment at significantly lower cost than removing the wastewater to a remote regional treatment plant. These concepts allow wastewater to be retained within a community allowing for local reuse of treated effluent. PMID

  5. Wastewater services for small communities.

    PubMed

    Gray, S; Booker, N

    2003-01-01

    Connection to centralised regional sewage systems has been too expensive for small-dispersed communities, and these townships have traditionally been serviced by on-site septic tank systems. The conventional on-site system in Australia has consisted of an anaerobic holding tank followed by adsorption trenches. This technique relies heavily on the uptake of nutrients by plants for effective removal of nitrogen and phosphorus from the effluent, and is very seasonal in its efficiency. Hence, as these small communities have grown in size, the environmental effects of the septic tank discharges have become a problem. In locations throughout Australia, such as rural Victoria and along the Hawkesbury-Nepean River, septic tanks as being replaced with the transport of sewage to regional treatment plants. For some isolated communities, this can mean spending 20,000 dollars-40,000 dollars/household, as opposed to more common connection prices of 7,000 dollars/household. This paper explores some alternative options that might be suitable for these small communities, and attempts to identify solutions that provide acceptable environmental outcomes at lower cost. The types of alternative systems that are assessed in the paper include local treatment systems, separate blackwater and greywater collection and treatment systems both with and without non-potable water recycling, a small township scale treatment plant compared to either existing septic tank systems or pumping to a remote regional treatment facility. The work demonstrated the benefits of a scenario analysis approach for the assessment of a range of alternative systems. It demonstrated that some of the alternatives systems can achieve better than 90% reductions in the discharge of nutrients to the environment at significantly lower cost than removing the wastewater to a remote regional treatment plant. These concepts allow wastewater to be retained within a community allowing for local reuse of treated effluent.

  6. Evaluation of optimal reuse system for hydrofluoric acid wastewater.

    PubMed

    Won, Chan-Hee; Choi, Jeongyun; Chung, Jinwook

    2012-11-15

    The treatment of hydrofluoric acid (HF) wastewater has been an important environmental issue in recent years due to the extensive use of hydrofluoric acid in the chemical and electronics industries, such as semiconductor manufacturers. Coagulation/precipitation and ion exchange technologies have been used to treat HF wastewater, but these conventional methods are ineffective in removing organics, salts, and fluorides, limiting its reuse for water quality and economic feasibility. One promising alternative is reverse osmosis (RO) after lime treatment. Based on pilot-scale experiment using real HF wastewater discharged from semiconductor facility, the spiral wound module equipped with polyamide membranes has shown excellent flux and chemical cleaning cycles. Our results suggest that coagulation/precipitation and spiral wound RO constitute the optimal combination to reuse HF wastewater.

  7. 40 CFR 63.647 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... wastewater stream shall comply with the requirements of §§ 61.340 through 61.355 of 40 CFR part 61, subpart... CFR part 61, subpart FF, § 61.341. (c) Each owner or operator required under subpart FF of 40 CFR part... specified in subpart FF of 40 CFR part 61 shall constitute a violation of the standard....

  8. 40 CFR 63.647 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... wastewater stream shall comply with the requirements of §§ 61.340 through 61.355 of 40 CFR part 61, subpart... CFR part 61, subpart FF, § 61.341. (c) Each owner or operator required under subpart FF of 40 CFR part... specified in subpart FF of 40 CFR part 61 shall constitute a violation of the standard....

  9. Does zinc in livestock wastewater reduce nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from mangrove soils?

    PubMed

    Chen, Guang C; Tam, Nora F Y; Ye, Yong

    2014-11-15

    Zinc (Zn) affects nitrogen cycling but the effect of Zn in wastewater on the emission of nitrous oxide (N2O) from the soil has not been reported. This study compared N2O emissions from mangrove soil receiving livestock wastewater containing various Zn(2+) concentrations and evaluated how long the effects of Zn would last in these soil-wastewater microcosms. Significant increases in N2O flux were observed soon after the discharge of wastewater with a low Zn content. On the other hand, the flux was reduced significantly in the wastewater with high Zn levels but such inhibitory effect was not observed after tidal flushing. Continuous monitoring of the N2O fluxes also confirmed that the inhibitory effect of Zn was confined within a few hours and the fluxes recovered in 6-9 h after the wastewater was completely drained away. These results indicated that the inhibitory effect of Zn on N2O fluxes occurred immediately after wastewater discharge and disappeared gradually. In the surface soil, nitrate levels increased with the addition of wastewater but there was no significant accumulation of NH4(+)-N, irrespective of the Zn content in the wastewater. The study also showed that nitrification potential and immediate N2O emissions were inhibited by high Zn levels in the soil, but the total oxidation of ammonium to nitrate was not affected.

  10. Does zinc in livestock wastewater reduce nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from mangrove soils?

    PubMed

    Chen, Guang C; Tam, Nora F Y; Ye, Yong

    2014-11-15

    Zinc (Zn) affects nitrogen cycling but the effect of Zn in wastewater on the emission of nitrous oxide (N2O) from the soil has not been reported. This study compared N2O emissions from mangrove soil receiving livestock wastewater containing various Zn(2+) concentrations and evaluated how long the effects of Zn would last in these soil-wastewater microcosms. Significant increases in N2O flux were observed soon after the discharge of wastewater with a low Zn content. On the other hand, the flux was reduced significantly in the wastewater with high Zn levels but such inhibitory effect was not observed after tidal flushing. Continuous monitoring of the N2O fluxes also confirmed that the inhibitory effect of Zn was confined within a few hours and the fluxes recovered in 6-9 h after the wastewater was completely drained away. These results indicated that the inhibitory effect of Zn on N2O fluxes occurred immediately after wastewater discharge and disappeared gradually. In the surface soil, nitrate levels increased with the addition of wastewater but there was no significant accumulation of NH4(+)-N, irrespective of the Zn content in the wastewater. The study also showed that nitrification potential and immediate N2O emissions were inhibited by high Zn levels in the soil, but the total oxidation of ammonium to nitrate was not affected. PMID:25171729

  11. Separation of Tritium from Wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    JEPPSON, D.W.

    2000-01-25

    A proprietary tritium loading bed developed by Molecular Separations, Inc (MSI) has been shown to selectively load tritiated water as waters of hydration at near ambient temperatures. Tests conducted with a 126 {micro}C{sub 1} tritium/liter water standard mixture showed reductions to 25 {micro}C{sub 1}/L utilizing two, 2-meter long columns in series. Demonstration tests with Hanford Site wastewater samples indicate an approximate tritium concentration reduction from 0.3 {micro}C{sub 1}/L to 0.07 {micro}C{sub 1}/L for a series of two, 2-meter long stationary column beds Further reduction to less than 0.02 {micro}C{sub 1}/L, the current drinking water maximum contaminant level (MCL), is projected with additional bed media in series. Tritium can be removed from the loaded beds with a modest temperature increase and the beds can be reused Results of initial tests are presented and a moving bed process for treating large quantities of wastewaters is proposed. The moving bed separation process appears promising to treat existing large quantities of wastewater at various US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The enriched tritium stream can be grouted for waste disposition. The separations system has also been shown to reduce tritium concentrations in nuclear reactor cooling water to levels that allow reuse. Energy requirements to reconstitute the loading beds and waste disposal costs for this process appear modest.

  12. FISH TISSUE QUALITY IN NEAR-COASTAL AREAS OF THE GULF OF MEXICO RECEIVING POINT SOURCE DISCHARGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to determine inorganic and organic contaminant concentrations in edible tissue of fish collected from eight coastal areas receiving wastewater discharges and from two reference locations. Trace metal residues were statistically similar regardless o...

  13. Characterization of Missouri surface waters near point sources of pollution reveals potential novel atmospheric route of exposure for bisphenol A and wastewater hormonal activity pattern.

    PubMed

    Kassotis, Christopher D; Alvarez, David A; Taylor, Julia A; vom Saal, Frederick S; Nagel, Susan C; Tillitt, Donald E

    2015-08-15

    Surface water contamination by chemical pollutants increasingly threatens water quality around the world. Among the many contaminants found in surface water, there is growing concern regarding endocrine disrupting chemicals, based on their ability to interfere with some aspect of hormone action in exposed organisms, including humans. This study assessed water quality at several sites across Missouri (near wastewater treatment plants and airborne release sites of bisphenol A) based on hormone receptor activation potencies and chemical concentrations present in the surface water. We hypothesized that bisphenol A and ethinylestradiol would be greater in water near permitted airborne release sites and wastewater treatment plant inputs, respectively, and that these two compounds would be responsible for the majority of activities in receptor-based assays conducted with water collected near these sites. Concentrations of bisphenol A and ethinylestradiol were compared to observed receptor activities using authentic standards to assess contribution to total activities, and quantitation of a comprehensive set of wastewater compounds was performed to better characterize each site. Bisphenol A concentrations were found to be elevated in surface water near permitted airborne release sites, raising questions that airborne releases of BPA may influence nearby surface water contamination and may represent a previously underestimated source to the environment and potential for human exposure. Estrogen and androgen receptor activities of surface water samples were predictive of wastewater input, although the lower sensitivity of the ethinylestradiol ELISA relative to the very high sensitivity of the bioassay approaches did not allow a direct comparison. Wastewater-influenced sites also had elevated anti-estrogenic and anti-androgenic equivalence, while sites without wastewater discharges exhibited no antagonist activities. PMID:25917777

  14. Characterization of Missouri surface waters near point sources of pollution reveals potential novel atmospheric route of exposure for bisphenol A and wastewater hormonal activity pattern

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kassotis, Christopher D.; Alvarez, David A.; Taylor, Julia A.; vom Saal, Frederick S.; Nagel, Susan C.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2015-01-01

    Surface water contamination by chemical pollutants increasingly threatens water quality around the world. Among the many contaminants found in surface water, there is growing concern regarding endocrine disrupting chemicals, based on their ability to interfere with some aspect of hormone action in exposed organisms, including humans. This study assessed water quality at several sites across Missouri (near wastewater treatment plants and airborne release sites of bisphenol A) based on hormone receptor activation potencies and chemical concentrationspresent in the surface water. We hypothesized that bisphenol A and ethinylestradiol would be greater in water near permitted airborne release sites and wastewater treatment plant inputs, respectively, and that these two compounds would be responsible for the majority of activities in receptor-based assays conducted with water collected near these sites. Concentrations of bisphenol A and ethinylestradiol were compared to observed receptor activities using authentic standards to assess contribution to total activities, and quantitation of a comprehensive set of wastewater compounds was performed to better characterize each site. Bisphenol A concentrations were found to be elevated in surface water near permitted airborne release sites, raising questions that airborne releases of BPA may influence nearby surface water contamination and may represent a previously underestimated source to the environment and potential for human exposure. Estrogen and androgen receptor activities of surface water samples were predictive of wastewater input, although the lower sensitivity of the ethinylestradiol ELISA relative to the very high sensitivity of the bioassay approaches did not allow a direct comparison. Wastewater-influenced sites also had elevated anti-estrogenic and anti-androgenic equivalence, while sites without wastewater discharges exhibited no antagonist activities.

  15. Characterization of Missouri surface waters near point sources of pollution reveals potential novel atmospheric route of exposure for bisphenol A and wastewater hormonal activity pattern.

    PubMed

    Kassotis, Christopher D; Alvarez, David A; Taylor, Julia A; vom Saal, Frederick S; Nagel, Susan C; Tillitt, Donald E

    2015-08-15

    Surface water contamination by chemical pollutants increasingly threatens water quality around the world. Among the many contaminants found in surface water, there is growing concern regarding endocrine disrupting chemicals, based on their ability to interfere with some aspect of hormone action in exposed organisms, including humans. This study assessed water quality at several sites across Missouri (near wastewater treatment plants and airborne release sites of bisphenol A) based on hormone receptor activation potencies and chemical concentrations present in the surface water. We hypothesized that bisphenol A and ethinylestradiol would be greater in water near permitted airborne release sites and wastewater treatment plant inputs, respectively, and that these two compounds would be responsible for the majority of activities in receptor-based assays conducted with water collected near these sites. Concentrations of bisphenol A and ethinylestradiol were compared to observed receptor activities using authentic standards to assess contribution to total activities, and quantitation of a comprehensive set of wastewater compounds was performed to better characterize each site. Bisphenol A concentrations were found to be elevated in surface water near permitted airborne release sites, raising questions that airborne releases of BPA may influence nearby surface water contamination and may represent a previously underestimated source to the environment and potential for human exposure. Estrogen and androgen receptor activities of surface water samples were predictive of wastewater input, although the lower sensitivity of the ethinylestradiol ELISA relative to the very high sensitivity of the bioassay approaches did not allow a direct comparison. Wastewater-influenced sites also had elevated anti-estrogenic and anti-androgenic equivalence, while sites without wastewater discharges exhibited no antagonist activities.

  16. 40 CFR 471.53 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... lubricants—subpart E—NSPS. There shall be no discharge of process wastewater pollutants. (e) Extrusion press hydraulic fluid leakage. Subpart E—NSPS Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum...

  17. 40 CFR 471.53 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... lubricants—Subpart E—NSPS. There shall be no discharge of process wastewater pollutants. (e) Extrusion press hydraulic fluid leakage. Subpart E—NSPS Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum...

  18. 40 CFR 415.55 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... contain the precipitation from the 25-year, 24-hour rainfall event as established by the National Climatic... may discharge that volume of process wastewater which is equivalent to the volume of...

  19. 40 CFR 415.135 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... contain the precipitation from the 25-year, 24-hour rainfall event as established by the National Climatic... may discharge that volume of process wastewater which is equivalent to the volume of...

  20. 40 CFR 415.55 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... contain the precipitation from the 25-year, 24-hour rainfall event as established by the National Climatic... may discharge that volume of process wastewater which is equivalent to the volume of...

  1. 40 CFR 415.135 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... contain the precipitation from the 25-year, 24-hour rainfall event as established by the National Climatic... may discharge that volume of process wastewater which is equivalent to the volume of...

  2. 40 CFR 415.135 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... contain the precipitation from the 25-year, 24-hour rainfall event as established by the National Climatic... may discharge that volume of process wastewater which is equivalent to the volume of...

  3. 40 CFR 415.55 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... contain the precipitation from the 25-year, 24-hour rainfall event as established by the National Climatic... may discharge that volume of process wastewater which is equivalent to the volume of...

  4. Sequencing batch biofilter granular reactor for textile wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Lotito, Adriana Maria; Di Iaconi, Claudio; Fratino, Umberto; Mancini, Annalisa; Bergna, Giovanni

    2011-12-15

    Textile wastewater is difficult to treat as it usually contains considerable amounts of different pollutants, which are often recalcitrant, toxic and inhibitory. Therefore, complex treatment schemes based on the sequence of various steps are usually required for an effective treatment. This explains why textile effluents are often treated in centralized plants and sometimes mixed with municipal wastewater. The adoption of new technologies for on-site treatment, instead, would be optimal, deeply reducing treatment costs. An innovative technology exhibiting several characteristics appropriate for the attainment of such a goal is sequencing batch biofilter granular reactor (SBBGR). To assess the suitability of this technology, two lab-scale reactors were operated, treating mixed municipal-textile wastewater and a pure textile effluent, respectively. Results have demonstrated that mixed wastewater can be successfully treated with very low hydraulic retention times (less than 10 hours). Furthermore, SBBGR shows to be an effective pre-treatment for textile wastewater for discharge into sewer systems. The economic evaluation of the process showed operative costs of 0.10 and 0.19 € per m(3) of mixed wastewater and textile wastewater, respectively.

  5. Segregation of metals-containing wastewater by pH

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, P.A.; McTaggart, D.R.

    1990-10-01

    A pH-based sampling system has shown that there is a high correlation between low pH and metals contamination for the wastewater from the 4500 area (manhole 190) and the 2000 area (pump station). Wastewater from the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) has not shown any metals concentrations above the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit limits for the Nonradiological Wastewater Treatment Plant (NRWTP). It is recommended that pH be used as the diversion criteria for wastewater from manhole 190 and the pump station to be sent to the metals tank of the NRWTP. Any wastewater with a pH less than 6.0 or greater than 10.0 should be sent to the metals tank. Based on the results of 29 weeks of sampling, it is expected that on the order of 36m{sup 3}/wk (9500 gal/wk) of wastewater will be diverted to the metals tank of the NRWTP. Wastewater from REDC and HFIR can be sent to the nonmetals tank, but it should be sampled periodically and analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) spectrophotometer to confirm that the metals concentration is not increasing. 1 ref., 2 figs., 9 tabs.

  6. Seasonal variation of nutrient loads in treated wastewater effluents and receiving water bodies in Sedibeng and Soshanguve, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Teklehaimanot, G Z; Kamika, I; Coetzee, M A A; Momba, M N B

    2015-09-01

    The discharge of inadequately treated wastewater effluent presents a major threat to the aquatic environment and public health worldwide. As a water-scarce country, South Africa is facing an alarming situation since most of its wastewater discharges are not meeting the permissible limit. The aim of this study was to assess the physicochemical quality of treated wastewater effluents and their impact on receiving water bodies. During the study period, pH, temperature, free chlorine residue (Cl(-)), dissolved oxygen (DO), nitrate (NO3 (-1)), orthophosphate (PO4 (-3)) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were measured in order to ascertain whether the selected wastewater systems in Sedibeng and Soshanguve complied with the South African and World Health Organization standards during wet and dry seasons. These parameters were analysed for samples collected from raw wastewater influent, treated wastewater effluent and receiving water bodies. The study was carried out between August 2011 and May 2012, and samples were collected on a weekly basis during both seasons. The physicochemical quality of effluents did not comply with the regulatory limits set by South Africa in terms of pH in Meyerton, Rietgat and Sandspruit (pH 7.6 to 8.1); free chlorine in Sandspruit (0.27 ± 0.05 mg/L); nitrate in Leeuwkuil and Rietgat (2.1 and 3.8 mg/L, respectively) during the wet season; orthophosphate in Meyerton during the wet season and in Sandspruit during the dry season (1.3 mg PO4 (-3) as P/L and 1.1 mg PO4 (-3) as P/L, respectively); and chemical oxygen demand in Rietgat during the dry season and in Sandspruit during the wet season (75.5 and 35 mg/L, respectively). Furthermore, the quality of the receiving water bodies did not comply with the South African standards recommended for pH, chemical oxygen demand and orthophosphate and DO (5 mg/L) in Rietgat during the wet season. The geometric mean of the water quality index values ranged between 32.4 and 36.9 for the effluent samples

  7. Seasonal variation of nutrient loads in treated wastewater effluents and receiving water bodies in Sedibeng and Soshanguve, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Teklehaimanot, G Z; Kamika, I; Coetzee, M A A; Momba, M N B

    2015-09-01

    The discharge of inadequately treated wastewater effluent presents a major threat to the aquatic environment and public health worldwide. As a water-scarce country, South Africa is facing an alarming situation since most of its wastewater discharges are not meeting the permissible limit. The aim of this study was to assess the physicochemical quality of treated wastewater effluents and their impact on receiving water bodies. During the study period, pH, temperature, free chlorine residue (Cl(-)), dissolved oxygen (DO), nitrate (NO3 (-1)), orthophosphate (PO4 (-3)) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were measured in order to ascertain whether the selected wastewater systems in Sedibeng and Soshanguve complied with the South African and World Health Organization standards during wet and dry seasons. These parameters were analysed for samples collected from raw wastewater influent, treated wastewater effluent and receiving water bodies. The study was carried out between August 2011 and May 2012, and samples were collected on a weekly basis during both seasons. The physicochemical quality of effluents did not comply with the regulatory limits set by South Africa in terms of pH in Meyerton, Rietgat and Sandspruit (pH 7.6 to 8.1); free chlorine in Sandspruit (0.27 ± 0.05 mg/L); nitrate in Leeuwkuil and Rietgat (2.1 and 3.8 mg/L, respectively) during the wet season; orthophosphate in Meyerton during the wet season and in Sandspruit during the dry season (1.3 mg PO4 (-3) as P/L and 1.1 mg PO4 (-3) as P/L, respectively); and chemical oxygen demand in Rietgat during the dry season and in Sandspruit during the wet season (75.5 and 35 mg/L, respectively). Furthermore, the quality of the receiving water bodies did not comply with the South African standards recommended for pH, chemical oxygen demand and orthophosphate and DO (5 mg/L) in Rietgat during the wet season. The geometric mean of the water quality index values ranged between 32.4 and 36.9 for the effluent samples

  8. 40 CFR 63.1256 - Standards: Wastewater.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., surface impoundments, containers, individual drain systems, and oil/water separators as specified in... CFR 268.4 or closure of the surface impoundment in accordance with 40 CFR 264.228. (ii) Floating... cover shall be fabricated from a synthetic membrane material that is either: (1) High...

  9. 40 CFR 63.1256 - Standards: Wastewater.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., surface impoundments, containers, individual drain systems, and oil/water separators as specified in... CFR 268.4 or closure of the surface impoundment in accordance with 40 CFR 264.228. (ii) Floating... cover shall be fabricated from a synthetic membrane material that is either: (1) High...

  10. 40 CFR 63.1256 - Standards: Wastewater.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the surface impoundment except during removal of treatment residuals in accordance with 40 CFR 268.4 or closure of the surface impoundment in accordance with 40 CFR 264.228. (ii) Floating flexible... considered in designing the closure devices shall include: the effects of any contact with the liquid and...

  11. Fracking, wastewater disposal, and earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGarr, Arthur

    2016-03-01

    In the modern oil and gas industry, fracking of low-permeability reservoirs has resulted in a considerable increase in the production of oil and natural gas, but these fluid-injection activities also can induce earthquakes. Earthquakes induced by fracking are an inevitable consequence of the injection of fluid at high pressure, where the intent is to enhance permeability by creating a system of cracks and fissures that allow hydrocarbons to flow to the borehole. The micro-earthquakes induced during these highly-controlled procedures are generally much too small to be felt at the surface; indeed, the creation or reactivation of a large fault would be contrary to the goal of enhancing permeability evenly throughout the formation. Accordingly, the few case histories for which fracking has resulted in felt earthquakes have been due to unintended fault reactivation. Of greater consequence for inducing earthquakes, modern techniques for producing hydrocarbons, including fracking, have resulted in considerable quantities of coproduced wastewater, primarily formation brines. This wastewater is commonly disposed by injection into deep aquifers having high permeability and porosity. As reported in many case histories, pore pressure increases due to wastewater injection were channeled from the target aquifers into fault zones that were, in effect, lubricated, resulting in earthquake slip. These fault zones are often located in the brittle crystalline rocks in the basement. Magnitudes of earthquakes induced by wastewater disposal often exceed 4, the threshold for structural damage. Even though only a small fraction of disposal wells induce earthquakes large enough to be of concern to the public, there are so many of these wells that this source of seismicity contributes significantly to the seismic hazard in the United States, especially east of the Rocky Mountains where standards of building construction are generally not designed to resist shaking from large earthquakes.

  12. Estimating the input of wastewater-born micropollutants in a rural karst catchment (Gallusquelle, Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zirlewagen, Johannes; Hillebrand, Olav; Nödler, Karsten; Schiperski, Ferry; Scheytt, Traugott; Licha, Tobias

    2013-04-01

    The main focus of the AGRO research project is on the use of various micropollutants as indicators (e.g. for wastewater) in the catchment of the karst spring Gallusquelle, Swabian Alb. For modeling the micropollutants' fate in the subsurface and their occurrence in spring water, reliable estimates of the spatio-temporal input, i.e. input functions, are crucial. Therefore potential sources for wastewater-born substances are identified. These are the combined sewer system with a stormwater retention basin (untreated wastewater) and the river Fehla (treated wastewater). The micropollutants' concentrations and loads in the potentially infiltrating waters are estimated on the one hand by local water and substance consumption data and on the other hand by water sample analysis and stream gauging. The spring's discharge varies from 0.2-2.0 m³/s with an average of 0.5 m³/s. Treated spring water serves as drinking water for 45 000 people. The catchment area measures 45 km² and is rural in character with 55% forest, 27% grassland, 15% agriculture and 3% residential/industrial. Industrial activity is restricted to a few minor textile and metal works. There are around 4 000 inhabitants and except for a few farms, all households are connected to the public sewer system. The only surface water within the catchment is the stream Fehla, which forms a part of the catchment boundary. It was formerly identified as a sinking stream with an ephemeral part in the lower course. Connections to the Gallusquelle spring were proven by several tracer tests conducted in the 1960's, when the river started to become perennial over the whole course due to heavy colmatation. During a one week campaign, samples of wastewater and river water were taken three times per day. Additionally, hourly samples were taken during a 24 h period. Water samples were analysed for major ions and 58 micropollutants, including pharmaceuticals, stimulants (as caffeine), the artificial sweeteners acesulfame and

  13. Biodegradation of Sewage Wastewater Using Autochthonous Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Dhall, Purnima; Kumar, Rita; Kumar, Anil

    2012-01-01

    The performance of isolated designed consortia comprising Bacillus pumilus, Brevibacterium sp, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa for the treatment of sewage wastewater in terms of reduction in COD (chemical oxygen demand), BOD (biochemical oxygen demand) MLSS (mixed liquor suspended solids), and TSS (total suspended solids) was studied. Different parameters were optimized (inoculum size, agitation, and temperature) to achieve effective results in less period of time. The results obtained indicated that consortium in the ratio of 1 : 2 (effluent : biomass) at 200 rpm, 35°C is capable of effectively reducing the pollutional load of the sewage wastewaters, in terms of COD, BOD, TSS, and MLSS within the desired discharge limits, that is, 32 mg/L, 8 mg/L, 162 mg/L, and 190 mg/L. The use of such specific consortia can overcome the inefficiencies of the conventional biological treatment facilities currently operational in sewage treatment plants. PMID:22272181

  14. Electrochemical oxidation of wastewater - opportunities and drawbacks.

    PubMed

    Woisetschläger, D; Humpl, B; Koncar, M; Siebenhofer, M

    2013-01-01

    Electrochemical oxidation by means of boron-doped diamond (BDD) anodes generates a very efficient oxidizing environment by forming hydroxyl radicals, providing effective water purification for elimination of persistent pollutants. In this project the degradation rates of organic and inorganic substances are investigated. Experiments were performed in laboratory and pilot scale with synthetic and industrial wastewaters. Performance parameters were evaluated in terms of total organic carbon/chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal, specific energy consumption and current efficiency. The integration of this advanced oxidation technology combined with conventional technology was then applied in a wastewater treatment concept of landfill leachate. The raw leachate with a low biochemical oxygen demand/COD ratio was electrochemically oxidized to prepare the purified leachate for discharge into a sewage system or a receiving water body. The cost estimation regarding operation and capital costs addresses the economics for the treatment of heavily polluted effluents. PMID:24037171

  15. 42 CFR 403.736 - Condition of participation: Discharge planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS SPECIAL PROGRAMS AND PROJECTS Religious Nonmedical Health Care.... (a) Standard: Discharge planning evaluation. (1) The RNHCI must assess the need for a discharge plan... evaluation indicates a need for a discharge plan, qualified and experienced personnel must develop...

  16. 42 CFR 403.736 - Condition of participation: Discharge planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS SPECIAL PROGRAMS AND PROJECTS Religious Nonmedical Health Care.... (a) Standard: Discharge planning evaluation. (1) The RNHCI must assess the need for a discharge plan... evaluation indicates a need for a discharge plan, qualified and experienced personnel must develop...

  17. 42 CFR 403.736 - Condition of participation: Discharge planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS SPECIAL PROGRAMS AND PROJECTS Religious Nonmedical Health Care.... (a) Standard: Discharge planning evaluation. (1) The RNHCI must assess the need for a discharge plan... evaluation indicates a need for a discharge plan, qualified and experienced personnel must develop...

  18. 42 CFR 403.736 - Condition of participation: Discharge planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS SPECIAL PROGRAMS AND PROJECTS Religious Nonmedical Health Care.... (a) Standard: Discharge planning evaluation. (1) The RNHCI must assess the need for a discharge plan... evaluation indicates a need for a discharge plan, qualified and experienced personnel must develop...

  19. 46 CFR 154.1838 - Discharge by gas pressurization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Discharge by gas pressurization. 154.1838 Section 154... SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1838 Discharge by gas pressurization. The person in charge of cargo transfer may not authorize cargo discharge...

  20. 46 CFR 154.1838 - Discharge by gas pressurization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Discharge by gas pressurization. 154.1838 Section 154... SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1838 Discharge by gas pressurization. The person in charge of cargo transfer may not authorize cargo discharge...

  1. 46 CFR 154.1838 - Discharge by gas pressurization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Discharge by gas pressurization. 154.1838 Section 154... SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1838 Discharge by gas pressurization. The person in charge of cargo transfer may not authorize cargo discharge...

  2. The future is upon us -- Zero discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Goodrich, W.G.; Lewis, K.G.

    1996-08-01

    Early in the operation of a zero discharge water treatment system, which reclaims paper mill effluent to provide cooling tower makeup for a power plant, effects from the organic loading in the influent prevented operation of the Reverse Osmosis (RO) Units and hampered operation of Clarifier/Softeners, Brine Concentrators and a Crystallizer. Solutions implemented to remediate the problems included front-end treatment of the influent to improve oxidation and coagulation, down-stream nano-filtration of the wastewater to facilitate RO operation, and back-end charge neutralization and variation of the total dissolved solids (TDS) to organics ratio to improve crystallizer operation.

  3. Destination of organic pollutants during electrochemical oxidation of biologically-pretreated dye wastewater using boron-doped diamond anode.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiuping; Ni, Jinren; Wei, Junjun; Xing, Xuan; Li, Hongna

    2011-05-15

    Electrochemical oxidation of biologically-pretreated dye wastewater was performed in a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode system. After electrolysis of 12h, the COD was decreased from 532 to 99 mg L(-1) (<100 mg L(-1), the National Discharge Standard of China). More importantly, the destination of organic pollutants during electrochemical oxidation process was carefully investigated by molecular weight distribution measurement, resin fractionation, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, HPLC and GC-MS analysis, and toxicity test. As results, most organic pollutants were completely removed by electrochemical oxidation and the rest was primarily degraded to simpler compounds (e.g., carboxylic acids and short-chain alkanes) with less toxicity, which demonstrated that electrochemical oxidation of biologically-pretreated dye wastewater with BDD anode was very effective and safe. Especially, the performance of BDD anode system in degradation of large molecular organics such as humic substances makes it very promising in practical applications as an advanced treatment of biologically-pretreated wastewaters. PMID:21377794

  4. 2012 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Lewis

    2013-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA 000161 01, Modification B), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond from November 1, 2011 through October 31, 2012. The report contains the following information: Facility and system description Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates Groundwater monitoring data Status of compliance activities Noncompliance issues Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2012 permit year, approximately 183 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Cold Waste Pond. This is well below the maximum annual permit limit of 375 million gallons. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest near the Cold Waste Pond and decrease rapidly as the distance from the Cold Waste Pond increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are elevated near the Cold Waste Pond, both parameters were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in the down gradient monitoring wells.

  5. 2011 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Lewis

    2012-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA 000161 01, Modification B), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond from November 1, 2010 through October 31, 2011. The report contains the following information: Facility and system description Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates Groundwater monitoring data Status of compliance activities Noncompliance and other issues Discussion of the facility's environmental impacts During the 2011 permit year, approximately 166 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Cold Waste Pond. This is well below the maximum annual permit limit of 375 million gallons. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest near the Cold Waste Pond and decrease rapidly as the distance from the Cold Waste Pond increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are elevated near the Cold Waste Pond, both parameters were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in the down gradient monitoring wells.

  6. A compact process for treating oilfield wastewater by combining hydrolysis acidification, moving bed biofilm, ozonation and biologically activated carbon techniques.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Tao

    2016-01-01

    A lab-scale hybrid system integrating a hybrid hydrolysis acidification (HA) reactor, a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) and an ozonation-biologically activated carbon (O3-BAC) unit was used in the treatment of heavy oil wastewater with high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and low biodegradability. The effects of hydraulic retention time and ozonation time were investigated. The results show that under the optimal conditions, the effluent concentrations of COD, oil and ammonia were 48, 1.3 and 3.5 mg/L, respectively, corresponding to total removal efficiencies of 95.8%, 98.9% and 94.4%, respectively. The effluent could meet the grade I as required by the national discharge standard of China. The HA process remarkably improved the biodegradability of the wastewater, while the MBBR process played an important role in degrading COD. The ozonation process further enhanced the biodegradability of the MBBR effluent, and finally, deep treatment was completed in the BAC reactor. This work demonstrates that the hybrid HA/MBBR/O3-BAC system has the potential to be used for the treatment of high-strength oilfield wastewater.

  7. Aquatic Plants and Wastewater Treatment (an Overview)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.

    1986-01-01

    The technology for using water hyacinth to upgrade domestic sewage effluent from lagoons and other wastewater treatment facilities to secondary and advanced secondary standards has been sufficiently developed to be used where the climate is warm year round. The technology of using emergent plants such as bulrush combined with duckweed is also sufficiently developed to make this a viable wastewater treatment alternative. This system is suited for both temperate and semi-tropical areas found throughout most of the U.S. The newest technology in artificial marsh wastewater treatment involves the use of emergent plant roots in conjunction with high surface area rock filters. Smaller land areas are required for these systems because of the increased concentration of microorganisms associated with the rock and plant root surfaces. Approximately 75 percent less land area is required for the plant-rock system than is required for a strict artificial wetland to achieve the same level of treatment.

  8. Occurrence and fate of organic contaminants during onsite wastewater treatment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conn, K.E.; Barber, L.B.; Brown, G.K.; Siegrist, R.L.

    2006-01-01

    Onsite wastewater treatment systems serve approximately 25% of the U.S. population. However, little is known regarding the occurrence and fate of organic wastewater contaminants (OWCs), including endocrine disrupting compounds, during onsite treatment. A range of OWCs including surfactant metabolites, steroids, stimulants, metal-chelating agents, disinfectants, antimicrobial agents, and pharmaceutical compounds was quantified in wastewater from 30 onsite treatment systems in Summit and Jefferson Counties, CO. The onsite systems represent a range of residential and nonresidential sources. Eighty eight percent of the 24 target compounds were detected in one or more samples, and several compounds were detected in every wastewater sampled. The wastewater matrices were complex and showed unique differences between source types due to differences in water and consumer product use. Nonresidential sources generally had more OWCs at higher concentrations than residential sources. Additional aerobic biofilter-based treatment beyond the traditional anaerobic tank-based treatment enhanced removal for many OWCs. Removal mechanisms included volatilization, biotransformation, and sorption with efficiencies from 99% depending on treatment type and physicochemical properties of the compound. Even with high removal rates during confined unit onsite treatment, OWCs are discharged to soil dispersal units at loadings up to 20 mg/m2/d, emphasizing the importance of understanding removal mechanisms and efficiencies in onsite treatment systems that discharge to the soil and water environments. ?? 2006 American Chemical Society.

  9. Wastewater reclamation and recharge: A water management strategy for Albuquerque

    SciTech Connect

    Gorder, P.J.; Brunswick, R.J.; Bockemeier, S.W.

    1995-12-31

    Approximately 61,000 acre-feet of the pumped water is annually discharged to the Rio Grande as treated wastewater. Albuquerque`s Southside Water Reclamation Plant (SWRP) is the primary wastewater treatment facility for most of the Albuquerque area. Its current design capacity is 76 million gallons per day (mgd), which is expected to be adequate until about 2004. A master plan currently is being prepared (discussed here in Wastewater Master Planning and the Zero Discharge Concept section) to provide guidelines for future expansions of the plant and wastewater infrastructure. Construction documents presently are being prepared to add ammonia and nitrogen removal capability to the plant, as required by its new discharge permit. The paper discusses water management strategies, indirect potable reuse for Albuquerque, water quality considerations for indirect potable reuse, treatment for potable reuse, geohydrological aspects of a recharge program, layout and estimated costs for a conceptual reclamation and recharge system, and work to be accomplished under phase 2 of the reclamation and recharge program.

  10. Wilsonville wastewater sampling program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1983-10-01

    As part of its contrast to design, build and operate the SRC-1 Demonstration Plant in cooperation with the US Department of Energy (DOE), International Coal Refining Company (ICRC) was required to collect and evaluate data related to wastewater streams and wastewater treatment procedures at the SRC-1 Pilot Plant facility. The pilot plant is located at Wilsonville, Alabama and is operated by Catalytic, Inc. under the direction of Southern Company Services. The plant is funded in part by the Electric Power Research Institute and the DOE. ICRC contracted with Catalytic, Inc. to conduct wastewater sampling. Tasks 1 through 5 included sampling and analysis of various wastewater sources and points of different steps in the biological treatment facility at the plant. The sampling program ran from May 1 to July 31, 1982. Also included in the sampling program was the generation and analysis of leachate from SRC product using standard laboratory leaching procedures. For Task 6, available plant wastewater data covering the period from February 1978 to December 1981 was analyzed to gain information that might be useful for a demonstration plant design basis. This report contains a tabulation of the analytical data, a summary tabulation of the historical operating data that was evaluated and comments concerning the data. The procedures used during the sampling program are also documented.

  11. TRANSPORT OF CHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL CONTAMINANTS FROM KNOWN WASTEWATER DISCHARGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The quality of drinking and recreational water is currently ascertained using indicator bacteria, such as Escherichia coli and fecal enterococci. However, the tests to analyze for these bacteria require a considerable length of time to complete, and do not discriminate between ...

  12. Reduction in toxicity of wastewater from three wastewater treatment plants to alga (Scenedesmus obliquus) in northeast China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Sun, Qing; Zhou, Jiti; Masunaga, Shigeki; Ma, Fang

    2015-09-01

    The toxicity of municipal wastewater to the receiving water bodies is still unknown, due to the lack of regulated toxicity based index for wastewater discharge in China. Our study aims at gaining insight into the acute toxic effects of local municipal wastewater on alga, Scenedesmus obliquus. Four endpoints, i.e. cell density, chlorophyll-A concentration, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and cell membrane integrity, of alga were analyzed to characterize the acute toxicity effects of wastewater from municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with different treatment techniques: sequencing batch reactor (SBR), Linpor and conventional activated sludge. Influent and effluent from each treatment stage in these three WWTPs were sampled and evaluated for their acute toxicity. Our results showed that all three techniques can completely affect the algal chlorophyll-A synthesis stimulation effects of influent; the algal cell growth stimulation effect was only completely removed by the secondary treatment process in conventional activated sludge technique; toxic effects on cell membrane integrity of two influents from WWTPs with SBR and conventional activated sludge techniques were completely removed; the acute toxicity on SOD activity was partially reduced in SBR and conventional activated sludge techniques while not significantly reduced by Linpor system. As to the disinfection unit, NaClO disinfection enhanced wastewater toxicity dramatically while UV radiation had no remarkable influence on wastewater toxicity. Our results illustrated that SOD activity and chlorophyll-A synthesis were relatively sensitive to municipal wastewater toxicity. Our results would aid to understand the acute toxicity of municipal wastewater, as well as the toxicity removal by currently utilized treatment techniques in China. PMID:25996525

  13. Reduction in toxicity of wastewater from three wastewater treatment plants to alga (Scenedesmus obliquus) in northeast China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Sun, Qing; Zhou, Jiti; Masunaga, Shigeki; Ma, Fang

    2015-09-01

    The toxicity of municipal wastewater to the receiving water bodies is still unknown, due to the lack of regulated toxicity based index for wastewater discharge in China. Our study aims at gaining insight into the acute toxic effects of local municipal wastewater on alga, Scenedesmus obliquus. Four endpoints, i.e. cell density, chlorophyll-A concentration, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and cell membrane integrity, of alga were analyzed to characterize the acute toxicity effects of wastewater from municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with different treatment techniques: sequencing batch reactor (SBR), Linpor and conventional activated sludge. Influent and effluent from each treatment stage in these three WWTPs were sampled and evaluated for their acute toxicity. Our results showed that all three techniques can completely affect the algal chlorophyll-A synthesis stimulation effects of influent; the algal cell growth stimulation effect was only completely removed by the secondary treatment process in conventional activated sludge technique; toxic effects on cell membrane integrity of two influents from WWTPs with SBR and conventional activated sludge techniques were completely removed; the acute toxicity on SOD activity was partially reduced in SBR and conventional activated sludge techniques while not significantly reduced by Linpor system. As to the disinfection unit, NaClO disinfection enhanced wastewater toxicity dramatically while UV radiation had no remarkable influence on wastewater toxicity. Our results illustrated that SOD activity and chlorophyll-A synthesis were relatively sensitive to municipal wastewater toxicity. Our results would aid to understand the acute toxicity of municipal wastewater, as well as the toxicity removal by currently utilized treatment techniques in China.

  14. Stretched arc discharge in produced water.

    PubMed

    Cho, Y I; Wright, K C; Kim, H S; Cho, D J; Rabinovich, A; Fridman, A

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the feasibility of stretching an arc discharge in produced water to increase the volume of produced water treated by plasma. Produced water is the wastewater generated by hydraulic fracturing of shale during the production phase in shale-oil or shale-gas exploration. The electric conductivity of produced water is in the range of 50-200 mS/cm, which provides both a challenge and opportunity for the application of plasmas. Stretching of an arc discharge in produced water was accomplished using a ground electrode and two high-voltage electrodes: one positioned close to the ground electrode and the other positioned farther away from the ground. The benefit of stretching the arc is that the contact between the arc and water is significantly increased, resulting in more efficient plasma treatment in both performance and energy cost. PMID:25638080

  15. Stretched arc discharge in produced water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Y. I.; Wright, K. C.; Kim, H. S.; Cho, D. J.; Rabinovich, A.; Fridman, A.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the feasibility of stretching an arc discharge in produced water to increase the volume of produced water treated by plasma. Produced water is the wastewater generated by hydraulic fracturing of shale during the production phase in shale-oil or shale-gas exploration. The electric conductivity of produced water is in the range of 50-200 mS/cm, which provides both a challenge and opportunity for the application of plasmas. Stretching of an arc discharge in produced water was accomplished using a ground electrode and two high-voltage electrodes: one positioned close to the ground electrode and the other positioned farther away from the ground. The benefit of stretching the arc is that the contact between the arc and water is significantly increased, resulting in more efficient plasma treatment in both performance and energy cost.

  16. Anti-reflux surgery - children - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Fundoplication - children - discharge; Nissen fundoplication - children - discharge; Belsey (Mark IV) fundoplication - children - discharge; Toupet fundoplication - children - discharge; Thal fundoplication - ...

  17. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - adults - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... adults - discharge; Chronic obstructive airways disease - adults - discharge; Chronic obstructive lung disease - adults - discharge; Chronic bronchitis - adults - discharge; Emphysema - adults - ...

  18. Flue gas desulfurization wastewater treatment primer

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, T.E.; Sandy, A.T.; Givens, S.W.

    2009-03-15

    Purge water from a typical wet flue gas desulfurization system contains myriad chemical constituents and heavy metals whose mixture is determined by the fuel source and combustion products as well as the stack gas treatment process. A well-designed water treatment system can tolerate upstream fuel and sorbent arranged in just the right order to produce wastewater acceptable for discharge. This article presents state-of-the-art technologies for treating the waste water that is generated by wet FGD systems. 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Reduction of pathogen indicator organisms in dairy wastewater using an ecological treatment system.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Jennifer A; Hoet, Armando E; Wittum, Thomas E; Monahan, Clifton M; Martin, Jay F

    2008-01-01

    Ecological treatment systems can provide a sustainable, plant-based alternative to traditional wastewater treatment. One factor essential to the success of these systems is ensuring their ability to reduce coliform concentrations in wastewater. Wastewater is the primary source of fecal contamination in aquatic ecosystems, containing total and fecal coliforms on the order of 10(8)-10(10) and 10(7)-10(9) CFU L(-1), respectively. This study assessed the ability of an ecological treatment system to reduce concentrations of total coliforms and Escherichia coli from dairy wastewater. Low strength wastewater was pumped into the system during July of 2005 and high strength in September 2005. Wastewater passes through a series of anaerobic, aerobic, and clarifier reactors and wetland cells before exiting the system. Regardless of wastewater strength, average total coliform and E. coli concentrations were consistently reduced by at least 99% from influent to effluent, with the majority of the reduction (76%) occurring in the first two reactors. Relationships between internal concentrations of solids and coliforms indicated that increased reduction of solids may further reduce coliform concentrations. Although U.S. Environmental Protection Agency discharge requirements for E. coli were not always met, the substantial reductions achieved indicate that ecological treatment systems have the potential to successfully reduce coliforms in wastewater to meet discharge limits. The results from this study will be used to guide design and management of future ecological treatment systems, so that larger and more consistent coliform reductions can be achieved.

  20. Feasibility study, conceptual design and bid package preparation for the treatment and effluent reuse of domestic wastewater discharges from saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico. Final report. Volume 2. Export trade information; Fideicomiso para la ampliacion de infraestructura y eficientizacion del agua potable, drenaje sanitario y saneamiento de aguas residuales para la ciudad de saltillo, coahuila

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    The study, conducted by Freese and Nichols, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency on behalf of the State of Coahuila, Mexico. The report presents the findings of the feasibility study and conceptual design for the treatment and effluent reuse of wastewater from Saltillo, Coahuila. The main objective of the study is to determine the most feasible alternative for wastewater treatment. This is the second of two volumes. It contains the appendices and is divided into the following sections: (1) Appendix A - Wastewater Treatment and Reuse Regulations; (2) Appendix B - Flow Monitoring Program Results; (3) Appendix C - Partial Results for the First Monitoring Period; (4) Appendix D - Characterization Program; (5) Appendix E - Characterization Program Results; (6) Appendix F - Preliminary Treatment Unit Design and Cost Estimation; (7) Appendix G - List of Threatened and Endangered Species; (8) Appendix H - Cost Estimation for the Wastewater Treatment Plant; (9) Appendix I - Hydraulic and Cost Calculations for Interceptors; (10) Appendix J - Financial Feasibility Worksheets.