Science.gov

Sample records for water bath stunning

  1. Assessment of a specifically developed bullet casing gun for the stunning of water buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Meichtry, Carmen; Glauser, Urs; Glardon, Matthieu; Ross, Steffen G; Lechner, Isabel; Kneubuehl, Beat P; Gascho, Dominic; Spadavecchia, Claudia; von Rotz, Alois; Stojiljkovic, Ana; Stoffel, Michael H

    2018-01-01

    Water buffaloes and cattle differ considerably with respect to the anatomy of the head. As a result, captive bolt stunners often fail to reliably produce adequate loss of consciousness in water buffaloes and, thus, do not fulfill animal welfare requirements. The goal of the present study was to assess and validate a new stunning device for water buffaloes meeting animal welfare and occupational safety requirements. The newly designed bullet casing gun uses .357Mag/10.2g hollow point bullets and has additional safety features. Its effectiveness and usability were assessed under practical conditions in an abattoir as based on widely accepted criteria. Stunning resulted in deep unconsciousness in 19 out of 20 water buffaloes. One 9-year old male did not immediately collapse. Except for very old bulls, the device presented herewith provides a means to stun water buffaloes of both sexes effectively and reliably while keeping occupational hazards to a minimum. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Water bath accelerated curing of concrete.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1970-01-01

    Water bath methods for accelerating the strength development of portland cement concrete were investigated in a two phase study as follows. Phase I - Participation in a cooperative accelerated strength testing program sponsored by the American Societ...

  3. Recovery of consciousness in broilers following combined dc and ac stunning

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Broilers in the United States are typically electrically stunned using low voltage-high frequency pulsed DC water bath stunners and in the European Union broilers are electrocuted using high voltage-low frequency AC. DC stunned broilers regain consciousness in the absence of exsanguination and AC st...

  4. Impact of alternative electrical stunning parameters on the ability of broilers to recover consciousness and meat quality

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Broilers in the United States are typically electrically stunned using low voltage-high frequency (12-38V, =400Hz) DC or AC water bath stunners. In the European Union, however, broilers are required to be electrocuted using high voltage-low frequency (50-150V, 50-350Hz) AC. Low voltage stunned broil...

  5. Energy loss and impact of various stunning devices used for the slaughtering of water buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Glardon, Matthieu; Schwenk, Barbara K; Riva, Fabiano; von Holzen, Adrian; Ross, Steffen G; Kneubuehl, Beat P; Stoffel, Michael H

    2018-01-01

    Stock management of the Swiss water buffalo livestock results in the slaughtering of about 350 animals per year. As the stunning of water buffaloes still is an unresolved issue, we investigated the terminal ballistics of currently used perforating stunning devices. Cartridge fired captive bolt devices, handguns and a bullet casing gun were tested in a shooting steep by firing on bisected heads, forehead plates and soap blocks. Energy loss of captive bolts confirmed their inadequacy when used for heavy water buffaloes, notably adult males. As for the free projectiles, ballistics revealed that beyond the impact energy, bullet deformation has a strong impact on the outcome. Light 9mm Luger or .38 Spl bullets as well as large deformable .44 Rem. Magnum bullets should be avoided in favor of heavier .357 Magnum deformation ammunition. These data have been translated into the development of a new stunning device for water buffaloes meeting both animal welfare and occupational safety requirements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of ambient temperature and water vapor on chamber pressure and oxygen level during low atmospheric pressure stunning of poultry.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Paul H; Pritchard, David G

    2017-08-01

    The characteristics of the vacuum used in a low atmospheric pressure stunning system to stun (render unconscious) poultry prior to slaughter are described. A vacuum chamber is pumped by a wet screw compressor. The vacuum pressure is reduced from ambient atmospheric pressure to an absolute vacuum pressure of ∼250 Torr (∼33 kPa) in ∼67 sec with the vacuum gate valve fully open. At ∼250 Torr, the sliding gate valve is partially closed to reduce effective pumping speed, resulting in a slower rate of decreasing pressure. Ambient temperature affects air density and water vapor pressure and thereby oxygen levels and the time at the minimum total pressure of ∼160 Torr (∼21 kPa) is varied from ∼120 to ∼220 sec to ensure an effective stun within the 280 seconds of each cycle. The reduction in total pressure results in a gradual reduction of oxygen partial pressure that was measured by a solid-state electrochemical oxygen sensor. The reduced oxygen pressure leads to hypoxia, which is recognized as a humane method of stunning poultry. The system maintains an oxygen concentration of <5% for at least 2 minutes, which ensures that birds are irreversibly stunned. Calculated pump down (pressure versus time) data match experimental data very closely because the programmable logic controller and the human machine interface enable precise and accurate control. The vacuum system operates in the turbulent viscous flow regime, and is best characterized by absolute vacuum pressure rather than gauge pressure. Neither the presence of broiler chickens nor different fore-line pipe designs of four parallel commercial systems affected the pressure-time data. Water in wet air always reduces the oxygen concentrations to a value lower than in dry air. The partial pressure of water and oxygen were found to depend on the pump down parameters due to the formation of fog in the chamber and desorption of water from the birds and the walls of the vacuum chamber. © The Author 2017

  7. Effects of ambient temperature and water vapor on chamber pressure and oxygen level during low atmospheric pressure stunning of poultry

    PubMed Central

    Holloway, Paul H.; Pritchard, David G.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The characteristics of the vacuum used in a low atmospheric pressure stunning system to stun (render unconscious) poultry prior to slaughter are described. A vacuum chamber is pumped by a wet screw compressor. The vacuum pressure is reduced from ambient atmospheric pressure to an absolute vacuum pressure of ∼250 Torr (∼33 kPa) in ∼67 sec with the vacuum gate valve fully open. At ∼250 Torr, the sliding gate valve is partially closed to reduce effective pumping speed, resulting in a slower rate of decreasing pressure. Ambient temperature affects air density and water vapor pressure and thereby oxygen levels and the time at the minimum total pressure of ∼160 Torr (∼21 kPa) is varied from ∼120 to ∼220 sec to ensure an effective stun within the 280 seconds of each cycle. The reduction in total pressure results in a gradual reduction of oxygen partial pressure that was measured by a solid-state electrochemical oxygen sensor. The reduced oxygen pressure leads to hypoxia, which is recognized as a humane method of stunning poultry. The system maintains an oxygen concentration of <5% for at least 2 minutes, which ensures that birds are irreversibly stunned. Calculated pump down (pressure versus time) data match experimental data very closely because the programmable logic controller and the human machine interface enable precise and accurate control. The vacuum system operates in the turbulent viscous flow regime, and is best characterized by absolute vacuum pressure rather than gauge pressure. Neither the presence of broiler chickens nor different fore-line pipe designs of four parallel commercial systems affected the pressure-time data. Water in wet air always reduces the oxygen concentrations to a value lower than in dry air. The partial pressure of water and oxygen were found to depend on the pump down parameters due to the formation of fog in the chamber and desorption of water from the birds and the walls of the vacuum chamber. PMID

  8. Head-cloaca controlled current stunning: assessment of brain and heart activity and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Lambooij, E; Reimert, H G M; Workel, L D; Hindle, V A

    2012-01-01

    1. Behavioural and neural responses of 65 broilers to head-to-cloaca electrical stunning were evaluated and meat quality was assessed on two groups of 25 broilers stunned either head to cloaca, or in a conventional water bath method. 2. On the EEG recordings, a general epileptiform insult was observed when applying a current of 100 mA (100 Hz) or 70 mA (70 Hz) for 1·5 s. This general epileptiform insult shows a tonic, clonic and exhaustion phase followed by spikes of alpha, beta, theta and delta waves with duration of on average 34 ± 12 s and 39 ± 23 s respectively. These birds may have been unconscious for 20 s or longer, according to the correlation dimension analyses. 3. The heart rate decreased significantly (P < 0·05) after stunning and recovered after 60 s. 4. Within a confidence limit of 95%, taking into account the number of animals with a reliable EEG, the chance of an effective stun of all broilers lies between 0·9 and 1·0 with a current of 70 mA (100 Hz for 1·5 s; n = 28) and with 100 mA (100 Hz for 1·5 s; n = 27). 5. The shear force of breast fillets was slightly lower (P < 0·01) 4 d post mortem compared with the conventional water bath stunned group (set at 100 mA, 100 Hz for 10 s). The percentage of fillets and legs without blood splashes was higher, and the percentage with severe blood splashes lower-to-none, for carcases stunned head-cloaca. 6. It can be concluded that broilers are effectively stunned with the head-cloaca method by using a controlled current of 70 mA or 100 mA for 1·5 s. The fillets and legs of bird stunned head-cloaca showed fewer blood splashes in the muscles compared with birds stunned in a conventional water bath.

  9. Effect of EU electrical stunning conditions on breast meat quality of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Sirri, F; Petracci, M; Zampiga, M; Meluzzi, A

    2017-08-01

    Electrical stunning is still the main stunning method used worldwide in commercial poultry plants. The stunning procedures in water bath stunners affect both bird welfare and meat quality attributes. The European Union (EU) Council Regulation 1099/2009 on the protection of the animal at the time of killing established the minimum current flow through an individual bird at a specified frequency to assure an effective stun that must last until the bird's death. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of the application of different stunning current flows on the prevalence of hemorrhages (classified as 1 = no lesion, 2 = moderate, and 3 = severe lesion) and some quality traits (pHu, color, drip and cooking losses, and shear force) of chicken breast meat. A total of 12 flocks of broiler chickens, each equally divided into light, medium, and heavy sizes, was submitted either to the stunning condition usually adopted before the entry into force of the current EU regulation (90 mA/bird, 400 Hz) (OLD) or to that enforced by it (150 mA/bird, 400 Hz) (NEW). Overall, the prevalence of severe hemorrhages dramatically increased in the NEW group in comparison with the OLD one (55 vs. 27%; P < 0.001) and particularly in heavy-sized birds (72 vs. 25%; P < 0.001). In general, meat quality attributes were not affected by the stunning conditions with the exception of drip loss that resulted lower in NEW than OLD birds (1.01 vs. 1.27; P < 0.001). In conclusion, the adoption of a higher current flow, as suggested by the EU regulation to protect animals at the time of killing, increases the prevalence of breast hemorrhages while maintaining meat quality traits with a possible beneficial effect on water holding capacity of fresh meat. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  10. Does the bathing water classification depend on sampling strategy? A bootstrap approach for bathing water quality assessment, according to Directive 2006/7/EC requirements.

    PubMed

    López, Iago; Alvarez, César; Gil, José L; Revilla, José A

    2012-11-30

    Data on the 95th and 90th percentiles of bacteriological quality indicators are used to classify bathing waters in Europe, according to the requirements of Directive 2006/7/EC. However, percentile values and consequently, classification of bathing waters depend both on sampling effort and sample-size, which may undermine an appropriate assessment of bathing water classification. To analyse the influence of sampling effort and sample size on water classification, a bootstrap approach was applied to 55 bacteriological quality datasets of several beaches in the Balearic Islands (Spain). Our results show that the probability of failing the regulatory standards of the Directive is high when sample size is low, due to a higher variability in percentile values. In this way, 49% of the bathing waters reaching an "Excellent" classification (95th percentile of Escherichia coli under 250 cfu/100 ml) can fail the "Excellent" regulatory standard due to sampling strategy, when 23 samples per season are considered. This percentage increases to 81% when 4 samples per season are considered. "Good" regulatory standards can also be failed in bathing waters with an "Excellent" classification as a result of these sampling strategies. The variability in percentile values may affect bathing water classification and is critical for the appropriate design and implementation of bathing water Quality Monitoring and Assessment Programs. Hence, variability of percentile values should be taken into account by authorities if an adequate management of these areas is to be achieved. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A Third Generation Water Bath Based Blackbody Source

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Joel B.

    1995-01-01

    A third generation water bath based black-body source has been designed and constructed in the Radiometric Physics Division at the National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD. The goal of this work was to design a large aperture blackbody source with improved temporal stability and reproducibility compared with earlier designs, as well as improved ease of use. These blackbody sources operate in the 278 K to 353 K range with water temperature combined standard uncertainties of 3.5 mK to 7.8 mK. The calculated emissivity of these sources is 0.9997 with a relative standard uncertainty of 0.0003. With a 50 mm limiting aperture at the cavity; entrance, the emissivity increases to 0.99997. PMID:29151763

  12. Transport of thermal water from well to thermal baths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montegrossi, Giordano; Vaselli, Orlando; Tassi, Franco; Nocentini, Matteo; Liccioli, Caterina; Nisi, Barbara

    2013-04-01

    The main problem in building a thermal bath is having a hot spring or a thermal well located in an appropriate position for customer access; since Roman age, thermal baths were distributed in the whole empire and often road and cities were built all around afterwards. Nowadays, the perspectives are changed and occasionally the thermal resource is required to be transported with a pipeline system from the main source to the spa. Nevertheless, the geothermal fluid may show problems of corrosion and scaling during transport. In the Ambra valley, central Italy, a geothermal well has recently been drilled and it discharges a Ca(Mg)-SO4, CO2-rich water at the temperature of 41 °C, that could be used for supplying a new spa in the surrounding areas of the well itself. The main problem is that the producing well is located in a forest tree ca. 4 km far away from the nearest structure suitable to host the thermal bath. In this study, we illustrate the pipeline design from the producing well to the spa, constraining the physical and geochemical parameters to reduce scaling and corrosion phenomena. The starting point is the thermal well that has a flow rate ranging from 22 up to 25 L/sec. The thermal fluid is heavily precipitating calcite (50-100 ton/month) due to the calcite-CO2 equilibrium in the reservoir, where a partial pressure of 11 bar of CO2 is present. One of the most vexing problems in investigating scaling processed during the fluid transport in the pipeline is that there is not a proper software package for multiphase fluid flow in pipes characterized by such a complex chemistry. As a consequence, we used a modified TOUGHREACT with Pitzer database, arranged to use Darcy-Weisbach equation, and applying "fictitious" material properties in order to give the proper y- z- velocity profile in comparison to the analytical solution for laminar fluid flow in pipes. This investigation gave as a result the lowest CO2 partial pressure to be kept in the pipeline (nearly 2

  13. Changes of minimal erythema dose after water and salt water baths.

    PubMed

    Gambichler, T; Schröpl, F

    1998-01-01

    Knowledge about the influence of salt water baths on UV irradiation, especially balneophototherapy, is incomplete. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of various concentrated salt solutions on the minimal erythema dose (MED). We determined the MEDdry (UVB) in 24 healthy, previously UV unexposed subjects on the inner forearm. Subjects were divided randomly into two groups of 12. Subsequently, the MEDwet was assessed on each forearm after 30 min tap water or 5% salt water bath (group A), respectively, or after 30 min 10% or 20% salt water bath (group B), respectively. Compared with the MEDdry, a significantly decreased MEDwet, was observed after all exposures (group A==>F = 18.94; P < 0.001; group B==>F = 11.73; P < 0.006). A maximal relative decrease in MEDdry of about 51.4% was observed after the 10% salt water bath. The 5% salt solution caused a modest relative decrease in MEDwet of 23.4%. We observed a markedly increased photosensitivity to UVB after all exposures, without a linear correlation between the MED and the salt water concentration. A determination of MED during balneophototherapy should be carried out after bathing in order to reduce the cumulative UV dose and to prevent acute photodamage.

  14. Stunning systems for poultry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Poultry are stunned immediately prior to slaughter to facilitate automated processing, to minimize the subsequent death struggle and thereby minimize carcass damage and down grades, and to render the bird unconscious and incapable to perceive pain. A stunning method for slaughter should be consider...

  15. Prevalence of Legionella species isolated from shower water in public bath facilities in Toyama Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kanatani, Jun-Ichi; Isobe, Junko; Norimoto, Shiho; Kimata, Keiko; Mitsui, Chieko; Amemura-Maekawa, Junko; Kura, Fumiaki; Sata, Tetsutaro; Watahiki, Masanori

    2017-05-01

    We investigated the prevalence of Legionella spp. isolated from shower water in public bath facilities in Toyama Prefecture, Japan. In addition, we analyzed the genetic diversity among Legionella pneumophila isolates from shower water as well as the genetic relationship between isolates from shower water and from stock strains previously analyzed from sputum specimens. The isolates were characterized using serogrouping, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and sequence-based typing. Legionella spp. were isolated from 31/91 (34.1%) samples derived from 17/37 (45.9%) bath facilities. Isolates from shower water and bath water in each public bath facility were serologically or genetically different, indicating that we need to isolate several L. pneumophila colonies from both bath and shower water to identify public bath facilities as sources of legionellosis. The 61 L. pneumophila isolates from shower water were classified into 39 sequence types (STs) (index of discrimination = 0.974), including 19 new STs. Among the 39 STs, 12 STs match clinical isolates in the European Working Group for Legionella Infections database. Notably, ST505 L. pneumophila SG 1, a strain frequently isolated from patients with legionellosis and from bath water in this area, was isolated from shower water. Pathogenic L. pneumophila strains including ST505 strain were widely distributed in shower water in public bath facilities, with genetic diversity showing several different origins. This study highlights the need to isolate several L. pneumophila colonies from both bath water and shower water to identify public bath facilities as infection sources in legionellosis cases. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Distinct difference of flaA genotypes of Legionella pneumophila between isolates from bath water and cooling tower water.

    PubMed

    Amemura-Maekawa, Junko; Kura, Fumiaki; Chang, Bin; Suzuki-Hashimoto, Atsuko; Ichinose, Masayuki; Endo, Takuro; Watanabe, Haruo

    2008-09-01

    To investigate the genetic difference of Legionella pneumophila in human-made environments, we collected isolates of L. pneumophila from bath water (n = 167) and cooling tower water (n = 128) primarily in the Kanto region in 2001 and 2005. The environmental isolates were serogrouped and sequenced for a target region of flaA. A total of 14 types of flaA genotypes were found: 10 from cooling tower water and nine from bath water. The flaA genotypes of isolates from cooling tower water were quite different from those of bath water.

  17. Bath water contamination with Legionella and nontuberculous mycobacteria in 24-hour home baths, hot springs, and public bathhouses of Nagano Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Michiko; Oana, Kozue; Kawakami, Yoshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    Bath water samples were collected from 116 hot springs, 197 public bathhouses, and 38 24-hour home baths in Nagano Prefecture, Japan, during the period of April 2009 to November 2011, for determining the presence and extent of contamination with Legionella and nontuberculous mycobacteria. Cultures positive for Legionella were observed in 123 of the 3,314 bath water samples examined. The distribution and abundance of Legionella and/or combined contamination with Legionella and nontuberculous mycobacteria were investigated to clarify the contamination levels. The abundance of Legionella was demonstrated to correlate considerably with the levels of combined contamination with Legionella and nontuberculous mycobacteria. Legionella spp. were obtained from 61% of the water samples from 24-hour home baths, but only from 3% of the samples from public bathhouses and hot springs. This is despite the fact that a few outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease in Nagano Prefecture as well as other regions of Japan have been traced to bath water contamination. The comparatively higher rate of contamination of the 24-hour home baths is a matter of concern. It is therefore advisable to routinely implement good maintenance of the water basins, particularly of the 24-hour home baths.

  18. Post-industrial river water quality-Fit for bathing again?

    PubMed

    Kistemann, Thomas; Schmidt, Alexandra; Flemming, Hans-Curt

    2016-10-01

    For the Ruhr River, bathing has been prohibited for decades. However, along with significant improvements of the hygienic water quality, there is an increasing demand of using the river for recreational purposes, in particular for bathing. In the "Safe Ruhr" interdisciplinary research project, demands, options and chances for lifting the bathing ban for the Ruhr River were investigated. As being the prominent reason for persisting recreational restrictions, microbiological water quality was in the focus of interest. Not only the faecal indicator organisms (FIOs) as required by the European Bathing Water Directive were considered, but also pathogens such as Salmonella, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Legionella pneumophila, Campylobacter, Leptospira, enteroviruses and protozoan parasites. In this introductory paper, we firstly relate current recreational desires to historical experiences of river bathing. After recapitulating relevant microbial river contamination sources (predominantly sewage treatment plants, combined sewer overflows, and surface runoffs), we review existing knowledge about the relationships of FIOs and pathogens in rivers designated for recreational purposes, and then trace the evolution, rationale and validity of recreational freshwater quality criteria which are, despite obvious uncertainties, mostly relying on the FIO paradigm. In particular, the representativeness of FIOs is critically discussed. The working programme of Safe Ruhr, aiming at initiating and facilitating a process towards legalisation of Ruhr River bathing, is outlined. Sources of contamination can be technically handled which leaves the actual measures to political decisions. As contaminations are transient, only occasionally exceeding legal limits, a flexible bathing site management, warning bathers of non-safe situations, may amend technical interventions and offer innovative solutions. As a result, a situation-adapted system for lifting of the bathing ban for Ruhr River appears

  19. How does washing without water perform compared to the traditional bed bath: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Groven, Fabian M V; Zwakhalen, Sandra M G; Odekerken-Schröder, Gaby; Joosten, Erik J T; Hamers, Jan P H

    2017-01-25

    For immobile patients, a body wash in bed is sometimes the only bathing option. Traditionally, the bed bath is performed with water and soap. However, alternatives are increasingly used in health care. Washing without water is one such alternative that has been claimed to offer several advantages, such as improved hygiene and skin condition. This systematic review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the evidence on outcomes of the washing without water concept compared to the traditional bed bath. Controlled trials about washing without water outcomes published after 1994 were collected by means of a systematic literature search in CINAHL, Embase, MEDLINE, and PUBMED at the 25th of February, 2016. Additionally, references and citations were searched and experts contacted. Studies were eligible if (1) the study designs included outcomes of washing without water products developed for the full body wash compared to the traditional bed bath, and (2) they were controlled trials. Two researchers independently used a standardized quality checklist to assess the methodological quality of the eligible studies. Finally, outcomes were categorized in (1) physiological outcomes related to hygiene and skin condition, (2) stakeholder-related outcomes, and (3) organizational outcomes in the data synthesis. Out of 33 potentially relevant articles subjected to full text screening, six studies met the eligibility criteria. Only two studies (of the same research group) were considered of high quality. The results of these high quality studies show that washing without water performed better than the traditional bed bath regarding skin abnormalities and bathing completeness. No differences between washing without water and the traditional bed bath were found for outcomes related to significant skin lesions, resistance during bathing and costs in the studies of high quality. There is limited moderate to high quality evidence that washing without water is not inferior to the

  20. Processing of combined domestic bath and laundry waste waters for reuse as commode flushing water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hypes, W. D.; Batten, C. E.; Wilkins, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental investigation of processes and system configurations for reclaiming combined bath and laundry waste waters for reuse as commode flush water was conducted. A 90-min recycle flow was effective in removing particulates and in improving other physical characteristics to the extent that the filtered water was subjectively acceptable for reuse. The addition of a charcoal filter resulted in noticeable improvements in color, turbidity, and suds elimination. Heating and chlorination of the waste waters were investigated for reducing total organism counts and eliminating coliform organisms. A temperature of 335.9 K (145 F) for 30 min and chlorine concentrations of 20 mg/l in the collection tank followed by 10 mg/l in the storage tank were determined to be adequate for this purpose. Water volume relationships and energy-use rates for the waste water reuse systems are also discussed.

  1. Carbon dioxide water-bath treatment augments peripheral blood flow through the development of angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan-Jun; Elimban, Vijayan; Dhalla, Naranjan S

    2017-08-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of CO 2 water-bath therapy on blood flow and angiogenesis in the ischemic hind limb, as well as some plasma angiogenic factors in peripheral ischemic model. The hind limb ischemia was induced by occluding the femoral artery for 2 weeks in rats and treated with or without CO 2 water-bath therapy at 37 °C for 4 weeks (20 min treatment every day for 5 days per week). The peak blood flow and minimal and mean blood flow in the ischemic skeletal muscle were markedly increased by the CO 2 water-bath therapy. This increase in blood flow was associated with development of angiogenesis in the muscle, as well as reduction in the ischemia-induced increase in plasma malondialdehyde levels. Although plasma vascular endothelial growth factor and nitric oxide levels were increased in animals with peripheral ischemia, the changes in these biomarkers were not affected by CO 2 water-bath therapy. These results suggest that augmentation of blood flow in the ischemic hind limb by CO 2 water-bath therapy may be due to the development of angiogenesis and reduction in oxidative stress.

  2. Europa Stunning Surface

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-11-21

    The puzzling, fascinating surface of Jupiter icy moon Europa looms large in this newly-reprocessed [sic] color view, made from images taken by NASA Galileo spacecraft in the late 1990s. This is the color view of Europa from Galileo that shows the largest portion of the moon's surface at the highest resolution. The view was previously released as a mosaic with lower resolution and strongly enhanced color (see PIA02590). To create this new version, the images were assembled into a realistic color view of the surface that approximates how Europa would appear to the human eye. The scene shows the stunning diversity of Europa's surface geology. Long, linear cracks and ridges crisscross the surface, interrupted by regions of disrupted terrain where the surface ice crust has been broken up and re-frozen into new patterns. Color variations across the surface are associated with differences in geologic feature type and location. For example, areas that appear blue or white contain relatively pure water ice, while reddish and brownish areas include non-ice components in higher concentrations. The polar regions, visible at the left and right of this view, are noticeably bluer than the more equatorial latitudes, which look more white. This color variation is thought to be due to differences in ice grain size in the two locations. Images taken through near-infrared, green and violet filters have been combined to produce this view. The images have been corrected for light scattered outside of the image, to provide a color correction that is calibrated by wavelength. Gaps in the images have been filled with simulated color based on the color of nearby surface areas with similar terrain types. This global color view consists of images acquired by the Galileo Solid-State Imaging (SSI) experiment on the spacecraft's first and fourteenth orbits through the Jupiter system, in 1995 and 1998, respectively. Image scale is 1 mile (1.6 kilometers) per pixel. North on Europa is at right

  3. Extreme value theory applied to the definition of bathing water quality discounting limits.

    PubMed

    Haggarty, R A; Ferguson, C A; Scott, E M; Iroegbu, C; Stidson, R

    2010-02-01

    The European Community Bathing Water Directive (European Parliament, 2006) set compliance standards for bathing waters across Europe, with minimum standards for microbiological indicators to be attained at all locations by 2015. The Directive allows up to 15% of samples affected by short-term pollution episodes to be disregarded from the figures used to classify bathing waters, provided certain management criteria have been met, including informing the public of short-term water pollution episodes. Therefore, a scientifically justifiable discounting limit is required which could be used as a management tool to determine the samples that should be removed. This paper investigates different methods of obtaining discounting limits, focusing in particular on extreme value methodology applied to data from Scottish bathing waters. Return level based limits derived from threshold models applied at a site-specific level improved the percentage of sites which met at least the minimum required standard. This approach provides a method of obtaining limits which identify the samples that should be removed from compliance calculations, although care has to be taken in terms of the quantity of data which is removed. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Microbiological investigations on the water of a thermal bath at Budapest.

    PubMed

    Szuróczki, Sára; Kéki, Zsuzsa; Káli, Szandra; Lippai, Anett; Márialigeti, Károly; Tóth, Erika

    2016-06-01

    Thermal baths are unique aquatic environments combining a wide variety of natural and anthropogenic ecological factors, which also appear in their microbiological state. There is limited information on the microbiology of thermal baths in their complexity, tracking community shifts from the thermal wells to the pools. In the present study, the natural microbial community of well and pool waters in Gellért bath was studied in detail by cultivation-based techniques. To isolate bacteria, 10% R2A and minimal synthetic media (with "bath water") with agar-agar and gellan gum were used after prolonged incubation time; moreover, polyurethane blocks covered with media were also applied. Strains were identified by sequencing their 16S rRNA gene after grouping them by amplified rDNA restriction analysis. From each sample, the dominance of Alphaproteobacteria was characteristic though their diversity differed among samples. Members of Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Beta- and Gamma-proteobacteria, Deinococcus-Thermus, and Bacteroidetes were also identified. Representatives of Deinococcus-Thermus phylum appeared only in the pool water. The largest groups in the pool water belonged to the Tistrella and Chelatococcus genera. The most dominant member in the well water was a new taxon, its similarity to Hartmannibacter diazotrophicus as closest relative was 93.93%.

  5. Increase in outbreaks of gastroenteritis linked to bathing water in Finland in summer 2014

    PubMed Central

    Kauppinen, Ari; Al-Hello, Haider; Zacheus, Outi; Kilponen, Jaana; Maunula, Leena; Huusko, Sari; Lappalainen, Maija; Miettinen, Ilkka; Blomqvist, Soile; Rimhanen-Finne, Ruska

    2017-01-01

    An increased number of suspected outbreaks of gastroenteritis linked to bathing water were reported to the Finnish food- and waterborne outbreak (FWO) registry in July and August 2014. The investigation reports were assessed by a national outbreak investigation panel. Eight confirmed outbreaks were identified among the 15 suspected outbreaks linked to bathing water that had been reported to the FWO registry. According to the outbreak investigation reports, 1,453 persons fell ill during these outbreaks. Epidemiological and microbiological data revealed noroviruses as the main causative agents. During the outbreaks, exceptionally warm weather had boosted the use of beaches. Six of eight outbreaks occurred at small lakes; for those, the investigation strongly suggested that the beach users were the source of contamination. In one of those eight outbreaks, an external source of contamination was identified and elevated levels of faecal indicator bacteria (FIB) were noted in water. In the remaining outbreaks, FIB analyses were insufficient to describe the hygienic quality of the water. Restrictions against bathing proved effective in controlling the outbreaks. In spring 2015, the National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL) and the National Supervisory Authority for Welfare and Health (Valvira) published guidelines for outbreak control to prevent bathing water outbreaks. PMID:28251888

  6. RAPID METHODS FOR MEASURING INDICATOR BACTERIA IN BATHING BEACH WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The current methods for measuring the quality of recreational waters were developed in the 1970's and were recommended to the States by EPA in 1986. These methods detect and quantify Escherichia coli and enterococci, two bacteria that are consistently associated with fecal wast...

  7. Hot Water Bathing Impairs Training Adaptation in Elite Teen Archers.

    PubMed

    Hung, Ta-Cheng; Liao, Yi-Hung; Tsai, Yung-Shen; Ferguson-Stegall, Lisa; Kuo, Chia-Hua; Chen, Chung-Yu

    2018-04-30

    Despite heat imposes considerable physiological stress to human body, hot water immersion remains as a popular relaxation modality for athletes. Here we examined the lingering effect of hot tub relaxation after training on performance-associated measures and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) in junior archers. Ten national level archers, aged 16.6 ± 0.3 years (M = 8, F = 2), participated in a randomized counter-balanced crossover study after baseline measurements. In particular, half participants were assigned to the hot water immersion (HOT) group, whereas another halves were assigned to the untreated control (CON) group. Crossover trial was conducted following a 2-week washout period. During the HOT trial, participants immersed in hot water for 30 min at 40°C, 1 h after training, twice a week (every 3 days) for 2 weeks. Participants during CON trial sat at the same environment without hot water after training. Performance-associated measures and salivary DHEA-S were determined 3 days after the last HOT session. We found that the HOT intervention significantly decreased shooting performance (CON: -4%; HOT: -22%, P < 0.05), postural stability (CON: +15%; HOT: -16%, P < 0.05), and DHEA-S levels (CON: -3%; HOT: -60%, P < 0.05) of archers, compared with untreated CON trial. No group differences were found in motor unit recruitment (root mean square electromyography, RMS EMG) of arm muscles during aiming, autonomic nervous activity (sympathetic and vagal powers of heart rate variability, HRV), and plasma cortisol levels after treatments. Our data suggest that physiological adaptation against heat exposure takes away the sources needed for normal training adaptation specific to shooting performance in archers.

  8. Response of thermocouples interfaced to electrothermometers when immersed in 5 water bath temperatures.

    PubMed

    Long, Blaine C; Jutte, Lisa S; Knight, Kenneth L

    2010-01-01

    Thermocouples and electrothermometers are used in therapeutic modality research. Until recently, researchers assumed that these instruments were valid and reliable. To examine 3 different thermocouple types in 5 degrees C, 15 degrees C, 18.4 degrees C, 25 degrees C, and 35 degrees C water baths. Randomized controlled trial. Therapeutic modality laboratory. Eighteen thermocouple leads were inserted through the wall of a foamed polystyrene cooler. The cooler was filled with water. Six thermocouples (2 of each model) were plugged into the 6 channels of the Datalogger and 6 randomly selected channels in the 2 Iso-Thermexes. A mercury thermometer was immersed into the water and was read every 10 seconds for 4 minutes during each of 6 trials. The entire process was repeated for each of 5 water bath temperatures (5 degrees C, 15 degrees C, 18.4 degrees C, 25 degrees C, 35 degrees C). Temperature and absolute temperature differences among 3 thermocouple types (IT-21, IT-18, PT-6) and 3 electrothermometers (Datalogger, Iso-Thermex calibrated from -50 degrees C to 50 degrees C, Iso-Thermex calibrated from -20 degrees C to 80 degrees C). Validity and reliability were dependent on thermocouple type, electrothermometer, and water bath temperature (P < .001; modified Levene P < .05). Statistically, the IT-18 and PT-6 thermocouples were not reliable in each electrothermometer; however, these differences were not practically different from each other. The PT-6 thermocouples were more valid than the IT-18s, and both thermocouple types were more valid than the IT-21s, regardless of water bath temperature (P < .001). The validity and reliability of thermocouples interfaced to an electrothermometer under experimental conditions should be tested before data collection. We also recommend that investigators report the validity, the reliability, and the calculated uncertainty (validity + reliability) of their temperature measurements for therapeutic modalities research. With this

  9. Pseudomonas aeruginosa dose response and bathing water infection.

    PubMed

    Roser, D J; van den Akker, B; Boase, S; Haas, C N; Ashbolt, N J; Rice, S A

    2014-03-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the opportunistic pathogen mostly implicated in folliculitis and acute otitis externa in pools and hot tubs. Nevertheless, infection risks remain poorly quantified. This paper reviews disease aetiologies and bacterial skin colonization science to advance dose-response theory development. Three model forms are identified for predicting disease likelihood from pathogen density. Two are based on Furumoto & Mickey's exponential 'single-hit' model and predict infection likelihood and severity (lesions/m2), respectively. 'Third-generation', mechanistic, dose-response algorithm development is additionally scoped. The proposed formulation integrates dispersion, epidermal interaction, and follicle invasion. The review also details uncertainties needing consideration which pertain to water quality, outbreaks, exposure time, infection sites, biofilms, cerumen, environmental factors (e.g. skin saturation, hydrodynamics), and whether P. aeruginosa is endogenous or exogenous. The review's findings are used to propose a conceptual infection model and identify research priorities including pool dose-response modelling, epidermis ecology and infection likelihood-based hygiene management.

  10. Cavitation Enhancing Nanodroplets Mediate Efficient DNA Fragmentation in a Bench Top Ultrasonic Water Bath

    PubMed Central

    Malc, Ewa P.; Jayakody, Chatura N.; Tsuruta, James K.; Mieczkowski, Piotr A.; Janzen, William P.; Dayton, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    A perfluorocarbon nanodroplet formulation is shown to be an effective cavitation enhancement agent, enabling rapid and consistent fragmentation of genomic DNA in a standard ultrasonic water bath. This nanodroplet-enhanced method produces genomic DNA libraries and next-generation sequencing results indistinguishable from DNA samples fragmented in dedicated commercial acoustic sonication equipment, and with higher throughput. This technique thus enables widespread access to fast bench-top genomic DNA fragmentation. PMID:26186461

  11. Safety of tomatillos and products containing tomatillos canned by the water-bath canning method.

    PubMed

    McKee, L H; Remmenga, M D; Bock, M A

    1998-01-01

    Three studies were conducted to evaluate the safety of tomatillos and products containing tomatillos canned by the water-bath processing method. In the first study, plain tomatillos were processed for 25, 37.5, 50 and 62.5 min. In the second study, five tomatillo/onion combinations were prepared while five tomatillo/green chile combinations were prepared in the third study. pH evaluations were conducted to determine safety in all studies using pH 4.2 as the cut-off value. No differences in the pH of plain tomatillos were detected due to processing time. All jars of plain tomatillos had pH values below 4.1. All combinations of tomatillos/onions and tomatillos/green chile containing more than 50% tomatillo had pH values below the 4.2 cut-off value. Results of the three studies indicate (1) acidification of plain tomatillos is probably unnecessary for canning by the water-bath processing method and (2) combinations of acidic tomatillos and low-acid onions or green chile must contain more than 50% tomatillos to have a pH low enough for safe water-bath processing.

  12. Study of different solutes for determination of neutron source strength based on the water bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khabaz, Rahim

    2018-09-01

    Time required for activation to saturation and background measurement is considered a limitation of strength determination of radionuclide neutron sources using manganese bath system (MBS). The objective of this research was to evaluate the other solutes based on water bath for presentation of the suitable replacement with MBS. With the aid Monte Carlo simulation, for three neutron sources, having different neutron spectra, immersed in six aqueous solutions, i.e., Na2SO4, VOSO4, MnSO4, Rh2(SO4)3, In2(SO4)3, I2O5, the correction factors in all nuclei of solutions for neutron losses with different process were obtained. The calculations results indicate that the Rh2(SO4)3 and VOSO4 are best options for replacing with MnSO4.

  13. Microbial hitchhikers on marine plastic debris: Human exposure risks at bathing waters and beach environments.

    PubMed

    Keswani, Anisha; Oliver, David M; Gutierrez, Tony; Quilliam, Richard S

    2016-07-01

    Marine plastic debris is well characterized in terms of its ability to negatively impact terrestrial and marine environments, endanger coastal wildlife, and interfere with navigation, tourism and commercial fisheries. However, the impacts of potentially harmful microorganisms and pathogens colonising plastic litter are not well understood. The hard surface of plastics provides an ideal environment for opportunistic microbial colonisers to form biofilms and might offer a protective niche capable of supporting a diversity of different microorganisms, known as the "Plastisphere". This biotope could act as an important vector for the persistence and spread of pathogens, faecal indicator organisms (FIOs) and harmful algal bloom species (HABs) across beach and bathing environments. This review will focus on the existent knowledge and research gaps, and identify the possible consequences of plastic-associated microbes on human health, the spread of infectious diseases and bathing water quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Bacterial contamination of bath-water from spinal cord lesioned patients with pressure ulcers exercising in the water.

    PubMed

    Biering-Sørensen, F; Schröder, A K; Wilhelmsen, M; Lomberg, B; Nielsen, H; Høiby, N

    2000-02-01

    To evaluate the bacterial contamination of the water from the microflora of pressure ulcers in para- and tetraplegic patients, when they were exercising in water at 36 degrees C for half an hour. Twelve spinal cord lesioned (SCL) patients with ulcers participated, and six of the 12 SCL patients with healed ulcers constituted a control group. The evaluation was performed both with and without the ulcer covered with a moisture reactive occlusive dressing, DuoDERM. Bacterial samples were taken from the bath-water before and after the exercise programmes and additionally specimens were obtained from the ulcer, the patients skin and urine, and from the skin of the physiotherapist who exercised the patient. A similar procedure was carried out in the controls. The bacteriologic analyses showed no significant difference in the contamination of the bath-water after exercising with or without DuoDERM covering the ulcers. In half of the patients DuoDERM loosened. After all exercise programmes with or without DuoDERM dressing the water was contaminated with facultative aerobic intestinal bacteria, ie E. faecalis and Enterobacteriaceae (E. coli, Klebsiella species, Proteus species, Enterobacter species). In nearly one-third of the exercise sessions the bath-water was contaminated with P. aeruginosa before starting, and after the exercise programmes one fourth of the ulcers were colonized with these pathogens. The water specimen showed the bacteria from the intestine to be much more prominent than the bacteria coming from the ulcers. Thus the pressure ulcers were of minor importance for the bath-water and ought not to prohibit patients from the potential benefits of water exercise, but chlorination of the water in the training pool seems appropriate.

  15. Application of chemometric methods for assessment and modelling of microbiological quality data concerning coastal bathing water in Greece.

    PubMed

    Papaioannou, Agelos; Rigas, George; Papastergiou, Panagiotis; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2014-12-02

    Worldwide, the aim of managing water is to safeguard human health whilst maintaining sustainable aquatic and associated terrestrial, ecosystems. Because human enteric viruses are the most likely pathogens responsible for waterborne diseases from recreational water use, but detection methods are complex and costly for routine monitoring, it is of great interest to determine the quality of coastal bathing water with a minimum cost and maximum safety. This study handles the assessment and modelling of the microbiological quality data of 2149 seawater bathing areas in Greece over 10-year period (1997-2006) by chemometric methods. Cluster analysis results indicated that the studied bathing beaches are classified in accordance with the seasonality in three groups. Factor analysis was applied to investigate possible determining factors in the groups resulted from the cluster analysis, and also two new parameters were created in each group; VF1 includes E. coli, faecal coliforms and total coliforms and VF2 includes faecal streptococci/enterococci. By applying the cluster analysis in each seasonal group, three new groups of coasts were generated, group A (ultraclean), group B (clean) and group C (contaminated). The above analysis is confirmed by the application of discriminant analysis, and proves that chemometric methods are useful tools for assessment and modeling microbiological quality data of coastal bathing water on a large scale, and thus could attribute to effective and economical monitoring of the quality of coastal bathing water in a country with a big number of bathing coasts, like Greece. Significance for public healthThe microbiological protection of coastal bathing water quality is of great interest for the public health authorities as well as for the economy. The present study proves that this protection can be achieved by monitoring only two microbiological parameters, E. coli and faecal streptococci/enterococci instead four microbiological parameters (the

  16. Rigor mortis development in turkey breast muscle and the effect of electrical stunning.

    PubMed

    Alvarado, C Z; Sams, A R

    2000-11-01

    Rigor mortis development in turkey breast muscle and the effect of electrical stunning on this process are not well characterized. Some electrical stunning procedures have been known to inhibit postmortem (PM) biochemical reactions, thereby delaying the onset of rigor mortis in broilers. Therefore, this study was designed to characterize rigor mortis development in stunned and unstunned turkeys. A total of 154 turkey toms in two trials were conventionally processed at 20 to 22 wk of age. Turkeys were either stunned with a pulsed direct current (500 Hz, 50% duty cycle) at 35 mA (40 V) in a saline bath for 12 seconds or left unstunned as controls. At 15 min and 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h PM, pectoralis samples were collected to determine pH, R-value, L* value, sarcomere length, and shear value. In Trial 1, the samples obtained for pH, R-value, and sarcomere length were divided into surface and interior samples. There were no significant differences between the surface and interior samples among any parameters measured. Muscle pH significantly decreased over time in stunned and unstunned birds through 2 h PM. The R-values increased to 8 h PM in unstunned birds and 24 h PM in stunned birds. The L* values increased over time, with no significant differences after 1 h PM for the controls and 2 h PM for the stunned birds. Sarcomere length increased through 2 h PM in the controls and 12 h PM in the stunned fillets. Cooked meat shear values decreased through the 1 h PM deboning time in the control fillets and 2 h PM in the stunned fillets. These results suggest that stunning delayed the development of rigor mortis through 2 h PM, but had no significant effect on the measured parameters at later time points, and that deboning turkey breasts at 2 h PM or later will not significantly impair meat tenderness.

  17. An operational method for the real-time monitoring of E. coli numbers in bathing waters.

    PubMed

    Lebaron, Philippe; Henry, A; Lepeuple, A-S; Pena, G; Servais, P

    2005-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential application of the beta-d-glucuronidase (GLUase) activity measurement for the routine detection and quantification of E. coli in marine bathing waters. GLUase activity was measured as the rate of hydrolysis of 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-d-glucuronide. Culturable E. coli were quantified by the most probable number (MPN) microplate method. Both methods were applied to a large set of seawater samples. Significant correlation was found between the log of GLUase activity and the log of culturable E. coli. The mean coefficient of variation (CV) of the GLUase activity was less than 15% at concentrations around the current standards of International regulations whereas the CV of the microplate method was around 30%. When samples were stored at 4 degrees C and 20 degrees C, the mean CV of the GLUase activity remained below 15% up to 6 hours after sample collection whereas the range of variation of the microplate method varied between 10 and 50%. We concluded that the GLUase activity is an operational, reproducible, simple, very rapid and low cost method for the real-time enumeration of E. coli in bathing waters and should be preferred to the microplate method. The GLUase activity method should be routinely applied to the rapid enumeration of E. coli in recreational waters and recommendations for its application were suggested to water quality managers.

  18. Human recreational exposure to antibiotic resistant bacteria in coastal bathing waters.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Anne F C; Zhang, Lihong; Balfour, Andrew J; Garside, Ruth; Gaze, William H

    2015-09-01

    Infections caused by antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) are associated with poor health outcomes and are recognised globally as a serious health problem. Much research has been conducted on the transmission of ARB to humans. Yet the role the natural environment plays in the spread of ARB and antibiotic resistance genes is not well understood. Antibiotic resistant bacteria have been detected in natural aquatic environments, and ingestion of seawater during water sports is one route by which many people could be directly exposed. The aim was to estimate the prevalence of resistance to one clinically important class of antibiotics (third-generation cephalosporins (3GCs)) amongst Escherichia coli in coastal surface waters in England and Wales. Prevalence data was used to quantify ingestion of 3GC-resistant E. coli (3GCREC) by people participating in water sports in designated coastal bathing waters. A further aim was to use this value to derive a population-level estimate of exposure to these bacteria during recreational use of coastal waters in 2012. The prevalence of 3GC-resistance amongst E. coli isolated from coastal surface waters was estimated using culture-based methods. This was combined with the density of E. coli reported in designated coastal bathing waters along with estimations of the volumes of water ingested during various water sports reported in the literature to calculate the mean number of 3GCREC ingested during different water sports. 0.12% of E. coli isolated from surface waters were resistant to 3GCs. This value was used to estimate that in England and Wales over 6.3 million water sport sessions occurred in 2012 that resulted in the ingestion of at least one 3GCREC. Despite the low prevalence of resistance to 3GCs amongst E. coli in surface waters, there is an identifiable human exposure risk for water users, which varies with the type of water sport undertaken. The relative importance of this exposure is likely to be greater in areas where a

  19. Assessing the water quality response to an alternative sewage disposal strategy at bathing sites on the east coast of Ireland.

    PubMed

    Bedri, Zeinab; O'Sullivan, John J; Deering, Louise A; Demeter, Katalin; Masterson, Bartholomew; Meijer, Wim G; O'Hare, Gregory

    2015-02-15

    A three-dimensional model is used to assess the bathing water quality of Bray and Killiney bathing sites in Ireland following changes to the sewage management system. The model, firstly calibrated to hydrodynamic and water quality data from the period prior to the upgrade of the Wastewater Treatment Works (WwTW), was then used to simulate Escherichia coli (E. coli) distributions for discharge scenarios of the periods prior to and following the upgrade of the WwTW under dry and wet weather conditions. E. coli distributions under dry weather conditions demonstrate that the upgrade in the WwTW has remarkably improved the bathing water quality to a Blue Flag status. The new discharge strategy is expected to drastically reduce the rainfall-related incidents in which environmental limits of the Bathing Water Directive are breached. However, exceedances to these limits may still occur under wet weather conditions at Bray bathing site due to storm overflows that may still be discharged through two sea outfalls offshore of Bray bathing site. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The potential of lipopolysaccharide as a real-time biomarker of bacterial contamination in marine bathing water.

    PubMed

    Sattar, Anas A; Jackson, Simon K; Bradley, Graham

    2014-03-01

    The use of total lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as a rapid biomarker for bacterial pollution was investigated at a bathing and surfing beach during the UK bathing season. The levels of faecal indicator bacteria Escherichia coli (E. coli), the Gram-positive enterococci, and organisms commonly associated with faecal material, such as total coliforms and Bacteroides, were culturally monitored over four months to include a period of heavy rainfall and concomitant pollution. Endotoxin measurement was performed using a kinetic Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) assay and found to correlate well with all indicators. Levels of LPS in excess of 50 Endotoxin Units (EU) mL(-1) were found to correlate with water that was unsuitable for bathing under the current European regulations. Increases in total LPS, mainly from Gram-negative indicator bacteria, are thus a potential real-time, qualitative method for testing bacterial quality of bathing waters.

  1. Thyroid stunning: fact or fiction?

    PubMed

    McDougall, I Ross; Iagaru, Andrei

    2011-03-01

    Stunning of thyroid tissue by diagnostic activities of (131)I has been described by some investigators and refuted by others. The support both for and against stunning has at times been enthusiastic and vigorous. We present the data from both sides of the debate in an attempt to highlight the strengths and deficiencies in the investigations cited. Clinical, animal, and in vitro studies are included. There are considerable differences in clinical practice, such as the administered activity for diagnostic whole-body scan, delay between diagnostic scan and treatment, time between treatment and posttherapy scanning, and timing of follow-up studies, that have to be analyzed with care. Other factors that often cannot be judged, such as levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone and serum iodine at time of diagnostic testing versus treatment could have an influence on stunning. Larger diagnostic doses and longer delays to therapy appear to increase the likelihood of stunning. The stunning effect of early-absorbed radiation from the therapy should also be considered. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Cytotoxicity of denture base resins: effect of water bath and microwave postpolymerization heat treatments.

    PubMed

    Jorge, Janaina Habib; Giampaolo, Eunice Teresinha; Vergani, Carlos Eduardo; Machado, Ana Lúcia; Pavarina, Ana Cláudia; Carlos, Iracilda Zeppone

    2004-01-01

    This study compared the effect of two postpolymerization heat treatments on the cytotoxicity of three denture base resins on L929 cells using 3H-thymidine incorporation and MTT assays. Sample disks of Lucitone 550, QC 20, and Acron MC resins were fabricated under aseptic conditions and stored in distilled water at 37 degrees C for 48 hours. Specimens were then divided into three groups: (1) heat treated in microwave oven for 3 minutes at 500 W; (2) heat treated in water bath at 55 degrees C for 60 minutes; and (3) no heat treatment. Eluates were prepared by placing three disks into a sterile glass vial with 9 mL of Eagle's medium and incubating at 37 degrees C for 24 hours. The cytotoxic effect from the eluates was evaluated using the 3H-thymidine incorporation and MTT assays, which reflect DNA synthesis levels and cell metabolism, respectively. The components leached from the resins were cytotoxic to L929 cells when 3H-thymidine incorporation assay was employed. In contrast, eluates from all resins revealed noncytotoxic effects as measured by MTT assay. For both MTT assay and 3H-thymidine incorporation, the heat treatments did not decrease the cytotoxicity of the materials tested. Resins were graded by 3H-thymidine incorporation assay as slightly cytotoxic and by MTT assay as noncytotoxic. Cytotoxicity of the denture base materials was not influenced by microwave or water bath heat treatment.

  3. Elevated Bathing-Associated Disease Risks Despite Certified Water Quality: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Papastergiou, Panagiotis; Mouchtouri, Varvara; Pinaka, Ourania; Katsiaflaka, Anna; Rachiotis, George; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2012-01-01

    Bacteriological water quality criteria have been recommended to ensure bathers’ health. However, this risk-assessment approach is based mainly on routine measurements of fecal pollution indicator bacteria in seawater, and may not be adequate to protect bathers effectively. The aim of this study was to assess the risks of symptoms related to infectious diseases among bathers after exposure to seawater which was of excellent quality according to EU guidelines. This study is a cohort study recruiting bathers and non-bathers. Water samples were collected for estimating bacterial indicators. Univariable and multivariable analysis was performed to compare the risks of developing symptoms/diseases between bathers and non-bathers. A total of 3805 bathers and 572 non-bathers were included in the study. Water analysis results demonstrated excellent quality of bathing water. Significantly increased risks of symptoms related to gastrointestinal infections (OR = 3.60, 95% CI 1.28–10.13), respiratory infections (OR = 1.92, 95% CI 1.00–3.67), eye infections (OR = 2.43, 95% CI 1.27–4.63) and ear infections (OR = 17.21, 95% CI 2.42–122.34) were observed among bathers compared with non-bathers. Increased rates of medical consultation and medication use were also observed among bathers. There was evidence that bathers experienced increased morbidity compared with non-bathers though the bathing waters met bacteriological water quality criteria. These results suggest that risk assessments of recreational seawaters should not only focus on bacteriological water quality criteria. PMID:22754456

  4. Histological study on the effect of electrolyzed reduced water-bathing on UVB radiation-induced skin injury in hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Kyung Su; Huang, Xue Zhu; Yoon, Yang Suk; Kim, Soo-Ki; Song, Soon Bong; Chang, Byung Soo; Kim, Dong Heui; Lee, Kyu Jae

    2011-01-01

    Electrolyzed reduced water (ERW), functional water, has various beneficial effects via antioxidant mechanism in vivo and in vitro. However there is no study about beneficial effects of ERW bathing. This study aimed to determine the effect of ERW bathing on the UVB-induced skin injury in hairless mice. For this purpose, mice were irradiated with UVB to cause skin injury, followed by individually taken a bath in ERW (ERW-bathing) and tap water (TW-bathing) for 21 d. We examined cytokines profile in acute period, and histological and ultrastructural observation of skin in chronic period. We found that UVB-mediated skin injury of ERW-bathing group was significantly low compared to TW control group in the early stage of experiment. Consistently, epidermal thickening as well as the number of dermal mast cell was significantly lowered in ERW-bathing group. Defection of corneocytes under the scanning electron microscope was less observed in ERW-bathing group than in TW-bathing group. Further, the level of interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-12p70 in ERW group decreased whereas those of IL-10 increased. Collectively, our data indicate that ERW-bathing significantly reduces UVB-induced skin damage through influencing pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokine balance in hairless mice. This suggests that ERW-bathing has a positive effect on acute UVB-mediated skin disorders. This is the first report on bathing effects of ERW in UVB-induced skin injury.

  5. Hypothermic stunning of green sea turtles in a western Gulf of Mexico foraging habitat.

    PubMed

    Shaver, Donna J; Tissot, Philippe E; Streich, Mary M; Walker, Jennifer Shelby; Rubio, Cynthia; Amos, Anthony F; George, Jeffrey A; Pasawicz, Michelle R

    2017-01-01

    Texas waters provide one of the most important developmental and foraging habitats for juvenile green turtles (Chelonia mydas) in the western Gulf of Mexico, but hypothermic stunning is a significant threat and was the largest cause of green turtle strandings in Texas from 1980 through 2015; of the 8,107 green turtles found stranded, 4,529 (55.9%) were victims of hypothermic stunning. Additionally, during this time, 203 hypothermic stunned green turtles were found incidentally captured due to power plant water intake entrapment. Overall, 63.9% of 4,529 hypothermic stunned turtles were found alive, and 92.0% of those survived rehabilitation and were released. Numbers of green turtles recorded as stranded and as affected by hypothermic stunning increased over time, and were most numerous from 2007 through 2015. Large hypothermic stunning events (with more than 450 turtles documented) occurred during the winters of 2009-2010, 2010-2011, 2013-2014, and 2014-2015. Hypothermic stunning was documented between November and March, but peaked at various times depending on passage of severe weather systems. Hypothermic stunning occurred state-wide, but was most prevalent in South Texas, particularly the Laguna Madre. In the Laguna Madre, hypothermic stunning was associated with an abrupt drop in water temperatures strong northerly winds, and a threshold mean water temperature of 8.0°C predicted large turtle hypothermic stunning events. Knowledge of environmental parameters contributing to hypothermic stunning and the temporal and spatial distribution of turtles affected in the past, can aid with formulation of proactive, targeted search and rescue efforts that can ultimately save the lives of many affected individuals, and aid with recovery efforts for this bi-national stock. Such rescue efforts are required under the U.S. Endangered Species Act and respond to humanitarian concerns of the public.

  6. Hypothermic stunning of green sea turtles in a western Gulf of Mexico foraging habitat

    PubMed Central

    Tissot, Philippe E.; Streich, Mary M.; Walker, Jennifer Shelby; Rubio, Cynthia; Amos, Anthony F.; George, Jeffrey A.; Pasawicz, Michelle R.

    2017-01-01

    Texas waters provide one of the most important developmental and foraging habitats for juvenile green turtles (Chelonia mydas) in the western Gulf of Mexico, but hypothermic stunning is a significant threat and was the largest cause of green turtle strandings in Texas from 1980 through 2015; of the 8,107 green turtles found stranded, 4,529 (55.9%) were victims of hypothermic stunning. Additionally, during this time, 203 hypothermic stunned green turtles were found incidentally captured due to power plant water intake entrapment. Overall, 63.9% of 4,529 hypothermic stunned turtles were found alive, and 92.0% of those survived rehabilitation and were released. Numbers of green turtles recorded as stranded and as affected by hypothermic stunning increased over time, and were most numerous from 2007 through 2015. Large hypothermic stunning events (with more than 450 turtles documented) occurred during the winters of 2009–2010, 2010–2011, 2013–2014, and 2014–2015. Hypothermic stunning was documented between November and March, but peaked at various times depending on passage of severe weather systems. Hypothermic stunning occurred state-wide, but was most prevalent in South Texas, particularly the Laguna Madre. In the Laguna Madre, hypothermic stunning was associated with an abrupt drop in water temperatures strong northerly winds, and a threshold mean water temperature of 8.0°C predicted large turtle hypothermic stunning events. Knowledge of environmental parameters contributing to hypothermic stunning and the temporal and spatial distribution of turtles affected in the past, can aid with formulation of proactive, targeted search and rescue efforts that can ultimately save the lives of many affected individuals, and aid with recovery efforts for this bi-national stock. Such rescue efforts are required under the U.S. Endangered Species Act and respond to humanitarian concerns of the public. PMID:28306747

  7. Hot-water spraying is a sensitive test for signs of life before dressing and scalding in pig abattoirs with carbon dioxide (CO2) stunning.

    PubMed

    Parotat, S; von Holleben, K; Arnold, S; Troeger, K; Luecker, E

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the benefits of hot-water spraying (HWS) as a diagnostic test to verify the absence of signs of life (SOL) before scalding in pigs slaughtered with carbon dioxide (CO2) stunning. A total of 37 108 finishing pigs from five German abattoirs (A to E) operating at 55 to 571 pigs per hour were assessed. Suspended pigs were sprayed onto the muzzle, head and front legs (143 to 258 s post sticking for 4 to 10 s, 57°C to 72°C). Any active movements during HWS were rated as positive test outcomes. In comparison, SOL were considered to be absent if a subsequent manual examination was negative and no active movements were observed following HWS. The incidence of pigs with activity during hot-water spraying (PWA) was restricted to two abattoirs (B: 0.25%; D: 0.02%; A, C, E: 0.00%). PWA showed movements of facial muscles (88%), mouth opening (78%), righting reflex (63%), isolated leg movements (35%) and vocalization (4%). The manual examination was positive in 71% of PWA (corneal/dazzle reflex: 67%/53%, nasal septum pinch: 33%), whereas all inactive pigs tested negative (P99.9% in either case. Any positive manual findings as well as any respiratory activity were instantly terminated using a penetrating captive bolt. Active movements triggered by the shot were shown to be an indicator for SOL (P<0.001). Video analyses revealed that spontaneous movements (SM) following sticking were present in 100% of PWA as opposed to 3.1% in pigs without such activity (controls). Results for different categories of SM in PWA v. controls were as follows: 100% v. 2.6% for mouth opening, 16.0% v. 0.1% for righting reflex and 22.0% v. 0.9% for isolated leg movements (all P<0.001). First mouth opening after sticking was observed later in PWA (28±24 v. 10±7 s), but mouth openings were observed for a longer period of time (141±44 v. 27±25 s) (both P<0.001). PWA with shorter mouth-opening intervals showed higher movement intensities during HWS and more positive manual

  8. Wet-weather urban discharges: implications from adopting the revised European Directive concerning the quality of bathing water.

    PubMed

    David, L M; Matos, J S

    2005-01-01

    Wet weather urban discharges are responsible for bathing water contamination. The proposal for a revised EU Directive concerning the quality of bathing water imposes significantly more stringent requirements for the management of bathing water quality, with particularly important repercussions on beaches subjected to short-term pollution incidents. The paper reviews the aspects from EU legislation most directly related to the problem of wet-weather discharges, placing special emphasis on the recent revision process of the Directive on bathing water quality, and evaluates the benefits of some potential solutions based on continuous modelling of a combined sewer system. Increasing the sewer system storage capacity or the STP hydraulic capacity may substantially reduce the untreated discharge volumes, but spill frequency reductions under 2 to 3 spill days per bathing season will hardly be achieved. Results show the severe strains that local rainfall patterns would place on compliance with the Commission's proposal for a revised Directive and highlight the importance of the changes introduced in the amended proposal recently approved by the Council, making it less prescriptive if adequate measures are adopted to prevent bathers' exposure to short-term pollution incidents.

  9. A rapid detection method using flow cytometry to monitor the risk of Legionella in bath water.

    PubMed

    Taguri, Toshitsugu; Oda, Yasunori; Sugiyama, Kanji; Nishikawa, Toru; Endo, Takuro; Izumiyama, Shinji; Yamazaki, Masayuki; Kura, Fumiaki

    2011-07-01

    Legionella species are the causative agents of human legionellosis, and bathing facilities have been identified as the sources of infection in several outbreaks in Japan. Researchers in Japan have recently reported evidence of significant associations between bacterial counts and the occurrence of Legionella in bathing facilities and in a hot tub model. A convenient and quantitative bacterial enumeration method is therefore required as an indicator of Legionella contamination or disinfection to replace existing methods such as time-consuming Legionella culture and expensive Legionella-DNA amplification. In this study, we developed a rapid detection method (RDM) to monitor the risk of Legionella using an automated microbial analyzing device based on flow cytometry techniques to measure the total number of bacteria in water samples within two minutes, by detecting typical patterns of scattered light and fluorescence. We first compared the results of our RDM with plate counting results for five filtered hot spring water samples spiked with three species of bacteria, including Legionella. Inactivation of these samples by chlorine was also assessed by the RDM, a live/dead bacterial fluorescence assay and plate counting. Using the RDM, the lower limit of quantitative bacterial counts in the spiked samples was determined as 3.0×10(3)(3.48log)counts mL(-1). We then used a laboratory model of a hot tub and found that the RDM could monitor the growth curve of naturally occurring heterotrophic bacteria with 1 and 2 days' delayed growth of amoeba and Legionella, respectively, and could also determine the killing curve of these bacteria by chlorination. Finally, samples with ≥3.48 or <3.48log total bacterial counts mL(-1) were tested using the RDM from 149 different hot tubs, and were found to be significantly associated with the positive or negative detection of Legionella with 95% sensitivity and 84% specificity. These findings indicated that the RDM can be used for

  10. The Use of Bacterial Adherence to Hydrocarbons (BATH) Assay in Evaluation of the Hydrophobic Surface Characteristics of Potential Water Pathogens

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bacterial adherence to hydrocarbons, BATH, is a method for determining the hydrophobic surface characteristics of bacterial cells. The strain’s affinity for water is evaluated by thoroughly mixing a culture and hydrocarbon suspension and then evaluating the decrease in optical de...

  11. A Water Model Study on Mixing Behavior of the Two-Layered Bath in Bottom Blown Copper Smelting Furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shui, Lang; Cui, Zhixiang; Ma, Xiaodong; Jiang, Xu; Chen, Mao; Xiang, Yong; Zhao, Baojun

    2018-05-01

    The bottom-blown copper smelting furnace is a novel copper smelter developed in recent years. Many advantages of this furnace have been found, related to bath mixing behavior under its specific gas injection scheme. This study aims to use an oil-water double-phased laboratory-scale model to investigate the impact of industry-adjustable variables on bath mixing time, including lower layer thickness, gas flow rate, upper layer thickness and upper layer viscosity. Based on experimental results, an overall empirical relationship of mixing time in terms of these variables has been correlated, which provides the methodology for industry to optimize mass transfer in the furnace.

  12. Hydrogen peroxide measurements in recreational marine bathing waters in Southern California, USA.

    PubMed

    Clark, Catherine D; De Bruyn, Warren J; Hirsch, Charlotte M; Jakubowski, Scott D

    2010-04-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) was measured in the surf zone at 13 bathing beaches in Southern California, USA. Summer dry season concentrations averaged 122 +/- 38 nM with beaches with tide pools having lower levels (50-90 nM). No significant differences were observed for ebb waters at a salt marsh outlet vs. a beach (179 +/- 20 vs. 163 +/- 26 nM), and between ebb and flood tides at one site (171 +/- 24 vs. 146 +/- 42 nM). H(2)O(2) levels showed little annual variation. Diel cycling was followed over short (30 min; 24 h study) and long (d) time scales, with maximum afternoon concentration = 370 nM and estimated photochemical production rate of 44 nM h(-1). There was no correlation between the absorbance coefficient at 300 nm (used as a measure of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) levels) and H(2)O(2). H(2)O(2) concentrations measured in this study are likely sufficient to inhibit fecal indicator bacteria in marine recreational waters through indirect photoinactivation. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Transfer of graphene onto Pt/Glass substrate for transparent and large area graphene film using low temperature water bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziz, Tengku Norazman Tengku Abd; Rosli, Aimi Bazilah; Yusoff, Marmeezee Mohd; Herman, Sukreen Hana; Zulkifli, Zurita

    2018-05-01

    This paper demonstrates the transfer of graphene at low temperature using water bath. Graphene in water solution (highly opaque) was transferred onto Platinum/Glass (Pt/Glass) substrate and the technique involves no additional chemicals. We obtained high transparency and large area of graphene film that is free of contaminants. The transferred graphene is characterized using FESEM, Raman spectroscopy and I-V measurements. This transfer method enables us to transfer graphene onto ZnO thin film for memristive devices.

  14. Effects of high frequency electrical stunning and decapitation on early rigor development and meat quality of broiler breast meat.

    PubMed

    McNeal, W D; Fletcher, D L

    2003-08-01

    Three independent trials were conducted to determine the effects of high frequency electrical stunning followed by decapitation on broiler breast meat rigor development and meat quality. All birds were stunned and half of the birds were killed using a conventional unilateral neck cut, half were killed by decapitation, and both groups were allowed to bleed for 90 s prior to scalding and picking. New York dressed carcasses were chilled in a static ice-water bath for 90 min and held at 2 degrees C prior to deboning. Breast fillets were removed from the carcasses at 2, 4, and 24 h postmortem. From the right breast fillet, R-values and pH were determined at time of deboning. The left fillet was wrapped in plastic and held for 24 h at 2 degrees C prior to determining lightness (L*), redness (a*), yellowness (b*), cook yield, and Allo-Kramer shear. Deboning time affected raw meat pH, R-value, cook loss, and shear value but had no effect on color. The breast meat from the decapitated birds had significantly higher pH values at 2 and 24 h postmortem than the conventionally killed birds. Other than for the effect on breast meat pH, decapitation had no effect on rigor development, R-value, meat color, or meat quality as measured by cooked-meat yield and Allo-Kramer shear.

  15. Bathing in carbon dioxide-enriched water alters protein expression in keratinocytes of skin tissue in rats.

    PubMed

    Kälsch, Julia; Pott, Leona L; Takeda, Atsushi; Kumamoto, Hideo; Möllmann, Dorothe; Canbay, Ali; Sitek, Barbara; Baba, Hideo A

    2017-04-01

    Beneficial effects of balneotherapy using naturally occurring carbonated water (CO 2 enriched) have been known since the Middle Ages. Although this therapy is clinically applied for peripheral artery disease and skin disorder, the underlying mechanisms are not fully elucidated.Under controlled conditions, rats were bathed in either CO 2 -enriched water (CO 2 content 1200 mg/L) or tap water, both at 37 °C, for 10 min daily over 4 weeks. Proliferation activity was assessed by Ki67 immunohistochemistry of the epidermis of the abdomen. The capillary density was assessed by immunodetection of isolectin-positive cells. Using cryo-fixed abdominal skin epidermis, follicle cells and stroma tissue containing capillaries were separately isolated by means of laser microdissection and subjected to proteomic analysis using label-free technique. Differentially expressed proteins were validated by immunohistochemistry.Proliferation activity of keratinocytes was not significantly different in the epidermis after bathing in CO 2 -enriched water, and also, capillary density did not change. Proteomic analysis revealed up to 36 significantly regulated proteins in the analyzed tissue. Based on the best expression profiles, ten proteins were selected for immunohistochemical validation. Only one protein, far upstream element binding protein 2 (FUBP2), was similarly downregulated in the epidermis after bathing in CO 2 -enriched water with both techniques. Low FUBP2 expression was associated with low c-Myc immune-expression in keratinocytes.Long-term bathing in CO 2 -enriched water showed a cellular protein response of epithelial cells in the epidermis which was detectable by two different methods. However, differences in proliferation activity or capillary density were not detected in the normal skin.

  16. Feather retention force in broilers ante-, peri-, and post-mortem as influenced by electrical and carbon dioxide stunning.

    PubMed

    Buhr, R J; Cason, J A; Rowland, G N

    1997-11-01

    Stunning and slaughter trials were conducted to evaluate the influence of stunning method (electrical 50 V alternating current, CO2 gas: 0 to 40% for 90 s or 40 to 60% for 30 s) on feather retention force (FRF) in commercial broilers. Feathers from the pectoral, sternal, and femoral feather tracts were sampled with a force gauge before stunning (ante-mortem) and contralaterally either after stunning (peri-mortem from 0.5 to 4 min) or after stunning and bleeding (post-mortem from 2 to 6 min). Prior to stunning, ante-mortem FRF values varied among assigned stunning methods only for the pectoral (7%) feather tract. After stunning, peri-mortem FRF values were higher only for the sternal tract (11% for 40 to 60% CO2 for 30 s); whereas after stunning and bleeding, post-mortem FRF values were lower than ante- or peri-mortem only for the sternal tract (10% lower for 40 to 60% CO2 for 30 s). Peri- and post-mortem FRF values did not differ among stunning methods for the pectoral and femoral feather tracts. Small changes in FRF values occurred from ante-mortem to peri-mortem (-1 to +12%), and from ante-mortem to post-mortem (-2 to +8%) across stunning methods. A significant increase was determined for only the pectoral tract (7%) from ante- to peri-mortem across stunning methods. Electrically stunned broilers that were not bled gained weight in excess of the 36 feathers removed (0.16%), apparently due to body surface water pickup during the brine-stunning process, whereas CO2-stunned broilers lost weight due to excretion of cloacal contents (-0.31 to -0.98%). The change in body weight among stunning methods was significant (P < 0.0233). Peri- and post-mortem FRF, in addition to bleed-out body weight loss, were not substantially influenced by electrical or CO2 stunning methods, and, therefore, carcass defeathering efficiency may not differ after scalding.

  17. Modeling and evaluation of compliance to water quality regulations in bathing areas on the Daoulas catchment and estuary (France).

    PubMed

    Bougeard, M; Le Saux, J C; Jouan, M; Durand, G; Pommepuy, M

    2010-01-01

    The microbiological quality of waters in estuaries determines their acceptability for recreational uses. Microbiological contamination often results from urban wastewater discharges or non-point source pollution (manure spreading), and can cause bathing zones to be closed. European regulations (EC/7/2006) have proposed standards (500 E. coli/100 ml) for the acceptability areas for bathing. In this study, two models were associated to simulate contamination: SWAT on a catchment and MARS 2D in the downstream estuary. After river flow calibration and validation, two scenarios were simulated in SWAT, and E. coli fluxes obtained at the main outlet of the catchment were then introduced into MARS 2D to follow E. coli concentrations in the estuary. An annual evaluation of compliance to bathing area water quality standards was then calculated, linked with daily rainfall classes. Water quality in the estuary was below the standard on 13 days, including 5 days with rainfall superior to 10 mm, due to faecal contamination from soil leaching by rain, and 5 days with rainfall ranging from 0.1 to 5 mm/day, due to the high frequency of this level of rainfall. To conclude, this study allowed us to demonstrate the efficiency of models to gain a better understanding on water quality degradation factors.

  18. Modeling the transport of organic chemicals between polyethylene passive samplers and water in finite and infinite bath conditions.

    PubMed

    Tcaciuc, A Patricia; Apell, Jennifer N; Gschwend, Philip M

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the transfer of chemicals between passive samplers and water is essential for their use as monitoring devices of organic contaminants in surface waters. By applying Fick's second law to diffusion through the polymer and an aqueous boundary layer, the authors derived a mathematical model for the uptake of chemicals into a passive sampler from water, in finite and infinite bath conditions. The finite bath model performed well when applied to laboratory observations of sorption into polyethylene (PE) sheets for various chemicals (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane [DDT]) and at varying turbulence levels. The authors used the infinite bath model to infer fractional equilibration of PCB and DDT analytes in field-deployed PE, and the results were nearly identical to those obtained using the sampling rate model. However, further comparison of the model and the sampling rate model revealed that the exchange of chemicals was inconsistent with the sampling rate model for partially or fully membrane-controlled transfer, which would be expected in turbulent conditions or when targeting compounds with small polymer diffusivities and small partition coefficients (e.g., phenols, some pesticides, and others). The model can be applied to other polymers besides PE as well as other chemicals and in any transfer regime (membrane, mixed, or water boundary layer-controlled). Lastly, the authors illustrate practical applications of this model such as improving passive sampler design and understanding the kinetics of passive dosing experiments. © 2015 SETAC.

  19. Stunning fish with CO2 or electricity: contradictory results on behavioural and physiological stress responses.

    PubMed

    Gräns, A; Niklasson, L; Sandblom, E; Sundell, K; Algers, B; Berg, C; Lundh, T; Axelsson, M; Sundh, H; Kiessling, A

    2016-02-01

    Studies that address fish welfare before slaughter have concluded that many of the traditional systems used to stun fish including CO2 narcosis are unacceptable as they cause avoidable stress before death. One system recommended as a better alternative is electrical stunning, however, the welfare aspects of this method are not yet fully understood. To assess welfare in aquaculture both behavioural and physiological measurements have been used, but few studies have examined the relationship between these variables. In an on-site study aversive behaviours and several physiological stress indicators, including plasma levels of cortisol and ions as well as blood physiological variables, were compared in Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) stunned with CO2 or electricity. Exposure to water saturated with CO2 triggered aversive struggling and escape responses for several minutes before immobilization, whereas in fish exposed to an electric current immobilization was close to instant. On average, it took 5 min for the fish to recover from electrical stunning, whereas fish stunned with CO2 did not recover. Despite this, the electrically stunned fish had more than double the plasma levels of cortisol compared with fish stunned with CO2. This result is surprising considering that the behavioural reactions were much more pronounced following CO2 exposure. These contradictory results are discussed with regard to animal welfare and stress physiological responses. The present results emphasise the importance of using an integrative and interdisciplinary approach and to include both behavioural and physiological stress indicators in order to make accurate welfare assessments of fish in aquaculture.

  20. Influence of mechanical and chemical polishing in the solubility of acrylic resins polymerized by microwave irradiation and conventional water bath.

    PubMed

    Machado, Cristiane; Rizzatti-Barbosa, Célia M; Gabriotti, Morgana N; Joia, Fábio A; Ribeiro, Margarete C; Sousa, Rodrigo L S

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the solubility of acrylic resin activated by microwave irradiation (MI) or water bath (WB), when submitted to chemical (CP) or mechanical (MP) polishing. Forty acrylic resin samples were made and processed either by water bath (74 +/- 1 degrees C, 9 h) or microwave irradiation (500 W, 3 min). After deflasking, the samples were finished with aluminum oxide sandpapers in decreasing granulations till reaching similar dimensions. The samples were divided into four groups according to the association between kind of polymerization and polishing: A (WB + CP), B (WB + MP), C (MI + CP) and D (MI + MP). Solubility test was performed for each group and percentile solubility was calculated. Data were statistically analyzed using variance analysis and Kruskal-Wallis. The average of percentile solubility (%) was obtained: A = 0.07, B = 0.02, C = 0.04, D = -0.14, however, no significant difference was found between types of polishing in the samples polymerized by water bath (A and B). When processed by microwave irradiation (C and D), there was significant difference between the applied methods of polishing, so that mechanical polishing lead to a lower solubility. Solubility is a property of acrylic resins, representing not reacted substances releasing that could promote tissular reactions in prosthesis users. The association between polymerization by microwave irradiation and mechanical polishing showed less residual substances releasing for heat-cured acrylic resins, reducing the probability of developing tissular reactions.

  1. The chemical/physical and microbiological characteristics of typical bath and laundry waste waters. [waste water reclamation during manned space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hypes, W. D.; Batten, C. E.; Wilkins, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    Chemical/physical and microbiological characteristics are studied of typical bath and laundry waters collected during a 12 day test in which the untreated waste waters were reused for toilet flush. Most significant changes were found for ammonia, color, methylene blue active substances, phosphates, sodium, sulfates, total organic carbon, total solids, and turbidity in comparison with tap water baseline. The mean total number of microorganisms detected in the waste waters ranged from 1 million to 10 to the 7th power cells/m1 and the mean number of possible coliforms ranged from 10 to the 5th power to 1 million. An accumulation of particulates and an objectible odor were detected in the tankage used during the 12 day reuse of the untreated waste waters. The combined bath and laundry waste waters from a family of four provided 91 percent of the toilet flush water for the same family.

  2. Recovery of real dye bath wastewater using integrated membrane process: considering water recovery, membrane fouling and reuse potential of membranes.

    PubMed

    Balcik-Canbolat, Cigdem; Sengezer, Cisel; Sakar, Hacer; Karagunduz, Ahmet; Keskinler, Bulent

    2017-11-01

    It has been recognized by the whole world that textile industry which produce large amounts of wastewater with strong color and toxic organic compounds is a major problematical industry requiring effective treatment solutions. In this study, reverse osmosis (RO) membranes were tested on biologically treated real dye bath wastewater with and without pretreatment by nanofiltration (NF) membrane to recovery. Also membrane fouling and reuse potential of membranes were investigated by multiple filtrations. Obtained results showed that only NF is not suitable to produce enough quality to reuse the wastewater in a textile industry as process water while RO provide successfully enough permeate quality. The results recommend that integrated NF/RO membrane process is able to reduce membrane fouling and allow long-term operation for real dye bath wastewater.

  3. [Water fungi occurence in the River Supraśl-bath Jurowce near Białystok].

    PubMed

    Kiziewicz, Bozena; Kozłowska, Mariola; Godlewska, Anna; Muszyńvska, Elzbieta; Mazalska, Bozenna

    2004-01-01

    Studies on the occurrence of aquatic fungi in the bathing sites of the Supraśl River in Jurowce village were collected in years 2000-2003. Hydrochemical analysis was performed using standard methods. Bait method was used to isolate the fungi. In the Supraśl River at Jurowce village 36 fungi species were identified, among them fish pathogens Achlya orion, Aphanomyces laevis, Dictyuchus monosporus, Saprolegnia ferax, Saprolegnia monoica, S. parasitica, human pathogens Aspergillus flavus, Candida albicans, Lagenidium humanum, Penicillium mycetomagenum, Rhizophydium keratinophilum and Trichosporon cutaneum, phytopathogens Achlya racemosa, Phytophthora gonapodoides, Pythium butleri, P. myriotylum and P. debaryanum. Physicochemical parameters of waters in Supraśl River-bathing sites had no important effect on the occurrence of fungi.

  4. Bath Salts

    MedlinePlus

    ... panic attacks depression suicidal thoughts paranoia delusions and hallucinations distorted sense of reality decreased ability to think ... of bath salts may cause people to have hallucinations, hear voices, feel paranoid, and develop a psychosis ...

  5. Ice Generation and the Heat and Mass Transfer Phenomena of Introducing Water to a Cold Bath of Brine.

    PubMed

    Yun, Xiao; Quarini, Giuseppe L

    2017-03-13

    We demonstrate a method for the study of the heat and mass transfer and of the freezing phenomena in a subcooled brine environment. Our experiment showed that, under the proper conditions, ice can be produced when water is introduced to a bath of cold brine. To make ice form, in addition to having the brine and water mix, the rate of heat transfer must bypass that of mass transfer. When water is introduced in the form of tiny droplets to the brine surface, the mode of heat and mass transfer is by diffusion. The buoyancy stops water from mixing with the brine underneath, but as the ice grows thicker, it slows down the rate of heat transfer, making ice more difficult to grow as a result. When water is introduced inside the brine in the form of a flow, a number of factors are found to influence how much ice can form. Brine temperature and concentration, which are the driving forces of heat and mass transfer, respectively, can affect the water-to-ice conversion ratio; lower bath temperatures and brine concentrations encourage more ice to form. The flow rheology, which can directly affect both the heat and mass transfer coefficients, is also a key factor. In addition, the flow rheology changes the area of contact of the flow with the bulk fluid.

  6. Effects of low-dose light-emitting-diode therapy in combination with water bath for atopic dermatitis in NC/Nga mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chang-Hyun; Cheong, Kyung Ah; Lim, Won Suk; Park, Hyung-Moo; Lee, Ai-Young

    2016-01-01

    Light-emitting diode (LED) phototherapy and water bath therapy have beneficial effect on atopic dermatitis (AD)-like skin disease. However, not all current treatments work well and alternative therapies are need. The contribution of combination therapy with low-dose 850 nm LED and water bath was investigated on dermatophagoides farina (Df)-induced dermatitis in NC/Nga mice. Low-dose LED (10, 15, and 20 J/cm(2) ) irradiation, water bath (36 ± 1°C) were administered separately and together to the Df-induced NC/Nga mice in acrylic jar once a day for 2 weeks. Combined therapy with low-dose LED therapy and water bath therapy significantly ameliorated the development of AD-like skin lesions. These effects were correlated with the suppression of total IgE, NO, histamine, and Th2-mediated immune responses. Furthermore, combination therapy significantly reduced the infiltration of inflammatory cells and the induction of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) in the skin lesions. The beneficial therapeutic effects of this combination therapy might regulate by the inhibition of various immunological responses including Th2-mediated immune responses, inflammatory mediators such as IgE, histamine, and NO, as well as inflammatory cells. The combination therapy of LED and water bath might be used as an efficacious, safe, and steroid-free alternative therapeutic strategy for the treatment of AD. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. In situ evaluation of water and energy consumptions at the end use level: The influence of flow reducers and temperature in baths.

    PubMed

    Matos, C; Briga-Sá, A; Bentes, I; Faria, D; Pereira, S

    2017-05-15

    Nowadays, water and energy consumption is intensifying every year in most of the countries. This perpetual increase will not be supportable in the long run, making urgently to manage these resources on a sustainable way. Domestic consumptions of water and electric energy usually are related and it's important to study that relation, identifying opportunities for use efficient improvement. In fact, without an understanding of water-energy relations, there are water efficiency measures that may lead to unintentional costs in the energy efficiency field. In order to take full advantage of combined effect between water and energy water management methodologies, it is necessary to collect data to ensure that the efforts are directed through the most effective paths. This paper presents a study based in the characterization, measurement and analysis of water and electricity consumption in a single family house (2months period) in order to find an interdependent relationship between consumptions at the end user level. The study was carried out on about 200 baths, divided in four different scenarios where the influence of two variables was tested: the flow reducer valve and the bath temperature. Data showed that the presence of flow reducer valve decreased electric energy consumption and water consumption, but increased the bath duration. Setting a lower temperature in water-heater, decreased electric consumption, water consumption and bath duration. Analysing the influence of the flow reducer valve and 60°C temperature simultaneously, it was concluded that it had a significant influence on electric energy consumption and on the baths duration but had no influence on water consumption. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Quality Assessment of Longissimus and Semitendinosus Muscles from Beef Cattle Subjected to Non-penetrative and Penetrative Percussive Stunning Methods

    PubMed Central

    Sazili, A. Q.; Norbaiyah, B.; Zulkifli, I.; Goh, Y. M.; Lotfi, M.; Small, A. H.

    2013-01-01

    This study provides a comparative analysis of the effects of pre-slaughter penetrative and non-penetrative stunning and post-slaughter stunning on meat quality attributes in longissimus lumborum (LL) and semitendinosus (ST) muscles in heifers. Ten animals were assigned to each of four treatment groups: i) animals were subjected to conventional Halal slaughter (a clean incision through the structures at the front of the upper neck - the trachea, oesophagus, carotid arteries and jugular veins) and post-cut penetrating mechanical stun within 10 to 20 s of the neck cut (Unstunned; US); ii) high power non-penetrating mechanical stunning followed by the neck cut (HPNP); iii) low power non-penetrating mechanical stunning followed by the neck cut (LPNP); and iv) penetrative stunning using a captive bolt pistol followed by the neck cut (P). For each carcass, muscle samples were removed within 45 min of slaughter, portioned and analysed for pH, cooking loss, water holding capacity (WHC), tenderness (WBS), lipid oxidation (TBARS) and color, over a two week storage period. Stunning did not affect pH and cooking loss. Significant differences in water holding capacity, tenderness, lipid oxidation and color were present at different storage time points. HPNP stunning resulted in lower WHC and color values, particularly lightness (L*), higher TBARS values and peak force values compared with those stunned using LPNP, P and US. These adverse effects on quality were mostly encountered in the ST muscle. In conclusion, the meat quality achieved using P, LPNP and US treatments was comparable, and no treatment stood out as considerably better than another. PMID:25049845

  9. Stunning and scalding techniques, implications for yield and processing efficiency

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In most countries, humane slaughter of poultry includes the use of various stunning systems, each of which offers advantages and disadvantages (engineering challenges). The effects of the different stun and stun-to-kill methods will be reviewed, along with research study results evaluating bird welf...

  10. A Molecular MST Approach to Investigate Fecal Indicator Bacteria in Bioaerosols, Bathing Water, Seaweed Wrack, and Sand at Recreational Beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoren, K. M.; Sinigalliano, C. D.

    2016-02-01

    Despite numerous cases of beach bacteria affecting millions of people worldwide, the persistence of the bacteria populations in coastal areas is still not well understood. The purpose of this study was to test the levels of persistence of Fecal Indicating Bacteria (FIB) of enterococci, Escherichia coli, and Human-source Bacteroidales, within the intertidal "swash zone" and the deeper waist zone in which people commonly bathe and play. In addition, the study sought to determine if these bacterial contaminants may also be found in aerosols at the beach. Measuring solar insolation in relation to bacterial persistence in seaweed wrack was used to determine if sunlight plays a role in modifying concentrations of FIB at the beach. Light intensity measured by a solar photometer and air quality measured by aerosol plate counts and qPCR Microbial Source Tracking (MST) was compared to varying locations where the beach samples were collected. Results from water samples demonstrate that bacteria measured using plate counts and qPCR were indeed higher within the swash zone than in the waist zone. This is in contrast with the way that the EPA currently measures and determines the public safety of beach waters. They commonly measure the waist zone, but disregard the swash zone. Results from beach bio-aerosol samples showed a wide variety of fungi and bacteria in the beach air, and qPCR MST analysis of these bio-aerosols showed the presence of FIBs such as enterococci on several of the aerosol collection plates. This emphasizes the need to collect samples from the entire beach instead of just measuring at an isolated area, and that exposure to microbial contaminants may include bathing water, beach sand, seaweed wrack, and bio-aerosols. Thus, the data reveals a potential way to identify harmful levels of bacteria and dangerous levels of poor air quality at recreational beaches. These results expound the need for broader assessment of potential beach contamination, not only the

  11. Survival of the faucet snail after chemical disinfection, pH extremes, and heated water bath treatments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mitchell, A.J.; Cole, Rebecca A.

    2008-01-01

    The faucet snail Bithynia tentaculata, a nonindigenous aquatic snail from Eurasia, was introduced into Lake Michigan in 1871 and has spread to the mid-Atlantic states, the Great Lakes region, Montana, and most recently, the Mississippi River. The faucet snail serves as intermediate host for several trematodes that have caused large-scale mortality among water birds, primarily in the Great Lakes region and Montana. It is important to limit the spread of the faucet snail; small fisheries equipment can serve as a method of snail distribution. Treatments with chemical disinfection, pH extremes, and heated water baths were tested to determine their effectiveness as a disinfectant for small fisheries equipment. Two treatments eliminated all test snails: (1) a 24-h exposure to Hydrothol 191 at a concentration of at least 20 mg/L and (2) a treatment with 50°C heated water for 1 min or longer. Faucet snails were highly resistant to ethanol, NaCl, formalin, Lysol, potassium permanganate, copper sulfate, Baquacil, Virkon, household bleach, and pH extremes (as low as 1 and as high as 13).

  12. THE NEED FOR SPEED-RAPID METHODOLOGIES TO DETERMINE BATHING BEACH WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current methods for determining fecal contamination of recreational waters rely on the culture of bacterial indicators and require at least 24 hours to determine whether the water is unsafe for use. By the time monitoring results are available, exposures have already occurred. N...

  13. Birth, Bath, and Beyond: The Science and Safety of Water Immersion During Labor and Birth

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    The 2014 objection to birth in water voiced by both the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) in ACOG Bulletin #594 on immersion in water during labor and birth is nothing new. The Committee on Fetus and Newborn published the very same opinion in 2005, based on a case report that was published in 2002 in the journal Pediatrics. What has changed since 2002 is a growing body of evidence that reports on the safety and efficacy of labor and birth in water. This article reviews the retrospective literature on water birth and explains newborn physiology and the protective mechanisms that prevent babies from breathing during a birth in water. PMID:25364216

  14. Evaluation of the oxolinic acid--esculin--azide medium for the isolation and enumeration of faecal streptococci in a routine monitoring programme for bathing waters.

    PubMed

    Figueras, M J; Inza, I; Polo, F; Guarro, J

    1998-10-01

    m-Enterococcus agar (m-Ent) has been generally considered the reference medium for faecal streptococci in bathing waters. However, it shows several shortcomings, and therefore it is important to test newly developed media that can guarantee more precise results. In this sense, the recently described oxolinic acid--esculin--azide agar medium (OAA) and m-enterococcus agar (m-Ent) were comparatively evaluated for the detection of faecal streptococci from seawater and fresh water. The OAA medium showed a significantly higher relative recovery percentage and specificity for both types of water than m-Ent. A similar spectrum of species was recorded from both media, Enterococcus faecium being predominant in fresh water and Enterococcus faecalis, in seawater. The superior performance of the OAA medium in both types of bathing waters, added to the fact that it does not require the use of complementary confirmative tests, makes this medium an excellent candidate to be employed for monitoring programmes.

  15. Effects of a 20 year rain event: a quantitative microbial risk assessment of a case of contaminated bathing water in Copenhagen, Denmark.

    PubMed

    Andersen, S T; Erichsen, A C; Mark, O; Albrechtsen, H-J

    2013-12-01

    Quantitative microbial risk assessments (QMRAs) often lack data on water quality leading to great uncertainty in the QMRA because of the many assumptions. The quantity of waste water contamination was estimated and included in a QMRA on an extreme rain event leading to combined sewer overflow (CSO) to bathing water where an ironman competition later took place. Two dynamic models, (1) a drainage model and (2) a 3D hydrodynamic model, estimated the dilution of waste water from source to recipient. The drainage model estimated that 2.6% of waste water was left in the system before CSO and the hydrodynamic model estimated that 4.8% of the recipient bathing water came from the CSO, so on average there was 0.13% of waste water in the bathing water during the ironman competition. The total estimated incidence rate from a conservative estimate of the pathogenic load of five reference pathogens was 42%, comparable to 55% in an epidemiological study of the case. The combination of applying dynamic models and exposure data led to an improved QMRA that included an estimate of the dilution factor. This approach has not been described previously.

  16. COMPARISON OF MULTIPLE POINT AND COMPOSITE SAMPLING FOR THE PURPOSE OF MONITORING BATHING WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health Act (BEACH Act) requires states to develop monitoring and notification programs for recreational waters using approved bacterial indicators. Implementation of an appropriate monitoring program can, under some circumsta...

  17. Electrodeposition of Si from an Ionic Liquid Bath at Room Temperature in the Presence of Water.

    PubMed

    Shah, Nisarg K; Pati, Ranjan Kumar; Ray, Abhijit; Mukhopadhyay, Indrajit

    2017-02-21

    The electrochemical deposition of Si has been carried out in an ionic liquid medium in the presence of water in a limited dry nitrogen environment on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) at room temperature. It has been found that the presence of water in ionic liquids does not affect the available effective potential window to a large extent. Silicon has been successfully deposited electrochemically in the overpotential regime in two different ionic liquids, namely, BMImTf 2 N and BMImPF 6 , in the presence of water. Although a Si thin film has been obtained from BMImTf 2 N; only distinguished Si crystals protected in ionic liquid droplets have been observed from BMImPF 6 . The most important observation of the present investigation is that the Si precursor, SiCl 4 , instead of undergoing hydrolysis, even in the presence of water, coexisted with ionic liquids, and elemental Si has been successfully electrodeposited.

  18. Randomised controlled trial of thermostatic mixer valves in reducing bath hot tap water temperature in families with young children in social housing: A protocol

    PubMed Central

    Kendrick, Denise; Stewart, Jane; Coupland, Carol; Hayes, Michael; Hopkins, Nick; McCabe, Debbie; Murphy, Robert; O'Donnell, George; Phillips, Ceri; Radford, David; Ryan, Jackie; Smith, Sherie; Groom, Lindsay; Towner, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Background Each year in the UK 2000 children attend emergency departments and 500 are admitted to hospital following a bath water scald. The long term effects can include disability, disfigurement or psychological harm and repeated skin grafts may be required as the child grows. The costs of treating a severe scald are estimated at 250,000 GBP. Children living in the most deprived wards are at greatest risk of thermal injuries; hospital admission rates are three times that for children living in the least deprived wards. Domestic hot water, which is usually stored at around 60 degrees Celsius, can result in a second-degree burn after 3 seconds and a third-degree burn after 5 seconds. Educational strategies to encourage testing of tap water temperature and reduction of hot water thermostat settings have largely proved unsuccessful. Legislation in the USA mandating pre-setting hot water heater thermostats at 49 degrees Celsius was effective in reducing scald injuries, suggesting passive measures may have a greater impact. Thermostatic mixer valves (TMVs), recently developed for the domestic market, fitted across the hot and cold water supply pipes of the bath, allow delivery of water set at a fixed temperature from the hot bath tap. These valves therefore offer the potential to reduce scald injuries. Design/Methods A pragmatic, randomised controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of TMVs in reducing bath hot tap water temperatures in the homes of families with young children in rented social housing. Two parallel arms include an intervention group and a control group where the intervention will be deferred. The intervention will consist of fitting a TMV (set at 44 degrees Celsius) by a qualified plumber and provision of educational materials. The control arm will not receive a TMV or the educational materials for the study duration but will be offered the intervention after collection of follow-up data 12 months post randomisation. The primary outcome measure will

  19. Human health risk analysis from disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking and bathing water of some Indian cities

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Human health risk assessment from exposure to disinfection by-products (DBPs) during drinking and bathing water vary from country to country as per life expectancy, body mass index, water consumption pattern and individual concentration of DBPs component, etc. Methods Present study considered average direct water intake per person for adult males and females as 4 & 3 L/day, respectively as per Indian literature for risk evaluation from another component of pollutant. While other important factor like average life expectancy, body weight & body surface area for male and female were considered 64 & 67 years, 51.9 & 45.4 Kg and 1.54 & 1.38 m2 respectively as per Indian Council of Medical Research and WHO report. The corresponding lifetime cancer risk of the formed THMs to human beings was estimated by the USEPA and IRIS method as per Indian population. Results The total cancer risk reached 8.99 E-04 and 8.92 E-04 for males and females, respectively, the highest risk from THMs seems to be from the inhalation route followed by ingestion and dermal contacts. Conclusions The multipath way evaluations of lifetime cancer risks for THMs exposure through ingestion, dermal absorption, and inhalation exposure were examined at the highest degree of danger. Results reveals that water containing THMs of the selected water treatment plant of the eastern part of India was unsafe in terms of risk evaluation through inhalation and ingestion, while dermal route of risk was found very close to permissible limit of USEPA. Sensitivity analysis shows that every input parameter is sole responsible for total risk potential, whereas exposure duration playing important role for estimation of total risk. PMID:24872885

  20. Validity and reliability of temperature measurement by heat flow thermistors, flexible thermocouple probes and thermistors in a stirred water bath.

    PubMed

    Versey, Nathan G; Gore, Christopher J; Halson, Shona L; Plowman, Jamie S; Dawson, Brian T

    2011-09-01

    We determined the validity and reliability of heat flow thermistors, flexible thermocouple probes and general purpose thermistors compared with a calibrated reference thermometer in a stirred water bath. Validity (bias) was defined as the difference between the observed and criterion values, and reliability as the repeatability (standard deviation or typical error) of measurement. Data were logged every 5 s for 10 min at water temperatures of 14, 26 and 38 °C for ten heat flow thermistors and 24 general purpose thermistors, and at 35, 38 and 41 °C for eight flexible thermocouple probes. Statistical analyses were conducted using spreadsheets for validity and reliability, where an acceptable bias was set at ±0.1 °C. None of the heat flow thermistors, 17% of the flexible thermocouple probes and 71% of the general purpose thermistors met the validity criterion for temperature. The inter-probe reliabilities were 0.03 °C for heat flow thermistors, 0.04 °C for flexible thermocouple probes and 0.09 °C for general purpose thermistors. The within trial intra-probe reliability of all three temperature probes was 0.01 °C. The results suggest that these temperature sensors should be calibrated individually before use at relevant temperatures and the raw data corrected using individual linear regression equations.

  1. Study of neutron spectra in a water bath from a Pb target irradiated by 250 MeV protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan-Yan; Zhang, Xue-Ying; Ju, Yong-Qin; Ma, Fei; Zhang, Hong-Bin; Chen, Liang; Ge, Hong-Lin; Wan, Bo; Luo, Peng; Zhou, Bin; Zhang, Yan-Bin; Li, Jian-Yang; Xu, Jun-Kui; Wang, Song-Lin; Yang, Yong-Wei; Yang, Lei

    2015-04-01

    Spallation neutrons were produced by the irradiation of Pb with 250 MeV protons. The Pb target was surrounded by water which was used to slow down the emitted neutrons. The moderated neutrons in the water bath were measured by using the resonance detectors of Au, Mn and In with a cadmium (Cd) cover. According to the measured activities of the foils, the neutron flux at different resonance energies were deduced and the epithermal neutron spectra were proposed. Corresponding results calculated with the Monte Carlo code MCNPX were compared with the experimental data to check the validity of the code. The comparison showed that the simulation could give a good prediction for the neutron spectra above 50 eV, while the finite thickness of the foils greatly effected the experimental data in low energy. It was also found that the resonance detectors themselves had great impact on the simulated energy spectra. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation and Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (11305229, 11105186, 91226107, 91026009, XDA03030300)

  2. Bubble bath soap poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002762.htm Bubble bath soap poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Bubble bath soap poisoning occurs when someone swallows bubble bath soap. ...

  3. PROTECTING HEALTH WITH SAME DAY WATER QUALITY MONITORING RESULTS FOR BATHING BEACHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current US Environmental Protection Agency guidelines recommend the use of cultural methods for E. coli and enterococci to monitor beach water quality. The guidelines recommend a single sample value or a geometric mean value from at least five samples. The single sample guideli...

  4. RAPID, PCR-BASED METHODS FOR MEASURING THE QUALITY OF BATHING BEACH WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The current methods for measuring the quality of recreational waters were developed in the 1970's and were recommended to the States by EPA in 1986. These methods detect and quantify Escherichia coli and enterococci, two bacteria that are consistently associated with fecal wast...

  5. Effects of stunning with different carbon dioxide concentrations and exposure times on suckling lamb meat quality.

    PubMed

    Bórnez, R; Linares, M B; Vergara, H

    2009-03-01

    Forty-nine Manchega breed male suckling lambs were used to determine the effect of different stunning methods (using two different CO2 concentrations and exposure times) on lamb meat quality. The lambs were allocated to five stunning treatments including four CO2 treatments [80% CO2 for 90s (G1); 90% CO2 for 90s (G2); 90% CO2 for 60s (G3); 80% CO2 for 60s (G4)] and an electrically stunned control group (G5). The gas-stunning treatments did not cause neither haematomas nor blood splash in the carcasses. Meat quality was evaluated by testing pH, colour (L(∗), a(∗), b(∗), chroma, hue values), water holding capacity (WHC), cooking loss (CL), shear force (SF), drip loss (DL) and total aerobic bacteria. Statistical differences in pH at 24h post-mortem, colour, WHC and CL were not found among groups. After 7 days post-mortem, there were statistical differences among groups in pH (highest in G4 and G5) and in DL (highest in G1). There were differences in SF due to stunning method evident after 72h and 7 days ageing. The statistical differences (P<0.01) among groups on total aerobic bacteria at 24h (lower and higher values in G2 and G5, respectively) disappeared at 7 days post-mortem. As G2 as G3, could be recommended to stunning suckling lambs since a highest stability with ageing time on meat quality was found using 90% CO2.

  6. Signal and noise in vegetation patterns in drylands: distinguishing the baby from the bath water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, Anthony; Wainwright, John; Stewart, Jill; Okin, Gregory

    2014-05-01

    Patterns, and particularly banded patterns, are widely reported in dryland vegetation, and have been the subject of considerable modelling effort. However, much of this modelling effort is predicated on a mathematical approach that is designed to produce patterns and relies on physical processes that are unreasonable. In consequence, whereas in nature dryland vegetation patterns are irregular, disjointed and discontinuous, those produced by such models tend to be regular, continuous and even. The question, therefore, arises "Is it the irregularity, disjointed and discontinuous character of these patterns that holds the key to their formation rather than any apparent, human-imposed semblance of regularity and continuity?" By focusing on this apparent patterning have such models rejected as noise the key to understanding the signal? Models that produce regular vegetation patterns, typically do so by imposing global rules (largely for the distribution of water). Is it not more likely that vegetation responds to the local supply of water, nutrients and propagules? Here, we present a model for the growth of vegetation in deserts that is predicated on the local conditions of input of water, nutrients and propagules and output, such as loss of biomass by herbivory. The approach represents our best quantitative understanding of how desert ecosystems work. Patterns emerge that show the irregularity and discontinuity seen in nature. By focusing on the process rather than the patterns per se our model has the ability to address specific questions of the role of such patterns in land degradation. Further, it has the potential to provide quantitative estimates of the response of the landscape to specific management strategies, as well as the identification of the key thresholds and tipping points that are so important to the management of drylands. In providing a way to understand and predict the vegetation patterns that may develop during desertification, the approach also

  7. Molecular tools for bathing water assessment in Europe: Balancing social science research with a rapidly developing environmental science evidence-base.

    PubMed

    Oliver, David M; Hanley, Nick D; van Niekerk, Melanie; Kay, David; Heathwaite, A Louise; Rabinovici, Sharyl J M; Kinzelman, Julie L; Fleming, Lora E; Porter, Jonathan; Shaikh, Sabina; Fish, Rob; Chilton, Sue; Hewitt, Julie; Connolly, Elaine; Cummins, Andy; Glenk, Klaus; McPhail, Calum; McRory, Eric; McVittie, Alistair; Giles, Amanna; Roberts, Suzanne; Simpson, Katherine; Tinch, Dugald; Thairs, Ted; Avery, Lisa M; Vinten, Andy J A; Watts, Bill D; Quilliam, Richard S

    2016-02-01

    The use of molecular tools, principally qPCR, versus traditional culture-based methods for quantifying microbial parameters (e.g., Fecal Indicator Organisms) in bathing waters generates considerable ongoing debate at the science-policy interface. Advances in science have allowed the development and application of molecular biological methods for rapid (~2 h) quantification of microbial pollution in bathing and recreational waters. In contrast, culture-based methods can take between 18 and 96 h for sample processing. Thus, molecular tools offer an opportunity to provide a more meaningful statement of microbial risk to water-users by providing near-real-time information enabling potentially more informed decision-making with regard to water-based activities. However, complementary studies concerning the potential costs and benefits of adopting rapid methods as a regulatory tool are in short supply. We report on findings from an international Working Group that examined the breadth of social impacts, challenges, and research opportunities associated with the application of molecular tools to bathing water regulations.

  8. Iodine speciation in coastal and inland bathing waters and seaweeds extracts using a sequential injection standard addition flow-batch method.

    PubMed

    Santos, Inês C; Mesquita, Raquel B R; Bordalo, Adriano A; Rangel, António O S S

    2015-02-01

    The present work describes the development of a sequential injection standard addition method for iodine speciation in bathing waters and seaweeds extracts without prior sample treatment. Iodine speciation was obtained by assessing the iodide and iodate content, the two inorganic forms of iodine in waters. For the determination of iodide, an iodide ion selective electrode (ISE) was used. The indirect determination of iodate was based on the spectrophotometric determination of nitrite (Griess reaction). For the iodate measurement, a mixing chamber was employed (flow batch approach) to explore the inherent efficient mixing, essential for the indirect determination of iodate. The application of the standard addition method enabled detection limits of 0.14 µM for iodide and 0.02 µM for iodate, together with the direct introduction of the target water samples, coastal and inland bathing waters. The results obtained were in agreement with those obtained by ICP-MS and a colorimetric reference procedure. Recovery tests also confirmed the accuracy of the developed method which was effectively applied to bathing waters and seaweed extracts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Stunning and animal welfare from Islamic and scientific perspectives.

    PubMed

    Nakyinsige, K; Man, Y B Che; Aghwan, Zeiad A; Zulkifli, I; Goh, Y M; Abu Bakar, F; Al-Kahtani, H A; Sazili, A Q

    2013-10-01

    The transformation of an animal into pieces fit for human consumption is a very important operation. Rather than argue about halal slaughter without stunning being inhumane or stunning being controversial from the Islamic point of view, we discuss slaughter, stunning and animal welfare considering both Islamic and animal welfare legislation requirements. With the world Muslim population close to two billion, the provision of halal meat for the Muslim community is important both ethically and economically. However, from the animal welfare standard point of view, a number of issues have been raised about halal slaughter without stunning, particularly, about stressful methods of restraint and the latency of the onset of unconsciousness. This paper sets out to, discuss the methods of stunning that are acceptable by Islamic authorities, highlight the requirements for stunning to be acceptable in Islam and suggest practical ways to improve the humanness of slaughter. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of Techniques for Measuring Microbial Hazards in Bathing Waters: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Schang, Christelle; Henry, Rebekah; Kolotelo, Peter A.; Prosser, Toby; Crosbie, Nick; Grant, Trish; Cottam, Darren; O’Brien, Peter; Coutts, Scott; Deletic, Ana; McCarthy, David T.

    2016-01-01

    Recreational water quality is commonly monitored by means of culture based faecal indicator organism (FIOs) assays. However, these methods are costly and time-consuming; a serious disadvantage when combined with issues such as non-specificity and user bias. New culture and molecular methods have been developed to counter these drawbacks. This study compared industry-standard IDEXX methods (Colilert and Enterolert) with three alternative approaches: 1) TECTA™ system for E. coli and enterococci; 2) US EPA’s 1611 method (qPCR based enterococci enumeration); and 3) Next Generation Sequencing (NGS). Water samples (233) were collected from riverine, estuarine and marine environments over the 2014–2015 summer period and analysed by the four methods. The results demonstrated that E. coli and coliform densities, inferred by the IDEXX system, correlated strongly with the TECTA™ system. The TECTA™ system had further advantages in faster turnaround times (~12 hrs from sample receipt to result compared to 24 hrs); no staff time required for interpretation and less user bias (results are automatically calculated, compared to subjective colorimetric decisions). The US EPA Method 1611 qPCR method also showed significant correlation with the IDEXX enterococci method; but had significant disadvantages such as highly technical analysis and higher operational costs (330% of IDEXX). The NGS method demonstrated statistically significant correlations between IDEXX and the proportions of sequences belonging to FIOs, Enterobacteriaceae, and Enterococcaceae. While costs (3,000% of IDEXX) and analysis time (300% of IDEXX) were found to be significant drawbacks of NGS, rapid technological advances in this field will soon see it widely adopted. PMID:27213772

  11. 33 CFR 334.45 - Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine. 334.45 Section 334.45 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.45 Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine. (a) The... and other craft, except those vessels under the supervision or contract to local military or Naval...

  12. 33 CFR 334.45 - Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine. 334.45 Section 334.45 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.45 Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine. (a) The... and other craft, except those vessels under the supervision or contract to local military or Naval...

  13. 33 CFR 334.45 - Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine. 334.45 Section 334.45 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.45 Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine. (a) The... and other craft, except those vessels under the supervision or contract to local military or Naval...

  14. 33 CFR 334.45 - Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine. 334.45 Section 334.45 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.45 Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine. (a) The... and other craft, except those vessels under the supervision or contract to local military or Naval...

  15. 33 CFR 334.45 - Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine. 334.45 Section 334.45 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.45 Kennebec River, Bath Iron Works Shipyard, naval restricted area, Bath, Maine. (a) The... and other craft, except those vessels under the supervision or contract to local military or Naval...

  16. Estimation of diffuse and point source microbial pollution in the ribble catchment discharging to bathing waters in the north west of England.

    PubMed

    Wither, A; Greaves, J; Dunhill, I; Wyer, M; Stapleton, C; Kay, D; Humphrey, N; Watkins, J; Francis, C; McDonald, A; Crowther, J

    2005-01-01

    Achieving compliance with the mandatory standards of the 1976 Bathing Water Directive (76/160/EEC) is required at all U.K. identified bathing waters. In recent years, the Fylde coast has been an area of significant investments in 'point source' control, which have not proven, in isolation, to satisfactorily achieve compliance with the mandatory, let alone the guide, levels of water quality in the Directive. The potential impact of riverine sources of pollution was first confirmed after a study in 1997. The completion of sewerage system enhancements offered the potential for the study of faecal indicator delivery from upstream sources comprising both point sources and diffuse agricultural sources. A research project to define these elements commenced in 2001. Initially, a desk study reported here, estimated the principal infrastructure contributions within the Ribble catchment. A second phase of this investigation has involved acquisition of empirical water quality and hydrological data from the catchment during the 2002 bathing season. These data have been used further to calibrate the 'budgets' and 'delivery' modelling and these data are still being analysed. This paper reports the initial desk study approach to faecal indicator budget estimation using available data from the sewerage infrastructure and catchment sources of faecal indicators.

  17. Environmental geology of Bath, England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellaway, G. A.

    1995-10-01

    The hot springs of Bath, England, have been of importance to man for hundreds of years. It was a famous spa in Roman times. Subsequently, the springs were used during the 17th through the 20th centuries and extensive urban and commercial properties were developed at Bath using the water for medical and tourist-oriented activities. With urban and commercial development in the area, man's impact on the environment was substantial and typical environmental problems included pollution, land subsidence, or stability that effected construction, drainage, highways, and canals. During the growth of Bath in the 18th and 19th centuries these environmental problems were described by geologist William Smith and Joseph Townsend. Bath and vicinity provides a unique example of environmental geoscience.

  18. Influence of gas stunning and halal slaughter (no stunning) on rabbits welfare indicators and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Nakyinsige, K; Sazili, A Q; Zulkifli, I; Goh, Y M; Abu Bakar, F; Sabow, A B

    2014-12-01

    This study assessed the effect of gas stunning which has not been conducted until now in comparison with slaughter without stunning on the welfare and meat quality of rabbits. Eighty male New Zealand White rabbits were divided into two groups of 40 animals and subjected to either halal slaughter without stunning (HS) or gas stunning using 61.4% CO2, 20.3% oxygen and 18.3 % nitrogen (GS). Analysis of the sticking blood revealed that both slaughter procedures caused a substantial increase in the levels of catecholamines, hypercalcemia, hyperglycemia, lactic acidemia and an increase in enzyme activities. The ultimate pH of the Longissimus lumborum muscle did not differ between treatments. GS exhibited higher lightness and cooking loss, and lower glycogen and MFI than HS. This indicates that both GS and HS can be significant stressors although the amount of stress may be below the threshold to negatively affect rabbit meat quality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of the quality of coastal bathing waters in Spain through fecal bacteria Escherichia coli and Enterococcus.

    PubMed

    Aragonés, L; López, I; Palazón, A; López-Úbeda, R; García, C

    2016-10-01

    Sun. and beach tourism is very important to the economy of Spain, so the control of the quality of the environment on the beaches is essential. Therefore, the analysis and control of the quality of bathing water is necessary, which is defined by the European Directive 2006/7/EC as excellent, good or sufficient depending on the presence of microbiological contamination or other organisms or waste presenting a risk to bathers' health. For that, 1392 beaches of the Iberian Peninsula and its islands were analysed, taking into account: fecal bacteria (Escherichia coli and Enterococcus), physical characteristics of sediment, level of urbanization, climatic and anthropogenic factors, and maritime climate. Thus, it was observed that urban sand beaches located in seas with fewer hours of sunshine and important tide have higher concentrations of E. coli and Enterococcus. There is also an indirect relationship between these microorganisms with salinity (R(2) 0.746 for E. coli and 0.606 for Enterococcus), temperature (R(2) 0.743 for E. coli and 0.604 for Enterococcus) and hours of sunshine (R(2) 0.781 for E. coli and 0.706 for Enterococcus), while this relationship is direct with rainfall (R(2) 0.640 for E. coli and 0.607 for Enterococcus) or wave height (R(2) 0.769 for E. coli and 0.601 for Enterococcus). From all this, it follows that the Directive 2006/7/EC should define more specific criteria as to the place and time of sampling, and take into account the different environment variables that influence the survival of bacteria, so that the results may reflect reality, and avoid staff responsible for sampling freely choose the place and time of sampling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Preparation of 99mTc-TRODAT-1 with high labeling yield in boiling water bath: a new formulation.

    PubMed

    Erfani, Mostafa; Shafiei, Mohammad

    2014-04-01

    A new formulation for preparation of (99m)Tc-labeled tropane derivative, (99m)Tc-TRODAT-1, which is useful as a potential CNS dopamine transporter imaging agent, was evaluated and characterized. Preparation of (99m)Tc-TRODAT-1 was attained previously by a formulation in which vial has to be autoclaved at 121 °C for 30 min. It is highly desirable to further improve the preparation method by developing a simplified one vial formulation which will be labeled in boiling water bath (95 °C) for 15 min and a high labeling yield will be achieved. A formulation contained 10 μg of TRODAT-1, 20 μg tricine, 40 μg SnCl2 and 20mg manitol was prepared. Labeling was performed at 95 °C for 15 min and radiochemical analysis involved ITLC and HPLC methods. The stability of radioconjugate was checked in the presence of human serum at 37 °C up to 24h. (99m)Tc-TRODAT-1 was prepared with a radiochemical purity of more than 95% and specific activity of 64.3 MBq/nmol. Biodistribution studies of this new formulation in rats revealed similar regional brain distribution as compared with those obtained with the previous preparation in which brain uptake was high in striatum and striatum to cerebellum ratio was high. Requiring no autoclave facility for labeling, this new formulation will significantly improve the using feasibility of this radiopharmaceutical in clinic. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Bath and Shower Diverter Notice of Intent

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    An often-overlooked source of wasted water, many bath and shower diverters continuously leak a small amount of water from the tub spout while they are engaged, and water is being diverted from the bathtub to the showerhead.

  2. Investigation of Legionella Contamination in Bath Water Samples by Culture, Amoebic Co-Culture, and Real-Time Quantitative PCR Methods

    PubMed Central

    Edagawa, Akiko; Kimura, Akio; Kawabuchi-Kurata, Takako; Adachi, Shinichi; Furuhata, Katsunori; Miyamoto, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    We investigated Legionella contamination in bath water samples, collected from 68 bathing facilities in Japan, by culture, culture with amoebic co-culture, real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR), and real-time qPCR with amoebic co-culture. Using the conventional culture method, Legionella pneumophila was detected in 11 samples (11/68, 16.2%). Contrary to our expectation, the culture method with the amoebic co-culture technique did not increase the detection rate of Legionella (4/68, 5.9%). In contrast, a combination of the amoebic co-culture technique followed by qPCR successfully increased the detection rate (57/68, 83.8%) compared with real-time qPCR alone (46/68, 67.6%). Using real-time qPCR after culture with amoebic co-culture, more than 10-fold higher bacterial numbers were observed in 30 samples (30/68, 44.1%) compared with the same samples without co-culture. On the other hand, higher bacterial numbers were not observed after propagation by amoebae in 32 samples (32/68, 47.1%). Legionella was not detected in the remaining six samples (6/68, 8.8%), irrespective of the method. These results suggest that application of the amoebic co-culture technique prior to real-time qPCR may be useful for the sensitive detection of Legionella from bath water samples. Furthermore, a combination of amoebic co-culture and real-time qPCR might be useful to detect viable and virulent Legionella because their ability to invade and multiply within free-living amoebae is considered to correlate with their pathogenicity for humans. This is the first report evaluating the efficacy of the amoebic co-culture technique for detecting Legionella in bath water samples. PMID:26492259

  3. Investigation of Legionella Contamination in Bath Water Samples by Culture, Amoebic Co-Culture, and Real-Time Quantitative PCR Methods.

    PubMed

    Edagawa, Akiko; Kimura, Akio; Kawabuchi-Kurata, Takako; Adachi, Shinichi; Furuhata, Katsunori; Miyamoto, Hiroshi

    2015-10-19

    We investigated Legionella contamination in bath water samples, collected from 68 bathing facilities in Japan, by culture, culture with amoebic co-culture, real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR), and real-time qPCR with amoebic co-culture. Using the conventional culture method, Legionella pneumophila was detected in 11 samples (11/68, 16.2%). Contrary to our expectation, the culture method with the amoebic co-culture technique did not increase the detection rate of Legionella (4/68, 5.9%). In contrast, a combination of the amoebic co-culture technique followed by qPCR successfully increased the detection rate (57/68, 83.8%) compared with real-time qPCR alone (46/68, 67.6%). Using real-time qPCR after culture with amoebic co-culture, more than 10-fold higher bacterial numbers were observed in 30 samples (30/68, 44.1%) compared with the same samples without co-culture. On the other hand, higher bacterial numbers were not observed after propagation by amoebae in 32 samples (32/68, 47.1%). Legionella was not detected in the remaining six samples (6/68, 8.8%), irrespective of the method. These results suggest that application of the amoebic co-culture technique prior to real-time qPCR may be useful for the sensitive detection of Legionella from bath water samples. Furthermore, a combination of amoebic co-culture and real-time qPCR might be useful to detect viable and virulent Legionella because their ability to invade and multiply within free-living amoebae is considered to correlate with their pathogenicity for humans. This is the first report evaluating the efficacy of the amoebic co-culture technique for detecting Legionella in bath water samples.

  4. A comparison of head-out mist bathing, with or without facial fanning, with head-out half-body low-water level bathing in humans--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Iwase, Satoshi; Kawahara, Yuko; Nishimura, Naoki; Nishimura, Rumiko; Miwa, Chihiro; Kataoka, Yumiko; Kobayashi, Chihiro; Suzuki, Takahiro; Shigaraki, Masayuki; Maeda, Yoichi; Takada, Hiroki; Watanabe, Yoriko

    2014-07-01

    To reduce the risks of Japanese-style bathing, half-body bathing (HBLB) has been recommended in Japan, but discomfort due to the cold environment in winter prevents its widespread adoption. The development of the mist sauna, which causes a gradual core temperature rise with sufficient thermal comfort, has reduced the demerits of HBLB. We examined head-out 42 °C mist bathing with 38 °C HBLB up to the navel to see if it could improve thermal comfort without detracting from the merits of HBLB, with and without the effects of facial fanning (FF). The subjects were seven healthy males aged 22-25 years. The following bathing styles were provided: (1) HBLB-head-out half-body low bathing of 38 °C up to the navel (20 min); (2) HOMB-head-out mist bathing of 42 °C and HBLB of 38 °C (20 min); and (3) HOMBFF-HOMB with FF (20 min). HOMB raised the core temperature gradually. HOMBFF suppressed the core temperature rise in a similar fashion to HOMB. Increases in blood pressure and heart rate usually observed in Japanese traditional-style bathing were less marked in HOMBs with no significant difference with and without FF. The greatest body weight loss was observed after Japanese traditional-style bathing, with only one-third of this amount lost after mist bathing, and one-sixth after HBLB. HOMB increased thermal sensation, and FF also enhanced post-bathing invigoration. We conclude that HOMB reduces the risks of Japanese traditional style bathing by mitigating marked changes in the core temperature and hemodynamics, and FF provides thermal comfort and invigoration.

  5. A comparison of head-out mist bathing, with or without facial fanning, with head-out half-body low-water level bathing in humans—a pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwase, Satoshi; Kawahara, Yuko; Nishimura, Naoki; Nishimura, Rumiko; Miwa, Chihiro; Kataoka, Yumiko; Kobayashi, Chihiro; Suzuki, Takahiro; Shigaraki, Masayuki; Maeda, Yoichi; Takada, Hiroki; Watanabe, Yoriko

    2014-07-01

    To reduce the risks of Japanese-style bathing, half-body bathing (HBLB) has been recommended in Japan, but discomfort due to the cold environment in winter prevents its widespread adoption. The development of the mist sauna, which causes a gradual core temperature rise with sufficient thermal comfort, has reduced the demerits of HBLB. We examined head-out 42 °C mist bathing with 38 °C HBLB up to the navel to see if it could improve thermal comfort without detracting from the merits of HBLB, with and without the effects of facial fanning (FF). The subjects were seven healthy males aged 22-25 years. The following bathing styles were provided: (1) HBLB—head-out half-body low bathing of 38 °C up to the navel (20 min); (2) HOMB—head-out mist bathing of 42 °C and HBLB of 38 °C (20 min); and (3) HOMBFF—HOMB with FF (20 min). HOMB raised the core temperature gradually. HOMBFF suppressed the core temperature rise in a similar fashion to HOMB. Increases in blood pressure and heart rate usually observed in Japanese traditional-style bathing were less marked in HOMBs with no significant difference with and without FF. The greatest body weight loss was observed after Japanese traditional-style bathing, with only one-third of this amount lost after mist bathing, and one-sixth after HBLB. HOMB increased thermal sensation, and FF also enhanced post-bathing invigoration. We conclude that HOMB reduces the risks of Japanese traditional style bathing by mitigating marked changes in the core temperature and hemodynamics, and FF provides thermal comfort and invigoration.

  6. Acute effects of a single warm-water bath on serum adiponectin and leptin levels in healthy men: A pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimodozono, Megumi; Matsumoto, Shuji; Ninomiya, Koji; Miyata, Ryuji; Ogata, Atsuko; Etoh, Seiji; Watanabe, Satoshi; Kawahira, Kazumi

    2012-09-01

    To preliminarily assess the acute effects of a single warm -water bath (WWB) on serum adipokine activity, we measured serum adiponectin, leptin and other metabolic profiles before, immediately after and 30 minutes after WWB in seven healthy male volunteers (mean age, 39.7 ± 6.0 years; mean body mass index, 21.6 ± 1.8 kg/m2). The subjects were immersed in tap water at 41°C for 10 minutes. Two weeks later, the same subjects underwent a single WWB with a bath additive that included inorganic salts and carbon dioxide (WWB with ISCO2) by the same protocol as for the first WWB. Leptin levels significantly increased immediately after WWB with tap water and ISCO2 (both P < 0.05), and remained significantly higher than those at baseline even 30 minutes after WWB with tap water ( P < 0.05). Adiponectin levels showed a slight, but not significant, increase both immediately after and 30 minutes after WWB with tap water or ISCO2. Some parameters, such as serum total cholesterol, red blood cell count, hemoglobin and hematocrit significantly increased immediately after WWB with tap water or ISCO2 (all P < 0.05), but they all returned to the baseline levels 30 minutes after bathing under both conditions. The sublingual temperature rose significantly after 10 minutes of WWB with tap water (0.96 ± 0.16°C relative to baseline, P < 0.01) and after the same duration of WWB with ISCO2 (1.24 ± 0.34°C relative to baseline, P < 0.01). These findings suggest that a single WWB at 41°C for 10 minutes may modulate leptin and adiponectin profiles in healthy men.

  7. Water quality monitoring in a bathing area of Civitavecchia (Latium, Italy) using Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) as a tracer of faecal contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madonia, Alice; Bonamano, Simone; Caruso, Gabriella; Stefani', Chiara; Consalvi, Natalizia; Piermattei, Viviana; Zappalà, Giuseppe; Marcelli, Marco

    2017-04-01

    Coastal urban bathing areas are often affected by events of faecal contamination, caused by the discharge of untreated wastewaters during the bathing season that can increase the risk for public health. Monitoring the quality of recreational waters is still closely linked to time-consuming seawater sampling and laboratory analysis, not allowing promptly management interventions. To face this issue, the European environmental policies strongly promote the development of coastal observing systems, above all in the Southern European Seas (SES). Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) has been increasingly used as a tracer of bacterial loads, since wastewaters are characterized by a large amount of organic compounds. The aim of this work was to study the relation between CDOM and Escherichia coli abundance, giving relevance to bacterial physiological state detected using both the standard culture method and the innovative fluorescent antibody technique. Attention has been paid also on the expression of extracellular enzymatic activity by the total microbial community to explore the role of bacteria in the decomposition processes of dissolved organic matter. Data were collected during summer 2015 and 2016 in a bathing area of Civitavecchia at increasing distances from the discharge point. The results confirm the usefulness of CDOM measurements as a proxy of faecal pollution in bathing areas. In this perspective, the low-cost stand-alone systems equipped with CDOM fluorescence sensors developed by the Laboratory of Experimental Oceanology and Marine Ecology (Tuscia University) (Marcelli et al., 2014) could allow the continous monitoring of water quality, increasing the capabilities of the Civitavecchia Coastal Environmental Monitoring System (C-CEMS) in the analysis of pollution events. Thanks to the integration of in situ fixed stations, high-resolution satellites imagery and numerical models, C-CEMS provides a management tool to support the stakeholders for timely

  8. Why poultry should be stunned at slaughter and the welfare advantages/challenges of electrical and gas stunning

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Poultry are stunned immediately prior to slaughter to facilitate automated processing, to suppress the subsequent death struggle and thereby minimize carcass damage and down grades, and to render the bird unconscious and incapable to perceive pain. A stunning method should be considered ethical if ...

  9. Baby Bath Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... bit first. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends sponge baths until the umbilical cord stump falls off — ... week or two. To give your baby a sponge bath, you'll need: A warm place with ...

  10. METAL COATING BATHS

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, J.W.

    1958-08-26

    A method is presented for restoring the effectiveness of bronze coating baths used for hot dip coating of uranium. Such baths, containing a high proportion of copper, lose their ability to wet uranium surfaces after a period of use. The ability of such a bath to wet uranium can be restored by adding a small amount of metallic aluminum to the bath, and skimming the resultant hard alloy from the surface.

  11. A Review of Neurogenic Stunned Myocardium

    PubMed Central

    Wongrakpanich, Supakanya; Agrawal, Akanksha; Yadlapati, Sujani; Kishlyansky, Marina; Figueredo, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    Neurologic stunned myocardium (NSM) is a phenomenon where neurologic events give rise to cardiac abnormalities. Neurologic events like stroke and seizures cause sympathetic storm and autonomic dysregulation that result in myocardial injury. The clinical presentation can involve troponin elevation, left ventricular dysfunction, and ECG changes. These findings are similar to Takotsubo cardiomyopathy and acute coronary syndrome. It is difficult to distinguish NSM from acute coronary syndrome based on clinical presentation alone. Because of this difficulty, a patient with NSM who is at high risk for coronary heart disease may undergo cardiac catheterization to rule out coronary artery disease. The objective of this review of literature is to enhance physician's awareness of NSM and its features to help tailor management according to the patient's clinical profile. PMID:28875040

  12. Comparative evaluation of surface porosities in conventional heat polymerized acrylic resin cured by water bath and microwave energy with microwavable acrylic resin cured by microwave energy

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sunint; Palaskar, Jayant N.; Mittal, Sanjeev

    2013-01-01

    Background: Conventional heat cure poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) is the most commonly used denture base resin despite having some short comings. Lengthy polymerization time being one of them and in order to overcome this fact microwave curing method was recommended. Unavailability of specially designed microwavable acrylic resin made it unpopular. Therefore, in this study, conventional heat cure PMMA was polymerized by microwave energy. Aim and Objectives: This study was designed to evaluate the surface porosities in PMMA cured by conventional water bath and microwave energy and compare it with microwavable acrylic resin cured by microwave energy. Materials and Methods: Wax samples were obtained by pouring molten wax into a metal mold of 25 mm × 12 mm × 3 mm dimensions. These samples were divided into three groups namely C, CM, and M. Group C denotes conventional heat cure PMMA cured by water bath method, CM denotes conventional heat cure PMMA cured by microwave energy, M denotes specially designed microwavable acrylic denture base resin cured by microwave energy. After polymerization, each sample was scanned in three pre-marked areas for surface porosities using the optical microscope. As per the literature available, this instrument is being used for the first time to measure the porosity in acrylic resin. It is a reliable method of measuring area of surface pores. Portion of the sample being scanned is displayed on the computer and with the help of software area of each pore was measured and data were analyzed. Results: Conventional heat cure PMMA samples cured by microwave energy showed maximum porosities than the samples cured by conventional water bath method and microwavable acrylic resin cured by microwave energy. Higher percentage of porosities was statistically significant, but well within the range to be clinically acceptable. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this in-vitro study, conventional heat cure PMMA can be cured by microwave energy

  13. Bleedout efficiency, carcass damage, and rigor mortis development following electrical stunning or carbon dioxide stunning on a shackle line.

    PubMed

    Kang, I S; Sams, A R

    1999-01-01

    In Experiment 1, 400 male broilers were stunned using a gradient of 40 to 60% CO2 over a period of 25 s or a 1% brine solution that was electrically charged (35 mA) for 7 s. Blood loss during bleeding was measured in 30-s intervals for a total of 120 s. After conventional processing and chilling, carcass damage was subjectively evaluated. Results indicated that the birds stunned with electricity bled faster than the CO2-stunned birds until 60 s. However, the cumulative blood loss was not different after 90 s. Carcass damage evaluation indicated that birds stunned with CO2 had a significantly lower percentage of broken clavicles, and had fewer hemorrhages on the surface of the Pectoralis. However, there was no difference between the two stunning methods in the frequency of damage at the shoulder. In Experiment 2, 256 broilers were stunned using the same conditions as in Experiment 1. Measurements of pH, R-value, sarcomere length (SL), and fragmentation index (FI) were evaluated from the left breast fillets harvested at 0, 1, 2, and 6 h postmortem. Shear values (SV) were determined using the right fillets harvested at the same four postmortem times and aged on ice until 24 h. No significant difference in breast muscle pH value was observed at 0, 2, and 6 h postmortem. However, CO2-stunned fillets had significantly higher pH values than the ES fillets at 1 h postmortem. Carbon dioxide produced greater R values than electricity at 2 and 6 h. Sarcomere length, FI, and SV were not significantly different at any time tested. These data suggest that CO2 stunning reduced carcass damage but did not reduce the need for aging before deboning when compared to the electrical stunning method used.

  14. Biologic impact on the coastal belt of the province of Venice (Italy, Northern Adriatic Sea): preliminary analysis for the characterization of the bathing water profile.

    PubMed

    Ostoich, Marco; Aimo, Emilia; Fassina, Daniel; Barbaro, Jvan; Vazzoler, Marina; Soccorso, Corrado; Rossi, Chiara

    2011-02-01

    This paper presents a preliminary study of the water profile with reference to microbiological parameters, required by Directive 2006/07/EC (European Community 2006) concerning the management of bathing water quality, in the coastal belt of the Province of Venice (Italy, Northern Adriatic Sea). A historical database has been implemented with monitoring data for the period 2000-2006 (data on rivers, bathing and marine coastal waters and on the characterization of Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) discharges) from the institutional activity of Veneto Regional Environmental Prevention and Protection Agency (ARPAV). An integrated areal analysis for the microbiological investigation of homogeneous stretches along the coast of the Province of Venice was performed for a preliminary characterization of the bathing water profile considering water quality status and existing pressure sources. ARPAV is the institutional body responsible for environmental monitoring and control activities. Data were produced from monitoring and controls made available by the Regional Environmental Informative System and extracted and elaborated for the period of interest (2000-2006). Sampling and analysis of microbiological parameters were executed following the official Italian methods in accordance with international procedures (APHA et al. 1998). For the purpose of this study, the coast was divided into eight stretches, which were considered to be homogeneous according to their physical and geographical characteristics. An ANOVA statistical assessment has been performed on stretches I, V and VIII. From the integrated areal analysis of microbiological parameters in the homogeneous stretches along the coast of all the investigated matrices, high mean levels of faecal contamination were found in some cases. The most critical situation amongst the stretches evaluated is to be found in stretch VIII-Ca' Roman, Sottomarina and Isola Verde shores (Southern part of the Province). These results can

  15. Effect of electrical stunning frequency on meat quality, plasma parameters, and protein solubility of broilers.

    PubMed

    Huang, J C; Yang, J; Zhang, B H; Huang, M; Chen, K J; Xu, X L; Zhou, G H

    2017-08-01

    This study was designed to compare the effects of different stunning frequencies of pulsed direct current on meat quality of broilers. This was achieved by investigating plasma parameters, blood loss, carcass damage, meat water-holding capacity, meat color, meat shear value, muscle pH, and protein solubility. A total of 400 broilers was divided into 5 treatment groups and stunned with 500, 600, 700, 800, and 900 Hz at 15 V for 10 seconds. Blood samples were collected immediately after cutting the neck. Pectoralis major muscles were removed from the carcass after chilling and placed in ice. Breast muscle pH and meat color were determined at both 2 and 24 h postmortem. Drip loss, cooking loss, pressing loss, and cooked breast meat-shear values were determined at 24 h postmortem. Treatment at 500 and 900 Hz significantly increased (P < 0.05) blood plasma corticosterone and lactate concentrations compared with the 700 Hz group. The wing damage of carcasses was significantly serious in the 500, 800, and 900 Hz groups. The Pectoralis minor damage of carcesses in the 700 Hz group was significantly lower (P < 0.05) compared to the other stunning groups. The pH at 2 h postmortem in the 500 and 900 Hz groups was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than in other groups. However, the final pH and meat color were not affected by stunning frequency. In the 500 and 900 Hz groups, the protein solubility and shear force values were significantly lower (P < 0.05) and drip loss was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than in the 700 Hz group. This study indicates that the waveform of the pulsed direct current is acceptable for stunning broilers at a stunning frequency of 700 Hz. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  16. Effect of different stunning systems on meat quality of light lamb.

    PubMed

    Linares, M B; Bórnez, R; Vergara, H

    2007-08-01

    The present study was proposed to compare the effect that different types of stunning (TS) had on the quality of refrigerated meat from light lambs of the Spanish Manchega breed at 24h and 7 days post-mortem. Lambs were electrically stunned (ESL; n=10), using CO(2) (GSL; n=10) or slaughtered without previous stunning (USL; n=10). Measurements on meat quality were carried out by evaluating pH, colour coordinates (L(∗), a(∗), b(∗)), water holding capacity (WHC), cooking loss (CL), shear force (SF) and drip loss (DL). At 24h post-mortem, no significant differences were found in any of the variables studied. However, at 7 days post-mortem, meat quality was affected by the different TS: pH, CL and DL were lower (P<0.001) in the USL group and GSL obtained the lowest a(∗) (redness) and b(∗) (yellowness) values (P<0.01) than in the other groups. Ageing of meat affected SF in the ESL group (P<0.01), although there were no significant differences due to treatments at any of the ageing times.

  17. Effect of different gas stunning methods on Manchega suckling lamb meat packed under different modified atmospheres.

    PubMed

    Bórnez, R; Linares, M B; Vergara, H

    2010-04-01

    Forty-nine Manchega breed male suckling lambs were used in this experiment. The effect of CO(2) concentration and exposure time at stunning [80% CO(2) for 90 s (G1); 90% CO(2) for 90 s (G2); 90% CO(2) for 60 s (G3); 80% CO(2) for 60 s (G4)] plus an electrically stunned control group (G5) was assessed for pH, colour (L(*), a(*), b(*), C(*) and h(*)), water holding capacity (WHC), drip loss (DL), cooking loss (CL) and shear force (SF) in samples packed under two different types of modified atmospheres (MA: MA A: 70%O(2)+30%CO(2); MA B: 69.3%N(2)+30%CO(2)+0.7%CO) at 7, 14 and 21 d post-packaging. The lowest pH was found in G4 and in G5. The highest WHC and the lowest CL were found in G2 and G3 groups (P<0.05). Modified atmospheres did not affect on pH, WHC, CL and DL, although a significant effect (P<0.001) on colour was found at all the analysis times. Both the type of stunning and the modified atmosphere affected SF values. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Influence of carbon dioxide stunning procedure on quality of turkey meat.

    PubMed

    Mauri, S; Guijarro, A; Avilés, C; Peña, F

    2017-08-01

    1. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of sex and gas stunning on quality attributes of turkey breast meat. 2. One hundred B.U.T. Premium turkeys (50 males and 50 females) were divided into four groups of 25 animals and subjected to one of two CO 2 stunning procedures: G1 stepwise (step 1: 30% CO 2 , 15 s; step 2: 55% CO 2 , 40 s; step 3: 70% CO 2 , 45 s) or G2 fixed concentration (80% CO 2 , 100 s). The pH and meat colour at 20 min post-mortem, and pH, colour (L*, a*, b*), water holding capacity (WHC), drip loss (DL), cooking loss (CL) and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) in breast samples at 24 h and 7 d post-mortem were assessed. 3. There were significant differences between stunning groups for pH, meat colour and CL, whereas no significant differences were found for DL and WBSF. Sex had a significant effect on pH and b* and ageing of meat affected pH, colour coordinates, DL and WBSF. 4. It was concluded that the G2 treatment affected negatively the pH value and colour coordinates. However, G2 stunning affected positively the WHC parameters. Female turkeys had better results than males for pH, and the colour of female turkey breast meat was less yellow than male breast meat.

  19. Electrical stunning, hot boning, and quality of chicken breast meat.

    PubMed

    Contreras, C C; Beraquet, N J

    2001-04-01

    The first experiment was conducted to determine the effects of varying voltage, 20, 40, 80, and 100 V at 60 Hz, on stunning efficiency, blood loss, and carcass defects. In the second experiment, the same parameters were evaluated to determine the effects of varying frequency, 60, 200, 350, 500, and 1,000 Hz at 40 V. A control group for both experiments was not stunned. At 40V, 30 to 50 mA, 90% of the birds were unconscious, as shown by no response to comb piercing, and blood loss was maximized (55.3%). When varying the stunning frequency, maximum blood loss (73.1%), 90% of the birds were unconscious, and minimum carcass defects were observed at 1,000 Hz, 40 V. In the third experiment, birds were stunned at 40 V, 1,000 Hz and deboned immediately after defeathering (hot boning) and chilled or deboned after passing through all stages of a commercial abattoir operation (conventional boning). Control lots were unstunned and followed normal abattoir stages. Average shear value was significantly lower for stunned compared to unstunned birds (6.0 vs. 7.1 kg/g), although tenderness scores, as measured by a trained panel, were not significantly different (6.6 for stunned birds vs. 6.1 for unstunned). Scores for juiciness were also not significantly different (5.5 for stunned vs. 5.8 for unstunned). Average shear value was also significantly lower for conventionally boned birds (5.2 kg/g) than for hot boned birds (7.9 kg/g). Sensory analysis confirmed the shear value results. Conventionally boned breasts had an average tenderness score of 7.4 vs. an average of 5.3 for hot boned breast. No statistical differences were observed with respect to juiciness, although a score of 6.2 was observed for conventionally boned breast meat vs. a score of 5.1 for hot boned breast meat.

  20. Effects of reference analgesics and psychoactive drugs on the noxious heat threshold of mice measured by an increasing-temperature water bath.

    PubMed

    Boros, Melinda; Benkó, Rita; Bölcskei, Kata; Szolcsányi, János; Barthó, Loránd; Pethő, Gábor

    2013-12-01

    The study aimed at validating an increasing-temperature water bath suitable for determining the noxious heat threshold for use in mice. The noxious heat threshold was determined by immersing the tail of the gently held awake mouse into a water container whose temperature was near-linearly increased at a rate of 24°C/min. until the animal withdrew its tail, that is, heating attained the noxious threshold. The effects of standard analgesic, neuroleptic and anxiolytic drugs were investigated in a parallel way on both the noxious heat threshold and the psychomotor activity assessed by the open field test. Morphine, diclofenac and metamizol (dipyrone) elevated the heat threshold of mice with minimum effective doses of 6, 30 and 1000 mg/kg i.p., respectively. These doses of morphine and diclofenac failed to induce any remarkable effect on psychomotor activity in the open field test while that of metamizol exerted a profound inhibition. The anxiolytic diazepam and the neuroleptic droperidol at doses evoking a mild and moderate, respectively, psychomotor inhibition failed to alter the heat threshold. Combination of a subliminal dose of morphine (regarding both antinociceptive and psychomotor inhibitory action) with diclofenac, metamizol, diazepam or droperidol at doses also subliminal regarding the thermal antinociceptive effect elevated the noxious heat threshold without major additional effects in the open field test. It is concluded that the increasing-temperature water bath is suitable for studying the thermal antinociceptive effects of morphine and diclofenac as well as the morphine-sparing action of diclofenac, metamizol, droperidol and diazepam. Behavioural testing is recommended when testing analgesics. © 2013 Nordic Pharmacological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. A Full View of Pluto Stunning Crescent

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-10-29

    In September, NASA's New Horizons team released a stunning but incomplete image of Pluto's crescent. Thanks to new processing work by the science team, New Horizons is releasing the entire, breathtaking image of Pluto. This image was made just 15 minutes after New Horizons' closest approach to Pluto on July 14, 2015, as the spacecraft looked back at Pluto toward the sun. The wide-angle perspective of this view shows the deep haze layers of Pluto's atmosphere extending all the way around Pluto, revealing the silhouetted profiles of rugged plateaus on the night (left) side. The shadow of Pluto cast on its atmospheric hazes can also be seen at the uppermost part of the disk. On the sunlit side of Pluto (right), the smooth expanse of the informally named icy plain Sputnik Planum is flanked to the west (above, in this orientation) by rugged mountains up to 11,000 feet (3,500 meters) high, including the informally named Norgay Montes in the foreground and Hillary Montes on the skyline. Below (east) of Sputnik, rougher terrain is cut by apparent glaciers. The backlighting highlights more than a dozen high-altitude layers of haze in Pluto's tenuous atmosphere. The horizontal streaks in the sky beyond Pluto are stars, smeared out by the motion of the camera as it tracked Pluto. The image was taken with New Horizons' Multi-spectral Visible Imaging Camera (MVIC) from a distance of 11,000 miles (18,000 kilometers) to Pluto. The resolution is 700 meters (0.4 miles).

  2. Operational monitoring and forecasting of bathing water quality through exploiting satellite Earth observation and models: The AlgaRisk demonstration service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shutler, J. D.; Warren, M. A.; Miller, P. I.; Barciela, R.; Mahdon, R.; Land, P. E.; Edwards, K.; Wither, A.; Jonas, P.; Murdoch, N.; Roast, S. D.; Clements, O.; Kurekin, A.

    2015-04-01

    Coastal zones and shelf-seas are important for tourism, commercial fishing and aquaculture. As a result the importance of good water quality within these regions to support life is recognised worldwide and a number of international directives for monitoring them now exist. This paper describes the AlgaRisk water quality monitoring demonstration service that was developed and operated for the UK Environment Agency in response to the microbiological monitoring needs within the revised European Union Bathing Waters Directive. The AlgaRisk approach used satellite Earth observation to provide a near-real time monitoring of microbiological water quality and a series of nested operational models (atmospheric and hydrodynamic-ecosystem) provided a forecast capability. For the period of the demonstration service (2008-2013) all monitoring and forecast datasets were processed in near-real time on a daily basis and disseminated through a dedicated web portal, with extracted data automatically emailed to agency staff. Near-real time data processing was achieved using a series of supercomputers and an Open Grid approach. The novel web portal and java-based viewer enabled users to visualise and interrogate current and historical data. The system description, the algorithms employed and example results focussing on a case study of an incidence of the harmful algal bloom Karenia mikimotoi are presented. Recommendations and the potential exploitation of web services for future water quality monitoring services are discussed.

  3. Nothing a Hot Bath Won't Cure: Infection Rates of Amphibian Chytrid Fungus Correlate Negatively with Water Temperature under Natural Field Settings

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Dramatic declines and extinctions of amphibian populations throughout the world have been associated with chytridiomycosis, an infectious disease caused by the pathogenic chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Previous studies indicated that Bd prevalence correlates with cooler temperatures in the field, and laboratory experiments have demonstrated that Bd ceases growth at temperatures above 28°C. Here we investigate how small-scale variations in water temperature correlate with Bd prevalence in the wild. We sampled 221 amphibians, including 201 lowland leopard frogs (Rana [Lithobates] yavapaiensis), from 12 sites in Arizona, USA, and tested them for Bd. Amphibians were encountered in microhabitats that exhibited a wide range of water temperatures (10–50°C), including several geothermal water sources. There was a strong inverse correlation between the water temperature in which lowland leopard frogs were captured and Bd prevalence, even after taking into account the influence of year, season, and host size. In locations where Bd was known to be present, the prevalence of Bd infections dropped from 75–100% in water <15°C, to less than 10% in water >30°C. A strong inverse correlation between Bd infection status and water temperature was also observed within sites. Our findings suggest that microhabitats where water temperatures exceed 30°C provide lowland leopard frogs with significant protection from Bd, which could have important implications for disease dynamics, as well as management applications. There must be quite a few things a hot bath won't cure, but I don't know many of them - Sylvia Plath, “The Bell Jar” (1963). PMID:22205950

  4. Nothing a hot bath won't cure: infection rates of amphibian chytrid fungus correlate negatively with water temperature under natural field settings.

    PubMed

    Forrest, Matthew J; Schlaepfer, Martin A

    2011-01-01

    Dramatic declines and extinctions of amphibian populations throughout the world have been associated with chytridiomycosis, an infectious disease caused by the pathogenic chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Previous studies indicated that Bd prevalence correlates with cooler temperatures in the field, and laboratory experiments have demonstrated that Bd ceases growth at temperatures above 28°C. Here we investigate how small-scale variations in water temperature correlate with Bd prevalence in the wild. We sampled 221 amphibians, including 201 lowland leopard frogs (Rana [Lithobates] yavapaiensis), from 12 sites in Arizona, USA, and tested them for Bd. Amphibians were encountered in microhabitats that exhibited a wide range of water temperatures (10-50°C), including several geothermal water sources. There was a strong inverse correlation between the water temperature in which lowland leopard frogs were captured and Bd prevalence, even after taking into account the influence of year, season, and host size. In locations where Bd was known to be present, the prevalence of Bd infections dropped from 75-100% in water <15°C, to less than 10% in water >30°C. A strong inverse correlation between Bd infection status and water temperature was also observed within sites. Our findings suggest that microhabitats where water temperatures exceed 30°C provide lowland leopard frogs with significant protection from Bd, which could have important implications for disease dynamics, as well as management applications.There must be quite a few things a hot bath won't cure, but I don't know many of them--Sylvia Plath, "The Bell Jar" (1963).

  5. Bioprospecting the thermal waters of the Roman baths: isolation of oleaginous species and analysis of the FAME profile for biodiesel production

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The extensive diversity of microalgae provides an opportunity to undertake bioprospecting for species possessing features suited to commercial scale cultivation. The outdoor cultivation of microalgae is subject to extreme temperature fluctuations; temperature tolerant microalgae would help mitigate this problem. The waters of the Roman Baths, which have a temperature range between 39°C and 46°C, were sampled for microalgae. A total of 3 green algae, 1 diatom and 4 cyanobacterial species were successfully isolated into ‘unialgal’ culture. Four isolates were filamentous, which could prove advantageous for low energy dewatering of cultures using filtration. Lipid content, profiles and growth rates of the isolates were examined at temperatures of 20, 30, 40°C, with and without nitrogen starvation and compared against the oil producing green algal species, Chlorella emersonii. Some isolates synthesized high levels of lipids, however, all were most productive at temperatures lower than those of the Roman Baths. The eukaryotic algae accumulated a range of saturated and polyunsaturated FAMEs and all isolates generally showed higher lipid accumulation under nitrogen deficient conditions (Klebsormidium sp. increasing from 1.9% to 16.0% and Hantzschia sp. from 31.9 to 40.5%). The cyanobacteria typically accumulated a narrower range of FAMEs that were mostly saturated, but were capable of accumulating a larger quantity of lipid as a proportion of dry weight (M. laminosus, 37.8% fully saturated FAMEs). The maximum productivity of all the isolates was not determined in the current work and will require further effort to optimise key variables such as light intensity and media composition. PMID:23369619

  6. Comparison of Membrane Filtration and Multiple-Tube Fermentation by the Colilert and Enterolert Methods for Detection of Waterborne Coliform Bacteria, Escherichia coli, and Enterococci Used in Drinking and Bathing Water Quality Monitoring in Southern Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Eckner, Karl F.

    1998-01-01

    A total of 338 water samples, 261 drinking water samples and 77 bathing water samples, obtained for routine testing were analyzed in duplicate by Swedish standard methods using multiple-tube fermentation or membrane filtration and by the Colilert and/or Enterolert methods. Water samples came from a wide variety of sources in southern Sweden (Skåne). The Colilert method was found to be more sensitive than Swedish standard methods for detecting coliform bacteria and of equal sensitivity for detecting Escherichia coli when all drinking water samples were grouped together. Based on these results, Swedac, the Swedish laboratory accreditation body, approved for the first time in Sweden use of the Colilert method at this laboratory for the analysis of all water sources not falling under public water regulations (A-krav). The coliform detection study of bathing water yielded anomalous results due to confirmation difficulties. E. coli detection in bathing water was similar by both the Colilert and Swedish standard methods as was fecal streptococcus and enterococcus detection by both the Enterolert and Swedish standard methods. PMID:9687478

  7. Bathing in carbon dioxide-enriched water alters protein expression in keratinocytes of skin tissue in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kälsch, Julia; Pott, Leona L.; Takeda, Atsushi; Kumamoto, Hideo; Möllmann, Dorothe; Canbay, Ali; Sitek, Barbara; Baba, Hideo A.

    2017-04-01

    Beneficial effects of balneotherapy using naturally occurring carbonated water (CO2 enriched) have been known since the Middle Ages. Although this therapy is clinically applied for peripheral artery disease and skin disorder, the underlying mechanisms are not fully elucidated.

  8. Kinetic analysis of cooking losses from beef and other animal muscles heated in a water bath--effect of sample dimensions and prior freezing and ageing.

    PubMed

    Oillic, Samuel; Lemoine, Eric; Gros, Jean-Bernard; Kondjoyan, Alain

    2011-07-01

    Cooking loss kinetics were measured on cubes and parallelepipeds of beef Semimembranosus muscle ranging from 1 cm × 1 cm × 1 cm to 7 cm × 7 cm × 28 cm in size. The samples were water bath-heated at three different temperatures, i.e. 50°C, 70°C and 90°C, and for five different times. Temperatures were simulated to help interpret the results. Pre-freezing the sample, difference in ageing time, and in muscle fiber orientation had little influence on cooking losses. At longer treatment times, the effects of sample size disappeared and cooking losses depended only on the temperature. A selection of the tests was repeated on four other beef muscles and on veal, horse and lamb Semimembranosus muscle. Kinetics followed similar curves in all cases but resulted in different final water contents. The shape of the kinetics curves suggests first-order kinetics. Copyright © 2011 The American Meat Science Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in tropical recreational marine waters contaminated with domestic sewage: estimation of bathing-associated disease risks.

    PubMed

    Betancourt, Walter Q; Duarte, Diana C; Vásquez, Rosa C; Gurian, Patrick L

    2014-08-15

    Sewage is a major contributor to pollution problems involving human pathogens in tropical coastal areas. This study investigated the occurrence of intestinal protozoan parasites (Giardia and Cryptosporidium) in tropical recreational marine waters contaminated with sewage. The potential risks of Cryptosporidium and Giardia infection from recreational water exposure were estimated from the levels of viable (oo) cysts (DIC+, DAPI+, PI-) found in near-shore swimming areas using an exponential dose response model. A Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis was performed in order to determine the probability distribution of risks. Microbial indicators of recreational water quality (enterococci, Clostridium perfringens) and genetic markers of sewage pollution (human-specific Bacteroidales marker [HF183] and Clostridium coccoides) were simultaneously evaluated in order to estimate the extent of water quality deterioration associated with human wastes. The study revealed the potential risk of parasite infections via primary contact with tropical marine waters contaminated with sewage; higher risk estimates for Giardia than for Cryptosporidium were found. Mean risks estimated by Monte Carlo were below the U.S. EPA upper bound on recreational risk of 0.036 for cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis for both children and adults. However, 95th percentile estimates for giardiasis for children exceeded the 0.036 level. Environmental surveillance of microbial pathogens is crucial in order to control and eradicate the effects that increasing anthropogenic impacts have on marine ecosystems and human health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Hot water bath treatments assisted by microwave energy to delay postharvest ripening and decay in strawberries (Fragaria × ananassa).

    PubMed

    Villa-Rojas, Rossana; López-Malo, Aurelio; Sosa-Morales, María Elena

    2011-09-01

    A lab-scale approach using microwave (MW)-assisted hot water treatments was developed and tested to assess the potential of this heating method to delay postharvest ripening and decay in strawberries. Strawberries (Fragaria × ananassa) immersed in water were exposed to microwaves at a frequency of 2450 MHz for 3 min at 514 W or 1 min 50 s at 763 W to reach an average temperature of 43.8 ± 0.6 °C at the fruit centre. Another batch was treated in hot water at 45 °C for 15 min, and a final batch was not treated (control). After 9 days of refrigerated storage (3 °C and 90% relative humidity), all heat-treated strawberries showed significant retention of quality parameters such as colour and firmness and significantly lower yeast and mould populations (P < 0.05). Strawberries subjected to MW-assisted hot water treatments showed significantly better retention of lightness compared with conventionally treated berries. A short (1 min 50 s) treatment at 763 W was the best choice to prevent strawberry decay. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Weathering of a carbon nanotube/epoxy nanocomposite under UV light and in water bath: impact on abraded particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlagenhauf, Lukas; Kianfar, Bahareh; Buerki-Thurnherr, Tina; Kuo, Yu-Ying; Wichser, Adrian; Nüesch, Frank; Wick, Peter; Wang, Jing

    2015-11-01

    Weathering processes can influence the surface properties of composites with incorporated nanoparticles. These changes may affect the release behavior of nanoparticles when an abrasion process is applied. Therefore, the influence of two different weathering processes, immersion in water and exposure to UV light, on the properties of abraded particles from a carbon nanotube (CNT)/epoxy nanocomposite was investigated. The investigation included the measurement of the weathering impact on the surface chemistry of the exposed samples, the particle size of abraded particles, the quantity of exposed CNTs in the respirable part of the abraded particles, and the toxicity of abraded particles, measured by in vitro toxicity tests using the THP-1 monocyte-derived macrophages. The results showed that weathering by immersion in water had no influence on the properties of abraded particles. The exposure to UV light caused a degradation of the epoxy on the surface, followed by delamination of an approx. 2.5 μm thick layer. An increased quantity of exposed CNTs in abraded particles was not found; on the contrary, longer UV exposure times decreased the released fraction of CNTs from 0.6% to 0.4%. The toxicity tests revealed that abraded particles from the nanocomposites did not induce additional acute cytotoxic effects compared to particles from the neat epoxy.Weathering processes can influence the surface properties of composites with incorporated nanoparticles. These changes may affect the release behavior of nanoparticles when an abrasion process is applied. Therefore, the influence of two different weathering processes, immersion in water and exposure to UV light, on the properties of abraded particles from a carbon nanotube (CNT)/epoxy nanocomposite was investigated. The investigation included the measurement of the weathering impact on the surface chemistry of the exposed samples, the particle size of abraded particles, the quantity of exposed CNTs in the respirable part of

  12. Weathering of a carbon nanotube/epoxy nanocomposite under UV light and in water bath: impact on abraded particles.

    PubMed

    Schlagenhauf, Lukas; Kianfar, Bahareh; Buerki-Thurnherr, Tina; Kuo, Yu-Ying; Wichser, Adrian; Nüesch, Frank; Wick, Peter; Wang, Jing

    2015-11-28

    Weathering processes can influence the surface properties of composites with incorporated nanoparticles. These changes may affect the release behavior of nanoparticles when an abrasion process is applied. Therefore, the influence of two different weathering processes, immersion in water and exposure to UV light, on the properties of abraded particles from a carbon nanotube (CNT)/epoxy nanocomposite was investigated. The investigation included the measurement of the weathering impact on the surface chemistry of the exposed samples, the particle size of abraded particles, the quantity of exposed CNTs in the respirable part of the abraded particles, and the toxicity of abraded particles, measured by in vitro toxicity tests using the THP-1 monocyte-derived macrophages. The results showed that weathering by immersion in water had no influence on the properties of abraded particles. The exposure to UV light caused a degradation of the epoxy on the surface, followed by delamination of an approx. 2.5 μm thick layer. An increased quantity of exposed CNTs in abraded particles was not found; on the contrary, longer UV exposure times decreased the released fraction of CNTs from 0.6% to 0.4%. The toxicity tests revealed that abraded particles from the nanocomposites did not induce additional acute cytotoxic effects compared to particles from the neat epoxy.

  13. One-Pot Process in Scalable Bath for Water-Dispersed ZnS Nanocrystals with the Tailored Size

    DOE PAGES

    Jung, Hyunsung; Phelps, Tommy J.; Rondinone, Adam J.; ...

    2017-05-01

    Well-dispersed ZnS nanocrystals with tailored size in aqueous solutions were synthesized by employing cysteine-sulfur (Cys-S) complexes with low molecular weight in a scalable anoxic vessel. High yield production of water-dispersed ZnS nanocrystals on a 10-L scale was demonstrated in an aqueous solution process. The average crystallite size of ZnS was controlled by changing the ratio of the cysteine to sulfide in the applied Cys-S complexes. A decrease in the crystallite size of ZnS likely resulted in both the blue shift of peak positions and the relative variation of peak intensities in the photoluminescence properties. In addition, the pH-dependent stability againstmore » aggregation of ZnS nanocrystals was investigated to reduce agglomeration.« less

  14. Interior view of bath 1 showing original cabinet and bath ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of bath 1 showing original cabinet and bath fixtures, facing southeast. - Albrook Air Force Station, Company Officer's Quarters, East side of Canfield Avenue, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  15. Determination of ultraviolet filters in bathing waters by stir bar sorptive-dispersive microextraction coupled to thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Benedé, Juan L; Chisvert, Alberto; Giokas, Dimosthenis L; Salvador, Amparo

    2016-01-15

    In this work, a new approach that combines the advantages of stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) and dispersive solid phase extraction (DSPE), i.e. stir bar sorptive-dispersive microextraction (SBSDµE), is employed as enrichment and clean-up technique for the sensitive determination of eight lipophilic UV filters in water samples. The extraction is accomplished using a neodymium stir bar magnetically coated with oleic acid-coated cobalt ferrite magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) as sorbent material, which are detached and dispersed into the solution at high stirring rate. When stirring is stopped, MNPs are magnetically retrieved onto the stir bar, which is subjected to thermal desorption (TD) to release the analytes into the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) system. The SBSDµE approach allows for lower extraction time than SBSE and easier post-extraction treatment than DSPE, while TD allows for an effective and solvent-free injection of the entire quantity of desorbed analytes into GC-MS, and thus achieving a high sensitivity. The main parameters involved in TD, as well as the extraction time, were evaluated. Under the optimized conditions, the method was successfully validated showing good linearity, limits of detection and quantification in the low ngL(-1) range and good intra- and inter-day repeatability (RSD<12%). This accurate and sensitive analytical method was applied to the determination of trace amounts of UV filters in three bathing water samples (river, sea and swimming pool) with satisfactory relative recovery values (80-116%). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Stunning poultry prior to slaughter and the welfare advantages/challenges of electrical and controlled atmosphere stunning pp. 90-98.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Poultry are stunned immediately prior to slaughter to render them unconscious and incapable of perceiving pain, to facilitate automated processing (up to 180 birds/min), and to minimize the occurrence of the death struggle and thereby minimize carcass damage and down grades. A stunning method for s...

  17. The efficacy of pulsed ultrahigh current for the stunning of cattle prior to slaughter.

    PubMed

    Robins, A; Pleiter, H; Latter, M; Phillips, C J C

    2014-03-01

    We present results from the development of a new system of reversible electrical stunning of cattle. A single-pulse ultra-high current (SPUC) was generated from a capacitance discharge current spike of at least 5000 V at 70 A, for approximately 50 ms. Ninety-seven cattle were stunned in three experimental protocols. With improvements made to the design of the stun box and charge delivered, 38 cattle were either stunned and immediately jugulated or monitored for signs of reappearance of brain stem reflexes at which point a concussion stun was administered. This use of the SPUC charge, provided as a biphasic-pulse waveform, resulted in a high level of stunning efficacy, with unconsciousness lasting for up to 4 min. These results were supported by EEG data taken from a subsequent cohort of stunned cattle. The SPUC stun also apparently eliminated post-stun grand mal seizures that can occur following short-acting conventional electrical stun, with its associated negative consequences on operator safety and meat quality. © 2013.

  18. Stability of hemostatic proteins in canine fresh-frozen plasma thawed with a modified commercial microwave warmer or warm water bath.

    PubMed

    Pashmakova, Medora B; Barr, James W; Bishop, Micah A

    2015-05-01

    To compare stability of hemostatic proteins in canine fresh-frozen plasma (FFP) thawed with a modified commercial microwave warmer (MCM) or warm water bath (37°C; WWB) or at room temperature (22°C). Fresh-frozen plasma obtained from 8 canine donors of a commercial blood bank. A commercial microwave warmer was modified with a thermocouple to measure surface temperature of bags containing plasma. The MCM and a WWB were each used to concurrently thaw a 60-mL bag of plasma obtained from the same donor. Two 3-mL control aliquots of FFP from each donor were thawed to room temperature without use of a heating device. Concentrations of hemostatic proteins, albumin, and D-dimers; prothrombin time (PT); and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) were determined for all samples. Significant decreases in concentrations of factors II, IX, X, XI, fibrinogen, von Willebrand factor, antithrombin, protein C, and albumin and significant increases in PT and aPTT were detected for plasma thawed with the MCM, compared with results for samples thawed with the WWB. Concentrations of factors VII, VIII, and XII were not significantly different between plasma thawed with the MCM and WWB. Concentrations of D-dimers were above the reference range for all thawed samples regardless of thawing method. No significant differences in factor concentrations were detected between control and WWB-thawed samples. Significant differences in hemostatic protein concentrations and coagulation times were detected for plasma thawed with an MCM but not between control and WWB-thawed samples. Clinical importance of these changes should be investigated.

  19. [Pseudomonas folliculitis after spa bath exposure].

    PubMed

    Uldall Pallesen, Kristine Appel; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Mørtz, Charlotte Gotthard

    2012-06-25

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a rare cause of folliculitis. Pseudomonas folliculitis can develop after contact with contaminated water from swimming pools, hot tubs and spa baths. Systemic therapy may be indicated in patients with widespread lesions, systemic symptoms or in immunosuppressed patients. We describe a 23-year-old healthy woman who developed a pustular rash and general malaise after using a spa bath contaminated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Bacterial culture from a pustule confirmed Pseudomonas folliculitis and the patient was treated with ciprofloxacin with rapid good effect.

  20. Physiological and subjective responses to standing showers, sitting showers, and sink baths.

    PubMed

    Ohnaka, T; Tochihara, Y; Kubo, M; Yamaguchi, C

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate physiological and subjective responses during and after bathing in three different bathing methods. Eight healthy males bathed for 10 minutes, and then rested for 30 minutes. Three kinds of bathing methods - standing shower, sitting shower and sink bath - were adopted in this experiment. Water temperature and flow volume of the showers were kept at 41 degrees C and 11 liter/min, while water temperature of the bath was kept at 40 degrees C. Rectal temperature, skin temperatures and heart rate of the subjects were measured continuously during bathing and the subsequent 30-minute rest. Blood pressure and votes for thermal sensations were recorded before bathing, after 5 and 10 minutes of bathing, and 5, 10, 20 and 30 minutes after bathing. The following results were obtained. 1) Although rectal temperature rose, on the average, by 0.15 degrees C in all bathing methods, there were no significant differences among the three bathing methods at any time in the experiment. 2) Mean skin temperature (Tsk) during the sink bath was significantly higher than that in the standing or sitting shower. After bathing, Tsk of sink bath was slightly higher than those of the remaining conditions, but did not significantly differ among the bathing methods. 3) Heart rate increased gradually during all the bathing methods, however, only HR in the standing shower exceeded 100 beats/min which was significantly higher than those of the two remaining bathing methods. 4) Blood pressure (BP) decreased rapidly during the sink bath in contrast to an increased BP in the sitting and standing showers.

  1. Haemodynamic and energetic properties of stunned myocardium in rabbit hearts.

    PubMed Central

    Schipke, J. D.; Korbmacher, B.; Dorszewski, A.; Selcan, G.; Sunderdiek, U.; Arnold, G.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To amplify the description of myocardial stunning. DESIGN--Control versus 30 min after a 20 min no flow ischaemia. EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS--15 isolated rabbit hearts perfused with erythrocyte suspension. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Left ventricular systolic function in terms of aortic flow, peak systolic pressure (LVPmax), dP/dtmax, and the end systolic pressure-volume relation (ESPVR); early relaxation from dP/dtmin and rate of left ventricular pressure decay (tau). Passive properties: ventricular and myocardial stiffness. Coronary resistance from coronary blood flow and perfusion pressure. Total myocardial oxygen consumption (MVo2tot). Total mechanical energy via pressure-volume area (PVA). Contractile efficiency (Econ) and MVo2 of the unloaded contracting heart (MVo2unl). External mechanical efficiency (Eext) from stroke work and MVo2tot. RESULTS--Systolic variables in stunned myocardium were significantly decreased (mean (SD)): aortic flow: 38 (13) v 9 (11) ml/min; LVPmax: 112 (19) v 74 (18) mm Hg; dP/dtmax: 1475 (400) v 1075 (275) mm Hg/s. ESPVR was not significantly decreased, at 138 (73) v 125 (58) mm Hg/ml, but the volume axis intercept was shifted rightward: 0.30 (0.37) v 0.65 (0.25) ml. Likewise, early relaxation was impaired: dP/dtmin (-1275 (250) v -975 (250) mm Hg/s) and tau (37 (7) v 46 (10) ms). LVPed was significantly decreased at 19 (12) v 12 (7) mm Hg, and both the ventricular (end diastolic pressure-volume relation) and the myocardial stiffness (constant k) were increased by 75% and 31%, respectively. Coronary resistance increased non-significantly from 0.83 (0.31) to 1.04 (0.41) mm Hg/(ml/min/100 g). Decreases in PVA (570 (280) v 270 (200) mm Hg.ml/100 g), MVo2tot (40 (9) v 34 (8) microliters/beat/100 g), and MVo2unl (26 (9) v 22 (6) microliters/beat/100 g) did not reach significance, in contrast to significant decreases in Econ (31 (18) v 14 (7)%) and Eext (0.75 (0.29) v 0.18 (0.25) arbitrary units). CONCLUSIONS--Ventricular systolic

  2. Pseudomonas folliculitis in Arabian baths.

    PubMed

    Molina-Leyva, Alejandro; Ruiz-Ruigomez, Maria

    2013-07-14

    A 35-year-old man presented with a painful cutaneous skin eruption that was localized on the upper trunk. He stated that the previous weekend he had attended an Arabian bath. The physical examination revealed multiple hair follicle-centered papulopustules surrounded by an erythematous halo. A clinical diagnosis of pseudomonas folliculitis was made and treatment was prescribed. Afterwards Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated from a pustule culture. Pseudomonas folliculitis is a bacterial infection of the hair follicles. The most common reservoirs include facilities with hot water and complex piping systems that are difficult to clean, such as hot tubs and bathtubs. Despite adequate or high chlorine levels, Pseudomonas aeruginosa can grow within a biofilm.

  3. Stunning Image of Rosetta above Mars taken by the Philae Lander Camera

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-02-05

    Stunning image taken by the CIVA imaging instrument on Rosetta Philae lander just 4 minutes before closest approach at a distance of some 1000 km from Mars on Feb. 25, 2007. A portion of the spacecraft and one of its solar arrays are visible in nice detail. Beneath, the Mawrth Vallis region is visible on the planet's disk. Mawrth Vallis is particularly relevant as it is one of the areas on the Martian surface where the OMEGA instrument on board ESA's Mars Express detected the presence of hydrated clay minerals -- a sign that water may have flown abundantly on that region in the very early history of Mars. Id 217487 http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA18154

  4. The Effects of Low Atmosphere Stunning and Deboning Time on Broiler Breast Meat Quality

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A randomized complete block design with 3 replications (n = 432, 72 broilers per treatment) was used to evaluate the effects of electrical (ES) and vacuum stunning (VS) on broiler breast meat quality. Electrical stunning was performed by applying 11.5 V, <0.05 mA, AC to DC current for 3 s for each b...

  5. A new humane method of stunning broilers using low atmospheric pressure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This research project evaluated an alternative method of controlled atmosphere stunning of commercial broilers to induce anoxia utilizing a vacuum pump to reduce the oxygen tension, low atmospheric pressure stun (LAPS). A custom built 2 cage-module system (holding a total of 600 broilers each) with...

  6. 9 CFR 313.30 - Electrical; stunning or slaughtering with electric current.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Electrical; stunning or slaughtering with electric current. 313.30 Section 313.30 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... Electrical; stunning or slaughtering with electric current. The slaughtering of swine, sheep, calves, cattle...

  7. 9 CFR 313.30 - Electrical; stunning or slaughtering with electric current.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Electrical; stunning or slaughtering with electric current. 313.30 Section 313.30 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... Electrical; stunning or slaughtering with electric current. The slaughtering of swine, sheep, calves, cattle...

  8. 9 CFR 313.30 - Electrical; stunning or slaughtering with electric current.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Electrical; stunning or slaughtering with electric current. 313.30 Section 313.30 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... Electrical; stunning or slaughtering with electric current. The slaughtering of swine, sheep, calves, cattle...

  9. Bleeding Efficiency, Microbiological Quality and Oxidative Stability of Meat from Goats Subjected to Slaughter without Stunning in Comparison with Different Methods of Pre-Slaughter Electrical Stunning

    PubMed Central

    Sabow, Azad Behnan; Zulkifli, Idrus; Goh, Yong Meng; Ab Kadir, Mohd Zainal Abidin; Kaka, Ubedullah; Imlan, Jurhamid Columbres; Abubakar, Ahmed Abubakar; Adeyemi, Kazeem Dauda; Sazili, Awis Qurni

    2016-01-01

    The influence of pre-slaughter electrical stunning techniques and slaughter without stunning on bleeding efficiency and shelf life of chevon during a 14 d postmortem aging were assessed. Thirty two Boer crossbred bucks were randomly assigned to four slaughtering techniques viz slaughter without stunning (SWS), low frequency head-only electrical stunning (LFHO; 1 A for 3 s at a frequency of 50 Hz), low frequency head-to-back electrical stunning (LFHB; 1 A for 3 s at a frequency of 50 Hz) and high frequency head-to-back electrical stunning (HFHB; 1 A for 3 s at a frequency of 850 Hz). The SWS, LFHO and HFHB goats had higher (p<0.05) blood loss and lower residual hemoglobin in muscle compared to LFHB. The LFHB meat had higher (p<0.05) TBARS value than other treatments on d 7 and 14 d postmortem. Slaughtering methods had no effect on protein oxidation. Higher bacterial counts were observed in LFHB meat compared to those from SWS, LFHO and HFHB after 3 d postmortem. Results indicate that the low bleed-out in LFHB lowered the lipid oxidative stability and microbiological quality of chevon during aging. PMID:27035716

  10. Bleeding Efficiency, Microbiological Quality and Oxidative Stability of Meat from Goats Subjected to Slaughter without Stunning in Comparison with Different Methods of Pre-Slaughter Electrical Stunning.

    PubMed

    Sabow, Azad Behnan; Zulkifli, Idrus; Goh, Yong Meng; Ab Kadir, Mohd Zainal Abidin; Kaka, Ubedullah; Imlan, Jurhamid Columbres; Abubakar, Ahmed Abubakar; Adeyemi, Kazeem Dauda; Sazili, Awis Qurni

    2016-01-01

    The influence of pre-slaughter electrical stunning techniques and slaughter without stunning on bleeding efficiency and shelf life of chevon during a 14 d postmortem aging were assessed. Thirty two Boer crossbred bucks were randomly assigned to four slaughtering techniques viz slaughter without stunning (SWS), low frequency head-only electrical stunning (LFHO; 1 A for 3 s at a frequency of 50 Hz), low frequency head-to-back electrical stunning (LFHB; 1 A for 3 s at a frequency of 50 Hz) and high frequency head-to-back electrical stunning (HFHB; 1 A for 3 s at a frequency of 850 Hz). The SWS, LFHO and HFHB goats had higher (p<0.05) blood loss and lower residual hemoglobin in muscle compared to LFHB. The LFHB meat had higher (p<0.05) TBARS value than other treatments on d 7 and 14 d postmortem. Slaughtering methods had no effect on protein oxidation. Higher bacterial counts were observed in LFHB meat compared to those from SWS, LFHO and HFHB after 3 d postmortem. Results indicate that the low bleed-out in LFHB lowered the lipid oxidative stability and microbiological quality of chevon during aging.

  11. Assessment of the effectiveness of head only and back-of-the-head electrical stunning of chickens

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, T. J.; Taylor, A. H.; Gregory, N. G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The study assesses the effectiveness of reversible head-only and back-of-the-head electrical stunning of chickens using 130–950 mA per bird at 50 Hz AC.Three trials were conducted to compare both stunning systems: (a) behavioural assessment of return of consciousness, (b) insensibility to thermal pain, and (c) assessment of return of brain activity with visually evoked potentials (VEPs).Assessment of behaviour suggested that the period of unconsciousness following head-only electrical stunning was shorter in hens compared to broilers.Stunning across the back-of-the-head delayed the time to return of brainstem function compared to stunning with standard head-only electrodes. Additionally, back-of-the-head stunning produced a more prolonged period of electroanalgesia compared to head-only.Based on examination of return of brain function with VEPs in hens, back-of-the-head stunning produced a shorter-lasting stun than standard head-only. However, even for standard head-only, the stun was notably shorter than previously reported. In some birds, brain function had returned within 9 s after the end of stunning.The results suggest that some birds may recover consciousness prior to or during the neck cut. Based on these findings, back-of-the-head stunning and standard head-only stunning of hens should not be recommended without further development. PMID:27023411

  12. Bubble baths: just splashing around?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Wesley; Speirs, Nathan; Sharker, Saberul Islam; Hurd, Randy; Williams, Bj; Truscott, Tadd

    2016-11-01

    Soap Bubbles on the water surface would seem to be an intuitive means for splash suppression, but their presence appears to be a double edged sword. We present on the water entry of hydrophilic spheres where the liquid surface is augmented by the presence of a bubble layer, similar to a bubble bath. While the presence of a bubble layer can diminish splashing upon impact at low Weber numbers, it also induces cavity formation at speeds below the critical velocity. The formation of a cavity generally results in larger Worthington jets and thus, larger amounts of ejected liquid. Bubble layers induce cavity formation by wetting the sphere prior to liquid impact, causing them to form cavities similar to those created by hydrophobic spheres. Droplets present on a pre-wetted sphere disrupt the flow of the advancing liquid during entry, pushing it away from the impacting body to form an entrained air cavity. This phenomena was noted by Worthington with pre-wetted stone marbles, and suggests that the application of a bubble layer is generally ineffective as a means of splash suppression.

  13. Halal stunning and slaughter: Criteria for the assessment of dead animals.

    PubMed

    Fuseini, Awal; Knowles, Toby G; Hadley, Phil J; Wotton, Steve B

    2016-09-01

    The debate surrounding the acceptability of stunning for Halal slaughter is one that is likely to linger. Compared to a couple of decades or so ago, one may argue that pre-slaughter stunning is becoming a popular practice during Halal slaughter due to the increasing number of Muslim-majority countries who continue to issue religious rulings (Fatwa) to approve the practice. Concerns have often, however been raised about the likelihood of some animals dying as a result of stunning and whether there are mechanisms in place to identify and remove dead animals stunned with irreversible techniques before their necks are cut. This paper reviews literature about what makes meat Halal, considers the arguments put forward by proponents and opponents of pre-slaughter stunning for Halal production and examines the criteria used by Halal Certification Bodies to identify and reject animals that may die as a result of irreversible stunning and considers the specific risks of waterbath stunning (for poultry) from a Halal viewpoint. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Role of troponin I proteolysis in the pathogenesis of stunned myocardium.

    PubMed

    Gao, W D; Atar, D; Liu, Y; Perez, N G; Murphy, A M; Marban, E

    1997-03-01

    Myocardial stunning is characterized by decreased myofilament Ca2+ responsiveness. To investigate the molecular basis of stunned myocardium, we performed PAGE and Western immunoblot analysis of the contractile proteins. Isolated rat hearts were retrogradely perfused at 37 degrees C for either 50 minutes (control group) or for 10 minutes, followed by 20-minute global ischemia and 20-minute reperfusion (stunned group), or for 20-minute ischemia without reflow. Another group consisted of hearts subjected to 20-minute ischemia in which stunning was mitigated by 10-minute reperfusion with low Ca2+/low pH solution. Myocardial tissue samples subjected to PAGE revealed no obvious differences among groups. Western immunoblots for actin, tropomyosin, troponin C, troponin T, myosin light chain-1, and myosin light chain-2 showed highly selective recognition of the appropriate full-length molecular weight bands in all groups. Troponin I (TnI) Western blots revealed an additional band (approximately 26 kD, compared with 32 kD for the full-length protein) in stunned myocardial samples only. In parallel experiments, skinned trabeculae were treated with calpain I for 20 minutes; Western blots showed a TnI degradation pattern similar to that observed in stunned myocardium. Such TnI degradation was prevented by calpastatin, a naturally occurring calpain inhibitor. The results show that (1) TnI is partially and selectively degraded in stunned myocardium; (2) this degradation could be prevented by low Ca2+/low pH reperfusion, which also prevented the contractile dysfunction of stunning; and (3) calpain I could similarly degrade TnI, supporting the idea that Ca(2+)-dependent myofilament proteolysis underlies myocardial stunning.

  15. Simulating Small-Scale Experiments of In-Tunnel Airblast Using STUN and ALE3D

    SciTech Connect

    Neuscamman, Stephanie; Glenn, Lewis; Schebler, Gregory

    2011-09-12

    This report details continuing validation efforts for the Sphere and Tunnel (STUN) and ALE3D codes. STUN has been validated previously for blast propagation through tunnels using several sets of experimental data with varying charge sizes and tunnel configurations, including the MARVEL nuclear driven shock tube experiment (Glenn, 2001). The DHS-funded STUNTool version is compared to experimental data and the LLNL ALE3D hydrocode. In this particular study, we compare the performance of the STUN and ALE3D codes in modeling an in-tunnel airblast to experimental results obtained by Lunderman and Ohrt in a series of small-scale high explosive experiments (1997).

  16. [Turpentine white emulsion baths in the rehabilation in patients with sexual dysfunctions].

    PubMed

    Karpukhin, I V; Li, A A; Gusev, M E

    2000-01-01

    100 patients with sexual dysfunction (SD) and 20 SD patients took turpentine white emulsion baths and sodium chloride baths, respectively. The turpentine baths were given with step-by-step rise in turpentine concentration from 20 to 50 ml per 200 l of water, temperature 36-37 degrees C, duration of the procedure 10-15 min. The course consisted of 10-12 procedures which were conducted daily or each other day. The turpentine baths were more effective than sodium chloride baths (85 vs 50%, respectively).

  17. Bathing a patient in bed

    MedlinePlus

    ... ed. American National Red Cross; 2013:chap 13. Smith SF, Duell DJ, Martin BC, Gonzalez L, Aebersold M. Bathing, bedmaking, and maintaining skin integrity. In: Smith SF, Duell DJ, Martin BC, Gonzalez L, Aebersold ...

  18. Effect of uridine derivatives on myocardial stunning during postischemic reperfusion of rat heart.

    PubMed

    Sapronov, N S; Eliseev, V V; Rodionova, O M

    2000-10-01

    Uridine and uridine-5'-monophosphate prevent myocardial stunning during postischemic reperfusion of isolated rat heart. Uridine-5'-diphosphate does not prevent postischemic myocardial dysfunction, while uridine-5'-triphosphate aggravates it.

  19. The impact of stunning methods on stress conditions and quality of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) fillets stored at 4°C during 72h postmortem.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Longteng; Li, Qian; Lyu, Jian; Kong, Chunli; Song, Sijia; Luo, Yongkang

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate different stunning methods [percussion (T1), immersion in ice/water slurry (T2), and gill cut (T3)] on quality and stress conditions of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) fillets stored at 4°C in 72h postmortem. Rigor index (RI%), behavioral analysis, levels of lactic acid and muscle glycogen were measured for stress level evaluation. Meanwhile, sensory assessment, texture properties, cooking loss, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) related compounds, adenosine monophosphate deaminase (ADA) activity, and acid phosphatase (ACP) activity were analyzed. The least stress condition, significantly (P<0.05) higher initial glycogen content was observed in T1. Ice/water stunning reduced the rate of ATP degradation, reflected in the lowest K value during 72h. Aversive behaviors, significantly (P<0.05) higher cooking loss, hypoxanthine riboside (HxR) content, and lower sensory score were observed in T3. The results indicated that gill cut in aquatic processing industry should be avoided for inferior quality and aversive reactions during stunning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A note comparing the welfare of Zebu cattle following three stunning-slaughter methods.

    PubMed

    Neves, J E G; Paranhos da Costa, M J R; Roça, R O; Faucitano, L; Gregory, N G

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess welfare of cattle during bleeding after slaughter with or without stunning. A total of 434 bulls were distributed across three slaughter treatments: penetrating captive bolt stunning followed by chest sticking (PCB, N=279), non-penetrating captive bolt stunning followed by halal slaughter (NPCB, N=67) and shechita without previous stunning (SHE, N=88). Four measures of possible consciousness and return to sensibility were recorded 20 and 60 s after bleeding as welfare indicators. They were the frequencies of responses to nostril stimulation and tongue pinch, spontaneous eye blinking, and rhythmic breathing. All responses were absent in stunned cattle at both 20 and 60 s, and in SHE cattle 7, 4, 10, and 100% of the animals presented these responses, respectively. Repeat shots were required for 46% NPCB and 2% PCB (P<0.05). The application of religious slaughter without previous stunning may result in greater risk of cattle suffering, pain and distress at slaughter. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Verification of the technical parameters of head-only electrical stunning of pigs under commercial conditions.

    PubMed

    Végh, Akos; Abonyi-Tóth, Zsolt; Rafai, Pál

    2010-06-01

    The European Food Safety Authority recommends a minimum current of 1.3 Amps for the electrical head-only stunning of pigs. However, it is stated as well that 'the technical reference data for head-only electrical stunning of pigs such as 1.3 Amps are either rather old or worked out under experimental laboratory conditions'. This study was carried out to verify the electrical parameters of pig stunning under commercial conditions. Altogether 145 fattener pigs (body weight range: 30-150 kg, median 109 kg) were tested at four different private slaughterhouses in Hungary where head-only electrical stunners were used with different constant voltage settings. In each case the following data were recorded: individual liveweight (kg), current (A) and voltage (V) (measured with an individually developed analogue device placed in the circuit), current duration (s), effectiveness of stunning, grading of carcass. Correlations between these parameters and effectiveness were examined. Besides that, any correlation between the test parameters and impedance of head was examined. In 128 out of the 145 cases the stunning was effective (88.3%). Effectiveness was significantly related to current but not to other parameters such as voltage and duration of load. Impedance of head was not correlated with the size of the animal and the meat grading scores. Generally, it was concluded that the use of a single electrical parameter (e.g. a minimum current of 1.3 A) as a prerequisite of good stunning is not ideal.

  2. Testing the odontocete acoustic prey debilitation hypothesis: no stunning results.

    PubMed

    Benoit-Bird, Kelly J; Au, Whitlow W L; Kastelein, Ronald

    2006-08-01

    The hypothesis that sounds produced by odontocetes can debilitate fish was examined. The effects of simulated odontocete pulsed signals on three species of fish commonly preyed on by odontocetes were examined, exposing three individuals of each species as well as groups of four fish to a high-frequency click of a bottlenose dolphin [peak frequency (PF) 120 kHz, 213-dB peak-to-peak exposure level (EL)], a midfrequency click modeled after a killer whale's signal (PF 55 kHz, 208-dB EL), and a low-frequency click (PF 18 kHz, 193-dB EL). Fish were held in a 50-cm diameter net enclosure immediately in front of a transducer where their swimming behavior, orientation, and balance were observed with two video cameras. Clicks were presented at constant rates and in graded sweeps simulating a foraging dolphin's "terminal buzz." No measurable change in behavior was observed in any of the fish for any signal type or pulse modulation rate, despite the fact that clicks were at or near the maximum source levels recorded for odontocetes. Based on the results, the hypothesis that acoustic signals of odontocetes alone can disorient or "stun" prey cannot be supported.

  3. Effects of thermal stimulation, applied to the hindpaw via a hot water bath, upon ovarian blood flow in anesthetized nonpregnant rats.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Sae; Hotta, Harumi; Hanada, Tomoko; Okuno, Yuka; Aikawa, Yoshihiro

    2007-08-01

    The effects of thermal stimulation, applied to the hindpaw via a hot bath set to either 40 degrees C (non-noxious) or 49 degrees C (noxious), upon ovarian blood flow were examined in nonpregnant anesthetized rats. Ovarian blood flow was measured using a laser Doppler flowmeter. Blood pressure was markedly increased following 49 degrees C stimulation. Ovarian blood flow, however, showed no obvious change during stimulation, although a small increase was observed after stimulation. Ovarian blood flow and blood pressure responses to 49 degrees C stimulation were abolished after hindlimb somatic nerves proximal to the stimuli were cut. Heat stimulation (49 degrees C) resulted in remarkable increases in both ovarian blood flow and blood pressure in rats in which the sympathetic nerves supplying the ovary were cut but the hindlimb somatic nerves remained intact. The efferent activity of the ovarian plexus nerve was increased during stimulation at 49 degrees C. Stimulation at 40 degrees C had no effect upon ovarian blood flow, blood pressure or ovarian plexus nerve activity. Electrical stimulation of the distal part of the severed ovarian plexus nerve resulted in a decrease in both the diameter of ovarian arterioles, observed using a digital video microscope, and ovarian blood flow.The present results demonstrate that noxious heat, but not non-noxious warm, stimulation of the hindpaw skin in anesthetized rats influences ovarian blood flow in a manner that is attributed to reflex responses in ovarian sympathetic nerve activity and blood pressure.

  4. BATHING BEACH MONITORING PROTOCOLS/COMMUNICATING SWIMMING ACTIVITY RISK TO THE PUBLIC

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommended monitoring practices for bathing beach water quality were suggested in 1968, as a part of the fecal coliform guideline developed by the Federal Water Pollution Control Administration. The guideline stated that five water ...

  5. A mechanochemical approach to get stunningly uniform particles of magnesium-aluminum-layered double hydroxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoqing; Qi, Fenglin; Li, Shuping; Wei, Shaohua; Zhou, Jiahong

    2012-10-01

    A mechanochemical approach is developed in preparing a series of magnesium-aluminum-layered double hydroxides (Mg-Al-LDHs). This approach includes a mechanochemical process which involved manual grinding of solid salts in an agate mortar and afterwards peptization process. In order to verify the LDHs structure synthesized in the grinding process, X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) photos and thermogravimetry/differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC) property of the product without peptization were characterized and the results show that amorphous particles with low crystallinity and poor thermal stability are obtained, and the effect of peptization is to improve the properties, more accurately, regular particles with high crystallinity and good thermal stability can be gained after peptization. Furthermore, the fundamental experimental parameters including grinding time, the molar ratio of Mg to Al element (defined as R value) and the water content were systematically examined in order to control the size and morphologies of LDHs particles, regular hexagonal particles or the spherical nanostructures can be efficiently obtained and the particle sizes were controlled in the range of 52-130 nm by carefully adjusting these parameters. At last, stunningly uniform Mg-Al-LDHs particles can be synthesized under proper R values, suitable grinding time and high degree of supersaturation.

  6. Solving return-to-sensibility problems after electrical stunning in commercial pork slaughter plants.

    PubMed

    Grandin, T

    2001-09-01

    To determine causes and solutions for return-to-sensibility problems after electrical stunning in pigs. Case studies. 6 federally inspected pork slaughter plants. 100 to 200 pigs were scored in each plant for stunner positioning, squealing when stunner was applied, and signs of insensibility. All pigs were held in a V-shaped restrainer conveyor and stunned with a manually applied head-to-body electrical stunner. Percentage of pigs that had blinking after stunning ranged from 0.5 to 7. None of the pigs had a righting reflex or kicked in response to stimuli. All signs of possible return to sensibility disappeared before bleeding pigs reached the scalding tub. Spontaneous eye blinking was eliminated by improving bleeding practices to increase blood flow, ergonomically redesigning the stunner operator's work station to make correct placement of the stunner easier, redesigning the head electrode to facilitate correct placement, reducing line speed from 1,200 to 1,080 head/h, correcting problems with poor initial contact of the stunner, and increasing amperage of a stunner that was set too low for sows. In 1 plant, a fatigued operator was the cause of stunner placement mistakes that resulted in signs of returning to sensibility. Problems with electrical stunning can be easily corrected, but effective stunning requires monitoring of correct electrode placement, amperage, and bleeding procedures. Observation of spontaneous natural eye blinking without touching the eye is recommended for use under field conditions, because it is less prone to misinterpretation than are other methods.

  7. A comparison of blood loss during the Halal slaughter of lambs following Traditional Religious Slaughter without stunning, Electric Head-Only Stunning and Post-Cut Electric Head-Only Stunning.

    PubMed

    Khalid, Rizvan; Knowles, Toby G; Wotton, Steve B

    2015-12-01

    Blood lost at exsanguination during the Halal slaughter of lambs was compared between the slaughter methods of Traditional Religious Slaughter without stunning (TRS), Electric Head-Only Stunning (EHOS) and Post-Cut Electric Head-Only Stunning (PCEHOS). Two protocols were examined, Experimental (80 lambs) and Commercial (360 lambs), assessing varying periods of animal orientation during the 4 min bleeding process (upright orientation before vertical hanging). Live-weight, blood weight (Experimental only), carcass weights and by-product weights were recorded. The Experimental protocol highlighted an increase in blood loss at 60s in EHOS and PCEHOS compared to TRS (P<0.001) but by 90 s there was no significant difference. A post-slaughter change in animal orientation from an upright to a vertical hanging position aided the amount of blood loss. The bleeding of lambs is largely completed by 2 min. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) in final blood loss between treatments. This research was undertaken to inform discussion on the merits of different slaughter methods compatible with Halal requirements. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Bleeding Efficiency and Meat Oxidative Stability and Microbiological Quality of New Zealand White Rabbits Subjected to Halal Slaughter without Stunning and Gas Stun-killing

    PubMed Central

    Nakyinsige, K.; Fatimah, A. B.; Aghwan, Z. A.; Zulkifli, I.; Goh, Y. M.; Sazili, A. Q.

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to compare the effect of halal slaughter without stunning and gas stun killing followed by bleeding on residual blood content and storage stability of rabbit meat. Eighty male New Zealand white rabbits were divided into two groups of 40 animals each and subjected to either halal slaughter without stunning (HS) or gas stun-kill (GK). The volume of blood lost during exsanguination was measured. Residual blood was further quantified by determination of haemoglobin content in Longissimus lumborum (LL) muscle. Storage stability of the meat was evaluated by microbiological analysis and measuring lipid oxidation in terms of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). HS resulted in significantly higher blood loss than GK. HS had significantly lower residual haemoglobin in LL muscle compared to GK. Slaughter method had no effect on rabbit meat lipid oxidation at 0, 1, and 3 d postmortem. However, at 5 and 8 days of storage at 4°C, significant differences (p<0.05) were found, with meat from the GK group exhibiting significantly higher levels of MDA than that from HS. At day 3, greater growth of Pseudomonas aeroginosa and E. coli were observed in the GK group (p<0.05) with B. thermosphacta and total aerobic counts remained unaffected by slaughter method. At days 5 and 7 postmortem, bacterial counts for all tested microbes were affected by slaughter method, with GK exhibiting significantly higher growth than HS. It can be concluded that slaughter method can affect keeping quality of rabbit meat, and HS may be a favourable option compared to GK due to high bleed out. PMID:25049968

  9. Bleeding Efficiency and Meat Oxidative Stability and Microbiological Quality of New Zealand White Rabbits Subjected to Halal Slaughter without Stunning and Gas Stun-killing.

    PubMed

    Nakyinsige, K; Fatimah, A B; Aghwan, Z A; Zulkifli, I; Goh, Y M; Sazili, A Q

    2014-03-01

    A study was conducted to compare the effect of halal slaughter without stunning and gas stun killing followed by bleeding on residual blood content and storage stability of rabbit meat. Eighty male New Zealand white rabbits were divided into two groups of 40 animals each and subjected to either halal slaughter without stunning (HS) or gas stun-kill (GK). The volume of blood lost during exsanguination was measured. Residual blood was further quantified by determination of haemoglobin content in Longissimus lumborum (LL) muscle. Storage stability of the meat was evaluated by microbiological analysis and measuring lipid oxidation in terms of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). HS resulted in significantly higher blood loss than GK. HS had significantly lower residual haemoglobin in LL muscle compared to GK. Slaughter method had no effect on rabbit meat lipid oxidation at 0, 1, and 3 d postmortem. However, at 5 and 8 days of storage at 4°C, significant differences (p<0.05) were found, with meat from the GK group exhibiting significantly higher levels of MDA than that from HS. At day 3, greater growth of Pseudomonas aeroginosa and E. coli were observed in the GK group (p<0.05) with B. thermosphacta and total aerobic counts remained unaffected by slaughter method. At days 5 and 7 postmortem, bacterial counts for all tested microbes were affected by slaughter method, with GK exhibiting significantly higher growth than HS. It can be concluded that slaughter method can affect keeping quality of rabbit meat, and HS may be a favourable option compared to GK due to high bleed out.

  10. The effects of electrical stunning voltage on meat quality, plasma parameters, and protein solubility of broiler breast meat.

    PubMed

    Huang, J C; Yang, J; Huang, M; Chen, K J; Xu, X L; Zhou, G H

    2017-03-01

    This study was designed to compare the effects of different stunning voltages of pulsed direct current on meat quality of broilers. For this purpose, plasma parameters, blood loss, carcass damage, and meat water holding capacity, color, shear force, pH, and protein solubility were analyzed. A total of 400 broilers were divided into 5 treatment groups and stunned with 5, 15, 25, 35, and 45 V at 750 Hz and 10 s, respectively. Blood samples were collected immediately after cutting the neck. Pectoralis major muscles were removed from the carcass after chilling and placed on ice. Breast muscle pH and meat color were determined at both 2 and 24 h postmortem. Dripping loss, cooking loss, pressing loss, and cooked breast meat shear values were determined after 24 h postmortem. The 5 V treatment significantly increased (P < 0.05) blood plasma corticosterone and lactate concentration compared with the other groups. The carcass damage of wings, Pectoralis major, and Pectoralis minor was significant in the 5, 35, and 45 V groups. The pH of 2 h postmortem in the 5 and 45 V groups was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than in the 15 and 25 V groups. In the 5 and 45 V groups, the protein solubility and shear force value were significantly lower (P < 0.05) and dripping loss was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than the other groups. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  11. Metabolic and respiratory status of cold-stunned Kemp's ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys kempii).

    PubMed

    Innis, Charles J; Tlusty, Michael; Merigo, Constance; Weber, E Scott

    2007-08-01

    "Cold-stunning" of sea turtles has been reported as a naturally occurring stressor for many years; however, the physiologic status of cold-stunned turtles has only been partially described. This study investigated initial and convalescent venous blood gas, acid-base, and critical plasma biochemical data for 26 naturally cold-stunned Kemp's ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys kempii) from Cape Cod, MA, USA. Samples were analyzed for pH, pCO(2), pO(2), bicarbonate, plasma osmolality, sodium, potassium, chloride, ionized calcium, ionized magnesium, glucose, lactate, and blood urea nitrogen using a clinical point-of-care analyzer. Data were corrected for the patient's body temperature using both species-specific and more general correction methods. In general, venous blood gas, acid-base, and plasma biochemical data obtained for surviving cold-stunned Kemp's ridley sea turtles were consistent with previously documented data for sea turtles exposed to a wide range of temperatures and physiologic stressors. Data indicated that turtles were initially affected by metabolic and respiratory acidosis. Initial pH-corrected ionized calcium concentrations were lower than convalescent concentrations, and initial pH-corrected ionized magnesium concentrations were higher than convalescent concentrations.

  12. Pressure-maximal coronary flow relationship in regionally stunned porcine myocardium.

    PubMed

    Duncker, D J; McFalls, E O; Krams, R; Verdouw, P D

    1992-06-01

    In view of variable results on maximal coronary blood flow in stunned myocardium, we studied the pressure-maximal coronary flow (PMCF) relationship in stunned myocardium in 12 anesthetized swine by using intracoronary adenosine (20 micrograms/kg). Subendocardial systolic segment shortening (SS) measured with sonomicrometry was 19 +/- 5% (means +/- SD) at baseline and 7 +/- 6% (P less than 0.01) at 30 min of reperfusion after 15 min of low-flow ischemia, at which time postsystolic shortening was present. Myocardial stunning increased the slope of the PMCF regression line (alpha PMCF) from 3.34 +/- 1.03 to 3.89 +/- 1.33 ml.min-1.mmHg-1 (P less than 0.01). Atrial pacing at 40 beats/min above spontaneous heart rate (n = 6) further reduced subendocardial SS to 6 +/- 6% (P less than 0.05). Dobutamine (4 micrograms.kg-1.min-1; n = 6) increased subendocardial SS to 13 +/- 5% (P less than 0.05) and abolished postsystolic shortening. Both interventions left alpha PMCF unchanged. In conclusion, myocardial stunning was associated with an increase in alpha PMCF that most likely resulted from the decreased contractile function. The absence of an effect of dobutamine may be due to its predominant action on diastolic function.

  13. Impact of extended stun duration and voltage on the recovery of consciousness in broilers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Typical electrical stun duration for broilers in the United States is from 5 to 15 s (depending on voltage), but would be considerably longer if and when the kill-line stopped. The welfare and conscious/unconscious status of broilers within the stunner cabinet is a concern while the line is stopped...

  14. 9 CFR 313.30 - Electrical; stunning or slaughtering with electric current.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Electrical; stunning or slaughtering with electric current. The slaughtering of swine, sheep, calves, cattle, and goats with the use of electric current and the handling in connection therewith, in compliance... with electric current. 313.30 Section 313.30 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION...

  15. 9 CFR 313.30 - Electrical; stunning or slaughtering with electric current.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Electrical; stunning or slaughtering with electric current. The slaughtering of swine, sheep, calves, cattle, and goats with the use of electric current and the handling in connection therewith, in compliance... with electric current. 313.30 Section 313.30 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION...

  16. Indicators used in livestock to assess unconsciousness after stunning: a review.

    PubMed

    Verhoeven, M T W; Gerritzen, M A; Hellebrekers, L J; Kemp, B

    2015-02-01

    Assessing unconsciousness is important to safeguard animal welfare shortly after stunning at the slaughter plant. Indicators that can be visually evaluated are most often used when assessing unconsciousness, as they can be easily applied in slaughter plants. These indicators include reflexes originating from the brain stem (e.g. eye reflexes) or from the spinal cord (e.g. pedal reflex) and behavioural indicators such as loss of posture, vocalisations and rhythmic breathing. When physically stunning an animal, for example, captive bolt, most important indicators looked at are posture, righting reflex, rhythmic breathing and the corneal or palpebral reflex that should all be absent if the animal is unconscious. Spinal reflexes are difficult as a measure of unconsciousness with this type of stunning, as they may occur more vigorous. For stunning methods that do not physically destroy the brain, for example, electrical and gas stunning, most important indicators looked at are posture, righting reflex, natural blinking response, rhythmic breathing, vocalisations and focused eye movement that should all be absent if the animal is unconscious. Brain stem reflexes such as the cornea reflex are difficult as measures of unconsciousness in electrically stunned animals, as they may reflect residual brain stem activity and not necessarily consciousness. Under commercial conditions, none of the indicators mentioned above should be used as a single indicator to determine unconsciousness after stunning. Multiple indicators should be used to determine unconsciousness and sufficient time should be left for the animal to die following exsanguination before starting invasive dressing procedures such as scalding or skinning. The recording and subsequent assessment of brain activity, as presented in an electroencephalogram (EEG), is considered the most objective way to assess unconsciousness compared with reflexes and behavioural indicators, but is only applied in experimental set

  17. Bath Iron Works, CWA-01-2018-0033; EPCRA-01-2018-0034

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Notice of Proposed Assessment of Class II Civil Penalty and Notice of Opportunity for a Hearing under Sections 309(g) of the Clean Water Act (CWA) for Bath Iron Works, CWA-01-2018-0033; EPCRA-01-2018-0034

  18. Public Notice: Bath Iron Works, CWA-01-2018-0033; EPCRA-01-2018-0034

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Notice of Proposed Assessment of Class II Civil Penalty and Notice of Opportunity for a Hearing under Sections 309(g) of the Clean Water Act (CWA) for Bath Iron Works, CWA-01-2018-0033; EPCRA-01-2018-0034

  19. Bath-Ambience-A Mechatronic System for Assisting the Caregivers of Bedridden People.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Karolina; Machado, José; Carvalho, Vítor; Castro, Marcelo; Costa, Pedro; Matos, Demétrio; Soares, Filomena

    2017-05-18

    The health of older people is receiving special attention and dedication nowadays, with the aim of increasing their general wellbeing and quality of life. Studies into different aspects of the care of the elderly have found that emphasis should be given to solving problems related to bathing in different situations and environments. In particular, it is important to develop new assistive technologies to streamline and ease the burden of a caregiver's daily tasks. Generally-speaking, in the case of bedridden patients, bathing is typically carried out manually by a caregiver, using towels, sponges, and a water basin. Nevertheless, this apparently simple task needs some precautions in order to avoid the risk of microbial infections, falls and other injuries. With that in mind, this paper presents the design of a portable washing system, called Bath-Ambience, which enables bedridden patients to be bathed efficiently without having to be moved from their position. This portable system can be installed in different situations, both in a domestic setting, and in specialized institutions, and allows the caregiver to perform the bathing tasks without compromising health and safety, thereby making it possible to offer a comfortable and hygienic procedure to patients, improving their quality of life. This paper presents the design of the portable Bath-Ambience washing system, which provides efficient assistance for bathing bedridden patients without moving them to another place. This system is mainly dedicated for integration a smart home application in to allow bathing everywhere.

  20. Bath-Ambience—A Mechatronic System for Assisting the Caregivers of Bedridden People

    PubMed Central

    Bezerra, Karolina; Machado, José; Carvalho, Vítor; Castro, Marcelo; Costa, Pedro; Matos, Demétrio; Soares, Filomena

    2017-01-01

    The health of older people is receiving special attention and dedication nowadays, with the aim of increasing their general wellbeing and quality of life. Studies into different aspects of the care of the elderly have found that emphasis should be given to solving problems related to bathing in different situations and environments. In particular, it is important to develop new assistive technologies to streamline and ease the burden of a caregiver’s daily tasks. Generally-speaking, in the case of bedridden patients, bathing is typically carried out manually by a caregiver, using towels, sponges, and a water basin. Nevertheless, this apparently simple task needs some precautions in order to avoid the risk of microbial infections, falls and other injuries. With that in mind, this paper presents the design of a portable washing system, called Bath-Ambience, which enables bedridden patients to be bathed efficiently without having to be moved from their position. This portable system can be installed in different situations, both in a domestic setting, and in specialized institutions, and allows the caregiver to perform the bathing tasks without compromising health and safety, thereby making it possible to offer a comfortable and hygienic procedure to patients, improving their quality of life. This paper presents the design of the portable Bath-Ambience washing system, which provides efficient assistance for bathing bedridden patients without moving them to another place. This system is mainly dedicated for integration a smart home application in to allow bathing everywhere. PMID:28524114

  1. A brain slice bath for physiology and compound microscopy, with dual-sided perifusion.

    PubMed

    Heyward, P M

    2010-12-01

    Contemporary in vitro brain slice studies can employ compound microscopes to identify individual neurons or their processes for physiological recording or imaging. This requires that the bath used to maintain the tissue fits within the working distances of a water-dipping objective and microscope condenser. A common means of achieving this is to maintain thin tissue slices on the glass floor of a recording bath, exposing only one surface of the tissue to oxygenated bathing medium. Emerging evidence suggests that physiology can be compromised by this approach. Flowing medium past both sides of submerged brain slices is optimal, but recording baths utilizing this principle are not readily available for use on compound microscopes. This paper describes a tissue bath designed specifically for microscopy and physiological recording, in which temperature-controlled medium flows past both sides of the slices. A particular feature of this design is the use of concentric mesh rings to support and transport the live tissue without mechanical disturbance. The design is also easily adapted for use with thin acute slices, cultured slices, and acutely dispersed or cultured cells maintained either on cover slips or placed directly on the floor of the bath. The low profile of the bath provides a low angle of approach for electrodes, and allows use of standard condensers, nosepieces and water-dipping objective lenses. If visualization of individual neurons is not required, the bath can be mounted on a simple stand and used with a dissecting microscope. Heating is integral to the bath, and any temperature controller capable of driving a resistive load can be used. The bath is robust, readily constructed and requires minimal maintenance. Full construction and operation details are given. © 2010 The Author Journal of Microscopy © 2010 The Royal Microscopical Society.

  2. 7 CFR 3201.62 - Bath products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bath products. 3201.62 Section 3201.62 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF PROCUREMENT AND PROPERTY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.62 Bath products. (a)...

  3. 7 CFR 3201.62 - Bath products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bath products. 3201.62 Section 3201.62 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF PROCUREMENT AND PROPERTY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.62 Bath products. (a)...

  4. 7 CFR 3201.62 - Bath products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bath products. 3201.62 Section 3201.62 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF PROCUREMENT AND PROPERTY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.62 Bath products. (a)...

  5. New system for bathing bedridden patients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Staley, R. A.; Payne, P. A.

    1973-01-01

    Multihead shower facility can be used with minimal patient handling. Waterproof curtain allows patient to bathe with his head out of shower. He can move completely inside shower to wash his face and hair. Main advantage of shower system is time saved in giving bath.

  6. 21 CFR 890.5110 - Paraffin bath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Paraffin bath. 890.5110 Section 890.5110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5110 Paraffin bath. (a...

  7. 21 CFR 890.5110 - Paraffin bath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Paraffin bath. 890.5110 Section 890.5110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5110 Paraffin bath. (a...

  8. 21 CFR 890.5110 - Paraffin bath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Paraffin bath. 890.5110 Section 890.5110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5110 Paraffin bath. (a...

  9. 21 CFR 890.5110 - Paraffin bath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Paraffin bath. 890.5110 Section 890.5110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5110 Paraffin bath. (a...

  10. 21 CFR 890.5110 - Paraffin bath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Paraffin bath. 890.5110 Section 890.5110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5110 Paraffin bath. (a...

  11. Blood parameters and electroencephalographic responses of goats to slaughter without stunning.

    PubMed

    Sabow, A B; Goh, Y M; Zulkifli, I; Sazili, A Q; Kaka, U; Kadi, M Z A Ab; Ebrahimi, M; Nakyinsige, K; Adeyemi, K D

    2016-11-01

    The study compared changes in blood biochemistry, hormonal and electroencephalographic indices associated with possible noxious stimuli following neck cut slaughter in conscious, non-anaesthetized versus minimally-anaesthetized goats. Ten male Boer crossbreed goats were assigned into two groups and subjected to either slaughter conscious without stunning (SWS) or slaughter following minimal anaesthesia (SMA). Hormonal responses and changes in electroencephalographic (EEG) parameters were not influenced by slaughter method. The SWS goats had higher glucose and lactate than did SMA goats. It can be concluded that the noxious stimulus from the neck cut is present in both conscious and minimally anaesthetized goats. The application of slaughter without stunning causes changes in the EEG activities that are consistent with the presence of post slaughter noxious sensory input associated with tissue damage and would be expected to be experienced as pain in goats. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Return-to-sensibility problems after penetrating captive bolt stunning of cattle in commercial beef slaughter plants.

    PubMed

    Grandin, Temple

    2002-11-01

    To evaluate efficacy of penetrating captive bolt stunning of cattle in commercial beef slaughter plants and identify potential causes of a return to sensibility among stunned cattle. Observational study. 21 federally inspected commercial beef slaughter plants. In each plant, stunning of at least 100 cattle (19 large plants) or a minimum of 1 hour of production (2 small plants) was observed, and cattle were evaluated for signs of returning to sensibility on the bleed rail. Cattle with a limp, flaccid head, a lack of spontaneous blinking, and an absence of a righting reflex were considered insensible. In 17 of the 21 (81%) plants, all cattle were rendered insensible before they were hoisted onto the bleed rail. The remaining 4 plants had cattle that had signs of returning to sensibility; these cattle were restunned prior to skinning or leg removal. Of 1,826 fed steers and heifers, 3 (0.16%) had signs of returning to sensibility, whereas 8 of 692 (1.2%) bulls and cows did. Return-to-sensibility problems were attributed to storage of stunner cartridges in damp locations, poor maintenance of firing pins, inexperience of the stunner operator (ie, shooting cattle too high on the forehead), misfiring of the stunner because of a dirty trigger, and stunning of cattle with thick, heavy skulls. Results suggest that efficiency of captive bolt stunning of cattle in commercial slaughter plants can be safely and objectively assessed. Care should be taken to maintain stunners correctly, particularly when stunning bulls and cows with heavy skulls.

  13. Electrical stunning effectiveness with current levels lower than 1 A in lambs and kid goats.

    PubMed

    Llonch, P; Rodríguez, P; Casal, N; Carreras, R; Muñoz, I; Dalmau, A; Velarde, A

    2015-02-01

    An experiment with 360 lambs grouped into three Spanish commercial categories, (Pascual, 13-16 kg; Recental, 9-13 kg and Lechal <7 kg carcass weight) and kid goats (7 kg) was performed to assess stunning effectiveness after head-only (HO) and head-to-body (HB) electrical stunning with intensity currents of 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7 Amperes (A) compared to 1.0 A. After stunning, all animals showed tonic-clonic muscular activity and epileptiform EEG, absence of rhythmic breathing, corneal reflex, spontaneous blinking and pain sensibility. The quiescent EEG occurred earlier (P < 0.05) in HB compared to HO in all categories. More animals recovered corneal reflex and rhythmic breathing before onset of the quiescent activity after HO (from 15 to 50%) compared to HB (from 0 to 15%) (P < 0.05). Concluding, HO and HB electrical stunning with 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7 A induce effective stunning similar to 1.0 A in lambs and kid goats. After stunning and sticking, brain failure occurs earlier in HB than HO system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Objective scoring of animal handling and stunning practices at slaughter plants.

    PubMed

    Grandin, T

    1998-01-01

    To develop objective methods for monitoring animal welfare at slaughter plants to ensure compliance with the Humane Methods of Slaughter Act. Survey of existing procedures. 24 federally inspected slaughter plants. 6 variables evaluated at each plant were stunning efficacy, insensibility of animals hanging on the bleeding rail, vocalization, electric prod use, number of animals slipping, and number of animals falling. Of 11 beef plants, only 4 were able to render 95% of cattle insensible with a single shot from a captive-bolt stunner. Personnel at 7 of 11 plants placed the stunning wand correctly on 99% or more of pigs and sheep. At 4 beef plants, percentage of cattle prodded with an electric prod ranged from 5% at a plant at which handlers only prodded cattle that refused to move to 90% at another plant. Use of electric prods at 6 pork plants scored for prod use ranged from 15 to almost 100% of pigs. Percentage of cattle that vocalized during stunning and handling ranged from 1.1% at a plant at which electric prods were only used on cattle that refused to move to 32% at another plant at which electric prods were used on 90% of cattle and a restraint device was inappropriately used to apply excessive pressure. To obtain the most accurate assessment of animal welfare at slaughter plants, it is important to score all of the aforementioned variables.

  15. Milrinone and levosimendan administered after reperfusion improve myocardial stunning in swine.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Itsuko; Cho, Sungsam; Yoshitomi, Osamu; Ureshino, Hiroyuki; Maekawa, Takuji; Hara, Tetsuya; Sumikawa, Koji

    2013-02-01

    We assessed the effect of milrinone application timing after reperfusion against myocardial stunning as compared with levosimendan in swine. Furthermore, we examined the role of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) in the milrinone-induced cardioprotection. All swine were subjected to 12-minutes ischemia followed by 90-minutes reperfusion to generate stunned myocardium. Milrinone or levosimendan was administered intravenously either for 20 minutes starting just after reperfusion or for 70 minutes starting 20 minutes after reperfusion. In another group, SB203580, a selective p38 MAPK inhibitor, was administered with and without milrinone. Regional myocardial contractility was assessed by percent segment shortening (%SS). Milrinone starting just after reperfusion, but not starting 20 minutes after reperfusion, improved %SS at 30, 60, and 90 minutes after reperfusion compared with that in the control group. SB203580 abolished the beneficial effect of milrinone. On the other hand, levosimendan starting 20 minutes after reperfusion, but not for 20 minutes starting just after reperfusion, improved %SS at 60 and 90 minutes after reperfusion. Milrinone should be administered just after reperfusion to protect myocardial stunning through p38 MAPK, whereas levosimendan improvement of contractile function could be mainly dependent on its positive inotropic effect.

  16. 33 CFR 334.782 - SUPSHIP Bath Maine Detachment Mobile at AUSTAL, USA, Mobile, AL; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false SUPSHIP Bath Maine Detachment... REGULATIONS § 334.782 SUPSHIP Bath Maine Detachment Mobile at AUSTAL, USA, Mobile, AL; restricted area. (a... local military or Naval authority, vessels of the United States Coast Guard, and local or state law...

  17. 33 CFR 334.782 - SUPSHIP Bath Maine Detachment Mobile at AUSTAL, USA, Mobile, AL; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false SUPSHIP Bath Maine Detachment... REGULATIONS § 334.782 SUPSHIP Bath Maine Detachment Mobile at AUSTAL, USA, Mobile, AL; restricted area. (a... local military or Naval authority, vessels of the United States Coast Guard, and local or state law...

  18. [Application of yellow turpentine baths in patients with chronic prostatitis complicated by sexual dysfunctions].

    PubMed

    2005-01-01

    Patients with chronic prostatitis complicated by sexual dysfunction took turpentine baths with yellow solution in concentration rising from 5 to 55 ml solution per 200 l water, temperature 35-40 degrees C, duration 5-16 min, daily, 12-15 procedures. Yellow turpentine baths raise efficacy of treatment of patients with copulative dysfunction to 64% due to intensive arterial blood inflow to the sexual organs including the cavernous bodies of the penis.

  19. GBC Kitchen and Bath, LLC Information Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    GBC Kitchen and Bath, LLC (the Company) is located in Alexandria, Virginia. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at properties constructed prior to 1978, located in Virginia, Maryland, and Washington, D.C.

  20. Induction salt bath for electrolytic boronizing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonenko, A. N.

    1983-08-01

    The induction salt bath ISV-ÉB is intended for electrolytic and nonelectrolytic boronizing and for heating steel parts to be hardened in toolrooms of engineering plants equipped with high-frequency installations.

  1. [Therapeutic baths and relaxation in neurosurgery].

    PubMed

    Leseigneur, Matthieu

    2017-03-01

    A neurosurgical nursing and nursing auxiliaries team has started using therapeutic baths. The wellbeing procured favours a re-appropriation of body awareness and a reduction in anxiety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Capture of farmed Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus): comparison of physiological parameters after manual capture and after capture with electrical stunning.

    PubMed

    Pfitzer, S; Ganswindt, A; Fosgate, G T; Botha, P J; Myburgh, J G

    2014-09-27

    The electric stunner (e-stunner) is commonly used to handle Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) on commercial farms in South Africa, but while it seems to improve handling and safety for the keepers, no information regarding physiological reactions to e-stunning is currently available. The aim of this study was therefore to compare various physiological parameters in farmed C niloticus captured either manually (noosing) or by using an e-stunner. A total of 45 crocodiles were captured at a South African farm by either e-stunning or noosing, and blood samples were taken immediately as well as four hours after capture. Parameters monitored were serum corticosterone, lactate, glucose, as well as alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase. Lactate concentrations were significantly higher in noosed compared with e-stunned animals (P<0.001). No other blood parameter differed significantly between the two methods of capture. In addition, recorded capture time confirmed that noosing takes significantly longer time compared with e-stunning (P<0.001), overall indicating that e-stunning seems to be the better option for restraint of especially large numbers of crocodiles in a commercial setup because it is quicker, safer and did not cause a significant increase in any of the parameters measured. British Veterinary Association.

  3. Current distribution in tissues with conducted electrical weapons operated in drive-stun mode.

    PubMed

    Panescu, Dorin; Kroll, Mark W; Brave, Michael

    2016-08-01

    The TASER® conducted electrical weapon (CEW) is best known for delivering electrical pulses that can temporarily incapacitate subjects by overriding normal motor control. The alternative drive-stun mode is less understood and the goal of this paper is to analyze the distribution of currents in tissues when the CEW is operated in this mode. Finite element modeling (FEM) was used to approximate current density in tissues with boundary electrical sources placed 40 mm apart. This separation was equivalent to the distance between drive-stun mode TASER X26™, X26P, X2 CEW electrodes located on the device itself and between those located on the expended CEW cartridge. The FEMs estimated the amount of current flowing through various body tissues located underneath the electrodes. The FEM simulated the attenuating effects of both a thin and of a normal layer of fat. The resulting current density distributions were used to compute the residual amount of current flowing through deeper layers of tissue. Numerical modeling estimated that the skin, fat and skeletal muscle layers passed at least 86% or 91% of total CEW current, assuming a thin or normal fat layer thickness, respectively. The current density and electric field strength only exceeded thresholds which have increased probability for ventricular fibrillation (VFTJ), or for cardiac capture (CCTE), in the skin and the subdermal fat layers. The fat layer provided significant attenuation of drive-stun CEW currents. Beyond the skeletal muscle layer, only fractional amounts of the total CEW current were estimated to flow. The regions presenting risk for VF induction or for cardiac capture were well away from the typical heart depth.

  4. Frequent Hemodialysis Schedules Are Associated with Reduced Levels of Dialysis-induced Cardiac Injury (Myocardial Stunning)

    PubMed Central

    Jefferies, Helen J.; Virk, Bhupinder; Schiller, Brigitte; Moran, John

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Recurrent hemodialysis (HD)-induced ischemic cardiac injury (myocardial stunning) is common and associated with high ultrafiltration (UF) requirements, intradialytic hypotension, long-term loss of systolic function, increased likelihood of cardiovascular events, and death. More frequent HD regimens are associated with lower UF requirements and improved hemodynamic tolerability, improved cardiovascular outcomes, and reduced mortality compared with conventional thrice-weekly HD. This study investigated the hypothesis that modification of UF volume and rate with more frequent HD therapies would abrogate dialysis-induced myocardial stunning. Design, settings, participants, & measurements A cross-sectional study of 46 patients established on hemodialysis >3 months compared four groups receiving the current range of quotidian therapies: conventional thrice-weekly HD (CHD3); more-frequent HD five to six times/week in a center (CSD) and at home (HSD); and home nocturnal HD (HN). Serial echocardiography quantitatively assessed regional systolic function to identify intradialytic left ventricular regional wall motion abnormalities (RWMAs). Cardiac troponin T (cTnT), N-terminal prohormone brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), and inflammatory markers were quantified. Results More frequent HD regimens were associated with lower UF volumes and rates compared with CHD3. Intradialytic fall in systolic BP was reduced in CSD and HSD groups and abolished in HN group. Mean RWMAs per patient reduced with increasing dialysis intensity (CHD3 > CSD > HSD > HN). Home-based groups demonstrated lower high-sensitivity C-reative protein levels, with trends to lower cTnT and NT-proBNP levels in the more frequent groups. Conclusions Frequent HD regimes are associated with less dialysis-induced myocardial stunning compared with conventional HD. This may contribute to improved outcomes associated with frequent HD therapies. PMID:21597028

  5. Corticosterone and thyroxine in cold-stunned Kemp's ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys kempii).

    PubMed

    Hunt, Kathleen E; Innis, Charles; Rolland, Rosalind M

    2012-09-01

    Kemp's ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys kempii), a critically endangered species, frequently strand on the shores of Cape Cod (Massachusetts, USA) in late autumn in a state of "cold-stunning" exhibiting low body temperature and related clinical issues. Stranded turtles are transported to the New England Aquarium (Boston, Massachusetts, USA) for treatment and rehabilitation. This study tested the hypothesis that cold-stunned sea turtles might exhibit high corticosterone ("stress hormone") or low thyroxine (which is often affected by temperature), or both, and that monitoring of both hormones may be useful for assessing recovery. In a retrospective analysis, 87 archived plasma samples were assayed from 56 cold-stunned juvenile Kemp's ridley sea turtles for corticosterone and free thyroxine (fT4). Upon admission, mean corticosterone was the highest yet reported for a population of sea turtles (39.3 +/- 2.5 ng/ml; mean +/- standard error of the mean [SEM]) and fT4 was usually undetectable. On admission, corticosterone was negatively correlated with white blood cell count but was not correlated with blood glucose. There were no differences in either hormone between survivors and nonsurvivors on admission. After 18+ days in recovery, surviving turtles' corticosterone dropped significantly to levels typical of baseline in other species (0.9 +/- 1.0 ng/ml) while fT4 increased significantly (1.3 +/- 1.5 pg/ml). During recovery, corticosterone was positively correlated with blood glucose and was not correlated with white blood cell count. Turtles that showed persistent deficits in feeding, activity, or both during recovery had significantly lower fT4 than did turtles with no such deficits. The "high corticosterone, low fT4" endocrine profile seen on admission may be a useful marker of cold-stunning in this and other species. Further studies are necessary to determine whether low thyroid hormones play a causal role in deficits in feeding and activity during recovery

  6. Clinical and anti-aging effect of mud-bathing therapy for patients with fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Toyoki; Kudo, Yoshihiro; Horiuchi, Takahiko; Makino, Naoki

    2017-12-06

    Spa bathing is known as a medical treatment for certain diseases causing chronic pains. Spa water contains mineral components which lower the specific heat of the water, resulting in a higher efficiency to warm body-core temperature. This phenomenon yields pain-relieving effect for rheumatoid arthritis, low back pain, sciatic neuralgia, fibromyalgia, etc. Here we introduce medical and biological effects of mud-spa-bathing therapy for fibromyalgia other than pain relief, the changes of blood examination data, and the telomere length of circulating leukocytes. The enrolled 7 patients with fibromyalgia syndrome were hospitalized and were subject to daily mud bathing at 40 °C for 10 min for about a month. Then, their subjective pain was reduced to about a quarter in average. They also showed lowered serum triglyceride and C-reactive protein level, maintaining the levels of aspartate transaminase and creatine phosphokinase, and increases of the red blood cell count, the serum albumin level, and the serum LDL-cholesterol level in comparison with cases without mud-bathing therapy, suggesting that mud bathing prevents inflammation and muscle atrophy and improves nutritional condition in fibromyalgia. In addition, the analysis of telomere length of peripheral leukocytes revealed a trend of negative correlation between telomere shortening and laboratory data change of hemoglobin and serum albumin. These telomeric changes can be explained hypothetically by an effect of mud bathing extending life-span of circulating leukocytes.

  7. Consciousness, unconsciousness and death in the context of slaughter. Part I. Neurobiological mechanisms underlying stunning and killing.

    PubMed

    Terlouw, Claudia; Bourguet, Cécile; Deiss, Véronique

    2016-08-01

    This review describes the neurobiological mechanisms that are relevant for the stunning and killing process of animals in the abattoir. The mechanisms underlying the loss of consciousness depend on the technique used: mechanical, electrical or gas stunning. Direct exsanguination (without prior stun) causes also a loss of consciousness before inducing death. The underlying mechanisms may involve cerebral anoxia or ischemia, or the depolarisation, acidification and/or the destruction of brain neurons. These effects may be caused by shock waves, electrical fields, the reduction or arrest of the cerebral blood circulation, increased levels of CO2 or low levels of O2 in the inhaled air, or the mechanical destruction of neurons. The targeted brain structures are the reticular formation, the ascending reticular activating system or thalamus, or the cerebral hemispheres in a general manner. Some of the techniques, when properly used, induce an immediate loss of consciousness; other techniques a progressive loss of consciousness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. 33 CFR 165.104 - Safety Zone: Vessel Launches, Bath Iron Works, Kennebec River, Bath, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION... Bath Iron Works dry dock while it is being moved to and from its moored position at the Bath Iron Works... into or movement within this zone is prohibited unless authorized by the Captain of the Port, Portland...

  9. Avian Assemblages at Bird Baths: A Comparison of Urban and Rural Bird Baths in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Cleary, Gráinne P.; Parsons, Holly; Davis, Adrian; Coleman, Bill R.; Jones, Darryl N.; Miller, Kelly K.; Weston, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Private gardens provide habitat and resources for many birds living in human-dominated landscapes. While wild bird feeding is recognised as one of the most popular forms of human-wildlife interaction, almost nothing is known about the use of bird baths. This citizen science initiative explores avian assemblages at bird baths in private gardens in south-eastern Australia and how this differs with respect to levels of urbanisation and bioregion. Overall, 992 citizen scientists collected data over two, four-week survey periods during winter 2014 and summer 2015 (43% participated in both years). Avian assemblages at urban and rural bird baths differed between bioregions with aggressive nectar-eating species influenced the avian assemblages visiting urban bird baths in South Eastern Queensland, NSW North Coast and Sydney Basin while introduced birds contributed to differences in South Western Slopes, Southern Volcanic Plains and Victorian Midlands. Small honeyeaters and other small native birds occurred less often at urban bird baths compared to rural bird baths. Our results suggest that differences between urban versus rural areas, as well as bioregion, significantly influence the composition of avian assemblages visiting bird baths in private gardens. We also demonstrate that citizen science monitoring of fixed survey sites such as bird baths is a useful tool in understanding large-scale patterns in avian assemblages which requires a vast amount of data to be collected across broad areas. PMID:26962857

  10. Controlled atmosphere stunning of broiler chickens. II. Effects on behaviour, physiology and meat quality in a commercial processing plant.

    PubMed

    McKeegan, D E F; Abeyesinghe, S M; McLeman, M A; Lowe, J C; Demmers, T G M; White, R P; Kranen, R W; van Bemmel, H; Lankhaar, J A C; Wathes, C M

    2007-08-01

    1. The effects of controlled atmosphere stunning on behavioural and physiological responses, and carcase and meat quality of broiler chickens were studied experimentally in a full scale processing plant. 2. The gas mixtures tested were a single phase hypercapnic anoxic mixture of 60% Ar and 30% CO(2) in air with <2% O(2), and a biphasic hypercapnic hyperoxygenation mixture, comprising an anaesthetic phase, 40% CO(2), 30% O(2), 30% N(2), followed by an euthanasia phase, 80% CO(2), 5% O(2), 15% N(2). 3. Birds stunned with Ar + CO(2) were more often observed to flap their wings earlier, jump, paddle their legs, twitch and lie dorsally (rather than ventrally) than those stunned with CO(2) + O(2). These behaviours indicate a more agitated response with more severe convulsions during hypercapnic anoxia, thereby introducing greater potential for injury. 4. Heart rate during the first 100 s of gas stunning was similar for both gases, after which it remained constant at approximately 230 beats/min for CO(2) + O(2) birds whereas it declined gently for Ar + CO(2) birds. 5. In terms of carcase and meat quality, there appeared to be clear advantages to the processor in using CO(2) + O(2) rather than Ar + CO(2) to stun broiler chickens, for example, a much smaller number of fractured wings (1.6 vs. 6.8%) with fewer haemorrhages of the fillet. 6. This study supports the conclusions of both laboratory and pilot scale experiments that controlled atmosphere stunning of broiler chickens based upon a biphasic hypercapnic hyperoxygenation approach has advantages, in terms of welfare and carcase and meat quality, over a single phase hypercapnic anoxic approach employing 60% Ar and 30% CO(2) in air with <2% O(2).

  11. Stress-related hormones in horses before and after stunning by captive bolt gun.

    PubMed

    Micera, Elisabetta; Albrizio, Maria; Surdo, Nicoletta C; Moramarco, Angela M; Zarrilli, Antonia

    2010-04-01

    In this work the slaughter-linked plasma modifications of some stress-related hormones in horses subject to standardized butchering procedures were investigated in order to highlight the compromised animal welfare during pre-slaughter handling. During pre-slaughter, animals show strong hardship behavioural patterns, probably due to being under life-threatening conditions. Blood samples from 12 male horses, ageing from 3 to 5 years, were collected before slaughtering in lairage, and during exsanguination after stunning. Catecholamines, cortisol and beta-endorphin concentrations were assessed in plasma samples by EIA. Results show that plasma beta-endorphin concentration did not increase significantly after stunning, while cortisol (P<0.05) and catecholamines (P<0.001) increased significantly. The ratio between the plasma level of norepinephrine and epinephrine decreased significantly (P<0.001) during the time considered for observation underlining a greater involvement of adrenal medulla in the stress response. Moreover these results suggest that, under stress, the release of beta-endorphin could be different from that of ACTH. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Recovery of consciousness in hogs stunned with CO2: physiological responses.

    PubMed

    Bolaños-López, D; Mota-Rojas, D; Guerrero-Legarreta, I; Flores-Peinado, S; Mora-Medina, P; Roldan-Santiago, P; Borderas-Tordesillas, F; García-Herrera, R; Trujillo-Ortega, M; Ramírez-Necoechea, R

    2014-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the impact of recovering consciousness on physiological responses in hogs stunned with different concentrations of CO2. A total of 1336 pigs were moved into a CO2 anaesthesia chamber for 90s. The remaining pigs were assigned to 3 groups according to the CO2 concentration used for stunning: 85, 90 or 95%. Each group was then further divided into 2 sub-groups: those exsanguinated during the first 60s after leaving the chamber without recovering consciousness (WRC); and those exsanguinated after more than 60s that recovered consciousness (RC). The blood pH of the RC pigs decreased below 7.08, but their blood levels of Ca(2+) (>1.59mmol/L), glucose (>159.79mg/dL), and lactate (>103.52mg/dL) all increased when compared to reference values (RV) (P<0.05). Therefore, a greater metabolic and energy imbalance occurs during exsanguination when pigs recover consciousness. In conclusion, exsanguination should be performed immediately upon the pigs leaving the CO2 chamber. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Novikov Engine with Fluctuating Heat Bath Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwalbe, Karsten; Hoffmann, Karl Heinz

    2018-04-01

    The Novikov engine is a model for heat engines that takes the irreversible character of heat fluxes into account. Using this model, the maximum power output as well as the corresponding efficiency of the heat engine can be deduced, leading to the well-known Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency. The classical model assumes constant heat bath temperatures, which is not a reasonable assumption in the case of fluctuating heat sources. Therefore, in this article the influence of stochastic fluctuations of the hot heat bath's temperature on the optimal performance measures is investigated. For this purpose, a Novikov engine with fluctuating heat bath temperature is considered. Doing so, a generalization of the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency is found. The results can help to quantify how the distribution of fluctuating quantities affects the performance measures of power plants.

  14. Quantum mechanical treatment of large spin baths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röhrig, Robin; Schering, Philipp; Gravert, Lars B.; Fauseweh, Benedikt; Uhrig, Götz S.

    2018-04-01

    The electronic spin in quantum dots can be described by central spin models (CSMs) with a very large number Neff≈104 to 106 of bath spins posing a tremendous challenge to theoretical simulations. Here, a fully quantum mechanical theory is developed for the limit Neff→∞ by means of iterated equations of motion (iEoM). We find that the CSM can be mapped to a four-dimensional impurity coupled to a noninteracting bosonic bath in this limit. Remarkably, even for infinite bath the CSM does not become completely classical. The data obtained by the proposed iEoM approach are tested successfully against data from other, established approaches. Thus the iEoM mapping extends the set of theoretical tools that can be used to understand the spin dynamics in large CSMs.

  15. 33 CFR 110.133 - Kennebec River in vicinity of Bath, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Kennebec River in vicinity of Bath, Maine. 110.133 Section 110.133 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.133 Kennebec River in vicinity...

  16. 33 CFR 110.133 - Kennebec River in vicinity of Bath, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Kennebec River in vicinity of Bath, Maine. 110.133 Section 110.133 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.133 Kennebec River in vicinity...

  17. 33 CFR 110.133 - Kennebec River in vicinity of Bath, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Kennebec River in vicinity of Bath, Maine. 110.133 Section 110.133 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.133 Kennebec River in vicinity...

  18. Electrochemical deposited nickel nanowires: influence of deposition bath temperature on the morphology and physical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofiah, A. G. N.; Kananathan, J.; Samykano, M.; Ulakanathan, S.; Lah, N. A. C.; Harun, W. S. W.; Sudhakar, K.; Kadirgama, K.; Ngui, W. K.; Siregar, J. P.

    2017-10-01

    This paper investigates the influence of the electrolytic bath temperature on the morphology and physical properties of nickel (Ni) nanowires electrochemically deposited into the anodic alumina oxide porous membrane (AAO). The synthesis was performed using nickel sulfate hexahydrate (NiSO4.6H2O) and boric acid (H3BO3) as an electrolytic bath for the electrochemical deposition of Ni nanowires. During the experiment, the electrolyte bath temperature varied from 40°C, 80°C, and 120°C. After the electrochemical deposition process, AAO templates cleaned with distilled water preceding to dissolution in sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution to obtain free-standing Ni nanowires. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis were employed to characterize the morphology and physical properties of the synthesized Ni nanowires. Finding reveals the electrodeposition bath temperature significantly influences the morphology and physical properties of the synthesized Ni nanowires. Rougher surface texture, larger crystal size, and longer Ni nanowires obtained as the deposition bath temperature increased. From the physical properties properties analysis, it can be concluded that deposition bath temperature influence the physical properties of Ni nanowires.

  19. Quantum bath refrigeration towards absolute zero: challenging the unattainability principle.

    PubMed

    Kolář, M; Gelbwaser-Klimovsky, D; Alicki, R; Kurizki, G

    2012-08-31

    A minimal model of a quantum refrigerator, i.e., a periodically phase-flipped two-level system permanently coupled to a finite-capacity bath (cold bath) and an infinite heat dump (hot bath), is introduced and used to investigate the cooling of the cold bath towards absolute zero (T=0). Remarkably, the temperature scaling of the cold-bath cooling rate reveals that it does not vanish as T→0 for certain realistic quantized baths, e.g., phonons in strongly disordered media (fractons) or quantized spin waves in ferromagnets (magnons). This result challenges Nernst's third-law formulation known as the unattainability principle.

  20. Quantum Bath Refrigeration towards Absolute Zero: Challenging the Unattainability Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolář, M.; Gelbwaser-Klimovsky, D.; Alicki, R.; Kurizki, G.

    2012-08-01

    A minimal model of a quantum refrigerator, i.e., a periodically phase-flipped two-level system permanently coupled to a finite-capacity bath (cold bath) and an infinite heat dump (hot bath), is introduced and used to investigate the cooling of the cold bath towards absolute zero (T=0). Remarkably, the temperature scaling of the cold-bath cooling rate reveals that it does not vanish as T→0 for certain realistic quantized baths, e.g., phonons in strongly disordered media (fractons) or quantized spin waves in ferromagnets (magnons). This result challenges Nernst’s third-law formulation known as the unattainability principle.

  1. [History of hot spring bath treatment in China].

    PubMed

    Hao, Wanpeng; Wang, Xiaojun; Xiang, Yinghong; Gu Li, A Man; Li, Ming; Zhang, Xin

    2011-07-01

    As early as the 7th century B.C. (Western Zhou Dynasty), there is a recording as 'spring which contains sulfur could treat disease' on the Wentang Stele written by WANG Bao. Wenquan Fu written by ZHANG Heng in the Easten Han Dynasty also mentioned hot spring bath treatment. The distribution of hot springs in China has been summarized by LI Daoyuan in the Northern Wei Dynasty in his Shuijingzhu which recorded hot springs in 41 places and interpreted the definition of hot spring. Bencao Shiyi (by CHEN Cangqi, Tang Dynasty) discussed the formation of and indications for hot springs. HU Zai in the Song Dynasty pointed out distinguishing hot springs according to water quality in his book Yuyin Conghua. TANG Shenwei in the Song Dynasty noted in Jingshi Zhenglei Beiji Bencao that hot spring bath treatment should be combined with diet. Shiwu Bencao (Ming Dynasty) classified hot springs into sulfur springs, arsenicum springs, cinnabar springs, aluminite springs, etc. and pointed out their individual indications. Geologists did not start the work on distribution and water quality analysis of hot springs until the first half of the 20th century. There are 972 hot springs in Wenquan Jiyao (written by geologist ZHANG Hongzhao and published in 1956). In July 1982, the First National Geothermal Conference was held and it reported that there were more than 2600 hot springs in China. Since the second half of the 20th century, hot spring sanatoriums and rehabilitation centers have been established, which promoted the development of hot spring bath treatment.

  2. Chaucer's Wife of Bath [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This lesson introduces students to one of the most admired characterizations in Chaucer's "The Canterbury Tales," the Wife of Bath. Students read Chaucer's description of the Wife in the "General Prologue" to consider how he represents her, both as the poet of "The Canterbury Tales" and as a character in his own poem,…

  3. [The effect of sodium chloride baths on the physical work capacity and extrasystole of patients with ischemic heart disease and stable stenocardia].

    PubMed

    Klemenkov, S V; Davydova, O B; Levitskiĭ, E F; Chashchin, N F; Sharova, O Ia; Kubushko, I V

    1999-01-01

    73 patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) and stable angina pectoris of NYHA class I and II underwent balneotherapy. 43 of them took a course of sodium chloride baths, 30 control patients took common water baths. As shown by spiroveloergometry and Holter monitoring, sodium chloride baths are a good training modality in IHD patients. They enhance muscular performance and coronary heart reserve, reduce the mean 24-h number of ventricular extrasystoles by 49.9%, supraventricular extrasystoles by 57.5%.

  4. Sensory quality of broiler breast meat influenced by low atmospheric pressure stunning, deboning time and cooking methods.

    PubMed

    Schilling, M W; Radhakrishnan, V; Vizzier-Thaxton, Y; Christensen, K; Williams, J B; Joseph, P

    2015-06-01

    Stunning method (low atmospheric pressure stunning, LAPS and electrical stunning, ES), deboning time (0.75 h and 4 h), and cooking method (baking, frying, and sous vide) were evaluated for their impact on the descriptive sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of breast meat (n=576, 144 birds per stunning × deboning time combination). Sensory evaluation was conducted by trained descriptive (n=8) and consumer (n=185) panels. On average, no differences (P>0.05) existed in the sensory acceptability of fried and sous vide cooked broiler breast treatment combinations. However, for oven-baking, the LAPS treatment that was deboned at 4 h was more acceptable (P<0.05) than other treatments and the ES and LAPS 4 h samples had greater (P<0.05) acceptability for texture than their ES and LAPS 0.75 h counterparts. Since consumers were highly variable in their liking of chicken breast treatments, consumers were grouped into clusters for each cooking method based on liking and preference. Cluster analysis data revealed that the largest groups of consumers liked (score≥6.0) all chicken breast treatments, but a larger proportion of consumers liked the 4 h LAPS and ES treatments when compared to the 0.75 h LAPS and ES treatments for all cooking methods. In addition, the consumers who indicated that baked chicken breast was highly acceptable preferred (P<0.05) 4 h LAPS over the 4 h ES samples. Based on sensory results, chicken breast meat from all stunning and deboning method combinations was highly acceptable to the majority of consumers, but the LAPS 4 h treatment had enhanced sensory characteristics when baked. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  5. Physiological responses to low atmospheric pressure stunning and the implications for welfare.

    PubMed

    McKeegan, D E F; Sandercock, D A; Gerritzen, M A

    2013-04-01

    In low atmospheric pressure stunning (LAPS), poultry are rendered unconscious before slaughter by gradually reducing oxygen tension in the atmosphere to achieve a progressive anoxia. The effects of LAPS are not instantaneous, so there are legitimate welfare concerns around the experience of birds before loss of consciousness. Using self-contained telemetry logging units, high-quality continuous electroencephalogram (EEG) and electrocardiogram (EKG) recordings were obtained from 28 broiler chickens during exposure to LAPS in a commercial poultry processing plant. Application of LAPS was associated with changes in the EEG pattern in the form of increases in total power, decreases in mean frequency, and in particular, increases in slow-wave (delta) activity, indicating a gradual loss of consciousness. Increased delta wave activity was seen within 10 s of LAPS onset and consistently thereafter, peaking at 30 s into LAPS at which point the EEG signal shared characteristics with that of birds in a surgical plane of anesthesia. During LAPS, heart rate consistently decreased, with more pronounced bradycardia and arrhythmia observed after 30 s. No heart rate increases were observed in the period when the birds were potentially conscious. After an initial quiescent period, brief body movements (presumed to be ataxia/loss of posture) were seen on average at 39 s into the LAPS process. Later (after 120 s on average), artifacts related to clonic (wing flapping) and tonic (muscle spasms) convulsions were observed in the EKG recordings. Based on EEG analysis and body movement responses, a conservative estimate of time to loss of consciousness is approximately 40 s. The lack of behavioral responses indicating aversion or escape and absence of heart rate elevation in the conscious period strongly suggest that birds do not find LAPS induction distressing. Collectively, the results suggest that LAPS is a humane approach that has the potential to improve the welfare of poultry at

  6. Chronodiagnostic acquisition of recovery speed of heart rate under bathing stress.

    PubMed

    Ishijima, M; Togawa, T

    1999-11-01

    Cycling on an ergometer is one effective means of measuring cardiovascular function while applying stress on the heart. Bathing in a hot water bath applies a low stress to the heart. The electrocardiograms of a healthy adult male (aged 35 at the start of study) were recorded while taking a hot water bath with no electrode attached to the body over a period of 2 years (376 days over a 762 day period). The recovery speed following the initial overshoot of the heart rate (HR) was observed. The bathtub was designed for the automatic acquisition of ECG data. Immediately after immersion in the tub, the HR reached a peak within 20 s and then exponentially decreased toward the lowest rate in the 120 s of bathing. The initial recovery speed of the HR from the stress of bathing had a specific rhythm in the subject. Spectrum analysis of the speed series indicated that slow recovery speed appeared in cyclic periods of approximately 1 year, 42 days and 17 days. The methodology may provide a chronodiagnostic index of an exercise test for cardiovascular function.

  7. 36 CFR 21.5 - Therapeutic bathing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Therapeutic bathing requirements. 21.5 Section 21.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.5 Therapeutic bathing requirements. Baths...

  8. 36 CFR 21.5 - Therapeutic bathing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Therapeutic bathing requirements. 21.5 Section 21.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.5 Therapeutic bathing requirements. Baths...

  9. 36 CFR 21.5 - Therapeutic bathing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Therapeutic bathing requirements. 21.5 Section 21.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.5 Therapeutic bathing requirements. Baths...

  10. 36 CFR 21.5 - Therapeutic bathing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Therapeutic bathing requirements. 21.5 Section 21.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.5 Therapeutic bathing requirements. Baths...

  11. 36 CFR 21.5 - Therapeutic bathing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Therapeutic bathing requirements. 21.5 Section 21.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.5 Therapeutic bathing requirements. Baths...

  12. 28 CFR 551.7 - Bathing and clothing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bathing and clothing. 551.7 Section 551.7 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Grooming § 551.7 Bathing and clothing. Each inmate must observe the standards concerning bathing and...

  13. 28 CFR 551.7 - Bathing and clothing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bathing and clothing. 551.7 Section 551.7 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Grooming § 551.7 Bathing and clothing. Each inmate must observe the standards concerning bathing and...

  14. A case–control study of maternal bathing habits and risk for birth defects in offspring

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Nearly all women shower or take baths during early pregnancy; however, bathing habits (i.e., shower and bath length and frequency) may be related to the risk of maternal hyperthermia and exposure to water disinfection byproducts, both of which are suspected to increase risk for multiple types of birth defects. Thus, we assessed the relationships between bathing habits during pregnancy and the risk for several nonsyndromic birth defects in offspring. Methods Data for cases with one of 13 types of birth defects and controls from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study delivered during 2000–2007 were evaluated. Logistic regression analyses were conducted separately for each type of birth defect. Results There were few associations between shower frequency or bath frequency or length and risk for birth defects in offspring. The risk for gastroschisis in offspring was increased among women who reported showers lasting ≥15 compared to <15 minutes (adjusted odds ratio: 1.43, 95% confidence interval: 1.18-1.72). In addition, we observed modest increases in the risk for spina bifida, cleft lip with or without cleft palate, and limb reduction defects in offspring of women who showered ≥15 compared to <15 minutes. The results of comparisons among more specific categories of shower length (i.e., <15 minutes versus 15–19, 20–29, and ≥ 30 minutes) were similar. Conclusions Our findings suggest that shower length may be associated with gastroschisis, but the modest associations with other birth defects were not supported by analyses of bath length or bath or shower frequency. Given that showering for ≥15 minutes during pregnancy is very common, further evaluation of the relationship between maternal showering habits and birth defects in offspring is worthwhile. PMID:24131571

  15. Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leopold, Luna Bergere; Baldwin, Helene L.

    1962-01-01

    What do you use water for?If someone asked you this question you would probably think right away of water for drinking. Then you would think of water for bathing, brushing teeth, flushing the toilet. Your list would get longer as you thought of water for cooking, washing the dishes, running the garbage grinder. Water for lawn watering, for play pools, for swimming pools, for washing the car and the dog. Water for washing machines and for air conditioning. You can hardly do without water for fun and pleasure—water for swimming, boating, fishing, water-skiing, and skin diving. In school or the public library, you need water to wash your hands, or to have a drink. If your home or school bursts into flames, quantities of water are needed to put it out.In fact, life to Americans is unthinkable without large supplies of fresh, clean water. If you give the matter a little thought, you will realize that people in many countries, even in our own, may suffer from disease and dirt simply because their homes are not equipped with running water. Imagine your own town if for some reason - an explosion, perhaps - water service were cut off for a week or several weeks. You would have to drive or walk to a neighboring town and bring water back in pails. Certainly if people had to carry water themselves they might not be inclined to bathe very often; washing clothes would be a real chore.Nothing can live without water. The earth is covered by water over three-fourths of its surface - water as a liquid in rivers, lakes and oceans, and water as ice and snow on the tops of high mountains and in the polar regions. Only one-quarter of our bodies is bone and muscle; the other three-fourths is made of water. We need water to live, and so do plants and animals. People and animals can live a long time without food, but without water they die in a few days. Without water, everything would die, and the world would turn into a huge desert.

  16. The oil-dispersion bath in anthroposophic medicine--an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Büssing, Arndt; Cysarz, Dirk; Edelhäuser, Friedrich; Bornhöft, Gudrun; Matthiessen, Peter F; Ostermann, Thomas

    2008-12-04

    Anthroposophic medicine offers a variety of treatments, among others the oil-dispersion bath, developed in the 1930s by Werner Junge. Based on the phenomenon that oil and water do not mix and on recommendations of Rudolf Steiner, Junge developed a vortex mechanism which churns water and essential oils into a fine mist. The oil-covered droplets empty into a tub, where the patient immerses for 15-30 minutes. We review the current literature on oil-dispersion baths. The following databases were searched: Medline, Pubmed, Embase, AMED and CAMbase. The search terms were 'oil-dispersion bath' and 'oil bath', and their translations in German and French. An Internet search was also performed using Google Scholar, adding the search terms 'study' and 'case report' to the search terms above. Finally, we asked several experts for gray literature not listed in the above-mentioned databases. We included only articles which met the criterion of a clinical study or case report, and excluded theoretical contributions. Among several articles found in books, journals and other publications, we identified 1 prospective clinical study, 3 experimental studies (enrolling healthy individuals), 5 case reports, and 3 field-reports. In almost all cases, the studies described beneficial effects - although the methodological quality of most studies was weak. Main indications were internal/metabolic diseases and psychiatric/neurological disorders. Beyond the obvious beneficial effects of warm bathes on the subjective well-being, it remains to be clarified what the unique contribution of the distinct essential oils dispersed in the water can be. There is a lack of clinical studies exploring the efficacy of oil-dispersion baths. Such studies are recommended for the future.

  17. The oil-dispersion bath in anthroposophic medicine – an integrative review

    PubMed Central

    Büssing, Arndt; Cysarz, Dirk; Edelhäuser, Friedrich; Bornhöft, Gudrun; Matthiessen, Peter F; Ostermann, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Background Anthroposophic medicine offers a variety of treatments, among others the oil-dispersion bath, developed in the 1930s by Werner Junge. Based on the phenomenon that oil and water do not mix and on recommendations of Rudolf Steiner, Junge developed a vortex mechanism which churns water and essential oils into a fine mist. The oil-covered droplets empty into a tub, where the patient immerses for 15–30 minutes. We review the current literature on oil-dispersion baths. Methods The following databases were searched: Medline, Pubmed, Embase, AMED and CAMbase. The search terms were 'oil-dispersion bath' and 'oil bath', and their translations in German and French. An Internet search was also performed using Google Scholar, adding the search terms 'study' and 'case report' to the search terms above. Finally, we asked several experts for gray literature not listed in the above-mentioned databases. We included only articles which met the criterion of a clinical study or case report, and excluded theoretical contributions. Results Among several articles found in books, journals and other publications, we identified 1 prospective clinical study, 3 experimental studies (enrolling healthy individuals), 5 case reports, and 3 field-reports. In almost all cases, the studies described beneficial effects – although the methodological quality of most studies was weak. Main indications were internal/metabolic diseases and psychiatric/neurological disorders. Conclusion Beyond the obvious beneficial effects of warm bathes on the subjective well-being, it remains to be clarified what the unique contribution of the distinct essential oils dispersed in the water can be. There is a lack of clinical studies exploring the efficacy of oil-dispersion baths. Such studies are recommended for the future. PMID:19055811

  18. Molten salt bath circulation design for an electrolytic cell

    DOEpatents

    Dawless, Robert K.; LaCamera, Alfred F.; Troup, R. Lee; Ray, Siba P.; Hosler, Robert B.

    1999-01-01

    An electrolytic cell for reduction of a metal oxide to a metal and oxygen has an inert anode and an upwardly angled roof covering the inert mode. The angled roof diverts oxygen bubbles into an upcomer channel, thereby agitating a molten salt bath in the upcomer channel and improving dissolution of a metal oxide in the molten salt bath. The molten salt bath has a lower velocity adjacent the inert anode in order to minimize corrosion by substances in the bath. A particularly preferred cell produces aluminum by electrolysis of alumina in a molten salt bath containing aluminum fluoride and sodium fluoride.

  19. Molten salt bath circulation design for an electrolytic cell

    DOEpatents

    Dawless, R.K.; LaCamera, A.F.; Troup, R.L.; Ray, S.P.; Hosler, R.B.

    1999-08-17

    An electrolytic cell for reduction of a metal oxide to a metal and oxygen has an inert anode and an upwardly angled roof covering the inert mode. The angled roof diverts oxygen bubbles into an upcomer channel, thereby agitating a molten salt bath in the upcomer channel and improving dissolution of a metal oxide in the molten salt bath. The molten salt bath has a lower velocity adjacent the inert anode in order to minimize corrosion by substances in the bath. A particularly preferred cell produces aluminum by electrolysis of alumina in a molten salt bath containing aluminum fluoride and sodium fluoride. 4 figs.

  20. Comparison of urinary excretion of radon from the human body before and after radon bath therapy.

    PubMed

    Kávási, Norbert; Kovács, Tibor; Somlai, János; Jobbágy, Viktor; Nagy, Katalin; Deák, Eszter; Berhés, István; Bender, Tamás; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Tokonami, Shinji

    2011-07-01

    Theoretically, the human body absorbs radon through the lungs and the skin and excretes it through the lungs and the excretory organs during radon bath therapy. To check this theory, the radon concentrations in urine samples were compared before and after radon bath therapy. During the therapy, the geometric mean (GM) and the geometric standard deviation of the radon concentration in air and in the bath water were 979 Bq m(-3), 1.58 and 73.6 Bq dm(-3), 1.1, respectively. Since radon was detected in each urine sample (GM around 3.0 Bq dm(-3)), urinary excretion of radon was confirmed. The results of this study can neither reject nor confirm the hypothesis of radon absorption through the skin. A 15 times higher increment of inhaled radon level did not cause significant changes in radon of urine samples.

  1. Cardioprotective effect of hyperthyroidism on the stunned rat heart during ischaemia-reperfusion: energetics and role of mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Ragone, María Inés; Bonazzola, Patricia; Colareda, Germán A; Consolini, Alicia E

    2015-06-01

    What is the central question of this study? Hyperthyroidism is a cardiac risk factor, but thyroid therapy is used on myocardial stunning. What is the consequence of hyperthyroidism for mitochondrial metabolism and Ca(2+) handling of the postischaemic stunned heart? What is the main finding and its importance? Hyperthyroidism reduced stunning and improved muscle economy of the postischaemic rat heart. The activities of the mitochondrial sodium-calcium exchanger and mitochondrial K(+) channel in hyperthyroid rat hearts were different from those in the euthyroid rat hearts. These findings contribute to the understanding of mitochondrial bioenergetics in pathology and support thyroid therapy in the stunning induced by ischaemia. Transient ischaemia and hyperthyroidism are cardiovascular risk factors. Nevertheless, 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine/thyroxine therapy has been used to revert myocardial stunning. We studied the influence of hyperthyroidism on the role played by mitochondria in myocardial stunning consequent to ischaemia-reperfusion. Rats were injected s.c. daily with 20 μg kg(-1) triiodothyronine for 15 days (HpT group). Isolated ventricles from either HpT or euthyroid (EuT) rats were perfused in a calorimeter, and left intraventricular pressure (in millimetres of mercury) and heat release (Ht; in milliwatts per gram) were measured. Stunning was evoked by 20 min of no-flow ischaemia and 45 min reperfusion. The HpT hearts developed higher postischaemic contractile recovery (PICR) and improved total muscle economy (P/Ht) with lower diastolic contracture (ΔLVEDP) than EuT hearts. Release of Ca(2+) from the sarcoplasmic reticulum during reperfusion with 10 mm caffeine in low-[Na(+) ] Krebs solution evoked a higher contracture in EuT than in HpT hearts. Blockade of the mitochondrial sodium-calcium exchanger with clonazepam increased ΔLVEDP and reduced P/Ht and PICR in HpT but not in EuT hearts. The clonazepam-induced dysfunction in HpT hearts was reduced by

  2. Effects of light on responses to low atmospheric pressure stunning in broilers.

    PubMed

    Martin, J E; Christensen, K; Vizzier-Thaxton, Y; McKeegan, D E F

    2016-10-01

    Low atmospheric pressure stunning (LAPS) is a novel approach to poultry stunning involving the application of gradual decompression lasting 280 s according to a prescribed pressure curve. The aim of this study was to determine how behavioural, electroencephalogram (EEG) and electrocardiogram (ECG) responses to LAPS are influenced by illumination of the decompression chamber. A secondary aim was to examine responses to the decompression chamber without LAPS being applied, as such a "sham" control has been absent in previous studies. A two by two factorial design was employed, with LAPS/light, LAPS/dark, sham/light and sham/dark treatments (N = 20 per treatment). Broilers were exposed to each treatment in pairs, in each of which one bird was instrumented for recording EEG and ECG. Illumination was applied at 500 lx, and in sham treatments, birds were identically handled but remained undisturbed in the LAPS chamber without decompression for 280 s. Birds which underwent the sham treatment exhibited behaviours which were also observed in LAPS (e.g. sitting) while those exposed to LAPS exhibited hypoxia-related behaviours (e.g. ataxia, loss of posture). Behavioural latencies and durations were increased in the sham treatments, since the whole cycle time was available (in LAPS; birds were motionless by 186 s). Within the sham treatments, illumination increased active behaviour and darkness induced sleep, but slow-wave EEG was seen in both. The pattern of EEG response to LAPS (steep reduction in median frequency in the first 60 s and increased total power) was similar, irrespective of illumination, though birds in darkness had shorter latencies to loss of consciousness and isoelectric EEG. Cardiac responses to LAPS (pronounced bradycardia) closely matched those reported previously and were not affected by illumination. The effects of LAPS/sham treatment primarily reflected the presence/absence of hypoxia, while illumination affected activity/sleep levels in sham

  3. Changes in the somatosensory evoked potentials and spontaneous electroencephalogram of hens during stunning in argon-induced anoxia.

    PubMed

    Raj, A B; Gregory, N G; Wotton, S B

    1991-01-01

    This study examined the time to loss of consciousness in hens during stunning in argon-induced anoxia. Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) and the spontaneous electroencephalogram (EEG) were recorded in 12 culled hens prior to and during stunning in less than 2% oxygen (air displaced by argon). An additional 20 hens were stunned with a similar concentration of oxygen and the time to loss of posture, eye closure, and the onset and duration of clonic and tonic convulsions were recorded. A further 10 hens were immersed in less than 2% oxygen for 15-17 s and their response to comb pinching was tested as soon as they had been transferred to atmospheric air. It is concluded that the birds had not lost the primary response in their SEPs by the time they started convulsing, but the reduction in the amplitude of the SEPs, changes in their spontaneous EEG and a negative response to comb pinch before the start of the convulsions indicated that the birds were unconscious when they convulsed.

  4. Distribution of Legionella pneumophila bacteria and Naegleria and Hartmannella amoebae in thermal saline baths used in balneotherapy.

    PubMed

    Zbikowska, Elżbieta; Walczak, Maciej; Krawiec, Arkadiusz

    2013-01-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating the coexistence and interactions between free living amoebae of Naegleria and Hartmannella genera and pathogenic Legionella pneumophila bacteria in thermal saline baths used in balneotherapy in central Poland. Water samples were collected from November 2010 to May 2011 at intervals longer than 1 month. The microorganisms were detected with the use of a very sensitive fluorescence in situ hybridisation method. In addition, the morphology of the amoebae was studied. Despite relatively high salinity level, ranging from 1.5 to 5.0 %, L. pneumophila were found in all investigated baths, although their number never exceeded 10(6) cells dm(-3). Hartmannella were not detected, while Naegleria fowleri were found in one bath. The observation that N. fowleri and L. pneumophila may coexist in thermal saline baths is the first observation emphasising potential threat from these microorganisms in balneotherapy.

  5. Rotating cathode device for molten salt bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1983-11-01

    The invention relates to a rotating cathode device for molten salt baths used to prepare metallic titanium or aluminum and the like by electrolysis of molten salts. The rotating cathode device is described. It is a cyclindrical cathode mounted on a rotating spindle, made of a lightweight material and mounted in such a way as to avoid thermal strain between the rotational shaft and the cylindrical cathode. At least one of the upper and lower ends of the cylindrical cathode are closed by a cap and a seal consisting of an inorganic fiber composite in the area between the cap and the cathode.

  6. CFD Modeling of Swirl and Nonswirl Gas Injections into Liquid Baths Using Top Submerged Lances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huda, Nazmul; Naser, J.; Brooks, G.; Reuter, M. A.; Matusewicz, R. W.

    2010-02-01

    Fluid flow phenomena in a cylindrical bath stirred by a top submerged lance (TSL) gas injection was investigated by using the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) modeling technique for an isothermal air-water system. The multiphase flow simulation, based on the Euler-Euler approach, elucidated the effect of swirl and nonswirl flow inside the bath. The effects of the lance submergence level and the air flow rate also were investigated. The simulation results for the velocity fields and the generation of turbulence in the bath were validated against existing experimental data from the previous water model experimental study by Morsi et al.[1] The model was extended to measure the degree of the splash generation for different liquid densities at certain heights above the free surface. The simulation results showed that the two-thirds lance submergence level provided better mixing and high liquid velocities for the generation of turbulence inside the water bath. However, it is also responsible for generating more splashes in the bath compared with the one-third lance submergence level. An approach generally used by heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system simulations was applied to predict the convective mixing phenomena. The simulation results for the air-water system showed that mean convective mixing for swirl flow is more than twice than that of nonswirl in close proximity to the lance. A semiempirical equation was proposed from the results of the present simulation to measure the vertical penetration distance of the air jet injected through the annulus of the lance in the cylindrical vessel of the model, which can be expressed as L_{va} = 0.275( {do - di } )Frm^{0.4745} . More work still needs to be done to predict the detail process kinetics in a real furnace by considering nonisothermal high-temperature systems with chemical reactions.

  7. Atorvastatin can ameliorate left atrial stunning induced by radiofrequency ablation for atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Xie, Ruiqin; Yang, Yingtao; Cui, Wei; Yin, Hongning; Zheng, Hongmei; Zhang, Jidong; You, Ling

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study was to study the functional changes of the left atrium after radiofrequency ablation treatment for atrial fibrillation and the therapeutic effect of atorvastatin. Fifty-eight patients undergoing radiofrequency ablation for atrial fibrillation were randomly divided into non-atorvastatin group and atorvastatin group. Patients in the atorvastatin group were treated with atorvastatin 20 mg p.o. per night in addition to the conventional treatment of atrial fibrillation; patients in the non-atorvastatin group received conventional treatment of atrial fibrillation only. Echocardiography was performed before radiofrequency ablation operation and 1 week, 2 weeks, 3 weeks, and 4 weeks after operation. Two-dimensional ultrasound speckle tracking imaging system was used to measure the structural indexes of the left atrium. Results indicated that there was no significant change for indexes representing the structural status of the left atrium within a month after radiofrequency ablation (P > 0.05); however, there were significant changes for indexes representing the functional status of the left atrium. There were also significant changes in indexes reflecting left atrial strain status: the S and SRs of atorvastatin group were higher than those of non-atorvastatin group (P < 0.05). In summary, atorvastatin could improve left atrial function and shorten the duration of atrial stunning after radiofrequency ablation of atrial fibrillation.

  8. Hot particles attract in a cold bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Hidenori; Lee, Alpha A.; Brenner, Michael P.

    2017-04-01

    Controlling interactions out of thermodynamic equilibrium is crucial for designing addressable and functional self-organizing structures. These active interactions also underpin collective behavior in biological systems. Here we study a general setting of active particles in a bath of passive particles and demonstrate a mechanism for long-range attraction between active particles. The mechanism operates when the translational persistence length of the active particle motion is smaller than the particle diameter. In this limit, the system reduces to particles of higher diffusivity ("hot" particles) in a bath of particles with lower diffusivity ("cold" particles). This attractive interaction arises as a hot particle pushes cold particles away to create a large hole around itself, and the holes interact via a depletion-like attraction. Strikingly, the interaction range is more than an order of magnitude larger than the particle radius, well beyond the range of the conventional depletion force. Although the mechanism occurs outside the parameter regime of typical biological swimmers, the mechanism could be realized in the laboratory.

  9. Recovery process for electroless plating baths

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Roger W.; Neff, Wayne A.

    1992-01-01

    A process for removing, from spent electroless metal plating bath solutions, accumulated byproducts and counter-ions that have deleterious effects on plating. The solution, or a portion thereof, is passed through a selected cation exchange resin bed in hydrogen form, the resin selected from strong acid cation exchangers and combinations of intermediate acid cation exchangers with strong acid cation exchangers. Sodium and nickel ions are sorbed in the selected cation exchanger, with little removal of other constituents. The remaining solution is subjected to sulfate removal through precipitation of calcium sulfate hemihydrate using, sequentially, CaO and then CaCO.sub.3. Phosphite removal from the solution is accomplished by the addition of MgO to form magnesium phosphite trihydrate. The washed precipitates of these steps can be safely discarded in nontoxic land fills, or used in various chemical industries. Finally, any remaining solution can be concentrated, adjusted for pH, and be ready for reuse. The plating metal can be removed from the exchanger with sulfuric acid or with the filtrate from the magnesium phosphite precipitation forming a sulfate of the plating metal for reuse. The process is illustrated as applied to processing electroless nickel plating baths.

  10. Recovery process for electroless plating baths

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, R.W.; Neff, W.A.

    1992-05-12

    A process is described for removing, from spent electroless metal plating bath solutions, accumulated byproducts and counter-ions that have deleterious effects on plating. The solution, or a portion thereof, is passed through a selected cation exchange resin bed in hydrogen form, the resin selected from strong acid cation exchangers and combinations of intermediate acid cation exchangers with strong acid cation exchangers. Sodium and nickel ions are sorbed in the selected cation exchanger, with little removal of other constituents. The remaining solution is subjected to sulfate removal through precipitation of calcium sulfate hemihydrate using, sequentially, CaO and then CaCO[sub 3]. Phosphite removal from the solution is accomplished by the addition of MgO to form magnesium phosphite trihydrate. The washed precipitates of these steps can be safely discarded in nontoxic land fills, or used in various chemical industries. Finally, any remaining solution can be concentrated, adjusted for pH, and be ready for reuse. The plating metal can be removed from the exchanger with sulfuric acid or with the filtrate from the magnesium phosphite precipitation forming a sulfate of the plating metal for reuse. The process is illustrated as applied to processing electroless nickel plating baths. 18 figs.

  11. Cavitation effects in ultrasonic cleaning baths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glasscock, Barbara H.

    1995-01-01

    In this project, the effect of cavitation from aqueous ultrasonic cleaning on the surfaces of metal and non-metal sample coupons was studied. After twenty cleaning cycles, the mass loss from the aluminum coupons averaged 0.22 mg/sq cm surface area and 0.014 mg/sq cm for both stainless steel and titanium. The aluminum coupons showed visual evidence of minor cavitation erosion in regions of previously existing surface irregularities. The non-metal samples showed some periods of mass gain. These effects are believed to have minor impact on hardware being cleaned, but should be evaluated in the context of specific hardware requirements. Also the ultrasonic activity in the large cleaning baths was found to be unevenly distributed as measured by damage to sheets of aluminum foil. It is therefore recommended that items being cleaned in an ultrasonic bath be moved or conveyed during the cleaning to more evenly distribute the cavitation action provide more uniform cleaning.

  12. Thermal baths as quantum resources: more friends than foes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurizki, Gershon; Shahmoon, Ephraim; Zwick, Analia

    2015-12-01

    In this article we argue that thermal reservoirs (baths) are potentially useful resources in processes involving atoms interacting with quantized electromagnetic fields and their applications to quantum technologies. One may try to suppress the bath effects by means of dynamical control, but such control does not always yield the desired results. We wish instead to take advantage of bath effects, that do not obliterate ‘quantumness’ in the system-bath compound. To this end, three possible approaches have been pursued by us. (i) Control of a quantum system faster than the correlation time of the bath to which it couples: such control allows us to reveal quasi-reversible/coherent dynamical phenomena of quantum open systems, manifest by the quantum Zeno or anti-Zeno effects (QZE or AZE, respectively). Dynamical control methods based on the QZE are aimed not only at protecting the quantumness of the system, but also diagnosing the bath spectra or transferring quantum information via noisy media. By contrast, AZE-based control is useful for fast cooling of thermalized quantum systems. (ii) Engineering the coupling of quantum systems to selected bath modes: this approach, based on field-atom coupling control in cavities, waveguides and photonic band structures, allows one to drastically enhance the strength and range of atom-atom coupling through the mediation of the selected bath modes. More dramatically, it allows us to achieve bath-induced entanglement that may appear paradoxical if one takes the conventional view that coupling to baths destroys quantumness. (iii) Engineering baths with appropriate non-flat spectra: this approach is a prerequisite for the construction of the simplest and most efficient quantum heat machines (engines and refrigerators). We may thus conclude that often thermal baths are ‘more friends than foes’ in quantum technologies.

  13. Escherichia coli at Ohio Bathing Beaches--Distribution, Sources, Wastewater Indicators, and Predictive Modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Francy, Donna S.; Gifford, Amie M.; Darner, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    Results of studies during the recreational seasons of 2000 and 2001 strengthen the science that supports monitoring of our Nation?s beaches. Water and sediment samples were collected and analyzed for concentrations of Escherichia coli (E. coli). Ancillary water-quality and environmental data were collected or compiled to determine their relation to E. coli concentrations. Data were collected at three Lake Erie urban beaches (Edgewater, Villa Angela, and Huntington), two Lake Erie beaches in a less populated area (Mentor Headlands and Fairport Harbor), and one inland-lake beach (Mosquito Lake). The distribution of E. coli in water and sediments within the bathing area, outside the bathing area, and near the swash zone was investigated at the three Lake Erie urban beaches and at Mosquito Lake. (The swash zone is the zone that is alternately covered and exposed by waves.) Lake-bottom sediments from outside the bathing area were not significant deposition areas for E. coli. In contrast, interstitial water and subsurface sediments from near the swash zone were enriched with E. coli. For example, E. coli concentrations were as high as 100,000 colonies per 100 milliliters in some interstitial waters. Although there are no standards for E. coli in swash-zone materials, the high concentrations found at some locations warrant concern for public health. Studies were done at Mosquito Lake to identify sources of fecal contamination to the lake and bathing beach. Escherichia coli concentrations decreased with distance from a suspected source of fecal contamination that is north of the beach but increased at the bathing beach. This evidence indicated that elevated E. coli concentrations at the bathing beach are of local origin rather than from transport of bacteria from sites to the north. Samples collected from the three Lake Erie urban beaches and Mosquito Lake were analyzed to determine whether wastewater indicators could be used as surrogates for E. coli at bathing beaches

  14. Performance of Flow and Heat Transfer in a Hot-Dip Round Coreless Galvanizing Bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Qiang; Zhang, Chengbo; Xu, Yong; Zhou, Li; Kong, Hui; Wang, Jia

    2017-04-01

    Flow field in a coreless hot-dip galvanizing pot was investigated through a water modeling experiment. The corresponding velocity vector was measured using an acoustic Doppler velocimeter. The flow field of molten zinc in the bath was also analyzed. Steel strip velocities from 1.7 to 2.7 m/s were adopted to determine the effect of steel strip velocity on the molten zinc flow in the bath. A large vortex filled the space at the right side of the sink roll, under linear speed from 1.0 to 2.7 m/s and width from 1.0 to 1.3 m of the steel strip, because of the effects of wall and shear stress. The results of the water modeling experiment were compared with those of numerical simulations. In the simulation, Maxwell equations were solved using finite element method to obtain magnetic flux density, electromagnetic force, and Joule heating. The Joule heating rate reached the maximum and minimum values near the side wall and at the core of the bath, respectively, because of the effect of skin and proximity. In an industrial-sized model, the molten zinc flow and temperature fields driven by electromagnetic force and Joule heating in the inductor of a coreless galvanizing bath were numerically simulated. The results indicated that the direction of electromagnetic force concentrated at the center of the galvanizing pot horizontal planes and exerted a pinch effect on molten zinc. Consequently, molten zinc in the pot was stirred by electromagnetic force. Under molten zinc flow and electromagnetic force stirring, the temperature of the molten zinc became homogeneous throughout the bath. This study provides a basis for optimizing electromagnetic fields in coreless induction pot and fine-tuning the design of steel strip parameters.

  15. Carbon monoxide stunning of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) modifies rigor mortis and sensory traits as revealed by NIRS and other instruments.

    PubMed

    Concollato, Anna; Parisi, Giuliana; Masoero, Giorgio; Romvàri, Robert; Olsen, Rolf-Erik; Dalle Zotte, Antonella

    2016-08-01

    Methods of stunning used in salmon slaughter are still the subject of research. Fish quality can be influenced by pre-, ante- and post-mortem conditions, including handling before slaughter, slaughter methods and storage conditions. Carbon monoxide (CO) is known to improve colour stability in red muscle and to reduce microbial growth and lipid oxidation in live fish exposed to CO. Quality differences in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., stunned by CO or percussion, were evaluated and compared by different techniques [near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS), electronic nose (EN), electronic tongue (ET)] and sensory analysis. Thawed samples, freeze-dried preparates and NIRS devices proved to be the most efficient combinations for discriminating the treatments applied to salmon, i.e. first the stunning methods adopted, then the back-prediction of the maximum time to reach rigor mortis and finally to correlate some sensory attributes. A trained panel found significant differences between control and CO-stunned salmon: reduced tactile crumbliness, reduced odour and aroma intensities, and reduced tenderness of CO-treated fillets. CO stunning reduced radiation absorbance in spectra of thawed and freeze-dried fillets, but not fillet samples stored in ethanol, where it may have interacted with myoglobin and myosin. The good results in a rapid discrimination of thawed samples detected by NIRS suggest suitable applications in the fish industry. CO treatment could mitigate sensory perception, but consumer tests are needed to confirm our findings. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. 5. UNIT VENTILATOR, MEN'S BATH HALL, SHOWING POSITION AGAINST WALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. UNIT VENTILATOR, MEN'S BATH HALL, SHOWING POSITION AGAINST WALL ABOVE THE BATHS. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Ozark Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  17. 36 CFR 21.11 - Redemption of bath tickets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Redemption of bath tickets. 21.11 Section 21.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.11 Redemption of bath tickets. Unused...

  18. 36 CFR 21.12 - Lost bath tickets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lost bath tickets. 21.12 Section 21.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.12 Lost bath tickets. A patron who loses his ticket may...

  19. 36 CFR 21.12 - Lost bath tickets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lost bath tickets. 21.12 Section 21.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.12 Lost bath tickets. A patron who loses his ticket may...

  20. 36 CFR 21.11 - Redemption of bath tickets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Redemption of bath tickets. 21.11 Section 21.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.11 Redemption of bath tickets. Unused...

  1. 36 CFR 21.11 - Redemption of bath tickets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Redemption of bath tickets. 21.11 Section 21.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.11 Redemption of bath tickets. Unused...

  2. 36 CFR 21.12 - Lost bath tickets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lost bath tickets. 21.12 Section 21.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.12 Lost bath tickets. A patron who loses his ticket may...

  3. 36 CFR 21.11 - Redemption of bath tickets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Redemption of bath tickets. 21.11 Section 21.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.11 Redemption of bath tickets. Unused...

  4. 36 CFR 21.12 - Lost bath tickets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lost bath tickets. 21.12 Section 21.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.12 Lost bath tickets. A patron who loses his ticket may...

  5. 36 CFR 21.12 - Lost bath tickets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lost bath tickets. 21.12 Section 21.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.12 Lost bath tickets. A patron who loses his ticket may...

  6. 36 CFR 21.11 - Redemption of bath tickets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Redemption of bath tickets. 21.11 Section 21.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.11 Redemption of bath tickets. Unused...

  7. 30 CFR 75.1712 - Bath houses and toilet facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... adequate facilities for the miners to change from the clothes worn underground, to provide for the storing of such clothes from shift to shift, and to provide sanitary and bathing facilities. Sanitary toilet... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bath houses and toilet facilities. 75.1712...

  8. 30 CFR 75.1712 - Bath houses and toilet facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... adequate facilities for the miners to change from the clothes worn underground, to provide for the storing of such clothes from shift to shift, and to provide sanitary and bathing facilities. Sanitary toilet... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bath houses and toilet facilities. 75.1712...

  9. 30 CFR 75.1712 - Bath houses and toilet facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... adequate facilities for the miners to change from the clothes worn underground, to provide for the storing of such clothes from shift to shift, and to provide sanitary and bathing facilities. Sanitary toilet... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bath houses and toilet facilities. 75.1712...

  10. 30 CFR 75.1712 - Bath houses and toilet facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bath houses and toilet facilities. 75.1712 Section 75.1712 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1712 Bath houses...

  11. 30 CFR 75.1712 - Bath houses and toilet facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bath houses and toilet facilities. 75.1712 Section 75.1712 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1712 Bath houses...

  12. Chemical Safety: Molten Salt Baths Cited as Lab Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Rudy

    1982-01-01

    Discusses danger of explosions with molten salts baths, commonly used as heat-transfer media. One such explosion involved use of a bath containing 3-lb sodium nitrite and 1-lb potassium thiocyanate. Although most commercially available mixtures for heat transfer contain oxidizers, a reducer (thiocyanate) was included which possibly triggered the…

  13. 20 CFR 654.412 - Bathing, laundry, and handwashing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Bathing, laundry, and handwashing. (a) Bathing and handwashing facilities, supplied with hot and cold... floor drains. Except in individual family units, separate shower facilities shall be provided each sex. When common use shower facilities for both sexes are in the same building they shall be separated by a...

  14. 20 CFR 654.412 - Bathing, laundry, and handwashing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Bathing, laundry, and handwashing. (a) Bathing and handwashing facilities, supplied with hot and cold... floor drains. Except in individual family units, separate shower facilities shall be provided each sex. When common use shower facilities for both sexes are in the same building they shall be separated by a...

  15. 20 CFR 654.412 - Bathing, laundry, and handwashing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Bathing, laundry, and handwashing. (a) Bathing and handwashing facilities, supplied with hot and cold... floor drains. Except in individual family units, separate shower facilities shall be provided each sex. When common use shower facilities for both sexes are in the same building they shall be separated by a...

  16. 20 CFR 654.412 - Bathing, laundry, and handwashing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Bathing, laundry, and handwashing. (a) Bathing and handwashing facilities, supplied with hot and cold... floor drains. Except in individual family units, separate shower facilities shall be provided each sex. When common use shower facilities for both sexes are in the same building they shall be separated by a...

  17. 20 CFR 654.412 - Bathing, laundry, and handwashing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Bathing, laundry, and handwashing. (a) Bathing and handwashing facilities, supplied with hot and cold... floor drains. Except in individual family units, separate shower facilities shall be provided each sex. When common use shower facilities for both sexes are in the same building they shall be separated by a...

  18. 21 CFR 740.17 - Foaming detergent bath products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Foaming detergent bath products. 740.17 Section 740.17 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.17 Foaming detergent bath products...

  19. 21 CFR 740.17 - Foaming detergent bath products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Foaming detergent bath products. 740.17 Section 740.17 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.17 Foaming detergent bath products...

  20. 21 CFR 740.17 - Foaming detergent bath products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Foaming detergent bath products. 740.17 Section 740.17 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.17 Foaming detergent bath products...

  1. 21 CFR 740.17 - Foaming detergent bath products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Foaming detergent bath products. 740.17 Section 740.17 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.17 Foaming detergent bath products...

  2. 21 CFR 740.17 - Foaming detergent bath products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Foaming detergent bath products. 740.17 Section 740.17 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.17 Foaming detergent bath products...

  3. The effect of stunning methods and season on muscle texture hardness in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    PubMed

    Merkin, Grigory V; Stien, Lars Helge; Pittman, Karin; Nortvedt, Ragnar

    2014-06-01

    Commercially collected records of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) muscle texture hardness were used to evaluate the effect of slaughter procedures and seasonality on texture quality. A database collected by Marine Harvest® contained flesh hardness records of Atlantic salmon slaughtered at processing plants in Norway from summer 2010 to summer 2011. The fish were slaughtered either by (1) percussion followed by automated bleeding ("Percussive") or (2) live chilling with exposure to carbon dioxide (CO2 ) followed by manual severing gill arches and bleeding ("CO2 ") or (3) live chilling with exposure to CO2 followed by percussive stunning and at the end automated bleeding ("CO2 ·percussive"). Hardness in salmon muscle cutlets was measured in Newtons (N) by Materials Testing Machine Zwick 500N. The hardness in salmon varied significantly over the study period (P < 0.05, mixed effect model) and showed the softest value of 21.2 (± 0.7) Newton (N) in summer 2011 and hardest 24.1 (± 0.2) N in autumn 2010. Slaughter procedures had a significant effect on salmon muscle hardness (P < 0.05, mixed effect model), where percussion followed by automated bleeding resulted in the hardest value (24.0 ± 0.4 N) as compared with CO2 stunning (21.8 ± 0.2 N) and combination of CO2 and percussive stunning (23.1 ± 0.15 N). CO2 is suspected as a causal factor in accelerated postmortem softening of the salmon muscle. Commercial use of CO2 in combination with live chilling results in accelerated postmortem softening of the muscle tissue in salmon and should be avoided. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Doppler echocardiographic myocardial stunning index predicts recovery of left ventricular systolic function after primary percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Sharif, Dawod; Matanis, Wisam; Sharif-Rasslan, Amal; Rosenschein, Uri

    2016-10-01

    Myocardial stunning is responsible for partially reversible left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction after successful primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) in patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). To test the hypothesis that early coronary blood flow (CBF) to LV systolic function ratios, as an equivalent to LV stunning index (SI), predict recovery of LV systolic function after PPCI in patients with acute STEMI. Twenty-four patients with acute anterior STEMI who had successful PPCI were evaluated and compared to 96 control subjects. Transthoracic echocardiography with measurement of LV ejection fraction (EF), LV, and left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery area wall-motion score index (WMSI) as well as Doppler sampling of LAD blood velocities, early after PPCI and 5 days later, were performed. SI was evaluated as the early ratio of CBF parameters in the LAD to LV systolic function parameters. Early SI-LVEF well predicted late LVEF (r=.51, P<.01) and the change in LVEF (r=.48, P<.017). Early SI-LVMSI predicted well late LVEF (r=.56, P<.006) and the change in LVEF (r=.46, P<.028). Early SI-LADWMSI predicted late LVEF (r=.44, P<.028). Other SI indices measured as other LAD-CBF to LV systolic function parameters were not predictive of late LV systolic function. LV stunning indices measured as early LAD flow to LVEF, LVWMSI, and LADWMSI ratios well predicted late LVEF and the change in LVEF. Thus, greater early coronary artery flow to LV systolic function parameter ratios predict a better improvement in late LV systolic function after PPCI. © 2016, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Microbiological Analysis in Three Diverse Natural Geothermal Bathing Pools in Iceland

    PubMed Central

    Thorolfsdottir, Berglind Osk Th.; Marteinsson, Viggo Thor

    2013-01-01

    Natural thermal bathing pools contain geothermal water that is very popular to bathe in but the water is not sterilized, irradiated or treated in any way. Increasing tourism in Iceland will lead to increasing numbers of bath guests, which can in turn affect the microbial flora in the pools and therefore user safety. Today, there is no legislation that applies to natural geothermal pools in Iceland, as the water is not used for consumption and the pools are not defined as public swimming pools. In this study, we conducted a microbiological analysis on three popular but different natural pools in Iceland, located at Lýsuhóll, Hveravellir and Landmannalaugar. Total bacterial counts were performed by flow cytometry, and with plate count at 22 °C, 37 °C and 50 °C. The presence of viable coliforms, Enterococcus spp. and pseudomonads were investigated by growth experiments on selective media. All samples were screened for noroviruses by real time PCR. The results indicate higher fecal contamination in the geothermal pools where the geothermal water flow was low and bathing guest count was high during the day. The number of cultivated Pseudomonas spp. was high (13,000–40,000 cfu/100 mL) in the natural pools, and several strains were isolated and classified as opportunistic pathogens. Norovirus was not detected in the three pools. DNA was extracted from one-liter samples in each pool and analyzed by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Microbial diversity analysis revealed different microbial communities between the pools and they were primarily composed of alpha-, beta- and gammaproteobacteria. PMID:23493033

  6. Controlled atmosphere stunning of broiler chickens. I. Effects on behaviour, physiology and meat quality in a pilot scale system at a processing plant.

    PubMed

    Abeyesinghe, S M; McKeegan, D E F; McLeman, M A; Lowe, J C; Demmers, T G M; White, R P; Kranen, R W; van Bemmel, H; Lankhaar, J A C; Wathes, C M

    2007-08-01

    1. The effects of controlled atmosphere stunning on the behaviour, physiology and carcase and meat quality of broiler chickens were studied experimentally in a pilot scale plant. 2. Gas mixtures tested were: single phase anoxic mixture (90% Ar in air, <2% O(2)); single phase hypercapnic anoxic mixture (60% Ar, 30% CO(2) in air, <2% O(2)); and biphasic hypercapnic hyperoxygenation mixture (anaesthetic phase, 40% CO(2), 30% O(2), 30% N(2); euthanasia phase, 80% CO(2), 5% O(2), 15% N(2)). 3. Anoxic stunning resulted in the least respiratory disruption, mandibulation and motionlessness, but most head shaking, leg paddling and twitching. Loss of posture occurred soonest with hypercapnic anoxia with the earliest and most twitching and wing flapping in individuals and earliest leg paddling. Biphasic birds were most alert, exhibited most respiratory disruption and mandibulation, and had the latest loss of posture and fewest, but longest bouts of wing flapping and least leg paddling and twitching. 4. Significant and sudden bradycardia and arrhythmia were evident with all gas mixtures and were not related solely to anoxia or hypercapnia. Birds stunned by Ar anoxia showed a slightly more gradual decline from baseline rates, compared with hypercapnic mixtures. 5. Few differences were found between gas mixes in terms of carcase and meat quality. Initial bleeding rate was slowest in biphasic-stunned birds, but total blood loss was not affected. Acceleration of post-mortem metabolism in anoxic-stunned birds was not sufficient to allow de-boning within 5 h without the risk of tough meat. 6. On welfare grounds and taking into account other laboratory and field studies, a biphasic method (using consecutive phases of anaesthesia and euthanasia) of controlled atmosphere stunning of broilers is potentially more humane than anoxic or hypercapnic anoxic methods using argon or nitrogen.

  7. Colonization of Legionella species in Turkish baths in hotels in Alanya, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Erdogan, Haluk; Arslan, Hande

    2015-05-01

    This study evaluated the prevalence of Legionella species in water samples collected from Turkish baths in hotels in Alanya, Turkey, from August 2003 to September 2013. Water samples were collected in 100-mL sterile containers and then concentrated by filtration. Heat treatment was used to eliminate other microorganisms from the samples, which were then spread on Legionella-selective-buffered charcoal yeast extract alpha (BCYE-α) agar and on BCYE-α agar supplemented with glycine, vancomycin, polymyxin, and cycloheximide. Cysteine-dependent colonies were identified by latex agglutination. In total, 135 samples from 52 hotels with Turkish baths were evaluated. Legionella species were identified in 11/52 (21.2%) hotels and 18/135 (13.3%) samples. The most frequently isolated species was Legionella pneumophila, with most isolates belonging to serogroups 6 (55.6%) and 1 (22.2%). The colony count was <100 colony-forming units (CFU) mL(-1) in nine samples, from 100 to 1000 CFU mL(-1) in six samples, and >1000 CFU mL(-1) in three samples. These findings suggest that the hot water systems of Turkish baths in hotels must be viewed as a possible source of travel-associated Legionnaires' disease, and preventative measures should be put in place.

  8. Effect of bathing on atopic dermatitis during the summer season

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hakyoung; Ban, Jeongsuk; Park, Mi-Ran; Kim, Do-Soo; Kim, Hye-Young; Han, Youngshin; Ahn, Kangmo

    2012-01-01

    Background There are little objective data regarding the optimal practice methods of bathing, although bathing and the use of moisturizers are the most important facets to atopic dermatitis (AD) management. Objective We performed this study to evaluate the effect of bathing on AD. Methods Ninety-six children with AD were enrolled during the summer season. Parents were educated to bathe them once daily with mildly acidic cleansers, and to apply emollients for 14 days. Parents recorded the frequency of bathing and skin symptoms in a diary. Scoring AD (SCORAD) scores were measured at the initial and follow-up visits. Patients were divided into two groups, based on the compliance of bathing; poor compliance was defined as ≥ 2 bathless days. Results There was an improvement of SCORAD score, itching, and insomnia in the good compliance group (all p < 0.001). The mean change in SCORAD score from the baseline at the follow-up visit was greater in the good compliance group than the poor compliance group (p = 0.038). Conclusion Daily bathing using weakly acidic syndets can reduce skin symptoms of pediatric AD during the summer season. PMID:23130333

  9. Bath for electrolytic reduction of alumina and method therefor

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Craig W.; Brooks, Richard J.; Frizzle, Patrick B.; Juric, Drago D.

    2002-11-26

    An electrolytic bath for use during the electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum. The bath comprises a molten electrolyte having the following ingredients: (a) AlF.sub.3 and at least one salt selected from the group consisting of NaF, KF, and LiF; and (b) about 0.004 wt. % to about 0.2 wt. %, based on total weight of the molten electrolyte, of at least one transition metal or at least one compound of the metal or both. The compound may be, for example, a fluoride, oxide, or carbonate. The metal can be nickel, iron, copper, cobalt, or molybdenum. The bath can be employed in a combination that includes a vessel for containing the bath and at least one non-consumable anode and at least one dimensionally stable cathode in the bath. Employing the bath of the present invention during electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum can improve the wetting of aluminum on a cathode by reducing or eliminating the formation of non-metallic deposits on the cathode. Removing sulfur from the bath can also minimize cathode deposits. Aluminum formed on the cathode can be removed directly from the cathode.

  10. Arrested blood flow during false aneurysm formation in the carotid arteries of cattle slaughtered with and without stunning.

    PubMed

    Gregory, N G; Schuster, P; Mirabito, L; Kolesar, R; McManus, T

    2012-02-01

    The time to onset of arrested blood flow and the size of false aneurysms in the severed carotid arteries were assessed in 126 cattle during halal slaughter without stunning. Thirty six cattle (29%) showed early arrest of blood flow. In 6%, both the left and right carotid arteries in the same animal stopped bleeding before 60s had elapsed following the neck cut. The time to early arrested blood flow was on average 21s, and this was accompanied by enlargement with false aneurysms which occluded the arteries. In the arteries which were still bleeding at 60s after the neck was cut the artery size was normal. Based on comparative data from different slaughter premises it appeared that making the cut in the neck at the first cervical vertebra instead of the second to fourth cervical vertebrae reduced the frequency of false aneurysm formation and early arrested blood flow. This was confirmed in a separate controlled trial where 100 cattle were stunned with a captive bolt and the arteries were examined following neck cutting at either the C1 or C3 positions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Meat from cattle slaughtered without stunning sold in the conventional market without appropriate labelling: A case study in Italy.

    PubMed

    D'amico, Priscilla; Vitelli, Nicolò; Cenci Goga, Beniamino; Nucera, Daniele; Pedonese, Francesca; Guidi, Alessandra; Armani, Andrea

    2017-12-01

    In the European Union, slaughter without stunning is allowed for religious slaughter to obtain halal and kosher meat. Especially in the case of Jewish slaughtering, cuts which are not deemed as kosher are sold to regular market without any specific labelling. This survey, conducted in Tuscany in 2016, aimed to quantify the carcasses rejected in relation to the type of religious slaughter. 656 bovines were slaughtered without stunning: 538 (82%) for halal and 118 (18%) for kosher. All carcasses slaughtered by the Islamic procedure (dhabiha) were considered halal, while 77.1% of carcasses slaughtered by the Jewish procedure (shechita) did not pass the approval. Carcasses were rejected after chest cavity inspection (50%) and after the lungs control (50%). This study provides an important insight in this field and postulates how to amalgamate the concepts of freedom of religion, as enshrined by the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the EU, with consumer rights and animal welfare. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Bandages and difficulty with bathing: introducing Seal-Tight.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Ellie

    2005-06-01

    Patients with compression bandages experience difficulty with bathing due to the possibility that bandages may become wet and affect the wound. Bandage and dressing changes resulting from accidental wetting also cost the NHS considerable time and money. This product focus highlights the social and psychological impact on the patient when they are unable to bathe and offers a solution to the problem. Seal-Tight is a product that has been newly placed on the drug tariff, making it widely available to all patients who wear bandages (or plaster casts). Seal-Tight enables the patient to bathe, in some cases for the first time for months or even years.

  13. [Survival of Bacillus anthracis spores in various tannery baths].

    PubMed

    Mendrycka, M; Mierzejewski, J

    2000-01-01

    The influence of tannery baths: liming, deliming, bating, pickling, tanning, retannage on the survival and on the germination dynamism of B. anthracis spores (Sterne strain) was investigated. The periods and the conditions of this influence were established according to technological process of cow hide tannage. Practically after every bath some part of the spores remained vital. The most effective killing of spores occurred after pickling, liming and deliming. Inversely, the most viable spores remained after bating and retannage process. The lack of correlation that was observed between survival and germination of spores after retannage bath can be explained by different mechanism of spores germination inhibition and their killing.

  14. Bath additives for the treatment of childhood eczema (BATHE): protocol for multicentre parallel group randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Santer, Miriam; Rumsby, Kate; Ridd, Matthew J; Francis, Nick A; Stuart, Beth; Chorozoglou, Maria; Wood, Wendy; Roberts, Amanda; Thomas, Kim S; Williams, Hywel C; Little, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Bath emollients are widely prescribed for childhood eczema, yet evidence of their benefits over direct application of emollients is lacking. Objectives To determine the clinical and cost-effectiveness of adding bath emollient to the standard management of eczema in children Methods and analysis Design: Pragmatic open 2-armed parallel group randomised controlled trial. Setting: General practitioner (GP) practices in England and Wales. Participants: Children aged over 12 months and less than 12 years with eczema, excluding inactive or very mild eczema (5 or less on Nottingham Eczema Severity Scale). Interventions: Children will be randomised to either bath emollients plus standard eczema care or standard eczema care only. Outcome measures: Primary outcome is long-term eczema severity, measured by the Patient-Oriented Eczema Measure (POEM) repeated weekly for 16 weeks. Secondary outcomes include: number of eczema exacerbations resulting in healthcare consultations over 1 year; eczema severity over 1 year; disease-specific and generic quality of life; medication use and healthcare resource use; cost-effectiveness. Aiming to detect a mean difference between groups of 2.0 (SD 7.0) in weekly POEM scores over 16 weeks (significance 0.05, power 0.9), allowing for 20% loss to follow-up, gives a total sample size of 423 children. We will use repeated measures analysis of covariance, or a mixed model, to analyse weekly POEM scores. We will control for possible confounders, including baseline eczema severity and child's age. Cost-effectiveness analysis will be carried out from a National Health Service (NHS) perspective. Ethics and dissemination This protocol was approved by Newcastle and North Tyneside 1 NRES committee 14/NE/0098. Follow-up will be completed in 2017. Findings will be disseminated to participants and carers, the public, dermatology and primary care journals, guideline developers and decision-makers. Trial registration number ISRCTN

  15. Design and validation of a tissue bath 3-D printed with PLA for optically mapping suspended whole heart preparations.

    PubMed

    Entz, Michael; King, D Ryan; Poelzing, Steven

    2017-12-01

    With the sudden increase in affordable manufacturing technologies, the relationship between experimentalists and the designing process for laboratory equipment is rapidly changing. While experimentalists are still dependent on engineers and manufacturers for precision electrical, mechanical, and optical equipment, it has become a realistic option for in house manufacturing of other laboratory equipment with less precise design requirements. This is possible due to decreasing costs and increasing functionality of desktop three-dimensional (3-D) printers and 3-D design software. With traditional manufacturing methods, iterative design processes are expensive and time consuming, and making more than one copy of a custom piece of equipment is prohibitive. Here, we provide an overview to design a tissue bath and stabilizer for a customizable, suspended, whole heart optical mapping apparatus that can be produced significantly faster and less expensive than conventional manufacturing techniques. This was accomplished through a series of design steps to prevent fluid leakage in the areas where the optical imaging glass was attached to the 3-D printed bath. A combination of an acetone dip along with adhesive was found to create a water tight bath. Optical mapping was used to quantify cardiac conduction velocity and action potential duration to compare 3-D printed baths to a bath that was designed and manufactured in a machine shop. Importantly, the manufacturing method did not significantly affect conduction, action potential duration, or contraction, suggesting that 3-D printed baths are equally effective for optical mapping experiments. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This article details three-dimensional printable equipment for use in suspended whole heart optical mapping experiments. This equipment is less expensive than conventional manufactured equipment as well as easily customizable to the experimentalist. The baths can be waterproofed using only a three-dimensional printer

  16. Psychoactive "bath salts" intoxication with methylenedioxypyrovalerone.

    PubMed

    Ross, Edward A; Reisfield, Gary M; Watson, Mary C; Chronister, Chris W; Goldberger, Bruce A

    2012-09-01

    Abuse of the psychoactive "designer drug" methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) has become a serious international public health concern because of the severity of its physical and behavioral toxicities. MDPV is the primary ingredient in so-called "bath salts," labeled as such to avoid criminal prosecution and has only been classified recently as a controlled substance in the United States and some other countries. However, it remains a danger because of illegal sources, including the Internet. MDPV is a synthetic, cathinone-derivative, central nervous system stimulant and is taken to produce a cocaine- or methamphetamine-like high. Administered via oral ingestion, nasal insufflation, smoking, intravenous or intramuscular methods, or the rectum, the intoxication lasts 6 to 8 hours and has high addictive potential. Overdoses are characterized by profound toxicities, causing increased attention by emergency department and law enforcement personnel. Physical manifestations range from tachycardia, hypertension, arrhythmias, hyperthermia, sweating, rhabdomyolysis, and seizures to those as severe as stroke, cerebral edema, cardiorespiratory collapse, myocardial infarction, and death. Behavioral effects include panic attacks, anxiety, agitation, severe paranoia, hallucinations, psychosis, suicidal ideation, self-mutilation, and behavior that is aggressive, violent, and self-destructive. Treatment is principally supportive and focuses on counteracting the sympathetic overstimulation, including sedation with intravenous benzodiazepines, seizure-prevention measures, intravenous fluids, close (eg, intensive care unit) monitoring, and restraints to prevent harm to self or others. Clinical presentation is often complicated by coingestion of other psychoactive substances that may alter the treatment approach. Clinicians need to be especially vigilant in that MDPV is not detected by routine drug screens and overdoses can be life-threatening. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  17. 6. HUBBARD TUB, SHOWING WHIRLPOOL MOTOR OUTSIDE BATH STALL. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. HUBBARD TUB, SHOWING WHIRLPOOL MOTOR OUTSIDE BATH STALL. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Quapaw Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  18. 11. GENERAL VIEW OF MEN'S BATH HALL. Hot Springs ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. GENERAL VIEW OF MEN'S BATH HALL. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Fordyce Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  19. 14. STEAM CABINETS & SITZ BATH IN STEAM ROOM. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. STEAM CABINETS & SITZ BATH IN STEAM ROOM. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Fordyce Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  20. 1. NORTHWEST FRONT, SOUTHWEST SIDE (SPRING HOUSE IN FOREGROUND; BATH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. NORTHWEST FRONT, SOUTHWEST SIDE (SPRING HOUSE IN FOREGROUND; BATH HOUSE AT REAR) (4 x 5 negative; 5 x 7 print) - Salt Sulphur Springs, Spring House, U.S. Route 219, Salt Sulphur Springs, Monroe County, WV

  1. Characteristic functions of quantum heat with baths at different temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aurell, Erik

    2018-06-01

    This paper is about quantum heat defined as the change in energy of a bath during a process. The presentation takes into account recent developments in classical strong-coupling thermodynamics and addresses a version of quantum heat that satisfies quantum-classical correspondence. The characteristic function and the full counting statistics of quantum heat are shown to be formally similar. The paper further shows that the method can be extended to more than one bath, e.g., two baths at different temperatures, which opens up the prospect of studying correlations and heat flow. The paper extends earlier results on the expected quantum heat in the setting of one bath [E. Aurell and R. Eichhorn, New J. Phys. 17, 065007 (2015), 10.1088/1367-2630/17/6/065007; E. Aurell, Entropy 19, 595 (2017), 10.3390/e19110595].

  2. Interior view of servant's bath showing original lavatory and toilet, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of servant's bath showing original lavatory and toilet, facing east. - Albrook Air Force Station, Company Officer's Quarters, East side of Canfield Avenue, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  3. Interior vie of bath 2 showing original toilet, tub, and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior vie of bath 2 showing original toilet, tub, and plumbing wall cabinet, facing southeast. - Albrook Air Force Station, Company Officer's Quarters, East side of Canfield Avenue, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  4. Interior view of bath 2 showing original pedestal lavatory and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of bath 2 showing original pedestal lavatory and tub, facing south. - Albrook Air Force Station, Company Officer's Quarters, East side of Canfield Avenue, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  5. [The use of sodium chloride baths in children with a heart lesion subjected to long-term exposure to low radiation doses].

    PubMed

    Poberskaia, V A; Dement'eva, O I

    1997-01-01

    Children exposed to low-dose radiation are often treated in sanatoria with mineral baths. Of the latter balneoprocedures widely practiced are sodium chloride (SC) baths with mineralization 20-30 g/l. Mineralization 40 g/l is less frequently used. To specify changes in the function of cardiovascular system induced by SC baths of different concentration (40 versus 20 g/l) 131 senior schoolchildren exposed to low-dose radiation or other environmental pollutants were examined both after a single balneological procedure and after the course treatment (maximum 10 procedures). The baths lasted 8-15 min at water temperature 36-38 OC in a day intervals. The response was assessed by ECG, tetrapolar chest rheography, bicycle exercise. All the children had cardiovascular disorders of non-rheumatic origin. Therapeutic effect was more pronounced after baths with SC concentration 40 g/l. These baths are recommended for improvement of vegetative regulation of the heart, correction of hemodynamic defects. Baths with mineralization 20 g/l are better in upgrading function of the autonomic nervous system.

  6. Bath for electrolytic reduction of alumina and method therefor

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Craig W.; Brooks, Richard J.; Frizzle, Patrick B.; Juric, Drago D.

    2001-07-10

    An electrolytic bath for use during the electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum. The bath comprises a molten electrolyte having the following ingredients: (a) AlF.sub.3 and at least one salt selected from the group consisting of NaF, KF, and LiF; and (b) about 0.004 wt. % to about 0.2 wt. %, based on total weight of the molten electrolyte, of at least one transition metal or at least one compound of the metal or both. The compound may be, for example, a fluoride, oxide, or carbonate. The metal can be nickel, iron, copper, cobalt, or molybdenum. The bath can be employed in a combination that includes a vessel for containing the bath and at least one non-consumable anode and at least one dimensionally stable cathode in the bath. Employing the bath of the present invention during electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum can improve the wetting of aluminum on a cathode by reducing or eliminating the formation of non-metallic deposits on the cathode.

  7. Evaluation of different captive bolt lengths and breed influence upon post-stun hind limb and forelimb activity in fed cattle at a commercial slaughter facility.

    PubMed

    Martin, Miriam S; Kline, Helen C; Wagner, Dana R; Alexander, Lacey R; Edwards-Callaway, Lily N; Grandin, Temple

    2018-05-03

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of captive bolt length and breed type on post-stun leg activity in cattle. A total of 2850 Holstein (HOL) and non-Holstein British/Continental bred (NHOL) steers and heifers were observed post-stunning at a large commercial slaughter facility. A pneumatically powered penetrating captive bolt stunner was used with three different bolt lengths: CON, 15.24 cm; MED, 16.51 cm; and LON, 17.78 cm. Hind limb kicking, forelimb activity, take away belt stops, carcass swing and number of knife sticks during exsanguination were recorded for each animal from video recording. Hind limb and forelimb kicks observed ranged from 0 to 25 and 0 to 8, respectively. Analysis of post-stun hind limb and forelimb activity indicated that increasing pneumatically powered penetrating captive bolt length does not decrease post-stun leg activity. There was a higher percentage of cattle experiencing take away belt stops and carcass swing in HOL as compared with NHOL. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Impact of low atmosphere pressure stunning of broilers on breast skin Salmonella and Campylobacter post-defeathering and breast fillet meat quality

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Low atmosphere pressure stun (LAPS) is a method of controlled atmosphere poultry slaughter that utilizes a decrease of atmospheric pressure (0.2 ATM) to induce unconsciousness and death. Following feed withdrawal periods of 4, 6, 8, or 10 hours, broilers were slaughtered using LAPS or electrical stu...

  9. ELECTRODIALYSIS AS A TECHNIQUE FOR EXTENDING ELECTROLESS NICKEL BATH LIFE-IMPROVING SELECTIVITY AND REDUCING LOSSES OF VALUABLE BATH COMPONENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the last decade electrodialysis has emerged as an effective technique for removing accumulated reactant counterions (sodium and sulfate) and reaction products (orthophosphite) that interfere with the electroless nickel plating process, thus extending bath life by up to 50 me...

  10. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Dose-Response and Bathing Water Infection

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most commonly identified opportunistic pathogen associated with pool acquired bather disease. To better understand why this microorganism poses this protracted problem we recently appraised P. aeruginosa pool risk management. Much is known about the ...

  11. Throwing out the Baby with the Bath Water. Carnegie Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Lloyd

    2005-01-01

    The writer reminds readers that the polemics of reform frequently portray the realm of teaching and learning in more extreme terms than is really necessary. Likening calls for educational reform to scientific revolutions sparked by Kuhn, Darwin and Copernicus, that jettison completely the assumptions and premises of the theories they replace, Bond…

  12. Effects of low humidity and high air velocity in a heated room on physiological responses and thermal comfort after bathing: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Hashiguchi, Nobuko; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2009-02-01

    In the present study we investigated the effects of low relative humidity (RH) and high air velocity (VA) on physiological and subjective responses after bathing in order to present the evidence for required nursing intervention after bathing. Eight healthy male subjects participated in this experiment. There were four thermal conditions which combined RH (20% of 60%) and VA (low: less than 0.2 m/s or high: from 0.5 to 0.7 m/s). After taking a tub bath, subjects sat for 80 min in the test room under each condition. In addition, one condition under which the subjects were exposed to 20% RH and high VA condition for 80 min without bathing condition was conducted. A decrease in mean skin temperature (T sk), dryness of the skin and eyes were observed, though thermal comfort and warmth retained, due to spending time after bathing in a low RH and high VA environment, compared to the condition without bathing. Moreover, dryness of the skin, a decrease in hydration of the skin and an increase in transepidermal water loss (TEWL) after bathing were significantly affected by RH levels, on the other hand subjective coolness, discomfort and perception of dryness in the eye were significantly affected by VA levels. The decrease in T sk after bathing was significantly affected by both RH and VA. From our findings we concluded that low RH and high VA have negative effects on humans after bathing, for example a decrease in body temperature and dryness of the skin and eyes. Moreover, it was indicated that the negative effects could be kept to a minimum and thermal comfort remain higher, if RH and VA levels were controlled within the optimum ranges.

  13. Bath additives for the treatment of childhood eczema (BATHE): protocol for multicentre parallel group randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Santer, Miriam; Rumsby, Kate; Ridd, Matthew J; Francis, Nick A; Stuart, Beth; Chorozoglou, Maria; Wood, Wendy; Roberts, Amanda; Thomas, Kim S; Williams, Hywel C; Little, Paul

    2015-11-01

    Bath emollients are widely prescribed for childhood eczema, yet evidence of their benefits over direct application of emollients is lacking. Objectives To determine the clinical and cost-effectiveness of adding bath emollient to the standard management of eczema in children Pragmatic open 2-armed parallel group randomised controlled trial. General practitioner (GP) practices in England and Wales. Children aged over 12 months and less than 12 years with eczema, excluding inactive or very mild eczema (5 or less on Nottingham Eczema Severity Scale). Children will be randomised to either bath emollients plus standard eczema care or standard eczema care only. Primary outcome is long-term eczema severity, measured by the Patient-Oriented Eczema Measure (POEM) repeated weekly for 16 weeks. Secondary outcomes include: number of eczema exacerbations resulting in healthcare consultations over 1 year; eczema severity over 1 year; disease-specific and generic quality of life; medication use and healthcare resource use; cost-effectiveness. Aiming to detect a mean difference between groups of 2.0 (SD 7.0) in weekly POEM scores over 16 weeks (significance 0.05, power 0.9), allowing for 20% loss to follow-up, gives a total sample size of 423 children. We will use repeated measures analysis of covariance, or a mixed model, to analyse weekly POEM scores. We will control for possible confounders, including baseline eczema severity and child's age. Cost-effectiveness analysis will be carried out from a National Health Service (NHS) perspective. This protocol was approved by Newcastle and North Tyneside 1 NRES committee 14/NE/0098. Follow-up will be completed in 2017. Findings will be disseminated to participants and carers, the public, dermatology and primary care journals, guideline developers and decision-makers. ISRCTN84102309. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  14. Control of electron spin decoherence in nuclear spin baths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ren-Bao

    2011-03-01

    Nuclear spin baths are a main mechanism of decoherence of spin qubits in solid-state systems, such as quantum dots and nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers of diamond. The decoherence results from entanglement between the electron and nuclear spins, established by quantum evolution of the bath conditioned on the electron spin state. When the electron spin is flipped, the conditional bath evolution is manipulated. Such manipulation of bath through control of the electron spin not only leads to preservation of the center spin coherence but also demonstrates quantum nature of the bath. In an NV center system, the electron spin effectively interacts with hundreds of 13 C nuclear spins. Under repeated flip control (dynamical decoupling), the electron spin coherence can be preserved for a long time (> 1 ms) . Thereforesomecharacteristicoscillations , duetocouplingtoabonded 13 C nuclear spin pair (a dimer), are imprinted on the electron spin coherence profile, which are very sensitive to the position and orientation of the dimer. With such finger-print oscillations, a dimer can be uniquely identified. Thus, we propose magnetometry with single-nucleus sensitivity and atomic resolution, using NV center spin coherence to identify single molecules. Through the center spin coherence, we could also explore the many-body physics in an interacting spin bath. The information of elementary excitations and many-body correlations can be extracted from the center spin coherence under many-pulse dynamical decoupling control. Another application of the preserved spin coherence is identifying quantumness of a spin bath through the back-action of the electron spin to the bath. We show that the multiple transition of an NV center in a nuclear spin bath can have longer coherence time than the single transition does, when the classical noises due to inhomogeneous broadening is removed by spin echo. This counter-intuitive result unambiguously demonstrates the quantumness of the nuclear spin bath

  15. Increasing combat realism: the effectiveness of stun belt use on soldiers for the enhancement of live training and testing exercises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schricker, Bradley C.; Antalek, Christopher

    2006-05-01

    The ability to make correct decisions while operating in a combat zone enables American and Coalition warfighters to better respond to any threats they may encounter due to the minimization of negative training the warfighter encountered during their live, virtual, and constructive (LVC) training exercises. By increasing the physical effects encountered by one's senses during combat scenarios, combat realism is able to be increased, which is a key component in the reduction in negative training. The use of LVC simulations for training and testing augmentation purposes depends on a number of factors, not the least of which is the accurate representation of the training environment. This is particularly true in the realm of tactical engagement training through the use of Tactical Engagement Simulation Systems (TESS). The training environment is perceived through human senses, most notably sight and hearing. As with other haptic devices, the sense of touch is gaining traction as a viable medium through which to express the effects of combat battle damage from the synthetic training environment to participants within a simulated training exercise. New developments in this field are promoting the safe use of an electronic stun device to indicate to a trainee that they have been hit by a projectile, from either direct or indirect fire, through the course of simulated combat. A growing number of examples suggest that this added output medium can greatly enhance the realism of a training exercise and, thus, improve the training value. This paper serves as a literature survey of this concept, beginning with an explanation of TESS. It will then focus on how the electronic stun effect may be employed within a TESS and then detail some of the noted pros and cons of such an approach. The paper will conclude with a description of potential directions and work.

  16. Sliding bubbles on a hot horizontal wire in a subcooled bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duchesne, Alexis; Dubois, Charles; Caps, Hervé

    2015-11-01

    When a wire is heated up to the boiling point in a liquid bath some bubbles will nucleate on the wire surface. Traditional nucleate boiling theory predicts that bubbles generate from active nucleate site, grow up and depart from the heating surface due to buoyancy and inertia. However, an alternative scenario is presented in the literature for a subcooled bath: bubbles slide along the horizontal wire before departing. New experiments were performed by using a constantan wire and different liquids, varying the injected power. Silicone oil, water and even liquid nitrogen were tested in order to vary wetting conditions, liquid viscosities and surface tensions. We explored the influence of the wire diameter and of the subcooled bath temperature. We observed, of course, sliding motion, but also a wide range of behaviors from bubbles clustering to film boiling. We noticed that bubbles could change moving sense, especially when encountering with another bubble. The bubble speed is carefully measured and can reach more than 100 mm/s for a millimetric bubble. We investigated the dependence of the speed on the different parameters and found that this speed is, for a given configuration, quite independent of the injected power. We understand these phenomena in terms of Marangoni effects. This project has been financially supported by ARC SuperCool contract of the University of Liège.

  17. [Cold or hot sitz baths in the emergency treatment of acute anal pain due to anorectal disease? Results of a randomised clinical trial].

    PubMed

    Maestre, Yolanda; Parés, David; Salvans, Silvia; Ibáñez-Zafón, Inés; Nve, Esther; Pons, Maria-José; Martínez-Casas, Isidro; Pascual, Marta; Pera, Miguel; Grande, Luis

    2010-08-01

    The popular belief advocates the use of sitz (sitting) baths with cold water for the treatment of acute anal pain, but clinical practice guides recommend the use of hot water for its known effect on the at-rest anal pressure. The objective of the study was to examine the analgesic effect on the quality of life, manometer data and clinical progress, of the two temperatures in sitz baths in patients with anal pain. A randomised clinical trial on patients with acute anal pain due to haemorrhoids or anal fissures, divided into Group 1: Sitz baths with water at a temperature of less than 15 degrees C, and Group 2: Baths with a water temperature above 30 degrees C. The analgesia was the same in both groups. An analysis was made of the pain at 7 days (visual analogue scale), quality of life (SF-36), anal at-rest pressure and disease progress. Of the 27 eligible patients, 24 were randomised (Group 1: n=12 y Group 2: n=12). There were no statistical differences in pain, but it remained stable in Group 1, but gradually decreased in the patients of Group 2, the difference being in the pain scores on the first day compared to the seventh in Group 2 (p=0.244). The rest of the variables were similar. There were no statistically significant differences in pain control from day 1 to day 7 in the Group with sitz baths with hot water. (ISRCTN Number: 50105150).

  18. Development of a 300 L Calibration Bath for Oceanographic Thermometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baba, S.; Yamazawa, K.; Nakano, T.; Saito, I.; Tamba, J.; Wakimoto, T.; Katoh, K.

    2017-11-01

    The Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) has been developing a 300 L calibration bath to calibrate 24 oceanographic thermometers (OT) simultaneously and thereby reduce the calibration work load necessary to service more than 180 OT every year. This study investigated characteristics of the developed 300 L calibration bath using a SBE 3plus thermometer produced by an OT manufacturer. We also used 11 thermistor thermometers that were calibrated to be traceable to the international temperature scale of 1990 (ITS-90) within 1 mK of standard uncertainty through collaboration of JAMSTEC and NMIJ/AIST. Results show that the time stability of temperature of the developed bath was within ± 1 mK. Furthermore, the temperature uniformity was ± 1.3 mK. The expanded uncertainty (k=2) components for the characteristics of the developed 300 L calibration bath were estimated as 2.9 mK, which is much less than the value of 10 mK: the required specification for uncertainty of calibration for the OT. These results demonstrated the utility of this 300 L calibration bath as a device for use with a new calibration system.

  19. Bath salts: they are not what you think.

    PubMed

    Wieland, Diane M; Halter, Margaret J; Levine, Ciara

    2012-02-01

    Psychoactive bath salts are a relatively new group of designer drugs sold as tablets, capsules, or powder and pur-chased in places such as tobacco and convenience stores, gas stations, head shops, and the Internet. Bath salts are stimulant agents that mimic cocaine,lysergic acid diethylamide, methamphetamine, or methylenedioxymethamphetamine (ecstasy). The most common bath salts are the cathinone derivatives 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone(MDPV), 4-methylmethcathinone(mephedrone), and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylcathinone (methylone). The drugs cause intense stimulation, eu-phoria, elevated mood, and a pleasurable "rush" Tachycardia, hypertension,peripheral constriction, chest pain, hallucinations, paranoia, erratic behavior,inattention, lack of memory of substance use, and psychosis have been observed in those who have used bath salts. The U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration recently exercised an emergency authority to name three key ingredients in bath salts as Schedule I, thereby making them illegal to possess or sell in the United States. Nursing implications related to both clinical and educational settings are discussed.

  20. Mycological flora of the Hammams, traditional Turkish bath.

    PubMed

    Goksugur, Nadir; Karabay, Oguz; Kocoglu, Esra

    2006-09-01

    Traditional Turkish baths, Hammams, occupy a prominent place in public health in history and at present. It is well-known that baths are major sources of fungal skin infections, but according to our knowledge fungal flora of Turkish Hammams was not defined yet. In Bolu, Turkey, two Hammams were open to public and for detecting fungal flora, we collected 209 samples from different part of floors, tools and screened for the fungal pathogens. From floors of the dressing rooms, Trichophyton rubrum and Candida albicans; from slippers T. rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum, Candida albicans and C. tropicalis were isolated. While we could not isolate any dermatophyte species and yeasts from the vicinity of the bath windows and walls of baths, Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium spp. were isolated from the same locations. Samples taken from marble floors of baths, central massage platforms (hottest part of the Hammam) and towels did not show any fungal growth. This report reveals that components of the Turkish Hammams have low risk for fungal contamination as a result of frequent cleaning and environmental high temperature. But shared tools like slippers were found to be an important source of fungal contamination.

  1. Impact of daily chlorhexidine baths and hand hygiene compliance on nosocomial infection rates in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Reséndez, Michel Fernando; Garza-González, Elvira; Mendoza-Olazaran, Soraya; Herrera-Guerra, Alexis; Rodríguez-López, Juan Manuel; Pérez-Rodriguez, Edelmiro; Mercado-Longoria, Roberto; Camacho-Ortiz, Adrián

    2014-07-01

    Up to 25% of all nosocomial infections (NIs) develop in critically ill patients. Our objective was to evaluate chlorhexidine (CHX) bathing and hand hygiene (HH) compliance in the reduction of NIs in the intensive care unit. The study comprised three 6-month periods: preintervention (PIP; soap/water bathing), intervention (IP; bathing with CHX-impregnated wipes), and postintervention (PoIP; soap/water bathing). An HH program was implemented during the IP and PoIP. Primary outcomes were global and specific NI rates. A total of 1007 patients were included. Infection rates per 100 discharges were higher in the PIP compared with the IP and also higher in the PoIP compared with the IP (P = .0004 and .0109, respectively). Global infection rates per 1000 hospital-days were higher in the PIP than in the IP (P = .0268). The rates of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) were higher in the PIP than in the IP (P = .036 and .0001, respectively). Isolation of Acinetobacter baumannii from VAP specimens (P = .0204) and isolation of Candida spp from CAUTI specimens (P = .0005) decreased as well. The combined intervention reduced global and specific infection rates, including rates of VAP associated with A baumannii and CAUTI associated with Candida spp. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Climate change impact on infection risks during bathing downstream of sewage emissions from CSOs or WWTPs.

    PubMed

    Sterk, Ankie; de Man, Heleen; Schijven, Jack F; de Nijs, Ton; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria

    2016-11-15

    Climate change is expected to influence infection risks while bathing downstream of sewage emissions from combined sewage overflows (CSOs) or waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) due to changes in pathogen influx, rising temperatures and changing flow rates of the receiving waters. In this study, climate change impacts on the surface water concentrations of Campylobacter, Cryptosporidium and norovirus originating from sewage were modelled. Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) was used to assess changes in risks of infection. In general, infection risks downstream of WWTPs are higher than downstream CSOs. Even though model outputs show an increase in CSO influxes, in combination with changes in pathogen survival, dilution within the sewage system and bathing behaviour, the effects on the infection risks are limited. However, a decrease in dilution capacity of surface waters could have significant impact on the infection risks of relatively stable pathogens like Cryptosporidium and norovirus. Overall, average risks are found to be higher downstream WWTPs compared to CSOs. Especially with regard to decreased flow rates, adaptation measures on treatment at WWTPs may be more beneficial for human health than decreasing CSO events. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Performance of Inductors Attached to a Galvanizing Bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xinping; Yuan, Shuo; Liu, Chi; Yang, Peng; Qian, Chaoqun; Song, Bao

    2013-12-01

    By taking a galvanizing bath with inductors from an Iron and Steel Co., Ltd as an example, the distributions of Lorentz force and generated heat in the inductor are simulated. As a result, the zinc flow and the temperature distribution driven by the Lorentz force and the generated heat in the inductor of a galvanizing bath are simulated numerically, and their characteristics are analyzed. The relationship of the surface-weighted average velocity at the outlet and the temperature difference between the inlet and the outlet and the effective power for the inductor is studied. Results show that with an increase in effective power for the inductor, the surface-weighted average velocity at the outlet and the temperature difference between the inlet and the outlet increase gradually. We envisage this work to lay a foundation for the study of the performance of the galvanizing bath in future.

  4. Thermal diode utilizing asymmetric contacts to heat baths.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Teruhisa S; Ito, Nobuyasu

    2010-01-01

    We propose a simple thermal diode passively acting as a rectifier of heat current. The key design of the diode is the size asymmetry of the areas in contact with two distinct heat baths. The heat-conducting medium is liquid, inside of which gaslike regions are induced depending on the applied conditions. Simulating nanoscale systems of this diode, the rectification of heat current is demonstrated. If the packing density of the medium and the working regime of temperature are properly chosen, the heat current is effectively cut off when the heat bath with narrow contact is hotter, but it flows normally under opposite temperature conditions. In the former case, the gaslike region is induced in the system and it acts as a thermal insulator because it covers the entire narrow area of contact with the bath.

  5. Theories of quantum dissipation and nonlinear coupling bath descriptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Rui-Xue; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Hou-Dao; Yan, YiJing

    2018-03-01

    The quest of an exact and nonperturbative treatment of quantum dissipation in nonlinear coupling environments remains in general an intractable task. In this work, we address the key issues toward the solutions to the lowest nonlinear environment, a harmonic bath coupled both linearly and quadratically with an arbitrary system. To determine the bath coupling descriptors, we propose a physical mapping scheme, together with the prescription reference invariance requirement. We then adopt a recently developed dissipaton equation of motion theory [R. X. Xu et al., Chin. J. Chem. Phys. 30, 395 (2017)], with the underlying statistical quasi-particle ("dissipaton") algebra being extended to the quadratic bath coupling. We report the numerical results on a two-level system dynamics and absorption and emission line shapes.

  6. Reduced quantum dynamics with arbitrary bath spectral densities: Hierarchical equations of motion based on several different bath decomposition schemes

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Hao; Zhu, Lili; Bai, Shuming

    2014-04-07

    We investigated applications of the hierarchical equation of motion (HEOM) method to perform high order perturbation calculations of reduced quantum dynamics for a harmonic bath with arbitrary spectral densities. Three different schemes are used to decompose the bath spectral density into analytical forms that are suitable to the HEOM treatment: (1) The multiple Lorentzian mode model that can be obtained by numerically fitting the model spectral density. (2) The combined Debye and oscillatory Debye modes model that can be constructed by fitting the corresponding classical bath correlation function. (3) A new method that uses undamped harmonic oscillator modes explicitly inmore » the HEOM formalism. Methods to extract system-bath correlations were investigated for the above bath decomposition schemes. We also show that HEOM in the undamped harmonic oscillator modes can give detailed information on the partial Wigner transform of the total density operator. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations of the spin-Boson dynamics and the absorption line shape of molecular dimers show that the HEOM formalism for high order perturbations can serve as an important tool in studying the quantum dissipative dynamics in the intermediate coupling regime.« less

  7. Reduced quantum dynamics with arbitrary bath spectral densities: hierarchical equations of motion based on several different bath decomposition schemes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hao; Zhu, Lili; Bai, Shuming; Shi, Qiang

    2014-04-07

    We investigated applications of the hierarchical equation of motion (HEOM) method to perform high order perturbation calculations of reduced quantum dynamics for a harmonic bath with arbitrary spectral densities. Three different schemes are used to decompose the bath spectral density into analytical forms that are suitable to the HEOM treatment: (1) The multiple Lorentzian mode model that can be obtained by numerically fitting the model spectral density. (2) The combined Debye and oscillatory Debye modes model that can be constructed by fitting the corresponding classical bath correlation function. (3) A new method that uses undamped harmonic oscillator modes explicitly in the HEOM formalism. Methods to extract system-bath correlations were investigated for the above bath decomposition schemes. We also show that HEOM in the undamped harmonic oscillator modes can give detailed information on the partial Wigner transform of the total density operator. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations of the spin-Boson dynamics and the absorption line shape of molecular dimers show that the HEOM formalism for high order perturbations can serve as an important tool in studying the quantum dissipative dynamics in the intermediate coupling regime.

  8. Meeting the needs of elderly with bathing disability.

    PubMed

    Zingmark, Magnus; Bernspång, Birgitta

    2011-06-01

    Difficulties with bathing are frequent among older people and are associated with an increasing need for societal support. As loss of independence has a negative impact on health and wellbeing, it is important to study interventions that can provide the required support for people to be able to remain independent. Occupational therapy interventions can improve clients' abilities enabling them to bathe themselves, thus reducing the need for other, more long-term societal support from, e.g. a home help. In this study, two groups of elderly people with difficulties in bathing were compared; the clients in the intervention group were engaged in occupational therapy. A quasi-experimental non-equivalent control group design was used, in which participants with reported difficulties in bathing were recruited consecutively from two municipalities. The clients in the intervention group routinely received occupational therapy, whereas clients in the control group received assistance from a home help for bathing. Activities of daily living, quality of life and home-help allocation were assessed at the baseline and after 15 weeks. Clients in the intervention group received less than three home visits on average, with majority of interventions consisting of graded activity and the use of an encouraging approach. Seventy per cent of the interventions were adaptive. Activities of daily living and quality of life of both groups improved, but the differences of being allocated a home help were significant. Occupational therapy interventions seem beneficial in terms of supporting older people in becoming independent of home help in bathing but the results must be interpreted with caution as there were differences at baseline between the groups. © 2011 The Authors. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal © 2011 Australian Association of Occupational Therapists.

  9. Quantum nonunital dynamics of spin-bath-assisted Fisher information

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, Xiang, E-mail: haoxiang-edu198126@163.com; Wu, Yinzhong

    2016-04-15

    The nonunital non-Markovian dynamics of qubits immersed in a spin bath is studied without any Markovian approximation. The environmental effects on the precisions of quantum parameter estimation are taken into account. The time-dependent transfer matrix and inhomogeneity vector are obtained for the description of the open dynamical process. The dynamical behaviour of one qubit coupled to a spin bath is geometrically described by the Bloch vector. It is found out that the nonunital non-Markovian effects can engender the improvement of the precision of quantum parameter estimation. This result contributes to the environment-assisted quantum information theory.

  10. Stochastic Stirling Engine Operating in Contact with Active Baths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakine, Ruben; Solon, Alexandre; Gingrich, Todd; van Wijland, Frédéric

    2017-04-01

    A Stirling engine made of a colloidal particle in contact with a nonequilibrium bath is considered and analyzed with the tools of stochastic energetics. We model the bath by non Gaussian persistent noise acting on the colloidal particle. Depending on the chosen definition of an isothermal transformation in this nonequilibrium setting, we find that either the energetics of the engine parallels that of its equilibrium counterpart or, in the simplest case, that it ends up being less efficient. Persistence, more than non Gaussian effects, are responsible for this result.

  11. Conjugate gradient heat bath for ill-conditioned actions.

    PubMed

    Ceriotti, Michele; Bussi, Giovanni; Parrinello, Michele

    2007-08-01

    We present a method for performing sampling from a Boltzmann distribution of an ill-conditioned quadratic action. This method is based on heat-bath thermalization along a set of conjugate directions, generated via a conjugate-gradient procedure. The resulting scheme outperforms local updates for matrices with very high condition number, since it avoids the slowing down of modes with lower eigenvalue, and has some advantages over the global heat-bath approach, compared to which it is more stable and allows for more freedom in devising case-specific optimizations.

  12. a 3d Based Approach to the Architectural Study of the Roman Bath at the Sanctuary of Apollo Hylates (kourion, Cyprus).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faka, M.; Christodoulou, S.; Abate, D.; Ioannou, C.; Hermon, S.

    2017-08-01

    Roman baths represented a popular social practice of everyday life, cited in numerous literary sources and testified by ample archaeological remains all over the Roman Empire. Although regional studies have contributed extensively to our knowledge about how baths functioned and what was their social role in various regions of the Mediterranean, their study in Cyprus is yet to be developed. Moreover, despite the increasing availability of devices and techniques for 3D documentation, various characteristics, especially in relation to the heating and water supply system of the baths, were omitted and were not properly and accurately documented. The pilot case study outlined in this paper presents the 3D documentation of the Roman bath, excavated in the 1950s, within the area of the Sanctuary of Apollo Hylates at Kourion (Limassol district). The creation of an accurate 3D model of the documented area through image and range based techniques combined with topographic data, allows the detailed analysis of architectural elements and their decorative features. At the same time, it enables accurate measurements of the site, which are used as input for the archaeological interpretation and virtual reconstruction of the original shape of the bath. In addition, this project aims to answer a number of archaeological research questions related to Roman baths such as their architectural features, function mode, and technological elements related to heating techniques.

  13. Efficacy and safety of sodium hypochlorite (bleach) baths in patients with moderate to severe atopic dermatitis in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Wong, Su-ming; Ng, Ting Guan; Baba, Roshidah

    2013-11-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is frequently found in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) and contributes to disease exacerbation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of bleach baths as an adjunctive treatment in AD patients. Patients between 2 and 30 years old with moderate to severe AD were enrolled in a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Patients soaked in diluted bleach or distilled water baths for 10 min, twice a week for 2 months. Efficacy assessments included the Eczema Area and Severity Index (EASI) scores and S. aureus density was determined using quantitative bacterial cultures. Patients in the treatment group showed significant reductions in EASI scores. A 41.9% reduction in S. aureus density from baseline was seen at 1 month further reducing to 53.3% at 2 months. Equal numbers of patients in both groups experienced mild side-effects. This study demonstrates that diluted bleach baths clinically improved AD in as little as 1 month. No patient withdrew from the treatment arm because of intolerance to the baths. © 2013 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  14. Metabolic and respiratory derangements associated with death in cold-stunned Kemp's ridley turtles (Lepidochelys kempii): 32 cases (2005-2009).

    PubMed

    Keller, Krista A; Innis, Charles J; Tlusty, Michael F; Kennedy, Adam E; Bean, Sarah B; Cavin, Julie M; Merigo, Constance

    2012-02-01

    To assess selected clinicopathologic variables at hospital admission (day 1) for cold-stunned Kemp's ridley turtles (Lepidochelys kempii) that died during the first 3 days after admission (nonsurvivors) and turtles that survived (survivors) and to determine the percentage change of each variable from day 1 to day of death (nonsurvivors) or to day 2 or 3 of hospitalization (survivors). Retrospective case-control study. Animals-64 stranded, cold-stunned Kemp's ridley turtles hospitalized from October 2005 through December 2009. Blood gas, pH, Hct, and selected biochemical values in blood samples determined on day 1 and day of death (nonsurvivors; n = 32) or day 2 or 3 of hospitalization (survivors; 32) were obtained from medical records. For each variable, initial values and percentage changes (from initial values to values at the day of death or day 2 or 3 of hospitalization) were compared between survivors and nonsurvivors. Compared with blood analysis findings for survivors, nonsurvivors initially had significantly higher potassium concentration and Pco(2) and significantly lower Po(2), pH, and bicarbonate concentration than did survivors. For the first 2 or 3 days of hospitalization, percentage changes in potassium, lactate, and ionized calcium concentrations were significantly higher and percentage changes in pH and plasma glucose and bicarbonate concentrations were significantly lower in nonsurvivors. At hospital admission, cold-stunned Kemp's ridley turtles were affected by metabolic and respiratory derangements; severe derangements were associated with death. Evaluation of blood gas, pH, Hct, and selected clinicopathologic variables provided useful clinical and prognostic information during rehabilitation of cold-stunned Kemp's ridley turtles.

  15. Effect of Chlorhexidine Bathing Every Other Day on Prevention of Hospital-Acquired Infections in the Surgical ICU: A Single-Center, Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Swan, Joshua T; Ashton, Carol M; Bui, Lan N; Pham, Vy P; Shirkey, Beverly A; Blackshear, Jolene E; Bersamin, Jimmy B; Pomer, Rubie May L; Johnson, Michael L; Magtoto, Audrey D; Butler, Michelle O; Tran, Shirley K; Sanchez, Leah R; Patel, Jessica G; Ochoa, Robert A; Hai, Shaikh A; Denison, Karen I; Graviss, Edward A; Wray, Nelda P

    2016-10-01

    To test the hypothesis that compared with daily soap and water bathing, 2% chlorhexidine gluconate bathing every other day for up to 28 days decreases the risk of hospital-acquired catheter-associated urinary tract infection, ventilator-associated pneumonia, incisional surgical site infection, and primary bloodstream infection in surgical ICU patients. This was a single-center, pragmatic, randomized trial. Patients and clinicians were aware of treatment-group assignment; investigators who determined outcomes were blinded. Twenty-four-bed surgical ICU at a quaternary academic medical center. Adults admitted to the surgical ICU from July 2012 to May 2013 with an anticipated surgical ICU stay for 48 hours or more were included. Patients were randomized to bathing with 2% chlorhexidine every other day alternating with soap and water every other day (treatment arm) or to bathing with soap and water daily (control arm). The primary endpoint was a composite outcome of catheter-associated urinary tract infection, ventilator-associated pneumonia, incisional surgical site infection, and primary bloodstream infection. Of 350 patients randomized, 24 were excluded due to prior enrollment in this trial and one withdrew consent. Therefore, 325 were analyzed (164 soap and water versus 161 chlorhexidine). Patients acquired 53 infections. Compared with soap and water bathing, chlorhexidine bathing every other day decreased the risk of acquiring infections (hazard ratio = 0.555; 95% CI, 0.309-0.997; p = 0.049). For patients bathed with soap and water versus chlorhexidine, counts of incident hospital-acquired infections were 14 versus 7 for catheter-associated urinary tract infection, 13 versus 8 for ventilator-associated pneumonia, 6 versus 3 for incisional surgical site infections, and 2 versus 0 for primary bloodstream infection; the effect was consistent across all infections. The absolute risk reduction for acquiring a hospital-acquired infection was 9.0% (95% CI, 1.5-16.4%; p

  16. 19. VIEW OF THE PLATING BATHS AND CONTROL PANELS. GOLD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. VIEW OF THE PLATING BATHS AND CONTROL PANELS. GOLD AND SILVER WERE AMONG THE MATERIALS PLATED ONTO PARTS MADE OF COPPER, STAINLESS STEEL AND STEEL. (11/15/89) - Rocky Flats Plant, Non-Nuclear Production Facility, South of Cottonwood Avenue, west of Seventh Avenue & east of Building 460, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  17. 75 FR 51177 - Safety Standard for Infant Bath Seats; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-19

    ... a standard for infant bath seats by incorporating by reference ASTM F 1967-08a with certain changes... incorporating by reference ASTM F 1967-08. An introductory phrase in the stability performance requirements in the ASTM standard should have been removed to make the provision consistent with the Commission's...

  18. Ozonation of exhausted dark shade reactive dye bath for reuse.

    PubMed

    Sundrarajan, M; Vishnu, G; Joseph, Kurian

    2006-10-01

    Exhausted reactive dye bath of dark shades were collected from cotton knit wear dyeing units in Tirupur. Ozonation was conducted in a column reactor system fed with ozone at the rate of 0.16 g/min to assess its efficiency in reducing the color, chemical oxygen demand and total organic carbon. The potential of the decolorized dye bath for its repeated reuse was also analyzed. The results from the reusability studies indicate that the dyeing quality was not affected by the reuse of decolorized dye bath for two successive cycles. Complete decolorization of the effluent was achieved in 60 minutes contact time at an ozone consumption of 183 mg/L for Red, 175 for Navy Blue and 192 for Green shades respectively. The corresponding COD removal was 60%, 54% and 63% for the three shades while TOC removal efficiency was 59%, 55% and 62% respectively. It is concluded that ozonation is efficient in decolorization of exhausted dye bath effluents containing conventional reactive dyes. However, the corresponding removal of COD from the textile effluent was not significant.

  19. MASTER BATH SHOWING SINK WITH VANITY AND THE MEDICINE CABINET. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MASTER BATH SHOWING SINK WITH VANITY AND THE MEDICINE CABINET. VIEW FACING WEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Two-Bedroom Single-Family Type 6, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  20. MASTER BATH SHOWING THE LINEN CLOSET WITH BUILT IN SHELVES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MASTER BATH SHOWING THE LINEN CLOSET WITH BUILT IN SHELVES NEXT TO THE SHOWER ENCLOSURE. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Three-Bedroom Single-Family Types 8 and 11, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  1. MASTER BATH. NOTE THE LINEN CLOSET DOOR TO THE RIGHT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MASTER BATH. NOTE THE LINEN CLOSET DOOR TO THE RIGHT OF THE SHOWER ENCLOSURE. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Three-Bedroom Single-Family Type 7, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  2. VIEW OF INTEGRITY TESTING EQUIPMENT UTILIZING CRYOGENIC BATHS IN BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF INTEGRITY TESTING EQUIPMENT UTILIZING CRYOGENIC BATHS IN BUILDING 991. (6/7/68) - Rocky Flats Plant, Final Assembly & Shipping, Eastern portion of plant site, south of Spruce Avenue, east of Tenth Street & north of Central Avenue, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  3. 13. VIEW OF THE MOLTEN SALT BATHS USED TO UNIFORMLY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW OF THE MOLTEN SALT BATHS USED TO UNIFORMLY AND QUICKLY HEAT METALS PRIOR TO WORKING (ROLLING). (9/16/85) - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  4. 9. VIEW OF MOLTEN SALT BATH EQUIPMENT AND ROLLER PRESSES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF MOLTEN SALT BATH EQUIPMENT AND ROLLER PRESSES BEING INSTALLED ON THE WEST SIDE (SIDE B) OF BUILDING 883. SIDE B OF BUILDING 883 WAS USED TO PROCESS ENRICHED URANIUM FROM 1957-66. (1/23/57) - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  5. 21 CFR 890.5125 - Nonpowered sitz bath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonpowered sitz bath. 890.5125 Section 890.5125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5125 Nonpowered sitz...

  6. 21 CFR 890.5125 - Nonpowered sitz bath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nonpowered sitz bath. 890.5125 Section 890.5125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5125 Nonpowered sitz...

  7. 21 CFR 890.5125 - Nonpowered sitz bath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nonpowered sitz bath. 890.5125 Section 890.5125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5125 Nonpowered sitz...

  8. 21 CFR 890.5125 - Nonpowered sitz bath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nonpowered sitz bath. 890.5125 Section 890.5125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5125 Nonpowered sitz...

  9. Interior detail of unit "A" bath showing original medicine cabinet, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior detail of unit "A" bath showing original medicine cabinet, ceramic soap dishes, ceramic towel rod, and triangular motif on ceramic features, facing south. - Albrook Air Force Station, Non-Commissioned Officers' Duplex, East side of Hall Street, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  10. 21 CFR 890.5125 - Nonpowered sitz bath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nonpowered sitz bath. 890.5125 Section 890.5125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5125 Nonpowered sitz...

  11. Bathing suit mesh entrapment: an unusual case of penile injury.

    PubMed

    Hoppa, Eric C; Wiley, James F

    2006-12-01

    Penile injury is a rare chief complaint in the pediatric emergency department. The most common penile injuries are iatrogenic or postsurgical complications, blunt trauma, tourniquet injuries, fractures, and zipper injuries. We report a series of 3 cases of penile foreskin entrapment within the mesh lining of bathing suits as a new, recognized form of penile injury.

  12. Bath Stone - a Possible Global Heritage Stone from England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marker, Brian

    2014-05-01

    The Middle Jurassic strata of England have several horizons of oolitic and bioclastic limestones that provide high quality dimension stone. One of the most important is found in and near the City of Bath. The Great Oolite Group (Upper Bathonian) contains the Combe Down and Bath Oolites, consisting of current bedded oolites and shelly oolites, that have been used extensively as freestones for construction nearby, for prestigious buildings through much of southern England and more widely. The stone has been used to some extent since Roman times when the city, then known as Aquae Sulis, was an important hot spa. The stone was used to a limited extent through medieval times but from the early 18th century onwards was exploited on a large scale through surface quarrying and underground mining. The City was extensively redeveloped in the 18th to early 19th century, mostly using Bath Stone, when the spas made it a fashionable resort. Buildings from that period include architectural "gems" such as the Royal Crescent and Pulteney Bridge, as well as the renovated Roman Baths. Many buildings were designed by some of the foremost British architects of the time. The consistent use of this stone gives the City an architectural integrity throughout. These features led to the designation of the City as a World Heritage Site. It is a requirement in current City planning policy documents that Bath Stone should be used for new building to preserve the appearance of the City. More widely the stone was used in major houses (e.g. Buckingham Palace and Apsley House in London; King's Pavilion in Brighton); civic buildings (e.g. Bristol Guildhall; Dartmouth Naval College in Devon); churches and cathedrals (e.g. Truro Cathedral in Cornwall); and engineered structures (e.g. the large Dundas Aqueduct on the Kennet and Avon Canal). More widely, Bath Stone has been used in Union Station in Washington DC; Toronto Bible College and the Town Hall at Cape Town, South Africa. Extraction declined in

  13. The perception and acceptability of pre-slaughter and post-slaughter stunning for Halal production: The views of UK Islamic scholars and Halal consumers.

    PubMed

    Fuseini, Awal; Wotton, Steve B; Hadley, Phil J; Knowles, Toby G

    2017-01-01

    The importance of religious slaughter from economic, emotive and ethical viewpoints is significant. There are apparent economic benefits associated with trading in meats slaughtered according to religious traditions. Some religious authorities insist on the slaughter of animals without stunning, but this, according to many researchers, compromises animal welfare. We conducted a survey of Islamic scholars and Halal consumers, 66 scholars from 55 organisations and 314 consumers from 54 UK cities/towns were surveyed. Forty-nine scholars were interviewed through pre-arranged meetings, 17 surveyed online whilst all 314 consumers were either surveyed online or through the remote completion of copies of the questionnaire. Most of the scholars (>95%) (CI 86.9 to 98.4%) agreed that if an animal is stunned and then slaughtered by a Muslim and the method of stunning does not result in death, cause physical injury or obstruct bleed-out, the meat would be Halal and 53% (CI 47 to 58%) consumers also thought such meat would be Halal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Prevalence, distribution, and progression of radiographic abnormalities in the lungs of cold-stunned Kemp's ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys kempii): 89 cases (2002-2005).

    PubMed

    Stockman, Jonathan; Innis, Charles J; Solano, Mauricio; O'Sullivan Brisson, Jennifer; Kass, Philip H; Tlusty, Michael F; Weber, E Scott

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the prevalence, distribution, and progression of radiographic abnormalities in the lungs of cold-stunned Kemp's ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys kempii) and associations between these abnormalities and body weight, carapace length, and hematologic and plasma biochemical variables. Retrospective case series. 89 cold-stunned juvenile Kemp's ridley sea turtles. Medical records were reviewed. Dorsoventral and horizontal beam craniocaudal radiographs were evaluated for the presence, distribution, and progression of lung abnormalities. Turtles were categorized as having radiographically normal or abnormal lungs; those with abnormalities detected were further categorized according to the distribution of abnormalities (left lung, right lung, or both affected). Body weight, carapace length, and hematologic and plasma biochemical data were compared among categories. 48 of 89 (54%) turtles had radiographic abnormalities of the lungs. Unilateral abnormalities of the right or left lung were detected in 14 (16%) and 2 (2%), respectively; both lungs were affected in 32 (36%). Prevalence of unilateral abnormalities was significantly greater for the right lung than for the left lung. Evaluation of follow-up radiographs indicated clinical improvement over time for most (18/31 [58%]) turtles. Prevalence of bilateral radiographic abnormalities was positively correlated with body weight and carapace length. There was no significant association between radiographic category and hematologic or plasma biochemical variables. Radiographic abnormalities of the lungs were commonly detected in cold-stunned Kemp's ridley turtles. Results of this study may aid clinicians in developing effective diagnostic and treatment plans for these patients.

  15. Psychoactive “bath salts”: not so soothing

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Michael H.; Partilla, John S.; Lehner, Kurt R.

    2012-01-01

    Recently there has been a dramatic rise in the abuse of so-called “bath salts” products that are purchased as legal alternatives to illicit drugs like cocaine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Baths salts contain one or more synthetic derivatives of the naturally-occurring stimulant cathinone. Low doses of bath salts produce euphoria and increase alertness, but high doses or chronic use can cause serious adverse effects such as hallucinations, delirium, hyperthermia and tachycardia. Owing to the risks posed by bath salts, the governments of many countries have made certain cathinones illegal, namely: 4-methylmethcathinone (mephedrone), 3,4-methylenedioxymethcathinone (methylone) and 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV). Similar to other psychomotor stimulants, synthetic cathinones target plasma membrane transporters for dopamine (i.e., DAT), norepinephrine (i.e., NET) and serotonin (i.e, SERT). Mephedrone and methylone act as non-selective transporter substrates, thereby stimulating non-exocytotic release of dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin. By contrast, MDPV acts as a potent blocker at DAT and NET, with little effect at SERT. Administration of mephedrone or methylone to rats increases extracellular concentrations of dopamine and serotonin in the brain, analogous to the effects of MDMA. Not surprisingly, synthetic cathinones elicit locomotor activation in rodents. Stimulation of dopamine transmission by synthetic cathinones predicts a high potential for addiction and may underlie clinical adverse effects. As popular synthetic cathinones are rendered illegal, new replacement cathinones are appearing in the marketplace. More research on the pharmacology and toxicology of abused cathinones is needed to inform public health policy and develop strategies for treating medical consequence of bath salts abuse. PMID:23178799

  16. An unusual pattern of decomposition associated with suicidal electrocution in a bath.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Tarini; Winskog, Calle; Byard, Roger W

    2013-07-01

    A 51-year-old man was found dead face down and partially submerged in a bathtub alongside two hairdryers. The hairdryers had continued to work, as the victim had bypassed the electrical board of the house prior to dropping them into the water. This had resulted in death due to electrocution, with subsequent heating of the bath water causing marked putrefaction and softening of the immersed body parts. The back and feet, which were not submerged, were preserved. The degree of anterior decomposition was not in keeping with the postmortem interval; however, regional decomposition with sparing of the back and feet provided a clue at autopsy as to the sequence of events. Individuals with training in, or knowledge of, electrical circuitry are capable of modifying domestic wiring so that safety switches and/or fuses can be bypassed ensuring that electrical devices will continue to function even while under water. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  17. [The use of sodium chloride baths in patients with chronic bronchitis].

    PubMed

    Anisimkina, A N; Aĭrapetova, N S; Davydova, O B; Doronina, Iu V; Derevnina, N A; Gontar', E V

    1996-01-01

    80 patients with chronic bronchitis took baths with sodium chloride concentration 20, 40, 60 g/l and temperature 37-38 degrees C. The baths produced a positive effect on central and regional hemodynamics, reduced inflammation and sensitization.

  18. Fabrication of ZnO nanorod using spray-pyrolysis and chemical bath deposition method

    SciTech Connect

    Ramadhani, Muhammad F., E-mail: brian@tf.itb.ac.id; Pasaribu, Maruli A. H., E-mail: brian@tf.itb.ac.id; Yuliarto, Brian, E-mail: brian@tf.itb.ac.id

    2014-02-24

    ZnO thin films with nanorod structure were deposited using Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis method for seed growth, and Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD) for nanorod growth. High purity Zn-hydrate and Urea are used to control Ph were dissolved in ethanol and aqua bidest in Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis process. Glass substrate was placed above the heater plate of reaction chamber, and subsequently sprayed with the range duration of 5, 10 and 20 minutes at the temperatures of 3500 C. As for the Chemical Bath Deposition, the glass substrate with ZnO seed on the surface was immerse to Zn-hydrate, HMTA (Hexa Methylene Tetra Amine)more » and deionized water solution for duration of 3, 5 and 7 hour and temperatures of 600 C, washed in distilled water, dried, and annealed at 3500 C for an hour. The characterization of samples was carried out to reveal the surface morphology using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). From the data, the combination of 5 minutes of Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis process and 3 hour of CBD has showed the best structure of nanorod. Meanwhile the longer Spraying process and CBD yield the bigger nanorod structure that have been made, and it makes the films more dense which make the nanorod collide each other and as a result produce unsymetric nanorod structure.« less

  19. Dust-bathing behavior of laying hens in enriched colony housing systems and an aviary system

    PubMed Central

    Louton, H.; Bergmann, S.; Reese, S.; Erhard, M. H.; Rauch, E.

    2016-01-01

    The dust-bathing behavior of Lohmann Selected Leghorn hens was compared in 4 enriched colony housing systems and in an aviary system. The enriched colony housing systems differed especially in the alignment and division of the functional areas dust bath, nest, and perches. Forty-eight-hour video recordings were performed at 3 time-points during the laying period, and focal animal sampling and behavior sampling methods were used to analyze the dust-bathing behavior. Focal animal data included the relative fractions of dust-bathing hens overall, of hens bathing in the dust-bath area, and of those bathing on the wire floor throughout the day. Behavior data included the number of dust-bathing bouts within a predefined time range, the duration of 1 bout, the number of and reasons for interruptions, and the number of and reasons for the termination of dust-bathing bouts. Results showed that the average duration of dust bathing varied between the 4 enriched colony housing systems compared with the aviary system. The duration of dust-bathing bouts was shorter than reported under natural conditions. A positive correlation between dust-bathing activity and size of the dust-bath area was observed. Frequently, dust baths were interrupted and terminated by disturbing influences such as pecking by other hens. This was especially observed in the enriched colony housing systems. In none of the observed systems, neither in the enriched colony housing nor in the aviary system, were all of the observed dust baths terminated “normally.” Dust bathing behavior on the wire mesh rather than in the provided dust-bath area generally was observed at different frequencies in all enriched colony housing systems during all observation periods, but never in the aviary system. The size and design of the dust-bath area influenced the prevalence of dust-bathing behavior in that small and subdivided dust-bath areas reduced the number of dust-bathing bouts but increased the incidence of sham dust

  20. Effect of micro mist sauna bathing on thermoregulatory and circulatory functions and thermal sensation in humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwase, Satoshi; Kawahara, Yuko; Nishimura, Naoki; Sugenoya, Junichi

    2016-05-01

    To examine the effects of micro mist sauna bathing, produced by water crushing method, we exposed ten male subjects to five cases of micro mist sauna, namely (1) room temperature (RT) 38 °C with 100 % (actually 91 %) relative humidity (RH), (2) RT 41.5 °C with 80 % (actually 81 %) RH, (3) RT 41.5 °C with 100 % (actually 96 %) RH, (4) RT 45.0 °C with 64 % (actually 61 %) RH, and (5) RT 45.0 °C with 100 % (actually 86 %) RH, and measured tympanic temperature, mean skin temperature, heart rate (HR), and cheek moisture content, as well as ratings of thermal and sweating sensation tympanic temperatures at RT 45 °C were significantly higher at 86 % RH than those at 61 % RH; however, those at RT 45 °C with 61 % RH were higher than those with 86 % RH during recovery. There were no significant differences at RT 41.5 °C between with 81 % RH and with 96 % RH. Mean skin temperature was the highest at RT 45 °C 86 % RH case, followed by at RT 41.5 °C 96 % RH, RT 45 °C 61 % RH, RT 41.5 °C 81 % RH, and finally at RT 38 °C 91 % RH. HR change showed the same order as for mean skin temperature. A significant difference in cheek moisture content was observed between RT 41.5 °C with 81 % RH and RT 45 °C with 86 % RH 10 min after the micro mist bathing. There were no significant differences between ratings of thermal sensation at RT 41.5 °C with 81 % RH and at RT 45 °C with 61 % RH and RT 45 °C with 61 % RH and RT 45 °C with 86 % RH. Between RT 45 °C with 86 % RH and RT 41.5 °C with 81 % RH, there was a tendency for interaction (0.05 < p < 0.1). Other cases showed significant higher ratings of thermal sensation at higher room temperature or higher relative humidity. The ratings of sweating sensation 10 min after the mist sauna bathing were significantly higher at higher RT and RH except between RT 41.5 °C 96 % RH and RT 45 °C 86 % RH which exhibited no significant difference. We concluded that the micro mist sauna produced by water crushing method induced more

  1. [The use of sodium chloride baths in the treatment of diabetic patients with micro- and macroangiopathies].

    PubMed

    Davydova, O B; Turova, E A; Grishina, E V

    1998-01-01

    Patients suffering from insulin-dependent or non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus with micro- and macroangiopathy took sodium chloride baths of diverse concentration (30 and 50 g/l). A control group consisted of patients who had taken "neutral" baths. The response to sodium chloride baths was registered in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, microcirculation, hemorheology, lower limbs circulation, exercise tolerance. Baths with sodium chloride concentrations 50 g/l have advantages, especially in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

  2. The Medical Risks and Benefits of Sauna, Steam Bath, and Whirlpool Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duda, Marty

    1987-01-01

    Saunas, steam baths, and whirlpools--popular fixtures at health clubs--are safe means of relaxation if used properly. Ignoring the recommendations for moderate, commonsense enjoyment of these baths may expose users to health risks, including sudden death, arrhythmias, and skin infections. A guide to safe use of such baths is presented. (Author/CB)

  3. 30 CFR 71.400 - Bathing facilities; change rooms; sanitary flush toilet facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface Bathing Facilities, Change Rooms, and Sanitary Flush Toilet Facilities at Surface Coal Mines § 71.400 Bathing facilities; change rooms; sanitary flush toilet... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bathing facilities; change rooms; sanitary...

  4. 30 CFR 71.400 - Bathing facilities; change rooms; sanitary flush toilet facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface Bathing Facilities, Change Rooms, and Sanitary Flush Toilet Facilities at Surface Coal Mines § 71.400 Bathing facilities; change rooms; sanitary flush toilet... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bathing facilities; change rooms; sanitary...

  5. 30 CFR 71.400 - Bathing facilities; change rooms; sanitary flush toilet facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface Bathing Facilities, Change Rooms, and Sanitary Flush Toilet Facilities at Surface Coal Mines § 71.400 Bathing facilities; change rooms; sanitary flush toilet... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bathing facilities; change rooms; sanitary...

  6. 30 CFR 71.400 - Bathing facilities; change rooms; sanitary flush toilet facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface Bathing Facilities, Change Rooms, and Sanitary Flush Toilet Facilities at Surface Coal Mines § 71.400 Bathing facilities; change rooms; sanitary flush toilet... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bathing facilities; change rooms; sanitary...

  7. Bath Salts Abuse Leading to New-Onset Psychosis and Potential for Violence.

    PubMed

    John, Michelle E; Thomas-Rozea, Crystal; Hahn, David

    Bath salts have recently emerged as a popular designer drug of abuse causing significant hazardous effects on mental health and physical health, resulting in public health legislation making its usage illegal in the United States. To educate mental health providers on the effects of the new designer drug bath salts, including its potential to cause psychosis and violence in patients. This is a case report on a 40-year-old male with no past psychiatric history who presented with new-onset psychosis and increased risk for violence after ingesting bath salts. In addition, a literature review was performed to summarize the documented effects of bath salts abuse and the current U.S. public health legislation on bath salts. The presented case illustrates a new-onset, substance-induced psychotic disorder related to bath salts usage. The literature review explains the sympathomimetic reaction and the potential for psychotic symptoms. To discuss the physical and psychological effects of bath salts, treatment options for bath salts abuse and U.S. legislation by Ohio state law to current U.S. federal law that bans production, sale, and possession of main substances found in bath salts. It is important for mental health providers to be aware of bath salts, understand the physical and psychiatric effects of bath salts and be familiar with current legislative policy banning its usage. Lastly, bath salts abuse should be in the differential diagnosis where psychosis is new onset or clinically incongruent with known primary presentation of a psychotic disorder.

  8. Quantitative assessment of combination bathing and moisturizing regimens on skin hydration in atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Charles; Eichenfield, Lawrence F

    2009-01-01

    Standard recommendations for skin care for patients with atopic dermatitis stress the importance of skin hydration and the application of moisturizers. However, objective data to guide recommendations regarding the optimal practice methods of bathing and emollient application are scarce. This study quantified cutaneous hydration status after various combination bathing and moisturizing regimens. Four bathing/moisturizer regimens were evaluated in 10 subjects, five pediatric subjects with atopic dermatitis and five subjects with healthy skin. The regimens consisted of bathing alone without emollient application, bathing and immediate emollient application, bathing and delayed application, and emollient application alone. Each regimen was evaluated in all subjects, utilizing a crossover design. Skin hydration was assessed with standard capacitance measurements. In atopic dermatitis subjects, emollient alone yielded a significantly (p < 0.05) greater mean hydration over 90 minutes (206.2% baseline hydration) than bathing with immediate emollient (141.6%), bathing and delayed emollient (141%), and bathing alone (91.4%). The combination bathing and emollient application regimens demonstrated hydration values at 90 minutes not significantly greater than baseline. Atopic dermatitis subjects had a decreased mean hydration benefit compared with normal skin subjects. Bathing without moisturizer may compromise skin hydration. Bathing followed by moisturizer application provides modest hydration benefits, though less than that of simply applying moisturizer alone.

  9. Wash and Wean: Bathing Patients Undergoing Weaning Trials During Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Happ, Mary Beth; Tate, Judith A.; Swigart, Valerie A.; DiVirgilio-Thomas, Dana; Hoffman, Leslie A.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Bathing is a fundamental nursing care activity performed for or with the self-assistance of critically ill patients. Few studies address caregiver and/or patient-family perspectives about bathing activity during weaning from prolonged mechanical ventilation. OBJECTIVE To describe practices and beliefs about bathing patients during weaning from prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV). METHODS Secondary analysis of qualitative data (observational field notes, interviews, and clinical record review) from a larger ethnographic study involving 30 patients weaning from PMV and the clinicians who cared for them using basic qualitative description. RESULTS Bathing, hygiene, and personal care were highly valued and equated with “good” nursing care by families and nurses. Nurses and respiratory therapists reported “working around” bath time and promoted conducting weaning trials before or after bathing. Patients were nevertheless bathed during weaning trials despite clinicians expressed concerns for energy conservation. Clinicians’ recognized individual patient response to bathing during PMV weaning trials. CONCLUSION Bathing is a central care activity for PMV patients and a component of daily work processes in the ICU. Bathing requires assessment of patient condition and activity tolerance and nurse-respiratory therapist negotiation and accommodation with respect to the initiation and/or continuation of PMV weaning trials during bathing. Further study is needed to validate the impact (or lack of impact) of various timing strategies for bathing PMV patients. PMID:20561877

  10. A unified stochastic formulation of dissipative quantum dynamics. II. Beyond linear response of spin baths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Chang-Yu; Cao, Jianshu

    2018-01-01

    We use the "generalized hierarchical equation of motion" proposed in Paper I [C.-Y. Hsieh and J. Cao, J. Chem. Phys. 148, 014103 (2018)] to study decoherence in a system coupled to a spin bath. The present methodology allows a systematic incorporation of higher-order anharmonic effects of the bath in dynamical calculations. We investigate the leading order corrections to the linear response approximations for spin bath models. Two kinds of spin-based environments are considered: (1) a bath of spins discretized from a continuous spectral density and (2) a bath of localized nuclear or electron spins. The main difference resides with how the bath frequency and the system-bath coupling parameters are distributed in an environment. When discretized from a continuous spectral density, the system-bath coupling typically scales as ˜1 /√{NB } where NB is the number of bath spins. This scaling suppresses the non-Gaussian characteristics of the spin bath and justifies the linear response approximations in the thermodynamic limit. For the nuclear/electron spin bath models, system-bath couplings are directly deduced from spin-spin interactions and do not necessarily obey the 1 /√{NB } scaling. It is not always possible to justify the linear response approximations in this case. Furthermore, if the spin-spin Hamiltonian is highly symmetrical, there exist additional constraints that generate highly non-Markovian and persistent dynamics that is beyond the linear response treatments.

  11. INVESTIGATION INTO THE REJUVENATION OF SPENT ELECTROLESS NICKEL BATHS BY ELECTRODIALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Electroless nickel plating generates substantially more waste than other metal-finishing processes due to the inherent limited bath life and the need for regular bath disposal. Electrodialysis can be used to generate electroless nickel baths, but poor membrane permselectivity, l...

  12. Using a Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety to Evaluate a Hospital-wide Daily Chlorhexidine Bathing Intervention.

    PubMed

    Caya, Teresa; Musuuza, Jackson; Yanke, Eric; Schmitz, Michelle; Anderson, Brooke; Carayon, Pascale; Safdar, Nasia

    2015-01-01

    We undertook a systems engineering approach to evaluate housewide implementation of daily chlorhexidine bathing. We performed direct observations of the bathing process and conducted provider and patient surveys. The main outcome was compliance with bathing using a checklist. Fifty-seven percent of baths had full compliance with the chlorhexidine bathing protocol. Additional time was the main barrier. Institutions undertaking daily chlorhexidine bathing should perform a rigorous assessment of implementation to optimize the benefits of this intervention.

  13. A Three-Year Follow-Up Study of Antibiotic and Metal Residues, Antibiotic Resistance and Resistance Genes, Focusing on Kshipra-A River Associated with Holy Religious Mass-Bathing in India: Protocol Paper.

    PubMed

    Diwan, Vishal; Purohit, Manju; Chandran, Salesh; Parashar, Vivek; Shah, Harshada; Mahadik, Vijay K; Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia; Tamhankar, Ashok J

    2017-05-29

    Antibiotic resistance (ABR) is one of the major health emergencies for global society. Little is known about the ABR of environmental bacteria and therefore it is important to understand ABR reservoirs in the environment and their potential impact on health. Quantitative and qualitative data will be collected during a 3-year follow-up study of a river associated with religious mass-bathing in Central India. Surface-water and sediment samples will be collected from seven locations at regular intervals for 3 years during religious mass-bathing and in absence of it to monitor water-quality, antibiotic residues, resistant bacteria, antibiotic resistance genes and metals. Approval has been obtained from the Ethics Committee of R.D. Gardi Medical College, Ujjain, India (No. 2013/07/17-311). The results will address the issue of antibiotic residues and antibiotic resistance with a focus on a river environment in India within a typical socio-behavioural context of religious mass-bathing. It will enhance our understanding about the relationship between antibiotic residue levels, water-quality, heavy metals and antibiotic resistance patterns in Escherichia coli isolated from river-water and sediment, and seasonal differences that are associated with religious mass-bathing. We will also document, identify and clarify the genetic differences/similarities relating to phenotypic antibiotic resistance in bacteria in rivers during religious mass-bathing or during periods when there is no mass-bathing.

  14. A Three-Year Follow-Up Study of Antibiotic and Metal Residues, Antibiotic Resistance and Resistance Genes, Focusing on Kshipra—A River Associated with Holy Religious Mass-Bathing in India: Protocol Paper

    PubMed Central

    Diwan, Vishal; Purohit, Manju; Chandran, Salesh; Parashar, Vivek; Shah, Harshada; Mahadik, Vijay K.; Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia; Tamhankar, Ashok J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Antibiotic resistance (ABR) is one of the major health emergencies for global society. Little is known about the ABR of environmental bacteria and therefore it is important to understand ABR reservoirs in the environment and their potential impact on health. Method/Design: Quantitative and qualitative data will be collected during a 3-year follow-up study of a river associated with religious mass-bathing in Central India. Surface-water and sediment samples will be collected from seven locations at regular intervals for 3 years during religious mass-bathing and in absence of it to monitor water-quality, antibiotic residues, resistant bacteria, antibiotic resistance genes and metals. Approval has been obtained from the Ethics Committee of R.D. Gardi Medical College, Ujjain, India (No. 2013/07/17-311). Results: The results will address the issue of antibiotic residues and antibiotic resistance with a focus on a river environment in India within a typical socio-behavioural context of religious mass-bathing. It will enhance our understanding about the relationship between antibiotic residue levels, water-quality, heavy metals and antibiotic resistance patterns in Escherichia coli isolated from river-water and sediment, and seasonal differences that are associated with religious mass-bathing. We will also document, identify and clarify the genetic differences/similarities relating to phenotypic antibiotic resistance in bacteria in rivers during religious mass-bathing or during periods when there is no mass-bathing. PMID:28555050

  15. Portable bathtub: technology for bed bath in bedridden patients.

    PubMed

    Backes, Dirce Stein; Gomes, Carine Alves; Pereira, Simone Barbosa; Teles, Noelucy Ferreira; Backes, Marli Terezinha Stein

    2017-04-01

    determine the benefits of the Portable Bathtub as technology for bed bath in bedridden patients. qualitative research of exploratory-descriptive character, whose data were collected by means of 30 interviews with patients, family members and professionals directly involved in bed bath, carried out with Portable Bathtub, in bedridden patients of a medical clinic, from July to December 2015. from the data encoded by thematic content analysis resulted two categories: Portable Bathtub: from morphine to the patient's rekindled eyes; From mechanized practice to unique, transforming care. we concluded that the Portable Bathtub constitutes enhancing technology, as it enables clinical improvement of the patient's general condition and transcends traditional mechanized practices by the reach of advanced nursing care practices.

  16. [The influence of carbon dioxide baths differing in the total mineralization levels on the functional state of the cardiovascular system of the patients presenting with hypertensive disease associated with coronary heart disease].

    PubMed

    L'vova, N V; Tupitsyna, Iu Iu; Badalov, N G; Krasnikov, V E; Lebedeva, O D

    2013-01-01

    The results of the study on the influence of carbon dioxide baths differing in the total mineralization levels on the clinical course of hypertensive disease associated with coronary heart disease and on various functional systems of the body. The data obtained provide an insight into the role of salt concentrations (10 and 20 g/l) in carbon dioxide bath water (1.2 g/l) applied for the traditional treatment of the patients with hypertensive disease associated with concomitant coronary heart disease and musculoskeletal pathology. Highly mineralized bath water has a greater influence on the functional state of the cardiovascular system by causing a more pronounced decrease in peripheral vascular resistance and hypotensive effect. Baths with a salt concentration of 20 g/l markedly reduced pain and had anti-inflammatory effect in the patients with pathology of support and locomotor organs.

  17. Effective interactions between inclusions in an active bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaeifi Yamchi, Mahdi; Naji, Ali

    2017-11-01

    We study effective two- and three-body interactions between non-active colloidal inclusions in an active bath of chiral or non-chiral particles, using Brownian dynamics simulations within a standard, two-dimensional model of disk-shaped inclusions and active particles. In a non-chiral active bath, we first corroborate previous findings on effective two-body repulsion mediated between the inclusions by elucidating the detailed non-monotonic features of the two-body force profiles, including a primary maximum and a secondary hump at larger separations that was not previously reported. We then show that these features arise directly from the formation, and sequential overlaps, of circular layers (or "rings") of active particles around the inclusions, as the latter are brought to small surface separations. These rings extend to radial distances of a few active-particle radii from the surface of inclusions, giving the hard-core inclusions relatively thick, soft, repulsive "shoulders," whose multiple overlaps then enable significant (non-pairwise) three-body forces in both non-chiral and chiral active baths. The resulting three-body forces can even exceed the two-body forces in magnitude and display distinct repulsive and attractive regimes at intermediate to large self-propulsion strengths. In a chiral active bath, we show that, while active particles still tend to accumulate at the immediate vicinity of the inclusions, they exhibit strong depletion from the intervening region between the inclusions and partial depletion from relatively thick, circular zones further away from the inclusions. In this case, the effective, predominantly repulsive interactions between the inclusions turn to active, chirality-induced, depletion-type attractions, acting over an extended range of separations.

  18. Entangling two unequal atoms through a common bath

    SciTech Connect

    Benatti, F.; Marzolino, U.; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34014 Trieste

    The evolution of two, noninteracting, two-level atoms immersed in a weakly coupled bath can be described by a refined, time-coarse-grained Markovian evolution, still preserving complete positivity. We find that this improved, reduced dynamics is able to entangle the two atoms even when their internal frequencies are unequal, an effect that appears impossible in the standard weak-coupling-limit approach. We study in detail this phenomenon for an environment made of quantum fields.

  19. Ugly ducklings-the dark side of plastic materials in contact with potable water.

    PubMed

    Neu, Lisa; Bänziger, Carola; Proctor, Caitlin R; Zhang, Ya; Liu, Wen-Tso; Hammes, Frederik

    2018-01-01

    Bath toys pose an interesting link between flexible plastic materials, potable water, external microbial and nutrient contamination, and potentially vulnerable end-users. Here, we characterized biofilm communities inside 19 bath toys used under real conditions. In addition, some determinants for biofilm formation were assessed, using six identical bath toys under controlled conditions with either clean water prior to bathing or dirty water after bathing. All examined bath toys revealed notable biofilms on their inner surface, with average total bacterial numbers of 5.5 × 10 6  cells/cm 2 (clean water controls), 9.5 × 10 6  cells/cm 2 (real bath toys), and 7.3 × 10 7  cells/cm 2 (dirty water controls). Bacterial community compositions were diverse, showing many rare taxa in real bath toys and rather distinct communities in control bath toys, with a noticeable difference between clean and dirty water control biofilms. Fungi were identified in 58% of all real bath toys and in all dirty water control toys. Based on the comparison of clean water and dirty water control bath toys, we argue that bath toy biofilms are influenced by (1) the organic carbon leaching from the flexible plastic material, (2) the chemical and biological tap water quality, (3) additional nutrients from care products and human body fluids in the bath water, as well as, (4) additional bacteria from dirt and/or the end-users' microbiome. The present study gives a detailed characterization of bath toy biofilms and a better understanding of determinants for biofilm formation and development in systems comprising plastic materials in contact with potable water.

  20. Density matrix embedding in an antisymmetrized geminal power bath

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuchimochi, Takashi; Welborn, Matthew; Van Voorhis, Troy, E-mail: tvan@mit.edu

    2015-07-14

    Density matrix embedding theory (DMET) has emerged as a powerful tool for performing wave function-in-wave function embedding for strongly correlated systems. In traditional DMET, an accurate calculation is performed on a small impurity embedded in a mean field bath. Here, we extend the original DMET equations to account for correlation in the bath via an antisymmetrized geminal power (AGP) wave function. The resulting formalism has a number of advantages. First, it allows one to properly treat the weak correlation limit of independent pairs, which DMET is unable to do with a mean-field bath. Second, it associates a size extensive correlationmore » energy with a given density matrix (for the models tested), which AGP by itself is incapable of providing. Third, it provides a reasonable description of charge redistribution in strongly correlated but non-periodic systems. Thus, AGP-DMET appears to be a good starting point for describing electron correlation in molecules, which are aperiodic and possess both strong and weak electron correlation.« less

  1. Inverse Leidenfrost effect: self-propelling drops on a bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauthier, Anais; van der Meer, Devaraj; Lohse, Detlef; Physics of Fluids Team

    2017-11-01

    When deposited on very hot solid, volatile drops can levitate over a cushion of vapor, in the so-called Leidenfrost state. This phenomenon can also be observed on a hot bath and similarly to the solid case, drops are very mobile due to the absence of contact with the substrate that sustains them. We discuss here a situation of ``inverse Leidenfrost effect'' where room-temperature drops levitate on a liquid nitrogen pool - the vapor is generated here by the bath sustaining the relatively hot drop. We show that the drop's movement is not random: the liquid goes across the bath in straight lines, a pattern only disrupted by elastic bouncing on the edges. In addition, the drops are initially self-propelled; first at rest, they accelerate for a few seconds and reach velocities of the order of a few cm/s, before slowing down. We investigate experimentally the parameters that affect their successive acceleration and deceleration, such as the size and nature of the drops and we discuss the origin of this pattern.

  2. Effect of different stunning methods on antioxidant status, in vivo myofibrillar protein oxidation, and the susceptibility to oxidation of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) fillets during 72 h postmortem.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Longteng; Li, Qian; Jia, Shiliang; Huang, Zhan; Luo, Yongkang

    2018-04-25

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different stunning methods (percussion, T1; immersion in ice/water slurry, T2; gill cut, T3) on antioxidant status, in vivo myofibrillar protein (MP) oxidation, and the susceptibility to postmortem oxidation (induced by hydroxyl radical oxidizing system) of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) fillets. Stress conditions, antioxidant enzyme activities, and protein oxidation parameters were analyzed during 72 h postmortem. The results indicated that the strongest stress conditions in the T3 group led to impaired glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) activity, and significantly (P < .05) higher carbonyl concentrations, thereby promoted in vivo MP oxidation of fillets. The T3 group also showed severe losses in myosin heavy chain (MHC) intensities and sulfhydryl groups at higher H 2 O 2 concentrations. Overall, fillets from the T3 group were more susceptible to oxidative damage, and the T1 and T2 groups maintained better quality in terms of lower MP oxidation rates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Factors affecting Escherichia coli concentrations at Lake Erie public bathing beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Francy, Donna S.; Darner, Robert A.

    1998-01-01

    The environmental and water-quality factors that affect concentrations of Escherichia coli (E. coli) in water and sediment were investigated at three public bathing beachesEdgewater Park, Villa Angela, and Sims Parkin the Cleveland, Ohio metropolitan area. This study was done to aid in the determination of safe recreational use and to help water- resource managers assess more quickly and accurately the degradation of recreational water quality. Water and lake-bottom sediments were collected and ancillary environmental data were compiled for 41 days from May through September 1997. Water samples were analyzed for E. coli concentrations, suspended sediment concentrations, and turbidity. Lake- bottom sediment samples from the beach area were analyzed for E. coli concentrations and percent dry weight. Concentrations of E. coli were higher and more variable at Sims Park than at Villa Angela or Edgewater Park; concentrations were lowest at Edgewater Park. Time-series plots showed that short-term storage (less than one week) of E. coli in lake-bottom sediments may have occurred, although no evidence for long-term storage was found during the sampling period. E. coli concentrations in water were found to increase with increasing wave height, but the resuspension of E. coli from lake-bottom sediments by wave action could not be adequately assessed; higherwave heights were often associated with the discharge of sewage containing E. coli during or after a rainfall and wastewater-treatment plant overflow. Multiple linear regression (MLR) was used to develop models to predict recreational water quality at the in water. The related variables included turbidity, antecedent rainfall, antecedent weighted rainfall, volumes of wastewater-treatment plant overflows and metered outfalls (composed of storm-water runoff and combined-sewer overflows), a resuspension index, and wave heights. For the beaches in this study, wind speed, wind direction, water temperature, and the prswimmers

  4. Non-Markovian dynamics of fermionic and bosonic systems coupled to several heat baths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovhannisyan, A. A.; Sargsyan, V. V.; Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.; Lacroix, D.

    2018-03-01

    Employing the fermionic and bosonic Hamiltonians for the collective oscillator linearly FC-coupled with several heat baths, the analytical expressions for the collective occupation number are derived within the non-Markovian quantum Langevin approach. The master equations for the occupation number of collective subsystem are derived and discussed. In the case of Ohmic dissipation with Lorenzian cutoffs, the possibility of reduction of the system with several heat baths to the system with one heat bath is analytically demonstrated. For the fermionic and bosonic systems, a comparative analysis is performed between the collective subsystem coupled to two heat baths and the reference case of the subsystem coupled to one bath.

  5. Distribution and seasonality of microbial indicators and thermophilic campylobacters in two freshwater bathing sites on the River Lune in northwest England.

    PubMed

    Obiri-Danso, K; Jones, K

    1999-12-01

    Two freshwater bathing sites, the Crook O'Lune and the University Boathouse, on the River Lune in the north-west of England, were monitored over a 2 year period for the faecal indicators, faecal coliforms and faecal streptococci, the pathogens, Salmonella and Campylobacter, and compliance with the EU Directive on Bathing Water Quality. Faecal indicator numbers showed no seasonal variation, with numbers in the bathing season similar to those in the non-bathing season. They were consistently above the EU Guideline and Imperative standards so that if the EU Bathing Water Quality Directive (76/160/EEC) were applied, neither site would comply. Faecal indicator numbers in the sediments were an order of magnitude higher than in the overlying water. Campylobacter numbers showed seasonal variation in the water with higher counts in winter than in the summer, although numbers were low. Higher numbers were found in the sediments but there was no seasonal variation. Analysis of various inputs showed that indicators and campylobacters came from a mixture of sources, namely a sewage treatment works, agricultural run-off, streams and mallards. Microbial numbers in the water at the Crook O'Lune, which is closer to the sources of pollution, were twice those at the Boathouse. In the sediments they were six to eight times higher. Faecal coliforms were all identified as Escherichia coli of which 80% were a single biotype. Faecal streptococci were all enterococci of which 55% were E. avium, 38% E. faecalis and 7% E. durans. Salmonella was not isolated from either the water column or the sediments. Campylobacters were mainly Camp. jejuni, followed by Camp. coli, UPTC and Camp. lari.

  6. Effects of single low-temperature sauna bathing in patients with severe motor and intellectual disabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iiyama, Junichi; Matsushita, Kensuke; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Kawahira, Kazumi

    2008-07-01

    We have previously reported that thermal vasodilation following warm-water bathing and low-temperature sauna bathing (LTSB) at 60 °C for 15 min improves the cardiac function in patients with congestive heart failure. Through a comparative before-and-after study, we studied the hemodynamic and clinical effects of single exposure to LTSB in cerebral palsy (CP) patients who usually suffer from chilled extremities and low cardiac output. The study population comprised 16 patients ranging between 19 and 53 years with severe motor and intellectual disabilities. Noninvasive methods were used to estimate the systemic and peripheral circulatory changes before and after LTSB. Using blood flow velocity analysis, the pulsatile and resistive indexes of the peripheral arteries of the patients’ lower limbs were calculated. Following LTSB, the patients’ deep body temperature increased significantly by 1°C. Their heart rates increased and blood pressure decreased slightly. The total peripheral resistance decreased by 11%, and the cardiac output increased by 14%. There was significant improvement in the parameters that are indicative of the peripheral circulatory status, including the skin blood flow, blood flow velocity, pulsatile index, and resistive index. Numbness and chronic myalgia of the extremities decreased. There were no adverse side effects. Thus, it can be concluded that LTSB improves the peripheral circulation in CP patients.

  7. Effects of single low-temperature sauna bathing in patients with severe motor and intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Iiyama, Junichi; Matsushita, Kensuke; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Kawahira, Kazumi

    2008-07-01

    We have previously reported that thermal vasodilation following warm-water bathing and low-temperature sauna bathing (LTSB) at 60 degrees C for 15 min improves the cardiac function in patients with congestive heart failure. Through a comparative before-and-after study, we studied the hemodynamic and clinical effects of single exposure to LTSB in cerebral palsy (CP) patients who usually suffer from chilled extremities and low cardiac output. The study population comprised 16 patients ranging between 19 and 53 years with severe motor and intellectual disabilities. Noninvasive methods were used to estimate the systemic and peripheral circulatory changes before and after LTSB. Using blood flow velocity analysis, the pulsatile and resistive indexes of the peripheral arteries of the patients' lower limbs were calculated. Following LTSB, the patients' deep body temperature increased significantly by 1 degrees C. Their heart rates increased and blood pressure decreased slightly. The total peripheral resistance decreased by 11%, and the cardiac output increased by 14%. There was significant improvement in the parameters that are indicative of the peripheral circulatory status, including the skin blood flow, blood flow velocity, pulsatile index, and resistive index. Numbness and chronic myalgia of the extremities decreased. There were no adverse side effects. Thus, it can be concluded that LTSB improves the peripheral circulation in CP patients.

  8. Linear-algebraic bath transformation for simulating complex open quantum systems

    DOE PAGES

    Huh, Joonsuk; Mostame, Sarah; Fujita, Takatoshi; ...

    2014-12-02

    In studying open quantum systems, the environment is often approximated as a collection of non-interacting harmonic oscillators, a configuration also known as the star-bath model. It is also well known that the star-bath can be transformed into a nearest-neighbor interacting chain of oscillators. The chain-bath model has been widely used in renormalization group approaches. The transformation can be obtained by recursion relations or orthogonal polynomials. Based on a simple linear algebraic approach, we propose a bath partition strategy to reduce the system-bath coupling strength. As a result, the non-interacting star-bath is transformed into a set of weakly coupled multiple parallelmore » chains. Furthermore, the transformed bath model allows complex problems to be practically implemented on quantum simulators, and it can also be employed in various numerical simulations of open quantum dynamics.« less

  9. Temperature crossover of decoherence rates in chaotic and regular bath dynamics.

    PubMed

    Sanz, A S; Elran, Y; Brumer, P

    2012-03-01

    The effect of chaotic bath dynamics on the decoherence of a quantum system is examined for the vibrational degrees of freedom of a diatomic molecule in a realistic, constant temperature collisional bath. As an example, the specific case of I(2) in liquid xenon is examined as a function of temperature, and the results compared with an integrable xenon bath. A crossover in behavior is found: The integrable bath induces more decoherence at low bath temperatures than does the chaotic bath, whereas the opposite is the case at the higher bath temperatures. These results, verifying a conjecture due to Wilkie, shed light on the differing views of the effect of chaotic dynamics on system decoherence.

  10. Emergent transport in a many-body open system driven by interacting quantum baths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisons, Juris; Mascarenhas, Eduardo; Savona, Vincenzo

    2017-10-01

    We analyze an open many-body system that is strongly coupled at its boundaries to interacting quantum baths. We show that the two-body interactions inside the baths induce emergent phenomena in the spin transport. The system and baths are modeled as independent spin chains resulting in a global nonhomogeneous X X Z model. The evolution of the system-bath state is simulated using matrix-product-states methods. We present two phase transitions induced by bath interactions. For weak bath interactions we observe ballistic and insulating phases. However, for strong bath interactions a diffusive phase emerges with a distinct power-law decay of the time-dependent spin current Q ∝t-α . Furthermore, we investigate long-lasting current oscillations arising from the non-Markovian dynamics in the homogeneous case and find a sharp change in their frequency scaling coinciding with the triple point of the phase diagram.

  11. Controlling the quantum dynamics of a mesoscopic spin bath in diamond

    PubMed Central

    de Lange, Gijs; van der Sar, Toeno; Blok, Machiel; Wang, Zhi-Hui; Dobrovitski, Viatcheslav; Hanson, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Understanding and mitigating decoherence is a key challenge for quantum science and technology. The main source of decoherence for solid-state spin systems is the uncontrolled spin bath environment. Here, we demonstrate quantum control of a mesoscopic spin bath in diamond at room temperature that is composed of electron spins of substitutional nitrogen impurities. The resulting spin bath dynamics are probed using a single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centre electron spin as a magnetic field sensor. We exploit the spin bath control to dynamically suppress dephasing of the NV spin by the spin bath. Furthermore, by combining spin bath control with dynamical decoupling, we directly measure the coherence and temporal correlations of different groups of bath spins. These results uncover a new arena for fundamental studies on decoherence and enable novel avenues for spin-based magnetometry and quantum information processing. PMID:22536480

  12. The Association Between Bathing Habits and Severity of Atopic Dermatitis in Children.

    PubMed

    Koutroulis, Ioannis; Pyle, Tia; Kopylov, David; Little, Anthony; Gaughan, John; Kratimenos, Panagiotis

    2016-02-01

    Atopic dermatitis is an inflammatory skin disease that frequently affects children. The current recommendations on management using lifestyle modification are highly variable, leading to confusion and uncertainty among patients. To determine current bathing behaviors and the subsequent impact on disease severity. This was an observational cross-sectional study conducted at an urban pediatric emergency department. Parents were asked to fill out a questionnaire concerning the patient's bathing habits. The results were correlated with the atopic dermatitis severity determined by the SCORAD (SCORing Atopic Dermatitis) tool. No difference between variables was found to be significant for bathing frequency, time spent bathing, or use of moisturizers. Multivariate analysis showed that atopic dermatitis severity increased with age greater than 2 years (P = .0004) and with greater bathing duration (P = .001). Atopic dermatitis severity may be associated with a longer duration of bathing. The frequency of bathing does not appear to affect atopic dermatitis severity. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Ochre Bathing of the Bearded Vulture: A Bio-Mimetic Model for Early Humans towards Smell Prevention and Health

    PubMed Central

    Tributsch, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary The once widespread bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus) has the habit of bathing its polluted feathers and skin in red iron oxide-ochre-tainted water puddles. Primitive man may have tried to find out why: ochre is active in sunlight producing aggressive chemical species. They can kill viruses and bacteria and convert smelly organic substances into volatile neutral carbon dioxide gas. There is consequently a sanitary reason for the vulture’s habit of bathing in red ochre mud and this explains why prehistoric people included ochre use into their habits and rituals. Abstract Since primordial times, vultures have been competing with man for animal carcasses. One of these vultures, the once widespread bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus), has the habit of bathing its polluted feathers and skin in red iron oxide - ochre - tainted water puddles. Why? Primitive man may have tried to find out and may have discovered its advantages. Red ochre, which has accompanied human rituals and everyday life for more than 100,000 years, is not just a simple red paint for decoration or a symbol for blood. As modern experiments demonstrate, it is active in sunlight producing aggressive chemical species. They can kill viruses and bacteria and convert smelly organic substances into volatile neutral carbon dioxide gas. In this way, ochre can in sunlight sterilize and clean the skin to provide health and comfort and make it scentless, a definitive advantage for nomadic meat hunters. This research thus also demonstrates a sanitary reason for the vulture’s habit of bathing in red ochre mud. Prehistoric people have therefore included ochre use into their rituals, especially into those in relation to birth and death. Significant ritual impulses during evolution of man may thus have developed bio-mimetically, inspired from the habits of a vulture. It is discussed how this health strategy could be developed to a modern standard helping to fight antibiotics-resistant bacteria in

  14. The provision of patient personal hygiene in the intensive care unit: a descriptive exploratory study of bed-bathing practice.

    PubMed

    Coyer, Fiona M; O'Sullivan, Judy; Cadman, Nicola

    2011-08-01

    The provision of the patient bed-bath is a fundamental nursing care activity yet few quantitative data and no qualitative data are available on registered nurses' (RNs) clinical practice in this domain in the intensive care unit (ICU). The aim of this study was to describe ICU RNs current practice with respect to the timing, frequency and duration of the patient bed-bath and the cleansing and emollient agents used. The study utilised a two-phase sequential explanatory mixed method design. Phase one used a questionnaire to survey RNs and phase two employed semi-structured focus group (FG) interviews with RNs. Data was collected over 28 days across four Australian metropolitan ICUs. Ethical approval was granted from the relevant hospital and university human research ethics committees. RNs were asked to complete a questionnaire following each episode of care (i.e. bed-bath) and then to attend one of three FG interviews: RNs with less than 2 years ICU experience; RNs with 2-5 years ICU experience; and RNs with greater than 5 years ICU experience. During the 28-day study period the four ICUs had 77.25 beds open. In phase one a total of 539 questionnaires were returned, representing 30.5% of episodes of patient bed-baths (based on 1767 bed occupancy and one bed-bath per patient per day). In 349 bed-bath episodes 54.7% patients were mechanically ventilated. The bed-bath was given between 02.00 and 06.00h in 161 episodes (30%), took 15-30min to complete (n=195, 36.2%) and was completed within the last 8h in 304 episodes (56.8%). Cleansing agents used were predominantly pH balanced soap or liquid soap and water (n=379, 71%) in comparison to chlorhexidine impregnated sponges/cloths (n=86, 16.1%) or other agents such as pre-packaged washcloths (n=65, 12.2%). In 347 episodes (64.4%) emollients were not applied after the bed-bath. In phase two 12 FGs were conducted (three FGs at each ICU) with a total of 42 RN participants. Thematic analysis of FG transcripts across the three

  15. Resummed memory kernels in generalized system-bath master equations

    SciTech Connect

    Mavros, Michael G.; Van Voorhis, Troy, E-mail: tvan@mit.edu

    2014-08-07

    Generalized master equations provide a concise formalism for studying reduced population dynamics. Usually, these master equations require a perturbative expansion of the memory kernels governing the dynamics; in order to prevent divergences, these expansions must be resummed. Resummation techniques of perturbation series are ubiquitous in physics, but they have not been readily studied for the time-dependent memory kernels used in generalized master equations. In this paper, we present a comparison of different resummation techniques for such memory kernels up to fourth order. We study specifically the spin-boson Hamiltonian as a model system bath Hamiltonian, treating the diabatic coupling between themore » two states as a perturbation. A novel derivation of the fourth-order memory kernel for the spin-boson problem is presented; then, the second- and fourth-order kernels are evaluated numerically for a variety of spin-boson parameter regimes. We find that resumming the kernels through fourth order using a Padé approximant results in divergent populations in the strong electronic coupling regime due to a singularity introduced by the nature of the resummation, and thus recommend a non-divergent exponential resummation (the “Landau-Zener resummation” of previous work). The inclusion of fourth-order effects in a Landau-Zener-resummed kernel is shown to improve both the dephasing rate and the obedience of detailed balance over simpler prescriptions like the non-interacting blip approximation, showing a relatively quick convergence on the exact answer. The results suggest that including higher-order contributions to the memory kernel of a generalized master equation and performing an appropriate resummation can provide a numerically-exact solution to system-bath dynamics for a general spectral density, opening the way to a new class of methods for treating system-bath dynamics.« less

  16. [The use of white and yellow turpentine baths with diabetic patients].

    PubMed

    Davydova, O B; Turova, E A; Golovach, A V

    1998-01-01

    In patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus while and yellow turpentine baths produced a positive effect on carbohydrate metabolism. White baths were more effective in respect to lipid metabolism, blood viscosity, produced a good effect on plasmic hemocoagulation factors. Both while and yellow turpentine baths were beneficial for capillary blood flow: initially high distal blood flow in patients with prevailing distal polyneuropathy decreased while in patients with macroangiopathy initially subnormal blood flow increased. Both white and yellow turpentine baths promoted better pulse blood filling of the lower limbs and weaker peripheral resistance of large vessels. In patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus white and yellow turpentine baths contributed to normalization of carbohydrate metabolism. Yellow baths were more effective in lowering lipids. White baths induced inhibition of platelet aggregation but had no effect on coagulation, yellow baths promoted a reduction of fibrinogen but had no effect on platelet aggregation. Yellow baths produced more pronounced effect than white ones on blood viscosity and microcirculation. Both yellow and white baths stimulated pulse blood filling, corrected peripheral resistance of large and small vessels of the lower limbs.

  17. Effect of trunk-to-head bathing on physiological responses in newborns.

    PubMed

    So, Hyun-Sook; You, Mi-Ae; Mun, Je-Yung; Hwang, Myeong-Jin; Kim, Hyun-Kyung; Pyeon, Suk-Jin; Shin, Mi-Young; Chang, Bong-Hee

    2014-01-01

    To determine the effect of trunk-to-head bathing versus the traditional head-to-trunk bathing on newborns' body temperature, heart rate, and oxygen saturation. A prospective, two-group, quasi-experimental repeated measures design. A newborn nursery in an urban university hospital. Sixty-two healthy full-term newborns. Newborns were randomly assigned to two groups. The newborns in the experimental group were bathed from trunk to head; those in the control group were bathed from head to trunk. Measurements of body temperature, heart rate, and oxygen saturation were obtained at four time points: before the bath, immediately after the bath, 30 minutes after the bath, and 60 minutes after the bath. No significant differences in body temperature, heart rate, or oxygen saturation were observed between groups. However, body temperature was significantly different across measurement times, and there was a significant interaction between group and measurement time. The mean body temperature dropped 0.2°C after bathing in both groups, but the experimental group returned to their initial body temperature more rapidly than the control group. These findings suggest that newborns who were bathed from trunk to head and whose heads were wet for shorter periods of time benefited with a more rapid recovery of body temperature and decreased heat loss due to evaporation. © 2014 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  18. Diffusion mechanism in molten salt baths during the production of carbide coatings via thermal reactive diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghadi, Aliakbar; Saghafian, Hassan; Soltanieh, Mansour; Yang, Zhi-gang

    2017-12-01

    The diffusion mechanism of carbide-forming elements from a molten salt bath to a substrate surface was studied in this research, with particular focus on the processes occurring in the molten bath at the time of coating. Metal, oxide, and metal-oxide baths were investigated, and the coating process was performed on H13 steel substrates. Scanning electron microscopy and electron-probe microanalysis were used to study the coated samples and the quenched salt bath. The thickness of the carbide coating layer was 6.5 ± 0.5, 5.2 ± 0.5, or 5.7 ± 0.5 μm depending on whether it was deposited in a metal, oxide, or metal-oxide bath, respectively. The phase distribution of vanadium-rich regions was 63%, 57%, and 74% of the total coating deposited in metal, oxide, and metal-oxide baths, respectively. The results obtained using the metal bath indicated that undissolved suspended metal particles deposited onto the substrate surface. Then, carbon subsequently diffused to the substrate surface and reacted with the metal particles to form the carbides. In the oxide bath, oxide powders dissolved in the bath with or without binding to the oxidative structure (Na2O) of borax; they were then reduced by aluminum and converted into metal particles. We concluded that, in the metal and oxide baths, the deposition of metal particles onto the sample surface is an important step in the formation of the coating.

  19. The geology of Burnsville Cove, Bath and Highland Counties, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swezey, Christopher; Haynes, John T.; Lambert, Richard A.; White, William B.; Lucas, Philip C.; Garrity, Christopher P.

    2015-01-01

    Burnsville Cove is a karst region in Bath and Highland Counties of Virginia. A new geologic map of the area reveals various units of limestone, sandstone, and siliciclastic mudstone (shale) of Silurian through Devonian age, as well as structural features such as northeast-trending anticlines and synclines, minor thrust faults, and prominent joints. Quaternary features include erosional (strath) terraces and accumulations of mud, sand, and gravel. The caves of Burnsville Cove are located within predominantly carbonate strata above the Silurian Williamsport Sandstone and below the Devonian Oriskany Sandstone. Most of the caves are located within the Silurian Tonoloway Limestone, rather than the Silurian-Devonian Keyser Limestone as reported previously.

  20. Dissociation rate of bromine diatomics in an argon heat bath

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Razner, R.; Hopkins, D.

    1973-01-01

    The evolution of a collection of 300 K bromine diatomics embedded in a heat bath of argon atoms at 1800 K was studied by computer, and a dissociation-rate constant for the reaction Br2 + BR + Ar yields Br + Ar was determined. Previously published probability distributions for energy and angular momentum transfers in classical three-dimensional Br2-Ar collisions were used in conjunction with a newly developed Monte Carlo scheme for this purpose. Results are compared with experimental shock-tube data and the predictions of several other theoretical models. A departure from equilibrium is obtained which is significantly greater than that predicted by any of these other theories.

  1. Detection of weak signals in memory thermal baths.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Aquino, J I; Velasco, R M; Romero-Bastida, M

    2014-11-01

    The nonlinear relaxation time and the statistics of the first passage time distribution in connection with the quasideterministic approach are used to detect weak signals in the decay process of the unstable state of a Brownian particle embedded in memory thermal baths. The study is performed in the overdamped approximation of a generalized Langevin equation characterized by an exponential decay in the friction memory kernel. A detection criterion for each time scale is studied: The first one is referred to as the receiver output, which is given as a function of the nonlinear relaxation time, and the second one is related to the statistics of the first passage time distribution.

  2. Implications of psychoactive 'bath salts' use during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Gray, Bobbe Ann; Holland, Cindra

    2014-01-01

    Psychoactive bath salts (PABS) comprise a group of highly dangerous designer drugs showing a sharp escalation in reported U.S. exposures from 2010 through 2012, following rapid spread of the drug in Europe. Since a federal ban on the major ingredients in October 2011, numbers have declined. However, evidence from the United Kingdom shows an initial decline after the UK ban in 2010 with a 400 percent increase in reports by 2012. Actual information about the effect of PABS use on pregnant women and fetuses is almost nonexistent. Clinicians should be aware of the potential maternal, fetal and neonatal effects of PABS. © 2014 AWHONN.

  3. Benefit of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in major burns after stun grenade explosion: Experience from a single military medical center.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Po-Shun; Tsai, Yi-Ting; Lin, Chih-Yuan; Chen, Shyi-Gen; Dai, Niann-Tzyy; Chen, Cheng-Jung; Chen, Jia-Lin; Tsai, Chien-Sung

    2017-05-01

    Explosion injury is very common on the battlefield and is associated with major burn and inhalation injuries and subsequent high mortality and morbidity rates. Here we report six victims who suffered from explosion injuries caused by stun grenade; all were treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) as salvage therapy. This study was aimed to evaluate the indications and efficacy of ECMO in acute and critically ill major burn patients. This was a retrospective analysis of six patients from Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center in Taiwan. All suffered from major burns with 89.0±19.1% average of total body surface area over second degree (TBSA; range, 50-99%). ECMO was used due to inhalation injury in five patients and cardiogenic shock in one patient. The average interval to start ECMO was 26.5±19.0h (range, 14-63h). Venoarterial ECMO was used on in four patients due to unstable hemodynamic status, whereas venovenous ECMO was used in two patients for sustained hypoxemia. All patients had rhabdomyolysis with acute renal failure. The average duration of ECMO was 169.6±180.9h (range, 27-401h). All patients developed coagulopathy and needed debridement surgery during ECMO support, and five underwent torso escharotomy due to inspiratory compromise. Only one patient whose second and third degree burns covered 50% TBSA was successfully weaned from ECMO and survived; he was discharged after 221 hospital days. All patients who died had second and third degree burns covering over 90% of their TBSA. Three patients died of multiple organ failure, one died of septic shock, and the other died of cardiogenic shock. Overall survival rate was 16.7%. In acute and critically ill major burn patients, ECMO could be considered as a salvage therapy, particularly in those with inhalation injury and burn-related acute respiratory distress syndrome. However, ECMO does not seem to provide benefits for circulatory support in those with hemodynamic

  4. Herbal bathing: an analysis of variation in plant use among Saramaccan and Aucan Maroons in Suriname.

    PubMed

    van 't Klooster, Charlotte I E A; Haabo, Vinije; Ruysschaert, Sofie; Vossen, Tessa; van Andel, Tinde R

    2018-03-15

    Herbal baths play an important role in the traditional health care of Maroons living in the interior of Suriname. However, little is known on the differences in plant ingredients used among and within the Maroon groups. We compared plant use in herbal baths documented for Saramaccan and Aucan Maroons, to see whether similarity in species was related to bath type, ethnic group, or geographical location. We hypothesized that because of their dissimilar cultural background, they used different species for the same type of bath. We assumed, however, that plants used in genital baths were more similar, as certain plant ingredients (e.g., essential oils), are preferred in these baths. We compiled a database from published and unpublished sources on herbal bath ingredients and constructed a presence/absence matrix per bath type and study site. To assess similarity in plant use among and within Saramaccan and Aucan communities, we performed three Detrended Correspondence Analyses on species level and the Jaccard Similarity Index to quantify similarity in bath ingredients. We recorded 349 plants used in six commonly used bath types: baby strength, adult strength, skin diseases, respiratory ailments, genital steam baths, and spiritual issues. Our results showed a large variation in plant ingredients among the Saramaccan and Aucans and little similarity between Saramaccans and Aucans, even for the same type of baths. Plant ingredients for baby baths and genital baths shared more species than the others. Even within the Saramaccan community, plant ingredients were stronger associated with location than with bath type. Plant use in bathing was strongly influenced by study site and then by ethnicity, but less by bath type. As Maroons escaped from different plantations and developed their ethnomedicinal practices in isolation, there has been little exchange in ethnobotanical knowledge after the seventeenth century between ethnic groups. Care should be taken in extrapolating plant

  5. Verification of impact of morning showering and mist sauna bathing on human physiological functions and work efficiency during the day

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Soomin; Fujimura, Hiroko; Shimomura, Yoshihiro; Katsuura, Tetsuo

    2015-09-01

    Recently, a growing number in Japan are switching to taking baths in the morning (morning bathing). However, the effects of the morning bathing on human physiological functions and work efficiency have not yet been revealed. Then, we hypothesized that the effect of morning bathing on physiological functions would be different from those of night bathing. In this study, we measured the physiological functions and work efficiency during the day following the morning bathing (7:10-7:20) including showering, mist sauna bathing, and no bathing as a control. Ten male healthy young adults participated in this study as the subjects. We evaluated the rectal temperature (Tre), skin temperature (Tsk), heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure (BP), the relative power density of the alpha wave (α-wave ratio) of electroencephalogram, alpha attenuation coefficient (AAC), and the error rate of the task performance. As a result, we found that the HR after the mist sauna bathing was significantly lower than those after no bathing rest 3 (11:00). Furthermore, we verified that the α-wave ratio of the Pz after the mist sauna bathing was significantly lower than those after no bathing during the task 6 (15:00). On the other hand, the α-wave ratio of the Pz after the mist sauna bathing was significantly higher than those after showering during the rest 3 (11:00). Tsk after the mist sauna bathing was higher than those after the showering at 9:00 and 15:00. In addition, the error rate of the task performance after the mist sauna bathing was lower than those after no bathing and showering at 14:00. This study concludes that a morning mist sauna is safe and maintains both skin temperature compared to other bathing methods. Moreover, it is presumed that the morning mist sauna bathing improves work efficiency comparing other bathing methods during the task period of the day following the morning bathing.

  6. Verification of impact of morning showering and mist sauna bathing on human physiological functions and work efficiency during the day.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soomin; Fujimura, Hiroko; Shimomura, Yoshihiro; Katsuura, Tetsuo

    2015-09-01

    Recently, a growing number in Japan are switching to taking baths in the morning (morning bathing). However, the effects of the morning bathing on human physiological functions and work efficiency have not yet been revealed. Then, we hypothesized that the effect of morning bathing on physiological functions would be different from those of night bathing. In this study, we measured the physiological functions and work efficiency during the day following the morning bathing (7:10-7:20) including showering, mist sauna bathing, and no bathing as a control. Ten male healthy young adults participated in this study as the subjects. We evaluated the rectal temperature (Tre), skin temperature (Tsk), heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure (BP), the relative power density of the alpha wave (α-wave ratio) of electroencephalogram, alpha attenuation coefficient (AAC), and the error rate of the task performance. As a result, we found that the HR after the mist sauna bathing was significantly lower than those after no bathing rest 3 (11:00). Furthermore, we verified that the α-wave ratio of the Pz after the mist sauna bathing was significantly lower than those after no bathing during the task 6 (15:00). On the other hand, the α-wave ratio of the Pz after the mist sauna bathing was significantly higher than those after showering during the rest 3 (11:00). Tsk after the mist sauna bathing was higher than those after the showering at 9:00 and 15:00. In addition, the error rate of the task performance after the mist sauna bathing was lower than those after no bathing and showering at 14:00. This study concludes that a morning mist sauna is safe and maintains both skin temperature compared to other bathing methods. Moreover, it is presumed that the morning mist sauna bathing improves work efficiency comparing other bathing methods during the task period of the day following the morning bathing.

  7. Domestic water buffaloes: Access to surface water, disease prevalence and associated economic losses.

    PubMed

    Elahi, Ehsan; Abid, Muhammad; Zhang, Huiming; Cui, Weijun; Ul Hasson, Shabeh

    2018-06-01

    Given the shortage and non-availability of freshwater in Pakistan, wastewater is being used for bathing water buffaloes; however, this has a negative impact on animal welfare. Although there is a vast literature on indirect linkages between wastewater and animal productivity, studies focusing on the direct impacts of water buffaloes bathing in wastewater on animal productivity and economic losses are rare. Therefore, using 360 domestic water buffalo farms, this study examines the expenditure and production losses associated with bathing (in wastewater and freshwater) and non-bathing water buffaloes by employing partial budgeting and resource adjustment component techniques. Furthermore, it investigates the prevalence of animal diseases and associated economic effects using correlation analysis and propensity score matching techniques, respectively. The findings reveal that compared to their counterparts (freshwater bathing and non-bathing water buffaloes), buffaloes bathing in wastewater are at increased risk of clinical mastitis, foot and mouth disease (FMD) and tick infestation. Moreover, the use of wastewater for bathing buffaloes also leads to higher economic and production losses by affecting milk productivity, causing premature culling, and reducing slaughter value. The findings of the double-log model show that economic losses are higher if buffaloes bathe in wastewater within 30 min after milking, as there are more chances that those buffaloes would be exposed to bacterial penetration in the teat ducts, which may result in intramammary infection. According to the propensity score matching method, the higher economic damages per month are associated with buffaloes bathing in wastewater and freshwater, 155 and 110 USD per farm, respectively. The study findings reference the need for policies to restrict wastewater access by water buffaloes, and a regular check of and access to cool clean water wallows for bathing during hot summer days, to reduce excess

  8. Daily Bathing with Chlorhexidine and Its Effects on Nosocomial Infection Rates in Pediatric Oncology Patients.

    PubMed

    Raulji, Chittalsinh M; Clay, Kristin; Velasco, Cruz; Yu, Lolie C

    2015-01-01

    Infections remain a serious complication in pediatric oncology patients. To determine if daily bathing with Chlorhexidine gluconate can decrease the rate of nosocomial infection in pediatric oncology patients, we reviewed rates of infections in pediatric oncology patients over a 14-month span. Intervention group received daily bath with Chlorhexidine, while the control group did not receive daily bath. The results showed that daily bath with antiseptic chlorhexidine as daily prophylactic antiseptic topical wash leads to decreased infection density amongst the pediatric oncology patients, especially in patients older than 12 years of age. Furthermore, daily chlorhexidine bathing significantly reduced the rate of hospital acquired infection in patients older than 12 years of age. The findings of this study suggest that daily bathing with chlorhexidine may be an effective measure of reducing nosocomial infection in pediatric oncology patients.

  9. Ergodicity of the Stochastic Nosé-Hoover Heat Bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei Chung Lo,; Baowen Li,

    2010-07-01

    We numerically study the ergodicity of the stochastic Nosé-Hoover heat bath whose formalism is based on the Markovian approximation for the Nosé-Hoover equation [J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 77 (2008) 103001]. The approximation leads to a Langevin-like equation driven by a fluctuating dissipative force and multiplicative Gaussian white noise. The steady state solution of the associated Fokker-Planck equation is the canonical distribution. We investigate the dynamics of this method for the case of (i) free particle, (ii) nonlinear oscillators and (iii) lattice chains. We derive the Fokker-Planck equation for the free particle and present approximate analytical solution for the stationary distribution in the context of the Markovian approximation. Numerical simulation results for nonlinear oscillators show that this method results in a Gaussian distribution for the particles velocity. We also employ the method as heat baths to study nonequilibrium heat flow in one-dimensional Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU-β) and Frenkel-Kontorova (FK) lattices. The establishment of well-defined temperature profiles are observed only when the lattice size is large. Our results provide numerical justification for such Markovian approximation for classical single- and many-body systems.

  10. Cadmium sulfide thin films growth by chemical bath deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hariech, S.; Aida, M. S.; Bougdira, J.; Belmahi, M.; Medjahdi, G.; Genève, D.; Attaf, N.; Rinnert, H.

    2018-03-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) thin films have been prepared by a simple technique such as chemical bath deposition (CBD). A set of samples CdS were deposited on glass substrates by varying the bath temperature from 55 to 75 °C at fixed deposition time (25 min) in order to investigate the effect of deposition temperature on CdS films physical properties. The determination of growth activation energy suggests that at low temperature CdS film growth is governed by the release of Cd2+ ions in the solution. The structural characterization indicated that the CdS films structure is cubic or hexagonal with preferential orientation along the direction (111) or (002), respectively. The optical characterization indicated that the films have a fairly high transparency, which varies between 55% and 80% in the visible range of the optical spectrum, the refractive index varies from 1.85 to 2.5 and the optical gap value of which can reach 2.2 eV. It can be suggested that these properties make these films perfectly suitable for their use as window film in thin films based solar cells.

  11. Quantum trajectory analysis of multimode subsystem-bath dynamics.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, Robert E; Na, Kyungsun

    2002-01-01

    The dynamics of a swarm of quantum trajectories is investigated for systems involving the interaction of an active mode (the subsystem) with an M-mode harmonic reservoir (the bath). Equations of motion for the position, velocity, and action function for elements of the probability fluid are integrated in the Lagrangian (moving with the fluid) picture of quantum hydrodynamics. These fluid elements are coupled through the Bohm quantum potential and as a result evolve as a correlated ensemble. Wave function synthesis along the trajectories permits an exact description of the quantum dynamics for the evolving probability fluid. The approach is fully quantum mechanical and does not involve classical or semiclassical approximations. Computational results are presented for three systems involving the interaction on an active mode with M=1, 10, and 15 bath modes. These results include configuration space trajectory evolution, flux analysis of the evolving ensemble, wave function synthesis along trajectories, and energy partitioning along specific trajectories. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using a small number of quantum trajectories to obtain accurate quantum results on some types of open quantum systems that are not amenable to standard quantum approaches involving basis set expansions or Eulerian space-fixed grids.

  12. Lunar Surface Systems Wet-Bath Design Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Shelby; Szabo, Rich; Howard, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the current evaluation was to examine five different wet-bath architectural design concepts. The primary means of testing the concepts required participants to physically act-out a number of functional tasks (e.g., shaving, showering, changing clothes, maintenance) in order to give judgments on the affordance of the volume as based on the design concepts. Each of the concepts was designed in such a way that certain features were exploited - for example, a concept may have a large amount of internal stowage, but minimum amount of usable space to perform tasks. The results showed that the most preferred concept was one in which stowage and usable space were balanced. This concept allowed for a moderate amount of stowage with some suggested redesign, but would not preclude additional personal items such as clothing. This concept also allowed for a greater distance to be achieved between the toilet and the sink with minimum redesign, which was desirable. Therefore, the all-in-one (i.e., toilet, sink, and shower all occupying a single volume) wet-bath concept seemed to be a viable solution in which there is a minimal amount of overall volume available with certain lunar habitat configurations.

  13. Creation of quantum steering by interaction with a common bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhe; Xu, Xiao-Qiang; Liu, Bo

    2018-05-01

    By applying the hierarchy equation method, we computationally study the creation of quantum steering in a two-qubit system interacting with a common bosonic bath. The calculation does not adopt conventional approximate approaches, such as the Born, Markov, rotating-wave, and other perturbative approximations. Three kinds of quantum steering, i.e., Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering (EPRS), temporal steering (TS), and spatiotemporal steering (STS), are considered. Since the initial state of the two qubits is chosen as a product state, there does not exist EPRS at the beginning. During the evolution, we find that STS as well as EPRS are generated at the same time. An inversion relationship between STS and TS is revealed. By varying the system-bath coupling strength from weak to ultrastrong regimes, we find the nonmonotonic dependence of STS, TS, and EPRS on the coupling strength. It is interesting to study the dynamics of the three kinds of quantum steering by using an exactly numerical method, which is not considered in previous researches.

  14. Jupiter's Stunning Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-11-09

    See Jupiter's southern hemisphere in beautiful detail in this new image taken by NASA's Juno spacecraft. The color-enhanced view captures one of the white ovals in the "String of Pearls," one of eight massive rotating storms at 40 degrees south latitude on the gas giant planet. The image was taken on Oct. 24, 2017 at 11:11 a.m. PDT (2:11 p.m. EDT), as Juno performed its ninth close flyby of Jupiter. At the time the image was taken, the spacecraft was 20,577 miles (33,115 kilometers) from the tops of the clouds of the planet at a latitude of minus 52.96 degrees. The spatial scale in this image is 13.86 miles/pixel (22.3 kilometers/pixel). Citizen scientists Gerald Eichstädt and Seán Doran processed this image using data from the JunoCam imager. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21970

  15. Stunningly bright optical emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinke, Craig O.

    2017-12-01

    The detection of bright, rapid optical pulsations from pulsar PSR J1023+0038 have provided a surprise for researchers working on neutron stars. This discovery poses more questions than it answers and will spur on future work and instrumentation.

  16. School Shootings Stun Reservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borja, Rhea R.; Cavanagh, Sean

    2005-01-01

    This article deals with the impact brought by the school shootings at Red Lake Indian Reservation in Minnesota to the school community. A deeply troubled 16-year-old student shot and killed seven other people and himself at a high school. The nation's deadliest school attack since the 1999 slayings at Colorado's suburban Columbine High School took…

  17. A Stunning Admission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Helen

    2012-01-01

    Few people set out to become admissions counselors, say people in the profession. But the field is requiring skills that are more demanding and varied than ever. And at a time when universities are looking especially hard at the bottom line, people in admissions need to constantly learn new things and make themselves indispensable. Counselors…

  18. Chemical bath deposition of II-VI compound thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oladeji, Isaiah Olatunde

    II-VI compounds are direct bandgap semiconductors with great potentials in optoelectronic applications. Solar cells, where these materials are in greater demand, require a low cost production technology that will make the final product more affordable. Chemical bath deposition (CBD) a low cost growth technique capable of producing good quality thin film semiconductors over large area and at low temperature then becomes a suitable technology of choice. Heterogeneous reaction in a basic aqueous solution that is responsible for the II-VI compound film growth in CBD requires a metal complex. We have identified the stability constant (k) of the metal complex compatible with CBD growth mechanism to be about 106.9. This value is low enough to ensure that the substrate adsorbed complex relax for subsequent reaction with the chalcogen precursor to take place. It is also high enough to minimize the metal ion concentration in the bath participating in the precipitation of the bulk compounds. Homogeneous reaction that leads to precipitation in the reaction bath takes place because the solubility products of bulk II-VI compounds are very low. This reaction quickly depletes the bath of reactants, limit the film thickness, and degrade the film quality. While ZnS thin films are still hard to grow by CBD because of lack of suitable complexing agent, the homogeneous reaction still limits quality and thickness of both US and ZnS thin films. In this study, the zinc tetraammine complex ([Zn(NH3) 4]2+) with k = 108.9 has been forced to acquire its unsaturated form [Zn(NH3)3]2+ with a moderate k = 106.6 using hydrazine and nitrilotriacetate ion as complementary complexing agents and we have successfully grown ZnS thin films. We have also, minimized or eliminated the homogeneous reaction by using ammonium salt as a buffer and chemical bath with low reactant concentrations. These have allowed us to increase the saturation thickness of ZnS thin film by about 400% and raise that of US film

  19. Culture and long-term care: the bath as social service in Japan.

    PubMed

    Traphagan, John W

    2004-01-01

    A central feature of Japan's approach to community-based care of the elderly, including long-term home health care, is the emphasis on providing bath facilities. For mobile elders, senior centers typically provide a public bathing facility in which people can enjoy a relaxing soak along with friends who also visit the centers. In terms of in-home long-term care, visiting bath services are provided to assist family care providers with the difflcult task of bathing a frail or disabled elder--a task made more problematic as a result of the Japanese style of bathing. I argue that the bath, as social service, is a culturally shaped solution to a specific problem of elder care that arises in the Japanese context as a result of the importance of the bath in everyday life for Japanese. While the services may be considered specific to Japan, some aspects of bathing services, particularly the mobile bath service, may also have applicability in the United States.

  20. Quantum dynamics simulations in an ultraslow bath using hierarchy of stochastic Schrödinger equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Yaling; Zhao, Yi

    2018-04-01

    The hierarchy of stochastic Schrödinger equation, previously developed under the unpolarised initial bath states, is extended in this paper for open quantum dynamics under polarised initial bath conditions. The method is proved to be a powerful tool in investigating quantum dynamics exposed to an ultraslow Ohmic bath, as in this case the hierarchical truncation level and the random sampling number can be kept at a relatively small extent. By systematically increasing the system-bath coupling strength, the symmetric Ohmic spin-boson dynamics is investigated at finite temperature, with a very small cut-off frequency. It is confirmed that the slow bath makes the system dynamics extremely sensitive to the initial bath conditions. The localisation tendency is stronger in the polarised initial bath conditions. Besides, the oscillatory coherent dynamics persists even when the system-bath coupling is very strong, in correspondence with what is found recently in the deep sub-Ohmic bath, where also the low-frequency modes dominate.

  1. Quantum Otto engine using a single ion and a single thermal bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Asoka; Chand, Suman

    2016-05-01

    Quantum heat engines employ a quantum system as the working fluid, that gives rise to large work efficiency, beyond the limit for classical heat engines. Existing proposals for implementing quantum heat engines require that the system interacts with the hot bath and the cold bath (both modelled as a classical system) in an alternative fashion and therefore assumes ability to switch off the interaction with the bath during a certain stage of the heat-cycle. However, it is not possible to decouple a quantum system from its always-on interaction with the bath without use of complex pulse sequences. It is also hard to identify two different baths at two different temperatures in quantum domain, that sequentially interact with the system. Here, we show how to implement a quantum Otto engine without requiring to decouple the bath in a sequential manner. This is done by considering a single thermal bath, coupled to a single trapped ion. The electronic degree of freedom of the ion is chosen as a two-level working fluid while the vibrational degree of freedom plays the role of the cold bath. Measuring the electronic state mimics the release of heat into the cold bath. Thus, our model is fully quantum and exhibits very large work efficiency, asymptotically close to unity.

  2. STScI-PRC02-11a FARAWAY GALAXIES PROVIDE A STUNNING 'WALLPAPER' BACKDROP FOR A RUNAWAY GALAXY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Against a stunning backdrop of thousands of galaxies, this odd-looking galaxy with the long streamer of stars appears to be racing through space, like a runaway pinwheel firework. This picture of the galaxy UGC 10214 was taken by the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS), which was installed aboard NASA's Hubble Space Telescope in March during Servicing Mission 3B. Dubbed the 'Tadpole,' this spiral galaxy is unlike the textbook images of stately galaxies. Its distorted shape was caused by a small interloper, a very blue, compact galaxy visible in the upper left corner of the more massive Tadpole. The Tadpole resides about 420 million light-years away in the constellation Draco. Seen shining through the Tadpole's disk, the tiny intruder is likely a hit-and-run galaxy that is now leaving the scene of the accident. Strong gravitational forces from the interaction created the long tail of debris, consisting of stars and gas that stretch out more than 280,000 light-years. Numerous young blue stars and star clusters, spawned by the galaxy collision, are seen in the spiral arms, as well as in the long 'tidal' tail of stars. Each of these clusters represents the formation of up to about a million stars. Their color is blue because they contain very massive stars, which are 10 times hotter and 1 million times brighter than our Sun. Once formed, the star clusters become redder with age as the most massive and bluest stars exhaust their fuel and burn out. These clusters will eventually become old globular clusters similar to those found in essentially all halos of galaxies, including our own Milky Way. Two prominent clumps of young bright blue stars in the long tail are separated by a 'gap' -- a section that is fainter than the rest of the tail. These clumps of stars will likely become dwarf galaxies that orbit in the Tadpole's halo. The galactic carnage and torrent of star birth are playing out against a spectacular backdrop: a 'wallpaper pattern' of 6,000 galaxies. These

  3. Effect of temperature on the pharmacokinetics of benzocaine in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) after bath exposures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stehly, G.R.; Meinertz, J.R.; Gingerich, W.H.

    1998-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of benzocaine during bath exposures at 1 mg/L were determined in rainbow trout acclimated at 6 °C, 12 °C or 18 °C for at least 1 month. Individual fish were exposed to benzocaine in a recirculating system for 4 h and pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated in a unique manner from the concentration of benzocaine in the bath water vs. time curve. Elimination from plasma was also determined after the 4 h exposure. The uptake clearance and metabolic clearance increased with increased acclimatization temperatures (uptake clearance 581 ± 179 mL/min/kg at 6 °C and 1154 ± 447 mL/ min/kg at 18 °C; metabolic clearance 15.2 ± 4.1 mL/min/kg at 6 °C and 22.3 ± 4.2 mL/min/kg at 18 °C). The apparent volume of distribution had a trend for increasing with temperature that was not significant at the 5% level (2369 ± 678 mL/kg at 6 °C to 3260 ± 1182 mL/kg at 18 °C). The elimination half-life of benzocaine in plasma was variable and did not differ significantly with temperature (60.8 ± 30.3 min at 6 °C to 35.9 ± 13.0 min at 12 °C). Elimination of benzocaine from rainbow trout is relatively rapid and even more rapid at higher acclimatization temperatures based on calculated metabolic clearances and measured plasma concentrations, but was not evident by measurement of terminal plasma half-lifes.

  4. Bath salts and synthetic cathinones: An emerging designer drug phenomenon

    PubMed Central

    German, Christopher L.; Fleckenstein, Annette E.; Hanson, Glen R.

    2014-01-01

    The synthetic cathinones are an emerging class of designer drugs abused for psychostimulant and hallucinogenic effects similar to cocaine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), or other amphetamines. Abuse of synthetic cathinones, frequently included in products sold as ‘bath salts’, became prevalent in early 2009, leading to legislative classification throughout Europe in 2010 and schedule I classification within the United States in 2011. Recent pre-clinical and clinical studies indicate dysregulation of central monoamine systems are a principal mechanism of synthetic cathinone action and presumably underlie the behavioral effects and abuse liability associated with these drugs. This review provides insight into the development of synthetic cathinones as substances of abuse, current patterns of their abuse, known mechanisms of their action and toxicology, and the benefits and drawbacks of their classification. PMID:23911668

  5. Skin hydration in nursing home residents using disposable bed baths.

    PubMed

    Gillis, Katrin; Tency, Inge; Roelant, Ella; Laureys, Sarina; Devriendt, Hendrik; Lips, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate a new way for applying bed baths and reducing the risk for dry skin by comparing the effect of two washing methods on skin hydration. A cluster randomized trial was conducted. Skin hydration was measured before and after implementation of disposable wash gloves, using a MoistureMeter SC at three skin sites. Total skin hydration did not differ between residents at the start of the study in both groups. After implementation, the post minus pre hydration scores were higher for the intervention group than the control group at all skin sites. However, the difference was only significant at cheek site. The use of disposable wash gloves does not increase the risk for dry skin in comparison with traditional washing methods. These results may encourage the introduction of disposable wash gloves as an innovation in daily skin care practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Deposition of zinc sulfide thin films by chemical bath process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oladeji, Isaiah O.; Chow, Lee

    1996-11-01

    Deposition of high quality zinc sulfide (ZnS) thin film over a large area is required if it is to be effectively used in electroluminescent devices, solar cells, and other optoelectronic devices. Of all deposition techniques, chemical bath deposition (CBD) is the least costly technique that meets the above requirements. Recently it is found that the growth of ZnS film, of thickness less than 100 nm in a single dip, by CBD is facilitated by the use of ammonia and hydrazine as complexing agents. Here we report that the thickness of the deposited ZnS film can be increased if ammonium salt is used as a buffer. We also present an analytical study to explain our results and to further understand the ZnS growth process in CBD.

  7. Carbothermic reduction of uranium oxides into solvent metallic baths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guisard Restivo, Thomaz A.; Capocchi, José D. T.

    2004-09-01

    The carbothermic reduction of UO 2 and U 3O 8 is studied employing tin and silicon solvent metallic baths in thermal analysis equipment, under Ar inert and N 2 reactive atmospheres. The metallic solvents are expected to lower the U activity by several orders of magnitude owing to strong interactions among the metals. The reduction products are composed of the solvent metal matrix and intermetallic U compounds. Silicon is more effective in driving the reduction since there is no residual UO 2 after the reaction. The gaseous product detected by mass spectrometer (MS) during the reduction is CO. A kinetic study for the Si case was accomplished by the stepwise isothermal analysis (SAI) method, leading to the identification of the controlling mechanisms as chemical reaction at the surface and nucleation, for UO 2 and U 3O 8 charges, respectively. One example for another system containing Al 2O 3 is also shown.

  8. The effects of pre-slaughter restraint (for the purpose of cattle identification) on post-slaughter responses and carcass quality following the electrical stun/killing of cattle in a Jarvis Beef stunner.

    PubMed

    Mpamhanga, C J; Wotton, S B

    2015-09-01

    This study compared normal post-Jarvis stun/kill responses and carcass quality with those occurring when crush restraint was not used during pre-slaughter. The carcasses of 1065 cattle slaughtered during one week at a commercial abattoir were evaluated for quality. The post-stun/kill responses of 788 of these animals were also assessed. An additional study of data from the carcasses of 6061 cattle was further evaluated for quality findings. A significant reduction in post-stun/kill limb movement, muscle tone and the expression of brainstem functions was recorded when restraint was not used. Abolishing crush restraint pre-slaughter also produced a significant reduction in the incidence of blood splash. In addition, the study also showed that animal identification post-slaughter could be successfully implemented with no negative consequences to food safety or traceability. It is suggested that abolishing the use of pre-slaughter crush restraint of cattle would enhance animal welfare and operator safety in plants whether electrical, or mechanical stunning was employed. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Effectiveness of Mailing "Bathing without a Battle" to All US Nursing Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calleson, Diane C.; Sloane, Philip D.; Cohen, Lauren W.

    2006-01-01

    An educational CD-ROM/video program was developed to educate nursing home staff about two research-based techniques for reducing agitation and aggression during bathing of persons with Alzheimer's disease, including person-centered showering and the towel bath. This educational program was distributed free of charge to all 15,453 US nursing homes…

  10. Comparison of Foot Bathing and Foot Massage in Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Park, Ranhee; Park, Chaisoon

    2015-01-01

    In a clinical setting, patients have been observed to complain of discomfort and to discontinue treatment because of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN), but few data exist regarding the quality of life in these patients in Korea. The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to analyze the effects of foot bathing and massage in patients with CIPN. Subjects included 48 patients with CIPN, who were hospitalized in C University Hospital. The subjects were alternately assigned to 1 of 2 groups according to their registration order. The interventions consisted of 8 treatments of foot bathing or massage over a period of 2 weeks, at 30 minutes per session, every other day. The foot skin temperature increased significantly in the foot bathing group, whereas it decreased significantly in the massage group. Quality of life was significantly increased in the foot bathing group, whereas it was significantly decreased in the massage group. Although foot bathing and foot massage are both supportive care techniques for CIPN patients, foot bathing was more effective than foot massage on skin temperature, grade of neurotoxicity, and quality of life. Additional well-designed studies are recommended, so that the effectiveness of foot bathing and foot massage is confirmed. Foot bathing is more useful as supportive care with respect to nonpharmacologic interventions for alleviating CIPN and promoting the quality of life in cancer patients.

  11. CURRENT AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES FOR EXTENDING THE LIFETIME OF ELECTROLESS NICKEL PLATING BATHS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The waste treatment and rejuvenation of spent electroless nickel baths has attracted a considerable amount of interest from electroplating shops, electroless nickel suppliers, universities and regulatory agencies due to the finite life of the baths and the associated waste that t...

  12. [Turpentine baths in rehabilitation of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    PubMed

    Aĭrapetova, N S; Polikanova, E B; Davydova, O B; Gosn, L D; Kulikova, O V; Ksenofontova, I V; Nikoda, N V; Rassulova, M A; Nitchenko, O V; Siziakova, L A; Doronina, Iu V; Derevnina, N A

    2007-01-01

    We have investigated effects of turpentine baths with white emultion, yellow solution and mixed on the course of inflammation, immunocompetent system, external respiration function, pulmonary cardiohemodynamics, physical performance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We developed differential indications for each bath variant depending on the features of a clinical picture of the disease, comorbid pathology and revealed contraindications to their administration.

  13. The Effect of Fabric Position to the Distribution of Acoustic Pressure Field in Ultrasonic Bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gürses, B. O.; Özdemir, A. O.; Tonay, Ö.; Şener, M.; Perinçek, S.

    2017-10-01

    Nowadays, the use of ultrasonic energy in textile wet processes at industrial-scale is limited. It is largely due to the lack of understanding about design, operational and performance characteristics of the ultrasonic bath, suitable for textile treatments. In the context of this study, the effect of fabric position, as one of the design parameter, to the distribution of acoustic pressure field in ultrasonic bath was investigated. The ultrasonic bath in the size 20×30 cm2 with one transducer at frequency 40 kHz was used in experiments. The cotton fabric with 1 mm thickness was moved along vertical and horizontal directions of the ultrasonic bath. The acoustic field and cavitation volume density in the bath is analyzed by COMSOL Multiphysic. The cavitation volume density is calculated by comparing the pressure points in the bath with cavitation threshold pressure. Consequently, it was found that the position of the textile material in the ultrasonic bath is one of the most important factors to achieve the uniform and maximum acoustic cavitation field. So, it should be taken into consideration during the design of industrial-scale ultrasonic bath used in textile wet processes.

  14. Two-level system in spin baths: Non-adiabatic dynamics and heat transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segal, Dvira

    2014-04-01

    We study the non-adiabatic dynamics of a two-state subsystem in a bath of independent spins using the non-interacting blip approximation, and derive an exact analytic expression for the relevant memory kernel. We show that in the thermodynamic limit, when the subsystem-bath coupling is diluted (uniformly) over many (infinite) degrees of freedom, our expression reduces to known results, corresponding to the harmonic bath with an effective, temperature-dependent, spectral density function. We then proceed and study the heat current characteristics in the out-of-equilibrium spin-spin-bath model, with a two-state subsystem bridging two thermal spin-baths of different temperatures. We compare the behavior of this model to the case of a spin connecting boson baths, and demonstrate pronounced qualitative differences between the two models. Specifically, we focus on the development of the thermal diode effect, and show that the spin-spin-bath model cannot support it at weak (subsystem-bath) coupling, while in the intermediate-strong coupling regime its rectifying performance outplays the spin-boson model.

  15. Steady-state entanglement and thermalization of coupled qubits in two common heat baths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Li-Zhen; Man, Zhong-Xiao; Xia, Yun-Jie

    2018-03-01

    In this work, we study the steady-state entanglement and thermalization of two coupled qubits embedded in two common baths with different temperatures. The common bath is relevant when the two qubits are difficult to be isolated to only contact with their local baths. With the quantum master equation constructed in the eigenstate representation of the coupled qubits, we have demonstrated the variations of steady-state entanglement with respect to various parameters of the qubits' system in both equilibrium and nonequilibrium cases of the baths. The coupling strength and energy detuning of the qubits as well as the temperature gradient of the baths are found to be beneficial to the enhancement of the entanglement. We note a dark state of the qubits that is free from time-evolution and its initial population can greatly influence the steady-state entanglement. By virtues of effective temperatures, we also study the thermalization of the coupled qubits and their variations with energy detuning.

  16. Effect of Bathroom Aids and Age on Balance Control During Bathing Transfers.

    PubMed

    King, Emily C; Novak, Alison C

    Bathroom assistive devices are used to improve safety during bathing transfers, but biomechanical evidence to support clinical recommendations is lacking. This study evaluated the effectiveness of common bathroom aids in promoting balance control during bathing transfers. Twenty-six healthy adults (12 young, 14 older) stepped into and out of a slippery bathtub while using a vertical grab bar on the side wall, a horizontal grab bar on the back wall, a bath mat, a side wall touch, or no assistance. Balance control was characterized using center of pressure measures and showed greater instability for older adults. The vertical grab bar and wall touch resulted in the safest (best controlled) transfers. The bath mat provided improved balance control in the axis parallel to the bathtub rim but was equivalent to no assistance perpendicular to the rim, in the direction of obstacle crossing. These results can support clinical recommendations for safe bathing transfers. Copyright © 2017 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  17. Expanding the Genotypic Spectrum of Bathing Suit Ichthyosis

    PubMed Central

    Marukian, Nareh V.; Hu, Rong-Hua; Craiglow, Brittany G.; Milstone, Leonard M.; Zhou, Jing; Theos, Amy; Kaymakcalan, Hande; Akkaya, Deniz A.; Uitto, Jouni J.; Vahidnezhad, Hassan; Youssefian, Leila; Bayliss, Susan J.; Paller, Amy S.; Boyden, Lynn M.

    2017-01-01

    Importance Bathing suit ichthyosis (BSI) is a rare congenital disorder of keratinization characterized by restriction of scale to sites of relatively higher temperature such as the trunk, with cooler areas remaining unaffected. Fewer than 40 cases have been reported in the literature. Bathing suit ichthyosis is caused by recessive, temperature-sensitive mutations in the transglutaminase-1 gene (TGM1). Clear genotype-phenotype correlations have been difficult to establish because several of the same TGM1 mutations have been reported in BSI and other forms of congenital ichthyosis. We identify novel and recurrent mutations in 16 participants with BSI. Objective To expand the genotypic spectrum of BSI, identifying novel TGM1 mutations in patients with BSI, and to use BSI genotypes to draw inferences about the temperature sensitivity of TGM1 mutations. Design, Setting, and Participants A total of 16 participants with BSI from 13 kindreds were identified from 6 academic medical centers. A detailed clinical history was obtained from each participant, including phenotypic presentation at birth and disease course. Each participant underwent targeted sequencing of TGM1. Main Outcomes and Measures Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics in these patients from birth onward. Results Of the 16 participants, 7 were male, and 9 were female (mean age, 12.6 years; range, 1-39 years). We found 1 novel TGM1 indel mutation (Ile469_Cys471delinsMetLeu) and 8 TGM1 missense mutations that to our knowledge have not been previously reported in BSI: 5 have been previously described in non–temperature-sensitive forms of congenital ichthyosis (Arg143Cys, Gly218Ser, Gly278Arg, Arg286Gln, and Ser358Arg), and 3 (Tyr374Cys, Phe495Leu, and Ser772Arg) are novel mutations. Three probands were homozygous for Arg264Trp, Arg286Gln, or Arg315Leu, indicating that these mutations are temperature sensitive. Seven of 10 probands with a compound heterozygous TGM1 genotype had a mutation at either arginine

  18. Effects of a foot bath containing green tea polyphenols on interdigital tinea pedis.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Sugako; Kanoya, Yuka; Nagata, Shigeki

    2013-01-01

    It has been shown that green tea polyphenols (GTP) can directly kill Trichophyton in vitro; however, there are no published clinical studies that show anti-fungal activity of GTP. To identify the effects of GTP on interdigital tinea pedis in elderly patients. Ninety-four patients with interdigital tinea pedis were enrolled and were either given a lukewarm water foot bath containing GTP or placebo treatment. Effects of GTP were assessed based on changes in the size of the affected area, the rate of recurrence, microscopy findings, and overall assessment of skin changes. After 12 weeks of treatment with either GTP or placebo, a significant reduction in the size of the affected area was observed (p<0.001). There were no significant differences between the GTP or placebo groups in the size of the affected area (p=0.638), the recurrence rate (p=0.172), or the microscopy findings (p=1.000). However, the overall assessment demonstrated significant improvements (p=0.010) in the GTP group. These results show that GTP was effective in improving the symptoms of tinea pedis in comparison to only lukewarm water. Our results suggest that GTP could have anti-fungal activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Unexplained neurological events during bathing in young people: Possible association with the use of gas geysers.

    PubMed

    Singh, Prabhjeet; Lamba, Anuraag; Bansal, Rajinder; Singh, Gagandeep

    2008-04-01

    Here, we report sudden, unexplained neurological collapse in 14 young people while bathing with hot water associated with the use of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)-based water heaters (gas geysers) in ill-ventilated bathrooms. None of the patients reported any circumstantial evidence of seizures or prior epilepsy. One patient developed cortical blindness and demonstrated posterior leucoencephalopathy on imaging studies. The remaining patients made rapid and excellent recovery without any residual neurological sequelae. In these cases, the results of all routine investigations, i.e., serum chemistry, brain imaging (computed tomography in 2 and magnetic resonance imaging in 10) and electroencephalography were normal. The clinical clustering of these cases in winter months with similar presentations of reversible encephalopathy probably indicates an inhalational toxin exposure. Therefore, we postulate a hypothesis that harmful emissions consisting of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon gases (HC) and nitrogen oxides (NOx), produced by incomplete combustion of LPG might be responsible for the cellular injury and subsequent transient neurological deficits. Physicians should be aware of this entity in order to avoid misdiagnosis of this condition as seizures, and a public awareness should also be created regarding the proper use of these devices.

  20. An investigation into the role of polyethyleneimine in chemical bath deposition of zinc oxide nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eskandari, Alireza; Abdizadeh, Hossein; Pourshaban, Erfan; Golobostanfard, Mohammad Reza

    2018-01-01

    Zinc oxide nanowires are considered as promising materials for wide range of optoelectrical and chemical devices, thanks to their desirable structural and optoelectrical properties. Over the past decade, chemical bath deposition (CBD) has been widely used to synthesize these nanostructures due to its low cost and controllability. Since improving the aspect ratio and length of nanowires is a vital issue in growing one-dimensional nanostructures, the influence of polyethyleneimine (PEI) as a complexing and chelating agent on the structural, morphological, and optoelectrical properties of ZnO nanowires has been studied in this report. As-grown ZnO nanowires synthesized by mixing deionized water, zinc acetate dihydrate, hexamethylenetetramine, and PEI were characterized with field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). FESEM results unambiguously show that increasing PEI concentration (from 0 to 0.2 g in 50 ml DI water) reduces the diameter and density of nanowires from ˜120 to 56 nm and from ˜85% to 65%, respectively. Interestingly, although adding more PEI decreases nanowires diameter, over-increasing of PEI brings about an inappropriate nanostructures growth. Moreover, XRD patterns demonstrate that all the samples have wurtzite structure with a preferred orientation along c-axis which may be improved or deteriorated by adding PEI into the chemical bath. Accordingly, it is crucial to optimize the amount of PEI in CBD method. Near-band edge (NBE) region in PL spectrum also confirms wide bandgap of ZnO (˜3.3 eV). In addition, comparing the appearance of PEI free with PEI assisted solutions show a considerable difference in their colors, which may be attributed to the formation of new chemical compounds. Considering these results, PEI plays a couple of determining roles in synthesizing ZnO nanowires; making nanowires thinner, with selectively absorption to the non-polar, lateral facets of

  1. Mechanisms of Carrier Transport Induced by a Microswimmer Bath

    DOE PAGES

    Kaiser, Andreas; Sokolov, Andrey; Aranson, Igor S.; ...

    2014-10-20

    Recently, it was found that a wedgelike microparticle (referred to as ”carrier”) which is only allowed to translate but not to rotate exhibits a directed translational motion along the wedge cusp if it is exposed to a bath of microswimmers. Here we model this effect in detail by resolving the microswimmers explicitly using interaction models with different degrees of mutual alignment. Using computer simulations we study the impact of these interactions on the transport efficiency of V-shaped carrier. We show that the transport mechanisms itself strongly depends on the degree of alignment embodied in the modelling of the individual swimmermore » dynamics. For weak alignment, optimal carrier transport occurs in the turbulent microswimmer state and is induced by swirl depletion inside the carrier. For strong aligning interactions, optimal transport occurs already in the dilute regime and is mediated by a polar cloud of swimmers in the carrier wake pushing the wedge-particle forward. Finally, we also demonstrate that the optimal shape of the carrier leading to maximal transport speed depends on the kind of interaction model used.« less

  2. Beyond heat baths II: framework for generalized thermodynamic resource theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yunger Halpern, Nicole

    2018-03-01

    Thermodynamics, which describes vast systems, has been reconciled with small scales, relevant to single-molecule experiments, in resource theories. Resource theories have been used to model exchanges of energy and information. Recently, particle exchanges were modeled; and an umbrella family of thermodynamic resource theories was proposed to model diverse baths, interactions, and free energies. This paper motivates and details the family’s structure and prospective applications. How to model electrochemical, gravitational, magnetic, and other thermodynamic systems is explained. Szilárd’s engine and Landauer’s Principle are generalized, as resourcefulness is shown to be convertible not only between information and gravitational energy, but also among diverse degrees of freedom. Extensive variables are associated with quantum operators that might fail to commute, introducing extra nonclassicality into thermodynamic resource theories. An early version of this paper partially motivated the later development of noncommutative thermalization. This generalization expands the theories’ potential for modeling realistic systems with which small-scale statistical mechanics might be tested experimentally.

  3. Presence of Campylobacter and Salmonella in sand from bathing beaches.

    PubMed Central

    Bolton, F. J.; Surman, S. B.; Martin, K.; Wareing, D. R.; Humphrey, T. J.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the presence of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. in sand from non-EEC standard and EEC standard designated beaches in different locations in the UK and to assess if potentially pathogenic strains were present. Campylobacter spp. were detected in 82/182 (45%) of sand samples and Salmonella spp. in 10/182 (6%). Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 46/92 (50%) of samples from non-EEC standard beaches and 36/90 (40%) from EEC standard beaches. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was greater in wet sand from both types of beaches but, surprisingly, more than 30% of samples from dry sand also contained these organisms. The major pathogenic species C. jejuni and C. coli were more prevalent in sand from non-EEC standard beaches. In contrast, C. lari and urease positive thermophilic campylobacters, which are associated with seagulls and other migratory birds, were more prevalent in sand from EEC standard beaches. Campylobacter isolates were further characterized by biotyping and serotyping, which confirmed that strains known to be of types associated with human infections were frequently found in sand on bathing beaches. PMID:10098779

  4. Presence of Campylobacter and Salmonella in sand from bathing beaches.

    PubMed

    Bolton, F J; Surman, S B; Martin, K; Wareing, D R; Humphrey, T J

    1999-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the presence of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. in sand from non-EEC standard and EEC standard designated beaches in different locations in the UK and to assess if potentially pathogenic strains were present. Campylobacter spp. were detected in 82/182 (45%) of sand samples and Salmonella spp. in 10/182 (6%). Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 46/92 (50%) of samples from non-EEC standard beaches and 36/90 (40%) from EEC standard beaches. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was greater in wet sand from both types of beaches but, surprisingly, more than 30% of samples from dry sand also contained these organisms. The major pathogenic species C. jejuni and C. coli were more prevalent in sand from non-EEC standard beaches. In contrast, C. lari and urease positive thermophilic campylobacters, which are associated with seagulls and other migratory birds, were more prevalent in sand from EEC standard beaches. Campylobacter isolates were further characterized by biotyping and serotyping, which confirmed that strains known to be of types associated with human infections were frequently found in sand on bathing beaches.

  5. Thermodynamic analysis and experimental study on the oxidation of the Zn-Al-Mg coating baths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Xuping; Zhou, Jie; Wang, Jianhua; Wu, Changjun; Liu, Ya; Tu, Hao; Peng, Haoping

    2017-02-01

    Surface oxidation of molten Zn-6Al baths containing 0.0, 3.0 and 6.0 wt. % Mg were analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. γ-Al2O3 is formed on the surface of the Zn-6Al bath, while MgAl2O4 and MgO occur at 460 °C in the Zn-6Al-3Mg and Zn-6Al-6Mg baths, respectively. Thermodynamic analysis on the oxidation of the Zn-Al-Mg baths was performed. Calculated phase diagrams at 460 °C and 560 °C show good agreements with the experimental results. MgO or MgAl2O4 exists in almost the entire composition range of the calculated oxidation diagrams. According to the calculation, oxidation products depend on the composition and temperature of the baths. The primary and secondary oxidation products of the Zn-Al-Mg baths can be reasonably explained by oxidation phase diagrams. Utilizing these results, the favorable practical bath melts and operating conditions can be designed.

  6. Mapping of an ultrasonic bath for ultrasound assisted extraction of mangiferin from Mangifera indica leaves.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Vrushali M; Rathod, Virendra K

    2014-03-01

    The present work deals with the mapping of an ultrasonic bath for the maximum extraction of mangiferin from Mangifera indica leaves. I3(-) liberation experiments (chemical transformations) and extraction (physical transformations) were carried out at different locations in an ultrasonic bath and compared. The experimental findings indicated a similar trend in variation in an ultrasonic bath by both these methods. Various parameters such as position and depth of vessel in an ultrasonic bath, diameter and shape of a vessel, frequency and input power which affect the extraction yield have been studied in detail. Maximum yield of mangiferin obtained was approximately 31 mg/g at optimized parameters: distance of 2.54 cm above the bottom of the bath, 7 cm diameter of vessel, flat bottom vessel, 6.35 cm liquid height, 122 W input power and 25 kHz frequency. The present work indicates that the position and depth of vessel in an ultrasonic bath, diameter and shape of a vessel, frequency and input power have significant effect on the extraction yield. This work can be used as a base for all ultrasonic baths to obtain maximum efficiency for ultrasound assisted extraction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The effects of daily bathing on symptoms of patients with bronchial asthma

    PubMed Central

    Arimoto, Yoshihito; Homma, Chie; Takeoka, Shinjiro; Fukusumi, Munehisa; Mouri, Atsuto; Hamamoto, Yoichiro

    2016-01-01

    Background The influence of bathing in asthma patients is not yet fully known. Objective We conducted an observational study to investigate changes in symptoms and their degree by bathing in asthmatic patients. Methods A questionnaire focusing on ever experienced bathing-induced symptom changes and their degree, as well as contributing factors, was designed and administered to asthmatic patients in the outpatient department of our institute between January 2012 and November 2013. Results Two hundred fifteen cases were recruited. In 60 cases (27.9%), asthmatic symptoms appeared, including 20 cases of chest discomfort (33.3%), 19 cases of cough (31.7%), and 21 cases of wheezing (35.0%). The triggering factors included vapor inhalation (32 cases, 53.3%), hydrostatic pressure on the thorax due to body immersion in the bathtub (26 cases, 43.3%), and sudden change of air temperature (16 cases, 26.7%). Thirty-eight cases (17.7%) experienced improvement in active asthmatic symptoms by bathing. Vapor inhalation was the most common contributing factor (34 cases, 89.5%), followed by warming of the whole body (13 cases, 34.2%). There was no relationship between asthma severity and the appearance of bathing-induced symptoms or improvement of active asthmatic symptoms by bathing. Conclusion The effects of bathing in asthmatic patients widely differed from patient to patient and their etiology includes several factors. For those who suffer from bathing-induced asthma symptoms, preventive methods, such as premedication with bronchodilators before bathing, should be established. This study is registered in the University Hospital Medical Information Network (UMIN) clinical trials registry in Japan with the registration number UMIN000015641. PMID:27141485

  8. Effects of single moor baths on physiological stress response and psychological state: a pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stier-Jarmer, M.; Frisch, D.; Oberhauser, C.; Immich, G.; Kirschneck, M.; Schuh, A.

    2017-11-01

    Moor mud applications in the form of packs and baths are widely used therapeutically as part of balneotherapy. They are commonly given as therapy for musculoskeletal disorders, with their thermo-physical effects being furthest studied. Moor baths are one of the key therapeutic elements in our recently developed and evaluated 3-week prevention program for subjects with high stress level and increased risk of developing a burnout syndrome. An embedded pilot study add-on to this core project was carried out to assess the relaxing effect of a single moor bath. During the prevention program, 78 participants received a total of seven moor applications, each consisting of a moor bath (42 °C, 20 min, given between 02:30 and 05:20 p.m.) followed by resting period (20 min). Before and after the first moor application in week 1, and the penultimate moor application in week 3, salivary cortisol was collected, blood pressure and heart rate were measured, and mood state (Multidimensional Mood State Questionnaire) was assessed. A Friedman test of differences among repeated measures was conducted. Post hoc analyses were performed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. A significant decrease in salivary cortisol concentration was seen between pre- and post-moor bath in week 1 ( Z = -3.355, p = 0.0008). A non-significant decrease was seen between pre- and post-moor bath in week 3. Mood state improved significantly after both moor baths. This pilot study has provided initial evidence on the stress-relieving effects of single moor baths, which can be a sensible and recommendable therapeutic element of multimodal stress-reducing prevention programs. The full potential of moor baths still needs to be validated. A randomized controlled trial should be conducted comparing this balneo-therapeutic approach against other types of stress reduction interventions.

  9. Portable oil bath for high-accuracy resistance transfer and maintenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiota, Fuyuhiko

    1999-10-01

    A portable oil bath containing one standard resistor for high-accuracy resistance transfer and maintenance was developed and operated for seven years in the National Research Laboratory of Metrology. The aim of the bath is to save labor and apparatus for high-accuracy resistance transfer and maintenance by consistently keeping the standard resistor in an optimum environmental condition. The details of the prototype system, including its performance, are described together with some suggestions for a more practical bath design, which adopts the same concept.

  10. The effects of normal and therapeutic baths on the central vascular organs of persons with healthy hearts, as measured by X-ray

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boehm, G.; Ekert, FR.

    1988-01-01

    According to current information, baths have a four-fold effect on the circulation: (1) Dilation or constriction is produced in the area of the blood vessels in the skin as a result of thermal, chemical or mechanical stimuli; (2) This reaction in the dermal vascular system produces a further effect on the central vessels in the extremities, the area of the splanchnicus, and other body cavities; (3) The reflect transposition of other organ systems, i.e., the respiratory organs, has a reaction on the circulation; and (4) The water pressure of the bath has a hydrostatic effect, i.e., on the one hand it empties peripheral veins more rapidly, and on the other it increases the intra-abdominal pressure and this reduces once again the circulation in the area of the splanchnicus.

  11. Bathe the baby to make it strong and healthy: plant use and child care among Saramaccan Maroons in Suriname.

    PubMed

    Ruysschaert, Sofie; van Andel, Tinde; Van de Putte, Kobeke; Van Damme, Patrick

    2009-01-12

    Young children are vulnerable to a range of illnesses and evil forces. Ethnobotanical folk remedies often play a major role in combating these afflictions. Here we show that plant use is highly valued and practiced within the Saramaccan Maroon Society in Suriname to maintain the general health and well-being of children. To assess the plant use importance in child care, we (1) quantified diversity and current status of herbal pharmacopoeia used in child care and (2) elucidated the reasons why care takers (mostly mothers) use these plants. We collected botanical vouchers of plants used in child care, carried out an ethnobotanical household survey with 105 women and interviewed 19 key informants. A total of 178 plant species were used in child care for different purposes. Preventive practices were preferred over curing remedies and plants were most frequently used to keep young children strong and healthy. Child care had a strong magical connotation. Bathing proved to be the most important type of application, often combined with drinking small amounts of the bath water. Plants play an important role in child care, but more research is needed on how Maroon plant use reflects actual health problems in young children in the Surinamese interior.

  12. Annealing Temperature Dependence of ZnO Nanostructures Grown by Facile Chemical Bath Deposition for EGFET pH Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazilah Rosli, Aimi; Awang, Zaiki; Sobihana Shariffudin, Shafinaz; Herman, Sukreen Hana

    2018-03-01

    Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanostructures were deposited using chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique in water bath at 95 °C for 4 h. Post-deposition heat treatment in air ambient at various temperature ranging from 200-600 °C for 30 min was applied in order to enhance the electrical properties of ZnO nanostructures as the sensing membrane of extended-gate field effect transistor (EGFET) pH sensor. The as-deposited sample was prepared for comparison. The samples were characterized in terms of physical and sensing properties. FESEM images showed that scattered ZnO nanorods were formed for the as-deposited sample, and the morphology of the ZnO nanorods changed to ZnO nanoflowers when the heat treatment was applied from 200-600 °C. For sensing properties, the samples heated at 300 °C showed the higher sensitivity which was 39.9 mV/pH with the linearity of 0.9792. The sensing properties was increased with the increasing annealing treatment temperature up to 300 °C before decreased drastically.

  13. "Bath salts" intoxication: a new recreational drug that presents with a familiar toxidrome.

    PubMed

    Hall, Christine; Heyd, Christopher; Butler, Chris; Yarema, Mark

    2014-03-01

    It is important for emergency physicians to be aware of new psychoactive agents being used as recreational drugs. "Bath salts," which include 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), mephedrone, and methylone, are the newest recreational stimulants to appear in Canada. There are currently more than 12 synthetic cathinones marketed as bath salts and used with increasing frequency recreationally. Although these drugs are now illegal in Canada, they are widely available online. We present a case report and discuss bath salts intoxication and its anticipated sympathomimetic toxidrome, treatment strategies, and toxicologic analysis, Treatment should not rely on laboratory confirmation. Since the laboratory identification of such drugs varies by institution and toxicologic assay, physicians should not misconstrue a negative toxicology screen as evidence of no exposure to synthetic cathinones. Illicit bath salts represent an increasing public health concern that involves risk to the user, prehospital personnel, and health care providers.

  14. Books, Baths, and Burials: Notes on Certain Nineteenth Century Adoptive Acts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteman, Philip M.

    1973-01-01

    Early legislation relating to street lighting, baths and washhouses, burial of the dead, public libraries and public improvements in England and Wales, reflected Parliament's suspicion of local democracy and distrust of local authorities. (9 references) (Author)

  15. Dynamics and protection of tripartite quantum correlations in a thermal bath

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Jin-Liang, E-mail: guojinliang80@163.com; Wei, Jin-Long

    2015-03-15

    We study the dynamics and protection of tripartite quantum correlations in terms of genuinely tripartite concurrence, lower bound of concurrence and tripartite geometric quantum discord in a three-qubit system interacting with independent thermal bath. By comparing the dynamics of entanglement with that of quantum discord for initial GHZ state and W state, we find that W state is more robust than GHZ state, and quantum discord performs better than entanglement against the decoherence induced by the thermal bath. When the bath temperature is low, for the initial GHZ state, combining weak measurement and measurement reversal is necessary for a successfulmore » protection of quantum correlations. But for the initial W state, the protection depends solely upon the measurement reversal. In addition, the protection cannot usually be realized irrespective of the initial states as the bath temperature increases.« less

  16. A quantum Otto engine with finite heat baths: energy, correlations, and degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozas-Kerstjens, Alejandro; Brown, Eric G.; Hovhannisyan, Karen V.

    2018-04-01

    We study a driven harmonic oscillator operating an Otto cycle by strongly interacting with two thermal baths of finite size. Using the tools of Gaussian quantum mechanics, we directly simulate the dynamics of the engine as a whole, without the need to make any approximations. This allows us to understand the non-equilibrium thermodynamics of the engine not only from the perspective of the working medium, but also as it is seen from the thermal baths’ standpoint. For sufficiently large baths, our engine is capable of running a number of perfect cycles, delivering finite power while operating very close to maximal efficiency. Thereafter, having traversed the baths, the perturbations created by the interaction abruptly deteriorate the engine’s performance. We additionally study the correlations generated in the system, and, in particular, we find a direct connection between the build up of bath–bath correlations and the degradation of the engine’s performance over the course of many cycles.

  17. Teaching the "A" Level Text: "The Wife of Bath's Prologue and Tale."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spraggs, Gillian

    1988-01-01

    Presents an approach for teaching Chaucer's "Wife of Bath's Prologue and Tale" (from "The Canterbury Tales"). Recommends several reference texts related to the "The Canterbury Tales" and medieval literature in general. (MM)

  18. Prediction of Layer Thickness in Molten Borax Bath with Genetic Evolutionary Programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylan, Fatih

    2011-04-01

    In this study, the vanadium carbide coating in molten borax bath process is modeled by evolutionary genetic programming (GEP) with bath composition (borax percentage, ferro vanadium (Fe-V) percentage, boric acid percentage), bath temperature, immersion time, and layer thickness data. Five inputs and one output data exist in the model. The percentage of borax, Fe-V, and boric acid, temperature, and immersion time parameters are used as input data and the layer thickness value is used as output data. For selected bath components, immersion time, and temperature variables, the layer thicknesses are derived from the mathematical expression. The results of the mathematical expressions are compared to that of experimental data; it is determined that the derived mathematical expression has an accuracy of 89%.

  19. Influence of the aging process on the dealloying activity of an induction salt bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonenko, A. N.

    1992-12-01

    The process of dealloying of the surface of high-alloy steels in heating in induction salt baths with a graphite crucible is neutralized by the process of carburizing and electrochemical interaction in a high-frequency electromagnetic field.

  20. [Sulfide ooze mud and sodium chloride baths in treating osteoarthrosis patients].

    PubMed

    Novikova, N V

    1989-01-01

    Humoral immunity initially affected in patients with osteoarthrosis returns to normal under the influence of a multiple-modality treatment involving application of sulphide moor in combination with sodium chloride baths.

  1. Flashback phenomenon and residual neurological deficits after the use of "bath salt" 3, 4- methylenedioxypyrovalerone.

    PubMed

    Mangold, Aaron R; Bravo, Thomas P; Traub, Stephen J; Maher, Steven A; Lipinski, Christopher A

    2014-01-01

    The use and abuse of designer drugs has been recognized for decades; however there are many derivatives of compounds that make their way into the community. Abuse of compound(s) known on the street as "bath salt" is on the rise. We report the case of a 33-year-old man who complained of "flashbacks" and right arm shaking that followed a night of "bath salt" snorting. The active compound methylenedioxypyrovalerone methamphetamine (MDPV) was confirmed; however, analysis of three different "bath salt" products showed difference in their active components. The patient's symptoms remained stable and he was discharged home after observation in the emergency department with instructions to return for any symptom progression. Practitioners should be aware of the abuse of the compounds and that not all "bath salt" products contain MDPV.

  2. Daily chlorhexidine bathing does not increase skin toxicity after remission induction or stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Deeren, Dries; Dewulf, Evelyne; Verfaillie, Lydie

    2016-12-01

    A recent multicenter study demonstrated that bathing with chlorhexidine reduces the transmission of resistant organisms and the risk of hospital-acquired bloodstream infections in ICUs. We wanted to confirm the feasibility of this strategy in a cohort of patients in a typical intensive haematology unit. Patients treated with remission induction chemotherapy, autologous or allogeneic stem cell transplantation received daily chlorhexidine bathing. To avoid deshydratation of skin, we used prophylactic application of hydrating lotion, replaced by corticosteroid cream in case of skin toxicity of chemotherapy or conditioning. We studied 15 consecutive admissions of 12 patients. Daily chlorhexidine bathing never needed to be interrupted, even though 53% of patients were treated with intravenous cytarabine. Patients were satisfied with the skin treatment and reported few unwanted effects. Daily chlorhexidine bathing was feasible in our intensive haematology unit in all patients and did not increase skin toxicity, even when treated with IV cytarabine.

  3. Antimony sulfide thin films prepared by laser assisted chemical bath deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaji, S.; Garcia, L. V.; Loredo, S. L.; Krishnan, B.; Aguilar Martinez, J. A.; Das Roy, T. K.; Avellaneda, D. A.

    2017-01-01

    Antimony sulfide (Sb2S3) thin films were prepared by laser assisted chemical bath deposition (LACBD) technique. These thin films were deposited on glass substrates from a chemical bath containing antimony chloride, acetone and sodium thiosulfate under various conditions of normal chemical bath deposition (CBD) as well as in-situ irradiation of the chemical bath using a continuous laser of 532 nm wavelength. Structure, composition, morphology, optical and electrical properties of the Sb2S3 thin films produced by normal CBD and LACBD were analyzed by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Raman Spectroscopy, Atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-vis spectroscopy and Photoconductivity. The results showed that LACBD is an effective synthesis technique to obtain Sb2S3 thin films for optoelectronic applications.

  4. Habitual hot-spring bathing by a group of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) in their natural habitat.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Watanabe, Kunio; Eishi, Tokida

    2007-12-01

    Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) in a free-ranging group in Jigokudani valley, Nagano prefecture, are known to bathe in a hot spring. We used scan sampling in a study aimed at elucidating the causal factors and possible social transmission of this behavior. From 1980-2003, 31% of a total 114 females in the group habitually bathed in the hot spring. The habit was more widespread in dominant matrilines than in subordinate matrilines. Infants whose mothers bathed were more likely to bathe than infants of mothers who did not bathe. The number of monkeys bathing was clearly influenced by ambient air temperature. More monkeys bathed in the hot spring in winter than in summer. The results support the thermoregulation hypothesis of hot-spring bathing. Bathing behavior varies among age and sex categories of monkeys, with adult females and juveniles bathing more often than adult males and subadults. We compared hot-spring bathing with other thermoregulatory behaviors in various primate populations. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Bang-bang control of a qubit coupled to a quantum critical spin bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossini, D.; Facchi, P.; Fazio, R.; Florio, G.; Lidar, D. A.; Pascazio, S.; Plastina, F.; Zanardi, P.

    2008-05-01

    We analytically and numerically study the effects of pulsed control on the decoherence of a qubit coupled to a quantum spin bath. When the environment is critical, decoherence is faster and we show that the control is relatively more effective. Two coupling models are investigated, namely, a qubit coupled to a bath via a single link and a spin-star model, yielding results that are similar and consistent.

  6. Effect of sauna bathing and beer ingestion on plasma concentrations of purine bases.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Moriwaki, Yuji; Ka, Tuneyoshi; Takahashi, Sumio; Tsutsumi, Zenta; Cheng, Jidong; Inokuchi, Taku; Yamamoto, Asako; Hada, Toshikazu

    2004-06-01

    To determine whether sauna bathing alone or in combination with beer ingestion increases the plasma concentration of uric acid, 5 healthy subjects were tested. Urine and plasma measurements were performed before and after each took a sauna bath, ingested beer, and ingested beer just after taking a sauna bath, with a 2-week interval between each activity. Sauna bathing alone increased the plasma concentrations of uric acid and oxypurines (hypoxanthine and xanthine), and decreased the urinary and fractional excretion of uric acid, while beer ingestion alone increased the plasma concentrations and urinary excretion of uric acid and oxypurines. A combination of both increased the plasma concentration of uric acid and oxypurines, and decreased the urinary and fractional excretion of uric acid, with an increase in the urinary excretion of oxypurines. The increase in plasma concentration of uric acid with the combination protocol was not synergistic as compared to the sum of the increases by each alone. Body weight, urine volume, and the urinary excretion of sodium and chloride via dehydration were decreased following sauna bathing alone. These results suggest that sauna bathing had a relationship with enhanced purine degradation and a decrease in the urinary excretion of uric acid, leading to an increase in the plasma concentration of uric acid. Further, we concluded that extracellular volume loss may affect the common renal transport pathway of uric acid and xanthine. Therefore, it is recommended that patients with gout refrain from drinking alcoholic beverages, including beer, after taking a sauna bath, since the increase in plasma concentration of uric acid following the combination of sauna bathing and beer ingestion was additive.

  7. Employing a new bath- and liquidus temperature sensor for molten salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verstreken, P.

    1997-11-01

    In this article, a newly developed sensor that measures bath and liquidus temperatures is described. The accuracy and reproducibility of the sensor are discussed, and the sensor’s output is compared with results obtained using other techniques. A series of measurements in point-feed and center-worked cells are given. Finally, the evolution of bath and liquidus temperature is shown with respect to feed strategies.

  8. Emollient bath additives for the treatment of childhood eczema (BATHE): multicentre pragmatic parallel group randomised controlled trial of clinical and cost effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Ridd, Matthew J; Francis, Nick A; Stuart, Beth; Rumsby, Kate; Chorozoglou, Maria; Becque, Taeko; Roberts, Amanda; Liddiard, Lyn; Nollett, Claire; Hooper, Julie; Prude, Martina; Wood, Wendy; Thomas, Kim S; Thomas-Jones, Emma; Williams, Hywel C; Little, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Objectives To determine the clinical effectiveness and cost effectiveness of including emollient bath additives in the management of eczema in children. Design Pragmatic randomised open label superiority trial with two parallel groups. Setting 96 general practices in Wales and western and southern England. Participants 483 children aged 1 to 11 years, fulfilling UK diagnostic criteria for atopic dermatitis. Children with very mild eczema and children who bathed less than once weekly were excluded. Interventions Participants in the intervention group were prescribed emollient bath additives by their usual clinical team to be used regularly for 12 months. The control group were asked to use no bath additives for 12 months. Both groups continued with standard eczema management, including leave-on emollients, and caregivers were given standardised advice on how to wash participants. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was eczema control measured by the patient oriented eczema measure (POEM, scores 0-7 mild, 8-16 moderate, 17-28 severe) weekly for 16 weeks. Secondary outcomes were eczema severity over one year (monthly POEM score from baseline to 52 weeks), number of eczema exacerbations resulting in primary healthcare consultation, disease specific quality of life (dermatitis family impact), generic quality of life (child health utility-9D), utilisation of resources, and type and quantity of topical corticosteroid or topical calcineurin inhibitors prescribed. Results 483 children were randomised and one child was withdrawn, leaving 482 children in the trial: 51% were girls (244/482), 84% were of white ethnicity (447/470), and the mean age was 5 years. 96% (461/482) of participants completed at least one post-baseline POEM, so were included in the analysis, and 77% (370/482) completed questionnaires for more than 80% of the time points for the primary outcome (12/16 weekly questionnaires to 16 weeks). The mean baseline POEM score was 9.5 (SD 5.7) in the

  9. Emollient bath additives for the treatment of childhood eczema (BATHE): multicentre pragmatic parallel group randomised controlled trial of clinical and cost effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Santer, Miriam; Ridd, Matthew J; Francis, Nick A; Stuart, Beth; Rumsby, Kate; Chorozoglou, Maria; Becque, Taeko; Roberts, Amanda; Liddiard, Lyn; Nollett, Claire; Hooper, Julie; Prude, Martina; Wood, Wendy; Thomas, Kim S; Thomas-Jones, Emma; Williams, Hywel C; Little, Paul

    2018-05-03

    To determine the clinical effectiveness and cost effectiveness of including emollient bath additives in the management of eczema in children. Pragmatic randomised open label superiority trial with two parallel groups. 96 general practices in Wales and western and southern England. 483 children aged 1 to 11 years, fulfilling UK diagnostic criteria for atopic dermatitis. Children with very mild eczema and children who bathed less than once weekly were excluded. Participants in the intervention group were prescribed emollient bath additives by their usual clinical team to be used regularly for 12 months. The control group were asked to use no bath additives for 12 months. Both groups continued with standard eczema management, including leave-on emollients, and caregivers were given standardised advice on how to wash participants. The primary outcome was eczema control measured by the patient oriented eczema measure (POEM, scores 0-7 mild, 8-16 moderate, 17-28 severe) weekly for 16 weeks. Secondary outcomes were eczema severity over one year (monthly POEM score from baseline to 52 weeks), number of eczema exacerbations resulting in primary healthcare consultation, disease specific quality of life (dermatitis family impact), generic quality of life (child health utility-9D), utilisation of resources, and type and quantity of topical corticosteroid or topical calcineurin inhibitors prescribed. 483 children were randomised and one child was withdrawn, leaving 482 children in the trial: 51% were girls (244/482), 84% were of white ethnicity (447/470), and the mean age was 5 years. 96% (461/482) of participants completed at least one post-baseline POEM, so were included in the analysis, and 77% (370/482) completed questionnaires for more than 80% of the time points for the primary outcome (12/16 weekly questionnaires to 16 weeks). The mean baseline POEM score was 9.5 (SD 5.7) in the bath additives group and 10.1 (SD 5.8) in the no bath additives group. The mean POEM score

  10. Stunning and Right Ventricular Dysfunction Is Induced by Coronary Balloon Occlusion and Rapid Pacing in Humans: Insights From Right Ventricular Conductance Catheter Studies.

    PubMed

    Axell, Richard G; Giblett, Joel P; White, Paul A; Klein, Andrew; Hampton-Til, James; O'Sullivan, Michael; Braganza, Denise; Davies, William R; West, Nick E J; Densem, Cameron G; Hoole, Stephen P

    2017-06-06

    We sought to determine whether right ventricular stunning could be detected after supply (during coronary balloon occlusion [BO]) and supply/demand ischemia (induced by rapid pacing [RP] during transcatheter aortic valve replacement) in humans. Ten subjects with single-vessel right coronary artery disease undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention with normal ventricular function were studied in the BO group. Ten subjects undergoing transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve replacement were studied in the RP group. In both, a conductance catheter was placed into the right ventricle, and pressure volume loops were recorded at baseline and for intervals over 15 minutes after a low-pressure BO for 1 minute or a cumulative duration of RP for up to 1 minute. Ischemia-induced diastolic dysfunction was seen 1 minute after RP (end-diastolic pressure [mm Hg]: 8.1±4.2 versus 12.1±4.1, P <0.001) and BO (end-diastolic pressure [mm Hg]: 8.1 ± 4.0 versus 8.7±4.0, P =0.03). Impairment of systolic and diastolic function after BO remained at 15-minutes recovery (ejection fraction [%]: 55.7±9.0 versus 47.8±6.3, P <0.01; end-diastolic pressure [mm Hg]: 8.1±4.0 versus 9.2±3.9, P <0.01). Persistent diastolic dysfunction was also evident in the RP group at 15-minutes recovery (end-diastolic pressure [mm Hg]: 8.1±4.1 versus 9.9±4.4, P =0.03) and there was also sustained impairment of load-independent indices of systolic function at 15 minutes after RP (end-systolic elastance and ventriculo-arterial coupling [mm Hg/mL]: 1.25±0.31 versus 0.85±0.43, P <0.01). RP and right coronary artery balloon occlusion both cause ischemic right ventricular dysfunction with stunning observed later during the procedure. This may have intraoperative implications in patients without right ventricular functional reserve. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  11. Demonstration of free radical generation in the "stunned" myocardium in the conscious dog and identification of major differences between conscious and open-chest dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Li, X Y; McCay, P B; Zughaib, M; Jeroudi, M O; Triana, J F; Bolli, R

    1993-01-01

    Conscious dogs undergoing a 15-min coronary occlusion were given alpha-phenyl N-tert-butyl nitrone (PBN) and the local coronary venous plasma was analyzed by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. A prolonged myocardial release of PBN radical adducts was observed, which exhibited a burst in the initial minutes of reflow (peaking at 3 min) and then abated but continued for 1-3 h after reperfusion. Computer simulation revealed the presence of at least two PBN adducts (aN = 15.2 G and a beta H = 6.0 G; aN = 14.6 G and a beta H = 3.0 G), both consistent with the trapping of secondary carbon-centered radicals. No appreciable PBN adduct production was observed when collateral flow exceeded 30-40% of nonischemic flow, indicating that a flow reduction of at least 60% is necessary to trigger free radical reactions. There was a direct relationship between the magnitude of PBN adduct production and the severity of contractile dysfunction (r = 0.77), suggesting that the radicals generated upon reperfusion play a causal role in the subsequent stunning. The total release of PBN adducts after 3 h of reperfusion following a 15-min coronary occlusion was found to be approximately five times greater in open-chest compared with conscious dogs; at the same time, the recovery of wall thickening was markedly less in open-chest dogs. This study represents the first application of spin trapping to a conscious animal model of myocardial ischemia. The results demonstrate (a) that free radicals are generated in the stunned myocardium in the absence of the artificial or abnormal conditions associated with previously used models (isolated hearts, open-chest preparations), and (b) that both the severity of postischemic dysfunction and the magnitude of the attendant free radical production are greatly exaggerated in the open-chest dog, implying that previous conclusions derived from this model may not be applicable to conscious animals or to humans. This investigation also provides a

  12. Additive Benefits of Twice Forest Bathing Trips in Elderly Patients with Chronic Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Mao, Gen Xiang; Cao, Yong Bao; Yang, Yan; Chen, Zhuo Mei; Dong, Jian Hua; Chen, Sha Sha; Wu, Qing; Lyu, Xiao Ling; Jia, Bing Bing; Yan, Jing; Wang, Guo Fu

    2018-02-01

    Chronic heart failure (CHF), a clinical syndrome resulting from the consequences of various cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), is increasingly becoming a global cause of morbidity and mortality. We had earlier demonstrated that a 4-day forest bathing trip can provide an adjunctive therapeutic influence on patients with CHF. To further investigate the duration of the impact and the optimal frequency of forest bathing trips in patients with CHF, we recruited those subjects who had experienced the first forest bathing trip again after 4 weeks and randomly categorized them into two groups, namely, the urban control group (city) and the forest bathing group (forest). After a second 4-day forest bathing trip, we observed a steady decline in the brain natriuretic peptide levels, a biomarker of heart failure, and an attenuated inflammatory response as well as oxidative stress. Thus, this exploratory study demonstrated the additive benefits of twice forest bathing trips in elderly patients with CHF, which could further pave the way for analyzing the effects of such interventions in CVDs. Copyright © 2018 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  13. The dynamics and shapes of a viscous sheet spreading on a moving liquid bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebilleau, J.; Lebon, L.; Limat, L.; Quartier, L.; Receveur, M.

    2010-10-01

    We investigate the shape and dynamics of a floating viscous sheet formed by a jet falling on a static or moving bath under partial wetting conditions. For a static bath, the viscous sheet has a circular shape and spreads with a uniform thickness that is surprisingly larger than the static Langmuir equilibrium thickness. This thickening effect seems to be linked to a peculiarity of the oil used for the bath, which is in situation of total wetting on the sheet surface, and climbs the sheet a bit like a macroscopic "precursor film" that increases dissipation at the sheet perimeter. For a moving bath, the viscous sheet evolves from an ellipse to a ribbon, a transient remarkable pear shape being observed between these two states. A simple kinematic model of advection of the spreading sheet by the bath predicts very well the characteristics of the ribbon regime. Convected sheets whose shape is reminiscent of pendant drops in 2D are also observed at higher bath velocity, with interesting pinch off phenomena.

  14. The Roman-Irish Bath: Medical/health history as therapeutic assemblage.

    PubMed

    Foley, Ronan

    2014-04-01

    The invention of a new form of hot-air bath in Blarney, Ireland in 1856, variously known in its lifetime as the Roman-Irish or Turkish Bath, acted as the starting point for a the production of a globalised therapeutic landscape. Tracking the diffusion of the Roman-Irish bath template from its local invention in Ireland to a global reach across the Victorian world and recognizing its place within a wider hydrotherapeutic history, this paper frames that diffusion as a valuable empirical addition to assemblage theory. The specific empirical history of the spread of the Roman-Irish/Turkish bath idea is drawn from primary archival and secondary historical sources. It is then discussed and, drawing from work on assemblage theory, analyzed against three broad themes: mobile networks, socio-material practices and contested emergence. The emergent relational geographies of the Roman-Irish Bath identify important roles for the diffusion and transformation of specific medical settings, identities and functions. These were linked in turn to competing social-healing pathways wherein bodies were technologically and morally managed, to produce a more inhabited form of therapeutic assemblage. In all cases the differential diffusion of the bath idea, it's shifting and fractured material forms and multiple inhabitations and discourses were contested and mobile and spoke to an assemblage approach which has ripe potential for exploration across a range of medical/health geography settings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Isolation of Legionella pneumophila from cooling towers, public baths, hospitals, and fountains in Seoul, Korea, from 2010 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Kim, Changkyu; Jeon, Sujin; Jung, Jihun; Oh, Younghee; Kim, Yeonsun; Lee, Jaein; Choi, Sungmin; Chae, Youngzoo; Lee, Young-Ki

    2015-01-01

    Legionnaire's disease is associated with a high mortality rate. The authors collected 3,495 water samples in Seoul, Korea, between 2010 and 2012 from public facilities (cooling towers, public baths, hospitals, and decorative fountains), which are considered the major habitats of Legionella pneumophila. In all, 527 (15.1%) isolates of L. pneumophila were obtained by microbial culture and polymerase chain reaction. Serological diagnosis and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis were performed for the samples. The authors categorized the samples into four groups (A-D) on the basis of PFGE results. The analysis revealed that cooling towers containing the most samples with L. pneumophila serogroup 1 constituted the highest proportion of isolate. Samples from public facilities and serogroups could be distinctively classified by PFGE patterns. Thus, it is expected that source-specific features revealed through PFGE and serological analyses could serve as the basis for effectively coping with future outbreaks of L. pneumophila.

  16. Ultrahydrophobic water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landgraf, J.; Kanitz, C.

    2017-05-01

    When a water drop falls on an oscillating soapy water surface it is observed that coalescence of the drop is inhibited because the drops are bouncing on the surface like on a trampoline. In our research we made experimental and theoretical investigations to an undeformable drop on a deformable bath. We described the vertical movement, predicted the critical bouncing threshold and also made experiments to the effects of an increased Weber number and the horizontal movement of the drop caused by a vertical movement.

  17. Economic Value of Dispensing Home-Based Preoperative Chlorhexidine Bathing Cloths to Prevent Surgical Site Infection

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Rachel R.; Stuckey, Dianna R.; Norman, Bryan A.; Duggan, Andrew P.; Bacon, Kristina M.; Connor, Diana L.; Lee, Ingi; Muder, Robert R.; Lee, Bruce Y.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the economic value of dispensing preoperative home-based chlorhexidine bathing cloth kits to orthopedic patients to prevent surgical site infection (SSI). METHODS A stochastic decision-analytic computer simulation model was developed from the hospital’s perspective depicting the decision of whether to dispense the kits preoperatively to orthopedic patients. We varied patient age, cloth cost, SSI-attributable excess length of stay, cost per bed-day, patient compliance with the regimen, and cloth antimicrobial efficacy to determine which variables were the most significant drivers of the model’s outcomes. RESULTS When all other variables remained at baseline and cloth efficacy was at least 50%, patient compliance only had to be half of baseline (baseline mean, 15.3%; range, 8.23%–20.0%) for chlorhexidine cloths to remain the dominant strategy (ie, less costly and providing better health outcomes). When cloth efficacy fell to 10%, 1.5 times the baseline bathing compliance also afforded dominance of the preoperative bath. CONCLUSIONS The results of our study favor the routine distribution of bathing kits. Even with low patient compliance and cloth efficacy values, distribution of bathing kits is an economically beneficial strategy for the prevention of SSI. PMID:21515977

  18. Magnetic Fe-Co films electroplated in a deep-eutectic-solvent-based plating bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanai, T.; Shiraishi, K.; Watanabe, Y.; Ohgai, T.; Nakano, M.; Suzuki, K.; Fukunaga, H.

    2015-05-01

    We fabricated Fe-Co films from a deep eutectic solvent (DES)-based plating bath and investigated magnetic properties of the plated films. The plating baths were obtained by stirring the mixture of choline chloride, ethylene glycol, FeCl2.4H2O, and CoCl2.6H2O. The composition of the plated films depended on the amount of FeCl2.4H2O in the plating bath, and Fe content of the films was varied from 0 to 100 at. %. Depending on the Fe content, the saturation magnetization and the coercivity of the films varied. The Fe76Co24 film shows high saturation magnetization and smooth surface, and the change in the saturation magnetization shows good agreement with the expected change by the Slater-Pauling curve. High current efficiency (>90%) could be obtained in the wide film composition. From these results, we concluded that the DES-based plating bath is one of effective baths for the Fe-Co films with high current efficiency.

  19. Nursing Care at the Time of Death: A Bathing and Honoring Practice.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Debra; Calmes, Beth; Grotts, Jonathan

    2016-05-01

    To explore family members' experience of a bathing and honoring practice after a loved one's death in the acute care setting.
. A descriptive, qualitative design using a semistructured telephone interview script.
. The Inpatient Adult Oncology Unit at Santa Barbara Cottage Hospital in California. 
. 13 family members who participated in the bathing and honoring practice after their loved one's death on the oncology unit.
. Participants were selected by purposive sampling and interviewed by telephone three to six months after their loved one's death. Interviews using a semistructured script with open-ended questions were recorded, transcribed, verified, and analyzed using phenomenologic research techniques to identify common themes of experience.
. 24 first-level themes and 11 superordinate themes emerged from the data. All participants indicated that the bathing and honoring practice was a positive experience and supported the grieving process. The majority found the practice to be meaningful and stated that it honored their loved one. Many expressed that the bathing and honoring was spiritually significant in a nondenominational way and that they hope it will be made available to all families of patients who die in the hospital. 
. After patient death, a bathing and honoring practice with family member participation is positive and meaningful, and it supports family members' initial grieving.
. This study is a first step toward establishing specific nursing interventions as evidence-based practice that can be incorporated in routine nursing care for patients and families at the end of life.

  20. Reproducible insulin secretion from isolated rat pancreas preparations using an organ bath.

    PubMed

    Morita, Asuka; Ouchi, Motoshi; Terada, Misao; Kon, Hiroe; Kishimoto, Satoko; Satoh, Keitaro; Otani, Naoyuki; Hayashi, Keitaro; Fujita, Tomoe; Inoue, Ken-Ichi; Anzai, Naohiko

    2018-02-09

    Diabetes mellitus is a lifestyle-related disease that is characterized by inappropriate or diminished insulin secretion. Ex vivo pharmacological studies of hypoglycemic agents are often conducted using perfused pancreatic preparations. Pancreas preparations for organ bath experiments do not require cannulation and are therefore less complex than isolated perfused pancreas preparations. However, previous research has generated almost no data on insulin secretion from pancreas preparations using organ bath preparations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the applicability of isolated rat pancreas preparations using the organ bath technique in the quantitative analysis of insulin secretion from β-cells. We found that insulin secretion significantly declined during incubation in the organ bath, whereas it was maintained in the presence of 1 µM GLP-1. Conversely, amylase secretion exhibited a modest increase during incubation and was not altered in the presence of GLP-1. These results demonstrate that the pancreatic organ bath preparation is a sensitive and reproducible method for the ex vivo assessment of the pharmacological properties of hypoglycemic agents.

  1. Wash water recovery system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckman, G.; Rousseau, J. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    The Wash Water Recovery System (WWRS) is intended for use in processing shower bath water onboard a spacecraft. The WWRS utilizes flash evaporation, vapor compression, and pyrolytic reaction to process the wash water to allow recovery of potable water. Wash water flashing and foaming characteristics, are evaluated physical properties, of concentrated wash water are determined, and a long term feasibility study on the system is performed. In addition, a computer analysis of the system and a detail design of a 10 lb/hr vortex-type water vapor compressor were completed. The computer analysis also sized remaining system components on the basis of the new vortex compressor design.

  2. [Use of white turpentine bath emulsion and yellow turpentine solution for the treatment of chronic prostatitis complicated by excretory pathospermia].

    PubMed

    Karpukhin, I V; Li, A A; Gusev, M A

    2009-01-01

    The paper reports a review of up-to-date methods for the use of white turpentine bath emulsion and yellow turpentine solution in the treatment of chronic prostatitis complicated by excretory pathospermia. The results of bath therapy are presented. It is shown that the efficiency of white turpentine bath emulsion amounted to 69.7% compared with 88.3% in patients treated with the use of yellow turpentine solution.

  3. Soil is the origin for the presence of Naegleria fowleri in the thermal recreational waters.

    PubMed

    Moussa, Mirna; Tissot, Océane; Guerlotté, Jérôme; De Jonckheere, Johan F; Talarmin, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    Naegleria fowleri is found in most geothermal baths of Guadeloupe and has been responsible for the death of a 9-year-old boy who swam in one of these baths in 2008. We wanted to determine the origin for the presence of this amoeba in the water. Water samples were taken at the origin of the geothermal sources and at the arrival in the baths. After filtration, cultures were made and the number of Naegleria present was determined using the most probable number method. Soil samples collected in the proximity of the baths were also tested for the presence of thermophilic amoebae. The species identification was obtained by PCR. During three consecutive months, no Naegleria could be found at the origin of any geothermal source tested. In contrast, N. fowleri was isolated at least once in all baths at the arrival of the water, except one. Thermophilic amoebae could be found in each soil sample, especially near the baths located at a lower altitude, but N. fowleri was only isolated near two baths, which were also the baths most often contaminated with this species. So it appears that the contamination of the water with N. fowleri occurs after emerging from the geothermal source when the water runs over the soil. Therefore, it should be possible to reduce the concentration of N. fowleri in the geothermal baths of Guadeloupe to for example less than 1 N. fowleri/10 L by installing a pipeline between the geothermal sources and the baths and by preventing flooding water from entering the baths after rainfall. By taking these measures, we were able to eliminate N. fowleri from a pool located inside a reeducation clinic.

  4. Observation of an anomalous decoherence effect in a quantum bath at room temperature

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Pu; Kong, Xi; Zhao, Nan; Shi, Fazhan; Wang, Pengfei; Rong, Xing; Liu, Ren-Bao; Du, Jiangfeng

    2011-01-01

    The decoherence of quantum objects is a critical issue in quantum science and technology. It is generally believed that stronger noise causes faster decoherence. Strikingly, recent theoretical work suggests that under certain conditions, the opposite is true for spins in quantum baths. Here we report an experimental observation of an anomalous decoherence effect for the electron spin-1 of a nitrogen-vacancy centre in high-purity diamond at room temperature. We demonstrate that, under dynamical decoupling, the double-transition can have longer coherence time than the single-transition even though the former couples to the nuclear spin bath as twice strongly as the latter does. The excellent agreement between the experimental and theoretical results confirms the controllability of the weakly coupled nuclear spins in the bath, which is useful in quantum information processing and quantum metrology. PMID:22146389

  5. Electrodeposited Fe-Co films prepared from a citric-acid-based plating bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanai, T.; Uto, H.; Shimokawa, T.; Nakano, M.; Fukunaga, H.; Suzuki, K.

    2013-06-01

    Electrodeposited Fe-Co films are commonly prepared in a boric-acid-based bath. In this research, we applied citric acid instead of boric acid for the plating of Fe-Co films because boron in the waste bath is restricted by environmental-protection regulations in Japan. We evaluated the effect of citric acid on the magnetic and structural properties of the films. The saturation magnetization of the Fe-Co films slightly increased while the Fe content in the Fe-Co films decreased with increasing citric acid concentration. The lowest coercivity value of 240 A/m was obtained at a citric acid concentration of 100 g/L. The plating bath with this citric acid concentration enabled us to obtain Fe-Co films with high saturation magnetizations and smooth surface morphologies.

  6. Bath-induced correlations in an infinite-dimensional Hilbert space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nizama, Marco; Cáceres, Manuel O.

    2017-09-01

    Quantum correlations between two free spinless dissipative distinguishable particles (interacting with a thermal bath) are studied analytically using the quantum master equation and tools of quantum information. Bath-induced coherence and correlations in an infinite-dimensional Hilbert space are shown. We show that for temperature T> 0 the time-evolution of the reduced density matrix cannot be written as the direct product of two independent particles. We have found a time-scale that characterizes the time when the bath-induced coherence is maximum before being wiped out by dissipation (purity, relative entropy, spatial dispersion, and mirror correlations are studied). The Wigner function associated to the Wannier lattice (where the dissipative quantum walks move) is studied as an indirect measure of the induced correlations among particles. We have supported the quantum character of the correlations by analyzing the geometric quantum discord.

  7. On the operation of machines powered by quantum non-thermal baths

    DOE PAGES

    Niedenzu, Wolfgang; Gelbwaser-Klimovsky, David; Kofman, Abraham G.; ...

    2016-08-02

    Diverse models of engines energised by quantum-coherent, hence non-thermal, baths allow the engine efficiency to transgress the standard thermodynamic Carnot bound. These transgressions call for an elucidation of the underlying mechanisms. Here we show that non-thermal baths may impart not only heat, but also mechanical work to a machine. The Carnot bound is inapplicable to such a hybrid machine. Intriguingly, it may exhibit dual action, concurrently as engine and refrigerator, with up to 100% efficiency. Here, we conclude that even though a machine powered by a quantum bath may exhibit an unconventional performance, it still abides by the traditional principlesmore » of thermodynamics.« less

  8. Response of Cryolite-Based Bath to a Shift in Heat Input/output Balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jingjing; Taylor, Mark; Dorreen, Mark

    2017-04-01

    A technology for low amperage potline operation is now recognized as a competitive advantage for the aluminum smelting industry in order to align smelter operations with the power and aluminum price markets. This study investigates the cryolite-based bath response to heat balance shifts when the heat extraction from the bath is adjusted to different levels in a laboratory analogue. In the analogue experiments, the heat balance shift is driven by a graphite `cold finger' heat exchanger, which can control the heat extraction from the analogue, and a corresponding change in heat input from the furnace which maintains the control temperature of the lab "cell." This paper reports the first experimental results from shifting the steady state of the lab cell heat balance, and investigates the effects on the frozen ledge and bath superheat. The lab cell energy balances are compared with energy balances in a published industrial cell model.

  9. Geologic controls on cave development in Burnsville Cove, Bath and Highland Counties, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swezey, Christopher; Haynes, John T.; Lucas, Philip C.; Lambert, Richard A.

    2017-01-01

    Burnsville Cove in Bath and Highland Counties (Virginia, USA) is a karst region in the Valley and Ridge Province of the Appalachian Mountains. The region contains many caves in Silurian to Devonian limestone, and is well suited for examining geologic controls on cave location and cave passage morphology. In Burnsville Cove, many caves are located preferentially near the axes of synclines and anticlines. For example, Butler Cave is an elongate cave where the trunk channel follows the axis of Sinking Creek syncline and most of the side passages follow joints at right angles to the syncline axis. In contrast, the Water Sinks Subway Cave, Owl Cave, and Helictite Cave have abundant maze patterns, and are located near the axis of Chestnut Ridge anticline. The maze patterns may be related to fact that the anticline axis is the site of the greatest amount of flexure, leading to more joints and (or) greater enlargement of joints. Many of the larger caves of Burnsville Cove (e.g., Breathing Cave, Butler Cave–Sinking Creek Cave System, lower parts of the Water Sinks Cave System) are developed in the Silurian Tonoloway Limestone, the stratigraphic unit with the greatest surface exposure in the area. Other caves are developed in the Silurian to Devonian Keyser Limestone of the Helderberg Group (e.g., Owl Cave, upper parts of the Water Sinks Cave System) and in the Devonian Shriver Chert and (or) Licking Creek Limestone of the Helderberg Group (e.g., Helictite Cave). Within the Tonoloway Limestone, the larger caves are developed in the lower member of the Tonoloway Limestone immediately below a bed of silica-cemented sandstone. In contrast, the larger caves in the Keyser Limestone are located preferentially in limestone beds containing stromatoporoid reefs, and some of the larger caves in the Licking Creek Limestone are located in beds of cherty limestone below the Devonian Oriskany Sandstone. Geologic controls on cave passage morphology include joints, bedding planes, and

  10. Bathing Techniques for Children Who Have Cerebral Palsy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunaway, Avtar; Klein, Marsha Dunn

    Helpful techniques are offered for making bathtime easier, safer, and more fun for children who have cerebral palsy. Safety in the bathtub is stressed, both for the child who needs protection from slippery surfaces and extreme water temperature, and for the caregiver who must lift and carry the child without causing injury to the lower back.…

  11. Comprehensive analysis of "bath salts" purchased from California stores and the internet.

    PubMed

    Schneir, A; Ly, B T; Casagrande, K; Darracq, M; Offerman, S R; Thornton, S; Smollin, C; Vohra, R; Rangun, C; Tomaszewski, C; Gerona, R R

    2014-08-01

    To analyze the contents of "bath salt" products purchased from California stores and the Internet qualitatively and quantitatively in a comprehensive manner. A convenience sample of "bath salt" products were purchased in person by multiple authors at retail stores in six California cities and over the Internet (U.S. sites only), between August 11, 2011 and December 15, 2011. Liquid chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry was utilized to identify and quantify all substances in the purchased products. Thirty-five "bath salt" products were purchased and analyzed. Prices ranged from $9.95 to 49.99 (U.S. dollars). Most products had a warning against use. The majority (32/35, 91%) had one (n = 15) or multiple cathinones (n = 17) present. Fourteen different cathinones were identified, 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) being the most common. Multiple drugs found including cathinones (buphedrone, ethcathinone, ethylone, MDPBP, and PBP), other designer amines (ethylamphetamine, fluoramphetamine, and 5-IAI), and the antihistamine doxylamine had not been previously identified in U.S. "bath salt" products. Quantification revealed high stimulant content and in some cases dramatic differences in either total cathinone or synthetic stimulant content between products with the same declared weight and even between identically named and outwardly appearing products. Comprehensive analysis of "bath salts" purchased from California stores and the Internet revealed the products to consistently contain cathinones, alone, or in different combinations, sometimes in high quantity. Multiple cathinones and other drugs found had not been previously identified in U.S. "bath salt" products. High total stimulant content in some products and variable qualitative and quantitative composition amongst products were demonstrated.

  12. Thermal care of newborns: drying and bathing practices in Malawi and Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Shane M; Kim, Eunsoo Timothy; Singh, Kavita; Amouzou, Agbessi; Carvajal-Aguirre, Liliana

    2018-01-01

    Background Thermal care of newborns is one of the recommended strategies to reduce hypothermia, which contributes to neonatal morbidity and mortality. However, data on these two topics have not been collected at the national level in many surveys. In this study, we examine two elements of thermal care: drying and delayed bathing of newborns after birth with the objectives of examining how two countries collected such data and then looking at various associations of these outcomes with key characteristics. Further, we examine the data for potential data quality issues as this is one of the first times that such data are available at the national level. Methods We use data from two nationally-representative household surveys: the Malawi Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2014 and the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2014. We conduct descriptive analysis of the prevalence of these two newborn practices by various socio-demographic, economic and health indicators. Results Our results indicate high levels of immediate drying/drying within 1 hour in Malawi (87%). In Bangladesh, 84% were dried within the first 10 minutes of birth. Bathing practices varied in the two settings; in Malawi, only 26% were bathed after 24 hours but in Bangladesh, 87% were bathed after the same period. While in Bangladesh there were few newborns who were never bathed (less than 5%), in Malawi, over 10% were never bathed. Newborns delivered by a skilled provider tended to have better thermal care than those delivered by unskilled providers. Conclusion These findings reveal gaps in coverage of thermal care and indicate the need to further develop the role of unskilled providers who can give unspecialized care as a means to improve thermal care for newborns. Further work to harmonize data collection methods on these topics is needed to ensure comparable data across countries. PMID:29862028

  13. Short communication: Efficacy of copper sulfate hoof baths against digital dermatitis--Where is the evidence?

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Peter T

    2015-04-01

    Digital dermatitis is a major problem in modern dairy production because of decreased animal welfare and financial losses. Individual cow treatments are often seen as too time consuming by farmers, and walk-through hoof baths have therefore been used extensively to control digital dermatitis. For decades, copper sulfate hoof baths have been used to treat and prevent digital dermatitis. Copper sulfate has been referred to as the industry gold standard when it comes to hoof-bath chemicals. In several scientific studies testing the efficacy of other hoof-care products, copper sulfate has been used as a positive control, thereby indicating that copper sulfate has a known positive effect. However, this may not be the case. A dilemma may exist between (1) copper sulfate generally being perceived as being effective against digital dermatitis and (2) a possible lack of well-documented scientific evidence of this effect. The objective of this study was to evaluate the existing scientific literature to determine whether the efficacy of copper sulfate used in hoof baths against digital dermatitis has in fact been demonstrated scientifically. A systematic literature search identified 7 peer-reviewed journal articles describing the efficacy of copper sulfate in hoof baths as treatment or prevention of bovine digital dermatitis. Only 2 of the 7 studies compared copper sulfate to a negative control; most studies were relatively small, and often no clear positive effect of copper sulfate was demonstrated. In conclusion, the frequent claim that copper sulfate is widely reported to be effective is supported by little scientific evidence. Well-designed clinical trials evaluating the effect of copper sulfate against digital dermatitis compared with a negative control are needed. Until such studies have been made, the efficacy of copper sulfate in hoof baths against digital dermatitis remains largely unproven. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier

  14. Sauna bathing reduces the risk of stroke in Finnish men and women: A prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kunutsor, Setor K; Khan, Hassan; Zaccardi, Francesco; Laukkanen, Tanjaniina; Willeit, Peter; Laukkanen, Jari A

    2018-05-29

    To assess the association between frequency of sauna bathing and risk of future stroke. Baseline habits of sauna bathing were assessed in 1,628 adult men and women aged 53-74 years (mean age, 62.7 years) without a known history of stroke in the Finnish Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease prospective cohort study. Three sauna bathing frequency groups were defined: 1, 2-3, and 4-7 sessions per week. Hazard ratios (HRs) (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) were estimated for incident stroke. During a median follow-up of 14.9 years, 155 incident stroke events were recorded. Compared with participants who had one sauna bathing session per week, the age- and sex-adjusted HR (95% CI) for stroke was 0.39 (0.18-0.83) for participants who had 4-7 sauna sessions per week. After further adjustment for established cardiovascular risk factors and other potential confounders, the corresponding HR (95% CI) was 0.39 (0.18-0.84) and this remained persistent on additional adjustment for physical activity and socioeconomic status at 0.38 (0.18-0.81). The association between frequency of sauna bathing and risk of stroke was not modified by age, sex, or other clinical characteristics ( p for interaction > 0.10 for all subgroups). The association was similar for ischemic stroke but modest for hemorrhagic stroke, which could be attributed to the low event rate (n = 34). This long-term follow-up study shows that middle-aged to elderly men and women who take frequent sauna baths have a substantially reduced risk of new-onset stroke. © 2018 American Academy of Neurology.

  15. Estimation of the Parameters in a Two-State System Coupled to a Squeezed Bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yao-Hua; Yang, Hai-Feng; Tan, Yong-Gang; Tao, Ya-Ping

    2018-04-01

    Estimation of the phase and weight parameters of a two-state system in a squeezed bath by calculating quantum Fisher information is investigated. The results show that, both for the phase estimation and for the weight estimation, the quantum Fisher information always decays with time and changes periodically with the phases. The estimation precision can be enhanced by choosing the proper values of the phases and the squeezing parameter. These results can be provided as an analysis reference for the practical application of the parameter estimation in a squeezed bath.

  16. Effect of bath temperature on surface morphology and photocatalytic activity of ZnO nanorods

    SciTech Connect

    Sriharan, N.; Senthil, T. S., E-mail: tssenthi@gmail.com; Muthukumarasamy, N.

    2016-05-06

    ZnO nanorods were prepared by using simple hydrothermal method using four different bath temperatures. All the prepared ZnO nanorods are annealed at 450°C and are characterized by using various techniques such as X-ray diffraction, UV spectra and scanning electron microscopy. Photocatalytic activity of the prepared ZnO nanorods is analyzed. A novel photocatalytic reactor designed with ZnO nanorods prepared at 90°C shows enhanced catalytic efficiency. The role of light irradiation time, bath temperature and surface morphology of the ZnO nanorods on the performance of photocatalytic reaction is analyzed.

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING FOR PUBLIC ACCESS AND COMMUNITY TRACKING (EMPACT) PROGRAM MICROBIOLOGICAL MONITORING OF RECREATIONAL WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommended microbiological monitoring practices for bathing beach water quality were suggested in 1968, as a part of the fecal coliform guideline developed by the Federal Water Pollution Control Administration. The guideline stated ...

  18. A seascape by the latest comprehensive compilation of bathymetry around Japan makes a stunning diorama of tectonic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisimoto, Kiyoyuki; Tani, Shin; Iizasa, Kokichi; Ishida, Mizuho

    2010-05-01

    Japanese ECS submission made in 2008 to the CLCS is heavily based on the swath bathymetric data. Japan Coast Guard and other seagoing institutions in Japan have been intensively engaged in swath mapping at and around Japanese waters for more than 25 years. As a result of intensive survey activities for the ECS submission over the past several years, many geological and geophysical data in the region have been also accumulated and compiled. Among those bathymetric data are most fundamental and basic in all earth sciences. Geologically Japan is located at very active place on earth, i.e. tectonically active zone. To better understand and visualize the tectonic processes around Japan, newly compiled bathymetric data have been combined with geological and geophysical data in three dimensional images, or dioramas of tectonic processes. Japan is a place of beautiful showcase of tectonic phenomena, such as subduction, collision, eruption, earthquake and so on. Different types of subductions are recognized not only from the seismicity but also are manifested by detailed topography. Marine geology maps should be reinterpreted and revised with new bathymetric data. Gravity anomaly data are recalculated as a new DEM becomes available. Our poster will visualize the greatly enhanced quality of the DEM of Japan. Specification of the DEM of Japan we used for the presentation: Datum: WGS84 Land Area: STRM3 Wet Area (deep sea): Quality controlled (selection of good navigation data and removal of bad/loose pings) then gridded into more than one size of spatial resolution for users' convenience sake. Wet Area (void, or area with no swath data): Filled with ETOPO2 (version2). Wet Area (coastal to shallow): Conventional method, or manual editing by experts.

  19. Necrotizing fasciitis due to Vibrio cholerae non-O1/non-O139 after exposure to Austrian bathing sites.

    PubMed

    Hirk, Sonja; Huhulescu, Steliana; Allerberger, Franz; Lepuschitz, Sarah; Rehak, Sonja; Weil, Sandra; Gschwandtner, Elisabeth; Hermann, Michael; Neuhold, Stephanie; Zoufaly, Alexander; Indra, Alexander

    2016-02-01

    We report on two cases of necrotizing fasciitis of the lower leg due to nontoxigenic Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae). A 73-year-old woman (case 1) and an 80-year-old man (case 2) were hospitalized with symptoms of necrotizing fasciitis on July 18 and August 15, 2015, respectively. In both cases, symptoms started the day after swimming in local ponds. Swabs gained intraoperatively and a blood culture from the male patient, yielded V. cholerae non-O1/non-O139, negative for cholera toxin gene ctx and positive for hemolysin genes hlyA and hlyB. Water samples taken from pond A on August 17, 2015 (32 days after exposure of case 1) and from pond B on August 20, 2015 (7 days after exposure of case 2) yielded non-O1/non-O139 V. cholerae in most-probable numbers of > 11,000 per 100 ml each. The occurrence of two cases of necrotizing fasciitis within a 1 month period related to two Austrian non-saline bathing waters, previously not known to harbor V. cholerae, is probably linked to the prevailing extreme weather conditions (heat wave, drought) this summer in Austria. While case 1 was discharged in good clinical condition after 73 days, case 2 died after four months of hospitalization. Public health authorities are challenged to assess the effects of long-term climate change on pathogen growth and survival in continental bodies of fresh water.

  20. Hydromonochord: Visualizing String Vibration by Water Swirls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommer, Wilfried; Meier-Boke, Ralf; Meinzer, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    The hydromonochord is a horizontal vibrating string that just makes contact with the surface of a water bath. The motion of the string sets up a pattern of swirls on the surface of the water, thus complementing the usual pattern of nodes and antinodes. The device is based on the traditional monochord. A water basin (Fig. 1) has two slits in the…