Science.gov

Sample records for water health effects

  1. Effects of modifying water environments on water supply and human health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takizawa, S.; Nguyen, H. T.; Takeda, T.; Tran, N. T.

    2008-12-01

    Due to increasing population and per-capita water demand, demands for water are increasing in many parts of the world. Consequently, overuse of limited water resources leaves only small amounts of water in rivers and is bringing about rapid drawdown of groundwater tables. Water resources are affected by human activities such as excessive inputs of nutrients and other contaminants, agriculture and aquaculture expansions, and many development activities. The combined effects of modifying the water environments, both in terms of quantity and quality, on water supply and human health are presented in the paper with some examples from the Asian countries. In rural and sub-urban areas in Bangladesh and Vietnam, for example, the traditional way of obtaining surface water from ponds had been replaced by taking groundwaters to avert the microbial health risks that had arisen from contamination by human wastes. Such a change of water sources, however, has brought about human health impact caused by arsenic on a massive scale. In Thailand, the industrial development has driven the residents to get groundwater leaden with very high fluoride. Monitoring the urine fluoride levels reveal the risk of drinking fluoride-laden groundwaters. Rivers are also affected by extensive exploitation such as sand mining. As a result, turbidity changes abruptly after a heavy rainfall. In cities, due to shrinking water resources they have to take poor quality waters from contaminated sources. Algal blooms are seen in many reservoirs and lakes due to increasing levels of nutrients. Hence, it is likely that algal toxins may enter the water supply systems. Because most of the water treatment plants are not designed to remove those known and unknown contaminants, it is estimated that quite a large number of people are now under the threat of the public health "gtime bomb,"h which may one day bring about mass-scale health problems. In order to mitigate the negative impacts of modifying the water

  2. Natural mineral waters: chemical characteristics and health effects

    PubMed Central

    Quattrini, Sara; Pampaloni, Barbara; Brandi, Maria Luisa

    2016-01-01

    Summary Water contributes significantly to health and a daily intake of 1.5 to 2 liters of water should be guaranteed, because a good hydration is essential to maintain the body water equilibrium, although needs may vary among people. However, worldwide population is far from the Recommended Allowance for water intake. Among the waters for human uses, there are ‘waters (treated or not), intended for drinking, used for the food and beverages preparation or for other domestic purposes’ and natural mineral waters, that are ‘originated from an aquifer or underground reservoir, spring from one or more natural or bore sources and have specific hygienic features and, eventually, healthy properties’. According to the European Legislation (2009/54/EC Directive), physical and chemical characterization is used to make a classification of the different mineral waters, basing on the analysis of main parameters. Mineral composition enables to classify natural mineral waters as bicarbonate mineral waters, sulphate mineral waters, chloride mineral waters, calcic mineral waters, magnesiac mineral waters, fluorurate mineral waters, ferrous mineral waters and sodium-rich mineral waters. Although the concerns about bottled mineral waters (due to plasticizers and endocrine disruptors), many are the health effects of natural mineral waters and several studies explored their properties and their role in different physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:28228777

  3. Industrial water pollution, water environment treatment, and health risks in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Yang, Zhiming

    2016-11-01

    The negative health effects of water pollution remain a major source of morbidity and mortality in China. The Chinese government is making great efforts to strengthen water environment treatment; however, no studies have evaluated the effects of water treatment on human health by water pollution in China. This study evaluated the association between water pollution and health outcomes, and determined the extent to which environmental regulations on water pollution may lead to health benefits. Data were extracted from the 2011 and 2013 China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS). Random effects model and random effects Logit model were applied to study the relationship between health and water pollution, while a Mediator model was used to estimate the effects of environmental water treatment on health outcomes by the intensity of water pollution. Unsurprisingly, water pollution was negatively associated with health outcomes, and the common pollutants in industrial wastewater had differential impacts on health outcomes. The effects were stronger for low-income respondents. Water environment treatment led to improved health outcomes among Chinese people. Reduced water pollution mediated the associations between water environment treatment and health outcomes. The results of this study offer compelling evidence to support treatment of water pollution in China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Human health effects of residual carbon nanotubes and traditional water treatment chemicals in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Simate, Geoffrey S; Iyuke, Sunny E; Ndlovu, Sehliselo; Heydenrych, Mike; Walubita, Lubinda F

    2012-02-01

    The volume of industrial and domestic wastewater is increasing significantly year by year with the change in the lifestyle based on mass consumption and mass disposal brought about by the dramatic development of economies and industries. Therefore, effective advanced wastewater treatment is required because wastewater contains a variety of constituents such as particles, organic materials, and emulsion depending on the resource. However, residual chemicals that remain during the treatment of wastewaters form a variety of known and unknown by-products through reactions between the chemicals and some pollutants. Chronic exposure to these by-products or residual chemicals through the ingestion of drinking water, inhalation and dermal contact during regular indoor activities (e.g., showering, bathing, cooking) may pose cancer and non-cancer risks to human health. For example, residual aluminium salts in treated water may cause Alzheimer's disease (AD). As for carbon nanotubes (CNTs), despite their potential impacts on human health and the environment having been receiving more and more attention in the recent past, existing information on the toxicity of CNTs in drinking water is limited with many open questions. Furthermore, though general topics on the human health impacts of traditional water treatment chemicals have been studied, no comparative analysis has been done. Therefore, a qualitative comparison of the human health effects of both residual CNTs and traditional water treatment chemicals is given in this paper. In addition, it is also important to cover and compare the human health effects of CNTs to those of traditional water treatment chemicals together in one review because they are both used for water treatment and purification. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Can Water Mean Health?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Maggie, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    This issue of UNICEF News explores the theme of connections between water and health in developing countries. The introductory article discusses prospects for improving health through water projects during the International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade (1981-90). Subsequent articles focus on (1) effects of a piped water supply on…

  6. Health Effects Associated with Water Fluoridation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Virginia L.

    1979-01-01

    Discussion is presented concerning fluoridation of water supplies. Correlation between fluoride in drinking water and improved dental health is reviewed. Relationship is expressed between fluoridation and reduced tooth decay. Use of fluoride in treating skeletal disorders is discussed. Author advocates fluoridating water supplies. (SA)

  7. Water, hydration, and health

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This review examines the current knowledge of water intake as it pertains to human health, including overall patterns of intake and some factors linked with intake, the complex mechanisms behind water homeostasis, and the effects of variation in water intake on health and energy intake, weight, huma...

  8. Health Effects and Environmental Justice Concerns of Exposure to Uranium in Drinking Water.

    PubMed

    Corlin, Laura; Rock, Tommy; Cordova, Jamie; Woodin, Mark; Durant, John L; Gute, David M; Ingram, Jani; Brugge, Doug

    2016-12-01

    We discuss the recent epidemiologic literature regarding health effects of uranium exposure in drinking water focusing on the chemical characteristics of uranium. While there is strong toxicologic evidence for renal and reproductive effects as well as DNA damage, the epidemiologic evidence for these effects in people exposed to uranium in drinking water is limited. Further, epidemiologic evidence is lacking for cardiovascular and oncogenic effects. One challenge in characterizing health effects of uranium in drinking water is the paucity of long-term cohort studies with individual level exposure assessment. Nevertheless, there are environmental justice concerns due to the substantial exposures for certain populations. For example, we present original data suggesting that individuals living in the Navajo Nation are exposed to high levels of uranium in unregulated well water used for drinking. In 10 out of 185 samples (5.4 %), concentrations of uranium exceeded standards under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Therefore, efforts to mitigate exposure to toxic elements in drinking water are warranted and should be prioritized.

  9. Health effects of drinking water disinfectants and disinfection by-products

    SciTech Connect

    Condie, L.W.; Bercz, J.P.

    This paper summarizes toxicological studies conducted with drinking water disinfectants. Toxicological effects, which are associated with the disinfectants themselves as well as with the by-products formed when disinfectants react with organic material present in water, are considered. The health impact of chemical reactions occurring between residual disinfectants and nutrients in the gastrointestinal tract is also discussed. 40 references, 5 tables.

  10. Drinking Water (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    MedlinePlus

    ... teach students about water quality and effects on human health. Give Water a Hand (University of Wisconsin) - Project ... Medicine National Institutes of Health U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

  11. Investigation of Health Effects According to the Exposure of Low Concentration Arsenic Contaminated Ground Water

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Young-seoub; Ye, Byeong-jin; Kim, Yu-mi; Kim, Byoung-gwon; Kang, Gyeong-hui; Kim, Jeong-jin; Song, Ki-hoon; Kim, Young-hun

    2017-01-01

    Recent epidemiological studies have reported adverse health effects, including skin cancer, due to low concentrations of arsenic via drinking water. We conducted a study to assess whether low arsenic contaminated ground water affected health of the residents who consumed it. For precise biomonitoring results, the inorganic (trivalent arsenite (As III) and pentavalent arsenate (As V)) and organic forms (monomethylarsonate (MMA) and dimethylarsinate (DMA)) of arsenic were separately quantified by combining high-performance liquid chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy from urine samples. In conclusion, urinary As III, As V, MMA, and hair arsenic concentrations were significantly higher in residents who consumed arsenic contaminated ground water than control participants who consumed tap water. But, most health screening results did not show a statistically significant difference between exposed and control subjects. We presume that the elevated arsenic concentrations may not be sufficient to cause detectable health effects. Consumption of arsenic contaminated ground water could result in elevated urinary organic and inorganic arsenic concentrations. We recommend immediate discontinuation of ground water supply in this area for the safety of the residents. PMID:29186890

  12. Self-reported Effects of Water on Health in First Nations Communities in Saskatchewan, Canada: Results From Community-Based Participatory Research

    PubMed Central

    Waldner, Cheryl L; Alimezelli, Hubert Tote; McLeod, Lianne; Zagozewski, Rebecca; Bradford, Lori EA; Bharadwaj, Lalita A

    2017-01-01

    Water-related health challenges on First Nations reserves in Canada have been previously documented. Our objective was to describe factors associated with self-reported health effects from tap water in 8 First Nations reserve communities in Saskatchewan, Canada. Community-based participatory approaches were used in designing and implementing cross-sectional household surveys. Individual, household, community, and contextual effects were considered in multilevel analysis. Negative health effects from tap water were reported by 28% of households (n = 579). Concerns about environmental factors affecting water quality (odds ratio [OR] = 3.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.8-6.7), rarely or never drinking tap water (OR = 2.9, 95% CI = 1.3-6.6), insufficient tap water (OR = 3.0, 95% CI = 1.4-6.3), paying for bottled water (OR = 3.2, 95% CI = 1.2-8.7), and dissatisfaction with tap water were associated with self-reported health effects (n = 393); however, the effect of dissatisfaction was modified by respondent age (P = .03). Quality and availability were associated with perceptions of health effects from drinking water, providing additional information on how ongoing concerns about drinking water influence self-reported health in some First Nations. PMID:28469443

  13. Self-reported Effects of Water on Health in First Nations Communities in Saskatchewan, Canada: Results From Community-Based Participatory Research.

    PubMed

    Waldner, Cheryl L; Alimezelli, Hubert Tote; McLeod, Lianne; Zagozewski, Rebecca; Bradford, Lori Ea; Bharadwaj, Lalita A

    2017-01-01

    Water-related health challenges on First Nations reserves in Canada have been previously documented. Our objective was to describe factors associated with self-reported health effects from tap water in 8 First Nations reserve communities in Saskatchewan, Canada. Community-based participatory approaches were used in designing and implementing cross-sectional household surveys. Individual, household, community, and contextual effects were considered in multilevel analysis. Negative health effects from tap water were reported by 28% of households (n = 579). Concerns about environmental factors affecting water quality (odds ratio [OR] = 3.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.8-6.7), rarely or never drinking tap water (OR = 2.9, 95% CI = 1.3-6.6), insufficient tap water (OR = 3.0, 95% CI = 1.4-6.3), paying for bottled water (OR = 3.2, 95% CI = 1.2-8.7), and dissatisfaction with tap water were associated with self-reported health effects (n = 393); however, the effect of dissatisfaction was modified by respondent age ( P = .03). Quality and availability were associated with perceptions of health effects from drinking water, providing additional information on how ongoing concerns about drinking water influence self-reported health in some First Nations.

  14. Perchlorate in Water Supplies: Sources, Exposures, and Health Effects

    PubMed Central

    Steinmaus, Craig M.

    2016-01-01

    Perchlorate exposure occurs from ingestion of natural or manmade perchlorate in food or water. Perchlorate is used in a variety of industrial products including missile fuel, fireworks, and fertilizers, and industrial contamination of drinking water supplies has occurred in a number of areas. Perchlorate blocks iodide uptake into the thyroid, and decreases the production of thyroid hormone, a critical hormone for metabolism, neurodevelopment, and other physiologic functions. Occupational and clinical dosing studies have not identified clear adverse effects, but may be limited by small sample sizes, short study durations, and the inclusion of mostly healthy adults. Expanding evidence suggests that young children, pregnant women, fetuses, and people co-exposed to similarly acting agents may be especially susceptible to perchlorate. Given the ubiquitous nature of perchlorate exposure, and the importance of thyroid hormone for brain development, studying the impact of perchlorate on human health could have far-reaching public health implications. PMID:27026358

  15. HEALTH EFFECTS OF CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO ARSENIC VIA DRINKING WATER IN INNER MONGOLIA: VI. DEVELOPMENTAL EFFECTS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    HEALTH EFFECTS OF CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO ARSENIC VIA DRINKING WATER IN INNER MONGOLIA:
    VI. DEVELOPMENTAL EFFECTS

    Richard K. Kwok, M.S.P.H., Judy L. Mumford, Ph.D., Pauline Mendola, Ph.D. Epidemiology and Biomarkers Branch, NHEERL, US Environmental Protection Agency; Yajua...

  16. The growing epidemic of water pipe smoking: health effects and future needs.

    PubMed

    Bou Fakhreddine, Hisham M; Kanj, Amjad N; Kanj, Nadim A

    2014-09-01

    Water pipe smoking (WPS), an old method of tobacco smoking, is re-gaining widespread popularity all over the world and among various populations. Smoking machine studies have shown that the water pipe (WP) mainstream smoke (MSS) contains a wide array of chemical substances, many of which are highly toxic and carcinogenic for humans. The concentrations of some substances exceed those present in MSS of cigarettes. Despite being of low grade, current evidence indicates that WPS is associated with different adverse health effects, not only on the respiratory system but also on the cardiovascular, hematological, and reproductive systems, including pregnancy outcomes. In addition, association between WPS and malignancies, such as lung, oral and nasopharyngeal cancer, has been suggested in different studies and systematic reviews. Despite its long standing history, WPS research still harbors a lot of deficiencies. The magnitude of toxicants and carcinogen exposures, effects on human health, as well as the addiction and dependence potentials associated with WPS need to be studied in well-designed prospective trials. Unfortunately, many of the tobacco control and clean indoor policies have exempted water pipes. World wide awareness among the public, smokers, and policymakers about the potential health effects of WPS is urgently required. Furthermore, stringent policies and laws that control and ban WPS in public places, similar to those applied on cigarettes smoking need to be implemented. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Perchlorate: Health Effects and Technologies for Its Removal from Water Resources

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Asha; Viraraghavan, Thiruvenkatachari

    2009-01-01

    Perchlorate has been found in drinking water and surface waters in the United States and Canada. It is primarily associated with release from defense and military operations. Natural sources include certain fertilizers and potash ores. Although it is a strong oxidant, perchlorate is very persistent in the environment. At high concentrations perchlorate can affect the thyroid gland by inhibiting the uptake of iodine. A maximum contaminant level has not been set, while a guidance value of 6 ppb has been suggested by Health Canada. Perchlorate is measured in environmental samples primarily by ion chromatography. It can be removed from water by anion exchange or membrane filtration. Biological and chemical processes are also effective in removing this species from water. PMID:19440526

  18. HEALTH EFFECTS OF CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO ARSENIC VIA DRINKING WATER IN INNER MONGOLIA: I. BIOMARKERS FOR ASSESSING EXPOSURE AND EFFECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Health Effects of Chronic Exposure to Arsenic via Drinking Water in Inner Mongolia: I. Biomarkers for Assessing Exposure and Effects

    Judy L. Mumford, Ph.D., Mike Schmitt, M.S.P.H., Richard K. Kwok, M.S.P.H., Rebecca Calderon, Ph.D., National Health and Environmental Effect...

  19. Potential Health Impacts of Hard Water

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Pallav

    2013-01-01

    In the past five decades or so evidence has been accumulating about an environmental factor, which appears to be influencing mortality, in particular, cardiovascular mortality, and this is the hardness of the drinking water. In addition, several epidemiological investigations have demonstrated the relation between risk for cardiovascular disease, growth retardation, reproductive failure, and other health problems and hardness of drinking water or its content of magnesium and calcium. In addition, the acidity of the water influences the reabsorption of calcium and magnesium in the renal tubule. Not only, calcium and magnesium, but other constituents also affect different health aspects. Thus, the present review attempts to explore the health effects of hard water and its constituents. PMID:24049611

  20. Potential health impacts of hard water.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Pallav

    2013-08-01

    In the past five decades or so evidence has been accumulating about an environmental factor, which appears to be influencing mortality, in particular, cardiovascular mortality, and this is the hardness of the drinking water. In addition, several epidemiological investigations have demonstrated the relation between risk for cardiovascular disease, growth retardation, reproductive failure, and other health problems and hardness of drinking water or its content of magnesium and calcium. In addition, the acidity of the water influences the reabsorption of calcium and magnesium in the renal tubule. Not only, calcium and magnesium, but other constituents also affect different health aspects. Thus, the present review attempts to explore the health effects of hard water and its constituents.

  1. Water-Food-Nutrition-Health Nexus: Linking Water to Improving Food, Nutrition and Health in Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mabhaudhi, Tafadzwanashe; Chibarabada, Tendai; Modi, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Whereas sub-Saharan Africa’s (SSA) water scarcity, food, nutrition and health challenges are well-documented, efforts to address them have often been disconnected. Given that the region continues to be affected by poverty and food and nutrition insecurity at national and household levels, there is a need for a paradigm shift in order to effectively deliver on the twin challenges of food and nutrition security under conditions of water scarcity. There is a need to link water use in agriculture to achieve food and nutrition security outcomes for improved human health and well-being. Currently, there are no explicit linkages between water, agriculture, nutrition and health owing to uncoordinated efforts between agricultural and nutrition scientists. There is also a need to develop and promote the use of metrics that capture aspects of water, agriculture, food and nutrition. This review identified nutritional water productivity as a suitable index for measuring the impact of a water-food-nutrition-health nexus. Socio-economic factors are also considered as they influence food choices in rural communities. An argument for the need to utilise the region’s agrobiodiversity for addressing dietary quality and diversity was established. It is concluded that a model for improving nutrition and health of poor rural communities based on the water-food-nutrition-health nexus is possible. PMID:26751464

  2. Health and aesthetic impacts of copper corrosion on drinking water.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, A M; Glindemann, D; Pizarro, F; Gidi, V; Olivares, M; Araya, M; Camper, A; Duncan, S; Dwyer, S; Whelton, A J; Younos, T; Subramanian, S; Burlingame, G A; Khiari, D; Edwards, M

    2004-01-01

    Traditional research has focused on the visible effects of corrosion--failures, leaks, and financial debits--and often overlooked the more hidden health and aesthetic aspects. Clearly, corrosion of copper pipe can lead to levels of copper in the drinking water that exceed health guidelines and cause bitter or metallic tasting water. Because water will continue to be conveyed to consumers worldwide through metal pipes, the water industry has to consider both the effects of water quality on corrosion and the effects of corrosion on water quality. Integrating four key factors--chemical/biological causes, economics, health and aesthetics--is critical for managing the distribution system to produce safe water that consumers will use with confidence. As technological developments improve copper pipes to minimize scaling and corrosion, it is essential to consider the health and aesthetic effects on an equal plane with chemical/biological causes and economics to produce water that is acceptable for public consumption.

  3. Water, Water Everywhere but is it Safe to Drink? Some Detrimental Health Effects Associated with Consumption of Groundwater Enriched in Naturally-Occurring Contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuge, R.

    2007-05-01

    Drinking water represents a major pathway of trace elements into the human body. As such, groundwaters, the chemistry of which reflect water/rock interaction, can be a source of trace elements which will have a marked health effect on humans consuming them. Health problems associated with the consumption of groundwater enriched in various elements and compounds have been recorded for many years. For example, high-arsenic groundwaters used for public water supply were first associated with harmful health effects as early as 1917 in Córdoba Province in Argentina, where the local population suffered from skin disorders. Subsequently, in the 1960s consumption of high-arsenic groundwaters was identified as a factor in the aetiology of "black foot disease", an endemic vascular disease, in Taiwan. However, it is problems associated with the very high-arsenic groundwaters of the highly populous Ganges delta area of Bangladesh and West Bengal that has more recently highlighted the health problem of consuming high-arsenic waters. The most obvious problems of excess arsenic consumption through drinking water are arsenical skin lesions, the severity of which being generally correlated with arsenic content of the water. A high incidence of cancers of the skin, bladder and other organs has been recorded in the high-arsenic drinking water areas of the world. A high incidence of vascular disease, found in the arsenic-rich area of Taiwan, has also been shown to occur in Bangladesh. In addition, it has been suggested that high arsenic in drinking water results in increased incidence of diabetes mellitus. Fluorine is another element long recognised as having a major effect on the well-being of humans. Consumption of high-fluorine waters were first identified as having a detrimental effect on teeth in the 1920s and 30s. It was subsequently shown that where fluorine is present in drinking waters at concentrations of around 0.5 to 1 mg/L it can have beneficial effects on humans

  4. [Water fluoridation and public health].

    PubMed

    Barak, Shlomo

    2003-11-01

    Fluoridation in Israel was first mooted in 1973 and finally incorporated into law in November 2002 obligating the Ministry of Health to add fluoride to the nation's water supply. Epidemiology studies in the USA have shown that the addition of one part per million of fluoride to the drinking water reduced the caries rate of children's teeth by 50% to 60% with no side effects. Both the WHO in 1994 and the American Surgeon General's report of 2000 declared that fluoridation of drinking water was the safest and most efficient way of preventing dental caries in all age groups and populations. Opposition to fluoridation has arisen from "antifluoridation" groups who object to the "pollution" of drinking water by the addition of chemicals and mass medication in violation of the "Patient's Rights" law and the Basic Law of Human Dignity and Liberty. A higher prevalence of hip fractures in elderly osteoporotic women and osteosarcoma in teenagers has been reported in areas where excess fluoride exists in the drinking water. However, none of the many independent professional committees reviewing the negative aspects of fluoridation have found any scientific evidence associating fluoridation with any ill-effects or health problems. In Israel, where dental treatment is not included in the basket of Health Services, fluoridation is the most efficient and cheapest way of reducing dental disease, especially for the poorer members of the population.

  5. Water Quality and Sustainable Environmental Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setegn, S. G.

    2014-12-01

    Lack of adequate safe water, the pollution of the aquatic environment and the mismanagement of resources are major causes of ill-health and mortality, particularly in the developing countries. In order to accommodate more growth, sustainable fresh water resource management will need to be included in future development plans. One of the major environmental issues of concern to policy-makers is the increased vulnerability of ground water quality. The main challenge for the sustainability of water resources is the control of water pollution. To understand the sustainability of the water resources, one needs to understand the impact of future land use and climate changes on the natural resources. Providing safe water and basic sanitation to meet the Millennium Development Goals will require substantial economic resources, sustainable technological solutions and courageous political will. A balanced approach to water resources exploitation for development, on the one hand, and controls for the protection of health, on the other, is required if the benefits of both are to be realized without avoidable detrimental effects manifesting themselves. Meeting the millennium development goals for water and sanitation in the next decade will require substantial economic resources, sustainable technological solutions and courageous political will. In addition to providing "improved" water and "basic" sanitation services, we must ensure that these services provide: safe drinking water, adequate quantities of water for health, hygiene, agriculture and development and sustainable sanitation approaches to protect health and the environment.

  6. Minimizing Dissolved Silica to Reduce Ash Content in Reconstituted Waters Used in Disinfection Byproduct Health Effects Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous health effects research used chlorinated, concentrated natural organic matter (NOM) solutions to create whole mixtures of disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Ohio River water was used as the source water to provide the background NOM matrix. Concentrated river water was coll...

  7. Health beliefs about bottled water: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Ward, Lorna A; Cain, Owen L; Mullally, Ryan A; Holliday, Kathryn S; Wernham, Aaron G H; Baillie, Paul D; Greenfield, Sheila M

    2009-06-19

    There has been a consistent rise in bottled water consumption over the last decade. Little is known about the health beliefs held by the general public about bottled water as this issue is not addressed by the existing quantitative literature. The purpose of this study was to improve understanding of the public's health beliefs concerning bottled mineral water, and the extent to which these beliefs and other views they hold, influence drinking habits. A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews, with 23 users of the Munrow Sports Centre on the University of Birmingham campus. Health beliefs about bottled water could be classified as general or specific beliefs. Most participants believed that bottled water conferred general health benefits but were unsure as to the nature of these. In terms of specific health beliefs, the idea that the minerals in bottled water conferred a health benefit was the most commonly cited. There were concerns over links between the plastic bottle itself and cancer. Participants believed that bottled water has a detrimental effect on the environment. Convenience, cost and taste were influential factors when making decisions as to whether to buy bottled water; health beliefs were unimportant motivating factors. The majority of participants believed that bottled water has some health benefits. However, these beliefs played a minor role in determining bottled water consumption and are unlikely to be helpful in explaining recent trends in bottled water consumption if generalised to the UK population. The health beliefs elicited were supported by scientific evidence to varying extents. Most participants did not feel that bottled water conferred significant, if any, health benefits over tap water.

  8. Health beliefs about bottled water: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Lorna A; Cain, Owen L; Mullally, Ryan A; Holliday, Kathryn S; Wernham, Aaron GH; Baillie, Paul D; Greenfield, Sheila M

    2009-01-01

    Background There has been a consistent rise in bottled water consumption over the last decade. Little is known about the health beliefs held by the general public about bottled water as this issue is not addressed by the existing quantitative literature. The purpose of this study was to improve understanding of the public's health beliefs concerning bottled mineral water, and the extent to which these beliefs and other views they hold, influence drinking habits. Methods A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews, with 23 users of the Munrow Sports Centre on the University of Birmingham campus. Results Health beliefs about bottled water could be classified as general or specific beliefs. Most participants believed that bottled water conferred general health benefits but were unsure as to the nature of these. In terms of specific health beliefs, the idea that the minerals in bottled water conferred a health benefit was the most commonly cited. There were concerns over links between the plastic bottle itself and cancer. Participants believed that bottled water has a detrimental effect on the environment. Convenience, cost and taste were influential factors when making decisions as to whether to buy bottled water; health beliefs were unimportant motivating factors. Conclusion The majority of participants believed that bottled water has some health benefits. However, these beliefs played a minor role in determining bottled water consumption and are unlikely to be helpful in explaining recent trends in bottled water consumption if generalised to the UK population. The health beliefs elicited were supported by scientific evidence to varying extents. Most participants did not feel that bottled water conferred significant, if any, health benefits over tap water. PMID:19545357

  9. Aquatic biomonitoring of reclaimed water for potable use: the San Diego Health Effects Study.

    PubMed

    de Peyster, A; Donohoe, R; Slymen, D J; Froines, J R; Olivieri, A W; Eisenberg, D M

    1993-05-01

    Highly treated reclaimed wastewater was evaluated as a possible supplement to raw water sources required to meet San Diego's growing need for potable water. Biomonitoring experiments employing fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were used to compare reclaimed water with the city's current raw water supply. Juvenile fish were exposed in flow-through aquaria in field laboratories located at the reclamation plant (AQUA II) and at a municipal potable water treatment facility (Miramar). Biomonitoring measurements were survival and growth, swimming performance, and trace amounts of 68 base/neutral/acid extractable organics, 27 pesticides, and 27 inorganic chemicals found in fish tissues after exposure. Biomonitoring revealed differences in survival, growth, and swimming performance only after 90- and 180-d exposure. Reclaimed water and raw water were not readily distinguishable in 28-d chemical bioaccumulation tests in terms of organic chemical contaminants in fish tissue except for pesticide levels, which tended to be higher in raw water. Similar inorganic species were found in samples from both waters, although there was greater evidence of bioaccumulation of certain contaminants from raw water. Based on biomonitoring parameters included in these experiments, the use of reclaimed water to supplement raw water supplies would appear to pose no major public health threats. The results of these studies will be combined with additional health effects information before final conclusions are reached about the suitability of reclaimed water for human consumption.

  10. Health effects of swimming in fecally-contaminated recreational water: Results from studies at nine coastal beaches

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to fecally-contaminated water has long been known to transmit infectious disease. In 2003, EPA and the CDC initiated studies to better describe the health effects associated with exposure to fecal contamination in recreational waters and to test faster ways of measuring ...

  11. Quiz: Water and Your Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... your health Quiz: Water and your health Quiz: Water and your health Clean water is an important part of being healthy. Do you know all of these fun facts about water? Take this quiz to find out! Then, test ...

  12. World Health Organization discontinues its drinking-water guideline for manganese.

    PubMed

    Frisbie, Seth H; Mitchell, Erika J; Dustin, Hannah; Maynard, Donald M; Sarkar, Bibudhendra

    2012-06-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) released the fourth edition of Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality in July 2011. In this edition, the 400-µg/L drinking-water guideline for manganese (Mn) was discontinued with the assertion that because "this health-based value is well above concentrations of manganese normally found in drinking water, it is not considered necessary to derive a formal guideline value." In this commentary, we review the WHO guideline for Mn in drinking water--from its introduction in 1958 through its discontinuation in 2011. For the primary references, we used the WHO publications that documented the Mn guidelines. We used peer-reviewed journal articles, government reports, published conference proceedings, and theses to identify countries with drinking water or potential drinking-water supplies exceeding 400 µg/L Mn and peer-reviewed journal articles to summarize the health effects of Mn. Drinking water or potential drinking-water supplies with Mn concentrations > 400 µg/L are found in a substantial number of countries worldwide. The drinking water of many tens of millions of people has Mn concentrations > 400 µg/L. Recent research on the health effects of Mn suggests that the earlier WHO guideline of 400 µg/L may have been too high to adequately protect public health. The toxic effects and geographic distribution of Mn in drinking-water supplies justify a reevaluation by the WHO of its decision to discontinue its drinking-water guideline for Mn.

  13. World Health Organization Discontinues Its Drinking-Water Guideline for Manganese

    PubMed Central

    Frisbie, Seth H.; Mitchell, Erika J.; Dustin, Hannah; Maynard, Donald M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) released the fourth edition of Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality in July 2011. In this edition, the 400-µg/L drinking-water guideline for manganese (Mn) was discontinued with the assertion that because “this health-based value is well above concentrations of manganese normally found in drinking water, it is not considered necessary to derive a formal guideline value.” Objective: In this commentary, we review the WHO guideline for Mn in drinking water—from its introduction in 1958 through its discontinuation in 2011. Methods: For the primary references, we used the WHO publications that documented the Mn guidelines. We used peer-reviewed journal articles, government reports, published conference proceedings, and theses to identify countries with drinking water or potential drinking-water supplies exceeding 400 µg/L Mn and peer-reviewed journal articles to summarize the health effects of Mn. Discussion: Drinking water or potential drinking-water supplies with Mn concentrations > 400 µg/L are found in a substantial number of countries worldwide. The drinking water of many tens of millions of people has Mn concentrations > 400 µg/L. Recent research on the health effects of Mn suggests that the earlier WHO guideline of 400 µg/L may have been too high to adequately protect public health. Conclusions: The toxic effects and geographic distribution of Mn in drinking-water supplies justify a reevaluation by the WHO of its decision to discontinue its drinking-water guideline for Mn. PMID:22334150

  14. The Interconnectedness of Water and Health: Translating Science Into Public Health-driven Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lichtveld, M.

    2017-12-01

    Louisiana and other U.S. Gulf Coast communities' unique vulnerability stems from three interconnected stressors they face: historic health disparities, persistent environmental stressors, and a geography prone to both natural and technological disasters. The health of the ecosystem is inextricably linked to that of humans. Specifically, water presents both a central asset and an intransigent environmental health threat. Waterborne illnesses associated with infectious organisms, chemical contaminants, coastal erosion, natural and technological disasters such as hurricanes and oil spills, as well as climate change-associated sea level rise and dead zones, all can negatively impact human health. Existing water-related policies at the federal, state, and local levels have failed to effectively protect the health of communities and their environment to date. For example, despite the existence of the Clean Water Act and the Safe Drinking Water Act, oil spills and drinking water contamination continue to pose significant threats to communities' health and wellbeing. This presentation will examine water-related threats to Gulf Coast communities and their ecosystem. Emphasis will be placed on key examples of policy failure and the impact such failures. A public health-driven framework will demonstrate how science can inform evidence- based policy and in turn prevention-driven public health practice.

  15. Health effects of desalinated water: Role of electrolyte disturbance in cancer development

    SciTech Connect

    Nriagu, Jerome, E-mail: jnriagu@umich.edu

    This review contends that “healthy” water in terms of electrolyte balance is as important as “pure” water in promoting public health. It considers the growing use of desalination (demineralization) technologies in drinking water treatment which often results in tap water with very low concentrations of sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium. Ingestion of such water can lead to electrolyte abnormalities marked by hyponatremia, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia and hypocalcemia which are among the most common and recognizable features in cancer patients. The causal relationships between exposure to demineralized water and malignancies are poorly understood. This review highlights some of the epidemiological and inmore » vivo evidence that link dysregulated electrolyte metabolism with carcinogenesis and the development of cancer hallmarks. It discusses how ingestion of demineralized water can have a procarcinogenic effect through mediating some of the critical pathways and processes in the cancer microenvironment such as angiogenesis, genomic instability, resistance to programmed cell death, sustained proliferative signaling, cell immortalization and tumorigenic inflammation. Evidence that hypoosmotic stress-response processes can upregulate a number of potential oncogenes is well supported by a number studies. In view of the rising production and consumption of demineralized water in most parts of the world, there is a strong need for further research on the biological importance and protean roles of electrolyte abnormalities in promoting, antagonizing or otherwise enabling the development of cancer. The countries of the Gulf Cooperative Council (GCC) where most people consume desalinated water would be a logical place to start this research. - Highlights: • Ingestion of low-mineral waters disrupts electrolyte homeostasis and cellular processes. • Electrolyte imbalance can affect the tumor microenvironment and many stages of tumorigenesis. • Electrolyte

  16. Water, Hydration and Health

    PubMed Central

    Popkin, Barry M.; D’Anci, Kristen E.; Rosenberg, Irwin H.

    2010-01-01

    This review attempts to provide some sense of our current knowledge of water including overall patterns of intake and some factors linked with intake, the complex mechanisms behind water homeostasis, the effects of variation in water intake on health and energy intake, weight, and human performance and functioning. Water represents a critical nutrient whose absence will be lethal within days. Water’s importance for prevention of nutrition-related noncommunicable diseases has emerged more recently because of the shift toward large proportions of fluids coming from caloric beverages. Nevertheless, there are major gaps in knowledge related to measurement of total fluid intake, hydration status at the population level, and few longer-term systematic interventions and no published random-controlled longer-term trials. We suggest some ways to examine water requirements as a means to encouraging more dialogue on this important topic. PMID:20646222

  17. Chronic health effects in people exposed to arsenic via the drinking water: dose-response relationships in review.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Takahiko; Yamauchi, Hiroshi; Fan Sun, Gui

    2004-08-01

    Chronic arsenic (As) poisoning has become a worldwide public health issue. Most human As exposure occurs from consumption of drinking water containing high amounts of inorganic As (iAs). In this paper, epidemiological studies conducted on the dose-response relationships between iAs exposure via the drinking water and related adverse health effects are reviewed. Before the review, the methods for evaluation of the individual As exposure are summarized and classified into two types, that is, the methods depending on As concentration of the drinking water and the methods depending on biological monitoring for As exposure; certain methods may be applied as optimum As exposure indexes to study dose-response relationship based on various As exposure situation. Chronic effects of iAs exposure via drinking water include skin lesions, neurological effects, hypertension, peripheral vascular disease, cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease, diabetes mellitus, and malignancies including skin cancer. The skin is quite sensitive to arsenic, and skin lesions are some of the most common and earliest nonmalignant effects related to chronic As exposure. The increase of prevalence in the skin lesions has been observed even at the exposure levels in the range of 0.005-0.01 mg/l As in drinking waters. Skin, lung, bladder, kidney, liver, and uterus are considered as sites As-induced malignancies, and the skin is though to be perhaps the most sensitive site. Prospective studies in large area of endemic As poisoning, like Bangladesh or China, where the rate of malignancies is expected to increase within the next several decades, will help to clarify the dose-response relationship between As exposure levels and adverse health effects with enhanced accuracy.

  18. Water fluoridation: a critical review of the physiological effects of ingested fluoride as a public health intervention.

    PubMed

    Peckham, Stephen; Awofeso, Niyi

    2014-01-01

    Fluorine is the world's 13th most abundant element and constitutes 0.08% of the Earth crust. It has the highest electronegativity of all elements. Fluoride is widely distributed in the environment, occurring in the air, soils, rocks, and water. Although fluoride is used industrially in a fluorine compound, the manufacture of ceramics, pesticides, aerosol propellants, refrigerants, glassware, and Teflon cookware, it is a generally unwanted byproduct of aluminium, fertilizer, and iron ore manufacture. The medicinal use of fluorides for the prevention of dental caries began in January 1945 when community water supplies in Grand Rapids, United States, were fluoridated to a level of 1 ppm as a dental caries prevention measure. However, water fluoridation remains a controversial public health measure. This paper reviews the human health effects of fluoride. The authors conclude that available evidence suggests that fluoride has a potential to cause major adverse human health problems, while having only a modest dental caries prevention effect. As part of efforts to reduce hazardous fluoride ingestion, the practice of artificial water fluoridation should be reconsidered globally, while industrial safety measures need to be tightened in order to reduce unethical discharge of fluoride compounds into the environment. Public health approaches for global dental caries reduction that do not involve systemic ingestion of fluoride are urgently needed.

  19. Water Fluoridation: A Critical Review of the Physiological Effects of Ingested Fluoride as a Public Health Intervention

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Fluorine is the world's 13th most abundant element and constitutes 0.08% of the Earth crust. It has the highest electronegativity of all elements. Fluoride is widely distributed in the environment, occurring in the air, soils, rocks, and water. Although fluoride is used industrially in a fluorine compound, the manufacture of ceramics, pesticides, aerosol propellants, refrigerants, glassware, and Teflon cookware, it is a generally unwanted byproduct of aluminium, fertilizer, and iron ore manufacture. The medicinal use of fluorides for the prevention of dental caries began in January 1945 when community water supplies in Grand Rapids, United States, were fluoridated to a level of 1 ppm as a dental caries prevention measure. However, water fluoridation remains a controversial public health measure. This paper reviews the human health effects of fluoride. The authors conclude that available evidence suggests that fluoride has a potential to cause major adverse human health problems, while having only a modest dental caries prevention effect. As part of efforts to reduce hazardous fluoride ingestion, the practice of artificial water fluoridation should be reconsidered globally, while industrial safety measures need to be tightened in order to reduce unethical discharge of fluoride compounds into the environment. Public health approaches for global dental caries reduction that do not involve systemic ingestion of fluoride are urgently needed. PMID:24719570

  20. The Health Effects of Chlorine Dioxide as a Disinfectant in Potable Water: A Literature Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calabrese, Edward J.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The use of chlorine dioxide as a disinfectant in water is being considered by the EPA. This article presents a summary of the known published reports concerning health effects of chlorine dioxide on animal and human populations. (Author/MA)

  1. HEALTH EFFECTS OF CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO ARSENIC VIA DRINKING WATER IN INNER MONGOLIA: V. BIOMARKER STUDIES - A PILOT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Health Effects of Chronic Exposure to Arsenic via Drinking Water in Inner Mongolia: V. Biomarker Studies - a Pilot Study

    Michael T. Schmitt, M.S.P.H., Judy S. Mumford, Ph.D., National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agenc...

  2. Arsenic in Drinking Water in Bangladesh: Factors Affecting Child Health

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, Sonia N.; Aziz, Khwaja M. S.; Boyle, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to present an empirical model of factors affecting child health by observing actions households take to avoid exposure to arsenic in drinking water. Millions of Bangladeshis face multiple health hazards from high levels of arsenic in drinking water. Safe water sources are either expensive or difficult to access, affecting people’s individuals’ time available for work and ultimately affecting the health of household members. Since children are particularly susceptible and live with parents who are primary decision makers for sustenance, parental actions linking child health outcomes is used in the empirical model. Empirical results suggest that child health is significantly affected by the age and gender of the household water procurer. Adults with a high degree of concern for children’s health risk from arsenic contamination, and who actively mitigate their arsenic contaminated water have a positive effect on child health. PMID:24982854

  3. The public health effects of water and sanitation in selected West African countries.

    PubMed

    Alagidede, P; Alagidede, A N

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines access to water and improved sanitation target under the Millennium Development Goal 7c (MDG 7c) for six West African countries: Chad, Niger, Nigeria, Mauritania, Sierra Leone and Togo. The article outlines some possible causes for the slow progress in achieving the MDG 7c, examines the public health effects of missing the targets, and charts paths for policy makers to consider in bringing these targets to acceptable levels. The study is based on secondary data analysis of trends in water and sanitation indicators for the six countries from 2000 to 2014. The data are drawn from the World Development Indicators (WDI) of the World Bank, and the World Health Organisation Joint Monitoring Programme (WHO JMP) and WaterAid Africa Wash Map. The performance of each country in the two indicators is presented and judged against the target set under MDG 7c. Forecasts based on the expiry of the MDG's in 2015 and the time required to achieve the targets are carried out. The study showes that while some progress has been made in improved water, sanitation showed slow progress for all the countries between 2000 and 2014. The goal of attaining acceptable sanitation shows that the six West African countries have lagged behind the MDG 7c target and the progress is equally slow. At the current rate of progress if strong public and private sector intervention mechanisms are not instituted across the board, the six West African countries under study would continue to lag behind the rest of the world in terms of access to improved water and sanitation. This has consequences for poverty alleviation and the risk of the re-emergence of neglected tropical diseases. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. World Health Organization increases its drinking-water guideline for uranium.

    PubMed

    Frisbie, Seth H; Mitchell, Erika J; Sarkar, Bibudhendra

    2013-10-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) released the fourth edition of Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality in July, 2011. In this edition, the drinking-water guideline for uranium (U) was increased to 30 μg L(-1) despite the conclusion that "deriving a guideline value for uranium in drinking-water is complex, because the data [from exposures to humans] do not provide a clear no-effect concentration" and "Although some minor biochemical changes associated with kidney function have been reported to be correlated with uranium exposure at concentrations below 30 μg L(-1), these findings are not consistent between studies" (WHO, Uranium in Drinking-water, Background document for development of WHO Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality, available: , accessed 13 October 2011). This paper reviews the WHO drinking-water guideline for U, from its introduction as a 2 μg L(-1) health-based guideline in 1998 through its increase to a 30 μg L(-1) health-based guideline in 2011. The current 30 μg L(-1) WHO health-based drinking-water guideline was calculated using a "no-effect group" with "no evidence of renal damage [in humans] from 10 renal toxicity indicators". However, this nominal "no-effect group" was associated with increased diastolic blood pressure, systolic blood pressure, and glucose excretion in urine. In addition, the current 30 μg L(-1) guideline may not protect children, people with predispositions to hypertension or osteoporosis, pre-existing chronic kidney disease, and anyone with a long exposure. The toxic effects of U in drinking water on laboratory animals and humans justify a re-evaluation by the WHO of its decision to increase its U drinking-water guideline.

  5. Influence of Network Model Detail on Estimated Health Effects of Drinking Water Contamination Events

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Michael J.; Janke, Robert

    Network model detail can influence the accuracy of results from analyses of water distribution systems. Some previous work has shown the limitations of skeletonized network models when considering water quality and hydraulic effects. Loss of model detail is potentially less important for aggregated effects such as the systemwide health effects associated with a contamination event, but has received limited attention. The influence of model detail on such effects is examined here by comparing results obtained for contamination events using three large network models and several skeletonized versions of the models. Loss of model detail decreases the accuracy of estimated aggregatedmore » adverse effects related to contamination events. It has the potential to have a large negative influence on the results of consequence assessments and the design of contamination warning systems. But, the adverse influence on analysis results can be minimized by restricting attention to high percentile effects (i.e., 95th percentile or higher).« less

  6. Influence of Network Model Detail on Estimated Health Effects of Drinking Water Contamination Events

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Michael J.; Janke, Robert

    Network model detail can influence the accuracy of results from analyses of water distribution systems. Previous work has shown the limitations of skeletonized network models when considering water quality and hydraulic effects. Loss of model detail is potentially less important for aggregated effects such as the systemwide health effects associated with a contamination event, but has received limited attention. The influence of model detail on such effects is examined here by comparing results obtained for contamination events using three large network models and several skeletonized versions of the models. Loss of model detail decreases the accuracy of estimated aggregated adversemore » effects related to contamination events. It has the potential to have a large negative influence on the results of consequence assessments and the design of contamination warning systems. However, the adverse influence on analysis results can be minimized by restricting attention to high percentile effects (i.e., 95th percentile or higher).« less

  7. Influence of Network Model Detail on Estimated Health Effects of Drinking Water Contamination Events

    DOE PAGES

    Davis, Michael J.; Janke, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Network model detail can influence the accuracy of results from analyses of water distribution systems. Some previous work has shown the limitations of skeletonized network models when considering water quality and hydraulic effects. Loss of model detail is potentially less important for aggregated effects such as the systemwide health effects associated with a contamination event, but has received limited attention. The influence of model detail on such effects is examined here by comparing results obtained for contamination events using three large network models and several skeletonized versions of the models. Loss of model detail decreases the accuracy of estimated aggregatedmore » adverse effects related to contamination events. It has the potential to have a large negative influence on the results of consequence assessments and the design of contamination warning systems. But, the adverse influence on analysis results can be minimized by restricting attention to high percentile effects (i.e., 95th percentile or higher).« less

  8. Climate change, water resources and child health.

    PubMed

    Kistin, Elizabeth J; Fogarty, John; Pokrasso, Ryan Shaening; McCally, Michael; McCornick, Peter G

    2010-07-01

    Climate change is occurring and has tremendous consequences for children's health worldwide. This article describes how the rise in temperature, precipitation, droughts, floods, glacier melt and sea levels resulting from human-induced climate change is affecting the quantity, quality and flow of water resources worldwide and impacting child health through dangerous effects on water supply and sanitation, food production and human migration. It argues that paediatricians and healthcare professionals have a critical leadership role to play in motivating and sustaining efforts for policy change and programme implementation at the local, national and international level.

  9. Health effects of desalinated water: Role of electrolyte disturbance in cancer development.

    PubMed

    Nriagu, Jerome; Darroudi, Firouz; Shomar, Basem

    2016-10-01

    This review contends that "healthy" water in terms of electrolyte balance is as important as "pure" water in promoting public health. It considers the growing use of desalination (demineralization) technologies in drinking water treatment which often results in tap water with very low concentrations of sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium. Ingestion of such water can lead to electrolyte abnormalities marked by hyponatremia, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia and hypocalcemia which are among the most common and recognizable features in cancer patients. The causal relationships between exposure to demineralized water and malignancies are poorly understood. This review highlights some of the epidemiological and in vivo evidence that link dysregulated electrolyte metabolism with carcinogenesis and the development of cancer hallmarks. It discusses how ingestion of demineralized water can have a procarcinogenic effect through mediating some of the critical pathways and processes in the cancer microenvironment such as angiogenesis, genomic instability, resistance to programmed cell death, sustained proliferative signaling, cell immortalization and tumorigenic inflammation. Evidence that hypoosmotic stress-response processes can upregulate a number of potential oncogenes is well supported by a number studies. In view of the rising production and consumption of demineralized water in most parts of the world, there is a strong need for further research on the biological importance and protean roles of electrolyte abnormalities in promoting, antagonizing or otherwise enabling the development of cancer. The countries of the Gulf Cooperative Council (GCC) where most people consume desalinated water would be a logical place to start this research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Health Care Ergonomics: Contributions of Thomas Waters.

    PubMed

    Poole Wilson, Tiffany; Davis, Kermit G

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the contributions of Thomas Waters's work in the field of health care ergonomics and beyond. Waters's research of safe patient handling with a focus on reducing musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) in health care workers contributed to current studies and prevention strategies. He worked with several groups to share his research and assist in developing safe patient handling guidelines and curriculum for nursing students and health care workers. The citations of articles that were published by Waters in health care ergonomics were evaluated for quality and themes of conclusions. Quality was assessed using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool and centrality to original research rating. Themes were documented by the type of population the citing articles were investigating. In total, 266 articles that referenced the top seven cited articles were evaluated. More than 95% of them were rated either medium or high quality. The important themes of these citing articles were as follows: (a) Safe patient handling is effective in reducing MSDs in health care workers. (b) Shift work has negative impact on nurses. (c) There is no safe way to manually lift a patient. (d) Nurse curriculums should contain safe patient handling. The research of Waters has contributed significantly to the health care ergonomics and beyond. His work, in combination with other pioneers in the field, has generated multiple initiatives, such as a standard safe patient-handling curriculum and safe patient-handling programs. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  11. When urban taps run dry: Sachet water consumption and health effects in low income neighborhoods of Accra, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Stoler, Justin; Fink, Günther; Weeks, John R.; Otoo, Richard Appiah; Ampofo, Joseph A.; Hill, Allan G.

    2011-01-01

    Intraurban differentials in safe drinking water in developing cities have been exacerbated by rapid population growth that exceeds expansion of local water infrastructure. In Accra, Ghana, municipal water is rationed to meet demand, and the gap in water services is increasingly being filled by private water vendors selling packaged “sachet” water. Sachets extend drinking water coverage deeper into low-income areas and alleviate the need for safe water storage, potentially introducing a health benefit over stored tap water. We explore correlates of using sachets as the primary drinking water source for 2,093 women in 37 census areas classified as slums by UN-Habitat, and links between sachet water and reported diarrhea episodes in a subset of 810 children under five. We find that neighborhood rationing exerts a strong effect on a household's likelihood of buying sachet water, and that sachet customers tend to be the poorest of the poor. Sachet use is also associated with higher levels of self-reported overall health in women, and lower likelihood of diarrhea in children. We conclude with implications for sachet regulation in Accra and other sub-Saharan cities facing drinking water shortages. PMID:22018970

  12. Water, water quality and health (Chapter 3 in Book entitled: Environmental Tracking for Public Health Surveillance).

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter identifies the role environmental tracking plays in identifying public health water hazard and water quality issues. It outlines public health issues to be examined and provides an integrated overview of water and diseases by combining knowledge of the hydrological ...

  13. [Possible health risks from asbestos in drinking water].

    PubMed

    Di Ciaula, Agostino; Gennaro, Valerio

    2016-01-01

    The recent finding of asbestos fibres in drinking water (up to 700.000 fibres/litres) in Tuscany (Central Italy) leads to concerns about health risks in exposed communities. Exposure to asbestos has been linked with cancer at several levels of the gastrointestinal tract, and it has been documented, in an animal model, a direct cytotoxic effect of asbestos fibres on the ileum. It has been recently described a possible link between asbestos and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, and asbestos fibres have been detected in humans in histological samples from colon cancer and in gallbladder bile. Taken together, these findings suggest the possibility of an enterohepatic translocation of asbestos fibres, alternative to lymphatic translocation from lungs. In animal models, asbestos fibres ingested with drinking water act as a co-carcinogen in the presence of benzo(a) pyrene and, according to the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC ), there is evidence pointing to a causal effect of ingested asbestos on gastric and colorectal cancer. The risk seems to be proportional to the concentration of ingested fibres, to the extent of individual water consumption, to exposure timing, and to the possible exposure to other toxics (i.e., benzo(a)pyrene). Furthermore, the exposure to asbestos by ingestion could explain the epidemiological finding of mesothelioma in subjects certainly unexposed by inhalation. In conclusion, several findings suggest that health risks from asbestos could not exclusively derive from inhalation of fibres. Health hazards might also be present after ingestion, mainly after daily ingestion of drinking water for long periods. In Italy, a systemic assessment of the presence of asbestos fibres in drinking water is still lacking, although asbestos-coated pipelines are widely diffused and still operating. Despite the fact that the existence of a threshold level for health risks linked to the presence of asbestos in drinking water is still under debate, the

  14. Spatial distribution mapping of drinking water fluoride levels in Karnataka, India: fluoride-related health effects.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Chitta R; Shahnawaz, Khijmatgar; Kumari, Divya; Chowdhury, Avidyuti; Bedi, Raman; Lynch, Edward; Harding, Stewart; Grootveld, Martin

    2016-11-01

    (1) To estimate the concentrations of fluoride in drinking water throughout different zones and districts of the state of Karnataka. (2) To investigate the variation of fluoride concentration in drinking water from different sources, and its relationships to daily temperature and rainfall status in the regional districts. (3) To develop an updated fluoride concentration intensity map of the state of Karnataka, and to evaluate these data in the context of fluoride-related health effects such as fluorosis and their prevalence. Aqueous standard solutions of 10, 100 and 1,000 ppm fluoride (F - ) were prepared with analytical grade Na + /F - and a buffer; TISAB II was incorporated in both calibration standard and analysis solutions in order to remove the potentially interfering effects of trace metal ions. This analysis was performed using an ion-selective electrode (ISE), and mean determination readings for n = 5 samples collected at each Karnataka water source were recorded. The F - concentration in drinking water in Karnataka state was found to vary substantially, with the highest mean values recorded being in the north-eastern zone (1.61 ppm), and the lowest in the south-western one (only 0.41 ppm). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) demonstrated that there were very highly significant 'between-zone' and 'between-districts-within-zones' sources of variation (p < 10 -5 -10 -9 ), results consistent with a substantial spatial variance of water source F - levels within this state. The southern part of Karnataka has low levels of F - in its drinking water, and may require fluoridation treatment in order to mitigate for dental caries and further ailments related to fluoride deficiency. However, districts within the north-eastern region have contrastingly high levels of fluoride, an observation which has been linked to dental and skeletal fluorosis. This highlights a major requirement for interventional actions in order to ensure maintenance of the recommended

  15. On-plot drinking water supplies and health: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Overbo, Alycia; Williams, Ashley R; Evans, Barbara; Hunter, Paul R; Bartram, Jamie

    2016-07-01

    Many studies have found that household access to water supplies near or within the household plot can reduce the probability of diarrhea, trachoma, and other water-related diseases, and it is generally accepted that on-plot water supplies produce health benefits for households. However, the body of research literature has not been analyzed to weigh the evidence supporting this. A systematic review was conducted to investigate the impacts of on-plot water supplies on diarrhea, trachoma, child growth, and water-related diseases, to further examine the relationship between household health and distance to water source and to assess whether on-plot water supplies generate health gains for households. Studies provide evidence that households with on-plot water supplies experience fewer diarrheal and helminth infections and greater child height. Findings suggest that water-washed (hygiene associated) diseases are more strongly impacted by on-plot water access than waterborne diseases. Few studies analyzed the effects of on-plot water access on quantity of domestic water used, hygiene behavior, and use of multiple water sources, and the lack of evidence for these relationships reveals an important gap in current literature. The review findings indicate that on-plot water access is a useful health indicator and benchmark for the progressive realization of the Sustainable Development Goal target of universal safe water access as well as the human right to safe water. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Workgroup report: Drinking-water nitrate and health - Recent findings and research needs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, M.H.; deKok, T.M.; Levallois, P.; Brender, J.; Gulis, G.; Nolan, B.T.; VanDerslice, J.

    2005-01-01

    Human alteration of the nitrogen cycle has resulted in steadily accumulating nitrate in our water resources. The U.S. maximum contaminant level and World Health Organization guidelines for nitrate in drinking water were promulgated to protect infants from developing methemoglobinemia, an acute condition. Some scientists have recently suggested that the regulatory limit for nitrate is overly conservative; however, they have not thoroughly considered chronic health outcomes. In August 2004, a symposium on drinking-water nitrate and health was held at the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology meeting to evaluate nitrate exposures and associated health effects in relation to the current regulatory limit. The contribution of drinking-water nitrate toward endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds was evaluated with a focus toward identifying subpopulations with increased rates of nitrosation. Adverse health effects may be the result of a complex interaction of the amount of nitrate ingested, the concomitant ingestion of nitrosation cofactors and precursors, and specific medical conditions that increase nitrosation. Workshop participants concluded that more experimental studies are needed and that a particularly fruitful approach may be to conduct epidemiologic studies among susceptible subgroups with increased endogenous nitrosation. The few epidemiologic studies that have evaluated intake of nitrosation precursors and/or nitrosation inhibitors have observed elevated risks for colon cancer and neural tube defects associated with drinking-water nitrate concentrations below the regulatory limit. The role of drinking-water nitrate exposure as a risk factor for specific cancers, reproductive outcomes, and other chronic health effects must be studied more thoroughly before changes to the regulatory level for nitrate in drinking water can be considered.

  17. Workgroup report: Drinking-water nitrate and health--recent findings and research needs.

    PubMed

    Ward, Mary H; deKok, Theo M; Levallois, Patrick; Brender, Jean; Gulis, Gabriel; Nolan, Bernard T; VanDerslice, James

    2005-11-01

    Human alteration of the nitrogen cycle has resulted in steadily accumulating nitrate in our water resources. The U.S. maximum contaminant level and World Health Organization guidelines for nitrate in drinking water were promulgated to protect infants from developing methemoglobinemia, an acute condition. Some scientists have recently suggested that the regulatory limit for nitrate is overly conservative; however, they have not thoroughly considered chronic health outcomes. In August 2004, a symposium on drinking-water nitrate and health was held at the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology meeting to evaluate nitrate exposures and associated health effects in relation to the current regulatory limit. The contribution of drinking-water nitrate toward endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds was evaluated with a focus toward identifying subpopulations with increased rates of nitrosation. Adverse health effects may be the result of a complex interaction of the amount of nitrate ingested, the concomitant ingestion of nitrosation cofactors and precursors, and specific medical conditions that increase nitrosation. Workshop participants concluded that more experimental studies are needed and that a particularly fruitful approach may be to conduct epidemiologic studies among susceptible subgroups with increased endogenous nitrosation. The few epidemiologic studies that have evaluated intake of nitrosation precursors and/or nitrosation inhibitors have observed elevated risks for colon cancer and neural tube defects associated with drinking-water nitrate concentrations below the regulatory limit. The role of drinking-water nitrate exposure as a risk factor for specific cancers, reproductive outcomes, and other chronic health effects must be studied more thoroughly before changes to the regulatory level for nitrate in drinking water can be considered.

  18. Bounding Analysis of Drinking Water Health Risks from a Spill of Hydraulic Fracturing Flowback Water.

    PubMed

    Rish, William R; Pfau, Edward J

    2018-04-01

    A bounding risk assessment is presented that evaluates possible human health risk from a hypothetical scenario involving a 10,000-gallon release of flowback water from horizontal fracturing of Marcellus Shale. The water is assumed to be spilled on the ground, infiltrates into groundwater that is a source of drinking water, and an adult and child located downgradient drink the groundwater. Key uncertainties in estimating risk are given explicit quantitative treatment using Monte Carlo analysis. Chemicals that contribute significantly to estimated health risks are identified, as are key uncertainties and variables to which risk estimates are sensitive. The results show that hypothetical exposure via drinking water impacted by chemicals in Marcellus Shale flowback water, assumed to be spilled onto the ground surface, results in predicted bounds between 10 -10 and 10 -6 (for both adult and child receptors) for excess lifetime cancer risk. Cumulative hazard indices (HI CUMULATIVE ) resulting from these hypothetical exposures have predicted bounds (5th to 95th percentile) between 0.02 and 35 for assumed adult receptors and 0.1 and 146 for assumed child receptors. Predicted health risks are dominated by noncancer endpoints related to ingestion of barium and lithium in impacted groundwater. Hazard indices above unity are largely related to exposure to lithium. Salinity taste thresholds are likely to be exceeded before drinking water exposures result in adverse health effects. The findings provide focus for policy discussions concerning flowback water risk management. They also indicate ways to improve the ability to estimate health risks from drinking water impacted by a flowback water spill (i.e., reducing uncertainty). © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  19. Measurement of (222)Rn concentration levels in drinking water and the associated health effects in the Southern part of West Bank - Palestine.

    PubMed

    Thabayneh, Khalil M

    2015-09-01

    Radon concentration and annual effective doses were measured in drinking water in the Southern Part of West Bank - Palestine, by using both passive and active techniques. 184 samples were collected from various sources i.e. tap water, groundwater, rain waters and mineral waters. It is found that the annual effective dose resulting from inhalation and ingestion of radon emanated from all types of drinking water is negligible compared to the total annual effective dose from indoor radon in the region. Results reveal that there is no significant public health risk from radon ingested and inhalation with drinking water in the study region. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. [Pay attention to the human health risk of drinking low mineral water].

    PubMed

    Shu, Weiqun

    2015-10-01

    The consumption of low mineral drinking water has been increasing around the world with the shortage of water resources and the development of advanced water treatment technologies. Evidences from systematic document reviews, ecological epidemiological observations, and experimental drinking water intervention studies indicate that lack of minerals in drinking water may cause direct or indirect harm to human health, among which, the associations of magnesium in water with cardiovascular disease, as well as calcium in water with osteoporosis, are well proved by sufficient evidence. This article points out that it is urgent to pay more attention to the issues about establishment of health risk evaluation system on susceptible consuming population, establishment of lab evaluation system on water quality and health effect for non-traditional drinking water, and program of safety mineralization for demineralized or desalinated water and so on.

  1. Climate change, food, water and population health in China.

    PubMed

    Tong, Shilu; Berry, Helen L; Ebi, Kristie; Bambrick, Hilary; Hu, Wenbiao; Green, Donna; Hanna, Elizabeth; Wang, Zhiqiang; Butler, Colin D

    2016-10-01

    Anthropogenic climate change appears to be increasing the frequency, duration and intensity of extreme weather events. Such events have already had substantial impacts on socioeconomic development and population health. Climate change's most profound impacts are likely to be on food, health systems and water. This paper explores how climate change will affect food, human health and water in China. Projections indicate that the overall effects of climate change, land conversion and reduced water availability could reduce Chinese food production substantially - although uncertainty is inevitable in such projections. Climate change will probably have substantial impacts on water resources - e.g. changes in rainfall patterns and increases in the frequencies of droughts and floods in some areas of China. Such impacts would undoubtedly threaten population health and well-being in many communities. In the short-term, population health in China is likely to be adversely affected by increases in air temperatures and pollution. In the medium to long term, however, the indirect impacts of climate change - e.g. changes in the availability of food, shelter and water, decreased mental health and well-being and changes in the distribution and seasonality of infectious diseases - are likely to grow in importance. The potentially catastrophic consequences of climate change can only be avoided if all countries work together towards a substantial reduction in the emission of so-called greenhouse gases and a substantial increase in the global population's resilience to the risks of climate variability and change.

  2. Future challenges to protecting public health from drinking-water contaminants.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Eileen A; Post, Gloria B; Buckley, Brian T; Lippincott, Robert L; Robson, Mark G

    2012-04-01

    Over the past several decades, human health protection for chemical contaminants in drinking water has been accomplished by development of chemical-specific standards. This approach alone is not feasible to address current issues of the occurrence of multiple contaminants in drinking water, some of which have little health effects information, and water scarcity. In this article, we describe the current chemical-specific paradigm for regulating chemicals in drinking water and discuss some potential additional approaches currently being explored to focus more on sustaining quality water for specific purposes. Also discussed are strategies being explored by the federal government to screen more efficiently the toxicity of large numbers of chemicals to prioritize further intensive testing. Water reuse and water treatment are described as sustainable measures for managing water resources for potable uses as well as other uses such as irrigation.

  3. Future Challenges to Protecting Public Health from Drinking-Water Contaminants

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Eileen A.; Post, Gloria B.; Buckley, Brian T.; Lippincott, Robert L.; Robson, Mark G.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past several decades, human health protection for chemical contaminants in drinking water has been accomplished by development of chemical-specific standards. This approach alone is not feasible to address current issues of the occurrence of multiple contaminants in drinking water, some of which have little health effects information, and water scarcity. In this article, we describe the current chemical-specific paradigm for regulating chemicals in drinking water and discuss some potential additional approaches currently being explored to focus more on sustaining quality water for specific purposes. Also discussed are strategies being explored by the federal government to screen more efficiently the toxicity of large numbers of chemicals to prioritize further intensive testing. Water reuse and water treatment are described as sustainable measures for managing water resources for potable uses as well as other uses such as irrigation. PMID:22224887

  4. Evidence on the Effectiveness of Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) Interventions on Health Outcomes in Humanitarian Crises: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Anita; Blanchet, Karl; Ensink, Jeroen H J; Roberts, Bayard

    2015-01-01

    Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions are amongst the most crucial in humanitarian crises, although the impact of the different WASH interventions on health outcomes remains unclear. To examine the quantity and quality of evidence on WASH interventions on health outcomes in humanitarian crises, as well as evaluate current evidence on their effectiveness against health outcomes in these contexts. A systematic literature review was conducted of primary and grey quantitative literature on WASH interventions measured against health outcomes in humanitarian crises occurring from 1980-2014. Populations of interest were those in resident in humanitarian settings, with a focus on acute crisis and early recovery stages of humanitarian crises in low and middle-income countries. Interventions of interest were WASH-related, while outcomes of interest were health-related. Study quality was assessed via STROBE/CONSORT criteria. Results were analyzed descriptively, and PRISMA reporting was followed. Of 3963 studies initially retrieved, only 6 published studies measured a statistically significant change in health outcome as a result of a WASH intervention. All 6 studies employed point-of-use (POU) water quality interventions, with 50% using safe water storage (SWS) and 35% using household water treatment (HWT). All 6 studies used self-reported diarrhea outcomes, 2 studies also reported laboratory confirmed outcomes, and 2 studies reported health treatment outcomes (e.g. clinical admissions). 1 study measured WASH intervention success in relation to both health and water quality outcomes; 1 study recorded uptake (use of soap) as well as health outcomes. 2 studies were unblinded randomized-controlled trials, while 4 were uncontrolled longitudinal studies. 2 studies were graded as providing high quality evidence; 3 studies provided moderate and 1 study low quality evidence. The current evidence base on the impact of WASH interventions on health outcomes in humanitarian

  5. High adherence is necessary to realize health gains from water quality interventions.

    PubMed

    Brown, Joe; Clasen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Safe drinking water is critical for health. Household water treatment (HWT) has been recommended for improving access to potable water where existing sources are unsafe. Reports of low adherence to HWT may limit the usefulness of this approach, however. We constructed a quantitative microbial risk model to predict gains in health attributable to water quality interventions based on a range of assumptions about pre-treatment water quality; treatment effectiveness in reducing bacteria, viruses, and protozoan parasites; adherence to treatment interventions; volume of water consumed per person per day; and other variables. According to mean estimates, greater than 500 DALYs may be averted per 100,000 person-years with increased access to safe water, assuming moderately poor pre-treatment water quality that is a source of risk and high treatment adherence (>90% of water consumed is treated). A decline in adherence from 100% to 90% reduces predicted health gains by up to 96%, with sharpest declines when pre-treatment water quality is of higher risk. Results suggest that high adherence is essential in order to realize potential health gains from HWT.

  6. Communicating effectively with vulnerable populations during water contamination events.

    PubMed

    Nsiah-Kumi, Phyllis A

    2008-01-01

    Water contamination events are a public health concern worldwide with significant potential to impact the global community. When communicating with the public during these crisis situations, it is vital to consider the multiple audiences who receive the messages. Before developing or delivering messages to a particular community, it is essential to be familiar with the community's characteristics, needs, concerns, and who is considered credible to that community. Vulnerable populations are those with difficulties in comprehension or accessibility that may limit their full understanding of risks and may mitigate the effectiveness of public health strategies. Vulnerable populations include, but are not limited to, the urban/rural poor, those who are mentally ill, intellectually disabled, medically vulnerable, at the extremes of age (children and the elderly), racial/ethnic minorities, and those with low literacy or limited English proficiency.A water contamination event poses a unique opportunity to work with diverse populations to effectively convey important health messages. Each population needs to receive appropriate public health messages. Becoming familiar with vulnerable populations and their needs prior to a water contamination event will help in identifying barriers and developing and refining effective messages in such a crisis. In water contamination crises, our publics' health depends on effective, targeted crisis communication.

  7. Acute health effects after accidental exposure to styrene from drinking water in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Arnedo-Pena, Alberto; Bellido-Blasco, Juan; Villamarin-Vazquez, Jose-Luis; Aranda-Mares, Jose-Luis; Font-Cardona, Nuria; Gobba, Fabriziomaria; Kogevinas, Manolis

    2003-01-01

    Objectives We studied subjective health symptoms in a population accidentally exposed to high styrene concentrations in drinking tap water. The contamination occurred during the reparation of a water tank. Methods Residents of 27 apartments in two buildings using the contaminated water were contacted. A questionnaire on subjective symptoms was administered to 84 out of 93 persons living in the apartments at the time of the accident. Styrene concentration was measured in samples of water collected two days after the accident. The means of exposure associated with appearance of symptoms were examined through case-control analyses. Results Styrene in water reached concentrations up to 900 μg/L. Symptoms were reported by 46 persons (attack rate 55 %). The most frequent symptoms were irritation of the throat (26%), nose (19%), eyes (18%) and the skin (14%). General gastrointestinal symptoms were observed with 11% reporting abdominal pain and 7% diarrhea. The factors most strongly associated with symptoms were drinking tap water (OR = 7.8, 95% CI 1.3–48), exposure to vapors from the basement (OR = 10.4, 2.3–47) and eating foods prepared with tap water (OR = 8.6, 1.9–40). All residents in the ground floor reported symptoms. Conclusions This accidental contamination led to very high styrene concentrations in water and was related to a high prevalence of subjective symptoms of the eyes, respiratory tract and skin. Similar exposures have been described in workers but not in subjects exposed at their residence. Various gastrointestinal symptoms were also observed in this population probably due to a local irritative effect. PMID:12777181

  8. Household water treatment and the millennium development goals: keeping the focus on health.

    PubMed

    Clasen, Thomas F

    2010-10-01

    Waterborne diseases such as diarrhea are a major killer in low-income settings, particularly of young children. For those without access to safe drinking water, household water treatment, such as boiling, chlorinating, and filtering water in the home, when combined with safe storage (HWTS) can significantly improve water quality and prevent disease, thereby contributing to the child survival and other health priorities encompassed within the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). There is uncertainly, however, about whether HWTS should count toward the MDG water target, which promotes "sustainable access to safe drinking water". This paper reviews the relevant research and concludes that it should not. Although HWTS can significantly improve water quality, it does not improve water quantity and access-key aspects of the MDG water target that are essential for optimal improvements in health and development. A policy that excludes HWTS from the MDG water target will discourage governments from diverting scarce public resources from comprehensive and long-term improvements in water supplies. At the same time, the health-oriented MDGs provide a sufficient case for scaling up effective and appropriate HWTS among target populations. Moreover, a health-based strategy for HWTS will help ensure that promotion of the intervention is driven by measurable improvements in outcomes rather than inputs, thus encouraging advances in both hardware and programmatic delivery that will make HWTS more effective, appropriate, and accessible to vulnerable populations.

  9. Climate change, food, water and population health in China

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Helen L; Ebi, Kristie; Bambrick, Hilary; Hu, Wenbiao; Green, Donna; Hanna, Elizabeth; Wang, Zhiqiang; Butler, Colin D

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Anthropogenic climate change appears to be increasing the frequency, duration and intensity of extreme weather events. Such events have already had substantial impacts on socioeconomic development and population health. Climate change’s most profound impacts are likely to be on food, health systems and water. This paper explores how climate change will affect food, human health and water in China. Projections indicate that the overall effects of climate change, land conversion and reduced water availability could reduce Chinese food production substantially – although uncertainty is inevitable in such projections. Climate change will probably have substantial impacts on water resources – e.g. changes in rainfall patterns and increases in the frequencies of droughts and floods in some areas of China. Such impacts would undoubtedly threaten population health and well-being in many communities. In the short-term, population health in China is likely to be adversely affected by increases in air temperatures and pollution. In the medium to long term, however, the indirect impacts of climate change – e.g. changes in the availability of food, shelter and water, decreased mental health and well-being and changes in the distribution and seasonality of infectious diseases – are likely to grow in importance. The potentially catastrophic consequences of climate change can only be avoided if all countries work together towards a substantial reduction in the emission of so-called greenhouse gases and a substantial increase in the global population’s resilience to the risks of climate variability and change. PMID:27843166

  10. Climate change and health effects in Northwest Alaska.

    PubMed

    Brubaker, Michael; Berner, James; Chavan, Raj; Warren, John

    2011-01-01

    This article provides examples of adverse health effects, including weather-related injury, food insecurity, mental health issues, and water infrastructure damage, and the responses to these effects that are currently being applied in two Northwest Alaska communities. In Northwest Alaska, warming is resulting in a broad range of unusual weather and environmental conditions, including delayed freeze-up, earlier breakup, storm surge, coastal erosion, and thawing permafrost. These are just some of the climate impacts that are driving concerns about weather-related injury, the spread of disease, mental health issues, infrastructure damage, and food and water security. Local leaders are challenged to identify appropriate adaptation strategies to address climate impacts and related health effects. IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS: The tribal health system is combining local observations, traditional knowledge, and western science to perform community-specific climate change health impact assessments. Local leaders are applying this information to develop adaptation responses. The Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium will describe relationships between climate impacts and health effects and provide examples of community-scaled adaptation actions currently being applied in Northwest Alaska. Climate change is increasing vulnerability to injury, disease, mental stress, food insecurity, and water insecurity. Northwest communities are applying adaptation approaches that are both specific and appropriate. The health impact assessment process is effective in raising awareness, encouraging discussion, engaging partners, and implementing adaptation planning. With community-specific information, local leaders are applying health protective adaptation measures.

  11. Climate change and health effects in Northwest Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Brubaker, Michael; Berner, James; Chavan, Raj; Warren, John

    2011-01-01

    This article provides examples of adverse health effects, including weather-related injury, food insecurity, mental health issues, and water infrastructure damage, and the responses to these effects that are currently being applied in two Northwest Alaska communities. Background In Northwest Alaska, warming is resulting in a broad range of unusual weather and environmental conditions, including delayed freeze-up, earlier breakup, storm surge, coastal erosion, and thawing permafrost. These are just some of the climate impacts that are driving concerns about weather-related injury, the spread of disease, mental health issues, infrastructure damage, and food and water security. Local leaders are challenged to identify appropriate adaptation strategies to address climate impacts and related health effects. Implementation process The tribal health system is combining local observations, traditional knowledge, and western science to perform community-specific climate change health impact assessments. Local leaders are applying this information to develop adaptation responses. Objective The Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium will describe relationships between climate impacts and health effects and provide examples of community-scaled adaptation actions currently being applied in Northwest Alaska. Findings Climate change is increasing vulnerability to injury, disease, mental stress, food insecurity, and water insecurity. Northwest communities are applying adaptation approaches that are both specific and appropriate. Conclusion The health impact assessment process is effective in raising awareness, encouraging discussion, engaging partners, and implementing adaptation planning. With community-specific information, local leaders are applying health protective adaptation measures. PMID:22022304

  12. [The effects of blue algae on health].

    PubMed

    van Riel, A J H P; Schets, F M; Meulenbelt, J

    2007-08-04

    Cyanobacteria (blue algae) regularly cause recreational waters to become murky and smelly. Skin irritation and mild gastrointestinal disorders have regularly been reported following recreational activities in water suspected of being contaminated with cyanobacteria. The exact cause of these effects on health is not clear. Severe effects are not to be expected from recreational exposure to water contaminated with cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria can produce hepatotoxins, neurotoxins, cytotoxins and irritants. In Brazil lethal intoxications have occurred due to the occurrence of toxins in drinking water and in dialysis fluid. The Dutch policy is based on the Commissie Integraal Waterbeheer (Commission Integral Water Management) guidelines for recreational waters. It is not clear to what extent the other cyanotoxins occur in the Netherlands. However, several genera ofcyanobacteria capable of producing these other cyanotoxins have been found in the Netherlands. For a good risk assessment in the Netherlands, more information is needed on the effects on health of cyanobacteria. There is also a need for more data on the prevalence of different cyanobacteria and toxins in Dutch recreational waters.

  13. High Adherence Is Necessary to Realize Health Gains from Water Quality Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Joe; Clasen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Background Safe drinking water is critical for health. Household water treatment (HWT) has been recommended for improving access to potable water where existing sources are unsafe. Reports of low adherence to HWT may limit the usefulness of this approach, however. Methods and Findings We constructed a quantitative microbial risk model to predict gains in health attributable to water quality interventions based on a range of assumptions about pre-treatment water quality; treatment effectiveness in reducing bacteria, viruses, and protozoan parasites; adherence to treatment interventions; volume of water consumed per person per day; and other variables. According to mean estimates, greater than 500 DALYs may be averted per 100,000 person-years with increased access to safe water, assuming moderately poor pre-treatment water quality that is a source of risk and high treatment adherence (>90% of water consumed is treated). A decline in adherence from 100% to 90% reduces predicted health gains by up to 96%, with sharpest declines when pre-treatment water quality is of higher risk. Conclusions Results suggest that high adherence is essential in order to realize potential health gains from HWT. PMID:22586491

  14. Public Health Risk Conditioned by Chemical Composition of Ground Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yankovich, E.; Osipova, N.; Yankovich, K.; Matveenko, I.

    2016-03-01

    The article studies the public health potential risk originated from water consumption and estimated on the basis of the groundwater chemical composition. We have processed the results of chemical groundwater analysis in different aquifers of Tomsk district (Tomsk Oblast, Russia). More than 8400 samples of chemical groundwater analyses were taken during long-term observation period. Human health risk assessment of exposure to contaminants in drinking water was performed in accordance with the risk assessment guidance for public health concerning chemical pollution of the environment (Russian reference number: 2.1.10.1920-04-M, 2004). Identified potential risks were estimated for consuming water of each aquifer. The comparative analysis of water quality of different aquifers was performed on the basis of the risk coefficient of the total non-carcinogenic effects. The non-carcinogenic risk for the health of the Tomsk district population due to groundwater consumption without prior sanitary treatment was admitted acceptable. A rather similar picture is observed for all aquifers, although deeper aquifers show lower hazard coefficients.

  15. The health effects of exposure to arsenic-contaminated drinking water: a review by global geographical distribution.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lei; Wu, Haiyun; van der Kuijp, Tsering Jan

    2015-01-01

    Chronic arsenic exposure through drinking water has been a vigorously studied and debated subject. However, the existing literature does not allow for a thorough examination of the potential regional discrepancies that may arise among arsenic-related health outcomes. The purpose of this article is to provide an updated review of the literature on arsenic exposure and commonly discussed health effects according to global geographical distribution. This geographically segmented approach helps uncover the discrepancies in the health effects of arsenic. For instance, women are more susceptible than men to a few types of cancer in Taiwan, but not in other countries. Although skin cancer and arsenic exposure correlations have been discovered in Chile, Argentina, the United States, and Taiwan, no evident association was found in mainland China. We then propose several globally applicable recommendations to prevent and treat the further spread of arsenic poisoning and suggestions of future study designs and decision-making.

  16. Evidence on the Effectiveness of Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) Interventions on Health Outcomes in Humanitarian Crises: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, Anita; Blanchet, Karl; Ensink, Jeroen H. J.; Roberts, Bayard

    2015-01-01

    Background Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions are amongst the most crucial in humanitarian crises, although the impact of the different WASH interventions on health outcomes remains unclear. Aim To examine the quantity and quality of evidence on WASH interventions on health outcomes in humanitarian crises, as well as evaluate current evidence on their effectiveness against health outcomes in these contexts. Methods A systematic literature review was conducted of primary and grey quantitative literature on WASH interventions measured against health outcomes in humanitarian crises occurring from 1980–2014. Populations of interest were those in resident in humanitarian settings, with a focus on acute crisis and early recovery stages of humanitarian crises in low and middle-income countries. Interventions of interest were WASH-related, while outcomes of interest were health-related. Study quality was assessed via STROBE/CONSORT criteria. Results were analyzed descriptively, and PRISMA reporting was followed. Results Of 3963 studies initially retrieved, only 6 published studies measured a statistically significant change in health outcome as a result of a WASH intervention. All 6 studies employed point-of-use (POU) water quality interventions, with 50% using safe water storage (SWS) and 35% using household water treatment (HWT). All 6 studies used self-reported diarrhea outcomes, 2 studies also reported laboratory confirmed outcomes, and 2 studies reported health treatment outcomes (e.g. clinical admissions). 1 study measured WASH intervention success in relation to both health and water quality outcomes; 1 study recorded uptake (use of soap) as well as health outcomes. 2 studies were unblinded randomized-controlled trials, while 4 were uncontrolled longitudinal studies. 2 studies were graded as providing high quality evidence; 3 studies provided moderate and 1 study low quality evidence. Conclusion The current evidence base on the impact of WASH

  17. Exposure Patterns and Health Effects Associated with Swimming and Surfing in Polluted Marine Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, S. B.

    2007-05-01

    Marine bathing beaches are closed to the public whenever water quality fails to meet State and Federal standards. In this talk I will explore the science (and lack thereof!) behind these beach closures, including the health effects data upon which standards are based, shortcomings of the current approach used for testing and notification, and the high degree of spatial and temporal heterogeneity associated with human exposure to pollutants in these systems. The talk will focus on examples from Huntington Beach, where the speaker has conducted research over the past several years.

  18. Evaluation method for regional water cycle health based on nature-society water cycle theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shanghong; Fan, Weiwei; Yi, Yujun; Zhao, Yong; Liu, Jiahong

    2017-08-01

    Regional water cycles increasingly reflect the dual influences of natural and social processes, and are affected by global climate change and expanding human activities. Understanding how to maintain a healthy state of the water cycle has become an important proposition for sustainable development of human society. In this paper, natural-social attributes of the water cycle are synthesized and 19 evaluation indices are selected from four dimensions, i.e., water-based ecosystem integrity, water quality, water resource abundance and water resource use. A hierarchical water-cycle health evaluation system is established. An analytic hierarchy process is used to set the weight of the criteria layer and index layer, and the health threshold for each index is defined. Finally, a water-cycle health composite-index assessment model and fuzzy recognition model are constructed based on the comprehensive index method and fuzzy mathematics theory. The model is used to evaluate the state of health of the water cycle in Beijing during 2010-2014 and in the planning year (late 2014), considering the transfer of 1 billion m3 of water by the South-to-North Water Diversion Project (SNWDP). The results show health scores for Beijing of 2.87, 3.10, 3.38, 3.11 and 3.02 during 2010-2014. The results of fuzzy recognition show that the sub-healthy grade accounted for 54%, 49%, 61% and 49% of the total score, and all years had a sub-healthy state. Results of the criteria layer analysis show that water ecosystem function, water quality and water use were all at the sub-healthy level and that water abundance was at the lowest, or sick, level. With the water transfer from the SNWDP, the health score of the water cycle in Beijing reached 4.04. The healthy grade accounted for 60% of the total score, and the water cycle system was generally in a healthy state. Beijing's water cycle health level is expected to further improve with increasing water diversion from the SNWDP and industrial

  19. Drinking Water and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.

    In response to a provision of the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 which called for a study that would serve as a scientific basis for revising the primary drinking water regulations that were promulgated under the Act, a study of the scientific literature was undertaken in order to assess the implications for human health of the constituents of…

  20. Angry, Scared, and Unsure: Mental Health Consequences of Contaminated Water in Flint, Michigan.

    PubMed

    Cuthbertson, Courtney A; Newkirk, Cathy; Ilardo, Joan; Loveridge, Scott; Skidmore, Mark

    2016-12-01

    Natural and manmade crises impact community-level behavioral health, including mental health and substance use. This article shares findings from a larger project about community behavioral health, relevant to the ongoing water crisis in Flint, Michigan, using data from a larger study, involving monthly surveys of a panel of key informants from Genesee County. The data come from open-response questions and are analyzed as qualitative data using grounded theory techniques. Although respondents were not asked about the water issues in Flint, participants commented that the water situation was increasing stress, anxiety, and depression among the city's population. Participants thought these mental health issues would affect the entire community but would be worse among low-income, African American populations in the city. Mental health consequences were related not only to the water contamination but to distrust of public officials who are expected and have the authority to resolve the issues. The mental health effects of this public health crisis are significant and have received inadequate attention in the literature. Public health response to situations similar to the water issues in Flint should include sustained attention mental health.

  1. Potential health consequences of ground-water contamination by nitrates in Nebraska.

    PubMed

    Weisenburger, D D

    1993-01-01

    Ground water serves as the primary source of drinking water for nearly all of rural Nebraska. However, ground-water contamination by nitrates, largely due to the use of fertilizers, is an increasing problem. In an ecologic study, the author found that counties characterized by high fertilizer usage and significant ground-water contamination by nitrates also had a high incidence of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Other potential health effects of nitrates in drinking water are also discussed.

  2. Pacific connections for health, ecosystems and society: new approaches to the land-water-health nexus.

    PubMed

    Parkes, Margot W

    2016-03-01

    Renewed effort to understand the social-ecological context of health is drawing attention to the dynamics of land and water resources and their combined influence on the determinants of health. A new area of research, education and policy is emerging that focuses on the land-water-health nexus: this orientation is applicable from small wetlands through to large-scale watersheds or river basins, and draws attention to the benefits of combined land and water governance, as well as the interrelated implications for health, ecological and societal concerns. Informed by research precedents, imperatives and collaborations emerging in Canada and parts of Oceania, this review profiles three integrative, applied approaches that are bringing attention to the importance the land-water-health nexus within the Pacific Basin: wetlands and watersheds as intersectoral settings to address land-water-health dynamics; tools to integrate health, ecological and societal dynamics at the land-water-health nexus; and indigenous leadership that is linking health and well-being with land and water governance. Emphasis is given to key characteristics of a new generation of inquiry and action at the land-water-health nexus, as well as capacity-building, practice and policy opportunities to address converging environmental, social and health objectives linked to the management and governance of land and water resources.

  3. Extreme Precipitation, Public Health Emergencies, and Safe Drinking Water in the USA.

    PubMed

    Exum, Natalie G; Betanzo, Elin; Schwab, Kellogg J; Chen, Thomas Y J; Guikema, Seth; Harvey, David E

    2018-06-01

    This review examines the effectiveness of drinking water regulations to inform public health during extreme precipitation events. This paper estimates the vulnerability of specific populations to flooding in their public water system, reviews the literature linking precipitation to waterborne outbreaks, examines the role that Safe Drinking Water Act and Public Notification (PN) Rule have in public health emergencies, and reviews the effectiveness of the PN Rule during the 2017 Hurricane Maria in Puerto Rico. Public water systems in large metropolitan areas have substantial portions of their customer base at risk for a waterborne outbreak during a flooding event. The PN Rule are ambiguous for who is responsible for declaring a "waterborne emergency" following a natural disaster like Hurricane Maria. Revisions to the current PN Rule that mandate public notification and water quality sampling during extreme precipitation events are necessary to ensure the public is aware of their drinking water quality following these events.

  4. Effect of yogurt containing deep sea water on health-related serum parameters and intestinal microbiota in mice.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sun Moon; Jhoo, Jin Woo; Pak, Jae In; Kwon, Ill Kyoung; Lee, Sung Ki; Kim, Gur Yoo

    2015-09-01

    Deep sea water (DSW) has health benefits and is widely used as food supplement; however, its effect in fermented products has not been explored. Here, we investigated the effect of DSW-containing yogurt on health-related serum parameters and intestinal microbiota in mice. Animals were assigned to 3 feeding groups, which received water (control), normal yogurt (N-yogurt), or DSW-containing yogurt (DSW-yogurt) with a basal diet. Mice were killed at wk 4 or 8 of feeding and analyzed for serum parameters and microbial population in the small intestine. Both yogurt groups demonstrated increased populations of intestinal lactic acid bacteria compared with the control group. The activity of serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase was markedly decreased in the DSW-yogurt and N-yogurt groups, and triglyceride level tended to be lower in the DSW-yogurt group compared with that in the control mice. Furthermore, the DSW-yogurt group showed a more significant decrease in the ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol than did the N-yogurt group. These findings suggest that DSW supplementation of yogurt can increase its beneficial effects on lipid metabolism. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. WHO water quality standards Vs Synergic effect(s) of fluoride, heavy metals and hardness in drinking water on kidney tissues.

    PubMed

    Wasana, Hewa M S; Perera, Gamage D R K; Gunawardena, Panduka De S; Fernando, Palika S; Bandara, Jayasundera

    2017-02-14

    Despite WHO standards, waterborne diseases among the human being are rising alarmingly. It is known that the prolong exposure to contaminated water has major impact on public health. The effect of chemical contaminations in drinking water on human being is found to be chronic rather than acute and hence can be defined "consumption of contaminated drinking water could be a silent killer". As the WHO recommended water quality standards are only for individual element and synergic effects of trace metals and anions have not been considered, investigation of synergic effects of trace metals and anions and their effect on human being is of prime important research. By an animal trial, we investigated the synergic effect(s) of heavy metals, aluminium, arsenic, fluoride and hardness in drinking water on kidney tissues of mice. Our investigation strongly suggests existing of a synergic effect especially among Cd, F and hardness of water which could lead to severe kidney damage in mice, even at WHO maximum recommended levels. Hence, the synergic effect(s) of trace metals, fluoride and hardness present in drinking water should be investigated meticulously when stipulating the water quality at WHO maximum recommended levels.

  6. WHO water quality standards Vs Synergic effect(s) of fluoride, heavy metals and hardness in drinking water on kidney tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasana, Hewa M. S.; Perera, Gamage D. R. K.; Gunawardena, Panduka De S.; Fernando, Palika S.; Bandara, Jayasundera

    2017-02-01

    Despite WHO standards, waterborne diseases among the human being are rising alarmingly. It is known that the prolong exposure to contaminated water has major impact on public health. The effect of chemical contaminations in drinking water on human being is found to be chronic rather than acute and hence can be defined “consumption of contaminated drinking water could be a silent killer”. As the WHO recommended water quality standards are only for individual element and synergic effects of trace metals and anions have not been considered, investigation of synergic effects of trace metals and anions and their effect on human being is of prime important research. By an animal trial, we investigated the synergic effect(s) of heavy metals, aluminium, arsenic, fluoride and hardness in drinking water on kidney tissues of mice. Our investigation strongly suggests existing of a synergic effect especially among Cd, F and hardness of water which could lead to severe kidney damage in mice, even at WHO maximum recommended levels. Hence, the synergic effect(s) of trace metals, fluoride and hardness present in drinking water should be investigated meticulously when stipulating the water quality at WHO maximum recommended levels.

  7. Drinking water fluoridation and oral health inequities in Canadian children.

    PubMed

    McLaren, Lindsay; Emery, J C Herbert

    2012-02-01

    One argument made in favour of drinking water fluoridation is that it is equitable in its impact on oral health. We examined the association between exposure to fluoridation and oral health inequities among Canadian children.PARTICIPANTS, SETTING AND INTERVENTION: We analyzed data from 1,017 children aged 6-11 from Cycle 1 of the Canadian Health Measures Survey, a cross-sectional, nationally representative survey that included a clinic oral health examination and a household interview. The outcome measure was a count of the number of decayed, missing (because of caries or periodontal disease) or filled teeth, either deciduous or permanent (dmftDMFT). Data were analyzed using linear (ordinary least squares) and multinomial logistic regression; we also computed the concentration index for education-related inequity in oral health. Water fluoridation status (the intervention) was assigned on the basis of the site location of data collection. Fluoridation was associated with better oral health (fewer dmftDMFT), adjusting for socio-economic and behavioural variables, and the effect was particularly strong for more severe oral health problems (three or more dmftDMFT). The effect of fluoridation on dmftDMFT was observed across income and education categories but appeared especially pronounced in lower education and higher income adequacy households. dmftDMFT were found to be disproportionately concentrated in lower-education households, though this did not vary by fluoridation status. The robust main effect of fluoridation on dmftDMFT and the beneficial effect across socio-economic groups support fluoridation as a beneficial and justifiable population health intervention. Fluoridation was equitable in the sense that its benefits were particularly apparent in those groups with the poorest oral health profiles, though the nature of the findings prompts consideration of the values underlying the judgement of health equity.

  8. Protecting health from metal exposures in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Armour, Margaret-Ann

    2016-03-01

    Drinking water is essential to us as human beings. According to the World Health Organization "The quality of drinking-water is a powerful environmental determinant of health" (http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/en/), but clean drinking water is a precious commodity not always readily available. Surface and ground water are the major sources of drinking water. Both can be contaminated, surface water with bacteria while ground water frequently contains salts of metals that occur naturally or are introduced by human activity. This paper will briefly review the metallic salts found in drinking water in areas around the world, as well as list some of the methods used to reduce or remove them. It will then discuss our research on reducing the risk of pollution of drinking water by removal of metal ions from wastewater.

  9. Problems with provision: barriers to drinking water quality and public health in rural Tasmania, Australia.

    PubMed

    Whelan, Jessica J; Willis, Karen

    2007-01-01

    Access to safe drinking water is essential to human life and wellbeing, and is a key public health issue. However, many communities in rural and regional parts of Australia are unable to access drinking water that meets national standards for protecting human health. The aim of this research was to identify the key issues in and barriers to the provision and management of safe drinking water in rural Tasmania, Australia. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with key local government employees and public health officials responsible for management of drinking water in rural Tasmania. Participants were asked about their core public health duties, regulatory responsibilities, perceptions and management of risk, as well as the key barriers that may be affecting the provision of safe drinking water. This research highlights the effect of rural locality on management and safety of fresh water in protecting public health. The key issues contributing to problems with drinking water provision and quality identified by participants included: poor and inadequate water supply infrastructure; lack of resources and staffing; inadequate catchment monitoring; and the effect of competing land uses, such as forestry, on water supply quality. This research raises issues of inequity in the provision of safe drinking water in rural communities. It highlights not only the increasing need for greater funding by state and commonwealth government for basic services such as drinking water, but also the importance of an holistic and integrated approach to managing drinking water resources in rural Tasmania.

  10. A discussion about public health, lead and Legionella pneumophila in drinking water supplies in the United States.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Michael B; Pokhrel, Lok R; Weir, Mark H

    2017-07-15

    Lead (Pb) in public drinking water supplies has garnered much attention since the outset of the Flint water crisis. Pb is a known hazard in multiple environmental matrices, exposure from which results in long-term deleterious health effects in humans. This discussion paper aims to provide a succinct account of environmental Pb exposures with a focus on water Pb levels (WLLs) in the United States. It is understood that there is a strong correlation between WLLs and blood Pb levels (BLLs), and the associated health effects. However, within the Flint water crisis, more than water chemistry and Pb exposure occurred. A cascade of regulatory and bureaucratic failures culminated in the Flint water crisis. This paper will discuss pertinent regulations and responses including their limitations after an overview of the public health effects from Pb exposure as well as discussion on our limitations on monitoring and mitigating Pb in tap water. As the Flint water crisis also included increased Legionnares' disease, caused by Legionella pneumophila, this paper will discuss factors influencing L. pneumophila growth. This will highlight the systemic nature of changes to water chemistry and public health impacts. As we critically analyze these important aspects of water research, we offer discussions to stimulate future water quality research from a new and systemic perspective to inform and guide public health decision-making. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Freshwater availability and water fetching distance affect child health in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Pickering, Amy J; Davis, Jennifer

    2012-02-21

    Currently, more than two-thirds of the population in Africa must leave their home to fetch water for drinking and domestic use. The time burden of water fetching has been suggested to influence the volume of water collected by households as well as time spent on income generating activities and child care. However, little is known about the potential health benefits of reducing water fetching distances. Data from almost 200, 000 Demographic and Health Surveys carried out in 26 countries were used to assess the relationship between household walk time to water source and child health outcomes. To estimate the causal effect of decreased water fetching time on health, geographic variation in freshwater availability was employed as an instrumental variable for one-way walk time to water source in a two-stage regression model. Time spent walking to a household's main water source was found to be a significant determinant of under-five child health. A 15-min decrease in one-way walk time to water source is associated with a 41% average relative reduction in diarrhea prevalence, improved anthropometric indicators of child nutritional status, and a 11% relative reduction in under-five child mortality. These results suggest that reducing the time cost of fetching water should be a priority for water infrastructure investments in Africa.

  12. A review on bisphenol A occurrences, health effects and treatment process via membrane technology for drinking water.

    PubMed

    Muhamad, Mimi Suliza; Salim, Mohd Razman; Lau, Woei Jye; Yusop, Zulkifli

    2016-06-01

    Massive utilization of bisphenol A (BPA) in the industrial production of polycarbonate plastics has led to the occurrence of this compound (at μg/L to ng/L level) in the water treatment plant. Nowadays, the presence of BPA in drinking water sources is a major concern among society because BPA is one of the endocrine disruption compounds (EDCs) that can cause hazard to human health even at extremely low concentration level. Parallel to these issues, membrane technology has emerged as the most feasible treatment process to eliminate this recalcitrant contaminant via physical separation mechanism. This paper reviews the occurrences and effects of BPA toward living organisms as well as the application of membrane technology for their removal in water treatment plant. The potential applications of using polymeric membranes for BPA removal are also discussed. Literature revealed that modifying membrane surface using blending approach is the simple yet effective method to improve membrane properties with respect to BPA removal without compromising water permeability. The regeneration process helps in maintaining the performances of membrane at desired level. The application of large-scale membrane process in treatment plant shows the feasibility of the technology for removing BPA and possible future prospect in water treatment process.

  13. Approach to the health-risk management on municipal reclaimed water reused in landscape water system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Li, J.; Liu, W.

    2008-12-01

    Water pollution and water heavily shortage are both main environmental conflicts in China. Reclaimed water reuse is an important approach to lessen water pollution and solve the water shortage crisis in the city. The heath risk of reclaimed water has become the focus of the public. It is impending to evaluate the health risk of reclaimed water with risk assessment technique. Considering the ways of the reclaimed water reused, it is studied that health risk produced by toxic pollutants and pathogenic microbes in the processes of reclaimed water reused in landscape water system. The pathogenic microbes monitoring techniques in wastewater and reclaimed water are discussed and the hygienic indicators, risk assessment methods, concentration limitations of pathogenic microbes for various reclaimed water uses are studied. The principle of health risk assessment is used to research the exposure level and the health risk of concerned people in a wastewater reuse project where the reclaimed water is applied for green area irrigation in a public park in Beijing. The exposure assessment method and model of various reclaimed water uses are built combining with Beijing reclaimed water project. Firstly the daily ingesting dose and lifetime average daily dose(LADD) of exposure people are provided via field work and monitoring analysis, which could be used in health risk assessment as quantitative reference. The result shows that the main risk comes from the pathology pollutants, the toxic pollutants, the eutrophication pollutants, pathogenic microbes and the secondary pollutants when municipal wastewater is reclaimed for landscape water. The major water quality limited should include pathogenic microbes, toxic pollutants, and heavy metals. Keywords: municipal wastewater, reclaimed water, landscape water, health risk

  14. The health and social effects of drinking water-based infusions of kava: a review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Rychetnik, Lucie; Madronio, Christine M

    2011-01-01

    To review the evidence on the health and social effects of drinking kava; a water-based infusion of the roots of the kava plant. Included all empirical studies of the effects of kava published 1987-2008 reporting health and social outcomes. Evidence appraised on study design (level of evidence) and standard epidemiological criteria for causality. Causality indicated: scaly skin rash, weight loss, raised Gamma Glutamyl Transpeptidase liver enzyme levels, nausea, loss of appetite or indigestion; Association indicated but causality unclear: red sore eyes, impotence or loss of sexual drive, self-reported poor health, raised cholesterol, and loss of time and money, low motivation and 'slow/lazy' days following use, reduced alcohol consumption and related violence; Association hypothesised: fits or seizures, Melioidosis, Ischaemic Heart Disease, protective effects for cancer; No association indicated: cognitive performance; No association suggested: cognitive impairment, liver toxicity or permanent liver damage, other pneumonia; No association hypothesised: hallucinations. The health and social implications of chronic kava drinking can be significant for individuals and communities, although most effects of even heavy consumption appear to be reversible when consumption is stopped. An Australia-wide ban on commercial importation of kava has been in place since mid-2007, but there is no published literature to date on the impact of the ban. © 2010 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  15. Chemical qualities of water that contribute to human health in a positive way

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hopps, Howard C.

    1986-01-01

    The emphasis on harmful substances that may occur in potable waters has almost obscured the fact that important beneficial constituents are commonly present.The chemical substances in water that make positive contributions to human health act mainly in two ways: (i) nutritionally, by supplying essential macro and micro elements that the diet (excluding water) may not provide in adequate amounts (for example, Mg, I and Zn); and (ii) by providing macro and micro elements that inhibit the absorption and/or effects of toxic elements such as Hg, Pb and Cd. Specific examples of these beneficial effects will be given, also examples of harmful effects on health that may result from excessive intake of these ordinarily beneficial elements.Because concentrations of the essential macro and micro elements that occur in natural, potable waters vary greatly, depending upon their source, geographic considerations are very important in any studies attempting to relate water quality to health. In this context, the inverse relationship between hard water and cardiovascular disease will be discussed. Specific data relating hardness and Mg and Ca content of potable waters to specific geographic regions of the U.S.A. will be presented. These data show a strong positive correlation between low Mg content and decreased longevity, and between high Ca and Mg content and increased longevity. In the regions considered, increased longevity correlates strongly with decreased cardiovascular mortality, and the decreased longevity with increased cardiovascular mortality.

  16. Enhanced communication and coordination in the public health surveillance component of the Cincinnati Drinking Water Contamination Warning System.

    PubMed

    Dangel, Chrissy; Allgeier, Steven C; Gibbons, Darcy; Haas, Adam; Simon, Katie

    2012-03-01

    Effective communication and coordination are critical when investigating a possible drinking water contamination incident. A contamination warning system is designed to detect water contamination by initiating a coordinated, effective response to mitigate significant public health and economic consequences. This article describes historical communication barriers during water contamination incidents and discusses how these barriers were overcome through the public health surveillance component of the Cincinnati Drinking Water Contamination Warning System, referred to as the "Cincinnati Pilot." By enhancing partnerships in the public health surveillance component of the Cincinnati Pilot, information silos that existed in each organization were replaced with interagency information depots that facilitated effective decision making.

  17. Human health screening and public health significance of contaminants of emerging concern detected in public water supplies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, Robert; Conerly, Octavia D.; Sander, William; Batt, Angela L.; Boone, J. Scott; Furlong, Edward T.; Glassmeyer, Susan T.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Mash, Heath

    2017-01-01

    The source water and treated drinking water from twenty five drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) across the United States were sampled in 2010–2012. Samples were analyzed for 247 contaminants using 15 chemical and microbiological methods. Most of these contaminants are not regulated currently either in drinking water or in discharges to ambient water by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) or other U.S. regulatory agencies. This analysis shows that there is little public health concern for most of the contaminants detected in treated water from the 25 DWTPs participating in this study. For vanadium, the calculated Margin of Exposure (MOE) was less than the screening MOE in two DWTPs. For silicon, the calculated MOE was less than the screening MOE in one DWTP. Additional study, for example a national survey may be needed to determine the number of people ingesting vanadium and silicon above a level of concern. In addition, the concentrations of lithium found in treated water from several DWTPs are within the range previous research has suggested to have a human health effect. Additional investigation of this issue is necessary. Finally, new toxicological data suggest that exposure to manganese at levels in public water supplies may present a public health concern which will require a robust assessment of this information.

  18. Human health screening and public health significance of contaminants of emerging concern detected in public water supplies.

    PubMed

    Benson, Robert; Conerly, Octavia D; Sander, William; Batt, Angela L; Boone, J Scott; Furlong, Edward T; Glassmeyer, Susan T; Kolpin, Dana W; Mash, Heath E; Schenck, Kathleen M; Simmons, Jane Ellen

    2017-02-01

    The source water and treated drinking water from twenty five drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) across the United States were sampled in 2010-2012. Samples were analyzed for 247 contaminants using 15 chemical and microbiological methods. Most of these contaminants are not regulated currently either in drinking water or in discharges to ambient water by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) or other U.S. regulatory agencies. This analysis shows that there is little public health concern for most of the contaminants detected in treated water from the 25 DWTPs participating in this study. For vanadium, the calculated Margin of Exposure (MOE) was less than the screening MOE in two DWTPs. For silicon, the calculated MOE was less than the screening MOE in one DWTP. Additional study, for example a national survey may be needed to determine the number of people ingesting vanadium and silicon above a level of concern. In addition, the concentrations of lithium found in treated water from several DWTPs are within the range previous research has suggested to have a human health effect. Additional investigation of this issue is necessary. Finally, new toxicological data suggest that exposure to manganese at levels in public water supplies may present a public health concern which will require a robust assessment of this information. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Residential tap water contamination following the Freedom Industries chemical spill: perceptions, water quality, and health impacts.

    PubMed

    Whelton, Andrew J; McMillan, LaKia; Connell, Matt; Kelley, Keven M; Gill, Jeff P; White, Kevin D; Gupta, Rahul; Dey, Rajarshi; Novy, Caroline

    2015-01-20

    During January 2014, an industrial solvent contaminated West Virginia’s Elk River and 15% of the state population’s tap water. A rapid in-home survey and water testing was conducted 2 weeks following the spill to understand resident perceptions, tap water chemical levels, and premise plumbing flushing effectiveness. Water odors were detected in all 10 homes sampled before and after premise plumbing flushing. Survey and medical data indicated flushing caused adverse health impacts. Bench-scale experiments and physiochemical property predictions showed flushing promoted chemical volatilization, and contaminants did not appreciably sorb into cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) pipe. Flushing reduced tap water 4-methylcyclohexanemethanol (4-MCHM) concentrations within some but not all homes. 4-MCHM was detected at unflushed (<10 to 420 μg/L) and flushed plumbing systems (<10 to 96 μg/L) and sometimes concentrations differed among faucets within each home. All waters contained less 4-MCHM than the 1000 μg/L Centers for Disease Control drinking water limit, but one home exceeded the 120 μg/L drinking water limit established by independent toxicologists. Nearly all households refused to resume water use activities after flushing because of water safety concerns. Science based flushing protocols should be developed to expedite recovery, minimize health impacts, and reduce concentrations in homes when future events occur.

  20. Water reclamation, reuse and public health.

    PubMed

    Rose, J B

    2007-01-01

    The number of people who have limited access to high-quality water has increased, and while this is a growing global crisis, water issues, problems and solutions are often seen as localised. Water reuse and reclamation will play a significant role in achieving sustainability and public health protection in the future. The wastewater and reuse community should be responsible for monitoring sewage impacts and improvements as demonstrated through pathogen reduction with appropriate treatment. Viruses, Cryptosporidium and Giardia can all be reduced during treatment anywhere from 99% to 99.9999%, achieving drinking water quality, if so desired. Recommendations to achieve better access to scientific information for decision making include: 1) developing a global data base for biological contaminant loading from wastewater and 2) defining the public health protection via reuse and reclamation.

  1. Health risks from large-scale water pollution: Current trends and implications for improving drinking water quality in the lower Amu Darya drainage basin, Uzbekistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Törnqvist, Rebecka; Jarsjö, Jerker

    2010-05-01

    Safe drinking water is a primary prerequisite to human health, well being and development. Yet, there are roughly one billion people around the world that lack access to safe drinking water supply. Health risk assessments are effective for evaluating the suitability of using various water sources as drinking water supply. Additionally, knowledge of pollutant transport processes on relatively large scales is needed to identify effective management strategies for improving water resources of poor quality. The lower Amu Darya drainage basin close to the Aral Sea in Uzbekistan suffers from physical water scarcity and poor water quality. This is mainly due to the intensive agriculture production in the region, which requires extensive freshwater withdrawals and use of fertilizers and pesticides. In addition, recurrent droughts in the region affect the surface water availability. On average 20% of the population in rural areas in Uzbekistan lack access to improved drinking water sources, and the situation is even more severe in the lower Amu Darya basin. In this study, we consider health risks related to water-borne contaminants by dividing measured substance concentrations with health-risk based guideline values from the World Health Organisation (WHO). In particular, we analyse novel results of water quality measurements performed in 2007 and 2008 in the Mejdurechye Reservoir (located in the downstream part of the Amu Darya river basin). We furthermore identify large-scale trends by comparing the Mejdurechye results to reported water quality results from a considerable stretch of the Amu Darya river basin, including drainage water, river water and groundwater. The results show that concentrations of cadmium and nitrite exceed the WHO health-risk based guideline values in Mejdurechye Reservoir. Furthermore, concentrations of the since long ago banned and highly toxic pesticides dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCH) were detected in

  2. HEALTH EFFECTS OF CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO ARSENIC VIA DRINKING WATER IN INNER MONGOLIA: IV. DISTRIBUTION OF ARSENIC CONCENTRATIONS IN WELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    HEALTH EFFECTS OF CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO ARSENIC VIA DRINKING WATER IN INNER MONGOLIA:
    IV. DISTRIBUTION OF ARSENIC CONCENTRATIONS IN WELLS

    Zhixiong Ning, B.S., Zhiyi Liu,B.S., Shiying Zhang, B.S., Chenglong Ma, B.S., Inner Mongolia Ba Men Anti-epidemic Station, Michael Ri...

  3. HEALTH EFFECTS OF CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO ARSENIC VIA DRINKING WATER IN INNER MONGOLIA. III. NEUROLOGICAL SYMPTOMS AND PIN-PRICK MEASURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Health Effects of Chronic Exposure to Arsenic via Drinking Water in Inner Mongolia: III. Neurological Symptoms and Pin-prick Measures

    Yanhong Li, M.D.,Yajuan.Xia, M.D., Kegong Wu, M.D., Inner Mongolia Center For Endemic Disease Control and Research, Ling Ling He, B.S., Zhi...

  4. Human Health Effects Associated with Exposure to Toxic Cyanobacteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reports of toxic cyanobacteria blooms are increasing worldwide. Warming and eutrophic surface water systems support the development of blooms. We examine the evidence for adverse human health effects associated with exposure to toxic blooms in drinking water, recreational water a...

  5. [Challenges in the assessment and managment of health risks associated with emerging water micropollutants].

    PubMed

    Levi, Yves

    2009-06-01

    Analytical laboratories can now identify and quantify an impressive number of "new" pollutants present at very low concentrations in water. Nanotechnology products are a new cause for concern. " Emerging " pollutants are defined as substances that were not previously sought or detected (plasticizers, drugs, chlorination byproducts, persistant organic pollutants, ...) and that are now being identified in many continental water resources. The biological actions of these substances, alone and in combination with other more " classical "pollutants, include such effects as endocrine disruption. Contaminants may be present in surface and groundwater resources, may be generated during treatment, and are found in drinking water distribution networks. In industrialized countries, the main source of emerging pollutants for humans is not water, but rather food, cosmetics and air. Urgent measures are needed to protect biodiversity and human health, including quantitative risk assessment, toxicologic studies of xenobiotic mixtures and chronic effects, strategies to protect water resources, technological advances in wastewater treatment, reliable potable water production, and new inert materials for transport and storage. Good sanitation and safe tap water are major contributors to human health and well-being Major efforts and investments are needed, based on rigorous, objective assessments of risks for the environment and public health.

  6. Health Risk Assessment of Cyanobacterial (Blue-green Algal) Toxins in Drinking Water

    PubMed Central

    Falconer, Ian R.; Humpage, Andrew R.

    2005-01-01

    toxins in drinking water and epidemiological studies on adverse health effects in exposed populations to clarify the extent of the health risk. PMID:16705800

  7. Physical changes of the environment and health effects with special reference to water pollution and sanitation in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Sekarajasekaran, I A

    1979-12-01

    Development of a human community are not without changes in its environment. Such changes result in either beneficial or adverse effects on human health. In Malaysia, in the wake of the New Economic Policy aimed at the redressing of the poor population and income distribution, development of the nation has brought about various changes in the environment. Some of these changes have elevated basic public health problems, while others, particularly new agricultural practices and industrialisation programmes with urbanisation trends, have brought a new set of problems due to water pollution and sanitation. Various measures are being taken to protect and to improve the environment so that progress can be realised with minimum adverse effects. This also calls for assistance from international sources, in terms of expertise, training and funds.

  8. Health Risk Estimation for Unregulated DBPs in Chloraminated Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Disinfection by-products (DBPs) are formed when natural organic matter (NOM) reacts with chemical oxidants in the water disinfection process. Halogenated DBPs are both cytotoxic and genotoxic, which have the potential to cause adverse health effects (1). Currently, 4 species of t...

  9. Health Effects Assessment for Acenaphthene

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because of the lack of data for the carcinogenicity and threshold toxicity of acenaphthene risk assessment values cannot be derived. The ambient water quality criterion of 0.2 mg/l is based on organoleptic data, which has no known relationship to potential human health effects. A...

  10. The public health significance of trace chemicals in waste water utilization

    PubMed Central

    Shuval, Hillel I.

    1962-01-01

    The practice of waste water utilization has grown considerably in recent years, owing to the growing demand for water for agricultural, industrial and domestic purposes. Such utilization presents certain problems in respect of the quality of the reclaimed water, on account of the presence of certain trace chemicals in the waste waters to be re-used. The presence of these trace chemicals may have important consequences in the agricultural or industrial utilization of waste waters, but from the public health point of view it is in the re-use of waste waters for domestic purposes that their presence has most importance, owing to their possible toxic effects. This paper discusses the public health significance of trace chemicals in water, with special reference to some of the newer complex synthetic organic compounds that are appearing in ever-increasing numbers in industrial wastes. Current information on the acute and chronic toxicity of these substances is reviewed and related to possible methods of treatment of waste waters. In conclusion, the author points out that the problem of trace chemicals is not confined only to direct waste-water reclamation projects, but arises in all cases where surface waters polluted with industrial wastes are used as a source of domestic supply. PMID:13988826

  11. The effectiveness of a magnetized water oral irrigator (Hydro Floss) on plaque, calculus and gingival health.

    PubMed

    Johnson, K E; Sanders, J J; Gellin, R G; Palesch, Y Y

    1998-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a magnetized water oral irrigator on plaque, calculus and gingival health. 29 patients completed this double-blind crossover study. Each patient was brought to baseline via an oral prophylaxis with a plaque index < or = 1 and a gingival index < or = 1. Subjects used the irrigator for a period of 3 months with the magnet and 3 months without the magnet. After each 3 month interval, data were collected using the plaque index, gingival index, and accretions index. The repeated measures analysis on plaque, gingival and calculus indices yielded a statistically-significant period effect for PlI (p=0.0343), GI (p=0.0091), and approached significance for calculus (p=0.0593). This meant that the effect of irrigation resulted in a decrease of all indices over time. Therefore, the treatment effect on each index was evaluated using only the measurements obtained at the end of the first period (i.e., assuming a parallel design). Irrigation with magnetized water resulted in 64% less calculus compared to the control group. The reduction was statistically significant (p< or =0.02). The reduction by 27% in gingival index was not statistically significant. The reduction in plaque was minimal (2.2%). A strong positive correlation between the plaque index and the Watt accretion index was observed. The magnetized water oral irrigator could be a useful adjunct in the prevention of calculus accumulation in periodontal patients, but appears to have minimal effect on plaque reduction. The results indicated a clinical improvement in the gingival index, but this was not a statistically significant finding.

  12. Radon-222 from different sources of water and the assessment of health hazard.

    PubMed

    Ademola, Janet A; Ojeniran, Oluwaferanmi R

    2017-02-01

    Water samples collected from different sources were analysed for radon concentrations in order to evaluate the health effect associated with radon in water. The radon concentrations were in the range of 3.56-98.57, 0.88-25.49, 0.73-1.35 and 0.24-1.03 Bq.L -1 for borehole, well, packaged and utility water, respectively. Samples from boreholes had the highest radon concentrations with about 67% being higher than the threshold value of 11.1 Bq.L -1 recommended by the USEPA. The mean annual effective dose (AED) due to ingestion for adult, child and infant ranged from 8.71 × 10 -3 to 0.831 mSv.y -1 for the different sources. The mean AED calculated for consuming water from boreholes and wells for the three age groups were higher than the recommended reference dose level of 0.1 mSv.y -1 . The mean AED due to inhalation of radon in drinking water was negligible, ranging from 0.13 to 6.20 μSv.y -1 . The health burden associated with radon in water in the study is through ingestion of water directly from boreholes.

  13. Improving water, sanitation and hygiene in health-care facilities, Liberia.

    PubMed

    Abrampah, Nana Mensah; Montgomery, Maggie; Baller, April; Ndivo, Francis; Gasasira, Alex; Cooper, Catherine; Frescas, Ruben; Gordon, Bruce; Syed, Shamsuzzoha Babar

    2017-07-01

    The lack of proper water and sanitation infrastructures and poor hygiene practices in health-care facilities reduces facilities' preparedness and response to disease outbreaks and decreases the communities' trust in the health services provided. To improve water and sanitation infrastructures and hygiene practices, the Liberian health ministry held multistakeholder meetings to develop a national water, sanitation and hygiene and environmental health package. A national train-the-trainer course was held for county environmental health technicians, which included infection prevention and control focal persons; the focal persons acted as change agents. In Liberia, only 45% of 701 surveyed health-care facilities had an improved water source in 2015, and only 27% of these health-care facilities had proper disposal for infectious waste. Local ownership, through engagement of local health workers, was introduced to ensure development and refinement of the package. In-county collaborations between health-care facilities, along with multisectoral collaboration, informed national level direction, which led to increased focus on water and sanitation infrastructures and uptake of hygiene practices to improve the overall quality of service delivery. National level leadership was important to identify a vision and create an enabling environment for changing the perception of water, sanitation and hygiene in health-care provision. The involvement of health workers was central to address basic infrastructure and hygiene practices in health-care facilities and they also worked as stimulators for sustainable change. Further, developing a long-term implementation plan for national level initiatives is important to ensure sustainability.

  14. Human Health Water Quality Criteria and Methods for Toxics

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Documents pertaining to Human Health Water Quality Criteria and Methods for Toxins. Includes 2015 Update for Water Quality Criteria, 2002 National Recommended Human Health Criteria, and 2000 EPA Methodology.

  15. Achieving the sustainable development goals: a case study of the complexity of water quality health risks in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Holm, Rochelle; Wandschneider, Philip; Felsot, Allan; Msilimba, Golden

    2016-07-15

    Suppose 35 % of the households with children under 5 years of age in a low-income suburban neighborhood in a developing country have diarrhea where improved water sources are available. Clearly, something is amiss-but what? In addition to focusing on the need to examine water quality among water sources that meet the 'improved' category when assessing health risk, the relative importance of the range of transmission routes for diarrhea is unknown. In Malawi, relevant baseline data affecting human health are simply not available, and acquiring data is hampered by a lack of local analytical capacity for characterizing drinking water quality. The objective of this work is to develop a risk communication program with partnership among established regional development professionals for effectively meeting the sustainable development goals. A field study was conducted in the city of Mzuzu, Malawi, to study water quality (total coliform and Escherichia coli) and human dimensions leading to development of a public health risk communication strategy in a peri-urban area. A structured household questionnaire was administered to adult residents of 51 households, encompassing 284 individuals, who were using the 30 monitored shallow wells. The water quality data and human dimension questionnaire results were used to develop a household risk presentation. Sixty-seven percent and 50 % of well water and household drinking water samples, respectively, exceeded the WHO health guideline of zero detections of E. coli. Technology transfer was advanced by providing knowledge through household risk debriefing/education, establishing a water quality laboratory at the local university, and providing training to local technicians. Communicating the science of water quality and health risks in developing countries requires sample collection and analysis by knowledgeable personnel trained in the sciences, compiling baseline data, and, ultimately, an effective risk presentation back to

  16. Does access to open water affect the health of Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos)?

    PubMed

    O'Driscoll, K K M; Broom, D M

    2011-02-01

    Access to open water is considered good for the welfare of Pekin ducks. These studies investigated the effect that the type of water resource, provided over either straw bedding or a rubber mesh, had on measures of duck health. Pekin strain ducklings (n = 2,600) were managed in pens of 100 on straw over a solid concrete floor. In study 1, one of two water resources (nipple, n = 5 pens; wide-lip bell drinker, n = 5 pens), was located directly over the straw. In study 2, one of three water resources (narrow-lip bell drinker, n = 6 pens; trough, n = 5 pens; and bath, n = 5 pens) was located over a rubber mesh. On d 16, 24, 29, 35, and 43, (study 1) or d 21, 29, 35, and 43 posthatch (study 2), 10 birds were selected from each pen and weighed, and then feather hygiene, footpad dermatitis, eye health, gait score, and nostril condition scores were taken. Treatment had no effect on BW in either study, but in study 2, ducks in the open water treatments had higher scores (P < 0.001) than those in the narrow-lip bell drinker treatment by d 43. In study 1, treatment had no effect on hygiene scores, but scores increased over time (P < 0.001). In study 2, ducks in the narrow-lip bell drinker treatment were dirtier than those in the bath treatment (P = 0.01), with those in the trough treatment being intermediate. In both studies, ducks with bell drinkers had worse gait scores than those in the other treatments (study 1, P < 0.01; study 2, P < 0.05). Treatment had no effect on eye health scores. However, ducks were less likely to have dirty nostrils when provided with more open water resources in both studies (P < 0.01), or were less likely to have blocked nostrils in the trough and bath treatments than in the narrow-lip bell drinker treatment in study 2 (P = 0.01). Provision of open water, particularly over a properly constructed drainage area, improved some aspects of duck health (improved feather hygiene and BW, and fewer dirty and blocked nostrils). However, further work is

  17. Drinking Water Uranium and Potential Health Effects in the German Federal State of Bavaria.

    PubMed

    Banning, Andre; Benfer, Mira

    2017-08-18

    Mainly due to its nephrotoxic and osteotoxic potential, uranium (U) increasingly finds itself in the spotlight of environmental and health-related research. Germany decided on a binding U guideline value in drinking water of 10 µg/L, valid since 2011. It is yet widely unknown if and how public health was affected by elevated U concentrations before that. In this ecological study we summarized available drinking water U data for the German federal state of Bavaria (703 analyses in total for 553 different municipalities) at county level (for 76 out of 96 Bavarian counties, representing about 83% of Bavaria's and about 13% of Germany's total population) in terms of mean and maximum U concentration. Bavaria is known to regionally exhibit mainly geogenically elevated groundwater U with a maximum value of 40 µg/L in the database used here. Public health data were obtained from federal statistical authorities at county resolution. These included incidence rates of diagnosed diseases suspected to be potentially associated with chronic U uptake, e.g., diseases of the skeleton, the liver or the thyroid as well as tumor and genito-urinary diseases. The datasets were analyzed for interrelations and mutual spatial occurrence using statistical approaches and GIS as well as odds ratios and relative risks calculations. Weak but significant positive associations between maximum U concentrations and aggregated ICD-10 diagnose groups for growths/tumors as well as liver diseases were observed, elevated incidence rates of thyroid diseases seem to occur where mean drinking water U concentrations exceed 2 µg/L. Here, we discuss obtained results and their implications for potential impacts of hydrochemistry on public health in southeast Germany.

  18. Drinking Water Uranium and Potential Health Effects in the German Federal State of Bavaria

    PubMed Central

    Benfer, Mira

    2017-01-01

    Mainly due to its nephrotoxic and osteotoxic potential, uranium (U) increasingly finds itself in the spotlight of environmental and health-related research. Germany decided on a binding U guideline value in drinking water of 10 µg/L, valid since 2011. It is yet widely unknown if and how public health was affected by elevated U concentrations before that. In this ecological study we summarized available drinking water U data for the German federal state of Bavaria (703 analyses in total for 553 different municipalities) at county level (for 76 out of 96 Bavarian counties, representing about 83% of Bavaria’s and about 13% of Germany’s total population) in terms of mean and maximum U concentration. Bavaria is known to regionally exhibit mainly geogenically elevated groundwater U with a maximum value of 40 µg/L in the database used here. Public health data were obtained from federal statistical authorities at county resolution. These included incidence rates of diagnosed diseases suspected to be potentially associated with chronic U uptake, e.g., diseases of the skeleton, the liver or the thyroid as well as tumor and genito-urinary diseases. The datasets were analyzed for interrelations and mutual spatial occurrence using statistical approaches and GIS as well as odds ratios and relative risks calculations. Weak but significant positive associations between maximum U concentrations and aggregated ICD-10 diagnose groups for growths/tumors as well as liver diseases were observed, elevated incidence rates of thyroid diseases seem to occur where mean drinking water U concentrations exceed 2 µg/L. Here, we discuss obtained results and their implications for potential impacts of hydrochemistry on public health in southeast Germany. PMID:28820453

  19. Environmental health risk assessment of nickel contamination of drinking water in a country town in NSW.

    PubMed

    Alam, Noore; Corbett, Stephen J; Ptolemy, Helen C

    2008-01-01

    To assess the health risks associated with consumption of drinking water with elevated nickel concentration in a NSW country town named Sampleton. We used enHealth Guidelines (2002) as our risk assessment tool. Laboratory test results for nickel in water samples were compared with the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines 2004 and the World Health Organization's (WHO) Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality 2005. The mean nickel concentration in the drinking water samples tested over a 4-year period (2002-2005) was 0.03 mg/L (95% CI: 0.02-0.04). The average daily consumption of two litres of water by a 70-kg adult provided 0.06 mg (0.03 mg x 2) of nickel, which was only 7% of the lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL) based on experiments on nickel-sensitive people in a fasting state. The mean nickel concentration in drinking water appears to have no health risks for the inhabitants of Sampleton.

  20. Human health implications, risk assessment and remediation of As-contaminated water: A critical review.

    PubMed

    Shakoor, Muhammad Bilal; Nawaz, Rab; Hussain, Fida; Raza, Maimoona; Ali, Shafaqat; Rizwan, Muhammad; Oh, Sang-Eun; Ahmad, Sajjad

    2017-12-01

    Arsenic (As) is a naturally occurring metalloid and Class-A human carcinogen. Exposure to As via direct intake of As-contaminated water or ingestion of As-contaminated edible crops is considered a life threatening problem around the globe. Arsenic-laced drinking water has affected the lives of over 200 million people in 105 countries worldwide. Limited data are available on various health risk assessment models/frameworks used to predict carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health effects caused by As-contaminated water. Therefore, this discussion highlights the need for future research focusing on human health risk assessment of individual As species (both organic and inorganic) present in As-contaminated water. Various conventional and latest technologies for remediation of As-contaminated water are also reviewed along with a discussion of the fate of As-loaded waste and sludge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. HEALTH EFFECTS OF CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO ARSENIC VIA DRINKING WATER IN INNER MONGOLIA: II. VIBROTACTILE AND VISUAL MEASURES FINAL DOCUMENT TITLE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    HEALTH EFFECTS OF CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO ARSENIC IN DRINKING WATER IN INNER MONGOLIA: II. VIBROTACTILE AND VISUAL MEASURES.

    David Otto, Ph.D., Judy Mumford, Ph.D., Richard Kwok, M.S.P.H., Ken Hudnell, Ph.D.,
    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; Yanhong Li, M.D., Yajuan ...

  2. Use, microbiological effectiveness and health impact of a household water filter intervention in rural Rwanda-A matched cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Miles A; Nagel, Corey L; Rosa, Ghislaine; Umupfasoni, Marie Mediatrice; Iyakaremye, Laurien; Thomas, Evan A; Clasen, Thomas F

    2017-08-01

    Unsafe drinking water is a substantial health risk contributing to child diarrhoea. We investigated impacts of a program that provided a water filter to households in rural Rwandan villages. We assessed drinking water quality and reported diarrhoea 12-24 months after intervention delivery among 269 households in the poorest tertile with a child under 5 from 9 intervention villages and 9 matched control villages. We also documented filter coverage and use. In Round 1 (12-18 months after delivery), 97.4% of intervention households reported receiving the filter, 84.5% were working, and 86.0% of working filters contained water. Sensors confirmed half of households with working filters filled them at least once every other day on average. Coverage and usage was similar in Round 2 (19-24 months after delivery). The odds of detecting faecal indicator bacteria in drinking water were 78% lower in the intervention arm than the control arm (odds ratio (OR) 0.22, 95% credible interval (CrI) 0.10-0.39, p<0.001). The intervention arm also had 50% lower odds of reported diarrhoea among children <5 than the control arm (OR=0.50, 95% CrI 0.23-0.90, p=0.03). The protective effect of the filter is also suggested by reduced odds of reported diarrhoea-related visits to community health workers or clinics, although these did not reach statistical significance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Human health and the water environment: using the DPSEEA framework to identify the driving forces of disease.

    PubMed

    Gentry-Shields, Jennifer; Bartram, Jamie

    2014-01-15

    There is a growing awareness of global forces that threaten human health via the water environment. A better understanding of the dynamic between human health and the water environment would enable prediction of the significant driving forces and effective strategies for coping with or preventing them. This report details the use of the Driving Force-Pressure-State-Exposure-Effect-Action (DPSEEA) framework to explore the linkage between water-related diseases and their significant driving forces. The DPSEEA frameworks indicate that a select group of driving forces, including population growth, agriculture, infrastructure (dams and irrigation), and climate change, is at the root cause of key global disease burdens. Construction of the DPSEEA frameworks also allows for the evaluation of public health interventions. Sanitation was found to be a widely applicable and effective intervention, targeting the driver/pressure linkage of most of the water-related diseases examined. Ultimately, the DPSEEA frameworks offer a platform for constituents in both the health and environmental fields to collaborate and commit to a common goal targeting the same driving forces. © 2013.

  4. Water quality associated public health risk in Bo, Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Jimmy, David H; Sundufu, Abu J; Malanoski, Anthony P; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Ansumana, Rashid; Leski, Tomasz A; Bangura, Umaru; Bockarie, Alfred S; Tejan, Edries; Lin, Baochuan; Stenger, David A

    2013-01-01

    Human health depends on reliable access to safe drinking water, but in many developing countries only a limited number of wells and boreholes are available. Many of these water resources are contaminated with biological or chemical pollutants. The goal of this study was to examine water access and quality in urban Bo, Sierra Leone. A health census and community mapping project in one neighborhood in Bo identified the 36 water sources used by the community. A water sample was taken from each water source and tested for a variety of microbiological and physicochemical substances. Only 38.9% of the water sources met World Health Organization (WHO) microbial safety requirements based on fecal coliform levels. Physiochemical analysis indicated that the majority (91.7%) of the water sources met the requirements set by the WHO. In combination, 25% of these water resources met safe drinking water criteria. No variables associated with wells were statistically significant predictors of contamination. This study indicated that fecal contamination is the greatest health risk associated with drinking water. There is a need to raise hygiene awareness and implement inexpensive methods to reduce fecal contamination and improve drinking water safety in Bo, Sierra Leone.

  5. Improving water, sanitation and hygiene in health-care facilities, Liberia

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Maggie; Baller, April; Ndivo, Francis; Gasasira, Alex; Cooper, Catherine; Frescas, Ruben; Gordon, Bruce; Syed, Shamsuzzoha Babar

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Problem The lack of proper water and sanitation infrastructures and poor hygiene practices in health-care facilities reduces facilities’ preparedness and response to disease outbreaks and decreases the communities’ trust in the health services provided. Approach To improve water and sanitation infrastructures and hygiene practices, the Liberian health ministry held multistakeholder meetings to develop a national water, sanitation and hygiene and environmental health package. A national train-the-trainer course was held for county environmental health technicians, which included infection prevention and control focal persons; the focal persons acted as change agents. Local setting In Liberia, only 45% of 701 surveyed health-care facilities had an improved water source in 2015, and only 27% of these health-care facilities had proper disposal for infectious waste. Relevant changes Local ownership, through engagement of local health workers, was introduced to ensure development and refinement of the package. In-county collaborations between health-care facilities, along with multisectoral collaboration, informed national level direction, which led to increased focus on water and sanitation infrastructures and uptake of hygiene practices to improve the overall quality of service delivery. Lessons learnt National level leadership was important to identify a vision and create an enabling environment for changing the perception of water, sanitation and hygiene in health-care provision. The involvement of health workers was central to address basic infrastructure and hygiene practices in health-care facilities and they also worked as stimulators for sustainable change. Further, developing a long-term implementation plan for national level initiatives is important to ensure sustainability. PMID:28670017

  6. Petroleum contaminated water and health symptoms: a cross-sectional pilot study in a rural Nigerian community.

    PubMed

    Kponee, Kalé Zainab; Chiger, Andrea; Kakulu, Iyenemi Ibimina; Vorhees, Donna; Heiger-Bernays, Wendy

    2015-11-06

    The oil-rich Niger Delta suffers from extensive petroleum contamination. A pilot study was conducted in the region of Ogoniland where one community, Ogale, has drinking water wells highly contaminated with a refined oil product. In a 2011 study, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) sampled Ogale drinking water wells and detected numerous petroleum hydrocarbons, including benzene at concentrations as much as 1800 times higher than the USEPA drinking water standard. UNEP recommended immediate provision of clean drinking water, medical surveillance, and a prospective cohort study. Although the Nigerian government has provided emergency drinking water, other UNEP recommendations have not been implemented. We aimed to (i) follow up on UNEP recommendations by investigating health symptoms associated with exposure to contaminated water; and (ii) assess the adequacy and utilization of the government-supplied emergency drinking water. We recruited 200 participants from Ogale and a reference community, Eteo, and administered questionnaires to investigate water use, perceived water safety, and self-reported health symptoms. Our multivariate regression analyses show statistically significant associations between exposure to Ogale drinking water and self-reported health symptoms consistent with petroleum exposure. Participants in Ogale more frequently reported health symptoms related to neurological effects (OR = 2.8), hematological effects (OR = 3.3), and irritation (OR = 2.7). Our results are the first from a community relying on drinking water with such extremely high concentrations of benzene and other hydrocarbons. The ongoing exposure and these pilot study results highlight the need for more refined investigation as recommended by UNEP.

  7. Emerging contaminants of public health significance as water quality indicator compounds in the urban water cycle.

    PubMed

    Pal, Amrita; He, Yiliang; Jekel, Martin; Reinhard, Martin; Gin, Karina Yew-Hoong

    2014-10-01

    The contamination of the urban water cycle (UWC) with a wide array of emerging organic compounds (EOCs) increases with urbanization and population density. To produce drinking water from the UWC requires close examination of their sources, occurrence, pathways, and health effects and the efficacy of wastewater treatment and natural attenuation processes that may occur in surface water bodies and groundwater. This paper researches in details the structure of the UWC and investigates the routes by which the water cycle is increasingly contaminated with compounds generated from various anthropogenic activities. Along with a thorough survey of chemicals representing compound classes such as hormones, antibiotics, surfactants, endocrine disruptors, human and veterinary pharmaceuticals, X-ray contrast media, pesticides and metabolites, disinfection-by-products, algal toxins and taste-and-odor compounds, this paper provides a comprehensive and holistic review of the occurrence, fate, transport and potential health impact of the emerging organic contaminants of the UWC. This study also illustrates the widespread distribution of the emerging organic contaminants in the different aortas of the ecosystem and focuses on future research needs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Community effectiveness of public water fluoridation in reducing children's dental disease.

    PubMed

    Armfield, Jason Mathew

    2010-01-01

    Water fluoridation is one of the most effective public health programs of the past century. However, efforts to extend water fluoridation into currently non-fluoridated areas are often thwarted. Despite considerable evidence regarding the effectiveness of water fluoridation at an individual level, published national community-based studies are rare. This study compared children's decay experience and prevalence between areas with and without water fluoridation in Australia. Oral health data were obtained from clinical examinations of 128, 990 5- to 15-year-old children attending for a regular visit with their respective Australian state or territory School Dental Service in 2002. Water fluoridation status, residence remoteness, and socioeconomic status (SES) were obtained for each child's recorded residential postcode area. Children from every age group had greater caries prevalence and more caries experience in areas with negligible fluoride concentrations in the water (<0.3 parts per million [ppm]) than in optimally fluoridated areas (> or = 0.7 ppm). Controlling for child age, residential location, and SES, deciduous and permanent caries experience was 28.7% and 31.6% higher, respectively, in low-fluoride areas compared with optimally fluoridated areas. The odds ratios for higher caries prevalence in areas with negligible fluoride compared with optimal fluoride were 1.34 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.29, 1.39) and 1.24 (95% CI 1.21, 1.28) in the deciduous and permanent dentitions, respectively. This study demonstrates the continued community effectiveness of water fluoridation and provides support for the extension of this important oral health intervention to populations currently without access to fluoridated water.

  9. Benefit transfer protocol for long-term health risk valuation: A case of surface water contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kask, Susan B.; Shogren, Jason F.

    1994-10-01

    In response to scarce financial resources, economists have promoted the concept of benefit transfer as a cost-effective alternative to new nonmarket valuation studies. Recent discussion on benefit transfer for improved water quality has focused on recreational benefits. While useful, the discussion must now be expanded to include another key benefit from improved water quality: the reduction in risk to public health. This paper develops a protocol for benefit transfer of long-term health risk reduction and presents a case study for surface water contamination. Challenges such as the multiple sources of risk, the mortality and morbidity effects indicated by a variety of symptoms, the long latency period between cause and effect, and an individual's ability to privately or collectively reduce the probability or severity of the risk are discussed.

  10. Comparative human health risk analysis of coastal community water and waste service options.

    PubMed

    Schoen, Mary E; Xue, Xiaobo; Hawkins, Troy R; Ashbolt, Nicholas J

    2014-08-19

    As a pilot approach to describe adverse human health effects from alternative decentralized community water systems compared to conventional centralized services (business-as-usual [BAU]), selected chemical and microbial hazards were assessed using disability adjusted life years (DALYs) as the common metric. The alternatives included: (1) composting toilets with septic system, (2) urine-diverting toilets with septic system, (3) low flush toilets with blackwater pressure sewer and on-site greywater collection and treatment for nonpotable reuse, and (4) alternative 3 with on-site rainwater treatment and use. Various pathogens (viral, bacterial, and protozoan) and chemicals (disinfection byproducts [DBPs]) were used as reference hazards. The exposure pathways for BAU included accidental ingestion of contaminated recreational water, ingestion of cross-connected sewage to drinking water, and shower exposures to DBPs. The alternative systems included ingestion of treated greywater from garden irrigation, toilet flushing, and crop consumption; and ingestion of treated rainwater while showering. The pathways with the highest health impact included the ingestion of cross-connected drinking water and ingestion of recreational water contaminated by septic seepage. These were also among the most uncertain when characterizing input parameters, particularly the scale of the cross-connection event, and the removal of pathogens during groundwater transport of septic seepage. A comparison of the health burdens indicated potential health benefits by switching from BAU to decentralized water and wastewater systems.

  11. Escherichia coli: the best biological drinking water indicator for public health protection.

    PubMed

    Edberg, S C; Rice, E W; Karlin, R J; Allen, M J

    2000-01-01

    Public health protection requires an indicator of fecal pollution. It is not necessary to analyse drinking water for all pathogens. Escherichia coli is found in all mammal faeces at concentrations of 10 log 9(-1), but it does not multiply appreciably in the environment. In the 1890s, it was chosen as the biological indicator of water treatment safety. Because of method deficiencies, E. coli surrogates such as the 'fecal coliform' and total coliforms tests were developed and became part of drinking water regulations. With the advent of the Defined Substrate Technology in the late 1980s, it became possible to analyse drinking water directly for E. coli (and, simultaneously, total coliforms) inexpensively and simply. Accordingly, E. coli was re-inserted in the drinking water regulations. E. coli survives in drinking water for between 4 and 12 weeks, depending on environmental conditions (temperature, microflora, etc.). Bacteria and viruses are approximately equally oxidant-sensitive, but parasites are less so. Under the conditions in distribution systems, E. coli will be much more long-lived. Therefore, under most circumstances it is possible to design a monitoring program that permits public health protection at a modest cost. Drinking water regulations currently require infrequent monitoring which may not adequately detect intermittent contamination events; however, it is cost-effective to markedly increase testing with E. coli to better protect the public's health. Comparison with other practical candidate fecal indicators shows that E. coli is far superior overall.

  12. HEALTH RISK ISSUES RELATED TO MTBE IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Despite the attention given to methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) as a contaminant in ground water and surface water, the implications of such contamination for human health have not been clearly established to date. Limitations in the databases for both exposure and health effe...

  13. [Health risk assessment on pesticide residues in drinking water in Shenzhen].

    PubMed

    Liu, Guohong; Peng, Zhaoqiong; Lan, Tao; Xu, Xinyun; Huang, Guangwen; Yu, Shuyuan; Liu, Guihua; Li, Jin

    2015-03-01

    To conduct a health risk assessment of pesticide residues and its annual trend analysis in drinking water in Shenzhen City. The water quality monitoring data of product water, pipe water and secondary supply water during from 2011 to 2013 were collected and analyzed. The risk evaluation models recommended by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) were employed to perform health risk assessments for children and adults on the 12 non-carcinogenic materials (namely, heptachlor, pentachlorophenol, hexachlorocyclohexane, hexachlorobenzene, DDT, malathion, glyphosate, dimethoate, bentazone, atrazine, chlorothalonil, furadan). Results The results of the analysis for water quality from 84 factory samples, 11 peripheral samples and one secondary supply water sample showed that all of the measured indicators in the above mentioned water samples met the National Health Standards (GB 5749-2006) published by Ministry of Health of the People's Republic of China. The adults and children' s health indices (HIs) of the 12 non-carcinogenic materials were greater than 1 (2. 323 - 6. 312). Dimethoate in factory and peripheral water samples posed the largest risks of harm among the non-carcinogenic pollutants measured. And its HIi were also greater than 1 (1. 995 - 5. 094) and followed by hexachlorobenzene and heptachlor. Annual rising trend on health risk of the 12 pesticide residues indicated that their HIT on adults was 2323. 18 x 10(-3) in 2011, 2340. 18 x 10(-3) in 2012 and 2431. 97 x 10(-3) in 2013, and on children 2965. 07 x 10 (-3) in 2011, 2986. 77 x 10(-3) in 2012 and 3103. 93 x 10(-3) in 2013, respectively. This study also suggested that the average risk of peripheral water samples (HIT was equal to 2619. 64 x 10(-3) was greater than that of factory samples (HIT was same as 2366. 92 x 10(-3), and more children' s health risk than adults' risk. Health risks of pesticide residues in drinking water in Shenzhen have exceeded the threshold value and dimethoate was the

  14. Effects of abandoned arsenic mine on water resources pollution in north west of iran.

    PubMed

    Hajalilou, Behzad; Mosaferi, Mohammad; Khaleghi, Fazel; Jadidi, Sakineh; Vosugh, Bahram; Fatehifar, Esmail

    2011-01-01

    Pollution due to mining activities could have an important role in health and welfare of people who are living in mining area. When mining operation finishes, environ-ment of mining area can be influenced by related pollution e.g. heavy metals emission to wa-ter resources. The present study was aimed to evaluate Valiloo abandoned arsenic mine ef-fects on drinking water resources quality and possible health effects on the residents of min-ing area in the North West of Iran. Water samples and some limited composite wheat samples in downstream of min-ing area were collected. Water samples were analyzed for chemical parameters according to standard methods. For determination of arsenic in water samples, Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometric Method (GFAAS) and for wheat samples X - Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Method (ICP) were used. Information about possible health effects due to exposure to arsenic was collected through interviews in studied villages and health center of Herris City. The highest concentrations of arsenic were measured near the mine (as high as 2000 µg/L in Valiloo mine opening water). With increasing distance from the mine, concentration was decreased. Arsenic was not detectable in any of wheat samples. Fortunately, no health effects had been reported between residents of studied area due to exposure to arsenic. Valiloo abandoned arsenic mine has caused release of arsenic to the around en-vironment of the mine, so arsenic concentration has been increased in the groundwater and also downstream river that requires proper measures to mitigate spread of arsenic.

  15. BOOK REVIEW OF "DRINKING WATER REGULATION AND HEALTH"

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since the enactment of the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) in 1974, several amendments and other new regulations have been developed for drinking water. The book, "Drinking Water Regulation and Health", explains these regulations and provides background on why they were developed ...

  16. Parental decisions, child health and valuation of avoiding arsenic in drinking water in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Sonia N; Boyle, Kevin J; Crocker, Tom

    2015-03-01

    Arsenic contamination of groundwater in Bangladesh is a widespread public health hazard. Water sources without high arsenic levels are scarce, affecting people's availability for work and other activities when they have to seek safe water to drink. While children are particularly susceptible to chronic arsenic exposure, limited information and heavy constraints on resources may preclude people in developing countries from taking protective actions. Since parents are primary decision-makers for children, a model of stochastic decision-making analytically linking parent health and child health is used to frame the valuation of avoiding arsenic exposure using an averting behavior model. The results show that safe drinking water programs do work and that people do take protective actions. The results can help guide public health mitigation policies, and examine whether factors such as child health and time required for remediation have an effect on mitigation measures.

  17. Water fluoridation and oral health.

    PubMed

    Harding, Máiréad Antoinette; O'Mullane, Denis Martin

    2013-11-01

    Water fluoridation, is the controlled addition of fluoride to the water supply, with the aim of reducing the prevalence of dental caries. Current estimates suggest that approximately 370 million people in 27 countries consume fluoridated water, with an additional 50 million consuming water in which fluoride is naturally occurring. A pre-eruptive effect of fluoride exists in reducing caries levels in pit and fissure surfaces of permanent teeth and fluoride concentrated in plaque and saliva inhibits the demineralisation of sound enamel and enhances the remineralisation of demineralised enamel. A large number of studies conducted worldwide demonstrate the effectiveness of water fluoridation. Objections to water fluoridation have been raised since its inception and centre mainly on safety and autonomy. Systematic reviews of the safety and efficacy of water fluoridation attest to its safety and efficacy; dental fluorosis identified as the only adverse outcome. Water fluoridation is an effective safe means of preventing dental caries, reaching all populations, irrespective of the presence of other dental services. Regular monitoring of dental caries and fluorosis is essential particularly with the lifelong challenge which dental caries presents. Copyright © 2013 by Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  18. The effect of drinking water quality on the health and longevity of people-A case study in Mayang, Hunan Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, J.; Yuan, F.

    2017-08-01

    Drinking water is an important source for trace elements intake into human body. Thus, the drinking water quality has a great impact on people’s health and longevity. This study aims to study the relationship between drinking water quality and human health and longevity. A longevity county Mayang in Hunan province, China was chosen as the study area. The drinking water and hair of local centenarians were collected and analyzed the chemical composition. The drinking water is weak alkaline and rich in the essential trace elements. The daily intakes of Ca, Cu, Fe, Se, Sr from drinking water for residents in Mayang were much higher than the national average daily intake from beverage and water. There was a positive correlation between Ni and Pb in drinking water and Ni and Pb in hair. There were significant correlations between Cu, K in drinking water and Ba, Ca, Mg, Sr in the hair at the 0.01 level. The concentrations of Mg, Sr, Se in drinking water showed extremely significant positive relation with two centenarian index 100/80% and 100/90% correlation. Essential trace elements in drinking water can be an important factor for local health and longevity.

  19. Space Station Environmental Health System water quality monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincze, Johanna E.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1990-01-01

    One of the unique aspects of the Space Station is that it will be a totally encapsulated environment and the air and water supplies will be reclaimed for reuse. The Environmental Health System, a subsystem of CHeCS (Crew Health Care System), must monitor the air and water on board the Space Station Freedom to verify that the quality is adequate for crew safety. Specifically, the Water Quality Subsystem will analyze the potable and hygiene water supplies regularly for organic, inorganic, particulate, and microbial contamination. The equipment selected to perform these analyses will be commercially available instruments which will be converted for use on board the Space Station Freedom. Therefore, the commercial hardware will be analyzed to identify the gravity dependent functions and modified to eliminate them. The selection, analysis, and conversion of the off-the-shelf equipment for monitoring the Space Station reclaimed water creates a challenging project for the Water Quality engineers and scientists.

  20. Long-term Neurotoxic Effects of Early-life Exposure to Tetrachloroethylene-contaminated Drinking Water.

    PubMed

    Aschengrau, Ann; Janulewicz, Patricia A; White, Roberta F; Vieira, Veronica M; Gallagher, Lisa G; Getz, Kelly D; Webster, Thomas F; Ozonoff, David M

    2016-01-01

    Tetrachloroethene (PCE) is a common environmental and occupational contaminant and an acknowledged neurotoxicant. From 1968 through 1983, widespread contamination of public drinking water supplies with PCE occurred in the Cape Cod region of Massachusetts. The source of the contamination was a vinyl liner applied to the inner surface of water distribution pipes. A retrospective cohort study (the Cape Cod Health Study) was undertaken to examine possible health consequences of early-life exposure to PCE-contaminated drinking water. This review describes the study methods and findings regarding the effects of prenatal and childhood exposure on neurologic outcomes during early adulthood, including vision, neuropsychological functioning, brain structure, risky behaviors, and mental illness. The review also describes the strengths and challenges of conducting population-based epidemiologic research in this unique setting. Participants were identified by cross-matching birth certificates and water system data. Information on health outcomes and confounding variables was collected from self-administered surveys (n = 1689), neuropsychological tests (n = 63), vision examinations (n = 63), and magnetic resonance imaging (n = 42). Early-life exposure to PCE was estimated using a leaching and transport model. The data analysis compared the occurrence of each health outcome among individuals with prenatal and early childhood PCE exposure to unexposed individuals while considering the effect of confounding variables. The study found evidence that early-life exposure to PCE-contaminated drinking water has long-term neurotoxic effects. The strongest associations were seen with illicit drug use, bipolar disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Key strengths of the study were availability of historical data on affected water systems, a relatively high exposure prevalence and wide range of exposure levels, and little confounding. Challenges arose mainly from the historical

  1. Water, ecology and health: ecosystems as settings for promoting health and sustainability.

    PubMed

    Parkes, Margot W; Horwitz, Pierre

    2009-03-01

    Despite the proposed ecological and systems-based perspectives of the settings-based approach to health promotion, most initiatives have tended to overlook the fundamental nature of ecosystems. This paper responds to this oversight by proposing an explicit re-integration of ecosystems within the healthy settings approach. We make this case by focusing on water as an integrating unit of analysis. Water, on which all life depends, is not only an integral consideration for the existing healthy settings (schools, hospitals, workplaces) but also highlights the ecosystem context of health and sustainability. A focus on catchments (also know as watersheds and river basins) exemplifies the scaled and upstream/downstream nature of ecosystems and draws into sharp focus the cross-sectoral and transdisciplinary context of the social and environmental determinants of health. We position this work in relation to the converging agendas of health promotion and ecosystem management at the local, regional and global scales--and draw on evidence from international initiatives as diverse as the WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health, and the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. Using water as a vehicle for understanding the systemic context for human wellbeing, health promotion and disease prevention draws inevitable attention to key challenges of scale, intersectoral governance and the complementary themes of promoting resilience and preventing vulnerability. We conclude by highlighting the importance of building individual and institutional capacity for this kind of integration--equipping a new generation of researchers, practitioners and decision-makers to be conversant with the language of ecosystems, capable of systemic thought and focused on settings that can promote both health and sustainability.

  2. Suffering for Water, Suffering from Water: Access to Drinking-water and Associated Health Risks in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Although many African countries, along the equator, receive a great amount of rainfall and possess a dense hydrographic network, access to drinking-water remains a great challenge. In many households, water is used for various purposes, including domestic and crafts activities. According to the World Health Organization, an estimated four billion cases of diarrheoa occurs worldwide, of which 88% are ascribed to unsafe drinking-water. This study aimed at evaluating health risks in the usage of contaminated drinking-water and its relationship with the prevalence of diarrhoeal diseases in Yaoundé, Cameroon. In this cross-sectional epidemiological design, 3,034 households with children aged less than five years were investigated. Households were selected from among 20 representative neighbourhoods out of 105 that made up the city. The study revealed a diarrheoa prevalence of 14.4% (437 diarrheoa cases out of 3,034 children tested). Among various risk factors examined, water-supply modes and quality of drinking-water were statistically associated with diarrheoa cases. Moreover, levels of diarrheoa attacks varied considerably from one neighbourhood to the other. The spatial analysis helped determine neighbourhoods of higher and lower prevalence of diarrheoa in the city. PMID:20941893

  3. Suffering for water, suffering from water: access to drinking-water and associated health risks in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Yongsi, H Blaise Nguendo

    2010-10-01

    Although many African countries, along the equator, receive a great amount of rainfall and possess a dense hydrographic network, access to drinking-water remains a great challenge. In many households, water is used for various purposes, including domestic and crafts activities. According to the World Health Organization, an estimated four billion cases of diarrheoa occurs worldwide, of which 88% are ascribed to unsafe drinking-water. This study aimed at evaluating health risks in the usage of contaminated drinking-water and its relationship with the prevalence of diarrhoeal diseases in Yaound6, Cameroon. In this cross-sectional epidemiological design, 3,034 households with children aged less than five years were investigated. Households were selected from among 20 representative neighbourhoods out of 105 that made up the city. The study revealed a diarrheoa prevalence of 14.4% (437 diarrheoa cases out of 3,034 children tested). Among various risk factors examined, water-supply modes and quality of drinking-water were statistically associated with diarrheoa cases. Moreover, levels of diarrheoa attacks varied considerably from one neighbourhood to the other. The spatial analysis helped determine neighbourhoods of higher and lower prevalence of diarrheoa in the city.

  4. Effect of increasing bromide concentration on toxicity in treated drinking water.

    PubMed

    Sawade, Emma; Fabris, Rolando; Humpage, Andrew; Drikas, Mary

    2016-04-01

    Research is increasingly indicating the potential chronic health effects of brominated disinfection by-products (DBPs). This is likely to increase with elevated bromide concentrations resulting from the impacts of climate change, projected to include extended periods of drought and the sudden onset of water quality changes. This will demand more rigorous monitoring throughout distribution systems and improved water quality management at water treatment plants (WTPs). In this work the impact of increased bromide concentration on formation of DBPs following conventional treatment and chlorination was assessed for two water sources. Bioanalytical tests were utilised to determine cytotoxicity of the water post disinfection. Coagulation was shown to significantly reduce the cytotoxicity of the water, indicating that removal of natural organic matter DBP precursors continues to be an important factor in drinking water treatment. Most toxic species appear to form within the first half hour following disinfectant addition. Increasing bromide concentration across the two waters was shown to increase the formation of trihalomethanes and shifted the haloacetic acid species distribution from chlorinated to those with greater bromine substitution. This correlated with increasing cytotoxicity. This work demonstrates the challenges faced by WTPs and the possible effects increasing levels of bromide in source waters could have on public health.

  5. Health research needed to resolve scientific issues surrounding drinking water disinfection

    SciTech Connect

    Kleffman, D.

    Disinfection of drinking water will most likely continue in the United States in order to prevent exposure to microbial pathogens that can cause infectious disease. However, the emergence of concerns over possible toxicological effects, including cancer, mutagenicity, cardiovascular disease, and reproductive effects, may require that the disinfection techniques used in this country be altered or changed. First, the spectrum of possible health effects and the level of risk posed by exposure to chemicals in drinking water must be determined. This will require a continuing research program to develop the scientific data necessary to resolve these issues. In this paper, themore » authors discusses the microbiological, chemical, toxicological, and epidemiological research that is needed to address these issues.« less

  6. The valuation of water quality: effects of mixing different drinking water qualities.

    PubMed

    Rygaard, Martin; Arvin, Erik; Binning, Philip J

    2009-03-01

    As water supplies increasingly turn to use desalination technologies it becomes relevant to consider the options for remineralization and blending with mineral rich water resources. We present a method for analyzing economic consequences due to changes in drinking water mineral content. Included impacts are cardiovascular diseases, dental caries, atopic eczema, lifetime of dish and clothes washing machines, heat exchangers, distribution systems, bottled water consumption and soap usage. The method includes an uncertainty assessment that ranks the impacts having the highest influence on the result and associated uncertainty. Effects are calculated for a scenario where 50% of Copenhagen's water supply is substituted by desalinated water. Without remineralization the total impact is expected to be negative (euro -0.44+/-0.2/m(3)) and individual impacts expected in the range of euro 0.01-0.51/m(3) delivered water. Health impacts have the highest contribution to impact size and uncertainty. With remineralization it is possible to reduce several negative impacts and the total impact is expected to be positive (euro 0.14+/-0.08/m(3)).

  7. Assessment of swimming associated health effects in marine bathing beach: an example from Morib beach (Malaysia).

    PubMed

    Praveena, Sarva Mangala; Pauzi, Norfasmawati Mohd; Hamdan, Munashamimi; Sham, Shaharuddin Mohd

    2015-03-15

    A survey among beachgoers was conducted to determine the swimming associated health effects experienced and its relationship with beach water exposure behaviour in Morib beach. For beach water exposure behaviour, the highest frequency of visit among the respondents was once a year (41.9%). For ways of water exposure, whole body exposure including head was the highest (38.5%). For duration of water exposure, 30.8% respondents prefer to be in water for about 30 min with low possibilities of accidental ingestion of beach water. A total of 30.8% of beachgoers in Morib beach were reported of having dermal symptoms. Bivariate analysis showed only water activity, water contact and accidental ingestion of beach water showed significant association with swimming associated health effects experienced by swimmers. This study output showed that epidemiological study can be used to identify swimming associated health effects in beach water exposed to faecal contamination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Environmental health in China: challenges to achieving clean air and safe water

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Junfeng (Jim); Mauzerall, Denise L.; Zhu, Tong; Liang, Song; Ezzati, Majid; Remais, Justin

    2014-01-01

    The health effects of environmental risks, especially those of air and water pollution, remain a major source of morbidity and mortality in China. Biomass fuel and coal are routinely burned for cooking and heating in almost all rural and many urban households resulting in severe indoor air pollution that contributes greatly to the burden of disease. Many communities lack access to safe drinking water and santiation, and thus the risk of waterborne disease in many regions remains high. At the same time, China is rapidly industrializing with associated increases in energy use and industrial waste. While economic growth resulting from industrialization has improved health and quality of life indicators in China, it has also increased the incidence of environmental disasters and the release of chemical toxins into the environment, with severe impacts on health. Air quality in China's cities is among the worst in the world and industrial water pollution has become a widespread health hazard. Moreover, emissions of climate-warming greenhouse gases from energy use are rapidly increasing. Global climate change will inevitably intensify China's environmental health problems, with potentially catastrophic outcomes from major shifts in temperature and precipitation. Facing the overlap of traditional, modern, and emerging environmental problems, China has committed substantial resources to environmental improvement. China has the opportunity to both address its national environmental health challenges and to assume a central role in the international effort to improve the global environment. PMID:20346817

  9. A hierarchical testing strategy for micropollutants in drinking water regarding their potential endocrine-disrupting effects-towards health-related indicator values.

    PubMed

    Kuckelkorn, Jochen; Redelstein, Regine; Heide, Timon; Kunze, Jennifer; Maletz, Sibylle; Waldmann, Petra; Grummt, Tamara; Seiler, Thomas-Benjamin; Hollert, Henner

    2018-02-01

    In Germany, micropollutants that (may) occur in drinking water are assessed by means of the health-related indicator value (HRIV concept), developed by the German Federal Environment Agency. This concept offers five threshold values (≤ 0.01 to ≤ 3 μg l -1 ) depending on availability and completeness of data regarding genotoxicity, neurotoxicity, and germ cell-damaging potential. However, the HRIV concept is yet lacking integration of endocrine disruptors as one of the most prominent toxicological concerns in water bodies, including drinking water. Thresholds and proposed bioassays hence urgently need to be defined. Since endocrine disruption of ubiquitary chemicals as pharmaceuticals, industrial by-products, or pesticides is a big issue in current ecotoxicology, the aim of this study was to explore endocrine effects, i.e., estrogenic and androgenic effects, as an important, additional toxicological mode of action for the HRIV concept using a hierarchical set of well-known but improved bioassays. Results indicate that all of the 13 tested substances, industrial chemicals and combustion products (5), pharmaceuticals and medical agents (4), and pesticides and metabolites (4), have no affinity to the estrogen and androgen receptor in human U2OS cells without metabolic activation, even when dosed at their water solubility limit, while in contrast some of these substances showed estrogenic effects in the RYES assay, as predicted in pre-test QSAR analysis. Using a specifically developed S9-mix with the U2OS cells, those micropollutants, i.e., Benzo[a]pyrene, 2,4-Dichlorophenol, 3,3-Dichlorbenzidin, 3,4-Dichloranilin, and diclofenac, they show estrogenic effects at the same concentration range as for the yeast cells. Three of the drinking water-relevant chemicals, i.e., atrazine, tributyltin oxide, and diclofenac, caused effects on hormone production in the H295R assay, which can be correlated with changes in the expression of steroidogenic genes. One chemical, 17

  10. Potential effects on health of global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Haines, A.; Parry, M.

    1993-12-01

    Prediction of the impacts of global climate change on health is complicated by a number of factors. These include: the difficulty in predicting regional changes in climate, the capacity for adaptation to climate change, the interactions between the effects of global climate change and a number of other key determinants of health, including population growth and poverty, and the availability of adequate preventive and curative facilities for diseases that may be effected by climate change. Nevertheless, it is of importance to consider the potential health impacts of global climate change for a number of reasons. It is also important tomore » monitor diseases which could be effected by climate change in order to detect changes in incidence as early as possible and study possible interactions with other factors. It seems likely that the possible impacts on health of climate change will be a major determinant of the degree to which policies aimed at reducing global warming are followed, as perceptions of the effect of climate change to human health and well-being are particularly likely to influence public opinion. The potential health impacts of climate change can be divided into direct (primary) and indirect (secondary and tertiary) effects. Primary effects are those related to the effect of temperature on human well-being and disease. Secondary effects include the impacts on health of changes in food production, availability of water and of sea level rise. A tertiary level of impacts can also be hypothesized.« less

  11. Community drinking water quality monitoring data: utility for public health research and practice.

    PubMed

    Jones, Rachael M; Graber, Judith M; Anderson, Robert; Rockne, Karl; Turyk, Mary; Stayner, Leslie T

    2014-01-01

    Environmental Public Health Tracking (EPHT) tracks the occurrence and magnitude of environmental hazards and associated adverse health effects over time. The EPHT program has formally expanded its scope to include finished drinking water quality. Our objective was to describe the features, strengths, and limitations of using finished drinking water quality data from community water systems (CWSs) for EPHT applications, focusing on atrazine and nitrogen compounds in 8 Midwestern states. Water quality data were acquired after meeting with state partners and reviewed and merged for analysis. Data and the coding of variables, particularly with respect to censored results (nondetects), were not standardized between states. Monitoring frequency varied between CWSs and between atrazine and nitrates, but this was in line with regulatory requirements. Cumulative distributions of all contaminants were not the same in all states (Peto-Prentice test P < .001). Atrazine results were highly censored in all states (76.0%-99.3%); higher concentrations were associated with increased measurement frequency and surface water as the CWS source water type. Nitrate results showed substantial state-to-state variability in censoring (20.5%-100%) and in associations between concentrations and the CWS source water type. Statistical analyses of these data are challenging due to high rates of censoring and uncertainty about the appropriateness of parametric assumptions for time-series data. Although monitoring frequency was consistent with regulations, the magnitude of time gaps coupled with uncertainty about CWS service areas may limit linkage with health outcome data.

  12. Estimating Impaired Waters on a County Level for Public Health Analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessing the population-level impact of water quality on health can be difficult. Water quality data are measured at a watershed level and health data are organized at different levels of aggregation. To address this discrepancy and enable the consideration of water quality for ...

  13. Comparative Human Health Risk Analysis of Coastal Community Water and Waste Service Options

    EPA Science Inventory

    As a pilot approach to describe adverse human health effects from alternative decentralized community water systems compared to conventional centralized services (business-as-usual [BAU]), selected chemical and microbial hazards were assessed using disability adjusted life years ...

  14. Effect of home-used water purifier on fluoride concentration of drinking water in southern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Jaafari-Ashkavandi, Zohreh; Kheirmand, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Fluoride in drinking water plays a key role in dental health. Due to the increasing use of water-purifier, the effect of these devices on fluoride concentration of drinking water was evaluated. Materials and Methods: Drinking water samples were collected before and after passing through a home water-purifier, from four different water sources. The fluoride, calcium and magnesium concentration of the samples were measured using the quantitative spectrophotometery technique. Data were analyzed by the Wilcoxon test. P value < 0.1 was considered as significant. Results: The result showed that the concentration of fluoride was 0.05-0.61 ppm before purification and was removed completely afterward. Furthermore, other ions reduced significantly after treatment by the water purifier. Conclusion: This study revealed that this device decreases the fluoride content of water, an issue which should be considered in low and high-fluoridated water sources. PMID:24130584

  15. When the Well Runs Dry: Climate Change, Water and Human Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balbus, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Water is a critical pathway between changes in climate and impacts on human health. Increased intensity of the hydrologic cycle can impair water quality through both drought and runoff associated with extreme precipitation events. Local changes or extremes in hydrological cycles can also alter the life cycles of moquitoes, ticks, snails, and other carriers of human diseases. These impacts in turn can affect the transmission of malaria, schistosomiasis, and many other human diseases. Warmer freshwater and coastal waters, in combination with other factors like fertilizer runoff and salinity, are also associated with proliferation of a variety of human pathogens, including cyanobacteria and vibrio species. This presentation will highlight the many linkages between climate change, water and human health. It will review recent findings of the US National Climate Assessment and 5th Assessment Report of the IPCC with regards to water-related threats to health, and discuss approaches to modeling health outcomes of water-associated climate change impacts.

  16. Long-Term Neurotoxic Effects of Early Life Exposure to Tetrachloroethylene-contaminated Drinking Water

    PubMed Central

    Aschengrau, Ann; Janulewicz, Patricia A.; White, Roberta F.; Vieira, Veronica M.; Gallagher, Lisa G.; Getz, Kelly D.; Webster, Thomas F.; Ozonoff, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Tetrachloroethene (PCE) is a common environmental and occupational contaminant and an acknowledged neurotoxicant. From 1968 through 1983 widespread contamination of public drinking water supplies with PCE occurred in the Cape Cod region of Massachusetts. The source of the contamination was a vinyl liner applied to the inner surface of water distribution pipes. Objectives A retrospective cohort study (“the Cape Cod Health Study”) was undertaken to examine possible health consequences of early life exposure to PCE-contaminated drinking water. This review describes the study methods and findings regarding the impact of prenatal and childhood exposure on neurological outcomes during early adulthood, including vision, neuropsychological functioning, brain structure, risky behaviors, and mental illness. The review also describes the strengths and challenges of conducting population-based epidemiological research in this unique setting. Methods Subjects were identified by cross-matching birth certificate and water system data. Information on health outcomes and confounding variables was collected from self-administered surveys (N= 1,689), neuropsychological tests (N=63), vision exam (N=63), and magnetic resonance imaging (N=42). Early life exposure to PCE was estimated using a leaching and transport model. The data analysis compared the occurrence of each health outcome among subjects with prenatal and early childhood PCE exposure to unexposed subjects while considering the impact of confounding variables. Results The study found evidence that early life exposure to PCE-contaminated drinking water has long-term neurotoxic effects. The strongest associations were seen with illicit drug use, bipolar disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Key strengths of the study were availability of historical data on affected water systems, a relatively high exposure prevalence and wide range of exposure levels, and little confounding. Challenges arose mainly from

  17. Drinking water quality and public health in Southwestern Saudi Arabia: The need for a national monitoring program.

    PubMed

    Alqahtani, Jobran M; Asaad, Ahmed M; Ahmed, Essam M; Qureshi, Mohamed A

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the bacteriological quality of drinking water, and explore the factors involved in the knowledge of the public about the quality of drinking water in Najran region, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional descriptive study. A total of 160 water samples were collected. Total coliforms, fecal coliform, and fecal streptococci were counted using Most Probable Number method. The bacterial genes lacZ and uidA specific to total coliforms and Escherichia coli, respectively, were detected using multiplex polymerase chain reaction. An interview was conducted with 1200 residents using a questionnaire. Total coliforms were detected in 8 (20%) of 40 samples from wells, 13 (32.5%) of 40 samples from tankers, and 55 (68.8%) of 80 samples from roof tanks. Twenty (25%) and 8 (10%) samples from roof tanks were positive for E. coli and Streptococcus faecalis, respectively. Of the 1200 residents participating in the study, 10%, 45.5%, and 44.5% claimed that they depended on municipal water, bottled water, and well water, respectively. The majority (95.5%) reported the use of roof water tanks as a source of water supply in their homes. Most people (80%) believed that drinking water transmitted diseases. However, only 25% of them participated in educational programs on the effect of polluted water on health. Our results could help health authorities consider a proper regular monitoring program and a sustainable continuous assessment of the quality of well water. In addition, this study highlights the importance of the awareness and educational programs for residents on the effect of polluted water on public health.

  18. Effective drinking water collaborations are not accidental: interagency relationships in the international water utility sector.

    PubMed

    Jalba, D I; Cromar, N J; Pollard, S J T; Charrois, J W; Bradshaw, R; Hrudey, S E

    2014-02-01

    The role that deficient institutional relationships have played in aggravating drinking water incidents over the last 30 years has been identified in several inquiries of high profile drinking water safety events, peer-reviewed articles and media reports. These indicate that collaboration between water utilities and public health agencies (PHAs) during normal operations, and in emergencies, needs improvement. Here, critical elements of these interagency collaborations, that can be integrated within the corporate risk management structures of water utilities and PHAs alike, were identified using a grounded theory approach and 51 semi-structured interviews with utility and PHA staff. Core determinants of effective interagency relationships are discussed. Intentionally maintained functional relationships represent a key ingredient in assuring the delivery of safe, high quality drinking water. © 2013.

  19. [Health Risk Assessment of Drinking Water Quality in Tianjin Based on GIS].

    PubMed

    Fu, Gang; Zeng, Qiang; Zhao, Liang; Zhang, Yue; Feng, Bao-jia; Wang, Rui; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Yang; Hou, Chang-chun

    2015-12-01

    This study intends to assess the potential health hazards of drinking water quality and explore the application of geographic information system( GIS) in drinking water safety in Tianjin. Eight hundred and fifty water samples from 401 sampling points in Tianjin were measured according to the national drinking water standards. The risk assessment was conducted using the environmental health risk assessment model recommended by US EAP, and GIS was combined to explore the information visualization and risk factors simultaneously. The results showed that the health risks of carcinogens, non-carcinogens were 3.83 x 10⁻⁵, 5.62 x 10⁻⁹ and 3.83 x 10⁻⁵ for total health risk respectively. The rank of health risk was carcinogen > non-carcinogen. The rank of carcinogens health risk was urban > new area > rural area, chromium (VI) > cadmium > arsenic > trichlormethane > carbon tetrachloride. The rank of non-carcinogens health risk was rural area > new area > urban, fluoride > cyanide > lead > nitrate. The total health risk level of drinking water in Tianjin was lower than that of ICRP recommended level (5.0 x 10⁻⁵), while was between US EPA recommended level (1.0 x 10⁻⁴-1.0 x 10⁻⁶). It was at an acceptable level and would not cause obvious health hazards. The main health risks of drinking water came from carcinogens. More attentions should be paid to chromium (VI) for carcinogens and fluoride for non-carcinogens. GIS can accomplish information visualization of drinking water risk assessment and further explore of risk factors.

  20. A cost effectiveness analysis of community water fluoridation in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Fyfe, Caroline; Borman, Barry; Scott, Guy; Birks, Stuart

    2015-12-18

    The aim of the study was to use recent data to determine whether Community Water Fluoridation (CWF) remains a cost effective public health intervention in New Zealand, given a reduction in dental caries in all communities over time. Local authorities that fluoridated their water supplies were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding fixed and variable costs incurred from CWF. Cost savings were calculated using data from the 2009 New Zealand Oral Health Survey. The cost effectiveness of CWF in conjunction with treatment per dmft/DMFT averted was compared to an alternative of treatment alone. Calculations were made for communities with populations of less than 5,000, 5,000 to 10,000, 10,001 to 50,000 and greater than 50,000. CWF was cost effective in all communities at base case. CWF remained cost effective for communities over 5,000 under all scenarios when sensitivity analysis was conducted. For communities under 5,000 the there was a positive net cost for CWF under certain scenarios. In this study, CWF was a cost effective public health intervention in New Zealand. For smaller communities cost effectiveness would be more dependent upon the population risk profile of the community.

  1. Human Health and the Biological Effects of Tritium in Drinking Water: Prudent Policy Through Science - Addressing the ODWAC New Recommendation.

    PubMed

    Dingwall, S; Mills, C E; Phan, N; Taylor, K; Boreham, D R

    2011-02-22

    Tritium is a radioactive form of hydrogen and is a by-product of energy production in Canadian Deuterium Uranium (CANDU) reactors. The release of this radioisotope into the environment is carefully managed at CANDU facilities in order to minimize radiation exposure to the public. However, under some circumstances, small accidental releases to the environment can occur. The radiation doses to humans and non-human biota from these releases are low and orders of magnitude less than doses received from naturally occurring radioisotopes or from manmade activities, such as medical imaging and air travel. There is however a renewed interest in the biological consequences of low dose tritium exposures and a new limit for tritium levels in Ontario drinking water has been proposed. The Ontario Drinking Water Advisory Council (ODWAC) issued a formal report in May 2009 in response to a request by the Minister of the Environment, concluding that the Ontario Drinking Water Quality Standard for tritium should be revised from the current 7,000 Bq/L level to a new, lower 20 Bq/L level. In response to this recommendation, an international scientific symposium was held at McMaster University to address the issues surrounding this change in direction and the validity of a new policy. Scientists, regulators, government officials, and industrial stakeholders were present to discuss the potential health risks associated with low level radiation exposure from tritium. The regulatory, economic, and social implications of the new proposed limit were also considered.The new recommendation assumed a linear-no-threshold model to calculate carcinogenic risk associated with tritium exposure, and considered tritium as a non-threshold chemical carcinogen. Both of these assumptions are highly controversial given that recent research suggests that low dose exposures have thresholds below which there are no observable detrimental effects. Furthermore, mutagenic and carcinogenic risk calculated from

  2. Municipal water quantities and health in Nunavut households: an exploratory case study in Coral Harbour, Nunavut, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Daley, Kiley; Castleden, Heather; Jamieson, Rob; Furgal, Chris; Ell, Lorna

    2014-01-01

    Background Access to adequate quantities of water has a protective effect on human health and well-being. Despite this, public health research and interventions are frequently focused solely on water quality, and international standards for domestic water supply minimums are often overlooked or unspecified. This trend is evident in Inuit and other Arctic communities even though numerous transmissible diseases and bacterium infections associated with inadequate domestic water quantities are prevalent. Objectives Our objective was to explore the pathways by which the trucked water distribution systems being used in remote northern communities are impacting health at the household level, with consideration given to the underlying social and environmental determinants shaping health in the region. Methods Using a qualitative case study design, we conducted 37 interviews (28 residents, 9 key informants) and a review of government water documents to investigate water usage practices and perspectives. These data were thematically analysed to understand potential health risks in Arctic communities and households. Results Each resident receives an average of 110 litres of municipal water per day. Fifteen of 28 households reported experiencing water shortages at least once per month. Of those 15, most were larger households (5 people or more) with standard sized water storage tanks. Water shortages and service interruptions limit the ability of some households to adhere to public health advice. The households most resilient, or able to cope with domestic water supply shortages, were those capable of retrieving their own drinking water directly from lake and river sources. Residents with extended family and neighbours, whom they can rely on during shortages, were also less vulnerable to municipal water delays. Conclusions The relatively low in-home water quantities observed in Coral Harbour, Nunavut, appear adequate for some families. Those living in overcrowded households

  3. Municipal water quantities and health in Nunavut households: an exploratory case study in Coral Harbour, Nunavut, Canada.

    PubMed

    Daley, Kiley; Castleden, Heather; Jamieson, Rob; Furgal, Chris; Ell, Lorna

    2014-01-01

    Access to adequate quantities of water has a protective effect on human health and well-being. Despite this, public health research and interventions are frequently focused solely on water quality, and international standards for domestic water supply minimums are often overlooked or unspecified. This trend is evident in Inuit and other Arctic communities even though numerous transmissible diseases and bacterium infections associated with inadequate domestic water quantities are prevalent. Our objective was to explore the pathways by which the trucked water distribution systems being used in remote northern communities are impacting health at the household level, with consideration given to the underlying social and environmental determinants shaping health in the region. Using a qualitative case study design, we conducted 37 interviews (28 residents, 9 key informants) and a review of government water documents to investigate water usage practices and perspectives. These data were thematically analysed to understand potential health risks in Arctic communities and households. Each resident receives an average of 110 litres of municipal water per day. Fifteen of 28 households reported experiencing water shortages at least once per month. Of those 15, most were larger households (5 people or more) with standard sized water storage tanks. Water shortages and service interruptions limit the ability of some households to adhere to public health advice. The households most resilient, or able to cope with domestic water supply shortages, were those capable of retrieving their own drinking water directly from lake and river sources. Residents with extended family and neighbours, whom they can rely on during shortages, were also less vulnerable to municipal water delays. The relatively low in-home water quantities observed in Coral Harbour, Nunavut, appear adequate for some families. Those living in overcrowded households, however, are accessing water in quantities more

  4. Quantifying health improvements from water quantity enhancement: an engineering perspective applied to rainwater harvesting in West Africa.

    PubMed

    Fry, Lauren M; Cowden, Joshua R; Watkins, David W; Clasen, Thomas; Mihelcic, James R

    2010-12-15

    Knowledge of potential benefits resulting from technological interventions informs decision making and planning of water, sanitation, and hygiene programs. The public health field has built a body of literature showing health benefits from improvements in water quality. However, the connection between improvements in water quantity and health is not well documented. Understanding the connection between technological interventions and water use provides insight into this problem. We present a model predicting reductions in diarrhea disease burden when the water demands from hygiene and sanitation improvements are met by domestic rainwater harvesting (DRWH). The model is applied in a case study of 37 West African cities. For all cities, with a total population of over 10 million, we estimate that DRWH with 400 L storage capacity could result in a 9% reduction in disability-affected life years (DALYs). If DRWH is combined with point of use (POU) treatment, this potential impact is nearly doubled, to a 16% reduction in DALYs. Seasonal variability of diarrheal incidence may have a small to moderate effect on the effectiveness of DRWH, depending on the storage volume used. Similar predictions could be made for other interventions that improve water quantity in other locations where disease burden from diarrhea is known.

  5. Health risk assessment of potable water containing small amount of tritium oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momot, O. A.; Synzynys, B. I.; Oudalova, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    The problem of groundwater pollution with tritium in a vicinity of radiation-dangerous facilities in Obninsk is considered. The information on the specific activity of tritium in Obninsk water sources is provided. The formula for the calculation of the β-radiation absorbed dose from tritium ingestion is proposed, reflecting the biological behavior of tritium in a human body. To establish the extent of tritium effects on human, the health risk is assessed. It is shown that if the specific activity of tritium in drinking water amounts to 10 Bq/l, the risk of stochastic effects of radiation will not exceed the limit of the individual lifetime risk.

  6. Composite measures of watershed health from a water quality perspective.

    PubMed

    Mallya, Ganeshchandra; Hantush, Mohamed; Govindaraju, Rao S

    2018-05-15

    Water quality data at gaging stations are typically compared with established federal, state, or local water quality standards to determine if violations (concentrations of specific constituents falling outside acceptable limits) have occurred. Based on the frequency and severity of water quality violations, risk metrics such as reliability, resilience, and vulnerability (R-R-V) are computed for assessing water quality-based watershed health. In this study, a modified methodology for computing R-R-V measures is presented, and a new composite watershed health index is proposed. Risk-based assessments for different water quality parameters are carried out using identified national sampling stations within the Upper Mississippi River Basin, the Maumee River Basin, and the Ohio River Basin. The distributional properties of risk measures with respect to water quality parameters are reported. Scaling behaviors of risk measures using stream order, specifically for the watershed health (WH) index, suggest that WH values increased with stream order for suspended sediment concentration, nitrogen, and orthophosphate in the Upper Mississippi River Basin. Spatial distribution of risk measures enable identification of locations exhibiting poor watershed health with respect to the chosen numerical standard, and the role of land use characteristics within the watershed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Health risks from large-scale water pollution: trends in Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Törnqvist, Rebecka; Jarsjö, Jerker; Karimov, Bakhtiyor

    2011-02-01

    Limited data on the pollution status of spatially extensive water systems constrain health-risk assessments at basin-scales. Using a recipient measurement approach in a terminal water body, we show that agricultural and industrial pollutants in groundwater-surface water systems of the Aral Sea Drainage Basin (covering the main part of Central Asia) yield cumulative health hazards above guideline values in downstream surface waters, due to high concentrations of copper, arsenic, nitrite, and to certain extent dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). Considering these high-impact contaminants, we furthermore perform trend analyses of their upstream spatial-temporal distribution, investigating dominant large-scale spreading mechanisms. The ratio between parent DDT and its degradation products showed that discharges into or depositions onto surface waters are likely to be recent or ongoing. In river water, copper concentrations peak during the spring season, after thawing and snow melt. High spatial variability of arsenic concentrations in river water could reflect its local presence in the top soil of nearby agricultural fields. Overall, groundwaters were associated with much higher health risks than surface waters. Health risks can therefore increase considerably, if the downstream population must switch to groundwater-based drinking water supplies during surface water shortage. Arid regions are generally vulnerable to this problem due to ongoing irrigation expansion and climate changes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Environmental and health effects of the herbicide glyphosate.

    PubMed

    Van Bruggen, A H C; He, M M; Shin, K; Mai, V; Jeong, K C; Finckh, M R; Morris, J G

    2018-03-01

    The herbicide glyphosate, N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine, has been used extensively in the past 40years, under the assumption that side effects were minimal. However, in recent years, concerns have increased worldwide about the potential wide ranging direct and indirect health effects of the large scale use of glyphosate. In 2015, the World Health Organization reclassified glyphosate as probably carcinogenic to humans. A detailed overview is given of the scientific literature on the movement and residues of glyphosate and its breakdown product aminomethyl phosphonic acid (AMPA) in soil and water, their toxicity to macro- and microorganisms, their effects on microbial compositions and potential indirect effects on plant, animal and human health. Although the acute toxic effects of glyphosate and AMPA on mammals are low, there are animal data raising the possibility of health effects associated with chronic, ultra-low doses related to accumulation of these compounds in the environment. Intensive glyphosate use has led to the selection of glyphosate-resistant weeds and microorganisms. Shifts in microbial compositions due to selective pressure by glyphosate may have contributed to the proliferation of plant and animal pathogens. Research on a link between glyphosate and antibiotic resistance is still scarce but we hypothesize that the selection pressure for glyphosate-resistance in bacteria could lead to shifts in microbiome composition and increases in antibiotic resistance to clinically important antimicrobial agents. We recommend interdisciplinary research on the associations between low level chronic glyphosate exposure, distortions in microbial communities, expansion of antibiotic resistance and the emergence of animal, human and plant diseases. Independent research is needed to revisit the tolerance thresholds for glyphosate residues in water, food and animal feed taking all possible health risks into account. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Role of mafic and ultramafic rocks in drinking water quality and its potential health risk assessment, Northern Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Begum, Shaheen; Shah, Mohammad Tahir; Muhammad, Said; Khan, Sardar

    2015-12-01

    This study investigates the drinking water (groundwater and surface water) quality and potential risk assessment along mafic and ultramafic rocks in the Swat district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Provence, Pakistan. For this purpose, 82 groundwater and 33 surface water samples were collected and analyzed for physico-chemical parameters. Results showed that the majority of the physico-chemical parameters were found to be within the drinking water guidelines set by the World Health Organization. However, major cationic metals such as magnesium (Mg), and trace metals (TM) including iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr) and cobalt (Co) showed exceeded concentrations in 13%, 4%, 2%, 20%, 20% and 55% of water samples, respectively. Health risk assessment revealed that the non-carcinogenic effects or hazard quotient values through the oral ingestion pathway of water consumption for the TM (viz., Fe, Cr and Mn) were found to be greater than 1, could result in chronic risk to the exposed population. Results of statistical analyses revealed that mafic and ultramafic rocks are the main sources of metal contamination in drinking water, especially Ni and Cr. Both Ni and Cr have toxic health effects and therefore this study suggests that contaminated sites should be avoided or treated for drinking and domestic purposes.

  10. RECREATIONAL WATER QUALITY AND SWIMMING ASSOCIATED HEALTH EFFECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA's National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational Water study is currently underway with the goal of determining if new rapid methods for measuring water quality can be used to predict illness in swimmers. This lecture will provide a historical...

  11. Toward a social capital based framework for understanding the water-health nexus.

    PubMed

    Bisung, Elijah; Elliott, Susan J

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, there has been considerable interest in social capital theory in both research and policy arenas. Social capital has been associated with many aspects of improvements in health, environment and development. This paper assesses the theoretical support for a social capital based analysis of environment and health issues with a focus on the water-health nexus in low and middle income countries. We review conceptualisation of social capital by Pierre Bourdieu in relation to his concepts of "fields" and "habitus" as well as other conceptualisations of social capital by James Coleman and Robert Putnam. We integrate these authors' ideas with ecosocial analysis of social and geographical patterns of access to safe water, adequate sanitation and hygiene and the resulting health impacts. Further, we develop a conceptual framework for linking social capital and health through the water-health nexus. The framework focuses on the role of social capital in improving water-related knowledge, attitudes and practices as well as facilitating collective action towards improving access to water and sanitation. The proposed framework will facilitate critical engagement with the pathways through which social processes and interactions influence health within the context of access to water, sanitation and hygiene in low and middle income countries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Earthquakes--a historical review, environmental and health effects, and health care measures].

    PubMed

    Nola, Iskra Alexandra; Doko Jelinić, Jagoda; Žuškin, Eugenija; Kratohvil, Mladen

    2013-06-01

    Earthquakes are natural disasters that can occur at any time, regardless of the location. Their frequency is higher in the Circum-Pacific and Mediterranean/Trans-Asian seismic belt. A number of sophisticated methods define their magnitude using the Richter scale and intensity using the Mercani-Cancani-Sieberg scale. Recorded data show a number of devastating earthquakes that have killed many people and changed the environment dramatically. Croatia is located in a seismically active area, which has endured a series of historical earthquakes, among which several occurred in the Zagreb area. The consequences of an earthquake depend mostly on the population density and seismic resistance of buildings in the affected area. Environmental consequences often include air, water, and soil pollution. The effects of this kind of pollution can have long-term health effects. The most dramatic health consequences result from the demolition of buildings. Therefore, quick and efficient aid depends on well-organized health professionals as well as on the readiness of the civil defence, fire department, and Mountain Rescue Service members. Good coordination among these services can save many lives Public health interventions must include effective control measures in the environment as secondary prevention methods for health problems caused by unfavourable environmental factors. The identification and control of long-term hazards can reduce chronic health effects. The reduction of earthquake-induced damages includes setting priorities in building seismically safe buildings.

  13. Drinking water quality and public health in Southwestern Saudi Arabia: The need for a national monitoring program

    PubMed Central

    Alqahtani, Jobran M.; Asaad, Ahmed M.; Ahmed, Essam M.; Qureshi, Mohamed A.

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the Study: The aim was to investigate the bacteriological quality of drinking water, and explore the factors involved in the knowledge of the public about the quality of drinking water in Najran region, Saudi Arabia. Study Design: A cross-sectional descriptive study. Materials and Methods: A total of 160 water samples were collected. Total coliforms, fecal coliform, and fecal streptococci were counted using Most Probable Number method. The bacterial genes lacZ and uidA specific to total coliforms and Escherichia coli, respectively, were detected using multiplex polymerase chain reaction. An interview was conducted with 1200 residents using a questionnaire. Results: Total coliforms were detected in 8 (20%) of 40 samples from wells, 13 (32.5%) of 40 samples from tankers, and 55 (68.8%) of 80 samples from roof tanks. Twenty (25%) and 8 (10%) samples from roof tanks were positive for E. coli and Streptococcus faecalis, respectively. Of the 1200 residents participating in the study, 10%, 45.5%, and 44.5% claimed that they depended on municipal water, bottled water, and well water, respectively. The majority (95.5%) reported the use of roof water tanks as a source of water supply in their homes. Most people (80%) believed that drinking water transmitted diseases. However, only 25% of them participated in educational programs on the effect of polluted water on health. Conclusions: Our results could help health authorities consider a proper regular monitoring program and a sustainable continuous assessment of the quality of well water. In addition, this study highlights the importance of the awareness and educational programs for residents on the effect of polluted water on public health. PMID:25657607

  14. Clean water, sanitation and diarrhoea in Indonesia: Effects of household and community factors.

    PubMed

    Komarulzaman, Ahmad; Smits, Jeroen; de Jong, Eelke

    2017-09-01

    Diarrhoea is an important health issue in low- and middle-income countries, including Indonesia. We applied a multilevel regression analysis on the Indonesian Demographic and Health Survey to examine the effects of drinking water and sanitation facilities at the household and community level on diarrhoea prevalence among children under five (n = 33,339). The role of the circumstances was explored by studying interactions between the water and sanitation variables and other risk factors. Diarrhoea prevalence was reported by 4820 (14.4%) children, who on average were younger, poorer and were living in a poorer environment. At the household level, piped water was significantly associated with diarrhoea prevalence (OR = 0.797, 95% CI: 0.692-0.918), improved sanitation had no direct effect (OR = 0.992, 95% CI: 0.899-1.096) and water treatment was not related to diarrhoea incidence (OR = 1.106, 95% CI: 0.994-1.232). At the community level, improved water coverage had no direct effect (OR = 1.002, 95% CI: 0.950-1.057) but improved sanitation coverage was associated with lower diarrhoea prevalence (OR = 0.917, 95% CI: 0.843-0.998). Our interaction analysis showed that the protective effects of better sanitation at the community level were increased by better drinking water at the community level. This illustrates the importance of improving both drinking water and sanitation simultaneously.

  15. Does the evidence about health risks associated with nitrate ingestion warrant an increase of the nitrate standard for drinking water?

    PubMed Central

    van Grinsven, Hans JM; Ward, Mary H; Benjamin, Nigel; de Kok, Theo M

    2006-01-01

    Several authors have suggested that it is safe to raise the health standard for nitrate in drinking water, and save money on measures associated with nitrate pollution of drinking water resources. The major argument has been that the epidemiologic evidence for acute and chronic health effects related to drinking water nitrate at concentrations near the health standard is inconclusive. With respect to the chronic effects, the argument was motivated by the absence of evidence for adverse health effects related to ingestion of nitrate from dietary sources. An interdisciplinary discussion of these arguments led to three important observations. First, there have been only a few well-designed epidemiologic studies that evaluated ingestion of nitrate in drinking water and risk of specific cancers or adverse reproductive outcomes among potentially susceptible subgroups likely to have elevated endogenous nitrosation. Positive associations have been observed for some but not all health outcomes evaluated. Second, the epidemiologic studies of cancer do not support an association between ingestion of dietary nitrate (vegetables) and an increased risk of cancer, because intake of dietary nitrate is associated with intake of antioxidants and other beneficial phytochemicals. Third, 2–3 % of the population in Western Europe and the US could be exposed to nitrate levels in drinking water exceeding the WHO standard of 50 mg/l nitrate, particularly those living in rural areas. The health losses due to this exposure cannot be estimated. Therefore, we conclude that it is not possible to weigh the costs and benefits from changing the nitrate standard for drinking water and groundwater resources by considering the potential consequences for human health and by considering the potential savings due to reduced costs for nitrate removal and prevention of nitrate pollution. PMID:16989661

  16. Effectiveness of table top water pitcher filters to remove arsenic from drinking water.

    PubMed

    Barnaby, Roxanna; Liefeld, Amanda; Jackson, Brian P; Hampton, Thomas H; Stanton, Bruce A

    2017-10-01

    Arsenic contamination of drinking water is a serious threat to the health of hundreds of millions of people worldwide. In the United States ~3 million individuals drink well water that contains arsenic levels above the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 10μg/L. Several technologies are available to remove arsenic from well water including anion exchange, adsorptive media and reverse osmosis. In addition, bottled water is an alternative to drinking well water contaminated with arsenic. However, there are several drawbacks associated with these approaches including relatively high cost and, in the case of bottled water, the generation of plastic waste. In this study, we tested the ability of five tabletop water pitcher filters to remove arsenic from drinking water. We report that only one tabletop water pitcher filter tested, ZeroWater®, reduced the arsenic concentration, both As 3+ and As 5+ , from 1000μg/L to < 3μg/L, well below the MCL. Moreover, the amount of total dissolved solids or competing ions did not affect the ability of the ZeroWater® filter to remove arsenic below the MCL. Thus, the ZeroWater® pitcher filter is a cost effective and short-term solution to remove arsenic from drinking water and its use reduces plastic waste associated with bottled water. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effectiveness of Table Top Water Pitcher Filters to Remove Arsenic from Drinking Water

    PubMed Central

    Barnaby, Roxanna; Liefeld, Amanda; Jackson, Brian P.; Hampton, Thomas H.; Stanton, Bruce A.

    2017-01-01

    Arsenic contamination of drinking water is a serious threat to the health of hundreds of millions of people worldwide. In the United States ~3 million individuals drink well water that contains arsenic levels above the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 10 μg/L. Several technologies are available to remove arsenic from well water including anion exchange, adsorptive media and reverse osmosis. In addition, bottled water is an alternative to drinking well water contaminated with arsenic. However, there are several drawbacks associated with these approaches including relatively high cost and, in the case of bottled water, the generation of plastic waste. In this study, we tested the ability of five tabletop water pitcher filters to remove arsenic from drinking water. We report that only one tabletop water pitcher filter tested, ZeroWater®, reduced the arsenic concentration, both As3+ and As5+, from 1,000 μg/L to < 3 μg/L, well below the MCL. Moreover, the amount of total dissolved solids or competing ions did not affect the ability of the ZeroWater® filter to remove arsenic below the MCL. Thus, the ZeroWater® pitcher filter is a cost effective and short-term solution to remove arsenic from drinking water and its use reduces plastic waste associated with bottled water. PMID:28719869

  18. Health risk assessment of heavy metals in wheat using different water qualities: implication for human health.

    PubMed

    Khan, Zafar Iqbal; Ahmad, Kafeel; Rehman, Sidrah; Siddique, Samra; Bashir, Humayun; Zafar, Asma; Sohail, Muhammad; Ali, Salem Alhajj; Cazzato, Eugenio; De Mastro, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    In the recent years, the use of sewage water for irrigation has attracted the attention of arid and semi-arid countries where the availability of fresh water is poor. Despite the potential use of sewage water in crop irrigation as effective and sustainable strategy, the environmental and human risks behind this use need to be deeply investigated. In this regard, an experiment was carried out under field conditions in Nursery, University College of Agriculture Sargodha, to evaluate the possible health risks of undesirable metals in wheat grains. Wheat variety Sarang was cultivated and irrigated with different combinations of ground (GW) and sewage water (SW). The concentrations of heavy metals (Cr, Cd, Ni, and Pb) and trace elements (Cu, Zn, and Fe) in wheat grains as well as in soil were determined. Moreover, the pollution load index (PLI), accumulation factor (AF), daily intake of metals (DIM), and health risk index (HRI) were calculated. Results showed that the concentration trend of heavy metals was Pbwater quality, whereas Pb concentration in grain was within the acceptable levels as suggested by World Health Organization, when 100 % of SW was used for irrigation. Similar observation was reported for Cd concentration in the soil when wheat was irrigated with 100 % SW. In comparison to soil, the edible part of wheat presented lower concentration of all studied metals, except for Zn which was much higher compared to the tested soil samples. The higher concentration of Zn was responsible for increasing the DIM of Zn where, in average, the highest value was reported, particularly in 75 % SW treatment. This was reflected also in HRI where the maximum value was reported for Zinc under the same treatment. Higher value of HRI for wheat cultivated on polluted soils suggested that appropriate management of

  19. Public health effects of inadequately managed stormwater runoff.

    PubMed

    Gaffield, Stephen J; Goo, Robert L; Richards, Lynn A; Jackson, Richard J

    2003-09-01

    This study investigated the scale of the public health risk from stormwater runoff caused by urbanization. We compiled turbidity data for municipal treated drinking water as an indication of potential risk in selected US cities and compared estimated costs of waterborne disease and preventive measures. Turbidity levels in other US cities were similar to those linked to illnesses in Milwaukee, Wis, and Philadelphia, Pa. The estimated annual cost of waterborne illness is comparable to the long-term capital investment needed for improved drinking water treatment and stormwater management. Although additional data on cost and effectiveness are needed, stormwater management to minimize runoff and associated pollution appears to make sense for protecting public health at the least cost.

  20. Drinking Water Disinfection Byproducts (DBPs) and Human Health Effects: Multidisciplinary Challenges and Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Li, Xing-Fang; Mitch, William A

    2018-02-20

    While drinking water disinfection has effectively prevented waterborne diseases, an unintended consequence is the generation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Epidemiological studies have consistently observed an association between consumption of chlorinated drinking water with an increased risk of bladder cancer. Out of the >600 DBPs identified, regulations focus on a few classes, such as trihalomethanes (THMs), whose concentrations were hypothesized to correlate with the DBPs driving the toxicity of disinfected waters. However, the DBPs responsible for the bladder cancer association remain unclear. Utilities are switching away from a reliance on chlorination of pristine drinking water supplies to the application of new disinfectant combinations to waters impaired by wastewater effluents and algal blooms. In light of these changes in disinfection practice, this article discusses new approaches being taken by analytical chemists, engineers, toxicologists and epidemiologists to characterize the DBP classes driving disinfected water toxicity, and suggests that DBP exposure should be measured using other DBP classes in addition to THMs.

  1. Quantitative bacterial examination of domestic water supplies in the Lesotho Highlands: water quality, sanitation, and village health.

    PubMed Central

    Kravitz, J. D.; Nyaphisi, M.; Mandel, R.; Petersen, E.

    1999-01-01

    Reported are the results of an examination of domestic water supplies for microbial contamination in the Lesotho Highlands, the site of a 20-year-old hydroelectric project, as part of a regional epidemiological survey of baseline health, nutritional and environmental parameters. The population's hygiene and health behaviour were also studied. A total of 72 village water sources were classified as unimproved (n = 23), semi-improved (n = 37), or improved (n = 12). Based on the estimation of total coliforms, which is a nonspecific bacterial indicator of water quality, all unimproved and semi-improved water sources would be considered as not potable. Escherichia coli, a more precise indicator of faecal pollution, was absent (P < 0.001) in most of the improved water sources. Among 588 queried households, only 38% had access to an "improved" water supply. Sanitation was a serious problem, e.g. fewer than 5% of villagers used latrines and 18% of under-5-year-olds had suffered a recent diarrhoeal illness. The study demonstrates that protection of water sources can improve the hygienic quality of rural water supplies, where disinfection is not feasible. Our findings support the WHO recommendation that E. coli should be the principal microbial indicator for portability of untreated water. Strategies for developing safe water and sanitation systems must include public health education in hygiene and water source protection, practical methods and standards for water quality monitoring, and a resource centre for project information to facilitate programme evaluation and planning. PMID:10593031

  2. Climate Change-Related Water Disasters' Impact on Population Health.

    PubMed

    Veenema, Tener Goodwin; Thornton, Clifton P; Lavin, Roberta Proffitt; Bender, Annah K; Seal, Stella; Corley, Andrew

    2017-11-01

    Rising global temperatures have resulted in an increased frequency and severity of cyclones, hurricanes, and flooding in many parts of the world. These climate change-related water disasters (CCRWDs) have a devastating impact on communities and the health of residents. Clinicians and policymakers require a substantive body of evidence on which to base planning, prevention, and disaster response to these events. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the literature concerning the impact of CCRWDs on public health in order to identify factors in these events that are amenable to preparedness and mitigation. Ultimately, this evidence could be used by nurses to advocate for greater preparedness initiatives and inform national and international disaster policy. A systematic literature review of publications identified through a comprehensive search of five relevant databases (PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature [CINAHL], Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science) was conducted using a modified Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) approach in January 2017 to describe major themes and associated factors of the impact of CCRWDs on population health. Three major themes emerged: environmental disruption resulting in exposure to toxins, population susceptibility, and health systems infrastructure (failure to plan-prepare-mitigate, inadequate response, and lack of infrastructure). Direct health impact was characterized by four major categories: weather-related morbidity and mortality, waterborne diseases/water-related illness, vector-borne and zoonotic diseases, and psychiatric/mental health effects. Scope and duration of the event are factors that exacerbate the impact of CCRWDs. Discussion of specific factors amenable to mitigation was limited. Flooding as an event was overrepresented in this analysis (60%), and the majority of the research reviewed was conducted in high-income or upper

  3. Radon estimation in water resources of Mandi - Dharamshala region of Himachal Pradesh, India for health risk assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Gulshan; Kumari, Punam; Kumar, Mukesh; Kumar, Arvind; Prasher, Sangeeta; Dhar, Sunil

    2017-07-01

    The present study deals with the radon estimation in 40 water samples collected from different natural resources and radium content in the soils of Mandi-Dharamshala Region. Radon concentration is determined by using RAD-7 detector and radium contents of the soil in vicinity of water resources is as well measured by using LR-115 type - II detector, which is further correlated with radon concentration in water samples. The potential health risks related with 222Rn have also been estimated. The results show that the radon concentrations within the range of 1.51 to 22.7Bq/l with an average value of 5.93 Bq/l for all type of water samples taken from study area. The radon concentration in water samples is found lower than 100Bq/l, the exposure limit of radon in water recommended by the World Health Organization. The calculated average effective dose of radon received by the people of study area is 0.022 mSv/y with maximum of 0.083 mSv/y and minimum 0.0056 mSv/y. The total effective dose in all sites of the studied area is found to be within the safe limit (0.1 mSv/year) recommended by World Health Organization. The average value of radium content in the soil of study area is 6.326 Bq/kg.

  4. Health Effects Associated with Wastewater Treatment and Disposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowal, N. E.; Pahren, H. R.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the potential health effects associated with: (1) wastewater treatment plants; (2) land application of municipal wastewater; and (3) use of renovated water. This review covers the publications of 1976-77. A list of 96 references is also presented. (HM)

  5. Gastrointestinal health effects associated with the consumption of drinking water produced by point-of-use domestic reverse-osmosis filtration units.

    PubMed Central

    Payment, P; Franco, E; Richardson, L; Siemiatycki, J

    1991-01-01

    During a prospective epidemiological study of gastrointestinal health effects associated with the consumption of drinking water produced by reverse-osmosis domestic units, a correlation was demonstrated between the bacterial counts on R2A medium incubated at 35 degrees C and the reported gastrointestinal symptoms in families who used these units. A univariate correlation was found with bacterial counts on R2A medium at 20 degrees C but was confounded by the bacterial counts at 35 degrees C. Other variables, such as family size and amount of water consumed, were not independently explanatory of the rate of illness. These observations raise concerns for the possibility of increased disease associated with certain point-of-use treatment devices for domestic use when high levels of bacterial growth occur. PMID:2059052

  6. Human Health and the Biological Effects of Tritium in Drinking Water: Prudent Policy Through Science – Addressing the ODWAC New Recommendation

    PubMed Central

    Dingwall, S.; Mills, C.E.; Phan, N.; Taylor, K.; Boreham, D.R.

    2011-01-01

    Tritium is a radioactive form of hydrogen and is a by-product of energy production in Canadian Deuterium Uranium (CANDU) reactors. The release of this radioisotope into the environment is carefully managed at CANDU facilities in order to minimize radiation exposure to the public. However, under some circumstances, small accidental releases to the environment can occur. The radiation doses to humans and non-human biota from these releases are low and orders of magnitude less than doses received from naturally occurring radioisotopes or from manmade activities, such as medical imaging and air travel. There is however a renewed interest in the biological consequences of low dose tritium exposures and a new limit for tritium levels in Ontario drinking water has been proposed. The Ontario Drinking Water Advisory Council (ODWAC) issued a formal report in May 2009 in response to a request by the Minister of the Environment, concluding that the Ontario Drinking Water Quality Standard for tritium should be revised from the current 7,000 Bq/L level to a new, lower 20 Bq/L level. In response to this recommendation, an international scientific symposium was held at McMaster University to address the issues surrounding this change in direction and the validity of a new policy. Scientists, regulators, government officials, and industrial stakeholders were present to discuss the potential health risks associated with low level radiation exposure from tritium. The regulatory, economic, and social implications of the new proposed limit were also considered. The new recommendation assumed a linear-no-threshold model to calculate carcinogenic risk associated with tritium exposure, and considered tritium as a non-threshold chemical carcinogen. Both of these assumptions are highly controversial given that recent research suggests that low dose exposures have thresholds below which there are no observable detrimental effects. Furthermore, mutagenic and carcinogenic risk calculated from

  7. Health effects of subchronic exposure to diesel-water emulsion emission.

    PubMed

    Reed, M D; Blair, L F; Burling, K; Daly, I; Gigliotti, A P; Gudi, R; Mercieca, M D; McDonald, J D; Naas, D J; O'callaghan, J P; Seilkop, S K; Ronsko, N L; Wagner, V O; Kraska, R C

    2005-12-15

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Ambient Air Quality Standards for ozone and particulate matter are requiring urban nonattainment areas to implement pollution-reduction strategies for anthropogenic source emissions. A type of fuel shown to decrease combustion emissions components versus traditional diesel fuels is the diesel-water emulsion. The Lubrizol Corporation in conjunction with Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute and several subcontracting laboratories recently conducted a rodent health assessment of inhaled combustion emissions of PuriNO(x) diesel fuel emulsion. Combustion emissions from either of two 2001 model Cummins 5.9-L ISB engines were diluted with charcoal-filtered air to exposure concentrations of 100, 200, and 400 microg total particulate matter/m(3). The engines were operated on a continuously repeating, heavy-duty certification cycle (U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Chapter I) using Rotella-T 15W-40 engine oil. Nitrogen oxide and particulate matter were reduced when engines were operated on PuriNO(x) versus California Air Resources Board diesel fuel under these conditions. Male and female F344 rats were housed in Hazleton H2000 exposure chambers and exposed to exhaust atmospheres 6 h/day, 5 days/wk for the first 11 wk and 7 days/wk threafter. Exposures ranged from 58 to 70 days, depending on the treatment group. Indicators of general toxicity (body weight, organ weight, clinical pathology, and histopathology), neurotoxicity (glial fibrillary acidic protein assay), genotoxicity (Ames assay, micronucleus, sister chromatid exchange), and reproduction and development were measured. Overall, effects observed were mild. Emulsion combustion emissions were not associated with neurotoxicity, reproductive/developmental toxicity, or in vivo genotoxicity. Small decreases in serum cholesterol and small increases in platelet values in some groups of exposed animals were observed. Particulate matter accumulation within

  8. Screening and human health risk assessment of pharmaceuticals and their transformation products in Dutch surface waters and drinking water.

    PubMed

    de Jongh, Cindy M; Kooij, Pascal J F; de Voogt, Pim; ter Laak, Thomas L

    2012-06-15

    Numerous studies describe the presence of pharmaceuticals in the water cycle, while their transformation products are usually not included. In the current study 17 common pharmaceuticals and 9 transformation products were monitored in the Dutch waters, including surface waters, pre-treated surface waters, river bank filtrates, two groundwater samples affected by surface water and drinking waters. In these samples, 12 pharmaceuticals and 7 transformation products were present. Concentrations were generally highest in surface waters, intermediate in treated surface waters and river bank filtrates and lowest or not detected in produced drinking water. However, the concentrations of phenazone and its environmental transformation product AMPH were significantly higher in river bank filtrates, which is likely due to historical contamination. Fairly constant ratios were observed between concentrations of transformation products and parent pharmaceuticals. This might enable prediction of concentrations of transformation products from concentrations of parent pharmaceuticals. The toxicological relevance of the observed pharmaceuticals and transformation products was assessed by deriving (i) a substance specific provisional guideline value (pGLV) and (ii) a group pGLV for groups of related compounds were under the assumption of additivity of effects within each group. A substantial margin exists between the maximum summed concentrations of these compounds present in different water types and the derived (group) pGLVs. Based on the results of this limited screening campaign no adverse health effects of the studied compounds are expected in (sources of) drinking water in the Netherlands. The presence of transformation products with similar pharmacological activities and concentration levels as their parents illustrates the relevance of monitoring transformation products, and including these in risk assessment. More thorough monitoring yielding information on statistical

  9. Getting the basic rights - the role of water, sanitation and hygiene in maternal and reproductive health: a conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Oona M R; Benova, Lenka; Gon, Giorgia; Afsana, Kaosar; Cumming, Oliver

    2015-03-01

    To explore linkages between water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) and maternal and perinatal health via a conceptual approach and a scoping review. We developed a conceptual framework iteratively, amalgamating three literature-based lenses. We then searched literature and identified risk factors potentially linked to maternal and perinatal health. We conducted a systematic scoping review for all chemical and biological WASH risk factors identified using text and MeSH terms, limiting results to systematic reviews or meta-analyses. The remaining 10 complex behavioural associations were not reviewed systematically. The main ways poor WASH could lead to adverse outcomes are via two non-exclusive categories: 1. 'In-water' associations: (a) Inorganic contaminants, and (b) 'water-system' related infections, (c) 'water-based' infections, and (d) 'water borne' infections. 2. 'Behaviour' associations: (e) Behaviours leading to water-washed infections, (f) Water-related insect-vector infections, and (g-i) Behaviours leading to non-infectious diseases/conditions. We added a gender inequality and a life course lens to the above framework to identify whether WASH affected health of mothers in particular, and acted beyond the immediate effects. This framework led us to identifying 77 risk mechanisms (67 chemical or biological factors and 10 complex behavioural factors) linking WASH to maternal and perinatal health outcomes. WASH affects the risk of adverse maternal and perinatal health outcomes; these exposures are multiple and overlapping and may be distant from the immediate health outcome. Much of the evidence is weak, based on observational studies and anecdotal evidence, with relatively few systematic reviews. New systematic reviews are required to assess the quality of existing evidence more rigorously, and primary research is required to investigate the magnitude of effects of particular WASH exposures on specific maternal and perinatal outcomes. Whilst major gaps exist

  10. Health gains from solar water disinfection (SODIS): evaluation of a water quality intervention in Yaoundé, Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Graf, Jürg; Zebaze Togouet, Serge; Kemka, Norbert; Niyitegeka, Domitille; Meierhofer, Regula; Gangoue Pieboji, Joseph

    2010-12-01

    In developing countries, the burden of diarrhoea is still enormous. One way to reduce transmission of pathogens is by water quality interventions. Solar water disinfection (SODIS) is a low-cost and simple method to improve drinking water quality on household level. This paper evaluates the implementation of SODIS in slum areas of Yaoundé, Cameroon. Promoters trained 2,911 households in the use of SODIS. Two surveys with randomly selected households were conducted before (N=2,193) and after (N=783) the intervention. Using a questionnaire, interviewers collected information on the health status of children under five, on liquid consumption, hygiene and other issues. Prior to the intervention, diarrhoea prevalence amounted to 34.3% among children. After the intervention, it remained stable in the control group (31.8%) but dropped to 22.8% in the intervention group. Households fully complying with the intervention exhibited even less diarrhoea prevalence (18.3%) and diarrhoea risk could be reduced by 42.5%. Multivariate analyses revealed that the intervention effects are also observed when other diarrhoea risk factors, such as hygiene and cleanliness of household surroundings, are considered. According to the data, adoption of the method was associated with marital status. Findings suggest health benefits from SODIS use. Further promotional activities in low-income settings are recommended.

  11. Health and environmental policy issues in Canada: the role of watershed management in sustaining clean drinking water quality at surface sources.

    PubMed

    Davies, John-Mark; Mazumder, Asit

    2003-07-01

    Sustaining clean and safe drinking water sources is increasingly becoming a priority because of global pollution. The means of attaining and maintaining clean drinking water sources requires effective policies that identify, document, and reduce watershed risks. These risks are defined by their potential impact to human health. Health and risk are, therefore, indelibly linked because they are in part defined by each other. Understanding pathogen ecology and identifying watershed sources remains a priority because of the associated acute risks. Surface water quality changes resulting from inputs of human waste, nutrients and chemicals are associated with higher drinking water risks. Nutrient input can increase primary production and the resulting increase of organic matter results in greater disinfection by-product formation or requires greater treatment intensity. Many drinking water disease outbreaks have resulted from breaches in treatment facilities, therefore, even with greater treatment intensity poor source water quality intrinsically has greater associated health risks. Government and international agencies play a critical role in developing policy. The goal of maintaining water supplies whose availability is maximized and risks are minimized (i.e. sustainable) should be a vital part of such policy. Health risks are discussed in the context of a multi-barrier perspective and it is concluded that both passive (protection) and active (prescriptive management) management is necessary for sustainability. Canadian aboriginal water systems, British Columbian water policy and US EPA policies are given as examples. The basis for developing effective policies includes a strong reliance on sound science and effective instrumentation with careful consideration of stakeholders' interests. Only with such directed policies can the future availability of clean drinking water sources be ensured.

  12. Health-based ingestion exposure guidelines for Vibrio cholerae: Technical basis for water reuse applications.

    PubMed

    Watson, Annetta P; Armstrong, Anthony Q; White, George H; Thran, Brandolyn H

    2018-02-01

    U.S. military and allied contingency operations are increasingly occurring in locations with limited, unstable or compromised fresh water supplies. Non-potable graywater reuse is currently under assessment as a viable means to increase mission sustainability while significantly reducing the resources, logistics and attack vulnerabilities posed by transport of fresh water. Development of health-based (non-potable) exposure guidelines for the potential microbial components of graywater would provide a logical and consistent human-health basis for water reuse strategies. Such health-based strategies will support not only improved water security for contingency operations, but also sustainable military operations. Dose-response assessment of Vibrio cholerae based on adult human oral exposure data were coupled with operational water exposure scenario parameters common to numerous military activities, and then used to derive health risk-based water concentrations. The microbial risk assessment approach utilized oral human exposure V. cholerae dose studies in open literature. Selected studies focused on gastrointestinal illness associated with experimental infection by specific V. cholerae serogroups most often associated with epidemics and pandemics (O1 and O139). Nonlinear dose-response model analyses estimated V. cholerae effective doses (EDs) aligned with gastrointestinal illness severity categories characterized by diarrheal purge volume. The EDs and water exposure assumptions were used to derive Risk-Based Water Concentrations (CFU/100mL) for mission-critical illness severity levels over a range of water use activities common to military operations. Human dose-response studies, data and analyses indicate that ingestion exposures at the estimated ED 1 (50CFU) are unlikely to be associated with diarrheal illness while ingestion exposures at the lower limit (200CFU) of the estimated ED 10 are not expected to result in a level of diarrheal illness associated with

  13. PRELIMINARY HEALTH BURDEN ANALYSIS FOR EPIDEMIOLOGIC RECREATIONAL WATER STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction: The National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational Water Study (NEEAR) offers a rare opportunity for researchers. The study's design involves the collection of health data before and after visiting the beach in conjunction with water quality...

  14. Public Health Effects of Inadequately Managed Stormwater Runoff

    PubMed Central

    Gaffield, Stephen J.; Goo, Robert L.; Richards, Lynn A.; Jackson, Richard J.

    2003-01-01

    Objectives. This study investigated the scale of the public health risk from stormwater runoff caused by urbanization. Methods. We compiled turbidity data for municipal treated drinking water as an indication of potential risk in selected US cities and compared estimated costs of waterborne disease and preventive measures. Results. Turbidity levels in other US cities were similar to those linked to illnesses in Milwaukee, Wis, and Philadelphia, Pa. The estimated annual cost of waterborne illness is comparable to the long-term capital investment needed for improved drinking water treatment and stormwater management. Conclusions. Although additional data on cost and effectiveness are needed, stormwater management to minimize runoff and associated pollution appears to make sense for protecting public health at the least cost. PMID:12948975

  15. The Broad Scope of Health Effects from Chronic Arsenic Exposure: Update on a Worldwide Public Health Problem

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Beth; Ahsan, Habibul; Aposhian, H. Vasken; Graziano, Joseph H.; Thompson, Claudia; Suk, William A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Concerns for arsenic exposure are not limited to toxic waste sites and massive poisoning events. Chronic exposure continues to be a major public health problem worldwide, affecting hundreds of millions of persons. Objectives: We reviewed recent information on worldwide concerns for arsenic exposures and public health to heighten awareness of the current scope of arsenic exposure and health outcomes and the importance of reducing exposure, particularly during pregnancy and early life. Methods: We synthesized the large body of current research pertaining to arsenic exposure and health outcomes with an emphasis on recent publications. Discussion: Locations of high arsenic exposure via drinking water span from Bangladesh, Chile, and Taiwan to the United States. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant level (MCL) in drinking water is 10 µg/L; however, concentrations of > 3,000 µg/L have been found in wells in the United States. In addition, exposure through diet is of growing concern. Knowledge of the scope of arsenic-associated health effects has broadened; arsenic leaves essentially no bodily system untouched. Arsenic is a known carcinogen associated with skin, lung, bladder, kidney, and liver cancer. Dermatological, developmental, neurological, respiratory, cardiovascular, immunological, and endocrine effects are also evident. Most remarkably, early-life exposure may be related to increased risks for several types of cancer and other diseases during adulthood. Conclusions: These data call for heightened awareness of arsenic-related pathologies in broader contexts than previously perceived. Testing foods and drinking water for arsenic, including individual private wells, should be a top priority to reduce exposure, particularly for pregnant women and children, given the potential for life-long effects of developmental exposure. PMID:23458756

  16. The broad scope of health effects from chronic arsenic exposure: update on a worldwide public health problem.

    PubMed

    Naujokas, Marisa F; Anderson, Beth; Ahsan, Habibul; Aposhian, H Vasken; Graziano, Joseph H; Thompson, Claudia; Suk, William A

    2013-03-01

    Concerns for arsenic exposure are not limited to toxic waste sites and massive poisoning events. Chronic exposure continues to be a major public health problem worldwide, affecting hundreds of millions of persons. We reviewed recent information on worldwide concerns for arsenic exposures and public health to heighten awareness of the current scope of arsenic exposure and health outcomes and the importance of reducing exposure, particularly during pregnancy and early life. We synthesized the large body of current research pertaining to arsenic exposure and health outcomes with an emphasis on recent publications. Locations of high arsenic exposure via drinking water span from Bangladesh, Chile, and Taiwan to the United States. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant level (MCL) in drinking water is 10 µg/L; however, concentrations of > 3,000 µg/L have been found in wells in the United States. In addition, exposure through diet is of growing concern. Knowledge of the scope of arsenic-associated health effects has broadened; arsenic leaves essentially no bodily system untouched. Arsenic is a known carcinogen associated with skin, lung, bladder, kidney, and liver cancer. Dermatological, developmental, neurological, respiratory, cardiovascular, immunological, and endocrine effects are also evident. Most remarkably, early-life exposure may be related to increased risks for several types of cancer and other diseases during adulthood. These data call for heightened awareness of arsenic-related pathologies in broader contexts than previously perceived. Testing foods and drinking water for arsenic, including individual private wells, should be a top priority to reduce exposure, particularly for pregnant women and children, given the potential for life-long effects of developmental exposure.

  17. Health-Based Screening Levels and their Application to Water-Quality Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Toccalino, Patricia L.; Zogorski, John S.; Norman, Julia E.

    2005-01-01

    To supplement existing Federal drinking-water standards and guidelines, thereby providing a basis for a more comprehensive evaluation of contaminant-occurrence data in a human-health context, USGS began a collaborative project in 1998 with USEPA, the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, and the Oregon Health & Science University to calculate non-enforceable health-based screening levels. Screening levels were calculated for contaminants that do not have Maximum Contaminant Level values using a consensus approach that entailed (1) standard USEPA Office of Water methodologies (equations) for establishing Lifetime Health Advisory (LHA) and Risk-Specific Dose (RSD) values for the protection of human health, and (2) existing USEPA human-health toxicity information.

  18. Water availability and quality in the Gulf Cooperation Council countries: implications for public health.

    PubMed

    Sherif, Mohsen

    2010-07-01

    Environmental problems and their potential impacts on public health vary in scale and time depending on the level and nature of pollutants. Although water is regarded as the source of all kinds of life on earth, it also acts as an efficient carrier of pollutants. Contamination of drinking water, agricultural water, or recreational water by infectious pathogens, chemical pollutants, or others can have significant impacts on public health. During the past few decades, waterborne diseases continued to spread and the health risks continued to increase. The correlation between water resources and public health is more evident in arid regions. This article discusses the availability of water resources in the Gulf Cooperation Council countries and elaborates on the possible impacts of water resources on public health. It emphasizes the importance of preservation of water quality and prevention of waterborne diseases, which could be achieved through a coordinated effort from diverse groups and disciplines.

  19. The effective use of fluorides in public health.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Sheila; Burt, Brian A.; Petersen, Poul Erik; Lennon, Michael A.

    2005-01-01

    Dental caries remain a public health problem for many developing countries and for underprivileged populations in developed countries. This paper outlines the historical development of public health approaches to the use of fluoride and comments on their effectiveness. Early research and development was concerned with waterborne fluorides, both naturally occurring and added, and their effects on the prevalence and incidence of dental caries and dental fluorosis. In the latter half of the 20th century, the focus of research was on fluoride toothpastes and mouth rinses. More recently, systematic reviews summarizing these extensive databases have indicated that water fluoridation and fluoride toothpastes both substantially reduce the prevalence and incidence of dental caries. We present four case studies that illustrate the use of fluoride in modern public health practice, focusing on: recent water fluoridation schemes in California, USA; salt fluoridation in Jamaica; milk fluoridation in Chile; and the development of "affordable" fluoride toothpastes in Indonesia. Common themes are the concern to reduce demands for compliance with fluoride regimes that rely upon action by individuals and their families, and the issue of cost. We recommend that a community should use no more than one systemic fluoride (i.e. water or salt or milk fluoridation) combined with the use of fluoride toothpastes, and that the prevalence of dental fluorosis should be monitored in order to detect increases in or higher-than-acceptable levels. PMID:16211158

  20. Water Quality Criteria for Human Health and Aquatic Life

    EPA Science Inventory

    Collaborative effort with the Office of Water to provide science in support of the development and implementation of new or revised ambient water quality criteria for microbial and chemical contaminants for human health and aquatic life. The research also addresses implementation...

  1. Unregulated drinking water initiative for environmental surveillance and public health.

    PubMed

    Backer, Lorraine C; Tosta, Nancy

    2011-03-01

    The critical public health need to assess and protect the drinking water used by 37 million Americans requires attention and resources. NCEH, in partnership with states, has begun the process to identify information available on unregulated drinking water sources to improve the availability of data to support decisive public health actions and resource allocation. Far more attention and resources are needed to complete this process.

  2. Effects of integrated watershed management on livestock water productivity in water scarce areas in Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Descheemaeker, Katrien; Mapedza, Everisto; Amede, Tilahun; Ayalneh, Wagnew

    In the water scarce Lenche Dima watershed in the northern Ethiopian highlands community based integrated watershed management was implemented to fight land degradation, raise agricultural productivity and improve farmers’ livelihoods. The effects of two interventions, namely exclosures and water harvesting structures, were assessed based on data from farmers’ interviews, measurements of feed biomass production, and estimates of energy production and requirements. Water used for livestock feed production was obtained through simple soil water balance modelling. By protecting 40% of the rangelands, the water productivity of the feed increased by about 20%. This indicated that exclosure establishment could lead to similar improvements in livestock water productivity (LWP, defined as the ratio of livestock benefits over the water used in producing these). Water harvesting structures ensured year-round water availability in the homestead, which resulted in less energy used for walking to drinking points. A considerable amount of energy was thus saved, which could be used for livestock production and improved animal health without additional water use. Besides restoring regulating and supporting ecosystem services, both interventions led to a more efficient use of the scarce water resources for biomass and livestock production.

  3. Health effects associated with cyanobacteria exposure among beach attendees in Puerto Rico

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cyanobacteria and their toxins are associated with adverse human health effects, although among marine waters, the pyrrhophyta, including dinoflagellates are more recognized as health hazards. We recruited beach attendees during summer 2009, at Boquerón Beach, Puerto Rico...

  4. Important considerations in the development of public health advisories for arsenic and arsenic-containing compounds in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Tchounwou, P B; Wilson, B; Ishaque, A

    1999-01-01

    Drinking water contamination by arsenic remains a major public health problem. Acute and chronic arsenic exposure via drinking water has been reported in many countries of the world; especially in Argentina, Bangladesh, India, Mexico, Thailand, and Taiwan, where a large proportion of drinking water (ground water) is contaminated with a high concentration of arsenic. Research has also pointed out significantly higher standardized mortality ratios and cumulative mortality rates for cancers of the bladder, kidney, skin, liver, and colon in many areas of arsenic pollution. General health effects that are associated with arsenic exposure include cardiovascular and peripheral vascular disease, developmental anomalies, neurologic and neurobehavioral disorders, diabetes, hearing loss, portal fibrosis of the liver, lung fibrosis, hematologic disorders (anemia, leukopenia, and eosinophilia), and carcinoma. Although, the clinical manifestations of arsenic poisoning appear similar, the toxicity of arsenic compounds depends largely u[on the chemical species and the form of arsenic involved. On the basis of its high degree of toxicity to humans, and the non-threshold dose-response assumption, a zero level exposure is recommended for arsenic, even though this level is practically non-attainable. In this review, we provide and discuss important information on the physical and chemical properties, production and use, fate and transport, toxicokinetics, systemic and carcinogenic health effects, regulatory and health guidelines, analytical methods, and treatment technologies that are applied to arsenic pollution. Such information is critical in assisting the federal, state and local officials who are responsible for protecting public health in dealing with the problem of drinking water contamination by arsenic and arsenic-containing compounds.

  5. Trout density and health in a stream with variable water temperatures and trace element concentrations: does a cold-water source attract trout to increased metal exposure?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harper, D.D.; Farag, A.M.; Hogstr, C.; MacConnell, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    A history of hard-rock mining has resulted in elevated concentrations of heavy metals in Prickly Pear Creek (MT. USA). Remediation has improved water quality; however, dissolved zinc and cadmium concentrations still exceed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency water-quality criteria. Physical habitat, salmonid density, fish health, and water quality were assessed, and metal concentrations in fish tissues, biofilm, and macroinvertebrates were determined to evaluate the existing condition in the watershed. Cadmium, zinc, and lead concentrations in fish tissues, biofilm, and invertebrates were significantly greater than those at the upstream reference site and an experimental site farther downstream of the confluence. Fish densities were greatest, and habitat quality for trout was better, downstream of the confluence, where water temperatures were relatively cool (16??C). Measures of fish health (tissue metal residues, histology, metallothionein concentrations, and necropsies), however, indicate that the health of trout at this site was negatively affected. Trout were in colder but more contaminated water and were subjected to increased trace element exposures and associated health effects. Maximum water temperatures in Prickly Pear Creek were significantly lower directly below Spring Creek (16??C) compared to those at an experimental site 10 km downstream (26??C). Trout will avoid dissolved metals at concentrations below those measured in Prickly Pear Creek; however, our results suggest that the preference of trout to use cool water temperatures may supersede behaviors to avoid heavy metals. ?? 2009 SETAC.

  6. Effects of increase in temperature and open water on transmigration and access to health care by the Nenets reindeer herders in northern Russia

    PubMed Central

    Amstislavski, Philippe; Zubov, Leonid; Chen, Herman; Ceccato, Pietro; Pekel, Jean-Francois; Weedon, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Background The indigenous Nenets reindeer herders in northern Russia annually migrate several hundred kilometers between summer and winter pastures. In the warming climate, ice-rich permafrost and glaciers are being significantly reduced and will eventually disappear from parts of the Arctic. The emergent changes in hydrological cycles have already led to substantial increases in open water that stays unfrozen for longer periods of time. This environmental change has been reported to compromise the nomadic Nenets’ traditional way of life because the presence of new water in the tundra reduces the Nenets’ ability to travel by foot, sled, or motor vehicle from the summer transitory tundra campsites in order to access healthcare centers in villages. New water can also impede their access to family and community at other herder camps and in the villages. Although regional and global models predicting hydrologic changes due to climate changes exist, the spatial resolution of these models is too coarse for studying how increases in open water affect health and livelihoods. To anticipate the full health impact of hydrologic changes, the current gap between globally forecasted scenarios and locally forecasted hydrologic scenarios needs to be bridged. Objectives We studied the effects of the autumn temperature anomalies and increases in open water on health care access and transmigration of reindeer herders on the Kanin Peninsula. Design Correlational and time series analyses were completed. Methods The study population consisted of 370 full-time, nomadic reindeer herders. We utilized clinical visit records, studied surface temperature anomalies during autumn migrations, and used remotely sensed imagery to detect water bodies. Spearman correlation was used to measure the relationship between temperature anomalies and the annual arrival of the herders at the Nes clinic for preventive and primary care. Piecewise regression was used to model change in mean autumnal

  7. Effects of increase in temperature and open water on transmigration and access to health care by the Nenets reindeer herders in northern Russia.

    PubMed

    Amstislavski, Philippe; Zubov, Leonid; Chen, Herman; Ceccato, Pietro; Pekel, Jean-Francois; Weedon, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    The indigenous Nenets reindeer herders in northern Russia annually migrate several hundred kilometers between summer and winter pastures. In the warming climate, ice-rich permafrost and glaciers are being significantly reduced and will eventually disappear from parts of the Arctic. The emergent changes in hydrological cycles have already led to substantial increases in open water that stays unfrozen for longer periods of time. This environmental change has been reported to compromise the nomadic Nenets' traditional way of life because the presence of new water in the tundra reduces the Nenets' ability to travel by foot, sled, or motor vehicle from the summer transitory tundra campsites in order to access healthcare centers in villages. New water can also impede their access to family and community at other herder camps and in the villages. Although regional and global models predicting hydrologic changes due to climate changes exist, the spatial resolution of these models is too coarse for studying how increases in open water affect health and livelihoods. To anticipate the full health impact of hydrologic changes, the current gap between globally forecasted scenarios and locally forecasted hydrologic scenarios needs to be bridged. We studied the effects of the autumn temperature anomalies and increases in open water on health care access and transmigration of reindeer herders on the Kanin Peninsula. Correlational and time series analyses were completed. The study population consisted of 370 full-time, nomadic reindeer herders. We utilized clinical visit records, studied surface temperature anomalies during autumn migrations, and used remotely sensed imagery to detect water bodies. Spearman correlation was used to measure the relationship between temperature anomalies and the annual arrival of the herders at the Nes clinic for preventive and primary care. Piecewise regression was used to model change in mean autumnal temperature anomalies over time. We also created

  8. Estimating the Effect of School Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Improvements on Pupil Health Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Garn, Joshua V; Brumback, Babette A; Drews-Botsch, Carolyn D; Lash, Timothy L; Kramer, Michael R; Freeman, Matthew C

    2016-09-01

    We conducted a cluster-randomized water, sanitation, and hygiene trial in 185 schools in Nyanza province, Kenya. The trial, however, had imperfect school-level adherence at many schools. The primary goal of this study was to estimate the causal effects of school-level adherence to interventions on pupil diarrhea and soil-transmitted helminth infection. Schools were divided into water availability groups, which were then randomized separately into either water, sanitation, and hygiene intervention arms or a control arm. School-level adherence to the intervention was defined by the number of intervention components-water, latrines, soap-that had been adequately implemented. The outcomes of interest were pupil diarrhea and soil-transmitted helminth infection. We used a weighted generalized structural nested model to calculate prevalence ratio. In the water-scarce group, there was evidence of a reduced prevalence of diarrhea among pupils attending schools that adhered to two or to three intervention components (prevalence ratio = 0.28, 95% confidence interval: 0.10, 0.75), compared with what the prevalence would have been had the same schools instead adhered to zero components or one. In the water-available group, there was no evidence of reduced diarrhea with better adherence. For the soil-transmitted helminth infection and intensity outcomes, we often observed point estimates in the preventive direction with increasing intervention adherence, but primarily among girls, and the confidence intervals were often very wide. Our instrumental variable point estimates sometimes suggested protective effects with increased water, sanitation, and hygiene intervention adherence, although many of the estimates were imprecise.

  9. WATER QUALITY AND SWIMMING-ASSOCIATED HEALTH EFFECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evidence from various sources around the world indicate that there is a relationship between gastroenteritis in swimmers and the quality of the bathing water as measured with bacterial indicators of fecal contamination. Current EPA guidelines recommend the use of cultural method...

  10. Alternate electrification and non-potable water: A health concern for Jamaicans

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Tazhmoye V.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Research has shown that the absence of electricity and potable water usually result in negative effects on one's health and is more likely to affect women than men. Aim: To determine the extent to which alternate electrification and limited potable water, impacts on health. Materials and Method: This study is informed by primary and secondary data, representing a sample size of 150 respondents (75 male and 75 female), who were interviewed via a 24-item structured interview schedule during the period 2006-2007, throughout the 14 parishes of Jamaica. In an effort to determine the number of persons to be interviewed, each parish population was divided by the island's population (2,599,334) and then multiplied by 150. Data was analyzed using the statistical package for social scientists 15. Results: The respondents of this study who use kerosene lamp as an alternate means to electricity use firewood for cooking (12% male and 15% female). This sometimes result in obstructive pulmonary disease (female 43%; male 21%). The absence of electricity also results in the consumption of improperly stored meat, thus medical implications: paroxysmal abdominal pain (colic), and diarrhea (male 91%; female, 95%). The transporting of firewood, pans of water and laundry via head-loading, sometimes result in back/spinal injury (male, 75%; female, 48%). Conclusion: Alternate access to electricity and potable water result in the use of kerosene lamp, firewood and the consumption of non-potable water (often transported on one's head) - causing medical implications such as back/spinal injury, obstructive pulmonary disease, paroxysmal abdominal pain and gastroenteritis. PMID:22666721

  11. Using a relative health indicator (RHI) metric to estimate health risk reductions in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Alfredo, Katherine A; Seidel, Chad; Ghosh, Amlan; Roberson, J Alan

    2017-03-01

    When a new drinking water regulation is being developed, the USEPA conducts a health risk reduction and cost analysis to, in part, estimate quantifiable and non-quantifiable cost and benefits of the various regulatory alternatives. Numerous methodologies are available for cumulative risk assessment ranging from primarily qualitative to primarily quantitative. This research developed a summary metric of relative cumulative health impacts resulting from drinking water, the relative health indicator (RHI). An intermediate level of quantification and modeling was chosen, one which retains the concept of an aggregated metric of public health impact and hence allows for comparisons to be made across "cups of water," but avoids the need for development and use of complex models that are beyond the existing state of the science. Using the USEPA Six-Year Review data and available national occurrence surveys of drinking water contaminants, the metric is used to test risk reduction as it pertains to the implementation of the arsenic and uranium maximum contaminant levels and quantify "meaningful" risk reduction. Uranium represented the threshold risk reduction against which national non-compliance risk reduction was compared for arsenic, nitrate, and radium. Arsenic non-compliance is most significant and efforts focused on bringing those non-compliant utilities into compliance with the 10 μg/L maximum contaminant level would meet the threshold for meaningful risk reduction.

  12. High volume hydraulic fracturing operations: potential impacts on surface water and human health.

    PubMed

    Mrdjen, Igor; Lee, Jiyoung

    2016-08-01

    High volume, hydraulic fracturing (HVHF) processes, used to extract natural gas and oil from underground shale deposits, pose many potential hazards to the environment and human health. HVHF can negatively affect the environment by contaminating soil, water, and air matrices with potential pollutants. Due to the relatively novel nature of the process, hazards to surface waters and human health are not well known. The purpose of this article is to link the impacts of HVHF operations on surface water integrity, with human health consequences. Surface water contamination risks include: increased structural failure rates of unconventional wells, issues with wastewater treatment, and accidental discharge of contaminated fluids. Human health risks associated with exposure to surface water contaminated with HVHF chemicals include increased cancer risk and turbidity of water, leading to increased pathogen survival time. Future research should focus on modeling contamination spread throughout the environment, and minimizing occupational exposure to harmful chemicals.

  13. Manganese in Madison's drinking water.

    PubMed

    Schlenker, Thomas; Hausbeck, John; Sorsa, Kirsti

    2008-12-01

    Public concern over events of manganese-discolored drinking water and the potential for adverse health effects from exposure to excess manganese reached a high level in 2005. In response, Public Health Madison Dane County, together with the Madison Water Utility, conceived and implemented a public health/water utility strategy to quantify the extent of the manganese problem, determine the potential for adverse human health effects, and communicate these findings to the community. This strategy included five basic parts: taking an inventory of wells and their manganese levels, correlating manganese concentration with turbidity, determining the prevalence and distribution of excess manganese in Madison households, reviewing the available scientific literature, and effectively communicating our findings to the community. The year-long public health/water utility strategy successfully resolved the crisis of confidence in the safety of Madison's drinking water.

  14. Water and Sanitation in Schools: A Systematic Review of the Health and Educational Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Jasper, Christian; Le, Thanh-Tam; Bartram, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    A systematic review of the literature on the effects of water and sanitation in schools was performed. The goal was to characterize the impacts of water and sanitation inadequacies in the academic environment. Published peer reviewed literature was screened and articles that documented the provision of water and sanitation at schools were considered. Forty-one peer-reviewed papers met the criteria of exploring the effects of the availability of water and/or sanitation facilities in educational establishments. Chosen studies were divided into six fields based on their specific foci: water for drinking, water for handwashing, water for drinking and handwashing, water for sanitation, sanitation for menstruation and combined water and sanitation. The studies provide evidence for an increase in water intake with increased provision of water and increased access to water facilities. Articles also report an increase in absenteeism from schools in developing countries during menses due to inadequate sanitation facilities. Lastly, there is a reported decrease in diarrheal and gastrointestinal diseases with increased access to adequate sanitation facilities in schools. Ensuring ready access to safe drinking water, and hygienic toilets that offer privacy to users has great potential to beneficially impact children’s health. Additional studies that examine the relationship between sanitation provisions in schools are needed to more adequately characterize the impact of water and sanitation on educational achievements. PMID:23066396

  15. Occurrence and human health risk of wastewater-derived pharmaceuticals in a drinking water source for Shanghai, East China.

    PubMed

    Wen, Zhi-Hao; Chen, Ling; Meng, Xiang-Zhou; Duan, Yan-Ping; Zhang, Zeng-Sheng; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2014-08-15

    Pharmaceuticals are heavily used to improve human and animal health, resulting in the frequent contamination of aquatic environments with pharmaceutical residues, which has raised considerable concern in recent years. When inadequately removed from drinking water in water treatment plants, pharmaceuticals can have potential toxic effects on human health. This study investigated the spatial distributions and seasonal variations of five pharmaceuticals, including ibuprofen (IBP), ketoprofen (KEP), naproxen (NPX), diclofenac (DFC), and clofibric acid (CA), in the Huangpu River system (a drinking water source for Shanghai) over a period of almost two years as well as the associated risk to human health for different age groups. All of the targets were ubiquitous in the river water, with levels decreasing in the following order: KEP (mean: 28.6 ng/L)≈IBP (23.3 ng/L)>DFC (13.6 ng/L)≈NPX (12.3 ng/L)>CA (1.6ng/L). The concentrations of all of the investigated compounds were at the low or medium end of the global range. The upstream tributaries contained lower IBP but higher NPX than did the mainstream and downstream tributaries. However, no significant variations were found in the levels of KEP, DFC, or CA at the different sampling sites. Except for CA in the mainstream, significantly higher pharmaceutical levels were observed in the dry season than in the wet season. Overall, a very low risk of the selected pharmaceuticals for human health via drinking water was observed, but future studies are needed to examine the fate and chronic effects of all pharmaceuticals in aquatic environments. To our knowledge, this is the first report to investigate the human health risk of pharmaceuticals in raw drinking water in China. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Water quality and Inuit health: an examination of drinking water consumption, perceptions, and contamination in Rigolet, Canada.

    PubMed

    Wright, Carlee

    2017-01-01

    Canadian Inuit have often reported concerns about the quality of their municipal drinking water; research has also shown that some Inuit communities experience some of the highest incidence rates of self-reported acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI) in Canada and globally. The goal of this thesis research was to investigate drinking water perceptions and consumption patterns, as well as water contamination and potential associations with AGI in the Inuit community of Rigolet, Canada. Three census cross-sectional surveys captured data on AGI, drinking water, and water storage (2012-2014); additionally, bacterial contamination of household drinking water was assessed alongside the 2014 survey. Concerns regarding the taste, smell, and colour of tap water were associated with lower odds of consuming tap water. The use of transfer devices (i.e. small bowls or measuring cups) was associated with household water contamination; while no water-related risk factors for AGI were identified, incidence of AGI was high compared with southern Canada. This thesis research provides a valuable contribution to the limited literature assessing drinking water and health in the Arctic. Ultimately, this work is intended to inform safe water management practices, as well as contextually appropriate drinking water interventions, risk assessments, and public health messaging in the Canadian Arctic.

  17. Pakistan and Water: New Pressures on Global Security and Human Health

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The Indus River is the major source of water for the more than 180 million people of Pakistan. A rapidly increasing population over the past 60 years has created new pressures on water that was once a plentiful resource for the health and development of the country. Rising tensions between India and Pakistan, which share the Indus flow, may lead to violent confrontation in an already volatile part of the globe. The recent flooding, which affected more than 20 million people, drew attention to poor management of the rivers of Pakistan. Public health has the scientific knowledge and professional capacity to help develop water management practices that could improve population health in Pakistan. PMID:21421956

  18. Assessing Exposure and Health Consequences of Chemicals in Drinking Water: Current State of Knowledge and Research Needs

    PubMed Central

    Kogevinas, Manolis; Cordier, Sylvaine; Templeton, Michael R.; Vermeulen, Roel; Nuckols, John R.; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Levallois, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Background: Safe drinking water is essential for well-being. Although microbiological contamination remains the largest cause of water-related morbidity and mortality globally, chemicals in water supplies may also cause disease, and evidence of the human health consequences is limited or lacking for many of them. Objectives: We aimed to summarize the state of knowledge, identify gaps in understanding, and provide recommendations for epidemiological research relating to chemicals occurring in drinking water. Discussion: Assessing exposure and the health consequences of chemicals in drinking water is challenging. Exposures are typically at low concentrations, measurements in water are frequently insufficient, chemicals are present in mixtures, exposure periods are usually long, multiple exposure routes may be involved, and valid biomarkers reflecting the relevant exposure period are scarce. In addition, the magnitude of the relative risks tends to be small. Conclusions: Research should include well-designed epidemiological studies covering regions with contrasting contaminant levels and sufficient sample size; comprehensive evaluation of contaminant occurrence in combination with bioassays integrating the effect of complex mixtures; sufficient numbers of measurements in water to evaluate geographical and temporal variability; detailed information on personal habits resulting in exposure (e.g., ingestion, showering, swimming, diet); collection of biological samples to measure relevant biomarkers; and advanced statistical models to estimate exposure and relative risks, considering methods to address measurement error. Last, the incorporation of molecular markers of early biological effects and genetic susceptibility is essential to understand the mechanisms of action. There is a particular knowledge gap and need to evaluate human exposure and the risks of a wide range of emerging contaminants. Citation: Villanueva CM, Kogevinas M, Cordier S, Templeton MR, Vermeulen R

  19. Drinking water quality in Indigenous communities in Canada and health outcomes: a scoping review.

    PubMed

    Bradford, Lori E A; Okpalauwaekwe, Udoka; Waldner, Cheryl L; Bharadwaj, Lalita A

    2016-01-01

    Many Indigenous communities in Canada live with high-risk drinking water systems and drinking water advisories and experience health status and water quality below that of the general population. A scoping review of research examining drinking water quality and its relationship to Indigenous health was conducted. The study was undertaken to identify the extent of the literature, summarize current reports and identify research needs. A scoping review was designed to identify peer-reviewed literature that examined challenges related to drinking water and health in Indigenous communities in Canada. Key search terms were developed and mapped on five bibliographic databases (MEDLINE/PubMED, Web of Knowledge, SciVerse Scopus, Taylor and Francis online journal and Google Scholar). Online searches for grey literature using relevant government websites were completed. Sixteen articles (of 518; 156 bibliographic search engines, 362 grey literature) met criteria for inclusion (contained keywords; publication year 2000-2015; peer-reviewed and from Canada). Studies were quantitative (8), qualitative (5) or mixed (3) and included case, cohort, cross-sectional and participatory designs. In most articles, no definition of "health" was given (14/16), and the primary health issue described was gastrointestinal illness (12/16). Challenges to the study of health and well-being with respect to drinking water in Indigenous communities included irregular funding, remote locations, ethical approval processes, small sample sizes and missing data. Research on drinking water and health outcomes in Indigenous communities in Canada is limited and occurs on an opportunistic basis. There is a need for more research funding, and inquiry to inform policy decisions for improvements of water quality and health-related outcomes in Indigenous communities. A coordinated network looking at First Nations water and health outcomes, a database to store and create access to research findings, increased

  20. Hydrogeochemistry of the drinking water sources of Derebogazi Village (Kahramanmaras) and their effects on human health.

    PubMed

    Uras, Yusuf; Uysal, Yagmur; Arikan, Tugba Atilan; Kop, Alican; Caliskan, Mustafa

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the sources of drinking water for Derebogazi Village, Kahramanmaras Province, Turkey, in terms of hydrogeochemistry, isotope geochemistry, and medical geology. Water samples were obtained from seven different water sources in the area, all of which are located within quartzite units of Paleozoic age, and isotopic analyses of (18)O and (2)H (deuterium) were conducted on the samples. Samples were collected from the region for 1 year. Water quality of the samples was assessed in terms of various water quality parameters, such as temperature, pH, conductivity, alkalinity, trace element concentrations, anion-cation measurements, and metal concentrations, using ion chromatography, inductively coupled plasma (ICP) mass spectrometry, ICP-optical emission spectrometry techniques. Regional health surveys had revealed that the heights of local people are significantly below the average for the country. In terms of medical geology, the sampled drinking water from the seven sources was deficient in calcium and magnesium ions, which promote bone development. Bone mineral density screening tests were conducted on ten females using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry to investigate possible developmental disorder(s) and potential for mineral loss in the region. Of these ten women, three had T-scores close to the osteoporosis range (T-score < -2.5).

  1. Endocrine disrupting compounds in drinking water supply system and human health risk implication.

    PubMed

    Wee, Sze Yee; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin

    2017-09-01

    To date, experimental and epidemiological evidence of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) adversely affecting human and animal populations has been widely debated. Notably, human health risk assessment is required for risk mitigation. The lack of human health risk assessment and management may thus unreliably regulate the quality of water resources and efficiency of treatment processes. Therefore, drinking water supply systems (DWSSs) may be still unwarranted in assuring safe access to potable drinking water. Drinking water supply, such as tap water, is an additional and crucial route of human exposure to the health risks associated with EDCs. A holistic system, incorporating continuous research in DWSS monitoring and management using multi-barrier approach, is proposed as a preventive measure to reduce human exposure to the risks associated with EDCs through drinking water consumption. The occurrence of EDCs in DWSSs and corresponding human health risk implications are analyzed using the Needs, Approaches, Benefits, and Challenges (NABC) method. Therefore, this review may act as a supportive tool in protecting human health and environmental quality from EDCs, which is essential for decision-making regarding environmental monitoring and management purposes. Subsequently, the public could have sustainable access to safer and more reliable drinking water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Water Safety and Lead Regulation: Physicians' Community Health Responsibilities.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Bruce; Duncan, Leslie Lyons

    2017-10-01

    This article reviews the regulation of lead in drinking water, highlighting its epidemiological, engineering, and ethical aspects with a focus on the Flint water crisis. We first discuss water quality policy and its implementation with a focus on lead contamination of water, primarily from pipe systems between a water treatment facility and a tap. We then discuss physicians' roles and ethical responsibilities regarding safe drinking water using a human rights framework. We argue that physicians can play an important role in safeguarding drinking water in their communities by being vigilant, honoring the community's trust in them, and warning, educating, and empowering patients and broader communities so as to protect tap water safety and public health. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Impact of treated wastewater reuse and floods on water quality and fish health within a water reservoir in an arid climate.

    PubMed

    Zaibel, Inbal; Zilberg, Dina; Groisman, Ludmila; Arnon, Shai

    2016-07-15

    Treated wastewater (TWW) reuse for agricultural irrigation is a well-established approach to coping with water shortages in semi-arid and arid environments. Recently, additional uses of TWW have emerged, including streamflow augmentation and aquatic ecosystem restoration. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the water quality and fish health, in an artificial reservoir located in an arid climate (the Yeruham Reservoir, Israel), which regularly receives TWW and sporadic winter floods. The temporal distribution of water levels, nutrients and organic micropollutants (OMPs) were measured during the years 2013-2014. OMPs were also measured in sediment and fish tissues. Finally, the status of fish health was evaluated by histopathology. Water levels and quality were mainly influenced by seasonal processes such as floods and evaporation, and not by the discharge of TWW. Out of 16 tested OMPs, estrone, carbamazepine, diclofenac and bezafibrate were found in the reservoir water, but mostly at concentrations below the predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) for fish. Concentrations of PCBs and dioxins in fish muscle and liver were much lower than the EU maximal permitted concentrations, and similar to concentrations that were found in food fish in Israel and Europe. In the histopathological analysis, there were no evident tissue abnormalities, and low to moderate infection levels of fish parasites were recorded. The results from the Yeruham Reservoir demonstrated a unique model for the mixture effect between TWW reuse and natural floods to support a unique stable and thriving ecosystem in a water reservoir located in an arid region. This type of reservoir can be widely used for recreation, education, and the social and economic development of a rural environment, such as has occurred in the Yeruham region. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of fluoride levels in bottled water and their contribution to health and teeth problems in the United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Abouleish, Mohamed Yehia Z

    2016-10-01

    Fluoride is needed for better health, yet if ingested at higher levels it may lead to health problems. Fluoride can be obtained from different sources, with drinking water being a major contributor. In the United Arab Emirates (UAE), bottled water is the major source for drinking. The aim of this research is to measure fluoride levels in different bottled water brands sold in UAE, to determine whether fluoride contributes to better health or health problems. The results were compared to international and local standards. Fluoride was present in seven out of 23 brands. One brand exhibited high fluoride levels, which exceeded all standards, suggesting it may pose health problems. Other brands were either below or above standards, suggesting either contribution to better health or health problems, depending on ingested amount. A risk assessment suggested a potential for non-cancer effects from some brands. The results were compared to fluoride levels in bottled water sold in UAE and neighboring countries (e.g. Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Kuwait, and Bahrain), over 24 years, to reflect on changes in fluoride levels in bottled water in this region. The research presents the need for creating, stricter regulations that require careful fluoride monitoring and new regulations that require listing fluoride level on the bottled water label, internationally and regionally. The research will have local and global health impact, as bottled water sold in UAE and neighboring countries, is produced locally and imported from international countries, e.g. Switzerland, the USA, France, Italy, New Zealand, and Fiji.

  5. Water pollution in Pakistan and its impact on public health--a review.

    PubMed

    Azizullah, Azizullah; Khattak, Muhammad Nasir Khan; Richter, Peter; Häder, Donat-Peter

    2011-02-01

    Water pollution is one of the major threats to public health in Pakistan. Drinking water quality is poorly managed and monitored. Pakistan ranks at number 80 among 122 nations regarding drinking water quality. Drinking water sources, both surface and groundwater are contaminated with coliforms, toxic metals and pesticides throughout the country. Various drinking water quality parameters set by WHO are frequently violated. Human activities like improper disposal of municipal and industrial effluents and indiscriminate applications of agrochemicals in agriculture are the main factors contributing to the deterioration of water quality. Microbial and chemical pollutants are the main factors responsible exclusively or in combination for various public health problems. This review discusses a detailed layout of drinking water quality in Pakistan with special emphasis on major pollutants, sources of pollution and the consequent health problems. The data presented in this review are extracted from various studies published in national and international journals. Also reports released by the government and non-governmental organizations are included. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluating the multiple benefits of marine water quality improvements: how important are health risk reductions?

    PubMed

    Machado, Fernando S; Mourato, Susana

    2002-07-01

    Marine water pollution affects many recreational sites around the world. It has impacts not only on recreational activities but also on health risks for those who come into direct contact with the water. Few economic studies have explicitly considered the health risks of bathing in polluted marine waters and none have attempted to separate health benefits from other benefits of marine water quality improvements. This paper uses stated preference techniques to separately evaluate the multiple benefits of improving the quality of marine recreational waters at the Estoril Coast in Portugal. The results indicate that health risk reductions are only a small fraction of the total social benefits of water quality improvements.

  7. Development of a Web-based tool to collect and display water system customer service areas for public health action.

    PubMed

    Wong, Michelle; Wolff, Craig; Collins, Natalie; Guo, Liang; Meltzer, Dan; English, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Significant illness is associated with biological contaminants in drinking water, but little is known about health effects from low levels of chemical contamination in drinking water. To examine these effects in epidemiological studies, the sources of drinking water of study populations need to be known. The California Environmental Health Tracking Program developed an online application that would collect data on the geographic location of public water system (PWS) customer service areas in California, which then could be linked to demographic and drinking water quality data. We deployed the Water Boundary Tool (WBT), a Web-based geospatial crowdsourcing application that can manage customer service boundary data for each PWS in California and can track changes over time. We also conducted a needs assessment for expansion to other states. The WBT was designed for water system operators, local and state regulatory agencies, and government entities. Since its public launch in 2012, the WBT has collected service area boundaries for about 2300 individual PWS, serving more than 90% of the California population. Results of the needs assessment suggest interest and utility for deploying such a tool among states lacking statewide PWS service area boundary data. Although the WBT data set is incomplete, it has already been used for a variety of applications, including fulfilling legislatively mandated reporting requirements and linking customer service areas to drinking water quality data to better understand local water quality issues. Development of this tool holds promise to assist with outbreak investigations and prevention, environmental health monitoring, and emergency preparedness and response.

  8. Do natural spring waters in Australia and New Zealand affect health? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Stanhope, Jessica; Weinstein, Philip; Cook, Angus

    2018-02-01

    Therapeutic use of spring waters has a recorded history dating back to at least 1550 BC and includes both bathing in and drinking such waters for their healing properties. In Australia and New Zealand the use of therapeutic spring waters is a much more recent phenomenon, becoming a source of health tourism from the late 1800s. We conducted a systematic review aimed at determining the potential health outcomes relating to exposure to Australian or New Zealand natural spring water. We found only low-level evidence of adverse health outcomes relating to this spring water exposure, including fatalities from hydrogen sulphide poisoning, drowning and primary amoebic meningoencephalitis. We found no studies that investigated the therapeutic use of these waters, compared with similar treatment with other types of water. From the broader literature, recommendations have been made, including fencing potentially harmful spring water, and having signage and media messages to highlight the potential harms from spring water exposure and how to mitigate the risks (e.g. not putting your head under water from geothermal springs). Sound research into the potential health benefits of Australian and New Zealand spring waters could provide an evidence base for the growing wellness tourism industry.

  9. Drinking water quality in Indigenous communities in Canada and health outcomes: a scoping review

    PubMed Central

    Bradford, Lori E. A.; Bharadwaj, Lalita A.; Okpalauwaekwe, Udoka; Waldner, Cheryl L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Many Indigenous communities in Canada live with high-risk drinking water systems and drinking water advisories and experience health status and water quality below that of the general population. A scoping review of research examining drinking water quality and its relationship to Indigenous health was conducted. Objective The study was undertaken to identify the extent of the literature, summarize current reports and identify research needs. Design A scoping review was designed to identify peer-reviewed literature that examined challenges related to drinking water and health in Indigenous communities in Canada. Key search terms were developed and mapped on five bibliographic databases (MEDLINE/PubMED, Web of Knowledge, SciVerse Scopus, Taylor and Francis online journal and Google Scholar). Online searches for grey literature using relevant government websites were completed. Results Sixteen articles (of 518; 156 bibliographic search engines, 362 grey literature) met criteria for inclusion (contained keywords; publication year 2000–2015; peer-reviewed and from Canada). Studies were quantitative (8), qualitative (5) or mixed (3) and included case, cohort, cross-sectional and participatory designs. In most articles, no definition of “health” was given (14/16), and the primary health issue described was gastrointestinal illness (12/16). Challenges to the study of health and well-being with respect to drinking water in Indigenous communities included irregular funding, remote locations, ethical approval processes, small sample sizes and missing data. Conclusions Research on drinking water and health outcomes in Indigenous communities in Canada is limited and occurs on an opportunistic basis. There is a need for more research funding, and inquiry to inform policy decisions for improvements of water quality and health-related outcomes in Indigenous communities. A coordinated network looking at First Nations water and health outcomes, a database to store

  10. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS DOCUMENT ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Health and Environmental Effects Documents (HEEDS) are prepared for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OSWER). This document series is intended to support listings under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) as well as to provide health-related limits and goals for emergency and remedial actions under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Both published literature and information obtained from Agency Program Office files are evaluated as they pertain to potential human health, aquatic life and environmental effects of hazardous waste constituents. Several quantitative estimates are presented provided sufficient data are available. For systemic toxicants, these include Reference Doses (RfDs) for chronic and subchronic exposures for both the inhalation and oral exposures. In the case of suspected carcinogens, RfDs may not be estimated. Instead, a carcinogenic potency factor, or q1*, is provided. These potency estimates are derived for both oral and inhalation exposures where possible. In addition, unit risk estimates for air and drinking water are presented based on inhalation and oral data, respectively. Reportable quantities (RQs) based on both chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity are derived. The RQ is used to determine the quantity of a hazardous substance for which notification is required in the event of a release as specified under CERCLA.

  11. Health risk assessment of heavy metal variability in sachet water sold in Ado-Odo Ota, South-Western Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Emenike, PraiseGod Chidozie; Tenebe, Theophilus Imokhai; Omeje, Maxwell; Osinubi, Damilare Samuel

    2017-08-31

    The sales of sachet water (SW), also known as "pure water" (PW), in Nigeria is a lucrative business. It serves many people, especially low-income earners, by providing a more affordable access to safe drinking water when compared with table water. However, some of the producers of SW do not effectively treat raw water before packaging them for sale. This study investigates the presence and concentrations of heavy metals, such as chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), aluminum (Al), and zinc (Zn) in some samples of SW sold within Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria. Samples of SW from nine different producers were purchased for four consecutive weeks and analyzed to determine the concentrations of these heavy metals in them. Furthermore, health risk indicators, such as chronic daily intake (CDI) and health risk indices (HRI) for children and adults, were calculated separately. The metal concentrations were compared with allowable limits set by the World Health Organization (WHO), Nigerian Industrial Standard (NIS), and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). High concentrations of Cr, Fe, and Al were found in all the nine samples and exceeded the maximum allowable limits (MAL) of all the standards considered. However, the concentrations of Zn, Mn, and Cu were within permissible limits. The HRIs of heavy metals were in the order of Cu > Fe > Zn > Mn > Al > Cr, but since the standard limits set for some metals were exceeded, proper and effective treatment is required to safeguard the health of consumers.

  12. Which chemicals drive biological effects in wastewater and recycled water?

    PubMed

    Tang, Janet Y M; Busetti, Francesco; Charrois, Jeffrey W A; Escher, Beate I

    2014-09-01

    Removal of organic micropollutants from wastewater during secondary treatment followed by reverse osmosis and UV disinfection was evaluated by a combination of four in-vitro cell-based bioassays and chemical analysis of 299 organic compounds. Concentrations detected in recycled water were below the Australian Guidelines for Water Recycling. Thus the detected chemicals were considered not to pose any health risk. The detected pesticides in the wastewater treatment plant effluent and partially advanced treated water explained all observed effects on photosynthesis inhibition. In contrast, mixture toxicity experiments with designed mixtures containing all detected chemicals at their measured concentrations demonstrated that the known chemicals explained less than 3% of the observed cytotoxicity and less than 1% of the oxidative stress response. Pesticides followed by pharmaceuticals and personal care products dominated the observed mixture effects. The detected chemicals were not related to the observed genotoxicity. The large proportion of unknown toxicity calls for effect monitoring complementary to chemical monitoring. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Waters in Croatia between practice and needs: public health challenge.

    PubMed

    Vitale, Ksenija; Marijanović Rajcić, Marija; Senta, Ankica

    2002-08-01

    To describe waters monitoring in Croatia and legislation status for their evaluation, and to present health-relevant data and long-term analysis of the Drava river water, which is used in drinking water production. Survey of databanks of various Croatian institutions related to waters, and physical and chemical analysis of 13 surface water pollutants, applying HRN ISO laboratory methods. Since 1992 until 2000, water systems had 10% of contaminated samples, whereas local community and private water sources had 30% of such samples. Since 1981, 84 waterborne epidemics have been registered, affecting 7,581 people with predominantly gastrointestinal problems. The Drava river monitoring revealed that lead, cadmium, and mercury concentrations have constantly exceeded, whereas nickel and copper remained within allowed values for the Drava river to be classified into the second category of surface waters. Both nitrates and nitrites have been increasing with time, nitrates exceeding and nitrites remaining within guideline values. Total phosphorus and nitrogen concentrations also increased with time, still being below allowed maximum values. Chemical oxygen demand has been decreasing. Alkalinity has been satisfactory. Salt burden has been increasing. Both drinking water quality assessment and surface water monitoring in Croatia use less parameters then recommended by World Health Organization or signed conventions. The quality of Drava water has been improving, but still does not fully conform to the second category of surface water. More parameters should be used in its monitoring, as recommended by EU conventions and laws.

  14. AS 2008: Arsenic exposure a nd health effects in Inner Mongolia: studies on cardiac, diabetes and cancer-related effects

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chronic arsenic exposure via drinking water has been of great public health concern world wide. Arsenic exposure has been associated with human cancers, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The objectives of this study were to investigate health effects of arsenic and to asses...

  15. Effect of metal oxide nanoparticles on Godavari river water treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goud, Ravi Kumar; Ajay Kumar, V.; Reddy, T. Rakesh; Vinod, B.; Shravani, S.

    2018-05-01

    Nowadays there is a continuously increasing worldwide concern for the development of water treatment technologies. In the area of water purification, nanotechnology offers the possibility of an efficient removal of pollutants and germs. Nanomaterials reveal good results than other techniques used in water treatment because of its high surface area to volume ratio. In the present work, iron oxide and copper oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by simple heating method. The synthesized nanoparticles were used to purify Godavari river water. The effect of nanoparticles at 70°C temperature, 12 centimeter of sand bed height and pH of 8 shows good results as compared to simple sand bed filter. The attained values of BOD5, COD and Turbidity were in permissible limit of world health organization.

  16. Effects of human placental S9 and induced rat liver S9 on the mutagenicity of drinking waters processed from humus-rich surface waters

    SciTech Connect

    Vartiainen, T.; Lampelo, S.

    The mutagenicity of chlorinated drinking waters processed from humus-rich surface waters has been shown to be very high. The effect of placental S9 on the mutagenicity of drinking waters has not been studied previously. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of human placental and rat liver microsomal fractions on the mutagenicity of drinking waters processed from humus-rich surface waters. The samples of 34 drinking and two raw waters from 26 localities in Finland were tested for mutagenicity in Ames Salmonella typhimurium tester strain TA100 with and without metabolic activations. Between the drinking water samples, clear differencesmore » were recorded in the presence of placental and rat liver S9, suggesting different mutagens in the drinking waters. Rat liver S9 decreased the mutagenicities of drinking water concentrates, but placental S9 increased, decreased, or had no effect. It is not known if placental mutagenicity enhancing system might cause any health hazard to a developing fetus.« less

  17. Impacts of soil and water pollution on food safety and health risks in China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yonglong; Song, Shuai; Wang, Ruoshi; Liu, Zhaoyang; Meng, Jing; Sweetman, Andrew J; Jenkins, Alan; Ferrier, Robert C; Li, Hong; Luo, Wei; Wang, Tieyu

    2015-04-01

    Environmental pollution and food safety are two of the most important issues of our time. Soil and water pollution, in particular, have historically impacted on food safety which represents an important threat to human health. Nowhere has that situation been more complex and challenging than in China, where a combination of pollution and an increasing food safety risk have affected a large part of the population. Water scarcity, pesticide over-application, and chemical pollutants are considered to be the most important factors impacting on food safety in China. Inadequate quantity and quality of surface water resources in China have led to the long-term use of waste-water irrigation to fulfill the water requirements for agricultural production. In some regions this has caused serious agricultural land and food pollution, especially for heavy metals. It is important, therefore, that issues threatening food safety such as combined pesticide residues and heavy metal pollution are addressed to reduce risks to human health. The increasing negative effects on food safety from water and soil pollution have put more people at risk of carcinogenic diseases, potentially contributing to 'cancer villages' which appear to correlate strongly with the main food producing areas. Currently in China, food safety policies are not integrated with soil and water pollution management policies. Here, a comprehensive map of both soil and water pollution threats to food safety in China is presented and integrated policies addressing soil and water pollution for achieving food safety are suggested to provide a holistic approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Enviromental Health Risks on Community in Coastal Area As a Results The Presence of Pb in Sea Water and Drinking Water.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malem Indirawati, Sri; Pandia, Setiaty; Mawengkang, Herman; Hasan, Wirsal

    2018-01-01

    The burden of pollution due to industrial waste, ports, community activities and marine intrusion further exacerbate environmental quality. This pollution causes drinking water sources polluted. This study aims to analyze Pb contamination in marine, and drinking water from wellbores and measure the magnitude of health risks. This is cross sectional study and quantitative research that analyzes Pb concentrations in marine and drinking water. The sample are 250 people who live in coastal area and drink water from wellbores. Water samples were examined in certified laboratories by using Atomic Absorbstion Spectrophotometer method, health risk was analyzed by the environmental health risk (EHRA) method. Pb concentrations average in marine is 52 μgl-1 . Pb concentration from 92 samples of drinking water average is 4.5 μgl-1 and range 5.4 - 26.2 μgl-1. The amount of health risk RQ <1, which means that it has not shown risk yet. Pb exceeded the environmental quality standard in marine, There are 14.7% of people consuming Pb contaminated drinking water. Community complaints found at the study sites were diarrhea 22.8% and dizziness 17.2% and skin disease 17.2%, upper respiratory tract infection, rheumatism and hypertension.

  19. Building a Public Health Response to the Flint Water Crisis: Implications for Policy and Decision-Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furr-Holden, D.

    2017-12-01

    Flint, MI has experienced a recent, man-made public health crisis. The Flint Water Crisis, caused by a switch in the municipal water supply and subsequent violation of engineering and regulatory standards to ensure water quality lead to a large portion of the city being exposed to excess metals (including lead), bacteria and other water-borne pathogens. The data used to initially rebut the existence of the crisis were ecologically flawed as they included large numbers of people who were not on the Flint water supply. Policy-makers, municipal officials, the medical community, and public health professionals were at odds over the existence of a problem and the lack of data only fueled the debate. Pediatricians, lead by Dr. Mona Hannah-Attisha, began testing children in the Hurley Children's Medical Center for blood-lead levels and observed a 2-fold increase in elevated blood lead levels in Flint children compared to children in the area not on the Flint municipal water supply, where no increases in elevated lead were observed. Subsequent geospatial analyses revealed spatial clustering of cases based on where children live, go to school and play. These data represented the first step in data driven decision making leading to the subsequent switch of the municipal water supply and launch of subsequent advocacy efforts to remediate the effect of the Water Crisis. Since that time, a multi-disciplinary team of scientists including engineers, bench scientists, physicians and public health researchers have mounted evidence to promote complete replacement of the city's aging water infrastructure, developed a data registry to track cases and coordinate care and services for affected residents, and implemented a community engagement model that puts residents and community stakeholders at the heart of the planning and implementation efforts. The presentation will include data used at various stages to mount a public health response to the Flint Water Crisis and establish the

  20. Health effects of subchronic exposure to diesel-water-methanol emulsion emission.

    PubMed

    Reed, M D; Blair, L F; Burling, K; Daly, I; Gigliotti, A P; Gudi, R; Mercieca, M D; McDonald, J D; O'Callaghan, J P; Seilkop, S K; Ronskoh, N L; Wagner, V O; Kraska, R C

    2006-03-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Ambient Air Quality Standards for ozone and particulate matter (PM) require urban non-attainment areas to implement pollution-reduction strategies for anthropogenic source emissions. The type of fuel shown to decrease combustion emissions components versus traditional diesel fuel, is the diesel emulsion. The Lubrizol Corporation, in conjunction with Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute and several subcontracting laboratories, recently conducted a health assessment of the combustion emissions of PuriNOx diesel fuel emulsion (diesel-water-methanol) in rodents. Combustion emissions from either of two, 2002 model Cummins 5.9L ISB engines, were diluted with charcoal-filtered air to exposure concentrations of 125, 250 and 500 microg total PM/m3. The engines were operated on a continuous, repeating, heavy-duty certification cycle (U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Chapter I) using Rotella-T 15W-40 engine oil. Nitrogen oxide (NO) and PM were reduced when engines were operated on PuriNOx versus California Air Resources Board diesel fuel under these conditions. Male and female F344 rats were housed in Hazleton H2000 exposure chambers and exposed to exhaust atmospheres 6 h/day, five days/week for the first 11 weeks and seven days/week thereafter. Exposures ranged from 61 to 73 days depending on the treatment group. Indicators of general toxicity (body weight, organ weight, clinical pathology and histopathology), neurotoxicity (glial fibrillary acidic protein assay), genotoxicity (Ames assay, micronucleus, sister chromatid exchange), and reproduction and development were measured. Overall, effects observed were mild. Emulsion combustion emissions were not associated with neurotoxicity, reproductive/developmental toxicity, or in vivo genotoxicity. Small decreases in serum cholesterol in the 500-microg/m3 exposure group were observed. PM accumulation within alveolar macrophages was evident in all exposure groups

  1. Uncharted Waters: Communicating Health Risks During the 2014 West Virginia Water Crisis.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Tracey L; Friedman, Daniela B; Brandt, Heather M; Spencer, S Melinda; Tanner, Andrea

    2016-09-01

    This study is among the first to examine how health risks are communicated through traditional and social media during a public health crisis. Using an innovative research approach, the study combined a content analysis with in-depth interviews to examine and understand how stakeholders involved in crisis response perceived media coverage after a chemical spill contaminated the drinking water of 300,000 West Virginia residents. A content analysis of print, television, and online media stories and tweets revealed that health risk information was largely absent from crisis coverage. Although traditional media stories were significantly more likely to include health information compared to tweets, public health sources were underutilized in traditional media coverage. Instead, traditional media favored the use of government sources outside the public health field, which stakeholders suggested was problematic because of a public distrust of officials and official information during the crisis. Results also indicated that Twitter was not a common or reliable source for health information but was important in the spread of other types of information. Ultimately, the study highlights a need for more deliberate media coverage of health risks and provides insight into how Twitter is used to spread crisis information.

  2. Application of health-based screening levels to ground-water quality data in a state-scale pilot effort

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Toccalino, Patricia L.; Norman, Julia E.; Phillips, Robyn H.; Kauffman, Leon J.; Stackelberg, Paul E.; Nowell, Lisa H.; Krietzman, Sandra J.; Post, Gloria B.

    2004-01-01

    (that is, maximum BQ value (BQmax) greater than or equal to 0.1) in any well type (public supply, domestic, monitoring). Most (57 of 77) pesticides and VOCs with human-health benchmarks were detected at concentrations well below these levels (BQmax less than 0.1) for all three well types; however, BQmax values ranged from 0.1 to 3,000 for 6 pesticides and 14 VOCs. Of these 20 contaminants, one pesticide (dieldrin) and three VOCs (1,2-dibromoethane, tetrachloroethylene, and trichloroethylene) both (1) were measured at concentrations that met or exceeded MCL or HBSL values, and (2) were detected in more than 10 percent of samples collected from raw ground water used as sources of drinking water (public-supply and (or) domestic wells) and, therefore, are particularly relevant to human health. The occurrence of multiple pesticides and VOCs in individual wells also was evaluated in a human-health context because at least 53 different contaminants were detected in each of the three well types. To assess the relative human-health importance of the occurrence of multiple contaminants in different wells, the BQ values for all contaminants in a given well were summed. The median ratio of the maximum BQ to the sum of all BQ values for each well ranged from 0.83 to 0.93 for all well types, indicating that the maximum BQ makes up the majority of the sum for most wells. Maximum and summed BQ values were statistically greater for individual public-supply wells than for individual domestic and monitoring wells. The HBSL approach is an effective tool for placing water-quality data in a human-health context. For 79 of the 182 compounds analyzed in this study, no USEPA drinking-water standards or guidelines exist, but new HBSL values were calculated for 39 of these 79 compounds. The new HBSL values increased the number of detected pesticides and VOCs with human-health benchmarks from 65 to 77 (of 97 detected compounds), thereby expanding the basis for interpreting contaminant-occu

  3. [Effects of soil and ground water pollution with perchloroethylene from the public health service viewpoint].

    PubMed

    Hauswirth, S

    1990-07-01

    A routine analysis of drinking water conducted in September 1987 in a Rhenish water works revealed a perchloroethylene (PER) content of 3 micrograms/l. Within less than 3 months the concentration in the two northern wells of the entire battery consisting of 4 wells rose to 20 micrograms/l, and hence the complete battery had to be shut off from the water supply network. The pumped-up water was diverted to a draining plant via the precipitation tank of the water works. During the two subsequent months the PER concentration continued to rise, especially in well No. 1, to more than 120 micrograms/l. The present report deals with the measures undertaken to assess the extent of the damage and the effects of the incident on drinking water supply, on the storage of foods in a warehouse, on a planned sewer construction and on the systems installed by various parties for their own water supply, and on wells in private gardens and in a gardening nursery.

  4. Effect of disinfectant, water age, and pipe materials on bacterial and eukaryotic community structure in drinking water biofilm.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Masters, Sheldon; Edwards, Marc A; Falkinham, Joseph O; Pruden, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Availability of safe, pathogen-free drinking water is vital to public health; however, it is impossible to deliver sterile drinking water to consumers. Recent microbiome research is bringing new understanding to the true extent and diversity of microbes that inhabit water distribution systems. The purpose of this study was to determine how water chemistry in main distribution lines shape the microbiome in drinking water biofilms and to explore potential associations between opportunistic pathogens and indigenous drinking water microbes. Effects of disinfectant (chloramines, chlorine), water age (2.3 days, 5.7 days), and pipe material (cement, iron, PVC) were compared in parallel triplicate simulated water distribution systems. Pyrosequencing was employed to characterize bacteria and terminal restriction fragment polymorphism was used to profile both bacteria and eukaryotes inhabiting pipe biofilms. Disinfectant and water age were both observed to be strong factors in shaping bacterial and eukaryotic community structures. Pipe material only influenced the bacterial community structure (ANOSIM test, P < 0.05). Interactive effects of disinfectant, pipe material, and water age on both bacteria and eukaryotes were noted. Disinfectant concentration had the strongest effect on bacteria, while dissolved oxygen appeared to be a major driver for eukaryotes (BEST test). Several correlations of similarity metrics among populations of bacteria, eukaryotes, and opportunistic pathogens, as well as one significant association between mycobacterial and proteobacterial operational taxonomic units, provides insight into means by which manipulating the microbiome may lead to new avenues for limiting the growth of opportunistic pathogens (e.g., Legionella) or other nuisance organisms (e.g., nitrifiers).

  5. On the health effects of transported and resuspended dusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudich, Yinon

    2017-04-01

    In the Mediterranean area people are often exposed to high levels of both transported mineral dust and to resuspended urban dust. High exposure to particulate matter is a known risk factor to exposed population, but the detailed understanding of how these dusts affect health remain elusive. In this talk I will describe two aspects of how dust may impact health. First, transport of bacteria by desert dust and its effects on the local microbiome will be described. Then, we will describe the biological effects due to exposing water soluble extracts of fresh and aged dust particles from the Israeli Negev Desert to alveolar macrophages.

  6. Association between arsenic exposure from drinking water and hematuria: results from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    McClintock, Tyler R; Chen, Yu; Parvez, Faruque; Makarov, Danil V; Ge, Wenzhen; Islam, Tariqul; Ahmed, Alauddin; Rakibuz-Zaman, Muhammad; Hasan, Rabiul; Sarwar, Golam; Slavkovich, Vesna; Bjurlin, Marc A; Graziano, Joseph H; Ahsan, Habibul

    2014-04-01

    Arsenic (As) exposure has been associated with both urologic malignancy and renal dysfunction; however, its association with hematuria is unknown. We evaluated the association between drinking water As exposure and hematuria in 7843 men enrolled in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS). Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data was conducted with As exposure assessed in both well water and urinary As measurements, while hematuria was measured using urine dipstick. Prospective analyses with Cox proportional regression models were based on urinary As and dipstick measurements obtained biannually since baseline up to six years. At baseline, urinary As was significantly related to prevalence of hematuria (P-trend<0.01), with increasing quintiles of exposure corresponding with respective prevalence odds ratios of 1.00 (reference), 1.29 (95% CI: 1.04-1.59), 1.41 (95% CI: 1.15-1.74), 1.46 (95% CI: 1.19-1.79), and 1.56 (95% CI: 1.27-1.91). Compared to those with relatively little absolute urinary As change during follow-up (-10.40 to 41.17 μg/l), hazard ratios for hematuria were 0.99 (95% CI: 0.80-1.22) and 0.80 (95% CI: 0.65-0.99) for those whose urinary As decreased by >47.49 μg/l and 10.87 to 47.49 μg/l since last visit, respectively, and 1.17 (95% CI: 0.94-1.45) and 1.36 (95% CI: 1.10-1.66) for those with between-visit increases of 10.40 to 41.17 μg/l and >41.17 μg/l, respectively. These data indicate a positive association of As exposure with both prevalence and incidence of dipstick hematuria. This exposure effect appears modifiable by relatively short-term changes in drinking water As. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Association between arsenic exposure from drinking water and hematuria: results from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    McClintock, Tyler R.; Chen, Yu; Parvez, Faruque; Makarov, Danil V.; Ge, Wenzhen; Islam, Tariqul; Ahmed, Alauddin; Rakibuz-Zaman, Muhammad; Hasan, Rabiul; Sarwar, Golam; Slavkovich, Vesna; Bjurlin, Marc A.; Graziano, Joseph H.; Ahsan, Habibul

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic (As) exposure has been associated with both urologic malignancy and renal dysfunction; however, its association with hematuria is unknown. We evaluated the association between drinking water As exposure and hematuria in 7,843 men enrolled in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS). Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data was conducted with As exposure assessed in both well water and urinary As measurements, while hematuria was measured using urine dipstick. Prospective analyses with Cox proportional regression models were based on urinary As and dipstick measurements obtained biannually since baseline up to six years. At baseline, urinary As was significantly related to prevalence of hematuria (P-trend < 0.01), with increasing quintiles of exposure corresponding with respective prevalence odds ratios of 1.00 (reference), 1.29 (95% CI: 1.04–1.59), 1.41 (95% CI: 1.15–1.74), 1.46 (95% CI: 1.19–1.79), and 1.56 (95% CI: 1.27–1.91). Compared to those with relatively little absolute urinary As change during follow-up (−10.40 to 41.17 μg/l), hazard ratios for hematuria were 0.99 (95% CI: 0.80–1.22) and 0.80 (95% CI: 0.65–0.99) for those whose urinary As decreased by >47.49 μg/l and 10.87 to 47.49 μg/l since last visit, respectively, and 1.17 (95% CI: 0.94–1.45) and 1.36 (95% CI: 1.10–1.66) for those with between-visit increases of 10.40 to 41.17 μg/l and >41.17 μg/l, respectively. These data indicate a positive association of As exposure with both prevalence and incidence of dipstick hematuria. This exposure effect appears modifiable by short-term changes in drinking water As. PMID:24486435

  8. Getting the basic rights – the role of water, sanitation and hygiene in maternal and reproductive health: a conceptual framework

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Oona M R; Benova, Lenka; Gon, Giorgia; Afsana, Kaosar; Cumming, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore linkages between water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) and maternal and perinatal health via a conceptual approach and a scoping review. Methods We developed a conceptual framework iteratively, amalgamating three literature-based lenses. We then searched literature and identified risk factors potentially linked to maternal and perinatal health. We conducted a systematic scoping review for all chemical and biological WASH risk factors identified using text and MeSH terms, limiting results to systematic reviews or meta-analyses. The remaining 10 complex behavioural associations were not reviewed systematically. Results The main ways poor WASH could lead to adverse outcomes are via two non-exclusive categories: 1. ‘In-water’ associations: (a) Inorganic contaminants, and (b) ‘water-system’ related infections, (c) ‘water-based’ infections, and (d) ‘water borne’ infections. 2. ‘Behaviour’ associations: (e) Behaviours leading to water-washed infections, (f) Water-related insect-vector infections, and (g-i) Behaviours leading to non-infectious diseases/conditions. We added a gender inequality and a life course lens to the above framework to identify whether WASH affected health of mothers in particular, and acted beyond the immediate effects. This framework led us to identifying 77 risk mechanisms (67 chemical or biological factors and 10 complex behavioural factors) linking WASH to maternal and perinatal health outcomes. Conclusion WASH affects the risk of adverse maternal and perinatal health outcomes; these exposures are multiple and overlapping and may be distant from the immediate health outcome. Much of the evidence is weak, based on observational studies and anecdotal evidence, with relatively few systematic reviews. New systematic reviews are required to assess the quality of existing evidence more rigorously, and primary research is required to investigate the magnitude of effects of particular WASH exposures on specific

  9. Effect of ambient temperature storage on potable water coliform population estimations.

    PubMed Central

    Standridge, J H; Delfino, J J

    1983-01-01

    The effect of the length of time between sampling potable water and performing coliform analyses has been a long-standing controversial issue in environmental microbiology. The issue is of practical importance since reducing the sample-to-analysis time may substantially increase costs for water analysis programs. Randomly selected samples (from those routinely collected throughout the State of Wisconsin) were analyzed for total coliforms after being held at room temperature (20 +/- 2 degrees C) for 24 and 48 h. Differences in results for the two holding times were compared with differences predicted by probability calculations. The study showed that storage of the potable water for up to 48 h had little effect on the public health significance of most samples containing more than two coliforms per 100 ml. PMID:6651296

  10. Micropollutants removal and health risk reduction in a water reclamation and ecological reuse system.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaoyan Y; Li, Qiyuan; Wang, Xiaochang C; Wang, Yongkun; Wang, Donghong; Ngo, Huu Hao

    2018-07-01

    As reclaimed water use is increasing, its safety attracts growing attention, particularly with respect to the health risks associated with the wide range of micropollutants found in the reclaimed water. In this study, sophisticated analysis was conducted for water samples from a water reclamation and ecological reuse system where domestic wastewater was treated using an anaerobic-anoxic-oxic unit followed by a membrane bioreactor (A 2 O-MBR), and the reclaimed water was used for replenishing a landscape lake. A total of 58 organic micropollutants were detected in the system, consisting of 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 16 phenols, 3 pesticides, and 26 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs). After treatment by the A 2 O-MBR process, effective removal of pesticides and phenols was achieved, while when the reclaimed water entered the landscape lake, PPCPs were further removed. From the physicochemical properties of micropollutants, it could be inferred that phenols and dichlorphos (the only pesticide with considerable concentration in the influent) would have been mainly removed by biodegradation and/or volatilization in the biological treatment process. Additionally, it is probable that sludge adsorption also contributed to the removal of dichlorphos. For the predominant PPCP removal in the landscape lake, various actions, such as adsorption, biodegradation, photolysis, and ecologically mediated processes (via aquatic plants and animals), would have played significant roles. However, according to their logK oc , logK ow and logD (pH = 8) values, it could be concluded that adsorption by suspended solids might be an important action. Although carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks associated with all the detected micropollutants were at negligible levels, the hazard quotients (HQs) of PPCPs accounted for 92.03%-97.23% of the HQ Total . With the significant removal of PPCPs through the ecological processes in the landscape lake, the safety

  11. Estimating effects of improved drinking water and sanitation on cholera.

    PubMed

    Leidner, Andrew J; Adusumilli, Naveen C

    2013-12-01

    Demand for adequate provision of drinking-water and sanitation facilities to promote public health and economic growth is increasing in the rapidly urbanizing countries of the developing world. With a panel of data on Asia and Africa from 1990 to 2008, associations are estimated between the occurrence of cholera outbreaks, the case rates in given outbreaks, the mortality rates associated with cholera and two disease control mechanisms, drinking-water and sanitation services. A statistically significant and negative effect is found between drinking-water services and both cholera case rates as well as cholera-related mortality rates. A relatively weak statistical relationship is found between the occurrence of cholera outbreaks and sanitation services.

  12. Chronic arsenic poisoning in drinking water in Inner Mongolia and its associated health effects.

    PubMed

    Guo, Juan X; Hu, Lin; Yand, Peng Z; Tanabe, Kimiko; Miyatalre, Munetoshi; Chen, Yao

    2007-10-01

    Since 1990, a large number of people have been experiencing various health problems from drinking arsenic contaminated water (50-1860 microg/L) in 13 counties of Inner Mongolia, China, most of which are located in the Hetao Plain area. It is calculated that 411,243 people are currently at risk from arsenic poisoning. Clinical and epidemiological investigations were carried out on 13,021 people to ascertain the nature and degree of morbidity that occurred due to chronic arsenic toxicity. In all of the studied patients, 22% had typical hyperkeratosis on the palms or soles and some had raindrop-like hyperpigmentation and depigmentation on the trunk. Other data recorded included subjective and objective symptoms, such as chronic cough (35.0%) and insomnia (37.5%). During physical checkups of 680 villagers in arsenic affected areas, liver function tests showed elevated globulin levels in 6.8% (P value=0.006) of the subjects. Neurotoxicity manifesting as loss of hearing 5.88 (P value=0.005), loss of taste 5.44% (P value=0.001), blurred vision 17.35% (P value=0.000), tingling and numbness of the limbs 33.53% (P value=0.000) and hypertension 8.09% (P value=0.000) were significantly higher in the arsenic affected villages and arsenic pollution also seemed to affect patients' social life and mental health. To solve the problem of arsenic exposure, the quality of drinking water needs to be improved by reducing the arsenic content. We also plan to carry out a survey to detect the incidence and types of cancer among this population.

  13. THE EFFECT OF PH, PHOSPHATE AND OXIDANT ON THE REMOVAL OF ARSENIC FROM DRINKING WATER DURING IRON REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic is a naturally occurring drinking water contaminant that has known adverse human health effects. The recent compilation of new health effects data prompted the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to reduce the previous arsenic maximum contaminant level (MCL) of ...

  14. THE EFFECT OF PH, PHOSPHATE AND OXIDANT ON THE REMOVAL OF ARSENIC FROM DRINKING WATER DURING IRON REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic is a naturally occurring drinking water contaminant that has known adverse human health effects. The recent compilation of new health effects data prompted the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to recently reduce the previous arsenic maximum contaminant level ...

  15. Discrimination of the effects on zebrafish reproduction from pollutants in drinking water via female, via male and/or via fecundation water.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Sales, M; García-Ximénez, F; Espinós, F J

    2016-08-01

    The lack of preventive policy legislation and the low removal rate of organic pollutants in conventional potabilization treatments lead to some of them being present in drinking water. The problem arises because some of these substances have detrimental effects on human reproduction health, via females, via males or even both. In this work, we established the zebrafish as a bioindicator of these types of substances with the goal of discriminating the effects through three different pathways: male, female or water where the fertilization took place. For this purpose, four parameters were analysed: fertility rate, hatching rate and survival and abnormalities rates. So, for each parameter two groups were formed, according to whether adult males or females were reared in bottled spring water (Z) or tap water (B) and if the in vitro fertilization took place in water Z or B. Results revealed a decline in the fertility and hatching rate in water B, due to a water effect. The most plausible explanation could be the presence of substances which affect the micropyle and chorion. Moreover, a decrease in the fertility rate due to an effect over the female was also observed, but in this case by an alteration of the oocyte quality.

  16. The Impacts of Water Quality and Food Availability on Children's Health in West Africa: A Spatial Analysis Using Remotely Sensed Data and Small-Scale Water Quality Data and Country-level Health Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frederick, L.; Grace, K.; Lloyd, B.

    2014-12-01

    As the global climate changes and the populations of many African countries grow, ensuring clean drinking water and food has become a pressing concern. Because of their vulnerability to malnutrition and food insecurity, children face the greatest risk for adverse health outcomes related to climate change. Vulnerability, however, is highly variable, with some children in food insecure communities showing healthy growth, while some children in food secure communities show signs of malnutrition. In West Africa, Burkina Faso faces high levels of child malnutrition, loses to farmland and a large share of the population have no access to clean water. Because the overwhelming majority of children rely on locally grown, rainfed agriculture and well/surface water, the combined impact of climate change and population growth decreases water availability and farmland per person. However, there is notable community and individual variation in malnutrition levels suggesting that there are important coping strategies that vulnerable families may use to secure their children's health. No spatially relevant analysis of water and food insecurity and children's health exists for Burkina Faso. The goal of this research is to identify and quantify the combined and inter-related impact of unsafe drinking water and community-level food availability on the physical health outcomes of Burkinabe children under five years of age. To accomplish this goal we rely on a publically available highly detailed, geo-referenced data set (Demographic and Health Survey (DHS)) to provide information on measures of childhood malnutrition and details on parental characteristics related to children's health. Information on water source (covered/uncovered well, piped water, etc.) and water quality (measures of arsenic and pollution) comes from DHS along with a recently collected geo-referenced US Agency for International Development (USAID) data set. Critical information on food production, environmental

  17. The Impacts of Water Quality and Food Availability on Children's Health in West Africa: A Spatial Analysis Using Remotely Sensed Data and Small-Scale Water Quality Data and Country-level Health Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frederick, L.; Grace, K.; Lloyd, B.

    2015-12-01

    As the global climate changes and the populations of many African countries grow, ensuring clean drinking water and food has become a pressing concern. Because of their vulnerability to malnutrition and food insecurity, children face the greatest risk for adverse health outcomes related to climate change. Vulnerability, however, is highly variable, with some children in food insecure communities showing healthy growth, while some children in food secure communities show signs of malnutrition. In West Africa, Burkina Faso faces high levels of child malnutrition, loses to farmland and a large share of the population have no access to clean water. Because the overwhelming majority of children rely on locally grown, rainfed agriculture and well/surface water, the combined impact of climate change and population growth decreases water availability and farmland per person. However, there is notable community and individual variation in malnutrition levels suggesting that there are important coping strategies that vulnerable families may use to secure their children's health. No spatially relevant analysis of water and food insecurity and children's health exists for Burkina Faso. The goal of this research is to identify and quantify the combined and inter-related impact of unsafe drinking water and community-level food availability on the physical health outcomes of Burkinabe children under five years of age. To accomplish this goal we rely on a publically available highly detailed, geo-referenced data set (Demographic and Health Survey (DHS)) to provide information on measures of childhood malnutrition and details on parental characteristics related to children's health. Information on water source (covered/uncovered well, piped water, etc.) and water quality (measures of arsenic and pollution) comes from DHS along with a recently collected geo-referenced US Agency for International Development (USAID) data set. Critical information on food production, environmental

  18. Pharmaceuticals in Tap Water: Human Health Risk Assessment and Proposed Monitoring Framework in China

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Ho Wing; Jin, Ling; Wei, Si; Tsui, Mirabelle Mei Po; Zhou, Bingsheng; Jiao, Liping; Cheung, Pak Chuen; Chun, Yiu Kan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Pharmaceuticals are known to contaminate tap water worldwide, but the relevant human health risks have not been assessed in China. Objectives: We monitored 32 pharmaceuticals in Chinese tap water and evaluated the life-long human health risks of exposure in order to provide information for future prioritization and risk management. Methods: We analyzed samples (n = 113) from 13 cities and compared detected concentrations with existing or newly-derived safety levels for assessing risk quotients (RQs) at different life stages, excluding the prenatal stage. Results: We detected 17 pharmaceuticals in 89% of samples, with most detectable concentrations (92%) at < 50 ng/L. Caffeine (median–maximum, nanograms per liter: 24.4–564), metronidazole (1.8–19.3), salicylic acid (16.6–41.2), clofibric acid (1.2–3.3), carbamazepine (1.3–6.7), and dimetridazole (6.9–14.7) were found in ≥ 20% of samples. Cities within the Yangtze River region and Guangzhou were regarded as contamination hot spots because of elevated levels and frequent positive detections. Of the 17 pharmaceuticals detected, 13 showed very low risk levels, but 4 (i.e., dimetridazole, thiamphenicol, sulfamethazine, and clarithromycin) were found to have at least one life-stage RQ ≥ 0.01, especially for the infant and child life stages, and should be considered of high priority for management. We propose an indicator-based monitoring framework for providing information for source identification, water treatment effectiveness, and water safety management in China. Conclusion: Chinese tap water is an additional route of human exposure to pharmaceuticals, particularly for dimetridazole, although the risk to human health is low based on current toxicity data. Pharmaceutical detection and application of the proposed monitoring framework can be used for water source protection and risk management in China and elsewhere. PMID:23665928

  19. Pharmaceuticals in tap water: human health risk assessment and proposed monitoring framework in China.

    PubMed

    Leung, Ho Wing; Jin, Ling; Wei, Si; Tsui, Mirabelle Mei Po; Zhou, Bingsheng; Jiao, Liping; Cheung, Pak Chuen; Chun, Yiu Kan; Murphy, Margaret Burkhardt; Lam, Paul Kwan Sing

    2013-07-01

    Pharmaceuticals are known to contaminate tap water worldwide, but the relevant human health risks have not been assessed in China. We monitored 32 pharmaceuticals in Chinese tap water and evaluated the life-long human health risks of exposure in order to provide information for future prioritization and risk management. We analyzed samples (n = 113) from 13 cities and compared detected concentrations with existing or newly-derived safety levels for assessing risk quotients (RQs) at different life stages, excluding the prenatal stage. We detected 17 pharmaceuticals in 89% of samples, with most detectable concentrations (92%) at < 50 ng/L. Caffeine (median-maximum, nanograms per liter: 24.4-564), metronidazole (1.8-19.3), salicylic acid (16.6-41.2), clofibric acid (1.2-3.3), carbamazepine (1.3-6.7), and dimetridazole (6.9-14.7) were found in ≥ 20% of samples. Cities within the Yangtze River region and Guangzhou were regarded as contamination hot spots because of elevated levels and frequent positive detections. Of the 17 pharmaceuticals detected, 13 showed very low risk levels, but 4 (i.e., dimetridazole, thiamphenicol, sulfamethazine, and clarithromycin) were found to have at least one life-stage RQ ≥ 0.01, especially for the infant and child life stages, and should be considered of high priority for management. We propose an indicator-based monitoring framework for providing information for source identification, water treatment effectiveness, and water safety management in China. Chinese tap water is an additional route of human exposure to pharmaceuticals, particularly for dimetridazole, although the risk to human health is low based on current toxicity data. Pharmaceutical detection and application of the proposed monitoring framework can be used for water source protection and risk management in China and elsewhere.

  20. Water quality, compliance, and health outcomes among utilities implementing Water Safety Plans in France and Spain.

    PubMed

    Setty, Karen E; Kayser, Georgia L; Bowling, Michael; Enault, Jerome; Loret, Jean-Francois; Serra, Claudia Puigdomenech; Alonso, Jordi Martin; Mateu, Arnau Pla; Bartram, Jamie

    2017-05-01

    Water Safety Plans (WSPs), recommended by the World Health Organization since 2004, seek to proactively identify potential risks to drinking water supplies and implement preventive barriers that improve safety. To evaluate the outcomes of WSP application in large drinking water systems in France and Spain, we undertook analysis of water quality and compliance indicators between 2003 and 2015, in conjunction with an observational retrospective cohort study of acute gastroenteritis incidence, before and after WSPs were implemented at five locations. Measured water quality indicators included bacteria (E. coli, fecal streptococci, total coliform, heterotrophic plate count), disinfectants (residual free and total chlorine), disinfection by-products (trihalomethanes, bromate), aluminum, pH, turbidity, and total organic carbon, comprising about 240K manual samples and 1.2M automated sensor readings. We used multiple, Poisson, or Tobit regression models to evaluate water quality before and after the WSP intervention. The compliance assessment analyzed exceedances of regulated, recommended, or operational water quality thresholds using chi-squared or Fisher's exact tests. Poisson regression was used to examine acute gastroenteritis incidence rates in WSP-affected drinking water service areas relative to a comparison area. Implementation of a WSP generally resulted in unchanged or improved water quality, while compliance improved at most locations. Evidence for reduced acute gastroenteritis incidence following WSP implementation was found at only one of the three locations examined. Outcomes of WSPs should be expected to vary across large water utilities in developed nations, as the intervention itself is adapted to the needs of each location. The approach may translate to diverse water quality, compliance, and health outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Drinking water fluoride levels for a city in northern Mexico (durango) determined using a direct electrochemical method and their potential effects on oral health.

    PubMed

    Molina Frechero, Nelly; Sánchez Pérez, Leonor; Castañeda Castaneira, Enrique; Oropeza Oropeza, Anastasio; Gaona, Enrique; Salas Pacheco, José; Bologna Molina, Ronell

    2013-01-01

    Fluoride is ingested primarily through consuming drinking water. When drinking water contains fluoride concentrations>0.7 parts per million (ppm), consuming such water can be toxic to the human body; this toxicity is called "fluorosis." Therefore, it is critical to determine the fluoride concentrations in drinking water. The objective of this study was to determine the fluoride concentration in the drinking water of the city of Durango. The wells that supply the drinking water distribution system for the city of Durango were studied. One hundred eighty-nine (189) water samples were analyzed, and the fluoride concentration in each sample was quantified as established by the law NMX-AA-077-SCFI-2001. The fluoride concentrations in such samples varied between 2.22 and 7.23 ppm with a 4.313±1.318 ppm mean concentration. The highest values were observed in the northern area of the city, with a 5.001±2.669 ppm mean value. The samples produced values that exceeded the national standard for fluoride in drinking water. Chronic exposure to fluoride at such concentrations produces harmful health effects, the first sign of which is dental fluorosis. Therefore, it is essential that the government authorities implement water defluoridation programs and take preventative measures to reduce the ingestion of this toxic halogen.

  2. Drinking Water Fluoride Levels for a City in Northern Mexico (Durango) Determined Using a Direct Electrochemical Method and Their Potential Effects on Oral Health

    PubMed Central

    Molina Frechero, Nelly; Sánchez Pérez, Leonor; Castañeda Castaneira, Enrique; Oropeza Oropeza, Anastasio; Gaona, Enrique; Salas Pacheco, José; Bologna Molina, Ronell

    2013-01-01

    Fluoride is ingested primarily through consuming drinking water. When drinking water contains fluoride concentrations >0.7 parts per million (ppm), consuming such water can be toxic to the human body; this toxicity is called “fluorosis.” Therefore, it is critical to determine the fluoride concentrations in drinking water. The objective of this study was to determine the fluoride concentration in the drinking water of the city of Durango. The wells that supply the drinking water distribution system for the city of Durango were studied. One hundred eighty-nine (189) water samples were analyzed, and the fluoride concentration in each sample was quantified as established by the law NMX-AA-077-SCFI-2001. The fluoride concentrations in such samples varied between 2.22 and 7.23 ppm with a 4.313 ± 1.318 ppm mean concentration. The highest values were observed in the northern area of the city, with a 5.001 ± 2.669 ppm mean value. The samples produced values that exceeded the national standard for fluoride in drinking water. Chronic exposure to fluoride at such concentrations produces harmful health effects, the first sign of which is dental fluorosis. Therefore, it is essential that the government authorities implement water defluoridation programs and take preventative measures to reduce the ingestion of this toxic halogen. PMID:24348140

  3. Access to drinking water and health of populations in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Ntouda, Julien; Sikodf, Fondo; Ibrahim, Mohamadou; Abba, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    Water is at the center of the plant and animal life, the foundation upon which the health of human settlement and development of civilizations rely on. In tropical regions, 80% of diseases are transmitted either by germs in the water, or by vectors staying in it. In Sub-Saharan Africa, statistics show particularly high levels of unmet needs of populations in access to drinking water in a context of socioeconomic development. For this purpose, this study aims to determine the influence of access to drinking water on the health of populations in Sub-Saharan Africa. Using data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) from Cameroon, Senegal and Chad, it is clear from the descriptive analysis that 60% (Cameroon), and 59% (Chad) of the cases of childhood diarrhea in these two countries are due to the consumption of dirty water. In terms of explanatory analysis, we note that when a household in Cameroon, Senegal or Chad does not have access to drinking water, children under 5 years old residing there are respectively 1.29, 1.27 and 1.03 times more likely to have diarrhea than those residing in households with easy access to drinking water. In view of these results, it is recommended to increase access to drinking water in particular by reducing disparities between the rich and poor people. Copyright © 2013 Académie des sciences. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of Sachet Water Consumption on Exposure to Microbe-Contaminated Drinking Water: Household Survey Evidence from Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Jim; Dzodzomenyo, Mawuli; Wardrop, Nicola A.; Johnston, Richard; Hill, Allan; Aryeetey, Genevieve; Adanu, Richard

    2016-01-01

    There remain few nationally representative studies of drinking water quality at the point of consumption in developing countries. This study aimed to examine factors associated with E. coli contamination in Ghana. It drew on a nationally representative household survey, the 2012−2013 Living Standards Survey 6, which incorporated a novel water quality module. E. coli contamination in 3096 point-of-consumption samples was examined using multinomial regression. Surface water use was the strongest risk factor for high E. coli contamination (relative risk ratio (RRR) = 32.3, p < 0.001), whilst packaged (sachet or bottled) water use had the greatest protective effect (RRR = 0.06, p < 0.001), compared to water piped to premises. E. coli contamination followed plausible patterns with digit preference (tendency to report values ending in zero) in bacteria counts. The analysis suggests packaged drinking water use provides some protection against point-of-consumption E. coli contamination and may therefore benefit public health. It also suggests viable water quality data can be collected alongside household surveys, but field protocols require further revision. PMID:27005650

  5. Effects of Sachet Water Consumption on Exposure to Microbe-Contaminated Drinking Water: Household Survey Evidence from Ghana.

    PubMed

    Wright, Jim; Dzodzomenyo, Mawuli; Wardrop, Nicola A; Johnston, Richard; Hill, Allan; Aryeetey, Genevieve; Adanu, Richard

    2016-03-09

    There remain few nationally representative studies of drinking water quality at the point of consumption in developing countries. This study aimed to examine factors associated with E. coli contamination in Ghana. It drew on a nationally representative household survey, the 2012-2013 Living Standards Survey 6, which incorporated a novel water quality module. E. coli contamination in 3096 point-of-consumption samples was examined using multinomial regression. Surface water use was the strongest risk factor for high E. coli contamination (relative risk ratio (RRR) = 32.3, p < 0.001), whilst packaged (sachet or bottled) water use had the greatest protective effect (RRR = 0.06, p < 0.001), compared to water piped to premises. E. coli contamination followed plausible patterns with digit preference (tendency to report values ending in zero) in bacteria counts. The analysis suggests packaged drinking water use provides some protection against point-of-consumption E. coli contamination and may therefore benefit public health. It also suggests viable water quality data can be collected alongside household surveys, but field protocols require further revision.

  6. FLUORIDE: A REVIEW OF USE AND EFFECTS ON HEALTH.

    PubMed

    Kanduti, Domen; Sterbenk, Petra; Artnik, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    Appropriate oral health care is fundamental for any individual's health. Dental caries is still one of the major public health problems. The most effective way of caries prevention is the use of fluoride. The aim of our research was to review the literature about fluoride toxicity and to inform physicians, dentists and public health specialists whether fluoride use is expedient and safe. Data we used in our review were systematically searched and collected from web pages and documents published from different international institutions. Fluoride occurs naturally in our environment but we consume it in small amounts. Exposure can occur through dietary intake, respiration and fluoride supplements. The most important factor for fluoride presence in alimentation is fluoridated water. Methods, which led to greater fluoride exposure and lowered caries prevalence, are considered to be one of the greatest accomplishments in the 20th century`s public dental health. During pregnancy, the placenta acts as a barrier. The fluoride, therefore, crosses the placenta in low concentrations. Fluoride can be transmitted through the plasma into the mother's milk; however, the concentration is low. The most important action of fluoride is topical, when it is present in the saliva in the appropriate concentration. The most important effect of fluoride on caries incidence is through its role in the process of remineralization and demineralization of tooth enamel. Acute toxicity can occur after ingesting one or more doses of fluoride over a short time period which then leads to poisoning. Today, poisoning is mainly due to unsupervised ingestion of products for dental and oral hygiene and over-fluoridated water. Even though fluoride can be toxic in extremely high concentrations, it`s topical use is safe. The European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry (EAPD) recommends a preventive topical use of fluoride supplements because of their cariostatic effect.

  7. Towards health impact assessment of drinking-water privatization--the example of waterborne carcinogens in North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany).

    PubMed Central

    Fehr, Rainer; Mekel, Odile; Lacombe, Martin; Wolf, Ulrike

    2003-01-01

    Worldwide there is a tendency towards deregulation in many policy sectors - this, for example, includes liberalization and privatization of drinking-water management. However, concerns about the negative impacts this might have on human health call for prospective health impact assessment (HIA) on the management of drinking-water. On the basis of an established generic 10-step HIA procedure and on risk assessment methodology, this paper aims to produce quantitative estimates concerning health effects from increased exposure to carcinogens in drinking-water. Using data from North Rhine-Westphalia in Germany, probabilistic estimates of excess lifetime cancer risk, as well as estimates of additional cases of cancer from increased carcinogen exposure levels are presented. The results show how exposure to contaminants that are strictly within current limits could increase cancer risks and case-loads substantially. On the basis of the current analysis, we suggest that with uniform increases in pollutant levels, a single chemical (arsenic) is responsible for a large fraction of expected additional risk. The study also illustrates the uncertainty involved in predicting the health impacts of changes in water quality. Future analysis should include additional carcinogens, non-cancer risks including those due to microbial contamination, and the impacts of system failures and of illegal action, which may be increasingly likely to occur under changed management arrangements. If, in spite of concerns, water is privatized, it is particularly important to provide adequate surveillance of water quality. PMID:12894324

  8. [Public water supply fluoridation in Brazil according to health sector leaders].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Regina Glaucia Lucena Aguiar; Bógus, Cláudia Maria; Marques, Regina Auxiliadora de Amorim; Menezes, Léa Maria Bezerra de; Narvai, Paulo Capel

    2014-09-01

    Various groups have opposed water supply fluoridation in Brazil, while others have supported the measure based on scientific evidence. This article describes the perceptions of delegates to the 13th National Health Conference on mandatory fluoridation of the country's public water supply. Interviews were processed using collective subject discourse analysis. A certain degree of misinformation persists regarding basic characteristics of water fluoridation, which is frequently confused with chlorination. The delegates' discourses showed a continuing need for public awareness-raising regarding fluoridation and the delegates' desire that the National Congress not take measures impacting public health without consulting society's stakeholders. However, most of the interviewees agreed that to repeal mandatory water fluoridation or loosen the control of its implementation could increase the incidence of tooth decay in the population.

  9. Some Factors Influencing Effective Utilization of Drinking Water Facilities: Women, Income, and Health in Rural North Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendie, S. B.

    1996-01-01

    In the examination of the implementation of rural drinking water facilities, not enough attention has been paid to analyzing the socioeconomic and political relationships that affect the effective utilization of the facilities, particularly as these relate to women in rural society. This paper suggests that much of the difficulty in instituting the utilization of safe water supply sources has to do with the rather low economic status of women—the main water collectors. Poverty consigns women to long periods of work in activities or jobs that bring little reward. This makes it difficult to effectively digest the messages delivered by program staff and limits the extent of usage of the safe water facilities.

  10. Perceptions of Health Communication, Water Treatment and Sanitation in Artibonite Department, Haiti, March-April 2012

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Holly Ann; Gaines, Joanna; Patrick, Molly; Berendes, David; Fitter, David; Handzel, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The international response to Haiti’s ongoing cholera outbreak has been multifaceted, including health education efforts by community health workers and the distribution of free water treatment products. Artibonite Department was the first region affected by the outbreak. Numerous organizations have been involved in cholera response efforts in Haiti with many focusing on efforts to improve water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH). Multiple types of water treatment products have been distributed, creating the potential for confusion over correct dosage and water treatment methods. We utilized qualitative methods in Artibonite to determine the population’s response to WASH messages, use and acceptability of water treatment products, and water treatment and sanitation knowledge, attitudes and practices at the household level. We conducted eighteen focus group discussions (FGDs): 17 FGDs were held with community members (nine among females, eight among males); one FGD was held with community health workers. Health messages related to WASH were well-retained, with reported improvements in hand-washing. Community health workers were identified as valued sources of health information. Most participants noted a paucity of water-treatment products. Sanitation, specifically the construction of latrines, was the most commonly identified need. Lack of funds was the primary reason given for not constructing a latrine. The construction and maintenance of potable water and sanitation services is needed to ensure a sustainable change. PMID:26562658

  11. Integrated frameworks for assessing and managing health risks in the context of managed aquifer recharge with river water.

    PubMed

    Assmuth, Timo; Simola, Antti; Pitkänen, Tarja; Lyytimäki, Jari; Huttula, Timo

    2016-01-01

    Integrated assessment and management of water resources for the supply of potable water is increasingly important in light of projected water scarcity in many parts of the world. This article develops frameworks for regional-level waterborne human health risk assessment of chemical and microbiological contamination to aid water management, incorporating economic aspects of health risks. Managed aquifer recharge with surface water from a river in Southern Finland is used as an illustrative case. With a starting point in watershed governance, stakeholder concerns, and value-at-risk concepts, we merge common methods for integrative health risk analysis of contaminants to describe risks and impacts dynamically and broadly. This involves structuring analyses along the risk chain: sources-releases-environmental transport and fate-exposures-health effects-socio-economic impacts-management responses. Risks attributed to contaminants are embedded in other risks, such as contaminants from other sources, and related to benefits from improved water quality. A set of models along this risk chain in the case is presented. Fundamental issues in the assessment are identified, including 1) framing of risks, scenarios, and choices; 2) interaction of models and empirical information; 3) time dimension; 4) distributions of risks and benefits; and 5) uncertainties about risks and controls. We find that all these combine objective and subjective aspects, and involve value judgments and policy choices. We conclude with proposals for overcoming conceptual and functional divides and lock-ins to improve modeling, assessment, and management of complex water supply schemes, especially by reflective solution-oriented interdisciplinary and multi-actor deliberation. © 2015 SETAC.

  12. Assessment of the water chemical quality improvement based on human health risk indexes: Application to a drinking water treatment plant incorporating membrane technologies.

    PubMed

    López-Roldán, Ramón; Rubalcaba, Alicia; Martin-Alonso, Jordi; González, Susana; Martí, Vicenç; Cortina, Jose Luis

    2016-01-01

    A methodology has been developed in order to evaluate the potential risk of drinking water for the health of the consumers. The methodology used for the assessment considered systemic and carcinogenic effects caused by oral ingestion of water based on the reference data developed by the World Health Organisation (WHO) and the Risk Assessment Information System (RAIS) for chemical contaminants. The exposure includes a hypothetical dose received by drinking this water according to the analysed contaminants. An assessment of the chemical quality improvement of produced water in the Drinking Water Treatment Plant (DWTP) after integration of membrane technologies was performed. Series of concentration values covering up to 261 chemical parameters over 5 years (2008-2012) of raw and treated water in the Sant Joan Despí DWTP, at the lower part of the Llobregat River basin (NE Spain), were used. After the application of the methodology, the resulting global indexes were located below the thresholds except for carcinogenic risk in the output of DWTP, where the index was slightly above the threshold during 2008 and 2009 before the upgrade of the treatment works including membrane technologies was executed. The annual evolution of global indexes showed a reduction in the global values for all situations: HQ systemic index based on RAIS dropped from 0.64 to 0.42 for surface water and from 0.61 to 0.31 for drinking water; the R carcinogenic index based on RAIS was negligible for input water and varied between 4.2×10(-05) and 7.4×10(-06) for drinking water; the W systemic index based on the WHO data varied between 0.41 and 0.16 for surface water and between 0.61 and 0.31 for drinking water. A specific analysis for the indexes associated with trihalomethanes (THMs) showed the same pattern. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The rain-watered lawn: Informing effective lawn watering behavior.

    PubMed

    Survis, Felicia D; Root, Tara L

    2017-09-01

    Water restrictions are a common municipal water conservation strategy to manage outdoor water demand, which generally represents more than 50% of total urban-suburban water use. Although water restrictions are designed to limit the frequency of lawn watering, they do not always result in actual water savings. The project described here tested a weather-based add-on water conservation strategy in a South Florida suburban community to determine if it promoted more effective lawn watering behavior than mandatory water restrictions alone. The "rain-watered lawn" pilot program was designed to inform people of recent rainfall and how that contributed to naturally watering their lawns and offset the need to irrigate as often, or in some cases, at all. The goal of the study was to determine if homeowners would water more conservatively than with water restrictions alone if they were also informed of recent rainfall totals. The results show that households in neighborhoods where the add-on rain watered lawn strategy was implemented watered up to 61% less frequently than the control neighborhoods with water restrictions alone. This study demonstrates that weather-based information strategies can be effective for conservation and suggests that a program that focuses on coupling lawn watering behavior with actual climate variables such as rainfall can yield significant water savings. This study holds significance for municipal areas with water restrictions and provides a model to help improve outdoor water conservation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Freshwater Vulnerability beyond Local Water Stress: Heterogeneous Effects of Water-Electricity Nexus Across the Continental United States.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ranran; Zimmerman, Julie B; Wang, Chunyan; Font Vivanco, David; Hertwich, Edgar G

    2017-09-05

    Human health and economic prosperity are vulnerable to freshwater shortage in many parts of the world. Despite a growing literature that examines the freshwater vulnerability in various spatiotemporal contexts, existing knowledge has been conventionally constrained by a territorial perspective. On the basis of spatial analyses of monthly water and electricity flows across 2110 watersheds and three interconnected power systems, this study investigates the water-electricity nexus (WEN)'s transboundary effects on freshwater vulnerability in the continental United States in 2014. The effects are shown to be considerable and heterogeneous across time and space. For at least one month a year, 58 million people living in water-abundant watersheds were exposed to additional freshwater vulnerability by relying on electricity generated by freshwater-cooled thermal energy conversion cycles in highly stressed watersheds; for 72 million people living in highly stressed watersheds, their freshwater vulnerability was mitigated by using imported electricity generated in water-abundant watersheds or power plants running dry cooling or using nonfreshwater for cooling purposes. On the country scale, the mitigation effects were the most significant during September and October, while the additional freshwater vulnerability was more significant in February, March, and December. Due to the WEN's transboundary effects, overall, the freshwater vulnerability was slightly worsened within the Eastern Interconnection, substantially improved within the Western Interconnection, and least affected within the ERCOT Interconnection.

  15. [Animal hygiene, water quality and animal health using round drinkers as an animal-friendly water supply for Pekin ducks under practical conditions].

    PubMed

    Rauch, Elke; Hirsch, Nicola; Firnkäs, Nina; Erhard, Michael H; Bergmann, Shana

    2016-01-01

    Mandatory requirements for the keeping of Pekin ducks exist neither in Europe nor in Germany. The medium water is of high importance for ducks and is connected with many species-specific behaviours. In commercial fattening establishments the animals are provided drinking water solely by nipple drinkers because up to today, the economic and hygienic aspects of this drinking suppIy are beyong dispute. The aim of the study was to examine the influence of the round drinker AquaDuc T® on animal hygiene and different health parameters in three commercial farms. The examinations took place in three fattening farms (7140-13,515 fattening places). Per farm 16 fattening periods were surveyed (alternately control and test trial) with one visit each between 28th-32nd and 35th-39th day of life. On one farm only ten periods could be examined. The ducks were provided with water by nipple drinkers. Additionally, the AquaDuc T® was installed in the test trials, which was temporarily accessible. Apart from health evaluations of each 100 animals, barn climate (dust and gaseous ammonia content) and quality of drinking water were examined. In summary it can be stated that concerning health evaluation (eye infection/ plugged nostrils) the ducks with access to round drinkers mostly performed better than the animals with access solely to nipple drinkers. In this study the total bacteria count as well as the number of Enterobacteriaceae in CFU/mI was generally higher in the round drinkers compared to the nipple drinkers (average total germ count in CFU/ml: nipple drinker 10,950; round drinker 3,955,846), no negative effect on the health of Pekin ducks could be detected in this study. Sufficient hygiene of the offered drinking systems is essential for the wellbeing of the ducks.

  16. Microbial Health Risks Associated with Exposure to Stormwater in a Water Plaza

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sales-Ortells, Helena; Medema, Gertjan

    2015-04-01

    Climate change scenarios predict an increase of intense rainfall events in summer in Western Europe. Current urban drainage systems cannot cope with such intense precipitation events. Cities are constructing local stormwater storage facilities to prevent pluvial flooding. Combining storage with other functions, such as recreation, may lead to exposure to contaminants. This study assessed the microbial quality of rainwater collected in a water plaza in Rotterdam (The Netherlands) and the health risks associated with recreational exposure. The water plaza collects street run-off, diverges first flush to the sewer system and stores the rest of the run-off in the plaza as open water. A rain simulation experiment was conducted using drinking water from fire hydrants. The water flowed over the street pavement into the street gutters and into the square. Samples were collected from the first flush diverted water and from two different levels of the water plaza at different points in time. Campylobacter spp., Cryptosporidium, and Legionella pneumophila were the pathogens investigated, using quantitative PCR. Escherichia coli was quantified with culture methods to obtain information on faecal contamination. Microbial source tracking tools (human Bacteroides, avian Helicobacter and canine mitochondrial DNA, all analysed with quantitative PCR) were used to determine the origin (human, animal) of the intestinal pathogens. To estimate the health risks for children playing in the water plaza after a rain event, a quantitative microbial risk assessment model was built. The volume of water ingested was obtained from literature on similar locations (flooded streets). Published dose-response models were used to calculate the risk per event. Exposure frequency was estimated using weather data (precipitation events). E. coli concentrations were below the level for excellent bathing water in the EU Bathing Water Directive. Cryptosporidium was not found in any sample. Campylobacter spp

  17. [Effects of volcanic eruptions on environment and health].

    PubMed

    Zuskin, Eugenija; Mustajbegović, Jadranka; Doko Jelinić, Jagoda; Pucarin-Cvetković, Jasna; Milosević, Milan

    2007-12-01

    Volcanoes pose a threat to almost half a billion people; today there are approximately 500 active volcanoes on Earth, and every year there are 10 to 40 volcanic eruptions. Volcanic eruptions produce hazardous effects for the environment, climate, and the health of the exposed persons, and are associated with the deterioration of social and economic conditions. Along with magma and steam (H2O), the following gases surface in the environment: carbon dioxide (CO2) and sulphur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen sulphide (H2S), carbon sulphide (CS), carbon disulfide (CS2), hydrogen chloride (HCl), hydrogen (H2), methane (CH4), hydrogen fluoride (HF), hydrogen bromide (HBr) and various organic compounds, as well as heavy metals (mercury, lead, gold).Their unfavourable effects depend on the distance from a volcano, on magma viscosity, and on gas concentrations. The hazards closer to the volcano include pyroclastic flows, flows of mud, gases and steam, earthquakes, blasts of air, and tsunamis. Among the hazards in distant areas are the effects of toxic volcanic ashes and problems of the respiratory system, eyes and skin, as well as psychological effects, injuries, transport and communication problems, waste disposal and water supplies issues, collapse of buildings and power outage. Further effects are the deterioration of water quality, fewer periods of rain, crop damages, and the destruction of vegetation. During volcanic eruptions and their immediate aftermath, increased respiratory system morbidity has been observed as well as mortality among those affected by volcanic eruptions. Unfavourable health effects could partly be prevented by timely application of safety measures.

  18. Development of health-based screening levels for use in state- or local-scale water-quality assessments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Toccalino, Patricia L.; Nowell, Lisa; Wilber, William; Zogorski, John S.; Donohue, Joyce; Eiden, Catherine; Krietzman, Sandra; Post, Gloria

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has a need to communicate the significance of the water-quality findings of its National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program in a human-health context. Historically, the USGS has assessed water-quality conditions by comparing water concentration data against established drinking-water standards and guidelines. However, because drinking- water standards and guidelines do not exist for many of the contaminants analyzed by the NAWQA Program and other USGS studies, this approach has proven to be insufficient for placing USGS data in a human-health context. To help meet this need, health-based screening level (HBSL) concentrations or ranges are being determined for unregulated compounds (that is, those for which Federal or State drinking-water standards have not been established), using a consensus approach that was developed collaboratively by the USGS, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency(USEPA), New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, and Oregon Health & Science University. USEPA Office of Water methodologies for calculating Lifetime Health Advisory and Risk-Specific Dose values for drinking water are being used to develop HBSL concentrations (for unregulated noncarcinogens) and HBSL concentration ranges (for most unregulated carcinogens). This report describes the methodologies used to develop HBSL concentrations and ranges for unregulated compounds in State- and local-scale analyses, and discusses how HBSL values can be used as tools in water-quality assessments. Comparisons of measured water concentrations with Maximum Contaminant Level values and HBSL values require that water-quality data be placed in the proper context, with regard to both hydrology and human health. The use of these HBSL concentrations and ranges by USGS will increase by 27 percent the number of NAWQA contaminants for which health-based benchmarks are available for comparison with USGS water-quality data. USGS can use HBSL values to assist the

  19. The impact of water on health and ill-health in a sub-Saharan African wetland: Exploring both sides of the coin.

    PubMed

    Anthonj, Carmen; Githinji, Sophie; Kistemann, Thomas

    2018-05-15

    Wetlands are a source of water out of which humans derive their livelihoods in Sub-Saharan Africa. They are often over-utilized and expose humans to disease-causing infectious agents. This calls for an evaluation of the role of water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) and their effects in disease prevention and transmission in wetlands. A health risk assessment based on syndromic surveillance of self-reported abdominal complaints and fever gathered from a rural wetland in semiarid Kenya is presented with symptoms serving as proxies for real health threats in wetlands. The incidence of abdominal complaints was significantly higher for those using unimproved water sources compared to improved water users (odds ratio 7.5; 95% CI 2.59-26.9; p=0.001). Drainage of stagnant water near the house (odds ratio 0.2; 95% CI 0.08-0.54; p=0.002) and sanitary hygiene (odds ratio 0.4; 95% CI 0.71-0.97; p=0.056) were associated with reduced risk of abdominal complaints. Drainage of water was also associated with reduced risk of fever (odds ratio 0.3; 95% CI 0.02-0.59; p=0.002) and so was the use of mosquito nets (odds ratio 0.6; 95% CI 0.39-0.02; p=0.063). Usage of wetlands in the afternoon, e.g. for irrigated agriculture, increased the incidence of fever (odds ratio 1.5; 95% CI 0.91-2.33; p=0.040). Overall, there appears a greater likelihood of reducing pathogen exposure in the domestic than in the occupational domain or in the proximity to the wetland. We show that WASH, environmental hygiene and human behaviour are risk factors associated with the contraction of diseases characterized by abdominal complaints (e.g. diarrhoea) and fever (e.g. malaria) in wetlands. The same factors also have the potential to promote human health in the context of wetlands. We demonstrate the applicability of syndromic approaches in surveillance-scarce areas and emphasize the importance of adopting an integrated health-based wetland management that considers WASH and incorporates strategies based on

  20. RELATIONSHIP OF MICROBIAL INDICATORS TO HEALTH EFFECTS AT MARINE BATHING BEACHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Finds are described from the second year of an epidemiological-microbiological study conducted at New York City beaches as part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency program to develop health effects-recreational water quality criteria. Symptomatology rates among swimmers (...

  1. The quality of our Nation’s waters--ecological health in the Nation's streams, 1993-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlisle, Daren M.; Meador, Michael R.; Short, Terry M.; Tate, Cathy M.; Gurtz, Martin E.; Bryant, Wade L.; Falcone, James A.; Woodside, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes a national assessment of the ecological health of streams done by the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA). Healthy functioning stream ecosystems provide society with many benefits, including water purification, flood control, nutrient recycling, waste decomposition, fisheries, and aesthetics. The value to society of many of these benefits is substantial; for example, sportfishing in the United States generates an estimated annual economic output of $125 billion, including more than 1 million jobs (National Research Council, 2005; American Sportfishing Association, 2008). Continued monitoring and assessment of the Nation’s streams is needed to support informed decisions that will safeguard this important natural and economic resource. The quality of streams and rivers is often assessed with measures of the chemical or physical properties of water. However, a more comprehensive perspective is obtained if resident biological communities are also assessed. Guidelines to protect human health and aquatic life have been established for specific physical and chemical properties of water and have become useful yardsticks with which to assess water quality. Biological communities provide additional crucial information because they live within streams for weeks to years and therefore integrate through time the effects of changes to their chemical or physical environment. In addition, biological communities are a direct measure of stream health—an indicator of the ability of a stream to support aquatic life. Thus, the condition of biological communities, integrated with key physical and chemical properties, provides a comprehensive assessment of stream health.

  2. Environmental health sciences center task force review on halogenated organics in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Deinzer, M; Schaumburg, F; Klein, E

    1978-06-01

    The disinfection of drinking water by chlorination has in recent years come under closer scrutiny because of the potential hazards associated with the production of stable chlorinated organic chemicals. Organic chemical contaminants are common to all water supplies and it is now well-established that chlorinated by-products are obtained under conditions of disinfection, or during tertiary treatment of sewage whose products can ultimately find their way into drinking water supplies. Naturally occurring humic substances which are invariably present in drinking waters are probably the source of chloroform and other halogenated methanes, and chloroform has shown up in every water supply investigated thus far.The Environmental Protection Agency is charged with the responsibility of assessing the public health effects resulting from the consumption of contaminated drinking water. It has specifically undertaken the task of determining whether organic contaminants or their chlorinated derivatives have a special impact, and if so, what alternatives there are to protect the consumer against bacterial and viral diseases that are transmitted through infected drinking waters. The impetus to look at these chemicals is not entirely without some prima facie evidence of potential trouble. Epidemiological studies suggested a higher incidence of cancer along the lower Mississippi River where the contamination from organic chemicals is particularly high. The conclusions from these studies have, to be sure, not gone unchallenged.The task of assessing the effects of chemicals in the drinking water is a difficult one. It includes many variables, including differences in water supplies and the temporal relationship between contamination and consumption of the finished product. It must also take into account the relative importance of the effects from these chemicals in comparison to those from occupational exposure, ingestion of contaminated foods, inhalation of polluted air, and many

  3. A water quality management strategy for regionally protected water through health risk assessment and spatial distribution of heavy metal pollution in 3 marine reserves.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yinan; Chu, Chunli; Li, Tong; Xu, Shengguo; Liu, Lei; Ju, Meiting

    2017-12-01

    Severe water pollution and resource scarcity is a major problem in China, where it is necessary to establish water quality-oriented monitoring and intelligent watershed management. In this study, an effective watershed management method is explored, in which water quality is first assessed using the heavy metal pollution index and the human health risk index, and then by classifying the pollution and management grade based on cluster analysis and GIS visualization. Three marine reserves in Tianjin were selected and analyzed, namely the Tianjin Ancient Coastal Wetland National Nature Reserve (Qilihai Natural Reserve), the Tianjin DaShentang Oyster Reef National Marine Special Reserve (DaShentang Reserve), and the Tianjin Coastal Wetland National Marine Special Reserve (BinHai Wetland Reserve) which is under construction. The water quality and potential human health risks of 5 heavy metals (Pb, As, Cd, Hg, Cr) in the three reserves were assessed using the Nemerow index and USEPA methods. Moreover, ArcGIS10.2 software was used to visualize the heavy metal index and display their spatial distribution. Cluster analysis enabled classification of the heavy metals into 4 categories, which allowed for identification of the heavy metals whose pollution index and health risks were highest, and, thus, whose control in the reserve is a priority. Results indicate that heavy metal pollution exists in the Qilihai Natural Reserve and in the north and east of the DaShentang Reserve; furthermore, human health risks exist in the Qilihai Natural Reserve and in the BinHai Wetland Reserve. In each reserve, the main factor influencing the pollution and health risk were high concentrations of As and Pb that exceed the corresponding standards. Measures must be adopted to control and remediate the pollutants. Furthermore, to protect the marine reserves, management policies must be implemented to improve water quality, which is an urgent task for both local and national governments. Copyright

  4. Estimating the impact on health of poor reliability of drinking water interventions in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Paul R; Zmirou-Navier, Denis; Hartemann, Philippe

    2009-04-01

    Recent evidence suggests that many improved drinking water supplies suffer from poor reliability. This study investigates what impact poor reliability may have on achieving health improvement targets. A Quantitative Microbiological Risk Assessment was conducted of the impact of interruptions in water supplies that forced people to revert to drinking raw water. Data from the literature were used to construct models on three waterborne pathogens common in Africa: Rotavirus, Cryptosporidium and Enterotoxigenic E. coli. Risk of infection by the target pathogens is substantially greater on days that people revert to raw water consumption. Over the course of a few days raw water consumption, the annual health benefits attributed to consumption of water from an improved supply will be almost all lost. Furthermore, risk of illness on days drinking raw water will fall substantially on very young children who have the highest risk of death following infection. Agencies responsible for implementing improved drinking water provision will not make meaningful contributions to public health targets if those systems are subject to poor reliability. Funders of water quality interventions in developing countries should put more effort into auditing whether interventions are sustainable and whether the health benefits are being achieved.

  5. Water and sanitation infrastructure for health: The impact of foreign aid

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The accessibility to improved water and sanitation has been understood as a crucial mechanism to save infants and children from the adverse health outcomes associated with diarrheal disease. This knowledge stimulated the worldwide donor community to develop a specific category of aid aimed at the water and sanitation sector. The actual impact of this assistance on increasing population access to improved water and sanitation and reducing child mortality has not been examined. Methods We performed a country-level analysis of the relationship between water and sanitation designated official development assistance (WSS-ODA) per capita, water and sanitation coverage, and infant and child mortality in low-income countries as defined by the World Bank. We focused our inquiry to aid effectiveness since the establishment of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Results Access to improved water has consistently improved since 2002. Countries receiving the most WSS-ODA ranged from odds ratios of 4 to 18 times more likely than countries in the lowest tertile of assistance to achieve greater gains in population access to improved water supply. However, while there were modestly increased odds of sanitation access, these were largely non-significant. The countries with greatest gains in sanitation were 8-9 times more likely to have greater reductions in infant and child mortality. Conclusions Official development assistance is importantly impacting access to safe water, yet access to improved sanitation remains poor. This highlights the need for decision-makers to be more intentional with allocating WSS-ODA towards sanitation projects. PMID:20670447

  6. Land use change and effects on water quality and ecosystem health in the Lake Tahoe basin, Nevada and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Forney, William; Richards, Lora; Adams, Kenneth D.; Minor, Timothy B.; Rowe, Timothy G.; Smith, J. LaRue; Raumann, Christian G.

    2001-01-01

    Human activity in the Lake Tahoe Basin has increased substantially in the past four decades, causing significant impacts on the quality and clarity of the lake's famous deep, clear water. Protection of Lake Tahoe and the surrounding environment has become an important activity in recent years. A variety of agencies, including the Tahoe Regional Planning Agency, Tahoe Research Group of the University of California at Davis, Desert Research Institute of the University and Community College System of Nevada, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and a host of State (both Nevada and California) and local agencies have been monitoring and conducting research in the Basin in order to understand how the lake functions and to what extent humans have affected its landscape and ecosystem processes. In spite of all of these activities, there remains a lack of comprehensive land use change data and analysis for the Basin. A project is underway that unites the land cover mapping expertise of the USGS National Mapping Discipline with the hydrologic expertise of the Water Resources Discipline to assess the impacts of urban growth and land use change in the Lake Tahoe Basin. Three activities are planned over the next 3 years: (1) mapping the current and historic state of the land surface, (2) conducting analysis to document patterns, rates, and trends in urbanization, land use change, and ecosystem health, and (3) assessing the causes and consequences of land use change with regard to water quality and ecosystem health. We hypothesize that changes in the extent of urban growth and the corresponding increases in impervious surfaces and decreases in natural vegetation have resulted in severe impacts on ecosystem health and integrity, riparian zones and water quality over time. We are acting on multiple fronts to test this hypothesis through the quantification of landscape disturbances and impacts.

  7. Health belief model and reasoned action theory in predicting water saving behaviors in yazd, iran.

    PubMed

    Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Momayyezi, Mahdieh; Ghaneian, Mohammad Taghi

    2012-01-01

    People's behaviors and intentions about healthy behaviors depend on their beliefs, values, and knowledge about the issue. Various models of health education are used in deter¬mining predictors of different healthy behaviors but their efficacy in cultural behaviors, such as water saving behaviors, are not studied. The study was conducted to explain water saving beha¬viors in Yazd, Iran on the basis of Health Belief Model and Reasoned Action Theory. The cross-sectional study used random cluster sampling to recruit 200 heads of households to collect the data. The survey questionnaire was tested for its content validity and reliability. Analysis of data included descriptive statistics, simple correlation, hierarchical multiple regression. Simple correlations between water saving behaviors and Reasoned Action Theory and Health Belief Model constructs were statistically significant. Health Belief Model and Reasoned Action Theory constructs explained 20.80% and 8.40% of the variances in water saving beha-viors, respectively. Perceived barriers were the strongest Predictor. Additionally, there was a sta¬tistically positive correlation between water saving behaviors and intention. In designing interventions aimed at water waste prevention, barriers of water saving behaviors should be addressed first, followed by people's attitude towards water saving. Health Belief Model constructs, with the exception of perceived severity and benefits, is more powerful than is Reasoned Action Theory in predicting water saving behavior and may be used as a framework for educational interventions aimed at improving water saving behaviors.

  8. Health Belief Model and Reasoned Action Theory in Predicting Water Saving Behaviors in Yazd, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Momayyezi, Mahdieh; Ghaneian, Mohammad Taghi

    2012-01-01

    Background: People's behaviors and intentions about healthy behaviors depend on their beliefs, values, and knowledge about the issue. Various models of health education are used in deter¬mining predictors of different healthy behaviors but their efficacy in cultural behaviors, such as water saving behaviors, are not studied. The study was conducted to explain water saving beha¬viors in Yazd, Iran on the basis of Health Belief Model and Reasoned Action Theory. Methods: The cross-sectional study used random cluster sampling to recruit 200 heads of households to collect the data. The survey questionnaire was tested for its content validity and reliability. Analysis of data included descriptive statistics, simple correlation, hierarchical multiple regression. Results: Simple correlations between water saving behaviors and Reasoned Action Theory and Health Belief Model constructs were statistically significant. Health Belief Model and Reasoned Action Theory constructs explained 20.80% and 8.40% of the variances in water saving beha-viors, respectively. Perceived barriers were the strongest Predictor. Additionally, there was a sta¬tistically positive correlation between water saving behaviors and intention. Conclusion: In designing interventions aimed at water waste prevention, barriers of water saving behaviors should be addressed first, followed by people's attitude towards water saving. Health Belief Model constructs, with the exception of perceived severity and benefits, is more powerful than is Reasoned Action Theory in predicting water saving behavior and may be used as a framework for educational interventions aimed at improving water saving behaviors. PMID:24688927

  9. The child health implications of privatizing Africa's urban water supply.

    PubMed

    Kosec, Katrina

    2014-05-01

    Can private sector participation (PSP) in the piped water sector improve child health? I use child-level data from 39 African countries during 1986-2010 to show that PSP decreases diarrhea among urban-dwelling, under-five children by 2.6 percentage points, or 16% of its mean prevalence. Children from the poorest households benefit most. PSP is also associated with a 7.8 percentage point increase in school attendance of 7-17 year olds. Importantly, PSP increases usage of piped water by 9.7 percentage points, suggesting a possible causal channel explaining health improvements. To attribute causality, I exploit time-variation in the private water market share controlled by African countries' former colonizers. A placebo analysis reveals that PSP does not affect respiratory illness, nor does it affect a control group of rural children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Association between arsenic exposure from drinking water and hematuria: Results from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study

    SciTech Connect

    McClintock, Tyler R.; Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY; Department of Urology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY

    2014-04-01

    Arsenic (As) exposure has been associated with both urologic malignancy and renal dysfunction; however, its association with hematuria is unknown. We evaluated the association between drinking water As exposure and hematuria in 7843 men enrolled in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS). Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data was conducted with As exposure assessed in both well water and urinary As measurements, while hematuria was measured using urine dipstick. Prospective analyses with Cox proportional regression models were based on urinary As and dipstick measurements obtained biannually since baseline up to six years. At baseline, urinary As was significantly relatedmore » to prevalence of hematuria (P-trend < 0.01), with increasing quintiles of exposure corresponding with respective prevalence odds ratios of 1.00 (reference), 1.29 (95% CI: 1.04–1.59), 1.41 (95% CI: 1.15–1.74), 1.46 (95% CI: 1.19–1.79), and 1.56 (95% CI: 1.27–1.91). Compared to those with relatively little absolute urinary As change during follow-up (− 10.40 to 41.17 μg/l), hazard ratios for hematuria were 0.99 (95% CI: 0.80–1.22) and 0.80 (95% CI: 0.65–0.99) for those whose urinary As decreased by > 47.49 μg/l and 10.87 to 47.49 μg/l since last visit, respectively, and 1.17 (95% CI: 0.94–1.45) and 1.36 (95% CI: 1.10–1.66) for those with between-visit increases of 10.40 to 41.17 μg/l and > 41.17 μg/l, respectively. These data indicate a positive association of As exposure with both prevalence and incidence of dipstick hematuria. This exposure effect appears modifiable by relatively short-term changes in drinking water As. - Highlights: • Hematuria is the most common symptom of urinary tract disease. • Arsenic exposure is associated with renal dysfunction and urologic malignancy. • Water arsenic was positively associated with prevalence and incidence of hematuria. • Reduction in exposure lowered hematuria risk especially in low

  11. Characterizing the concentration of Cryptosporidium in Australian surface waters for setting health-based targets for drinking water treatment.

    PubMed

    Petterson, S; Roser, D; Deere, D

    2015-09-01

    It is proposed that the next revision of the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines will include 'health-based targets', where the required level of potable water treatment quantitatively relates to the magnitude of source water pathogen concentrations. To quantify likely Cryptosporidium concentrations in southern Australian surface source waters, the databases for 25 metropolitan water supplies with good historical records, representing a range of catchment sizes, land use and climatic regions were mined. The distributions and uncertainty intervals for Cryptosporidium concentrations were characterized for each site. Then, treatment targets were quantified applying the framework recommended in the World Health Organization Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality 2011. Based on total oocyst concentrations, and not factoring in genotype or physiological state information as it relates to infectivity for humans, the best estimates of the required level of treatment, expressed as log10 reduction values, ranged among the study sites from 1.4 to 6.1 log10. Challenges associated with relying on historical monitoring data for defining drinking water treatment requirements were identified. In addition, the importance of quantitative microbial risk assessment input assumptions on the quantified treatment targets was investigated, highlighting the need for selection of locally appropriate values.

  12. Effectiveness of a Household Environmental Health Intervention Delivered by Rural Public Health Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Wade; Postma, Julie; Butterfield, Phillip W.; Odom-Maryon, Tamara

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. Parents need meaningful and actionable information if they are to reduce household environmental health risks to their children. To address this issue, we tested the effectiveness of a multi-risk social/cognitive intervention on rural low-income parents' (1) environmental health self-efficacy and (2) stage of environmental health precautionary adoption. Methods. Biomarker (lead, cotinine) and household samples (carbon monoxide, radon, mold/mildew, and drinking water contaminants) were collected from 235 families (399 adults, 441 children) in Montana and Washington states. Families were randomly assigned to intervention or control groups; intervention families received 4 visits from public health nurses who provided tailored information and guidance to parents; controls received usual and customary public health services. Results. At 3 months, the intervention group had significantly higher scores on (1) all 6 risk-specific self-efficacy subscales (P < .01), (2) general environmental health self-efficacy (P < .001), (3) 5 of 6 risk-specific precaution adoption subscales (P < .05), and (4) general environmental health precaution adoption (P < .001). Conclusions. The intervention yielded significant improvements in both outcomes. This evidence supported the need for a policy discussion addressing the added value that broadbased public health nurse interventions might bring to children's environmental health. PMID:21836117

  13. Water quality, health, and human occupations.

    PubMed

    Blakeney, Anne B; Marshall, Amy

    2009-01-01

    To introduce evidence of the critical link between water quality and human occupations. A participatory action research design was used to complete a three-phase project. Phase 1 included mapping the watershed of Letcher County, Kentucky. Phase 2 consisted of surveying 122 Letcher County health professionals. Phase 3, the primary focus of this article, consisted of interviews with Letcher County adults regarding their lived experiences with water. The Occupational Therapy Practice Framework: Domain and Process (American Occupational Therapy Association, 2002) was used to structure questions. The Model of Occupational Justice provided the theoretical framework for presentation of the results. The watershed in Letcher County, Kentucky, is polluted as a result of specific coal mining practices and a lack of adequate infrastructure. As a result, citizens experience occupational injustice in the forms of occupational imbalance, occupational deprivation, and occupational alienation.

  14. Water Budgets: Foundations for Effective Water-Resources and Environmental Management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Healy, Richard W.; Winter, Thomas C.; LaBaugh, James W.; Franke, O. Lehn

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Water budgets provide a means for evaluating availability and sustainability of a water supply. A water budget simply states that the rate of change in water stored in an area, such as a watershed, is balanced by the rate at which water flows into and out of the area. An understanding of water budgets and underlying hydrologic processes provides a foundation for effective water-resource and environmental planning and management. Observed changes in water budgets of an area over time can be used to assess the effects of climate variability and human activities on water resources. Comparison of water budgets from different areas allows the effects of factors such as geology, soils, vegetation, and land use on the hydrologic cycle to be quantified. Human activities affect the natural hydrologic cycle in many ways. Modifications of the land to accommodate agriculture, such as installation of drainage and irrigation systems, alter infiltration, runoff, evaporation, and plant transpiration rates. Buildings, roads, and parking lots in urban areas tend to increase runoff and decrease infiltration. Dams reduce flooding in many areas. Water budgets provide a basis for assessing how a natural or human-induced change in one part of the hydrologic cycle may affect other aspects of the cycle. This report provides an overview and qualitative description of water budgets as foundations for effective water-resources and environmental management of freshwater hydrologic systems. Perhaps of most interest to the hydrologic community, the concepts presented are also relevant to the fields of agriculture, atmospheric studies, meteorology, climatology, ecology, limnology, mining, water supply, flood control, reservoir management, wetland studies, pollution control, and other areas of science, society, and industry. The first part of the report describes water storage and movement in the atmosphere, on land surface, and in the subsurface, as well as water exchange among these

  15. Effects of water chemistry on arsenic removal from drinking water by electrocoagulation.

    PubMed

    Wan, Wei; Pepping, Troy J; Banerji, Tuhin; Chaudhari, Sanjeev; Giammar, Daniel E

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to arsenic through drinking water poses a threat to human health. Electrocoagulation is a water treatment technology that involves electrolytic oxidation of anode materials and in-situ generation of coagulant. The electrochemical generation of coagulant is an alternative to using chemical coagulants, and the process can also oxidize As(III) to As(V). Batch electrocoagulation experiments were performed in the laboratory using iron electrodes. The experiments quantified the effects of pH, initial arsenic concentration and oxidation state, and concentrations of dissolved phosphate, silica and sulfate on the rate and extent of arsenic removal. The iron generated during electrocoagulation precipitated as lepidocrocite (γ-FeOOH), except when dissolved silica was present, and arsenic was removed by adsorption to the lepidocrocite. Arsenic removal was slower at higher pH. When solutions initially contained As(III), a portion of the As(III) was oxidized to As(V) during electrocoagulation. As(V) removal was faster than As(III) removal. The presence of 1 and 4 mg/L phosphate inhibited arsenic removal, while the presence of 5 and 20 mg/L silica or 10 and 50 mg/L sulfate had no significant effect on arsenic removal. For most conditions examined in this study, over 99.9% arsenic removal efficiency was achieved. Electrocoagulation was also highly effective at removing arsenic from drinking water in field trials conducted in a village in Eastern India. By using operation times long enough to produce sufficient iron oxide for removal of both phosphate and arsenate, the performance of the systems in field trials was not inhibited by high phosphate concentrations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Development of a Spatial and Temporal Agent-Based Model for Studying Water and Health Relationships: The Case Study of Two Villages in Limpopo, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Demarest, Jeffrey; Pagsuyoin, Sheree; Learmonth, Gerard; Mellor, Jonathan; Dillingham, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Diarrhea, the second leading cause of child morbidity and mortality, can have detrimental effects in the physical and cognitive development of children in developing countries. Health interventions (e.g., increased access to health services and safe water) designed to address this problem are difficult to implement in resource-limited settings. In this paper, we present a tool for understanding the complex relationship between water and public health in rural areas of a developing country. A spatial and temporal agent-based model (ABM) was developed to simulate the current water, sanitation, and health status in two villages in Limpopo Province, South Africa. The model was calibrated using empirical data and published sources. It was used to simulate the effects of poor water quality on the frequency of diarrheal episodes in children, and consequently on child development. Preliminary simulation results show that at the current total coliform levels in the water sources of the studied villages, children are expected to experience stunting by as much as −1.0 standard deviations from the World Health Organization height norms. With minor modifications, the calibrated ABM can be used to design and evaluate intervention strategies for improving child health in these villages. The model can also be applied to other regions worldwide that face the same environmental challenges and conditions as the studied villages. PMID:25530709

  17. Effect of high aluminum concentration in water resources on human health, case study: Biga Peninsula, northwest part of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Bakar, Coşkun; Karaman, Handan Işin Ozişik; Baba, Alper; Sengünalp, Fatma

    2010-05-01

    Widespread and intense zones of silicified, propylitic, and argillic alteration exist as outcrop around the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey. Most of the springs in the study area surface out from these altered volcanic rocks. The concentrations of aluminum (Al) in these springs ranged from 13.17 to 15.70 ppm in this region. These high levels of Al were found to exceed the maximum allowable limits (0.2 ppm) depicted in national and international standards of drinking water quality. Therefore, the effect of high Al in water resources on human health was evaluated in this research. A total of 273 people aged above 18 years and living in the Kirazli region (whose water supply is from springs emerging from these alteration zones) and in the Ciplak-Halileli region (whose water supply is provided from an alluvium aquifer) were selected as the research group. For this group, a questionnaire was completed that contained questions on descriptive characteristics of humans and a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) was administered by the authors using the face-to-face interview technique. A neurological examination was then performed by the neurology specialist as a second-stage investigation. Finally, 10 ml of venous blood samples were obtained from these people as a third-stage analysis to determine the serum Al levels together with vitamin B(12), folic acid, and thyroid-stimulating hormone parameters. The result typically revealed that the MMSE score was less in 31.9% and there was no statistically significant difference between the two regions. However, the result also showed that neuropathy in the history (including a careful past medical history) was significantly higher in the Kirazli region.

  18. Phthalate esters in main source water and drinking water of Zhejiang Province (China): Distribution and health risks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Lou, Xiaoming; Zhang, Nianhua; Ding, Gangqiang; Chen, Zhijian; Xu, Peiwei; Wu, Lizhi; Cai, Jianmin; Han, Jianlong; Qiu, Xueting

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the distributions and health risks of phthalate esters in the main source water and corresponding drinking water of Zhejiang Province, the concentrations of 16 phthalate esters in water samples from 19 sites were measured from samples taken in the dry season and wet season. The concentration of the total phthalate ester congeners in source water ranged from 1.07 μg/L to 7.12 μg/L in the wet season, from 0.01 μg/L to 1.58 μg/L in the dry season, from 1.18 μg/L to 15.28 μg/L from drinking water in the wet season, and from 0.16 μg/L to 1.86 μg/L from drinking water in the dry season. Of the 16 phthalate esters, dimethyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, di-(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate, di-iso-butyl phthalate, bis-2-n-butoxyethyl phthalate, and dicyclohexyl phthalate were present in the samples analyzed, dominated by di-iso-butyl phthalate and di-(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate. The concentrations of phthalate esters in the wet season were all relatively higher than those in the dry season, and the drinking water had higher concentrations of phthalate esters than source water. The phthalate ester congeners studied pose little health risk to nearby citizens. Environ Toxicol Chem 2015;34:2205-2212. © 2015 SETAC. © 2015 SETAC.

  19. Groundwater arsenic contamination and its health effects in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborti, Dipankar; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Das, Bhaskar; Chatterjee, Amit; Das, Dipankar; Nayak, Biswajit; Pal, Arup; Chowdhury, Uttam Kumar; Ahmed, Sad; Biswas, Bhajan Kumar; Sengupta, Mrinal Kumar; Hossain, Md. Amir; Samanta, Gautam; Roy, M. M.; Dutta, Rathindra Nath; Saha, Khitish Chandra; Mukherjee, Subhas Chandra; Pati, Shyamapada; Kar, Probir Bijoy; Mukherjee, Adreesh; Kumar, Manoj

    2017-06-01

    During a 28-year field survey in India (1988-2016), groundwater arsenic contamination and its health effects were registered in the states of West Bengal, Jharkhand, Bihar and Uttar Pradesh in the Ganga River flood plain, and the states of Assam and Manipur in the flood plain of Brahamaputra and Imphal rivers. Groundwater of Rajnandgaon village in Chhattisgarh state, which is not in a flood plain, is also arsenic contaminated. More than 170,000 tubewell water samples from the affected states were analyzed and half of the samples had arsenic >10 μg/L (maximum concentration 3,700 μg/L). Chronic exposure to arsenic through drinking water causes various health problems, like dermal, neurological, reproductive and pregnancy effects, cardiovascular effects, diabetes mellitus, diseases of the respiratory and gastrointestinal systems, and cancers, typically involving the skin, lungs, liver, bladder, etc. About 4.5% of the 8,000 children from arsenic-affected villages of affected states were registered with mild to moderate arsenical skin lesions. In the preliminary survey, more than 10,000 patients were registered with different types of arsenic-related signs and symptoms, out of more than 100,000 people screened from affected states. Elevated levels of arsenic were also found in biological samples (urine, hair, nails) of the people living in affected states. The study reveals that the population who had severe arsenical skin lesions may suffer from multiple Bowens/cancers in the long term. Some unusual symptoms, such as burning sensation, skin itching and watering of eyes in the presence of sun light, were also noticed in arsenicosis patients.

  20. Monitoring hemlock crown health in Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area

    Treesearch

    Michael E. Montgomery; Bradley Onken; Richard A. Evans; Richard A. Evans

    2005-01-01

    Decline of the health of hemlocks in Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area was noticeable in the southern areas of the park by 1992. The following year, a series of plots were established to monitor hemlock health and the abundance of hemlock woolly adelgid. This poster examines only the health rating of the hemlocks in the monitoring plots.

  1. Development of a Health-Protective Drinking Water Level for Perchlorate

    PubMed Central

    Ting, David; Howd, Robert A.; Fan, Anna M.; Alexeeff, George V.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated animal and human toxicity data for perchlorate and identified reduction of thyroidal iodide uptake as the critical end point in the development of a health-protective drinking water level [also known as the public health goal (PHG)] for the chemical. This work was performed under the drinking water program of the Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment of the California Environmental Protection Agency. For dose–response characterization, we applied benchmark-dose modeling to human data and determined a point of departure (the 95% lower confidence limit for 5% inhibition of iodide uptake) of 0.0037 mg/kg/day. A PHG of 6 ppb was calculated by using an uncertainty factor of 10, a relative source contribution of 60%, and exposure assumptions specific to pregnant women. The California Department of Health Services will use the PHG, together with other considerations such as economic impact and engineering feasibility, to develop a California maximum contaminant level for perchlorate. We consider the PHG to be adequately protective of sensitive subpopulations, including pregnant women, their fetuses, infants, and people with hypothyroidism. PMID:16759989

  2. The Water Quality in Rio Highlights the Global Public Health ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Water quality issues in Rio have been widely publicized because of the 2016 Olympics. Recent concerns about polluted waters that athletes may be exposed to highlights the conditions that more than a billion people globally are exposed to daily. Despite these unhealthy conditions, much is unknown about the risks and exposure pathways associated with bathing in or drinking untreated or partially treated sewage. Beyond acute illness, we are learning more about the chronic sequelae that arise from repeated exposure to pathogens found in sewage. Additionally, we do not know enough about how to measure water quality, especially in developing countries. A consequence of these knowledge gaps is that data from developed countries are used to guide public health approaches in low· and middle-income settings. More data that are locally specific are needed to inform guidelines for improving sanitation and water quality in Rio and other cities in developing countries. Recent media reports of high levels of sewage contamination have caused wide-ranging concerns about the safety of sailing, rowing, and other open water events at the upcoming Olympics. This commentary discusses the global public health problem of exposures to untreated sewage and describes the need for context specific solutions to monitoring and communication and risk assessment.

  3. Microbial Contamination of Drinking Water and Human Health from Community Water Systems.

    PubMed

    Ashbolt, Nicholas J

    2015-03-01

    A relatively short list of reference viral, bacterial and protozoan pathogens appears adequate to assess microbial risks and inform a system-based management of drinking waters. Nonetheless, there are data gaps, e.g. human enteric viruses resulting in endemic infection levels if poorly performing disinfection and/or distribution systems are used, and the risks from fungi. Where disinfection is the only treatment and/or filtration is poor, cryptosporidiosis is the most likely enteric disease to be identified during waterborne outbreaks, but generally non-human-infectious genotypes are present in the absence of human or calf fecal contamination. Enteric bacteria may dominate risks during major fecal contamination events that are ineffectively managed. Reliance on culture-based methods exaggerates treatment efficacy and reduces our ability to identify pathogens/indicators; however, next-generation sequencing and polymerase chain reaction approaches are on the cusp of changing that. Overall, water-based Legionella and non-tuberculous mycobacteria probably dominate health burden at exposure points following the various societal uses of drinking water.

  4. Presence and risk assessment of pharmaceuticals in surface water and drinking water.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Trace amounts of pharmaceuticals have been detected in surface waters in the nano- to microgram per liter range, and in drinking water in the nanogram/L range. The environmental risks of pharmaceuticals in surface waters have been evaluated and generally found to be low if the wastewater is treated before release to the environment. The human health risks of trace amounts of pharmaceuticals in drinking water have however not been evaluated in any great depth. Preliminary screening level assessments suggest risk to be low--but the public and decision-makers are concerned and would like the matter investigated more thoroughly, especially with regards to mixture effects, chronic long-term effects and sensitive sub-populations. The World Health Organization is currently evaluating the need for credible health based guidance associated with low concentrations of pharmaceuticals in drinking water. The aim of this paper is to summarize the state-of-the-science and the ongoing international debate on the topic.

  5. Change of water sources reduces health risks from heavy metals via ingestion of water, soil, and rice in a riverine area, South China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li'e; Mo, Zhaoyu; Qin, Jian; Li, Qin; Wei, Yanhong; Ma, Shuyan; Xiong, Yuxia; Liang, Guiqiang; Qing, Li; Chen, Zhiming; Yang, Xiaobo; Zhang, Zhiyong; Zou, Yunfeng

    2015-10-15

    This study evaluates the effect of water source change on heavy metal concentrations in water, paddy soil, and rice, as well as the health risks to residents of three riverine communities in South China. The results show that after substituting the sources of drinking water, heavy metal levels (except for Pb at Tangjun) in drinking water were below WHO guideline values and the potential risk from drinking water may be negligible. The As (46.2-66.8%), Pb (65.7-82.6%), Cd (50.8-55.0%), and Hg (28.3-32.6%) concentrations in paddy soils in Sanhe and Lasha significantly (p<0.05) decreased with a change of irrigation water sources compared to Tangjun, without change of irrigation water source. Similarly, the Cd (39.1-81.3%) and Hg (60.0-75.0%) concentrations in rice grown at Sanhe and Lasha significantly (p<0.05) decreased compared to those at Tangjun. Consequently, replacing irrigation water source significantly (p<0.05) reduced the hazard quotient (HQ) and cancer risk for the corresponding single metal via soil ingestion and rice consumption. Despite that total non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks at Sanhe and Lasha were significantly decreased, they still exceeded the maximum acceptable limits recommended by US EPA, indicating that residents of these two communities remain at high risks of both non-cancer and cancer effects. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Study on the cumulative impact of reclamation activities on ecosystem health in coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chengcheng; Shi, Honghua; Zheng, Wei; Li, Fen; Peng, Shitao; Ding, Dewen

    2016-02-15

    The purpose of this study is to develop feasible tools to investigate the cumulative impact of reclamations on coastal ecosystem health, so that the strategies of ecosystem-based management can be applied in the coastal zone. An indicator system and model were proposed to assess the cumulative impact synthetically. Two coastal water bodies, namely Laizhou Bay (LZB) and Tianjin coastal waters (TCW), in the Bohai Sea of China were studied and compared, each in a different phase of reclamations. Case studies showed that the indicator scores of coastal ecosystem health in LZB and TCW were 0.75 and 0.68 out of 1.0, respectively. It can be concluded that coastal reclamations have a historically cumulative effect on benthic environment, whose degree is larger than that on aquatic environment. The ecosystem-based management of coastal reclamations should emphasize the spatially and industrially intensive layout. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Occurrence of pharmaceuticals in a water supply system and related human health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    de Jesus Gaffney, Vanessa; Almeida, Cristina M M; Rodrigues, Alexandre; Ferreira, Elisabete; Benoliel, Maria João; Cardoso, Vitor Vale

    2015-04-01

    A monitoring study of 31 pharmaceuticals along Lisbon's drinking water supply system was implemented, which comprised the analysis of 250 samples including raw water (surface water and groundwater), and drinking water. Of the 31 pharmaceutical compounds, only sixteen were quantified in the analyzed samples, with levels ranging from 0.005 to 46 ng/L in raw water samples and 0.09-46 ng/L in drinking water samples. The human health risk assessment performed showed that appreciable risks to the consumer's health arising from exposure to trace levels of pharmaceuticals in drinking water are extremely unlikely, as RQs values were all below 0.001. Also, pharmaceuticals were selected as indicators to be used as a tool to control the quality of raw water and the treatment efficiency in the drinking water treatment plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of Yangtze River source water on genomic polymorphisms of male mice detected by RAPD.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaolin; Zhang, Zongyao; Zhang, Xuxiang; Wu, Bing; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Liuyan; Cheng, Shupei

    2010-02-01

    In order to evaluate the environmental health risk of drinking water from Yangtze River source, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to detect the effects of the source water on genomic polymorphisms of hepatic cell of male mice (Mus musculus, ICR). After the mice were fed with source water for 90 days, RAPD-polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) were performed on hepatic genomic DNA using 20 arbitrary primers. Totally, 189 loci were generated, including 151 polymorphic loci. On average, one PCR primer produced 5.3, 4.9 and 4.8 bands for each mouse in the control, the groups fed with source water and BaP solution, respectively. Compared with the control, feeding mice with Yangtze River source water caused 33 new loci to appear and 19 to disappear. Statistical analysis of RAPD printfingers revealed that Yangtze River source water exerted a significant influence on the hepatic genomic polymorphisms of male mice. This study suggests that RAPD is a reliable and sensitive method for the environmental health risk of Yangtze River source water.

  9. THE HEALTHY MEN STUDY: A MODEL APPROACH FOR EXAMINING POTENTIAL MALE REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH EFFECTS ASSOCIATED WITH EXPOSURE TO DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Healthy Men Study (HMS) is a prospective multisite community study on drinking water disinfection byproducts (DBPs) and male reproductive health. We are testing whether exposure to DBPs in drinking water may be associated with altered semen quality, a hypothesis derived from...

  10. Innovative method for prioritizing emerging disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water on the basis of their potential impact on public health.

    PubMed

    Hebert, Armelle; Forestier, Delphine; Lenes, Dorothée; Benanou, David; Jacob, Severine; Arfi, Catherine; Lambolez, Lucie; Levi, Yves

    2010-05-01

    Providing microbiologically safe drinking water is a major public health issue. However, chemical disinfection can produce unintended health hazards involving disinfection by-products (DBPs). In an attempt to clarify the potential public health concerns associated with emerging disinfection by-products (EDBPs), this study was intended to help to identify those suspected of posing potential related health effects. In view of the ever-growing list of EDBPs in drinking water and the lack of consensus about them, we have developed an innovative prioritization method that would allow us to address this issue. We first set up an exhaustive database including all the current published data relating to EDBPs in drinking water (toxicity, occurrence, epidemiology and international or local guidelines/regulations). We then developed a ranking method intended to prioritize the EDBPs. This method, which was based on a calculation matrix with different coefficients, was applied to the data regarding their potential contribution to the health risk assessment process. This procedure allowed us to identify and rank three different groups of EDBPs: Group I, consisting of the most critical EDBPs with regard to their potential health effects, has moderate occurrence but the highest toxicity. Group II has moderate to elevated occurrence and is associated with relevant toxicity, and Group III has very low occurrence and unknown or little toxicity. The EDBPs identified as posing the greatest potential risk using this method were as follows: NDMA and other nitrosamines, MX and other halofuranones, chlorate, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol and pentachlorophenol, hydrazine, and two unregulated halomethanes, dichloromethane and tetrachloromethane. Our approach allowed us to define the EDBPs that it is most important to monitor in order to assess population exposure and related public health issues, and thus to improve drinking water treatment and distribution. It is also

  11. High Temperatures Health Monitoring of the Condensed Water Height in Steam Pipe Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Lee, Hyeong Jae; Badescu, Mircea; Bao, Xiaoqi; Sherrit, Stewart; Takano, Nobuyuki; Ostlund, Patrick; Blosiu, Julian

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasonic probes were designed, fabricated and tested for high temperature health monitoring system. The goal of this work was to develop the health monitoring system that can determine the height level of the condensed water through the pipe wall at high temperature up to 250 deg while accounting for the effects of surface perturbation. Among different ultrasonic probe designs, 2.25 MHz probes with air backed configuration provide satisfactory results in terms of sensitivity, receiving reflections from the target through the pipe wall. A series of tests were performed using the air-backed probes under irregular conditions, such as surface perturbation and surface disturbance at elevated temperature, to qualify the developed ultrasonic system. The results demonstrate that the fabricated air-backed probes combined with advanced signal processing techniques offer the capability of health monitoring of steam pipe under various operating conditions.

  12. Preliminary Toxicological Analysis of the Effect of Coal Slurry Impoundment Water on Human Liver Cells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bunnell, Joseph E.

    2008-01-01

    Coal is usually 'washed' with water and a variety of chemicals to reduce its content of sulfur and mineral matter. The 'washings' or 'coal slurry' derived from this process is a viscous black liquid containing fine particles of coal, mineral matter, and other dissolved and particulate substances. Coal slurry may be stored in impoundments or in abandoned underground mines. Human health and environmental effects potentially resulting from leakage of chemical substances from coal slurry into drinking water supplies or aquatic ecosystems have not been systematically examined. Impoundments are semipermeable, presenting the possibility that inorganic and organic substances, some of which may be toxic, may contaminate ground or surface water. The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, has concluded that well water in Mingo County, West Virginia, constitutes a public health hazard.

  13. Ancient water bottle use and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure among California Indians: a prehistoric health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Sholts, Sabrina B; Smith, Kevin; Wallin, Cecilia; Ahmed, Trifa M; Wärmländer, Sebastian K T S

    2017-06-23

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are the main toxic compounds in natural bitumen, a fossil material used by modern and ancient societies around the world. The adverse health effects of PAHs on modern humans are well established, but their health impacts on past populations are unclear. It has previously been suggested that a prehistoric health decline among the native people living on the California Channel Islands may have been related to PAH exposure. Here, we assess the potential health risks of PAH exposure from the use and manufacture of bitumen-coated water bottles by ancient California Indian societies. We replicated prehistoric bitumen-coated water bottles with traditional materials and techniques of California Indians, based on ethnographic and archaeological evidence. In order to estimate PAH exposure related to water bottle manufacture and use, we conducted controlled experiments to measure PAH contamination 1) in air during the manufacturing process and 2) in water and olive oil stored in a completed bottle for varying periods of time. Samples were analyzed with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) for concentrations of the 16 PAHs identified by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as priority pollutants. Eight PAHs were detected in concentrations of 1-10 μg/m 3 in air during bottle production and 50-900 ng/L in water after 2 months of storage, ranging from two-ring (naphthalene and methylnaphthalene) to four-ring (fluoranthene) molecules. All 16 PAHs analyzed were detected in olive oil after 2 days (2 to 35 μg/kg), 2 weeks (3 to 66 μg/kg), and 2 months (5 to 140 μg/kg) of storage. For ancient California Indians, water stored in bitumen-coated water bottles was not a significant source of PAH exposure, but production of such bottles could have resulted in harmful airborne PAH exposure.

  14. [Potential health risks from consumption of water with arsenic in Colima, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Cano, Oliver; Sánchez-Piña, Ramón Alberto; Barrón-Quintana, Julián; Cuevas-Arellano, Herguin Benjamin; Escalante-Minakata, Pilar; Solano-Barajas, Ramón

    2017-01-01

    To estimate potential health risks due to chronic ingestion of arsenic from groundwater in Colima, Mexico. Samples were randomly taken in 36 wells from 10 local aquifers. Analysis was performed by ICP-OES following international standards. Geostatistical interpolation was performed with ArcGIS, implementing a model weighting inverse distance to estimate arsenic routes of exposure and consumption on each locality. The Hazard Quotient Ratio (HQ) and carcinogenic risk (R) for As were estimated. The weighted average HQ for arsenic in Colima is 2.41. There are HQ> 1 values indicating adverse non-cancer health effects by continuous and prolonged intake of water with arsenic, which could affect 183 832 individuals in the state. The risk of developing any type of cancer among the population in this study due to high arsenic concentrations in groundwater (R) is 1.089E-3, which could statistically cause 446 cases of cancer. Current levels of arsenic in groundwater increase carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic human health risks in Colima.

  15. Health Effects of Exposure to Water-Damaged New Orleans Homes Six Months After Hurricanes Katrina and Rita

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Kristin J.; Cox-Ganser, Jean; Riggs, Margaret A.; Edwards, Nicole; Hobbs, Gerald R.; Kreiss, Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated the relation between respiratory symptoms and exposure to water-damaged homes and the effect of respirator use in posthurricane New Orleans, Louisiana. Methods. We randomly selected 600 residential sites and then interviewed 1 adult per site. We created an exposure variable, calculated upper respiratory symptom (URS) and lower respiratory symptom (LRS) scores, and defined exacerbation categories by the effect on symptoms of being inside water-damaged homes. We used multiple linear regression to model symptom scores (for all participants) and polytomous logistic regression to model exacerbation of symptoms when inside (for those participating in clean-up). Results. Of 553 participants (response rate=92%), 372 (68%) had participated in clean-up; 233 (63%) of these used a respirator. Respiratory symptom scores increased linearly with exposure (P<.05 for trend). Disposable-respirator use was associated with lower odds of exacerbation of moderate or severe symptoms inside water-damaged homes for URS (odds ratio (OR)=.51; 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.24, 1.09) and LRS (OR=0.33; 95% CI=0.13, 0.83). Conclusions. Respiratory symptoms were positively associated with exposure to water-damaged homes, including exposure limited to being inside without participating in clean-up. Respirator use had a protective effect and should be considered when inside water-damaged homes regardless of activities undertaken. PMID:18381997

  16. Health safety of main water pipe materials supplied in China market.

    PubMed

    Lu, Kai; Ding, Liang; Wang, Hong-Wei; Jing, Hai-Ning; Zhao, Xiao-Ning; Lin, Shao-Bin; Li, Ya-Dong; Jin, Yin-Long; Liu, Feng-Mao; Jiang, Shu-Ren

    2006-04-01

    To assess the health safety of copper, steel and plastic water pipes by field water quality investigations. Four consumers were randomly selected for each type of water pipes. Two consumers of every type of the water pipes had used the water pipes for more than 1 year and the other 2 consumers had used the water pipes for less than 3 months. The terminal volume of tap water in copper and steel water pipes should be not less than 0.1 liter, whereas that in plastic water pipes should be not less than 1 liter. The mean values of the experimental results in the second field water quality investigation of the copper and steel water pipes met the Sanitary Standards for Drinking Water Quality. The items of water sample of the plastic water pipes met the requirements of the Sanitary Standards for Drinking Water Quality. Copper, steel, and plastic pipes can be used as drinking water pipes.

  17. Water and health.

    PubMed

    Guidotti, T L; Conway, J B

    1984-10-01

    The systems protecting the quality of drinking water in the United States are deteriorating. Many urban water and sewer systems are obsolete. Industrial wastes are imposing a burden on wastewater treatment facilities. In the U.S., outbreaks of water-borne disease are primarily limited to enteritis associated with viruses or Giardia. Issues in the contamination of drinking water by toxic substances include disposal practices, accidental contamination, agricultural runoff and chlorination byproducts. Physicians must support stringent enforcement of water quality standards.

  18. Health and environmental effects document on geothermal energy: 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Layton, D.W.; Anspaugh, L.R.; O'Banion, K.D.

    Several of the important health and environmental risks associated with a reference geothermal industry that produces 21,000 MW/sub e/ for 30 y (equivalent to 20 x 10/sup 18/ J) are assessed. The analyses of health effects focus on the risks associated with exposure to hydrogen sulfide, particulate sulfate, benzene, mercury, and radon in air and arsenic in water. Results indicate that emissions of hydrogen sulfide are likely to cause odor-related problems in geothermal resources areas, assuming that no pollution controls are employed. For individuals living within an 80 km radius of the geothermal resources, chronic exposure to particulate sulfate couldmore » result in between 0 to 95 premature deaths per 10/sup 18/ J of electricity generated. The mean population risk of leukemia from the inhalation of benzene was calculated to be 3 x 10/sup -2/ cases per 10/sup 18/ J. Exposure to elemental mercury in the atmosphere could produce between 0 and 8.2 cases of tremors per 10/sup 18/ J of electricity. Inhalation of radon and its short-lived daughters poses a mean population risk of 4.2 x 10/sup -1/ lung cancers per 10/sup 18/ J. Analysis of skin cancer risk from the ingestion of surface water contaminated with geothermally derived arsenic suggests that a dose-response model is inconsistent with data showing that arsenic is an essential element and that excessive body burdens do not appear even when arsenic reaches 100 ..mu..g/liter in drinking water. Estimates of occupational health effects were based on rates of accidental deaths and occupational diseases in surrogate industries. According to calculations, there would be 14 accidental deaths per 10/sup 18/ J of electricity and 340 cases of occupational diseases per 10/sup 18/ J. The analysis of the effects of noncondensing gases on vegetation showed that ambient concentrations of hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide are more likely to enhance rather than inhibit the growth of plants.« less

  19. Environmental health sciences center task force review on halogenated organics in drinking water

    PubMed Central

    Deinzer, M.; Schaumburg, F.; Klein, E.

    1978-01-01

    The disinfection of drinking water by chlorination has in recent years come under closer scrutiny because of the potential hazards associated with the production of stable chlorinated organic chemicals. Organic chemical contaminants are common to all water supplies and it is now well-established that chlorinated by-products are obtained under conditions of disinfection, or during tertiary treatment of sewage whose products can ultimately find their way into drinking water supplies. Naturally occurring humic substances which are invariably present in drinking waters are probably the source of chloroform and other halogenated methanes, and chloroform has shown up in every water supply investigated thus far. The Environmental Protection Agency is charged with the responsibility of assessing the public health effects resulting from the consumption of contaminated drinking water. It has specifically undertaken the task of determining whether organic contaminants or their chlorinated derivatives have a special impact, and if so, what alternatives there are to protect the consumer against bacterial and viral diseases that are transmitted through infected drinking waters. The impetus to look at these chemicals is not entirely without some prima facie evidence of potential trouble. Epidemiological studies suggested a higher incidence of cancer along the lower Mississippi River where the contamination from organic chemicals is particularly high. The conclusions from these studies have, to be sure, not gone unchallenged. The task of assessing the effects of chemicals in the drinking water is a difficult one. It includes many variables, including differences in water supplies and the temporal relationship between contamination and consumption of the finished product. It must also take into account the relative importance of the effects from these chemicals in comparison to those from occupational exposure, ingestion of contaminated foods, inhalation of polluted air, and many

  20. Water, Water Everywhere, But is it Safe to Drink?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Drinking water disinfection by-products (DBPs) have been associated with adverse human health effects, including bladder cancer, early term miscarriage, and birth defects. While it is vitally important to kill harmful pathogens in water, it is also important to minimize harmful ...

  1. Health impact caused by poor water and sanitation in district Abbottabad.

    PubMed

    Jabeen, Sadia; Mahmood, Qaisar; Tariq, Sumbal; Nawab, Bahadar; Elahi, Noor

    2011-01-01

    Large proportions of people still do not have excess to safe drinking water and proper sanitation. Qualitative and quantitative approaches were used to assess the health impacts. Random households were selected. Information was collected from questionnaire through interview schedule method, group discussion and observation checklist. People rated water and sanitation condition in urban as: 10% very good, 27% good, 20% bad, 43% very bad, and none of them said we don't know While in rural areas they rated 10% very good, 36% good, 44% bad, 6% very bad, and 4% of them said we don't know. Water sources in selected urban and rural areas were different. 37% in urban and 68% in rural area depended on bore wells as water source, 22% depended on hand pumps. In urban areas, the disease ratio was typhoid 20%, hepatitis 13%, diarrhoea 27%, skin infection 23%, stomach problems 53% and allergies 33%. In rural areas, after stomach problems, diarrhoea, hepatitis and typhoid ratio was very high as compared to urban area. In rural community, 70% were unaware of poor water and sanitation consequences on health. The water and sanitation condition in urban as well as in rural community is poor but in rural community it is even worse The drinking water was contaminated with E. coli, Enterobacter, Salmonella and Clostridium. This observation was correlated with prevalence of many water born diseases especially in rural communities of Abbottabad.

  2. Public water fluoridation and dental health in New South Wales.

    PubMed

    Armfield, Jason M

    2005-10-01

    To evaluate whether access to fluoridated public water in New South Wales (NSW) is related to both a reduction in caries experience within NSW regions and to better dental health for disadvantaged children. Cross-sectional population data on children attending the School Dental Service in NSW in 2000 were used to calculate and compare the number of decayed, missing and filled teeth (dmft/ DMFT) across areas of differing availability of fluoridated water within NSW Area Health Service (AHS) regions. Analyses were also undertaken looking at differences in caries between optimally fluoridated and non-fluoridated communities across strata of socio-economic disadvantage and by Indigenous status. A total sample of 248,944 children aged 3-15 years was obtained. Caries experience in the deciduous dentition of 5-6 year-olds and the permanent dentition of 11-12 year-olds was significantly lower for children in fluoridated areas than nonfluoridated areas in six of the eight AHSs and six of the 10 AHSs respectively where comparisons could be made. Children living in fluoridated areas had lower caries experience than children living in nonfluoridated areas, regardless of socio-economic disadvantage. Both Indigenous and non-Indigenous children had reduced caries experience in fluoridated compared with non-fluoridated areas. Water fluoridation was found to be related to significantly reduced caries experience in the majority of AHSs where comparisons could be made, and to benefit all socio-economic strata of the community. Water fluoridation should be extended to those areas of NSW that are yet to benefit from this successful caries preventive public health initiative.

  3. [Water and health-related problems, local perception and quality of water sources in a Toba (qom) community in the Impenetrable (Chaco, Argentina)].

    PubMed

    Martínez, Gustavo J; Beccaglia, Ana M; Llinares, Analía

    2014-08-01

    We present a transdisciplinary study centering on aspects of environmental health of the Toba (qom) communities that relate to water and health problems of the Impenetrable Chaco region. Information was obtained through the methods and tools of participatory research, household participant observation, and ethnobotanical documentation of species related to water management and use. Vernacular terms referring to the suitability and taste of the water, as well as representations, attitudes and practices related to water collection and purification were recorded. In addition, a microbiological and physicochemical analysis of the water was performed and compared with the perceptual categories. It was observed that perceptual aspects were in tension with the hygienic quality of water. We documented phreatophyte plants, indicative of the presence of water, as well as plants that store water, act as flocculants, refresh the water or improve taste. The results of this research are discussed from an ecosystem approach and its relationship to the development of proposals for intervention.

  4. [Relationship between water supply, sanitation, public health, and environment: elements for the formulation of a sanitary infrastructure planning model].

    PubMed

    Soares, Sérgio R A; Bernardes, Ricardo S; Netto, Oscar de M Cordeiro

    2002-01-01

    The understanding of sanitation infrastructure, public health, and environmental relations is a fundamental assumption for planning sanitation infrastructure in urban areas. This article thus suggests elements for developing a planning model for sanitation infrastructure. The authors performed a historical survey of environmental and public health issues related to the sector, an analysis of the conceptual frameworks involving public health and sanitation systems, and a systematization of the various effects that water supply and sanitation have on public health and the environment. Evaluation of these effects should guarantee the correct analysis of possible alternatives, deal with environmental and public health objectives (the main purpose of sanitation infrastructure), and provide the most reasonable indication of actions. The suggested systematization of the sanitation systems effects in each step of their implementation is an advance considering the association between the fundamental elements for formulating a planning model for sanitation infrastructure.

  5. Health Effects of Climate Change (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    MedlinePlus

    ... your health. Read About It Climate Change and Human Health (Public Broadcasting Services (including their teacher resources)) - Web ... of the potential effects of climate change on human health. Climate and Health Program: Health Effects (Centers for ...

  6. Health risks due to radon in drinking water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hopke, P.K.; Borak, T.B.; Doull, J.; Cleaver, J.E.; Eckerman, K.F.; Gundersen, L.C.S.; Harley, N.H.; Hess, C.T.; Kinner, N.E.; Kopecky, K.J.; Mckone, T.E.; Sextro, R.G.; Simon, S.L.

    2000-01-01

    Following more than a decade of scientific debate about the setting of a standard for 222Rn in drinking water, Congress established a timetable for the promulgation of a standard in the 1996 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act. As a result of those Amendments, the EPA contracted with the National Academy of Sciences to undertake a risk assessment for exposure to radon in drinking water. In addition, the resulting committee was asked to address several other scientific issues including the national average ambient 222Rn concentration and the increment of 222Rn to the indoor- air concentration arising from the use of drinking water in a home. A new dosimetric analysis of the cancer risk to the stomach from ingestion was performed. The recently reported risk estimates developed by the BEIR VI Committee for inhalation of radon decay products were adopted. Because the 1996 Amendments permit states to develop programs in which mitigation of air- producing health-risk reductions equivalent to that which would be achieved by treating the drinking water, the scientific issues involved in such 'multimedia mitigation programs' were explored.

  7. The effectiveness of removing precursors of chlorinated organic substances in pilot water treatment plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolska, Małgorzata; Szerzyna, Sławomir; Machi, Justyna; Mołczan, Marek; Adamski, Wojciech; Wiśniewski, Jacek

    2017-11-01

    The presence of organic substances in the water intaken for consumption could be hazardous to human health due to the potential formation of disinfection by-products (TOX). The study were carried out in the pilot surface water treatment system consisting of coagulation, sedimentation, filtration, ozonation, adsorption and disinfection. Due to continuous operation of the system and interference with the parameters of the processes it was possible not only assess the effectiveness of individual water treatment processes in removing TOX, but also on factors participating on the course of unit processes.

  8. Effect of Pre-ozonation on Haloacetic Acids Formation in Ganga River Water at Kanpur, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naladala, Nagasrinivasa Rao; Singh, Rambabu; Katiyar, Kumud Lata Devi; Bose, Purnendu; Dutta, Venkatesh

    2017-11-01

    Almost all natural water bodies which are considered to be sustainable sources of drinking water contain organic matter in dissolved form and pathogens. This dissolved organic matter and pathogens cannot be removed effectively through traditional filtering processes in drinking water treatment plants. Chlorination of such water for disinfection results in large amounts of disinfection by-products (DBPs), mainly trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids (HAAs), which showed many health effects like cancer and reproductive problems in lab animals and in human beings as well. Complete removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), which is a precursor compound for HAAs formation, is impossible from a practical point of view; hence, it will be better if DOC activity towards DBPs formation can be reduced via some process. The present article describes the process of pre-ozonating post-coagulated Ganga River water at Kanpur in a continuous flow mode and its effect on HAAs formation. Nearly 58% reduction in HAAs formation was observed during this study at higher doses of ozone.

  9. Arsenic Exposure in Latin America: Biomarkers, Risk Assessments and Related Health Effects

    PubMed Central

    McClintock, Tyler R.; Chen, Yu; Bundschuh, Jochen; Oliver, John T.; Navoni, Julio; Olmos, Valentina; Lepori, Edda Villaamil; Ahsan, Habibul; Parvez, Faruque

    2013-01-01

    In Latin America, several regions have a long history of widespread arsenic (As) contamination from both natural and anthropological sources. Yet, relatively little is known about the extent of As exposure from drinking water and its related health consequences in these countries. It has been estimated that at least 4.5 million people in Latin America are chronically exposed to high levels of As (>50µg/L), some to as high as 2000 µg/L - 200 times higher than the World Health Organization (WHO) provisional standard for drinking water. We conducted a systematic review of 82 peer reviewed papers and reports to fully explore the current understanding of As exposure and its health effects, as well as the influence of genetic factors that modulate those effects in the populations of Latin America. Despite some methodological limitations, these studies suggested important links between high levels of chronic As exposure and elevated risks of numerous adverse health outcomes in Latin America - including internal and external cancers, reproductive outcomes, and childhood cognitive function. Several studies demonstrated genetic polymorphisms that influence susceptibility to these and other disease states through their modulation of As metabolism, with As methyltransferase (AS3MT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and genes of one-carbon metabolism being specifically implicated. While the full extent and nature of the health burden are yet to be known in Latin America, these studies have significantly enriched knowledge of As toxicity and led to subsequent research. Targeted future studies will not only yield a better understanding of the public health impact of As in Latin America populations, but also allow for effective and timely mitigation efforts. PMID:22119448

  10. Human health risk assessment of the mixture of pharmaceuticals in Dutch drinking water and its sources based on frequent monitoring data.

    PubMed

    Houtman, Corine J; Kroesbergen, Jan; Lekkerkerker-Teunissen, Karin; van der Hoek, Jan Peter

    2014-10-15

    The presence of pharmaceuticals in drinking water is a topic of concern. Previous risk assessments indicate that their low concentrations are very unlikely to pose risks to human health, however often conclusions had to be based on small datasets and mixture effects were not included. The objectives of this study were to a) investigate if pharmaceuticals in surface and polder water penetrate in drinking water, b) assess the lifelong exposure of consumers to pharmaceuticals via drinking water and c) assess the possible individual and mixture health risks associated with this exposure. To fulfill these aims, a 2-year set of 4-weekly monitoring data of pharmaceuticals was used from three drinking water production plants. The 42 pharmaceuticals that were monitored were selected according to their consumption volume, earlier detection, toxicity and representation of the most relevant therapeutic classes. Lifelong exposures were calculated from concentrations and compared with therapeutic doses. Health risks were assessed by benchmarking concentrations with provisional guideline values. Combined risks of mixtures of pharmaceuticals were estimated using the concept of Concentration Addition. The lifelong exposure to pharmaceuticals via drinking water was calculated to be extremely low, i.e. a few mg, in total corresponding to <10% of the dose a patient is administered on one day. The risk of adverse health effects appeared to be negligibly low. Application of Concentration Addition confirmed this for the mixture of pharmaceuticals simultaneously present. The investigated treatment plants appeared to reduce the (already negligible) risk up to 80%. The large available monitoring dataset enabled the performance of a realistic risk assessment. It showed that working with maximum instead of average concentrations may overestimate the risk considerably. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Are Endocrine Disrupting Compounds a Health Risk in Drinking Water?

    PubMed Central

    Falconer, Ian R.

    2006-01-01

    There has been a great deal of international discussion on the nature and relevance of endocrine disrupting compounds in the environment. Changes in reproductive organs of fish and mollusks have been demonstrated in rivers downstream of sewage discharges in Europe and in North America, which have been attributed to estrogenic compounds in the effluent. The anatomical and physiological changes in the fauna are illustrated by feminization of male gonads. The compounds of greatest hormonal activity in sewage effluent are the natural estrogens 17β-estradiol, estrone, estriol and the synthetic estrogen ethinylestradiol. Androgens are also widely present in wastewaters. Investigations of anthropogenic chemical contaminants in freshwaters and wastewaters have shown a wide variety of organic compounds, many of which have low levels of estrogenic activity. In many highly populated countries the drinking water is sourced from the same rivers and lakes that are the recipients of sewage and industrial discharge. The River Thames which flows through London, England, has overall passed through drinking water and sewage discharge 5 times from source to mouth of the river. Under these types of circumstance, any accumulation of endocrine disrupting compounds from sewage or industry potentially affects the quality of drinking water. Neither basic wastewater treatment nor basic drinking water treatment will eliminate the estrogens, androgens or detergent breakdown products from water, due to the chemical stability of the structures. Hence a potential risk to health exists; however present data indicate that estrogenic contamination of drinking water is very unlikely to result in physiologically detectable effects in consumers. Pesticide, detergent and industrial contamination remain issues of concern. As a result of this concern, increased attention is being given to enhanced wastewater treatment in locations where the effluent is directly or indirectly in use for drinking water. In

  12. Arsenic exposure in drinking water: an unrecognized health threat in Peru.

    PubMed

    George, Christine Marie; Sima, Laura; Arias, M Helena Jahuira; Mihalic, Jana; Cabrera, Lilia Z; Danz, David; Checkley, William; Gilman, Robert H

    2014-08-01

    To assess the extent of arsenic contamination of groundwater and surface water in Peru and, to evaluate the accuracy of the Arsenic Econo-Quick(™) (EQ) kit for measuring water arsenic concentrations in the field. Water samples were collected from 151 water sources in 12 districts of Peru, and arsenic concentrations were measured in the laboratory using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The EQ field kit was validated by comparing a subset of 139 water samples analysed by laboratory measurements and the EQ kit. In 86% (96/111) of the groundwater samples, arsenic exceeded the 10 µg/l arsenic concentration guideline given by the World Health Organization (WHO) for drinking water. In 56% (62/111) of the samples, it exceeded the Bangladeshi threshold of 50 µg/l; the mean concentration being 54.5 µg/l (range: 0.1-93.1). In the Juliaca and Caracoto districts, in 96% (27/28) of groundwater samples arsenic was above the WHO guideline; and in water samples collected from the section of the Rímac river running through Lima, all had arsenic concentrations exceeding the WHO limit. When validated against laboratory values, the EQ kit correctly identified arsenic contamination relative to the guideline in 95% (106/111) of groundwater and in 68% (19/28) of surface water samples. In several districts of Peru, drinking water shows widespread arsenic contamination, exceeding the WHO arsenic guideline. This poses a public health threat requiring further investigation and action. For groundwater samples, the EQ kit performed well relative to the WHO arsenic limit and therefore could provide a vital tool for water arsenic surveillance.

  13. Arsenic exposure in drinking water: an unrecognized health threat in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Sima, Laura; Arias, M Helena Jahuira; Mihalic, Jana; Cabrera, Lilia Z; Danz, David; Checkley, William; Gilman, Robert H

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess the extent of arsenic contamination of groundwater and surface water in Peru and, to evaluate the accuracy of the Arsenic Econo-Quick™ (EQ) kit for measuring water arsenic concentrations in the field. Methods Water samples were collected from 151 water sources in 12 districts of Peru, and arsenic concentrations were measured in the laboratory using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The EQ field kit was validated by comparing a subset of 139 water samples analysed by laboratory measurements and the EQ kit. Findings In 86% (96/111) of the groundwater samples, arsenic exceeded the 10 µg/l arsenic concentration guideline given by the World Health Organization (WHO) for drinking water. In 56% (62/111) of the samples, it exceeded the Bangladeshi threshold of 50 µg/l; the mean concentration being 54.5 µg/l (range: 0.1–93.1). In the Juliaca and Caracoto districts, in 96% (27/28) of groundwater samples arsenic was above the WHO guideline; and in water samples collected from the section of the Rímac river running through Lima, all had arsenic concentrations exceeding the WHO limit. When validated against laboratory values, the EQ kit correctly identified arsenic contamination relative to the guideline in 95% (106/111) of groundwater and in 68% (19/28) of surface water samples. Conclusion In several districts of Peru, drinking water shows widespread arsenic contamination, exceeding the WHO arsenic guideline. This poses a public health threat requiring further investigation and action. For groundwater samples, the EQ kit performed well relative to the WHO arsenic limit and therefore could provide a vital tool for water arsenic surveillance. PMID:25177071

  14. Lessons Learned From the Crisis in Flint, Michigan Regarding the Effects of Contaminated Water on Maternal and Child Health.

    PubMed

    Craft-Blacksheare, Melva Gale

    The Flint, Michigan water crisis raised awareness about the dangers of lead-tainted drinking water and the role of the nurse in addressing such a crisis. Although lead exposure is dangerous for all people, research indicates that pregnant and nursing women and their infants are especially vulnerable to prenatal and postnatal lead exposure. This information is of national importance because of the aging infrastructure of American cities and the likelihood of similar problems in other locations. Copyright © 2017 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Systemic effect of water fluoridation on dental caries prevalence.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyun-Jae; Jin, Bo-Hyoung; Park, Deok-Young; Jung, Se-Hwan; Lee, Heung-Soo; Paik, Dai-Il; Bae, Kwang-Hak

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the systemic effect of water fluoridation on dental caries prevalence and experience in Cheongju, South Korea, where water fluoridation ceased 7 years previously. A cross-sectional survey was employed at two schools where water fluoridation had ceased (WF-ceased area) and at two schools where the water had never been fluoridated (non-WF area). The schools in the non-WF area were of a similar population size to the schools in the WF-ceased area. Children of three age groups were examined in both areas: aged 6 (n = 505), 8 (n = 513), and 11 years (n = 467). The differences in the mean number of decayed or filled primary teeth (dft) and the mean number of decayed, missing, or filled permanent teeth (DMFT) scores between areas after adjusting for oral health behaviors and socio-demographic factors were analyzed by a Poisson regression model. The regression model showed that the DMFT ratio for children aged 11 years in the WF-ceased area was 0.581 (95% CI 0.450-0.751). In contrast, the dft ratio for age 6 in the WF-ceased area was 1.158 (95% CI 1.004-1.335). Only the DMFT ratio for age 8 (0.924, 95% CI 0.625-1.368) was not significant. While 6-year-old children who had not ingested fluoridated water showed higher dft in the WF-ceased area than in the non-WF area, 11-year-old children in the WF-ceased area who had ingested fluoridated water for approximately 4 years after birth showed significantly lower DMFT than those in the non-WF area. This suggests that the systemic effect of fluoride intake through water fluoridation could be important for the prevention of dental caries. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Does water hardness have preventive effect on cardiovascular disease?

    PubMed

    Momeni, Mitra; Gharedaghi, Zahra; Amin, Mohammad Mehadi; Poursafa, Parinaz; Mansourian, Marjan

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the association of calcium and magnesium concentration of drinking water with cardiovascular disease (CVDs) in urban and rural areas of a city in Iran. This case-control study was conducted in 2012 in Khansar County in Isfahan province, Iran. We used the official data of the Provincial health center regarding the chemical analysis data of urban and rural areas including the hardness, calcium and magnesium content of drinking water. Data of patients hospitalized for CVD in the only specialty hospital of the city was gathered for the years of 2010 and 2011. In 2010, water calcium content above 72 mg/L was associated with reduced number of CVDs in 1000 population; whereas in 2011 this decrease in CVDs was observed for calcium levels of more than 75 mg/L. In 2010, the level of water Mg content ranged from 23 to 57 mg/L. By increasing Mg hardness level above 31 mg/L in 2010 and above 26 mg/L in 2011 were associated with decreased number of CVDs in 1000 people. decrease. Our study suggests favorable protective effects of water hardness, mainly water magnesium content, on CVDs. Water hardness, as well as calcium and magnesium content of drinking water may have a protective role against CVDs. Further experimental studies are necessary to determine the underlying mechanisms and longitudinal studies are required to study the clinical impacts of the current findings.

  17. Drinking Water in Nigeria: A Public Health Threat and Burden

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    solutions. Statistical data is incorporated to substantiate the significance of the disease burden and display the access to safe drinking water...the Nigerian government ministry information and updated health statistics , and the lack of public health related resources at the Muir S...fluctuates based on the statistical source, but the largest figure is estimated at 140 million according to that latest census conducted in 2006. The

  18. Water for the Nation: An overview of the USGS Water Resources Division

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1998-01-01

    The Water Resources Division (WRD) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provides reliable, impartial, timely information needed to understand the Nation's water resources. WRD actively promotes the use of this information by decisionmakers to: * Minimize the loss of life and property as a result of water-related hazards such as floods, droughts, and land movement. * Effectively manage ground-water and surface-water resources for domestic, agricultural, commercial, industrial, recreational, and ecological uses. * Protect and enhance water resources for human health, aquatic health, and environmental quality. * Contribute to wise physical and economic development of the Nation's resources for the benefit of present and future generations.

  19. Balancing ecosystem health and pollution risk in contrasting water supply catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, Ashleigh; Doerr, Stefan; Santin, Cristina; Froyd, Cynthia

    2017-04-01

    Prescribed fires are an important tool in many regions of the world for (i) minimising fuel loads to reduce the risk of severe wildfire occurrence, and (ii) for maintaining ecosystem services, biological diversity and ecological health. Despite the continued application of prescribed burning as a management technique in a number of regions across the world, its usage has declined in recent decades in some areas of the UK. A new project has been launched to provide an environmental impact assessment that accompanies the reintroduction of more regular management burning practices into the Brecon Beacons National Park (Wales), which aims to address the effects of the reduction in upland grazing. Its outputs will inform management practices within the region in relation to the trade-offs between burning, ecosystem services and the specific water supply catchment needs, whilst also providing a comparable British context to the growing body of international literature. In order to supplement this broad research area into the impacts of management burning, spacial-temporal changes in the risks to off-site water quality will be monitored as an impact of varying burn use-intensity. This topic has received little research in comparison to work on the effects on vegetation and soil hydrological processes. The wider implications of burn use-intensity on Welsh upland areas will also be evaluated, including an assessment of biological diversity and ecological health both on and off-site within the study catchments. This contribution will provide a brief summary of the current state of knowledge in this field, along with a research design that will be adopted to deliver the anticipated research outputs

  20. Effects of a behavior change campaign on household drinking water disinfection in the Lake Chad basin using the RANAS approach.

    PubMed

    Lilje, Jonathan; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2018-04-01

    Worldwide, an estimated 700 million people rely on unimproved drinking water sources; even more consume water that is not safe to drink. Inadequate drinking water quality constitutes a major risk factor for cholera and other diarrheal diseases around the globe, especially for young children in developing countries. Household water treatment and safe storage systems represent an intermediate solution for settings that lack infrastructure supplying safe drinking water. However, the correct and consistent usage of such treatment technologies rely almost exclusively on the consumer's behavior. This study targeted at evaluating effects of a behavior change campaign promoting the uptake of household drinking water chlorination in communities along the Chari and Logone rivers in Chad. The campaign was based on formative research using health psychological theory and targeted several behavioral factors identified as relevant. A total of 220 primary caregivers were interviewed concerning their household water treatment practices and mindset related to water treatment six months after the campaign. The Risks, Attitudes, Norms, Abilities, and Self-regulation (RANAS) model was used to structure the interviews as the RANAS approach had been used for designing the campaign. Results show significantly higher self-reported drinking water chlorination among participants of the intervention. Significant differences from a control group were identified regarding several behavioral factors. Mediation analysis revealed that the intervention positively affected participants' individual risk estimation for diarrheal disease, health knowledge, perceived efforts and benefits of water treatment, social support strategies, knowledge of how to perform chlorination, and perceived ability to do so. The campaign's effect on water treatment was mainly mediated through differences in health knowledge, changes in norms, and self-efficacy convictions. The findings imply that water treatment behavior

  1. Water for human and livestock consumption in rural settings of Ethiopia: assessments of quality and health aspects.

    PubMed

    Amenu, Kebede; Markemann, André; Valle Zárate, Anne

    2013-11-01

    The study aimed to assess the quality and health aspects of water intended for human and livestock consumption in two rural districts of the Rift Valley of Ethiopia. The study involved two parts: the first consisted of a questionnaire survey and farmers' group discussions, complemented by secondary health data, and the second part determined the chemical (total dissolved solids, pH, manganese, hexa-valent chromium, fluoride) and microbiological quality of different water sources during dry and wet seasons. The result showed a lack of sustainable access to safe water in the communities. Industrial pollution and mismanagement of water sources by human and livestock was found to be a source of potential health risk. Potentially linked human health problems like malaria, diarrhoea and gastrointestinal parasites were common in the districts. Overall, 76% of the assessed water sources (n = 25) failed to comply with World Health Organization guidelines for human drinking water, for at least one assessed parameter, mostly irrespective of the season. The non-compliance was mainly attributed to Escherichia coli contamination and/or high fluoride concentration. At least 20% of the water samples were also found to be unfit for livestock consumption based on assessed chemical parameters in both dry and wet seasons. To minimize the health risk associated with mismanagement and poor quality of water sources in the area, targeted action in the protection of surface water sources should be given priority.

  2. Potential human health effects of acid rain: report of a workshop

    PubMed Central

    Goyer, Robert A.; Bachmann, John; Clarkson, Thomas W.; Ferris, Benjamin G.; Graham, Judith; Mushak, Paul; Perl, Daniel P.; Rall, David P.; Schlesinger, Richard; Sharpe, William; Wood, John M.

    1985-01-01

    This report summarizes the potential impact of the acid precipitation phenomenon on human health. There are two major components to this phenomenon: the predepositional phase, during which there is direct human exposure to acidic substances from ambient air, and the post-depositional phase, in which the deposition of acid materials on water and soil results in the mobilization, transport, and even chemical transformation of toxic metals. Acidification increases bioconversion of mercury to methylmercury, which accumulates in fish, increasing the risk to toxicity in people who eat fish. Increase in water and soil content of lead and cadmium increases human exposure to these metals which become additive to other sources presently under regulatory control. The potential adverse health effects of increased human exposure to aluminum is not known at the present time. PMID:3896772

  3. Strategies to strengthen public health inputs to water policy in response to climate change: an Australian perspective.

    PubMed

    Goater, Sarah; Cook, Angus; Hogan, Anthony; Mengersen, Kerrie; Hieatt, Arron; Weinstein, Philip

    2011-03-01

    Under current climate change projections, the capacity to provide safe drinking water to Australian communities will be challenged. Part of this challenge is the lack of an adaptive governance strategy that transcends jurisdictional boundaries to support integrated policy making, regulation, or infrastructural adaptation. Consequently, some water-related health hazards may not be adequately captured or forecast under existing water resource management policies to ensure safe water supplies. Given the high degree of spatial and temporal variability in climate conditions experienced by Australian communities, new strategies for national health planning and prioritization for safe water supplies are warranted. The challenges facing public health in Australia will be to develop flexible and robust governance strategies that strengthen public health input to existing water policy, regulation, and surveillance infrastructure through proactive risk planning, adopting new technologies, and intersectoral collaborations. The proposed approach could assist policy makers avert or minimize risk to communities arising from changes in climate and water provisions both in Australia and in the wider Asia Pacific region.

  4. The Effects of International Trade on Water Use.

    PubMed

    Kagohashi, Kazuki; Tsurumi, Tetsuya; Managi, Shunsuke

    2015-01-01

    The growing scarcity of water resources worldwide is conditioned not only by precipitation changes but also by changes to water use patterns; the latter is driven by social contexts such as capital intensity, trade openness, and income. This study explores the determinants of water use by focusing on the effect of trade openness on the degree to which water is withdrawn and consumed. Previous studies have conducted analyses on the determinants of water use but have ignored the endogeneity of trade openness. To deal with this endogeneity problem, we adopt instrumental variable estimation and clarify the determinants of water use. The determinants of water use are divided into scale, technique, and composition effects. Calculating each trade-induced effect, we examine how trade openness affects the degree of water use. Our results show that while trade has a positive effect on water withdrawal/consumption through trade-induced scale effects and direct composition effects, the trade-induced technique and the indirect composition effect, both of which exhibit a negative sign, counteract the scale effect and the direct composition effect, resulting in reduced water withdrawal/consumption. The overall effect induced by trade is calculated as being in the range of -1.00 to -1.52; this means that the overall effect of a 1% increase in the intensity of trade openness reduces the degree of water withdrawal/consumption by roughly 1.0-1.5%, on average. This result indicates that international bilateral trade would promote efficient water use through the diffusion of water-saving technologies and the reformation of industry composition.

  5. The Effects of International Trade on Water Use

    PubMed Central

    Kagohashi, Kazuki; Tsurumi, Tetsuya; Managi, Shunsuke

    2015-01-01

    The growing scarcity of water resources worldwide is conditioned not only by precipitation changes but also by changes to water use patterns; the latter is driven by social contexts such as capital intensity, trade openness, and income. This study explores the determinants of water use by focusing on the effect of trade openness on the degree to which water is withdrawn and consumed. Previous studies have conducted analyses on the determinants of water use but have ignored the endogeneity of trade openness. To deal with this endogeneity problem, we adopt instrumental variable estimation and clarify the determinants of water use. The determinants of water use are divided into scale, technique, and composition effects. Calculating each trade-induced effect, we examine how trade openness affects the degree of water use. Our results show that while trade has a positive effect on water withdrawal/consumption through trade-induced scale effects and direct composition effects, the trade-induced technique and the indirect composition effect, both of which exhibit a negative sign, counteract the scale effect and the direct composition effect, resulting in reduced water withdrawal/consumption. The overall effect induced by trade is calculated as being in the range of –1.00 to –1.52; this means that the overall effect of a 1% increase in the intensity of trade openness reduces the degree of water withdrawal/consumption by roughly 1.0–1.5%, on average. This result indicates that international bilateral trade would promote efficient water use through the diffusion of water-saving technologies and the reformation of industry composition. PMID:26168045

  6. Contemporary multilevel analysis of the effectiveness of water fluoridation in Australia.

    PubMed

    Do, Loc; Spencer, A John

    2015-02-01

    Water fluoridation was extended in Queensland, Australia, across 2009-2011. A research program was commenced to inform the rationale for and the outcome of this program, to estimate the effectiveness of water fluoridation in preventing caries and to predict changes in caries experience as a result of the extension of fluoridation. Queensland children were selected through a stratified random sample selection in 2010-2012. Oral epidemiological examinations provided individual-level outcomes for decayed, missing or filled primary or permanent tooth surfaces: dmfs (among 5-8-year-olds) and DMFS (9-14-year-olds). Explanatory factors at the individual-level, school-level and area-level fluoridation status were derived. Data were weighted to represent the population. Three-level multilevel multivariable models were sequentially specified for negative binomial distribution of dmfs/DMFS to estimate rate ratios (RR). The effectiveness of area-level water fluoridation was evaluated in the full models controlling for other factors. Data from 2,214 5-8 year-olds and 3,186 9-14 year-olds from 207 schools in 16 areas were analysed. Queensland's average dmfs was 4.23 and DMFS 1.47. The lowest levels of dental caries were observed in long-term fluoridated Townsville. In the full models, Townsville children had significantly lower caries experience (RR for dmfs: 0.61 (95%CI: 0.44-0.82); RR for DMFS 0.60 (95%CI: 0.42-0.88)) compared with children in non-fluoridated areas. Comparison of caries experience of children at the time of the extension of water fluoridation supported the rationale for this population health measure. © 2014 Public Health Association of Australia.

  7. Trace elements contamination and human health risk assessment in drinking water from Shenzhen, China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shao-You; Zhang, Hui-Min; Sojinu, Samuel O; Liu, Gui-Hua; Zhang, Jian-Qing; Ni, Hong-Gang

    2015-01-01

    The levels of seven essential trace elements (Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, and Mo) and six non-essential trace elements (Cr, As, Cd, Sb, Hg, and Pb) in a total of 89 drinking water samples collected in Shenzhen, China were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in the present study. Both the essential and non-essential trace elements were frequently detectable in the different kinds of drinking waters assessed. Remarkable temporal and spatial variations were observed among most of the trace elements in the tap water collected from two tap water treatment plants. Meanwhile, potential human health risk from these non-essential trace elements in the drinking water for local residents was also assessed. The median values of cancer risks associated with exposure to carcinogenic metals via drinking water consumption were estimated to be 6.1 × 10(-7), 2.1 × 10(-8), and 2.5 × 10(-7) for As, Cd, and Cr, respectively; the median values of incremental lifetime for non-cancer risks were estimated to be 6.1 × 10(-6), 4.4 × 10(-5), and 2.2 × 10(-5) for Hg, Pb, and Sb, respectively. The median value of total incremental lifetime health risk induced by the six non-essential trace elements for the population was 3.5 × 10(-5), indicating that the potential health risks from non-carcinogenic trace elements in drinking water also require some attention. Sensitivity analysis indicates that the most important factor for health risk assessment should be the levels of heavy metal in drinking water.

  8. Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in the aquatic environment: implications for the drinking water industry and global environmental health.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M F; Yanful, E K; Jasim, S Y

    2009-06-01

    Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are a group of chemical compounds with diverse physical and chemical properties. Recent studies have indicated undesired effects of EDCs and PPCPs at their reported trace concentrations (ng l(-1) to microg l(-1)). This paper reviews the current knowledge on the sources, properties, occurrence and health impacts of EDCs and PPCPs, and their removal from drinking water using ozonation and ozone/hydrogen peroxide-based advanced oxidation. The paper also examines the potential threats posed by these chemicals to drinking water and public health. While these compounds are known to have adverse effects on ecosystem health, notably in the fish population, a similar link is yet to be established between ingestion of these compounds through drinking water and human health. In addition, data on the effectiveness of existing methods for the removal of these compounds are not conclusive. Further studies are required to characterize risks, and also to evaluate and optimize existing removal processes. Also concerted international effort is urgent to cut down the risk of exposure and restrain the production and marketing of toxic chemicals.

  9. Measured moisture in buildings and adverse health effects: A review.

    PubMed

    Mendell, M J; Macher, J M; Kumagai, K

    2018-04-23

    It has not yet been possible to quantify dose-related health risks attributable to indoor dampness or mold (D/M), to support setting specific health-related limits for D/M. An overlooked target for assessing D/M is moisture in building materials, the critical factor allowing microbial growth. A search for studies of quantified building moisture and occupant health effects identified 3 eligible studies. Two studies assessed associations between measured wall moisture content and respiratory health in the UK. Both reported dose-related increases in asthma exacerbation with higher measured moisture, with 1 study reporting an adjusted odds ratio of 7.0 for night-time asthma symptoms with higher bedroom moisture. The third study assessed relationships between infrared camera-determined wall moisture and atopic dermatitis in South Korea, reporting an adjusted odds ratio of 14.5 for water-damaged homes and moderate or severe atopic dermatitis. Measuring building moisture has, despite extremely limited available findings, potential promise for detecting unhealthy D/M in homes and merits more research attention. Further research to validate these findings should include measured "water activity," which directly assesses moisture availability for microbial growth. Ultimately, evidence-based, health-related thresholds for building moisture, across specific materials and measurement devices, could better guide assessment and remediation of D/M in buildings. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Limited effectiveness of household sand filters for removal of arsenic from well water in North Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Ilmiawati, Cimi; Thang, Nguyen Dinh; Iida, Machiko; Maeda, Masao; Ohnuma, Shoko; Yajima, Ichiro; Ohgami, Nobutaka; Oshino, Reina; Al Hossain, M M Aeorangajeb; Ninomiya, Hiromasa; Kato, Masashi

    2016-12-01

    Since well water utilized for domestic purposes in the Red River Delta of North Vietnam has been reported to be polluted by arsenic, barium, iron, and manganese, household sand filters consisting of various components are used. Information regarding the effectiveness of various sand filters for removal of the four toxic elements in well water is limited. In this study, arsenic levels in 13/20 of well water samples and 1/7 of tap water samples exceeded World Health Organization (WHO) health-based guideline value for drinking water. Moreover, 2/20, 6/20, and 4/20 of well water samples had levels exceeding the present and previous guideline levels for barium, iron, and manganese, respectively. Levels of iron and manganese, but not arsenic, in well water treated by sand filters were lower than those in untreated water, although previous studies showed that sand filters removed all of those elements from water. A low ratio of iron/arsenic in well water may not be sufficient for efficient removal of arsenic from household sand filters. The levels of barium in well water treated by sand filters, especially a filter composed of sand and charcoal, were significantly lower than those in untreated water. Thus, we demonstrated characteristics of sand filters in North Vietnam.

  11. Surveillance for waterborne disease outbreaks and other health events associated with recreational water --- United States, 2007--2008.

    PubMed

    Hlavsa, Michele C; Roberts, Virginia A; Anderson, Ayana R; Hill, Vincent R; Kahler, Amy M; Orr, Maureen; Garrison, Laurel E; Hicks, Lauri A; Newton, Anna; Hilborn, Elizabeth D; Wade, Timothy J; Beach, Michael J; Yoder, Jonathan S

    2011-09-23

    Since 1978, CDC, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists have collaborated on the Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System (WBDOSS) for collecting and reporting data on waterborne disease outbreaks associated with recreational water. This surveillance system is the primary source of data concerning the scope and health effects of waterborne disease outbreaks in the United States. In addition, data are collected on other select recreational water--associated health events, including pool chemical--associated health events and single cases of Vibrio wound infection and primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM). Data presented summarize recreational water--associated outbreaks and other health events that occurred during January 2007--December 2008. Previously unreported data on outbreaks that have occurred since 1978 also are presented. The WBDOSS database includes data on outbreaks associated with recreational water, drinking water, water not intended for drinking (excluding recreational water), and water use of unknown intent. Public health agencies in the states, the District of Columbia, U.S. territories, and Freely Associated States are primarily responsible for detecting and investigating waterborne disease outbreaks and voluntarily reporting them to CDC using a standard form. Only data on outbreaks associated with recreational water are summarized in this report. Data on other recreational water--associated health events reported to CDC, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), and the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) also are summarized. A total of 134 recreational water--associated outbreaks were reported by 38 states and Puerto Rico for 2007--2008. These outbreaks resulted in at least 13,966 cases. The median outbreak size was 11 cases (range: 2--5,697 cases). A total of 116 (86.6%) outbreaks were associated with treated recreational water (e.g., pools

  12. Association between arsenic exposure from drinking water and proteinuria: results from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu; Parvez, Faruque; Liu, Mengling; Pesola, Gene R; Gamble, Mary V; Slavkovich, Vesna; Islam, Tariqul; Ahmed, Alauddin; Hasan, Rabiul; Graziano, Joseph H; Ahsan, Habibul

    2011-01-01

    Background Proteinuria has been recognized as a marker for an increased risk of chronic renal disease. It is unclear whether arsenic (As) exposure from drinking water is associated with proteinuria. Methods We evaluated the association between As exposure from drinking water and proteinuria in 11 122 participants in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS). Proteinuria was detected by urinary dipstick tests at baseline and at 2-year intervals. As exposure variables included baseline well As and changes in urinary As during follow-up modelled as time-dependent variables in the analyses. Results At baseline, well As was positively related to prevalence of proteinuria; prevalence odds ratios (PORs) for proteinuria in increasing quintiles of well As (≤7, 8–39, 40–91, 92–179 and 180–864 µg/l) were 1.00 (ref), POR 0.99 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.77–1.27], POR 1.23 (95% CI 0.97–1.57), POR 1.50 (95% CI 1.18–1.89) and POR 1.59 (95% CI 1.26–2.00) (P for trend <0.01). Hazard ratios for incidence of proteinuria were POR 0.83 (95% CI 0.67–1.03) and POR 0.91 (95% CI 0.74–1.12) for participants with a decreasing level of >70 and 17–70 µg/l in urinary As over time, respectively, and were POR 1.17 (95% CI 0.97–1.42) and POR 1.42 (95% CI 1.16–1.73) for participants with an increasing level of 16–68 and >68 µg/l in urinary As over time, respectively, compared with the group with relatively little changes in urinary As as the reference group (urinary As −16 to 15 µg/l). Conclusion The findings suggest that there are adverse effects of As exposure on the risk of proteinuria and the effects are modifiable by recent changes in As exposure. PMID:21343184

  13. Biophysical effects of water and synthetic urine on skin.

    PubMed

    Mayrovitz, H N; Sims, N

    2001-01-01

    Pressure ulcers often occur at sites subjected to pressure and wetness. Although skin wetness is a risk factor for pressure ulcers,the mechanisms and effects of wetness versus urine constituents on skin breakdown is unclear. The hypothesis that wetness reduces skin hardness and, thereby, increases vulnerability of underlying blood vessels to pressure-induced flow reductions was tested in this study. Pads saturated with water and with a water solution mixed with the main chemical constituents of urine (synthetic urine; s-urine) were applied to forearm skin of 10 healthy subjects for 5.5 hours. Skin hardness, blood flow change caused by 60 mm Hg of pressure, erythema, and temperature were compared among dry, water, and s-urine test sites. 10 healthy women. Research Center, Nova Southeastern University, Health Professions Division, Fort Lauderdale, FL. S-urine and water caused significant reductions in initial hardness and caused greater initial perfusion decreases during pressure load when compared with dry sites. Skin temperature and erythema were lower at wet sites when compared with dry sites. The findings of this study are consistent with the concept that sustained skin wetness increases vulnerability to pressure-induced blood flow reduction. The effect appears to be mainly dependent on wetness, but urine constituents may exacerbate the effect. In addition, wetness-related skin cooling may play a role. In the healthy subjects studied, the blood flow decrease was not sustained due to perfusion recovery under pressure. Skin wetness would likely have more sustained effects in patients with compromised recovery mechanisms. Measures to diminish skin exposure to wetness in these patients, whatever the wetness source, are an important consideration in a multifaceted strategy to reduce the risk of pressure ulcers.

  14. Drinking-water quality management: the Australian framework.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Martha; Rizak, Samantha

    The most effective means of assuring drinking-water quality and the protection of public health is through adoption of a preventive management approach that encompasses all steps in water production from catchment to consumer. However, the reliance of current regulatory structures on compliance monitoring of treated water tends to promote a reactive management style where corrective actions are initiated after monitoring reveals that prescribed levels have been exceeded, and generally after consumers have received the noncomplying water. Unfortunately, the important limitations of treated water monitoring are often not appreciated, and there is a widespread tendency to assume that intensification of compliance monitoring or lowering of compliance limits is an effective strategy to improving the protection of public health. To address these issues and emphasize the role of preventive system management, the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council in collaboration with the Co-operative Research Centre for Water Quality and Treatment has developed a comprehensive quality management approach for drinking water. This Framework for Management of Drinking Water Quality will assist water suppliers in providing a higher level of assurance for drinking water quality and safety. The framework integrates quality and risk management principles, and provides a comprehensive, flexible, and proactive means of optimizing, drinking-water quality and protecting public health. It does not eliminate the requirement for compliance monitoring but allows it to be viewed in the proper perspective as providing verification that preventive measures are effective, rather than as the primary means of protecting public health.

  15. Effects of shallow water table, salinity and frequency of irrigation water on the date palm water use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askri, Brahim; Ahmed, Abdelkader T.; Abichou, Tarek; Bouhlila, Rachida

    2014-05-01

    In southern Tunisia oases, waterlogging, salinity, and water shortage represent serious threats to the sustainability of irrigated agriculture. Understanding the interaction between these problems and their effects on root water uptake is fundamental for suggesting possible options of improving land and water productivity. In this study, HYDRUS-1D model was used in a plot of farmland located in the Fatnassa oasis to investigate the effects of waterlogging, salinity, and water shortage on the date palm water use. The model was calibrated and validated using experimental data of sap flow density of a date palm, soil hydraulic properties, water table depth, and amount of irrigation water. The comparison between predicted and observed data for date palm transpiration rates was acceptable indicating that the model could well estimate water consumption of this tree crop. Scenario simulations were performed with different water table depths, and salinities and frequencies of irrigation water. The results show that the impacts of water table depth and irrigation frequency vary according to the season. In summer, high irrigation frequency and shallow groundwater are needed to maintain high water content and low salinity of the root-zone and therefore to increase the date palm transpiration rates. However, these factors have no significant effect in winter. The results also reveal that irrigation water salinity has no significant effect under shallow saline groundwater.

  16. Effects of wavelength and water quality on photodegradation of N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA).

    PubMed

    Sakai, Hiroshi; Takamatsu, Tatsuro; Kosaka, Koji; Kamiko, Naoyuki; Takizawa, Satoshi

    2012-10-01

    N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) is a potent carcinogen that yields a cancer risk of 10(-6) at concentrations as low as 0.7 ng L(-1). Tentative guideline values are set at 3 ng L(-1) in California, USA; 9 ng L(-1) in Ontario, Canada; 40 ng L(-1) nationwide in Canada; and 100 ng L(-1) by the World Health Organization. NDMA is a great concern in treating reclaimed water as well as drinking water. UV degradation can be considered effective degradation method. A 1-log reduction of NDMA is achieved by 1000 mJ cm(-2) of a 254-nm low pressure (LP) mercury UV lamp. However, a higher degradation efficiency than that provided by LP lamps is desired in practical treatment. In this study, the effects of wavelength and water quality were investigated to achieve higher degradation efficiency. The effects of wavelength were examined by comparing three UV lamps: a 222-nm Kr Cl Excimer UV lamp, a 254-nm LP mercury UV lamp, and a 230- to 270-nm filtered medium pressure (FMP) mercury UV lamp. The 222-nm lamp and FMP lamp achieved 4 times and 2.8 times higher degradation efficiency, respectively, than the conventional 254-nm LP lamp. Effects on water quality were also simulated by using absorption spectrum data of nitrate solutions and process water from a drinking-water treatment plant. In the simulation, the 222-nm lamp was affected by UV-absorbing compounds in the water, whereas the FMP lamp showed more stable degradation efficiency. Appropriate use of these three types of lamps could enhance the efficiency of degradation of NDMA. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Development and Application of Health-Based Screening Levels for Use in Water-Quality Assessments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Toccalino, Patricia L.

    2007-01-01

    Health-Based Screening Levels (HBSLs) are non-enforceable water-quality benchmarks that were developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in collaboration with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and others. HBSLs supplement existing Federal drinking-water standards and guidelines, thereby providing a basis for a more comprehensive evaluation of contaminant-occurrence data in the context of human health. Since the original methodology used to calculate HBSLs for unregulated contaminants was published in 2003, revisions have been made to the HBSL methodology in order to reflect updates to relevant USEPA policies. These revisions allow for the use of the most recent, USEPA peer-reviewed, publicly available human-health toxicity information in the development of HBSLs. This report summarizes the revisions to the HBSL methodology for unregulated contaminants, and updates the guidance on the use of HBSLs for interpreting water-quality data in the context of human health.

  18. Setting action levels for drinking water: are we protecting our health or our economy (or our backs!)?

    PubMed

    Reimann, Clemens; Banks, David

    2004-10-01

    Clean and healthy drinking water is important for life. Drinking water can be drawn from streams, lakes and rivers, directly collected (and stored) from rain, acquired by desalination of ocean water and melting of ice or it can be extracted from groundwater resources. Groundwater may reach the earth's surface in the form of springs or can be extracted via dug or drilled wells; it also contributes significantly to river baseflow. Different water quality issues have to be faced when utilising these different water resources. Some of these are at present largely neglected in water quality regulations. This paper focuses on the inorganic chemical quality of natural groundwater. Possible health effects, the problems of setting meaningful action levels or maximum admissible concentrations (MAC-values) for drinking water, and potential shortcomings in current legislation are discussed. An approach to setting action levels based on transparency, toxicological risk assessment, completeness, and identifiable responsibility is suggested.

  19. Assessing health risk due to exposure to arsenic in drinking water in Hanam Province, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Huy, Tung Bui; Tuyet-Hanh, Tran Thi; Johnston, Richard; Nguyen-Viet, Hung

    2014-07-24

    We assessed health risks related to Arsenic (As) in contaminated drinking water in Hanam, applying the Australian Environmental Health Risk Assessment Framework, which promotes stakeholder involvement in risk assessments. As concentrations in 300 tube-well water samples, before and after filtration, were analyzed and the water consumption levels in 150 households were estimated. Skin cancer risk was characterized using Cancer Slope Factor index and lifetime average daily dose with a probabilistic approach. The results showed that arsenic concentrations in tube-well water ranged from 8-579 ppb (mean 301 ppb) before filtration and current sand filters used by the households did not meet the standard for As removal. Arsenic daily consumption of 40% of the adults exceeded the level of TDI (Tolerable Daily Intake) at 1 µg/kg/day. The average skin cancer risk in adults due to consuming filtered tube-well water for drinking purpose were 25.3 × 10-5 (using only well water) and 7.6 × 10-5 (using both well and rain water). The skin cancer risk would be 11.5 times higher if the water was not filtered. Improvement of filtration measures or the replacement of the current drinking water sources to minimize the health risks to the local population is urgently needed.

  20. Assessing Health Risk due to Exposure to Arsenic in Drinking Water in Hanam Province, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Bui Huy, Tung; Tuyet-Hanh, Tran Thi; Johnston, Richard; Nguyen-Viet, Hung

    2014-01-01

    We assessed health risks related to Arsenic (As) in contaminated drinking water in Hanam, applying the Australian Environmental Health Risk Assessment Framework, which promotes stakeholder involvement in risk assessments. As concentrations in 300 tube-well water samples, before and after filtration, were analyzed and the water consumption levels in 150 households were estimated. Skin cancer risk was characterized using Cancer Slope Factor index and lifetime average daily dose with a probabilistic approach. The results showed that arsenic concentrations in tube-well water ranged from 8–579 ppb (mean 301 ppb) before filtration and current sand filters used by the households did not meet the standard for As removal. Arsenic daily consumption of 40% of the adults exceeded the level of TDI (Tolerable Daily Intake) at 1 µg/kg/day. The average skin cancer risk in adults due to consuming filtered tube-well water for drinking purpose were 25.3 × 10−5 (using only well water) and 7.6 × 10−5 (using both well and rain water). The skin cancer risk would be 11.5 times higher if the water was not filtered. Improvement of filtration measures or the replacement of the current drinking water sources to minimize the health risks to the local population is urgently needed. PMID:25062276

  1. Ganga water pollution: A potential health threat to inhabitants of Ganga basin.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Sanjay; Mishra, Seema; Tripathi, Rudra Deo

    2018-05-18

    The water quality of Ganga, the largest river in Indian sub-continent and life line to hundreds of million people, has severely deteriorated. Studies have indicated the presence of high level of carcinogenic elements in Ganga water. We performed extensive review of sources and level of organic, inorganic pollution and microbial contamination in Ganga water to evaluate changes in the level of various pollutants in the recent decade in comparison to the past and potential health risk for the population through consumption of toxicant tainted fishes in Ganga basin. A systematic search through databases, specific websites and reports of pollution regulatory agencies was conducted. The state wise level of contamination was tabulated along the Ganga river. We have discussed the major sources of various pollutants with particular focus on metal/metalloid and pesticide residues. Bioaccumulation of toxicants in fishes of Ganga water and potential health hazards to humans through consumption of tainted fishes was evaluated. The level of pesticides in Ganga water registered a drastic reduction in the last decade (i.e. after the establishment of National Ganga River Basin Authority (NGRBA) in 2009), still the levels of some organochlorines are beyond the permissible limits for drinking water. Conversely the inorganic pollutants, particularly carcinogenic elements have increased several folds. Microbial contamination has also significantly increased. Hazard quotient and hazard index indicated significant health risk due to metal/metalloid exposure through consumption of tainted fishes from Ganga. Target cancer risk assessment showed high carcinogenic risk from As, Cr, Ni and Pb as well as residues of DDT and HCHs. Current data analysis showed that Ganga water quality is deteriorating day by day and at several places even in upper stretch of Ganga the water is not suitable for domestic uses. Although there is positive impact of ban on persistent pesticides with decreasing trend

  2. Inferring the fluoride hydrogeochemistry and effect of consuming fluoride-contaminated drinking water on human health in some endemic areas of Birbhum district, West Bengal.

    PubMed

    Mondal, D; Dutta, G; Gupta, S

    2016-04-01

    This research work is carried out to evaluate fluoride (F) hydrogeochemistry and its effect on the population of two endemic villages of Birbhum district, West Bengal. Fluoride concentration in drinking water varies from 0.33 to 18.08 mg/L. Hydrogeochemical evolution suggests that ion-exchange mechanism is the major controlling factor for releasing F in the groundwater. Most of the groundwater samples are undersaturated with respect to calcite and fluorite. Health survey shows that out of 235 people, 142 people suffer from dental fluorosis. According to fluoride impact severity, almost 80 and 94 % people in an age group of 11-20 and 41-50 suffer from dental and skeletal fluorosis, respectively. Statistically drinking water F has a positive correlation with dental and skeletal fluorosis. Bone mineral density test reveals that 33 and 45 % of the studied population suffer from osteopenic and osteoporosis disease. IQ test also signifies that F has a bearing on the intelligence development of the study area school children. The existence of significant linear relationship (R (2) = 0.77) between drinking water F and urinary F suggests that consumption of F-contaminated drinking water has a major control over urinary F (0.39-20.1 mg/L) excretion.

  3. Beyond the Millennium Development Goals: public health challenges in water and sanitation.

    PubMed

    Rheingans, R; Dreibelbis, R; Freeman, M C

    2006-01-01

    Over 1 billion people lack access to improved water sources and 2.6 billion lack access to appropriate sanitation, greatly contributing to the global burden of disease. The international community has committed to reducing by half the proportion of the world's population lacking access to water and sanitation as a part of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). However, the disease burden due to poor access, is borne primarily by the poorest countries and the poorest people within them. Simply reducing the proportion of people without adequate access will not automatically result in proportional reductions in the related disease burden. The public health challenge inherent in meeting the MDG targets is ensuring that improvements result in access to water and sanitation for the critical at-risk populations. Innovative approaches are required to ensure the availability of low-cost, simple, and locally acceptable water and sanitation interventions and integrating these approaches into existing social institutions, such as schools, markets, and health facilities.

  4. Health risk assessment of heavy metals and metalloid in drinking water from communities near gold mines in Tarkwa, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Bortey-Sam, Nesta; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Akoto, Osei; Baidoo, Elvis; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2015-07-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals and metalloid in borehole drinking water from 18 communities in Tarkwa, Ghana, were measured to assess the health risk associated with its consumption. Mean concentrations of heavy metals (μg/L) exceeded recommended values in some communities. If we take into consideration the additive effect of heavy metals and metalloid, then oral hazard index (HI) results raise concerns about the noncarcinogenic adverse health effects of drinking groundwater in Huniso. According to the US Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) guidelines, HI values indicating noncarcinogenic health risk for adults and children in Huniso were 0.781 (low risk) and 1.08 (medium risk), respectively. The cancer risk due to cadmium (Cd) exposure in adults and children in the sampled communities was very low. However, the average risk values of arsenic (As) for adults and children through drinking borehole water in the communities indicated medium cancer risk, but high cancer risk in some communities such as Samahu and Mile 7. Based on the USEPA assessment, the average cancer risk values of As for adults (3.65E-05) and children (5.08E-05) indicated three (adults) and five (children) cases of neoplasm in a hundred thousand inhabitants. The results of this study showed that residents in Tarkwa who use and drink water from boreholes could be at serious risk from exposure to these heavy metals and metalloid.

  5. [The effect of daily controlled oral hygiene on the oral health of children in a town with drinking water fluoridation (Karl Marx Stadt)].

    PubMed

    Georgi, J; Künzel, W

    1976-03-01

    Under the conditions of an optimized (with regard to caries prevention) fluoride content of the drinking uater, the authors studied (in the framework of an oral hygiene measure covering 32 months) in 149 children 6.5-8 years of age the effects of supervised daily dental and oral care on dental health. The improvement in oral hygiene (OHI) by 33% is in harmony with an additional caries reduction by 33.3% (DMF/S index) and a decrease of the PM index by 47%. A wider use of oral hygiene actions as secondary preventive measures is, therefore, recommended also for towns with fluoridated drinking water.

  6. Medical effects of iodine disinfection products in spacecraft water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, Richard L.; Janik, Daniel S.; Thorstenson, Yvonne R.

    1987-01-01

    Various iodination products (IDPs), including iodinated and iodine-induced new compounds, will be present in the iodine-disinfected water that is expected to be used by crews on the NASA Space Station and on long duration missions. The metabolic intermediaries created by such a process may be more important to crew health than the parent IDPs, and reclamation and recycling may be expected to produce additional products. These medical effects may be expressed in crews as hypersensitivity, allergic, acute toxic, and chronic toxic reactions, as well as modifications of immune system response.

  7. Politics and Public Health: The Flint Drinking Water Crisis.

    PubMed

    Gostin, Lawrence O

    2016-07-01

    The Flint, Michigan, lead drinking water crisis is perhaps the most vivid current illustration of health inequalities in the United States. Since 2014, Flint citizens-among the poorest in America, mostly African American-had complained that their tap water was foul and discolored. But city, state, and federal officials took no heed. In March 2016, an independent task force found fault at every level of government and also highlighted what may amount to criminal negligence for workers who seemingly falsified water-quality results, allowing the people of Flint to continue to be exposed to water well above the federally allowed lead levels. It would have been possible to prevent lead seeping into the drinking water by treating the pipes with federally approved anticorrosives for around $100 per day. But today the cost of repairing the Flint water system is estimated at $1.5 billion, and fixing the ageing and lead-laden system across the United States would cost at least $1.3 trillion. How will Flint residents get justice and fair compensation for the wrongs caused by individual and systemic failures? And how will governments rebuild a water infrastructure that is causing and will continue to cause toxic conditions, particularly in economically marginalized cities and towns across America? © 2016 The Hastings Center.

  8. Mapping human health risks from exposure to trace metal contamination of drinking water sources in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Bhowmik, Avit Kumar; Alamdar, Ambreen; Katsoyiannis, Ioannis; Shen, Heqing; Ali, Nadeem; Ali, Syeda Maria; Bokhari, Habib; Schäfer, Ralf B; Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah

    2015-12-15

    The consumption of contaminated drinking water is one of the major causes of mortality and many severe diseases in developing countries. The principal drinking water sources in Pakistan, i.e. ground and surface water, are subject to geogenic and anthropogenic trace metal contamination. However, water quality monitoring activities have been limited to a few administrative areas and a nationwide human health risk assessment from trace metal exposure is lacking. Using geographically weighted regression (GWR) and eight relevant spatial predictors, we calculated nationwide human health risk maps by predicting the concentration of 10 trace metals in the drinking water sources of Pakistan and comparing them to guideline values. GWR incorporated local variations of trace metal concentrations into prediction models and hence mitigated effects of large distances between sampled districts due to data scarcity. Predicted concentrations mostly exhibited high accuracy and low uncertainty, and were in good agreement with observed concentrations. Concentrations for Central Pakistan were predicted with higher accuracy than for the North and South. A maximum 150-200 fold exceedance of guideline values was observed for predicted cadmium concentrations in ground water and arsenic concentrations in surface water. In more than 53% (4 and 100% for the lower and upper boundaries of 95% confidence interval (CI)) of the total area of Pakistan, the drinking water was predicted to be at risk of contamination from arsenic, chromium, iron, nickel and lead. The area with elevated risks is inhabited by more than 74 million (8 and 172 million for the lower and upper boundaries of 95% CI) people. Although these predictions require further validation by field monitoring, the results can inform disease mitigation and water resources management regarding potential hot spots. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Microbiological effectiveness and cost of disinfecting water by boiling in semi-urban India.

    PubMed

    Clasen, Thomas; McLaughlin, Catherine; Nayaar, Neeru; Boisson, Sophie; Gupta, Romesh; Desai, Dolly; Shah, Nimish

    2008-09-01

    Despite shortcomings, boiling is the most common means of treating water at home and the benchmark against which emerging point-of-use water treatment approaches are measured. In a 5-month study, we assessed the microbiological effectiveness and cost of the practice among 218 self-reported boilers relying on unprotected water supplies. Boiling was associated with a 99% reduction in geometric mean fecal coliforms (FCs; P < 0.001). Despite high levels of fecal contamination in source water, 59.6% of stored drinking water samples from self-reported boilers met the World Health Organization standard for safe drinking water (0 FC/100 mL), and 5.7% were between 1 and 10 FC/100 mL. Nevertheless, 40.4% of stored drinking water samples were positive for FCs, with 25.1% exceeding 100 FC/100 mL. The estimated monthly fuel cost for boiling was INR 43.8 (US$0.88) for households using liquid petroleum gas and INR 34.7 (US$0.69) for households using wood.

  10. Toxicological relevance of pharmaceuticals in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Gretchen M; Pleus, Richard C; Snyder, Shane A

    2010-07-15

    Interest in the public health significance of trace levels of pharmaceuticals in potable water is increasing, particularly with regard to the effects of long-term, low-dose exposures. To assess health risks and establish target concentrations for water treatment, human health risk-based screening levels for 15 pharmaceutically active ingredients and four metabolites were compared to concentrations detected at 19 drinking water treatment plants across the United States. Compounds were selected based on rate of use, likelihood of occurrence, and potential for toxicity. Screening levels were established based on animal toxicity data and adverse effects at therapeutic doses, focusing largely on reproductive and developmental toxicity and carcinogenicity. Calculated drinking water equivalent levels (DWELs) ranged from 0.49 microg/L (risperidone) to 20,000 microg/L (naproxen). None of the 10 detected compounds exceeded their DWEL. Ratios of DWELs to maximum detected concentrations ranged from 110 (phenytoin) to 6,000,000 (sulfamethoxazole). Based on this evaluation, adverse health effects from targeted pharmaceuticals occurring in U.S. drinking water are not expected.

  11. Use of surrogate indicators for the evaluation of potential health risks due to poor urban water quality: A Bayesian Network approach.

    PubMed

    Wijesiri, Buddhi; Deilami, Kaveh; McGree, James; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2018-02-01

    Urban water pollution poses risks of waterborne infectious diseases. Therefore, in order to improve urban liveability, effective pollution mitigation strategies are required underpinned by predictions generated using water quality models. However, the lack of reliability in current modelling practices detrimentally impacts planning and management decision making. This research study adopted a novel approach in the form of Bayesian Networks to model urban water quality to better investigate the factors that influence risks to human health. The application of Bayesian Networks was found to enhance the integration of quantitative and qualitative spatially distributed data for analysing the influence of environmental and anthropogenic factors using three surrogate indicators of human health risk, namely, turbidity, total nitrogen and fats/oils. Expert knowledge was found to be of critical importance in assessing the interdependent relationships between health risk indicators and influential factors. The spatial variability maps of health risk indicators developed enabled the initial identification of high risk areas in which flooding was found to be the most significant influential factor in relation to human health risk. Surprisingly, population density was found to be less significant in influencing health risk indicators. These high risk areas in turn can be subjected to more in-depth investigations instead of the entire region, saving time and resources. It was evident that decision making in relation to the design of pollution mitigation strategies needs to account for the impact of landscape characteristics on water quality, which can be related to risk to human health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. What health professionals should know about the health effects of air pollution and climate change on children and pregnant mothers.

    PubMed

    Poursafa, Parinaz; Kelishadi, Roya

    2011-01-01

    Health professionals face the adverse health effects of climate change and air pollution in their practices. This review underscores the effects of these environmental factors on maternal and children's health, as the most vulnerable groups to climate change and air pollution. We reviewed electronic databases for a search of the literature to find relevant studies published in English from 1990 to 2011. Environmental factors, notably climate change and air pollution influence children's health before conception and continue during pregnancy, childhood, and adolescence. Experts have suggested that such health hazards may represent the greatest public health challenge that humanity has faced. The accumulation of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, primarily from burning fossil fuels, results in warming which has an impact on air pollution particularly on levels of ozone and particulates. Heat-related health effects include increased rates of pregnancy complications, pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, low birth weight, renal effects, vector-borne diseases as malaria and dengue, increased diarrheal and respiratory disease, food insecurity, decreased quality of foods (notably grains), malnutrition, water scarcity, exposures to toxic chemicals, worsened poverty, natural disasters and population displacement. Air pollution has many adverse health effects for mothers and children. In addition to short-term effects like premature labour, intrauterine growth retardation, neonatal and infant mortality rate, malignancies (notably leukaemia and Hodgkin lymphoma), respiratory diseases, allergic disorders and anaemia, exposure to criteria air pollutants from early life might be associated with increase in stress oxidative, inflammation and endothelial dysfunction which in turn might have long-term effects on chronic non-communicable diseases. Health professionals have an exclusive capability to help prevent and reduce the harmful effects of environmental factors for high-risk groups

  13. What health professionals should know about the health effects of air pollution and climate change on children and pregnant mothers

    PubMed Central

    Poursafa, Parinaz; Kelishadi, Roya

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Health professionals face the adverse health effects of climate change and air pollution in their practices. This review underscores the effects of these environmental factors on maternal and children's health, as the most vulnerable groups to climate change and air pollution. METHODS: We reviewed electronic databases for a search of the literature to find relevant studies published in English from 1990 to 2011. RESULTS: Environmental factors, notably climate change and air pollution influence children's health before conception and continue during pregnancy, childhood, and adolescence. Experts have suggested that such health hazards may represent the greatest public health challenge that humanity has faced. The accumulation of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, primarily from burning fossil fuels, results in warming which has an impact on air pollution particularly on levels of ozone and particulates. Heat-related health effects include increased rates of pregnancy complications, pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, low birth weight, renal effects, vector-borne diseases as malaria and dengue, increased diarrheal and respiratory disease, food insecurity, decreased quality of foods (notably grains), malnutrition, water scarcity, exposures to toxic chemicals, worsened poverty, natural disasters and population displacement. Air pollution has many adverse health effects for mothers and children. In addition to short-term effects like premature labour, intrauterine growth retardation, neonatal and infant mortality rate, malignancies (notably leukaemia and Hodgkin lymphoma), respiratory diseases, allergic disorders and anaemia, exposure to criteria air pollutants from early life might be associated with increase in stress oxidative, inflammation and endothelial dysfunction which in turn might have long-term effects on chronic non-communicable diseases. CONCLUSIONS: Health professionals have an exclusive capability to help prevent and reduce the harmful effects of

  14. ASSESSING BIOACCUMULATION FOR DERIVING NATIONAL HUMAN HEALTH WATER QUALITY CRITERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency is revising its methodology for deriving national ambient water quality criteria (AWQC) to protect human health. A component of this guidance involves assessing the potential for chemical bioaccumulation in commonly consumed fish ...

  15. National Coal Utilization Assessment. a preliminary assessment of the health and environmental effects of coal utilization in the Midwest. Volume I. Energy scenarios, technology characterizations, air and water resource impacts, and health effects

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1977-01-01

    This report presents an initial evaluation of the major health and environmental issues associated with increased coal use in the six midwestern states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin. Using an integrated assessment approach, the evaluation proceeds from a base-line scenario of energy demand and facility siting for 1975-2020. Emphasis is placed on impacts from coal extraction, land reclamation, coal combustion for electrical generation, and coal gasification. The range of potential impacts and constraints is illustrated by a second scenario that represents an expected upper limit for coal utilization in Illinois. The following are among the more significantmore » issues identified and evaluated in this study: If environmental and related issues can be resolved, coal will continue to be a major source of energy for the Midwest; existing sulfur emission constraints will increase use of western coal; the resource requirements and environmental impacts of coal utilization will require major significant environmental and economic tradeoffs in site selection; short-term (24-hr) ambient standards for sulfur dioxide will limit the sizes of coal facilities or require advanced control technologies; an impact on public health may result from long-range transport of airborne sulfur emissions from coal facilities in the Midwest; inadequately controlled effluents from coal gasification may cause violations of water-quality standards; the major ecological effects of coal extraction are from pre-mining and post-reclamation land use; and sulfur dioxide is the major potential contributor to effects on vegetation of atmospheric emissions from coal facilities.« less

  16. The genomics revolution and its effect on water quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Genomic-based molecular tools are emerging as powerful laboratory methods for assessing water quality characteristics and improving our ability to assess the human health risks posed by microbial contaminants in drinking water. To a great extent, this revolution in genomics-rese...

  17. Research and Development for Health and Environmental Hazard Assessment. Task Order 1. Development of Data Base Requirements for Human Health Based Water Quality Criteria for Military Recycle/Reuse Applications.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    Environmental Hazard Assessment -. .’.’ASK ORDER I j EVELOPMENT OF DATA BASE REQUIREMENTS I . .oR HUMAN HEALTH BASED WATER QUALITY CRITERIA | COR MILITARY...Requirements for Human Sep a -1979- June 89 Health Based Water Quality Criteria for Military -%4,o ER Reevcle/ Reuse Applications Is 8_ 3.7𔃾__=1_...KEY WORDS (Continue on reverse aide If neceseary and Identify by block number) Water Reuse, Water Recycle, Water Quality Criteria, Human Health

  18. Effects of soil water availability on water fluxes in winter wheat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, G.; Vanderborght, J.; Langensiepen, M.; Vereecken, H.

    2014-12-01

    Quantifying soil water availability in water-limited ecosystems on plant water use continues to be a practical problem in agronomy. Transpiration which represents plant water demand is closely in relation to root water uptake in the root zone and sap flow in plant stems. However, few studies have been concentrated on influences of soil moisture on root water uptake and sap flow in crops. This study was undertaken to investigate (i) whether root water uptake and sap flow correlate with the transpiration estimated by the Penman-Monteith model for winter wheat(Triticum aestivum), and (ii) for which soil water potentials in the root zone, the root water uptake and sap flow rates in crop stems would be reduced. Therefore, we measured sap flow velocities by an improved heat-balance approach (Langensiepen et al., 2014), calculated crop transpiration by Penman-Monteith model, and simulated root water uptake by HYDRUS-1D on an hourly scale for different soil water status in winter wheat. In order to assess the effects of soil water potential on root water uptake and sap flow, an average soil water potential was calculated by weighting the soil water potential at a certain depth with the root length density. The temporal evolution of root length density was measured using horizontal rhizotubes that were installed at different depths.The results showed that root water uptake and sap flow matched well with the computed transpiration by Penman-Monteith model in winter wheat when the soil water potential was not limiting root water uptake. However, low soil water content restrained root water uptake, especially when soil water potential was lower than -90 kPa in the top soil. Sap flow in wheat was not affected by the observed soil water conditions, suggesting that stomatal conductance was not sensitive to soil water potentials. The effect of drought stress on root water uptake and sap flow in winter wheat was only investigated in a short time (after anthesis). Further research

  19. Effect-based trigger values for in vitro bioassays: Reading across from existing water quality guideline values.

    PubMed

    Escher, Beate I; Neale, Peta A; Leusch, Frederic D L

    2015-09-15

    Cell-based bioassays are becoming increasingly popular in water quality assessment. The new generations of reporter-gene assays are very sensitive and effects are often detected in very clean water types such as drinking water and recycled water. For monitoring applications it is therefore imperative to derive trigger values that differentiate between acceptable and unacceptable effect levels. In this proof-of-concept paper, we propose a statistical method to read directly across from chemical guideline values to trigger values without the need to perform in vitro to in vivo extrapolations. The derivation is based on matching effect concentrations with existing chemical guideline values and filtering out appropriate chemicals that are responsive in the given bioassays at concentrations in the range of the guideline values. To account for the mixture effects of many chemicals acting together in a complex water sample, we propose bioanalytical equivalents that integrate the effects of groups of chemicals with the same mode of action that act in a concentration-additive manner. Statistical distribution methods are proposed to derive a specific effect-based trigger bioanalytical equivalent concentration (EBT-BEQ) for each bioassay of environmental interest that targets receptor-mediated toxicity. Even bioassays that are indicative of the same mode of action have slightly different numeric trigger values due to differences in their inherent sensitivity. The algorithm was applied to 18 cell-based bioassays and 11 provisional effect-based trigger bioanalytical equivalents were derived as an illustrative example using the 349 chemical guideline values protective for human health of the Australian Guidelines for Water Recycling. We illustrate the applicability using the example of a diverse set of water samples including recycled water. Most recycled water samples were compliant with the proposed triggers while wastewater effluent would not have been compliant with a few

  20. Community-Based Participatory Research in Indian Country: Improving Health through Water Quality Research and Awareness

    PubMed Central

    Cummins, C.; Doyle, J.; Kindness, L.; Lefthand, M.J.; Bear Don't Walk, U.J.; Bends, A.; Broadaway, S.C.; Camper, A.K.; Fitch, R.; Ford, T.E.; Hamner, S.; Morrison, A.R.; Richards, C.L.; Young, S.L.; Eggers, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Water has always been held in high respect by the Apsaálooke (Crow) people of Montana. Tribal members questioned the health of the rivers and well water due to visible water quality deterioration and potential connections to illnesses in the community. Community members initiated collaboration among local organizations, the Tribe and academic partners, resulting in genuine community based participatory research. The article shares what we have learned as tribal members and researchers about working together to examine surface and groundwater contaminants, assess routes of exposure and use our data to bring about improved health of our people and our waters. PMID:20531097

  1. Effects of Health Literacy and Social Capital on Health Information Behavior.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Chan; Lim, Ji Young; Park, Keeho

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine whether social capital (bonding and bridging social capital) attenuate the effect of low functional health literacy on health information resources, efficacy, and behaviors. In-person interviews were conducted with 1,000 residents in Seoul, Korea, in 2011. The authors found that respondents' functional health literacy had positive effects on the scope of health information sources and health information self-efficacy but not health information-seeking intention. Respondents' social capital had positive effects on the scope of health information sources, health information efficacy, and health information-seeking intention. The authors found (a) a significant moderation effect of bridging social capital on the relation between health literacy and health information self-efficacy and (b) a moderation effect of bonding social capital on the relation between health literacy and health information-seeking intention.

  2. The effects of water-pipe smoking on birth weight: a population-based prospective cohort study in southern Iran.

    PubMed

    Nematollahi, Shahrzad; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Foroushani, Abbas Rahimi; Mahmoodi, Mahmood; Alavi, Azin; Shekari, Mohammad; Holakouie-Naieni, Kourosh

    2018-01-01

    Consecutive community health assessments revealed that water-pipe smoking in women and impaired growth in children were among the main health concerns in suburban communities in southern Iran. The aim of the present study was to identify the effects of water-pipe smoking during pregnancy on birth weight. Data from a population-based prospective cohort study of 714 singleton live pregnancies in the suburbs of Bandar Abbas in southern Iran in 2016-2018 were used in this study. Data about water-pipe smoking patterns and birth weight were collected by questionnaires during and after the pregnancy. Low birth weight (LBW) was defined as a birth weight below 2,500 g. Statistical analyses were performed using generalized linear models, and the results were presented in terms of relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Fifty (8.2%) of the study subjects smoked water-pipe. The adjusted risk of LBW increased 2-fold in water-pipe smokers (adjusted RR [aRR], 2.09; 95% CI, 1.18 to 3.71), and by 2.0% for each 1-year increase in the duration of water-pipe smoking (aRR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.99 to 1.05). Our results showed that water-pipe smoking during pregnancy was an important risk factor for LBW in this population sample from southern Iran. The introduction of regulations onto prevent water-pipe smoking and the implementation of community health action plans aiming at empowering women and increasing women's knowledge and awareness regarding the health consequences of water-pipe smoking are proposed.

  3. The effect of a water load on cutaneous water loss in man

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Judith A.; Roddie, I. C.

    1973-01-01

    1. Ingestion of 1 l. water at 37° C had no effect on the rate of water loss from forearm and hand skin although ingestion of a similar volume at 16° C significantly decreased the rate. 2. Ingestion of 1 l. water at 37° C had no physiologically significant effect on the expiratory minute volume. 3. Ingestion of 500 ml. water at 37° C caused small increases in total body weight loss in environmental temperatures of 29 and 40° C. 4. It is concluded that neither cutaneous nor respiratory water loss play an important part in the excretion of a water load in man. PMID:4766216

  4. Assessment of microbiological water quality and its relation to human health in Gaza Governorate, Gaza Strip.

    PubMed

    Yassin, Maged Mohammed; Amr, Salem S Abu; Al-Najar, Husam M

    2006-12-01

    To assess the contamination level of total and faecal coliforms in water wells and distribution networks, and their association with human health in Gaza Governorate, Gaza Strip. Data were obtained from the Palestinian Ministry of Health on contamination of total and faecal coliforms in water wells and distribution networks, and on the incidence of water-related diseases in Gaza Governorate. An interview questionnaire was conducted with 150 residents of Gaza. The contamination level of total and faecal coliforms exceeded that of the World Health Organization (WHO) limit for water wells and networks. However, the contamination percentages in networks were higher than that in wells. Giardiasis was strongly correlated with faecal coliform contamination in water networks (r=0.7) compared with diarrhoeal diseases and hepatitis A (r=0.3 and 0.1, respectively). Diarrhoeal diseases were the highest self-reported diseases among interviewees in Gaza city. Such diseases were more prevalent among people using municipal water than people using desalinated water and water filtered at home for drinking (OR=1.6). Intermittent water supply and sewage flooding seemed to contribute largely to self-reported diseases. People in Gaza Strip have good knowledge on drinking water contamination, and this is reflected in good practice. Water quality has deteriorated in Gaza Strip. This may contribute to the prevalence of water-related diseases. Self-reported diseases among interviewees in Gaza City were associated with source of drinking water, intermittent water supply, sewage flooding and age of water, and wastewater networks.

  5. Health effects of caregiving: the caregiver health effects study: an ancillary study of the Cardiovascular Health Study.

    PubMed

    Schulz, R; Newsom, J; Mittelmark, M; Burton, L; Hirsch, C; Jackson, S

    1997-01-01

    We propose that two related sources of variability in studies of caregiving health effects contribute to an inconsistent pattern of findings: the sampling strategy used and the definition of what constitutes caregiving. Samples are often recruited through self-referral and are typically comprised of caregivers experiencing considerable distress. In this study, we examine the health effects of caregiving in large population-based samples of spousal caregivers and controls using a wide array of objective and self-report physical and mental health outcome measures. By applying different definitions of caregiving, we show that the magnitude of health effects attributable to caregiving can vary substantially, with the largest negative health effects observed among caregivers who characterize themselves as being strained. From an epidemiological perspective, our data show that approximately 80% of persons living with a spouse with a disability provide care to their spouse, but only half of care providers report mental or physical strain associated with caregiving.

  6. Environmental Impacts of the U.S. Health Care System and Effects on Public Health.

    PubMed

    Eckelman, Matthew J; Sherman, Jodi

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. health care sector is highly interconnected with industrial activities that emit much of the nation's pollution to air, water, and soils. We estimate emissions directly and indirectly attributable to the health care sector, and potential harmful effects on public health. Negative environmental and public health outcomes were estimated through economic input-output life cycle assessment (EIOLCA) modeling using National Health Expenditures (NHE) for the decade 2003-2013 and compared to national totals. In 2013, the health care sector was also responsible for significant fractions of national air pollution emissions and impacts, including acid rain (12%), greenhouse gas emissions (10%), smog formation (10%) criteria air pollutants (9%), stratospheric ozone depletion (1%), and carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic air toxics (1-2%). The largest contributors to impacts are discussed from both the supply side (EIOLCA economic sectors) and demand side (NHE categories), as are trends over the study period. Health damages from these pollutants are estimated at 470,000 DALYs lost from pollution-related disease, or 405,000 DALYs when adjusted for recent shifts in power generation sector emissions. These indirect health burdens are commensurate with the 44,000-98,000 people who die in hospitals each year in the U.S. as a result of preventable medical errors, but are currently not attributed to our health system. Concerted efforts to improve environmental performance of health care could reduce expenditures directly through waste reduction and energy savings, and indirectly through reducing pollution burden on public health, and ought to be included in efforts to improve health care quality and safety.

  7. Effects of low-dose drinking water arsenic on mouse fetal and postnatal growth and development.

    PubMed

    Kozul-Horvath, Courtney D; Zandbergen, Fokko; Jackson, Brian P; Enelow, Richard I; Hamilton, Joshua W

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic (As) exposure is a significant worldwide environmental health concern. Chronic exposure via contaminated drinking water has been associated with an increased incidence of a number of diseases, including reproductive and developmental effects. The goal of this study was to identify adverse outcomes in a mouse model of early life exposure to low-dose drinking water As (10 ppb, current U.S. EPA Maximum Contaminant Level). C57B6/J pups were exposed to 10 ppb As, via the dam in her drinking water, either in utero and/or during the postnatal period. Birth outcomes, the growth of the F1 offspring, and health of the dams were assessed by a variety of measurements. Birth outcomes including litter weight, number of pups, and gestational length were unaffected. However, exposure during the in utero and postnatal period resulted in significant growth deficits in the offspring after birth, which was principally a result of decreased nutrients in the dam's breast milk. Cross-fostering of the pups reversed the growth deficit. Arsenic exposed dams displayed altered liver and breast milk triglyceride levels and serum profiles during pregnancy and lactation. The growth deficits in the F1 offspring resolved following separation from the dam and cessation of exposure in male mice, but did not resolve in female mice up to six weeks of age. Exposure to As at the current U.S. drinking water standard during critical windows of development induces a number of adverse health outcomes for both the dam and offspring. Such effects may contribute to the increased disease risks observed in human populations.

  8. Drinking water management: health risk perceptions and choices in First Nations and non-First Nations communities in Canada.

    PubMed

    Dupont, Diane; Waldner, Cheryl; Bharadwaj, Lalita; Plummer, Ryan; Carter, Blair; Cave, Kate; Zagozewski, Rebecca

    2014-05-30

    The relationship between tap water and health has been a topic of public concern and calls for better management in Canada since well-publicized contamination events in two provinces (Ontario and Saskatchewan) in 2000-2001. This study reports the perspectives on health risks from tap water and corresponding use of, and spending on, bottled water in a number of different communities in Canada. In 2009-2010, four First Nations communities (three from Ontario and one from Saskatchewan) and a geographically diverse sample of non-First Nations Canadians were surveyed about their beliefs concerning health risks from tap water and their spending practices for bottled water as a substitute. Responses to five identical questions were examined, revealing that survey respondents from Ontario First Nations communities were more likely than non-First Nations Canadians to believe bottled water is safer than tap water (OR 1.6); more likely to report someone became ill from tap water (OR 3.6); more likely to express water and health concerns related to tap water consumption (OR 2.4); and more likely to spend more on bottled water (OR 4.9). On the other hand, participants from one Saskatchewan First Nations community were less likely than non-First Nations Canadians to believe that someone had become ill from drinking tap water (OR 3.8), less likely to believe bottled water is safer than tap (OR 2.0), and less likely to have health concerns with tap water (OR 1.5). These differences, however, did not translate into differences in the likelihood of high bottled water expenditures or being a 100% bottled water consumer. The paper discusses how the differences observed may be related to water supply and regulation, trust, perceived control, cultural background, location, and past experience.

  9. Drinking Water Management: Health Risk Perceptions and Choices in First Nations and Non-First Nations Communities in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Dupont, Diane; Waldner, Cheryl; Bharadwaj, Lalita; Plummer, Ryan; Carter, Blair; Cave, Kate; Zagozewski, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between tap water and health has been a topic of public concern and calls for better management in Canada since well-publicized contamination events in two provinces (Ontario and Saskatchewan) in 2000–2001. This study reports the perspectives on health risks from tap water and corresponding use of, and spending on, bottled water in a number of different communities in Canada. In 2009–2010, four First Nations communities (three from Ontario and one from Saskatchewan) and a geographically diverse sample of non-First Nations Canadians were surveyed about their beliefs concerning health risks from tap water and their spending practices for bottled water as a substitute. Responses to five identical questions were examined, revealing that survey respondents from Ontario First Nations communities were more likely than non-First Nations Canadians to believe bottled water is safer than tap water (OR 1.6); more likely to report someone became ill from tap water (OR 3.6); more likely to express water and health concerns related to tap water consumption (OR 2.4); and more likely to spend more on bottled water (OR 4.9). On the other hand, participants from one Saskatchewan First Nations community were less likely than non-First Nations Canadians to believe that someone had become ill from drinking tap water (OR 3.8), less likely to believe bottled water is safer than tap (OR 2.0), and less likely to have health concerns with tap water (OR 1.5). These differences, however, did not translate into differences in the likelihood of high bottled water expenditures or being a 100% bottled water consumer. The paper discusses how the differences observed may be related to water supply and regulation, trust, perceived control, cultural background, location, and past experience. PMID:24886757

  10. Effect of algae and water on water color shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shengguang; Xia, Daying; Yang, Xiaolong; Zhao, Jun

    1991-03-01

    This study showed that the combined effect of absorption of planktonic algae and water on water color shift can be simulated approximately by the exponential function: Log( E {100cm/ W }+ E {100cm/ Xch1})=0.002λ-2.5 where E {100/cm W }, E {100cm/ Xchl} are, respectively, extinction coefficients of seawater and chlorophyll—a (concentration is equal to X mg/m3), and λ (nm) is wavelength. This empirical regression equation is very useful for forecasting the relation between water color and biomass in water not affected by terrigenous material. The main factor affecting water color shift in the ocean should be the absorption of blue light by planktonic algae.

  11. Community water fluoridation: attitudes and opinions from the New Zealand Oral Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Whyman, Robin A; Mahoney, Erin K; Børsting, Torunn

    2016-04-01

    To report the responses of adult participants in the 2009 New Zealand Oral Health Survey (NZOHS) to questions about community water fluoridation (CWF). The study used quantitative data from the NZOHS. All adult participants aged 18 years and over in the nationally representative NZOHS sample were included in the study (n=3475). Univariate analysis and multinominal logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between variables. Overall, 57.7% of respondents thought that there were dental benefits to adding fluoride to drinking water and 31.7% responded that they did not know. More than 45% of respondents did not know whether there were health risks from adding fluoride to drinking water. Overall, 42.0% of respondents were strongly or somewhat in favour of CWF. People in the Māori, Pacific and Asian ethnic groups, from the two most deprived quintiles, with no education after high school and who brushed their teeth less than twice a day expressed significantly greater uncertainty about CWF than other population groups. This study suggests further research is required to gain a greater understanding of health literacy about CWF and the cultural appropriateness of CWF in NZ. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  12. Choices in recreational water quality monitoring: new opportunities and health risk trade-offs.

    PubMed

    Nevers, Meredith B; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N; Whitman, Richard L

    2013-04-02

    With the recent release of new recreational water quality monitoring criteria, there are more options for regulatory agencies seeking to protect beachgoers from waterborne pathogens. Included are methods that can reduce analytical time, providing timelier estimates of water quality, but the application of these methods has not been examined at most beaches for expectation of health risk and management decisions. In this analysis, we explore health and monitoring outcomes expected at Lake Michigan beaches using protocols for indicator bacteria including culturable Escherichia coli (E. coli; EC), culturable enterococci (ENT), and enterococci as analyzed by qPCR (QENT). Correlations between method results were generally high, except at beaches with historically high concentrations of EC. The "beach action value" was exceeded most often when using EC or ENT as the target indicator; QENT exceeded the limit far less frequently. Measured water quality between years was varied. Although methods with equivalent health expectation have been established, the lack of relationship among method outcomes and annual changes in mean indicator bacteria concentrations complicates the decision-making process. The monitoring approach selected by beach managers may be a combination of available tools that maximizes timely health protection, cost efficiency, and collaboration among beach jurisdictions.

  13. Performance and Health Risk Assessment of Commercial Off-the-Shelf Individual Water Purifiers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-26

    Drinking Water Systems,” Journal of Environmental Health, 45(5), pp. 220-225 9. Farahbakhsh, K. and Smith, D.W., 2004. “Removal of Coliphages in...Commercial Off-the-Shelf Individual Water Purifiers 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) William Bettin...individual water purifiers (IWP) for use by individual warfighters to provide emergency treatment of field drinking water . This project had three

  14. Antibacterial effect of electrolyzed water on oral bacteria.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung-Hoon; Choi, Bong-Kyu

    2006-08-01

    This study investigated the antibacterial effect of electrolyzed water on oral bacteria both in vitro and in vivo. Tap water was electrolyzed in a water vessel using platinum cell technology. The electrolyzed tap water (called Puri-water) was put in contact with five major periodontopathogens or toothbrushes contaminated with these bacteria for 30 sec. In addition, Puri-water was used as a mouthwash for 30 sec in 16 subjects and the antibacterial effect on salivary bacteria was evaluated. Puri-water significantly reduced the growth of all periodontopathogens in culture and on toothbrushes, and that of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria in saliva, when compared to the effect of tap water. It also significantly reduced mutans streptococci growing on mitis salivarius-bacitracin agar. Our results demonstrate that the electrolyzed tap water is effective as a mouthwash and for toothbrush disinfection.

  15. Health implications of PAH release from coated cast iron drinking water distribution systems in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Blokker, E J Mirjam; van de Ven, Bianca M; de Jongh, Cindy M; Slaats, P G G Nellie

    2013-05-01

    Coal tar and bitumen have been historically used to coat the insides of cast iron drinking water mains. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may leach from these coatings into the drinking water and form a potential health risk for humans. We estimated the potential human cancer risk from PAHs in coated cast iron water mains. In a Dutch nationwide study, we collected drinking water samples at 120 locations over a period of 17 days under various operational conditions, such as undisturbed operation, during flushing of pipes, and after a mains repair, and analyzed these samples for PAHs. We then estimated the health risk associated with an exposure scenario over a lifetime. During flushing, PAH levels frequently exceeded drinking water quality standards; after flushing, these levels dropped rapidly. After the repair of cast iron water mains, PAH levels exceeded the drinking water standards for up to 40 days in some locations. The estimated margin of exposure for PAH exposure through drinking water was > 10,000 for all 120 measurement locations, which suggests that PAH exposure through drinking water is of low concern for consumer health. However, factors that differ among water systems, such as the use of chlorination for disinfection, may influence PAH levels in other locations.

  16. Health Implications of PAH Release from Coated Cast Iron Drinking Water Distribution Systems in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    van de Ven, Bianca M.; de Jongh, Cindy M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Coal tar and bitumen have been historically used to coat the insides of cast iron drinking water mains. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may leach from these coatings into the drinking water and form a potential health risk for humans. Objective: We estimated the potential human cancer risk from PAHs in coated cast iron water mains. Method: In a Dutch nationwide study, we collected drinking water samples at 120 locations over a period of 17 days under various operational conditions, such as undisturbed operation, during flushing of pipes, and after a mains repair, and analyzed these samples for PAHs. We then estimated the health risk associated with an exposure scenario over a lifetime. Results: During flushing, PAH levels frequently exceeded drinking water quality standards; after flushing, these levels dropped rapidly. After the repair of cast iron water mains, PAH levels exceeded the drinking water standards for up to 40 days in some locations. Conclusions: The estimated margin of exposure for PAH exposure through drinking water was > 10,000 for all 120 measurement locations, which suggests that PAH exposure through drinking water is of low concern for consumer health. However, factors that differ among water systems, such as the use of chlorination for disinfection, may influence PAH levels in other locations. PMID:23425894

  17. Potential Effectiveness of Point-of-Use Filtration to Address Risks to Drinking Water in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Kathleen Ward; Gessesse, Bemnet; Butler, Lindsey J; MacIntosh, David L

    2017-01-01

    Numerous contemporary incidents demonstrate that conventional control strategies for municipal tap water have limited ability to mitigate exposures to chemicals whose sources are within distribution systems, such as lead, and chemicals that are not removed by standard treatment technologies, such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA)/perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS). In these situations, point-of-use (POU) controls may be effective in mitigating exposures and managing health risks of chemicals in drinking water, but their potential utility has not been extensively examined. As an initial effort to fill this information gap, we conducted a critical review and analysis of the existing literature and data on the effectiveness of POU drinking water treatment technologies for reducing chemical contaminants commonly found in tap water in the United States. We found that many types of water treatment devices available to consumers in the United States have undergone laboratory testing and often certification for removal of chemical contaminants in tap water, but in most cases their efficacy in actual use has yet to be well characterized. In addition, the few studies of POU devices while “in use” focus on traditional contaminants regulated under the Safe Drinking Water Act, but do not generally consider nontraditional contaminants of concern, such as certain novel human carcinogens, industrial chemicals, pesticides, pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and flame retardants. Nevertheless, the limited information available at present suggests that POU devices can be highly effective when used prophylactically and when deployed in response to contamination incidents. Based on these findings, we identify future areas of research for assessing the ability of POU filters to reduce health-related chemical contaminants distributed through public water systems and private wells. PMID:29270018

  18. Potential Effectiveness of Point-of-Use Filtration to Address Risks to Drinking Water in the United States.

    PubMed

    Brown, Kathleen Ward; Gessesse, Bemnet; Butler, Lindsey J; MacIntosh, David L

    2017-01-01

    Numerous contemporary incidents demonstrate that conventional control strategies for municipal tap water have limited ability to mitigate exposures to chemicals whose sources are within distribution systems, such as lead, and chemicals that are not removed by standard treatment technologies, such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA)/perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS). In these situations, point-of-use (POU) controls may be effective in mitigating exposures and managing health risks of chemicals in drinking water, but their potential utility has not been extensively examined. As an initial effort to fill this information gap, we conducted a critical review and analysis of the existing literature and data on the effectiveness of POU drinking water treatment technologies for reducing chemical contaminants commonly found in tap water in the United States. We found that many types of water treatment devices available to consumers in the United States have undergone laboratory testing and often certification for removal of chemical contaminants in tap water, but in most cases their efficacy in actual use has yet to be well characterized. In addition, the few studies of POU devices while "in use" focus on traditional contaminants regulated under the Safe Drinking Water Act, but do not generally consider nontraditional contaminants of concern, such as certain novel human carcinogens, industrial chemicals, pesticides, pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and flame retardants. Nevertheless, the limited information available at present suggests that POU devices can be highly effective when used prophylactically and when deployed in response to contamination incidents. Based on these findings, we identify future areas of research for assessing the ability of POU filters to reduce health-related chemical contaminants distributed through public water systems and private wells.

  19. The Occurrence and Diversity of Waterborne Fungi in African Aquatic Systems: Their Impact on Water Quality and Human Health.

    PubMed

    Magwaza, Nontokozo M; Nxumalo, Edward N; Mamba, Bhekie B; Msagati, Titus A M

    2017-05-20

    Currently, there is a worldwide growing interest in the occurrence and diversity of fungi and their secondary metabolites in aquatic systems, especially concerning their role in water quality and human health. However, this concern is hampered by the scant information that is available in the literature about aquatic fungi and how they affect water quality. There are only few published reports that link certain species of aquatic fungi to human health. The common aquatic fungal species that have been reported so far in African aquatic systems belong to the hyphomycetes kingdom. This paper thus aims to survey the information about the occurrence and factors that control the distribution of different species of fungi in African aquatic systems, as well as their effect on water quality and the possible metabolic pathways that lead to the formation of toxic secondary metabolites that are responsible for the deterioration of water quality. This review will also investigate the analytical and bioanalytical procedures that have been reported for the identification of different species of waterborne fungi and their secondary metabolites.

  20. The Occurrence and Diversity of Waterborne Fungi in African Aquatic Systems: Their Impact on Water Quality and Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Magwaza, Nontokozo M.; Nxumalo, Edward N.; Mamba, Bhekie B.; Msagati, Titus A. M.

    2017-01-01

    Currently, there is a worldwide growing interest in the occurrence and diversity of fungi and their secondary metabolites in aquatic systems, especially concerning their role in water quality and human health. However, this concern is hampered by the scant information that is available in the literature about aquatic fungi and how they affect water quality. There are only few published reports that link certain species of aquatic fungi to human health. The common aquatic fungal species that have been reported so far in African aquatic systems belong to the hyphomycetes kingdom. This paper thus aims to survey the information about the occurrence and factors that control the distribution of different species of fungi in African aquatic systems, as well as their effect on water quality and the possible metabolic pathways that lead to the formation of toxic secondary metabolites that are responsible for the deterioration of water quality. This review will also investigate the analytical and bioanalytical procedures that have been reported for the identification of different species of waterborne fungi and their secondary metabolites. PMID:28531124

  1. Effect on water resources from upstream water diversion in the Ganges basin.

    PubMed

    Adel, M M

    2001-01-01

    Bangladesh faces at least 30 upstream water diversion constructions of which Farakka Barrage is the major one. The effects of Farakka Barrage on water resources, socioeconomy, and culture have been investigated downstream in the basins of the Ganges and its distributaries. A diversion of up to 60% of the Ganges water over 25 yr has caused (i) reduction of water in surface water resources, (ii) increased dependence on ground water, (iii) destruction of the breeding and raising grounds for 109 species of Gangetic fishes and other aquatic species and amphibians, (iv) increased malnutrition, (v) deficiency in soil organic matter content, (vi) change in the agricultural practices, (vii) eradication of inland navigable routes, (viii) outbreak of waterborne diseases, (ix) loss of professions, and (x) obstruction to religious observances and pastimes. Further, arsenopyrites buried in the prebarrage water table have come in contact with air and formed water-soluble compounds of arsenic. Inadequate recharging of ground water hinders the natural cleansing of arsenic, and threatens about 75,000,000 lives who are likely to use water contaminated with up to 2 mg/L of arsenic. Furthermore, the depletion of surface water resources has caused environmental heating and cooling effects. Apart from these effects, sudden releases of water by the barrage during the flood season cause devestating floods. In consideration of such a heavy toll for the areas downstream, strict international rules have to be laid down to preserve the riparian ecosystems.

  2. Water and Health. What We Take from our Environment. Science and Technology Education in Philippine Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philippines Univ., Quezon City. Inst. for Science and Mathematics Education Development.

    Information about the relationship between water and health is provided in this module. Topics considered include: (1) the various uses of water; (2) water demand of individuals in certain communities; (3) water sources; (4) water cycle; (5) pure water; (6) water pollution, focusing on pollution resulting from heat, chemicals, radioactive…

  3. Health risks associated with heavy metals in the drinking water of Swat, northern Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yonglong; Khan, Hizbullah; Zakir, Shahida; Ihsanullah; Khan, Sardar; Khan, Akbar Ali; Wei, Luo; Wang, Tieyu

    2013-10-01

    The concentrations of heavy metals such as Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were investigated in drinking water sources (surface and groundwater) collected from Swat valley, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The potential health risks of heavy metals to the local population and their possible source apportionment were also studied. Heavy metal concentrations were analysed using atomic absorption spectrometer and compared with permissible limits set by Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency and World Health Organization. The concentrations of Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb were higher than their respective permissible limits, while Cu, Mn and Zn concentrations were observed within their respective limits. Health risk indicators such as chronic daily intake (CDI) and health risk index (HRI) were calculated for adults and children separately. CDIs and HRIs of heavy metals were found in the order of Cr > Mn > Ni > Zn > Cd > Cu > Pb and Cd > Ni > Mn > Cr > Cu > Pb > Zn, respectively. HRIs of selected heavy metals in the drinking water were less than 1, indicating no health risk to the local people. Multivariate and univariate statistical analyses showed that geologic and anthropogenic activities were the possible sources of water contamination with heavy metals in the study area.

  4. Does Personalized Water and Hand Quality Information Affect Attitudes, Behavior, and Health in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, J.; Pickering, A.; Horak, H.; Boehm, A.

    2008-12-01

    Tanzania (TZ) has one of the highest rates of child mortality due to enteric disease in the world. NGOs and local agencies have introduced numerous technologies (e.g., chlorine tablets, borewells) to increase the quantity and quality of water in Dar es Salaam, the capital of Tanzania, in hopes of reducing morbidity and mortality of waterborne disease. The objective of the present study is to determine if providing personalized information about water quality and hand surface quality, as determined by concentrations of enterococci and E. coli, results in improved health and water quality in households. A cohort study was completed in June-September 2008 in 3 communities ranging from urban to per-urban in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania to achieve our objective. The study consisted of 4 cohorts that were visited 4 times over the 3 month study. One cohort received no information about water and hand quality until the end of the summer, while the other groups received either just information on hand surface quality, just information on water quality, and information on both hand surface and water quality after the first (baseline) household visit. We report concentrations of enterococci and E. coli in water sources (surface waters and bore wells), water stored in households, and environmental waters were children and adults swim and bathe. In addition, we report concentrations of enterococci and E. coli on hands of caregivers and children in households. Preliminary results of surveys on health and perceptions of water quality and illness from the households are provided. Ongoing work will integrate the microbiological and sociological data sets to determine if personalized information interventions resulted in changes in health, water quality in the household, or perceptions of water quality, quantity and relation to human health. Future work will analyze DNA samples from hands and water for human-specific Bacteroides bacteria which are only present in human feces. Our study

  5. Environment and health: environmental sanitation and community water supply.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    This article identifies important features of two 5-Year Plans in India. Currently, only about 200 cities have even a partial sewage system. Elementary sewage systems are nonexistent in rural villages. In 1990, under 5% of rural population had access to sanitary facilities. The result is widespread soil and water pollution and its accompanying disease. The Rural Water Supply Program was proposed in the 5th Plan, but was implemented in the 7th Plan (1985-90). Construction of latrines is still too low. Resources were insufficiently mobilized for latrine construction. An alternative would be to institute cost recovery and user pays principles. Low cost technology could be substituted. Low cost latrine systems should conform with users' social habits, local culture, and the customs of the community. The system should be affordable to users. The technology should be user-friendly and rely on use of local materials and workers. Over 90% of the population rely on community water supply facilities. Health has not benefited from the access to water supplies. The reasons are low hygienic standards, lack of water quality surveillance, and poor maintenance of equipment. The community does not participate. By 1996, people's access to water was reduced to 1 km in the plains, and 50 m in hilly areas. Surface waters are contaminated by fecal matter, fluoride, nitrate, and arsenic. The Water Quality Surveillance Program lacks an institutional framework and human resource development. There is a need for education about hygiene, unsafe drinking water, and poor sanitation for people and agency staff.

  6. Spatial modelling of arsenic distribution and human health effects in Lake Victoria basin, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ijumulana, Julian; Mtalo, Felix; Bhattacharya, Prosun

    2016-04-01

    Increasing incidences of naturally occurring geogenic pollutants in drinking water sources and associated human health risks are the two major challenges requiring detailed knowledge to support decision making process at various levels. The presence, location and extent of environmental contamination is needed towards developing mitigation measures to achieve required standards. In this study we are developing a GIS-based model to detect and predict drinking water pollutants at the identified hotspots and monitor its variation in space. In addition, the mobility of pollutants within the affected region needs to be evaluated using topographic and hydrogeological data. Based on these geospatial data on contaminant distribution, spatial relationship of As and F contamination and reported human health effects such as dental caries, dental fluorosis, skeletal fluorosis and bone crippling, skin and other cancers etc. can be modeled for potential interventions for safe drinking water supplies.

  7. Analysis of long-term water quality for effective river health monitoring in peri-urban landscapes--a case study of the Hawkesbury-Nepean river system in NSW, Australia.

    PubMed

    Pinto, U; Maheshwari, B L; Ollerton, R L

    2013-06-01

    -temporal scales, taking into account the various effects of nutrient and other pollutant loads from sewerage effluents, agriculture and other point and non-point sources along the river and major tributaries of the HNR. Over the past 26 years, water temperature has significantly increased while suspended solids have significantly decreased (p < 0.05). The analysis of water quality data through FA, HACA and TA helped to characterise the key sections and cluster the key water quality variables of the HNR system. The insights gained from this study have the potential to improve the effectiveness of river health-monitoring programs in terms of cost, time and effort, particularly in a peri-urban context.

  8. Health related guide values for drinking-water since 1993 as guidance to assess presence of new analytes in drinking-water.

    PubMed

    Dieter, Hermann H

    2014-03-01

    Regulatory toxicologists, when going into assessment of a new analyte in drinking-water, very often miss the occasion to revert to scientifically consensual virtually safe lifetime exposure reference doses and corresponding health-related guide values (HRGV) for drinking-water, be those derived either to avoid concern over "threshold effects" or concern over exceedance of an unacceptable non-threshold cancer risk level. They then need a more restrictive precautionary yet science-compatible approach to directly avoid concern over the presence (measured concentration) of a new analyte in drinking-water. Therefore, the German Environment Agency (UBA, Umweltbundesamt) decided in 2003 to extrapolate international toxicological expertise collected since 1993 from assessing "old" analytes in drinking-water on new ones in form of five HRIV=health related indication values. They indicate the reasonable lowest maximal concentration from which on tiered or stepwise human toxicological evaluation of a new analyte might be necessary and meaningful. Their regulatory-toxicological function is that of placeholders as long as a possibly higher scientific HRGV or a surrogate value based on a threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) was not broadly agreed by science. The five-step HRIV scale between 0.01 and 3.0 μg/l combines international toxicological experience gained from "old" analytes since 1993 with the concepts of safety factors (SF(D)) to assess database deficiency and science-related extrapolation factors (EF) to extrapolate experimental data on humans. Each HRIV is valid and safe for a 2 l/day drinking-water exposure scenario either counting for 10% relative source contribution (compounds with threshold effects) or for a lifetime non-threshold cancer risk of up to 10(-6) and is the higher the more positive information exists regarding possible effects at critical toxic endpoints and for length of possible exposure. Past (historical) and present evaluations of "old

  9. Improving Dental Health of DOD Related Persons Assigned to Okinawa by Using Fluoridated Salt in Lieu of Water Fluoridation: A Comparative Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-04-01

    1994-1997). During this time, the 18th Medical Group (MDG) set fluoridating the base water supply as a goal to prevent dental caries – a noble and...related personnel. Supplemental fluoride may be an effective method of improving oral health by reducing dental caries . Water and salt fluoridation ...372-5,381. 9 Colonel Canning and Mr. Noorda, “Talking Paper on Fluoridation of Kadena AB Drinking Water ,” 26 Apr 1995. 5 Chapter 2 Dental Caries The

  10. Mold exposure and health effects following hurricanes Katrina and Rita.

    PubMed

    Barbeau, Deborah N; Grimsley, L Faye; White, LuAnn E; El-Dahr, Jane M; Lichtveld, Maureen

    2010-01-01

    The extensive flooding in the aftermath of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita created conditions ideal for indoor mold growth, raising concerns about the possible adverse health effects associated with indoor mold exposure. Studies evaluating the levels of indoor and outdoor molds in the months following the hurricanes found high levels of mold growth. Homes with greater flood damage, especially those with >3 feet of indoor flooding, demonstrated higher levels of mold growth compared with homes with little or no flooding. Water intrusion due to roof damage was also associated with mold growth. However, no increase in the occurrence of adverse health outcomes has been observed in published reports to date. This article considers reasons why studies of mold exposure after the hurricane do not show a greater health impact.

  11. Potential Health Benefits of Deep Sea Water: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Jaafar, A. B.; Mahdzir, A.; Musa, M. N.

    2016-01-01

    Deep sea water (DSW) commonly refers to a body of seawater that is pumped up from a depth of over 200 m. It is usually associated with the following characteristics: low temperature, high purity, and being rich with nutrients, namely, beneficial elements, which include magnesium, calcium, potassium, chromium, selenium, zinc, and vanadium. Less photosynthesis of plant planktons, consumption of nutrients, and organic decomposition have caused lots of nutrients to remain there. Due to this, DSW has potential to become a good source for health. Research has proven that DSW can help overcome health problems especially related to lifestyle-associated diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, cancer, and skin problems. This paper reviews the potential health benefits of DSW by referring to the findings from previous researches. PMID:28105060

  12. Potential Health Benefits of Deep Sea Water: A Review.

    PubMed

    Mohd Nani, Samihah Zura; Majid, F A A; Jaafar, A B; Mahdzir, A; Musa, M N

    2016-01-01

    Deep sea water (DSW) commonly refers to a body of seawater that is pumped up from a depth of over 200 m. It is usually associated with the following characteristics: low temperature, high purity, and being rich with nutrients, namely, beneficial elements, which include magnesium, calcium, potassium, chromium, selenium, zinc, and vanadium. Less photosynthesis of plant planktons, consumption of nutrients, and organic decomposition have caused lots of nutrients to remain there. Due to this, DSW has potential to become a good source for health. Research has proven that DSW can help overcome health problems especially related to lifestyle-associated diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, cancer, and skin problems. This paper reviews the potential health benefits of DSW by referring to the findings from previous researches.

  13. Effect of Safe Water on Arsenicosis: A Follow-up Study.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Kunal K; Ghose, Aloke; Ghose, Nilima; Biswas, Anirban; Mazumder, D N Guha

    2014-04-01

    Arsenic pollution in groundwater, used for drinking purposes, has been envisaged as a problem of global concern. Treatment options for the management symptoms of chronic arsenicosis are limited. Mitigation option available for dealing with the health problem of ground water arsenic contamination rests mainly on supply of arsenic safe water in arsenic-endemic region of Indo-Bangladesh subcontinent. Limited information is available regarding the long-term effect of chronic arsenic toxicity after stoppage of consumption of arsenic-containing water. The current study was, therefore, done to assess, objectively, the effect of drinking arsenic safe water (<50 μg/L) on disease manifestation of arsenicosis. Manifestations of various skin lesions and systemic diseases associated with chronic arsenic exposure were ascertained initially by carrying on baseline study on 208 participants in Nadia (Cohort-I, with skin lesion and Cohort-II, without skin lesion) using a scoring system, as developed by us, and compared objectively at the end of each year for 3 year follow-up period. All the participants who had arsenic contaminated drinking water source in their houses were supplied with arsenic removal filters for getting arsenic-free water during the follow-up period. In participants belonging to Cohort-I, the skin score was found to improve significantly at the end of each year, and it was found to be reduced significantly from 2.17 ± 1.09 to 1.23 ± 1.17; P < 0.001 at the end of 3 year's intervention study indicating beneficial effect of safe water on skin lesions. The systemic disease symptom score was also found to improve, but less significantly, at the end of 3 years in both the cohorts. Most important observation during the follow-up study was persistence of severe symptoms of chronic lung disease and severe skin lesion including Bowen's disease in spite of taking arsenic-safe water. Further, death could not be prevented to occur because of lung cancer and severe lung

  14. Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessment of 16 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Drinking Source Water from a Large Mixed-Use Reservoir

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Caiyun; Zhang, Jiquan; Ma, Qiyun; Chen, Yanan

    2015-01-01

    Reservoirs play an important role in living water supply and irrigation of farmlands, thus the water quality is closely related to public health. However, studies regarding human health and ecological risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the waters of reservoirs are very few. In this study, Shitou Koumen Reservoir which supplies drinking water to 8 million people was investigated. Sixteen priority PAHs were analyzed in a total of 12 water samples. In terms of the individual PAHs, the average concentration of Fla, which was 5.66 × 10−1 μg/L, was the highest, while dibenz(a,h)anthracene which was undetected in any of the water samples was the lowest. Among three PAH compositional patterns, the concentration of low-molecular-weight and 4-ring PAHs was dominant, accounting for 94%, and the concentration of the total of 16 PAHs was elevated in constructed-wetland and fish-farming areas. According to the calculated risk quotients, little or no adverse effects were posed by individual and complex PAHs in the water on the aquatic ecosystem. In addition, the results of hazard quotients for non-carcinogenic risk also showed little or no negative impacts on the health of local residents. However, it could be concluded from the carcinogenic risk results that chrysene and complex PAHs in water might pose a potential carcinogenic risk to local residents. Moreover, the possible sources of PAHs were identified as oil spills and vehicular emissions, as well as the burning of biomass and coal. PMID:26529001

  15. Effects of Forest and Grassland Management On Drinking Water Quality for Public Water Supplies:A Review And Synthesis of the Scientific Literature - Review Draft

    Treesearch

    George E. Dissmeyer

    1999-01-01

    The Importance of Safe Public Drinking Water The United States Congress justified passing the Safe Drinking Water Amendments (SDWA) of 1996 (P. L. 104-182) by stating "safe drinking water is essential to the protection of public health".For 50 years the basic axiom for public health protection has been safe drinking water...

  16. Impacts of Urban Water Conservation Strategies on Energy, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Health: Southern California as a Case Study.

    PubMed

    Sokolow, Sharona; Godwin, Hilary; Cole, Brian L

    2016-05-01

    To determine how urban water conservation strategies in California cities can affect water and energy conservation efforts, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and benefit public health. We expanded upon our 2014 health impact assessment of California's urban water conservation strategies by comparing the status quo to 2 options with the greatest potential impact on the interrelated issues of water and energy in California: (1) banning landscape irrigation and (2) expanding alternative water sources (e.g., desalination, recycled water). Among the water conservation strategies evaluated, expanded use of recycled water stood out as the water conservation strategy with potential to reduce water use, energy use, and greenhouse gas emissions, with relatively small negative impacts for the public's health. Although the suitability of recycled water for urban uses depends on local climate, geography, current infrastructure, and finances, analyses similar to that presented here can help guide water policy decisions in cities across the globe facing challenges of supplying clean, sustainable water to urban populations.

  17. Health risk assessment of phthalate esters (PAEs) in drinking water sources of China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Long; Wu, Qian-Yuan; Wang, Chao; He, Tao; Hu, Hong-Ying

    2015-03-01

    Phthalate esters (PAEs) with endocrine disruption effects and carcinogenicity are widely detected in water environment. Occurrences of PAEs in source water and removal efficiencies of PAEs by drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) in China were surveyed from publications in the last 10 years. Concentration of diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) in source water with median value of 1.3 μg/L was higher than that of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP). If the removal efficiencies of DEHP and DnBP reached 60 and 90 %, respectively, the calculated PAE concentration in drinking water can generally meet Standards for Drinking Water Quality in China. The health risks of PAEs, including non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks via the "water source-DWTP-oral ingestion/dermal permeation" pathway, were evaluated with Monte Carlo simulation and sensitivity analysis under certain removal efficiencies from 0 to 95 %. The carcinogenic risk of DEHP was lower than the upper acceptable carcinogenic risk level (10(-4)), while the probability of DEHP's carcinogenic risk between lower (10(-6)) and upper (10(-4)) acceptable carcinogenic risk level decreased from about 21.2 to 0.4 % through increasing DEHP removal efficiency from 0 to 95 %. The non-carcinogenic risk of DEHP was higher than that of DEP and DnBP. In all cases, the total non-carcinogenic risk of DEP, DnBP, and DEHP was lower than 1, indicating that there would be unlikely incremental non-carcinogenic risk to humans. Both carcinogenic risk and non-carcinogenic risk of PAEs in drinking water to female were a little higher than those to male.

  18. The World Health Organization's water safety plan is much more than just an integrated drinking water quality management plan.

    PubMed

    Viljoen, F C

    2010-01-01

    South Africa is a country of contrasts with far ranging variations in climate, precipitation rates, cultures, demographics, housing levels, education, wealth and skills levels. These differences have an impact on water services delivery as do expectations, affordability and available resources. Although South Africa has made much progress in supplying drinking water, the same cannot be said regarding water quality throughout the country. A concerted effort is currently underway to correct this situation and as part of this drive, water safety plans (WSP) are promoted. Rand Water, the largest water services provider in South Africa, used the World Health Organization (WHO) WSP framework as a guide for the development of its own WSP which was implemented in 2003. Through the process of implementation, Rand Water found the WHO WSP to be much more than just another integrated quality system.

  19. Linking Health Concepts in the Assessment and Evaluation of Water Distribution Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karney, Bryan W.; Filion, Yves R.

    2005-01-01

    The concept of health is not only a specific criterion for evaluation of water quality delivered by a distribution system but also a suitable paradigm for overall functioning of the hydraulic and structural components of the system. This article views health, despite its complexities, as the only criterion with suitable depth and breadth to allow…

  20. Perceived health problems in swimmers according to the chemical treatment of water in swimming pools.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Luna, Álvaro; Burillo, Pablo; Felipe, José Luis; del Corral, Julio; García-Unanue, Jorge; Gallardo, Leonor

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine which chemical treatment used for disinfecting water in indoor swimming pools had the least impact on users' perceptions of health problems, and which generated the greatest satisfaction with the quality of the water. A survey on satisfaction and perceived health problems was given to 1001 users at 20 indoor swimming pools which used different water treatment methods [chlorine, bromine, ozone, ultraviolet lamps (UV) and salt electrolysis]. The findings suggest that there is a greater probability of perceived health problems, such as eye and skin irritation, respiratory problems and skin dryness, in swimming pools treated with chlorine than in swimming pools using other chemical treatment methods. Pools treated with bromine have similar, although slightly better, results. Other factors, such as age, gender, time of day of use (morning and afternoon) and type of user (competitive and recreational), can also affect the probability of suffering health problems. For all of the above, using combined treatment methods as ozone and UV, or salt electrolysis produces a lower probability of perceived health problems and greater satisfaction.

  1. Health risk assessment for splash parks that use rainwater as source water.

    PubMed

    de Man, H; Bouwknegt, M; van Heijnsbergen, E; Leenen, E J T M; van Knapen, F; de Roda Husman, A M

    2014-05-01

    In the Netherlands, rainwater becomes more and more popular as an economic and environmentally sustainable water source for splash parks, however, the associated public health risk and underlying risk factors are unknown. Since splash parks have been associated with outbreaks of infectious diseases, a quantitative microbial risk assessment was performed using Legionella pneumophila as a target pathogen to quantify the risk of infection for exposure due to inhalation and Campylobacter jejuni for ingestion. Data for L. pneumophila and C. jejuni concentrations in rainfall generated surface runoff from streets were extracted from literature. Data for exposure were obtained by observing 604 people at splash parks, of whom 259 were children. Exposure volumes were estimated using data from literature to determine the volume of exposure through inhalation at 0.394 μL/min (95% CI-range 0.0446-1.27 μL/min), hand-to-mouth contact at 22.6 μL/min, (95% CI-range 2.02-81.0 μL/min), ingestion of water droplets at 94.4 μL/min (95% CI-range 5.1-279 μL/min) and ingestion of mouthfuls of water at 21.5·10(3) μL/min (95% CI-range 1.17 ·10(3)-67.0·10(3) μL/min). The corresponding risk of infection for the mean exposure duration of 3.5 min was 9.3·10(-5) (95% CI-range 0-2.4·10(-4)) for inhalation of L. pneumophila and 3.6·10(-2) (95% CI-range 0-5.3·10(-1)) for ingestion of C. jejuni. This study provided a methodology to quantify exposure volumes using observations on site. We estimated that using rainwater as source water for splash parks may pose a health risk, however, further detailed quantitative microbial analysis is required to confirm this finding. Furthermore we give insight into the effect of water quality standards, which may limit infection risks from exposure at splash parks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of selected sources of contamination on ground-water quality at seven sites in Connecticut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Handman, Elinor H.; Bingham, James W.

    1980-01-01

    The introduction of contaminants has altered the quality of ground water at several places in Connecticut. This investigation of the hydrogeologic environment and the quality of water in stratified-drift aquifers underlying seven probable contaminant sources in Connecticut shows some effects at each site. Water from test wells downgradient from septage-disposal facilities in Old Saybrook and Clinton contains elevated concentrations of sodium, chloride, manganese, iron, detergent (as MBAS), dissolved organic carbon, and some trace metals. The effects are most pronounced at shallow depths close to the septage lagoons, where concentrations of some constituents exceed Connecticut Department of Health drinking water standards. Fly-ash disposal at Wallingford has contributed chromium, manganese, and dissolved organic carbon to water in the underlying aquifer, but the low hydraulic conductivity of the fine-grained surficial materials have kept effects to a minimum. Road salt leached from a storage area in the Tylerville section of Haddam has increased the sodium and chloride concentrations in ground water to the extent that it is unsuitable for drinking water. The effect diminishes in wells 1000 feet downgradient from the storage site. Water from some wells adjacent to landfills in Bristol and Southington has elevated sodium, chloride, manganese, and dissolved organic carbon concentrations, and samples from two wells near industrial-sludge disposal pits in the Bristol landfill contain cyanide and phenols. Gasoline odor is present in water samples from a test well 175 feet from a ruptured buried tank in Fairfield. The gasoline odor from this well was also detectable during well construction and sampling.

  3. Environmental Impacts of the U.S. Health Care System and Effects on Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Eckelman, Matthew J.; Sherman, Jodi

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. health care sector is highly interconnected with industrial activities that emit much of the nation’s pollution to air, water, and soils. We estimate emissions directly and indirectly attributable to the health care sector, and potential harmful effects on public health. Negative environmental and public health outcomes were estimated through economic input-output life cycle assessment (EIOLCA) modeling using National Health Expenditures (NHE) for the decade 2003–2013 and compared to national totals. In 2013, the health care sector was also responsible for significant fractions of national air pollution emissions and impacts, including acid rain (12%), greenhouse gas emissions (10%), smog formation (10%) criteria air pollutants (9%), stratospheric ozone depletion (1%), and carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic air toxics (1–2%). The largest contributors to impacts are discussed from both the supply side (EIOLCA economic sectors) and demand side (NHE categories), as are trends over the study period. Health damages from these pollutants are estimated at 470,000 DALYs lost from pollution-related disease, or 405,000 DALYs when adjusted for recent shifts in power generation sector emissions. These indirect health burdens are commensurate with the 44,000–98,000 people who die in hospitals each year in the U.S. as a result of preventable medical errors, but are currently not attributed to our health system. Concerted efforts to improve environmental performance of health care could reduce expenditures directly through waste reduction and energy savings, and indirectly through reducing pollution burden on public health, and ought to be included in efforts to improve health care quality and safety. PMID:27280706

  4. Water Security, Climate Forcings and Public Health Impacts in Emerging Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serman, E. A.; Akanda, A. S.; Craver, V.; Boving, T. B.

    2014-12-01

    Our world is rapidly urbanizing, with more than 80% of world's population is expected to be living in a city by the end of the century. A majority of these nations are rapidly urbanizing due to massive rural-to-urban migratory trends, with rapid development of unplanned urban settlements, or slums, with lack of adequate water or sanitation facilities and other municipal amenities. With global environmental change, natural disasters will expose millions more to drought, floods, and disease epidemics, and existing vulnerabilities will worsen. At the same time, rapid urbanization and fast changing land-use leads to widespread damage of infrastructure by stormwater, especially in lowlands and economically poor areas. The factor that consistently stands out among different cities from both the developed and the developing worlds is that the slums are typically the most vulnerable to water related natural hazards and climatic threats, such as water scarcity and quality issues in drought conditions, or water and sanitation breakdown and stormwater contamination problems. Onsite or decentralized water, wastewater and stormwater treatment as well as point-of-use water treatment options can be an economic, safe, and reliable alternative to conventional large-scale treatment especially, in urban fringes as well as rural areas. These systems can be designed to fit communities in terms of their economic, cultural, environmental, and demographic resources. As part of this study, we develop a database of urban water quality and quantity indices such as with urban land-use, water usage, climate, and socio-economic characteristics in various emerging regions in the world. We analyze past and current data to identify and quantify long-term trends and the impacts of large-scale climatic and anthropogenic changes on urban hydrology and health impacts. We specifically focus on five major cities from distinct groups of countr