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Sample records for water by salt content

  1. Content of some metals in mean tissue of salt-water and fresh-water fish and in their products.

    PubMed

    Krełowska-Kułas, M

    1995-01-01

    The main goal of this work was to determine the concentration of some metals in meat tissue of salt-water and fresh-water fish and in their products. These studies refer to 13 species of fish most often eaten in Poland, caught in 1992. Fish (samples) for testing and examination were taken from each species once every month during the term of 6 months. The lead content in tested fish and their products did not exceed the set limits (0.6 mg Pb/kg), which were exceeded only in preserve from oyster. The average content of cadmium in flounder, Alaska pollack, Baltic herring, pickled herring pieces and in preserves with shrimp, crab and oyster exceeded the set limits (0.05 mg Cd/kg). The copper and zinc content in tested fish and their products is also within the set domestic limits (10.0 mg Cu/kg and 50.0 mg Zn/kg). The iron (3.6-24.2 mg/kg), magnesium (170-380 mg/kg) and manganese (0.12-0.31 mg/kg) contents in muscle tissue of the tested fish and their products seem to be typical. The presence of absolutely toxic metals (lead and cadmium) in some species of fish and their products points to extreme contamination of water environment by those metals.

  2. Salt tolerance of Beta macrocarpa is associated with efficient osmotic adjustment and increased apoplastic water content.

    PubMed

    Hamouda, I; Badri, M; Mejri, M; Cruz, C; Siddique, K H M; Hessini, K

    2016-05-01

    The chenopod Beta macrocarpa Guss (wild Swiss chard) is known for its salt tolerance, but the mechanisms involved are still debated. In order to elucidate the processes involved, we grew wild Swiss chard exposed to three salinity levels (0, 100 and 200 mm NaCl) for 45 days, and determined several physiological parameters at the end of this time. All plants survived despite reductions in growth, photosynthesis and stomatal conductance in plants exposed to salinity (100 and 200 mm NaCl). As expected, the negative effects of salinity were more pronounced at 200 mm than at 100 mm NaCl: (i) leaf apoplastic water content was maintained or increased despite a significant reduction in leaf water potential, revealing the halophytic character of B. macrocarpa; (ii) osmotic adjustment occurred, which presumably enhanced the driving force for water extraction from soil, and avoided toxic build up of Na(+) and Cl(-) in the mesophyll apoplast of leaves. Osmotic adjustment mainly occurred through accumulation of inorganic ions and to a lesser extent soluble sugars; proline was not implicated in osmotic adjustment. Overall, two important mechanisms of salt tolerance in B. macrocarpa were identified: osmotic and apoplastic water adjustment.

  3. Transparent hydrogel with enhanced water retention capacity by introducing highly hydratable salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Yuanyuan; Chen, Baohong; Xiang, Feng; Zhou, Jinxiong; Wang, Hong; Suo, Zhigang

    2014-10-01

    Polyacrylamide hydrogels containing salt as electrolyte have been used as highly stretchable transparent electrodes in flexible electronics, but those hydrogels are easy to dry out due to water evaporation. Targeted, we try to enhance water retention capacity of polyacrylamide hydrogel by introducing highly hydratable salts into the hydrogel. These hydrogels show enhanced water retention capacity in different level. Specially, polyacrylamide hydrogel containing high content of lithium chloride can retain over 70% of its initial water even in environment with relative humidity of only 10% RH. The excellent water retention capacities of these hydrogels will make more applications of hydrogels become possible.

  4. Transparent hydrogel with enhanced water retention capacity by introducing highly hydratable salt

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Yuanyuan; Xiang, Feng; Wang, Hong E-mail: suo@seas.harvard.edu; Chen, Baohong; Zhou, Jinxiong; Suo, Zhigang E-mail: suo@seas.harvard.edu

    2014-10-13

    Polyacrylamide hydrogels containing salt as electrolyte have been used as highly stretchable transparent electrodes in flexible electronics, but those hydrogels are easy to dry out due to water evaporation. Targeted, we try to enhance water retention capacity of polyacrylamide hydrogel by introducing highly hydratable salts into the hydrogel. These hydrogels show enhanced water retention capacity in different level. Specially, polyacrylamide hydrogel containing high content of lithium chloride can retain over 70% of its initial water even in environment with relative humidity of only 10% RH. The excellent water retention capacities of these hydrogels will make more applications of hydrogels become possible.

  5. Salt Composition Derived from Veazey Composition by Thermodynamic Modeling and Predicted Composition of Drum Contents

    SciTech Connect

    Weisbrod, Kirk Ryan; Veirs, Douglas Kirk; Funk, David John; Clark, David Lewis

    2016-03-11

    This report describes the derivation of the salt composition from the Veazey salt stream analysis. It also provides an estimate of the proportions of the kitty litter, nitrate salt and neutralizer that was contained in drum 68660. While the actinide content of waste streams was judiciously followed in the 1980s in TA-55, no record of the salt composition could be found. Consequently, a salt waste stream produced from 1992 to 1994 and reported by Gerry Veazey provided the basis for this study. While chemical analysis of the waste stream was highly variable, an average analysis provided input to the Stream Analyzer software to calculate a composition for a concentrated solid nitrate salt and liquid waste stream. The calculation predicted the gas / condensed phase compositions as well as solid salt / saturated liquid compositions. The derived composition provides an estimate of the nitrate feedstream to WIPP for which kinetic measurements can be made. The ratio of salt to Swheat in drum 68660 contents was estimated through an overall mass balance on the parent and sibling drums. The RTR video provided independent confirmation concerning the volume of the mixture. The solid salt layer contains the majority of the salt at a ratio with Swheat that potentially could become exothermic.

  6. Laboratory testing of salt samples for water content/loss of weight on heating, thermal fracture, insoluble residue, and clay and bulk mineralogy: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, L.B.; Schwendiman, L.

    1987-07-01

    This report presents the results of laboratory testing on salt samples from the Palo Duro Basin of the Texas Panhandle. Laboratory specimens were tested to determine water content by loss of weight on heating, temperature of thermal fracture, the amount of insoluble residue, and clay and bulk mineralogy. 7 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  7. Measurement of leaf relative water content by infrared reflectance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, E. Raymond, Jr.; Rock, Barrett N.; Nobel, Park S.

    1987-01-01

    From basic considerations and Beer's law, a leaf water content index incorporating reflectances of wavelengths from 0.76 to 0.90 microns and from 1.55 to 1.75 microns was developed that relates leaf reflectance to leaf relative water content. For the leaf succulent, Agave deserti, the leaf water content index was not significantly different from the relative water content for either individual leaves or an entire plant. Also, the relative water contents of intact plants of Encelia farinosa and Hilaria rigida in the field were estimated by the leaf water content index; variations in the proportion of living to dead leaf area could cause large errors in the estimate of relative water content. Thus, the leaf water content index may be able to estimate average relative water content of canopies when TM4 and TM5 are measured at a known relative water content and fraction of dead leaf material.

  8. Texture, flavor, and sensory quality of buffalo milk Cheddar cheese as influenced by reducing sodium salt content.

    PubMed

    Murtaza, M A; Huma, N; Sameen, A; Murtaza, M S; Mahmood, S; Mueen-ud-Din, G; Meraj, A

    2014-11-01

    The adverse health effects of dietary sodium demand the production of cheese with reduced salt content. The study was aimed to assess the effect of reducing the level of sodium chloride on the texture, flavor, and sensory qualities of Cheddar cheese. Cheddar cheese was manufactured from buffalo milk standardized at 4% fat level by adding sodium chloride at 2.5, 2.0, 1.5, 1.0, and 0.5% (wt/wt of the curd obtained). Cheese samples were ripened at 6 to 8 °C for 180 d and analyzed for chemical composition after 1 wk; for texture and proteolysis after 1, 60, 120, and 180 d; and for volatile flavor compounds and sensory quality after 180 d of ripening. Decreasing the salt level significantly reduced the salt-in-moisture and pH and increased the moisture-in-nonfat-substances and water activity. Cheese hardness, toughness, and crumbliness decreased but proteolysis increased considerably on reducing the sodium content and during cheese ripening. Lowering the salt levels appreciably enhanced the concentration of volatile compounds associated with flavor but negatively affected the sensory perception. We concluded that salt level in cheese can be successfully reduced to a great extent if proteolysis and development of off-flavors resulted by the growth of starter and nonstarter bacteria can be controlled.

  9. Measuring water content by neutron thermalization

    SciTech Connect

    Buchanan, R.J.

    1992-01-21

    This patent describes an apparatus for measuring water content of a substance. It comprises a vessel for receiving the substance; sensor means for sensing thermalized neutrons; a thermal neutron absorber disposed around the vessel and the sensor means; means for emitting fast neutrons through the thermal neutron absorber into the vessel; and a biological shield encasing the sensor means, the thermal neutron absorber, and the means for emitting and extending around the vessel.

  10. Relative water content of Spruce needles determined by the leaf water content index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, E. Raymond, Jr.; Wong, Sam K. S.; Rock, Barrett N.

    1987-01-01

    Leaf relative water content (RWC) is defined as the volume of water in a leaf divided by the volume at full turgor. Using reflectance factors of wavelengths 0.83 micron and 1.6 microns, a Leaf Water Content Index (LWCI) was derived from the Lambert-Beer Law such that LWCI should equal RWC; LWCI was equal to RWC for Picea pungens, Picea rubens, Liquidambar styraciflua, and Quercus agrifolia. Algebraic manipulation shows that R(1.6)/R(0.83) termed the Moisture Stress Index (MSI), is near-linearly correlated to RWC and to the Equivalent Water Thickness (EWT). Five species tested so far had the same relationship between MSI and EWT, but EWT is not a measure of plant water status.

  11. Determining salt concentrations for equivalent water activity in reduced-sodium cheese by use of a model system.

    PubMed

    Grummer, J; Schoenfuss, T C

    2011-09-01

    The range of sodium chloride (salt)-to-moisture ratio is critical in producing high-quality cheese products. The salt-to-moisture ratio has numerous effects on cheese quality, including controlling water activity (a(w)). Therefore, when attempting to decrease the sodium content of natural cheese it is important to calculate the amount of replacement salts necessary to create the same a(w) as the full-sodium target (when using the same cheese making procedure). Most attempts to decrease sodium using replacement salts have used concentrations too low to create the equivalent a(w) due to the differences in the molecular weight of the replacers compared with salt. This could be because of the desire to minimize off-flavors inherent in the replacement salts, but it complicates the ability to conclude that the replacement salts are the cause of off-flavors such as bitter. The objective of this study was to develop a model system that could be used to measure a(w) directly, without manufacturing cheese, to allow cheese makers to determine the salt and salt replacer concentrations needed to achieve the equivalent a(w) for their existing full-sodium control formulas. All-purpose flour, salt, and salt replacers (potassium chloride, modified potassium chloride, magnesium chloride, and calcium chloride) were blended with butter and water at concentrations that approximated the solids, fat, and moisture contents of typical Cheddar cheese. Salt and salt replacers were applied to the model systems at concentrations predicted by Raoult's law. The a(w) of the model samples was measured on a water activity meter, and concentrations were adjusted using Raoult's law if they differed from those of the full-sodium model. Based on the results determined using the model system, stirred-curd pilot-scale batches of reduced- and full-sodium Cheddar cheese were manufactured in duplicate. Water activity, pH, and gross composition were measured and evaluated statistically by linear mixed model

  12. Antioxidant enzyme activities are affected by salt content and temperature and influence muscle lipid oxidation during dry-salted bacon processing.

    PubMed

    Jin, Guofeng; He, Lichao; Yu, Xiang; Zhang, Jianhao; Ma, Meihu

    2013-12-01

    Fresh pork bacon belly was used as material and manufactured into dry-salted bacon through salting and drying-ripening. During processing both oxidative stability and antioxidant enzyme stability were evaluated by assessing peroxide value (PV), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and their correlations were also analysed. The results showed that all antioxidant enzyme activities decreased (p<0.05) until the end of process; GSH-Px was the most unstable one followed by catalase. Antioxidant enzyme activities were negatively correlated with TBARS (p<0.05), but the correlations were decreased with increasing process temperature. Salt showed inhibitory effect on all antioxidant enzyme activities and was concentration dependent. These results indicated that when process temperature and salt content were low at the same time during dry-salted bacon processing, antioxidant enzymes could effectively control lipid oxidation.

  13. Water properties in cream cheeses with variations in pH, fat, and salt content and correlation to microbial survival.

    PubMed

    Møller, Sandie M; Hansen, Tina B; Andersen, Ulf; Lillevang, Søren K; Rasmussen, Anitha; Bertram, Hanne C

    2012-02-22

    Water mobility and distribution in cream cheeses with variations in fat (4, 15, and 26%), added salt (0, 0.625, and 1.25%), and pH (4.2, 4.7, and 5.2) were studied using (1)H NMR relaxometry. The cheese samples were inoculated with a mixture of Listeria innocua, Escherichia coli O157 and Staphylococcus aureus, and partial least-squares regression revealed that (1)H T(2) relaxation decay data were able to explain a large part of the variation in the survival of E. coli O157 (64-83%). However, the predictions of L. innocua and S. aureus survival were strongly dependent on the fat/water content of the samples. Consequently, the present results indicate that NMR relaxometry is a promising technique for predicting the survival of these bacteria; however, the characteristics of the sample matrix are substantial.

  14. Glucocorticoids increase salt appetite by promoting water and sodium excretion.

    PubMed

    Thunhorst, Robert L; Beltz, Terry G; Johnson, Alan Kim

    2007-09-01

    Glucocorticoids [e.g., corticosterone and dexamethasone (Dex)], when administered systemically, greatly increase water drinking elicited by angiotensin and sodium ingestion in response to mineralocorticoids [e.g., aldosterone and deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)], possibly by acting in the brain. In addition, glucocorticoids exert powerful renal actions that could influence water and sodium ingestion by promoting their excretion. To test this, we determined water and sodium intakes, excretions, and balances during injections of Dex and DOCA and their coadministration (DOCA+Dex) at doses commonly employed to stimulate ingestion of water and sodium. In animals having only water to drink, Dex treatment greatly increased water and sodium excretion without affecting water intake, thereby producing negative water and sodium balances. Similar results were observed when Dex was administered together with DOCA. In animals having water and saline solution (0.3 M NaCl) to drink, Dex treatment increased water and sodium excretion, had minimal effects on water and sodium intakes, and was associated with negative water and sodium balances. DOCA treatment progressively increased sodium ingestion, and both water and sodium intakes exceeded their urinary excretion, resulting in positive water and sodium balances. The combination of DOCA+Dex stimulated rapid, large increases in sodium ingestion and positive sodium balances. However, water excretion outpaced total fluid intake, resulting in large, negative water balances. Plasma volume increased during DOCA treatment and did not change during treatment with Dex or DOCA+Dex. We conclude that increased urinary excretion, especially of water, during glucocorticoid treatment may explain the increased ingestion of water and sodium that occurs during coadministration with mineralocorticoids.

  15. Determination of the Water Content of Snow by Dielectric Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-07-01

    AD- A256 299 R*UIIUIUIIII• 0P Determination of the Water Content of Snow by Dielectric Measurements Paul R. Camp and David R. LaBrecque July 1992 a...kHz to deterrnlne wfether measurements made In this frequency range might prove useful in evaluating the water content of snow. Dielectric heating at...20 kHz proved a very useful means of modifying the water content from 0 to 30% by weight. Six different natural snows were used in these experiments

  16. Water purification using organic salts

    DOEpatents

    Currier, Robert P.

    2004-11-23

    Water purification using organic salts. Feed water is mixed with at least one organic salt at a temperature sufficiently low to form organic salt hydrate crystals and brine. The crystals are separated from the brine, rinsed, and melted to form an aqueous solution of organic salt. Some of the water is removed from the aqueous organic salt solution. The purified water is collected, and the remaining more concentrated aqueous organic salt solution is reused.

  17. Removal of sea salt hydrate water from seawater-derived samples by dehydration.

    PubMed

    Frossard, Amanda A; Russell, Lynn M

    2012-12-18

    Aerosol particles produced from bubble bursting of natural seawater contain both sea salts and organic components. Depending on the temperature, pressure, and speed of drying, the salt components can form hydrates that bind water, slowing evaporation of the water, particularly if large particles or thick layers of salts undergo drying that is nonuniform and incomplete. The water bound in these salt hydrates interferes with measuring organic hydroxyl and amine functional groups by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy because it absorbs at the same infrared wavelengths. Here, a method for separating the hydrate water in sea salt hydrates using freezing and then heating in warm, dry air (70 °C) is evaluated and compared to other methods, including spectral subtraction. Laboratory-generated sea salt analogs show an efficient removal of 89% of the hydrate water absorption peak height by 24 h of heating at atmospheric pressure. The heating method was also applied to bubbled submicrometer (Sea Sweep), generated bulk (Bubbler), and atomized seawater samples, with efficient removal of 5, 22, and 39 μg of hydrate water from samples of initial masses of 11, 30, 58 μg, respectively. The strong spectral similarity between the difference of the initial and dehydrated spectra and the laboratory-generated sea salt hydrate spectrum provided verification of the removal of hydrate water. In contrast, samples of submicrometer atmospheric particles from marine air masses did not have detectable signatures of sea salt hydrate absorbance, likely because their smaller particles and lower filter loadings provided higher surface area to volume ratios and allowed faster and more complete drying.

  18. Adsorption of water vapor by poly(styrenesulfonic acid), sodium salt: isothermal and isobaric adsorption equilibria.

    PubMed

    Toribio, F; Bellat, J P; Nguyen, P H; Dupont, M

    2004-12-15

    Air conditioning and dehumidifying systems based on sorption on solids are of great interest, especially in humid climates, because they allow reduction of thermal loads and use of chlorofluorocarbons. Previous studies have shown that hydrophilic polymers such as sulfonic polymers can have very high performance in water adsorption from air. The aim of this study was to characterize the water vapor adsorption properties of fully sulfonated and monosulfonated poly(styrenesulfonic acid), sodium salt, and to elucidate the mechanism of adsorption on these materials. Adsorption isotherms have been determined by TGA between 298 and 317 K for pressures ranging from 0.1 to 45 hPa. They have type II of the IUPAC classification and a small hysteresis loop between adsorption and desorption processes was observed only for the monosulfonated sample. Water content is up to 80% weight at 80% relative humidity. Adsorption isotherms have been well fitted with the FHH model. Adsorption-desorption isobars have been determined by TGA under 37 hPa in the temperature range 298-373 K. They show that these polymers can be completely regenerated by heating at 313 K under humidified air. No degradation of the adsorption properties has been observed after several regenerations. Adsorption enthalpies and entropies have been deduced from the Clapeyron equation and from DSC measurements. A good agreement was found. A mechanism of adsorption is proposed considering two kinds of adsorbate: bounded water in electrostatic interaction with functional groups and free water resulting from condensation.

  19. Salt and water regulation by the leatherback sea turtle Dermochelys coriacea.

    PubMed

    Reina, Richard D; Jones, T Todd; Spotila, James R

    2002-07-01

    We measured the salt and water balance of hatchling leatherback sea turtles, Dermochelys coriacea, during their first few days of life to investigate how they maintain homeostasis under the osmoregulatory challenge of a highly desiccating terrestrial environment and then a hyperosmotic marine environment. Hatchlings desiccated rapidly when denied access to sea water, with their hematocrit increasing significantly from 30.32+/-0.54 % to 38.51+/-1.35 % and plasma Na(+) concentration increasing significantly from 138.2+/-3.3 to 166.2+/-11.2 mmol l(-1) in 12 h. When hatchlings were subsequently put into sea water, hematocrit decreased and plasma Na(+) concentration was unchanged but both were significantly elevated above pretreatment values. In other hatchlings kept in sea water for 48 h, body mass and plasma Na(+) concentration increased significantly, but hematocrit did not increase. These data show that hatchlings were able to osmoregulate effectively and gain mass by drinking sea water. We stimulated hatchlings to secrete salt from the salt glands by injecting a salt load of 27 mmol kg(-1). The time taken for secretion to begin in newly hatched turtles was longer than that in 4-day-old hatchlings, but the secretory response was identical at 4.15+/-0.40 and 4.13+/-0.59 mmol Na(+) kg(-1) h(-1) respectively. Adrenaline and methacholine were both potent inhibitors of salt gland secretion in a dose-dependent manner, although methacholine administered simultaneously with a subthreshold salt load elicited a transient secretory response. The results showed that hatchling leatherbacks are able to tolerate significant changes in internal composition and efficiently use their salt glands to establish internal ionic and water balance when in sea water.

  20. Effect of road deicing salt on the susceptibility of amphibian embryos to infection by water molds.

    PubMed

    Karraker, Nancy E; Ruthig, Gregory R

    2009-01-01

    Some causative agents of amphibian declines act synergistically to impact individual amphibians and their populations. In particular, pathogenic water molds (aquatic oomycetes) interact with environmental stressors and increase mortality in amphibian embryos. We documented colonization of eggs of three amphibian species, the wood frog (Rana sylvatica), the green frog (Rana clamitans), and the spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum), by water molds in the field and examined the interactive effects of road deicing salt and water molds, two known sources of mortality for amphibian embryos, on two species, R. clamitans and A. maculatum in the laboratory. We found that exposure to water molds did not affect embryonic survivorship in either A. maculatum or R. clamitans, regardless of the concentration of road salt to which their eggs were exposed. Road salt decreased survivorship of A. maculatum, but not R. clamitans, and frequency of malformations increased significantly in both species at the highest salinity concentration. The lack of an effect of water molds on survival of embryos and no interaction between road salt and water molds indicates that observations of colonization of these eggs by water molds in the field probably represent a secondary invasion of unfertilized eggs or of embryos that had died of other causes. Given increasing salinization of freshwater habitats on several continents and the global distribution of water molds, our results suggest that some amphibian species may not be susceptible to the combined effects of these factors, permitting amphibian decline researchers to devote their attention to other potential causes.

  1. Impact of Salt and Nutrient Content on Biofilm Formation by Vibrio fischeri.

    PubMed

    Marsden, Anne E; Grudzinski, Kevin; Ondrey, Jakob M; DeLoney-Marino, Cindy R; Visick, Karen L

    2017-01-01

    Vibrio fischeri, a marine bacterium and symbiont of the Hawaiian bobtail squid Euprymna scolopes, depends on biofilm formation for successful colonization of the squid's symbiotic light organ. Here, we investigated if culture conditions, such as nutrient and salt availability, affect biofilm formation by V. fischeri by testing the formation of wrinkled colonies on solid media. We found that V. fischeri forms colonies with more substantial wrinkling when grown on the nutrient-dense LBS medium containing NaCl relative to those formed on the more nutrient-poor, seawater-salt containing SWT medium. The presence of both tryptone and yeast extract was necessary for the production of "normal" wrinkled colonies; when grown on tryptone alone, the colonies displayed a divoting phenotype and were attached to the agar surface. We also found that the type and concentration of specific seawater salts influenced the timing of biofilm formation. Of the conditions assayed, wrinkled colony formation occurred earliest in LBS(-Tris) media containing 425 mM NaCl, 35 mM MgSO4, and 5 mM CaCl2. Pellicle formation, another measure of biofilm development, was also enhanced in these growth conditions. Therefore, both nutrient and salt availability contribute to V. fischeri biofilm formation. While growth was unaffected, these optimized conditions resulted in increased syp locus expression as measured by a PsypA-lacZ transcriptional reporter. We anticipate these studies will help us understand how the natural environment of V. fischeri affects its ability to form biofilms and, ultimately, colonize E. scolopes.

  2. Impact of Salt and Nutrient Content on Biofilm Formation by Vibrio fischeri

    PubMed Central

    Marsden, Anne E.; Grudzinski, Kevin; Ondrey, Jakob M.; DeLoney-Marino, Cindy R.

    2017-01-01

    Vibrio fischeri, a marine bacterium and symbiont of the Hawaiian bobtail squid Euprymna scolopes, depends on biofilm formation for successful colonization of the squid’s symbiotic light organ. Here, we investigated if culture conditions, such as nutrient and salt availability, affect biofilm formation by V. fischeri by testing the formation of wrinkled colonies on solid media. We found that V. fischeri forms colonies with more substantial wrinkling when grown on the nutrient-dense LBS medium containing NaCl relative to those formed on the more nutrient-poor, seawater-salt containing SWT medium. The presence of both tryptone and yeast extract was necessary for the production of “normal” wrinkled colonies; when grown on tryptone alone, the colonies displayed a divoting phenotype and were attached to the agar surface. We also found that the type and concentration of specific seawater salts influenced the timing of biofilm formation. Of the conditions assayed, wrinkled colony formation occurred earliest in LBS(-Tris) media containing 425 mM NaCl, 35 mM MgSO4, and 5 mM CaCl2. Pellicle formation, another measure of biofilm development, was also enhanced in these growth conditions. Therefore, both nutrient and salt availability contribute to V. fischeri biofilm formation. While growth was unaffected, these optimized conditions resulted in increased syp locus expression as measured by a PsypA-lacZ transcriptional reporter. We anticipate these studies will help us understand how the natural environment of V. fischeri affects its ability to form biofilms and, ultimately, colonize E. scolopes. PMID:28122010

  3. Salt Content Impacts Food Preferences and Intake among Children

    PubMed Central

    Bouhlal, Sofia; Chabanet, Claire; Issanchou, Sylvie; Nicklaus, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    Decreasing dietary sodium intake, which can be achieved by reducing salt content in food, is recommended. Salt contributes to the taste of foods and makes them more enjoyable. Whether a food is liked or disliked is an important determinant of food intake, especially among children. However, the role of salt in children's food acceptance has received little attention. The impact of salt content on children's hedonic rating and intake of two foods was investigated in children. Using a within-subject crossover design, we recruited 75 children (8–11 years) to participate in five lunches in their school cafeteria. The target foods were green beans and pasta. The added salt content was 0, 0.6 or 1.2 g/100 g. The children's intake (g) of all lunch items was measured. The children provided their hedonic rating of the food, a preference ranking and a saltiness ranking in the laboratory. Children could rank the foods according to salt content, and they preferred the two saltier options. A food-specific effect of salt content on intake was observed. Compared to the intermediate level (0.6 g salt/100 g), not adding salt decreased green bean intake (−21%; p = 0.002), and increasing the salt content increased pasta intake (+24%; p<0.0001). Structural Equation Modeling was used to model the relative weights of the determinants of intake. It showed that the primary driver of food intake was the child's hunger; the second most important factor was the child's hedonic rating of the food, regardless of its salt content, and the last factor was the child's preference for the particular salt content of the food. In conclusion, salt content has a positive and food-specific effect on intake; it impacted food preferences and intake differently in children. Taking into account children's preferences for salt instead of their intake may lead to excessive added salt. PMID:23342052

  4. Large Martian regolith water content implied by rampart crater population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, S. T.; Ahrens, T. J.; O'Keefe, J. D.

    2001-12-01

    We estimate the global regolith water content using a new model for rampart crater formation (Stewart et al.~LPSC 2001). The Martian surface has a high fraction (probably significantly >20%) of craters with so-called fluidized ejecta blankets, characterized by the appearance of ground-hugging flow terminating in one or more continuous distal ramparts. While rampart craters have long held the promise of revealing information about the water content of the Martian regolith, the lack of a comprehensive physical model for the formation of fluidized ejecta blankets has hindered quantitative studies. We have developed a model for rampart crater formation based on ice shock data obtained at Martian temperatures and numerical simulations of impacts onto ice-rock mixtures under Martian conditions. We find that significant quantities of liquid water may be produced by an impact event and that the excavation process is modified by the presence of interstitial ice. As a result, single or multiple rampart ejecta blankets do not require the presence of pre-existing water in the liquid phase. A few to several volume percent of shock-produced liquid water may be incorporated into the continuous ejecta blanket for average impact conditions and reasonable regolith pore space assumptions, e.g. 15~vol% ice-filled near-surface pores. For a given diameter rampart crater, we calculate the associated minimum regolith ice content. Using the Viking-based rampart crater database by Barlow and Bradley (1990), the observed rampart crater population ( ~20% of all craters) implies a minimum regolith ice content of order 0.1~m global layer equivalent. The Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data suggest that a much larger fraction of craters, especially in the northern plains, may have rampart ejecta features. To derive the implied global regolith ice content, we correct for the impact flux rate over the past ~3~Ga using a number density for 1-10~km diameter craters, the peak rampart crater size

  5. Formulation of yeast-leavened bread with reduced salt content by using a Lactobacillus plantarum fermentation product.

    PubMed

    Valerio, Francesca; Conte, Amalia; Di Biase, Mariaelena; Lattanzio, Veronica M T; Lonigro, S Lisa; Padalino, Lucia; Pontonio, Erica; Lavermicocca, Paola

    2017-04-15

    A Lactobacillus plantarum fermentation product (Bio21B), obtained after strain growth (14h) in a wheat flour-based medium, was applied in the bread-making process as taste enhancer, in order to obtain a yeast-leavened bread with reduced salt content (20% and 50%) with respect to a reference bread (REF) not containing the fermentation product. Sensory analysis indicated that the Bio21B bread with salt reduced by 50% had a pleasant taste similar to the salt-containing bread (REF). l-Glutamate and total free amino acid content did not differ between REF and Bio21B breads, while the acids lactic, acetic, phenyllactic, 4-OH-phenyllactic and indole-3-lactic were present only in Bio21B breads. Moreover, the presence of several umami (uridine monophosphate, inosine monophosphate, adenosine, and guanosine) and kokumi (γ-l-glutamyl-l-valine) taste-related molecules was ascertained both in REF and in Bio21B breads. Therefore, a possible role of the acidic molecules in compensating the negative perception of salt reduction can be hypothesized.

  6. A study of earthquakes induced by water injection in the Changning salt mine area, SW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaolong; Yang, Pengtao; Zhang, Zhiwei

    2017-04-01

    The features of earthquakes induced by water injection in the Changning salt mine area of China were analyzed using the pore pressure diffusion method. The relationships between maximum magnitude, cumulative seismic moment, and cumulative water loss volume were investigated. Results show that increased seismic activities near the Changning salt mine in recent years are closely related to water injection during salt mining. High-pressure water injection over a long period of time caused water to diffuse into rock cracks, which increased pore pressure on faults and induced ruptures. Injection-induced earthquakes were located below the injection sites, mainly aligned NW-SE, with most occurring southeast of the mine area. Such a distribution indicates that seismic activities were affected by anticline structures in the Changning area. Based on pore pressure diffusion considerations, the diffusion coefficient was estimated to be ∼0.15 m2/s, with a slightly lower value west of the injection site than to the east. A semi-logarithmic linear relationship was found between cumulative seismic moment and cumulative water loss volume, while maximum magnitude increased with increasing volume of cumulative water loss. This study may provide reference material for analysis of injection-induced earthquakes and evaluation of the danger of earthquakes induced by water injection.

  7. The Synthesis of Calcium Salt from Brine Water by Partial Evaporation and Chemical Precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lalasari, L. H.; Widowati, M. K.; Natasha, N. C.; Sulistiyono, E.; Prasetyo, A. B.

    2017-02-01

    In this study would be investigated the effects of partial evaporation and chemical precipitation in the formation of calcium salt from brine water resources. The chemical reagents used in the study was oxalate acid (C2H2O4), ammonium carbonate (NH4)2CO3) and ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH) with reagent concentration of 2 N, respectively. The procedure was 10 liters brine water evaporated until 20% volume and continued with filtration process to separate brine water filtrate from residue (salt). Salt resulted from evaporation process was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) techniques. Filtrate then was reacted with C2H2O4, (NH4)2CO3 and NH4OH reagents to get salt products in atmospheric condition and variation ratio volume brine water/chemicals (v/v) [10/1; 10/5; 10/10; 10/20; 10/30; 10:50; 20/1; 20/5; 20/10; 20/20; 20/30; 20:50]. The salt product than were filtered, dried, measured weights and finally characterized by SEM/EDS and XRD techniques. The result of experiment showed the chemical composition of brine water from Tirta Sanita, Bogor was 28.87% Na, 9.17% Mg, 2.94% Ca, 22.33% O, 0.71% Sr, 30.02% Cl, 1.51% Si, 1.23% K, 0.55% S, 1.31% Al. The chemical composition of salt resulted by partial evaporation was 53.02% Ca, 28.93%O, 9.50% Na, 2.10% Mg, 1.53% Sr, 1.20% Cl, 1.10% Si, 0.63% K, 0.40% S, 0.39% Al. The salt resulted by total evaporation was indicated namely as NaCl. Whereas salt resulted by partial evaporation was CaCO3 with a purity of 90 % from High Score Plus analysis. In the experiment by chemical precipitation was reported that the reagents of ammonium carbonate were more reactive for synthesizing calcium salt from brine water compared to reagents of oxalate acid and ammonium hydroxide. The salts precipitated by NH4OH, (NH4)2CO3, and H2C2O4 reagents were indicated as NaCl, CaCO3 and CaC2O4.H2O, respectively. The techniques of partial evaporation until 20% volume sample of brine water and

  8. Analysis of the juice and water losses in salted and unsalted pork samples heated in water bath. Consequences for the prediction of weight loss by transfer models.

    PubMed

    Bombrun, Laure; Gatellier, Philippe; Portanguen, Stéphane; Kondjoyan, Alain

    2015-01-01

    This study has analyzed the effect of different factors on variation of meat weight due to juice loss, and variation of water content of pork samples heated in a water bath. The weight loss (WL) was influenced by initial water content of raw meat which can be connected to meat pH, muscle type, and by pre-salting. WL was also influenced by sample thickness and by nature of the surrounding fluid. These effects were significant at 50°C and in thinner samples but decreased as meat temperature and sample thickness increased. WL showed no significant difference in response to prior freezing, applying a surface constraint during heating or varying meat salt content from 0.8 to 2.0%. The results were interpreted from literature knowledge on protein denaturation, contraction and, transport phenomena. Reliably predicting WL from water content variation during heating hinges on taking into account the loss of dry matter and the possible effects of meat pH, sample size or surrounding fluid.

  9. [Fluoride content of table salt in Mexico City].

    PubMed

    Maupomé Carvantes, G; Jaramillo Lanchero, R D; Andrade Delgado, L C; Juárez Reyes, P L; López Pérez, R; Sánchez Navarro, W; Sánchez Pérez, L; Vásquez Obregón, V H

    1995-09-01

    The fluoride content of a sample of bags of salt for sale in Mexico City was measured in order to estimate the proportion of marketed salt that contained the quantity of fluoride set by the National Program for Prevention of Dental Caries through Consumption of Fluoridated Table Salt. The effectiveness of that program had never been evaluated. In March 1993, bags of salt were obtained from 70 of the 3544 neighborhoods that make up Mexico City. The stores were selected by simple random sampling. Salt was likewise purchased from 20% of the 146 supermarkets and self-service stores in the city, also selected as a random sample. Then, blind measurement was done of the fluoride content of 221 bags of salt. The true content of this element was often found to be below the amount called for by the government. In addition, it did not coincide with the quantity indicated on the package label, which is a violation of the law.

  10. Salt, Water, and Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Nathan J.

    Good nutrition for athletes demands plenty of water, since water is essential to such vital functions as muscle reactions. Dehydration can result from jet travel as well as from exercise and heat, making it a danger to traveling athletic teams. To avoid dehydration, water needs should be monitored by frequent weighing, and a clean water supply…

  11. Exceptionally fast water desalination at complete salt rejection by pristine graphyne monolayers.

    PubMed

    Xue, Minmin; Qiu, Hu; Guo, Wanlin

    2013-12-20

    Desalination that produces clean freshwater from seawater holds the promise of solving the global water shortage for drinking, agriculture and industry. However, conventional desalination technologies such as reverse osmosis and thermal distillation involve large amounts of energy consumption, and the semipermeable membranes widely used in reverse osmosis face the challenge to provide a high throughput at high salt rejection. Here we find by comprehensive molecular dynamics simulations and first principles modeling that pristine graphyne, one of the graphene-like one-atom-thick carbon allotropes, can achieve 100% rejection of nearly all ions in seawater including Na(+), Cl(-), Mg(2+), K(+) and Ca(2+), at an exceptionally high water permeability about two orders of magnitude higher than those for commercial state-of-the-art reverse osmosis membranes at a salt rejection of ~98.5%. This complete ion rejection by graphyne, independent of the salt concentration and the operating pressure, is revealed to be originated from the significantly higher energy barriers for ions than for water. This intrinsic specialty of graphyne should provide a new possibility for the efforts to alleviate the global shortage of freshwater and other environmental problems.

  12. Production of tyramine by Enterococcus faecalis strains in water-boiled salted duck.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Du, Lihui; Xu, Weiyan; Wang, Daoying; Zhang, Muhan; Zhu, Yongzhi; Xu, Weimin

    2013-05-01

    The potential to produce biogenic amines was investigated with 15 Lactococcus lactis and 15 Enterococcus faecalis strains isolated from water-boiled salted duck. The production of biogenic amines from the isolated strains grown in de Man Rogosa Sharpe broth containing precursor amino acids was determined by thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. None of the L. lactis strains produced any biogenic amines, whereas 12 strains of E. faecalis produced tyramine and b -phenylethylamine. PCR assays were used to detect the presence of tyrosine decarboxylase genes in all of the isolated strains. Only the 12 biogenic amine-producing Enterococcus strains had a 924-bp fragment characteristic for the tyrosine decarboxylase gene. The comparison of the amplified partial tyrDC gene sequences of the 12 positive Enterococcus strains revealed 99% similarity within the same species. The tyramine production of the sterilized water-boiled salted duck inoculated with E. faecalis R612Z1 increased significantly during storage. This study reveals that the isolated E. faecalis strains can produce tyramine and β-phenylethylamine in the medium; however, they can only produce tyramine in water-boiled salted duck.

  13. Inhibition of salt water survival and Na-K-ATPase elevation in steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri) by moderate water temperatures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, B. L.; Zaugg, W.S.; McLain, L. R.

    1975-01-01

    The steelhead trout metamorphosis from a freshwater parr to a sea water-tolerant smolt possessing the migration tendency was evaluated at six different growth temperatures ranging from 6 to 15 C during January through July. The highest temperature where a transformation was indicated was 11.3 C. By April fish reared at 6 C had elevated ATPase levels typical of smolts or migratory animals and showed 92% survival in sea water. Ten and 11.3 C-reared fish showed a short-lived elevation in ATPase in mid-April alone concurrently with 100% sea water survival at that time. Only in 6 C-reared animals did the salt water survival ability continue into May. High ATPase levels likewise were prolonged into May and June only in the 6 C-reared group. The data indicate that metamorphosis (and therefore successful migration) of juvenile steelhead trout is directly controlled by water temperature.

  14. 46 CFR 45.77 - Salt water freeboard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Salt water freeboard. 45.77 Section 45.77 Shipping COAST... Salt water freeboard. (a) The salt water addition in inches to freeboard applicable to each fresh water mark is obtained by the formula: Addition=Δ/41T where: Δ=displacement in fresh water, in tons of...

  15. 46 CFR 45.77 - Salt water freeboard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Salt water freeboard. 45.77 Section 45.77 Shipping COAST... Salt water freeboard. (a) The salt water addition in inches to freeboard applicable to each fresh water mark is obtained by the formula: Addition=Δ/41T where: Δ=displacement in fresh water, in tons of...

  16. 46 CFR 45.77 - Salt water freeboard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Salt water freeboard. 45.77 Section 45.77 Shipping COAST... Salt water freeboard. (a) The salt water addition in inches to freeboard applicable to each fresh water mark is obtained by the formula: Addition=Δ/41T where: Δ=displacement in fresh water, in tons of...

  17. 46 CFR 45.77 - Salt water freeboard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Salt water freeboard. 45.77 Section 45.77 Shipping COAST... Salt water freeboard. (a) The salt water addition in inches to freeboard applicable to each fresh water mark is obtained by the formula: Addition=Δ/41T where: Δ=displacement in fresh water, in tons of...

  18. 46 CFR 45.77 - Salt water freeboard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Salt water freeboard. 45.77 Section 45.77 Shipping COAST... Salt water freeboard. (a) The salt water addition in inches to freeboard applicable to each fresh water mark is obtained by the formula: Addition=Δ/41T where: Δ=displacement in fresh water, in tons of...

  19. Surface and ground water quality in a restored urban stream affected by road salts

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2001 research began in Minebank Run, MD to examine the impact of restoration on water quality. Our research area was to determine if road salts in the surface and ground waters are detrimental to the stream channel restoration. The upstream reach (UP), above the Baltimore I-...

  20. Mechanisms by which the pregnant ewe can sustain increased salt and water supply to the fetus.

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, K J; Lumbers, E R

    1992-01-01

    1. Nine chronically catheterized pregnant ewes were monitored before, during and after 1 week in which fetal urine was drained continuously, to determine whether they could compensate for the resulting loss of salt and water and increase net supply across the placenta to the fetus. 2. Fetal growth and urine and lung liquid production were not affected by loss of all fetal fluids. 3. When fetal urine was drained, the increase (P less than 0.05) in maternal drinking was greater than the extra amount of fluid lost. Thus, maternal plasma osmolality fell (P less than 0.01). When fetal urine again flowed into the amniotic and allantoic cavities, maternal drinking did not fall significantly and plasma osmolality remained low. Maternal urine flow rate increased (P less than 0.05) and its osmolality fell (P less than 0.02). 4. Maternal food intake increased (P less than 0.005) during fetal urine drainage. 5. Maternal plasma renin activity increased (P less than 0.05), her urinary sodium excretion fell (P less than 0.005) and the Na(+)-K+ ratio in both her urine and faeces decreased (P less than 0.01 and P less than 0.05 respectively) when fetal urine was drained. Maternal urinary and faecal sodium conservation continued after drainage ceased because of continued loss of sodium in lung liquid. 6. It is concluded that the ewe can compensate for inappropriate loss of salt and water from the conceptus. PMID:1501146

  1. Water Uptake by Mars Salt Analogs: An Investigation of Stable Aqueous Solutions Using Raman Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuding, Danielle L.

    -day conditions. To investigate complex brine mixtures, a salt analog, deemed 'Instant Mars,' was developed to closely match the individual cation and anion concentrations as reported by the Wet Chemistry Laboratory instrument at the Phoenix landing site. 'Instant Mars' was developed to fully encompass and closely replicate correct concentrations of magnesium, calcium, potassium, sodium, perchlorate, chloride, and sulfate ions. Here we use two separate techniques, Raman microscopy and particle levitation, to study the water uptake and loss properties of individual Instant Mars analog particles. Raman microscope experiments reveal that Instant Mars particles can form stable, aqueous solutions at 56 +/- 5% RH at 243 K and persist as a metastable, aqueous solution down to 13 +/- 5% RH. The results presented in this thesis demonstrate that a salt analog that closely replicates in-situ measurements from the Phoenix landing site can take up water vapor from the surrounding environment and transition into a stable, aqueous solution. Furthermore, this aqueous Instant Mars solution can persist as a metastable, supersaturated solution in RH conditions much lower than the deliquescent RH. Finally, laboratory experiments presented here examine the interaction of B. subtilis spores (B-168) with liquid water in Mars relevant temperatures and RH conditions. In addition, Ca(ClO4)2 was mixed with the B. subtilis spores and exposed to the same diurnal cycle conditions to quantify the effects of Ca(ClO4)2 on the spores. A combination of Raman microscopy and an environmental cell allows us to visually and spectrally analyze the changes of the individual B. subtilis spores and Ca(ClO4)2 mixtures as they experience present-day martian diurnal cycle conditions. Results suggest that B-168 spores can survive the arid conditions and martian temperatures, even when exposed to Ca(ClO 4)2 in the crystalline or aqueous phase. The extreme hygroscopic nature of Ca(ClO4)2 allows for direct interaction of B

  2. Enhanced removal of sodium salts supported by in-situ catalyst synthesis in a supercritical water oxidation process.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, F; Sun, Z R; Fukushi, K; Oshima, Y; Yamamoto, K

    2012-01-01

    For practical applications of supercritical water oxidation to wastewater treatment, the deposition of inorganic salts in supercritical phase must be controlled to prevent a reactor from clogging. This study investigated enhanced removal of sodium salts with titanium particles, serving as a salt trapper and a catalyst precursor, and sodium recovery by sub-critical water. When Na(2)CO(3) was tested as a model salt, sodium removal efficiency was higher than theoretically maximum efficiency defined by Na(2)CO(3) solubility. The enhanced sodium removal resulted from in-situ synthesis of sodium titanate, which could catalyse acetic acid oxidation. The kinetics of sodium removal was described well by a diffusion mass-transfer model combined with a power law-type rate model of sodium titanate synthesis. Titanium particles showed positive effect on sodium removal in the case of NaOH, Na(2)SO(4) and Na(3)PO(4). However, they had negligible effect for NaCl and negative effect for Na(2)CrO(4), respectively. More than 99% of trapped sodium was recovered by sub-critical water except for Na(2)CrO(4). In contrast, sodium recovery efficiency remained less than 50% in the case of Na(2)CrO(4). Reused titanium particles showed the same performance for enhanced sodium removal. Enhanced salt removal supported by in-situ catalyst synthesis has great potential to enable both salt removal control and catalytic oxidation.

  3. Determination of optimal dead sea salt content in a cosmetic emulsion using rheology and stability measurements.

    PubMed

    Abu-Jdayil, Basim; Mohameed, Hazim A; Bsoul, Abeer

    2008-01-01

    Dead Sea mud and salts are known for their therapeutic and cosmetic properties. The presence of Dead Sea (DS) salts in different types of cosmetics has affected the stability and the flow properties of the finished products. In this study, an attempt was made to find the optimum Dead Sea salt content in a cosmetic emulsion (model of body cream) using both rheology and stability measurements. The rheological properties were tested during a four-month storage period at three different storage temperatures: 8 degrees C, room temperature, and 45 degrees C. In addition to rheological measurements and centrifuge tests, the conductivities of the emulsion samples were also determined. The centrifuge tests showed that the cream samples containing more than 0.25 wt% of DS salt showed phase separation. The addition of DS salt to the cosmetic emulsion led to two maxima in the emulsion viscosity at salt contents of 0.07 wt% and 0.15 wt%. However, the emulsion samples containing 0.15% of DS salt was considered the optimum sample since it contained the maximum amount of salt and exhibited the maximum viscosity at all tested conditions. It was found that the viscosity of the emulsion is increased with storage time and storage temperature. This behavior was accompanied by a decrease in conductivity. This behavior was explained by water evaporation from the emulsion. However, it has been shown that the presence of DS salt in the cosmetic emulsion significantly reduces the rate of water evaporation. The conductivity measurements reflect the rate of water evaporation, and the presence of DS salt reduces the rate of conductivity. Conductivity is observed to decrease with storage time and temperature.

  4. Water dynamics in hyperarid soils of Antarctica including water adsorption and salt hydration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagedorn, B.; Sletten, R. S.

    2009-12-01

    Soils in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica contain ice and considerable amounts of salt. Ice often occurs at shallow depth throughout the dry valleys and other areas of hyperarid permafrost, notably on Mars. This common occurrence of shallow ice is enigmatic; however, since according to published sublimation models it should disappear relatively quickly (at rates of order 0.1 mm a-1) due to vapor loss to the atmosphere. The disagreement between the occurrence of ice on one hand and process-based vapor transport models on other hand suggests that processes in addition to vapor transport have influence on ice stability. From a number of possible processes, infiltration of snowmelt during summer month and vapor trapping due to overlaying snow cover in winter have been discussed in more detail and both processes are likely to slow down ice sublimation. At this point, however, there are only limited field-observations to confirm the presence of such processes. The present study aims to investigate the effect of water adsorption, salt hydration, and freezing point depression on water transport and ice stability. We hypothesize that hydration of salts and water adsorption on grain surfaces play an important role in the survival of ground ice and as water reservoir in these areas and should be taken into account when modeling vapor transport. Furthermore, there is evidence that salt content in ground ice is high enough to cause formation of brines at subfreezing temperatures that can lead to a growth of ground ice. To support our hypothesis we set up a field experiment by monitoring soil temperature, soil humidity, and soil moisture along with climate data and snow cover. In addition we collected soil samples to measure water potential, salt composition, ice content, and soil texture. Soil samples were extracted with water to measure soluble salt content along dry and ice rich soil profiles. In addition we measured soil moisture retention curves at different vapor

  5. All-Organic Rechargeable Battery with Reversibility Supported by "Water-in-Salt" Electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiaoli; Yu, Hongchuan; Ma, Yuanyuan; Bao, Junwei Lucas; Truhlar, Donald G; Wang, Yonggang; Xia, Yongyao

    2017-02-21

    Rechargeable batteries with organic electrodes are preferred to those with transition-metal-containing electrodes for their environmental friendliness, and resource availability, but all such batteries reported to date are based on organic electrolytes, which raise concerns of safety and performance. Here an aqueous-electrolyte all-organic rechargeable battery is reported, with a maximum operating voltage of 2.1 V, in which polytriphenylamine (PTPAn) and 1,4,5,8-naphthalenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (NTCDA)-derived polyimide (PNTCDA) serve as cathode and anode material, respectively. A key feature of the design is use of a "water-in-salt" electrolyte to bind "free" water; this impedes the side reaction of water oxidation, thereby enabling excellent reversibility in aqueous solution. The battery can deliver a maximum energy density of 52.8 Wh kg(-1) , which is close to most of the all-organic batteries with organic electrolytes. The battery exhibits a supercapacitor-like high power of 32 000 W kg(-1) and a long cycle life (700 cycles with capacity retention of 85 %), due to the kinetics not being limited by ion diffusion at either electrode.

  6. Salting-in and salting-out of water-soluble polymers in aqueous salt solutions.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Rahmat; Jahani, Farahnaz

    2012-05-03

    To obtain further experimental evidence for the mechanisms of the salting effect produced by the addition of salting-out or sating-in inducing electrolytes to aqueous solutions of water-soluble polymers, systematic studies on the vapor-liquid equilibria and liquid-liquid equilibria of aqueous solutions of several polymers are performed in the presence of a large series of electrolytes. Polymers are polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG400), polyethylene glycol dimethyl ether 250 (PEGDME250), polyethylene glycol dimethyl ether 2000 (PEGDME2000), and polypropylene glycol 400 (PPG400), and the investigated electrolytes are KCl, NH(4)Cl, MgCl(2), (CH(3))(4)NCl, NaCl, NaNO(3), Na(2)CO(3), Na(2)SO(4), and Na(3)Cit (tri-sodium citrate). Aqueous solutions of PPG400 form aqueous two-phase systems with all the investigated salts; however, other investigated polymers form aqueous two-phase systems only with Na(2)CO(3), Na(2)SO(4), and Na(3)Cit. A relation was found between the salting-out or sating-in effects of electrolyte on the polymer aqueous solutions and the slopes of the constant water activity lines of ternary polymer-salt aqueous solutions, so that, in the case of the salting-out effect, the constant water activity lines had a concave slope, but in the case of the salting-in effects, the constant water activity lines had a convex slope. The effect of temperature, anion of electrolyte, cation of electrolyte, and type and molar mass of polymers were studied and the results interpreted in terms of the solute-water and solute-solute interactions. The salting-out effect results from the formation of ion (specially anion)-water hydration complexes, which, in turn, decreases hydration, and hence, the solubility of the polymer and the salting-in effect results from a direct binding of the cations to the ether oxygens of the polymers.

  7. Effect of water content on stability of landslides triggered by earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyabanaki, S.; Bagtzoglou, A. C.; Anagnostou, E. N.

    2013-12-01

    Earthquake- triggered landslides are one of the most important natural hazards that often result in serious structural damage and loss of life. They are widely studied by several researchers. However, less attention has been focused on soil water content. Although the effect of water content has been widely studied for rainfall- triggered landslides [1], much less attention has been given to it for stability analysis of earthquake- triggered landslides. We developed a combined hydrology and stability model to investigate effect of soil water content on earthquake-triggered landslides. For this purpose, Bishop's method is used to do the slope stability analysis and Richard's equation is employed to model infiltration. Bishop's method is one the most widely methods used for analyzing stability of slopes [2]. Earthquake acceleration coefficient (EAC) is also considered in the model to analyze the effect of earthquake on slope stability. Also, this model is able to automatically determine geometry of the potential landslide. In this study, slopes with different initial water contents are simulated. First, the simulation is performed in the case of earthquake only with different EACs and water contents. As shown in Fig. 1, initial water content has a significant effect on factor of safety (FS). Greater initial water contents lead to less FS. This impact is more significant when EAC is small. Also, when initial water content is high, landslides can happen even with small earthquake accelerations. Moreover, in this study, effect of water content on geometry of landslides is investigated. For this purpose, different cases of landslides triggered by earthquakes only and both rainfall and earthquake for different initial water contents are simulated. The results show that water content has more significant effect on geometry of landslides triggered by rainfall than those triggered by an earthquake. Finally, effect of water content on landslides triggered by earthquakes

  8. Hydrogen production from salt water by Marine blue green algae and solar radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitsui, A.; Rosner, D.; Kumazawa, S.; Barciela, S.; Phlips, E.

    1985-01-01

    Two marine bluegreen algae, Oscillatoria sp. Miami BG 7 and Synechococcus sp Miami 041511 have been selected as the result of over 10 years continuous and intensive effort of isolation, growth examination, and the screening of hydrogen photoproduction capability in this laboratory. Both strains photoproduced hydrogen for several days at high rates and a quantity of hydrogen was accumulated in a closed vessel. Overall hydrogen donor substance of the hydrogen photoproduction was found to be salt water. Using strain Miami BG 7, a two step method of hydrogen photoproduction from salt water was successfully developed and this was recycled several times over a one month period using both free cells and immobilized cells in both indoor and outdoor under natural sunlight. According to these experiments, a prototype floating hydrogen production system was designed for further development of the biosolar hydrogen production system.

  9. Transient Heat and Mass Transfer Flow through Salt Water in an Ocean by Inclined Angle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karim, lfsana; Khan, M. S.; Alam, M. M.; Rouf, M. A.; Ferdows, M.; Tzirtzilakis, E. E.

    2016-12-01

    In the present computational study, the inclined angle effect of unsteady heat and mass transfer flow through salt water in an ocean was studied. The governing equations together with continuity, momentum, salinity and temperature were developed using the boundary layer approximation. Cartesian coordinate system was introduced to interpret the physical model where x-axis chosen along the direction of salt water flow and y-axis is inclined to x-axis. Two angle of inclination was considered such as 90° and 120°. The time dependent governing equations under the initial and boundary conditions were than transformed into the dimensionless form. A numerical solution approach so-called explicit finite difference method (EFDM) was employed to solve the obtained dimensionless equations. Different physical parameter was found in the model such as Prandtl number, Modified Prandtl number, Grashof number, Heat source parameter and Soret number. A stability and convergence analysis was developed in this study to describe the aspects of the finite difference scheme and this analysis is significant due to accuracy of the EFDM approach. The convergence criteria were observed to be in terms of dimensionless parameter as Pr ≥ 0.0128 and Ps ≥ 0.016. The distributions of the temperature and salinity profiles of salt water flow over different time steps were investigated for the effect of different dimensionless parameters and shown graphically.

  10. DoGMP1 from Dendrobium officinale contributes to mannose content of water-soluble polysaccharides and plays a role in salt stress response

    PubMed Central

    He, Chunmei; Yu, Zhenming; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A.; Zhang, Jianxia; Liu, Xuncheng; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Xinhua; Zeng, Songjun; Wu, Kunlin; Tan, Jianwen; Ma, Guohua; Luo, Jianping; Duan, Jun

    2017-01-01

    GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase (GMP) catalyzed the formation of GDP-mannose, which serves as a donor for the biosynthesis of mannose-containing polysaccharides. In this study, three GMP genes from Dendrobium officinale (i.e., DoGMPs) were cloned and analyzed. The putative 1000 bp upstream regulatory region of these DoGMPs was isolated and cis-elements were identified, which indicates their possible role in responses to abiotic stresses. The DoGMP1 protein was shown to be localized in the cytoplasm. To further study the function of the DoGMP1 gene, 35S:DoGMP1 transgenic A. thaliana plants with an enhanced expression level of DoGMP1 were generated. Transgenic plants were indistinguishable from wild-type (WT) plants in tissue culture or in soil. However, the mannose content of the extracted water-soluble polysaccharides increased 67%, 96% and 92% in transgenic lines #1, #2 and #3, respectively more than WT levels. Germination percentage of seeds from transgenic lines was higher than WT seeds and the growth of seedlings from transgenic lines was better than WT seedlings under salinity stress (150 mM NaCl). Our results provide genetic evidence for the involvement of GMP genes in the biosynthesis of mannose-containing polysaccharides and the mediation of GMP genes in the response to salt stress during seed germination and seedling growth. PMID:28176760

  11. Understanding the bias between moisture content by oven drying and water content by Karl Fischer titration at moisture equilibrium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multiple causes of the difference between equilibrium moisture and water content have been found. The errors or biases were traced to the oven drying procedure to determine moisture content. The present paper explains the nature of the biases in oven drying and how it is possible to suppress one ...

  12. Thermal properties of ration components as affected by moisture content and water activity during freezing.

    PubMed

    Li, J; Chinachoti, P; Wang, D; Hallberg, L M; Sun, X S

    2008-11-01

    Beef roast with vegetables is an example of a meal, ready-to-eat (MRE) ration entrée. It is a mixture of meat, potato, mushroom, and carrot with a gravy sauce. The thermal properties of each component were characterized in terms of freezing point, latent heat, freezable and unfreezable water contents, and enthalpy during freezing using differential scanning calorimetry. Freezing and thawing curves and the effect of freezing and thawing cycles on thermal properties were also evaluated. The freezing points of beef, potato, mushroom, and sauce were all in the range of -5.1 to -5.6 degrees C, but moisture content, water activity, latent heat, freezable and unfreezable water contents, and enthalpy varied among these components. Freezing temperature greatly affected the unfrozen water fraction. The unfreezable water content (unfrozen water fraction at -50 degrees C) of ration components was in the range of 8.2% to 9.7%. The freezing and thawing curves of vegetables with sauce differed from those of beef but took similar time to freeze or thaw. Freezing and thawing cycles did not greatly affect the thermal properties of each component. Freezing point and latent heat were reduced by decreasing moisture content and water activity of each component. Water activity was proportionally linear to freezing point at a(w) > 0.88, and moisture content was proportionally linear to freezable water content in all ration components. Water was not available for freezing when moisture content was reduced to 28.8% or less. This study indicates that moisture content and water activity are critical factors affecting thermal behavior of ration components during freezing.

  13. Effects of storage temperature on tyramine production by Enterococcus faecalis R612Z1 in water-boiled salted ducks.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Du, Lihui; Wu, Haihong; Wang, Daoying; Zhu, Yongzhi; Geng, Zhiming; Zhang, Muhan; Xu, Weimin

    2014-10-01

    Tyramine production by Enterococcus faecalis R612Z1 in water-boiled salted ducks was evaluated during storage at different temperatures. The results showed that E. faecalis R612Z1 could produce tyramine in meat samples when the storage temperature was no less than 4°C. The E. faecalis R612Z1 counts of the meat samples reached 10(8) CFU/g on day 7 at 4°C and on day 4 at 10°C. However, the tyramine content of the meat samples stored at 10°C increased to 23.73 μg/g (on day 10), which was greater than the level in the samples stored at 4°C (7.56 μg/g). Reverse transcription quantitative PCR detection of the expression level of the tyrDC gene in E. faecalis R612Z1 in the meat samples revealed no significant changes at different storage temperatures. Thus, the changes in tyramine production of E. faecalis R612Z1 may be due to the different enzymatic activities at different storage temperatures.

  14. Monitoring of Water Content And Frozen State by using Millimeter Wave Absorption Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuno, Maya; Shindo, Kenji; Ogawa, Yuichi; Otani, Chiko; Kawase, Kodo

    In this research, we built an experimental setup for measuring the water content in plants and food, and for determining the water/ice state of a sample. The setup consists of a 35 GHz Gunn oscillator producing about 10 mW of output power, two horn antennas and a power meter. We have checked that the absorption of a leaf is directly proportional to its water content, and we could show how changes of the water content depend on photosynthesis, by intermittent illumination with a white fluorescent lamp. In another direction of research, we verified that the difference in the absorption coefficients for water and ice is significant, and we could discriminate and monitor the frozen state of water and food material. All these experiments demonstrate the possibility of applying millimeter waves to fields such as botany, agriculture, and food industry.

  15. Hot water, fresh beer, and salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, Frank S.

    1990-11-01

    In the ``hot chocolate effect'' the best musical scales (those with the finest tone quality, largest range, and best tempo) are obtained by adding salt to a glass of hot water supersaturated with air. Good scales can also be obtained by adding salt to a glass of freshly opened beer (supersaturated with CO2) provided you first (a) get rid of much of the excess CO2 so as to produce smaller, hence slower, rising bubbles, and (b) get rid of the head of foam, which damps the standing wave and ruins the tone quality. Finally the old question, ``Do ionizing particles produce bubbles in fresh beer?'' is answered experimentally.

  16. Water and salt distribution in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) studied by low-field 1H NMR, 1H and 23Na MRI and light microscopy: effects of raw material quality and brine salting.

    PubMed

    Aursand, Ida G; Veliyulin, Emil; Böcker, Ulrike; Ofstad, Ragni; Rustad, Turid; Erikson, Ulf

    2009-01-14

    The effect of different Atlantic salmon raw materials (prerigor, postrigor and frozen/thawed) on water mobility and salt uptake after brine salting was investigated by using LF 1H NMR T2 relaxation,1H and 23Na MRI and light microscopy. Distributed exponential analysis of the T2 relaxation data revealed two main water pools in all raw materials, T21 and T22, with relaxation times in the range of 20-100 ms and 100-300 ms, respectively. Raw material differences were reflected in the T2 relaxation data. Light microscopy demonstrated structural differences between unsalted and salted raw materials. For prerigor fillets, salting induced a decrease in T21 population coupled with a more open microstructure compared to unsalted fillets, whereas for frozen/thawed fillets, an increase in T21 population coupled with salt-induced swelling of myofibers was observed. The result implies that the T21 population was directly affected by the density of the muscle myofiber lattice. MR imaging revealed significant differences in salt uptake between raw materials, prerigor salted fillets gained least salt (1.3-1.6% NaCl), whereas the frozen/thawed fillets gained most salt (2.7-2.9% NaCl), and obtained the most even salt distribution due to the more open microstructure. This study demonstrates the advantage of LF NMR T2 relaxation and 1H and 23Na MRI as effective tools for understanding of the relationship between the microstructure of fish muscle, its water mobility and its salt uptake.

  17. [Effects of salting, cut type, and initial simmering temperature on protein and fat contents of meat broths: I. Beef].

    PubMed

    Gotera-Prado, Z; Quintero, J B; Huerta-Leidenz, N; Prado Gotera, Z

    1997-12-01

    A 2 x 2 x 4 factorial design was used to study variation of protein and fat contents in beef broths as affected by cut type (flank, shank), salt treatments (addition of salt to the medium, no salt), and initial temperatures of simmering (25, 70, 75, and 100 degrees C). Flank portions yielded slightly more protein (0.29 g/100 mL) and had three-fold less fat (0.39 g/mL) than those of shank (0.25 and 1.12 g/mL, respectively) (P < 0.05). No linear relationship of temperature and amount of extractable components was observed, but it was clear that the greatest protein extraction was accomplished when meat was immersed in cooking water at boiling point (P < 0.05). In general, salting of water reduced fat content of beef broths. However, a significant Salting x Cut type interaction showed this effect was only present in shanks (P < 0.05). Conversely, the reducing effect (P < 0.05) of salting on amount of protein extracted from flank was not observed in shanks. Based on these data, we conclude that larger amounts of protein and less fat could be transferred from meat pieces to the medium by immersing beef in salted water at the boiling point.

  18. [Simulation of effects of soil properties and plants on soil water-salt movement with reclaimed water irrigation by ENVIRO-GRO model].

    PubMed

    Lü, Si-Dan; Chen, Wei-Ping; Wang, Mei-E

    2012-12-01

    In order to promote safe irrigation with reclaimed water and prevent soil salinisation, the dynamic transport of salts in urban soils of Beijing under irrigation of reclaimed water was simulated by ENVIRO-GRO model in this study. The accumulation trends and profile distribution of soil salinity were predicted. Simultaneously, the effects of different soil properties and plants on soil water-salt movement and salt accumulation were investigated. Results indicated that soil salinity in the profiles reached uniform equilibrium conditions by repeated simulation, with different initial soil salinity. Under the conditions of loam and clay loam soil, salinity in the profiles increased over time until reaching equilibrium conditions, while under the condition of sandy loam soil, salinity in the profiles decreased over time until reaching equilibrium conditions. The saturated soil salinity (EC(e)) under equilibrium conditions followed an order of sandy loam < loam < clay loam. Salt accumulations in Japan euonymus and Chinese pine were less than that in Blue grass. The temporal and spatial distributions of soil salinity were also different in these three types of plants. In addition, the growth of the plants was not influenced by soil salinity (except clay loam), but mild soil salinization occurred under all conditions (except sandy loam).

  19. Effectiveness of highway-drainage systems in preventing contamination of ground water by road salt, Route 25, southeastern Massachusetts; description of study area, data collection programs, and methodology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Church, P.E.; Armstrong, D.S.; Granato, G.E.; Stone, V.J.; Smith, K.P.; Provencher, P.L.

    1996-01-01

    Four test sites along a 7-mile section of Route 25 in southeastern Massachusetts, each representing a specific highway-drainage system, were instrumented to determine the effectiveness of the drainage systems in preventing contamination of ground water by road salt. One of the systems discharges highway runoff onsite through local drainpipes. The other systems use trunkline drainpipes through which runoff from highway surfaces, shoulders, and median strips is diverted and discharged into either a local stream or a coastal waterway. Route 25 was completed and opened to traffic in the summer of 1987. Road salt was first applied to the highway in the winter of 1987-88. The study area is on a thick outwash plain composed primarily of sand and gravel. Water-table depths range from 15 to 60 feet below land surface at the four test sites. Ground-water flow is in a general southerly direction, approximately perpendicular to the highway. Streamflow in the study area is controlled primarily by ground-water discharge. Background concentrations of dissolved chloride, sodium, and calcium-the primary constituents of road salt-are similar in ground water and surface water and range from 5 to 20, 5 to 10, and 1 to 5 milligrams per liter, respectively. Data-collection programs were developed for monitoring the application of road salt to the highway, the quantity of road-salt water entering the ground water, diverted through the highway-drainage systems, and entering a local stream. The Massachusetts Highway Department monitored road salt applied to the highway and reported these data to the U.S. Geological Survey. The U.S. Geological Survey designed and operated the ground-water, highway- drainage, and surface-water data-collection programs. A road-salt budget will be calculated for each test site so that the effectiveness of the different highway-drainage systems in preventing contamination of ground water by road salt can be determined.

  20. Entrainment in coupled salt-water oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyakawa, Kenji; Yamada, Kazuhiko

    1999-03-01

    The properties of coupling between two salt-water oscillators were studied. Two salt-water oscillators were coupled through the window of the partition wall. With an increase of the area of the window, the quasi-periodic mode, the in-phase mode, the bistable mode, and the out-of-phase mode appeared successively. A phase diagram of coupling was obtained in the plane of the area of the window and the diameter of the orifice of the cup. Furthermore, the effect of viscosity on coupling behaviors was investigated. In the boundary region between quasi-periodic coupling and in-phase coupling, the mode coupled with the phase difference of approximately π/4 was found. The experimental results were reproduced by the numerical simulation using coupled non-linear differential equations.

  1. Municipal water reuse for urban agriculture in Namibia: Modeling nutrient and salt flows as impacted by sanitation user behavior.

    PubMed

    Woltersdorf, L; Scheidegger, R; Liehr, S; Döll, P

    2016-03-15

    Adequate sanitation, wastewater treatment and irrigation infrastructure often lacks in urban areas of developing countries. While treated, nutrient-rich reuse water is a precious resource for crop production in dry regions, excessive salinity might harm the crops. The aim of this study was to quantify, from a system perspective, the nutrient and salt flows a new infrastructure connecting water supply, sanitation, wastewater treatment and nutrient-rich water reuse for the irrigation of agriculture, from a system perspective. For this, we developed and applied a quantitative assessment method to understand the benefits and to support the management of the new water infrastructure in an urban area in semi-arid Namibia. The nutrient and salt flows, as affected by sanitation user behavior, were quantified by mathematical material flow analysis that accounts for the low availability of suitable and certain data in developing countries, by including data ranges and by assessing the effects of different assumptions in cases. Also the nutrient and leaching requirements of a crop scheme were calculated. We found that, with ideal sanitation use, 100% of nutrients and salts are reclaimed and the slightly saline reuse water is sufficient to fertigate 10 m(2)/cap/yr (90% uncertainty interval 7-12 m(2)/cap/yr). However, only 50% of the P contained in human excreta could be finally used for crop nutrition. During the pilot phase fewer sanitation users than expected used slightly more water per capita, used the toilets less frequently and practiced open defecation more frequently. Therefore, it was only possible to reclaim about 85% of nutrients from human excreta, the reuse water was non-saline and contained less nutrient so that the P was the limiting factor for crop fertigation. To reclaim all nutrients from human excreta and fertigate a larger agricultural area, sanitation user behavior needs to be improved. The results and the methodology of this study can be generalized and

  2. Dysprosium(III) hydroxide coprecipitation system for the separation and preconcentration of heavy metal contents of table salts and natural waters.

    PubMed

    Peker, Dondu Serpil Kacar; Turkoglu, Orhan; Soylak, Mustafa

    2007-05-08

    A procedure for the determination of trace amounts of Pb(II), Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II), Cd(II) and Mn(II) is described, that combines atomic absorption spectrometry-dysprosium hydroxide coprecipitation. The influences of analytical parameters including amount of dysprosium(III), centrifugation time, sample volume, etc. were investigated on the recoveries of analyte ions. The effects of concomitant ions were also examined. The recoveries of the analyte ions were in the range of 95.00-104.00%. The detection limits corresponding to three times the standard deviation of the blank for the analytes were in the range of 14.1-25.3 microg/L. The method was applied to the determination of lead, copper, nickel, cobalt, cadmium and manganese ions in natural waters and table salts good results were obtained (relative standard deviations <10%, recoveries >95%).

  3. Retrieving soil water contents from soil temperature measurements by using linear regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qin; Zhou, Binbin

    2003-11-01

    A simple linear regression method is developed to retrieve daily averaged soil water content from diurnal variations of soil temperature measured at three or more depths. The method is applied to Oklahoma Mesonet soil temperature data collected at the depths of 5, 10, and 30 cm during 11 20 June 1995. The retrieved bulk soil water contents are compared with direct measurements for one pair of nearly collocated Mesonet and ARM stations and also compared with the retrievals of a previous method at 14 enhanced Oklahoma Mesonet stations. The results show that the current method gives more persistent retrievals than the previous method. The method is also applied to Oklahoma Mesonet soil temperature data collected at the depths of 5, 25, 60, and 75 cm from the Norman site during 20 30 July 1998 and 1 31 July 2000. The retrieved soil water contents are verified by collocated soil water content measurements with rms differences smaller than the soil water observation error (0.05 m3 m-3). The retrievals are found to be moderately sensitive to random errors (±0.1 K) in the soil temperature observations and errors in the soil type specifications.

  4. Temporal stability of soil water contents as affected by weather patterns: a simulation study.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temporal stability of soil water content (TS SWC) is a natural phenomenon that recently attracts attention and finds multiple applications. Large variations in the interannual and interseasonal TS SWC have been encountered among locations studied by various authors. The objective of this work was ...

  5. [Compensation effect of cotton growth and development after soil salt content reduction at bud stage].

    PubMed

    Guo, Wen-Qi; Zhang, Pei-Tong; Li, Chun-Hong; Yin, Jian-Mei; Han, Xiao-Yong

    2014-01-01

    To elucidate the dynamic characteristics of cotton growth and development after soil salt content reduction (SD) at bud stage and its effect on yield formation, a pot experiment was conducted in which soil salt content was declined from 5 per thousand level to 2 per thousand level at cotton bud stage. The results showed that the plant height, biomass, total fruit branch and fruit node number, boll number, boll mass of cotton plants increased after soil salt content reduction at bud stage. The distribution proportions of biomass in root and boll decreased after soil salt content reduction, however, the distribution proportions of biomass in leaf, main stem and fruit branch were on the rise. The growth rate of cotton plant increased after soil salt content reduction. Plant dry matter accumulation rate of SD cotton exceeded CK cotton at 22 days after soil salt content reduction. The response of different organs of cotton plant were different to soil salt content reduction, the plant height was the earliest, followed by the fruit branch and fruit node formation, and the bud and boll were the latest, which indicated that the compensation effect of cotton growth and development after soil salt content reduction at bud stage firstly appeared on the formation and growth of new leaf, fruit branch and fruit node, and on this basis, gradually brought out yield compensation.

  6. Using advanced oxidation treatment for biofilm inactivation by varying water vapor content in air plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryota, Suganuma; Koichi, Yasuoka

    2015-09-01

    Biofilms are caused by environmental degradation in food factories and medical facilities. The inactivation of biofilms involves making them react with chemicals including chlorine, hydrogen peroxide, and ozone, although inactivation using chemicals has a potential problem because of the hazardous properties of the residual substance and hydrogen peroxide, which have slow reaction velocity. We successfully performed an advanced oxidation process (AOP) using air plasma. Hydrogen peroxide and ozone, which were used for the formation of OH radicals in our experiment, were generated by varying the amount of water vapor supplied to the plasma. By varying the content of the water included in the air, the main product was changed from air plasma. When we increased the water content in the air, hydrogen peroxide was produced, while ozone peroxide was produced when we decreased the water content in the air. By varying the amount of water vapor, we realized a 99.9% reduction in the amount of bacteria in the biofilm when we discharged humidified air only. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 25630104.

  7. Study on the water content measurement of tomatoes by near infrared technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Huanyu; Ying, Yibin; Bao, Yingshi

    2005-11-01

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is a promising technique for nondestructive measurement of farm products quality measurement and information acquisition. The objective of this research was to study the potential of NIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy as a way for nondestructive measurement of the water content of tomato leaves. A total of 120 leaves were collected as experimental materials, 80 of them were used to form a calibration data set. In order to set up a calibration model, NIR spectral data were collected in the spectral region between 800 nm and 2500 nm by NIR spectrometer of Nicolet Corporation, and water content of tomato leaves by a drying chest, four different mathematical treatments were used in spectrums processing: different wavelength range, baseline correction, smoothing, first and second derivative. Depending on data preprocessing and PLS analysis, we can get best prediction model when we select original spectra by baseline correction at full wavelength range (800-2500nm), the best model of water content has a root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 1.91, a root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) of 0.731 and a calibration correlation coefficient (R) value of 0.96265. It is conclude that the FTNIR method with Smart Near-IR UpDRIFT accessory can accurate estimate the water content in tomato leaves.

  8. Improvement of water use efficiency in rice by expression of HARDY, an Arabidopsis drought and salt tolerance gene

    PubMed Central

    Karaba, Aarati; Dixit, Shital; Greco, Raffaella; Aharoni, Asaph; Trijatmiko, Kurniawan R.; Marsch-Martinez, Nayelli; Krishnan, Arjun; Nataraja, Karaba N.; Udayakumar, Makarla; Pereira, Andy

    2007-01-01

    Freshwater is a limited and dwindling global resource; therefore, efficient water use is required for food crops that have high water demands, such as rice, or for the production of sustainable energy biomass. We show here that expression of the Arabidopsis HARDY (HRD) gene in rice improves water use efficiency, the ratio of biomass produced to the water used, by enhancing photosynthetic assimilation and reducing transpiration. These drought-tolerant, low-water-consuming rice plants exhibit increased shoot biomass under well irrigated conditions and an adaptive increase in root biomass under drought stress. The HRD gene, an AP2/ERF-like transcription factor, identified by a gain-of-function Arabidopsis mutant hrd-D having roots with enhanced strength, branching, and cortical cells, exhibits drought resistance and salt tolerance, accompanied by an enhancement in the expression of abiotic stress associated genes. HRD overexpression in Arabidopsis produces thicker leaves with more chloroplast-bearing mesophyll cells, and in rice, there is an increase in leaf biomass and bundle sheath cells that probably contributes to the enhanced photosynthesis assimilation and efficiency. The results exemplify application of a gene identified from the model plant Arabidopsis for the improvement of water use efficiency coincident with drought resistance in the crop plant rice. PMID:17881564

  9. [Determination of boron content in natural mineral and spring waters by ICP-OES technique].

    PubMed

    Swiecicka, Dorota; Garbos, Sławomir

    2009-01-01

    Maximum admissible level of boron concentration in water intended for human consumption and in natural mineral and spring waters is usually estimated taking into account actual WHO criteria and requirements listed in Directive No 98/83/EC - 1 mg/l. In majority countries of European Union maximum admissible level of boron in water intended for human consumption is 1 mg/l, however in Slovakia and in Netherlands maximum admissible levels of this element are 0.3 mg/l and 0.5 mg/l, respectively. In this work developed and validated method of determination of boron by inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry technique was applied for determination of this element in 26 natural mineral and spring waters. Concentrations of boron determined in sixteen mineral and spring waters analyzed were in the range from 0.029 mg/l to 0.552 mg/l while in ten waters analyzed the contents of boron were below 0.026 mg/l. The contents of boron in analyzed waters were below maximum admissible level in Poland presented in the Decree of Minister of Health from 29 March 2007 on the quality of water intended for human consumption and were not dangerous for human health.

  10. Dispersion of Louisiana crude oil in salt water environment by Corexit 9500A in the presence of natural coastal materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tansel, Berrin; Lee, Mengshan; Berbakov, Jillian; Tansel, Derya Z.; Koklonis, Urpiana

    2014-04-01

    Effectiveness of Corexit 9500A for dispersing Louisiana crude oil was evaluated in salt water solutions containing natural materials in relation to salinity and dispersant-to-oil ratio (DOR). Experimental results showed that both salinity and DOR had significant effects on dispersion of Louisiana crude oil in the presence of different natural materials. The natural materials added to the salt water solutions included sea sand (South Beach, Miami, Florida), red mangrove leaves (Rhizophora mangle), seaweed (Sargassum natans), and sea grass (Halodule wrightii). Dispersant effectiveness (amount of oil dispersed into the water) was reduced significantly with increasing salinity with the minimum effectiveness observed in the salinity range between 30 and 50 ppt in all aqueous samples containing natural materials. When significant amounts of floating oil were present, the partially submerged natural materials enhanced the transfer of oil into the water column, which improved the dispersion effectiveness. However, dispersant effectiveness was significantly reduced when the amount of floating oil was relatively small and could not be released back to the water column. Surface tension may not be an adequate parameter for monitoring the effectiveness of dispersants in salt water environment. When distilled water was used (i.e., zero salinity), surface tension was significantly reduced with increasing dispersant concentration. However, there was no clear trend in the surface tension of the salt water solutions (17-51 ppt) containing crude oil and natural materials with increasing dispersant concentration.

  11. Effect of hydration on the water content of human erythrocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Levin, R L; Cravalho, E G; Huggins, C E

    1976-01-01

    An ideal, hydrated, nondilute pseudobinary salt-protein-water solution model of the RBC intracellular solution has been developed to describe the osmotic behavior of human erythrocytes during freezing and thawing. Because of the hydration of intracellular solutes (mostly cell proteins), our analytical results predict that at least 16.65% of the isotonic cell water content will be retained within RBCs placed in hypertonic solutions. These findings are consistent not only with the experimental measurements of the amount of isotonic cell water retained within RBCs subjected to nonisotonic extracellular solutions (20-32%) but also with the experimental evidence that all of the water within RBCs is solvent water. By modeling the RBC intracellular solution as a hydrated salt-protein-water solution, no anomalous osmotic behavior is apparent. PMID:990394

  12. Hot water, fresh beer, and salt

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, F.S. Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA )

    1990-11-01

    In the hot chocolate effect'' the best musical scales (those with the finest tone quality, largest range, and best tempo) are obtained by adding salt to a glass of hot water supersaturated with air. Good scales can also be obtained by adding salt to a glass of freshly opened beer (supersaturated with CO{sub 2}) provided you first (a) get rid of much of the excess CO{sub 2} so as to produce smaller, hence slower, rising bubbles, and (b) get rid of the head of foam, which damps the standing wave and ruins the tone quality. Finally the old question, Do ionizing particles produce bubbles in fresh beer '' is answered experimentally.

  13. Increase of urban lake salinity by road deicing salt.

    PubMed

    Novotny, Eric V; Murphy, Dan; Stefan, Heinz G

    2008-11-15

    Over 317,000 tonnes of road salt (NaCl) are applied annually for road deicing in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (TCMA) of Minnesota. Although road salt is applied to increase driving safety, this practice influences environmental water quality. Thirteen lakes in the TCMA were studied over 46 months to determine if and how they respond to the seasonal applications of road salt. Sodium and chloride concentrations in these lakes were 10 and 25 times higher, respectively, than in other non-urban lakes in the region. Seasonal salinity/chloride cycles in the lakes were correlated with road salt applications: High concentrations in the winter and spring, especially near the bottom of the lakes, were followed by lower concentrations in the summer and fall due to flushing of the lakes by rainfall runoff. The seasonal salt storage/flushing rates for individual lakes were derived from volume-weighted average chloride concentration time series. The rate ranged from 9 to 55% of a lake's minimum salt content. In some of the lakes studied salt concentrations were high enough to stop spring turnover preventing oxygen from reaching the benthic sediments. Concentrations above the sediments were also high enough to induce convective mixing of the saline water into the sediment pore water. A regional analysis of historical water quality records of 38 lakes in the TCMA showed increases in lake salinity from 1984 to 2005 that were highly correlated with the amount of rock salt purchased by the State of Minnesota. Chloride concentrations in individual lakes were positively correlated with the percent of impervious surfaces in the watershed and inversely with lake volume. Taken together, the results show a continuing degradation of the water quality of urban lakes due to application of NaCl in their watersheds.

  14. Tamarix hispida zinc finger protein ThZFP1 participates in salt and osmotic stress tolerance by increasing proline content and SOD and POD activities.

    PubMed

    Zang, Dandan; Wang, Chao; Ji, Xiaoyu; Wang, Yucheng

    2015-06-01

    Zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) are a large family that play important roles in various biological processes, such as signal transduction, RNA binding, morphogenesis, transcriptional regulation, abiotic or biotic stress response. However, the functions of ZFPs involved in abiotic stress are largely not known. In the present study, we cloned and functionally characterized a ZFP gene, ThZFP1, from Tamarix hispida. The expression of ThZFP1 is highly induced by NaCl, mannitol or ABA treatment. To study the function of ThZFP1 involved in abiotic stress response, transgenic T. hispida plants with overexpression or knockdown of ThZFP1 were generated using a transient transformation system. Gain- and loss-of-function studies of ThZFP1 suggested that ThZFP1 can induce the expression of a series of genes, including delta-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS), peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), leading to accumulation of proline and enhanced activities of SOD and POD. These physiological changes enhanced proline content and reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging capability when exposed to salt or osmotic stress. All the results obtained from T. hispida plants were further confirmed by analyses of the transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing ThZFP1. These data together suggested that ThZFP1 positively regulates proline accumulation and activities of SOD and POD under salt and osmotic stress conditions.

  15. Magnesium sulphate salts and the history of water on Mars.

    PubMed

    Vaniman, David T; Bish, David L; Chipera, Steve J; Fialips, Claire I; Carey, J William; Feldman, William C

    2004-10-07

    Recent reports of approximately 30 wt% of sulphate within saline sediments on Mars--probably occurring in hydrated form--suggest a role for sulphates in accounting for equatorial H2O observed in a global survey by the Odyssey spacecraft. Among salt hydrates likely to be present, those of the MgSO4*nH2O series have many hydration states. Here we report the exposure of several of these phases to varied temperature, pressure and humidity to constrain their possible H2O contents under martian surface conditions. We found that crystalline structure and H2O content are dependent on temperature-pressure history, that an amorphous hydrated phase with slow dehydration kinetics forms at <1% relative humidity, and that equilibrium calculations may not reflect the true H2O-bearing potential of martian soils. Mg sulphate salts can retain sufficient H2O to explain a portion of the Odyssey observations. Because phases in the MgSO4*nH2O system are sensitive to temperature and humidity, they can reveal much about the history of water on Mars. However, their ease of transformation implies that salt hydrates collected on Mars will not be returned to Earth unmodified, and that accurate in situ analysis is imperative.

  16. Domestic Material Content in Molten-Salt Concentrating Solar Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Turchi, Craig; Kurup, Parthiv; Akar, Sertac; Flores, Francisco

    2015-08-26

    This study lists material composition data for two concentrating solar power (CSP) plant designs: a molten-salt power tower and a hypothetical parabolic trough plant, both of which employ a molten salt for the heat transfer fluid (HTF) and thermal storage media. The two designs have equivalent generating and thermal energy storage capacities. The material content of the saltHTF trough plant was approximately 25% lower than a comparably sized conventional oil-HTF parabolic trough plant. The significant reduction in oil, salt, metal, and insulation mass by switching to a salt-HTF design is expected to reduce the capital cost and LCOE for the parabolic trough system.

  17. Increased cellular activity in rat insular cortex after water and salt ingestion induced by fluid depletion.

    PubMed

    Pastuskovas, Cinthia V; Cassell, Martin D; Johnson, Alan Kim; Thunhorst, Robert L

    2003-04-01

    Insular cortex (IC) receives inputs from multiple sensory systems, including taste, and from receptors that monitor body electrolyte and fluid balance and blood pressure. This work analyzed metabolic activity of IC cells after water and sodium ingestion induced by sodium depletion. Rats were injected with the diuretic furosemide (10 mg/kg body wt), followed 5 min later by injections of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor captopril (5 mg/kg body wt). After 90 min, some rats received water and 0.3 M NaCl to drink for 2 h while others did not. A third group had access to water and saline but was not depleted of fluids. All rats were killed for processing of brain tissue for Fos-immunoreactivity (Fos-ir). Nondepleted animals had weak-to-moderate levels of Fos-ir within subregions of IC. Fluid-depleted rats without fluid access had significantly increased Fos-ir in all areas of IC. Levels of Fos-ir were highest in fluid-depleted rats that drank water and sodium. Fos-ir levels were highest in anterior regions of IC and lowest in posterior regions of IC. These results implicate visceral, taste, and/or postingestional factors in the increased metabolic activity of cells in IC.

  18. Water- and organo-dispersible gold nanoparticles supported by using ammonium salts of hyperbranched polystyrene: preparation and catalysis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lei; Nishikata, Takashi; Kojima, Keisuke; Chikama, Katsumi; Nagashima, Hideo

    2013-12-01

    Gold nanoparticles (1 nm in size) stabilized by ammonium salts of hyperbranched polystyrene are prepared. Selection of the R groups provides access to both water- and organo-dispersible gold nanoparticles. The resulting gold nanoparticles are subjected to studies on catalysis in solution, which include reduction of 4-nitrophenol with sodium borohydride, aerobic oxidation of alcohols, and homocoupling of phenylboronic acid. In the reduction of 4-nitrophenol, the catalytic activity is clearly dependent on the size of the gold nanoparticles. For the aerobic oxidation of alcohols, two types of biphasic oxidation are achieved: one is the catalyst dispersing in the aqueous phase, whereas the other is in the organic phase. The catalysts are reusable more than four times without loss of the catalytic activity. Selective synthesis of biphenyl is achieved by the homocoupling of phenylboronic acid catalyzed by organo-dispersible gold nanoparticles.

  19. Towards a robust water content determination of freeze-dried samples by near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Grohganz, Holger; Gildemyn, Delphine; Skibsted, Erik; Flink, James M; Rantanen, Jukka

    2010-08-31

    The possibility for determination of the water content in pharmaceutical samples by near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been more widely investigated in the past few years. However, many studies claim that changes in sample composition will require the establishment of a new method. The aim of this study was several fold: firstly to investigate validation aspects of water content determination in samples with varying composition and furthermore to see if a model based solely on freeze-dried mannitol-sucrose mixtures can be established that will be able to predict water contents for samples containing proteins, excipients or having a lower density of freeze-dried solids. Samples were measured by NIR, standard normal variate (SNV) corrected and the obtained spectra were compared with the results from a conventional Karl-Fischer titration by means of multivariate analysis, namely principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least square regression (PLS). For the overall sample set, a highly linear correlation between the NIR and the Karl-Fischer method with a slope of 1.00, an R(2) value of 0.98 and a root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSECV) of 0.15% were found. In a second step samples solely consisting of mannitol and sucrose mixtures were used to build a calibration set, which resulted in a RMSECV of 0.16%. The prediction of the remaining samples, which included protein or excipient containing samples, as well as lower density samples, resulted in a root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.19%. Thus the present study demonstrated, that a general model for the determination of the water content by NIR could be established, within the limits investigated.

  20. The water content of recurring slope lineae on Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, Christopher S.; Piqueux, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    Observations of recurring slope lineae (RSL) from the High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment have been interpreted as present-day, seasonally variable liquid water flows; however, orbital spectroscopy has not confirmed the presence of liquid H2O, only hydrated salts. Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) temperature data and a numerical heat transfer model definitively constrain the amount of water associated with RSL. Surface temperature differences between RSL-bearing and dry RSL-free terrains are consistent with no water associated with RSL and, based on measurement uncertainties, limit the water content of RSL to at most 0.5–3 wt %. In addition, distinct high thermal inertia regolith signatures expected with crust-forming evaporitic salt deposits from cyclical briny water flows are not observed, indicating low water salinity (if any) and/or low enough volumes to prevent their formation. Alternatively, observed salts may be preexisting in soils at low abundances (i.e., near or below detection limits) and largely immobile. These RSL-rich surfaces experience ~100 K diurnal temperature oscillations, possible freeze/thaw cycles and/or complete evaporation on time scales that challenge their habitability potential. The unique surface temperature measurements provided by THEMIS are consistent with a dry RSL hypothesis or at least significantly limit the water content of Martian RSL.

  1. The water content of recurring slope lineae on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Christopher S.; Piqueux, Sylvain

    2016-09-01

    Observations of recurring slope lineae (RSL) from the High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment have been interpreted as present-day, seasonally variable liquid water flows; however, orbital spectroscopy has not confirmed the presence of liquid H2O, only hydrated salts. Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) temperature data and a numerical heat transfer model definitively constrain the amount of water associated with RSL. Surface temperature differences between RSL-bearing and dry RSL-free terrains are consistent with no water associated with RSL and, based on measurement uncertainties, limit the water content of RSL to at most 0.5-3 wt %. In addition, distinct high thermal inertia regolith signatures expected with crust-forming evaporitic salt deposits from cyclical briny water flows are not observed, indicating low water salinity (if any) and/or low enough volumes to prevent their formation. Alternatively, observed salts may be preexisting in soils at low abundances (i.e., near or below detection limits) and largely immobile. These RSL-rich surfaces experience ~100 K diurnal temperature oscillations, possible freeze/thaw cycles and/or complete evaporation on time scales that challenge their habitability potential. The unique surface temperature measurements provided by THEMIS are consistent with a dry RSL hypothesis or at least significantly limit the water content of Martian RSL.

  2. Climatology of cloud water content associated with different cloud types observed by A-Train satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Lei; Jiang, Jonathan H.; Wang, Zhien; Su, Hui; Deng, Min; Massie, Steven

    2015-05-01

    This study investigates the climatology of vertical distributions of cloud liquid water content, ice water content, and cloud fraction (CFR) associated with eight different cloud types, by utilizing the combined CloudSat radar and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations lidar measurements. The geographical and seasonal variations of these cloud properties for each cloud type are also analyzed. The cloud water content (CWC) of each cloud type is sorted by three parameters obtained from colocated satellite observations to investigate the relationships between large-scale conditions and the vertical structure of clouds. Results show that different cloud types have different altitudes of CWC and CFR peaks, and the altitude of CFR peak does not always overlap with that of CWC peak. Each type of cloud shows a clear asymmetric pattern of spatial distribution between Northern Hemisphere (NH) and Southern Hemisphere (SH). Stratocumulus and stratus clouds make the greatest contribution to the liquid water path, while the ice water path is mostly contributed by deep convective cloud over the tropics and nimbostratus over the middle and high latitudes. Over both middle and high latitudes, clouds have larger seasonal variation in the NH than in the SH. Over ocean, large CWCs of deep convective cloud, cirrus, and altostratus are above 7 km, and are associated with high convective available potential energy (>2000 J/kg), warm sea surface temperature (>303 K), and relatively high precipitation (>1 mm/h). Over land, most of the middle and high clouds have similar CWC distributions compared to those over ocean, but altocumulus and low clouds are quite different from those over ocean.

  3. Vitamin (B1, B2, B3 and B6) content and oxidative stability of Gastrocnemius muscle from dry-cured hams elaborated with different nitrifying salt contents and by two ageing times.

    PubMed

    Gratacós-Cubarsí, M; Sárraga, C; Castellari, M; Guàrdia, M D; Regueiro, J A García; Arnau, J

    2013-11-01

    The effect of the amount of added nitrate and nitrate plus nitrite to dry-cured hams on the vitamin (B1, B2, B3, B6) content, the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) activities and the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) was assessed in Gastrocnemius muscle at the end of two ripening processes. Five different curing mixtures (Hi-N: 600 KNO3; Lo-N: 150 KNO3; Hi-Mix: 600 KNO3+600 NaNO2; Lo-Mix: 150 KNO3+150 NaNO2; Hi-Mix/Asc: 600 KNO3+600 NaNO2+500 sodium ascorbate, expressed as mg of salts added on surface per kg of fresh ham) were evaluated in dry-cured hams aged for 11.5months (standard process, SP) and 22months (long process, LP). Minor differences in target parameters between the hams due to the process were found. The amount of nitrate when it was added alone or as a mixture of nitrate and nitrite, as well as the ascorbate addition to dry-cured hams did not affect vitamin B1, B2 and B3 contents. The level of vitamin B6 was affected by both the amount and the mixture of salts; the addition of nitrite reduced around 40% the content of vitamin B6, but it was not affected by nitrate or ascorbate. The activity of SOD and CAT decreased with the amount of nitrate and nitrite, while GSHPx and TBARS resulted unaffected.

  4. Rapid assessment of water pollution by airborne measurement of chlorophyll content.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arvesen, J. C.; Weaver, E. C.; Millard, J. P.

    1971-01-01

    Present techniques of airborne chlorophyll measurement are discussed as an approach to water pollution assessment. The differential radiometer, the chlorophyll correlation radiometer, and an infrared radiometer for water temperature measurements are described as the key components of the equipment. Also covered are flight missions carried out to evaluate the capability of the chlorophyll correlation radiometer in measuring the chlorophyll content in water bodies with widely different levels of nutrients, such as fresh-water lakes of high and low eutrophic levels, marine waters of high and low productivity, and an estuary with a high sediment content. The feasibility and usefulness of these techniques are indicated.

  5. Diet and Physical Performance: Water and Salt,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-29

    EQUIVALENT TO AN EARLY SALT DEPLETION DEFICIT Sweat Sweat Sweat Sweat Sodium NaCl Volume Sodium (mEq/L) (%) (L) (Total mEq) 75 0.43 8 600 40 0.23 15...I AD-A114 200 ARMY RESEARCH INST OF ENVIRONMENTAL MEDICINE N TICK MA F/6 6/5 IDIET AN. PHYSICAL PERFORMANCE: ATER AND SALT (U) IMAR .2 R W HUBBARD...Water and Salt S. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR() a. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER( ) Roger W. Hubbard 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS

  6. Nitrite toxicity of Litopenaeus vannamei in water containing low concentrations of sea salt or mixed salts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sowers, A.; Young, S.P.; Isely, J.J.; Browdy, C.L.; Tomasso, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    The uptake, depuration and toxicity of environmental nitrite was characterized in Litopenaeus vannamei exposed in water containing low concentrations of artificial sea salt or mixed salts. In 2 g/L artificial sea salts, nitrite was concentrated in the hemolymph in a dose-dependent and rapid manner (steady-state in about 2 d). When exposed to nitrite in 2 g/L artificial sea salts for 4 d and then moved to a similar environment without added nitrite, complete depuration occurred within a day. Increasing salinity up to 10 g/L decreased uptake of environmental nitrite. Nitrite uptake in environments containing 2 g/L mixed salts (combination of sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium chlorides) was similar to or lower than rates in 2 g/L artificial sea salt. Toxicity was inversely related to total dissolved salt and chloride concentrations and was highest in 2 g/L artificial sea salt (96-h medial lethal concentration = 8.4 mg/L nitrite-N). Animals that molted during the experiments did not appear to be more susceptible to nitrite than animals that did not molt. The shallow slope of the curve describing the relationship between toxicity and salinity suggests that management of nitrite toxicity in low-salinity shrimp ponds by addition of more salts may not be practical. ?? Copyright by the World Aquaculture Society 2004.

  7. Certification of the reference material of water content in water saturated 1-octanol by Karl Fischer coulometry, Karl Fischer volumetry and quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haifeng; Ma, Kang; Zhang, Wei; Li, Jia; Sun, Guohua; Li, Hongmei

    2012-10-15

    Certified reference materials (CRMs) of water content are widely used in the calibration and validation of Karl Fischer coulometry and volumetry. In this study, the water content of the water saturated 1-octanol (WSO) CRM was certified by Karl Fischer coulometry, volumetry and quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (Q NMR). The water content recovery by coulometry was 99.76% with a diaphragm-less electrode and Coulomat AG anolyte. The relative bias between the coulometry and volumetry results was 0.06%. In Q NMR, the water content of WSO is traceable to the International System (SI) of units through the purity of internal standard. The relative bias of water content in WSO between Q NMR and volumetry was 0.50%. The consistency of results for these three independent methods improves the accuracy of the certification of the RM. The certified water content of the WSO CRM was 4.76% with an expanded uncertainty of 0.09%.

  8. A universal salt model based on under-ground precipitation of solid salts due to supercritical water `out-salting'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rueslåtten, H.; Hovland, M. T.

    2010-12-01

    shallow magma-chamber causes a sufficiently high heat-flow to drive a convection cell of seawater. The model shows that salt precipitates along the flow lines within the supercritical region (Hovland et al., 2006). During the various stages of planet Mars’ development, it must be inferred that zones with very high heat-flow also existed there. This meant that water (brine) confined in the crust of Mars was mobilized in a convective manner and would pass into the supercritical water zone during the down-going leg (the recharge leg) of the convective cell. The zones with supercritical out-salting would require accommodation space for large masses of solid salt, as modeled in the Red Sea analogy. However, as the accommodation space for the solid salt fills up, it will pile up and force its way upwards to form large, perhaps layered anticlines, as seen in the Hebes Mensa area of Mars and at numerous locations on Earth, including the Red Sea. Thus, we offer a universal ‘hydrothermal salt model’, which would be viable on all planets with free water in their interiors or on their surfaces, including Mars and Earth. Hovland, et al., 2006. Salt formation by supercritical seawater and submerged boiling. Marine and Petrol. Geol. 23, 855-69

  9. Laboratory experiments of salt water intrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crestani, Elena; Camporese, Matteo; Salandin, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    The problem of saltwater intrusion in coastal aquifers is dealt with by the proper setup of a sand-box device to develop laboratory experiments in a controlled environment. Saline intrusion is a problem of fundamental importance and affects the quality of both surface water and groundwater in coastal areas. In both cases the phenomenon may be linked to anthropogenic (construction of reservoirs, withdrawals, etc.) and/or natural (sea-level excursions, variability of river flows, etc.) changes. In recent years, the escalation of this problem has led to the development of specific projects and studies to identify possible countermeasures, typically consisting of underground barriers. Physical models are fundamental to study the saltwater intrusion problem, since they provide benchmarks for numerical model calibrations and for the evaluation of the effectiveness of solutions to contain the salt wedge. In order to study and describe the evolution of the salt wedge, the effectiveness of underground barriers, and the distance from the coast of a withdrawal that guarantees a continuous supply of fresh water, a physical model has been realized at the University of Padova to represent the terminal part of a coastal aquifer. It consists of a laboratory flume 500 cm long, 30 cm wide and 60 cm high, filled for an height of 45 cm with glass beads with a d50 of 0.6 mm and a uniformity coefficient d60/d10~= 1.5. The material is homogeneous and characterized by a porosity of about 0.37 and by an hydraulic conductivity of about 1.8×10-3 m/s. Upstream from the sand-box, a tank, continuously supplied by a pump, provides fresh water to recharge the aquifer, while the downstream tank, filled with salt water, simulates the sea. The volume of the downstream tank (~= 2 m3) is about five times the upstream one, so that density variations due to the incoming fresh water flow are negligible. The water level in the two tanks is continuously monitored by means of two level probes and is

  10. HA/nylon 6,6 porous scaffolds fabricated by salt-leaching/solvent casting technique: effect of nano-sized filler content on scaffold properties.

    PubMed

    Mehrabanian, Mehran; Nasr-Esfahani, Mojtaba

    2011-01-01

    Nanohydroxyapatite (n-HA)/nylon 6,6 composite scaffolds were produced by means of the salt-leaching/solvent casting technique. NaCl with a distinct range size was used with the aim of optimizing the pore network. Composite powders with different n-HA contents (40%, 60%) for scaffold fabrication were synthesized and tested. The composite scaffolds thus obtained were characterized for their microstructure, mechanical stability and strength, and bioactivity. The microstructure of the composite scaffolds possessed a well-developed interconnected porosity with approximate optimal pore size ranging from 200 to 500 μm, ideal for bone regeneration and vascularization. The mechanical properties of the composite scaffolds were evaluated by compressive strength and modulus tests, and the results confirmed their similarity to cortical bone. To characterize bioactivity, the composite scaffolds were immersed in simulated body fluid for different lengths of time and results monitored by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis to determine formation of an apatite layer on the scaffold surface.

  11. Determining the Water Ice Content of Martian Regolith by Nonlinear Spectral Mixture Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gyalay, S.; Noe Dobrea, E. Z.

    2015-01-01

    In the search for evidence of life, Icebreaker will drill in to the Martian ice-rich regolith to collect samples, which will then be analyzed by an array of instruments designed to identify biomarkers. In addition, drilling into the subsurface will provide the opportunity to assess the vertical distribution of ice to a depth of 1 meter. The purpose of this particular project was to understand the uncertainties involved in the use of the imaging system to constrain the water ice content in regolith samples.

  12. Iron clad wetlands: Soil iron-sulfur buffering determines coastal wetland response to salt water incursion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoepfer, Valerie A.; Bernhardt, Emily S.; Burgin, Amy J.

    2014-12-01

    Coastal freshwater wetland chemistry is rapidly changing due to increased frequency of salt water incursion, a consequence of global change. Seasonal salt water incursion introduces sulfate, which microbially reduces to sulfide. Sulfide binds with reduced iron, producing iron sulfide (FeS), recognizable in wetland soils by its characteristic black color. The objective of this study is to document iron and sulfate reduction rates, as well as product formation (acid volatile sulfide (AVS) and chromium reducible sulfide (CRS)) in a coastal freshwater wetland undergoing seasonal salt water incursion. Understanding iron and sulfur cycling, as well as their reduction products, allows us to calculate the degree of sulfidization (DOS), from which we can estimate how long soil iron will buffer against chemical effects of sea level rise. We show that soil chloride, a direct indicator of the degree of incursion, best predicted iron and sulfate reduction rates. Correlations between soil chloride and iron or sulfur reduction rates were strongest in the surface layer (0-3 cm), indicative of surface water incursion, rather than groundwater intrusion at our site. The interaction between soil moisture and extractable chloride was significantly related to increased AVS, whereas increased soil chloride was a stronger predictor of CRS. The current DOS in this coastal plains wetland is very low, resulting from high soil iron content and relatively small degree of salt water incursion. However, with time and continuous salt water exposure, iron will bind with incoming sulfur, creating FeS complexes, and DOS will increase.

  13. Exploring the use of Low-intensity Ultrasonics as a Tool for Assessing the Salt Content in Pork Meat Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Pérez, J. V.; de Prados, M.; Martínez-Escrivá, G.; González, R.; Mulet, A.; Benedito, J.

    Meat industry demands non-destructive techniques for the control of the salting process to achieve a homogeneous final salt content in salted meat products. The feasibility of using low-intensity ultrasound for characterizing the salting process of pork meat products was evaluated. The ultrasonic velocity (V) and time of flight (TF) were measured by through-transmission and pulse-echo methods, respectively, in salted meat products. Salting involved an increase of the V in meat muscles and a decrease of the time of flight in whole hams. Measuring the V before and after salting, the salt content could be estimated. Moreover, online monitoring of the salting process by computing the TF could be considered a reliable tool for quality control purposes.

  14. Epigenetic Salt Accumulation and Water Movement in the Active Layer of Central Yakutia in Eastern Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez Caceres, M.; Brouchkov, A.; Nakayama, H.; Takakai, F.; Fedorov, A.; Fukuda, M.

    2005-12-01

    Observations of soil moisture and salt content were conducted from May to August at Neleger station in Eastern Siberia. Seasonal changes of salt and soil moisture distribution in the active layer of larch forest (undisturbed) and a thermokarst depression known as alas (disturbed) were studied. Electric conductivity (ECe) of the intact forest revealed higher concentrations that increased with depth from the soil surface into the active layer and the underlying permafrost, 1 mS cm-1 at 1.1m to 2.6 mS cm-1 at 160 cm depth in the permafrost. However, maximum value of 5.4 mS cm-1 at 0.6 m depth was found in the dry area of alas. The concentration of ions, especially Na+, Mg2+, Ca2+, SO42-as well as HCO3- in the upper layers of this long-term disturbed site indicates the upward movement of ions together with water. Higher concentration of solutes was found in profiles with deeper seasonal thawing. The accumulation of salts in alas occurs from spring through the growing season. The low concentration of salt in the surface soil layers appears to be linked to leaching of salts by rainfall. There are substantial differences between water content and electric conductivity of soil in forest and alas. Modern salinization of the active layer in alas is epigenetic, and it happens in summer as a result of spring water collection and high summer evaporation; the gradual salt accumulation in alas in comparison to forest is controlled by annual balance of water and salts in the active layer. Present climatic trends point to continuous permafrost degradation in eastern Siberia increasing the risk of surface salinization which has already contributed to change the landscape by hindering the growth of forests.

  15. Epigenetic salt accumulation and water movement in the active layer of central Yakutia in eastern Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, C. M. Larry; Brouchkov, A.; Nakayama, H.; Takakai, F.; Fedorov, A. N.; Fukuda, M.

    2007-01-01

    Observations of soil moisture and salt content were conducted from May to August at Neleger station in eastern Siberia. Seasonal changes of salt and soil moisture distribution in the active layer of larch forest (undisturbed) and a thermokarst depression known as an alas (disturbed) were studied. Electric conductivity ECe of the intact forest revealed higher concentrations that increased with depth from the soil surface into the active layer and the underlying permafrost: 1 mS cm-1 at 1.1 m, to 2.6 mS cm-1 at 160 cm depth in the permafrost. However, a maximum value of 5.4 mS cm-1 at 0.6 m depth was found in the dry area of the alas. The concentration of ions, especially Na+, Mg2+, Ca2+, SO42- and HCO3- in the upper layers of this long-term disturbed site, indicates the upward movement of ions together with water. A higher concentration of solutes was found in profiles with deeper seasonal thawing. The accumulation of salts in the alas occurs from spring through into the growing season. The low concentration of salt in the surface soil layers appears to be linked to leaching of salts by rainfall. There are substantial differences between water content and electric conductivity of soil in the forest and alas. Modern salinization of the active layer in the alas is epigenetic, and it happens in summer as a result of spring water collection and high summer evaporation; the gradual salt accumulation in the alas in comparison with the forest is controlled by the annual balance of water and salts in the active layer. Present climatic trends point to continuous permafrost degradation in eastern Siberia increasing the risk of surface salinization, which has already contributed to changing the landscape by hindering the growth of forest. Copyright

  16. Changes in antioxidant enzymes activities and proline, total phenol and anthocyanine contents in Hyssopus officinalis L. plants under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Jahantigh, Omolbanin; Najafi, Farzaneh; Badi, Hassanali Naghdi; Khavari-Nejad, Ramazan Ali; Sanjarian, Forough

    2016-06-01

    The relationships between salt stress and antioxidant enzymes activities, proline, phenol and anthocyanine contents in Hyssopus officinalis L. plants in growth stage were investigated. The plants were subjected to five levels of saline irrigation water, 0.37 (tap water as control) with 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 dSm(-1) of saline water. After two months the uniform plants were harvested for experimental analysis. Antioxidant enzymes activities and proline, phenol and anthocyanine contents of the plants were examinated. Enhanced activities of peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase were determined by increasing salinity that plays an important protective role in the ROS-scavenging process. Proline, phenol and anthocyanine contents increased significantly with increasing salinity. These results suggest that salinity tolerance of Hyssopus officinalis plants might be closely related with the increased capacity of antioxidative system to scavenge reactive oxygen species and with the accumulation of osmoprotectant proline, phenol and anthocyanine contents under salinity conditions.

  17. Caffeine dimerization: effects of sugar, salts, and water structure.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Seishi

    2015-10-01

    Sugars and salts strongly affect the dimerization of caffeine in water. Such a change of dimerization, considered to be crucial for bitter taste suppression, has long been rationalized by the change of "water structure" induced by the additives; "kosmotropic" (water structure enhancing) salts and sugars promote dimerization, whereas "chaotropic" (water structure breaking) salts suppress dimerization. Based on statistical thermodynamics, here we challenge this consensus; we combine the rigorous Kirkwood-Buff theory of solution with the classical isodesmic model of caffeine association. Instead of the change of water structure, we show that the enhancement of caffeine dimerization is due to the exclusion of additives from caffeine, and that the weakening of dimerization is due to the binding of additives on caffeine.

  18. Characterizing and Exploring the Formation Mechanism of Salt Deposition by Reusing Advanced-softened, Silica-rich, Oilfield-produced Water (ASOW) in Superheated Steam Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Bin; Xu, Ying; Lin, Senmin; Dai, Xiaohu

    2015-11-01

    To dispose of large volumes of oilfield-produced water, an environmentally friendly method that reuses advanced-softened, silica-rich, oilfield-produced water (ASOW) as feedwater was implemented via a 10-month pilot-scale test in oilfield. However, salt deposition detrimental to the efficiency and security of steam injection system was generated in superheated steam pipeline. To evaluate the method, the characteristics and formation mechanism of the deposition were explored. The silicon content and total hardness of the ASOW were 272.20 mg/L and 0.018 mg/L, respectively. Morphology and composition of the deposition were determined by scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS), inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), laser Raman spectroscopy (LRS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Na2Si2O5, Na2CO3 and trace silanes were identified in the deposition. In addition, the solubility of the deposition was about 99%, suggesting that it is very different from traditional scaling. The results of a simulation experiment and thermal analysis system (TGA and TG-FTIR) proved that Na2CO3 and Si(OH)4 (gas) are involved in the formation of Na2Si2O5, which is ascribed mainly to the temperature difference between the superheated steam and the pipe wall. These findings provide an important reference for improving the reuse of ASOW and reducing its deposition.

  19. Characterizing and Exploring the Formation Mechanism of Salt Deposition by Reusing Advanced-softened, Silica-rich, Oilfield-produced Water (ASOW) in Superheated Steam Pipeline

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Bin; Xu, Ying; Lin, Senmin; Dai, Xiaohu

    2015-01-01

    To dispose of large volumes of oilfield-produced water, an environmentally friendly method that reuses advanced-softened, silica-rich, oilfield-produced water (ASOW) as feedwater was implemented via a 10-month pilot-scale test in oilfield. However, salt deposition detrimental to the efficiency and security of steam injection system was generated in superheated steam pipeline. To evaluate the method, the characteristics and formation mechanism of the deposition were explored. The silicon content and total hardness of the ASOW were 272.20 mg/L and 0.018 mg/L, respectively. Morphology and composition of the deposition were determined by scanning electron microscope–energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS), inductively coupled plasma–mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), laser Raman spectroscopy (LRS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Na2Si2O5, Na2CO3 and trace silanes were identified in the deposition. In addition, the solubility of the deposition was about 99%, suggesting that it is very different from traditional scaling. The results of a simulation experiment and thermal analysis system (TGA and TG-FTIR) proved that Na2CO3 and Si(OH)4 (gas) are involved in the formation of Na2Si2O5, which is ascribed mainly to the temperature difference between the superheated steam and the pipe wall. These findings provide an important reference for improving the reuse of ASOW and reducing its deposition. PMID:26608736

  20. Characterizing and Exploring the Formation Mechanism of Salt Deposition by Reusing Advanced-softened, Silica-rich, Oilfield-produced Water (ASOW) in Superheated Steam Pipeline.

    PubMed

    Dong, Bin; Xu, Ying; Lin, Senmin; Dai, Xiaohu

    2015-11-26

    To dispose of large volumes of oilfield-produced water, an environmentally friendly method that reuses advanced-softened, silica-rich, oilfield-produced water (ASOW) as feedwater was implemented via a 10-month pilot-scale test in oilfield. However, salt deposition detrimental to the efficiency and security of steam injection system was generated in superheated steam pipeline. To evaluate the method, the characteristics and formation mechanism of the deposition were explored. The silicon content and total hardness of the ASOW were 272.20 mg/L and 0.018 mg/L, respectively. Morphology and composition of the deposition were determined by scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS), inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), laser Raman spectroscopy (LRS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Na2Si2O5, Na2CO3 and trace silanes were identified in the deposition. In addition, the solubility of the deposition was about 99%, suggesting that it is very different from traditional scaling. The results of a simulation experiment and thermal analysis system (TGA and TG-FTIR) proved that Na2CO3 and Si(OH)4 (gas) are involved in the formation of Na2Si2O5, which is ascribed mainly to the temperature difference between the superheated steam and the pipe wall. These findings provide an important reference for improving the reuse of ASOW and reducing its deposition.

  1. Estimating canopy water content from spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foliar water content is a dynamic quantity depending on water losses from transpiration and water uptake from the soil. Absorption of shortwave radiation by water is determined by various frequency overtones of fundamental bending and stretching molecular transitions. Leaf water potential and rela...

  2. [Elimination of fluoride in urine during fluoridation of salt and drinking water].

    PubMed

    Wespi, H J; Bürgi, W

    1982-07-17

    From 552 ambulatory gynecological patients in different parts of Switzerland the urinary excretion of fluorine was measured. The patients were classified into 4 groups according to origin: (1) 84 women were from the Canton Basel-Stadt. In this city water has been fluoridated since 1962; (2) 139 women from Canton Glarus. In this area a pilot study was under way using table and baker's salt, to both of which 250 mg F/kg had been added; (3) 128 women from Canton Aargau who were using a low dose fluoridated salt (90 mg F/kg); (4) 201 patients from Cantons Aargau and Tessin respectively who were consuming neither fluoridated water or salt acted as controls. Quantitation of ionized fluorine in urine was performed by means of the fluoride ion sensitive electrode in afternoon urine samples, thus eliminating the influence of sex difference and diurnal rhythm in fluorine excretion. The molar urinary fluorine concentration was related to the corresponding urinary creatinine concentration and expressed as mumol F per mmol creatinine. The fluoridation of salt or water was considered ideal when the excretion factor amounted to 6.29 mumol X mmol-1. The most important finding was that the Glarus females excrete higher levels of fluorine than the patients from Basel, though the difference was no significant. The fluoridation of salt with 90 mg F/kg is followed by an increase of the excretion factor from 2.58 to 3.65 mumol X mmol-1. It could also be demonstrated that in Canton Glarus, where salt with higher fluorine content is used, the excretion coefficient remains below the level believed to be toxic in the long run. It is concluded that salt fluoridation with 250 gm F/kg is safe. Furthermore, the excretion of fluorine in the control group seems to confirm that fluorine is a trace element of ubiquitous occurrence even excreted in urine of individuals who deliberately avoid fluorine as an additive to table salt or water.

  3. The solution behavior of poly(vinylpyrrolidone): its clouding in salt solution, solvation by water and isopropanol, and interaction with sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Dan, Abhijit; Ghosh, Soumen; Moulik, Satya P

    2008-03-27

    This article deals with the solution properties of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) in salt and surfactant environment. The cloud point (CP) of PVP has been found to be induced by the salts NaCl, KCl, KBr, Na2SO4, MgSO4, and Na3PO4. On the basis of CP values for a salt at different [PVP], the energetics of the clouding process have been estimated. The effect of the surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), on the salt-induced CP has also been studied, and reduction in CP at low [SDS] and increase in CP at high [SDS] have been observed. The water vapor adsorption of PVP has been determined by isopiestic method. The results display a BET Type III isotherm whose analysis has helped to obtain the monolayer capacity of PVP and formation of multilayer on it. The solvation of PVP in a solution of water and a water-isopropanol mixture has been determined by conductometry from which contribution of the individual components were estimated. The interaction of PVP with SDS in solution led to formation of a complex entity, which has been studied also by conductometry adopting a binding-equilibrium scheme. SDS has been found to undergo two types of binding as monomers in the pre- critical aggregation concentration (CAC) range and as small clusters in the post CAC region. The stoichiometries of binding and binding constant were evaluated.

  4. 46 CFR 45.37 - Salt water load lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Salt water load lines. 45.37 Section 45.37 Shipping... Marks § 45.37 Salt water load lines. Each vessel that operates in the salt water of the St. Lawrence... marks under § 45.77 for salt water; and (b) Be marked with the letters “FW” above the fresh water...

  5. 46 CFR 45.37 - Salt water load lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Salt water load lines. 45.37 Section 45.37 Shipping... Marks § 45.37 Salt water load lines. Each vessel that operates in the salt water of the St. Lawrence... marks under § 45.77 for salt water; and (b) Be marked with the letters “FW” above the fresh water...

  6. 46 CFR 45.37 - Salt water load lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Salt water load lines. 45.37 Section 45.37 Shipping... Marks § 45.37 Salt water load lines. Each vessel that operates in the salt water of the St. Lawrence... marks under § 45.77 for salt water; and (b) Be marked with the letters “FW” above the fresh water...

  7. 46 CFR 45.37 - Salt water load lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Salt water load lines. 45.37 Section 45.37 Shipping... Marks § 45.37 Salt water load lines. Each vessel that operates in the salt water of the St. Lawrence... marks under § 45.77 for salt water; and (b) Be marked with the letters “FW” above the fresh water...

  8. 46 CFR 45.37 - Salt water load lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Salt water load lines. 45.37 Section 45.37 Shipping... Marks § 45.37 Salt water load lines. Each vessel that operates in the salt water of the St. Lawrence... marks under § 45.77 for salt water; and (b) Be marked with the letters “FW” above the fresh water...

  9. Effects of temperature, water content and nitrogen fertilisation on emissions of nitrous oxide by soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, K. A.; Thomson, P. E.; Clayton, H.; Mctaggart, I. P.; Conen, F.

    Nitrous oxide emissions were measured from several grassland and arable soils in the field, and from two of these soils and a forest soil transferred in large monoliths to a greenhouse. The effects of fertiliser N additions and of soil water content and temperature were investigated. Emissions were in the order grazed grassland>grassland cut for conservation>potatoes>cereal crops, and generally were higher than those from temperate natural ecosystems. Based on these data, agricultural soils constitute the major soil source of N 2O in the U.K. The highest emission recorded was 8 kg N 2O-N ha -1 over 10 months, from a grazed grassland site. Emissions varied from year to year, depending particularly on rainfall at the time of fertilisation. When soil mineral N was not limiting, exponential relationships between N 2O flux and both water-filled pore space (WFPS) and temperature were observed. The Q10 value for a sandy loam was 1.6, but ranged up to 12 for a clay loam soil at high WFPS. The high values were attributed to the increase in anaerobic zones where denitrification could take place, as respiratory demand for O 2 increased. A forest soil (peaty gley) showed an optimum water potential for N 2O emission. Diurnal fluctuations in emissions were associated with diurnal cycles in soil temperature, but with varying time lags, which could be explained by the N 2O being produced at different depths.

  10. How subaerial salt extrusions influence water quality in adjacent aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehdizadeh, Razieh; Zarei, Mehdi; Raeisi, Ezzat

    2015-12-01

    Brines supplied from salt extrusions cause significant groundwater salinization in arid and semi-arid regions where salt rock is exposed to dissolution by episodic rainfalls. Here we focus on 62 of the 122 diapirs of Hormuz salt emergent in the southern Iran. To consider managing the degradation effect that salt extrusions have on the quality of adjoining aquifers, it is first necessary to understand how they influence adjacent water resources. We evaluate here the impacts that these diapirs have on adjacent aquifers based on investigating their geomorphologies, geologies, hydrologies and hydrogeologies. The results indicate that 28/62 (45%) of our sample of salt diapirs have no significant impact on the quality of groundwater in adjoining aquifers (namely Type N), while the remaining 34/62 (55%) degrade nearby groundwater quality. We offer simple conceptual models that account for how brines flowing from each of these types of salt extrusions contaminate adjacent aquifers. We identify three main mechanisms that lead to contamination: surface impact (Type A), subsurface intrusion (Type B) and indirect infiltration (Type C). A combination of all these mechanisms degrades the water quality in nearby aquifers in 19/62 (31%) of the salt diapirs studied. Having characterized the mechanism(s) by which each diapir affects the adjacent aquifer, we suggest a few possible remediation strategies to be considered. For instance, engineering the surface runoff of diapirs Types A and C into nearby evaporation basins would improve groundwater quality.

  11. Water in the Oceanic Lithosphere: Salt Lake Crater Xenoliths, Oahu, Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peslier, Anne H.; Bizimis, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Water can be present in nominally anhydrous minerals of peridotites in the form of hydrogen bonded to structural oxygen. Such water in the oceanic upper mantle could have a significant effect on its physical and chemical properties. However, the water content of the MORB source has been inferred indirectly from the compositions of basalts. Direct determinations on abyssal peridotites are scarce because they have been heavily hydrothermally altered. Here we present the first water analyses of minerals from spinel peridotite xenoliths of Salt Lake Crater, Oahu, Hawaii, which are exceptionally fresh. These peridotites are thought to represent fragments of the Pacific oceanic lithosphere that was refertilized by alkalic Hawaiian melts. A few have unradiogenic Os and radiogenic Hf isotopes and may be fragments of an ancient (2 Ga) depleted and recycled lithosphere. Water contents in olivine (Ol), orthopyroxene (Opx), and clinopyroxene (Cpx) were determined by FTIR spectrometry. Preliminary H_{2}O contents show ranges of 8-10 ppm for Ol, 151-277 ppm for Opx, and 337-603 ppm for Cpx. Reconstructed bulk rock H_{2}O contents range from 88-131 ppm overlapping estimates for the MORB source. Water contents between Ol minerals of the same xenolith are heterogeneous and individual OH infrared bands vary within a mineral with lower 3230 cm^{-1} and higher 3650-3400 cm^{-1} band heights from core to edge. This observation suggests disturbance of the hydrogen in Ol likely occurring during xenolith entrainment to the surface. Pyroxene water contents are higher than most water contents in pyroxenes from continental peridotite xenoliths and higher than those of abyssal peridotites. Cpx water contents decrease with increasing degree of depletion (e.g. increasing Fo in Ol and Cr# in spinel) consistent with an incompatible behavior of water. However Cpx water contents also show a positive correlation with LREE/HREE ratios and LREE concentrations consistent with refertilization. Opx water

  12. Mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of drinking water salt deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soktoev, B. R.; Rikhvanov, L. P.; Matveenko, I. A.

    2015-11-01

    The article presents the research results on the features of element and mineral composition of salt deposits (limescale) formed in household conditions in heat exchanging equipment. The major part of limescale is represented by two species of calcium carbonate - calcite and aragonite. We have shown that high concentrations of chemical elements in the limescale promote the formation of their own mineral forms (sulphates, silicates, native forms) in salt deposits. Detecting such mineral formations suggests the salt deposits of drinking water to be a long-term storage media which can be used in the course of eco-geochemical and metallogenic studies.

  13. Hydraulic conductivity of a sandy soil at low water content after compaction by various methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nimmo, John R.; Akstin, Katherine C.

    1988-01-01

    To investigate the degree to which compaction of a sandy soil influences its unsaturated hydraulic conductivity K, samples of Oakley sand (now in the Delhi series; mixed, thermic, Typic Xeropsamments) were packed to various densities and K was measured by the steady-state centrifuge method. The air-dry, machine packing was followed by centrifugal compression with the soil wet to about one-third saturation. Variations in (i) the impact frequency and (ii) the impact force during packing, and (iii) the amount of centrifugal force applied after packing, produced a range of porosity from 0.333 to 0.380. With volumetric water content θ between 0.06 and 0.12, K values were between 7 × 10−11 and 2 × 10−8 m/s. Comparisons of K at a single θ value for samples differing in porosity by about 3% showed as much as fivefold variation for samples prepared by different packing procedures, while there generally was negligible variation (within experimental error of 8%) where the porosity difference resulted from a difference in centrifugal force. Analysis involving capillary-theory models suggests that the differences in K can be related to differences in pore-space geometry inferred from water retention curves measured for the various samples.

  14. Non-invasive quantification of small bowel water content by MRI: a validation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoad, C. L.; Marciani, L.; Foley, S.; Totman, J. J.; Wright, J.; Bush, D.; Cox, E. F.; Campbell, E.; Spiller, R. C.; Gowland, P. A.

    2007-12-01

    Substantial water fluxes across the small intestine occur during digestion of food, but so far measuring these has required invasive intubation techniques. This paper describes a non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique for measuring small bowel water content which has been validated using naso-duodenal infusion. Eighteen healthy volunteers were intubated, with the tube position being verified by MRI. After a baseline MRI scan, each volunteer had eight 40 ml boluses of a non-absorbable mannitol and saline solution infused into their proximal small bowel with an MRI scan being acquired after each bolus. The MRI sequence used was an adapted magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography sequence. The image data were thresholded to allow for intra- and inter-subject signal variations. The MRI measured volumes were then compared to the known infused volumes. This MRI technique gave excellent images of the small bowel, which closely resemble those obtained using conventional radiology with barium contrast. The mean difference between the measured MRI volumes and infused volumes was 2% with a standard deviation of 10%. The maximum 95% limits of agreement between observers were -15% to +17% while measurements by the same operator on separate occasions differed by only 4%. This new technique can now be applied to study alterations in small bowel fluid absorption and secretion due to gastrointestinal disease or drug intervention.

  15. HIGH PERMEABILITY MEMBRANES FOR THE DEHYDRATION OF LOW WATER CONTENT ETHANOL BY PERVAPORATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Energy efficient dehydration of low water content ethanol is a challenge for the sustainable production of fuel-grade ethanol. Pervaporative membrane dehydration using a recently developed hydrophilic polymer membrane formulation consisting of a cross-linked mixture of poly(allyl...

  16. Removal of arsenic from water by Friedel's salt (FS: 3CaO·Al2O3·CaCl2·10H2O).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Danni; Jia, Yongfeng; Ma, Jiayu; Li, Zhibao

    2011-11-15

    Low levels of arsenic can be effectively removed from water by adsorption onto various materials and searching for low-cost, high-efficiency new adsorbents has been a hot topic in recent years. In the present study, the performance of Friedel's salt (FS: 3CaO·Al(2)O(3)·CaCl(2)·10H(2)O), a layered double hydroxide (LDHs), as an adsorbent for arsenic removal from aqueous solution was investigated. Friedel's salt was synthesized at lower temperature (50°C) compared to traditional autoclave methods by reaction of calcium chloride with sodium aluminate. Kinetic study revealed that adsorption of arsenate by Friedel's salt was fast in the first 12h and equilibrium was achieved within 48 h. The adsorption kinetics are well described by second-order Lageren equation. The adsorption capacity of the synthesized sorbent for arsenate at pH 4 and 7 calculated from Langmuir adsorption isotherms was 11.85 and 7.80 mg/g, respectively. Phosphate and silicate markedly decreased the removal of arsenate, especially at higher pH, but sulfate was found to suppress arsenate adsorption at lower pH and the adverse effect was disappeared at pH ≥ 6. Common metal cations (Ca(2+), Mg(2+)) enhanced arsenate adsorption. The results suggest that Friedel's salt is a potential cost-effective adsorbent for arsenate removal in water treatment.

  17. Determination of salt content in hot takeaway meals in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Jaworowska, Agnieszka; Blackham, Toni; Stevenson, Leonard; Davies, Ian G

    2012-10-01

    High sodium intake is associated with negative health outcomes, including an independent correlation with high blood pressure which increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. A high proportion of sodium intake in the UK is from processed and out of the home food; this includes takeaway food which is increasing in popularity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate salt levels in popular hot takeaway meals. A total of 411 samples of 23 different types of takeaway meals were analysed. Obtained results show the salt content in these kinds of foods is alarmingly high. Comparing medians (interquartile range) for different meal categories, Pizzas contained the highest salt content per portion (9.45 g (6.97-12.83)), followed by Chinese meals (8.07 g (5.47-10.99 g)), Kebabs (6.21 g (4.01-8.35)) and Indian meals (4.73 g (3.61-6.10)). In addition, significant differences in the salt content between meals within the same category were reported. To enable the consumer to meet the UK's target salt intake, a significant reduction in the salt content of hot takeaway meals should be considered.

  18. [Effect of shifting sand burial on evaporation reduction and salt restraint under saline water irrigation in extremely arid region].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian-Guo; Zhao, Ying; Xu, Xin-Wen; Lei, Jia-Qiang; Li, Sheng-Yu; Wang, Yong-Dong

    2014-05-01

    The Taklimakan Desert Highway Shelterbelt is drip-irrigated with high saline groundwater (2.58-29.70 g x L(-1)), and shifting sand burial and water-salt stress are most common and serious problems in this region. So it is of great importance to study the effect of shifting sand burial on soil moisture evaporation, salt accumulation and their distribution for water saving, salinity restraint, and suitable utilization of local land and water resources. In this study, Micro-Lysimeters (MLS) were used to investigate dynamics of soil moisture and salt under different thicknesses of sand burial (1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 cm), and field control experiments of drip-irrigation were also carried out to investigate soil moisture and salt distribution under different thicknesses of shifting sand burial (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 cm). The soil daily and cumulative evaporation decreased with the increase of sand burial thickness in MLS, cumulative evaporation decreased by 2.5%-13.7% compared with control. And evaporative inhibiting efficiency increased with sand burial thickness, evaporative inhibiting efficiency of 1-5 cm sand burial was 16.7%-79.0%. Final soil moisture content beneath the interface of sand burial increased with sand burial thickness, and it increased by 2.5%-13.7% than control. The topsoil EC of shifting sand in MLS decreased by 1.19-6.00 mS x cm(-1) with the increasing sand burial thickness, whereas soil salt content beneath the interface in MLS increased and amplitude of the topsoil salt content was higher than that of the subsoil. Under drip-irrigation with saline groundwater, average soil moisture beneath the interface of shifting sand burial increased by 0.4% -2.0% compare with control, and the highest value of EC was 7.77 mS x cm(-1) when the sand burial thickness was 10 cm. The trend of salt accumulation content at shifting sand surface increased firstly, and then decreased with the increasing sand burial thickness. Soil salt contents beneath the

  19. Free water content and monitoring of healing processes of skin burns studied by microwave dielectric spectroscopy in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Yoshihito; Miura, Nobuhiro; Shinyashiki, Naoki; Yagihara, Shin

    2005-02-21

    We have investigated the dielectric properties of human skin in vivo at frequencies up to 10 GHz using a time-domain reflectometry method with open-ended coaxial probes. Since gamma-dispersion results from the reorientation of free water molecules, the free water content of skin is quantitatively determined by dielectric measurements. The free water content of finger skin increased by about 10% after soaking in 37 degrees C water for 30 min, and it systematically decreased again through the drying process, as expected. Thus this analytical method has been applied to the study of skin burns. The free water content of burned human cheek skin due to hydrofluoric acid was significantly lower than that of normal skin, and the burned skin recovered through the healing process. In the case of a human hand skin burn due to heat, although the free water content was almost the same as that of normal skin at the beginning, it decreased during the healing process for the first 10 days, then began to increase. Although the number of test subjects was one for each experiment, it was shown that free water content is a good indicator for evaluating skin health and can be well monitored by dielectric spectroscopy.

  20. Free water content and monitoring of healing processes of skin burns studied by microwave dielectric spectroscopy in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Yoshihito; Miura, Nobuhiro; Shinyashiki, Naoki; Yagihara, Shin

    2005-02-01

    We have investigated the dielectric properties of human skin in vivo at frequencies up to 10 GHz using a time-domain reflectometry method with open-ended coaxial probes. Since γ-dispersion results from the reorientation of free water molecules, the free water content of skin is quantitatively determined by dielectric measurements. The free water content of finger skin increased by about 10% after soaking in 37 °C water for 30 min, and it systematically decreased again through the drying process, as expected. Thus this analytical method has been applied to the study of skin burns. The free water content of burned human cheek skin due to hydrofluoric acid was significantly lower than that of normal skin, and the burned skin recovered through the healing process. In the case of a human hand skin burn due to heat, although the free water content was almost the same as that of normal skin at the beginning, it decreased during the healing process for the first 10 days, then began to increase. Although the number of test subjects was one for each experiment, it was shown that free water content is a good indicator for evaluating skin health and can be well monitored by dielectric spectroscopy.

  1. Removal of recalcitrant organic matter content in wastewater by means of AOPs aiming industrial water reuse.

    PubMed

    Souza, Bianca M; Souza, Bruno S; Guimarães, Tarsila M; Ribeiro, Thiago F S; Cerqueira, Ana C; Sant'Anna, Geraldo L; Dezotti, Márcia

    2016-11-01

    This paper comes out from the need to provide an improvement in the current oil refinery wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) aiming to generate water for reuse. The wastewater was pretreated and collected in the WWTP after the biological treatment unit (bio-disks) followed by sand filtration. Ozonation (ozone concentration from 3.0-60 mgO3 L(-1)), UV (power lamp from 15 to 95 W), H2O2 (carbon:H2O2 molar ratio of 1:1, 1:2, and 1:4), and two advanced oxidation processes (UV/O3 and UV/H2O2) were investigated aiming to reduce the wastewater organic matter and generate water with suitable characteristics for the reverse osmosis operation and subsequent industrial reuse. Even after the biological and filtration treatments, the oil refinery wastewater still presented an appreciable amount of recalcitrant organic matter (TOC of 12-19 mgC L(-1)) and silt density index (SDI) higher than 4, which is considered high for subsequent reverse osmosis due to membrane fouling risks. Experiments using non combined processes (O3, H2O2, and UV only) showed a low degree of mineralization after 60 min of reaction, although the pretreatment with ozone had promoted the oxidation of aromatic compounds originally found in the real matrix, which suggests the formation of recalcitrant compounds. When the combined processes were applied, a considerable increase in the TOC removal was observed (max of 95 % for UV/O3 process, 55 W, 60 mgO3 L(-1)), likely due the presence of higher amounts of reactive species, specially hydroxyl radicals, confirming the important role of these species on the photochemical degradation of the wastewater compounds. A zero-order kinetic model was fitted to the experimental data and the rate constant values (k, mgC L(-1) h(-1)) ranged from 4.8 < k UV/O3 < 11 ([O3]0 = 30-60 mg L(-1)), and 8.6 < k UV/H2O2 < 11 (C:H2O2 from 1:1 to 1:4). The minimum and maximum electrical energy per order (E EO) required for 60 min of treatment were calculated as 5

  2. Current and proposed regulations for salt-water disposal wells

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, T.

    1994-12-31

    In recent years, all aspects of hydrocarbon exploration and production (E&P) activities have drawn closer scrutiny in terms of existing and potential impairment of the environment. In addition to drilling, production, and transportation activities, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has focused on the nature of E&P wastes. Approximately 98% of the volume of wastes generated by E&P activities is salt water associated with the recovery of hydrocarbons. By far the majority of this waste is reinjected in Class II wells as a nonhazardous waste. Due to the tremendous volume of salt water disposed of in Class II injection wells, the USEPA continues to reevaluate the Federal salt-water injection well program, offering comments, revising its interpretation of existing regulations, and promulgating new regulations. The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of existing Federal Class II injection well regulations and to provide an overview of potential of newly promulgated regulations.

  3. [The content of histamine and tyramine dependent of microbiological quality of salted herring stored at different temperatures].

    PubMed

    Fonberg-Broczek, Monika; Sawilska-Rautenstrauch, Dorota; Windyga, Bozena; Sciezyńska, Halina; Jedra, Małgorzata; Badowski, Paweł; Urbanek-Karłowska, Bogumiła

    2003-01-01

    Twenty six samples of salted herring from Warsaw food market were analyzed. Herrings in high-salted brine (with 26% content of salt) were stored for 21 days at temperature of 4 degrees C and 22 degrees C; low-salted (16% content of salt in brine) herring were stored for 42 days at temperature of 4 degrees C and 22 degrees C. Microbiological contamination level was assessed by standard methods for fish products, and biogenic amines--histamine and tyramine content by spectrofluorometric methods. There was no level change of both amines in high-salted herrings. Significant increase of tyramine content was observed in low-salted samples, depending on the time of storage. The highest level of tyramine up to 318 mg/kg--was observed after 6 weeks of storage. Histamine content increased in low-salted sampled up to 35 mg/kg during the period of storage. Aerobic microflora in the amount up to 10(6)/g was detected during storage of low-salted samples. Such level changes were not observed in high-salted herring samples.

  4. Indirectly suspended droplet microextraction of water-miscible organic solvents by salting-out effect for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Daneshfar, Ali; Khezeli, Tahere

    2014-12-01

    A simple and low-cost method that indirectly suspended droplet microextraction of water-miscible organic solvents (ISDME) by salting-out effect before high-performance liquid chromatography and ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) detection was used for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in different samples. The ISDME is a combination of salting-out extraction of water-miscible organic solvent and directly suspended droplet microextraction (DSDME). Ninety-five microliters water-miscible organic solvent (1-propanol) was added to a 500-µL sample. A homogeneous solution was formed immediately. To produce a steady vortex at the top of the solution, the sample was agitated at 700 rpm using a magnetic stirrer. By the addition of ammonium sulfate (saturated solution) to the homogeneous solution, 1-propanol was separated and collected at the bottom of the steady vortex. Finally, 20 µL 1-propanol was injected into HPLC-UV. The effects of important parameters such as water-miscible organic solvent (type and volume), type of salt, and extraction time were evaluated. Under optimum conditions, the method has a good linear calibration range (0.1 µg/L-300 µg/L), coefficients of determination (R(2) > 0.998), low limits of detection (between 0.02 µg/L and 0.27 µg/L), and acceptable recovery (>85.0%).

  5. Water distribution in brine salted cod (Gadus morhua) and salmon (Salmo salar): a low-field 1H NMR study.

    PubMed

    Aursand, Ida G; Gallart-Jornet, Lorena; Erikson, Ulf; Axelson, David E; Rustad, Turid

    2008-08-13

    Low-field (LF) (1)H NMR T 2 relaxation measurements were used to study changes in water distribution in lean (Atlantic cod) and fatty (Atlantic salmon) fish during salting in 15% NaCl and 25% NaCl brines. The NMR data were treated by PCA, continuous distribution analysis, and biexponential fitting and compared with physicochemical data. Two main water pools were observed in unsalted fish, T 21, with relaxation times in the range 20-100 ms, and T 22, with relaxation times in the range 100-300 ms. Pronounced changes in T 2 relaxation data were observed during salting, revealing changes in the water properties. Salting in 15% brine lead to a shift toward longer relaxation times, reflecting increased water mobility, whereas, salting in saturated brines had the opposite effect. Water mobility changes were observed earlier in the salting process for cod compared to salmon. Good linear correlations ( F water holding capacity, centrifugation loss, water activity, and salt content in the liquid phase for all fish groups. Fillet pH and total weight changes correlated linearly with T 2 parameters for some of the fish groups.

  6. Organic tank safety project: Effect of water partial pressure on the equilibrium water contents of waste samples from Hanford Tank 241-BY-108

    SciTech Connect

    Scheele, R.D.; Bredt, P.R.; Sell, R.L.

    1997-02-01

    Water content plays a crucial role in the strategy developed by Webb et al. to prevent propagating or sustainable chemical reactions in the organic-bearing wastes stored in the 20 Organic Tank Watch List tanks at the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site. Because of water`s importance in ensuring that the organic-bearing wastes continue to be stored safely, Duke Engineering and Services Hanford commissioned the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to investigate the effect of water partial pressure (P{sub H2O}) on the water content of organic-bearing or representative wastes. Of the various interrelated controlling factors affecting the water content in wastes, P{sub H2O} is the most susceptible to being controlled by the and Hanford Site`s environmental conditions and, if necessary, could be managed to maintain the water content at an acceptable level or could be used to adjust the water content back to an acceptable level. Of the various waste types resulting from weapons production and waste-management operations at the Hanford Site, Webb et al. determined that saltcake wastes are the most likely to require active management to maintain the wastes in a Conditionally Safe condition. A Conditionally Safe waste is one that satisfies the waste classification criteria based on water content alone or a combination of water content and either total organic carbon (TOC) content or waste energetics. To provide information on the behavior of saltcake wastes, two waste samples taken from Tank 241-BY-108 (BY-108) were selected for study, even though BY-108 is not on the Organic Tanks Watch List because of their ready availability and their similarity to some of the organic-bearing saltcakes.

  7. Rehabilitation of farmhouses and barns: limits of salt content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Clercq, Hilde; Godts, Sebastiaan

    2016-09-01

    The rehabilitation of historic buildings is a practice that aims to turn a historic property into a state of contemporary comfort for private or commercial use, while preserving its historic, architectural and cultural value, respecting items of authenticity, compatibility and sustainability. What once was a modest use of locally fired brick and mortar has become the subject of ambitious rehabilitation campaigns conforming to the rules of comfort and hygiene of the twenty-first century. A pre-investigation concerning the diagnosis of damage phenomena and the risk assessment of interventions is a crucial aspect for the success of a restoration campaign. The question of "How to optimally preserve a monument within its current conditions" is replaced by "How can a monument optimally perform in the conditions suited to the assigned rehabilitation project". Today historic farms and their surroundings, after being abandoned for several decades, are the subject of different types of private or commercial rehabilitation projects. An example of such a project is the farm "Hof De Pleyne" in Loppem (West-Flanders, Belgium). The project intended to integrate a restaurant kitchen into the former animal barn. The limits of salt content with respect to the desired rehabilitation facilities while respecting safety regulations are presented.

  8. Salt water and its relation to fresh ground water in Harris County, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winslow, Allen G.; Doyel, William Watson; Wood, L.A.

    1957-01-01

    Other less probable potential sources of salt-water contamination which are discussed include upward movement of salt water from below, vertical movement around salt domes or along faults, downward seepage from surface sources, and contamination through leaking wells.

  9. Evaluating climate change effects on water and salt resources in Salt Lake, Turkey using multitemporal SPOT imagery.

    PubMed

    Ekercin, Semih; Ormeci, Cankut

    2010-04-01

    The main goal of this study is to investigate the dimension of climate change effects in Salt Lake and its vicinity in Turkey using satellite remote sensing data. The first stage of the study includes evaluation of the multitemporal climatic data on the Salt Lake Basin Area, Turkey for a period of 35 years (1970-2005). The changes in mean temperature and precipitation are evaluated for the study area by comparing two periods, 1970-1992 and 1993-2005. In the second stage, the effects of climate changes in the Salt Lake are investigated by evaluating water and salt reserve changes through seasonal and multitemporal SPOT imagery collected in 1987 and 2005. The climatic data and remotely sensed and treated satellite images show that water and salt reserve in Salt Lake has decreased between 1987 and 2005 due to drought and uncontrolled water usage. It is suggested that the use of water supplies, especially underground waters, around the Salt Lake should be controlled and the lake should regularly be monitored by current remote sensing data for an effective management of water and salt resources in the region.

  10. Water content in convective storm clouds.

    PubMed

    Kyle, T G; Sand, W R

    1973-06-22

    The condensed water content of convective storms was measured by the use of a penetrating aircraft. Regions 1 to 2 kilometers in extent and having condensed water contents of about 20 grams per cubic meter were found to be definite features of the cloud interior.

  11. Mobilization of arsenic, lead, and mercury under conditions of sea water intrusion and road deicing salt application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hongbing; Alexander, John; Gove, Brita; Koch, Manfred

    2015-09-01

    Water geochemistry data from complexly designed salt-solution injection experiments in the laboratory, coastal aquifers of Bangladesh and Italy, taken from the literature, and two salted watersheds of New Jersey, US were collected and analyzed to study the geochemical mechanisms that mobilize As, Pb, and Hg under varied salting conditions. Overall, increased NaCl-concentrations in aquifers and soil are found to increase the release of Pb and Hg into the water. Reducing environments and possible soil dispersion by hydrated Na+ are found to lead to an increase of As-concentration in water. However, the application of a pure NaCl salt solution in the column injection experiment was found to release less As, Pb, and Hg initially from the soil and delay their concentration increase, when compared to the application of CaCl2 and NaCl mixed salts (at 6:4 weight ratio). The concentration correlation dendrogram statistical analyses of the experimental and field data suggest that the release of As, Hg, and Pb into groundwater and the soil solution depends not only on the salt level and content, but also on the redox condition, dissolved organic matter contents, competitiveness of other ions for exchange sites, and source minerals. With the ongoing over-exploration of coastal aquifers from increased pumping, continued sea-level rise, and increased winter deicing salt applications in salted watersheds of many inland regions, the results of this study will help understand the complex relation between the concentrations of As, Pb, and Hg and increased salt level in a coastal aquifer and in soils of a salted watershed.

  12. Separation & Fixation of Toxic Components in Salt Brines Using a Water-Based Process

    SciTech Connect

    Franks, Carrie J.; Quach, Anh P.; Birnie, Dunbar P.; Ela, Wendell P.; Saez, Avelino E.; Zelinski, Brian J.; Smith, Harry D.; Smith, Gary Lynn L.

    2004-12-01

    Efforts to implement new water quality standards, increase water reuse and reclamation, and minimize the cost of waste storage motivate the development of new processes for stabilizing waste water residuals that minimize waste volume, water content and the long-term environmental risk from related by products. This work explores the use of an aqueous-based emulsion process to create an epoxy/rubber matrix for separating and encapsulating waste components from salt laden, arsenic contaminated, amorphous iron hydrate sludges. Such sludges are generated from conventional water purification precipitation/adsorption processes, used to convert aqueous brine streams to semi-solid waste streams, such as ion exchange/membrane separation, and from other precipitative heavy metal removal operations. In this study, epoxy and polystyrene butadiene (PSB) rubber emulsions are mixed together and then combined with a surrogate sludge. The surrogate sludge consists of amorphous iron hydrate with 1 part arsenic fixed to the surface of the hydrate per 10 parts iron mixed with sodium nitrate and chloride salts and water. The resulting emulsion is cured and dried at 80 C to remove water. Microstructure characterization by electron microscopy confirms that the epoxy/PSB matrix surrounds and encapsulates the arsenic laden amorphous iron hydrate phase while allowing the salt to migrate to internal and external surfaces of the sample. Salt extraction studies indicate that the porous nature of the resulting matrix promotes the separation and removal of as much as 90% of the original salt content in only one hours time. Long term leaching studies based on the use of the infinite slab diffusion model reveal no evidence of iron migration or, by inference, arsenic migration, and demonstrate that the diffusion coefficients of the unextracted salt yield leachability indices within regulations for non-hazardous landfill disposal. Because salt is the most mobile species, it is inferred that arsenic

  13. Sucrose lyophiles: a semi-quantitative study of residual water content by total X-ray diffraction analysis.

    PubMed

    Bates, S; Jonaitis, D; Nail, S

    2013-10-01

    Total X-ray Powder Diffraction Analysis (TXRPD) using transmission geometry was able to observe significant variance in measured powder patterns for sucrose lyophilizates with differing residual water contents. Integrated diffraction intensity corresponding to the observed variances was found to be linearly correlated to residual water content as measured by an independent technique. The observed variance was concentrated in two distinct regions of the lyophilizate powder pattern, corresponding to the characteristic sucrose matrix double halo and the high angle diffuse region normally associated with free-water. Full pattern fitting of the lyophilizate powder patterns suggested that the high angle variance was better described by the characteristic diffraction profile of a concentrated sucrose/water system rather than by the free-water diffraction profile. This suggests that the residual water in the sucrose lyophilizates is intimately mixed at the molecular level with sucrose molecules forming a liquid/solid solution. The bound nature of the residual water and its impact on the sucrose matrix gives an enhanced diffraction response between 3.0 and 3.5 beyond that expected for free-water. The enhanced diffraction response allows semi-quantitative analysis of residual water contents within the studied sucrose lyophilizates to levels below 1% by weight.

  14. Water Content of Earth's Continental Mantle Is Controlled by the Circulation of Fluids or Melts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peslier, Anne; Woodland, Alan B.; Bell, David R.; Lazarov, Marina; Lapen, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    A key mission of the ARES Directorate at JSC is to constrain models of the formation and geological history of terrestrial planets. Water is a crucial parameter to be measured with the aim to determine its amount and distribution in the interior of Earth, Mars, and the Moon. Most of that "water" is not liquid water per se, but rather hydrogen dissolved as a trace element in the minerals of the rocks at depth. Even so, the middle layer of differentiated planets, the mantle, occupies such a large volume and mass of each planet that when it is added at the planetary scale, oceans worth of water could be stored in its interior. The mantle is where magmas originate. Moreover, on Earth, the mantle is where the boundary between tectonic plates and the underlying asthenosphere is located. Even if mantle rocks in Earth typically contain less than 200 ppm H2O, such small quantities have tremendous influence on how easily they melt (i.e., the more water there is, the more magma is produced) and deform (the more water there is, the less viscous they are). These two properties alone emphasize that to understand the distribution of volcanism and the mechanism of plate tectonics, the water content of the mantle must be determined - Earth being a template to which all other terrestrial planets can be compared.

  15. Effects of salt stress on the growth, physiological responses, and glycoside contents of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jianwei; Chen, Aimeng; Li, Dandan; Yi, Bin; Wu, Wei

    2013-06-19

    This study examined the effects of three different NaCl concentrations (60, 90, and 120 mM) on the growth, physiological responses, and steviol glycoside composition of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni for 4 weeks. The results showed that the total dry weight decreased by 40% at 120 mM NaCl but remained the same at 60 and 90 mM NaCl. As salt concentration increased, chlorophyll contents decreased markedly by 10-70%, whereas the increments of the antioxidant enzyme activities were 1.0-1.6, 1.2-1.3, and 2.0-4.0 times, respectively, for superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase. The proline contents in salt-treated plants were 17-42 times higher than that in control. Moreover, leaf possessed significantly higher K⁺ content and K⁺/Na⁺ ratio than stem and root for all salt treatments. In addition, 90-120 mM NaCl treatment notably decreased the content of rebaudioside A (RA) and stevioside (ST) by 16.2-38.2%, whereas the increment of the ratio of RA/ST of salt-treated plants was 1.1-1.4 times. These results indicate that S. rebaudiana is moderately tolerant to salt stress. Hypohaline soil can be utilized in the plantation of S. rebaudiana and may be profitable for optimizing the steviol glycoside composition.

  16. Aluminum bioavailability from drinking water is very low and is not appreciably influenced by stomach contents or water hardness.

    PubMed

    Yokel, R A; Rhineheimer, S S; Brauer, R D; Sharma, P; Elmore, D; McNamara, P J

    2001-03-21

    The objectives were to estimate aluminum (Al) oral bioavailability under conditions that model its consumption in drinking water, and to test the hypotheses that stomach contents and co-administration of the major components of hard water affect Al absorption. Rats received intragastric 26Al in the absence and presence of food in the stomach and with or without concomitant calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) at concentrations found in hard drinking water. The use of 26Al enables the study of Al pharmacokinetics at physiological Al concentrations without interference from 27Al in the environment or the subject. 27Al was intravenously administered throughout the study. Repeated blood withdrawal enabled determination of oral 26Al bioavailability from the area under its serum concentrationxtime curve compared to serum 27Al concentration in relation to its infusion rate. Oral Al bioavailability averaged 0.28%. The presence of food in the stomach and Ca and Mg in the water that contained the orally dosed 26Al appeared to delay but not significantly alter the extent of 26Al absorption. The present and published results suggest oral bioavailability of Al from drinking water is very low, about 0.3%. The present results suggest it is independent of stomach contents and water hardness.

  17. Quantification of water content by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapin, W.; Meslin, P.-Y.; Maurice, S.; Wiens, R. C.; Laporte, D.; Chauviré, B.; Gasnault, O.; Schröder, S.; Beck, P.; Bender, S.; Beyssac, O.; Cousin, A.; Dehouck, E.; Drouet, C.; Forni, O.; Nachon, M.; Melikechi, N.; Rondeau, B.; Mangold, N.; Thomas, N. H.

    2017-04-01

    Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), as performed by the ChemCam instrument, provides a new technique to measure hydrogen at the surface of Mars. Using a laboratory replica of the LIBS instrument onboard the Curiosity rover, different types of hydrated samples (basalts, calcium and magnesium sulfates, opals and apatites) covering a range of targets observed on Mars have been characterized and analyzed. A number of factors related to laser parameters, atmospheric conditions and differences in targets properties can affect the standoff LIBS signal, and in particular the hydrogen emission peak. Dedicated laboratory tests were run to identify a normalization of the hydrogen signal which could best compensate for these effects and enable the application of the laboratory calibration to Mars data. We check that the hydrogen signal increases linearly with water content; and normalization of the hydrogen emission peak using to oxygen and carbon emission peaks (related to the breakdown of atmospheric carbon dioxide) constitutes a robust approach. Moreover, the calibration curve obtained is relatively independent of the samples types.

  18. Separation and Fixation of Toxic Components in Salt Brines Using a Water-Based Process

    SciTech Connect

    Franks, C.; Quach, A.; Birnie III, D.; Ela, W.; Saez, A.E.; Zelinski, B.; Smith, H.; Smith, G.

    2004-01-01

    Efforts to implement new water quality standards, increase water reuse and reclamation, and minimize the cost of waste storage motivate the development of new processes for stabilizing wastewater residuals that minimize waste volume, water content and the long-term environmental risk from related by-products. This work explores the use of an aqueous-based emulsion process to create an epoxy/rubber matrix for separating and encapsulating waste components from salt laden, arsenic contaminated, amorphous iron hydrate sludges. Such sludges are generated from conventional water purification precipitation/adsorption processes, used to convert aqueous brine streams to semi-solid waste streams, such as ion exchange/membrane separation, and from other precipitative heavy metal removal operations. In this study, epoxy and polystyrene butadiene (PSB) rubber emulsions are mixed together and then combined with a surrogate sludge. The surrogate sludge consists of amorphous iron hydrate with 1 part arsenic fixed to the surface of the hydrate per 10 parts iron mixed with sodium nitrate and chloride salts and water. The resulting emulsion is cured and dried at 80 °C to remove water. Microstructure characterization by electron microscopy confirms that the epoxy/PSB matrix surrounds and encapsulates the arsenic laden amorphous iron hydrate phase while allowing the salt to migrate to internal and external surfaces of the sample. Salt extraction studies indicate that the porous nature of the resulting matrix promotes the separation and removal of as much as 90% of the original salt content in only one hour. Long term leaching studies based on the use of the infinite slab diffusion model reveal no evidence of iron migration or, by inference, arsenic migration, and demonstrate that the diffusion coefficients of the unextracted salt yield leachability indices within regulations for non-hazardous landfill disposal. Because salt is the most mobile species, it is inferred that arsenic

  19. Validation of spot-testing kits to determine iodine content in salt.

    PubMed Central

    Pandav, C. S.; Arora, N. K.; Krishnan, A.; Sankar, R.; Pandav, S.; Karmarkar, M. G.

    2000-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders are a major public health problem, and salt iodization is the most widely practised intervention for their elimination. For the intervention to be successful and sustainable, it is vital to monitor the iodine content of salt regularly. Iodometric titration, the traditional method for measuring iodine content, has problems related to accessibility and cost. The newer spot-testing kits are inexpensive, require minimal training, and provide immediate results. Using data from surveys to assess the availability of iodized salt in two states in India, Madhya Pradesh and the National Capital Territory of Delhi, we tested the suitability of such a kit in field situations. Salt samples from Delhi were collected from 30 schools, chosen using the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) cluster sampling technique. A single observer made the measurement for iodine content using the kit. Salt samples from Madhya Pradesh were from 30 rural and 30 urban clusters, identified by using census data and the EPI cluster sampling technique. In each cluster, salt samples were collected from 10 randomly selected households and all retailers. The 15 investigators performing the survey estimated the iodine content of salt samples in the field using the kit. All the samples were brought to the central laboratory in Delhi, where iodine content was estimated using iodometric titration as a reference method. The agreement between the kit and titration values decreased as the number of observers increased. Although sensitivity was not much affected by the increase in the number of observers (93.3% for a single observer and 93.9% for multiple observers), specificity decreased sharply (90.4% for a single observer and 40.4% for multiple observers). Due to the low specificity and resulting high numbers of false-positives for the kit when used by multiple observers ("real-life situations"), kits were likely to consistently overestimate the availability of iodized salt

  20. THE OSMOTICALLY FUNCTIONAL WATER CONTENT OF THE HUMAN ERYTHROCYTE.

    PubMed

    LEFEVRE, P G

    1964-01-01

    Experiments were directed toward estimation of the magnitude of error incurred by the presumption of idealized osmometric behavior in the author's recent studies of monosaccharide transport through the human erythrocyte membrane. Thick suspensions of washed cells in isotonic buffered balanced salt medium were mixed in fixed proportions with varying dilutions of a concentrate of either (a) the mixed chlorides of the medium, or (b) glucose in the isotonic medium, and the resultant freezing point and hematocrit values determined. The form of the responses in the tonicity and the cell volume, as functions of the variable dilution of sugar or salts, conformed consistently with relations derived from the classical van't Hoff-Boyle-Mariotte pressure-volume relation. However, the effective cell water contents appeared substantially less than the weight lost in conventional drying, and varied somewhat according to the index used: expressed as grams of H(2)O per milliliter of cells at isotonic volume, the cell water implied by the hematocrit behavior was 0.614 +/- 0.015 (SD); by the salt tonicity response, 0.565 +/- 0.027; by the immediate glucose tonicity response, 0.562 +/- 0.044; and by the equilibrium glucose tonicities, 0.589 +/- 0.043. Olmstead's reports of gross deviation from the van't Hoff relation, in the rabbit red cell's responses to tonicity displacement, are attributed primarily to a systematic aberration in his method of data analysis, the observations themselves agreeing substantially with the present findings.

  1. Attraction by repulsion: compounds with like charges undergo self-assembly in water that improves in high salt and persists in real biological fluids.

    PubMed

    Garnett, Graham A E; Daze, Kevin D; Peña Diaz, Jorge A; Fagen, Noah; Shaurya, Alok; Ma, Manuel C F; Collins, Mary S; Johnson, Darren W; Zakharov, Lev N; Hof, Fraser

    2016-02-14

    We report a family of highly anionic calixarenes that form discrete homo-dimeric assemblies in pure water, that get stronger in high salt solutions, and that remain assembled in complex, denaturing solutions like real urine. The results reveal the potential of like-charged subunits for self-assembly in high-salt solutions and biological fluids.

  2. Errors in determination of soil water content using time-domain reflectometry caused by soil compaction around wave guides

    SciTech Connect

    Ghezzehei, T.A.

    2008-05-29

    Application of time domain reflectometry (TDR) in soil hydrology often involves the conversion of TDR-measured dielectric permittivity to water content using universal calibration equations (empirical or physically based). Deviations of soil-specific calibrations from the universal calibrations have been noted and are usually attributed to peculiar composition of soil constituents, such as high content of clay and/or organic matter. Although it is recognized that soil disturbance by TDR waveguides may have impact on measurement errors, to our knowledge, there has not been any quantification of this effect. In this paper, we introduce a method that estimates this error by combining two models: one that describes soil compaction around cylindrical objects and another that translates change in bulk density to evolution of soil water retention characteristics. Our analysis indicates that the compaction pattern depends on the mechanical properties of the soil at the time of installation. The relative error in water content measurement depends on the compaction pattern as well as the water content and water retention properties of the soil. Illustrative calculations based on measured soil mechanical and hydrologic properties from the literature indicate that the measurement errors of using a standard three-prong TDR waveguide could be up to 10%. We also show that the error scales linearly with the ratio of rod radius to the interradius spacing.

  3. Profiling soil water content sensor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A waveguide-on-access-tube (WOAT) sensor system based on time domain reflectometry (TDR) principles was developed to sense soil water content and bulk electrical conductivity in 20-cm (8 inch) deep layers from the soil surface to depths of 3 m (10 ft) (patent No. 13/404,491 pending). A Cooperative R...

  4. Brines formed by multi-salt deliquescence

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, S; Rard, J; Alai, M; Staggs, K

    2005-11-04

    The FY05 Waste Package Environment testing program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory focused on determining the temperature, relative humidity, and solution compositions of brines formed due to the deliquescence of NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} and NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3}-Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} salt mixtures. Understanding the physical and chemical behavior of these brines is important because they define conditions under which brines may react with waste canister surfaces. Boiling point experiments show that NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} and NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3}-Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} salt mixtures form brines that transform to hydrous melts that do not truly 'dry out' until temperatures exceed 300 and 400 C, respectively. Thus a conducting solution is present for these salt assemblages over the thermal history of the repository. The corresponding brines form at lower relative humidity at higher temperatures. The NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture has a mutual deliquescence relative humidity (MDRH) of 25.9% at 120 C and 10.8% at 180 C. Similarly, the KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture has MDRH of 26.4% at 120 C and 20.0% at 150 C. The KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture salts also absorb some water (but do not appear to deliquesce) at 180 C and thus may also contribute to the transfer of electrons at interface between dust and the waste package surface. There is no experimental evidence to suggest that these brines will degas and form less deliquescent salt assemblages. Ammonium present in atmospheric and tunnel dust (as the chloride, nitrate, or sulfate) will readily decompose in the initial heating phase of the repository, and will affect subsequent behavior of the remaining salt mixture only through the removal of a stoichiometric equivalent of one or more anions. Although K-Na-NO{sub 3}-Cl brines form at high temperature and low relative humidity, these brines are dominated by nitrate, which is known to inhibit corrosion at lower temperature

  5. Origin of fluid inclusion water in bedded salt deposits, Palo Duro Basin, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Knauth, L.P.; Beeunas, M.A.

    1985-07-01

    Salt horizons in the Palo Duro Basin being considered for repository sites contain fluid inclusions which may represent connate water retained in the salt from the time of original salt deposition and/or external waters which have somehow penetrated the salt. The exact origin of this water is important to the question of whether or not internal portions of the salt deposit have been, and are likely to be, isolated from the hydrosphere for long periods of time. The /sup 18/O//sup 16/O and D/H ratios measured for water extracted from solid salt samples show the inclusions to be dissimilar in isotopic composition to meteoric waters and to formation waters above and below the salt. The fluid inclusions cannot be purely external waters which have migrated into the salt. The isotope data are readily explained in terms of mixed meteoric-marine connate evaporite waters which date back to the time of deposition and early diagenesis of the salt (>250 million years). Any later penetration of the salt by meteoric waters has been insufficient to flush out the connate brines.

  6. Stability of salt in the Permian salt basin of Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas and New Mexico, with a section on dissolved salts in surface water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bachman, George Odell; Johnson, Ross Byron

    1973-01-01

    bedded salt from subsurface dissolution depends chiefly on the isolation of the salt from moving ground water that is not completely saturated with salt. Karst topography is a major criterion for recognizing areas where subsurface dissolution has been active in the past; therefore, the age of the karst development is needed to provide the most accurate estimate of the dissolution rate. The Ogallala Formation-of Pliocene age is probably the most widespread deposit in the Permian salt basin that can be used as a point of reference for dating the development of recent topography. It is estimated that salt has been dissolved laterally in the vicinity of Carlsbad, New Mexico, at an average rate of about 6-8 miles per million years. Estimates of future rates of salt dissolution and the resulting lateral retreat of the underground dissolution front can be projected with reasonable confidence for southeastern New Mexico on the assumption that the climatic changes there in the past 4 million years are representative of climatic changes that may be expected in the near future of geologic time. Large amounts of salt are carried by present-day rivers in the Permian salt basin; some of the salt is derived from subsurface salt beds, but dissolution is relatively slow. Ground-water movement through the Permian salt basin is also relatively slow.

  7. Effect of initial hydrogen content of a titanium alloy on susceptibility to hot salt stress corrosion.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, H. R.

    1972-01-01

    The influence of the initial hydrogen content of a titanium alloy on subsequent resistance to hot salt stress corrosion embrittlement and cracking was investigated. A Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V alloy was tested in four conditions: mill annealed (70 ppm H), duplex annealed (70 ppm H), vacuum annealed to an intermediate (36 ppm H) and a low (9 ppm H) hydrogen level. Material annealed at 650 C (duplex condition) exhibited resistance to hot salt stress corrosion superior to that exhibited by material in the mill annealed condition. Reduction of the alloy hydrogen content from 70 to as low as 9 ppm did not influence resistance to hot salt stress corrosion embrittlement or cracking.

  8. Dechlorination of chloroacetanilide herbicides by thiosulfate salts

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Jianying; Wang, Qiquan; Yates, Scott R.; Koskinen, William C.; Jury, William A.

    2002-01-01

    Halogenated organic compounds (XOCs) are among the most widely used synthetic chemicals. Many XOCs are recalcitrant to natural degradation and have become prominent environmental contaminants. One group of such XOCs are the heavily used chloroacetanilide herbicides. We have found that chloroacetanilide herbicides are rapidly dechlorinated in water, sand, and soil by thiosulfate salts under ambient conditions. Structural and kinetics analysis suggests that the reaction occurred by SN2 nucleophilic substitution, in which the chlorine was replaced by thiosulfate and the herbicide was detoxified. Laboratory studies showed that this reaction could be used for removing residues of chloroacetanilide herbicides in water, soil, and sand. Our findings also suggest that some other XOCs may be subject to this reaction. Because common thiosulfate salts are innocuous products (e.g., fertilizers) and the reaction selectively detoxifies XOCs at low thiosulfate levels, this discovery may lead to a new way for safe removal of certain XOCs from the environment. PMID:11943844

  9. Dynamics of Confined Water Molecules in Aqueous Salt Hydrates

    SciTech Connect

    Werhahn, Jasper C.; Pandelov, S.; Yoo, Soohaeng; Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Iglev, H.

    2011-04-01

    The unusual properties of water are largely dictated by the dynamics of the H bond network. A single water molecule has more H bonding sites than atoms, hence new experimental and theoretical investigations about this peculiar liquid have not ceased to appear. Confinement of water to nanodroplets or small molecular clusters drastically changes many of the liquid’s properties. Such confined water plays a major role in the solvation of macro molecules such as proteins and can even be essential to their properties. Despite the vast results available on bulk and confined water, discussions about the correlation between spectral and structural properties continue to this day. The fast relaxation of the OH stretching vibration in bulk water, and the variance of sample geometries in the experiments on confined water obfuscate definite interpretation of the spectroscopic results in terms of structural parameters. We present first time-resolved investigations on a new model system that is ideally suited to overcome many of the problems faced in spectroscopical investigation of the H bond network of water. Aqueous hydrates of inorganic salts provide water molecules in a crystal grid, that enables unambiguous correlations of spectroscopic and structural features. Furthermore, the confined water clusters are well isolated from each other in the crystal matrix, so different degrees of confinement can be achieved by selection of the appropriate salt.

  10. The influence of aqueous content in small scale salt screening--improving hit rate for weakly basic, low solubility drugs.

    PubMed

    Tarsa, Peter B; Towler, Christopher S; Woollam, Grahame; Berghausen, Jörg

    2010-09-11

    Salt screening and selection is a well established approach for improving the properties of drug candidates, including dissolution rate and bioavailability. Typically during early development only small amounts of compound are available for solid state profiling, including salt screening. In order to probe large areas of experimental space, high-throughput screening is utilized and is often designed in a way to search for suitable crystallization parameters within hundreds or even thousands of conditions. However, the hit rate in these types of screens can be very low. In order to allow for selection of a salt form early within the drug development process whilst using smaller amounts of compounds, a screening procedure taking into account the compounds properties and the driving forces for salt formation is described. Experiments were carried out on the model compounds clotrimazole, cinnarizine itraconazole and atropine. We found an increase in crystalline hit rate for water-insoluble drugs crystallized from solutions that included at least 10% aqueous content. Conversely it was observed that compounds with greater water solubility did not benefit from aqueous content in salt screening, instead organic solvents lead to more crystalline screening hits. Results from four model compounds show that the inclusion of an aqueous component to the salt reaction can enhance the chance of salt formation and significantly improve the crystalline hit rate for low water soluble drugs.

  11. Simulation of water quality for Salt Creek in northeastern Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Melching, Charles S.; Chang, T.J.

    1996-01-01

    Water-quality processes in the Salt Creek watershed in northeastern Illinois were simulated with a computer model. Selected waste-load scenarios for 7-day, 10-year low-flow conditions were simulated in the stream system. The model development involved the calibration of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency QUAL2E model to water-quality constituent concentration data collected by the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (IEPA) for a diel survey on August 29-30, 1995, and the verification of this model with water-quality constituent concentration data collected by the IEPA for a diel survey on June 27-28, 1995. In-stream measurements of sediment oxygen demand rates and carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand (CBOD) decay rates by the IEPA and traveltime and reaeration-rate coefficients by the U.S. Geological Survey facilitated the development of a model for simulation of water quality in the Salt Creek watershed. In general, the verification of the calibrated model increased confidence in the utility of the model for water-quality planning in the Salt Creek watershed. However, the model was adjusted to better simulate constituent concentrations measured during the June 27-28, 1995, diel survey. Two versions of the QUAL2E model were utilized to simulate dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations in the Salt Creek watershed for selected effluent discharge and concentration scenarios for water-quality planning: (1) the QUAL2E model calibrated to the August 29-30, 1995, diel survey, and (2) the QUAL2E model adjusted to the June 27-28, 1995, diel survey. The results of these simulations indicated that the QUAL2E model adjusted to the June 27-28, 1995, diel survey simulates reliable information for water-quality planning. The results of these simulations also indicated that to maintain DO concentrations greater than 5 milligrams per liter (mg/L) throughout most of Salt Creek for 7-day, 10-year low-flow conditions, the sewage-treatment plants (STP's) must discharge

  12. A validation of a thermal inertia approach to map soil water content on soils characterized by low fractional cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maltese, Antonino; Capodici, Fulvio; La Loggia, Goffredo; Corbari, Chiara; Mancini, Marco

    2013-10-01

    The assessment of the spatial distribution of soil water content could improve the effectiveness of agro-hydrological models. Although it is possible to retrieve the spatial distribution of the soil water content using thermal inertia, the main limit is its applicability to bare soils only. Recently, a variation of the thermal inertia approach has been setup also on vegetated soils characterized by low fractional cover. In particular, the methodology proposes to attenuate the solar radiation at the top of the canopy to the one reaching the soil trough an extinction factor. In situ data were acquired in June 2011 and July 2012 over two fields of maize and sunflowers; both were at their early growing stages. An airborneplatform provided images in the visible/near infrared and thermal infrared, both in day and night time. Results of the 2011 experiment demonstrated that the vegetation cover correction is required even with low fractional cover; indeed, not applying this correction would results in strong overestimation. The 2012 experiment (REFLEX) further validates the model on an independent dataset, thus, confirming the reliability of the methodology. Furthermore, a spatial resolution analysis highlighted that retrievals at low spatial resolution best compares with in situsoil water content than those obtained at high-resolution. Finally, the availability of a thermal image acquired after irrigating demonstrated the unreliability of the method when soil water content significantly changes between the two thermal acquisitions.

  13. [Content of Osmolytes and Flavonoids under Salt Stress in Arabidopsis thaliana Plants Defective in Jasmonate Signaling].

    PubMed

    Yastreb, T O; Kolupaev, Yu E; Lugovaya, A A; Dmitriev, A P

    2016-01-01

    The effects of the salt stress (200 mM NaCl) and exogenous jasmonic acid (JA) on levels of osmolytes and flavonoids in leaves of four-week-old Arabidopsis thaliana L. plants of the wild-type (WT) Columbia-0 (Col-0) and the mutant jin1 (jasmonate insensitive 1) with impaired jasmonate signaling were studied. The increase in proline content caused by the salt stress was higher in the Col-0 plants than in the mutant jin1. This difference was especially marked if the plants had been pretreated with exogenous 0.1 µM JA. The sugar content increased in response to the salt stress in the JA-treated WT plants but decreased in the jin1 mutant. Leaf treatment with JA of the WT plants but not mutant defective in jasmonate signaling also enhanced the levels of anthocyanins and flavonoids absorbed in UV-B range. The presence of JA increased salinity resistance of the Col-0 plants, since the accumulation of lipid peroxidation products and growth inhibition caused by NaCl were less pronounced. Under salt stress, JA almost did not render a positive effect on the jin1 plants. It is concluded that the protein JIN1/MYC2 is involved in control of protective systems under salt stress.

  14. Matrix-elimination with steam distillation for determination of short-chain fatty acids in hypersaline waters from pre-salt layer by ion-exclusion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Fernanda N; Carneiro, Manuel C; Vaitsman, Delmo S; Pontes, Fernanda V M; Monteiro, Maria Inês C; Silva, Lílian Irene D da; Neto, Arnaldo Alcover

    2012-02-03

    A method for determination of formic, acetic, propionic and butyric acids in hypersaline waters by ion-exclusion chromatography (IEC), using steam distillation to eliminate matrix-interference, was developed. The steam distillation variables such as type of solution to collect the distillate, distillation time and volume of the 50% v/v H₂SO₄ solution were optimized. The effect of the addition of NaCl different concentrations to the calibration standards on the carboxylic acid recovery was also investigated. Detection limits of 0.2, 0.5, 0.3 and 1.5 mg L⁻¹ were obtained for formic, acetic, propionic and butyric acids, respectively. Produced waters from petroleum reservoirs in the Brazilian pre-salt layer containing about 19% m/v of NaCl were analyzed. Good recoveries (99-108%) were obtained for all acids in spiked produced water samples.

  15. Hemodynamics and Salt-and-Water Balance Link Sodium Storage and Vascular Dysfunction in Salt-Sensitive Subjects.

    PubMed

    Laffer, Cheryl L; Scott, Robert C; Titze, Jens M; Luft, Friedrich C; Elijovich, Fernando

    2016-07-01

    We investigated 24-hour hemodynamic changes produced by salt loading and depletion in 8 salt-sensitive (SS) and 13 salt-resistant (SR) normotensive volunteers. After salt loading, mean arterial pressure was higher in SS (96.5±2.8) than in SR (84.2±2.7 mm Hg), P<0.01, owing to higher total peripheral resistance in SS (1791±148) than in SR (1549±66 dyn*cm(-5)*s), P=0.05, whereas cardiac output was not different between groups (SS 4.5±0.3 versus SR 4.4±0.2 L/min, not significant). Following salt depletion, cardiac output was equally reduced in both groups. Total peripheral resistance increased 24±6% (P<0.001) in SR, whose mean arterial pressure remained unchanged. In contrast, total peripheral resistance did not change in SS (1±6%, not significant). Thus, their mean arterial pressure was reduced, abolishing the mean arterial pressure difference between groups. SS had higher E/e' ratios than SR in both phases of the protocol. In these 21 subjects and in 32 hypertensive patients, Na(+) balance was similar in SR and SS during salt loading or depletion. However, SR did not gain weight during salt retention (-158±250 g), whereas SS did (819±204), commensurate to iso-osmolar water retention. During salt depletion, SR lost the expected amount of weight for iso-osmolar Na(+) excretion, whereas SS lost a greater amount that failed to fully correct the fluid retention from the previous day. We conclude that SS are unable to modulate total peripheral resistance in response to salt depletion, mirroring their inability to vasodilate in response to salt loading. We suggest that differences in water balance between SS and SR indicate differences in salt-and-water storage in the interstitial compartment that may relate to vascular dysfunction in SS.

  16. Methods and concepts in quantifying resistance to drought, salt and freezing, abiotic stresses that affect plant water status.

    PubMed

    Verslues, Paul E; Agarwal, Manu; Katiyar-Agarwal, Surekha; Zhu, Jianhua; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2006-02-01

    The abiotic stresses of drought, salinity and freezing are linked by the fact that they all decrease the availability of water to plant cells. This decreased availability of water is quantified as a decrease in water potential. Plants resist low water potential and related stresses by modifying water uptake and loss to avoid low water potential, accumulating solutes and modifying the properties of cell walls to avoid the dehydration induced by low water potential and using protective proteins and mechanisms to tolerate reduced water content by preventing or repairing cell damage. Salt stress also alters plant ion homeostasis, and under many conditions this may be the predominant factor affecting plant performance. Our emphasis is on experiments that quantify resistance to realistic and reproducible low water potential (drought), salt and freezing stresses while being suitable for genetic studies where a large number of lines must be analyzed. Detailed protocols for the use of polyethylene glycol-infused agar plates to impose low water potential stress, assay of salt tolerance based on root elongation, quantification of freezing tolerance and the use of electrolyte leakage experiments to quantify cellular damage induced by freezing and low water potential are also presented.

  17. Evaluation of the direct and diffusion methods for the determination of fluoride content in table salt

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Mier, E. Angeles; Soto-Rojas, Armando E.; Buckley, Christine M.; Margineda, Jorge; Zero, Domenick T.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to assess methods currently used for analyzing fluoridated salt in order to identify the most useful method for this type of analysis. Basic research design Seventy-five fluoridated salt samples were obtained. Samples were analyzed for fluoride content, with and without pretreatment, using direct and diffusion methods. Element analysis was also conducted in selected samples. Fluoride was added to ultra pure NaCl and non-fluoridated commercial salt samples and Ca and Mg were added to fluoride samples in order to assess fluoride recoveries using modifications to the methods. Results Larger amounts of fluoride were found and recovered using diffusion than direct methods (96%–100% for diffusion vs. 67%–90% for direct). Statistically significant differences were obtained between direct and diffusion methods using different ion strength adjusters. Pretreatment methods reduced the amount of recovered fluoride. Determination of fluoride content was influenced both by the presence of NaCl and other ions in the salt. Conclusion Direct and diffusion techniques for analysis of fluoridated salt are suitable methods for fluoride analysis. The choice of method should depend on the purpose of the analysis. PMID:20088217

  18. Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizae on photosynthesis and water status of maize plants under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Min; Tang, Ming; Chen, Hui; Yang, Baowei; Zhang, Fengfeng; Huang, Yanhui

    2008-09-01

    The influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus mosseae on characteristics of the growth, water status, chlorophyll concentration, gas exchange, and chlorophyll fluorescence of maize plants under salt stress was studied in the greenhouse. Maize plants were grown in sand and soil mixture with five NaCl levels (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 g/kg dry substrate) for 55 days, following 15 days of non-saline pretreatment. Under salt stress, mycorrhizal maize plants had higher dry weight of shoot and root, higher relative chlorophyll content, better water status (decreased water saturation deficit, increased water use efficiency, and relative water content), higher gas exchange capacity (increased photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate, and decreased intercellular CO(2) concentration), higher non-photochemistry efficiency [increased non-photochemical quenching values (NPQ)], and higher photochemistry efficiency [increased the maximum quantum yield in the dark-adapted state (Fv/Fm), the maximum quantum yield in the light-adapted sate (Fv'/Fm'), the actual quantum yield in the light-adapted steady state (phiPSII) and the photochemical quenching values (qP)], compared with non-mycorrhizal maize plants. In addition, AM symbiosis could trigger the regulation of the energy biturcation between photochemical and non-photochemical events reflected in the deexcitation rate constants (kN, kN', kP, and kP'). All the results show that G. mosseae alleviates the deleterious effect of salt stress on plant growth, through improving plant water status, chlorophyll concentration, and photosynthetic capacity, while the influence of AM symbiosis on photosynthetic capacity of maize plants can be indirectly affected by soil salinity and mycorrhizae-mediated enhancement of water status, but not by the mycorrhizae-mediated enhancement of chlorophyll concentration and plant biomass.

  19. Water and solute transport in agricultural soils predicted by volumetric clay and silt contents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karup, Dan; Moldrup, Per; Paradelo, Marcos; Katuwal, Sheela; Norgaard, Trine; Greve, Mogens H.; de Jonge, Lis W.

    2016-09-01

    Solute transport through the soil matrix is non-uniform and greatly affected by soil texture, soil structure, and macropore networks. Attempts have been made in previous studies to use infiltration experiments to identify the degree of preferential flow, but these attempts have often been based on small datasets or data collected from literature with differing initial and boundary conditions. This study examined the relationship between tracer breakthrough characteristics, soil hydraulic properties, and basic soil properties. From six agricultural fields in Denmark, 193 intact surface soil columns 20 cm in height and 20 cm in diameter were collected. The soils exhibited a wide range in texture, with clay and organic carbon (OC) contents ranging from 0.03 to 0.41 and 0.01 to 0.08 kg kg- 1, respectively. All experiments were carried out under the same initial and boundary conditions using tritium as a conservative tracer. The breakthrough characteristics ranged from being near normally distributed to gradually skewed to the right along with an increase in the content of the mineral fines (particles ≤ 50 μm). The results showed that the mineral fines content was strongly correlated to functional soil structure and the derived tracer breakthrough curves (BTCs), whereas the OC content appeared less important for the shape of the BTC. Organic carbon was believed to support the stability of the soil structure rather than the actual formation of macropores causing preferential flow. The arrival times of 5% and up to 50% of the tracer mass were found to be strongly correlated with volumetric fines content. Predicted tracer concentration breakthrough points as a function of time up to 50% of applied tracer mass could be well fitted to an analytical solution to the classical advection-dispersion equation. Both cumulative tracer mass and concentration as a function of time were well predicted from the simple inputs of bulk density, clay and silt contents, and applied tracer

  20. Detection of Plant Water Content with Needle-Type In-Situ Water Content Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayanagi, Hitoshi; Miki, Norihisa

    A needle-type water content sensor with a polyethersulfone (PES) polymer membrane was developed for the low-invasive, direct in-situ measurement of plant water content (PWC) in prior work. In this paper we demonstrate a measurement of plant water stress that represents the demand for water of the plant and greatly affects its sweetness. We inserted the sensor into a stalk of strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa) and soil. The variation in both the plant and the soil water content were successfully detected, which revealed the delay between variation in the plant water stress and soil water content after irrigation. Such delay could only be detected by the proposed sensor that could directly measure the variation of PWC in situ and continuously. The experiments also showed the variation in the signals as a function of detection sites and suggested that the detection sites of plant water stress need to be considered when the sensor is applied to irrigation culture.

  1. Simultaneous analysis of silicon and boron dissolved in water by combination of electrodialytic salt removal and ion-exclusion chromatography with corona charged aerosol detection.

    PubMed

    Mori, Masanobu; Sagara, Katsuya; Arai, Kaori; Nakatani, Nobutake; Ohira, Shin-Ichi; Toda, Kei; Itabashi, Hideyuki; Kozaki, Daisuke; Sugo, Yumi; Watanabe, Shigeki; Ishioka, Noriko S; Tanaka, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-29

    Selective separation and sensitive detection of dissolved silicon and boron (DSi and DB) in aqueous solution was achieved by combining an electrodialytic ion isolation device (EID) as a salt remover, an ion-exclusion chromatography (IEC) column, and a corona charged aerosol detector (CCAD) in sequence. DSi and DB were separated by IEC on the H(+)-form of a cation exchange resin column using pure water eluent. DSi and DB were detected after IEC separation by the CCAD with much greater sensitivity than by conductimetric detection. The five-channel EID, which consisted of anion and cation acceptors, cathode and anode isolators, and a sample channel, removed salt from the sample prior to the IEC-CCAD. DSi and DB were scarcely attracted to the anion accepter in the EID and passed almost quantitatively through the sample channel. Thus, the coupled EID-IEC-CCAD device can isolate DSi and DB from artificial seawater and hot spring water by efficiently removing high concentrations of Cl(-) and SO4(2-) (e.g., 98% and 80% at 0.10molL(-1) each, respectively). The detection limits at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 were 0.52μmolL(-1) for DSi and 7.1μmolL(-1) for DB. The relative standard deviations (RSD, n=5) of peak areas were 0.12% for DSi and 4.3% for DB.

  2. A comparative study of the reduction of silver and gold salts in water by a cathodic microplasma electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Vos, Caroline; Baneton, Joffrey; Witzke, Megan; Dille, Jean; Godet, Stéphane; Gordon, Michael J.; Mohan Sankaran, R.; Reniers, François

    2017-03-01

    A comparative study of the reduction of aqueous silver (Ag) and gold (Au) salts to colloidal Ag and Au nanoparticles, respectively, by a gaseous, cathodic, atmospheric-pressure microplasma electrode is presented. The resulting nanoparticles (NPs) were characterized by ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) absorption spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the aqueous solution composition before and after experiments was determined by ionic conductivity, electrochemical potential, and/or UV–vis absorption measurements. TEM showed that Ag and Au NPs were spherical and non-agglomerated when synthesized in the presence of a stabilizer, polyvinyl alcohol. The charge injected by the plasma was correlated to the maximum intensity in the absorbance spectra which in turn depends on the nanoparticle concentration. Separately, the charge injected was correlated to the metal cation concentration. Ag and Au reduction rates were found to be directly proportional to the charge injected, independent of plasma current and process time. Differences in the mechanism for Ag and Au reduction were also observed, and solution species generated by the plasma and their role in the reduction process (e.g. H2O2, electrons) is discussed.

  3. Separation of alcohol-water mixtures using salts

    SciTech Connect

    Card, J. C.; Farrell, L. M.

    1982-04-01

    Use of a salt (KF or Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/) to induce phase separation of alcohol-water mixtures was investigated in three process flowsheets to compare operating and capital costs with a conventional distillation process. The process feed was the Clostridia fermentation product, composed of 98 wt % water and 2 wt % solvents (70% 1-butanol, 27% 2-propanol, and 3% ethanol). The design basis was 150 x 10/sup 6/ kg/y of solvents. Phase equilibria and tieline data were obtained from literature and experiments. Three separation-process designs were developed and compared by an incremental economic analysis (+-30%) with the conventional separation technique using distillation alone. The cost of salt recovery for recycle was found to be the critical feature. High capital and operating costs make recovery of salt by precipitation uneconomical; however, a separation scheme using multiple-effect evaporation for salt recovery has comparable incremental capital costs ($1.72 x 10/sup 6/ vs $1.76 x 10/sup 6/) and lower incremental operating costs ($2.14 x 10/sup 6//y vs $4.83 x 10/sup 6//y) than the conventional separation process.

  4. Transformation of tomato with a bacterial codA gene enhances tolerance to salt and water stresses.

    PubMed

    Goel, Deepa; Singh, Ajay K; Yadav, Vichita; Babbar, Shashi B; Murata, Norio; Bansal, Kailash C

    2011-07-15

    Genetically engineered tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) with the ability to synthesize glycinebetaine was generated by introducing the codA gene encoding choline oxidase from Arthrobacter globiformis. Integration of the codA gene in transgenic tomato plants was verified by PCR analysis and DNA blot hybridization. Transgenic expression of gene was verified by RT-PCR analysis and RNA blot hybridization. The codA-transgenic plants showed higher tolerance to salt stress during seed germination, and subsequent growth of young seedlings than wild-type plants. The codA transgene enhanced the salt tolerance of whole plants and leaves. Mature leaves of codA-transgenic plants revealed higher levels of relative water content, chlorophyll content, and proline content than those of wild-type plants under salt and water stresses. Results from the current study suggest that the expression of the codA gene in transgenic tomato plants induces the synthesis of glycinebetaine and improves the tolerance of plants to salt and water stresses.

  5. Results of water quality sampling near Richton, Cypress Creek and Lampton Salt Domes, Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gandl, L.A.; Spiers, C.A.

    1980-01-01

    In the Mississippi salt basin in southern Mississippi, chemical quality studies of surface water and ground water have been made to determine present water-quality conditions near three salt domes being studied by the Department of Energy as potential repositories for radioactive wastes. Chloride concentrations in excess of 60 milligrams per liter in surface water and ground water in Perry County indicate that contamination could be occurring from industrial wastes, oil test wells, or dissolution of Richton or Cypress Creek domes. (USGS)

  6. Simulation of salt water-fresh water interface motion

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrer Polo, J.; Ramos, F.J.

    1983-02-01

    A mathematic model is presented which describes the salt water-fresh water motion with a sharp interface, assuming the validity of the Dupuit approximation. This model is used as a base to derive a numeric-model (finite difference method) which is unconditionally convergent and stable. A method for solving the equations is selected together with a convergence accelerating procedure. The treatment of the boundary conditions in the interface is discussed, and a general and automatic solution for that problem is presented. Several tests with analytic solutions have been performed with good results. 13 references.

  7. Projected Impact of Climate Change on the Water and Salt Budgets of the Arctic Ocean by a Global Climate Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, James R.; Russell, Gary L.

    1996-01-01

    The annual flux of freshwater into the Arctic Ocean by the atmosphere and rivers is balanced by the export of sea ice and oceanic freshwater. Two 150-year simulations of a global climate model are used to examine how this balance might change if atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs) increase. Relative to the control, the last 50-year period of the GHG experiment indicates that the total inflow of water from the atmosphere and rivers increases by 10% primarily due to an increase in river discharge, the annual sea-ice export decreases by about half, the oceanic liquid water export increases, salinity decreases, sea-ice cover decreases, and the total mass and sea-surface height of the Arctic Ocean increase. The closed, compact, and multi-phased nature of the hydrologic cycle in the Arctic Ocean makes it an ideal test of water budgets that could be included in model intercomparisons.

  8. Identification and Control of Pollution from Salt Water Intrusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Water Programs.

    This document contains informational guidelines for identifying and evaluating the nature and extent of pollution from salt water intrusion. The intent of these guidelines is to provide a basic framework for assessing salt water intrusion problems and their relationship to the total hydrologic system, and to provide assistance in developing…

  9. The salt content of products from popular fast-food chains in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Heredia-Blonval, Katrina; Blanco-Metzler, Adriana; Montero-Campos, Marielos; Dunford, Elizabeth K

    2014-12-01

    Salt is a major determinant of population blood pressure levels. Salt intake in Costa Rica is above levels required for good health. With an increasing number of Costa Ricans visiting fast food restaurants, it is likely that fast-food is contributing to daily salt intake. Salt content data from seven popular fast food chains in Costa Rica were collected in January 2013. Products were classified into 10 categories. Mean salt content was compared between chains and categories. Statistical analysis was performed using Welch ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer HSD tests. Significant differences were found between companies; Subway products had lowest mean salt content (0.97 g/100 g; p < 0.05) while Popeye's and KFC had the highest (1.57 g/100 g; p < 0.05). Significant variations in mean salt content were observed between categories. Salads had a mean salt content of 0.45 g/100 g while sauces had 2.16 g/100 g (p < 0.05). Wide variation in salt content was also seen within food categories. Salt content in sandwiches ranged from 0.5 to 2.1 g/100 g. The high levels and wide variation in salt content of fast food products in Costa Rica suggest that salt reduction is likely to be technically feasible in many cases. With an increasing number of consumers purchasing fast foods, even small improvements in salt levels could produce important health gains.

  10. Chloride absorption in salt-sensitive Carrizo citrange and salt-tolerant Cleopatra mandarin citrus rootstocks is linked to water use.

    PubMed

    Moya, José Luís; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio; Primo-Millo, Eduardo; Talon, Manuel

    2003-02-01

    In this work, seedlings of two citrus rootstocks, the salt-tolerant Cleopatra mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan.) and the salt-sensitive Carrizo citrange (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osb. x Poncirus trifoliata [L.] Raf.) were used to study the relationship between chloride and water uptake. The results indicated that net chloride uptake rates in both genotypes were alike and decreased linearly with the time of salinity exposure, although they were more rapidly reduced in the tolerant genotype. In each rootstock, chloride uptake rates paralleled the decreases in transpiration rates. When transpiration was modified, concomitant changes in leaf Cl(-) concentrations were observed. There was a high positive correlation between total chloride content per plant and total water absorbed. In addition, the data indicate that the tolerant genotype "excluded" more chloride, i.e. it absorbed lower amounts of chloride per volume of water. Cleopatra also possessed a less efficient root system for water uptake and a higher shoot-to-root ratio. The results show that, overall, chloride absorption is linked to water use and that further tolerance in Cleopatra is mostly conferred by superior root resistance to Cl(-) uptake. Therefore, it is proposed that chloride absorption and, hence, salt tolerance in citrus depends to a great extent upon water use.

  11. Probing local water contents of in vitro protein films by ultrasonic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szoszkiewicz, Robert; Kulik, Andrzej J.; Gremaud, Gerard; Lekka, Malgorzata

    2005-03-01

    By means of ultrasonic force microscopy and lateral force microscopy we measure adhesion hysteresis and friction on protein films of bovine serum albumin and concanavalin A at local scales. Our investigations at different relative humidities (less than 5% and at 50% relative humidity) correspond to dehydrated and hydrated states of proteins. We demonstrate that a substantial increase of adhesion hysteresis with relative humidity is sensitive measure of protein-water binding capacity at local scales.

  12. Effect of chloride content of molten nitrate salt on corrosion of A516 carbon steel.

    SciTech Connect

    Bradshaw, Robert W.; Clift, W. Miles

    2010-11-01

    The corrosion behavior of A516 carbon steel was evaluated to determine the effect of the dissolved chloride content in molten binary Solar Salt. Corrosion tests were conducted in a molten salt consisting of a 60-40 weight ratio of NaNO{sub 3} and KNO{sub 3} at 400{sup o}C and 450{sup o}C for up to 800 hours. Chloride concentrations of 0, 0.5 and 1.0 wt.% were investigated to determine the effect on corrosion of this impurity, which can be present in comparable amounts in commercial grades of the constituent salts. Corrosion rates were determined by descaled weight losses, corrosion morphology was examined by metallographic sectioning, and the types of corrosion products were determined by x-ray diffraction. Corrosion proceeded by uniform surface scaling and no pitting or intergranular corrosion was observed. Corrosion rates increased significantly as the concentration of dissolved chloride in the molten salt increased. The adherence of surface scales, and thus their protective properties, was degraded by dissolved chloride, fostering more rapid corrosion. Magnetite was the only corrosion product formed on the carbon steel specimens, regardless of chloride content or temperature.

  13. Effects of Soil and Water Content on Methyl Bromide Oxidation by the Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea†

    PubMed Central

    Duddleston, Khrystyne N.; Bottomley, Peter J.; Porter, Angela; Arp, Daniel J.

    2000-01-01

    Little information exists on the potential of NH3-oxidizing bacteria to cooxidize halogenated hydrocarbons in soil. A study was conducted to examine the cooxidation of methyl bromide (MeBr) by an NH3-oxidizing bacterium, Nitrosomonas europaea, under soil conditions. Soil and its water content modified the availability of NH4+ and MeBr and influenced the relative rates of substrate (NH3) and cosubstrate (MeBr) oxidations. These observations highlight the complexity associated with characterizing soil cooxidative activities when soil and water interact to differentially affect substrate and cosubstrate availabilities. PMID:10831449

  14. Integral Quantification of Soil Water Content at the Intermediate Catchment Scale by Ground Albedo Neutron Sensing (GANS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera Villarreyes, C. A.; Baroni, G.; Oswald, S. E.

    2012-04-01

    Soil water content at the plot or hill-slope scale is an important link between local vadose zone hydrology and catchment hydrology. However, so far only few methods are on the way to close this gap between point measurements and remote sensing. One new measurement methodology for integral quantifications of mean areal soil water content at the intermediate catchment scale is the aboveground sensing of cosmic-ray neutrons, more precisely ground albedo neutron sensing (GANS). Ground albedo natural neutrons, are generated by collisions of secondary cosmic rays with land surface materials (soil, water, biomass, snow, etc). Neutrons measured at the air/ground interface correlate with soil moisture contained in a footprint of ca. 600 m diameter and a depth ranging down to a few decimeters. This correlation is based on the crucial role of hydrogen as neutron moderator compared to others landscape materials. The present study performed ground albedo neutron sensing in different locations in Germany under different vegetative situations (cropped and bare field) and different seasonal conditions (summer, autumn and winter). Ground albedo neutrons were measured at (i) a farmland close to Potsdam (Brandenburg, Germany) cropped with corn in 2010 and sunflowers in 2011, and (ii) a mountainous farmland catchment (Schaefertal, Harz Mountains, Germany) in 2011. In order to test this method, classical soil moisture devices and meteorological data were used for comparison. Moreover, calibration approach, and transferability of calibration parameters to different times and locations are also evaluated. Our observations suggest that GANS can overcome the lack of data for hydrological processes at the intermediate scale. Soil water content from GANS compared quantitatively with mean water content values derived from a network of classical devices (RMSE = 0.02 m3/m3 and r2 = 0.98) in three calibration periods with cropped-field conditions. Then, same calibration parameters corresponded

  15. Effects of liquid VOC concentration and salt content on partitioning equilibrium of hydrophilic VOC at air-sweat interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Wen-Hsi; Chu, Fu-Sui; Su, Tzy-I.

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) must initially be absorbed by sweat on the surface of skin for human VOC dermal exposure. The partitioning equilibrium at the air-sweat interface is given by p=Cg*/C, where pc is the partitioning coefficient, and Cg* is the gaseous concentration in equilibrium with the aqueous VOC concentration ( CL) at a constant water temperature ( Tw). A series of thermodynamic functions of Cg*(C,T) are presented, as well as the values of pc, and the heat of gaseous-liquid phase transfer (Δ Htr) for tested VOCs, including iso-propanol (IPA, CL=12-120 mg L -1) and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK, CL=10-80 mg L -1) to determine the effects of liquid VOC concentration and salt contents of sweat on pc of hydrophilic VOCs. Experimental data reveal that the pc values of IPA and MEK drop as the liquid VOC concentrations increasing from 10 to 120 mg L -1. However, sodium salt content in human sweat (sodium chloride and sodium lactate) induces the effect of salt, indicating the increase in pc. Notably, neither urea nor ammonia in human sweat increase pc. Artificial sweat, consisting of sodium chloride 0.47%, urea 0.05%, ammonia 0.004% and sodium lactate 0.6%, was used to evaluate the increase in the pc values of IPA and MEK. The liquid VOC concentration effect simultaneously develops together with the salt effect on the partition at the interface of air-sweat for hydrophilic VOC solutions. The pc values of IPA for artificial sweat decrease as much as 32.5% as CL increases from 12 to 120 mg L -1 at 300 K, and those of MEK drop by as much as 70.9% as CL increases from 10 to 80 mg L -1 at 300 K. This investigation provides a basis for elucidating the assessment of human dermal exposure to hydrophilic VOCs.

  16. Potentials and problems of sustainable irrigation with water high in salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Gal, Alon

    2015-04-01

    Water scarcity and need to expand agricultural productivity have led to ever growing utilization of poor quality water for irrigation of crops. Almost in all cases, marginal or alternative water sources for irrigation contain relatively high concentrations of dissolved salts. When salts are present, irrigation water management, especially in the dry regions where water requirements are highest, must consider leaching in addition to crop evapotranspiration requirements. Leaching requirements for agronomic success are calculable and functions of climate, soil, and very critically, of crop sensitivity and the actual salinity of the irrigation water. The more sensitive the crop and more saline the water, the higher the agronomic cost and the greater the quantitative need for leaching. Israel is a forerunner in large-scale utilization of poor quality water for irrigation and can be used as a case study looking at long term repercussions of policy alternatively encouraging irrigation with recycled water or brackish groundwater. In cases studied in desert conditions of Israel, as much of half of the water applied to crops including bell peppers in greenhouses and date palms is actually used to leach salts from the root zone. The excess water used to leach salts and maintain agronomic and economic success when irrigating with water containing salts can become an environmental hazard, especially in dry areas where natural drainage is non-existent. The leachate often contains not only salts but also agrochemicals including nutrients, and natural contaminants can be picked up and transported as well. This leachate passes beyond the root zone and eventually reaches ground or surface water resources. This, together with evidence of ongoing increases in sodium content of fresh produce and increased SAR levels of soils, suggest that the current policy and practice in Israel of utilization of high amounts of low quality irrigation water is inherently non- sustainable. Current

  17. Characteristics of salt taste and free chlorine or chloramine in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Wiesenthal, K E; McGuire, M J; Suffet, I H

    2007-01-01

    Salty taste with or without chlorine or chloramine flavour is one of the major consumer complaints to water utilities. The flavour profile analysis (FPA) taste panel method determined the average taste threshold concentration for salt (NaCl) in Milli-Q water to be 640 +/- 3 mg/L at pH 8. Chlorine and chloramine disinfectants have no antagonistic or synergistic effects on the taste of NaCl, salt, in Milli-Q water. The flavour threshold concentrations for chlorine or chloramine in Milli-Q water alone or in the presence of NaCl could not be estimated by the Weber-Fechner curves due to the chlorine or chloramine flavour outliers in the 0.2-0.8 mg/L concentration range. Apparently, NaCl is not equilibrated with the concentration of ions in the saliva in the mouth and the concentration of free chlorine or chloramines cannot be tasted correctly. Therefore, dechlorinated tap water may be the best background water to use for a particular drinking water evaluation of chlorine and chloramine thresholds. Laboratory FPA studies of free chlorine found that a 67% dilution of Central Arizona Project (CAP) (Tucson, AZ) water with Milli-O water was required to reduce the free chlorine flavour to a threshold value instead of a theoretical value of 80% (Krasner and Barrett, 1980). No synergistic effect was found for chlorine flavour on the dilution of CAP water with Milli-Q water. When Central Avra Valley (AVRA) groundwater was used for the dilution of CAP water, a synergistic effect of the TDS present was observed for the chlorine flavour. Apparently, the actual mineral content of drinking water, and not just NaCl in Milli-Q water, is needed for comparative flavour tests for chlorine and chloramines.

  18. Isotopic compositions and sources of nitrate in ground water from western Salt River Valley, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gellenbeck, D.J.

    1994-01-01

    Isotopic and chemical compositions of ground water from western Salt River Valley near Phoenix, Arizona, were used to develop identification tech- niques for sources of nitrate in ground water. Four possible sources of nitrate were studied: dairies and feedlots, sewage-treatment plants, agricultural activities, and natural source. End members that represent these sources were analyzed for a variety of chemical and isotopic constituents; contents of the end-member and the ground water were compared to identify nitrate from these sources. Nitrate from dairies and feedlots was identified by delta 15N values higher than +9.0 per mil. Nitrate from sewage treatment plants was identified by some chemical constituents and values of delta 15N, delta 34S, delta 7Li, and delta 11B that were lighter than the values determined for ground water not affected by sewage-treatment plants. Nitrate from agricultural activities was identified by delta 15N, 3H, and delta 34S compositions. Natural nitrate derived from decomposing plants and accumulated by biological fixation was identified by delta 15N values that range between +2 and +8 per mil. In addition to identifying nitrate sources, some chemical and isotopic charabteristics of ground water were determined on the basis of data collected during this study. Concentrations of major ions, lithium, and boron and delta 7Li, delta 11B, 3H, delta D, and delta 18O data identify ground water in different geographic regions in the study area. These differences probably are related to different sources of ground water, geochemical processes, or geologic deposits. The Luke salt body and a geothermal anomaly alter the chemical and isotopic content of some ground water.

  19. Influence of Salts on the Partitioning of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural in Water/MIBK.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Sultan; Held, Christoph; Altuntepe, Emrah; Köse, Tülay; Sadowski, Gabriele

    2016-04-28

    This study investigates the influence of electrolytes on the performance of extracting 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) from aqueous media using methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). For that purpose, liquid-liquid phase equilibria (LLE) of quaternary systems containing HMF, water, MIBK and salts were measured at atmospheric pressure and 298.15 K. The salts under investigation were composed of one of the anions NO(3-), SO4(2-), Cl(-), or CH3COO(-) and of one of the alkali cations Li(+), Na(+), or K(+). On the basis of these LLE data, the partition coefficient of HMF between the aqueous and the MIBK phase KHMF was determined. It could be shown that KHMF significantly depends on the kind and concentration of the added salt. Weak electrolytes (e.g., sulfates, acetates) caused salting-out, whereas nitrates caused salting-in of HMF to the aqueous phase. Unexpectedly, LiCl caused salting-out at low LiCl concentrations and salting-in at LiCl concentrations higher than 3 mol/kgH2O. The model electrolyte perturbed-chain SAFT (ePC-SAFT) was used to predict the salt influence on the LLE in the quaternary systems water/MIBK/HMF/salt in good agreement with the experimental data. On the basis of ePC-SAFT, it could be concluded that the different salting-out/salting-in behavior of the various salts is mainly caused by their different tendency to form ion pairs in aqueous solutions.

  20. Biomarkers of waterborne copper exposure in the guppy Poecilia vivipara acclimated to salt water.

    PubMed

    Machado, Anderson Abel de Souza; Hoff, Mariana Leivas Müller; Klein, Roberta Daniele; Cardozo, Janaina Goulart; Giacomin, Marina Mussoi; Pinho, Grasiela Lopes Leães; Bianchini, Adalto

    2013-08-15

    The responses of a large suite of biochemical and genetic parameters were evaluated in tissues (liver, gills, muscle and erythrocytes) of the estuarine guppy Poecilia vivipara exposed to waterborne copper in salt water (salinity 24 ppt). Activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione S-transferase), metallothionein-like protein concentration, reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals (ACAP), and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were evaluated in liver, gills, and muscle. Comet assay score and nuclear abnormalities and micronucleated cell frequency were analyzed in peripheral erythrocytes. The responses of these parameters were evaluated in fish exposed (96 h) to environmentally relevant copper concentrations (5, 9 and 20 μg L⁻¹). In control and copper-exposed fish, no mortality was observed over the experimental period. Almost all biochemical and genetic parameters proved to be affected by waterborne copper exposure. However, the response of catalase activity in liver, ROS, ACAP and LPO in muscle, gills and liver, and DNA damages in erythrocytes clearly showed to be dependent on copper concentration in salt water. Therefore, the use of these parameters could be of relevance in the scope of biomonitoring programs in salt water environments contaminated with copper.

  1. The Osmotically Functional Water Content of the Human Erythrocyte

    PubMed Central

    LeFevre, Paul G.

    1964-01-01

    Experiments were directed toward estimation of the magnitude of error incurred by the presumption of idealized osmometric behavior in the author's recent studies of monosaccharide transport through the human erythrocyte membrane. Thick suspensions of washed cells in isotonic buffered balanced salt medium were mixed in fixed proportions with varying dilutions of a concentrate of either (a) the mixed chlorides of the medium, or (b) glucose in the isotonic medium, and the resultant freezing point and hematocrit values determined. The form of the responses in the tonicity and the cell volume, as functions of the variable dilution of sugar or salts, conformed consistently with relations derived from the classical van't Hoff-Boyle-Mariotte pressure-volume relation. However, the effective cell water contents appeared substantially less than the weight lost in conventional drying, and varied somewhat according to the index used: expressed as grams of H2O per milliliter of cells at isotonic volume, the cell water implied by the hematocrit behavior was 0.614 ± 0.015 (SD); by the salt tonicity response, 0.565 ± 0.027; by the immediate glucose tonicity response, 0.562 ± 0.044; and by the equilibrium glucose tonicities, 0.589 ± 0.043. Olmstead's reports of gross deviation from the van't Hoff relation, in the rabbit red cell's responses to tonicity displacement, are attributed primarily to a systematic aberration in his method of data analysis, the observations themselves agreeing substantially with the present findings. PMID:14100971

  2. Mineral Content and Biochemical Variables of Aloe vera L. under Salt Stress

    PubMed Central

    Murillo-Amador, Bernardo; Córdoba-Matson, Miguel Víctor; Villegas-Espinoza, Jorge Arnoldo; Hernández-Montiel, Luis Guillermo; Troyo-Diéguez, Enrique; García-Hernández, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    Despite the proven economic importance of Aloe vera, studies of saline stress and its effects on the biochemistry and mineral content in tissues of this plant are scarce. The objective of this study was to grow Aloe under NaCl stress of 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 mM and compare: (1) proline, total protein, and enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEP-case) in chlorenchyma and parenchyma tissues, and (2) ion content (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, Fe, P. N, Zn, B, Mn, and Cu) in roots, stems, leaves and sprouts. Proline and PEP-case increased as salinity increased in both parenchyma and chlorenchyma, while total protein increased in parenchyma and decreased in chlorenchyma, although at similar salt concentrations total protein was always higher in chlorenchyma. As salinity increased Na and Cl ions increased in roots, stems, leaves, while K decreased only significantly in sprouts. Salinity increases typically caused mineral content in tissue to decrease, or not change significantly. In roots, as salinity increased Mg decreased, while all other minerals failed to show a specific trend. In stems, the mineral concentrations that changed were Fe and P which increased with salinity while Cu decreased. In leaves, Mg, Mn, N, and B decreased with salinity, while Cu increased. In sprouts, the minerals that decreased with increasing salinity were Mg, Mn, and Cu. Zinc did not exhibit a trend in any of the tissues. The increase in protein, proline and PEP-case activity, as well as the absorption and accumulation of cations under moderate NaCl stress caused osmotic adjustment which kept the plant healthy. These results suggest that Aloe may be a viable crop for soil irrigated with hard water or affected by salinity at least at concentrations used in the present study. PMID:24736276

  3. Mineral content and biochemical variables of Aloe vera L. under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Murillo-Amador, Bernardo; Córdoba-Matson, Miguel Víctor; Villegas-Espinoza, Jorge Arnoldo; Hernández-Montiel, Luis Guillermo; Troyo-Diéguez, Enrique; García-Hernández, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    Despite the proven economic importance of Aloe vera, studies of saline stress and its effects on the biochemistry and mineral content in tissues of this plant are scarce. The objective of this study was to grow Aloe under NaCl stress of 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 mM and compare: (1) proline, total protein, and enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEP-case) in chlorenchyma and parenchyma tissues, and (2) ion content (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, Fe, P. N, Zn, B, Mn, and Cu) in roots, stems, leaves and sprouts. Proline and PEP-case increased as salinity increased in both parenchyma and chlorenchyma, while total protein increased in parenchyma and decreased in chlorenchyma, although at similar salt concentrations total protein was always higher in chlorenchyma. As salinity increased Na and Cl ions increased in roots, stems, leaves, while K decreased only significantly in sprouts. Salinity increases typically caused mineral content in tissue to decrease, or not change significantly. In roots, as salinity increased Mg decreased, while all other minerals failed to show a specific trend. In stems, the mineral concentrations that changed were Fe and P which increased with salinity while Cu decreased. In leaves, Mg, Mn, N, and B decreased with salinity, while Cu increased. In sprouts, the minerals that decreased with increasing salinity were Mg, Mn, and Cu. Zinc did not exhibit a trend in any of the tissues. The increase in protein, proline and PEP-case activity, as well as the absorption and accumulation of cations under moderate NaCl stress caused osmotic adjustment which kept the plant healthy. These results suggest that Aloe may be a viable crop for soil irrigated with hard water or affected by salinity at least at concentrations used in the present study.

  4. [Effects of water-salt stresses on seedling growth and activities of antioxidative enzyme of Suaeda salsa in coastal wetlands of the Yellow River Delta].

    PubMed

    Guan, Bo; Yu, Jun-Bao; Lu, Zhao-Hua; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Xue-Hong

    2011-08-01

    The halophyte Suaeda salsa is the pioneer plant and is used for the degraded coastal wetland in Yellow River Delta. The water-salt stress is the most important factor for ecological restoration to degraded coastal wetland. To understand the adaptive mechanism of Suaeda salsa to water-salt stresses, the induced effects of different groundwater table depths (0, -10, -20, -30 cm) and salt stress (0%, 1%, 2%, 3%) on seedlings of Suaeda salsa plant were characterized by the growth parameters of plant height, branch number and biomass of different organs and biological indices of leaf chlorophyll content, the activities of SOD, CAT, the leaf content of MDA and protein. The results showed the significantly (p < 0.001) decreased height of the seedlings from -30 cm to 0 cm of groundwater table depth, together with the decreased the number of branches, the biomass of leaf, shoot and root. The highest total biomass of single plant was (1.09 +/- 0.15) g under the condition of -30 cm water table depth and 0% salt stress. However, the combination of 0 cm water table depth and 3% NaCl resulted in the biomass of (0.23 +/- 0.01) g, which was ca. 21% compared with the highest biomass. Similarly, the contents of leaf chlorophyll a, b and carotenoid were the highest under the condition of -30 cm water table depth and 0% salt stress and lowest under the condition of 0 cm water table depth combined with 3% NaCl. The activities of SOD, CAT were increased significantly (p < 0.05) depending on the increase of salt stress. At 0 cm water table depth, the activities of SOD were 55.00 U/mg with 0% NaCl and 151.58 U/mg with 3% NaCl, respectively. The activities of SOD were decreased when the water table depth increased. However, the activities of CAT achieved the highest level at -30 cm water table depth. At 0 and -10 cm water table depth, the MDA content increased with the increase of salt stress. The MDA content was 0.26 mmol/g at -30 cm water table depth with 3% NaCl, which was approx. 28

  5. Heat and Salt Content Variability in the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakkinen, S.; Proshutinsky, A.

    2003-04-01

    Arctic Ocean model simulations have revealed that the Arctic Ocean has a basin wide oscillation with cyclonic and anticyclonic circulation anomalies (Arctic Ocean Oscillation; AOO) which has a prominent decadal variability (Proshutinsky and Johnson, 1997). This study explores how the simulated AOO affects the Arctic Ocean stratification and its relationship to the sea ice cover variations. The simulation uses the Princeton Ocean Model coupled to sea ice (Hakkinen and Mellor, 1992; Hakkinen 1999). The surface forcing is based on NCEP-NCAR Reanalysis and its climatology, of which the latter is used to force the model spin-up phase of 20years. Primary focus is on the fresh water and heat content variability in association with the cyclonic and anticyclonic circulation anomalies, and how the AOO influence is distributed spatially. Competition between ocean dynamics and ice formation/melt on the fresh water anomalies is investigated to test the hypothesis put forward in Proshutinsky et al. (2002).

  6. Pharmacokinetic interactions induced by content variation of major water-soluble components of Danshen preparation in rats

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Bo-bo; Zhang, Lin; Cao, Wan-wen; Cao, Yuan; Yang, Wen-liang; Wang, Yan; Chen, Yuan-cheng; Liu, Xiao-quan

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the pharmacokinetic interactions induced by content variation of the main water-soluble components of Danshen injection in rats. Methods: Intravenous Danshen injection (control) or Danshen injection with danshensu (DSS), protocatechuic aldehyde (PAL), salvianolic acid A (Sal A) or salvianolic acid B (Sal B) were administered to female Sprague Dawley rats . Plasma concentrations of DSS, Sal A, PAL and its oxidative metabolite protocatechuic acid (PA) were analyzed simultaneously with LC-MS/MS; concentrations of Sal B were determined by the LC-MS method. Non-compartmental pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated and compared for identifying the pharmacokinetic interactions among these components. Results: Compared with the control group, the DSS, Sal A, and Sal B groups had significant increases in AUC0-∞ in response to elevated concentrations of PAL (by 78.1%, 51.0%, and 82.9%, respectively), while the clearances (CL) were markedly reduced (by 42.5%, 32.9%, and 46.8%, respectively). Similarly, Sal A increased the AUC0–∞ of DSS and Sal B (26.7% and 82.4%, respectively) and substantially decreased their clearances (21.4% and 45.6%, respectively). In addition, the pharmacokinetics of DSS and Sal B were significantly affected by the content variation of the other major components; the AUC0-∞ increased by 45.1% and 52.1%, respectively, the CL dropped by 29.6% and 27.1%, respectively, and the T1/2 was decreased by 22.0% and 19.6%, respectively. Conclusion: Complex, extensive pharmacokinetic interactions were observed among the major water-soluble constituents in the Danshen injection. The content variation of PAL had the most significant effect on the pharmacokinetic behaviors of other major constituents. Furthermore, the pharmacokinetics of DSS and Sal B were the most susceptible to the content change of other components. PMID:20364158

  7. The resistance of high frequency inductive welded pipe to grooving corrosion in salt water

    SciTech Connect

    Duran, C.; Triess, E.; Herbsleb, G.

    1986-09-01

    When exposed to neutral, salt-containing waters, electric resistant welded pipe in carbon and low alloy steels with increased sulfur contents may suffer preferential corrosion attack in the weld area. Because of its appearance, this type of corrosion is called grooving corrosion. The susceptibility to grooving corrosion may be determined and quantitatively described by means of an accelerated potentiostatic exposure test. The importance of type, concentration, and temperature of the electrolytic solution; potential; test duration; and the sulfur content of the steel in the accelerated corrosion test and the susceptibility of steels to grooving corrosion are described. Line pipe in high frequency inductive (HFI) welded carbon and low alloy steels are resistant to grooving corrosion particularly because of their low sulfur content.

  8. Does salt water intrusion constitute a mercury contamination risk for coastal fresh water aquifers?

    PubMed

    Protano, G; Riccobono, F; Sabatini, G

    2000-12-01

    Four different sampling surveys were carried out in 1998 to evaluate the possible causes of severe mercury contamination involving many wells spread over a vast territory along the coast of southern Tuscany (Italy). Several samples of groundwater and coastal sea water were collected to determine the Hg, Cl, Ar, He and N contents. Anthropogenic or deep-seated sources of the Hg involved in the contamination event can be excluded. The observed coupling of Hg pollution with progressive salt water intrusion along the coastal aquifer indicates a close causal relation between these two phenomena.

  9. Reducing the Salt Added to Takeaway Food: Within-Subjects Comparison of Salt Delivered by Five and 17 Holed Salt Shakers in Controlled Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Goffe, Louis; Wrieden, Wendy; Penn, Linda; Hillier-Brown, Frances; Lake, Amelia A.; Araujo-Soares, Vera; Summerbell, Carolyn; White, Martin; Adamson, Ashley J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine if the amount of salt delivered by standard salt shakers commonly used in English independent takeaways varies between those with five and 17 holes; and to determine if any differences are robust to variations in: the amount of salt in the shaker, the length of time spent shaking, and the person serving. Design Four laboratory experiments comparing the amount of salt delivered by shakers. Independent variables considered were: type of shaker used (five or 17 holes), amount of salt in the shaker before shaking commences (shaker full, half full or nearly empty), time spent shaking (3s, 5s or 10s), and individual serving. Setting Controlled, laboratory, conditions. Participants A quota-based convenience sample of 10 participants (five women) aged 18–59 years. Main Outcome Measures Amount of salt delivered by salt shakers. Results Across all trials, the 17 holed shaker delivered a mean (SD) of 7.86g (4.54) per trial, whilst the five holed shaker delivered 2.65g (1.22). The five holed shaker delivered a mean of 33.7% of the salt of the 17 holed shaker. There was a significant difference in salt delivered between the five and 17 holed salt shakers when time spent shaking, amount of salt in the shaker and participant were all kept constant (p<0.001). This difference was robust to variations in the starting weight of shakers, time spent shaking and participant shaking (pssalt shakers have the potential to reduce the salt content of takeaway food, and particularly food from Fish & Chip shops, where these shakers are particularly used. Further research will be required to determine the effects of this intervention on customers’ salt intake with takeaway food and on total dietary salt intake. PMID:27668747

  10. IR spectroscopy of aqueous alkali halide solutions: Pure salt-solvated water spectra and hydration numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Max, Jean-Joseph; Chapados, Camille

    2001-08-01

    Extrapolation techniques were used to obtain pure salt-solvated water spectra from the attenuated total reflection infrared spectra (ATR-IR) of aqueous solutions of the nine alkali halide salts LiCl, NaCl, KCl, CsCl, NaBr, KBr, NaI, KI, and CsI and the alkaline-earth chloride salt MgCl2. These salts ionize completely in water. The ions by themselves do not absorb in the IR, but their interactions with water can be observed and analyzed. A pure salt-solvated water spectrum is easier to analyze than that of a combined solution of pure water and salt-solvated water. Although the salt-solvated water spectra examined have distinctive signatures, they can be classified in three categories: those similar to NaCl; those not similar to NaCl; and MgCl2, in a class by itself. Each of the pure salt-solvated water spectra differs from that of liquid water, though the number of bands is the same. From the Gaussian band fitting, we found that the positions of the bands were fairly constant, whereas their intensities differed. The salt hydration numbers were determined: for NaCl, KCl, NaBr, KBr, and CsI solutions it is 5; for KI and MgCL2 it is 4; for NaI it is 3.5; for CsCl it is 3; and for LiCl it is 2. From these results we found that each pair of ions (monoatomic ions) of the ten salt solutions studied are close bound and form a complex in a cluster organization with a fixed number of water molecules.

  11. Renal excretion of water in men under hypokinesia and physical exercise with fluid and salt supplementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorbas, Yan G.; Federenko, Youri F.; Togawa, Mitsui N.

    It has been suggested that under hypokinesia (reduced number of steps/day) and intensive physical exercise, the intensification of fluid excretion in men is apparently caused as a result of the inability of the body to retain optimum amounts of water. Thus, to evaluate this hypothesis, studies were performed with the use of fluid and sodium chloride (NaCl) supplements on 12 highly trained physically healthy male volunteers aged 19-24 years under 364 days of hypokinesis (HK) and a set of intensive physical exercises (PE). They were divided into two groups with 6 volunteers per group. The first group of subjects were submitted to HK and took daily fluid and salt supplements in very small doses and the second group of volunteers were subjected to intensive PE and fluid-salt supplements. For the simulation of the hypokinetic effect, both groups of subjects were kept under an average of 4000 steps/day. During the prehypokinetic period of 60 days and under the hypokinetic period of 364 days water consumed and eliminated in urine by the men, water content in blood, plasma volume, rate of glomerular filtration, renal blood flow, osmotic concentration of urine and blood were measured. Under HK, the rate of renal excretion of water increased considerably in both groups. The additional fluid and salt intake failed to normalize water balance adequately under HK and PE. It was concluded that negative water balance evidently resulted not from shortage of water in the diet but from the inability of the body to retain optimum amounts of fluid under HK and a set of intensive PEs.

  12. Optimization of hydrophilic interaction LC by univariate and multivariate methods and its combination with salting-out liquid-liquid extraction for the determination of antihypertensive drugs in the environmental waters.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Yin, Chen-ru; Xu, Li

    2013-03-01

    Hydrophilic interaction LC for the separation of four antihypertensive drugs was optimized by both univariate and multivariate methods. The column efficiency, resolution, and separation time were used as the three assessment parameters. The best separation condition of 97% ACN with 3% aqueous buffer containing 50 mM ammonium acetate at a pH of 3.0 was obtained by the two optimization methods. The multivariate optimization, orthogonal array design herein, was demonstrated to be a little tedious, but afforded a much better understanding of underlying separation factors. The content of ACN in the mobile phase contributed most significantly to separation. Furthermore, sample diluent and injection volume were found to influence the chromatographic performance. To match the hydrophilic interaction LC mobile phase, a proper sample pretreatment method, salting-out liquid-liquid extraction, in which ACN was the extractant, was chosen. Since reserpine was unstable under both acidic and alkaline conditions, it was not studied in this part. The optimal salting-out liquid-liquid extraction parameters were as follows: 400 μL ACN was added to 1 mL sample solution containing 500 mg NH4 Cl at a pH of 14.0. The linearity ranged from 0.01 to 1.00 μg/mL with r(2) > 0.9937. The LODs were between 1.9 and 2.5 ng/mL. The developed method was applied to the environmental water sample with good performance.

  13. Investigating Arsenic Contents in Surface and Drinking Water by Voltammetry and the Method of Standard Additions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Anran; Tyne, Rebecca; Kwok, Yu Ting; Rees, Louis; Craig, Lorraine; Lapinee, Chaipat; D'Arcy, Mitch; Weiss, Dominik J.; Salau¨n, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Testing water samples for arsenic contamination has become an important water quality issue worldwide. Arsenic usually occurs in very small concentrations, and a sensitive analytical method is needed. We present here a 1-day laboratory module developed to introduce Earth Sciences and/or Chemistry student undergraduates to key aspects of this…

  14. Water, heat and salt transport through the Strait of Otranto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yari, Sadegh; Gačić, Miroslav; Kovačević, Vedrana; Cardin, Vanessa

    2010-05-01

    The water, heat and salt transports through the Strait of Otranto are estimated applying direct method to historical current and hydrographical data (from December 94 through November 95). A variational inverse method based on a variational principle and a finite element solver is used to reconstruct the current, temperature and salinity fields across the Strait section from sparse measurements. The mean annual inflow and outflow water transport rates are estimated as 0.901±0.039 Sv and -0.939±0.315 Sv, respectively, and the net transport for the period of study is equal to -0.032±0.208 Sv. Thus, on a yearly time interval, the inflow and the outflow are practically compensated. The heat and salt transports due to advection process are estimated for five monthly periods, namely December 1994, February, May, August and November 1995. Considering these five periods representative of the seasonal cycle during the year, their average values show that there is a net heat advection into the Adriatic Sea on a yearly basis. The estimated value of advected heat and the corresponding error are 2.408±0.490 TW, which is equivalent to a heat gain of 17.37±3.53 W m-2 for the whole basin. This value is compared to the heat loss of -36±152 (std) W m-2 through the air-sea interface calculated by means of bulk formulas over the Adriatic Sea. The two values are expected to be balance each other in order to close the heat budget of the basin. The possible reasons for this difference to occur are discussed. On a yearly basis, the salt transport is estimated as an input of salt equal to 0.05×106 Kg s-1. The average annual fresh water budget is estimated as -0.002 Sv, equivalent to the mass of fresh water of 2.00×106Kg s-1 or to the level of 0.45 m yr-1 for the entire Adriatic Sea. The import of salt that is less than the gain of fresh water is in agreement with the fact that the Adriatic Sea is a dilution basin.

  15. The chemistry of salt-affected soils and waters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of the chemistry of salt affected soils and waters is necessary for management of irrigation in arid and semi-arid regions. In this chapter we review the origin of salts in the landscape, the major chemical reactions necessary for prediction of the soil solution composition, and the use of...

  16. Microwave remote sensing of soil water content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cihlar, J.; Ulaby, F. T.

    1975-01-01

    Microwave remote sensing of soils to determine water content was considered. A layered water balance model was developed for determining soil water content in the upper zone (top 30 cm), while soil moisture at greater depths and near the surface during the diurnal cycle was studied using experimental measurements. Soil temperature was investigated by means of a simulation model. Based on both models, moisture and temperature profiles of a hypothetical soil were generated and used to compute microwave soil parameters for a clear summer day. The results suggest that, (1) soil moisture in the upper zone can be predicted on a daily basis for 1 cm depth increments, (2) soil temperature presents no problem if surface temperature can be measured with infrared radiometers, and (3) the microwave response of a bare soil is determined primarily by the moisture at and near the surface. An algorithm is proposed for monitoring large areas which combines the water balance and microwave methods.

  17. The SALT NORM : a quantitative chemical-mineralogical characterization of natural waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodine, Marc W.; Jones, Blair F.

    1986-01-01

    The new computer program SNORM calculates the salt norm from the chemical composition of a natural water. The salt norm is the quantitative ideal equilibrium assemblage that would crystallize if the water evaporated to dryness at 25 C and 1 bar pressure under atmospheric partial pressure of CO2. SNORM proportions solute concentrations to achieve charge balance. It quantitatively distributes the 18 acceptable solutes into normative salts that are assigned from 63 possible normative salts to allow only stable associations based on the Gibbs Phase Rule, available free energy values, and observed low-temperature mineral associations. Although most natural water compositions represent multiple solute origins, results from SNORM identify three major categories: meteoric or weathering waters that are characterized by normative alkali-bearing sulfate and carbonate salts: connate marine-like waters that are chloride-rich with a halite-bischofite-carnallite-kieserite-anhydrite association; and diagenetic waters that are frequently of marine origin but yield normative salts, such as Ca-bearing chlorides (antarcticite and tachyhydrite) and sylvite, which suggest solute alteration by secondary mineral reactions. The solute source or reaction process within each of the above categories is commonly indicated by the presence or absence of diagnostic normative salts and their relative abundance in the normative salt assemblage. For example, salt norms: (1) may identify lithologic source; (2) may identify the relative roles of carbonic and sulfuric acid hydrolysis in the evolution of weathering waters; (3) may identify the origin of connate water from normal marine, hypersaline, or evaporite salt resolution processes; and (4) may distinguish between dolomitization and silicate hydrolysis or exchange for the origin of diagenetic waters. (Author 's abstract)

  18. Amplification of salt-induced polymer diffusiophoresis by increasing salting-out strength.

    PubMed

    McAfee, Michele S; Zhang, Huixiang; Annunziata, Onofrio

    2014-10-21

    The role of salting-out strength on (1) polymer diffusiophoresis from high to low salt concentration, and (2) salt osmotic diffusion from high to low polymer concentration was investigated. These two cross-diffusion phenomena were experimentally characterized by Rayleigh interferometry at 25 °C. Specifically, we report ternary diffusion coefficients for polyethylene glycol (molecular weight, 20 kg·mol(-1)) in aqueous solutions of several salts (NaCl, KCl, NH4Cl, CaCl2, and Na2SO4) as a function of salt concentration at low polymer concentration (0.5% w/w). We also measured polymer diffusion coefficients by dynamic light scattering in order to discuss the interpretation of these transport coefficients in the presence of cross-diffusion effects. Our cross-diffusion results, primarily those on salt osmotic diffusion, were utilized to extract N(w), the number of water molecules in thermodynamic excess around a macromolecule. This preferential-hydration parameter characterizes the salting-out strength of the employed salt. For chloride salts, changing cation has a small effect on N(w). However, replacing NaCl with Na2SO4 (i.e., changing anion) leads to a 3-fold increase in N(w), in agreement with cation and anion Hofmeister series. Theoretical arguments show that polymer diffusiophoresis is directly proportional to the difference N(w) - n(w), where n(w) is the number of water molecules transported by the migrating macromolecule. Interestingly, the experimental ratio, n(w)/N(w), was found to be approximately the same for all investigated salts. Thus, the magnitude of polymer diffusiophoresis is also proportional to salting-out strength as described by N(w). A basic hydrodynamic model was examined in order to gain physical insight on the role of n(w) in particle diffusiophoresis and explain the observed invariance of n(w)/N(w). Finally, we consider a steady-state diffusion problem to show that concentration gradients of strong salting-out agents such as Na2SO4 can

  19. Highly Effective Pt-Based Water-Gas Shift Catalysts by Surface Modification with Alkali Hydroxide Salts

    SciTech Connect

    Kusche, Matthias; Bustillo, Karen; Agel, Friederike; Wasserscheid, Peter

    2015-01-29

    Here, we describe an economical and convenient method to improve the performance of Pt/alumina catalysts for the water–gas shift reaction through surface modification of the catalysts with alkali hydroxides according to the solid catalyst with ionic liquid layer approach. The results are in agreement with our findings reported earlier for methanol steam reforming. This report indicates that alkali doping of the catalyst plays an important role in the observed catalyst activation. In addition, the basic and hygroscopic nature of the salt coating contributes to a significant improvement in the performance of the catalyst. During the reaction, a partly liquid film of alkali hydroxide forms on the alumina surface, which increases the availability of H2O at the catalytically active sites. Kinetic studies reveal a negligible effect of the KOH coating on the rate dependence of CO and H2O partial pressures. In conclusion, TEM studies indicate an agglomeration of the active Pt clusters during catalyst preparation; restructuring of Pt nanoparticles occurs under reaction conditions, which leads to a highly active and stable system over 240h time on stream. Excessive pore fillings with KOH introduce a mass transfer barrier as indicated in a volcano-shaped curve of activity versus salt loading. The optimum KOH loading was found to be 7.5wt%.

  20. Highly Effective Pt-Based Water-Gas Shift Catalysts by Surface Modification with Alkali Hydroxide Salts

    DOE PAGES

    Kusche, Matthias; Bustillo, Karen; Agel, Friederike; ...

    2015-01-29

    Here, we describe an economical and convenient method to improve the performance of Pt/alumina catalysts for the water–gas shift reaction through surface modification of the catalysts with alkali hydroxides according to the solid catalyst with ionic liquid layer approach. The results are in agreement with our findings reported earlier for methanol steam reforming. This report indicates that alkali doping of the catalyst plays an important role in the observed catalyst activation. In addition, the basic and hygroscopic nature of the salt coating contributes to a significant improvement in the performance of the catalyst. During the reaction, a partly liquid filmmore » of alkali hydroxide forms on the alumina surface, which increases the availability of H2O at the catalytically active sites. Kinetic studies reveal a negligible effect of the KOH coating on the rate dependence of CO and H2O partial pressures. In conclusion, TEM studies indicate an agglomeration of the active Pt clusters during catalyst preparation; restructuring of Pt nanoparticles occurs under reaction conditions, which leads to a highly active and stable system over 240h time on stream. Excessive pore fillings with KOH introduce a mass transfer barrier as indicated in a volcano-shaped curve of activity versus salt loading. The optimum KOH loading was found to be 7.5wt%.« less

  1. Salt content of school meals and comparison of perception related to sodium intake in elementary, middle, and high schools.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Sohyun; Park, Seoyun; Kim, Jin Nam; Han, Sung Nim; Jeong, Soo Bin; Kim, Hye-Kyeong

    2013-02-01

    Excessive sodium intake leading to hypertension, stroke, and stomach cancer is mainly caused by excess use of salt in cooking. This study was performed to estimate the salt content in school meals and to compare differences in perceptions related to sodium intake between students and staffs working for school meal service. We collected 382 dishes for food from 24 schools (9 elementary, 7 middle, 8 high schools) in Gyeonggi-do and salt content was calculated from salinity and weight of individual food. The average salt content from elementary, middle, and high school meals were 2.44 g, 3.96 g, and 5.87 g, respectively. The amount of salt provided from the school lunch alone was over 80% of the recommended daily salt intake by WHO. Noodles, stews, sauces, and soups were major sources of salt intake at dish group level, while the most salty dishes were sauces, kimchies, and stir-fried foods. Dietary knowledge and attitude related to sodium intake and consumption frequency of the salty dishes were surveyed with questionnaire in 798 students and 256 staffs working for school meal service. Compared with the staffs, the students perceived school meals salty and the proportions of students who thought school meals were salty increased with going up from elementary to high schools (P < 0.001). Among the students, middle and high school students showed significant propensity for the preference to one-dish meal, processed foods, eating much broth and dipping sauce or seasoning compared with the elementary students, although they had higher nutrition knowledge scores. These results proposed that monitoring salt content of school meals and consideration on the contents and education methods in school are needed to lower sodium intake.

  2. Water Content of Lunar Alkali Fedlspar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mills, R. D.; Simon, J. I.; Wang, J.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; Hauri, E. H.

    2016-01-01

    Detection of indigenous hydrogen in a diversity of lunar materials, including volcanic glass, melt inclusions, apatite, and plagioclase suggests water may have played a role in the chemical differentiation of the Moon. Spectroscopic data from the Moon indicate a positive correlation between water and Th. Modeling of lunar magma ocean crystallization predicts a similar chemical differentiation with the highest levels of water in the K- and Th-rich melt residuum of the magma ocean (i.e. urKREEP). Until now, the only sample-based estimates of water content of KREEP-rich magmas come from measurements of OH, F, and Cl in lunar apatites, which suggest a water concentration of < 1 ppm in urKREEP. Using these data, predict that the bulk water content of the magma ocean would have <10 ppm. In contrast, estimate water contents of 320 ppm for the bulk Moon and 1.4 wt % for urKREEP from plagioclase in ferroan anorthosites. Results and interpretation: NanoSIMS data from granitic clasts from Apollo sample 15405,78 show that alkali feldspar, a common mineral in K-enriched rocks, can have approx. 20 ppm of water, which implies magmatic water contents of approx. 1 wt % in the high-silica magmas. This estimate is 2 to 3 orders of magnitude higher than that estimated from apatite in similar rocks. However, the Cl and F contents of apatite in chemically similar rocks suggest that these melts also had high Cl/F ratios, which leads to spuriously low water estimates from the apatite. We can only estimate the minimum water content of urKREEP (+ bulk Moon) from our alkali feldspar data because of the unknown amount of degassing that led to the formation of the granites. Assuming a reasonable 10 to 100 times enrichment of water from urKREEP into the granites produces an estimate of 100-1000 ppm of water for the urKREEP reservoir. Using the modeling of and the 100-1000 ppm of water in urKREEP suggests a minimum bulk silicate Moon water content between 2 and 20 ppm. However, hydrogen loss was

  3. 4. VIEW TO NORTHEAST, SKINNER SALT ROASTERS, SAMPLING BUILDING, WATER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW TO NORTHEAST, SKINNER SALT ROASTERS, SAMPLING BUILDING, WATER TOWER, AND OFFICE BUILDING. - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  4. [The water content reference material of water saturated octanol].

    PubMed

    Wang, Haifeng; Ma, Kang; Zhang, Wei; Li, Zhanyuan

    2011-03-01

    The national standards of biofuels specify the technique specification and analytical methods. A water content certified reference material based on the water saturated octanol was developed in order to satisfy the needs of the instrument calibration and the methods validation, assure the accuracy and consistency of results in water content measurements of biofuels. Three analytical methods based on different theories were employed to certify the water content of the reference material, including Karl Fischer coulometric titration, Karl Fischer volumetric titration and quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance. The consistency of coulometric and volumetric titration was achieved through the improvement of methods. The accuracy of the certified result was improved by the introduction of the new method of quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance. Finally, the certified value of reference material is 4.76% with an expanded uncertainty of 0.09%.

  5. Modification of polymorphisms in polyvinylidene fluoride thin films via water and hydrated salt.

    PubMed

    Song, Rui; Xia, Guangmei; Xing, Xueqing; He, Linghao; Zhao, Qiaoling; Ma, Zhi

    2013-07-01

    In this study, the effects of solvent and magnesium chloride hexahydrate (MgCl2·6H2O) on the polymorphism of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) thin films were systematically investigated. Wherein, N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) and water with different volume ratio were used as mixed solvents to obtain the solution casting films, P series. In addition, MgCl2·6H2O was comparatively added to prepare PVDF/MgCl2·6H2O hybrid films, P-M series. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) were utilized to study the influence of the water content in the mixed solvents and the hydrated salt on crystallization behavior of PVDF. Further, the morphologic images from scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and polarized optical microscopy (POM), as well as the pizoelectirc d33 test also supplies the corresponding evidences. As indicated, the water in the mixed solvent shows different effect on main crystal forms of PVDF. At low water content, the solvents may favor the polar phase (β- and γ-phase) mainly by hydrogen bonds interactions between PVDF and water, together with dipolar interactions between PVDF and DMF. At high water content, the nonsolvent water will impose confinement effect on polymer chain diffusion and crystal growth which facilitate the formation of α-phase PVDF. Moreover, magnesium chloride hexahydrate mainly functioned as the nucleation sites for PVDF crystallization. The result of small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) implies the content of water or MgCl2·6H2O has little impact on the structure of the long period.

  6. Ply Thickness Fiber Glass on Windmill Drive Salt Water Pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sifa, Agus; Badruzzaman; Suwandi, Dedi

    2016-04-01

    Factors management of salt-making processes need to be considered selection of the location and the season is very important to support the efforts of salting. Windmills owned by the farmers are still using wood materials are made each year it is not effectively done and the shape of windmills made not in accordance with the requirements without considering the wind speed and the pumping speed control influenced by the weight and size of windmill, it affects the productivity of salt. to optimize the function of windmills on pumping salt water by change the material blade on the wheel by using a material composite, composite or fiberglass are used for blades on windmills made of a material a mixture of Epoxy-Resin and Matrix E-Glass. The mechanical characteristics of the power of his blade one of determining the materials used and the thickness of the blade, which needed a strong and lightweight. The calculation result thick fiberglass with a composition of 60% fiber and 40% epoxy, at a wind speedof area salt fields 9 m/s, the drag force that occurs at 11,56 kg, then the calculation result by 0,19 mm thick with a layer of 10, the total thickness of 1,9 mm, with a density of 1760 kg/m3, mechanical character of elongated elastic modulus of 46200 MPa, modulus of transverse elasticity of 10309,6 MPa, shear modulus of 3719 MPa and Poisson ratio of 0,31, then the calculation using the finite element ABAQUS obtained critical point at the confluence of the blade to the value of Von Mises tension was happening 1,158e9 MPa maximum and minimum 2,123e5 MPa, for a maximum value of displacement occurred condition at the tip of the blade. The performance test results windmills at a wind speed of 5,5 m/s wind power shows that occur 402,42 watts and power turbines produced 44,21 watt, and TSR 0,095 and the value Cp of 0,1, test results windmill in salt fields in the beginning rotation windmill lighter, able to move above wind speed of 5.5 m/s.

  7. Soil water content and evaporation determined by thermal parameters obtained from ground-based and remote measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reginato, R. J.; Idso, S. B.; Jackson, R. D.; Vedder, J. F.; Blanchard, M. B.; Goettelman, R.

    1976-01-01

    Soil water contents from both smooth and rough bare soil were estimated from remotely sensed surface soil and air temperatures. An inverse relationship between two thermal parameters and gravimetric soil water content was found for Avondale loam when its water content was between air-dry and field capacity. These parameters, daily maximum minus minimum surface soil temperature and daily maximum soil minus air temperature, appear to describe the relationship reasonably well. These two parameters also describe relative soil water evaporation (actual/potential). Surface soil temperatures showed good agreement among three measurement techniques: in situ thermocouples, a ground-based infrared radiation thermometer, and the thermal infrared band of an airborne multispectral scanner.

  8. Breadboard wash water renovation system. [using ferric chloride and ion exchange resins to remove soap and dissolved salts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A total wash water renovation system concept was developed for removing objectionable materials from spacecraft wash water in order to make the water reusable. The breadboard model system described provides for pretreatment with ferric chloride to remove soap by chemical precipitation, carbon adsorption to remove trace dissolved organics, and ion exchange for removal of dissolved salts. The entire system was put into continuous operation and carefully monitored to assess overall efficiency and equipment maintenance problems that could be expected in actual use. In addition, the capacity of the carbon adsorbers and the ion-exchange resin was calculated and taken into consideration in the final evaluation of the system adequacy. The product water produced was well within the Tentative Wash Water Standards with regard to total organic carbon, conductivity, urea content, sodium chloride content, color, odor, and clarity.

  9. Movement of Salt and Nitrate in Shallow Groundwater in California's Central Valley - Large Scale Water, Salt, and Nitrate Balance Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalgish, B. A.; Boyle, D.; Kretsinger Grabert, V. J.

    2013-12-01

    A large-scale analysis of salt and nitrate was performed for the shallow groundwater aquifer of the entire California Central Valley floor (about 20,000 square miles). This analysis combined many different platforms of data in order to complete water and mass balance calculations. Groundwater and surface water quality test data were used in combination with mass loading from a watershed model (the Environmental Protection Agency's Watershed Analysis Risk Management Framework, or WARMF), as well as an integrated hydrologic model that simulates the use and movement of water coupled between the landscape, surface water, and groundwater (the U.S. Geological Survey's Central Valley Hydrologic Model, or CVHM). For this analysis, the Central Valley floor was divided into 22 zones, and the movement of shallow groundwater, surface water, salt, and nitrate was simulated in, out, and between the zones on a quarterly basis for a 20-year simulation period. In this analysis, shallow groundwater is defined by an estimate of the vertical distance water will travel from the water table within 20 years. Fluxes of mass from deep ambient groundwater and ambient surface water quality were estimated from measured concentration data. Quantities of mass were acquired for recharge (from WARMF output) or calculated using concentrations and other water budget components. Flow and volume components were extracted by post-processing CVHM output data. This resulted in a transient water, salt, and nitrate budget for each of the 22 zones. Simulated shallow groundwater concentrations were calculated to investigate water quality trends for the Central Valley. Four zones were identified as areas with the highest concentrations of salt (TDS) in the southwestern portion of the Central Valley; and six zones were identified as areas with the highest nitrate concentrations, mostly in the southeastern portion of the Valley. Additional analyses intended to shift from the large-scale balance calculations to

  10. The impact of the reduction of sodium content in processed foods in salt intake in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Souza, Amanda de Moura; Souza, Bárbara da Silva Nalin de; Bezerra, Ilana Nogueira; Sichieri, Rosely

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed at assessing the potential impact of the reduction of sodium content in processed foods in the average salt intake in the Brazilian population. A total of 32,900 participants of the first National Dietary Survey (NDS 2008-2009), age 10 years and older who provided information about food intake over two days were evaluated. The sodium reduction targets established by the Brazilian Ministry of Health in 2010 and 2013 were used as the reference to determine the maximum content of sodium in 21 groups of processed food. The results show that sodium reduction targets in processed food have small impact in mean Brazilian population intake of salt. For 2017, the expected mean reduction is of 1.5%, the average sodium intake being still above the recommended 2,000mg/day maximum. Therefore, it will hardly be possible to reach the necessary reduction in salt intake in Brazil from volunteer agreements like the ones made so far.

  11. Anomalous water diffusion in salt solutions

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yun; Hassanali, Ali A.; Parrinello, Michele

    2014-01-01

    The dynamics of water exhibits anomalous behavior in the presence of different electrolytes. Recent experiments [Kim JS, Wu Z, Morrow AR, Yethiraj A, Yethiraj A (2012) J Phys Chem B 116(39):12007–12013] have found that the self-diffusion of water can either be enhanced or suppressed around CsI and NaCl, respectively, relative to that of neat water. Here we show that unlike classical empirical potentials, ab initio molecular dynamics simulations successfully reproduce the qualitative trends observed experimentally. These types of phenomena have often been rationalized in terms of the “structure-making” or “structure-breaking” effects of different ions on the solvent, although the microscopic origins of these features have remained elusive. Rather than disrupting the network in a significant manner, the electrolytes studied here cause rather subtle changes in both structural and dynamical properties of water. In particular, we show that water in the ab initio molecular dynamics simulations is characterized by dynamic heterogeneity, which turns out to be critical in reproducing the experimental trends. PMID:24522111

  12. Moisture content, processing yield, and surface color of broiler carcasses chilled by water, air, or evaporative air.

    PubMed

    Jeong, J Y; Janardhanan, K K; Booren, A M; Karcher, D M; Kang, I

    2011-03-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of water chilling (WC), air chilling (AC), and evaporative air chilling (EAC) on the moisture content, processing yield, surface color, and visual appearance of broiler carcasses. For the WC treatment, 1 group of birds was hard scalded and submersed into ice slush, whereas for AC, 1 group of birds was soft scalded and exposed to blowing air (1.0 m/s at 0°C) and for EAC, or 1 group of birds was soft scalded and exposed to blowing air and a cold water spray (every 5 min). During chilling, carcass temperature was reduced most effectively by WC (55 min), followed by EAC (120 min) and AC (155 min). After chilling, both WC and EAC carcasses picked up moisture at 4.6 and 1.0% of their weights, respectively, whereas AC carcasses lost 1.5% of their weight. On cutting at 5 h postmortem, WC carcasses showed the highest (2.5%), EAC showed the second highest (0.4%), and AC showed the least (0.3%) moisture loss. After 24 h of storage, almost 83% of the absorbed water in the WC carcass parts was released as purge, whereas EAC and AC carcasses maintained weights close to the prechilled weights. In an instrumental color evaluation and a visual evaluation by panelists, AC carcasses showed a darker appearance, a more yellow color, and more surface discoloration compared with WC or EAC carcasses.

  13. Hydrogeology and Simulated Ground-Water Flow in the Salt Pond Region of Southern Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masterson, John P.; Sorenson, Jason R.; Stone, Janet R.; Moran, S. Bradley; Hougham, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    The Salt Pond region of southern Rhode Island extends from Westerly to Narragansett Bay and forms the natural boundary between the Atlantic Ocean and the shallow, highly permeable freshwater aquifer of the South Coastal Basin. Large inputs of fresh ground water coupled with the low flushing rates to the open ocean make the salt ponds particularly susceptible to eutrophication and bacterial contamination. Ground-water discharge to the salt ponds is an important though poorly quantified source of contaminants, such as dissolved nutrients. A ground-water-flow model was developed and used to delineate the watersheds to the salt ponds, including the areas that contribute ground water directly to the ponds and the areas that contribute ground water to streams that flow into ponds. The model also was used to calculate ground-water fluxes to these coastal areas for long-term average conditions. As part of the modeling analysis, adjustments were made to model input parameters to assess potential uncertainties in model-calculated watershed delineations and in ground-water discharge to the salt ponds. The results of the simulations indicate that flow to the salt ponds is affected primarily by the ease with which water is transmitted through a glacial moraine deposit near the regional ground-water divide, and by the specified recharge rate used in the model simulations. The distribution of the total freshwater flow between direct ground-water discharge and ground-water-derived surface-water (streamflow) discharge to the salt ponds is affected primarily by simulated stream characteristics, including the streambed-aquifer connection and the stream stage. The simulated position of the ground-water divide and, therefore, the model-calculated watershed delineations for the salt ponds, were affected only by changes in the transmissivity of the glacial moraine. Selected changes in other simulated hydraulic parameters had substantial effects on total freshwater discharge and the

  14. 24-Epibrassinolide regulates photosynthesis, antioxidant enzyme activities and proline content of Cucumis sativus under salt and/or copper stress.

    PubMed

    Fariduddin, Q; Khalil, Radwan R A E; Mir, Bilal A; Yusuf, M; Ahmad, A

    2013-09-01

    Brassinosteroids have been extensively used to overcome various abiotic stresses. But its role in combined stress of salt and excess copper remains unexplored. Seeds of two cultivars (Rocket and Jumbo) of Cucumis sativus were grown in sand amended with copper (100 mg kg(-1)), and developed seedlings were exposed to salt stress in the form of NaCl (150 mM) at the 30-day stage of growth for 3 days. These seedlings were subsequently sprayed with 0 or 0.01 μM of 24-epibrassinolide (EBL) at the 35-day stage. The plants exposed to NaCl and Cu in combination exhibited a significant decline in fresh and dry mass of plant, chlorophyll content, activities of carbonic anhydrase, net photosynthetic rate and maximum quantum yield of the PSII primary photochemistry followed by NaCl and Cu stress alone, more severely in Jumbo than in Rocket. However, the follow-up treatment with EBL to the stressed and nonstressed plant improved growth, chlorophyll content, carbonic anhydrase activity and photosynthetic efficiency, and further enhanced the activity of various antioxidant enzymes viz. catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase and content of proline at the 40-day stage of growth, and the response of the hormone was more effective in Rocket than in Jumbo. The elevated level of antioxidant enzymes as well as proline could have conferred tolerance to the NaCl- and/or Cu-stressed plants resulting in improved growth, water relations and photosynthetic attributes. Furthermore, antioxidant enzyme activity and proline content were more enhanced in Rocket than in Jumbo cultivar.

  15. On chlorine salts: Their detection, stability and implications for water on Mars and Europa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanley, Jennifer

    Chlorine salts (e.g. chlorides, chlorates and perchlorates) are an important factor in the stability of water on the surfaces of planetary bodies. Here we have shown that perchlorate and chlorate salts will lower the freezing point of water, allowing it to be liquid down to ~204 K. These salts will also slow down the evaporation rate, extending the lifetime of the liquid water solution. Chlorine salts have been detected on Mars, which has significant implications for the stability of water and hence its habitability. To study their effects on the stability of water on planetary surfaces, we need to first locate where these chlorine salts exist; this is typically done by remote sensing. To date, only anhydrous chlorides have been remotely detected, mostly due to the lack of hydrated chlorine salts in the spectral libraries used to identify features. To address this deficit, we measured reflectance spectra for numerous chlorine salts. Hydration bands were most common in near-infrared spectra, with band depth and width increasing with increasing hydration state. In the mid-infrared, oxychlorine salts exhibit spectral features due to Cl-O vibrations. We also investigated the spectral features of these salts at low temperature (80 K) to compare with remote sensing data of the outer satellites, specifically Europa. At low temperature, water bands become narrower and shallower than their room temperature counterparts. We show that chlorine salts do possess distinct spectral features that should allow for their detection by remote sensing, though care must be taken to acquire laboratory spectra of all hydrated phases at the relevant conditions (e.g. temperature, pressure) for the planetary body being studied.

  16. On Chlorine Salts: Their Detection, Stability and implications for Water on Mars and Europa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanley, Jennifer

    2013-10-01

    Chlorine salts (e.g. chlorides, chlorates and perchlorates) are an important factor in the stability of water on the surfaces of planetary bodies. Here we have shown that perchlorate and chlorate salts will lower the freezing point of water, allowing it to be liquid down to ~204 K. These salts will also slow down the evaporation rate, extending the lifetime of the liquid water solution. Chlorine salts have been detected on Mars, which has significant implications for the stability of water and hence its habitability. To study their effects on the stability of water on planetary surfaces, we need to first locate where these chlorine salts exist; this is typically done by remote sensing. To date, only anhydrous chlorides have been remotely detected, mostly due to the lack of hydrated chlorine salts in the spectral libraries used to identify features. To address this deficit, we measured reflectance spectra for numerous chlorine salts. Hydration bands were most common in near-infrared spectra, with band depth and width increasing with increasing hydration state. In the mid-infrared, oxychlorine salts exhibit spectral features due to Cl-O vibrations. We also investigated the spectral features of these salts at low temperature (80 K) to compare with remote sensing data of the outer satellites, specifically Europa. At low temperature, water bands become narrower and shallower than their room temperature counterparts. We show that chlorine salts do possess distinct spectral features that should allow for their detection by remote sensing, though care must be taken to acquire laboratory spectra of all hydrated phases at the relevant conditions (e.g. temperature, pressure) for the planetary body being studied.

  17. Correlation among Cirrus Ice Content, Water Vapor and Temperature in the TTL as Observed by CALIPSO and Aura-MLS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flury, T.; Wu, D. L.; Read, W. G.

    2012-01-01

    Water vapor in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) has a local radiative cooling effect. As a source for ice in cirrus clouds, however, it can also indirectly produce infrared heating. Using NASA A-Train satellite measurements of CALIPSO and Aura/MLS we calculated the correlation of water vapor, ice water content and temperature in the TTL. We find that temperature strongly controls water vapor (correlation r =0.94) and cirrus clouds at 100 hPa (r = -0.91). Moreover we observe that the cirrus seasonal cycle is highly (r =-0.9) anticorrelated with the water vapor variation in the TTL, showing higher cloud occurrence during December-January-February. We further investigate the anticorrelation on a regional scale and find that the strong anticorrelation occurs generally in the ITCZ (Intertropical Convergence Zone). The seasonal cycle of the cirrus ice water content is also highly anticorrelated to water vapor (r = -0.91) and our results support the hypothesis that the total water at 100 hPa is roughly constant. Temperature acts as a main regulator for balancing the partition between water vapor and cirrus clouds. Thus, to a large extent, the depleting water vapor in the TTL during DJF is a manifestation of cirrus formation.

  18. Heavy metal contents of refined and unrefined table salts from Turkey, Egypt and Greece.

    PubMed

    Soylak, Mustafa; Peker, Dondu Serpil Kacar; Turkoglu, Orhan

    2008-08-01

    Trace metal contents of 28 of refined and unrefined table salt samples from Turkey, Egypt and Greece have been determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry after coprecipitation by dysprosium(III) hydroxide. Copper, nickel, cobalt, manganese, lead and cadmium levels were found in the range of 0.17-0.47, 0.16-1.57, 0.22-0.48, 0.26-4.68, 0.50-1.64 and 0.14-0.30 microg g(-1), respectively. The results found in the presented work were compared with literature values.

  19. High Salt Diets, Bone Strength and Mineral Content of Mature Femur After Skeletal Unloading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, Michael T. C.

    1998-01-01

    It is known that high salt diets increase urinary calcium (Ca) loss, but it is not known whether this effect weakens bone during space flight. The Bone Hormone Lab has studied the effect of high salt diets on Ca balance and whole body Ca in a space flight model (2,8). Neither the strength nor mineral content of the femurs from these studies has been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of high salt diets (HiNa) and skeletal unloading on femoral bone strength and bone mineral content (BMC) in mature rats.

  20. Salt deposition studies in a supercritical water oxidation reactor

    SciTech Connect

    LaJeunesse, C.A.; Rice, S.F.; Hanush, R.G.; Aiken, J.D.

    1993-10-01

    Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO), a method for destroying aqueous organic waste, is a relatively new technology discovered about fifteen years ago. SCWO occurs at moderate temperatures and pressures where the ability of water to dissolve hydrocarbons and other organic chemicals is greatly enhanced. Depending on the feed stream and residence time, the dissolved organic waste reacts with an oxidizer to produce innocuous combustion products. However, oxidation of organic material containing heteroatoms, such as sulfur or phosphorous, forms sulfuric or phosphoric acid in the absence of metal ions. In situ neutralization with sodium hydroxide then forms salts that are insoluble at supercritical conditions. These salts deposit in the reactor affecting the processing of the organic material. To design a system that can accommodate the formation of these salts, it is important to understand the deposition process quantitatively. This paper is an interim report on an experimental program designed to understand the salt deposition phenomena.

  1. Impact of the analytical blank in the uncertainty evaluation of the copper content in waters by flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Elcio Cruz; Monteiro, Maria Inês Couto; Pontes, Fernanda Veronesi Marinho; de Almeida, Marcelo Dominguez; Carneiro, Manuel Castro; da Silva, Lílian Irene Dias; Alcover Neto, Arnaldo

    2012-01-01

    Chemical analysts use analytical blanks in their analyses, but seldom is this source of uncertainty evaluated. Generally, there is great confusion. Although the numerical value of the blank, in some situations, can be negligible, its source of uncertainty cannot be. This article discusses the uncertainty contribution of the analytical blank using a numerical example of the copper content in waters by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The results indicate that the uncertainties of the analytical blank can contribute up to 50% when the blank sample is considered in this analysis, confirming its high impact. This effect can be primarily observed where the analyte concentration approaches the lower range of the analytical curve. Even so, the blank is not always computed. Therefore, the relevance of the analytical blank can be confirmed by uncertainty evaluation.

  2. High-throughput liberation of water-soluble yeast content by irreversible electropermeation (HT-irEP).

    PubMed

    Zakhartsev, Maxim; Momeu, Carmen; Ganeva, Valentina

    2007-03-01

    The article describes a high-throughput method for the liberation of water-soluble cell contents by exploiting the phenomenon of irreversible membrane electropermeation (HT-irEP). The method is exemplified in recombinant proteins and plasmid liberation from yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the detectable level. Obtained extracts are pure enough to be readily applied for further analytical analysis such as enzyme assay, PCR, and so on. From the same HT-irEP extract, one can measure activity of the target protein and perform amplification of the corresponding gene from the DNA vector by PCR for recombinant protein with intracellular expression. Therefore, the method is suitable for the high-throughput screening (HTS) of yeast libraries where extracellular expression of recombinant protein is problematic. The method can be easily automated and integrated into existing HTS systems.

  3. SEPARATION OF METAL SALTS BY ADSORPTION

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, D.M.

    1959-01-20

    It has been found that certain metal salts, particularly the halides of iron, cobalt, nickel, and the actinide metals, arc readily absorbed on aluminum oxide, while certain other salts, particularly rare earth metal halides, are not so absorbed. Use is made of this discovery to separate uranium from the rare earths. The metal salts are first dissolved in a molten mixture of alkali metal nitrates, e.g., the eutectic mixture of lithium nitrate and potassium nitrate, and then the molten salt solution is contacted with alumina, either by slurrying or by passing the salt solution through an absorption tower. The process is particularly valuable for the separation of actinides from lanthanum-group rare earths.

  4. Resistance of liposomal sunscreen formulations against plain water as well as salt water exposure and perspiration.

    PubMed

    Korting, H C; Schöllmann, C

    2011-01-01

    The present in vivo investigation using a total of 30 healthy adult volunteers with Fitzpatrick skin type II examines the persistent efficacy of sunscreens using liposomal suspensions as the vehicle. Based on the COLIPA guidelines, the protective effect of a single application of 4 different liposomal sunscreen formulations (sun protection factors, SPFs: 50+, 30, 25 and 15) against sunburn at the recommended amount of 2 mg/cm(2) was determined after exposure of the skin to plain water and salt water and after profuse perspiration. Under the influence of plain water, salt water and sweating, the SPF values of sunscreen 1 (labeled SPF of 50+) were reduced only marginally to 97, 96 and 99%, respectively, those of sunscreen 2 (labeled SPF of 30) to 97, 96 and 99%, respectively, those of sunscreen 3 (labeled SPF of 25) to 90, 83 and 91%, respectively, and those of sunscreen 4 (labeled SPF of 15) to 96, 96 and 95%, respectively. This set of data shows that despite plain water and salt water immersion or profuse sweating, the liposomal sunscreen formulation may deliver a long-lasting protective effect in everyday situations encountered by outdoor workers or during leisure activities.

  5. Salts as Water Ice Cloud Nuclei on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santiago-Materese, D.; Chuang, P. Y.; Iraci, L. T.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, observations of the Martian surface have indicated the presence of chlorine-bearing minerals, including perchlorates, on the surface of Mars. These salt-bearing minerals would potentially be source material for dust lofted from the surface into the Martian atmosphere, thus providing potential nucleation sites for water ice clouds. Considering that salts play an important role in cloud formation on Earth, it is important to have a better understanding of how salt may affect nucleation processes under Mars-like conditions. We perform laboratory experiments to examine water ice nucleation onto salt substrates. We use a vacuum chamber that simulates the temperatures and pressures observed of the Martian atmosphere. Using infrared spectroscopy we measure the onset of nucleation and calculate the temperature-dependent critical saturation ratio (Scrit) for water ice nucleation onto salts, specifically sodium chloride and sodium perchlorate. Preliminary results of Scrit values for water ice nucleation on sodium chloride show a negative temperature dependence, as did other substrates from previous experiments. Values of Scrit are useful for understanding the realistic conditions under which water ice clouds may form on Mars, and can be used in climate models simulating clouds on Mars.

  6. Survival of Salmonella enterica serotype Tennessee during simulated gastric passage is improved by low water activity and high fat content.

    PubMed

    Aviles, Bryan; Klotz, Courtney; Smith, Twyla; Williams, Robert; Ponder, Monica

    2013-02-01

    The low water activity (a(w) 0.3) of peanut butter prohibits the growth of Salmonella in a product; however, illnesses are reported from peanut butter contaminated with very small doses, suggesting the food matrix itself influences the infectious dose of Salmonella, potentially by improving Salmonella's survival in the gastrointestinal tract. The purpose of our study was to quantify the survival of a peanut butter outbreak-associated strain of Salmonella enterica serotype Tennessee when inoculated into peanut butters with different fat contents and a(w) (high fat, high a(w); high fat, low a(w); low fat, high a(w); low fat, low a(w)) and then challenged with a simulated gastrointestinal system. Exposures to increased fat content and decreased a(w) both were associated with a protective effect on the survival of Salmonella Tennessee in the simulated gastric fluid compared with control cells. After a simulated intestinal phase, the populations of Salmonella Tennessee in the control and low-fat formulations were not significantly different; however, a 2-log CFU/g increase occurred in high-fat formulations. This study demonstrates that cross-protection from low-a(w) stress and the presence of high fat results in improved survival in the low pH of the stomach. The potential for interaction of food matrix and stress adaptations could influence the virulence of Salmonella and should be considered for risk analysis.

  7. Polyamines Confer Salt Tolerance in Mung Bean (Vigna radiata L.) by Reducing Sodium Uptake, Improving Nutrient Homeostasis, Antioxidant Defense, and Methylglyoxal Detoxification Systems.

    PubMed

    Nahar, Kamrun; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Rahman, Anisur; Alam, Md Mahabub; Mahmud, Jubayer-Al; Suzuki, Toshisada; Fujita, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    The physiological roles of PAs (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) were investigated for their ability to confer salt tolerance (200 mM NaCl, 48 h) in mung bean seedlings (Vigna radiata L. cv. BARI Mung-2). Salt stress resulted in Na toxicity, decreased K, Ca, Mg, and Zn contents in roots and shoots, and disrupted antioxidant defense system which caused oxidative damage as indicated by increased lipid peroxidation, H2O2 content, [Formula: see text] generation rate, and lipoxygenase activity. Salinity-induced methylglyoxal (MG) toxicity was also clearly evident. Salinity decreased leaf chlorophyll (chl) and relative water content (RWC). Supplementation of salt affected seedlings with exogenous PAs enhanced the contents of glutathione and ascorbate, increased activities of antioxidant enzymes (dehydroascorbate reductase, glutathione reductase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase) and glyoxalase enzyme (glyoxalase II), which reduced salt-induced oxidative stress and MG toxicity, respectively. Exogenous PAs reduced cellular Na content and maintained nutrient homeostasis and modulated endogenous PAs levels in salt affected mung bean seedlings. The overall salt tolerance was reflected through improved tissue water and chl content, and better seedling growth.

  8. Polyamines Confer Salt Tolerance in Mung Bean (Vigna radiata L.) by Reducing Sodium Uptake, Improving Nutrient Homeostasis, Antioxidant Defense, and Methylglyoxal Detoxification Systems

    PubMed Central

    Nahar, Kamrun; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Rahman, Anisur; Alam, Md. Mahabub; Mahmud, Jubayer-Al; Suzuki, Toshisada; Fujita, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    The physiological roles of PAs (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) were investigated for their ability to confer salt tolerance (200 mM NaCl, 48 h) in mung bean seedlings (Vigna radiata L. cv. BARI Mung-2). Salt stress resulted in Na toxicity, decreased K, Ca, Mg, and Zn contents in roots and shoots, and disrupted antioxidant defense system which caused oxidative damage as indicated by increased lipid peroxidation, H2O2 content, O2•- generation rate, and lipoxygenase activity. Salinity-induced methylglyoxal (MG) toxicity was also clearly evident. Salinity decreased leaf chlorophyll (chl) and relative water content (RWC). Supplementation of salt affected seedlings with exogenous PAs enhanced the contents of glutathione and ascorbate, increased activities of antioxidant enzymes (dehydroascorbate reductase, glutathione reductase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase) and glyoxalase enzyme (glyoxalase II), which reduced salt-induced oxidative stress and MG toxicity, respectively. Exogenous PAs reduced cellular Na content and maintained nutrient homeostasis and modulated endogenous PAs levels in salt affected mung bean seedlings. The overall salt tolerance was reflected through improved tissue water and chl content, and better seedling growth. PMID:27516763

  9. [Estimation of vegetation water content from Landsat 8 OLI data].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xing-ming; Ding, Yan-ling; Zhao, Kai; Jiang, Tao; Li, Xiao-feng; Zhang, Shi-yi; Li, Yang-yang; Wu, Li-li; Sun, Jian; Ren, Jian-hua; Zhang, Xuan-xuan

    2014-12-01

    The present paper aims to analyze the capabilities and limitations for retrieving vegetation water content from Landsat8 OLI (Operational Land Imager) sensor-new generation of earth observation program. First, the effect of soil background on canopy reflectance and the sensitive band to vegetation water content were analyzed based on simulated dataset from ProSail model. Then, based on vegetation water indices from Landsat8 OLI and field vegetation water content during June 1 2013 to August 14 2013, the best vegetation water index for estimating vegetation water content was found through comparing 12 different indices. The results show that: (1) red, near infrared and two shortwave infrared bands of OLI sensor are sensitive to the change in vegetation water content, and near infrared band is the most sensitive one; (2) At low vegetation coverage, solar radiation reflected by soil background will reach to spectral sensor and influence the relationship between vegetation water index and vegetation water content, and simulation results from ProSail model also show that soil background reflectance has a significant impact on vegetation canopy reflectance in both wet and dry soil conditions, so the optimized soil adjusted vegetation index (OSAVI) was used in this paper to remove the effect of soil background on vegetation water index and improve its relationship with vegetation water content; (3) for the 12 vegetation water indices, the relationship between MSI2 and vegetation water content is the best with the R-square of 0.948 and the average error of vegetation water content is 0.52 kg · m(-2); (4) it is difficult to estimate vegetation water content from vegetation water indices when vegetation water content is larger than 2 kg · m(-2) due to spectral saturation of these indices.

  10. Dynamics of pore-water and salt in estuarine marshes subjected to tide and evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, C.; Shen, C.; Li, L.; Lockington, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Salt dynamics in estuarine tidal marshes are strongly associated with their intrinsic hydrological processes and ecological behaviors, which are not well understood. Numerical simulations were carried out to investigate the transport and distribution of pore water and salt in a vertical cross section perpendicular to the tidal creek that subjects to spring-neap tide and evaporation. Vaporizing pore water from unsaturated soil surface with salt left in soils, the time-variant actual evaporation is affected by aerodynamic factors as well as soil conditions, including pore-water saturation, solute concentration and the thickness of salt precipitation above the soil surface (efflorescence). Different simulation cases were performed by adjusting the tidal signal, marsh platform slope and soil properties. The simulation analysis indicates that, the tide-averaged soil salinity increases with the reduction of inundation period in a spring-neap tide cycle. As the salt accumulated by evaporation could leave soil from seepage back to seawater during ebbtide, the pore-water salinity at the surface within the tidal range remains close to that of seawater. With the presence of hyper-saline soil and efflorescence, salt flat develops only in the area where capillary connection between evaporating surface and water-saturated soil is maintained while tidal inundation absent. On the contrary, the sandy supratidal marsh where hydrological connections are disrupted keeps a relatively low soil salinity (40-60 ppt) and pore-water saturation as evaporation remains low throughout the tidal cycles.

  11. Investigation of indigenous water, salt and soil for solar ponds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, H. E.

    1983-01-01

    The existence of salt-gradient solar ponds in nature is a strong indication that the successful exploitation of this phenomenon must account adequately for the influences of the local setting. Sun, weather and other general factors are treated elsewhere. This paper deals with water, salt, and soil. A general methodology for evaluating and, where feasible, adjusting the effects of these elements is under development. Eight essential solar pond characteristics have been identified, along with a variety of their dependencies upon properties of water, salt and soil. The comprehensive methodology, when fully developed, will include laboratory investigation in such diverse areas as brine physical chemistry, light transmission, water treatment, brine-soil interactions, sealants, and others. With the Salton Sea solar pond investigation as an example, some methods under development will be described.

  12. ALUMINUM BIOAVAILABILITY FROM DRINKING WATER IS VERY LOW AND IS NOT APPRECIABLY INFLUENCED BY STOMACH CONTENTS OR WATER HARDNESS. (R825357)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objectives were to estimate aluminum (Al) oral bioavailability under conditions that model its consumption in drinking water, and to test the hypotheses that stomach contents and co-administration of the major components of hard water affect Al absorption. Rats received intra...

  13. Novel wireless health monitor with acupuncture bio-potentials obtained by using a replaceable salt-water-wetted foam-rubber cushions on RFID-tag.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jium-Ming; Lu, Hung-Han; Lin, Cheng-Hung

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a bio-potential measurement apparatus including a wireless device for transmitting acupuncture bio-potential information to a remote control station for health conditions analysis and monitor. The key technology of this system is to make replaceable foam-rubber cushions, double-side conducting tapes, chip and antenna on the radio frequency identification (RFID) tag. The foam-rubber cushions can be wetted with salt-water and contact with the acupuncture points to reduce contact resistance. Besides, the double-side conducting tapes are applied to fix foam-rubber cushions. Thus, one can peel the used cushions or tapes away and supply new ones quickly. Since the tag is a flexible plastic substrate, it is easy to deploy on the skin. Besides, the amplifier made by CMOS technology on RFID chip could amplify the signals to improve S/N ratio and impedance matching. Thus, cloud server can wirelessly monitor the health conditions. An example shows that the proposed system can be used as a wireless health condition monitor, the numerical method and the criteria are given to analyze eleven bio-potentials for the important acupunctures of eleven meridians on a person's hands and legs. Then a professional doctor can know the performance of an individual and the cross-linking effects of the organs.

  14. Freezing avoidance by supercooling in Olea europaea cultivars: the role of apoplastic water, solute content and cell wall rigidity.

    PubMed

    Arias, Nadia S; Bucci, Sandra J; Scholz, Fabian G; Goldstein, Guillermo

    2015-10-01

    Plants can avoid freezing damage by preventing extracellular ice formation below the equilibrium freezing temperature (supercooling). We used Olea europaea cultivars to assess which traits contribute to avoid ice nucleation at sub-zero temperatures. Seasonal leaf water relations, non-structural carbohydrates, nitrogen and tissue damage and ice nucleation temperatures in different plant parts were determined in five cultivars growing in the Patagonian cold desert. Ice seeding in roots occurred at higher temperatures than in stems and leaves. Leaves of cold acclimated cultivars supercooled down to -13 °C, substantially lower than the minimum air temperatures observed in the study site. During winter, leaf ice nucleation and leaf freezing damage (LT50 ) occurred at similar temperatures, typical of plant tissues that supercool. Higher leaf density and cell wall rigidity were observed during winter, consistent with a substantial acclimation to sub-zero temperatures. Larger supercooling capacity and lower LT50 were observed in cold-acclimated cultivars with higher osmotically active solute content, higher tissue elastic adjustments and lower apoplastic water. Irreversible leaf damage was only observed in laboratory experiments at very low temperatures, but not in the field. A comparative analysis of closely related plants avoids phylogenetic independence bias in a comparative study of adaptations to survive low temperatures.

  15. Moisture and salt monitoring in concrete by evanescent field dielectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riminesi, C.; Marie-Victoire, E.; Bouichou, M.; Olmi, R.

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring the water content and detecting the presence of soluble salts in concrete is a key issue for its maintenance. Evanescent field dielectrometry, originally developed for the diagnostics of frescoes and mural paintings, is proposed as a tool for monitoring the decay of cement-based materials. A measuring system, based on a scalar network analyzer and a resonant probe, has been realized and tested on concrete samples taken from historical buildings in France or purposely developed in the laboratory. Measurements on water-saturated and oven-dry samples provide the basis for calibrating the instrument for on site monitoring of concrete historical buildings, sculptures and cement-based artifacts.

  16. Classification of 17 DES supernovae by SALT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasai, E.; Bassett, B.; Crawford, S.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.

    2016-02-01

    We report optical spectroscopy of 17 supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATel #4668). The spectra (380-820nm) were obtained using the Robert Stobie Spectrograph (RSS) on the South African Large Telescope (SALT).

  17. Effect of water content on thermal oxidation of oleic acid investigated by combination of EPR spectroscopy and SPME-GC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongjian; Cao, Peirang; Li, Bo; Sun, Dewei; Wang, Yong; Li, Jinwei; Liu, Yuanfa

    2017-04-15

    Promotion of water to the thermal oxidation of oleic acid was detected by the combination of EPR, SPME-GC-MS/MS and GC. Spin-trapping technique was used to identify and quantify the radical species formed during thermal oxidation of oleic acid by using DMPO as electron spin trap. The most abundant radical species were identified as DMPO-alkyl radical adducts. EPR intensity plateau of the samples with 5% water content was 140% higher than the samples without water. It implies oleic acid samples with high water content had high level of oxidation rates. The proportion of aldehydes of the samples with 2% water content was the maximum about 59.97%. Among the formed products, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal has genotoxic and cytotoxic effects, whose percentage was nearly twice comparing with that of 5-0% water content. This study demonstrated that higher water content in frying systems would contribute to seriously oxidation and degradation of oleic acids.

  18. Water-level and water-quality changes in Great Salt Lake, Utah, 1847-1983

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arnow, Ted

    1984-01-01

    The surface level of Great Salt Lake, Utah, fluctuates continuously, primarily in response to climatic factors. During 1847-1982 the lake surface fluctuated between a low of about 4,191 feet and a high of about 4,212 feet above sea level but showed no net change. From September 18, 1982, to June 30, 1983, however, the lake rose 5.2 feet-from about 4,200 to about 4,205 feet above sea level-which is the greatest seasonal rise ever recorded. That rise resulted from considerably greater than average rainfall in 1982, greater than average snowfall during the autumn of 1982 through the spring of 1983, and unseasonably cool weather during that spring.Man's activities have had a lesser, but still important effect on the lake level. The lake surface would have been about 5 feet higher in 1983 had there been no consumptive use of water owing to man's activities in the lake basin since 1847. The lake has been divided into two parts by a railroad causeway since 1959. The causeway restricts natural circulation, resulting in a difference of salinity and surface level of the lake across the causeway. The difference in surface level between the two parts of the lake varies both seasonally and annually and was as much as 3.25 feet in 1983.The water budget for the Great Salt Lake can be expressed as:Inflow = Outflow ± Storage changeThe average annual inflow for 1931-76 was about 2.9 million acre-feet-about 1.9 million acre-feet from surface water, about 900,000 acre-feet from direct precipitation, and about 75,000 acre-feet from ground water. The average annual outflow for the same period, all by evaporation, also was about 2.9 million acre-feet. There was no net change in storage during the period.The famed buoyancy of the brine in Great Salt Lake results from a dissolved-mineral content of almost 5 billion tons. More than 2 million additional tons have been added to the lake annually in recent years. The major dissolved ions in the brine are chloride, sulfate, sodium, magnesium

  19. Mineralogical study of stream waters and efflorescent salts in Sierra Minera, SE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Sirvent, Carmen; Garcia-Lorenzo, Maria luz; Martinez-Sanchez, Maria Jose; Hernandez, Carmen; Hernandez-Cordoba, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    content because is a reception point of a lot of tailing dumps. Water samples from C3 to C8 also had acid pH and high trace element content, particularly As (remains soluble) and Zn and Cd (high mobility). In addition, they showed high soluble sulphates. C2 water showed neutral pH, soluble carbonate and low trace element content because is influenced by a stabilised tailing dump. However, the As remains soluble. Zone D: All waters collected in this zone showed acid pH and high trace element content, mainly Zn, Cd and As. Some differences were found from the high and the low part: samples located in the lower part (D2-D7) showed higher As content while Zn is higher in the high part (D8-D13) The DRX analysis in evaporates suggest that in D4 copiapite, coquimbite, gypsum, bianchite and ferrohexahydrite are formed and in D11 gypsum, bianchite, halotrichite and siderotil. D1 is affected by secondary contamination, which showed higher pH (still acid) and lower content in soluble salts and trace elements.

  20. Geophysical surveys for monitoring coastal salt water intrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loperte, A.; Satriani, A.; Simoniello, T.; Imbrenda, V.; Lapenna, V.

    2009-04-01

    Geophysical surveys have been exploited in a coastal forest reserve, at the mouth of the river Bradano in South Italy (Basilicata, southern Italy, N 40°22', E 16°51'), to investigate the subsurface saltwater contamination. Forest Reserve of Metapontum is a wood of artificial formation planted to protect fruit and vegetable cultivations from salt sea-wind; in particular it is constituted by a back dune pine forest mainly composed of Aleppo Pine trees (Pinus halepensis) and domestic pine trees (Pinus pinea). Two separate geophysical field campaigns, one executed in 2006 and a second executed in 2008, were performed in the forest reserve; in particular, electrical resistivity tomographies, resistivity and ground penetrating radar maps were elaborated and analyzed. In addition, chemical and physical analyses on soil and waters samples were performed in order to confirm and integrate geophysical data. The analyses carried out allowed an accurate characterization of salt intrusion phenomenon: the spatial extension and depth of the saline wedge were estimated. Primary and secondary salinity of the Metapontum forest reserve soil occurred because of high water-table and the evapo-transpiration rate which was much higher than the rainfall rate; these, of course, are linked to natural factors such as climate, natural drainage patterns, topographic features, geological structure and distance to the sea. Naturally, since poor land management, like the construction of river dams, indiscriminate extraction of inert from riverbeds that subtract supplies sedimentary, the alteration of the natural water balance, plays an important role in this process. The obtained results highlighted that integrated geophysical surveys gave a precious contribute for better evaluating marine intrusion wedge in coastal aquifers and providing a rapid, non-invasive and low cost tool for coastal monitoring.

  1. Characterization of Cloud Water-Content Distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Seungwon

    2010-01-01

    The development of realistic cloud parameterizations for climate models requires accurate characterizations of subgrid distributions of thermodynamic variables. To this end, a software tool was developed to characterize cloud water-content distributions in climate-model sub-grid scales. This software characterizes distributions of cloud water content with respect to cloud phase, cloud type, precipitation occurrence, and geo-location using CloudSat radar measurements. It uses a statistical method called maximum likelihood estimation to estimate the probability density function of the cloud water content.

  2. The Transport of Salt and Water across Isolated Rat Ileum

    PubMed Central

    Clarkson, T. W.

    1967-01-01

    The flows of sodium, potassium, and chloride under electrical and chemical gradients and of salt and water in the presence of osmotic pressure gradients are described by phenomenological equations based on the thermodynamics of irreversible processes. The aim was to give the simplest possible description, that is to postulate the least number of active transport processes and the least number of separate pathways across the intestine. On this basis, the results were consistent with the following picture of the intestine: Two channels exist across this tissue, one allowing only passive transport of ions and the other only active. In the passive channel, the predominant resistance to ion flow is friction with the water in the channel. The electroosmotic flow indicates that the passive channel is lined with negative fixed charged groups having a surface charge density of 3000 esu cm-2. The values of the ion-water frictional coefficients, and the relationship between ionic concentrations and flows indicate that the passive channel is extracellular. The active channel behaves as two membranes in series, the first membrane being semipermeable but allowing active transport of sodium, and the second membrane being similar to the passive channel. Friction with the ions in the second "membrane" is the predominant resistance to water flow. PMID:11526854

  3. Ultrasonic characterization of pork meat salting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Pérez, J. V.; De Prados, M.; Pérez-Muelas, N.; Cárcel, J. A.; Benedito, J.

    2012-12-01

    Salting process plays a key role in the preservation and quality of dry-cured meat products. Therefore, an adequate monitoring of salt content during salting is necessary to reach high quality products. Thus, the main objective of this work was to test the ability of low intensity ultrasound to monitor the salting process of pork meat. Cylindrical samples (diameter 36 mm, height 60±10 mm) of Biceps femoris were salted (brine 20% NaCl, w/w) at 2 °C for 1, 2, 4 and 7 days. During salting and at each experimental time, three cylinders were taken in order to measure the ultrasonic velocity at 2 °C. Afterwards, the cylinders were split in three sections (height 20 mm), measuring again the ultrasonic velocity and determining the salt and the moisture content by AOAC standards. In the whole cylinders, moisture content was reduced from 763 (g/kg sample) in fresh samples to 723 (g/kg sample) in samples salted for 7 days, while the maximum salt gain was 37.3 (g/kg sample). Although, moisture and salt contents up to 673 and 118 (g/kg sample) were reached in the sections of meat cylinders, respectively. During salting, the ultrasonic velocity increased due to salt gain and water loss. Thus, significant (p<0.05) linear relationships were found between the ultrasonic velocity and the salt (R2 = 0.975) and moisture (R2 = 0.863) contents. In addition, the change of the ultrasonic velocity with the increase of the salt content showed a good agreement with the Kinsler equation. Therefore, low intensity ultrasound emerges as a potential technique to monitor, in a non destructive way, the meat salting processes carried out in the food industry.

  4. Water Content of the Oceanic Lithosphere at Hawaii from FTIR Analysis of Peridotite Xenoliths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peslier, Anne H.; Bizmis, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Although water in the mantle is mostly present as trace H dissolved in minerals, it has a large influence on its melting and rheological properties. The water content of the mantle lithosphere beneath continents is better constrained by abundant mantle xenolith data than beneath oceans where it is mainly inferred from MORB glass analysis. Using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, we determined the water content of olivine (Ol), clinopyroxene (Cpx) and orthopyroxene (Opx) in spinel peridotite xenoliths from Salt Lake Crater, Oahu, Hawaii, which are thought to represent fragments of the Pacific oceanic lithosphere that was refertilized by alkalic Hawaiian melts. Only Ol exhibits H diffusion profiles, evidence of limited H loss during xenolith transport to the surface. Water concentrations (Ol: 9-28 ppm H2O, Cpx: 246-566 ppm H2O, Opx: 116-224 ppm H2O) are within the range of those from continental settings but higher than those from Gakkel ridge abyssal peridotites. The Opx H2O contents are similar to those of abyssal peridotites from Atlantic ridge Leg 153 (170-230 ppm) but higher than those from Leg 209 (10- 14 ppm). The calculated bulk peridotite water contents (94 to 144 ppm H2O) are in agreement with MORB mantle source water estimates and lower than estimates for the source of Hawaiian rejuvenated volcanism (approx 540 ppm H2O) . The water content of Cpx and most Opx correlates negatively with spinel Cr#, and positively with pyroxene Al and HREE contents. This is qualitatively consistent with the partitioning of H into the melt during partial melting, but the water contents are too high for the degree of melting these peridotites experienced. Melts in equilibrium with xenolith minerals have H2O/Ce ratios similar to those of OIB

  5. A New Way to Measure Cirrus Ice Water Content by Using Ice Raman Scatter with Raman Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Zhien; Whiteman, David N.; Demoz, Belay; Veselovskii, Igor

    2004-01-01

    High and cold cirrus clouds mainly contain irregular ice crystals, such as, columns, hexagonal plates, bullet rosettes, and dendrites, and have different impacts on the climate system than low-level clouds, such as stratus, stratocumulus, and cumulus. The radiative effects of cirrus clouds on the current and future climate depend strongly on cirrus cloud microphysical properties including ice water content (IWC) and ice crystal sizes, which are mostly an unknown aspect of cinus clouds. Because of the natural complexity of cirrus clouds and their high locations, it is a challenging task to get them accurately by both remote sensing and in situ sampling. This study presents a new method to remotely sense cirrus microphysical properties by using ice Raman scatter with a Raman lidar. The intensity of Raman scattering is fundamentally proportional to the number of molecules involved. Therefore, ice Raman scattering signal provides a more direct way to measure IWC than other remote sensing methods. Case studies show that this method has the potential to provide essential information of cirrus microphysical properties to study cloud physical processes in cirrus clouds.

  6. Spatial and temporal evolution of a microseismic swarm induced by water injection in the Arkema-Vauvert salt field (southern France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godano, Maxime; Bardainne, Thomas; Regnier, Marc; Deschamps, Anne; Valette, Marc

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates a microseismic swarm induced by injection operations in the Arkema-Vauvert salt field. The seismic activity in this field is monitored only by two permanent 3-component stations deployed in two wells. This study focuses on a period of 21 months (2004 January-2005 September) during which 1214 seismic events are located. The seismic activity is divided into three periods correlating with the water injection operations, highlighting a migration of the seismicity toward a thrust fault connecting the injection well and the production well. A waveform analysis reveals S-wave anisotropy, and focal mechanisms are computed using P, Sv and Sh amplitudes manually measured on anisotropy-corrected seismograms. First, synthetic resolution tests assess the reliability of the focal mechanisms determination from the two 3-component stations deployed in the field. Synthetic data are generated for 1056 earthquakes with various focal mechanisms and are perturbed with noise. The results indicate that the type of focal mechanism is correctly retrieved for 74 per cent of the synthetic earthquakes, but the uncertainties of the strike and rake are significant (from 15 to 45?). Next, the focal mechanisms are computed for 532 real earthquakes. The solutions primarily correspond to a dip-slip/thrust fault type with subvertical NE-SW and subhorizontal N-S to NW-SE nodal planes. Correlations between the focal mechanisms and the spatio-temporal distribution of the seismic activity are noteworthy. The study shows it is possible to reliably retrieve double-couple focal mechanisms for some faulting geometries with two 3-component seismological stations. However, the reliability of the focal mechanism retrieval depends on the station configuration. Therefore, the addition of further stations would improve the results.

  7. [Ethanol content of Kefir water].

    PubMed

    Rabl, W; Liniger, B; Sutter, K; Sigrist, T

    1994-03-01

    The question of the influence of kefir on blood-alcohol-level has been asked in a legal proceeding. The questioned recipe consisted of 21 water, 6 soup-spoons of kefir granules (about 120 g), 150 g sugar, 2 figs and one lemon. The consumption took place after two days of fermentation. Experimentally we found, that one liter of this kefir product may contain up to 38 g/l ethanol after 7 to 10 days. On the second day we measured up to 16 g/l ethanol. Our results may be import for expert appraisements concerning unability of driving.

  8. An in-situ electropolymerization based sensor for measuring salt content in crude oil.

    PubMed

    Aleisa, Rashed M; Akmal, Naim

    2015-01-01

    Determining salt content is a vital procedure in the petroleum industry during the process of crude oil transportation, refining and production. Monitoring the salinity value using a fast and direct technique can substantially lower the cost of crude oil in its processing and its production stages. In the present work, a novel analytical method was developed to detect the amount of salt present in crude oil in a quick and reliable manner. The measurement is based on the rate of in-situ electropolymerization of a monomer such as aniline in association with the salt content in the crude oil. The salt dispersed in the hydrocarbon matrix is used as an electrolyte in the electrolytic system to induce an electropolymerization reaction upon the induction of voltages, in which the salt content is measured corresponding to the polymeric film formation on the working electrode surface. Acetonitrile and N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) were used in the electrochemical cell as solvents, and cyclic voltammetry tests were performed for Arabian crude oil solutions in the presence of aniline. The method has shown an excellent detection response for very low concentrations of salt. Four Arabian crude oils with salt concentrations of 34.2, 28.5, 14.3 and 5.71 mg L(-1) have produced current intensity of 180.1, 172.6, 148.1 and 134.2 µA at an applied current potential of 1.75 V (vs. Ag/AgCl), respectively. A Calibration curve was obtained in the range of 5-35 mg L(-1), giving limits of detection and quantitation at 1.98 and 5.95 mg L(-1), respectively. The in-situ electropolymerization based sensor has significant advantages over the existing techniques of salt monitoring in crude oil such as fast response, temperature independency, electrode stability, and minimum sample preparation.

  9. Workers intake too much salt from dishes of eating out and food service cafeterias; direct chemical analysis of sodium content.

    PubMed

    Park, Hae-Ryun; Jeong, Gye-Ok; Lee, Seung-Lim; Kim, Jin-Young; Kang, Soon-Ah; Park, Kun-Young; Ryou, Hyun-Joo

    2009-01-01

    The average sodium intake of Koreans was reported to be 5,279.9 mg/day, which is one of the highest intake levels worldwide. The average Koreans intake 19.6% of sodium from kimchi, showing kimchi as the main contributor of sodium in this country (Ministry of Health and Welfare, 2005). The sodium content of dishes that are frequently chosen by workers, and which were served by foodservice cafeterias were chemically analyzed. The average sodium content of one meal provided by 10 foodservice cafeterias was 2,777.7 mg. Twenty-one, one-dish-meals, frequently chosen by workers for a lunch menu, were collected at 4 different restaurants for each menu by one male, aged in the twenties and analyzed chemically also. Workers who eat lunch at a workplace cafeteria everyday could intake about 8 g of salt at a one-time meal and those who eat out for a one-dish-meal would intake 3-8 g of salt without counting sodium content from the side dishes. From these study results, one could estimate that over 10 g of salt could be possible for a single meal for workers who eat out everyday. A nationwide nutrition campaign and education for low salt diets for restaurant owners and foodservice providers should be seriously considered.

  10. WATER LEVEL AND OXYGEN DELIVERY/UTILIZATION IN POROUS SALT MARSH SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increasing terrestrial nutrient inputs to coastal waters is a global water quality issue worldwide, and salt marshes may provide a valuable nutrient buffer, either by direct removal or by smoothing out pulse inputs between sources and sensitive estuarine habitats. A major challen...

  11. Evaluation of Trace Metal Content by ICP-MS Using Closed Vessel Microwave Digestion in Fresh Water Fish

    PubMed Central

    Jarapala, Sreenivasa Rao; Kandlakunta, Bhaskarachary; Thingnganing, Longvah

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate trace metal levels of different varieties of fresh water fish using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrophotometer after microwave digestion (MD-ICPMS). Fish samples were collected from the outlets of twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad. The trace metal content in different varieties of analyzed fish were ranged from 0.24 to 1.68 mg/kg for Chromium in Cyprinus carpio and Masto symbollon, 0.20 to 7.52 mg/kg for Manganese in Labeo rohita and Masto symbollon, 0.006 to 0.07 mg/kg for Cobalt in Rastrelliger kanagurta and Pampus argenteus, 0.31 to 2.24 mg/kg for Copper in Labeo rohita and Penaeus monodon, 3.25 to 14.56 mg/kg for Zinc in Cyprinus carpio and Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and 0.01 to 2.05 mg/kg for Selenium in Rastrelliger kanagurta and Pampus argenteus, respectively. Proximate composition data for the different fishes were also tabulated. Since the available data for different trace elements for fish is scanty, here an effort is made to present a precise data for the same as estimated on ICP-MS. Results were in accordance with recommended daily intake allowance by WHO/FAO. PMID:24744789

  12. Evaluation of trace metal content by ICP-MS using closed vessel microwave digestion in fresh water fish.

    PubMed

    Jarapala, Sreenivasa Rao; Kandlakunta, Bhaskarachary; Thingnganing, Longvah

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate trace metal levels of different varieties of fresh water fish using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrophotometer after microwave digestion (MD-ICPMS). Fish samples were collected from the outlets of twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad. The trace metal content in different varieties of analyzed fish were ranged from 0.24 to 1.68 mg/kg for Chromium in Cyprinus carpio and Masto symbollon, 0.20 to 7.52 mg/kg for Manganese in Labeo rohita and Masto symbollon, 0.006 to 0.07 mg/kg for Cobalt in Rastrelliger kanagurta and Pampus argenteus, 0.31 to 2.24 mg/kg for Copper in Labeo rohita and Penaeus monodon, 3.25 to 14.56 mg/kg for Zinc in Cyprinus carpio and Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and 0.01 to 2.05 mg/kg for Selenium in Rastrelliger kanagurta and Pampus argenteus, respectively. Proximate composition data for the different fishes were also tabulated. Since the available data for different trace elements for fish is scanty, here an effort is made to present a precise data for the same as estimated on ICP-MS. Results were in accordance with recommended daily intake allowance by WHO/FAO.

  13. Carbon Balance and Water Relations of Sorghum Exposed to Salt and Water Stress 1

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Steven G.; McCree, Keith J.

    1985-01-01

    The daily (24 hour) changes in carbon balance, water loss, and leaf area of whole sorghum plants (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench, cv BTX616) were measured under controlled environment conditions typical of warm, humid, sunny days. Plants were either (a) irrigated frequently with nutrient solution (osmotic potential −0.08 kilojoules per kilogram = −0.8 bar), (b) not irrigated for 15 days, (c) irrigated frequently with moderately saline nutrient (80 millimoles NaCl + 20 millimoles CaCl2·2H2O per kilogram water, osmotic potential −0.56 kilojoules per kilogram), or (d) preirrigated with saline nutrient and then not irrigated for 22 days. Under frequent irrigation, salt reduced leaf expansion and carbon gain, but water use efficiency was increased since the water loss rate was reduced more than the carbon gain. Water stress developed more slowly in the salinized plants and they were able to adjust osmotically by a greater amount. Leaf expansion and carbon gain continued down to lower leaf water potentials. Some additional metabolic cost associated with salt stress was detected, but under water stress this was balanced by the reduced cost of storing photosynthate rather than converting it to new biomass. Reirrigation produced a burst of respiration associated with renewed synthesis of biomass from stored photosynthate. It is concluded that although irrigation of sorghum with moderately saline water inhibits plant growth in comparison with irrigation with nonsaline water, it also inhibits water loss and allows a greater degree of osmotic adjustment, so that the plants are able to continue growing longer and reach lower leaf water potentials between irrigations. PMID:16664521

  14. Water deficit and salt stress diagnosis through LED induced chlorophyll fluorescence analysis in Jatropha curcas L. oil plants for biodiesel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouveia-Neto, Artur S.; Silva, Elias A., Jr.; Oliveira, Ronaldo A.; Cunha, Patrícia C.; Costa, Ernande B.; Câmara, Terezinha J. R.; Willadino, Lilia G.

    2011-02-01

    Light-emitting-diode induced chlorophyll fluorescence analysis is employed to investigate the effect of water and salt stress upon the growth process of physicnut(jatropha curcas) grain oil plants for biofuel. Red(Fr) and far-red (FFr) chlorophyll fluorescence emission signals around 685 nm and 735 nm, respectively, were observed and examined as a function of the stress intensity(salt concentration and water deficit) for a period of time of 30 days. The chlorophyll fluorescence(ChlF) ratio Fr/FFr which is a valuable nondestructive and nonintrusive indicator of the chlorophyll content of leaves was exploited to monitor the level of stress experienced by the jatropha plants. The ChlF technique data indicated that salinity plays a minor role in the chlorophyll concentration of leaves tissues for NaCl concentrations in the 25 to 200 mM range, and results agreed quite well with those obtained using conventional destructive spectrophotometric methods. Nevertheless, for higher NaCl concentrations a noticeable decrease in the Chl content was observed. The Chl fluorescence ratio analysis also permitted detection of damage caused by water deficit in the early stages of the plants growing process. A significant variation of the Fr/FFr ratio was observed sample in the first 10 days of the experiment when one compared control and nonwatered samples. The results suggest that the technique may potentially be applied as an early-warning indicator of stress caused by water deficit.

  15. Tensile properties and translaminar fracture toughness of glass fiber reinforced unsaturated polyester resin composites aged in distilled and salt water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiman, Gozali, M. Hulaifi; Setyawan, Paryanto Dwi

    2016-03-01

    Glass fiber reinforced polymer has been widely used in chemical industry and transportation due to lightweight and cost effective manufacturing. However due to the ability to absorb water from the environment, the durability issue is of interest for up to days. This paper investigated the water uptake and the effect of absorbed water on the tensile properties and the translaminar fracture toughness of glass fiber reinforced unsaturated polyester composites (GFRP) aged in distilled and salt water up to 30 days at a temperature of 50°C. It has been shown that GFRP absorbed more water in distilled water than in salt water. In distilled water, the tensile strength of GFRP tends to decrease steeply at 7 days and then slightly recovered for further immersion time. In salt water, the tensile strength tends to decrease continually up to 30 days immersion. The translaminar fracture toughness of GFRP aged in both distilled and salt-water shows the similar behavior. The translaminar fracture toughness increases after 7 days immersion and then tends to decrease beyond that immersion time. In the existence of ionics content in salt water, it causes more detrimental effect on the mechanical properties of fiberglass/unsaturated polyester composites compared to that of distilled water.

  16. Reduction of salt in pork sausages by the addition of carrot fibre or potato starch and high pressure treatment.

    PubMed

    Grossi, Alberto; Søltoft-Jensen, Jakob; Knudsen, Jes Christian; Christensen, Mette; Orlien, Vibeke

    2012-12-01

    The combined effect of high pressure processing (HPP) (400, 600 and 800 MPa) and carrot fibre (CF) and potato starch (PS) on low salt (1.2%) pork sausages was investigated and compared with high (1.8%) salt sausages. Sausages had a marked increase in whitening with increasing content of fibre or starch, pressure level, and process temperature. The degree of redness was mainly affected by pressure level and heat treatment. An important finding regarding salt reduction was that the use of starch or fibre had more impact on textural properties than the level of salt since Young's modulus and strain at fracture were mainly affected by formulation and HPP. Water binding capacity of low salt sausages was improved to the same level as high salt sausages with HPP and addition of CF or PS particularly by the addition of PS which produced sausages with better sensory properties than CF. The sensory analysis showed that this approach is promising for producing low salt sausages.

  17. Interaction of ionic liquid with water with variation of water content in 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([bmim][PF6])/TX-100/water ternary microemulsions monitored by solvent and rotational relaxation of coumarin 153 and coumarin 490.

    PubMed

    Seth, Debabrata; Chakraborty, Anjan; Setua, Palash; Sarkar, Nilmoni

    2007-06-14

    The interaction of water with room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) [bmim][PF6] has been studied in [bmim][PF6]/TX-100/water ternary microemulsions by solvent and rotational relaxation of coumarin 153 (C-153) and coumarin 490 (C-490). The rotational relaxation and average solvation time of C-153 and C-490 gradually decrease with increase in water content of the microemulsions. The gradual increase in the size of the microemulsion with increase in w0 (w0=[water]/[surfactant]) is evident from dynamic light scattering measurements. Consequently the mobility of the water molecules also increases. In comparison to pure water the retardation of solvation time in the RTIL containing ternary microemulsions is very less. The authors have also reported the solvation time of C-490 in neat [bmim][PF6]. The solvation time of C-490 in neat [bmim][PF6] is bimodal with time constants of 400 ps and 1.10 ns.

  18. Interaction of ionic liquid with water with variation of water content in 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([bmim][PF6])/TX-100/water ternary microemulsions monitored by solvent and rotational relaxation of coumarin 153 and coumarin 490

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seth, Debabrata; Chakraborty, Anjan; Setua, Palash; Sarkar, Nilmoni

    2007-06-01

    The interaction of water with room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) [bmim][PF6] has been studied in [bmim][PF6]/TX-100/water ternary microemulsions by solvent and rotational relaxation of coumarin 153 (C-153) and coumarin 490 (C-490). The rotational relaxation and average solvation time of C-153 and C-490 gradually decrease with increase in water content of the microemulsions. The gradual increase in the size of the microemulsion with increase in w0 (w0=[water]/[surfactant]) is evident from dynamic light scattering measurements. Consequently the mobility of the water molecules also increases. In comparison to pure water the retardation of solvation time in the RTIL containing ternary microemulsions is very less. The authors have also reported the solvation time of C-490 in neat [bmim][PF6]. The solvation time of C-490 in neat [bmim][PF6] is bimodal with time constants of 400ps and 1.10ns.

  19. Salt-water-freshwater transient upconing - An implicit boundary-element solution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kemblowski, M.

    1985-01-01

    The boundary-element method is used to solve the set of partial differential equations describing the flow of salt water and fresh water separated by a sharp interface in the vertical plane. In order to improve the accuracy and stability of the numerical solution, a new implicit scheme was developed for calculating the motion of the interface. The performance of this scheme was tested by means of numerical simulation. The numerical results are compared to experimental results for a salt-water upconing under a drain problem. ?? 1985.

  20. Electromyogram as a measure of heavy metal toxicity in fresh water and salt water mussels

    SciTech Connect

    Kidder, G.W. III |; McCoy, A.A. |

    1996-02-01

    The response of bivalves to heavy metals and other toxins has usually been determined by observing valve position. Since mussels close their valves to avoid noxious stimuli, experimental delivery of chemicals ins uncertain. To obtain constant results plastic spacers can be employed to hold the valves apart. This obviates valve position as an index of response and some other method is required. Electromyography of intact mussels is one such index, giving a simple, effective, and quantitative measurement of activity. Experiments are reported in this article on the effects of added mercury on salt water and fresh water species.

  1. Estimating the vegetation water content using a radar vegetation index

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetation water content is an important biophysical parameter. Here, the Radar Vegetation Index (RVI) based on polarimetric backscatter observations was evaluated for estimating vegetation water content. Analysis utilized a data set obtained by a ground-based multi-frequency polarimetric scatterome...

  2. Assessing water salinity along River Limón and Caño San Miguel irrigation paleochannel (Maracaibo, Venezuela) as affected by the balance of soluble salts in alluvium soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Raquel; Moreno, Juan; Hermosilla, Daphne; Gascó, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    The saline degradation of soils that are irrigated with brackish water is worrisome increasing worldwide, and it may further affect the salinity of fresh water in those streams flowing across. The problem that is caused by an increasing concentration of salts that are more soluble than gypsum depends on the quality of irrigation water, climatic aridity, and drainage limitations. All these conditions meet in the alluvium soils of River Limón basin that are crossed by Caño San Miguel irrigation paleochannel. River Limón's regulation by closing Manuelote and Tulé artificial reservoirs has diminished the input of water and sediments from flooding events, which exerted dilutive effects in the past. In addition, the balance of soluble salts in these soils has also registered further net accumulation during those extremely dry years happened before 2006, because the great dilution contribution of ombrogenic dammed water coming from rain has not been enough to compensate salts concentration generated by water evapotranspiration in those irrigated soils of the middle basin, particularly in the absence of superficial runoff and deep drainage. Considering those semi-arid climate conditions prevailing in the area (annual precipitation = 710 mm; potential evapotransporation = 2361 mm), it resulted that water analyses in River Limón showed a ten-fold increased maximum annual salinity concentration (March) along the stream; that is, an electric conductivity (Ce) of 0.37 dS•m-1 (at 25 °C) at Puente Carrasquero pumping station, where water for crop irrigation is subtracted, turns to 34.60 dS•m-1 (at 25 °C) at its base level in Puerto Mara, where it discharges to Lake Maracaibo. In addition, the quality of irrigation water from Caño San Miguel, which aggregates to those coming from River Limón at the pumping station located in Carrasquero just before running through the alluvium of this water stream, resulted pretty irregular. In short, it spanned form C1 to C4 soil

  3. The Effects of Salt Water on the Slow Crack Growth of Soda Lime Silicate Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hausmann, Bronson D.; Salem, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    The slow crack growth parameters of soda-lime silicate were measured in distilled and salt water of various concentrations in order to determine if stress corrosion susceptibility is affected by the presence of salt and the contaminate formation of a weak sodium film. Past research indicates that solvents effect the rate of crack growth, however, the effects of salt have not been studied. The results indicate a small but statistically significant effect on the slow crack growth parameters A and n. However, for typical engineering purposes, the effect can be ignored.

  4. How Do Changes to the Railroad Causeway in Utah’s Great Salt Lake Affect Water and Salt Flow?

    PubMed Central

    White, James S.; Null, Sarah E.; Tarboton, David G.

    2015-01-01

    Managing terminal lake elevation and salinity are emerging problems worldwide. We contribute to terminal lake management research by quantitatively assessing water and salt flow for Utah’s Great Salt Lake. In 1959, Union Pacific Railroad constructed a rock-filled causeway across the Great Salt Lake, separating the lake into a north and south arm. Flow between the two arms was limited to two 4.6 meter wide rectangular culverts installed during construction, an 88 meter opening (referred to locally as a breach) installed in 1984, and the semi porous material of the causeway. A salinity gradient developed between the two arms of the lake over time because the south arm receives approximately 95% of the incoming streamflow entering Great Salt Lake. The north arm is often at, or near, salinity saturation, averaging 317 g/L since 1966, while the south is considerably less saline, averaging 142 g/L since 1966. Ecological and industrial uses of the lake are dependent on long-term salinity remaining within physiological and economic thresholds, although optimal salinity varies for the ecosystem and between diverse stakeholders. In 2013, Union Pacific Railroad closed causeway culverts amid structural safety concerns and proposed to replace them with a bridge, offering four different bridge designs. As of summer 2015, no bridge design has been decided upon. We investigated the effect that each of the proposed bridge designs would have on north and south arm Great Salt Lake elevation and salinity by updating and applying US Geological Survey’s Great Salt Lake Fortran Model. Overall, we found that salinity is sensitive to bridge size and depth, with larger designs increasing salinity in the south arm and decreasing salinity in the north arm. This research illustrates that flow modifications within terminal lakes cannot be separated from lake salinity, ecology, management, and economic uses. PMID:26641101

  5. NITRATE RELEASE BY SALT MARSH PLANTS: AN OVERLOOKED NUTRIENT FLUX MECHANISM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Salt marshes provide water purification as an important ecosystem service in part by storing, transforming and releasing nutrients. This service can be quantified by measuring nutrient fluxes between marshes and surface waters. Many processes drive these fluxes, including photosy...

  6. Formulation and make-up of simulate dilute water, low ionic content aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect

    Gdowski, G.

    1997-04-04

    This procedure describes the formulation and make-up of Simulated Dilute Water (SOW), a low-ionic-content water to be used for Activity E-20-50, Long-Term Corrosion Studies. This water has an ionic content which is nominally a factor of ten higher than that of representative waters at or near Yucca Mountain. Representative waters were chosen as J-13 well water [Harrar, 1990] and perched water at Yucca Mountain [Glassley, 1996]. J-13 well water is obtained from ground water that is in contact with the Topopah Spring tuff, which is the repository horizon rock. The perched water is located in the Topopah Spring tuff, but below the repository horizon and above the water table. A nominal times ten higher ionic content was chosen to simulate the effect of ionic concentrating due to elevated temperature water flowing through fractures where salts and minerals have been deposited due to evaporation and boiling.

  7. Corrosion of aluminides by molten nitrate salt

    SciTech Connect

    Tortorelli, P.F.; Bishop, P.S.

    1990-01-01

    The corrosion of titanium-, iron-, and nickel-based aluminides by a highly aggressive, oxidizing NaNO{sub 3}(-KNO{sub 3})-Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} has been studied at 650{degree}C. It was shown that weight changes could be used to effectively evaluate corrosion behavior in the subject nitrate salt environments provided these data were combined with salt analyses and microstructural examinations. The studies indicated that the corrosion of relatively resistant aluminides by these nitrate salts proceeded by oxidation and a slow release from an aluminum-rich product layer into the salt at rates lower than that associated with many other types of metallic materials. The overall corrosion process and resulting rate depended on the particular aluminide being exposed. In order to minimize corrosion of nickel or iron aluminides, it was necessary to have aluminum concentrations in excess of 30 at. %. However, even at a concentration of 50 at. % Al, the corrosion resistance of TiAl was inferior to that of Ni{sub 3}Al and Fe{sub 3}Al. At higher aluminum concentrations, iron, nickel, and iron-nickel aluminides exhibited quite similar weight changes, indicative of the principal role of aluminum in controlling the corrosion process in NaNO{sub 3}(-KNO{sub 3})-Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} salts. 20 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Responses of Water and Salt Parameters to Groundwater Levels for Soil Columns Planted with Tamarix chinensis.

    PubMed

    Xia, Jiangbao; Zhao, Ximei; Chen, Yinping; Fang, Ying; Zhao, Ziguo

    2016-01-01

    Groundwater is the main water resource for plant growth and development in the saline soil of the Yellow River Delta in China. To investigate the variabilities and distributions of soil water and salt contents at various groundwater level (GL), soil columns with planting Tamarix chinensis Lour were established at six different GL. The results demonstrated the following: With increasing GL, the relative soil water content (RWC) declined significantly, whereas the salt content (SC) and absolute soil solution concentration (CS) decreased after the initial increase in the different soil profiles. A GL of 1.2 m was the turning point for variations in the soil water and salt contents, and it represented the highest GL that could maintain the soil surface moist within the soil columns. Both the SC and CS reached the maximum levels in these different soil profiles at a GL of 1.2 m. With the raise of soil depth, the RWC increased significantly, whereas the SC increased after an initial decrease. The mean SC values reached 0.96% in the top soil layer; however, the rates at which the CS and RWC decreased with the GL were significantly reduced. The RWC and SC presented the greatest variations at the medium (0.9-1.2 m) and shallow water levels (0.6 m) respectively, whereas the CS presented the greatest variation at the deep water level (1.5-1.8 m).The RWC, SC and CS in the soil columns were all closely related to the GL. However, the correlations among the parameters varied greatly within different soil profiles, and the most accurate predictions of the GL were derived from the RWC in the shallow soil layer or the SC in the top soil layer. A GL at 1.5-1.8 m was moderate for planting T. chinensis seedlings under saline groundwater conditions.

  9. Responses of Water and Salt Parameters to Groundwater Levels for Soil Columns Planted with Tamarix chinensis

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Jiangbao; Zhao, Ximei; Chen, Yinping; Fang, Ying; Zhao, Ziguo

    2016-01-01

    Groundwater is the main water resource for plant growth and development in the saline soil of the Yellow River Delta in China. To investigate the variabilities and distributions of soil water and salt contents at various groundwater level (GL), soil columns with planting Tamarix chinensis Lour were established at six different GL. The results demonstrated the following: With increasing GL, the relative soil water content (RWC) declined significantly, whereas the salt content (SC) and absolute soil solution concentration (CS) decreased after the initial increase in the different soil profiles. A GL of 1.2 m was the turning point for variations in the soil water and salt contents, and it represented the highest GL that could maintain the soil surface moist within the soil columns. Both the SC and CS reached the maximum levels in these different soil profiles at a GL of 1.2 m. With the raise of soil depth, the RWC increased significantly, whereas the SC increased after an initial decrease. The mean SC values reached 0.96% in the top soil layer; however, the rates at which the CS and RWC decreased with the GL were significantly reduced. The RWC and SC presented the greatest variations at the medium (0.9–1.2 m) and shallow water levels (0.6 m) respectively, whereas the CS presented the greatest variation at the deep water level (1.5–1.8 m).The RWC, SC and CS in the soil columns were all closely related to the GL. However, the correlations among the parameters varied greatly within different soil profiles, and the most accurate predictions of the GL were derived from the RWC in the shallow soil layer or the SC in the top soil layer. A GL at 1.5–1.8 m was moderate for planting T. chinensis seedlings under saline groundwater conditions. PMID:26730602

  10. Effect of salts on dynamics of water: A Raman spectroscopy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terpstra, P.; Combes, D.; Zwick, A.

    1990-01-01

    In this work, we have studied, by means of Raman spectroscopy, water-additives interactions in the case of alkaline halogenides aqueous solutions. We have obtained some parameters describing the evolution of water structure vs concentration or the nature of the added salts. These parameters show, as previously described, a more important effect of anions than cations. Next, the evolution of the dynamical properties of the solution depends on the size of the ions. Moreover, the development of a new band in the isotropic part of the salts solutions spectra is attributed to water-ions interactions involved in the dynamics of hydration shells.

  11. THE INFLUENCE OF SALT CONTENT AT DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF TERASI TO THE SENSORY CHARACTERISTICS OF SAMBAL TERASI, THE CHILI SAUCE ADDED WITH TERASI.

    PubMed

    Ambarita, N T Damanik; De Meulenaer, B

    2015-01-01

    The type of terasi (the Indonesian seafood fermented paste) and the ingredients used can give sambal terasi (ST), the chili sauce added with terasi, its identity and taste distinction. Inherit from its production, salt content differs the flavor(s) of product added with terasi. This research explored the role of terasi salt content, either from the origin of terasi or by salt adjustment, to the products acceptability and sensory characteristics perceived during subsequent sensorial evaluations. Six types of terasi were characterized based on the proximate and salt content, and prepared as STs with and without salt adjustment at several terasi concentrations. 118 panelists conducted sensory evaluations for overall acceptability at 12.5% terasi; at lower concentration specific tastes (sweet, bitter, salty, sour, umami, fishy and rebon) were characterized by 80 panelists. Results showed that the acceptance of ST is more due to its innate origin salt content and to the suitability saltiness perceived. The specific odor of terasi, combining with other taste(s), when prepared at higher terasi concentration as practiced in restaurant, home and commercial products showed masking effect(s). After saltiness adjusted, different types of terasi showed different taste characteristics. Preferred ST were different between higher and lower concentration. Better tastes characteristics and stronger spices taste were found at lower salt content (and terasi concentration).

  12. Modelling Ontogenetic Changes of Nitrogen and Water Content in Lettuce

    PubMed Central

    SEGINER, IDO; BLEYAERT, PETER; BREUGELMANS, MAAIKE

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims It is well established that the nitrogen content of plants, including lettuce, decreases with time. It has also been observed that water content of lettuce increases between planting and harvest. This paper is an attempt at modelling these observations. • Methods An existing dynamic model (Nicolet), designed to predict growth and nitrate content of glasshouse lettuce, is modified to accommodate the ontogenetic changes of reduced-nitrogen and water contents (on a dry matter basis). The decreasing reduced-N content and the increasing water content are mimicked by dividing the originally uniform plant into ‘metabolically active’ tissue and ‘support’ tissue. The ‘metabolic’ tissue is assumed to contain a higher nitrogen content and a lower water content than the ‘support’ tissue. As the plants grow, the ratio of ‘support’ to ‘metabolic’ tissue increases, resulting in an increased mean water content and a decreased reduced-N content. Simulations with the new model are compared with experimental glasshouse data over four seasons. • Key Results The empirical linear relationship between water and reduced-N contents, matches, to a good approximation, the corresponding relationship based on the model. The agreement between the two makes it possible to effectively uncouple the estimation of the ‘ontogenetic’ parameters from the estimation of the other parameters. The growth and nitrate simulation results match the data rather well and are hardly affected by the new refinement. The reduced-N and water contents are predicted much better with the new model. • Conclusion Prediction of nitrogen uptake for the substantial nitrate pool of lettuce depends on the water content. Hence, the modified model may assist in making better fertilization decisions and better estimates of nitrogen leaching. PMID:15294851

  13. Nitric Oxide Mitigates Salt Stress by Regulating Levels of Osmolytes and Antioxidant Enzymes in Chickpea

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Parvaiz; Abdel Latef, Arafat A.; Hashem, Abeer; Abd_Allah, Elsayed F.; Gucel, Salih; Tran, Lam-Son P.

    2016-01-01

    This work was designed to evaluate whether external application of nitric oxide (NO) in the form of its donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) could mitigate the deleterious effects of NaCl stress on chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) plants. SNAP (50 μM) was applied to chickpea plants grown under non-saline and saline conditions (50 and 100 mM NaCl). Salt stress inhibited growth and biomass yield, leaf relative water content (LRWC) and chlorophyll content of chickpea plants. High salinity increased electrolyte leakage, carotenoid content and the levels of osmolytes (proline, glycine betaine, soluble proteins and soluble sugars), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA), as well as the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and glutathione reductase in chickpea plants. Expression of the representative SOD, CAT and APX genes examined was also up-regulated in chickpea plants by salt stress. On the other hand, exogenous application of NO to salinized plants enhanced the growth parameters, LRWC, photosynthetic pigment production and levels of osmolytes, as well as the activities of examined antioxidant enzymes which is correlated with up-regulation of the examined SOD, CAT and APX genes, in comparison with plants treated with NaCl only. Furthermore, electrolyte leakage, H2O2 and MDA contents showed decline in salt-stressed plants supplemented with NO as compared with those in NaCl-treated plants alone. Thus, the exogenous application of NO protected chickpea plants against salt stress-induced oxidative damage by enhancing the biosyntheses of antioxidant enzymes, thereby improving plant growth under saline stress. Taken together, our results demonstrate that NO has capability to mitigate the adverse effects of high salinity on chickpea plants by improving LRWC, photosynthetic pigment biosyntheses, osmolyte accumulation and antioxidative defense system. PMID:27066020

  14. Changes of minimal erythema dose after water and salt water baths.

    PubMed

    Gambichler, T; Schröpl, F

    1998-01-01

    Knowledge about the influence of salt water baths on UV irradiation, especially balneophototherapy, is incomplete. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of various concentrated salt solutions on the minimal erythema dose (MED). We determined the MEDdry (UVB) in 24 healthy, previously UV unexposed subjects on the inner forearm. Subjects were divided randomly into two groups of 12. Subsequently, the MEDwet was assessed on each forearm after 30 min tap water or 5% salt water bath (group A), respectively, or after 30 min 10% or 20% salt water bath (group B), respectively. Compared with the MEDdry, a significantly decreased MEDwet, was observed after all exposures (group A==>F = 18.94; P < 0.001; group B==>F = 11.73; P < 0.006). A maximal relative decrease in MEDdry of about 51.4% was observed after the 10% salt water bath. The 5% salt solution caused a modest relative decrease in MEDwet of 23.4%. We observed a markedly increased photosensitivity to UVB after all exposures, without a linear correlation between the MED and the salt water concentration. A determination of MED during balneophototherapy should be carried out after bathing in order to reduce the cumulative UV dose and to prevent acute photodamage.

  15. [Vegetation influence on nutrients distribution in pore water of salt marsh sediment].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-Wei; Li, Dao-Ji; Gao, Lei

    2009-11-01

    The variations of nutrients in pore water of salt marsh sediment were surveyed in the middle intertidal zone of Chongming Dongtan during August 2007 to May 2008 to identify plant impact on nutrients distribution. The results show that NH4(+) -N and PO4(3-) -P concentrations are lower in pore water of Spartina alterniflora and Phragmites australis zones than in bare flat, and specially, NH4(+) -N concentrations in summer and autumn decrease by one more orders of magnitude. Compared to winter, nutrients concentrations are obviously higher during the period of plant growth, and plant biomass is clearly correlative to nitrogen and phosphorus. Vegetation growth influences nitrogen content intensively. NH4(-) -N concentrations in Spartina alterniflora and Phragmites australis zones are 44.21 and 74.38 micromol x L(-1) respectively, distinctly lower than that in bare flat and Scirpus mariquete zone (340.14 and 291.87 micromol x L(-1) respectively). Moreover, NO(x)(-) -N concentration is one to two order(s) of magnitude lower than NH4(+) -N, and its highest value exists in Phragmites australis zone (5.94 micromol x L(-1)). The results of molecule diffusive flux of nutrients in the surface sediment-overlying water interface indicate that marsh sediment is the source for SiO3(2-) -Si, NH4(+) -N and PO4(3-) -P, and the rank for NO(x)(-) -N (NO3(-) -N + NO2(-) -N), and NO(x)(-) -N flux from overlying water to sediment [16.23 micromol x (m2 x h)(-1)] is higher than NH4(+) -N flux from sediment to overlying water [15.53 micromol x (m2 x h)(-1)]. Vegetation growth accommodates nutrient structure of the estuarine ecosystem by affecting sediment-water interface mass flux and nutrient ratios in pore water and overlying water.

  16. Monitoring the oleuropein content of olive leaves and fruits using ultrasound- and salt-assisted liquid-liquid extraction optimized by response surface methodology and high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ismaili, Ahmad; Heydari, Rouhollah; Rezaeepour, Reza

    2016-01-01

    A novel and rapid ultrasound- and salt-assisted liquid-liquid extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography has been optimized by response surface methodology for the determination of oleuropein from olive leaves. Box-Behnken design was used for optimizing the main parameters including ultrasound time (A), pH (B), salt concentration (C), and volume of miscible organic solvent (D). In this technique, a mixture of plant sample and extraction solvent was subjected to ultrasound waves. After ultrasound-assisted extraction, phase separation was performed by the addition of salt to the liquid phase. The optimal conditions for the highest extraction yield of oleuropein were ultrasound time, 30 min; volume of organic solvent, 2.5 mL; salt concentration, 25% w/v; and sample pH, 4. Experimental data were fitted with a quadratic model. Analysis of variance results show that BC interaction, A(2) , B(2) , C(2) , and D(2) are significant model terms. Unlike the conventional extraction methods for plant extracts, no evaporation and reconstitution operations were needed in the proposed technique.

  17. Short-term effects of salt stress on antioxidant systems and leaf water relations of pea leaves.

    PubMed

    Hernández, José A; Almansa, Maria S

    2002-06-01

    In pea (Pisum sativum L.) plants the effect of short-term salt stress and recovery on growth, water relations and the activity of some antioxidant enzymes was studied. Leaf growth was interrupted by salt addition. However, during recovery, growth was restored, although there was a delay in returning to control levels. Salt stress brought about a decrease in osmotic potential and in stomatal conductance, but at 48 h and 24 h post-stress, respectively, both parameters recovered control values. In pea leaves, a linear increase in the Na+ concentration was observed in salt treated plants. In the recovered plants, a slight reduction in the Na+ concentration was observed, probably due to a dilution effect since the plant growth was restored and the total Na+ content was maintined in leaves after the stress period. A significant increase of SOD activity occurred after 48 h of stress and after 8 h of the recovery period (53% and 42%, respectively), and it reached control values at 24 h post-stress. APX activity did not change during the stress period, and after only 8 h post-stress it was increased by 48% with respect to control leaves. GR showed a 71% increase after 24 h of salt stress and also a significant increase was observed in the recovered plants. A strong increase of TBARS was observed after 8 h of stress (180% increase), but then a rapid decrease was observed during the stress period. Surprisingly, TBARS again increased at 8 h post-stress (78% increase), suggesting that plants could perceive the elimination of NaCl from the hydroponic cultures as another stress during the first hours of recovery. These results suggest that short-term NaCl stress produces reversible effects on growth, leaf water relations and on SOD and APX activities. This work also suggests that both during the first hours of imposition of stress and during the first hours of recovery an oxidative stress was produced.

  18. The effect of sodium chloride salinity on the growth, water status and ion content of Phragmites communis trin.

    PubMed

    Gorai, Mustapha; Vadel, Ahmedou M; Neffati, Mohamed; Khemira, Habib

    2007-07-01

    The present study deal with the physiological behavior of Phragmites communis under salt stress. The effects of salinity on growth, dry weight partitioning, water status and ion content were studied on seedlings of P. communis fed with nutrient solutions containing 0 to 600 mM NaCl. The plants grew best when irrigated with distilled water; biomass production and Relative Growth Rate (RGR) decreased with increasing salinity. Nevertheless, plants were able to produce and allocate dried matter to all their organs even at the highest salt level (600 mM NaCl). The leaves showed the lowest growth activity. Increasing salinity was accompanied by a decrease in seedling water content; aerial parts were more dehydrated than roots. Examination of the K+/Na+ selectivity revealed that salt tolerance of reed plants may be due to its capacity to limit Na+ transport and to enhance K+ transport into aerial parts resulting in a high K/Na ratio. Our results suggest an exclusive behavior towards Na+ as shown by the decreasing Na+ gradients from leaves to roots. It is concluded that Na+ exclusion mechanism appeared to be operative and contributes to salt tolerance of Phragmites.

  19. [Alleviation of salt stress during maize seed germination by presoaking with exogenous sugar].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ying; Yang, Ke-jun; Li, Zuo-tong; Zhao, Chang-jiang; Xu, Jing-yu; Hu, Xue- wei; Shi, Xin-xin; Ma, Li-feng

    2015-09-01

    The maize variety Kenyu 6 was used to study the effects of exogenous glucose (Glc) and sucrose (Suc) on salt tolerance of maize seeds at germination stage under 150 mmol · L(-1) NaCl treatment. Results showed that under salt stress condition, 0.5 mmol · L(-1) exogenous Glc and Suc presoaking could promote seed germination and early seedling growth. Compared with the salt treatment, Glc presoaking increased the shoot length, radicle length and corresponding dry mass up to 1.5, 1.3, 2.1 and 1.8 times, and those of the Suc presoaking treatment increased up to 1.7, 1.3. 2.7 and 1.9 times, respectively. Exogenous Glc and Suc presoaking resulted in decreased levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content of maize shoot under salt stress, which were lowered by 24.9% and 20.6% respectively. Exogenous Glc and Suc presoaking could increase the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR) and induce glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) activity of maize shoot under salt stress. Compared with the salt treatment. Glc presoaking increased the activity of SOD, APX, GPX, GR and G6PDH by 66.2%, 62.9%, 32.0%, 38.5% and 50.5%, and those of the Suc presoaking increased by 67.5%, 59.8%, 30.0%, 38.5% and 50.4%, respectively. Glc and Suc presoaking also significantly increased the contents of ascorbic acid (ASA) and glutathione (GSH), ASA/DHA and GSH/GSSG. The G6PDH activity was found closely related with the strong antioxidation capacity induced by exogenous sugars. In addition, Glc and Suc presoaking enhanced K+/Na+ in maize shoot by 1.3 and 1.4 times of water soaking salt treatment, respectively. These results indicated that exogenous Glc and Suc presoaking could improve antioxidation capacity of maize seeds and maintain the in vivo K+/Na+ ion balance to alleviate the inhibitory effect of salt stress on maize seed germination.

  20. 46 CFR 46.10-45 - Nonsubmergence subdivision load lines in salt water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nonsubmergence subdivision load lines in salt water. 46... in salt water. (a) Passenger vessels required to be marked with subdivision load lines, engaged on foreign and coastwise voyages other than the Great Lakes voyages, shall not submerge in salt water...

  1. 46 CFR 46.10-45 - Nonsubmergence subdivision load lines in salt water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nonsubmergence subdivision load lines in salt water. 46... in salt water. (a) Passenger vessels required to be marked with subdivision load lines, engaged on foreign and coastwise voyages other than the Great Lakes voyages, shall not submerge in salt water...

  2. 46 CFR 46.10-45 - Nonsubmergence subdivision load lines in salt water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nonsubmergence subdivision load lines in salt water. 46... in salt water. (a) Passenger vessels required to be marked with subdivision load lines, engaged on foreign and coastwise voyages other than the Great Lakes voyages, shall not submerge in salt water...

  3. 46 CFR 46.10-45 - Nonsubmergence subdivision load lines in salt water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nonsubmergence subdivision load lines in salt water. 46... in salt water. (a) Passenger vessels required to be marked with subdivision load lines, engaged on foreign and coastwise voyages other than the Great Lakes voyages, shall not submerge in salt water...

  4. A composition-independent quantitative determination of the water content in silicate glasses and silicate melt inclusions by confocal Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zajacz, Zoltán; Halter, Werner; Malfait, Wim J.; Bachmann, Olivier; Bodnar, Robert J.; Hirschmann, Marc M.; Mandeville, Charles W.; Morizet, Yann; Müntener, Othmar; Ulmer, Peter; Webster, James D.

    2005-12-01

    A new approach was developed to measure the water content of silicate glasses using Raman spectroscopy, which is independent of the glass matrix composition and structure. Contrary to previous studies, the compositional range of our studied silicate glasses was not restricted to rhyolites, but included andesitic, basaltic and phonolitic glasses. We used 21 glasses with known water contents for calibration. To reduce the uncertainties caused by the baseline removal and correct for the influence of the glass composition on the spectra, we developed the following strategy: (1) application of a frequency-dependent intensity correction of the Raman spectra; (2) normalization of the water peak using the broad T-O and T-O-T vibration band at 850-1250 cm-1 wavenumbers (instead of the low wavenumber T-O-T broad band, which appeared to be highly sensitive to the FeO content and the degree of polymerization of the melt); (3) normalization of the integrated Si-O band area by the total number of tetrahedral cations and the position of the band maximum. The calibration line shows a ±0.4 wt% uncertainty at one relative standard deviation in the range of 0.8-9.5 wt% water and a wide range of natural melt compositions. This method provides a simple, quick, broadly available and cost-effective way for a quantitative determination of the water content of silicate glasses. Application to silicate melt inclusions yielded data in good agreement with SIMS data.

  5. Hydrochemical investigations for delineating salt-water intrusion into the coastal aquifer of Maharlou Lake, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahanshahi, Reza; Zare, Mohammad

    2016-09-01

    Groundwater quality depends on different factors such as geology, lithology, properties of aquifer, land use, the physical condition of boundaries etc. Studying these factors can help users to manage groundwater quality. This study deals with the groundwater quality of an aquifer located in the southeastern part of Maharlou salt lake, Iran. This lake is located in the southeast of Shiraz and is the outlet of Shiraz sewages. Due to overexploitation of groundwater from the aquifer, the gradient of water table is from the lake towards the aquifer and therefore, saline water migrates to the aquifer. The phenomenon of salt water intrusion contributes to the deterioration of groundwater. In this research, groundwater types, maps of iso EC and iso ions, ion exchange in the mixing of fresh and salt water, salinity variation of the groundwater in the profile of well water column, and the salinity-time variation of the groundwater were studied. The gradual increase of the salinity of groundwater with depth from top to down in the aquifer indicates that salt water is located under fresh water. The time variation of physical and chemical parameters in the groundwater discharged from a well shows that the saline water in the bottom of the aquifer moves upward and destroys the quality of groundwater in the study area. Furthermore, Sachoun geological formation formed by evaporate deposits and evaporation from shallow groundwater are two other factors which decrease the groundwater quality.

  6. Important observations and parameters for a salt water intrusion model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shoemaker, W.B.

    2004-01-01

    Sensitivity analysis with a density-dependent ground water flow simulator can provide insight and understanding of salt water intrusion calibration problems far beyond what is possible through intuitive analysis alone. Five simple experimental simulations presented here demonstrate this point. Results show that dispersivity is a very important parameter for reproducing a steady-state distribution of hydraulic head, salinity, and flow in the transition zone between fresh water and salt water in a coastal aquifer system. When estimating dispersivity, the following conclusions can be drawn about the data types and locations considered. (1) The "toe" of the transition zone is the most effective location for hydraulic head and salinity observations. (2) Areas near the coastline where submarine ground water discharge occurs are the most effective locations for flow observations. (3) Salinity observations are more effective than hydraulic head observations. (4) The importance of flow observations aligned perpendicular to the shoreline varies dramatically depending on distance seaward from the shoreline. Extreme parameter correlation can prohibit unique estimation of permeability parameters such as hydraulic conductivity and flow parameters such as recharge in a density-dependent ground water flow model when using hydraulic head and salinity observations. Adding flow observations perpendicular to the shoreline in areas where ground water is exchanged with the ocean body can reduce the correlation, potentially resulting in unique estimates of these parameter values. Results are expected to be directly applicable to many complex situations, and have implications for model development whether or not formal optimization methods are used in model calibration.

  7. Protic Salt Polymer Membranes: High-Temperature Water-Free Proton-Conducting Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Gervasio, Dominic Francis

    2010-09-30

    ambient pressures. Synthesis and processing of these protic salts into proton-conducting membrane is far from optimized. This protic salt approach has great promise for more improvements in proton conducting membranes for making practical compact, lightweight and inexpensive fuel cells with uses ranging from small electronics (Power = 1 to 100 Watts) to transportation (kiloWatts) to stationary applications (>100 kiloWatts). This work clearly showed that proton can be conducted without water using protoic ionic liquids which are Bronsted salts which contain a proton and whose acid and base moieties have pK separated by more than 4 units and less than 14. A key finding is that the base used should be significantly different than the basicity of water or else water displaces the base and an ordinary acid membrane is left behind. This is the case where the acid moiety is sulfonic acid found on perfluorinated polymeric membranes. This PI suggests that a fruitful route for attaining highly proton-conductive stable protic salt membranes is to use the STABLE poly-phosphazene (-P=N-) polymer backbone with electrochemically STABLE pendant acid or base units on the phosphorous of poly-phosphazene and with suitable pK so the base is NOT the same pK as water. From this work this should give stable water-free proton conductors which should allow for stable fuel cells with Pt catalysts and possible with non-platinum catalyst for the hydrogen anode and oxygen cathode.

  8. A comparison of the coupled fresh water-salt water flow and the Ghyben-Herzberg sharp interface approaches to modeling of transient behavior in coastal aquifer systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Essaid, H.I.

    1986-01-01

    A quasi-three dimensional finite difference model which simulates coupled, fresh water and salt water flow, separated by a sharp interface, is used to investigate the effects of storage characteristics, transmissivity, boundary conditions and anisotropy on the transient responses of such flow systems. The magnitude and duration of the departure of aquifer response from the behavior predicted using the Ghyben-Herzberg, one-fluid approach is a function of the ease with which flow can be induced in the salt water region. In many common hydrogeologic settings short-term fresh water head responses, and transitional responses between short-term and long-term, can only be realistically reproduced by including the effects of salt water flow on the dynamics of coastal flow systems. The coupled fresh water-salt water flow modeling approach is able to reproduce the observed annual fresh water head response of the Waialae aquifer of southeastern Oahu, Hawaii. ?? 1986.

  9. [Determination of Chloride Salt Solution by NIR Spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Chen, Jian-hong; Jiao, Ming-xing

    2015-07-01

    Determination of chloride salt solution by near infrared spectrum plays a very important role in Biomedicine. The near infrared spectrum analysis of Sodium chloride, potassium chloride, calcium chloride aqueous solution shows that the concentration change of chloride salt can affect hydrogen bond, resulting in the variation of near infrared spectrum of water. The temperature influence on NIR spectrum has been decreased by choosing reasonable wavelength range and the wavelength where the temperature effects are zero (isosbestic point). Chlorine salt prediction model was established based on partial least squares method and used for predicting the concentration of the chlorine ion. The impact on near infrared spectrum of the cation ionic radius, the number of ionic charge, the complex effect of ionic in water has also discussed in this article and the reason of every factor are analysed. Experimental results show that the temperature and concentration will affect the near-infrared spectrum of the solution, It is found that the effect of temperature plays the dominant role at low concentrations of chlorine salt; rather, the ionic dominates at high concentration. Chloride complexes are formed in aqueous solution, It has an effect on hydrogen bond of water combining with the cations in chlorine salt solution, Comparing different chloride solutions at the same concentration, the destruction effects of chloride complexes and catnions on the hydrogen bond of water increases in the sequences: CaCl2 >NaCl>KC. The modeling result shows that the determination coefficients (R2) = 99.97%, the root mean square error of cross validation (RM- SECV) = 4.51, and the residual prediction deviation (RPD) = 62.7, it meets the daily requirements of biochemical detection accuracy.

  10. The impact of the absence of aliphatic glucosinolates on water transport under salt stress in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Ballesta, Mcarmen; Moreno-Fernández, Diego A.; Castejón, Diego; Ochando, Cristina; Morandini, Piero A.; Carvajal, Micaela

    2015-01-01

    Members of the Brassicaceae are known for their contents of nutrients and health-promoting phytochemicals, including glucosinolates. Exposure to salinity increases the levels of several of these compounds, but their role in abiotic stress response is unclear. The effect of aliphatic glucosinolates on plant water balance and growth under salt stress, involving aquaporins, was investigated by means of Arabidopsis thaliana mutants impaired in aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis, which is controlled by two transcription factors: Myb28 and Myb29. The double mutant myb28myb29, completely lacking aliphatic glucosinolates, was compared to wild type Col-0 (WT) and the single mutant myb28. A greater reduction in the hydraulic conductivity of myb28myb29 was observed under salt stress, when compared to the WT and myb28; this correlated with the abundance of both PIP1 and PIP2 aquaporin subfamilies. Also, changes in root architecture in response to salinity were genotype dependent. Treatment with NaCl altered glucosinolates biosynthesis in a similar way in WT and the single mutant and differently in the double mutant. The results indicate that short-chain aliphatic glucosinolates may contribute to water saving under salt stress. PMID:26236322

  11. Aldicarb and carbofuran transport in a Hapludalf influenced by differential antecedent soil water content and irrigation delay.

    PubMed

    Kazemi, H V; Anderson, S H; Goyne, K W; Gantzer, C J

    2009-01-01

    Pesticide use in agroecosystems can adversely impact groundwater quality via chemical leaching through soils. Few studies have investigated the effects of antecedent soil water content (SWC) and timing of initial irrigation (TII) after chemical application on pesticide transport and degradation. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of antecedent soil water content (wet vs dry) and timing of initial irrigation (0h Delay vs 24h Delay) on aldicarb [(EZ)-2-methyl-2-(methylthio)propionaldehyde O-methylcarbamoyloxime] and carbofuran [2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethylbenzofuran-7-yl methylcarbamate] transport and degradation parameters at a field site with Menfro silt loam (fine-silty, mixed, superactive, mesic Typic Hapludalf) soils. Aldicarb and carbofuran were applied to plots near field capacity (wet) or near permanent wilting point (dry). Half of the dry and wet plots received irrigation water immediately after chemical application and the remaining plots were irrigated after a 24h Delay. The transport and degradation parameters were estimated using the method of moments. Statistical significance determined for SWC included averages across TII levels, and significance determined for TII included averages across SWC levels. For the dry treatment, aldicarb was detected 0.10 m deeper (P<0.01) on two of the four sampling dates and carbofuran was detected at least 0.10 m deeper (P<0.05) on all of the sampling dates compared to the wet treatment. Pore water velocity was found to be higher (P<0.10) in the dry vs wet treatments on three of four dates for aldicarb and two of four dates for carbofuran. Retardation coefficients for both pesticides showed similar evidence of reduced values for the dry vs wet treatments. These results indicate deeper pesticide movement in the initially dry treatment. For aldicarb and carbofuran, estimated values of the degradation rate were approximately 40-49% lower in the initially dry plots compared to the initially wet plots

  12. Determination by combustion of the total organochlorine content of tissue, soil, water, waste streams, and oil sludges

    SciTech Connect

    Morton, M.; Pollak, J.K.

    1987-01-01

    The distribution and concentration of organochlorine pesticides have been intensively investigated, but there is much less information on the total organochlorine overburden either in the environment or in man. The reason for this paucity of information seems to be that while there were many methods available for the determination of individual organochlorines, there was no simple method which permitted the determination of the total organochlorine content of biological and environmental samples. In this communication a method is described which is suitable for measuring gram quantities of total lipid-soluble organochlorine. Chloride in tissues, tissue fluids, water, soil, liquid industrial wastes and oil sludges. The method is simple and consists of three steps. The first step is a small volume extraction procedure, which extracts organic compounds containing chlorine, but excludes inorganic chlorides. The other two steps involve the degradation of organically bound chlorine to inorganic chlorides and a colorimetric assay of these chlorides.

  13. Sea Water Ageing of GFRP Composites and the Dissolved salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraverty, A. P.; Mohanty, U. K.; Mishra, S. C.; Satapathy, A.

    2015-02-01

    This paper houses the effect of sea water immersion on glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) composites. The major sources of interest are study of sea water absorption, penetration of the dissolved salts, details of chemical and physical bonds at the interface, variations of mechanical properties and study of failure mechanisms as revealed through SEM fractographs. Eighteen ply GFRP composites are immersed in sea water for a period of one year in steps of two months durations. It is revealed that the moisture absorption transforms from a Fickian to non-Fickian behavior with lapse of time. The dissolved salt 'K' shows highest depth of penetration after one year of immersion while 'Na' shows a least depth of penetration, as revealed from the EDS spectra. It is also revealed that 'Ca' seems to have a sudden burst in the rate of penetration even surpassing that of 'K'. This trend can be attributed to the combined effect of ionic mobility of the various dissolved salts and the probable interaction between 'K' and the -OH group of epoxy resin. This interaction between dissolved 'K' and the -OH group in the polymer could have arrested the further advancement of 'K' salts in the polymer, resulting in comparatively high rates of 'Ca' penetration. The mechanical properties such as inter laminar shear stress (ILSS), stress and strain at rupture, glass transition temperature (Tg) and elastic modulus show a decreasing trend with the increased duration of immersion. As revealed from the SEM fractographs pot- holing, fiber pull-out, matrix crack etc. are seen to be the major reason for failure of the immersed samples under load.

  14. Measuring the Dark Matter Content of Galaxies with SALT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bixel, Alex; Sellwood, Jerry; Mitchell, Carl

    2016-01-01

    In order to test the predictions of galaxy formation models, we seek to measure the detailed dark matter distributions of spiral galaxies. The best way to accomplish this is through measurements of the Doppler shift of the Hα line, through which we can produce detailed velocity maps and rotational models of a galaxy. Since the gas flows in rough centrifugal balance, we can use the rotational models to estimate the central gravitational attraction and therefore the mass distribution. As an example, we present a rotational velocity model fitted to an Hα velocity map of the spiral galaxy NGC 908, and find that the fitted systemic velocity gives good agreement with previous measurements in the literature. In the future, this method can be used to determine the rotation curves of the nineteen nearby galaxies for which we have or plan to collect interferometric data; we are currently working to produce similar results for the galaxy NGC 7606.This research has been supported by NSF grant PHY-1263280.

  15. Dynamics of water and salt exchange at Maryland Coastal Bays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Xinyi; Xia, Meng; Pitula, Joseph S.; Chigbu, Paulinus

    2017-04-01

    The exchange processes between the Maryland Coastal Bays system (MCBs) and their adjacent coastal ocean were simulated using a three-dimensional unstructured-grid based hydrodynamic model, which was validated by observed data including water level, current velocity and salinity. Idealized experiments were then carried out to investigate the impact of wind forcing on water exchange and salt flux. Through these experiments, the exchanges between the MCBs and coastal ocean were investigated at two inlets (Ocean City Inlet and Chincoteague Inlet). Given that winds and tides are two key external forces known to impact estuarine dynamics, the effect of each individual force on the exchange processes was studied to evaluate the corresponding influence on the inlet dynamics. It was found that wind forcing significantly impacts the inlet dynamics: the effect of wind directions on exchange processes under strong wind speeds is substantial; for example, northwesterly winds push flux to the southern part of the bays, while southwesterly winds pile up flux towards northern Chincoteague Bay. The effect of wind forcing on the exchange dynamics becomes stronger with the augmentation of its speed. Meanwhile, tidal forcing is the major driver of exchange dynamics at weak wind speeds (e.g., 3 m/s), and its effect on exchange process gradually weakens with stronger wind speeds (e.g., 7 m/s, 15 m/s). In addition, sensitivity tests elucidated that closing either inlet results in a significant impact on the water elevation, current velocity and salinity nearby the relevant cut-off inlet areas.

  16. Water content and structure in malignant and benign skin tumours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gniadecka, M.; Nielsen, O. F.; Wulf, H. C.

    2003-12-01

    Analysis of the low frequency region of Raman spectra enables determination of water structure. It has been previously demonstrated by various techniques that water content and possibly also the water structure is altered in some malignant tumours. To further elucidate possible change in water structure in tumours we performed NIR FT Raman spectroscopy on biopsies from selected benign and malignant skin tumours (benign: seborrheic keratosis, pigmented nevi; malignant: malignant melanoma, basal cell carcinoma). We did not observe any differences in water content between malignant and benign skin tumours with an exception of seborrheic keratosis, in which the water content was decreased. Increase in the tetrahedral (free) water was found in malignant skin tumours and sun-damaged skin relative to normal young skin and benign skin tumours. This finding may add to the understanding of molecular alterations in cancer.

  17. Salt-induced counterion condensation and related phenomena in sodium carboxymethylcellulose-sodium halide-methanol-water quaternary systems.

    PubMed

    Das, Bijan; Chatterjee, Amritendu

    2015-05-28

    Polyion-counterion interactions in sodium carboxymethylcellulose (NaCMC) in methanol-water media have been investigated conductometrically with reference to their variations with polyelectrolyte concentration, relative permittivity and the type and concentration of added electrolytes. The specific conductance data in polyelectrolyte-salt solutions were analyzed using an equation recently developed by us following the scaling description for the configuration of a polyion chain according to Dobrynin et al. Excellent quantitative agreement between the experimental results and those obtained with the new equation developed was observed. The results demonstrate that approximately 43-59% of the counterions remain free and that there has been a suppression of counterion dissociation in the presence of a salt in any given mixed solvent medium, the extent of which increases with increasing salt concentration. NaCl was found to be slightly more efficient than NaBr in suppressing the counterion-condensation in NaCMC-methanol-water systems. An increase in the amount of methanol in the media causes a reduction in the fraction of free counterions. The results further demonstrate that the monomer units experience more frictional resistance as the methanol content of the mixture increases or as the concentration of the added electrolytes increases. The results were discussed in terms of various interactions prevailing in these systems.

  18. Phenolic content of daylight-exposed and shaded floating leaves of water lilies (Nymphaeaceae) in relation to infection by fungi.

    PubMed

    Vergeer, L H T; van der Velde, G

    1997-11-01

    Under suboptimal growing conditions (e.g. a lack of sunshine), floating leaves of Nymphaea alba and Nuphar lutea can become heavily infected with the fungi Colletotrichum nymphaeae and Pythium F, respectively. These fungi normally act as decomposers of senescent leaves. Mature leaves of Nymphaea alba and Nuphar lutea contain high concentrations of phenolics, secondary substances known for their fungistatic properties. The production of these compounds requires energy and primary metabolites. The hypothesis that suboptimal growing conditions reduce the ability of nymphaeids to maintain a sufficiently high level of phenolics, thereby making them more vulnerable to infection by fungi, was tested. Outdoor mesocosm experiments were used to examine the response of floating leaves of Nymphaea alba and Nuphar lutea to reduced light availability. Shading significantly reduced the phenolic content of the leaves. This was accompanied by higher disease severity. The outcome of this experiment is also discussed in relation to the higher nitrogen content measured in shaded leaves.

  19. Transpiring wall supercritical water oxidation reactor salt deposition studies

    SciTech Connect

    Haroldsen, B.L.; Mills, B.E.; Ariizumi, D.Y.; Brown, B.G.

    1996-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has teamed with Foster Wheeler Development Corp. and GenCorp, Aerojet to develop and evaluate a new supercritical water oxidation reactor design using a transpiring wall liner. In the design, pure water is injected through small pores in the liner wall to form a protective boundary layer that inhibits salt deposition and corrosion, effects that interfere with system performance. The concept was tested at Sandia on a laboratory-scale transpiring wall reactor that is a 1/4 scale model of a prototype plant being designed for the Army to destroy colored smoke and dye at Pine Bluff Arsenal in Arkansas. During the tests, a single-phase pressurized solution of sodium sulfate (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) was heated to supercritical conditions, causing the salt to precipitate out as a fine solid. On-line diagnostics and post-test observation allowed us to characterize reactor performance at different flow and temperature conditions. Tests with and without the protective boundary layer demonstrated that wall transpiration provides significant protection against salt deposition. Confirmation tests were run with one of the dyes that will be processed in the Pine Bluff facility. The experimental techniques, results, and conclusions are discussed.

  20. A simple method for locating the fresh water-salt water interface using pressure data.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kue-Young; Chon, Chul-Min; Park, Ki-Hwa

    2007-01-01

    Salt water intrusion is a key issue in dealing with exploitation, restoration, and management of fresh ground water in coastal aquifers. Constant monitoring of the fresh water-salt water interface is necessary for proper management of ground water resources. This study presents a simple method to estimate the depth of the fresh water-salt water interface in coastal aquifers using two sets of pressure data obtained from the fresh and saline zones within a single borehole. This method uses the density difference between fresh water and saline water and can practically be used at coastal aquifers that have a relatively sharp fresh water-salt water interface with a thin transition zone. The proposed method was applied to data collected from a coastal aquifer on Jeju Island, Korea, to estimate the variations in the depth of the interface. The interface varied with daily tidal fluctuations and heavy rainfall in the rainy season. The estimated depth of the interface showed a good agreement with the measured electrical conductivity profile.

  1. Salt-water encroachment in southern Nassau and southeastern Queens Counties, Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lusczynski, N.J.; Swarzenski, Wolfgang V.

    1966-01-01

    Test drilling, extraction of water from cores, electric logging, water sampling, and water-level measurements from 1958 to 1961 provided a suitable basis for a substantial refinement in the definition of the positions, chloride concentrations, and rates of movement of salty water in the intermediate and deep deposits of southern Nassau County and southeastern Queens County. Filter-press, centrifugal, and dilution methods were used to extract water from cores for chloride analysis at the test-drilling sites. Chloride analysis of water extracted by these methods, chloride analyses of water from wells, and the interpretation of electric logs helped to define the chloride content of the salty water. New concepts of environmental-water head and zerovels, developed during the investigation, proved useful for defining hydraulic gradients and ratee of flow in ground water of variable density in a vertical direction and in horizontal and inclined planes, respectively. Hydraulic gradients in and between fresh and salty water were determined from water levels from data at individual and multiple-observation wells. Salty ground water occurs in southern Nassau and southeastern Queens Counties as three wedgelike extensions that project landward in unconsolidated deposits from a main body of salty water that lies seaward of the barrier beaches in Nassau County and of Jamaica Bay in Queens County. Salty water occurs not only in permeable deposits but also in the shallow and deep clay deposits. The highest chloride content of the salty ground water in the main body and the wedges is about 16,000 ppm, which is about 1,000 to 2,000 ppm less than the chloride content of ocean water. The shallow salty water in the Pleistocene and Recent deposits is connected freely with the bays, tidal estuaries, and ocean. The intermediate wedge is found only in the southwestern part of Nassau County in the upper part of the Magothy (?) Formation, in the Jamneco Gravel, and in the overlying clay

  2. Communication: Infrared spectroscopy of salt-water complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tandy, Jon; Feng, Cheng; Boatwright, Adrian; Sarma, Gautam; Sadoon, Ahmed M.; Shirley, Andrew; Das Neves Rodrigues, Natercia; Cunningham, Ethan M.; Yang, Shengfu; Ellis, Andrew M.

    2016-03-01

    To explore how the ion-pair in a single salt molecule evolves with the addition of water, infrared (IR) spectra of complexes composed of NaCl and multiple water molecules have been recorded for the first time. The NaCl(H2O)n complexes were formed and probed in liquid helium nanodroplets, and IR spectra were recorded for n = 1 → 4. The spectra for n = 1, 2, and 3 are consistent with formation of the lowest energy contact-ion pair structures in which each water molecule forms a single ionic hydrogen bond to an intact Na+Cl- ion-pair. Alternative structures with hydrogen bonding between water molecules become energetically competitive for n = 4, and the IR spectrum indicates likely the coexistence of at least two isomers.

  3. Quantum Calculations on Salt Bridges with Water: Potentials, Structure, and Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Sing; Green, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    Salt bridges are electrostatic links between acidic and basic amino acids in a protein; quantum calculations are used here to determine the energetics and other properties of one form of these species, in the presence of water molecules. The acidic groups are carboxylic acids (aspartic and glutamic acids); proteins have two bases with pK above physiological pH: one, arginine, with a guanidinium basic group, the other lysine, which is a primary amine. Only arginine is modeled here, by ethyl guanidinium, while propionic acid is used as a model for either carboxylic acid. The salt bridges are accompanied by 0-12 water molecules; for each of the 13 systems, the energy-bond distance relation, natural bond orbitals (NBO), frequency calculations allowing thermodynamic corrections to room temperature, and dielectric constant dependence, were all calculated. The water molecules were found to arrange themselves in hydrogen bonded rings anchored to the oxygens of the salt bridge components. This was not surprising in itself, but it was found that the rings lead to a periodicity in the energy, and to a 'water addition' rule. The latter shows that the initial rings, with four oxygen atoms, become five member rings when an additional water molecule becomes available, with the additional water filling in at the bond with the lowest Wiberg index, as calculated using NBO. The dielectric constant dependence is the expected hyperbola, and the fit of the energy to the inverse dielectric constant is determined. There is an energy periodicity related to ring formation upon addition of water molecules. When 10 water molecules have been added, all spaces near the salt bridge are filled, completing the first hydration shell, and a second shell starts to form. The potentials associated with salt bridges depend on their hydration, and potentials assigned without regard to local hydration are likely to cause errors as large as or larger than kBT, thus suggesting a serious problem if these

  4. Geologic appraisal of Paradox basin salt deposits for water emplacement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hite, R.J.; Lohman, Stanley William

    1973-01-01

    Thick salt deposits of Middle Pennsylvanian age are present in an area of 12,000 square miles in the Paradox basin of southeast Utah and southwest Colorado. The deposits are in the Paradox Member of the Hermosa Formation. The greatest thickness of this evaporite sequence is in a troughlike depression adjacent to the Uncompahgre uplift on the northeast side of the basin. The salt deposits consist of a cyclical sequence of thick halite units separated by thin units of black shale, dolomite, and anhydrite. Many halite units are several hundred feet thick and locally contain economically valuable potash deposits. Over much of the Paradox basin the salt deposits occur at depths of more than 5,000 feet. Only in a series of salt anticlines located along the northeastern side of the basin do the salt deposits rise to relatively shallow depths. The salt anticlines can be divided geographically and structurally into five major systems. Each system consists of a long undulating welt of thickened salt over which younger rocks are arched in anticlinal form. Locally there are areas along the axes of the anticlines where the Paradox Member was never covered by younger sediments. This allowed large-scale migration of Paradox strata toward and up through these holes in the sediment cover forming diapiric anticlines. The central or salt-bearing cores of tthe anticlines range in thickness from about 2,500 to 14,000 feet. Structure in the central core of the salt anticlines is the result of both regional-compression and flowage of the Paradox Member into the anticlines from adjacent synclines. Structure in the central cores of the salt anticlines ranges from relatively undeformed beds to complexly folded and faulted masses, in which stratigraphic continuity is undemonstrable. The presence of thick cap rock .over many of the salt anticlines is evidence of removal of large volumes of halite by groundwater. Available geologic and hydrologic information suggests that this is a relatively

  5. Potential formation of bromophenols in Barcelona's tap water due to daily salt mine discharges and occasional phenol spills

    SciTech Connect

    Ventura, F.; Rivera, J.

    1986-02-01

    The presence of phenol and chlorinated phenols in drinking water has been shown to affect both taste and odor and to cause negative effects on health. The priority pollutants list issued by E.P.A. includes eleven of these compounds as suspected carcinogens. Little attention has been focussed on the presence of bromophenols. The presence of volatile brominated organic compounds has been demonstrated when bromide is present, due to chlorination. Similarly, brominated phenols might be formed during chlorination in the water works. More than 3 million inhabitants in the area of Barcelona drink water taken from Llobregat river. Quality of this raw water is strongly influenced by high contents of bromide coming from salt mines located in the upper course of the river. Phenol and phenolic compounds are usually found in raw water in the ppb range but occasional spills may increase the phenol content up to parts per million. This study shows the possibility of formation of bromophenols during normal chlorination conditions at Barcelona's water works plant.

  6. Enrichment of fluoride in groundwater under the impact of saline water intrusion at the salt lake area of Yuncheng basin, northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xubo; Wang, Yanxin; Li, Yilian; Guo, Qinghai

    2007-12-01

    Long-term intake of high-fluoride groundwater causes endemic fluorosis. This study, for the first time, discovered that the salt lake water intrusion into neighboring shallow aquifers might result in elevation of fluoride content of the groundwater. Two cross-sections along the groundwater flow paths were selected to study the geochemical processes controlling fluoride concentration in Yuncheng basin, northern China. There are two major reasons for the observed elevation of fluoride content: one is the direct contribution of the saline water; the other is the undersaturation of the groundwater with respect to fluorite due to salt water intrusion, which appears to be more important reason. The processes of the fluorine activity reduction and the change of Na/Ca ratio in groundwater induced by the intrusion of saline water favor further dissolution of fluorine-bearing mineral, and it was modeled using PHREEQC. With the increase in Na concentration (by adding NaCl or Na2SO4 as Na source, calcium content kept invariable), the increase of NaF concentration was rapid at first and then became slower; and the concentrations of HF, HF{2/-}, CaF+, and MgF+ were continuously decreasing. The geochemical conditions in the study area are advantageous to the complexation of F- with Na+ and the decline of saturation index of CaF2, regardless of the water type (Cl-Na or SO4-Na type water).

  7. Design of Thermally Responsive Polymeric Hydrogels for Brackish Water Desalination: Effect of Architecture on Swelling, Deswelling, and Salt Rejection.

    PubMed

    Ali, Wael; Gebert, Beate; Hennecke, Tobias; Graf, Karlheinz; Ulbricht, Mathias; Gutmann, Jochen S

    2015-07-29

    In this work, we explore the ability of utilizing hydrogels synthesized from a temperature-sensitive polymer and a polyelectrolyte to desalinate salt water by means of reversible thermally induced absorption and desorption. Thus, the influence of the macromolecular architecture on the swelling/deswelling behavior for such hydrogels was investigated by tailor-made network structures. To this end, a series of chemically cross-linked polymeric hydrogels were synthesized via free radical-initiated copolymerization of sodium acrylate (SA) with the thermoresponsive comonomer N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) by realizing different structural types. In particular, two different polyNIPAAm macromonomers, either with one acrylate function at the chain end or with additional acrylate functions as side groups were synthesized by controlled polymerization and subsequent polymer-analogous reaction and then used as building blocks. The rheological behaviors of hydrogels and their estimated mesh sizes are discussed. The performance of the hydrogels in terms of swelling and deswelling in both deionized water (DI) and brackish water (2 g/L NaCl) was measured as a function of cross-linking degree and particle size. The salt content could be reduced by 23% in one cycle by using the best performing material.

  8. Explicit-water theory for the salt-specific effects and Hofmeister series in protein solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalyuzhnyi, Yuriy V.; Vlachy, Vojko

    2016-06-01

    Effects of addition of salts on stability of aqueous protein solutions are studied theoretically and the results are compared with experimental data. In our approach, all the interacting species, proteins, ions, and water molecules, are accounted for explicitly. Water molecules are modeled as hard spheres with four off-center attractive square-well sites. These sites serve to bind either another water or to solvate the ions or protein charges. The ions are represented as charged hard spheres, and decorated by attractive sites to allow solvation. Spherical proteins simultaneously possess positive and negative groups, represented by charged hard spheres, attached to the surface of the protein. The attractive square-well sites, mimicking the protein-protein van der Waals interaction, are located on the surface of the protein. To obtain numerical results, we utilized the energy route of Wertheim's associative mean spherical approximation. From measurable properties, we choose to calculate the second virial coefficient B2, which is closely related to the tendency of proteins to aggregate and eventually crystalize. Calculations are in agreement with experimental trends: (i) For low concentration of added salt, the alkali halide salts follow the inverse Hofmeister series. (ii) At higher concentration of added salt, the trend is reversed. (iii) When cations are varied, the salts follow the direct Hofmeister series. (iv) In contrast to the colloidal theories, our approach correctly predicts the non-monotonic behavior of B2 upon addition of salts. (v) With respect to anions, the theory predicts for the B2 values to follow different sequences below and above the iso-ionic point, as also confirmed experimentally. (vi) A semi-quantitative agreement between measured and calculated values for the second virial coefficient, as functions of pH of solution and added salt type and concentration, is obtained.

  9. Boundary lubrication by sodium salts: a Hofmeister series effect.

    PubMed

    Garrec, D A; Norton, I T

    2012-08-01

    Boundary lubrication plays an important role in the function of sliding surfaces in contact. Of particular interest in this study, boundary regime tribology is relevant for understanding textural attributes perceived during oral consumption of food, where the tongue squeezes and slides against the hard palate. This work investigates aqueous lubrication of a sliding/rolling ball-on-disc contact by sodium anions of the Hofmeister series in both water and guar gum solutions. Low concentrations (0.001 M) of strongly kosmotropic salts provide reduced friction coefficients in both systems (water and guar gum solutions), although a different mechanism prevails in each. Surface-bound hydrated ions are responsible in the case of water, and salt-promoted adsorption of hydrated-polymer chains dominate with guar gum. In each system, friction decreases in accordance with the Hofmeister series: iodide, nitrate, bromide, chloride, fluoride, phosphate and citrate. The addition of salt has little impact on solution of bulk viscosity, and so this work demonstrates that significant boundary lubrication can be provided without surface modification and with lubricants of viscosity similar to that of water.

  10. Quality and sources of ground water used for public supply in Salt Lake Valley, Salt Lake County, Utah, 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thiros, Susan A.; Manning, Andrew H.

    2004-01-01

    Ground water supplies about one-third of the water used by the public in Salt Lake Valley, Utah. The occurrence and distribution of natural and anthropogenic compounds in ground water used for public supply in the valley were evaluated. Water samples were collected from 31 public-supply wells in 2001 and analyzed for major ions, trace elements, radon, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, methylene blue active substances, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds. The samples also were analyzed for the stable isotopes of water (oxygen-18 and deuterium), tritium, chlorofluorocarbons, and dissolved gases to determine recharge sources and ground-water age.Dissolved-solids concentration ranged from 157 to 1,280 milligrams per liter (mg/L) in water from the 31 public-supply wells. Comparison of dissolved-solids concentration of water sampled from the principal aquifer during 1988-92 and 1998-2002 shows a reduction in the area where water with less than 500 mg/L occurs. Nitrate concentration in water sampled from 12 of the 31 public-supply wells was higher than an estimated background level of 2 mg/L, indicating a possible human influence. At least one pesticide or pesticide degradation product was detected at a concentration much lower than drinking-water standards in water from 13 of the 31 wells sampled. Chloroform was the most frequently detected volatile organic compound (17 of 31 samples). Its widespread occurrence in deeper ground water is likely a result of the recharge of chlorinated public-supply water used to irrigate lawns and gardens in residential areas of Salt Lake Valley.Environmental tracers were used to determine the sources of recharge to the principal aquifer used for public supply in the valley. Oxygen-18 values and recharge temperatures computed from dissolved noble gases in the ground water were used to differentiate between mountain and valley recharge. Maximum recharge temperatures in the eastern part of the valley generally are below the range

  11. Superoxide generated by pyrogallol reduces highly water-soluble tetrazolium salt to produce a soluble formazan: a simple assay for measuring superoxide anion radical scavenging activities of biological and abiological samples.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chen; Liu, Shu; Liu, Zhiqiang; Song, Fengrui; Liu, Shuying

    2013-09-02

    Superoxide anion radical (O2(˙-)) plays an important role in several human diseases. The xanthine/xanthine oxidase system is frequently utilized to produce O2(˙-). However, false positive results are easily got by using this system. The common spectrophotometric probes for O2(˙-) are nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) and cytochrome c. Nevertheless, the application of NBT method is limited because of the water-insolubility of NBT formazan and the assay using cytochrome c lacks sensitivity and is not suitable for microplate measurement. We overcome these problems by using 1,2,3-trihydroxybenzene (pyrogallol) as O2(˙-)-generating system and a highly water-soluble tetrazolium salt, 2-(4-iodophenyl)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)-5-(2,4-disulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium sodium salt (WST-1) which can be reduced by superoxide anion radical to a stable water-soluble formazan with a high absorbance at 450 nm. The method is simple, rapid and sensitive. Moreover, it can be adapted to microplate format. In this study, the O2(˙-) scavenging activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), L-ascorbic acid, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), albumin from human serum, flavonoids and herbal extracts were assessed by using this method. Meanwhile, the activities of tissue homogenates and serum were determined by using this validated method. This method, applicable to tissue homogenates, serum and herbal extracts, proved to be efficient for measuring O2(˙-) scavenging activities of biological and abiological samples.

  12. Salting the landscapes in Transbaikalia: natural and technogenic factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peryazeva, E. G.; Plyusnin, A. M.; Chinavlev, A. M.

    2010-05-01

    Salting the soils, surface and subsurface waters is widespread in Transbaikalia. Hearths of salting occur within intermountain depressions of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic age both in the steppe arid and forest humid landscapes. Total water mineralization reaches 80 g/dm3 in lakes and 4-5 g/dm3 in subsurface waters. The waters belong to hydrocarbonate sodium and sulfate sodium types by chemical composition. The soda type of waters is widely spread through the whole area. Sulfate waters are found in several hearths of salting. Deposition of salts takes place in some lakes. Mirabilite and soda depositions are most commonly observed in muds of salt lakes. Deposition of salts occurs both as a result of evaporative concentrating and during freezing out the solvent. In the winter period, efflorescences of salts, where decawater soda is main mineral, are observed on ice surface. Solonchaks are spread in areas of shallow ground waters (1-2m). Soil salting is most intense in the lower parts of depressions, where surface of ground waters is at depth 0.5-1.0m. In soil cover of solonchaks, salt horizon is of various thicknesses, and it has various morphological forms of occurrence, i.e. as thick deposits of salts on soil surface and salting the surficial horizons. The soil has low alkaline reaction of medium and is characterized by high content of exchangeable bases with significant content of exchangeable sodium in the absorbing complex. Total amount of salts varies from 0.7 to 1.3%. Their maximal quantity (3.1%) is confined to the surficial layer. Sulfate-sodium type of salting is noted in the solonchak upper horizons and sulfate-magnesium-calcium one in the lower ones (Ubugunov et al, 2009). Formation of salting hearths is associated with natural and technogenic conditions. The Mesozoic depressions of Transbaikalia are characterized by intense volcanism. Covers of alkaline and moderately alkaline basalts that are enriched in potassium, sodium, carbon dioxide, fluorine, chlorine

  13. Temporal Variation of Water and Salt Exchange at Xiaoqinghe River Mouth, North of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, T.; Zhang, H.

    2014-12-01

    Estuaries are important components of coastal ecosystem and function as dominant pathways of material exchange at the land-sea interface. The transport of terrestrial input through river inflow is controlled by physical process including tides, waves, and fresh water discharge. This study investigates net water and salt flux within Xiaoqinghe River mouth, a mesotidal shallow estuarine system (water depth < 8 m) exports substantial amount of nutrients and pollutants to the adjacent Laizhou Bay. Profile velocity and salinity are measured using ADCP and CTD through complete tidal cycles (25hours) in April, July and September 2013. The instantaneous velocity and salinity data are decomposed into time-averaged means and time-varying components based on the improved Kjerfve (1986) method to quantify the contributions of various physical processes. The results show that the freshwater discharge and tidal pumping are dominant processes of salt transport during the wet season and dry season, respectively, while both factors are almost the same during the normal season. The advective flux also determined the direction of the net salt flux. The remaining terms, which are dependent on the deviations from time-average means have a limited role in salt transports. The vertical shear flux tended to very small. There is a distinguishable difference between the transport of salinity and water for all three surveys, and also obvious separation character of salinity and water's long-term transport during all three surveys. An imbalance of the salt budget across the river mouth is also observed. Overall, tidal pumping is the underlying process of salt transport while river discharge dominates its temporal variation. This study will make addition to scientific foundation for management hazardous contamination and best time to release of environmental flows during difference seasons.

  14. Hydrology of the Bonneville Salt Flats, northwestern Utah, and simulation of ground-water flow and solute transport in the shallow-brine aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mason, James L.; Kipp, Kenneth L.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the hydrologic system of the Bonneville Salt Flats with emphasis on the mechanisms of solute transport. Variable-density, three-dimensional computer simulations of the near-surface part of the ground-water system were done to quantify both the transport of salt dissolved in subsurface brine that leaves the salt-crust area and the salt dissolved and precipitated on the land surface. The study was designed to define the hydrology of the brine ground-water system and the natural and anthropogenic processes causing salt loss, and where feasible, to quantify these processes. Specific areas of study include the transport of salt in solution by ground-water flow and the transport of salt in solution by wind-driven ponds and the subsequent salt precipitation on the surface of the playa upon evaporation or seepage into the subsurface. In addition, hydraulic and chemical changes in the hydrologic system since previous studies were documented.

  15. Modulation of gut microbiota and increase in fecal water content in mice induced by administration of Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens DN1.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Dana; Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Kang, Il-Byeong; Kim, Hyunsook; Song, Kwang-Young; Kim, Hong-Seok; Seo, Kun-Ho

    2017-02-22

    Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens is the key probiotic bacterium in kefir. In this study, we investigated the effects of oral consumption of L. kefiranofaciens on the fecal quality and intestinal microbiota of mice. Four-week-old Balb/c mice were divided into two groups (n = 8 each) and administered 0.2 mL of saline (control group) or saline containing 2 × 10(8) cfu L. kefiranofaciens DN1 (LKF_DN1 group) for two weeks. At the end of the experiment, their fecal samples were collected and the fecal quality and microbiota were assessed. The LKF_DN1 group exhibited higher total fecal weight and fecal weight per stool sample than the control group (p < 0.05). Interestingly, the fecal water content was significantly higher in the fecal samples of the LKF_DN1 group than in those of the control group (p < 0.05). The numbers of total bacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Lactobacillus, and Prevotella were significantly higher in the LKF_DN1 group than in the control group (p < 0.05). In contrast, the number of opportunistic pathogens, including Proteobacteria and Enterobacteriaceae, and the percentage of genus Clostridium among the total bacteria were significantly reduced in the LKF_DN1 group (p < 0.05). Our data suggest that regular L. kefiranofaciens DN1 administration could alleviate constipation and improve gut microbiota.

  16. Secondary organic aerosol formation from cyclohexene ozonolysis in the presence of water vapor and dissolved salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Bethany; Malloy, Quentin G. J.; Yee, Lindsay D.; Cocker, David R.

    A series of 90 experiments were conducted in the UC Riverside/CE-CERT environmental chamber to evaluate the impact of water vapor and dissolved salts on secondary organic aerosol formation for cyclohexene ozonolysis. Water vapor (low - 30 ± 2% RH, medium - 46 ± 2% RH, high - 63 ± 2% RH) was found to directly participate in the atmospheric chemistry altering the composition of the condensing species, thus increasing total organic aerosol formation by ˜22% as compared to the system under dry (<0.1% RH) conditions. Hygroscopicity measurements also indicate that the organic aerosol composition is altered in the presence of gaseous water. These results are consistent with water vapor reacting with the crigee intermediate in the gas phase resulting in increased aldehyde formation. The addition of dissolved salts ((NH 4) 2SO 4, NH 4HSO 4, CaCl 2, NaCl) had minimal effect; only the (NH 4) 2SO 4 and NaCl were found to significantly impact the system with ˜10% increase in total organic aerosol formation. These results indicate that the organics may be partitioning to an outer organic shell as opposed to into the aqueous salt. Hygroscopicity measurements indicate that the addition of salts does not alter the aerosol composition for the dry or water vapor system.

  17. Geophysical methods to support correct water sampling locations for salt dilution gauging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comina, C.; Lasagna, M.; De Luca, D. A.; Sambuelli, L.

    2014-08-01

    To improve water management design, particularly in irrigation areas, it is important to evaluate the baseline state of the water resources, including canal discharge. Salt dilution gauging is a traditional and well-documented technique in this respect. The complete mixing of salt used for dilution gauging is required; this condition is difficult to test or verify and, if not fulfilled, is the largest source of uncertainty in the discharge calculation. In this paper, a geophysical technique (FERT, fast electrical resistivity tomography) is proposed for imaging the distribution of the salt plume used for dilution gauging at every point along a sampling cross section. With this imaging, complete mixing can be verified. If the mixing is not complete, the image created by FERT can also provide a possible guidance for selecting water-sampling locations in the sampling cross section. A water multi-sampling system prototype aimed to potentially take into account concentration variability is also proposed and tested. The results reported in the paper show that FERT provides a three-dimensional image of the dissolved salt plume and that this can potentially help in the selection of water sampling points.

  18. Feasibility of using hyperspectral imaging to predict moisture content of porcine meat during salting process.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dan; Sun, Da-Wen; Qu, Jiahuan; Zeng, Xin-An; Pu, Hongbin; Ma, Ji

    2014-01-01

    The feasibility of using hyperspectral imaging technique (1000-2500 nm) for predicting moisture content (MC) during the salting process of porcine meat was assessed. Different spectral profiles including reflectance spectra (RS), absorbance spectra (AS) and Kubelka-Munk spectra (KMS) were examined to investigate the influence of spectroscopic transformations on predicting moisture content of salted pork slice. The best full-wavelength partial least squares regression (PLSR) models were acquired based on reflectance spectra (Rc(2)=0.969, RMSEC=0.921%; Rc(2)=0.941, RMSEP=1.23%). On the basis of the optimal wavelengths identified using the regression coefficient, two calibration models of PLSR and multiple linear regression (MLR) were compared. The optimal RS-MLR model was considered to be the best for determining the moisture content of salted pork, with a Rc(2) of 0.917 and RMSEP of 1.48%. Visualisation of moisture distribution in each pixel of the hyperspectral image using the prediction model display moisture evolution and migration in pork slices.

  19. Ammonium salts of polymaleic acids and use as corrosion inhibitors in water-in-oil emulsions

    SciTech Connect

    Oppenlaender, K.; Barthold, K.; Stork, K.

    1984-03-13

    The subject invention relates to salts of polymaleic acids having a molecular weight between 200 and 1500 and to their use in preventing the corrosion of metal caused by hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide in water-in-oil emulsions such as crude oil.

  20. Conversion of an Aziridine to an Oxazolidinone Using a Salt and Carbon Dioxide in Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Justin R.; Lieberman, Deborah L.; Hancock, Matthew T.; Pinhas, Allan R.

    2005-01-01

    A convenient, inexpensive, environment friendly, and regioselective conversion of an aziridine to an oxazolidinone is developed by using iodide salt and CO[2] in water. A description is provided, on the way in which this series of experiments will show students how to change experimental conditions to obtain mainly one desired regiosomer of a…

  1. Efficient chemical and visible-light-driven water oxidation using nickel complexes and salts as precatalysts.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gui; Chen, Lingjing; Ng, Siu-Mui; Lau, Tai-Chu

    2014-01-01

    Chemical and visible-light-driven water oxidation catalyzed by a number of Ni complexes and salts have been investigated at pH 7-9 in borate buffer. For chemical oxidation, [Ru(bpy)3](3+) (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine) was used as the oxidant, with turnover numbers (TONs) >65 and a maximum turnover frequency (TOFmax) >0.9 s(-1). Notably, simple Ni salts such as Ni(NO3 )2 are more active than Ni complexes that bear multidentate N-donor ligands. The Ni complexes and salts are also active catalysts for visible-light-driven water oxidation that uses [Ru(bpy)3](2+) as the photosensitizer and S2 O8 (2-) as the sacrificial oxidant; a TON>1200 was obtained at pH 8.5 by using Ni(NO3)2 as the catalyst. Dynamic light scattering measurements revealed the formation of nanoparticles in chemical and visible-light-driven water oxidation by the Ni catalysts. These nanoparticles aggregated during water oxidation to form submicron particles that were isolated and shown to be partially reduced β-NiOOH by various techniques, which include SEM, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, XRD, and IR spectroscopy. These results suggest that the Ni complexes and salts act as precatalysts that decompose under oxidative conditions to form an active nickel oxide catalyst. The nature of this active oxide catalyst is discussed.

  2. Generating Electric Fields in PDMS Microfluidic Devices with Salt Water Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Sciambi, Adam; Abate, Adam R.

    2014-01-01

    Droplet merging and sorting in microfluidic devices usually rely on electric fields generated by solid metal electrodes. We show that simpler and more reliable salt water electrodes, despite their lower conductivity, can perform the same droplet manipulations at the same voltages. PMID:24671446

  3. Effect of cooking on the chemical composition of low-salt, low-fat Wakame/olive oil added beef patties with special reference to fatty acid content.

    PubMed

    López-López, I; Cofrades, S; Cañeque, V; Díaz, M T; López, O; Jiménez-Colmenero, F

    2011-09-01

    Changes in chemical composition, with special reference to fatty acids, as affected by cooking, were studied in low-salt (0.5%)/low-fat patties (10%) with added Wakame (3%) and partial or total replacement of pork backfat with olive oil-in-water emulsion. The addition of Wakame and olive oil-in-water emulsion improved (P < 0.05) the binding properties and the cooking retention values of moisture, fat, fatty acids and ash, which were close to 100%. Partial and total replacement of animal fat with olive oil-in-water emulsion reduced (P < 0.05) saturated fatty acids (SFAs), while total replacement also reduced (P < 0.05) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFAs) contents. The fatty acid concentration in cooked patties was affected by product formulation. Unlike the case of all animal fat patties, when olive oil was added the cooking process increased (P < 0.05) SFAs, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and PUFA n-3 (linolenic acid) and n-6 (linoleic acid) contents. Cooked formulated patties with seaweed and partial or total replacement of pork backfat by oil-in-water emulsion and with seaweed added were less calorie-dense and had lower SFAs levels, while samples with olive oil had higher MUFAs levels.

  4. Thermal energy storage by encapsulated Glauber's salt in a liquid fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect

    Sozen, Z.Z.; Grace, J.R.; Pinder, K.L.

    1983-12-01

    Glauber's salt is a promising phase change thermal energy storage compound because of its low price, suitable phase change temperature (32.4/sup 0/C), high latent heat (3.665 x 10/sup 5/kJ/m/sup 3/) and the availability of a suitable nucleating agent (Borax). However, segregation due to incongruent melting is a serious problem associated with Glauber's salt. Mechanical mixing in devices like rotating drums has been shown in the past to prevent segregation, but these devices often have a very low heat transfer area per unit storage area. Encapsulation of Glauber's salt in small particles increases the heat transfer area per unit storage volume enormously and helps alleviate the segregation problem. Mechanical mixing of the capsules and their contents is also much easier and more efficient than mixing the entire storage volume. In this study, a mixture consisting of 96% Glauber's salt and 4% Borax was encapsulated in 25 mm diameter hollow polypropylene spheres with 5% air space in each sphere to increse the mixing efficiency. Agitation and heat transfer were provided by fluidizing the spherical capsules with water in a pilot-plant-scale (340 mm diameter, 1.37 m free height) column. The instrumentation of the system was capable of supplying data for accurate and detailed energy balances. A closed water recirculation system allowed the superficial velocity to be varied without changing the heat input or output from the system. The capsules were tested for impermeability in water and in air for a period of one year and proved to be completely impermeable.

  5. Effects of different cooling treatments on water diffusion, microcirculation, and water content within exercised muscles: evaluation by magnetic resonance T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted imaging.

    PubMed

    Yanagisawa, Osamu; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Fukubayashi, Toru

    2010-09-01

    In this study, we determined the effects of different cooling treatments on exercised muscles. Seven adults underwent four post-exercise treatments (20-min ice-bag application, 60-min gel-pack application at 10 degrees C and 17 degrees C, and non-cooling treatment) with at least 1 week between treatments. Magnetic resonance diffusion- and T2-weighted images were obtained to calculate the apparent diffusion coefficients (apparent diffusion coefficient 1, which reflects intramuscular water diffusion and microcirculation, and apparent diffusion coefficient 2, which is approximately equal to the true diffusion coefficient that excludes as much of the effect of intramuscular microcirculation as possible) and the T2 values (intramuscular water content level) of the ankle dorsiflexors, respectively, before and after ankle dorsiflexion exercise and after post-exercise treatment. The T2 values increased significantly after exercise and returned to pre-exercise values after each treatment; no significant differences were observed among the four post-exercise treatments. Both apparent diffusion coefficients also increased significantly after exercise and decreased significantly after the three cooling treatments; no significant difference was detected among the three cooling treatments. Local cooling suppresses both water diffusion and microcirculation within exercised muscles. Moreover, although the treatment time was longer, adequate cooling effects could be achieved using the gel-pack applications at relatively mild cooling temperatures.

  6. Modeling of Dense Water Production and Salt Transport from Alaskan Coastal Polynyas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Signorini, Sergio R.; Cavalieri, Donald J.

    2000-01-01

    The main significance of this paper is that a realistic, three-dimensional, high-resolution primitive equation model has been developed to study the effects of dense water formation in Arctic coastal polynyas. The model includes realistic ambient stratification, realistic bottom topography, and is forced by time-variant surface heat flux, surface salt flux, and time-dependent coastal flow. The salt and heat fluxes, and the surface ice drift, are derived from satellite observations (SSM/I and NSCAT sensors). The model is used to study the stratification, salt transport, and circulation in the vicinity of Barrow Canyon during the 1996/97 winter season. The coastal flow (Alaska coastal current), which is an extension of the Bering Sea throughflow, is formulated in the model using the wind-transport regression. The results show that for the 1996/97 winter the northeastward coastal current exports 13% to 26% of the salt produced by coastal polynyas upstream of Barrow Canyon in 20 to 30 days. The salt export occurs more rapidly during less persistent polynyas. The inclusion of ice-water stress in the model makes the coastal current slightly weaker and much wider due to the combined effects of surface drag and offshore Ekman transport.

  7. Calcium and bromide contents of natural waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, R.J.; Graf, D.L.; Jones, B.F.

    1966-01-01

    The linear relation observed in a log Ca++ versus log Br - plot for subsurface Cl- waters is attributed to ultrafiltration by shale of sea water and fresh water that have passed through sedimentary rocks since their formation. Reactions between these solutions and sedimentary minerals, particularly dolomitization, must have contributed additional Ca+ + to solution.

  8. Salt Plug Formation Caused by Decreased River Discharge in a Multi-channel Estuary

    PubMed Central

    Shaha, Dinesh Chandra; Cho, Yang-Ki

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater input to estuaries may be greatly altered by the river barrages required to meet human needs for drinking water and irrigation and prevent salt water intrusion. Prior studies have examined the salt plugs associated with evaporation and salt outwelling from tidal salt flats in single-channel estuaries. In this work, we discovered a new type of salt plug formation in the multi-channel Pasur River Estuary (PRE) caused by decreasing river discharges resulting from an upstream barrage. The formation of a salt plug in response to changes in river discharge was investigated using a conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) recorder during spring and neap tides in the dry and wet seasons in 2014. An exportation of saline water from the Shibsa River Estuary (SRE) to the PRE through the Chunkhuri Channel occurred during the dry season, and a salt plug was created and persisted from December to June near Chalna in the PRE. A discharge-induced, relatively high water level in the PRE during the wet season exerted hydrostatic pressure towards the SRE from the PRE and thereby prevented the intrusion of salt water from the SRE to the PRE. PMID:27255892

  9. Salt Plug Formation Caused by Decreased River Discharge in a Multi-channel Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaha, Dinesh Chandra; Cho, Yang-Ki

    2016-06-01

    Freshwater input to estuaries may be greatly altered by the river barrages required to meet human needs for drinking water and irrigation and prevent salt water intrusion. Prior studies have examined the salt plugs associated with evaporation and salt outwelling from tidal salt flats in single-channel estuaries. In this work, we discovered a new type of salt plug formation in the multi-channel Pasur River Estuary (PRE) caused by decreasing river discharges resulting from an upstream barrage. The formation of a salt plug in response to changes in river discharge was investigated using a conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) recorder during spring and neap tides in the dry and wet seasons in 2014. An exportation of saline water from the Shibsa River Estuary (SRE) to the PRE through the Chunkhuri Channel occurred during the dry season, and a salt plug was created and persisted from December to June near Chalna in the PRE. A discharge-induced, relatively high water level in the PRE during the wet season exerted hydrostatic pressure towards the SRE from the PRE and thereby prevented the intrusion of salt water from the SRE to the PRE.

  10. γ-Aminobutyric Acid Imparts Partial Protection from Salt Stress Injury to Maize Seedlings by Improving Photosynthesis and Upregulating Osmoprotectants and Antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yongchao; Gu, Wanrong; Meng, Yao; Xie, Tenglong; Li, Lijie; Li, Jing; Wei, Shi

    2017-01-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) has high physiological activity in plant stress physiology. This study showed that the application of exogenous GABA by root drenching to moderately (MS, 150 mM salt concentration) and severely salt-stressed (SS, 300 mM salt concentration) plants significantly increased endogenous GABA concentration and improved maize seedling growth but decreased glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) activity compared with non-treated ones. Exogenous GABA alleviated damage to membranes, increased in proline and soluble sugar content in leaves, and reduced water loss. After the application of GABA, maize seedling leaves suffered less oxidative damage in terms of superoxide anion (O2·−) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content. GABA-treated MS and SS maize seedlings showed increased enzymatic antioxidant activity compared with that of untreated controls, and GABA-treated MS maize seedlings had a greater increase in enzymatic antioxidant activity than SS maize seedlings. Salt stress severely damaged cell function and inhibited photosynthesis, especially in SS maize seedlings. Exogenous GABA application could reduce the accumulation of harmful substances, help maintain cell morphology, and improve the function of cells during salt stress. These effects could reduce the damage to the photosynthetic system from salt stress and improve photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters. GABA enhanced the salt tolerance of maize seedlings. PMID:28272438

  11. Mineralogical and Anthropogenic Controls of Stream Water Chemistry in Salted Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, H.; Alexander, J.; Gove, B.; Chakowski, N.; Husch, J.

    2013-12-01

    Analyses of major cation and anion concentrations in stream water and soil solutions from two salted (regular applications of winter road deicing salt) watersheds located in the northeastern United States indicate that both mineralogical and anthropogenic factors are important in controlling water chemistry. The relatively stable concentrations of calcium and magnesium, as well as their possible weathering paths identified by mass-balance models, indicate that the weathering of feldspars and the dissolution of carbonates are the primary sources for these two cations in the small, salted Centennial Lake Watershed (CLW, 1.95 km 2). However, the relatively stable and lower concentrations of sodium and chloride in soil solutions, and their fluctuating and higher concentrations in stream water from the CLW, indicate that road deicing salt is the primary source for these ions in stream water. Furthermore, positive correlations between calcium and sulfur concentrations and magnesium and sulfur concentrations in soil solutions, as well as positive correlations between sulfur and iron concentrations in soil compositions, indicate that both the dissolution of gypsum and the oxidation of pyrite into hematite are the primary sources of sulfate in the CLW. Analyses of water chemistry from the related and much larger Delaware River Watershed (DRW, 17560 km 2) show that sodium and chloride concentrations have increased steadily due to the regular application of winter deicing salt over the 68 years for which data are available. The more rapid increase of stream water chloride concentrations, relative to the increase in sodium, also results in the steady decline of Na+/Cl-molar ratios in the DRW over that time. In addition, the reduction of sulfate and increase of bicarbonate concentration since 1980 in DRW stream water may be attributed to the decline of sulfate levels in atmospheric deposition resulting from enhanced national and state environmental regulations and a shift in

  12. Estimation of water turnover rates of captive West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) held in fresh and salt water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortiz, R. M.; Worthy, G. A.; Byers, F. M.

    1999-01-01

    The ability of West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) to move between fresh and salt water raises the question of whether manatees drink salt water. Water turnover rates were estimated in captive West Indian manatees using the deuterium oxide dilution technique. Rates were quantified in animals using four experimental treatments: (1) held in fresh water and fed lettuce (N=4), (2) held in salt water and fed lettuce (N=2), (3) acutely exposed to salt water and fed lettuce (N=4), and (4) chronically exposed to salt water with limited access to fresh water and fed sea grass (N=5). Animals held in fresh water had the highest turnover rates (145+/-12 ml kg-1 day-1) (mean +/- s.e.m.). Animals acutely exposed to salt water decreased their turnover rate significantly when moved into salt water (from 124+/-15 to 65+/-15 ml kg-1 day-1) and subsequently increased their turnover rate upon re-entry to fresh water (146+/-19 ml kg-1 day-1). Manatees chronically exposed to salt water had significantly lower turnover rates (21+/-3 ml kg-1 day-1) compared with animals held in salt water and fed lettuce (45+/-3 ml kg-1 day-1). Manatees chronically exposed to salt water and fed sea grass had very low turnover rates compared with manatees held in salt water and fed lettuce, which is consistent with a lack of mariposia. Manatees in fresh water drank large volumes of water, which may make them susceptible to hyponatremia if access to a source of Na+ is not provided.

  13. Estimation of water turnover rates of captive West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) held in fresh and salt water.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, R M; Worthy, G A; Byers, F M

    1999-01-01

    The ability of West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) to move between fresh and salt water raises the question of whether manatees drink salt water. Water turnover rates were estimated in captive West Indian manatees using the deuterium oxide dilution technique. Rates were quantified in animals using four experimental treatments: (1) held in fresh water and fed lettuce (N=4), (2) held in salt water and fed lettuce (N=2), (3) acutely exposed to salt water and fed lettuce (N=4), and (4) chronically exposed to salt water with limited access to fresh water and fed sea grass (N=5). Animals held in fresh water had the highest turnover rates (145+/-12 ml kg-1 day-1) (mean +/- s.e.m.). Animals acutely exposed to salt water decreased their turnover rate significantly when moved into salt water (from 124+/-15 to 65+/-15 ml kg-1 day-1) and subsequently increased their turnover rate upon re-entry to fresh water (146+/-19 ml kg-1 day-1). Manatees chronically exposed to salt water had significantly lower turnover rates (21+/-3 ml kg-1 day-1) compared with animals held in salt water and fed lettuce (45+/-3 ml kg-1 day-1). Manatees chronically exposed to salt water and fed sea grass had very low turnover rates compared with manatees held in salt water and fed lettuce, which is consistent with a lack of mariposia. Manatees in fresh water drank large volumes of water, which may make them susceptible to hyponatremia if access to a source of Na+ is not provided.

  14. Hygroscopic behavior of atmospherically relevant water-soluble carboxylic salts and their influence on the water uptake of ammonium sulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Z. J.; Nowak, A.; Poulain, L.; Herrmann, H.; Wiedensohler, A.

    2011-12-01

    The hygroscopic behavior of atmospherically relevant water-soluble carboxylic salts and their effects on ammonium sulfate were investigated using a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (H-TDMA). No hygroscopic growth is observed for disodium oxalate, while ammonium oxalate shows slight growth (growth factor = 1.05 at 90%). The growth factors at 90% RH for sodium acetate, disodium malonate, disodium succinate, disodium tartrate, diammonium tartrate, sodium pyruvate, disodium maleate, and humic acid sodium salt are 1.79, 1.78, 1.69, 1.54, 1.29, 1.70, 1.78, and 1.19, respectively. The hygroscopic growth of mixtures of organic salts with ammonium sulfate, which are prepared as surrogates of atmospheric aerosols, was determined. A clear shift in deliquescence relative humidity to lower RH with increasing organic mass fraction was observed for these mixtures. Above 80% RH, the contribution to water uptake by the organic salts was close to that of ammonium sulfate for the majority of investigated compounds. The observed hygroscopic growth of the mixed particles at RH above the deliquescence relative humidity of ammonium sulfate agreed well with that predicted using the Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson (ZSR) mixing rule. Mixtures of ammonium sulfate with organic salts are more hygroscopic than mixtures with organic acids, indicating that neutralization by gas-phase ammonia and/or association with cations of dicarbonxylic acids may enhance the hygroscopicity of the atmospheric particles.

  15. Sensitivity of probabilistic MCO water content estimates to key assumptions

    SciTech Connect

    DUNCAN, D.R.

    1999-02-25

    Sensitivity of probabilistic multi-canister overpack (MCO) water content estimates to key assumptions is evaluated with emphasis on the largest non-cladding film-contributors, water borne by particulates adhering to damage sites, and water borne by canister particulate. Calculations considered different choices of damage state degree of independence, different choices of percentile for reference high inputs, three types of input probability density function (pdfs): triangular, log-normal, and Weibull, and the number of scrap baskets in an MCO.

  16. Prediction of activity coefficients in liquid aerosol particles containing organic compounds, dissolved inorganic salts, and water—Part 1: Organic compounds and water by consideration of short- and long-range effects using X-UNIFAC.1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdakos, Garnet B.; Asher, William E.; Seinfeld, John H.; Pankow, James F.

    The semi-empirical group contribution method (GCM) of Kikic et al. [Chem. Eng. Sci. 46 (1991) 2775-2780] for estimating activity coefficient ( ζ) values of neutral organic compounds and water in solutions composed of organic compounds, dissolved inorganic salts, and water is adapted for application to atmospheric particulate matter (PM). It is assumed that ζ values are determined by a combination of short- and long-range interactions. The ζ expression involves conventional UNIFAC terms and a Debye-Hückel term, with the former computed using group-group interaction parameters. Organic-organic interaction parameters are assigned the values from the UNIFAC-LLE model of Magnussen et al. [Ind. Eng. Chem. Process Design Develop. 20 (1981) 331-339]. Forty interaction parameters (ion-solvent group and anion-cation) were obtained from Kikic et al. [Chem. Eng. Sci. 46 (1991) 2775-2780], Achard et al. [Fluid Phase Equilibria 98 (1994) 71-89], and Ming and Russell [Am. Inst. Chem. Eng. J. 48 (2002) 1331-1348]. Twenty additional interaction parameters (ion-solvent group) are estimated based on 879 UNIQUAC-fitted ζ values for organic compounds and water. The fitted ζ values are based on liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) data for a range of ternary and quaternary organic/inorganic salt/water mixtures at 293-308 K. The UNIQUAC fits are analogous to those described by Fredenslund et al. [Vapor-Liquid Equilibria Using UNIFAC: A Group-Contribution Method, Elsevier Scientific Publishing, New York, 1977]. The LLE mixture compositions range from primarily organic solutions to primarily aqueous solutions with maximum ionic strengths of ˜5 mol kg -1. The groups characteristic of organic compounds found in atmospheric PM considered here include: CH 3-, -CH 2-, -CH|-, -C||-, -OH, -CH 2CO-, and -COOH. These are: single bonded carbon with three, two, one, and zero hydrogens, respectively, hydroxyl, -CH 2-carbonyl, and carboxyl, respectively. The inorganic salts

  17. Time lapse imaging of water content with geoelectrical methods: on the interest of working with absolute water content data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumont, Gaël; Pilawski, Tamara; Robert, Tanguy; Hermans, Thomas; Garré, Sarah; Nguyen, Frederic

    2016-04-01

    The electrical resistivity tomography is a suitable method to estimate the water content of a waste material and detect changes in water content. Various ERT profiles, both static data and time-lapse, where acquired on a landfill during the Minerve project. In the literature, the relative change of resistivity (Δρ/ρ) is generally computed. For saline or heat tracer tests in the saturated zone, the Δρ/ρ can be easily translated into pore water conductivity or underground temperature changes (provided that the initial salinity or temperature condition is homogeneous over the ERT panel extension). For water content changes in the vadose zone resulting of an infiltration event or injection experiment, many authors also work with the Δρ/ρ or relative changes of water content Δθ/θ (linked to the change of resistivity through one single parameter: the Archie's law exponent "m"). This parameter is not influenced by the underground temperature and pore fluid conductivity (ρ¬w) condition but is influenced by the initial water content distribution. Therefore, you never know if the loss of Δθ/θ signal is representative of the limit of the infiltration front or more humid initial condition. Another approach for the understanding of the infiltration process is the assessment of the absolute change of water content (Δθ). This requires the direct computation of the water content of the waste from the resistivity data. For that purpose, we used petrophysical laws calibrated with laboratory experiments and our knowledge of the in situ temperature and pore fluid conductivity parameters. Then, we investigated water content changes in the waste material after a rainfall event (Δθ= Δθ/θ* θ). This new observation is really representatives of the quantity of water infiltrated in the waste material. However, the uncertainty in the pore fluid conductivity value may influence the computed water changes (Δθ=k*m√(ρw) ; where "m" is the Archie's law exponent

  18. Water quality and macroinvertebrate communities of Emigration and Red Butte Creeks, Salt Lake County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giddings, Elise

    2000-01-01

    Residential development in the canyons and foothills surrounding Salt Lake City, Utah, is growing at a rapid pace. Urban development typically degrades the water quality when formerly natural lands are developed. In Emigration Canyon, however, residential development is replacing land formerly used for grazing and recreation. It is not clear how this land use change has affected the water quality and biotic communities in this watershed. The water quality and macroinvertebrate communities of Emigration Creek and neighboring Red Butte Creek were examined by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA) during summer 1999.

  19. The water, deuterium, gas and uranium content of tektites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, I.

    1958-01-01

    The water content, deuterium concentration of the water, total gas and uranium contents were determined on tektite samples and other glass samples from Texas, Australia, Philippine Islands, Java, French Indo-China, Czechoslovakia, Libyan Desert, Billiton Island, Thailand, French West Africa, Peru, and New Mexico. The water content ranges from 0.24 per cent for the Peru tektite, to 0.0002 per cent for a moldavite. The majority of the tektites have less than 0.05 per cent water, and average 0.005 per cent H2O by weight. No other gases were detected, the lower detection limit being about 1 p.p.m. by weight. The deuterium content of the water in tektites is in the same range as that in terrestrial waters, and varies from 0.010 mole per cent to 0.0166 mole per cent deuterium. The uranium content is about from 1 to 3 p.p.m. The possible origin of tektites is discussed. The experimental data presented favour their being originally terrestrial, but produced by some catastrophic event. An extra-terrestrial source is not ruled out. ?? 1958.

  20. Soil Water Content Sensor Response to Organic Matter Content under Laboratory Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Fares, Ali; Awal, Ripendra; Bayabil, Haimanote K.

    2016-01-01

    Studies show that the performance of soil water content monitoring (SWCM) sensors is affected by soil physical and chemical properties. However, the effect of organic matter on SWCM sensor responses remains less understood. Therefore, the objectives of this study are to (i) assess the effect of organic matter on the accuracy and precision of SWCM sensors using a commercially available soil water content monitoring sensor; and (ii) account for the organic matter effect on the sensor’s accuracy. Sand columns with seven rates of oven-dried sawdust (2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, 10%, 12% and 18% v/v, used as an organic matter amendment), thoroughly mixed with quartz sand, and a control without sawdust were prepared by packing quartz sand in two-liter glass containers. Sand was purposely chosen because of the absence of any organic matter or salinity, and also because sand has a relatively low cation exchange capacity that will not interfere with the treatment effect of the current work. Sensor readings (raw counts) were monitored at seven water content levels (0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.08, 0.12, 0.18, 0.24, and 0.30 cm3 cm−3) by uniformly adding the corresponding volumes of deionized water in addition to the oven-dry one. Sensor readings were significantly (p < 0.05) affected by the organic matter level and water content. Sensor readings were strongly correlated with the organic matter level (R2 = 0.92). In addition, the default calibration equation underestimated the water content readings at the lower water content range (<0.05 cm3 cm−3), while it overestimated the water content at the higher water content range (>0.05 cm3 cm−3). A new polynomial calibration equation that uses raw count and organic matter content as covariates improved the accuracy of the sensor (RMSE = 0.01 cm3 cm−3). Overall, findings of this study highlight the need to account for the effect of soil organic matter content to improve the accuracy and precision of the tested sensor under different soils and

  1. Soil Water Content Sensor Response to Organic Matter Content under Laboratory Conditions.

    PubMed

    Fares, Ali; Awal, Ripendra; Bayabil, Haimanote K

    2016-08-05

    Studies show that the performance of soil water content monitoring (SWCM) sensors is affected by soil physical and chemical properties. However, the effect of organic matter on SWCM sensor responses remains less understood. Therefore, the objectives of this study are to (i) assess the effect of organic matter on the accuracy and precision of SWCM sensors using a commercially available soil water content monitoring sensor; and (ii) account for the organic matter effect on the sensor's accuracy. Sand columns with seven rates of oven-dried sawdust (2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, 10%, 12% and 18% v/v, used as an organic matter amendment), thoroughly mixed with quartz sand, and a control without sawdust were prepared by packing quartz sand in two-liter glass containers. Sand was purposely chosen because of the absence of any organic matter or salinity, and also because sand has a relatively low cation exchange capacity that will not interfere with the treatment effect of the current work. Sensor readings (raw counts) were monitored at seven water content levels (0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.08, 0.12, 0.18, 0.24, and 0.30 cm³ cm(-3)) by uniformly adding the corresponding volumes of deionized water in addition to the oven-dry one. Sensor readings were significantly (p < 0.05) affected by the organic matter level and water content. Sensor readings were strongly correlated with the organic matter level (R² = 0.92). In addition, the default calibration equation underestimated the water content readings at the lower water content range (<0.05 cm³ cm(-3)), while it overestimated the water content at the higher water content range (>0.05 cm³ cm(-3)). A new polynomial calibration equation that uses raw count and organic matter content as covariates improved the accuracy of the sensor (RMSE = 0.01 cm³ cm(-3)). Overall, findings of this study highlight the need to account for the effect of soil organic matter content to improve the accuracy and precision of the tested sensor under different soils and

  2. Wetting and evaporation of salt-water nanodroplets: A molecular dynamics investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun; Borg, Matthew K.; Sefiane, Khellil; Reese, Jason M.

    2015-11-01

    We employ molecular dynamics simulations to study the wetting and evaporation of salt-water nanodroplets on platinum surfaces. Our results show that the contact angle of the droplets increases with the salt concentration. To verify this, a second simulation system of a thin salt-water film on a platinum surface is used to calculate the various surface tensions. We find that both the solid-liquid and liquid-vapor surface tensions increase with salt concentration and as a result these cause an increase in the contact angle. However, the evaporation rate of salt-water droplets decreases as the salt concentration increases, due to the hydration of salt ions. When the water molecules have all evaporated from the droplet, two forms of salt crystals are deposited, clump and ringlike, depending on the solid-liquid interaction strength and the evaporation rate. To form salt crystals in a ring, it is crucial that there is a pinned stage in the evaporation process, during which salt ions can move from the center to the rim of the droplets. With a stronger solid-liquid interaction strength, a slower evaporation rate, and a higher salt concentration, a complete salt crystal ring can be deposited on the surface.

  3. Wetting and evaporation of salt-water nanodroplets: A molecular dynamics investigation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Borg, Matthew K; Sefiane, Khellil; Reese, Jason M

    2015-11-01

    We employ molecular dynamics simulations to study the wetting and evaporation of salt-water nanodroplets on platinum surfaces. Our results show that the contact angle of the droplets increases with the salt concentration. To verify this, a second simulation system of a thin salt-water film on a platinum surface is used to calculate the various surface tensions. We find that both the solid-liquid and liquid-vapor surface tensions increase with salt concentration and as a result these cause an increase in the contact angle. However, the evaporation rate of salt-water droplets decreases as the salt concentration increases, due to the hydration of salt ions. When the water molecules have all evaporated from the droplet, two forms of salt crystals are deposited, clump and ringlike, depending on the solid-liquid interaction strength and the evaporation rate. To form salt crystals in a ring, it is crucial that there is a pinned stage in the evaporation process, during which salt ions can move from the center to the rim of the droplets. With a stronger solid-liquid interaction strength, a slower evaporation rate, and a higher salt concentration, a complete salt crystal ring can be deposited on the surface.

  4. Effect of the salting-out agent anion nature on the phase separation of a potassium salt-potassium bis(alkyl polyoxyethylene)phosphate-water systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elokhov, A. M.; Lesnov, A. E.; Kudryashova, O. S.

    2016-10-01

    The effect the salting-out agent anion nature has on the temperature and concentration intervals of the existence of the separation area is established by analyzing the phase diagrams of pseudoternary KCl (KBr, KI, KNO3, K2SO4, K4P2O7)-potassium bis(alkyl polyoxyethylene)phosphate (oxyphos B)-water systems. It is concluded that the anionic salting-out capability is reduced in the order P2O 7 4- > SO 4 2- > Cl- > Br‒> NO 7 4- > SO 3 - > I-. The thermodynamic parameters of phase separation used to interpret the results are calculated. The observed pattern of a change in the salting-out ability of the investigated salts relative to aqueous solutions of the surfactants is in good agreement with the lyotropic (Hofmeister) series.

  5. Soil water content inverse profiling from single TDR waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greco, R.

    2006-02-01

    An inverse procedure for the estimation of soil water content profiles along TDR probes is presented. A TDR metallic probe is considered as a transmission line, for which relevant partial derivatives equations apply. The direct problem consists in the integration of transmission line equations, providing V( x, t) along the line. To this aim, the unit length parameters of the transmission line must be known. In particular, unit length capacitance C( x) and transverse conductance G( x) depend on water content distribution along the probe θ( x) through relative permittivity ɛr( x) and bulk soil electrical conductivity σ( x), respectively. The inverse procedure consists in finding the water content distribution, and the relevant unit length parameters, giving rise to the best fit between the numerically simulated voltage V(x¯,t) at the beginning of the line and the experimental voltage trace V(x¯,t) measured by a cable tester. In order to reduce the ill-posedness of the inverse problem, unknown water content profiles are expressed by means of a four parameters functional form. The search for the best fitting parameters vector is carried out with a genetic algorithm. The proposed inverse procedure is successfully applied to the determination of vertical water content profiles along a soil sample in the laboratory by means of a single three rods metallic TDR probe. Water content profiles estimated either in steady flow conditions, or during controlled infiltration-evaporation transients are compared with independent water content measurements carried out by means of horizontal TDR probes at various depths, showing in all cases good agreement.

  6. Water content of hydrated polymer brushes measured by an in situ combination of a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring and spectroscopic ellipsometry.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Jagoba J Iturri; Moya, Sergio E

    2011-12-15

    Poly(methacryloyloxy ethyltrimethylammonium chloride) (PMETAC), poly(sulfopropylmethacrylate potassium salt), or poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) (PNIPAM) brushes are synthesized by means of the atom transfer radical polymerization technique from gold surfaces coated with a monolayer of the initiator ω-mercaptoundecyl bromo isobutyrate. The brush growth is followed in situ and in real time by the combination of quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation technique (QCM-D) and spectroscopic ellipsometry in a single device. The combination of QCM-D and ellipsometry allows for the simultaneous determination of both the acoustic mass, macous, comprising the mass of the polymer and the solvent, and the optical mass, mopt, which corresponds to the polymer mass alone. Brush hydration is calculated from the difference between the values obtained for macous and mopt for each polymer synthesized. Brush hydration is then used to quantify the percentage of water released in the brush during collapse; a 30-40% release of water for PMETAC and PSPM brushes in 1 M NaCl and 80% for PNIPAM brushes when the temperature is increased to values above the lower critical solution temperature is observed.

  7. Dielectric properties of low-water-content tissues.

    PubMed

    Smith, S R; Foster, K R

    1985-09-01

    The dielectric properties of two low-water-content tissues, bone marrow and adipose tissue, were measured from 1 kHz to 1 GHz. From 1 kHz to 13 MHz, the measurements were performed using a parallel-plate capacitor method. From 10 MHz to 1 GHz, a reflection coefficient technique using an open-ended coaxial transmission line was employed. The tissue water contents ranged from 1 to almost 70% by weight. The dielectric properties correlate well with the values predicted by mixture theory. Comparison with previous results from high-water-content tissues suggests that bone marrow and adipose tissues contain less motionally altered water per unit dry volume than do the previously studied tissues with lower lipid fractions. The high degree of structural heterogeneity of these tissues was reflected in the large scatter of the data, a source of uncertainty that should be considered in practical applications of the present data.

  8. A method for determining and exploring the distribution of organic matters and hardness salts in natural waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargsyan, Suren

    2016-12-01

    A question regarding how organic matters in water are associated with hardness salts hasn't been completely studied. For partially clarifying this question, a water fractional separation and investigation method has been recommended. The experiments carried out by the recommended method showed that the dynamics of the distribution of total hardness and permanganate oxidation values in the fractions of frozen and melted water samples coincided completely based on which it has been concluded that organic matters in natural waters are associated with hardness salts and always distributed in this form. All these findings are useful information for the deep study of macro- and microelements in water.

  9. Determination of total arsenic content in water by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) using vapour generation assembly (VGA).

    PubMed

    Behari, Jai Raj; Prakash, Rajiv

    2006-03-01

    Analysis of arsenic in water is important in view of contamination of ground water with arsenic in some parts of the world including West Bengal in India and neighboring country Bangladesh. WHO has fixed the threshold for arsenic in drinking water to 10ppb (microg/l) level, hence the methodology for determination of arsenic is required to be sensitive at ppb level. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry with vapour generation assembly (AAS-VGA) is well known technique for the trace analysis of arsenic. However, total arsenic analysis [As(III)+As(V)] is very crucial and it requires reduction of As(V) to As(III) for correct analysis. As(III) is reduced to AsH3 vapours and finally to free As atoms, which are responsible for absorption signal in AAS. To accomplish this the vapour generation assembly attached to AAS has acid channel filled with 10 M HCl and the reduction channel with sodium borohydride. Further sample can be reduced either before aspiration for analysis, using potassium iodide (KI) or the sample can be introduced in the instrument directly and KI can be added in the reduction channel along with the sodium borohydride. The present work shows that samples prepared in 3 M HCl can be reduced with KI for 30 min before introduction in the instrument. Alternatively samples can be prepared in 6 M HCl and directly aspirated in AAS using KI in VGA reduction channel. The latter methodology is more useful when the sample size is large and time cycle is difficult to maintain. It is observed that the acid concentration of the sample in both the situations plays an important role. Further reduction in acid concentration and analysis time is achieved for the arsenic analysis by using modified method. Analysis in both the methods is sensitive at ppb level.

  10. Water content or water activity: what rules crispy behavior in bread crust?

    PubMed

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, N H; Primo-Martín, C; Meinders, M B J; Tromp, R H; Hamer, R J; van Vliet, T

    2008-08-13

    A dry crust loses its crispness when water migrates into the crust. It is not clear if it is the amount of water absorbed or the water activity ( a w) that leads to a loss of crispness. The hysteresis effect observed when recording a water sorption isotherm allowed us to study the effects of a w and moisture content separately. All experiments were carried out on model bread crusts made from Soissons bread flour. The effect of water content and water activity on the glass transition of model bread crusts was studied in detail using two complimentary techniques: phase transition analysis (PTA) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The results were compared with sensory data and results from a puncture test, which provided data on acoustic emission and fracture mechanics during breaking of the crusts. The water content of the crust was found to be decisive for the transition point as measured by PTA and NMR. However, both water content and water activity had an effect on perceived crispness and number of force and sound peaks. From this may be concluded that the distribution of the water in the samples with a history of high water content is more inhomogeneous, which results in crispy and less crispy regions, thus making them overall more crispy than samples with the same water content but higher a w.

  11. Salt hydrates for in situ water activity control have acid-base effects on enzymes in nonaqueous media.

    PubMed

    Fontes, Nuno; Harper, Neil; Halling, Peter J; Barreiros, Susana

    2003-06-30

    Salt hydrates very frequently are utilized as in situ water activity buffers in reaction mixtures of enzymes in nonaqueous media. In addition to buffering water activity, there is evidence that salt hydrates also often affect initial rates in other ways. This has been generally overlooked or thought to be related to water transfer effects. Here we show that salt hydrates can have important acid-base effects on enzymes in nonaqueous media. We performed transesterification reactions in n-hexane and in supercritical ethane catalyzed by cross-linked crystals of subtilisin, differing in the method used to set a(W), and confirmed that the presence of salt hydrate pairs significantly affected the catalytic performance of the enzyme. However, in the presence of a solid-state acid-base buffer, salt hydrates had no effect on enzymatic activity. Direct evidence for the acid-base effects of salt hydrates was obtained by testing their effect on the protonation state of an organo-soluble H(+)/Na(+) indicator. The four salt hydrate pairs tested affected the indicator to very different extents. By promoting the exchange of H(+) for Na(+), salt hydrates will tend to affect the ionization state of acidic residues in the protein and, hence, enzymatic activity. In fact, salt hydrates were able to affect the pH memory of subtilisin lyophilized from different aqueous pHs, bringing about up to 20-fold enhancements and up to 5-fold decreases in catalytic activity. The possibility of such acid-base effects need to be considered in all experiments using salt hydrates to control water activity.

  12. Dependence of seismoelectric amplitudes on water content - a field study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strahser, M. H. P.; Matthey, P.-D.; Jouniaux, L.; Sailhac, P.

    2009-04-01

    In porous saturated media, seismic compressional waves can cause seismoelectric and seismoelectromagnetic signals through electrokinetic coupling. It has been observed that these measureable signals also occur in partially saturated media, but the theory is largely unknown for these circumstances. Seismoelectromagnetic tomography is expected to combine the sensitivity of electrical properties to water-content and permeability, to the high spatial resolution of seismic surveys. A better understanding of the physical processes and a reliable quantification of the conversion between seismic and electric energy are necessary and need to take into account the effect of water-content, especially for shallow subsurface investigations. In order to quantify seismoelectric signals with changing water content, we repeated seismoelectric and seismic measurements on the same profile in the Vosges Mountains during several months. The electrical resistivity was also monitored to take into account the water-content variations. We show that an exponential relation can be established between the seismoelectric amplitudes normalized with the seismic amplitudes and the resistivity which in turn is related to the saturation: Increasing resistivity (decreasing water content) leads to decreasing normalized seismoelectric amplitudes. These results imply that the electrokinetic coefficient should increase with water-saturation, as measured in laboratory, but not predicted by theory. This work was funded by CNRS and Université Louis Pasteur de Strasbourg.

  13. Renal Effects and Underlying Molecular Mechanisms of Long-Term Salt Content Diets in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Rebeca Caldeira Machado; Vassallo, Paula Frizera; Crajoinas, Renato de Oliveira; Oliveira, Marilene Luzia; Martins, Flávia Letícia; Nogueira, Breno Valentim; Motta-Santos, Daisy; Araújo, Isabella Binotti; Forechi, Ludimila; Girardi, Adriana Castello Costa; Santos, Robson Augusto Souza; Mill, José Geraldo

    2015-01-01

    Several evidences have shown that salt excess is an important determinant of cardiovascular and renal derangement in hypertension. The present study aimed to investigate the renal effects of chronic high or low salt intake in the context of hypertension and to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying such effects. To this end, newly weaned male SHR were fed with diets only differing in NaCl content: normal salt (NS: 0.3%), low salt (LS: 0.03%), and high salt diet (HS: 3%) until 7 months of age. Analysis of renal function, morphology, and evaluation of the expression of the main molecular components involved in the renal handling of albumin, including podocyte slit-diaphragm proteins and proximal tubule endocytic receptors were performed. The relationship between diets and the balance of the renal angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and ACE2 enzymes was also examined. HS produced glomerular hypertrophy and decreased ACE2 and nephrin expressions, loss of morphological integrity of the podocyte processes, and increased proteinuria, characterized by loss of albumin and high molecular weight proteins. Conversely, severe hypertension was attenuated and renal dysfunction was prevented by LS since proteinuria was much lower than in the NS SHRs. This was associated with a decrease in kidney ACE/ACE2 protein and activity ratio and increased cubilin renal expression. Taken together, these results suggest that LS attenuates hypertension progression in SHRs and preserves renal function. The mechanisms partially explaining these findings include modulation of the intrarenal ACE/ACE2 balance and the increased cubilin expression. Importantly, HS worsens hypertensive kidney injury and decreases the expression nephrin, a key component of the slit diaphragm. PMID:26495970

  14. States of Salt Water in Polyampholyte Hydrogel Networks at Ice Forming Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Hyun-Joong; Li, Xinda; Elliott, Janet A. W.

    The behavior of water in polymers, including ice formation, is of increasing interest. For example, one can achieve improved longevity of water-borne polymeric coatings and aqueous electrolytes that operate at low temperature by understanding the polymer-water interaction. Water molecules that are bound to hydrophilic polymer backbones are known to be non-freezable at extremely low temperatures such as -100°C, whereas non-bound water is still freezable at higher temperatures. Polyampholyte, which contains both cationic and anionic groups in its backbone, is an interesting class of anti-fouling coating material with a hygroscopic nature and self-healing ability. In real operational condition, for example in maritime petroleum production in the arctic climate, multiple species of salt ions can complicate the ice formation, but their effect has not been exhaustively studied. Using a random copolymer of sodium p-styrenesulphonate (NaSS) and 3-(methacryloylamino)propyl-trimethylammonium chloride as a model system to study the phase behavior of NaCl salt in the hydrogel, this work presents (i) intriguing mechanical and electrical properties of polyelectrolytes at low temperature (<-20°C), (ii) differential scanning calorimetry studies on the effects of salt concentration, polymer chain density, degree of polymerization, and (iii) effect of dialysis on microstructure and phase water behavior in the polyampholyte hydrogel.

  15. Electrodialysis-based separation process for salt recovery and recycling from waste water

    DOEpatents

    Tsai, S.P.

    1997-07-08

    A method for recovering salt from a process stream containing organic contaminants is provided, comprising directing the waste stream to a desalting electrodialysis unit so as to create a concentrated and purified salt permeate and an organic contaminants-containing stream, and contacting said concentrated salt permeate to a water-splitting electrodialysis unit so as to convert the salt to its corresponding base and acid. 6 figs.

  16. Electrodialysis-based separation process for salt recovery and recycling from waste water

    DOEpatents

    Tsai, Shih-Perng

    1997-01-01

    A method for recovering salt from a process stream containing organic contaminants is provided, comprising directing the waste stream to a desalting electrodialysis unit so as to create a concentrated and purified salt permeate and an organic contaminants containing stream, and contacting said concentrated salt permeate to a water-splitting electrodialysis unit so as to convert the salt to its corresponding base and acid.

  17. [Near infrared spectroscopy study on water content in turbine oil].

    PubMed

    Chen, Bin; Liu, Ge; Zhang, Xian-Ming

    2013-11-01

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy combined with successive projections algorithm (SPA) was investigated for determination of water content in turbine oil. Through the 57 samples of different water content in turbine oil scanned applying near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, with the water content in the turbine oil of 0-0.156%, different pretreatment methods such as the original spectra, first derivative spectra and differential polynomial least squares fitting algorithm Savitzky-Golay (SG), and successive projections algorithm (SPA) were applied for the extraction of effective wavelengths, the correlation coefficient (R) and root mean square error (RMSE) were used as the model evaluation indices, accordingly water content in turbine oil was investigated. The results indicated that the original spectra with different water content in turbine oil were pretreated by the performance of first derivative + SG pretreatments, then the selected effective wavelengths were used as the inputs of least square support vector machine (LS-SVM). A total of 16 variables selected by SPA were employed to construct the model of SPA and least square support vector machine (SPA-LS-SVM). There is 9 as The correlation coefficient was 0.975 9 and the root of mean square error of validation set was 2.655 8 x 10(-3) using the model, and it is feasible to determine the water content in oil using near infrared spectroscopy and SPA-LS-SVM, and an excellent prediction precision was obtained. This study supplied a new and alternative approach to the further application of near infrared spectroscopy in on-line monitoring of contamination such as water content in oil.

  18. The influence of membrane electrode assembly water content on the performance of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell as investigated by 1H NMR microscopy.

    PubMed

    Feindel, Kirk W; Bergens, Steven H; Wasylishen, Roderick E

    2007-04-21

    The relation between the performance of a self-humidifying H(2)/O(2) polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell and the amount and distribution of water as observed using (1)H NMR microscopy was investigated. The integrated (1)H NMR image signal intensity (proportional to water content) from the region of the polymer electrolyte membrane between the catalyst layers was found to correlate well with the power output of the fuel cell. Several examples are provided which demonstrate the sensitivity of the (1)H NMR image intensity to the operating conditions of the fuel cell. Changes in the O(2)(g) flow rate cause predictable trends in both the power density and the image intensity. Higher power densities, achieved by decreasing the resistance of the external circuit, were found to increase the water in the PEM. An observed plateau of both the power density and the integrated (1)H NMR image signal intensity from the membrane electrode assembly and subsequent decline of the power density is postulated to result from the accumulation of H(2)O(l) in the gas diffusion layer and cathode flow field. The potential of using (1)H NMR microscopy to obtain the absolute water content of the polymer electrolyte membrane is discussed and several recommendations for future research are provided.

  19. Influence of Water Content on the Mechanical Behaviour of Limestone: Role of the Clay Minerals Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherblanc, F.; Berthonneau, J.; Bromblet, P.; Huon, V.

    2016-06-01

    The mechanical characteristics of various sedimentary stones significantly depend on the water content, where 70 % loss of their mechanical strengths can be observed when saturated by water. Furthermore, the clay fraction has been shown to be a key factor of their hydro-mechanical behaviour since it governs for instance the hydric dilation. This work aims at investigating the correlations between the clay mineral content and the mechanical weakening experienced by limestones when interacting with water. The experimental characterization focuses on five different limestones that exhibit very different micro-structures. For each of them, we present the determination of clay mineral composition, the sorption isotherm curve and the dependences of tensile and compressive strengths on the water content. It emerges from these results that, first, the sorption behaviour is mainly governed by the amount of smectite layers which exhibit the larger specific area and, second, the rate of mechanical strength loss depends linearly on the sorption capacity. Indeed, the clay fraction plays the role of a retardation factor that delays the appearance of capillary bridges as well as the mechanical weakening of stones. However, no correlation was evidenced between the clay content and the amplitude of weakening. Since the mechanisms whereby the strength decreases with water content are not clearly established, these results would help to discriminate between various hypothesis proposed in the literature.

  20. Infrared spectroscopy of aqueous ionic salt mixtures at low concentrations: Ion pairing in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Max, Jean-Joseph; Chapados, Camille

    2007-09-01

    The analysis by infrared spectroscopy of aqueous mixtures of NaI and CsCl was made in order to obtain information at the molecular level of the mixing of these two salts taken as model systems of strong electrolytes in water. In previous papers [J.-J. Max and C. Chapados, J. Chem. Phys. 115, 2664 (2001) and J.-J. Max et al., ibid. 126, 184507 (2007)] it was reported that a pure salt in water forms pairs of monoions to which are attached a fixed number of water molecules, giving solvated water species. Due to their interaction with the ion pairs, the solvated water molecules are strongly perturbed, modifying the IR water spectrum being monitored. After taking the IR spectrum of pure water, a small volume of NaI 2M was added and the IR spectrum taken. Then a small volume of CsCl 2M was added and a new IR spectrum taken. This procedure was repeated to obtain a series of 38 spectra in the 0.05M-0.83M concentration range. Factor analysis made on the series revealed the presence of three types of water: pure water and two salt solvated waters. The number of solvated water molecules on the two salts taken together is ten. Since NaI and CsCl have, respectively, 3.5 and 3.0 solvated water molecules, it was concluded that a reaction occurred in the solutions forming NaCl and CsI that have, respectively, five water molecules each for a total of ten. The analysis of the spectra of the orthogonal factors supports this attribution. These results provide additional proof of ion pairing in water. Furthermore, comparing the band displacements and intensity variations observed on the solvated water species to that of pure water indicates that the dielectric milieu surrounding the ion pairs is not constant. These results do not support the classical view of Debye-Hückel that considers that the ions are independent and the dielectric milieu constant. The present results give some in situ information on the reaction that goes on in "simple" electrolyte systems whose reactivity and

  1. Infrared spectroscopy of aqueous ionic salt mixtures at low concentrations: ion pairing in water.

    PubMed

    Max, Jean-Joseph; Chapados, Camille

    2007-09-21

    The analysis by infrared spectroscopy of aqueous mixtures of NaI and CsCl was made in order to obtain information at the molecular level of the mixing of these two salts taken as model systems of strong electrolytes in water. In previous papers [J.-J. Max and C. Chapados, J. Chem. Phys. 115, 2664 (2001) and J.-J. Max et al., ibid. 126, 184507 (2007)] it was reported that a pure salt in water forms pairs of monoions to which are attached a fixed number of water molecules, giving solvated water species. Due to their interaction with the ion pairs, the solvated water molecules are strongly perturbed, modifying the IR water spectrum being monitored. After taking the IR spectrum of pure water, a small volume of NaI 2M was added and the IR spectrum taken. Then a small volume of CsCl 2M was added and a new IR spectrum taken. This procedure was repeated to obtain a series of 38 spectra in the 0.05M-0.83M concentration range. Factor analysis made on the series revealed the presence of three types of water: pure water and two salt solvated waters. The number of solvated water molecules on the two salts taken together is ten. Since NaI and CsCl have, respectively, 3.5 and 3.0 solvated water molecules, it was concluded that a reaction occurred in the solutions forming NaCl and CsI that have, respectively, five water molecules each for a total of ten. The analysis of the spectra of the orthogonal factors supports this attribution. These results provide additional proof of ion pairing in water. Furthermore, comparing the band displacements and intensity variations observed on the solvated water species to that of pure water indicates that the dielectric milieu surrounding the ion pairs is not constant. These results do not support the classical view of Debye-Huckel that considers that the ions are independent and the dielectric milieu constant. The present results give some in situ information on the reaction that goes on in "simple" electrolyte systems whose reactivity and

  2. Intake of dietary salt and drinking water: Implications for the development of age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Hollborn, Margrit; Kohen, Leon; Wiedemann, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Systemic hypertension is a risk factor of age-related retinal diseases such as diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration. High intake of dietary salt and low intake of water increase extracellular osmolality resulting in hypertension, in particular in salt-sensitive individuals. This review summarizes the present knowledge regarding the impact of salt and water intake on the regulation of blood pressure, retinal function, and the development of age-related retinal diseases. Methods A literature search of the Medline database and a summary of recent studies that used human RPE cells. Results The salt sensitivity of the blood pressure and plasma osmolality increase with age, and body water deficits are common in older individuals. High plasma osmolality has adverse effects in the retina. In RPE cells, high osmolality induces expression and secretion of angiogenic factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), placental growth factor, and basic fibroblast growth factor, and expression of aquaporin-5, a water channel implicated in transepithelial water transport. The transcriptional activities of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) and nuclear factor of activated T cell 5 (NFAT5) are critical for the production of VEGF in response to salt-induced osmotic stress. Salt-induced osmotic stress also induces priming of the NLRP3 inflammasome and activates inflammatory enzymes in RPE cells. Conclusions Raised plasma osmolality may aggravate age-related retinal diseases by stimulation of local inflammation and angiogenic factor production in the RPE. Alterations in salt and water consumption, and of minerals that stimulate renal salt excretion, may offer nutritional approaches to prevent age-related retinal disorders, in particular in salt-sensitive individuals and individuals who show signs of body dehydration. PMID:28031693

  3. Guanidinium-Induced Denaturation by Breaking of Salt Bridges.

    PubMed

    Meuzelaar, Heleen; Panman, Matthijs R; Woutersen, Sander

    2015-12-07

    Despite its wide use as a denaturant, the mechanism by which guanidinium (Gdm(+) ) induces protein unfolding remains largely unclear. Herein, we show evidence that Gdm(+) can induce denaturation by disrupting salt bridges that stabilize the folded conformation. We study the Gdm(+) -induced denaturation of a series of peptides containing Arg/Glu and Lys/Glu salt bridges that either stabilize or destabilize the folded conformation. The peptides containing stabilizing salt bridges are found to be denatured much more efficiently by Gdm(+) than the peptides containing destabilizing salt bridges. Complementary 2D-infrared measurements suggest a denaturation mechanism in which Gdm(+) binds to side-chain carboxylate groups involved in salt bridges.

  4. Determination of sulfonamides in swine muscle after salting-out assisted liquid extraction with acetonitrile coupled with back-extraction by a water/acetonitrile/dichloromethane ternary component system prior to high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Wen-Hsien; Huang, Tzou-Chi; Chen, Ho-Hsien; Wu, Yuh-Wern; Huang, Joh-Jong; Chuang, Hung-Yi

    2010-01-15

    A salting-out assisted liquid extraction coupled with back-extraction by a water/acetonitrile/dichloromethane ternary component system combined with high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection (HPLC-DAD) was developed for the extraction and determination of sulfonamides in solid tissue samples. After the homogenization of the swine muscle with acetonitrile and salt-promoted partitioning, an aliquot of 1 mL of the acetonitrile extract containing a small amount of dichloromethane (250-400 microL) was alkalinized with diethylamine. The clear organic extract obtained by centrifugation was used as a donor phase and then a small amount of water (40-55 microL) could be used as an acceptor phase to back-extract the analytes in the water/acetonitrile/dichloromethane ternary component system. In the back-extraction procedure, after mixing and centrifuging, the sedimented phase would be water and could be withdrawn easily into a microsyringe and directly injected into the HPLC system. Under the optimal conditions, recoveries were determined for swine muscle fortified at 10 ng/g and quantification was achieved by matrix-matched calibration. The calibration curves of five sulfonamides showed linearity with the coefficient of estimation above 0.998. Relative recoveries for the analytes were all from 96.5 to 109.2% with relative standard deviation of 2.7-4.0%. Preconcentration factors ranged from 16.8 to 30.6 for 1 mL of the acetonitrile extract. Limits of detection ranged from 0.2 to 1.0 ng/g.

  5. Catalytic conversion of dihydroxyacetone to lactic acid using metal salts in water.

    PubMed

    Rasrendra, Carolus B; Fachri, Boy A; Makertihartha, I Gusti B N; Adisasmito, Sanggono; Heeres, Hero J

    2011-06-20

    We herein present a study on the application of homogeneous catalysts in the form of metal salts on the conversion of trioses, such as dihydroxyacetone (DHA), and glyceraldehyde (GLY) to lactic acid (LA) in water. A wide range of metal salts (26 in total) were examined. Al(III) salts were identified as the most promising and essentially quantitative LA yields (>90 mol%) were obtained at 140 °C and a reaction time of 90 min. A reaction pathway is proposed and a kinetic model using the power law approach was developed for the conversion of DHA to LA with pyruvaldehyde (PRV) as the intermediate. Good agreement between experimental data and the model was obtained. Model predictions, supported by experiments, indicate that a high yield of LA is favoured in dilute solutions of DHA (0.1 M) at elevated temperatures (180 °C) and reaction times less than 10 min.

  6. Simultaneous measurement of unfrozen water content and ice content in frozen soil using gamma ray attenuation and TDR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiaohai; Zhou, Jian; Kinzelbach, Wolfgang; Stauffer, Fritz

    2014-12-01

    The freezing temperature of water in soil is not constant but varies over a range determined by soil texture. Consequently, the amounts of unfrozen water and ice change with temperature in frozen soil, which in turn affects hydraulic, thermal, and mechanical properties of frozen soil. In this paper, an Am-241 gamma ray source and time-domain reflectometry (TDR) were combined to measure unfrozen water content and ice content in frozen soil simultaneously. The gamma ray attenuation was used to determine total water content. The TDR was used to determine the dielectric constant of the frozen soil. Based on a four-phase mixing model, the amount of unfrozen water content in the frozen soil could be determined. The ice content was inferred by the difference between total water content and unfrozen water content. The gamma ray attenuation and the TDR were both calibrated by a gravimetric method. Water contents measured by gamma ray attenuation and TDR in an unfrozen silt column under infiltration were compared and showed that the two methods have the same accuracy and response to changes of water content. Unidirectional column freezing experiments were performed to apply the combined method of gamma ray attenuation and TDR for measuring unfrozen water content and ice content. The measurement error of the gamma ray attenuation and TDR was around 0.02 and 0.01 m3/m3, respectively. The overestimation of unfrozen water in frozen soil by TDR alone was quantified and found to depend on the amount of ice content. The higher the ice content, the larger the overestimation. The study confirmed that the combined method could accurately determine unfrozen water content and ice content in frozen soil. The results of soil column freezing experiments indicate that total water content distribution is affected by available pore space and the freezing front advance rate. It was found that there is similarity between the soil water characteristic and the soil freezing characteristic of

  7. Influences of Salinity Variations on Pore-water Flow in Salt Marshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, C.; Jin, G.; Xin, P.; Li, L.

    2013-12-01

    Salt marshes are important wetlands at the ocean-land interface with various ecological functions, serving as essential habitats for intertidal fauna, affecting the productivity of coastal waters through nutrient exchange, moderating the greenhouse gas emission and global warming. They are influenced by various physical and biogeochemical processes, among which the pore-water flow and associated solute transport processes play an important role in determining the material exchange between marsh soils and coastal water. Previous studies have examined such processes under the solo or combined effects of tidal fluctuation, evapotranspiration, stratigraphy, inland freshwater input, and topography. However, these investigations have neglected the spatial and temporal salinity variations in surface water and pore-water, which commonly exist in salt marshes due to the impacts of tidal inundation, precipitation and evapotranspiration. The density contrast between the surface water and pore-water may lead to significant modifications of the pore-water flow. Based on results from laboratory experiments and numerical simulations, we will demonstrate that: (1) under upward salinity gradients, flow instabilities in the form of fingers occur once the salinity contrast reaches a certain level, whereas under downward salinity gradients the system is stable; (2) because of the strong tidally-induced advective process occurring near the creek, both the number and size of fingers change gradually from the near-creek zone to the marsh interior; and (3) both upward and downward salinity gradients enhance the exchange between the surface water and pore-water in the marsh sediments. Keywords: Salt marshes; density effect; salinity gradient; pore-water flow; fingers. Instabilities under upward salinity gradient Stable system under downward salinity gradient

  8. Occupational asthma induced by chromium salts.

    PubMed

    Olaguibel, J M; Basomba, A

    1989-01-01

    Five patients with asthma related to exposure to chromium salts, in their work area, are presented. All of them were non atopics and presented a history of contact dermatitis, with positive patch tests to potassium dichromate, previous to the onset of bronchial asthma. Solutions of K2Cr2O5 were prepared in normal saline at 0.01, 0.1 and 1 mg/ml for skin prick tests (SPT) and bronchial provocation tests (BPT). Immediate cutaneous reaction by SPT was negative for controls and patients. BPT were performed by the tidal breathing method, with positive results in all subjects. A negative response was recorded in 4 control unexposed asthmatics. An attempt to inhibit BPT with sodium cromoglycate was unsuccessful. The diversity of reactions (immediate, dual and late) registered in BPT, support that bronchial reactivity can be induced specifically by inhalation of chromium salts. The data of follow-up indicates a good prognosis, provided that patients remain out of exposure. The lack of facts suggesting an IgE-mediated reaction puts forward for consideration other pathophysiologic mechanisms.

  9. [Ethical aspects of the fluoridation of water, salt, and milk].

    PubMed

    Rippe, K P

    2009-05-01

    The article discusses two ethical aspects of the fluoridation of water, salt, and milk. First, it considers whether fluoridation contradicts the right of self-determination. Second, it discusses the chances and risks of fluoridation. The answer to the first question depends on whether people can choose other options. Freedom of choice is not simply the right to choose between different options. It is a right which defends the moral integrity of persons. Nobody should be coerced to eat or drink something which he or she rejects morally. In the political sphere, personal rights of persons can be restricted if and only if it is necessary, if there is a public interest, and if the restriction of the right is reasonable. Regarding fluoridation, even in the best risk-chance scenario, some persons have to expect a net harm. Therefore, the reasoning in favor of fluoridation has to have a specific purpose. The proclaimed reasoning is that fluoridation will benefit the worst off and is therefore a demand of justice. But this argument fails as there are other options to benefit the worst off. Even in the best risk-chance scenario, only one option is morally permissible: the fluoridation of salt, which respects the freedom of choice.

  10. Effect of varying the salt and fat content in Cheddar cheese on aspects of the performance of a commercial starter culture preparation during ripening.

    PubMed

    Yanachkina, Palina; McCarthy, Catherine; Guinee, Tim; Wilkinson, Martin

    2016-05-02

    Production of healthier reduced-fat and reduced-salt cheeses requires careful selection of starter bacteria, as any substantial alterations to cheese composition may prompt changes in the overall performance of starters during cheese ripening. Therefore, it is important to assess the effect of compositional alterations on the individual strain response during cheese ripening for each optimised cheese matrix. In the current study, the effect of varying fat and salt levels in Cheddar cheese on the performance of a commercial Lactococcus lactis culture preparation, containing one L. lactis subsp. lactis strain and one L. lactis subsp. cremoris strain was investigated. Compositional variations in fat or salt levels did not affect overall starter viability, yet reduction of fat by 50% significantly delayed non-starter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB) populations at the initial ripening period. In comparison to starter viability, starter autolysis, as measured by release of intracellular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) or post-proline dipeptidyl aminopeptidase (Pep X) into cheese juices, decreased significantly with lower salt addition levels in full-fat Cheddar. Conversely, reducing fat content of cheese resulted in a significantly higher release of intracellular Pep X, and to a lesser extent intracellular LDH, into juices over ripening. Flow cytometry (FCM) indicated that the permeabilised and dead cell sub-populations were generally lower in juices from cheeses with reduced salt content, however no significant differences were observed between different salt and fat treatments. Interestingly, fat reductions by 30 and 50% in cheeses with reduced or half added salt contents appeared to balance out the effect of salt, and enhanced cell permeabilisation, cell death, and also cell autolysis in these variants. Overall, this study has highlighted that alterations in both salt and fat levels in cheese influence certain aspects of starter performance during ripening, including

  11. Physiological and molecular characterization of the enhanced salt tolerance induced by low-dose gamma irradiation in Arabidopsis seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, Wencai; Zhang, Liang; Xu, Hangbo; Wang, Lin; Jiao, Zhen

    2014-07-25

    Highlights: • 50-Gy gamma irradiation markedly promotes the seedling growth under salt stress in Arabidopsis. • The contents of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and MDA are obviously reduced by low-dose gamma irradiation under salt stress. • Low-dose gamma irradiation stimulates the activities of antioxidant enzymes under salt stress. • Proline accumulation is required for the low-gamma-ray-induced salt tolerance. • Low gamma rays differentially regulate the expression of genes related to salt stress. - Abstract: It has been established that gamma rays at low doses stimulate the tolerance to salt stress in plants. However, our knowledge regarding the molecular mechanism underlying the enhanced salt tolerance remains limited. In this study, we found that 50-Gy gamma irradiation presented maximal beneficial effects on germination index and root length in response to salt stress in Arabidopsis seedlings. The contents of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and MDA in irradiated seedlings under salt stress were significantly lower than those of controls. The activities of antioxidant enzymes and proline levels in the irradiated seedlings were markedly increased compared with the controls. Furthermore, transcriptional expression analysis of selected genes revealed that some components of salt stress signaling pathways were stimulated by low-dose gamma irradiation under salt stress. Our results suggest that gamma irradiation at low doses alleviates the salt stress probably by modulating the physiological responses as well as stimulating the stress signal transduction in Arabidopsis seedlings.

  12. Effects of subfornical organ extracts on salt-water balance in the rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summy-Long, J. Y.; Crawford, I. L.; Severs, W. B.

    1976-01-01

    The subfornical organ (SFO) is a circumventricular structure located at the junction of the lamina terminalis and the tela choroidea of the third cerebral ventricle. SFO is histologically regarded as a neurosecretory structure, although the physiological effects or biochemical nature of such secretions are not yet ascertained. Results are presented for an experimental study designed to determine whether SFO extracts alter parameters associated with salt-water balance in the rat. The data obtained support the conclusion that SFO contains some water-soluble substance(s), easily released by incubation, dialyzable and heat stable, which influences the salt-water balance after injection into ventricular cerebrospinal fluid. Whether other brain tissues or plasma contains the same or similar material is not yet convincingly established. The observation that one or more active constituents are easily released from SFO upon incubation in potassium-enriched medium may be of value.

  13. Impact of removing iodised salt on children's goitre status in areas with excessive iodine in drinking-water.

    PubMed

    Lv, Shengmin; Xu, Dong; Wang, Yuchun; Jun, Zhao; Jia, Lihui; Du, Yonggui

    2015-01-14

    The impact of removing iodised salt on children's goitre status in a high-iodine area (HIA) remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to explore the changes in the prevalence of goitre in children after removing iodised salt from their diet. For this purpose, three towns with the median water iodine content of 150-300 μg/l were selected randomly in Hengshui City, Hebei Province, China. A total of 452 and 459 children were randomly selected from the three towns in order to measure thyroid volume by ultrasound before and after removing iodised salt, respectively. Their goitre status was judged using the criteria of age-specific thyroid volume recommended by the WHO. After removing iodised salt, the overall median urinary iodine content (MUIC) of children decreased from 518 (interquartile range (IQR) 347-735) to 416 (IQR 274-609) μg/l. The MUIC of children across sex and age group decreased significantly except for the age group of 9 years. The overall prevalence of goitre in the three towns significantly decreased from 24·56% (n 111/452) to 5·88% (n 27/459) (P< 0·001). Goitre prevalence in children aged 8-10 years decreased from 33·70% (n 31/92), 23·32% (n 45/193) and 20·96% (n 35/167) to 6·10% (n 10/164), 5·52% (n 9/163) and 6·06% (n 8/132), respectively. Goitre prevalence in boys and girls decreased from 27·05% (n 66/244) and 21·63% (n 45/208) to 6·66% (n 15/226) and 5·15% (n 12/233), respectively. The decreases in the prevalence of goitre in children across sex and age group were all statistically significant. The present study revealed that goitre prevalence in children decreased significantly after removing iodised salt from their diet for about 1·5 years in the HIA in Hebei Province.

  14. [Determination of tracer gas contents in sediment pore water of gas hydrate area by two-dimensional gas chromatography].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hu; Yang, Qunhui; Ji, Fuwu; Zhou, Huaiyang; Xue, Xiang

    2011-01-01

    A two-dimensional gas chromatographic instrument was established by the capillary flow technology (Deans Switch) and two columns (PoraPLOT Q and Molsieve 5A) and three detectors (pulsed discharge helium ionization detector, flame photometric detector and thermal conductivity detector). The instrument can be used to measure tracer gases simultaneously including hydrogen, methane, carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide. The detection limits of the hydrogen, methane, carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide were 0.51, 0.17, 82 and 0.08 micromol/mol, and the calibration curves presented good linear relationships in the range of 2-1030, 0.6-501, 120-10500 and 0.2- 49.1 micromol/mol, respectively. The relative standard deviations were less than 10% for the measurements of ten standard gases. By this method, the tracer gases in the sediment pore water of gas hydrate area in South China Sea had been detected. This method is simple, sensitive, and suitable for on-board detection. Compared with the usual methods for measuring tracer gases, the amount of a sample necessary is reduced greatly. It is useful for the survey of gas hydrate and hydrothermal resources below sea floor and for the research of dissolved gases in the ocean.

  15. Kinematics and dynamics of salt tectonics driven by progradation

    SciTech Connect

    Ge, Hongxing; Jackson, M.P.A.; Vendeville, B.C.

    1997-03-01

    Scaled physical models illustrate the importance of progradation as a trigger for salt tectonics and formation of allochthonous sheets. Regional extension and contraction were excluded in the models. In our experiments, prograding wedges above a tabular, buoyant salt layer with a flat base expelled the salt basinward, forming the following structures proximally to distally: (1) sigmoidally distorted initially planar wedges, (2) relict salt pillows and salt welds, (3) basinward-dipping expulsion rollover and crestal graben, (4) rollover syncline, (5) landward-facing salt-cored monocline, and (6) distal inflated salt layer. This deformation zone amplified and advanced basinward during progradation; however, no diapiric salt structures formed. Over a buoyant salt layer whose basement had steps facing landward, progradation initially formed a broad anticline where salt flow was restricted across each basement step. Distal aggradation pinned the anticline and enhanced differential loading. The anticline actively pierced its crest, which had been thinned by faulting and erosion. Thereafter, the diapir grew passively, locally sourcing allochthonous salt sheets. This deformation cycle repeated over each basement step so that the age, amplitude, complexity, and maturity of salt-related structures decreased basinward. As each allochthonous salt sheet was buried and evacuated by sediment loading, arcuate peripheral normal faults formed along the sheet`s trailing edge, detached wrench faults formed along its lateral edges, and active piercement at its leading edge allowed the sheet to break out and climb stratigraphic levels. This process formed a multitiered complex of salt sheets that migrated basin-ward with time. Restorations of examples from various salt tectonic provinces support our model results.

  16. Design of phosphonium-type zwitterion as an additive to improve saturated water content of phase-separated ionic liquid from aqueous phase toward reversible extraction of proteins.

    PubMed

    Ito, Yoritsugu; Kohno, Yuki; Nakamura, Nobuhumi; Ohno, Hiroyuki

    2013-09-05

    We designed phosphonium-type zwitterion (ZI) to control the saturated water content of separated ionic liquid (IL) phase in the hydrophobic IL/water biphasic systems. The saturated water content of separated IL phase, 1-butyl-3-methyimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, was considerably improved from 0.4 wt% to 62.8 wt% by adding N,N,N-tripentyl-4-sulfonyl-1-butanephosphonium-type ZI (P555C4S). In addition, the maximum water content decreased from 62.8 wt% to 34.1 wt% by increasing KH2PO4/K2HPO4 salt content in upper aqueous phosphate buffer phase. Horse heart cytochrome c (cyt.c) was dissolved selectively in IL phase by improving the water content of IL phase, and spectroscopic analysis revealed that the dissolved cyt.c retained its higher ordered structure. Furthermore, cyt. c dissolved in IL phase was re-extracted again from IL phase to aqueous phase by increasing the concentration of inorganic salts of the buffer solution.

  17. The deuterium content of water in some volcanic glasses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, I.; Smith, R.L.

    1958-01-01

    The deuterium-hydrogen composition (relative to Lake Michigan water = 0.0) of water extractsd from coexisting perlite and obsidian from eleven different localities was determined. The water content of the obsidians is generally from 0.09 to 0.29 per cent by weight, though two samples from near Olancha, California, contain about 0.92 per cent. The relative deuterium concentration is from -4.6 to -12.3 per cent. The coexisting perlite contains from 2.0 to 3.8 per cent of water with a relative deuterium concentration of -3.1 to -16.6 per cent. The deuterium concentration in the perlites is not related to that in the enclosed obsidian. The deuterium concentration in the perlite water is related to the deuterium concentration of the modern meteoric water and the perlite water contains approximately 4 per cent less deuterium than does the groundwater of the area in which the perlites occur. The above relations hold true for perlites from northern New Mexico, east slope of the Sierra Nevada. California Coast Range, Yellowstone Park, Wyoming, and New Zealand. As the water in the obsidian is unrelated to meteoric water, but the enclosing perlite water is related, we believe that this is evidence for the secondary hydration of obsidian to form high water content perlitic glass. ?? 1958.

  18. The mechanism of sulforaphene degradation to different water contents.

    PubMed

    Tian, Guifang; Li, Yuan; Cheng, Li; Yuan, Qipeng; Tang, Pingwah; Kuang, Pengqun; Hu, Jing

    2016-03-01

    Sulforaphene extracted from radish seeds was strongly associated with cancer prevention. However, sulforaphene was unstable in aqueous medium and at high temperature. This instability impairs many useful applications of sulforaphene. In this paper, the stability of sulforaphene (purity above 95%) during storage at -20°C, 4°C and 26°C was studied. The degradation product was purified by preparative HPLC and identified by ESI/MS, NMR ((1)H and (13)C NMR) and FTIR spectroscopy. The degradation pathway of sulforaphene was presented. Furthermore, we found that the degradation rate of sulforaphene was closely related to the water content of sulforaphene sample. The higher the water content was, the faster the sulforaphene sample degraded. A mathematical model was developed to predict the degradation constant at various water contents. It provided a guideline for industry to improve the stability of sulforaphene during preparation, application and storage.

  19. Geomicrobiology and hopanoid content of sulfidic subsurface vent biofilms, Little Salt Spring, Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, E.; Schaperdoth, I.; Albrecht, H.; Freeman, K. H.; Macalady, J. L.

    2008-12-01

    Sulfide-rich, oxygen-poor environments are widespread in the subsurface and were prevalent at the earth's surface during critical intervals in the geologic past. Modern microbial communities in sulfidic niches have the potential to shed light on the biogeochemistry and biosignatures of anoxia and euxinia in earth history. Caves and sinkholes provide rare windows into microbially-dominated, sulfidic subsurface environments that are otherwise difficult and expensive to access. Little Salt Spring (Sarasota County, Florida) is a cover-collapse sinkhole lake with oxic surface water and anoxic, sulfidic bottom water (Alvarez Zarikian 2005). The site is famous for excellent preservation of human and animal archaeological remains (Clausen 1979), and its microbiology has never been investigated. Abundant white biofilms develop seasonally at a warm vent that feeds into the anoxic bottom water at 73 m depth below the water surface. The biofilms are of interest both as potential sources of biomarker compounds and because of their likely role in sulfuric acid production and limestone dissolution (speleogenesis). Biofilm samples were collected by expert science divers and investigated using microscopy, nucleic acid, and lipid analytical methods. Microscopy of the live biofilm revealed clusters of microbial filaments with holdfasts and dendritic, sulfur-rich colonial structures similar to those described in the 1960s for Thiobacterium, a sulfur-oxidizing genus with undetermined phylogeny. A 16S rDNA library constructed from the biofilm was split into three main phylotypes, with multiple clones representing (1) a Betaproteobacterial clade with no cultivated representatives, (2) filamentous Epsilonproteobacteria, and (3) a major bacterial lineage without named isolates (OP11/OD2). A full cycle rRNA approach is currently underway to link 16S rDNA phylotypes with specific populations in the biofilm. We confirmed using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) that abundant

  20. [Effects of supplemental irrigation by measuring moisture content in different soil layers on water consumption characteristics, photosynthesis and grain yield of winter wheat].

    PubMed

    Man, Jian-guo; Yu, Zhen-wen; Shi, Yu; Zhang, Yong-li

    2015-08-01

    Field experiments were conducted during 2012-2014 winter wheat growing seasons. Six irrigation treatments were designed: rainfed, W0; a local irrigation practice that irrigated at jointing and anthesis with 60 mm each time, W1; four irrigation treatments were designed with target relative soil moisture of 65% field capacity (FC) at jointing and 70% FC at anthesis in 0-20 (W2) 0-40 (W3), 0-60 (W4) , and 0-140 cm (W5) soil layers, respectively, to study the effects of supplemental irrigation by measuring moisture content in different soil layers on water consumption characteristics and photosynthesis and grain yield of winter wheat. The irrigation amounts at jointing in W1 and W4 were the highest, followed by W3 treatment, W2 and W5 were the lowest. The irrigation amounts at anthesis and total irrigation amounts were ranked as W5 > Wl, W4 > W3 > W2, the total water consumption in W3 was higher than that in W2, but had no difference with that in W1, W4 and W5 treatments, W3 had the higher soil water consumption than W1, W4 and W5 treatments, and the soil water consumption in 40-140 cm soil layers from jointing to anthesis and in 60-140 cm soil layers from anthesis to maturity in W3 were significantly higher than the other treatments. The photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and water use efficiency of flag leaf at middle stage of grain filling from the W3 treatment were the highest, followed by the W1 and W4 treatments, and W0 treatment was the lowest. In the two growing seasons, the grain yield and water use efficiency in the W3 were 9077-9260 kg · hm(-2) and 20.7-20.9 kg · hm(-2) · mm(-1), respectively, which were higher than those from the other treatments, and the irrigation water productivity in the W3 was the highest. As far as high-yield and high-water use efficiency were concerned in this experiment, the most appropriate soil layer for measuring moisture content was 0-40 cm.

  1. [Comparative study on hyperspectral inversion accuracy of soil salt content and electrical conductivity].

    PubMed

    Peng, Jie; Wang, Jia-Qiang; Xiang, Hong-Ying; Teng, Hong-Fen; Liu, Wei-Yang; Chi, Chun-Ming; Niu, Jian-Long; Guo, Yan; Shi, Zhou

    2014-02-01

    The objective of the present article is to ascertain the mechanism of hyperspectral remote sensing monitoring for soil salinization, which is of great importance for improving the accuracy of hyperspectral remote sensing monitoring. Paddy soils in Wensu, Hetian and Baicheng counties of the southern Xinjiang were selected. Hyperspectral data of soils were obtained. Soil salt content (S(t)) an electrical conductivity of 1:5 soil-to-water extracts (EC(1:5)) were determined. Relationships between S(t) and EC(1:5) were studied. Correlations between hyperspectral indices and S(t), and EC(1:5) were analyzed. The inversion accuracy of S(t) using hyperspectral technique was compared with that of EC(1:5). Results showed that: significant (p<0.01) relationships were found between S(t) and EC(1:5) for soils in Wensu and Hetian counties, and correlation coefficients were 0.86 and 0.45, respectively; there was no significant relationship between S(t) and EC(1:5) for soils in Baicheng county. Therefore, the correlations between S(t) and EC(1:5) varied with studied sites. S(t) and EC(1:5) were significantly related with spectral reflectance, first derivative reflectance and continuum-removed reflectance, respectively; but correlation coefficients between S(t) and spectral indices were higher than those between EC(1:5) and spectral indices, which was obvious in some sensitive bands for soil salinization such as 660, 35, 1229, 1414, 1721, 1738, 1772, 2309 nm, and so on. Prediction equations of St and EC(1:5) were established using multivariate linear regression, principal component regression and partial least-squares regression methods, respectively. Coefficients of determination, determination coefficients of prediction, and relative analytical errors of these equations were analyzed. Coefficients of determination and relative analytical errors of equations between S(t) and spectral indices were higher than those of equations between EC(1:5) and spectral indices. Therefore, the

  2. Comparison of Vegetation Water Content Estimates from Windsat and Modis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Retrieval of soil moisture content from microwave sensors also returns an estimate of vegetation water content. Remotely sensed indices from optical sensors can be used to estimate canopy water content. For corn and soybean in central Iowa, there are allometric relationships between canopy water c...

  3. Rebar corrosion monitoring in concrete structure under salt water enviroment using fiber Bragg grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yuheng; Liu, Tiegen; Jiang, Junfeng; Liu, Kun; Wang, Shuang; He, Pan; Yan, Jinlin

    2015-08-01

    Monitoring corrosion of steel reinforcing bars is critical for the durability and safety of reinforced concrete structures. Corrosion sensors based on fiber optic have proved to exhibit meaningful benefits compared with the conventional electric ones. In recent years, Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) has been used as a new kind of sensing element in an attempt to directly monitor the corrosion in concrete structure due to its remarkable advantages. In this paper, we present a novel kind of FBG based rebar corrosion monitoring sensor. The rebar corrosion is detected by volume expansion of the corroded rebar by transferring it to the axial strain of FBG when concrete structure is soaked in salt water. An accelerated salt water corrosion test was performed. The experiment results showed the corrosion can be monitored effectively and the corrosion rate is obtained by volume loss rate of rebar.

  4. Alleviation of salt stress in lemongrass by salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Idrees, Mohd; Naeem, M; Khan, M Nasir; Aftab, Tariq; Khan, M Masroor A; Moinuddin

    2012-07-01

    Soil salinity is one of the key factors adversely affecting the growth, yield, and quality of crops. A pot study was conducted to find out whether exogenous application of salicylic acid could ameliorate the adverse effect of salinity in lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus Steud. Wats.). Two Cymbopogon varieties, Krishna and Neema, were used in the study. Three salinity levels, viz, 50, 100, and 150 mM of NaCl, were applied to 30-day-old plants. Salicylic acid (SA) was applied as foliar spray at 10(-5) M concentration. Totally, six SA-sprays were carried out at 10-day intervals, following the first spray at 30 days after sowing. The growth parameters were progressively reduced with the increase in salinity level; however, growth inhibition was significantly reduced by the foliar application of SA. With the increase in salt stress, a gradual decrease in the activities of carbonic anhydrase and nitrate reductase was observed in both the varieties. SA-treatment not only ameliorated the adverse effects of NaCl but also showed a significant improvement in the activities of these enzymes compared with the untreated stressed-plants. The plants supplemented with NaCl exhibited a significant increase in electrolyte leakage, proline content, and phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase activity. Content and yield of essential oil was also significantly decreased in plants that received salinity levels; however, SA overcame the unfavorable effects of salinity stress to a considerable extent. Lemongrass variety Krishna was found to be more adapted to salt stress than Neema, as indicated by the overall performance of the two varieties under salt conditions.

  5. Sodium Content of Community Water Supplies in California

    PubMed Central

    Steinkamp, Ruth C.; Young, Clarence L.; Nyhus, Dolores; Greenberg, Arnold E.

    1968-01-01

    The amount of sodium ion in water used for ingestion may be critical in effective use of a low sodium dietary regimen. Waters containing not over 20 mg of sodium per liter are provided for in the sodium restricted diets set forth by the American Heart Association. For diets containing more than 500 mg of sodium a day, waters of greater sodium content may be used if proper dietary adjustments are made. While assessment of the long-term average sodium content of a community water supply is difficult, the determined values for sodium lend to classification within range categories. The larger community water supplies in California are presented within several range categories of sodium content. The more commonly used water softeners add sodium to water. The sodium-restricted patient should be cautioned against their use. Similar consideration should probably be given to water supplies of retirement communities where the potential for disorders requiring sodium restriction is greater than in the general population. PMID:5673988

  6. Remote sensing of vegetation water content using shortwave infrared reflectances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, E. Raymond, Jr.; Yilmaz, M. Tugrul

    2007-09-01

    Vegetation water content is an important biophysical parameter for estimation of soil moisture from microwave radiometers. One of the objectives of the Soil Moisture Experiments in 2004 (SMEX04) and 2005 (SMEX05) were to develop and test algorithms for a vegetation water content data product using shortwave infrared reflectances. SMEX04 studied native vegetation in Arizona, USA, and Sonora, Mexico, while SMEX05 studied corn and soybean in Iowa, USA. The normalized difference infrared index (NDII) is defined as (R 850 - R 1650)/(R 800 + R 1650), where R 850 is the reflectance in the near infrared and R1650 is the reflectance in the shortwave infrared. Simulations using the Scattering by Arbitrarily Inclined Leaves (SAIL) model indicated that NDII is sensitive to surface moisture content. From Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper and other imagery, NDII is linear with respect to foliar water content with R2 = 0.81. The regression standard error of the y estimate is 0.094 mm, which is equivalent to about a leaf area index of 0.5 m2 m -2. Based on modeling the dynamic water flow through plants, the requirement for detection of water stress is about 0.01 mm, so detection of water stress may not be possible. However, this standard error is accurate for input into the tau-omega model for soil moisture. Therefore, NDII may be a robust backup algorithm for MODIS as a standard data product.

  7. Proteins induced by salt stress in tomato germinating seeds

    SciTech Connect

    Torres-Shumann, S.; Godoy, J.A.; del Pozo, O.; Pintor-Toro, J.A. )

    1989-04-01

    Salt effects on protein synthesis in tomato germinating seeds were investigated by two-dimensional polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis of proteins labeled in vivo with ({sup 35}S)-Methionine. Seeds germinating in NaCl were analyzed at three germination stages (4mm long radicals, 15mm long radicles and expanding cotyledons) and compared to those germinating in water. At the first germination stage several basic proteins of M.W. 13Kd, 16Kd, 17Kd and 18Kd were detected in only salt germinating seeds. Other basic proteins of M.W. 12Kd, 50Kd and 54Kd were salt-induced at the second and third stage of germination. One 14Kd acid protein is observed in every assayed stage and shows several phosphorylated forms. The levels of expression of these proteins are directly correlated to assayed NaCl concentrations. All of these proteins, except 17Kd, are also induced by abscisic acid (ABA) in the same germination stages. A cooperative effect on the synthesis of these proteins is observed when both ABA and NaCl are present.

  8. Relating salt marsh pore water geochemistry patterns to vegetation zones and hydrologic influences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffett, Kevan B.; Gorelick, Steven M.

    2016-03-01

    Physical, chemical, and biological factors influence vegetation zonation in salt marshes and other wetlands, but connections among these factors could be better understood. If salt marsh vegetation and marsh pore water geochemistry coorganize, e.g., via continuous plant water uptake and persistently unsaturated sediments controlling vegetation zone-specific pore water geochemistry, this could complement known physical mechanisms of marsh self-organization. A high-resolution survey of pore water geochemistry was conducted among five salt marsh vegetation zones at the same intertidal elevation. Sampling transects were arrayed both parallel and perpendicular to tidal channels. Pore water geochemistry patterns were both horizontally differentiated, corresponding to vegetation zonation, and vertically differentiated, relating to root influences. The geochemical patterns across the site were less broadly related to marsh hydrology than to vegetation zonation. Mechanisms contributing to geochemical differentiation included: root-induced oxidation and nutrient (P) depletion, surface and creek-bank sediment flushing by rainfall or tides, evapotranspiration creating aerated pore space for partial sediment flushing in some areas while persistently saturated conditions hindered pore water renewal in others, and evapoconcentration of pore water solutes overall. The concentrated pore waters draining to the tidal creeks accounted for 41% of ebb tide solutes (median of 14 elements), including being a potentially toxic source of Ni but a slight sink for Zn, at least during the short, winter study period in southern San Francisco Bay. Heterogeneous vegetation effects on pore water geochemistry are not only significant locally within the marsh but may broadly influence marsh-estuary solute exchange and ecology.

  9. Low salt petroleum produced water reuse: a farming alternative outside the food chain.

    PubMed

    Rambeau, O; de Lafond, R Morales; Baldoni, P; Gosselin, J P; Baccou, J C

    2004-01-01

    Oil and gas production gives rise to water production depending on the state of maturation of the Field. This means large volumes of water available. Today, this water is partly re-injected into the reservoir. Totalfinaelf's sustainable contribution to preserve water resources is to propose an alternative utilization: the reuse of produced waters from petroleum activities, outside the food chain. The aim of the first part of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing low-salt water (<20 g/l) cleaned of hydrocarbons, for agricultural or forest irrigation. Rudimentary technologies such as artificial wetlands were tested to remove hydrocarbon substances and preliminary tests were performed with cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and hemp (Cannabis sativa). Among the species tested in real conditions (greenhouse), hemp was affected by saline water whereas the results obtained for cotton were representative of the average worldwide production. These results validate the reuse of low-salt produced water in climatic conditions with expected temperatures of up to 37 degrees C in summer and 25 degrees C in winter. Following these results, field pilots are planned. Further research is planned to focus, taking into account local needs and environmental and production constraints.

  10. Water Quality in the Great Salt Lake Basins, Utah, Idaho, and Wyoming, 1998-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waddell, Kidd M.; Gerner, Steven J.; Thiros, Susan A.; Giddings, Elise M.; Baskin, Robert L.; Cederberg, Jay R.; Albano, Christine M.

    2004-01-01

    This report contains the major findings of a 1998-2001 assessment of water quality in the Great Salt Lake Basins. It is one of a series of reports by the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program that present major findings in 51 major river basins and aquifer systems across the Nation. In these reports, water quality is discussed in terms of local, State, and regional issues. Conditions in a particular basin or aquifer system are compared to conditions found elsewhere and to selected national benchmarks, such as those for drinking-water quality and the protection of aquatic organisms. This report is intended for individuals working with water-resource issues in Federal, State, or local agencies, universities, public interest groups, or in the private sector. The information will be useful in addressing a number of current issues, such as the effects of agricultural and urban land use on water quality, human health, drinking water, source-water protection, hypoxia and excessive growth of algae and plants, pesticide registration, and monitoring and sampling strategies. This report is also for individuals who wish to know more about the quality of streams and ground water in areas near where they live, and how that water quality compares to water quality in other areas across the Nation. The water-quality conditions in the Great Salt Lake Basins summarized in this report are discussed in detail in other reports that can be accessed at http://ut.water.usgs.gov. Detailed technical information, data and analyses, collection and analytical methodology, models, graphs, and maps that support the findings presented in this report in addition to reports in this series from other basins can be accessed at the national NAWQA Web site http://water.usgs.gov/nawqa.

  11. Copper ions interfere with the reduction of the water-soluble tetrazolium salt-8.

    PubMed

    Semisch, Annetta; Hartwig, Andrea

    2014-02-17

    Metabolic activity as a measure of cell viability is frequently determined using the water-soluble tetrazolium salt 2-(2-methoxy-4-nitrophenyl)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)-5-(2,4-disulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium monosodium salt (WST-8), commercially available as CCK-8 reagent. In this study, CCK-8 was investigated with respect to its suitability for investigating nano- and microscale copper oxide (CuO NP and CuO MP) as well as water-soluble copper chloride (CuCl2). The results were compared to cell number and colony forming ability. Our data demonstrate that the CCK-8 assay overestimates the loss of metabolic activity by CuCl2 and CuO NP, because of interference by copper ions with the reduction of the dye.

  12. [Estimating canopy water content in wheat based on new vegetation water index].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiao-juan; Yang, Gui-jun; Xu, Xin-gang; Chen, Tian-en; Li, Zhen-hai; Feng, Hai-kuan; Wang, Dong

    2014-12-01

    Moisture content is an important indicator for crop water stress condition, timely and effective monitoring crop water content is of great significance for evaluate crop water deficit balance and guide agriculture irrigation. In order to improve the saturated problems of different forms of typical NDWI (Normalized Different Water Index), we tried to introduce EVI (Enhanced Vegetation Index) to build new vegetation water indices (NDWI#) to estimate crop water content. Firstly, PROSAIL model was used to study the saturation sensitivity of NDWI, and NDWI# to canopy water content and LAI (Leaf Area Index). Then, the estimated model and verified model were estimated using the spectral data and moisture data in the field. The result showed that the new indices have significant relationships with canopy water content. In particular, by implementing modified standardized for NDWI1450, NDWI1940, NDWI2500. The result indicated that newly developed indices with visible-infrared and shortwave infrared spectral feature may have greater advantage for estimation winter canopy water content.

  13. Extraction mechanism of sulfamethoxazole in water samples using aqueous two-phase systems of poly(propylene glycol) and salt.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xueqiao; Wang, Yun; Han, Juan; Yan, Yongsheng

    2011-02-14

    Based on the poly(propylene glycol)(400) (PPG(400))-salt aqueous two-phase system (ATPS), a green, economical and effective sample pretreatment technique coupled with high performance liquid chromatography was proposed for the separation and determination of sulfamethoxazole (SMX). The extraction yield of SMX in PPG(400)-salt ATPS is influenced by various factors, including the salt species, the amount of salt, pH, and the temperature. Under the optimum conditions, most of SMX was partitioning into the polymer-rich phase with the average extraction efficiency of 99.2%, which may be attributed to the hydrophobic interaction and salting-out effect. This extraction technique has been successfully applied to the analysis of SMX in real water samples with the recoveries of 96.0-100.6%, the detection limits of 0.1 μg L(-1), and the linear ranges of 2.5-250.0 μg L(-1).

  14. Soil Salt Distribution and Tomato Response to Saline Water Irrigation under Straw Mulching.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yaming; Yang, Qian; Wu, Yunyu

    2016-01-01

    To investigate better saline water irrigation scheme for tomatoes that scheduling with the compromise among yield (Yt), quality, irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) and soil salt residual, an experiment with three irrigation quotas and three salinities of irrigation water was conducted under straw mulching in northern China. The irrigation quota levels were 280 mm (W1), 320 mm (W2) and 360 mm (W3), and the salinity levels were 1.0 dS/m (F), 3.0 dS/m (S1) and 5.0 dS/m (S2). Compared to freshwater, saline water irrigations decreased the maximum leaf area index (LAIm) of tomatoes, and the LAIm presented a decline tendency with higher salinity and lower irrigation quota. The best overall quality of tomato was obtained by S2W1, with the comprehensive quality index of 3.61. A higher salinity and lower irrigation quota resulted in a decrease of individual fruit weight and an increase of the blossom-end rot incidence, finally led to a reduction in the tomato Yt and marketable yield (Ym). After one growth season of tomato, the mass fraction of soil salt in plough layer under S2W1 treatment was the highest, and which presented a decline trend with an increasing irrigation quota. Moreover, compared to W1, soil salts had a tendency to move to the deeper soil layer when using W2 and W3 irrigation quota. According to the calculation results of projection pursuit model, S1W3 was the optimal treatment that possessed the best comprehensive benefit (tomato overall quality, Yt, Ym, IWUE and soil salt residual), and was recommended as the saline water irrigation scheme for tomatoes in northern China.

  15. Soil Salt Distribution and Tomato Response to Saline Water Irrigation under Straw Mulching

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Yaming; Yang, Qian; Wu, Yunyu

    2016-01-01

    To investigate better saline water irrigation scheme for tomatoes that scheduling with the compromise among yield (Yt), quality, irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) and soil salt residual, an experiment with three irrigation quotas and three salinities of irrigation water was conducted under straw mulching in northern China. The irrigation quota levels were 280 mm (W1), 320 mm (W2) and 360 mm (W3), and the salinity levels were 1.0 dS/m (F), 3.0 dS/m (S1) and 5.0 dS/m (S2). Compared to freshwater, saline water irrigations decreased the maximum leaf area index (LAIm) of tomatoes, and the LAIm presented a decline tendency with higher salinity and lower irrigation quota. The best overall quality of tomato was obtained by S2W1, with the comprehensive quality index of 3.61. A higher salinity and lower irrigation quota resulted in a decrease of individual fruit weight and an increase of the blossom-end rot incidence, finally led to a reduction in the tomato Yt and marketable yield (Ym). After one growth season of tomato, the mass fraction of soil salt in plough layer under S2W1 treatment was the highest, and which presented a decline trend with an increasing irrigation quota. Moreover, compared to W1, soil salts had a tendency to move to the deeper soil layer when using W2 and W3 irrigation quota. According to the calculation results of projection pursuit model, S1W3 was the optimal treatment that possessed the best comprehensive benefit (tomato overall quality, Yt, Ym, IWUE and soil salt residual), and was recommended as the saline water irrigation scheme for tomatoes in northern China. PMID:27806098

  16. Water uptake of multicomponent organic mixtures and their influence on hygroscopicity of inorganic salts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Jing, Bo; Guo, Yucong; Li, Junling; Tong, Shengrui; Zhang, Yunhong; Ge, Maofa

    2016-07-01

    The hygroscopic behaviors of atmospherically relevant multicomponent water soluble organic compounds (WSOCs) and their effects on ammonium sulfate (AS) and sodium chloride were investigated using a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA) in the relative humidity (RH) range of 5%-90%. The measured hygroscopic growth was compared with predictions from the Extended-Aerosol Inorganics Model (E-AIM) and Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson (ZSR) method. The equal mass multicomponent WSOCs mixture containing levoglucosan, succinic acid, phthalic acid and humic acid showed gradual water uptake without obvious phase change over the whole RH range. It was found that the organic content played an important role in the water uptake of mixed particles. When organic content was dominant in the mixture (75%), the measured hygroscopic growth was higher than predictions from the E-AIM or ZSR relation, especially under high RH conditions. For mass fractions of organics not larger than 50%, the hygroscopic growth of mixtures was in good agreement with model predictions. The influence of interactions between inorganic and organic components on the hygroscopicity of mixed particles was related to the salt type and organic content. These results could contribute to understanding of the hygroscopic behaviors of multicomponent aerosol particles.

  17. Mechanisms of water-salt metabolism disturbances in dogs subjected to six month hypokinesia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korolkov, V. I.; Kovalenko, Y. A.; Krotov, V. P.; Ilyushko, N. A.; Kondratyeva, V. A.; Kondratyev, Y. I.

    1980-01-01

    Water-salt metabolism in dogs during prolonged restricted motor activity (hypokinesia) was investigated. It was found that hydration occurred and fluid was redistributed between the extra- and intra-cellular sectors. Also, electrolyte excretion rose, and magnetism and calcium metabolism changed significantly. It is concluded that the forces caused by muscle strain proper (which was decreased under conditions of hypokinesia) influence the state of bone metabolism.

  18. Earthquake hazards to domestic water distribution systems in Salt Lake County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Highland, Lynn M.

    1985-01-01

    A magnitude-7. 5 earthquake occurring along the central portion of the Wasatch Fault, Utah, may cause significant damage to Salt Lake County's domestic water system. This system is composed of water treatment plants, aqueducts, distribution mains, and other facilities that are vulnerable to ground shaking, liquefaction, fault movement, and slope failures. Recent investigations into surface faulting, landslide potential, and earthquake intensity provide basic data for evaluating the potential earthquake hazards to water-distribution systems in the event of a large earthquake. Water supply system components may be vulnerable to one or more earthquake-related effects, depending on site geology and topography. Case studies of water-system damage by recent large earthquakes in Utah and in other regions of the United States offer valuable insights in evaluating water system vulnerability to earthquakes.

  19. A multi-residue method for the determination of 90 pesticides in matrices with a high water content by LC-MS/MS without clean-up.

    PubMed

    Madureira, Fernando Diniz; da Silva Oliveira, Fabiano Aurélio; de Souza, Wesley Robert; Pontelo, Ana Paula; de Oliveira, Mauro Lúcio Gonçalves; Silva, Gilsara

    2012-01-01

    A method using QuEChERS extraction and LC-MS/MS in electrospray positive ionisation mode was developed and validated for the analysis of 90 pesticides in a high water content matrix (tomato) in a single chromatographic run. To assess the intra-laboratory reproducibility of the method, validation was conducted on four different days by two different analysts. The validation data was treated using a spreadsheet developed in-house, which sets the most appropriate model for linear fit by determining whether the residuals of the calibration curves are homocedastic or heterocedastic. A statistical test for the significance of regression was also carried out. Calibration was always matrix-matched and the curves were obtained over the range 0.0075-0.10 or 0.020-0.125 mg kg(-1). Identification of analytes was based on retention times and MRM ratios. Recoveries were assessed at four different levels for each analyte and were between 73 and 106%, with relative standard deviations under reproducibility conditions of <20%. The measurement uncertainties of the method for each pesticide analysed were below 50%. Previous validation of the same method, applied to papaya samples and satisfactory results obtained in various proficiency tests with different high water content matrices, demonstrated the applicability of the method to these classes of commodities, without clean-up. The validated method will be applied routinely in the pesticide residues monitoring programme that constitutes the National Residue and Contaminant Control Plan of Brazil.

  20. Isotherms and Kinetics of Water Vapor Sorption/Desorption for Surface Films of Polyion-Surfactant Ion Complex Salts.

    PubMed

    Gustavsson, Charlotte; Piculell, Lennart

    2016-07-14

    Thin films of "complex salts" (CS = ionic surfactants with polymeric counterions) have recently been shown to respond to humidity changes in ambient air by changing their liquid crystalline structure. We here report isotherms and kinetics of water sorption/desorption for ∼10-100 μm films of alkyltrimethylammonium polyacrylate CS, measured in a dynamic gravimetric vapor sorption instrument over a 0-95% relative humidity (RH) range. The sorption per ion pair was similar to that observed for common ionomers. A kinetic model for the water exchange is presented, assuming that the "external" transport between the vapor reservoir and the film surface is rate-determining. The model predicts that the water content, after a small stepwise change of the reservoir RH, should vary exponentially with time, with a time constant proportional to both the slope of the sorption isotherm and the film thickness. These predictions were confirmed for our films over large RH ranges, and the external mass transfer coefficient in our setup was calculated from the experimental data. Expressions derived for the Biot number (ratio of characteristic times for internal and external water transport) for the considered limiting case strongly indicate that external water transport should quite generally affect, or even dominate, the measured kinetics for similarly thin hydrated films.

  1. Thermal Inactivation of Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus in a Peptone-Salt Medium Mimicking the Water-Soluble Phase of Hydrolyzed Fish By-Products

    PubMed Central

    Modahl, Ingebjørg; Myrmel, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) (serotype Sp) was exposed to temperatures between 60 and 90°C in a medium mimicking the water-soluble phase of hydrolyzed fish by-products. D values ranged from 290 to 0.5 min, and the z value was approximately 9.8°C. Addition of formic acid to create a pH 4 medium did not enhance heat inactivation. Predicted inactivation effects at different temperature-time combinations are provided. PMID:22247167

  2. Water content of latent fingerprints - Dispelling the myth.

    PubMed

    Kent, Terry

    2016-09-01

    Changing procedures in the handling of rare and precious documents in museums and elsewhere, based on assumptions about constituents of latent fingerprints, have led the author to an examination of available data. These changes appear to have been triggered by one paper using general biological data regarding eccrine sweat production to infer that deposited fingerprints are mostly water. Searching the fingerprint literature has revealed a number of reference works similarly quoting figures for average water content of deposited fingerprints of 98% or more. Whilst accurate estimation is difficult there is no evidence that the residue on fingers could be anything like 98% water, even if there were no contamination from sebaceous glands. Consideration of published analytical data of real fingerprints, and several theoretical considerations regarding evaporation and replenishment rates, indicates a probable initial average water content of a fingerprint, soon after deposition, of 20% or less.

  3. Induced maize salt tolerance by rhizosphere inoculation of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SQR9.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin; Liu, Yunpeng; Wu, Gengwei; Veronican Njeri, Kimani; Shen, Qirong; Zhang, Nan; Zhang, Ruifu

    2016-09-01

    Salt stress reduces plant growth and is now becoming one of the most important factors restricting agricultural productivity. Inoculation of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) has been shown to confer plant tolerance against abiotic stress, but the detailed mechanisms of how this occurs remain unclear. In this study, hydroponic experiments indicated that the PGPR strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SQR9 could help maize plants tolerate salt stress. After exposure to salt stress for 20 days, SQR9 significantly promoted the growth of maize seedlings and enhanced the chlorophyll content compared with the control. Additional analysis showed that the involved mechanisms could be the enhanced total soluble sugar content for decreasing cell destruction, improved peroxidase/catalase activity and glutathione content for scavenging reactive oxygen species, and reduced Na(+) levels in the plant to decrease Na(+) toxicity. These physiological appearances were further confirmed by the upregulation of RBCS, RBCL, H(+) -PPase, HKT1, NHX1, NHX2 and NHX3, as well as downregulation of NCED expression, as determined by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. However, SQR9 counteracted the increase of abscisic acid in response to salt stress. In summary, these results show that SQR9 confers plant salt tolerance by protecting the plant cells and managing Na(+) homeostasis. Hence, it can be used in salt stress prone areas, thereby promoting agricultural production.

  4. A tomato bZIP transcription factor, SlAREB, is involved in water deficit and salt stress response.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Tsai-Hung; Li, Chia-Wen; Su, Ruey-Chih; Cheng, Chiu-Ping; Sanjaya; Tsai, Yi-Chien; Chan, Ming-Tsair

    2010-05-01

    Abiotic stresses such as cold, water deficit, and salt stresses severely reduce crop productivity. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is an important economic crop; however, not much is known about its stress responses. To gain insight into stress-responsive gene regulation in tomato plants, we identified transcription factors from a tomato cDNA microarray. An ABA-responsive element binding protein (AREB) was identified and named SlAREB. In tomato protoplasts, SlAREB transiently transactivated luciferase reporter gene expression driven by AtRD29A (responsive to dehydration) and SlLAP (leucine aminopeptidase) promoters with exogenous ABA application, which was suppressed by the kinase inhibitor staurosporine, indicating that an ABA-dependent post-translational modification is required for the transactivation ability of SlAREB protein. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that the recombinant DNA-binding domain of SlAREB protein is able to bind AtRD29A and SlLAP promoter regions. Constitutively expressed SlAREB increased tolerance to water deficit and high salinity stresses in both Arabidopsis and tomato plants, which maintained PSII and membrane integrities as well as water content in plant bodies. Overproduction of SlAREB in Arabidopsis thaliana and tomato plants regulated stress-related genes AtRD29A, AtCOR47, and SlCI7-like dehydrin under ABA and abiotic stress treatments. Taken together, these results show that SlAREB functions to regulate some stress-responsive genes and that its overproduction improves plant tolerance to water deficit and salt stress.

  5. Water in urban planning, Salt Creek Basin, Illinois water management as related to alternative land-use practices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spieker, Andrew Maute

    1970-01-01

    Water management can be an integral part of urban comprehensive planning in a large metropolitan area. Water both imposes constraints on land use and offers opportunities for coordinated land and water management. Salt Creek basin in Cook and Du Page Counties of the Chicago metropolitan area is typical of rapidly developing suburban areas and has been selected to illustrate some of these constraints and opportunities and to suggest the effects of alternative solutions. The present study concentrates on the related problems of ground-water recharge, water quality, management of flood plains, and flood-control measures. Salt Creek basin has a drainage area of 150 square miles. It is in flat to. gently rolling terrain, underlain by glacial drift as much as 200 feet thick which covers a dolomite aquifer. In 1964, the population of the basin was about 400,000, and 40 percent of the land was in urban development. The population is expected to number 550,000 to 650,000 by 1990, and most of the land will be taken by urban development. Salt Creek is a sluggish stream, typical of small drainage channels in the headwaters area of northeastern Illinois. Low flows of 15 to 25 cubic feet per second in the lower part of the basin consist largely of sewage effluent. Nearly all the public water supplies in the basin depend on ground water. Of the total pumpage of 27.5 million gallons per day, 17.5 million gallons per day is pumped from the deep (Cambrian-Ordovician) aquifers and 10 million gallons per day is pumped from the shallow (Silurian dolomite and glacial drift) aquifers. The potential yield of the shallow aquifers, particularly glacial drift in the northern part of the basin, far exceeds present use. The largest concentration of pumpage from the shallow ,aquifers is in the Hinsdale-La Grange area. Salt Creek serves as an important source of recharge to these supplies, particularly just east of Hinsdale. The entire reach of Salt Creek south and east of Elmhurst can be

  6. Salt affects plant Cd-stress responses by modulating growth and Cd accumulation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jin; Yin, Hengxia; Liu, Xiaojing; Li, Xia

    2010-01-01

    Cadmium contamination is a serious environmental problem for modern agriculture and human health. Salinity affects plant growth and development, and interactions between salt and cadmium have been reported. However, the molecular mechanisms of salinity-cadmium interactions are not fully understood. Here, we show that a low concentration of salt alleviates Cd-induced growth inhibition and increases Cd accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana. Supplementation with low concentrations of salt reduced the reactive oxygen species level in Cd-stressed roots by increasing the contents of proline and glutathione and down-regulating the expression of RCD1, thereby protecting the plasma membrane integrity of roots under cadmium stress. Salt supplementation substantially reduces the Cd-induced elevation of IAA oxidase activity, thereby maintaining auxin levels in Cd-stressed plants, as indicated by DR5::GUS expression. Salt supply increased Cd absorption in roots and increased Cd accumulation in leaves, implying that salt enhances both Cd uptake in roots and the root-to-shoot translocation of Cd. The elevated Cd accumulation in plants in response to salt was found to be correlated with the elevated levels of phytochelatin the expression of heavy metal transporters AtHMA1-4, especially AtHMA4. Salt alleviated growth inhibition caused by Cd and increased Cd accumulation also was observed in Cd accumulator Solanum nigrum.

  7. [Effect of exogenous sucrose on growth and active ingredient content of licorice seedlings under salt stress conditions].

    PubMed

    Liu, Fu-zhi; Yang, Jun

    2015-11-01

    Licorice seedlings were taken as experimental materials, an experiment was conducted to study the effects of exogenous sucrose on growth and active ingredient content of licorice seedlings under NaCl stress conditions. The results of this study showed that under salt stress conditions, after adding a certain concentration of exogenous sucrose, the licorice seedlings day of relative growth rate was increasing, and this stress can be a significant weakening effect, indicating that exogenous sucrose salt stress-relieving effect. The total flavonoids and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity were significantly increased, the exogenous sucrose can mitigated the seedling roots under salt stress, the licorice flavonoid content in the enhanced growth was largely due to the activity of PAL an increased, when the concentration of exogenous sucrose wae 10 mmol x L(-1), PAL activity reaching a maximum, when the concentration of exogenous sucrose was 15 mmol x L(-1), PAL activity turned into a downward trend, the results indicating that this mitigation has concentration effect. After applying different concentrations of exogenous sugar, the contents of liquiritin changes with the change of flavonoids content was similar. After applying different concentrations of exogenous sucrose, the content of licorice acid under salt stress was higher than the levels were not reached during salt stress, the impact of exogenous sucrose concentration gradient of licorice acid accumulation was not obvious.

  8. Another glimpse over the salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction in acetonitrile/water mixtures.

    PubMed

    Valente, Inês Maria; Gonçalves, Luís Moreira; Rodrigues, José António

    2013-09-20

    The use of the salting-out effect in analytical chemistry is very diverse and can be applied to increase the volatility of the analytes in headspace extractions, to cause the precipitation of proteins in biological samples or to improve the recoveries in liquid-liquid extractions. In the latter, the salting-out process can be used to create a phase separation between water-miscible organic solvents and water. Salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction (SALLE) is an advantageous sample preparation technique aiming HPLC-UV analysis when developing analytical methodologies. In fact, some new extraction methodologies like QuEChERS include the SALLE concept. This manuscript discusses another point of view over SALLE with particular emphasis over acetonitrile-water mixtures for HPLC-UV analysis; the influence of the salting-out agents, their concentration and the water-acetonitrile volume ratios were the studied parameters. α-dicarbonyl compounds and beer were used as test analytes and test samples, respectively. The influence of the studied parameters was characterized by the obtained phase separation volume ratio and the fraction of α-dicarbonyls extracted to the acetonitrile phase. Results allowed the distribution of salts within three groups according to the phase separation and their extractability: (1) chlorides and acetates, (2) carbonates and sulfates and (3) magnesium sulfate; of all tested salts, sodium chloride had the highest influence on the α-dicarbonyls fraction extracted.

  9. Observed reflectivities and liquid water content for marine stratocumulus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coakley, J. A., Jr.; Snider, J. B.

    1989-01-01

    Simultaneous observations of cloud liquid water content and cloud reflectivity are used to verify their parametric relationship in a manner consistent with simple parameterizations often used in general-circulation climate models. The column amount of cloud liquid water was measured with a microwave radiometer on San Nicolas Island as described by Hogg et al., (1983). Cloud reflectivity was obtained through spatial coherence analysis of AVHRR imagery data as per Coakley and Baldwin (1984) and Coakley and Beckner (1988). The dependence of the observed reflectivity on the observed liquid water is discussed, and this empirical relationship is compared with the parameterization proposed by Stephens (1978).

  10. Corrosion of Mullite by Molten Salts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Lee, Kang N.; Yoshio, Tetsuo

    1996-01-01

    The interaction of molten salts of different Na2O activities and mullite is examined with furnace and burner tests. The more-acidic molten salts form small amounts of Al2O3; the more-basic molten salts form various Na2O-Al2O3-SiO2 compounds. The results are interpreted using the Na2O-Al203-SiO2 ternary phase diagram, and some possible diffusion paths are discussed. The generally higher melting points of Na2O-Al2O3-SiO2 compounds lead to better behavior of mullite in molten salts, as compared to SiO2-protected ceramics such as SiC. Mullite-coated SiC is discussed, and the corrosion behavior is evaluated.

  11. Diversity of the predominant spoilage bacteria in water-boiled salted duck during storage.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Wang, Daoying; Du, Lihui; Zhu, Yongzhi; Xu, Weimin

    2010-06-01

    The spoilage microbiota in water-boiled salted duck during storage at 4 degrees C was determined using culture-dependent and independent methods. Analysis of the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) patterns of PCR amplicons targeting the V3 region of the 16S rDNA and sequencing of the bands allowed profiling of the microbiota present in the duck. Community DNA extracts were prepared directly from water-boiled salted duck and from culturable bacterial fractions harvested from both MRS and PCA media. The spoilage bacteria mainly consisted of Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Macrococcus caseolyticus, Weissella, Halomonas sp. or Cobetia sp., and Exiguobacterium sp. based on sequencing and homology search of the DGGE bands. It appeared that both the bacterial counts and diversity increased during storage time. By plating method, bacterial counts in MRS agar increased from 10(4) to 10(8) CFU/g from day 1 to 10, while total bacterial counts in PCA agar reached 10(9) CFU/g after 10 d. Total of 14 strains isolated from PCA and MRS agar were identified as M. caseolyticus (2), S. saprophyticus (7), S. sciuri (1), W. paramesenteroides (2), and W. confusa (2) by 16S rDNA sequencing. The identification of the spoilage-related microbiota is helpful to better understand the bacteria ecology in water-boiled salted duck and may lead to the discovery of appropriate preservation strategies.

  12. A robust salt-tolerant superoleophobic alginate/graphene oxide aerogel for efficient oil/water separation in marine environments.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuqi; Zhang, Hui; Fan, Mizi; Zheng, Peitao; Zhuang, Jiandong; Chen, Lihui

    2017-04-11

    Marine pollution caused by frequent oil spill accidents has brought about tremendous damages to marine ecological environment. Therefore, the facile large-scale preparation of three-dimensional (3D) porous functional materials with special wettability is in urgent demand. In this study, we report a low-cost and salt-tolerant superoleophobic aerogel for efficient oil/seawater separation. The aerogel is prepared through incorporating graphene oxide (GO) into alginate (ALG) matrix by using a facile combined freeze-drying and ionic cross-linking method. The 3D structure interconnected by ALG and GO ensures the high mechanical strength and good flexibility of the developed aerogel. The rough microstructure combined with the hydrophilicity of the aerogel ensures its excellent underwater superoleophobic and antifouling properties. High-content polysaccharides contained in the aerogel guarantees its excellent salt-tolerant property. More impressively, the developed aerogel can retain its underwater superoleophobicity even after 30 days of immersion in seawater, indicating its good stability in marine environments. Furthermore, the aerogel could separate various oil/water mixtures with high separation efficiency (>99%) and good reusability (at least 40 cycles). The facile fabrication process combined with the excellent separation performance makes it promising for practical applications in marine environments.

  13. Production of Carbopol 974P and Carbopol 971P pellets by extrusion-spheronization: optimization of the processing parameters and water content.

    PubMed

    Mezreb, N; Charrueau, Christine; Boy, P; Allain, P; Chaumeil, J C

    2004-05-01

    Pellets obtained by extrusion-spheronization represent multiparticulate dosage forms whose interest in intestinal drug delivery can be potentiated and targeted through bioadhesive properties. However, adhesion itself makes the process difficult or even impossible. The problem of tackiness encountered with bioadhesive wet masses was previously eliminated by the use of electrolytes such as CaCl2. This approach is known to reduce the viscosity of polyacrylic acids by disturbing the interactions between carboxylate groups on adjacent polymer molecules, thereby decreasing their bioadhesive properties. The present study aimed at producing pellets containing carbomers without addition of electrolytes in order to maintain their bioadhesive potentiality at its maximum. Carbopol 974P (10%, 15% and 20%) and Carbopol 971P (10%) were used in combination with Avicel PH101. The extrusion speed (30, 45, 60, 90, and 150 rpm), spheronizer speed (350, 700, 960, 1000, and 1300 rpm), spheronization time (5, 10, 15, and 20 minutes) and amount of water (45%, 50%, 54%, and 58%) were optimized in order to obtain the highest yield of spherical pellets ranging 710-1000 microm in diameter. For pellets containing 10%, 15% Carbopol 974P or 10% Carbopol 971P and 45% water content, 30 rpm extrusion speed, 960 rpm, and 10 minutes spheronization speed and time led to the highest yields and sphericities, respectively, 72% and 0.91, 67% and 0.78, and 76% and 0.80. Production of pellets with 20% Carbopol 974P could be achieved through the increase of the water content up to 58% and implementation of 30 rpm extrusion speed, 1300 rpm, and 10 minutes spheronization speed and time. The yield and sphericity were 42% and 0.78 respectively.

  14. MzPIP2;1: An Aquaporin Involved in Radial Water Movement in Both Water Uptake and Transportation, Altered the Drought and Salt Tolerance of Transgenic Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Qiong; Feng, Chao; Gao, Yinan; Zheng, Xiaodong; Zhao, Yu; Wang, Zhi; Kong, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Background Plants are unavoidably subjected to various abiotic stressors, including high salinity, drought and low temperature, which results in water deficit and even death. Water uptake and transportation play a critical role in response to these stresses. Many aquaporin proteins, localized at different tissues, function in various transmembrane water movements. We targeted at the key aquaporin in charge of both water uptake in roots and radial water transportation from vascular tissues through the whole plant. Results The MzPIP2;1 gene encoding a plasma membrane intrinsic protein was cloned from salt-tolerant apple rootstock Malus zumi Mats. The GUS gene was driven by MzPIP2;1 promoter in transgenic Arabidopsis. It indicated that MzPIP2;1 might function in the epidermal and vascular cells of roots, parenchyma cells around vessels through the stems and vascular tissues of leaves. The ectopically expressed MzPIP2;1 conferred the transgenic Arabidopsis plants enhanced tolerance to slight salt and drought stresses, but sensitive to moderate salt stress, which was indicated by root length, lateral root number, fresh weight and K+/Na+ ratio. In addition, the possible key cis-elements in response to salt, drought and cold stresses were isolated by the promoter deletion experiment. Conclusion The MzPIP2;1 protein, as a PIP2 aquaporins subgroup member, involved in radial water movement, controls water absorption and usage efficiency and alters transgenic plants drought and salt tolerance. PMID:26562158

  15. Monitoring of soil water content and quality inside and outside the water curtain cultivation facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, K.; Kim, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Water curtain cultivation system is an energy saving technique for winter season by splashing groundwater on the inner roof of green house. Artificial groundwater recharge application to the water curtain cultivation facilities was adopted and tested to use groundwater sustainably in a rural region of Korea. The groundwater level in the test site shows natural trend corresponding rainfall pattern except during mid-November to early April when groundwater levels decline sharply due to groundwater abstraction for water curtain cultivation. Groundwater levels are also affected by surface water such as stream, small dams in the stream and agricultural ditches. Infiltration data were collected from lysimeter installation and monitoring inside and outside water cultivation facility and compared with each other. The infiltration data were well correlated with rainfall outside the facility, but the data in the facility showed very different from the other. The missing infiltration data were attributed to groundwater level rise and level sensor location below water table. Soil water contents in the unsaturated zone indicated rainfall infiltration propagation at depth and with time outside the facility. According to rainfall amount and water condition at the initial stage of a rainfall event, the variation of soil water content was shown differently. Soil water contents and electrical conductivities were closely correlated with each other, and they reflected rainfall infiltration through the soil and water quality changes. The monitoring results are useful to reveal the hydrological processes from the infiltration to groundwater recharge, and water management planning in the water cultivation areas.

  16. Calibrating a salt water intrusion model with time-domain electromagnetic data.

    PubMed

    Herckenrath, Daan; Odlum, Nick; Nenna, Vanessa; Knight, Rosemary; Auken, Esben; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Salt water intrusion models are commonly used to support groundwater resource management in coastal aquifers. Concentration data used for model calibration are often sparse and limited in spatial extent. With airborne and ground-based electromagnetic surveys, electrical resistivity models can be obtained to provide high-resolution three-dimensional models of subsurface resistivity variations that can be related to geology and salt concentrations on a regional scale. Several previous studies have calibrated salt water intrusion models with geophysical data, but are typically limited to the use of the inverted electrical resistivity models without considering the measured geophysical data directly. This induces a number of errors related to inconsistent scales between the geophysical and hydrologic models and the applied regularization constraints in the geophysical inversion. To overcome these errors, we perform a coupled hydrogeophysical inversion (CHI) in which we use a salt water intrusion model to interpret the geophysical data and guide the geophysical inversion. We refer to this methodology as a Coupled Hydrogeophysical Inversion-State (CHI-S), in which simulated salt concentrations are transformed to an electrical resistivity model, after which a geophysical forward response is calculated and compared with the measured geophysical data. This approach was applied for a field site in Santa Cruz County, California, where a time-domain electromagnetic (TDEM) dataset was collected. For this location, a simple two-dimensional cross-sectional salt water intrusion model was developed, for which we estimated five uniform aquifer properties, incorporating the porosity that was also part of the employed petrophysical relationship. In addition, one geophysical parameter was estimated. The six parameters could be resolved well by fitting more than 300 apparent resistivities that were comprised by the TDEM dataset. Except for three sounding locations, all the TDEM data

  17. Development of the sediment and water quality management strategies for the Salt-water River, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lin, C E; Chen, C T; Kao, C M; Hong, A; Wu, C Y

    2011-01-01

    The Salt-water River watershed is one of the major river watersheds in the Kaohsiung City, Taiwan. Water quality and sediment investigation results show that the river water contained high concentrations of organics and ammonia-nitrogen, and sediments contained high concentrations of heavy metals and organic contaminants. The main pollution sources were municipal and industrial wastewaters. Results from the enrichment factor (EF) and geo-accumulation index (Igeo) analyses imply that the sediments can be characterized as heavily polluted in regard to Cd, Cr, Pb, Zn, and Cu. The water quality analysis simulation program (WASP) model was applied for water quality evaluation and carrying capacity calculation. Modeling results show that the daily pollutant inputs were much higher than the calculated carrying capacity (1050 kg day(-1) for biochemical oxygen demand and 420 kg day(-1) for ammonia-nitrogen). The proposed watershed management strategies included river water dilution, intercepting sewer system construction and sediment dredging.

  18. Tamarisk Water Flux Patterns Before, During and After Episodic Defoliation by the Salt Cedar Leaf Beetle on the Colorado Plateau, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hultine, K. R.; Nagler, P. L.; Dennison, P. E.

    2008-12-01

    Tamarisk (Tamarix) species are among the most successful plant invaders in the western United States, and has had significant impacts on watershed hydrology and water resources. Accordingly, local, state and federal agencies have undertaken considerable efforts to eradicate tamarisk and restore riparian habitats to pre-invasion status. A biological control - the saltcedar leaf beetle (Diorhabda elongata) - was released in the summer of 2004 at several locations in eastern Utah, USA to control the spread and impact of tamarisk within the Colorado River watershed. Beginning in April of 2008, sap flux techniques were used to monitor changes in transpiration fluxes in response to canopy defoliation by the beetle. Specifically we installed modified (10 mm length) heat dissipation probes into the main stem of 20 mature tamarisk trees within a single stand on the Colorado Plateau. In July, the saltcedar leaf beetle reduced the total leaf area to near 0% of pre-beetle invasion status. Consequently, sap flux declined by up to 80% compared to pre-beetle invasion fluxes. By mid-August, refoliation of the canopy occurred, and sap flux rates returned to pre- defoliation status. Sap flux rates prior to defoliation were modeled against atmospheric vapor pressure deficit in order to predict the amount of water salvage from defoliation. Sap flux from June 1 through September 1 was on average 36% lower than predicted values. Combined with scaling techniques, the heat dissipation approach shows a high potential for monitoring changes in watershed hydrology in response to tamarisk defoliation by the saltcedar leaf beetle. Nevertheless, tamarisk sap flux studies with heat dissipation probes presents several challenges, including, narrow sapwood depth, low flux rates in response to defoliation, and large thermal gradients that are inevitable in warm climates (particularly after defoliation removes canopy shading). We will present results from ongoing research to address these potential

  19. Drinking water contributes to high salt consumption in young adults in coastal Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Talukder, Mohammad Radwanur Rahman; Rutherford, Shannon; Phung, Dung; Malek, Abdul; Khan, Sheela; Chu, Cordia

    2016-04-01

    Increasing salinity of freshwater from environmental and anthropogenic influences is threatening the health of 35 million inhabitants in coastal Bangladesh. Yet little is known about the characteristics of their exposure to salt (sodium), a major risk factor for hypertension and related chronic diseases. This research examined sodium consumption levels and associated factors in young adults. We assessed spot urine samples for 282 participants (19-25 years) during May-June 2014 in a rural sub-district in southwestern coastal Bangladesh and measured sodium levels of their potable water sources. The significant factors associated with high sodium consumption were determined from logistic regression analyses. Mean sodium content in tube-well water (885 mg/L) was significantly higher than pond water (738 mg/L) (P = 0.01). Fifty three percent of subjects were consuming sodium at levels above the WHO recommended level (≥2 g/day). The users of tube-well water were more likely to consume sodium above this recommended level than pond water users. Salinity problems are projected to increase with climate change, and with large populations potentially at risk, appropriate public health and behavior-change interventions are an urgent priority for this vulnerable coastal region along with targeted research to better understand sodium exposure pathways and health benefits of alternative water supplies.

  20. Electrokinetics dependence on water-content in sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allègre, V.; Lehmann, F.; Jouniaux, L.; Sailhac, P.; Matthey, P.

    2009-12-01

    The electrokinetic potential results from the coupling between the water flow and the electrical current because of the presence of ions within water. This coupling is well described in fluid-saturated media, however its behavior under unsaturated flow conditions is still discussed. We propose here an experimental approach which can clearly describe streaming potential variations in unsaturated conditions. Several drainage experiments have been performed within a column filled with a clean sand. Streaming potential measurements are combined to capillary pressure and to water content measurements each 10 centimeter along the column. In order to model hydrodymanics during each experiment, we solve Richards equation in an inverse way which allows us to establish the relation between hydraulic conductivity and water content, and retention relation. The electrokinetic coefficient C shows a more complex behavior than it was previously reported and can not be fitted by the existing models. We show that the normalized electrokinetic coefficient increases first when water saturation decreases from 100% to about 80% - 95%, and then decreases as the water saturation decreases, whereas all previous works described a unifrom decrease of the normalized electrokinetic coefficient as water saturation decreases. We delimited two water saturation domains, and deduced two different empirical laws describing the evolution of the electrokinetic coefficient in unsaturated conditions. Finally, electrical potentials data from four different drainage experiments and hydrodynamics were jointly inversed, including electrical conductivity measurements in order to find a robust description of the electrokinetic coefficient behavior in unsaturated conditions.

  1. Comparison of the Mineral Content of Tap Water and Bottled Waters

    PubMed Central

    Azoulay, Arik; Garzon, Philippe; Eisenberg, Mark J

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Because of growing concern that constituents of drinking water may have adverse health effects, consumption of tap water in North America has decreased and consumption of bottled water has increased. Our objectives were to 1) determine whether North American tap water contains clinically important levels of calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), and sodium (Na+) and 2) determine whether differences in mineral content of tap water and commercially available bottled waters are clinically important. DESIGN We obtained mineral analysis reports from municipal water authorities of 21 major North American cities. Mineral content of tap water was compared with published data regarding commercially available bottled waters and with dietary reference intakes (DRIs). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Mineral levels varied among tap water sources in North America and among bottled waters. European bottled waters generally contained higher mineral levels than North American tap water sources and North American bottled waters. For half of the tap water sources we examined, adults may fulfill between 8% and 16% of their Ca2+ DRI and between 6% and 31% of their Mg2+ DRI by drinking 2 liters per day. One liter of most moderate mineralization European bottled waters contained between 20% and 58% of the Ca2+ DRI and between 16% and 41% of the Mg2+ DRI in adults. High mineralization bottled waters often contained up to half of the maximum recommended daily intake of Na+. CONCLUSION Drinking water sources available to North Americans may contain high levels of Ca2+, Mg2+, and Na+ and may provide clinically important portions of the recommended dietary intake of these minerals. Physicians should encourage patients to check the mineral content of their drinking water, whether tap or bottled, and choose water most appropriate for their needs. PMID:11318912

  2. Linear modeling of the soil-water partition coefficient normalized to organic carbon content by reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography.

    PubMed

    Andrić, Filip; Šegan, Sandra; Dramićanin, Aleksandra; Majstorović, Helena; Milojković-Opsenica, Dušanka

    2016-08-05

    Soil-water partition coefficient normalized to the organic carbon content (KOC) is one of the crucial properties influencing the fate of organic compounds in the environment. Chromatographic methods are well established alternative for direct sorption techniques used for KOC determination. The present work proposes reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography (RP-TLC) as a simpler, yet equally accurate method as officially recommended HPLC technique. Several TLC systems were studied including octadecyl-(RP18) and cyano-(CN) modified silica layers in combination with methanol-water and acetonitrile-water mixtures as mobile phases. In total 50 compounds of different molecular shape, size, and various ability to establish specific interactions were selected (phenols, beznodiazepines, triazine herbicides, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons). Calibration set of 29 compounds with known logKOC values determined by sorption experiments was used to build simple univariate calibrations, Principal Component Regression (PCR) and Partial Least Squares (PLS) models between logKOC and TLC retention parameters. Models exhibit good statistical performance, indicating that CN-layers contribute better to logKOC modeling than RP18-silica. The most promising TLC methods, officially recommended HPLC method, and four in silico estimation approaches have been compared by non-parametric Sum of Ranking Differences approach (SRD). The best estimations of logKOC values were achieved by simple univariate calibration of TLC retention data involving CN-silica layers and moderate content of methanol (40-50%v/v). They were ranked far well compared to the officially recommended HPLC method which was ranked in the middle. The worst estimates have been obtained from in silico computations based on octanol-water partition coefficient. Linear Solvation Energy Relationship study revealed that increased polarity of CN-layers over RP18 in combination with methanol-water mixtures is the key to better modeling of

  3. Exiguobacterium oxidotolerans, a halotolerant plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, improves yield and content of secondary metabolites in Bacopa monnieri (L.) Pennell under primary and secondary salt stress.

    PubMed

    Bharti, Nidhi; Yadav, Deepti; Barnawal, Deepti; Maji, Deepamala; Kalra, Alok

    2013-02-01

    Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri), an integral component of Indian Ayurvedic medicine system, is facing a threat of extinction owing to the depletion of its natural populations. The present study investigates the prospective of exploitation of halotolerant plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in utilising the salt stressed soils for cultivation of B. monnieri. The effects of two salt tolerant PGPR, Bacillus pumilus (STR2) and Exiguobacterium oxidotolerans (STR36) on the growth and content of bacoside-A, an important pharmaceutical compound in B. monnieri, were investigated under primary and secondary salinity conditions. The herb yields of un-inoculated plants decreased by 48 % under secondary salinization and 60 % under primary salinization than the non salinised plants. Among the rhizobacteria treated plants, E. oxidotolerans recorded 109 and 138 %, higher herb yield than non-inoculated plants subjected to primary and secondary salinity respectively. E. oxidotolerans inoculated plants recorded 36 and 76 % higher bacoside-A content under primary and secondary salinity respectively. Higher levels of proline content and considerably lower levels of lipid peroxidation were noticed when the plants were inoculated with PGPR under all salinity regimes. From the results of this investigation, it can be concluded that, the treatments with salt tolerant PGPR can be a useful strategy in the enhancement of biomass yield and saponin contents in B. monnieri, as besides being an eco-friendly approach; it can also be instrumental in cultivation of B. monnieri in salt stressed environments.

  4. Biased monitoring of fresh water-salt water mixing zone in coastal aquifers.

    PubMed

    Shalev, Eyal; Lazar, Ariel; Wollman, Stuart; Kington, Shushanna; Yechieli, Yoseph; Gvirtzman, Haim

    2009-01-01

    In coastal aquifers, significant vertical hydraulic gradients are formed where fresh water and underlying salt water discharge together upward to the seafloor. Monitoring boreholes may act as "short circuits" along these vertical gradients, connecting between the higher and the lower hydraulic head zones. When a sea tide is introduced, the fluctuations of both the water table and the depth of the mixing zone are also biased due to this effect. This problem is intensified in places of long-screen monitoring boreholes, which are common in many places in the world. For example, all approximately 500 boreholes of the fresh water-salt water mixing zone in the coastal aquifer of Israel are installed with 10 to 50 m long screens. We present field measurements of these fluctuations, along with a three-dimensional numerical model. We find that the in-well fluctuation magnitude of the mixing zone is an order of magnitude larger than that in the porous media of the actual aquifer. The primary parameters that affect the magnitude of this bias are the anisotropy of the aquifer conductivity and the borehole hydraulic parameters. With no sea tide, borehole interference is higher for the anisotropic case because the vertical hydraulic gradients are high. When tides are introduced, the amplitude of the mixing zone fluctuation is higher for the isotropic case because the overall effective hydraulic conductivity is greater than the conductivity in the anisotropic case. In the aquifer, the fresh water-salt water mixing zone fluctuations are dampened, and tens of meters inland from the shoreline, the fluctuations are on the order of few centimeters.

  5. Halophilic enzyme activation induced by salts

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Gabriel; Laín, Ana; Tadeo, Xavier; López-Méndez, Blanca; Castaño, David; Millet, Oscar

    2011-01-01

    Halophilic archea (halobacteriae) thrive in hypersaline environments, avoiding osmotic shock by increasing the ion concentration of their cytoplasm by up to 3–6 M. To remain folded and active, their constitutive proteins have evolved towards a biased amino acid composition. High salt concentration affects catalytic activity in an enzyme-dependent way and a unified molecular mechanism remains elusive. Here, we have investigated a DNA ligase from Haloferax volcanii (Hv LigN) to show that K+ triggers catalytic activity by preferentially stabilising a specific conformation in the reaction coordinate. Sodium ions, in turn, do not populate such isoform and the enzyme remains inactive in the presence of this co-solute. Our results show that the halophilic amino acid signature enhances the enzyme's thermodynamic stability, with an indirect effect on its catalytic activity. This model has been successfully applied to reengineer Hv LigN into an enzyme that is catalytically active in the presence of NaCl. PMID:22355525

  6. Coal-water slurry viscosity reduction using olefin/maleic acid salt copolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Matt, J.; Ferrara, J.M.

    1984-04-10

    An improved coal-water slurry of the type comprising at least 45% by weight of finely divided coal particles and a dispersing agent, said slurry being characterized as having a Brookfield viscosity at 60 rpm of less than 4,000 centipoise, the improvement which comprises adjusting the pH of said slurry to at least 6 and using as the dispersing agent, a water-soluble salt of an olefin/maleic acid copolymer having a molecular weight within the range of about between 3,000-50,000.

  7. Electrochemical characterization of MnO2-based composite in the presence of salt-in-water and water-in-salt electrolytes as electrode for electrochemical capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambou-Bosca, Axel; Bélanger, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    The effect of the electrolyte on the electrochemical utilization of manganese dioxide as active material for electrochemical capacitor was studied by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. MnO2-based composite electrodes were characterized in salt-in-water (0.65 M K2SO4, 5 M LiNO3, 0.5 M LiNO3 and 0.5 M Ca(NO3)2) and water-in-salt (5 M LiTFSI (lithium bis-trifluoromethanesulfonimide)) electrolytes. Firstly, no effect of the cation valence on the specific capacitance was observed as similar values were measured in 0.5 M LiNO3 and 0.5 M Ca(NO3)2 aqueous solutions at both low and high scan rate, when a MnO2-based composite electrode was cycled in the pseudocapacitive potential region. Secondly, it was found that in 5 M LiTFSI, a MnO2 electrode is characterized by an extended potential stability window of about 1.4 V and exhibits a high specific capacitance of 239 F g-1 per active material mass at a scan rate of 2 mV s-1. However due to the low ionic conductivity of this solution, the rate capability is limited at high scan rate.

  8. Certification by the Karl Fischer method of the water content in SRM 2890, Water Saturated 1-Octanol, and the analysis of associated interlaboratory bias in the measurement process.

    PubMed

    Margolis, S A; Levenson, M

    2000-05-01

    The calibration of Karl Fischer instruments and reagents and the compensation for instrumental bias are essential to the accurate measurement of trace levels of water in organic and inorganic chemicals. A stable, nonhygroscopic standard, Water Saturated Octanol, which is compatible with the Karl Fischer reagents, has been prepared. This material, Standard Reference Material (SRM) 2890, is homogeneous and is certified to contain 39.24 +/- 0.85 mg water/mL (expanded uncertainty) of solution (47.3 +/- 1.0 mg water/g solution, expanded uncertainty) at 21.5 degrees C. The solubility of water in -octanol has been shown to be nearly constant between 10 degrees C and 30 degrees C (i.e., within 1% of the value at 21.5 degrees C). The results of an interlaboratory comparison exercise illustrate the utility of SRM 2890 in assessing the accuracy and bias of Karl Fischer instruments and measurements.

  9. Effect of hydrotropic salts on phase relationships involving hydrocarbons, water, and alcohols

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, P. C.; Kraus, K. A.

    1980-01-01

    Hydrotropic salts, which can increase the solubility of organic materials in aqueous solutions, are useful to tertiary oil recovery. We have examined effects on solubility of hydrocarbons in water (with and without alcohols) through addition of inorganic hydrotropic salts, such as perchlorates, thiocyanates, and iodides - high in the usual Hofmeister series - and of organic salts such as short chain alkyl benzene sulfonates and other salts based on substituted benzene derivatives. Although the inorganic salts are relatively ineffective in increasing solubility of hydrocarbons in water, many of the organic salts are excellent hydrotropic agents for hydrocarbons. We have examined the phase relationships for several series of aromatic salts such as sulfonates, carboxylates and hydroxycarboxylates, as a function of alkyl-carbon substitution in three-component (hydrocarbon, salt, water) and in four-component (hydrocarbon, salt, alcohol, water) systems. We have also examined miscibility relationships for a given hydrotropic salt as the chain length of alkanes and alkyl benzenes is systematically varied. While miscibilities decrease with increase in chain length of the hydrocarbon, the hydrotropic properties in these systems increase rapidly with the number of alkyl carbons on the benzene ring of the salts and they are relatively insensitive to the type of charged group (sulfonate vs carboxylate) attached to the benzene ring. However, there were significant increases in hydrotropy as one goes from equally substituted sulfonates or carboxylates to salicylates. A number of salts have been identified which have much greater hydrotropic properties for hydrocarbons than such well-known hydrotropic materials as toluene and xylene sulfonates.

  10. Effective Calibration of Low-Cost Soil Water Content Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Bogena, Heye Reemt; Huisman, Johan Alexander; Schilling, Bernd; Weuthen, Ansgar; Vereecken, Harry

    2017-01-01

    Soil water content is a key variable for understanding and modelling ecohydrological processes. Low-cost electromagnetic sensors are increasingly being used to characterize the spatio-temporal dynamics of soil water content, despite the reduced accuracy of such sensors as compared to reference electromagnetic soil water content sensing methods such as time domain reflectometry. Here, we present an effective calibration method to improve the measurement accuracy of low-cost soil water content sensors taking the recently developed SMT100 sensor (Truebner GmbH, Neustadt, Germany) as an example. We calibrated the sensor output of more than 700 SMT100 sensors to permittivity using a standard procedure based on five reference media with a known apparent dielectric permittivity (1 < Ka < 34.8). Our results showed that a sensor-specific calibration improved the accuracy of the calibration compared to single “universal” calibration. The associated additional effort in calibrating each sensor individually is relaxed by a dedicated calibration setup that enables the calibration of large numbers of sensors in limited time while minimizing errors in the calibration process. PMID:28117731

  11. Effect of temperature and water content on the shear viscosity of the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide as studied by atomistic simulations.

    PubMed

    Kelkar, Manish S; Maginn, Edward J

    2007-05-10

    Atomistic simulations are conducted to examine the dependence of the viscosity of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide on temperature and water content. A nonequilibrium molecular dynamics procedure is utilized along with an established fixed charge force field. It is found that the simulations quantitatively capture the temperature dependence of the viscosity as well as the drop in viscosity that occurs with increasing water content. Using mixture viscosity models, we show that the relative drop in viscosity with water content is actually less than that that would be predicted for an ideal system. This finding is at odds with the popular notion that small amounts of water cause an unusually large drop in the viscosity of ionic liquids. The simulations suggest that, due to preferential association of water with anions and the formation of water clusters, the excess molar volume is negative. This means that dissolved water is actually less effective at lowering the viscosity of these mixtures when compared to a solute obeying ideal mixing behavior. The use of a nonequilibrium simulation technique enables diffusive behavior to be observed on the time scale of the simulations, and standard equilibrium molecular dynamics resulted in sub-diffusive behavior even over 2 ns of simulation time.

  12. Water, salt, and heat exchange through the Kinburn Strait of the Dnieper-Bug Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minkovskaya, R. Ya.; Demidov, A. N.

    2014-09-01

    Based on the multiannual observations (1965-2011), the diurnal, seasonal, and annual variabilities of the water, salt, and heat exchange rates in the Kinburn Strait of the Dnieper-Bug Estuary are studied. A method for calculation of the water, salt, and heat exchange rates through the strait is proposed, and the respective values are specified to be used for solving the practical problems related to efficient use of the water resources in this near-mouth region.

  13. Cementitious Stabilization of Mixed Wastes with High Salt Loadings

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, R.D.; Burgess, M.W.; Fedorov, V.V.; Downing, D.J.

    1999-04-01

    Salt loadings approaching 50 wt % were tolerated in cementitious waste forms that still met leach and strength criteria, addressing a Technology Deficiency of low salt loadings previously identified by the Mixed Waste Focus Area. A statistical design quantified the effect of different stabilizing ingredients and salt loading on performance at lower loadings, allowing selection of the more effective ingredients for studying the higher salt loadings. In general, the final waste form needed to consist of 25 wt % of the dry stabilizing ingredients to meet the criteria used and 25 wt % water to form a workable paste, leaving 50 wt % for waste solids. The salt loading depends on the salt content of the waste solids but could be as high as 50 wt % if all the waste solids are salt.

  14. Determining Water Content of Geologic Materials Using Reflectance Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milliken, R. E.; Mustard, J. F.

    2004-03-01

    TGA data and reflectance spectra are used to track changes in water absorptions as a function of absolute water content. Calculating band depth areas of absorptions in VIS-NIR data may prove useful for quantifying the water content of Mars' surface.

  15. Estimation of salt water upconing using a steady-state solution for partial completion of a pumped well.

    PubMed

    Garabedian, Stephen P

    2013-01-01

    A new steady-state analytical solution to the two-dimensional radial-flow equation was developed for drawdown (head) conditions in an aquifer with constant transmissivity, no-flow conditions at the top and bottom, constant head conditions at a known radial distance, and a partially completed pumping well. The solution was evaluated for accuracy by comparison to numerical simulations using MODFLOW. The solution was then used to estimate the rise of the salt water-fresh water interface (upconing) that occurs under a pumping well, and to calculate the critical pumping rate at which the interface becomes unstable, allowing salt water to enter the pumping well. The analysis of salt water-fresh water interface rise assumed no significant effect on upconing by recharge; this assumption was tested and supported using results from a new steady-state analytical solution developed for recharge under two-dimensional radial-flow conditions. The upconing analysis results were evaluated for accuracy by comparison to those from numerical simulations using SEAWAT for salt water-fresh water interface positions under mild pumping conditions. The results from the equation were also compared with those of a published numerical sharp-interface model applied to a case on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. This comparison indicates that estimating the interface rise and maximum allowable pumping rate using the analytical method will likely be less conservative than the maximum allowable pumping rate and maximum stable interface rise from a numerical sharp-interface model.

  16. Thermodynamic analysis of the interaction of partially hydrophobic cationic polyelectrolytes with sodium halide salts in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bončina, Matjaž; Lukšič, Miha; Seručnik, Mojca; Vlachy, Vojko

    2014-05-01

    Isothermal titration calorimetry was used to determine the temperature and concentration dependence of the enthalpy of mixing of 3,3- and 6,6-ionene fluorides, bromides, and iodides with low molecular weight salts (NaF, NaCl, NaBr, and NaI) in water. The magnitudes of the enthalpies, measured in the temperature range from 273 to 318 K, depended on the number of methylene groups on the ionene polyion (hydrophobicity), and on the anion of the added salt (ion-specificity). All enthalpies of mixing of 3,3- and 6,6-ionene fluorides with low molecular weight salts (NaCl, NaBr, and NaI) were negative, which is in contrast to the predictions of standard theories of polyelectrolyte solutions. This fact was interpreted in the light of the ion-water short-range interactions that are not accounted for in those theories. In contrast, the enthalpies of mixing of 3,3- and 6,6-ionene bromides and iodides with NaF were positive, being in accord with theory. Using the calorimetric data, we performed a model thermodynamic analysis of the polyelectrolyte-salt mixing process to obtain changes in the apparent standard Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, entropy, and heat capacity relative to the pure ionene fluorides in water. The results prove that halide ions replace fluoride counterions with a strength increasing in the order chloride < bromide < iodide. The process is enthalpy governed, accompanied by a positive change in the heat capacity.

  17. Bile acid salt binding with colesevelam HCl is not affected by suspension in common beverages.

    PubMed

    Hanus, Martin; Zhorov, Eugene

    2006-12-01

    It has been previously reported that anions in common beverages may bind to bile acid sequestrants (BAS), reducing their capacity for binding bile acid salts. This study examined the ability of the novel BAS colesevelam hydrochloride (HCl), in vitro, to bind bile acid sodium salts following suspension in common beverages. Equilibrium binding was evaluated under conditions of constant time and varying concentrations of bile acid salts in simulated intestinal fluid (SIF). A stock solution of sodium salts of glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDC), taurodeoxycholic acid (TDC), and glycocholic acid (GC), was added to each prepared sample of colesevelam HCl. Bile acid salt binding was calculated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Kinetics experiments were conducted using constant initial bile acid salt concentrations and varying binding times. The affinity, capacity, and kinetics of colesevelam HCl binding for GCDC, TDC, and GC were not significantly altered after suspension in water, carbonated water, Coca-Cola, Sprite, grape juice, orange juice, tomato juice, or Gatorade. The amount of bile acid sodium salt bound as a function of time was unchanged by pretreatment with any beverage tested. The in vitro binding characteristics of colesevelam HCl are unchanged by suspension in common beverages.

  18. Water Calibration Measurements for Neutron Radiography: Application to Water Content Quantification in Porous Media

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Misun; Bilheux, Hassina Z; Voisin, Sophie; Cheng, Chu-lin; Perfect, Edmund; Horita, Juske; Warren, Jeffrey

    2013-04-01

    Using neutron radiography, the measurement of water thickness was performed using aluminum (Al) water calibration cells at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) Cold-Guide (CG) 1D neutron imaging facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, USA. Calibration of water thickness is an important step to accurately measure water contents in samples of interest. Neutron attenuation by water does not vary linearly with thickness mainly due to beam hardening and scattering effects. Transmission measurements for known water thicknesses in water calibration cells allow proper correction of the underestimation of water content due to these effects. As anticipated, strong scattering effects were observed for water thicknesses greater than 2 mm when the water calibration cells were positioned close to the face of the detector / scintillator (0 and 2.4 cm away, respectively). The water calibration cells were also positioned 24 cm away from the detector face. These measurements resulted in less scattering and this position (designated as the sample position) was used for the subsequent experimental determination of the neutron attenuation coefficient for water. Neutron radiographic images of moist Flint sand in rectangular and cylindrical containers acquired at the sample position were used to demonstrate the applicability of the water calibration. Cumulative changes in the water volumes within the sand columns during monotonic drainage determined by neutron radiography were compared with those recorded by direct reading from a burette connected to a hanging water column. In general, the neutron radiography data showed very good agreement with those obtained volumetrically using the hanging water-column method. These results allow extension of the calibration equation to the quantification of unknown water contents within other samples of porous media.

  19. Water calibration measurements for neutron radiography: Application to water content quantification in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, M.; Bilheux, H. Z.; Voisin, S.; Cheng, C. L.; Perfect, E.; Horita, J.; Warren, J. M.

    2013-04-01

    Using neutron radiography, the measurement of water thickness was performed using aluminum (Al) water calibration cells at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) Cold-Guide (CG) 1D neutron imaging facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, USA. Calibration of water thickness is an important step to accurately measure water contents in samples of interest. Neutron attenuation by water does not vary linearly with thickness mainly due to beam hardening and scattering effects. Transmission measurements for known water thicknesses in water calibration cells allow proper correction of the underestimation of water content due to these effects. As anticipated, strong scattering effects were observed for water thicknesses greater than 0.2 cm when the water calibration cells were positioned close to the face of the detector/scintillator (0 and 2.4 cm away, respectively). The water calibration cells were also positioned 24 cm away from the detector face. These measurements resulted in less scattering and this position (designated as the sample position) was used for the subsequent experimental determination of the neutron attenuation coefficient for water. Neutron radiographic images of moist Flint sand in rectangular and cylindrical containers acquired at the sample position were used to demonstrate the applicability of the water calibration. Cumulative changes in the water volumes within the sand columns during monotonic drainage determined by neutron radiography were compared with those recorded by direct reading from a burette connected to a hanging water column. In general, the neutron radiography data showed very good agreement with those obtained volumetrically using the hanging water-column method. These results allow extension of the calibration equation to the quantification of unknown water contents within other samples of porous media.

  20. Salts on Europa's surface detected by Galileo's near infrared mapping spectrometer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCord, T.B.; Hansen, G.B.; Fanale, F.P.; Carlson, R.W.; Matson, D.L.; Johnson, T.V.; Smythe, W.D.; Crowley, J.K.; Martin, P.D.; Ocampo, A.; Hibbitts, C.A.; Granahan, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    Reflectance spectra in the 1- to 2.5-micrometer wavelength region of the surface of Europa obtained by Galileo's Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer exhibit distorted water absorption bands that indicate the presence of hydrated minerals. The laboratory spectra of hydrated salt minerals such as magnesium sulfates and sodium carbonates and mixtures of these minerals provide a close match to the Europa spectra. The distorted bands are only observed in the optically darker areas of Europa, including the lineaments, and may represent evaporite deposits formed by water, rich in dissolved salts, reaching the surface from a water-rich layer underlying an ice crust.

  1. Stage-Specific Changes in the Water, Na+, Cl- and K+ Contents of Organelles during Apoptosis, Demonstrated by a Targeted Cryo Correlative Analytical Approach.

    PubMed

    Nolin, Frédérique; Michel, Jean; Wortham, Laurence; Tchelidze, Pavel; Banchet, Vincent; Lalun, Nathalie; Terryn, Christine; Ploton, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have demonstrated changes in the levels of several ions during apoptosis, but a few recent studies have reported conflicting results concerning the changes in water content in apoptotic cells. We used a correlative light and cryo-scanning transmission electron microscopy method to quantify water and ion/element contents simultaneously at a nanoscale resolution in the various compartments of cells, from the onset to the end of apoptosis. We used stably transfected HeLa cells producing H2B-GFP to identify the stages of apoptosis in cells and for a targeted elemental analysis within condensed chromatin, nucleoplasm, mitochondria and the cytosol. We found that the compartments of apoptotic cells contained, on average, 10% more water than control cells. During mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization, we observed a strong increase in the Na+ and Cl- contents of the mitochondria and a strong decrease in mitochondrial K+ content. During the first step in apoptotic volume decrease (AVD), Na+ and Cl- levels decreased in all cell compartments, but remained higher than those in control cells. Conversely, during the second step of AVD, Na+ and Cl- levels increased considerably in the nucleus and mitochondria. During these two steps of AVD, K+ content decreased steadily in all cell compartments. We also determined in vivo ion status during caspase-3 activity and chromatin condensation. Finally, we found that actinomycin D-tolerant cells had water and K+ contents similar to those of cells entering apoptosis but lower Na+ and Cl- contents than both cells entering apoptosis and control cells.

  2. Ecosystem-groundwater interactions under changing land uses: Linking water, salts, and carbon across central Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jobbagy, E. G.; Nosetto, M. D.; Santoni, C. S.; Jackson, R. B.

    2007-05-01

    Although most ecosystems display a one-way connection with groundwater based on the regulation of deep water drainage (recharge), this link can become reciprocal when the saturated zone is shallow and plants take up groundwater (discharge). In what context is the reciprocal link most likely? How is it affected by land use changes? Has it consequences on salt and carbon cycling? We examine these questions across a precipitation gradient in the Pampas and Espinal of Argentina focusing on three vegetation change situations (mean annual rainfall): afforestation of humid (900-1300 mm) and subhumid grassland (700-900 mm/yr of rainfall), annual cultivation of subhumid grasslands (700-800 mm/yr), and annual cultivation of semiarid forests (500-700 mm). Humid and subhumid grasslands have shallow (< 5 m deep) groundwater tables that are poorly consumed by grasses but highly used by planted trees, as evidenced by satellite canopy temperatures, soil moisture and water table level records, and sapflow measurements. Groundwater contributions enhance carbon uptake in plantations compared to grasslands as suggested by aboveground biomass measurements and satellite vegetation indexes from sites with and without access to groundwater. Where rainfall is <1100 mm, grassland afforestation switches water fluxes to groundwater from positive (net recharge) to negative (net discharge) causing a salt accumulation process in soils and groundwater that is ultimately limited by the tolerance to salinity of tree species. Cultivation with corn and soybean can lead to groundwater consumption in the driest belt of subhumid grassland. Up to five-fold yield increases in lowlands vs. uplands during the driest years indicate a dramatic impact of groundwater use on carbon uptake and groundwater salinization suggests a recharge-to- discharge switch. In dry forests groundwater is not accessible (> 15 m deep) and recharge under natural conditions is null. The establishment of crops, however, triggers the

  3. Humidity-conditioned gravimetric method to measure the water content of hydrogel contact lens materials.

    PubMed

    Galas, S L; Enns, J B

    1993-07-01

    A method to determine the humidity-conditioned gravimetric water content of hydrogel contact lens materials has been developed, in which errors due to blotting have been eliminated by conditioning the lens in a series of relative humidity (RH) environments before measuring the water content gravimetrically, and then extrapolating the water content to 100% RH. This method has been used to determine the water contents of representative materials from each of the four FDA lens groups, which were compared with their labeled values, as well as with values obtained from refractive index measurements. The deviation of the water content of soft contact lenses as measured by refractive index from that obtained gravimetrically increased as the water content decreased. The humidity-conditioned gravimetric method to determine water content of hydrophilic contact lenses is being proposed as an International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standard, as an improvement over the gravimetric and refractive index methods.

  4. Statistical analysis of nitrate in ground water, West Salt River Valley, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, Andy E.; Brown, James G.; Gellenbeck, Dorinda J.

    1997-01-01

    Accurate estimates of the nitrate concentrations in ground water in west Salt River Valley are needed to better manage ground water affected by nitrate. Statistical analyses were done to establish the best statistical method to produce these estimates. Three sets of ground-water data for different time periods --1975-77, 1980-85, and 1986-90--were used to analyze spatial and temporal variations in concentrations of nitrate in ground water. The use of inverse-distance squared weighting, radial-basis function, kriging, and cokriging were evaluated for estimating nitrate concentrations in ground water. From an analysis of the cross-validation results, cokriging maps resulted in the best estimates, and they were accepted as being the most reliable. Cross-validation results also indicated that nitrate cokriged best with magnesium for 1975-77 and 1986-90 and with calcium for 1980-85. Kriging results consistently were almost as reliable as any of the cokriging results. Because of the difficulties inherent in the cokriging process, kriging, although not optimal, was the fastest way to obtain reasonably good results. In 1980-85, cokriged nitrate concentrations exceeded 20 milligrams per liter in a 12-square-kilometer area in Phoenix and Glendale and exceeded 10 milligrams per liter in a 280-square-kilometer area that extended to the Salt River. In 1986-90, nitrate concentrations along the entire reach of the Salt River in west Salt River Valley were less than 10 milligrams per liter and were smaller probably as a result of recharge from the Salt and Gila Rivers in 1982. Farther north in Phoenix and Glendale, the area in which nitrate concentrations exceeded 10 milligrams per liter expanded to 490 square kilometers for 1986-90. In Buckeye Valley, nitrate concentrations exceeded 10 milligrams per liter in an area of 300 square milometers for 1980-85 from the Gila River in the early 1980's but possibly could be an artifact of the different data distributions associated with

  5. Using a Cell Phone to Investigate the Skin Depth Effect in Salt Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rayner, John

    2017-02-01

    This paper describes an experimental investigation of the skin depth effect for electromagnetic waves in salt water using a cell phone that is immersed to a critical depth where it no longer responds when called. We show that this critical depth is directly proportional to the theoretical skin depth for a range of salt concentrations.