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Sample records for water depth dose

  1. Neon-20 depth-dose relations in water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Townsend, L. W.; Bidasaria, H. B.; Schimmerling, W.; Wong, M.; Howard, J.

    1984-01-01

    The dose from heavy ion beams has been calculated using a one-dimensional transport theory and evaluated for 670 MeV/amu 20 Ne beams in water. The result is presented so as to be applicable to arbitrary ions for which the necessary interaction data are known. The present evaluation is based on thar Silberg-Tsao fragmentation parameters augmented with light fragment production from intranuclear cascades, recently calculated nuclear absorption cross sections, and evaluated stopping power data. Comparison with recent experimental data obtained at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory reveals the need for more accurate fragmentation data.

  2. Physical approach to depth dose distributions in a water phantom irradiated by a teleisotope photon beam

    SciTech Connect

    Ahuja, S.D.; Stroup, S.L.; Bolin, M.G.; Gibbs, S.J.

    1980-03-01

    The physical basis of deposition of radiation dose within a homogeneous phantom irradiated by a monoenergetic photon beam has been studied in terms of photon attenuation and energy-absorption properties of the phantom material. A semi-empirical model based on the Klein--Nishina formula for Compton scattering, and the ratio of multiply scattered to singly scattered photon fluences, has been developed for the scatter dose component within a realistic phantom to determine the central-axial percent depth dose (PDD) and off-central-axis ratios (OCR). Differences between the predicted and measured values of PDD and OCR for cobalt-60 and cesium-137 beams are less than 3% for fields of equivalent-square-side less than 20 cm, and less than 5% for larger fields. Beam profiles of all field sizes can be well simulated by this model and reasonable agreement has been found between the predicted and tabulated values of scatter functions and the backscatter factor for cobalt-60 beams. This formulation involves no variable parameters, and is valid for all values of the source-to-surface distance, field length and width, and field shape. However, the algorithm developed is not suitable for routine multiple-field treatment planning because it requires large computer memory size.

  3. Controllability of depth dose distribution for neutron capture therapy at the Heavy Water Neutron Irradiation Facility of Kyoto University Research Reactor.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Yoshinori; Kobayashi, Tooru

    2002-10-01

    The updating construction of the Heavy Water Neutron Irradiation Facility of the Kyoto University Research Reactor has been performed from November 1995 to March 1996 mainly for the improvement in neutron capture therapy. On the performance, the neutron irradiation modes with the variable energy spectra from almost pure thermal to epi-thermal neutrons became available by the control of the heavy-water thickness in the spectrum shifter and by the open-and-close of the cadmium and boral thermal neutron filters. The depth distributions of thermal, epi-thermal and fast neutron fluxes were measured by activation method using gold and indium, and the depth distributions of gamma-ray absorbed dose rate were measured using thermo-luminescent dosimeter of beryllium oxide for the several irradiation modes. From these measured data, the controllability of the depth dose distribution using the spectrum shifter and the thermal neutron filters was confirmed.

  4. Absolute depth-dose-rate measurements for an {sup 192}Ir HDR brachytherapy source in water using MOSFET detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Zilio, Valery Olivier; Joneja, Om Parkash; Popowski, Youri; Rosenfeld, Anatoly; Chawla, Rakesh

    2006-06-15

    Reported MOSFET measurements concern mostly external radiotherapy and in vivo dosimetry. In this paper, we apply the technique for absolute dosimetry in the context of HDR brachytherapy using an {sup 192}Ir source. Measured radial dose rate distributions in water for different planes perpendicular to the source axis are presented and special attention is paid to the calibration of the R and K type detectors, and to the determination of appropriate correction factors for the sensitivity variation with the increase of the threshold voltage and the energy dependence. The experimental results are compared with Monte Carlo simulated dose rate distributions. The experimental results show a good agreement with the Monte Carlo simulations: the discrepancy between experimental and Monte Carlo results being within 5% for 82% of the points and within 10% for 95% of the points. Moreover, all points except two are found to lie within the experimental uncertainties, confirming thereby the quality of the results obtained.

  5. Application of the high-temperature ratio method for evaluation of the depth distribution of dose equivalent in a water-filled phantom on board space station Mir.

    PubMed

    Berger, T; Hajek, M; Schöner, W; Fugger, M; Vana, N; Akatov, Y; Shurshakov, V; Arkhangelsky, V; Kartashov, D

    2002-01-01

    A water-filled tissue equivalent phantom with a diameter of 35 cm was developed at the Institute for Biomedical Problems. Moscow. Russia. It contains four channels perpendicular to each other, where dosemeters can be exposed at different depths. Between May 1997 and February 1999 the phantom was installed at three different locations on board the Mir space station. Thermoluminescence dosemeters (TLDs) were exposed at various depths inside the phantom either parallel or perpendicular to the hull of the spacecraft. The high-temperature ratio (HTR) method was used for the evaluation of the TLDs. The method was developed at the Atominstitute of the Austrian Universities. Vienna, Austria, and has already been used for measurements in mixed radiation fields on earth and in space with great success. It uses the changes of peak height ratios in LiF:Mg,Ti glow curves in dependence on the linear energy transfer (LET), and therefore allows determination of an 'averaged' LET as well as measurement of the absorbed dose. A mean quality factor and, subsequently, the dose equivalent can be calculated according to the Q(LETinfinity) relationship proposed by the ICRP. The small size of the LiF dosemeters means that the HTR method can be used to determine the gradient of absorbed dose and dose equivalent inside the tissue equivalent body. PMID:12382930

  6. Absorbed dose water calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Domen, S.R.

    1982-01-26

    An absorbed dose water calorimeter that takes advantage of the low thermal diffusivity of water and the water-imperviousness of polyethylene film. An ultra-small bead thermistor is sandwiched between two thin polyethylene films stretched between insulative supports in a water bath. The polyethylene films insulate the thermistor and its leads, the leads being run out from between the films in insulated sleeving and then to junctions to form a wheatstone bridge circuit. Convection barriers may be provided to reduce the effects of convection from the point of measurement. Controlled heating of different levels in the water bath is accomplished by electrical heater circuits provided for controlling temperature drift and providing adiabatic operation of the calorimeter. The absorbed dose is determined from the known specific heat of water and the measured temperature change.

  7. Depth dose perturbation by a hydrogel fiducial marker in a proton beam.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Miao; Reyhan, Meral; Kim, Leonard H

    2015-01-08

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate proton depth dose perturbation caused by a radio-opaque hydrogel fiducial marker. Electronic proton stopping powers in the hydrogel were calculated for energies 0.5-250 MeV, and Monte Carlo simulations were generated of hydrogel vs. gold markers placed at various water phantom depths in a generic proton beam. Across the studied energy range, the gel/water stopping power ratio was 1.0146 to 1.0160. In the Monte Carlo simulation, the hydrogel marker caused no discernible perturbation of the proton percent depth-dose (PDD) curve. In contrast, the gold marker caused dose reductions of as much as 20% and dose shadowing regions as long as 6.5 cm. In contrast to gold markers, the radio-opaque hydrogel marker causes negligible proton depth dose perturbation. This factor may be taken into consideration for image-guided proton therapy at facilities with suitable imaging modalities.

  8. Water depth estimation with ERTS-1 imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, D. S.

    1973-01-01

    Contrast-enhanced 9.5 inch ERTS-1 images were produced for an investigation on ocean water color. Such images lend themselves to water depth estimation by photographic and electronic density contouring. MSS-4 and -5 images of the Great Bahama Bank were density sliced by both methods. Correlation was found between the MSS-4 image and a hydrographic chart at 1:467,000 scale, in a number of areas corresponding to water depth of less than 2 meters, 5 to 10 meters and 10 to about 20 meters. The MSS-5 image was restricted to depths of about 2 meters. Where reflective bottom and clear water are found, ERTS-1 MSS-4 images can be used with density contouring by electronic or photographic methods for estimating depths to 5 meters within about one meter.

  9. Initial beam size study for passive scatter proton therapy. II. Changes in delivered depth dose profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Polf, Jerimy C.; Harvey, Mark C.; Smith, Alfred R.

    2007-11-15

    In passively scattered proton radiotherapy, a clinically useful treatment beam is produced by spreading a small proton 'pencil beam' extracted from the accelerator to create both a uniform dose profile laterally and a uniform spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) in depth. Lateral spreading and range modulation of the beam are accomplished using specially designed components within the treatment delivery nozzle. The purpose of this study was to determine how changes in the size of the initial proton pencil beam affect the delivery of dose with a passive scatter treatment nozzle. Monte Carlo calculations were used to study changes of the beam's in-air energy distribution at the exit of the nozzle and the central axis depth dose profiles in water resulting from changes in the incident beam size. Our results indicate that the width of the delivered SOBP decreases as the size of the initial beam increases.

  10. Depth-dose relations for heavy ion beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.

    1977-01-01

    Radiation transport of heavy ions in matter is of interest to radiological protection in space and high-altitude aircraft. In addition, heavy ion beams are expected to be of advantage in radiotherapy since their characteristic Bragg curve allows a relative reduction of the dose in reaching a tumor site and the near elimination of exposure beyond the tumor region as the beam exits the body. Furthermore, the radioresistance of tumorous cells due to their hypoxic state may be reduced or eliminated by the high specific ionization of heavy ion beams. The depth-dose distribution of heavy ion beams consists of energy deposited by the attenuated primary beam with its characteristic Bragg curve and a relatively unstructured background due to secondary radiations produced in nuclear reactions. As the ion mass increases, the secondary contribution becomes more structured and may add significantly to the Bragg peak of the primary ions. The result for heavy ions (z greater than 20) is a greatly broadened Bragg peak region, especially in comparison to straggling effects, which may prove to be of importance in radiotherapy and biomedical research.

  11. Estimated depth to water, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eimers, Jo Leslie; Terziotti, Silvia; Giorgino, Mary J.

    2001-01-01

    This web site contains the Federal Geographic Data Committee-compliant metadata (documentation) for digital data produced for the North Carolina, Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Public Water Supply Section, Source Water Assessment Program. The metadata are for 11 individual Geographic Information System data sets. An overlay and indexing method was used with the data to derive a rating for unsaturated zone and watershed characteristics for use by the State of North Carolina in assessing more than 11,000 public water-supply wells and approximately 245 public surface-water intakes for susceptibility to contamination. For ground-water supplies, the digital data sets used in the assessment included unsaturated zone rating, vertical series hydraulic conductance, land-surface slope, and land cover. For assessment of public surface-water intakes, the data sets included watershed characteristics rating, average annual precipitation, land-surface slope, land cover, and ground-water contribution. Documentation for the land-use data set applies to both the unsaturated zone and watershed characteristics ratings. Documentation for the estimated depth-to-water map used in the calculation of the vertical series hydraulic conductance also is included.

  12. Task 1: Water Depth Management, 1388

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polcyn, F. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 MSS data taken on October 10, 1972, of the Little Bahama Bank are being used to demonstrate the use of ERTS-1 data for mapping of shallow water features for the purpose of upgrading world navigation charts. Marked reflectance differences occur for the shallow water areas in bands 4, 5, and 6. Digital processing of two adjacent data tapes within the ERTS-1 frame covering an area of about 40 by 40 miles has been completed. Correlation of depth measurements to 5 meters has been successful. A mathematical model for depth measurements using ratio of voltages in band 4 and 5 has been successfully developed and is being tested for accuracy. Additional studies for areas near Puerto Rico and in northern Lake Michigan will be undertaken. Satellite data will also provide geographical evidence for verifying existence or nonexistence of doubtful shoal waters now appearing on world charts and considered to be hazardous to shipping.

  13. Radiographic film dosimetry of proton beams for depth-dose constancy check and beam profile measurement.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Inhwan J; Teran, Anthony; Ghebremedhin, Abiel; Johnson, Matt; Patyal, Baldev

    2015-05-08

    Radiographic film dosimetry suffers from its energy dependence in proton dosimetry. This study sought to develop a method of measuring proton beams by the film and to evaluate film response to proton beams for the constancy check of depth dose (DD). It also evaluated the film for profile measurements. To achieve this goal, from DDs measured by film and ion chamber (IC), calibration factors (ratios of dose measured by IC to film responses) as a function of depth in a phantom were obtained. These factors imply variable slopes (with proton energy and depth) of linear characteristic curves that relate film response to dose. We derived a calibration method that enables utilization of the factors for acquisition of dose from film density measured at later dates by adapting to a potentially altered processor condition. To test this model, the characteristic curve was obtained by using EDR2 film and in-phantom film dosimetry in parallel with a 149.65 MeV proton beam, using the method. An additional validation of the model was performed by concurrent film and IC measurement perpendicular to the beam at various depths. Beam profile measurements by the film were also evaluated at the center of beam modulation. In order to interpret and ascertain the film dosimetry, Monte Carlos simulation of the beam was performed, calculating the proton fluence spectrum along depths and off-axis distances. By multiplying respective stopping powers to the spectrum, doses to film and water were calculated. The ratio of film dose to water dose was evaluated. Results are as follows. The characteristic curve proved the assumed linearity. The measured DD approached that of IC, but near the end of the spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP), a spurious peak was observed due to the mismatch of distal edge between the calibration and measurement films. The width of SOBP and the proximal edge were both reproducible within a maximum of 5mm; the distal edge was reproducible within 1 mm. At 5 cm depth, the dose was

  14. Radiographic film dosimetry of proton beams for depth-dose constancy check and beam profile measurement.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Inhwan J; Teran, Anthony; Ghebremedhin, Abiel; Johnson, Matt; Patyal, Baldev

    2015-01-01

    Radiographic film dosimetry suffers from its energy dependence in proton dosimetry. This study sought to develop a method of measuring proton beams by the film and to evaluate film response to proton beams for the constancy check of depth dose (DD). It also evaluated the film for profile measurements. To achieve this goal, from DDs measured by film and ion chamber (IC), calibration factors (ratios of dose measured by IC to film responses) as a function of depth in a phantom were obtained. These factors imply variable slopes (with proton energy and depth) of linear characteristic curves that relate film response to dose. We derived a calibration method that enables utilization of the factors for acquisition of dose from film density measured at later dates by adapting to a potentially altered processor condition. To test this model, the characteristic curve was obtained by using EDR2 film and in-phantom film dosimetry in parallel with a 149.65 MeV proton beam, using the method. An additional validation of the model was performed by concurrent film and IC measurement perpendicular to the beam at various depths. Beam profile measurements by the film were also evaluated at the center of beam modulation. In order to interpret and ascertain the film dosimetry, Monte Carlos simulation of the beam was performed, calculating the proton fluence spectrum along depths and off-axis distances. By multiplying respective stopping powers to the spectrum, doses to film and water were calculated. The ratio of film dose to water dose was evaluated. Results are as follows. The characteristic curve proved the assumed linearity. The measured DD approached that of IC, but near the end of the spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP), a spurious peak was observed due to the mismatch of distal edge between the calibration and measurement films. The width of SOBP and the proximal edge were both reproducible within a maximum of 5mm; the distal edge was reproducible within 1 mm. At 5 cm depth, the dose was

  15. SUPERFUND GROUND WATER ISSUE - ACCURACY OF DEPTH TO WATER MEASUREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accuracy of depth to water measurements is an issue identified by the Forum as a concern of Superfund decision-makers as they attempt to determine directions of ground-water flow, areas of recharge of discharge, the hydraulic characteristics of aquifers, or the effects of manmade...

  16. Spatial distributions of dose enhancement around a gold nanoparticle at several depths of proton Bragg peak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Jihun; Sutherland, Kenneth; Hashimoto, Takayuki; Shirato, Hiroki; Date, Hiroyuki

    2016-10-01

    Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have been recognized as a promising candidate for a radiation sensitizer. A proton beam incident on a GNP can produce secondary electrons, resulting in an enhancement of the dose around the GNP. However, little is known about the spatial distribution of dose enhancement around the GNP, especially in the direction along the incident proton. The purpose of this study is to determine the spatial distribution of dose enhancement by taking the incident direction into account. Two steps of calculation were conducted using the Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation toolkit. First, the energy spectra of 100 and 195 MeV protons colliding with a GNP were calculated at the Bragg peak and three other depths around the peak in liquid water. Second, the GNP was bombarded by protons with the obtained energy spectra. Radial dose distributions were computed along the incident beam direction. The spatial distributions of the dose enhancement factor (DEF) and subtracted dose (Dsub) were then evaluated. The spatial DEF distributions showed hot spots in the distal radial region from the proton beam axis. The spatial Dsub distribution isotropically spread out around the GNP. Low energy protons caused higher and wider dose enhancement. The macroscopic dose enhancement in clinical applications was also evaluated. The results suggest that the consideration of the spatial distribution of GNPs in treatment planning will maximize the potential of GNPs.

  17. Spatially continuous interpolation of water stage and water depths using the Everglades depth estimation network (EDEN)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearlstine, Leonard; Higer, Aaron; Palaseanu, Monica; Fujisaki, Ikuko; Mazzotti, Frank

    2007-01-01

    The Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN) is an integrated network of real-time water-level monitoring, ground-elevation modeling, and water-surface modeling that provides scientists and managers with current (2000-present), online water-stage and water-depth information for the entire freshwater portion of the Greater Everglades. Continuous daily spatial interpolations of the EDEN network stage data are presented on a 400-square-meter grid spacing. EDEN offers a consistent and documented dataset that can be used by scientists and managers to (1) guide large-scale field operations, (2) integrate hydrologic and ecological responses, and (3) support biological and ecological assessments that measure ecosystem responses to the implementation of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP) The target users are biologists and ecologists examining trophic level responses to hydrodynamic changes in the Everglades.

  18. Evaluation of detectors for acquisition of pristine depth-dose curves in pencil beam scanning.

    PubMed

    Bäumer, Christian; Koska, Benjamin; Lambert, Jamil; Timmermann, Beate; Mertens, Thierry; Takoukam Talla, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Acquisition of quasi-monoenergetic ("pristine") depth-dose curves is an essential task in the frame of commissioning and quality assurance of a proton therapy treatment head. For pencil beam scanning delivery modes this is often accomplished by measuring the integral ionization in a plane perpendicular to the axis of an unscanned beam. We focus on the evaluation of three integral detectors: two of them are plane-parallel ionization chambers with an effective radius of 4.1 cm and 6.0 cm, respectively, mounted in a scanning water phantom. The third integral detector is a 6.0 cm radius multilayer ionization chamber. The experimental results are compared with the corresponding measurements under broad field conditions, which are performed with a small radius plane-parallel chamber and a small radius multilayer ionization chamber. We study how a measured depth-dose curve of a pristine proton field depends on the detection device, by evaluating the shape of the depth-dose curve, the relative charge collection efficiency, and intercomparing measured ranges. Our results show that increasing the radius of an integral chamber from 4.1 cm to 6.0 cm increases the collection efficiency by 0%-3.5% depending on beam energy and depth. Ranges can be determined by the large electrode multilayer ionization chamber with a typical uncertainty of 0.4 mm on a routine basis. The large electrode multilayer ionization chamber exhibits a small distortion in the Bragg Peak region. This prohibits its use for acquisition of base data, but is tolerable for quality assurance. The good range accuracy and the peak distortion are characteristics of the multilayer ionization chamber design, as shown by the direct comparison with the small electrode counterpart.

  19. Evaluation of detectors for acquisition of pristine depth-dose curves in pencil beam scanning.

    PubMed

    Bäumer, Christian; Koska, Benjamin; Lambert, Jamil; Timmermann, Beate; Mertens, Thierry; Takoukam Talla, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Acquisition of quasi-monoenergetic ("pristine") depth-dose curves is an essential task in the frame of commissioning and quality assurance of a proton therapy treatment head. For pencil beam scanning delivery modes this is often accomplished by measuring the integral ionization in a plane perpendicular to the axis of an unscanned beam. We focus on the evaluation of three integral detectors: two of them are plane-parallel ionization chambers with an effective radius of 4.1 cm and 6.0 cm, respectively, mounted in a scanning water phantom. The third integral detector is a 6.0 cm radius multilayer ionization chamber. The experimental results are compared with the corresponding measurements under broad field conditions, which are performed with a small radius plane-parallel chamber and a small radius multilayer ionization chamber. We study how a measured depth-dose curve of a pristine proton field depends on the detection device, by evaluating the shape of the depth-dose curve, the relative charge collection efficiency, and intercomparing measured ranges. Our results show that increasing the radius of an integral chamber from 4.1 cm to 6.0 cm increases the collection efficiency by 0%-3.5% depending on beam energy and depth. Ranges can be determined by the large electrode multilayer ionization chamber with a typical uncertainty of 0.4 mm on a routine basis. The large electrode multilayer ionization chamber exhibits a small distortion in the Bragg Peak region. This prohibits its use for acquisition of base data, but is tolerable for quality assurance. The good range accuracy and the peak distortion are characteristics of the multilayer ionization chamber design, as shown by the direct comparison with the small electrode counterpart. PMID:26699567

  20. Statistical classification of vegetation and water depths in montane wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sharp, Julia L.; Sodja, Richard S.; Greenwood, Mark; Rosenberry, Donald O.; Warren, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Relationships between water depths and density of submergent vegetation were studied in montane wetlands using statistical techniques based on clustering and an extension of regression trees. Sago pondweed (Stuckenia pectinata) was associated with lower average water depths than water milfoil (Myriophyllum sibiricum). We detected a nonlinear relationship when average water depths were used to predict percent cover in S. pectinata, with depths of 30–40 cm, producing the highest predicted average percent cover of S. pectinata; higher and lower depths resulted in lower percent cover predictions. For M. sibiricum, higher water depths were monotonically associated with higher average percent cover. To foster more S. pectinata and less M. sibiricum, managers might employ water control structures to reduce water depths below 1 m, using both temporary drawdowns and average depths of 30–40 cm. Other species responded less markedly to water depth variation. Should decreased water depths become more common, these results suggest an increase in S. pectinata and a decrease in M. sibiricum.

  1. Photometric and polarimetric mapping of water turbidity and water depth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halajian, J.; Hallock, H.

    1973-01-01

    A Digital Photometric Mapper (DPM) was used in the Fall of 1971 in an airborne survey of New York and Boston area waters to acquire photometric, spectral and polarimetric data. The object of this study is to analyze these data with quantitative computer processing techniques to assess the potential of the DPM in the measurement and regional mapping of water turbidity and depth. These techniques have been developed and an operational potential has been demonstrated. More emphasis is placed at this time on the methodology of data acquisition, analysis and display than on the quantity of data. The results illustrate the type, quantity and format of information that could be generated operationally with the DPM-type sensor characterized by high photometric stability and fast, accurate digital output. The prototype, single-channel DPM is suggested as a unique research tool for a number of new applications. For the operational mapping of water turbidity and depth, the merits of a multichannel DPM coupled with a laser system are stressed.

  2. Average fetal depth in utero: data for estimation of fetal absorbed radiation dose

    SciTech Connect

    Ragozzino, M.W.; Breckle, R.; Hill, L.M.; Gray, J.E.

    1986-02-01

    To estimate fetal absorbed dose from radiographic examinations, the depth from the anterior maternal surface to the midline of the fetal skull and abdomen was measured by ultrasound in 97 pregnant women. The relationships between fetal depth, fetal presentation, and maternal parameters of height, weight, anteroposterior (AP) thickness, gestational age, placental location, and bladder volume were analyzed. Maternal AP thickness (MAP) can be estimated from gestational age, maternal height, and maternal weight. Fetal midskull and abdominal depths were nearly equal. Fetal depth normalized to MAP was independent or nearly independent of maternal parameters and fetal presentation. These data enable a reasonable estimation of absorbed dose to fetal brain, abdomen, and whole body.

  3. Possibility of using cylindrical ionization chambers for percent depth-dose measurements in clinical electron beams

    SciTech Connect

    Ono, Takeshi; Araki, Fujio; Yoshiyama, Fumiaki

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: This study investigated the possibility of using cylindrical ionization chambers for percent depth-dose (PDD) measurements in high-energy clinical electron beams. Methods: The cavity correction factor, P{sub cav}, for cylindrical chambers with various diameters was calculated as a function of depth from the surface to R{sub 50}, in the energy range of 6-18 MeV electrons with the EGSnrc C ++ -based user-code CAVITY. The results were compared with those for IBA NACP-02 and PTW Roos parallel-plate ionization chambers. The effective point of measurement (EPOM) for the cylindrical chamber and the parallel-plate chamber was positioned according to the IAEA TRS-398 code of practice. The overall correction factor, P{sub Q}, and the percent depth-ionization (PDI) curve for a PTW30013 Farmer-type chamber were also compared with those of NACP-02 and Roos chambers. Results: The P{sub cav} values at depths between the surface and R{sub 50} for cylindrical chambers were all lower than those with parallel-plate chambers. However, the variation in depth for cylindrical chambers equal to or less than 4 mm in diameter was equivalent to or smaller than that for parallel-plate chambers. The P{sub Q} values for the PTW30013 chamber mainly depended on P{sub cav}, and for parallel-plate chambers depended on the wall correction factor, P{sub wall}, rather than P{sub cav}. P{sub Q} at depths from the surface to R{sub 50} for the PTW30013 chamber was consequently a lower value than that with parallel-plate chambers. However, the variation in depth was equivalent to that of parallel-plate chambers at electron energies equal to or greater than 9 MeV. The shift to match calculated PDI curves for the PTW30013 chamber and water (perturbation free) varied from 0.65 to 0 mm between 6 and 18 MeV beams. Similarly, the shifts for NACP-02 and Roos chambers were 0.5-0.6 mm and 0.2-0.3 mm, respectively, and were nearly independent of electron energy. Conclusions: Calculated PDI curves for PTW

  4. Low energy electron generator design and depth dose prediction for micro-superficies tumors treatment purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khorshidi, Abdollah; Rajaee, Azimeh; Ahmadinejad, Marjan; Ghoranneviss, Mahmood; Ettelaee, Mehdi

    2014-09-01

    We investigate deposited energy and linear energy transfer (LET) of low energy ejection electrons in air and water layers of a generator design via a plasma source. A structured model of a concave cold cathode electron generator was designed and simulated by using Monte Carlo n-particle version X 2.7.0 (MCNPX) code. A negative dc high voltage was applied to a concave cathode up to -12 kV to determine electron energy activity. Results determined that the geometric dimensions of field size toward the anode increased in relation to the angle of the conic beam, widening the accumulated bulks. The increased field size increased the anode current, which also resulted in an increase of electron energy, a reduction in LET, a stretched build-up area and a dose curve that shifted to a higher depth. The biological effect of low energy electron radiation can be increased with an increase of LET; as the depth dose decreased, the electron energy increased at the same time. The study of electron irradiation as a conic beam from an electron generator may provide an accurate investigation of the indirect effect of low energy electrons on bystander cells.

  5. Measurement of water depth by multispectral ratio techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polcyn, F. C.

    1970-01-01

    The technique for measuring the depth of water using a multispectral scanner is discussed. The procedure takes advantage of the absorption properties of different wavelengths of light. Making use of the property of the selected transmission of light at different wavelengths, an equation was developed relating the outputs of at least two channels of multispectral scanner to measure water depth.

  6. Degradation of proton depth dose distributions attributable to microstructures in lung-equivalent material

    SciTech Connect

    Titt, Uwe Mirkovic, Dragan; Mohan, Radhe; Sell, Martin; Unkelbach, Jan; Bangert, Mark; Oelfke, Uwe

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: The purpose of the work reported here was to investigate the influence of sub-millimeter size heterogeneities on the degradation of the distal edges of proton beams and to validate Monte Carlo (MC) methods’ ability to correctly predict such degradation. Methods: A custom-designed high-resolution plastic phantom approximating highly heterogeneous, lung-like structures was employed in measurements and in Monte Carlo simulations to evaluate the degradation of proton Bragg curves penetrating heterogeneous media. Results: Significant differences in distal falloff widths and in peak dose values were observed in the measured and the Monte Carlo simulated curves compared to pristine proton Bragg curves. Furthermore, differences between simulations of beams penetrating CT images of the phantom did not agree well with the corresponding experimental differences. The distal falloff widths in CT image-based geometries were underestimated by up to 0.2 cm in water (corresponding to 0.8–1.4 cm in lung tissue), and the peak dose values of pristine proton beams were overestimated by as much as ~35% compared to measured curves or depth-dose curves simulated on the basis of true geometry. The authors demonstrate that these discrepancies were caused by the limited spatial resolution of CT images that served as a basis for dose calculations and lead to underestimation of the impact of the fine structure of tissue heterogeneities. A convolution model was successfully applied to mitigate the underestimation. Conclusions: The results of this study justify further development of models to better represent heterogeneity effects in soft-tissue geometries, such as lung, and to correct systematic underestimation of the degradation of the distal edge of proton doses.

  7. Penetration depth at green wavelengths in turbid waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitlock, C. H.; Witte, W. G.; Usry, J. W.; Gurganus, E. A.

    1978-01-01

    A laboratory and field measurement program was conducted to determine apparent remote sensing penetration depths at a wavelength of 520 nm. Tests were made for various types of sediments under controlled conditions in a laboratory. Field tests were conducted in several different water bodies over a wide range of solar elevation angles. Laboratory results indicate that apparent penetration depth is significantly influenced by mineral content and/or size of suspended sediments. Field measurements show wide variation in apparent penetration depth, even when suspended solids concentration is nearly constant. Apparent penetration depth does not appear to be a strong function of solar elevation angle so long as the water mixture remains constant.

  8. A depth-dependent formula for shallow water propagation.

    PubMed

    Sertlek, Hüseyin Özkan; Ainslie, Michael A

    2014-08-01

    In shallow water propagation, the sound field depends on the proximity of the receiver to the sea surface, the seabed, the source depth, and the complementary source depth. While normal mode theory can predict this depth dependence, it can be computationally intensive. In this work, an analytical solution is derived in terms of the Faddeeva function by converting a normal mode sum into an integral based on a hypothetical continuum of modes. For a Pekeris waveguide, this approach provides accurate depth dependent propagation results (especially for the surface decoupling) without requiring complex calculation methods for eigenvalues and corresponding eigenfunctions.

  9. Linking carbon and nitrogen metabolism to depth distribution of submersed macrophytes using high ammonium dosing tests and a lake survey

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Guixiang; Cao, Te; Fu, Hui; Ni, Leyi; Zhang, Xiaolin; Li, Wei; Song, Xin; Xie, Ping; Jeppesen, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Strategies of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) utilisation are among the factors determining plant distribution. It has been argued that submersed macrophytes adapted to lower light environments are more efficient in maintaining C metabolic homeostasis due to their conservative C strategy and ability to balance C shortage. We studied how depth distributions of 12 submersed macrophytes in Lake Erhai, China, were linked to their C-N metabolic strategies when facing acute dosing. dosing changed C-N metabolism significantly by decreasing the soluble carbohydrate (SC) content and increasing the -N and free amino acid (FAA) content of plant tissues.The proportional changes in SC contents in the leaves and FAA contents in the stems induced by dosing were closely correlated (positive for SC and negative for FAA) with the colonising water depths of the plants in Lake Erhai, the plants adapted to lower light regimes being more efficient in maintaining SC and FAA homeostasis.These results indicate that conservative carbohydrate metabolism of submersed macrophytes allowed the plants to colonise greater water depths in eutrophic lakes, where low light availability in the water column diminishes carbohydrate production by the plants. PMID:25810562

  10. Monte Carlo simulation of depth dose distribution in several organic models for boron neutron capture therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, T.

    2007-09-01

    Monte Carlo simulations are performed to evaluate depth-dose distributions for possible treatment of cancers by boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The ICRU computational model of ADAM & EVA was used as a phantom to simulate tumors at a depth of 5 cm in central regions of the lungs, liver and pancreas. Tumors of the prostate and osteosarcoma were also centered at the depth of 4.5 and 2.5 cm in the phantom models. The epithermal neutron beam from a research reactor was the primary neutron source for the MCNP calculation of the depth-dose distributions in those cancer models. For brain tumor irradiations, the whole-body dose was also evaluated. The MCNP simulations suggested that a lethal dose of 50 Gy to the tumors can be achieved without reaching the tolerance dose of 25 Gy to normal tissue. The whole-body phantom calculations also showed that the BNCT could be applied for brain tumors without significant damage to whole-body organs.

  11. Depth

    PubMed Central

    Koenderink, Jan J; van Doorn, Andrea J; Wagemans, Johan

    2011-01-01

    Depth is the feeling of remoteness, or separateness, that accompanies awareness in human modalities like vision and audition. In specific cases depths can be graded on an ordinal scale, or even measured quantitatively on an interval scale. In the case of pictorial vision this is complicated by the fact that human observers often appear to apply mental transformations that involve depths in distinct visual directions. This implies that a comparison of empirically determined depths between observers involves pictorial space as an integral entity, whereas comparing pictorial depths as such is meaningless. We describe the formal structure of pictorial space purely in the phenomenological domain, without taking recourse to the theories of optics which properly apply to physical space—a distinct ontological domain. We introduce a number of general ways to design and implement methods of geodesy in pictorial space, and discuss some basic problems associated with such measurements. We deal mainly with conceptual issues. PMID:23145244

  12. Depth.

    PubMed

    Koenderink, Jan J; van Doorn, Andrea J; Wagemans, Johan

    2011-01-01

    Depth is the feeling of remoteness, or separateness, that accompanies awareness in human modalities like vision and audition. In specific cases depths can be graded on an ordinal scale, or even measured quantitatively on an interval scale. In the case of pictorial vision this is complicated by the fact that human observers often appear to apply mental transformations that involve depths in distinct visual directions. This implies that a comparison of empirically determined depths between observers involves pictorial space as an integral entity, whereas comparing pictorial depths as such is meaningless. We describe the formal structure of pictorial space purely in the phenomenological domain, without taking recourse to the theories of optics which properly apply to physical space-a distinct ontological domain. We introduce a number of general ways to design and implement methods of geodesy in pictorial space, and discuss some basic problems associated with such measurements. We deal mainly with conceptual issues.

  13. [Effect of water depths on hydraulic performance of pond wetlands].

    PubMed

    Guo, Chang-Qiang; Dong, Bin; Liu, Jun-Jie; Liu, Chun-Guo; Feng, Da-Peng; Liu, Fang-Ping

    2014-11-01

    Pond wetlands have been widely used in the treatment of drainage water from paddy fields. However, wetland hydraulic performance and purification effects are affected by many factors, such as water depth, flow rate, aspect ratio and vegetation distribution, and the better understanding of these factors would be helpful to improve the quality of wetland design, operation and management. This paper analyzed the effect of three different water depths (20, 40 and 60 cm) on the hydraulic performance of pond wetland through the dye tracer experiments with Rhodamine WT. The hydraulic indices, i. e., effective volume ratio, nominal serial complete mixing tanks (N), hydraulic efficiency (λ), were selected for analysis through the hydraulic residence time distribution (RTD) curve. The results showed that the effective volume rate rose from 0.421 to 0.844 and the hydraulic efficiency from 0.281 to 0.604 when the water depth declined from 60 cm to 20 cm. This indicated that the wetland hydraulic performance improved as the water depth decreased. In addition, the hydraulic performance of the first half of the wetland was significantly better than that of the second half. The flow regime of the first half approached complete mixing because of the mixing index (N) approaching 1 and its effective volume rate was above 0.9 when the water depth was relatively low (20 and 40 cm). The normalized RTD curves demonstrated a good agreement between moment analysis parameters and hydraulic parameters, and a great consistency between the hydraulic parameters and moment index which was not affected by tail truncation error. The experimental study concluded that a lower water depth was favorable to improve the hydraulic performance of pond wetlands.

  14. [Effect of water depths on hydraulic performance of pond wetlands].

    PubMed

    Guo, Chang-Qiang; Dong, Bin; Liu, Jun-Jie; Liu, Chun-Guo; Feng, Da-Peng; Liu, Fang-Ping

    2014-11-01

    Pond wetlands have been widely used in the treatment of drainage water from paddy fields. However, wetland hydraulic performance and purification effects are affected by many factors, such as water depth, flow rate, aspect ratio and vegetation distribution, and the better understanding of these factors would be helpful to improve the quality of wetland design, operation and management. This paper analyzed the effect of three different water depths (20, 40 and 60 cm) on the hydraulic performance of pond wetland through the dye tracer experiments with Rhodamine WT. The hydraulic indices, i. e., effective volume ratio, nominal serial complete mixing tanks (N), hydraulic efficiency (λ), were selected for analysis through the hydraulic residence time distribution (RTD) curve. The results showed that the effective volume rate rose from 0.421 to 0.844 and the hydraulic efficiency from 0.281 to 0.604 when the water depth declined from 60 cm to 20 cm. This indicated that the wetland hydraulic performance improved as the water depth decreased. In addition, the hydraulic performance of the first half of the wetland was significantly better than that of the second half. The flow regime of the first half approached complete mixing because of the mixing index (N) approaching 1 and its effective volume rate was above 0.9 when the water depth was relatively low (20 and 40 cm). The normalized RTD curves demonstrated a good agreement between moment analysis parameters and hydraulic parameters, and a great consistency between the hydraulic parameters and moment index which was not affected by tail truncation error. The experimental study concluded that a lower water depth was favorable to improve the hydraulic performance of pond wetlands. PMID:25898628

  15. A comparison of depth dependence of dose and linear energy transfer spectra in aluminum and polyethylene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2000-01-01

    A set of four tissue-equivalent proportional counters (TEPCs), with their detector heads at the centers of 0 (bare), 3, 7 and 9-inch-diameter aluminum spheres, were flown on Shuttle flight STS-89. Five such detectors at the centers of polyethylene spheres were flown 1 year earlier on STS-81. The results of dose-depth dependence for the two materials convincingly show the merits of using material rich in hydrogen to decrease the radiation exposure to the crew. A comparison of the calculated galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) absorbed dose and dose-equivalent rates using the radiation transport code HZETRN with nuclear fragmentation model NUCFRG2 and the measured GCR absorbed dose rates and dose-equivalent rates shows that they agree within root mean square (rms) error of 12.5 and 8.2%, respectively. However, there are significant depth-dependent differences in the linear energy transfer (LET) spectra. A comparison for trapped protons using the proton transport code BRYNTRN and the AP-8 MIN trapped-proton model shows a systematic bias, with the model underpredicting dose and dose-equivalent rates. These results show the need for improvements in the radiation transport and/or fragmentation models.

  16. Interaction of modulated gravity water waves of finite depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannoulis, Ioannis

    2016-10-01

    We consider the capillary-gravity water wave problem of finite depth with a flat bottom of one or two horizontal dimensions. We derive the modulation equations of leading and next-to-leading order in the hyperbolic scaling for three weakly amplitude-modulated plane wave solutions of the linearized problem in the absence of quadratic and cubic resonances. We justify the derived system of macroscopic equations in the case of gravity waves using the stability of the finite depth water wave problem on the time scale O (1 / ɛ).

  17. A holistic water depth simulation model for small ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Shakir; Ghosh, Narayan C.; Mishra, P. K.; Singh, R. K.

    2015-10-01

    Estimation of time varying water depth and time to empty of a pond is prerequisite for comprehensive and coordinated planning of water resource for its effective utilization. A holistic water depth simulation (HWDS) and time to empty (TE) model for small, shallow ephemeral ponds have been derived by employing the generalized model based on the Green-Ampt equation in the basic water balance equation. The HWDS model includes time varying rainfall, runoff, surface water evaporation, outflow and advancement of wetting front length as external inputs. The TE model includes two external inputs; surface water evaporation and advancement of wetting front length. Both the models also consider saturated hydraulic conductivity and fillable porosity of the pond's bed material as their parameters. The solution of the HWDS model involved numerical iteration in successive time intervals. The HWDS model has successfully evaluated with 3 years of field data from two small ponds located within a watershed in a semi-arid region in western India. The HWDS model simulated time varying water depth in the ponds with high accuracy as shown by correlation coefficient (R2 ⩾ 0.9765), index of agreement (d ⩾ 0.9878), root mean square errors (RMSE ⩽ 0.20 m) and percent bias (PB ⩽ 6.23%) for the pooled data sets of the measured and simulated water depth. The statistical F and t-tests also confirmed the reliability of the HWDS model at probability level, p ⩽ 0.0001. The response of the TE model showed its ability to estimate the time to empty the ponds. An additional field calibration and validation of the HWDS and TE models with observed field data in varied hydro-climatic conditions could be conducted to increase the applicability and credibility of the models.

  18. SU-E-T-443: Developmental Technique for Proton Pencil Beam Measurements: Depth Dose

    SciTech Connect

    Arjomandy, B; Lee, T; Schultz, T; Hsi, W; Park, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Measurements of depth dose distribution (DDD) of pencil beam in proton therapy can be challenging and time consuming. We have developed a technique that uses two Bragg peak chambers to expedite these measurements with a high accuracy. Methods and Material: We used a PTW water tank and two PTW 10.5 cm3 Bragg peak chambers; one as a field chamber and the other as a reference chamber to measure DDDs for 100–250 MeV proton pencil beams. The reference chamber was positioned outside of the water tank upstream with respect to field chamber. We used Geant4 Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) to model the ProTom proton beam to generate DDDs. The MCS generated DDDs were used to account for halo effects of proton pencil beam that are not measureable with Bragg peak chambers. We also used PTW PEAKFINDER to measure DDDs for comparison purpose. Results: We compared measured and MCS DDDs with Continuous Slowing Down Approximation (CSDA) ranges to verify the range of proton beams that were supplied by the manufacturer. The agreements between all DDD with respect to CSDA were within ±0.5 mm. The WET for Bragg peak chamber for energies between 100–250 MeV was 12.7 ± 0.5 mm. The correction for halo effect was negligible below 150 MeV and was in order of ∼5-10% for 150–250 MeV. Conclusion: Use of Bragg Peak chamber as a reference chamber can facilitate DDD measurements in proton pencil beam with a high accuracy. Some corrections will be required to account for halo effect in case of high energy proton beams due to physical size of chamber.

  19. Calculations of water depth from ERTS-MSS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polcyn, F. C.; Lyzenga, D. R.

    1973-01-01

    ERTS-1 MSS data taken on October 10, 1972 of the Little Bahama Bank are being used to demonstrate the use of ERTS-1 data for mapping of shallow water features for the purpose of upgrading world navigation charts. Marked reflectance differences occur for the shallow water areas in Bands 4, 5, and 6. Digital processing of two adjacent data tapes within the ERTS frame covering an area of about 40 by 40 miles has been completed. Correlation of depth measurements to 5 meters has been successful. A mathematical model for depth measurements using ratio of voltages in Band 4 and 5 has been successfully developed and is being tested for accuracy. Additional studies for areas near Puerto Rico and in Northern Lake Michigan will be undertaken. Satellite data will also provide geographical evidence for verifying existence or nonexistence of doubtful shoal waters now appearing on world charts and considered to be hazardous to shipping.

  20. Mechanisms of wave transformation in finite-depth water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shemdin, O. H.; Hsiao, S. V.; Carlson, H. E.; Hasselmann, K.; Schulze, K.

    1980-01-01

    Mechanisms of wave transformation in finite-depth water are investigated. The linear mechanisms examined are percolation, bottom motion, shoaling, and refraction. The nonlinear mechanisms examined are wave-wave interaction and bottom friction. New exact computations of the nonlinear transfer for finite-depth waves are presented for some directional wave spectra. These mechanisms are found to explain satisfactorily wave decay observations obtained at several sites with different bottom sediment properties. The decay rates at these sites are found to be dominated by different mechanisms which are determined by the bottom conditions. As an example, detailed calculations are presented for data obtained at the Jonswap site.

  1. Deglacial Evolution of Atlantic Mid-Depth and Intermediate-Depth Water Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppo, D.; Gebbie, G.; Huang, K. F.; Guo, W.; Schmittner, A.; Liu, Z.; Curry, W. B.

    2014-12-01

    Deglacial variations in the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) feature prominently in hypotheses of deglacial climate variability and atmospheric CO2rise. However, there is lingering uncertainty in the glacial deepwater mass configuration (e.g. Gebbie, 2014) and deglacial AMOC variability is even more poorly understood. For example, the deglacial evolution of the contribution of northern and southern source waters to the middle and intermediate depths of the Atlantic is still vigorously debated. Here, we evaluate the evolution of subsurface Atlantic ventilation, emphasizing middle and intermediate depths, by comparing new and published records of water mass variability to output from transient model simulations designed to provide insight into the climatic and oceanographic effects of a dramatic reduction in the AMOC, such as apparently occurred during Heinrich Stadial 1 (Liu et al., 2009; Schmittner and Lund, 2014). Gebbie, G. (2014), How much did Glacial North Atlantic Water shoal? Paleoceanography, 29, 190-209, doi: 10.1002/2013PA002557. Liu, Z., B. Otto-Bliesner, F. He, E. Brady, R. Thomas, P. U. Clark, A. E. Carlson, J. Lynch-Stieglitz, W. Curry, E. Brook, D. Erickson, R. Jacob, J. Kutzbach, J., and J. Chen (2009), Transient climate simulation of last deglaciation with a new mechanism for Bølling-Allerød warming, Science, 325, 310-314. Schmittner, A., and Lund, D. C. (submitted), Carbon Isotopes Support Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation Decline as a Trigger for Early Deglacial CO2 rise Climate of the Past Discussions.

  2. Absorption depth profile of water on thermoplastic starch films

    SciTech Connect

    Bonno, B.; Laporte, J.L.; Paris, D.; D'Leon, R.T.

    2000-01-01

    It is well known that petroleum derived polymers are primary environmental contaminants. The study of new packing biodegradable materials has been the object of numerous papers in past years. Some of these new materials are the thermoplastic films derived from wheat starch. In the present paper, the authors study some of properties of wheat starch thermoplastic films, with various amounts of absorbed water, using photoacoustic spectroscopy techniques. The absorption depth profile of water in the starch substrate is determined for samples having a variable water level.

  3. Adsorption depth profile of water on thermoplastic starch films

    SciTech Connect

    Bonno, B.; Laporte, J.L.; Paris, D.; D'Leon, R.T.

    2000-01-01

    It is well known that petroleum derived polymers are primary environmental contaminants. The study of new packing biodegradable materials has been the object of numerous papers in past years. Some of these new materials are the thermoplastic films derived from wheat starch. In the present paper, the authors study some of properties of wheat starch thermoplastic films, with various amounts of absorbed water, using photoacoustic spectroscopy techniques. The absorption depth profile of water in the starch substrate is determined for samples having a variable water level.

  4. Water depth measurement using an airborne pulsed neon laser system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoge, F. E.; Swift, R. N.; Frederick, E. B.

    1980-01-01

    The paper presents the water depth measurement using an airborne pulsed neon laser system. The results of initial base-line field test results of NASA airborne oceanographic lidar in the bathymetry mode are given, with water-truth measurements of depth and beam attenuation coefficients by boat taken at the same time as overflights to aid in determining the system's operational performance. The nadir-angle tests and field-of-view data are presented; this laser bathymetry system is an improvement over prior models in that (1) the surface-to-bottom pulse waveform is digitally recorded on magnetic tape, and (2) wide-swath mapping data may be routinely acquired using a 30 deg full-angle conical scanner.

  5. Fractal behavior of soil water storage at multiple depths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Wenjun; Lin, Mi; Biswas, Asim; Si, Bing C.; Chau, Henry W.; Cresswell, Hamish P.

    2016-08-01

    Spatiotemporal behavior of soil water is essential to understand the science of hydrodynamics. Data intensive measurement of surface soil water using remote sensing has established that the spatial variability of soil water can be described using the principle of self-similarity (scaling properties) or fractal theory. This information can be used in determining land management practices provided the surface scaling properties are kept at deep layers. The current study examined the scaling properties of sub-surface soil water and their relationship to surface soil water, thereby serving as supporting information for plant root and vadose zone models. Soil water storage (SWS) down to 1.4 m depth at seven equal intervals was measured along a transect of 576 m for 5 years in Saskatchewan. The surface SWS showed multifractal nature only during the wet period (from snowmelt until mid- to late June) indicating the need for multiple scaling indices in transferring soil water variability information over multiple scales. However, with increasing depth, the SWS became monofractal in nature indicating the need for a single scaling index to upscale/downscale soil water variability information. In contrast, all soil layers during the dry period (from late June to the end of the growing season in early November) were monofractal in nature, probably resulting from the high evapotranspirative demand of the growing vegetation that surpassed other effects. This strong similarity between the scaling properties at the surface layer and deep layers provides the possibility of inferring about the whole profile soil water dynamics using the scaling properties of the easy-to-measure surface SWS data.

  6. Dose to medium versus dose to water as an estimator of dose to sensitive skeletal tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walters, B. R. B.; Kramer, R.; Kawrakow, I.

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether dose to medium, Dm, or dose to water, Dw, provides a better estimate of the dose to the radiosensitive red bone marrow (RBM) and bone surface cells (BSC) in spongiosa, or cancellous bone. This is addressed in the larger context of the ongoing debate over whether Dm or Dw should be specified in Monte Carlo calculated radiotherapy treatment plans. The study uses voxelized, virtual human phantoms, FAX06/MAX06 (female/male), incorporated into an EGSnrc Monte Carlo code to perform Monte Carlo dose calculations during simulated irradiation by a 6 MV photon beam from an Elekta SL25 accelerator. Head and neck, chest and pelvis irradiations are studied. FAX06/MAX06 include precise modelling of spongiosa based on µCT images, allowing dose to RBM and BSC to be resolved from the dose to bone. Modifications to the FAX06/MAX06 user codes are required to score Dw and Dm in spongiosa. Dose uncertainties of ~1% (BSC, RBM) or ~0.5% (Dm, Dw) are obtained after up to 5 days of simulations on 88 CPUs. Clinically significant differences (>5%) between Dm and Dw are found only in cranial spongiosa, where the volume fraction of trabecular bone (TBVF) is high (55%). However, for spongiosa locations where there is any significant difference between Dm and Dw, comparisons of differential dose volume histograms (DVHs) and average doses show that Dw provides a better overall estimate of dose to RBM and BSC. For example, in cranial spongiosa the average Dm underestimates the average dose to sensitive tissue by at least 5%, while average Dw is within ~1% of the average dose to sensitive tissue. Thus, it is better to specify Dw than Dm in Monte Carlo treatment plans, since Dw provides a better estimate of dose to sensitive tissue in bone, the only location where the difference is likely to be clinically significant.

  7. An empirical formula to obtain tissue-phantom ratios from percentage depth-dose curves for small fields.

    PubMed

    Ding, George X; Krauss, Rob

    2013-07-21

    For small photon fields, accurate values of a tissue-phantom ratio (TPR) are difficult to obtain either by direct measurement or by the conventional method of converting from measured percentage depth doses (%dd). This study aims to develop an empirical method to accurately obtain TPRs from %dd curves for small radiosurgery beams. The Monte Carlo simulation codes BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc were used to simulate the accelerator head and small, collimated fields including the circular cone accessory. The Monte Carlo directly calculated TPR values as a function of depth were compared with TPRs converted from %dd curves in a water phantom for field sizes ranging from 4 mm diameter to 10 × 10 cm(2) fields. Direct measurements of TPRs were performed with the detector remaining fixed at a SAD of 100 cm and increasing the detector depth by adding water. The %dd curves were measured at 100 cm SSD in a 50 × 50 × 50 cm(3) water tank. Using the Monte Carlo values, we developed an empirical formula to obtain TPRs from %dd and validated its accuracy. The conventional method of obtaining TPRs from %dd underestimate TPR by 3.4% and 0.6% at a depth 1.5 cm and overestimate TPR by 6.4% and 1.7% at a depth of 25 cm for 4 mm and 30 mm diameter circular fields, respectively. The empirical formula is derived from realistic Monte Carlo simulations using field sizes ranging from 4 to 30 mm and depth ranging from 1.5 to 25 cm. TPRs calculated using this function deviate from TPRs directly calculated from Monte Carlo by less than 0.5%. The accuracy of this empirical formula is validated against the directly measured TPRs in water. The developed empirical method has the potential to greatly simply the work in obtaining TPRs from measured %dd curves for small fields. By using this developed empirical formula the uncertainties between directly measured TPRs and converted TPRs from measured %dd curves are within 1%.

  8. An empirical formula to obtain tissue-phantom ratios from percentage depth-dose curves for small fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, George X.; Krauss, Rob

    2013-07-01

    For small photon fields, accurate values of a tissue-phantom ratio (TPR) are difficult to obtain either by direct measurement or by the conventional method of converting from measured percentage depth doses (%dd). This study aims to develop an empirical method to accurately obtain TPRs from %dd curves for small radiosurgery beams. The Monte Carlo simulation codes BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc were used to simulate the accelerator head and small, collimated fields including the circular cone accessory. The Monte Carlo directly calculated TPR values as a function of depth were compared with TPRs converted from %dd curves in a water phantom for field sizes ranging from 4 mm diameter to 10 × 10 cm2 fields. Direct measurements of TPRs were performed with the detector remaining fixed at a SAD of 100 cm and increasing the detector depth by adding water. The %dd curves were measured at 100 cm SSD in a 50 × 50 × 50 cm3 water tank. Using the Monte Carlo values, we developed an empirical formula to obtain TPRs from %dd and validated its accuracy. The conventional method of obtaining TPRs from %dd underestimate TPR by 3.4% and 0.6% at a depth 1.5 cm and overestimate TPR by 6.4% and 1.7% at a depth of 25 cm for 4 mm and 30 mm diameter circular fields, respectively. The empirical formula is derived from realistic Monte Carlo simulations using field sizes ranging from 4 to 30 mm and depth ranging from 1.5 to 25 cm. TPRs calculated using this function deviate from TPRs directly calculated from Monte Carlo by less than 0.5%. The accuracy of this empirical formula is validated against the directly measured TPRs in water. The developed empirical method has the potential to greatly simply the work in obtaining TPRs from measured %dd curves for small fields. By using this developed empirical formula the uncertainties between directly measured TPRs and converted TPRs from measured %dd curves are within 1%.

  9. Compact water depth sensor with LPFG using the photoelastic effect and heat-shrinkable tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takama, Shinya; Kudomi, Takamasa; Ohashi, Masaharu; Miyoshi, Yuji

    2011-12-01

    We propose a compact water depth sensor with a long period fiber grating (LPFG) using a heat-shrinkable tube. The pressure property of the LPFG is investigated experimentally to confirm the feasibility of the water depth sensor. Moreover, the water depth in the 2m long water-filled pipe is successfully estimated by the proposed water sensors.

  10. Vertical distribution of radiation dose rates in the water of a brackish lake in Aomori Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuka, Yoshihito; Iyogi, Takashi; Ueda, Shinji; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi

    2015-11-01

    Seasonal radiation dose rates were measured with glass dosemeters housed in watertight cases at various depths in the water of Lake Obuchi, a brackish lake in Aomori Prefecture, Japan, during fiscal years 2011-2013 to assess the background external radiation dose to aquatic biota in the lake. The mean radiation dose in the surface water of the lake was found to be 27 nGy h(-1), which is almost the same as the absorption dose rate due to cosmic ray reported in the literature. Radiation dose rates decreased exponentially with water depth down to a depth of 1 m above the bottom sediment. In the water near the sediment, the dose rate increased with depth owing to the emission of γ-rays from natural radionuclides in the sediment.

  11. First experimental-based characterization of oxygen ion beam depth dose distributions at the Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurz, C.; Mairani, A.; Parodi, K.

    2012-08-01

    Over the last decades, the application of proton and heavy-ion beams to external beam radiotherapy has rapidly increased. Due to the favourable lateral and depth dose profile, the superposition of narrow ion pencil beams may enable a highly conformal dose delivery to the tumour, with better sparing of the surrounding healthy tissue in comparison to conventional radiation therapy with photons. To fully exploit the promised clinical advantages of ion beams, an accurate planning of the patient treatments is required. The clinical treatment planning system (TPS) at the Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center (HIT) is based on a fast performing analytical algorithm for dose calculation, relying, among others, on laterally integrated depth dose distributions (DDDs) simulated with the FLUKA Monte Carlo (MC) code. Important input parameters of these simulations need to be derived from a comparison of the simulated DDDs with measurements. In this work, the first measurements of 16O ion DDDs at HIT are presented with a focus on the determined Bragg peak positions and the understanding of factors influencing the shape of the distributions. The measurements are compared to different simulation approaches aiming to reproduce the acquired data at best. A simplified geometrical model is first used to optimize important input parameters, not known a priori, in the simulations. This method is then compared to a more realistic, but also more time-consuming simulation approach better accounting for the experimental set-up and the measuring process. The results of this work contributed to a pre-clinical oxygen ion beam database, which is currently used by a research TPS for corresponding radio-biological cell experiments. A future extension to a clinical database used by the clinical TPS at HIT is foreseen. As a side effect, the performed investigations showed that the typical water equivalent calibration approach of experimental data acquired with water column systems leads to slight

  12. Estimating plant water uptake source depths with optimized stable water isotope labeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seeger, Stefan; Weiler, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Depth profiles of pore water stable isotopes in soils in conjunction with measurements of stable water isotopes (SWI) in plant transpiration allow the estimation of the contributions of different soil depths to plant water uptake (PWU).
 However, SWI depth profiles that result from the variations of SWI in natural precipitation may lead to highly ambiguous results, i.e. the same SWI signature in transpiration could result from different PWU patterns or SWI depth profiles. The aim of this study was to find an optimal stable water isotope depth profile to estimate plant water uptake patterns and to compare different PWU source depth estimation methods. We used a new soil water transport model including fractionation effects of SWI and exchange between the vapor and liquid phase to simulate different irrigation scenarios. Different amounts of water with differing SWI signatures (glacier melt water, summer precipitation water, deuterated water) were applied in order to obtain a wide variety of SWI depth profiles. Based on these simulated SWI depth profiles and a set of hypothetical PWU patterns, the theoretical SWI signatures of the respective plant transpiration were computed. In the next step, two methods - Bayesian isotope mixing models (BIMs) and optimization of a parametric distribution function (beta function) - were used to estimate the PWU patterns from the different SWI depth profiles and their respective SWI signatures in the resulting transpiration. Eventually, the estimated and computed profiles were compared to find the best SWI depth profile and the best method. The results showed, that compared to naturally occurring SWI depth profiles, the application of multiple, in terms of SWI, distinct labeling pulses greatly improves the possible spatial resolution and at the same time reduces the uncertainty of PWU estimates.
 For the PWU patterns which were assumed for this study, PWU pattern estimates based on an optimized parametric distribution function

  13. Experimental depth dose curves of a 67.5 MeV proton beam for benchmarking and validation of Monte Carlo simulation

    PubMed Central

    Faddegon, Bruce A.; Shin, Jungwook; Castenada, Carlos M.; Ramos-Méndez, José; Daftari, Inder K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To measure depth dose curves for a 67.5 ± 0.1 MeV proton beam for benchmarking and validation of Monte Carlo simulation. Methods: Depth dose curves were measured in 2 beam lines. Protons in the raw beam line traversed a Ta scattering foil, 0.1016 or 0.381 mm thick, a secondary emission monitor comprised of thin Al foils, and a thin Kapton exit window. The beam energy and peak width and the composition and density of material traversed by the beam were known with sufficient accuracy to permit benchmark quality measurements. Diodes for charged particle dosimetry from two different manufacturers were used to scan the depth dose curves with 0.003 mm depth reproducibility in a water tank placed 300 mm from the exit window. Depth in water was determined with an uncertainty of 0.15 mm, including the uncertainty in the water equivalent depth of the sensitive volume of the detector. Parallel-plate chambers were used to verify the accuracy of the shape of the Bragg peak and the peak-to-plateau ratio measured with the diodes. The uncertainty in the measured peak-to-plateau ratio was 4%. Depth dose curves were also measured with a diode for a Bragg curve and treatment beam spread out Bragg peak (SOBP) on the beam line used for eye treatment. The measurements were compared to Monte Carlo simulation done with geant4 using topas. Results: The 80% dose at the distal side of the Bragg peak for the thinner foil was at 37.47 ± 0.11 mm (average of measurement with diodes from two different manufacturers), compared to the simulated value of 37.20 mm. The 80% dose for the thicker foil was at 35.08 ± 0.15 mm, compared to the simulated value of 34.90 mm. The measured peak-to-plateau ratio was within one standard deviation experimental uncertainty of the simulated result for the thinnest foil and two standard deviations for the thickest foil. It was necessary to include the collimation in the simulation, which had a more pronounced effect on the peak-to-plateau ratio for the

  14. Remote sensing of water depths in shallow waters via artificial neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceyhun, Özçelik; Yalçın, Arısoy

    2010-09-01

    Determination of the water depths in coastal zones is a common requirement for the majority of coastal engineering and coastal science applications. However, production of high quality bathymetric maps requires expensive field survey, high technology equipment and expert personnel. Remotely sensed images can be conveniently used to reduce the cost and labor needed for bathymetric measurements and to overcome the difficulties in spatial and temporal depth provision. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) methodology is introduced in this study to derive bathymetric maps in shallow waters via remote sensing images and sample depth measurements. This methodology provides fast and practical solution for depth estimation in shallow waters, coupling temporal and spatial capabilities of remote sensing imagery with modeling flexibility of ANN. Its main advantage in practice is that it enables to directly use image reflectance values in depth estimations, without refining depth-caused scatterings from other environmental factors (e.g. bottom material and vegetation). Its function-free structure allows evaluating nonlinear relationships between multi-band images and in-situ depth measurements, therefore leads more reliable depth estimations than classical regressive approaches. The west coast of the Foca, Izmir/Turkey was used as a test bed. Aster first three band images and Quickbird pan-sharpened images were used to derive ANN based bathymetric maps of this study area. In-situ depth measurements were supplied from the General Command of Mapping, Turkey (HGK). Two models were set, one for Aster and one for Quickbird image inputs. Bathymetric maps relying solely on in-situ depth measurements were used to evaluate resultant derived bathymetric maps. The efficiency of the methodology was discussed at the end of the paper. It is concluded that the proposed methodology could decrease spatial and repetitive depth measurement requirements in bathymetric mapping especially for

  15. Comparison of depth-dose distributions of proton therapeutic beams calculated by means of logical detectors and ionization chamber modeled in Monte Carlo codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietrzak, Robert; Konefał, Adam; Sokół, Maria; Orlef, Andrzej

    2016-08-01

    The success of proton therapy depends strongly on the precision of treatment planning. Dose distribution in biological tissue may be obtained from Monte Carlo simulations using various scientific codes making it possible to perform very accurate calculations. However, there are many factors affecting the accuracy of modeling. One of them is a structure of objects called bins registering a dose. In this work the influence of bin structure on the dose distributions was examined. The MCNPX code calculations of Bragg curve for the 60 MeV proton beam were done in two ways: using simple logical detectors being the volumes determined in water, and using a precise model of ionization chamber used in clinical dosimetry. The results of the simulations were verified experimentally in the water phantom with Marcus ionization chamber. The average local dose difference between the measured relative doses in the water phantom and those calculated by means of the logical detectors was 1.4% at first 25 mm, whereas in the full depth range this difference was 1.6% for the maximum uncertainty in the calculations less than 2.4% and for the maximum measuring error of 1%. In case of the relative doses calculated with the use of the ionization chamber model this average difference was somewhat greater, being 2.3% at depths up to 25 mm and 2.4% in the full range of depths for the maximum uncertainty in the calculations of 3%. In the dose calculations the ionization chamber model does not offer any additional advantages over the logical detectors. The results provided by both models are similar and in good agreement with the measurements, however, the logical detector approach is a more time-effective method.

  16. Numerical oxidation model for gamma radiation-sterilized UHMWPE: consideration of dose-depth profile.

    PubMed

    Blanchet, T A; Burroughs, B R

    2001-01-01

    Gamma sterilization of UHMWPE hip and knee joint replacement components secondarily creates free radicals along the polymer chains. Though crosslinking between radicals may improve mechanical properties, typical post-irradiation environments (air shelf storage or in vivo service) may instead favor scission reactions with oxygen from the surroundings. As such aging of irradiated UHMWPE joint replacement components has important consequences such as osteolysis, increased insight has been sought through descriptive models of this oxidation process. The quantitative numerical model presented here accounts for a free radical concentration that varies with position (because of irradiation dose-depth profile) and time (because of free radical decay through crosslinking). A moving front of diffusing O(2) is allowed to traverse the UHMWPE medium containing depth- and time-dependent free radical concentration, and these diffusing molecules react with available free radicals persisting at the front. This model's capabilities are illustrated in three examples of irradiated UHMWPE aging behavior: In room-temperature air (shelf-aging), in atmospheres of augmented oxygen partial pressure and temperature intended to accelerate aging while otherwise remaining simulative of real-time aging; and following post-irradiation vacuum storage intended to consume free radicals through complete crosslinking, but often performed to an incomplete extent.

  17. Depth-dose equivalent relationship for cosmic rays at various solar minima

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.; Cucinotta, F. A.; O'Neill, P. M.

    1993-01-01

    Galactic cosmic rays (GCR) pose a serious radiation hazard for long-duration missions. In designing a lunar habitat or a Mars transfer vehicle, the radiation exposure determines the GCR shielding thickness, and hence the weight of spacecraft. Using the spherically symmetric diffusion theory of the solar modulation of GCR, and data on the differential energy spectra of H, He, O, and Fe, from 1965 to 1989, it has been shown that (1) the flux is determined by the diffusion parameter which is a function of the time in the solar cycle, and (2) the fluxes in the 1954 and 1976-1977 solar minima were similar and higher than those in 1965. In this paper, we have extended the spherical solar modulation theory back to 1954. The 1954-1955 GCR flux was nearly the same as that from 1976 to 1977; the 1965 flux values were nearly the same as those in 1986. Using this theory we have obtained the GCR spectra for all the nuclei, and calculated the depth dose as a function of Al thickness. It is shown that the shielding required to stay below 0.5 Sv is 17.5 -3/+8 g/sq cm of Al, and 9 -1.5/+5 g/sq cm to stay below 0.6 Sv. The calculated dose equivalent using the ICRP 60 values for quality factors is about 15 percent higher than that calculated using the ICRP 26 value.

  18. On measuring depth-dose distribution of range-modulated proton therapy fields

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, H.-M.

    2006-07-15

    Depth-dose profile measurements are frequently performed for the characterization of spread-out Bragg peak treatment fields in proton therapy. The measured distribution often contains a significant amount of noise with a persistent pattern. As a result, substantial smoothing has to be applied which can alter a measurement. We explored the origin of the observed noise by closely examining the sampling process in the scanning algorithm. We will show that the time characteristics of the signal in the range-modulated proton therapy beams differ significantly from those in the photon beams, and as a result the measurement error is very sensitive to the sampling duration. The observed noise results mainly from inappropriate choices for this value, rather than from the dose distribution itself. Increasing the value arbitrarily may actually increase the noise magnitude. We will demonstrate that with an optimal value for the sampling duration and its accurate control, the noise magnitude can be reduced significantly, without increasing the measurement time.

  19. Irrigation depth far exceeds water uptake depth in an oasis cropland in the middle reaches of Heihe River Basin

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bin; Wen, Xuefa; Sun, Xiaomin

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural irrigation in the middle reaches of the Heihe River Basin consumes approximately 80% of the total river water. Whether the irrigation depth matches the water uptake depth of crops is one of the most important factors affecting the efficiency of irrigation water use. Our results indicated that the influence of plastic film on soil water δ18O was restricted to 0–30 cm soil depth. Based on a Bayesian model (MixSIR), we found that irrigated maize acquired water preferentially from 0–10 cm soil layer, with a median uptake proportion of 87 ± 15%. Additionally, maize utilised a mixture of irrigation and shallow soil water instead of absorbing the irrigation water directly. However, only 24.7 ± 5.5% of irrigation water remained in 0–10 cm soil layer, whereas 29.5 ± 2.8% and 38.4 ± 3.3% of the irrigation water infiltrated into 10–40 cm and 40–80 cm layers. During the 4 irrigation events, approximately 39% of the irrigation and rainwater infiltrated into soil layers below 80 cm. Reducing irrigation amount and developing water-saving irrigation methods will be important strategies for improving the efficiency of irrigation water use in this area. PMID:26463010

  20. Irrigation depth far exceeds water uptake depth in an oasis cropland in the middle reaches of Heihe River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bin; Wen, Xuefa; Sun, Xiaomin

    2015-10-01

    Agricultural irrigation in the middle reaches of the Heihe River Basin consumes approximately 80% of the total river water. Whether the irrigation depth matches the water uptake depth of crops is one of the most important factors affecting the efficiency of irrigation water use. Our results indicated that the influence of plastic film on soil water δ18O was restricted to 0-30 cm soil depth. Based on a Bayesian model (MixSIR), we found that irrigated maize acquired water preferentially from 0-10 cm soil layer, with a median uptake proportion of 87 ± 15%. Additionally, maize utilised a mixture of irrigation and shallow soil water instead of absorbing the irrigation water directly. However, only 24.7 ± 5.5% of irrigation water remained in 0-10 cm soil layer, whereas 29.5 ± 2.8% and 38.4 ± 3.3% of the irrigation water infiltrated into 10-40 cm and 40-80 cm layers. During the 4 irrigation events, approximately 39% of the irrigation and rainwater infiltrated into soil layers below 80 cm. Reducing irrigation amount and developing water-saving irrigation methods will be important strategies for improving the efficiency of irrigation water use in this area.

  1. Irrigation depth far exceeds water uptake depth in an oasis cropland in the middle reaches of Heihe River Basin.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bin; Wen, Xuefa; Sun, Xiaomin

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural irrigation in the middle reaches of the Heihe River Basin consumes approximately 80% of the total river water. Whether the irrigation depth matches the water uptake depth of crops is one of the most important factors affecting the efficiency of irrigation water use. Our results indicated that the influence of plastic film on soil water δ(18)O was restricted to 0-30 cm soil depth. Based on a Bayesian model (MixSIR), we found that irrigated maize acquired water preferentially from 0-10 cm soil layer, with a median uptake proportion of 87 ± 15%. Additionally, maize utilised a mixture of irrigation and shallow soil water instead of absorbing the irrigation water directly. However, only 24.7 ± 5.5% of irrigation water remained in 0-10 cm soil layer, whereas 29.5 ± 2.8% and 38.4 ± 3.3% of the irrigation water infiltrated into 10-40 cm and 40-80 cm layers. During the 4 irrigation events, approximately 39% of the irrigation and rainwater infiltrated into soil layers below 80 cm. Reducing irrigation amount and developing water-saving irrigation methods will be important strategies for improving the efficiency of irrigation water use in this area.

  2. Nonlinear Interactions between Gravity Waves in Water of Constant Depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szmidt, Kazimierz; Hedzielski, Benedykt

    2015-06-01

    The paper deals with interactions between water waves propagating in fluid of constant depth. In formulation of this problem, a nonlinear character of these interactions is taken into account. In particular, in order to simplify a solution to nonlinear boundary conditions at the free surface, a system of material coordinates is employed as independent variables in the description of the phenomenon. The main attention is focused on the transient solutions corresponding to fluid motion starting from rest. With respect to the initial value problem considered, we confine our attention to a finite fluid domain. For a finite elapse of time, measured from the starting point, the solution in a finite fluid area mimics a solution within an infinite domain, inherent for wave propagation problems. Because of the complicated structure of equations describing nonlinear waves, an approximate formulation is considered, which is based on a power series expansion of dependent variables with respect to a small parameter. Such a solution is assumed to be accurate in describing the main features of the phenomenon. Numerical experiments are conducted to illustrate the approximate formulation developed in this paper.

  3. Depth dose distributions measured with thermoluminescence detectors inside the anthropomorphic torso of the MATROSHKA experiment inside and outside the ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Thomas; Reitz, Guenther; Hajek, Michael; Bergmann, Robert; Bilski, Pawel; Puchalska, Msc. Monika

    The ESA MATROSHKA (MTR) facility was realized through the German Aerospace Center, DLR, Cologne, as main contractor, aiming for the determination of skin and organ doses within a simulated human upper torso. MTR simulates, by applying an anthropomorphic upper torso, as exact as possible an astronaut performing either an extravehicular activity (EVA) (MTR Phase 1) or an astronaut working inside the International Space Station (MTR Phase 2A). It consists of a human phantom, a Base Structure and a Carbon fibre container - simulating the astronaut‘s space suit. The phantom itself is made up of 33 slices composed of natural bones, embedded in tissue equivalent plastic of different density for tissue and lung. The Phantom slices are equipped with channels and cut-outs to allow the accommodation of active and passive dosemeters, temperature and pressure sensors. Over 4800 passive detectors (thermoluminescence detectors (TLDs) and plastic nuclear track detectors) constitute the radiation experiments which are beside inside the phantom also located on top the head of the phantom, in front of the belly and around the body as part of a Poncho and a Hood. In its 1st exposure phase (MTR 1: 2004 - 2005) MTR measured the depth dose distribution of an astronaut performing an EVA - mounted outside the Zvezda Module. In its 2nd exposure phase the phantom was positioned inside the ISS to monitor the radiation environment and measure the depth dose distribution in dependence on the inside shielding configurations. The majority of the TLDs provided for the determination of the depth dose distribution was provided by IFJ-PAN, ATI and DLR. Data of "combined" depth dose distribution of the three different groups will be shown for the MTR-1 exposure (outside the ISS) and the MTR-2A (inside the ISS). The discussion will focus on the difference in depth dose as well as skin dose distribution based on the different shielding thickness provided by the two experimental phases.

  4. Determination of the Absorbed Dose Rate to Water for the 18-mm Helmet of a Gamma Knife

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Hyun-Tai; Park, Youngho; Hyun, Sangil; Choi, Yongsoo; Kim, Gi Hong; Kim, Dong Gyu; Chun, Kook Jin

    2011-04-01

    Purpose: To measure the absorbed dose rate to water of {sup 60}Co gamma rays of a Gamma Knife Model C using water-filled phantoms (WFP). Methods and Materials: Spherical WFP with an equivalent water depth of 5, 7, 8, and 9 cm were constructed. The dose rates at the center of an 18-mm helmet were measured in an 8-cm WFP (WFP-3) and two plastic phantoms. Two independent measurement systems were used: one was calibrated to an air kerma (Set I) and the other was calibrated to the absorbed dose to water (Set II). The dose rates of WFP-3 and the plastic phantoms were converted to dose rates for an 8-cm water depth using the attenuation coefficient and the equivalent water depths. Results: The dose rate measured at the center of WFP-3 using Set II was 2.2% and 1.0% higher than dose rates measured at the center of the two plastic phantoms. The measured effective attenuation coefficient of Gamma Knife photon beam in WFPs was 0.0621 cm{sup -1}. After attenuation correction, the difference between the dose rate at an 8-cm water depth measured in WFP-3 and dose rates in the plastic phantoms was smaller than the uncertainty of the measurements. Conclusions: Systematic errors related to the characteristics of the phantom materials in the dose rate measurement of a Gamma Knife need to be corrected for. Correction of the dose rate using an equivalent water depth and attenuation provided results that were more consistent.

  5. Solar Inactivation of Enterococci and Escherichia coli in Natural Waters: Effects of Water Absorbance and Depth.

    PubMed

    Maraccini, Peter A; Mattioli, Mia Catharine M; Sassoubre, Lauren M; Cao, Yiping; Griffith, John F; Ervin, Jared S; Van De Werfhorst, Laurie C; Boehm, Alexandria B

    2016-05-17

    The decay of sewage-sourced Escherichia coli and enterococci was measured at multiple depths in a freshwater marsh, a brackish water lagoon, and a marine site, all located in California. The marine site had very clear water, while the waters from the marsh and lagoon contained colored dissolved organic matter that not only blocked light but also produced reactive oxygen species. First order decay rate constants of both enterococci and E. coli were between 1 and 2 d(-1) under low light conditions and as high as 6 d(-1) under high light conditions. First order decay rate constants were well correlated to the daily average UVB light intensity corrected for light screening incorporating water absorbance and depth, suggesting endogenous photoinactivation is a major pathway for bacterial decay. Additional laboratory experiments demonstrated the presence of colored dissolved organic matter in marsh water enhanced photoinactivation of a laboratory strain of Enterococcus faecalis, but depressed photoinactivation of sewage-sourced enterococci and E. coli after correcting for UVB light screening, suggesting that although the exogenous indirect photoinactivation mechanism may be active against Ent. faecalis, it is not for the sewage-source organisms. A simple linear regression model based on UVB light intensity appears to be a useful tool for predicting inactivation rate constants in natural waters of any depth and absorbance. PMID:27119980

  6. Depth of soil water uptake by tropical rainforest trees during dry periods: does tree dimension matter?

    PubMed

    Stahl, Clément; Hérault, Bruno; Rossi, Vivien; Burban, Benoit; Bréchet, Claude; Bonal, Damien

    2013-12-01

    Though the root biomass of tropical rainforest trees is concentrated in the upper soil layers, soil water uptake by deep roots has been shown to contribute to tree transpiration. A precise evaluation of the relationship between tree dimensions and depth of water uptake would be useful in tree-based modelling approaches designed to anticipate the response of tropical rainforest ecosystems to future changes in environmental conditions. We used an innovative dual-isotope labelling approach (deuterium in surface soil and oxygen at 120-cm depth) coupled with a modelling approach to investigate the role of tree dimensions in soil water uptake in a tropical rainforest exposed to seasonal drought. We studied 65 trees of varying diameter and height and with a wide range of predawn leaf water potential (Ψpd) values. We confirmed that about half of the studied trees relied on soil water below 100-cm depth during dry periods. Ψpd was negatively correlated with depth of water extraction and can be taken as a rough proxy of this depth. Some trees showed considerable plasticity in their depth of water uptake, exhibiting an efficient adaptive strategy for water and nutrient resource acquisition. We did not find a strong relationship between tree dimensions and depth of water uptake. While tall trees preferentially extract water from layers below 100-cm depth, shorter trees show broad variations in mean depth of water uptake. This precludes the use of tree dimensions to parameterize functional models.

  7. Estimated Depth to Ground Water and Configuration of the Water Table in the Portland, Oregon Area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2008-01-01

    Reliable information on the configuration of the water table in the Portland metropolitan area is needed to address concerns about various water-resource issues, especially with regard to potential effects from stormwater injection systems such as UIC (underground injection control) systems that are either existing or planned. To help address these concerns, this report presents the estimated depth-to-water and water-table elevation maps for the Portland area, along with estimates of the relative uncertainty of the maps and seasonal water-table fluctuations. The method of analysis used to determine the water-table configuration in the Portland area relied on water-level data from shallow wells and surface-water features that are representative of the water table. However, the largest source of available well data is water-level measurements in reports filed by well constructors at the time of new well installation, but these data frequently were not representative of static water-level conditions. Depth-to-water measurements reported in well-construction records generally were shallower than measurements by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in the same or nearby wells, although many depth-to-water measurements were substantially deeper than USGS measurements. Magnitudes of differences in depth-to-water measurements reported in well records and those measured by the USGS in the same or nearby wells ranged from -119 to 156 feet with a mean of the absolute value of the differences of 36 feet. One possible cause for the differences is that water levels in many wells reported in well records were not at equilibrium at the time of measurement. As a result, the analysis of the water-table configuration relied on water levels measured during the current study or used in previous USGS investigations in the Portland area. Because of the scarcity of well data in some areas, the locations of select surface-water features including major rivers, streams, lakes, wetlands, and

  8. Correction for depth biases to shallow water multibeam bathymetric data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fan-lin; Li, Jia-biao; Liu, Zhi-min; Han, Li-tao

    2013-04-01

    Vertical errors often present in multibeam swath bathymetric data. They are mainly sourced by sound refraction, internal wave disturbance, imperfect tide correction, transducer mounting, long period heave, static draft change, dynamic squat and dynamic motion residuals, etc. Although they can be partly removed or reduced by specific algorithms, the synthesized depth biases are unavoidable and sometimes have an important influence on high precise utilization of the final bathymetric data. In order to confidently identify the decimeter-level changes in seabed morphology by MBES, we must remove or weaken depth biases and improve the precision of multibeam bathymetry further. The fixed-interval profiles that are perpendicular to the vessel track are generated to adjust depth biases between swaths. We present a kind of postprocessing method to minimize the depth biases by the histogram of cumulative depth biases. The datum line in each profile can be obtained by the maximum value of histogram. The corrections of depth biases can be calculated according to the datum line. And then the quality of final bathymetry can be improved by the corrections. The method is verified by a field test.

  9. Relationship between body condition of American alligators and water depth in the Everglades, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fujisaki, Ikuko; Rice, Kenneth G.; Pearlstine, Leonard G.; Mazzotti, Frank J.

    2009-01-01

    Feeding opportunities of American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) in freshwater wetlands in south Florida are closely linked to hydrologic conditions. In the Everglades, seasonally and annually fluctuating surface water levels affect populations of aquatic organisms that alligators consume. Since prey becomes more concentrated when water depth decreases, we hypothesized an inverse relationship between body condition and water depth in the Everglades. On average, condition of adult alligators in the dry season was significantly higher than in the wet season, but this was not the case for juveniles/subadults. The correlation between body condition and measured water depth at capture locations was weak; however, there was a significant negative correlation between the condition and predicted water depth prior to capture for all animals except for spring juveniles/subadults which had a weak positive condition-water depth relationship. Overall, a relatively strong inverse correlation occurred at 10-49 days prior to the capture day, suggesting that current body condition of alligators may depend on feeding opportunities during that period. Fitted regression of body condition on water depth (mean depth of 10 days when condition-water depth correlation was greatest) resulted in a significantly negative slope, except for spring adult females and spring juveniles/subadults for which slopes were not significantly different from zero. Our results imply that water management practices may be critical for alligators in the Everglades since water depth can affect animal condition in a relatively short period of time.

  10. Monitoring waterbird abundance in wetlands: The importance of controlling results for variation in water depth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bolduc, F.; Afton, A.D.

    2008-01-01

    Wetland use by waterbirds is highly dependent on water depth, and depth requirements generally vary among species. Furthermore, water depth within wetlands often varies greatly over time due to unpredictable hydrological events, making comparisons of waterbird abundance among wetlands difficult as effects of habitat variables and water depth are confounded. Species-specific relationships between bird abundance and water depth necessarily are non-linear; thus, we developed a methodology to correct waterbird abundance for variation in water depth, based on the non-parametric regression of these two variables. Accordingly, we used the difference between observed and predicted abundances from non-parametric regression (analogous to parametric residuals) as an estimate of bird abundance at equivalent water depths. We scaled this difference to levels of observed and predicted abundances using the formula: ((observed - predicted abundance)/(observed + predicted abundance)) ?? 100. This estimate also corresponds to the observed:predicted abundance ratio, which allows easy interpretation of results. We illustrated this methodology using two hypothetical species that differed in water depth and wetland preferences. Comparisons of wetlands, using both observed and relative corrected abundances, indicated that relative corrected abundance adequately separates the effect of water depth from the effect of wetlands. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

  11. Experimental verification of improved depth-dose distribution using hyper-thermal neutron incidence in neutron capture therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurai, Yoshinori; Kobayashi, Tooru

    2001-01-01

    We have proposed the utilization of `hyper-thermal neutrons' for neutron capture therapy (NCT) from the viewpoint of the improvement in the dose distribution in a human body. In order to verify the improved depth-dose distribution due to hyper-thermal neutron incidence, two experiments were carried out using a test-type hyper-thermal neutron generator at a thermal neutron irradiation field in Kyoto University Reactor (KUR), which is actually utilized for NCT clinical irradiation. From the free-in-air experiment for the spectrum-shift characteristics, it was confirmed that the hyper-thermal neutrons of approximately 860 K at maximum could be obtained by the generator. From the phantom experiment, the improvement effect and the controllability for the depth-dose distribution were confirmed. For example, it was found that the relative neutron depth-dose distribution was about 1 cm improved with the 860 K hyper-thermal neutron incidence, compared to the normal thermal neutron incidence.

  12. Experimental verification of improved depth-dose distribution using hyper-thermal neutron incidence in neutron capture therapy.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Y; Kobayashi, T

    2001-01-01

    We have proposed the utilization of 'hyper-thermal neutrons' for neutron capture therapy (NCT) from the viewpoint of the improvement in the dose distribution in a human body. In order to verify the improved depth-dose distribution due to hyper-thermal neutron incidence, two experiments were carried out using a test-type hyper-thermal neutron generator at a thermal neutron irradiation field in Kyoto University Reactor (KUR), which is actually utilized for NCT clinical irradiation. From the free-in-air experiment for the spectrum-shift characteristics, it was confirmed that the hyper-thermal neutrons of approximately 860 K at maximum could be obtained by the generator. From the phantom experiment, the improvement effect and the controllability for the depth-dose distribution were confirmed. For example, it was found that the relative neutron depth-dose distribution was about 1 cm improved with the 860 K hyper-thermal neutron incidence, compared to the normal thermal neutron incidence.

  13. A comparison of observed and analytically derived remote sensing penetration depths for turbid water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, W. D.; Usry, J. W.; Witte, W. G.; Whitlock, C. H.; Guraus, E. A.

    1981-01-01

    The depth to which sunlight will penetrate in turbid waters was investigated. The tests were conducted in water with a single scattering albedo range, and over a range of solar elevation angles. Two different techniques were used to determine the depth of light penetration. It showed little change in the depth of sunlight penetration with changing solar elevation angle. A comparison of the penetration depths indicates that the best agreement between the two methods was achieved when the quasisingle scattering relationship was not corrected for solar angle. It is concluded that sunlight penetration is dependent on inherent water properties only.

  14. Regression analysis of growth responses to water depth in three wetland plant species

    PubMed Central

    Sorrell, Brian K.; Tanner, Chris C.; Brix, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Plant species composition in wetlands and on lakeshores often shows dramatic zonation, which is frequently ascribed to differences in flooding tolerance. This study compared the growth responses to water depth of three species (Phormium tenax, Carex secta and Typha orientalis) differing in depth preferences in wetlands, using non-linear and quantile regression analyses to establish how flooding tolerance can explain field zonation. Methodology Plants were established for 8 months in outdoor cultures in waterlogged soil without standing water, and then randomly allocated to water depths from 0 to 0.5 m. Morphological and growth responses to depth were followed for 54 days before harvest, and then analysed by repeated-measures analysis of covariance, and non-linear and quantile regression analysis (QRA), to compare flooding tolerances. Principal results Growth responses to depth differed between the three species, and were non-linear. Phormium tenax growth decreased rapidly in standing water >0.25 m depth, C. secta growth increased initially with depth but then decreased at depths >0.30 m, accompanied by increased shoot height and decreased shoot density, and T. orientalis was unaffected by the 0- to 0.50-m depth range. In P. tenax the decrease in growth was associated with a decrease in the number of leaves produced per ramet and in C. secta the effect of water depth was greatest for the tallest shoots. Allocation patterns were unaffected by depth. Conclusions The responses are consistent with the principle that zonation in the field is primarily structured by competition in shallow water and by physiological flooding tolerance in deep water. Regression analyses, especially QRA, proved to be powerful tools in distinguishing genuine phenotypic responses to water depth from non-phenotypic variation due to size and developmental differences. PMID:23259044

  15. Borehole sounding device with sealed depth and water level sensors

    DOEpatents

    Skalski, Joseph C.; Henke, Michael D.

    2005-08-02

    A borehole device having proximal and distal ends comprises an enclosure at the proximal end for accepting an aircraft cable containing a plurality of insulated conductors from a remote position. A water sensing enclosure is sealingly attached to the enclosure and contains means for detecting water, and sending a signal on the cable to the remote position indicating water has been detected. A bottom sensing enclosure is sealingly attached to the water sensing enclosure for determining when the borehole device encounters borehole bottom and sends a signal on the cable to the remote position indicating that borehole bottom has been encountered.

  16. Links between climate change, water-table depth, and water chemistry in a mineralized mountain watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manning, Andrew H.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Caine,; Todd, Andrew S.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that climate change is causing rising solute concentrations in mountain lakes and streams. These changes may be more pronounced in mineralized watersheds due to the sensitivity of sulfide weathering to changes in subsurface oxygen transport. Specific causal mechanisms linking climate change and accelerated weathering rates have been proposed, but in general remain entirely hypothetical. For mineralized watersheds, a favored hypothesis is that falling water tables caused by declining recharge rates allow an increasing volume of sulfide-bearing rock to become exposed to air, thus oxygen. Here, we test the hypothesis that falling water tables are the primary cause of an increase in metals and SO4 (100-400%) observed since 1980 in the Upper Snake River (USR), Colorado. The USR drains an alpine watershed geologically and climatologically representative of many others in mineralized areas of the western U.S. Hydrologic and chemical data collected from 2005 to 2011 in a deep monitoring well (WP1) at the top of the USR watershed are utilized. During this period, both water table depths and groundwater SO4 concentrations have generally increased in the well. A numerical model was constructed using TOUGHREACT that simulates pyrite oxidation near WP1, including groundwater flow and oxygen transport in both saturated and unsaturated zones. The modeling suggests that a falling water table could produce an increase in metals and SO4 of a magnitude similar to that observed in the USR (up to 300%). Future water table declines may produce limited increases in sulfide weathering high in the watershed because of the water table dropping below the depth of oxygen penetration, but may continue to enhance sulfide weathering lower in the watershed where water tables are shallower. Advective air (oxygen) transport in the unsaturated zone caused by seasonally variable recharge and associated water table fluctuations was found to have little influence on pyrite

  17. Deep water drilling and production Articulated Column - Water depth 350m

    SciTech Connect

    Baduel, F.; Figenschou, A.

    1985-01-01

    An Articulated Tower for drilling and production in the Norwegian Sea for 350m water depth is presented. Main features are: Christmas trees at the deck-level, 17,000 tonnes deck payload, limited motions, steel structure including main float and lattice, low stressed mechanical articulation with anti-torque device and controlled bending risers. The extensive study has considered in detail the behaviour in extreme conditions, the fatigue of main structural parts and risers, operating procedures, fabrication and installation. General results are given concerning behaviour, structural design, articulation, bending riser, fabrication and installation. A fabrication and installation schedule is also given.

  18. A quantile count model of water depth constraints on Cape Sable seaside sparrows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cade, B.S.; Dong, Q.

    2008-01-01

    1. A quantile regression model for counts of breeding Cape Sable seaside sparrows Ammodramus maritimus mirabilis (L.) as a function of water depth and previous year abundance was developed based on extensive surveys, 1992-2005, in the Florida Everglades. The quantile count model extends linear quantile regression methods to discrete response variables, providing a flexible alternative to discrete parametric distributional models, e.g. Poisson, negative binomial and their zero-inflated counterparts. 2. Estimates from our multiplicative model demonstrated that negative effects of increasing water depth in breeding habitat on sparrow numbers were dependent on recent occupation history. Upper 10th percentiles of counts (one to three sparrows) decreased with increasing water depth from 0 to 30 cm when sites were not occupied in previous years. However, upper 40th percentiles of counts (one to six sparrows) decreased with increasing water depth for sites occupied in previous years. 3. Greatest decreases (-50% to -83%) in upper quantiles of sparrow counts occurred as water depths increased from 0 to 15 cm when previous year counts were 1, but a small proportion of sites (5-10%) held at least one sparrow even as water depths increased to 20 or 30 cm. 4. A zero-inflated Poisson regression model provided estimates of conditional means that also decreased with increasing water depth but rates of change were lower and decreased with increasing previous year counts compared to the quantile count model. Quantiles computed for the zero-inflated Poisson model enhanced interpretation of this model but had greater lack-of-fit for water depths > 0 cm and previous year counts 1, conditions where the negative effect of water depths were readily apparent and fitted better with the quantile count model.

  19. Depth Dose Distribution Study within a Phantom Torso after Irradiation with a Simulated Solar Particle Event at NSRL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, Thomas; Matthiae, Daniel; Koerner, Christine; George, Kerry; Rhone, Jordan; Cucinotta, Francis; Reitz, Guenther

    2010-01-01

    The adequate knowledge of the radiation environment and the doses incurred during a space mission is essential for estimating an astronaut's health risk. The space radiation environment is complex and variable, and exposures inside the spacecraft and the astronaut's body are compounded by the interactions of the primary particles with the atoms of the structural materials and with the body itself Astronauts' radiation exposures are measured by means of personal dosimetry, but there remains substantial uncertainty associated with the computational extrapolation of skin dose to organ dose, which can lead to over- or underestimation of the health risk. Comparisons of models to data showed that the astronaut's Effective dose (E) can be predicted to within about a +10% accuracy using space radiation transport models for galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and trapped radiation behind shielding. However for solar particle event (SPE) with steep energy spectra and for extra-vehicular activities on the surface of the moon where only tissue shielding is present, transport models predict that there are large differences in model assumptions in projecting organ doses. Therefore experimental verification of SPE induced organ doses may be crucial for the design of lunar missions. In the research experiment "Depth dose distribution study within a phantom torso" at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at BNL, Brookhaven, USA the large 1972 SPE spectrum was simulated using seven different proton energies from 50 up to 450 MeV. A phantom torso constructed of natural bones and realistic distributions of human tissue equivalent materials, which is comparable to the torso of the MATROSHKA phantom currently on the ISS, was equipped with a comprehensive set of thermoluminescence detectors and human cells. The detectors are applied to assess the depth dose distribution and radiation transport codes (e.g. GEANT4) are used to assess the radiation field and interactions of the radiation field

  20. Ground-water contribution to dose from past Hanford operations

    SciTech Connect

    Freshley, M. D.; Thorne, P. D.

    1992-01-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEOR) Project is being conducted to estimate radiation doses that populations and individuals could have received from Hanford Site operations from 1944 to the present. Four possible pathways by which radionuclides originating in ground water on the Hanford Site could have reached the public have been identified: 1) through contaminated ground water migrating to the Columbia River; 2) through wells on or adjacent to the Hanford Site; 3) through wells that draw some or all of their water from the Columbia River (riparian wells); and 4) through atmospheric deposition resulting in the contamination of a small watershed that, in turn, results in contamination of a shallow well or spring. These four pathways make up the "ground-water pathway ," which is the subject of this study. The objective of the study was to assess the extent to which the groundwater pathway contributed to radiation doses that populations or individuals may have received from past operations at Hanford. The assessment presented in this report was performed by 1) reviewing the extensive literature on ground water and ground-water monitoring at Hanford and 2) performing simple calculations to estimate radionuclide concentrations in ground water and the Columbia River resulting from ground-water discharge. Radiation doses that would result from exposure to this ground water and surface water were calculated. The study conclusion is that the ground-water pathways did not contribute significantly to dose. Compared with background radiation in the TriCities {300 mrem/yr), estimated doses are small: 0.02 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent from discharge of contaminated ground water to the Columbia River; 1 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent from Hanford Site wells; 11 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent from riparian wells; and 1 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent from the watershed. Because the estimated doses are so small, the recommendation is that further work

  1. Infrared spectra of penetration depth of into water and of water refraction-index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichikawa, Mahito

    1990-01-01

    Infrared radiation heating is becoming widely applied to drying processes of wet industrial materials and to heating processes for food-stuff containing water etc. Thus a growing importance is attributed to clarify the exactpenetration depth of IR radiation into water from heating engineering view point. Many IR transmittance data on water film have been published by various authors. All of them as far as the author knows, however, failed to indicate the detailed optical data of the two window plates used to fix water film thickness. Accordingly the exact penetration depth (or inverse of Lambert absorption coefficient) into water cannot be known, since multi-reflection takes place within bounded water and window plates too, thus affecting the transmittance value to be measured. Moreover in the measurement of very thin water film, there takes place often an interference between forward going electro-magnetic wave and successively reflected backward one. This too affects the measurement particularly in IR region of higher transmittance. Messrs. Robertson & Williams tackled with the captioned theme in the early years, and indicated, in their report" difficulty to remove the unfavorable effects introduced by window plates in view of finding Lambert coeff. of water. The difficulty had been experienced those days by many authors. Robertson & Williams elaborated a special precise absorption cell with window plates of either CaF2 or KRS-5, and succeeded in giving fairly good Lambert coeff.~ for 2.33 - 33.3 micro-meter wavelength region. They seemed to have paid enough experimental consideration and made some corrections on the inevitable interference effect, but not enough on the multi-reflection effect. Accordingly their derived formula for giving~ was not fully theoretically correct, since taking ratio of the two transmittance values with different water thickness did not cancel out all of the window plate effect. The author has carefully taken into consideration the

  2. Tracking water pathways in steep hillslopes by δ18O depth profiles of soil water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Matthias H.; Alaoui, Abdallah; Kuells, Christoph; Leistert, Hannes; Meusburger, Katrin; Stumpp, Christine; Weiler, Markus; Alewell, Christine

    2014-11-01

    Assessing temporal variations in soil water flow is important, especially at the hillslope scale, to identify mechanisms of runoff and flood generation and pathways for nutrients and pollutants in soils. While surface processes are well considered and parameterized, the assessment of subsurface processes at the hillslope scale is still challenging since measurement of hydrological pathways is connected to high efforts in time, money and personnel work. The latter might not even be possible in alpine environments with harsh winter processes. Soil water stable isotope profiles may offer a time-integrating fingerprint of subsurface water pathways. In this study, we investigated the suitability of soil water stable isotope (δ18O) depth profiles to identify water flow paths along two transects of steep subalpine hillslopes in the Swiss Alps. We applied a one-dimensional advection-dispersion model using δ18O values of precipitation (ranging from -24.7 to -2.9‰) as input data to simulate the δ18O profiles of soil water. The variability of δ18O values with depth within each soil profile and a comparison of the simulated and measured δ18O profiles were used to infer information about subsurface hydrological pathways. The temporal pattern of δ18O in precipitation was found in several profiles, ranging from -14.5 to -4.0‰. This suggests that vertical percolation plays an important role even at slope angles of up to 46°. Lateral subsurface flow and/or mixing of soil water at lower slope angles might occur in deeper soil layers and at sites near a small stream. The difference between several observed and simulated δ18O profiles revealed spatially highly variable infiltration patterns during the snowmelt periods: The δ18O value of snow (-17.7 ± 1.9‰) was absent in several measured δ18O profiles but present in the respective simulated δ18O profiles. This indicated overland flow and/or preferential flow through the soil profile during the melt period. The applied

  3. Multivariate modeling of settling depth of apple fruit (Red Delicious variety) in water.

    PubMed

    Kheiralipour, Kamran; Marzbani, Farshid

    2016-03-01

    Settling depth of apple was determined by a water column and a digital camera. The depth was experimentally modeled using multivariate regression using a coded program in MATLAB software. The best models were based on the density, dropping height volume/mass with coefficient of determination and mean square error of 0.90 and 4.08, respectively.

  4. Neutron fluence depth profiles in water phantom on epithermal beam of LVR-15 research reactor.

    PubMed

    Viererbl, L; Klupak, V; Lahodova, Z; Marek, M; Burian, J

    2010-01-01

    Horizontal channel with epithermal neutron beam at the LVR-15 research reactor is used mainly for boron neutron capture therapy. Neutron fluence depth profiles in a water phantom characterise beam properties. The neutron fluence (approximated by reaction rates) depth profiles were measured with six different types of activation detectors. The profiles were determined for thermal, epithermal and fast neutrons.

  5. Is topsoil water repellency a mechanism for improving water conservation in depth?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozano, Elena; Jiménez-Pinilla, Patricia; Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Arcenegui, Vicky; Mataix-Beneyto, Jorge

    2013-04-01

    Soil water repellency (WR) is widespread in forest soils under different climatic conditions, soil types and vegetation covers (Doerr et al., 2000). It is normally characterized by a high spatial variability in persistence, showing wettable and water repellent patches. This phenomenon has a special interest in semiarid areas, such as the Mediterranean ecosystems, where water resources are limited. For that reason, it is thought to be a possible mechanism for improving water conservation in soil profile, which would minimize evaporation losses from the soil surface (Doerr et al., 2000; Robinson et al. 2010). The ecological function of having a patchy hydrophobic surface might be the means of transporting water deeper into the soil profile and away from surface evaporation. In addition, it may also inhibit the growth of other vegetal species. This could increase the resistance of plants to drought by increasing water availability through reducing losses to surface evaporation or other plants. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that soil WR improves the water conservation within the soil. We have compared the temporal evolution of soil moisture between samples with repellent and wettable layers. Repellent and wettable soil samples were collected from an agricultural area in Biar (Alicante, Spain). Samples were put in 100ml plastic pots (n=30). Each one had two layers (WR and wettable or both wettable) with depth around 2.5cm for superficial and 3.5cm for deeper wettable horizon. We measured the evolution under different initial conditions of soil water content (around 20% and 9%) and soil superficial WR persistence (wettable, slight, strong and severe soil (n=5 per treatment)). Pots were kept under laboratory conditions (between 30-50% of relative air humidity and ? 20°C). Soil water content was controlled daily by weight measurement. Our results showed a clear significant difference in evaporation rates, which were higher in samples with a wettable superficial layer

  6. Detecting spatio-temporal controls on depth distributions of root water uptake using soil moisture patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blume, Theresa; Heidbüchel, Ingo; Simard, Sonia; Güntner, Andreas; Weiler, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Landscape scale soil moisture patterns show a pronounced shift when plants become active during the growing season. Soil moisture patterns are then not only controlled by soils, topography and related abiotic site characteristics as well as site characteristic throughfall patterns but also by root water uptake. In this study root water uptake from different soil depths is estimated based on diurnal fluctuations in soil moisture content and was investigated with a setup of 15 field sites in a forest in northeastern Germany. These sites cover different topographic positions and forest stands. Vegetation types include pine forest (young and old) and different deciduous forest stands. Available data at all sites includes information at high temporal resolution from 5 soil moisture and soil temperature profiles, matric potential, piezometers and sapflow sensors as well as standard climate data. The resulting comprehensive data set of depth distributed root water uptake shows differences in overall amounts as well as in uptake depth distributions between different forest stands, but also related to slope position and thus depth to groundwater. Temporal dynamics of signal strength within the profile suggest a locally shifting spatial distribution of root water uptake depending on water availability. The relative contributions of the different depths to overall root water uptake shift as the summer progresses. However, the relationship of these depth resolved uptake rates to overall soil water availability varies considerably between tree species. This unique data set of depth specific contributions to root water uptake down to a depth of 2 m allows a much more detailed analysis of tree response to water availability than the more common transpiration estimates generated by sapflow or eddy flux measurements.

  7. Extinction depth and evapotranspiration from ground water under selected land covers.

    PubMed

    Shah, Nirjhar; Nachabe, Mahmood; Ross, Mark

    2007-01-01

    In many landscapes, vegetation extracts water from both the unsaturated and the saturated zones. The partitioning of evapotranspiration (ET) into vadose zone evapotranspiration and ground water evapotranspiration (GWET) is complex because it depends on land cover and subsurface characteristics. Traditionally, the GWET fraction is assumed to decay with increasing depth to the water table (DTWT), attaining a value of 0 at what is termed the extinction depth. A simple assumption of linear decay with depth is often used but has never been rigorously examined using unsaturated-saturated flow simulations. Furthermore, it is not well understood how to relate extinction depths to characteristics of land cover and soil texture. In this work, variable saturation flow theory is used to simulate GWET for three land covers and a range of soil properties under drying soil conditions. For a water table within half a meter of the land surface, nearly all ET is extracted from ground water due to the close hydraulic connection between the unsaturated and the saturated zones. For deep-rooted vegetation, the decoupling of ground water and vadose zone was found to begin at water table depths between 30 and 100 cm, depending on the soil texture. The decline of ET with DTWT is better simulated by an exponential decay function than the commonly used linear decay. A comparison with field data is consistent with the findings of this study. Tables are provided to vary the extinction depth for heterogeneous landscapes with different vegetation cover and soil properties.

  8. Determination of water depth with high-resolution satellite imagery over variable bottom types

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stumpf, Richard P.; Holderied, Kristine; Sinclair, Mark

    2003-01-01

    A standard algorithm for determining depth in clear water from passive sensors exists; but it requires tuning of five parameters and does not retrieve depths where the bottom has an extremely low albedo. To address these issues, we developed an empirical solution using a ratio of reflectances that has only two tunable parameters and can be applied to low-albedo features. The two algorithms--the standard linear transform and the new ratio transform--were compared through analysis of IKONOS satellite imagery against lidar bathymetry. The coefficients for the ratio algorithm were tuned manually to a few depths from a nautical chart, yet performed as well as the linear algorithm tuned using multiple linear regression against the lidar. Both algorithms compensate for variable bottom type and albedo (sand, pavement, algae, coral) and retrieve bathymetry in water depths of less than 10-15 m. However, the linear transform does not distinguish depths >15 m and is more subject to variability across the studied atolls. The ratio transform can, in clear water, retrieve depths in >25 m of water and shows greater stability between different areas. It also performs slightly better in scattering turbidity than the linear transform. The ratio algorithm is somewhat noisier and cannot always adequately resolve fine morphology (structures smaller than 4-5 pixels) in water depths >15-20 m. In general, the ratio transform is more robust than the linear transform.

  9. Modification of closure depths by synchronisation of severe seas and high water levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soomere, Tarmo; Männikus, Rain; Pindsoo, Katri; Kudryavtseva, Nadezhda; Eelsalu, Maris

    2016-10-01

    The closure depth indicates the depth down to which storm waves maintain a universal shape of the coastal profile. It is thus a key parameter of the coastal zones for a variety of engineering and ecosystem applications. Its values are commonly estimated with respect to the long-term mean water level. The present study re-evaluates closure depths for microtidal water bodies where the wave loads are highly correlated with the course of the water level. The test area is the eastern Baltic Sea. The closure depth is calculated for the eastern Baltic Sea coast with a resolution of 5.5 km and the vicinity of Tallinn Bay with a resolution of 0.5 km. While the classic values of closure depth are extracted from statistics of the roughest seas, the present analysis is based on single values of a proxy of the instantaneous closure depth. These values are evaluated from numerically simulated time series of wave properties and water levels. The water level-adjusted closure depths are almost equal to the classic values at the coasts of Lithuania but are up to 10% smaller at the Baltic Proper coasts of Latvia and Estonia. The difference is up to 20% in bayheads of the Gulf of Finland.

  10. ITAR: A modified TAR method to determine depth dose distribution for an ophthalmic device that performs kilovoltage x-ray pencil-beam stereotaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Hanlon, Justin Chell, Erik; Firpo, Michael; Koruga, Igor

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: New technology has been developed to treat age-related macular degeneration (AMD) using 100 kVp pencil-beams that enter the patient through the radio-resistant sclera with a depth of interest between 1.6 and 2.6 cm. Measurement of reference and relative dose in a kilovoltage x-ray beam with a 0.42 cm diameter field size and a 15 cm source to axis distance (SAD) is a challenge that is not fully addressed in current guidelines to medical physicists. AAPM's TG-61 gives dosimetry recommendations for low and medium energy x-rays, but not all of them are feasible to follow for this modality. Methods: An investigation was conducted to select appropriate equipment for the application. PTW's Type 34013 Soft X-Ray Chamber (Freiburg, Germany) and CIRS's Plastic Water LR (Norfolk, VA) were found to be the best available options. Attenuation curves were measured with minimal scatter contribution and thus called Low Scatter Tissue Air Ratio (LSTAR). A scatter conversion coefficient (C{sub scat}) was derived through Monte Carlo radiation transport simulation using MCNPX (LANL, Los Alamos, NM) to quantify the difference between a traditional TAR curve and the LSTAR curve. A material conversion coefficient (C{sub mat}) was determined through experimentation to evaluate the difference in attenuation properties between water and Plastic Water LR. Validity of performing direct dosimetry measurements with a source to detector distance other than the treatment distance, and therefore a different field size due to a fixed collimator, was explored. A method—Integrated Tissue Air Ratio (ITAR)—has been developed that isolates each of the three main radiological effects (distance from source, attenuation, and scatter) during measurement, and integrates them to determine the dose rate to the macula during treatment. Results: LSTAR curves were determined to be field size independent within the range explored, indicating that direct dosimetry measurements may be performed with a

  11. Temporal variations in atmospheric water vapor and aerosol optical depth determined by remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, D. E.; Mcallum, W. E.; Heidt, M.; Jeske, K.; Lee, J. T.; Demonbrun, D.; Morgan, A.; Potter, J.

    1977-01-01

    By automatically tracking the sun, a four-channel solar radiometer was used to continuously measure optical depth and atmospheric water vapor. The design of this simple autotracking solar radiometer is presented. A technique for calculating the precipitable water from the ratio of a water band to a nearby nonabsorbing band is discussed. Studies of the temporal variability of precipitable water and atmospheric optical depth at 0.610, 0.8730 and 1.04 microns are presented. There was good correlation between the optical depth measured using the autotracker and visibility determined from National Weather Service Station data. However, much more temporal structure was evident in the autotracker data than in the visibility data. Cirrus clouds caused large changes in optical depth over short time periods. They appear to be the largest deleterious atmospheric effect over agricultural areas that are remote from urban pollution sources.

  12. Depth dose distribution study within a phantom torso after irradiation with a simulated Solar Particle Event at NSRL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Thomas; Matthiä, Daniel; Koerner, Christine; George, Kerry; Rhone, Jordan; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Reitz, Guenther

    The adequate knowledge of the radiation environment and the doses incurred during a space mission is essential for estimating an astronaut's health risk. The space radiation environment is complex and variable, and exposures inside the spacecraft and the astronaut's body are com-pounded by the interactions of the primary particles with the atoms of the structural materials and with the body itself. Astronauts' radiation exposures are measured by means of personal dosimetry, but there remains substantial uncertainty associated with the computational extrap-olation of skin dose to organ dose, which can lead to over-or under-estimation of the health risk. Comparisons of models to data showed that the astronaut's Effective dose (E) can be pre-dicted to within about a +10In the research experiment "Depth dose distribution study within a phantom torso" at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at BNL, Brookhaven, USA the large 1972 SPE spectrum was simulated using seven different proton energies from 50 up to 450 MeV. A phantom torso constructed of natural bones and realistic distributions of human tissue equivalent materials, which is comparable to the torso of the MATROSHKA phantom currently on the ISS, was equipped with a comprehensive set of thermoluminescence detectors and human cells. The detectors are applied to assess the depth dose distribution and radiation transport codes (e.g. GEANT4) are used to assess the radiation field and interactions of the radiation field with the phantom torso. Lymphocyte cells are strategically embedded at selected locations at the skin and internal organs and are processed after irradiation to assess the effects of shielding on the yield of chromosome damage. The first focus of the pre-sented experiment is to correlate biological results with physical dosimetry measurements in the phantom torso. Further on the results of the passive dosimetry using the anthropomorphic phantoms represent the best tool to generate reliable to

  13. SU-E-T-540: MCNPX Simulation of Proton Dose Distributions in a Water Phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C; Chen, S; Chiang, B; Tung, C; Chao, T

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: In this study, fluence and energy deposition of proton and proton by-products and dose distributions were simulated. Lateral dose distributions were also been discussed to understand the difference between Monte Carlo simulations and pencil beam algorithm. Methods: MCNPX codes were used to build a water phantom by using “repeated structures” technique and the doses and fluences in each cell was recorded by mesh tally. This study includes, proton equilibrium and proton disequilibrium case. For the proton equilibrium case, the doses difference between proton and proton by-products were studied. A 160 MeV proton pencil beam was perpendicularly incident into a 40 × 40 × 50 cm{sup 3} water phantom and the scoring volume was 20 × 20 × 0.2 cm{sup 3}. Energy deposition and fluence were calculated from MCNPX with (1) proton only; and (2) proton and secondary particles. For the proton disequilibrium case, the dose distribution variation using different multiple Coulomb scattering were studied. A 70 MeV proton pencil beam was perpendicularly incident into a 40 × 40 × 10 cm{sup 3} water phantom and two scoring voxel sizes of 0.1 × 0.1 × 0.05 cm{sup 3} and 0.01 × 0.01 × 0.05 cm{sup 3} were used for the depth dose distribution, and 0.01 × 0.01 × 0.05 cm{sup 3} for the lateral profile distribution simulations. Results: In the water phantom, proton fluence and dose in depths beyond the Bragg peak were slightly perturbed by the choice of the simulated particle types. The dose from secondary particles was about three orders smaller, but its simulation consumed significant computing time. The depth dose distributions and lateral dose distributions of 70 MeV proton pencil beam obtained from MCNPX, GEANT4, and the pencil beam algorithm showed the significant deviations, probably caused by multiple Coulomb scattering. Conclusion: Multiple Coulomb scattering is critical when there is in proton disequilibrium.

  14. Behaviors of the percentage depth dose curves along the beam axis of a phantom filled with different clinical PTO objects, a Monte Carlo Geant4 study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    EL Bakkali, Jaafar; EL Bardouni, Tarek; Safavi, Seyedmostafa; Mohammed, Maged; Saeed, Mroan

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this work is to assess the capabilities of Monte Carlo Geant4 code to reproduce the real percentage depth dose (PDD) curves generated in phantoms which mimic three important clinical treatment situations that include lung slab, bone slab, bone-lung slab geometries. It is hoped that this work will lead us to a better understanding of dose distributions in an inhomogeneous medium, and to identify any limitations of dose calculation algorithm implemented in the Geant4 code. For this purpose, the PDD dosimetric functions associated to the three clinical situations described above, were compared to one produced in a homogeneous water phantom. Our results show, firstly, that the Geant4 simulation shows potential mistakes on the shape of the calculated PDD curve of the first physical test object (PTO), and it is obviously not able to successfully predict dose values in regions near to the boundaries between two different materials. This is, surely due to the electron transport algorithm and it is well-known as the artifacts at interface phenomenon. To deal with this issue, we have added and optimized the StepMax parameter to the dose calculation program; consequently the artifacts due to the electron transport were quasi disappeared. However, the Geant4 simulation becomes painfully slow when we attempt to completely resolve the electron artifact problems by considering a smaller value of an electron StepMax parameter. After electron transport optimization, our results demonstrate the medium-level capabilities of the Geant4 code to modeling dose distribution in clinical PTO objects.

  15. Effect of water depth and water velocity upon the surfacing frequency of the bimodally respiring freshwater turtle, Rheodytes leukops.

    PubMed

    Gordos, Matthew A; Franklin, Craig E; Limpus, Colin J

    2004-08-01

    This study examines the effect of increasing water depth and water velocity upon the surfacing behaviour of the bimodally respiring turtle, Rheodytes leukops. Surfacing frequency was recorded for R. leukops at varying water depths (50, 100, 150 cm) and water velocities (5, 15, 30 cm s(-1)) during independent trials to provide an indirect cost-benefit analysis of aquatic versus pulmonary respiration. With increasing water velocity, R. leukops decreased its surfacing frequency twentyfold, thus suggesting a heightened reliance upon aquatic gas exchange. An elevated reliance upon aquatic respiration, which presumably translates into a decreased air-breathing frequency, may be metabolically more efficient for R. leukops compared to the expenditure (i.e. time and energy) associated with air-breathing within fast-flowing riffle zones. Additionally, R. leukops at higher water velocities preferentially selected low-velocity microhabitats, presumably to avoid the metabolic expenditure associated with high water flow. Alternatively, increasing water depth had no effect upon the surfacing frequency of R. leukops, suggesting little to no change in the respiratory partitioning of the species across treatment settings. Routinely long dives (>90 min) recorded for R. leukops indicate a high reliance upon aquatic O2 uptake regardless of water depth. Moreover, metabolic and temporal costs attributed to pulmonary gas exchange within a pool-like environment were likely minimal for R. leukops, irrespective of water depth. PMID:15277564

  16. Influence of water depth on the sound generated by air-bubble vibration in the water musical instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohuchi, Yoshito; Nakazono, Yoichi

    2014-06-01

    We have developed a water musical instrument that generates sound by the falling of water drops within resonance tubes. The instrument can give people who hear it the healing effect inherent in the sound of water. The sound produced by falling water drops arises from air- bubble vibrations. To investigate the impact of water depth on the air-bubble vibrations, we conducted experiments at varying values of water pressure and nozzle shape. We found that air-bubble vibration frequency does not change at a water depth of 50 mm or greater. Between 35 and 40 mm, however, the frequency decreases. At water depths of 30 mm or below, the air-bubble vibration frequency increases. In our tests, we varied the nozzle diameter from 2 to 4 mm. In addition, we discovered that the time taken for air-bubble vibration to start after the water drops start falling is constant at water depths of 40 mm or greater, but slower at depths below 40 mm.

  17. Depth profile study of Ti implanted Si at very high doses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olea, J.; Pastor, D.; Toledano-Luque, M.; Mártil, I.; González-Díaz, G.

    2011-09-01

    A detailed study on the resulting impurity profile in Si samples implanted with high doses of Ti and subsequently annealed by pulsed-laser melting (PLM) is reported. Two different effects are shown to rule the impurity profile redistribution during the annealing. During the melting stage, the thickness of the implanted layer increases while the maximum peak concentration decreases (box-shaped effect). On the contrary, during the solidifying stage, the thickness of the layer decreases and the maximum peak concentration increases (snow-plow effect). Both effects are more pronounced as the energy density of the annealing increases. Moreover, as a direct consequence of the snow-plow effect, part of the impurities is expelled from the sample through the surface.

  18. Commissioning dose computation models for spot scanning proton beams in water for a commercially available treatment planning system

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, X. R.; Poenisch, F.; Lii, M.; Sawakuchi, G. O.; Titt, U.; Bues, M.; Song, X.; Zhang, X.; Li, Y.; Ciangaru, G.; Li, H.; Taylor, M. B.; Suzuki, K.; Mohan, R.; Gillin, M. T.; Sahoo, N.

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: To present our method and experience in commissioning dose models in water for spot scanning proton therapy in a commercial treatment planning system (TPS). Methods: The input data required by the TPS included in-air transverse profiles and integral depth doses (IDDs). All input data were obtained from Monte Carlo (MC) simulations that had been validated by measurements. MC-generated IDDs were converted to units of Gy mm{sup 2}/MU using the measured IDDs at a depth of 2 cm employing the largest commercially available parallel-plate ionization chamber. The sensitive area of the chamber was insufficient to fully encompass the entire lateral dose deposited at depth by a pencil beam (spot). To correct for the detector size, correction factors as a function of proton energy were defined and determined using MC. The fluence of individual spots was initially modeled as a single Gaussian (SG) function and later as a double Gaussian (DG) function. The DG fluence model was introduced to account for the spot fluence due to contributions of large angle scattering from the devices within the scanning nozzle, especially from the spot profile monitor. To validate the DG fluence model, we compared calculations and measurements, including doses at the center of spread out Bragg peaks (SOBPs) as a function of nominal field size, range, and SOBP width, lateral dose profiles, and depth doses for different widths of SOBP. Dose models were validated extensively with patient treatment field-specific measurements. Results: We demonstrated that the DG fluence model is necessary for predicting the field size dependence of dose distributions. With this model, the calculated doses at the center of SOBPs as a function of nominal field size, range, and SOBP width, lateral dose profiles and depth doses for rectangular target volumes agreed well with respective measured values. With the DG fluence model for our scanning proton beam line, we successfully treated more than 500 patients

  19. Commissioning dose computation models for spot scanning proton beams in water for a commercially available treatment planning system

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, X. R.; Poenisch, F.; Lii, M.; Sawakuchi, G. O.; Titt, U.; Bues, M.; Song, X.; Zhang, X.; Li, Y.; Ciangaru, G.; Li, H.; Taylor, M. B.; Suzuki, K.; Mohan, R.; Gillin, M. T.; Sahoo, N.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To present our method and experience in commissioning dose models in water for spot scanning proton therapy in a commercial treatment planning system (TPS). Methods: The input data required by the TPS included in-air transverse profiles and integral depth doses (IDDs). All input data were obtained from Monte Carlo (MC) simulations that had been validated by measurements. MC-generated IDDs were converted to units of Gy mm2/MU using the measured IDDs at a depth of 2 cm employing the largest commercially available parallel-plate ionization chamber. The sensitive area of the chamber was insufficient to fully encompass the entire lateral dose deposited at depth by a pencil beam (spot). To correct for the detector size, correction factors as a function of proton energy were defined and determined using MC. The fluence of individual spots was initially modeled as a single Gaussian (SG) function and later as a double Gaussian (DG) function. The DG fluence model was introduced to account for the spot fluence due to contributions of large angle scattering from the devices within the scanning nozzle, especially from the spot profile monitor. To validate the DG fluence model, we compared calculations and measurements, including doses at the center of spread out Bragg peaks (SOBPs) as a function of nominal field size, range, and SOBP width, lateral dose profiles, and depth doses for different widths of SOBP. Dose models were validated extensively with patient treatment field-specific measurements. Results: We demonstrated that the DG fluence model is necessary for predicting the field size dependence of dose distributions. With this model, the calculated doses at the center of SOBPs as a function of nominal field size, range, and SOBP width, lateral dose profiles and depth doses for rectangular target volumes agreed well with respective measured values. With the DG fluence model for our scanning proton beam line, we successfully treated more than 500 patients from

  20. DS86 neutron dose: Monte Carlo analysis for depth profile of 152Eu activity in a large stone sample.

    PubMed

    Endo, S; Iwatani, K; Oka, T; Hoshi, M; Shizuma, K; Imanaka, T; Takada, J; Fujita, S; Hasai, H

    1999-06-01

    The depth profile of 152Eu activity induced in a large granite stone pillar by Hiroshima atomic bomb neutrons was calculated by a Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP). The pillar was on the Motoyasu Bridge, located at a distance of 132 m (WSW) from the hypocenter. It was a square column with a horizontal sectional size of 82.5 cm x 82.5 cm and height of 179 cm. Twenty-one cells from the north to south surface at the central height of the column were specified for the calculation and 152Eu activities for each cell were calculated. The incident neutron spectrum was assumed to be the angular fluence data of the Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86). The angular dependence of the spectrum was taken into account by dividing the whole solid angle into twenty-six directions. The calculated depth profile of specific activity did not agree with the measured profile. A discrepancy was found in the absolute values at each depth with a mean multiplication factor of 0.58 and also in the shape of the relative profile. The results indicated that a reassessment of the neutron energy spectrum in DS86 is required for correct dose estimation.

  1. Global water table depth from observations and a model synthesis (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Y.; Li, H.; Miguez-Macho, G.

    2010-12-01

    The depth to the water table is a direct indicator of the coupling strength between the groundwater and the land surface hydrologic stores; a shallow water table impedes soil drainage in the wet season, and sustains plant photosynthesis, stream flow and wetlands in the dry season and droughts. For these reasons, groundwater is being incorporated into global climate and ecosystem models. However, its realistic representation depends on extensive observations for model calibration, initialization, and validation. Such a global dataset does not yet exist. Here we present the results of an ongoing effort to establish a global dataset of water table depth. We compiled 650,865 well observations from government archives and published literature, covering the continents of N. America, S. America, and western Europe. The data reveals that the water table depth is within 2 m at 13%, 5 m at 35%, and 10 m at 58% of the observed area. At these depths, groundwater can influence surface hydrology and ecology. A model synthesis of these observations allows us to establish a map of global water table depth, at 30 arc-second (<1 km) resolution, offering a global view of this simple hydrologic variable from hillslope to continental scales, and across the wide range of hydrologic conditions found on Earth. This global map of water table depth can be used for a first-order delineation of regions with potentially strong coupling between the groundwater and soil moisture and hence land surface fluxes. It can be used to initialize models with a prognostic groundwater. Water table depth is also shown to be a good indicator of wetlands and can be used to assist in CH4 flux estimates. Uncertainties and future directions will be discussed.

  2. Variations in Depth and Chemical Composition of Groundwater During an Interval in Intermittent Water Delivery.

    PubMed

    Yongjin, Chen; Weihong, Li; Jiazhen, Liu; Ming, Lu; Mengchen, Xu; Shengliang, Liu

    2015-08-01

    Based on monitoring data collected from 2006 to 2009 at the lower reaches of the Tarim River, tempo-spatial variations in groundwater depth and chemistry during an approximately 3-year interval of intermittent water delivery were studied. Results indicate that as the groundwater depth increased at the upper sector of the river's lower reaches from March 2007 to September 2009, so too did the main chemical composition of groundwater. Groundwater depth at the intermediate sector also increased, but major ions in groundwater declined. The groundwater depth at the lower sector started to decrease in August 2008, and the concentrations of main ions in the groundwater generally rose and fell along with the variations in groundwater depth. The groundwater depth and chemistry in the monitoring wells located at a distance from the aqueduct expressed complex changes at different sections. For instance, at the section near the Daxihaizi Reservoir Section B, groundwater depth increased gradually, but chemical composition changed little. In contrast, the groundwater depth of monitoring wells far from the Daxihaizi Reservoir (Section I) decreased and salt content in the groundwater increased. In sectors at a moderate distance from the reservoir, groundwater depth decreased and concentrations of main ions significantly increased.

  3. FREE-WATER DEPTH AS A MANAGEMENT TOOL FOR CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Marsh plants in constructed wetlands have shown the capacity to remove unwanted pollutants from storm water runoff. The plants can be established at the site from bare roots. However, plant growth from bare roots can be restricted by the elevated water depths. Using several wa...

  4. The unique chemistry of Eastern Mediterranean water masses selects for distinct microbial communities by depth.

    PubMed

    Techtmann, Stephen M; Fortney, Julian L; Ayers, Kati A; Joyner, Dominique C; Linley, Thomas D; Pfiffner, Susan M; Hazen, Terry C

    2015-01-01

    The waters of the Eastern Mediterranean are characterized by unique physical and chemical properties within separate water masses occupying different depths. Distinct water masses are present throughout the oceans, which drive thermohaline circulation. These water masses may contain specific microbial assemblages. The goal of this study was to examine the effect of physical and geological phenomena on the microbial community of the Eastern Mediterranean water column. Chemical measurements were combined with phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis and high-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing to characterize the microbial community in the water column at five sites. We demonstrate that the chemistry and microbial community of the water column were stratified into three distinct water masses. The salinity and nutrient concentrations vary between these water masses. Nutrient concentrations increased with depth, and salinity was highest in the intermediate water mass. Our PLFA analysis indicated different lipid classes were abundant in each water mass, suggesting that distinct groups of microbes inhabit these water masses. 16S rRNA gene sequencing confirmed the presence of distinct microbial communities in each water mass. Taxa involved in autotrophic nitrogen cycling were enriched in the intermediate water mass suggesting that microbes in this water mass may be important to the nitrogen cycle of the Eastern Mediterranean. The Eastern Mediterranean also contains numerous active hydrocarbon seeps. We sampled above the North Alex Mud Volcano, in order to test the effect of these geological features on the microbial community in the adjacent water column. The community in the waters overlaying the mud volcano was distinct from other communities collected at similar depths and was enriched in known hydrocarbon degrading taxa. Our results demonstrate that physical phenomena such stratification as well as geological phenomena such as mud volcanoes strongly affect microbial

  5. The unique chemistry of Eastern Mediterranean water masses selects for distinct microbial communities by depth.

    PubMed

    Techtmann, Stephen M; Fortney, Julian L; Ayers, Kati A; Joyner, Dominique C; Linley, Thomas D; Pfiffner, Susan M; Hazen, Terry C

    2015-01-01

    The waters of the Eastern Mediterranean are characterized by unique physical and chemical properties within separate water masses occupying different depths. Distinct water masses are present throughout the oceans, which drive thermohaline circulation. These water masses may contain specific microbial assemblages. The goal of this study was to examine the effect of physical and geological phenomena on the microbial community of the Eastern Mediterranean water column. Chemical measurements were combined with phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis and high-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing to characterize the microbial community in the water column at five sites. We demonstrate that the chemistry and microbial community of the water column were stratified into three distinct water masses. The salinity and nutrient concentrations vary between these water masses. Nutrient concentrations increased with depth, and salinity was highest in the intermediate water mass. Our PLFA analysis indicated different lipid classes were abundant in each water mass, suggesting that distinct groups of microbes inhabit these water masses. 16S rRNA gene sequencing confirmed the presence of distinct microbial communities in each water mass. Taxa involved in autotrophic nitrogen cycling were enriched in the intermediate water mass suggesting that microbes in this water mass may be important to the nitrogen cycle of the Eastern Mediterranean. The Eastern Mediterranean also contains numerous active hydrocarbon seeps. We sampled above the North Alex Mud Volcano, in order to test the effect of these geological features on the microbial community in the adjacent water column. The community in the waters overlaying the mud volcano was distinct from other communities collected at similar depths and was enriched in known hydrocarbon degrading taxa. Our results demonstrate that physical phenomena such stratification as well as geological phenomena such as mud volcanoes strongly affect microbial

  6. The Unique Chemistry of Eastern Mediterranean Water Masses Selects for Distinct Microbial Communities by Depth

    PubMed Central

    Techtmann, Stephen M.; Fortney, Julian L.; Ayers, Kati A.; Joyner, Dominique C.; Linley, Thomas D.; Pfiffner, Susan M.; Hazen, Terry C.

    2015-01-01

    The waters of the Eastern Mediterranean are characterized by unique physical and chemical properties within separate water masses occupying different depths. Distinct water masses are present throughout the oceans, which drive thermohaline circulation. These water masses may contain specific microbial assemblages. The goal of this study was to examine the effect of physical and geological phenomena on the microbial community of the Eastern Mediterranean water column. Chemical measurements were combined with phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis and high-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing to characterize the microbial community in the water column at five sites. We demonstrate that the chemistry and microbial community of the water column were stratified into three distinct water masses. The salinity and nutrient concentrations vary between these water masses. Nutrient concentrations increased with depth, and salinity was highest in the intermediate water mass. Our PLFA analysis indicated different lipid classes were abundant in each water mass, suggesting that distinct groups of microbes inhabit these water masses. 16S rRNA gene sequencing confirmed the presence of distinct microbial communities in each water mass. Taxa involved in autotrophic nitrogen cycling were enriched in the intermediate water mass suggesting that microbes in this water mass may be important to the nitrogen cycle of the Eastern Mediterranean. The Eastern Mediterranean also contains numerous active hydrocarbon seeps. We sampled above the North Alex Mud Volcano, in order to test the effect of these geological features on the microbial community in the adjacent water column. The community in the waters overlaying the mud volcano was distinct from other communities collected at similar depths and was enriched in known hydrocarbon degrading taxa. Our results demonstrate that physical phenomena such stratification as well as geological phenomena such as mud volcanoes strongly affect microbial

  7. Ground-water contribution to dose from past Hanford Operations. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Freshley, M.D.; Thorne, P.D.

    1992-08-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is being conducted to estimate radiation doses that populations and individuals could have received from Hanford Site operations from 1944 to the present. Four possible pathways by which radionuclides migrating in ground water on the Hanford Site could have reached the public have been identified: (1) through contaminated ground water migrating to the Columbia River; (2) through wells on or adjacent to the Hanford Site; (3) through wells next to the Columbia River downstream of Hanford that draw some or all of their water from the river (riparian wells); and (4) through atmospheric deposition resulting in contamination of a small watershed that, in turn, results in contamination of a shallow well or spring by transport in the ground water. These four pathways make up the ``ground-water pathway,`` which is the subject of this study. Assessment of the ground-water pathway was performed by (1) reviewing the existing extensive literature on ground water and ground-water monitoring at Hanford and (2) performing calculations to estimate radionuclide concentrations where no monitoring data were collected. Radiation doses that would result from exposure to these radionuclides were calculated.

  8. Estimation of missing water-level data for the Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN), 2013 update

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petkewich, Matthew D.; Conrads, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    The Everglades Depth Estimation Network is an integrated network of real-time water-level gaging stations, a ground-elevation model, and a water-surface elevation model designed to provide scientists, engineers, and water-resource managers with water-level and water-depth information (1991-2013) for the entire freshwater portion of the Greater Everglades. The U.S. Geological Survey Greater Everglades Priority Ecosystems Science provides support for the Everglades Depth Estimation Network in order for the Network to provide quality-assured monitoring data for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan. In a previous study, water-level estimation equations were developed to fill in missing data to increase the accuracy of the daily water-surface elevation model. During this study, those equations were updated because of the addition and removal of water-level gaging stations, the consistent use of water-level data relative to the North American Vertical Datum of 1988, and availability of recent data (March 1, 2006, to September 30, 2011). Up to three linear regression equations were developed for each station by using three different input stations to minimize the occurrences of missing data for an input station. Of the 667 water-level estimation equations developed to fill missing data at 223 stations, more than 72 percent of the equations have coefficients of determination greater than 0.90, and 97 percent have coefficients of determination greater than 0.70.

  9. Trimethylamine oxide accumulation as a function of depth in Hawaiian mid-water fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bockus, Abigail B.; Seibel, Brad A.

    2016-06-01

    Trimethylamine oxide (TMAO) is a common osmolyte and counteracting solute. It is believed to combat the denaturation induced by hydrostatic pressure as some deep-sea animals contain higher TMAO levels than their shallow water counterparts. It has also been proposed that TMAO may accumulate passively during lipid storage resulting in a correlation between lipid content and TMAO levels in some groups. Previous research showed that lipid content decreased with depth in species of Hawaiian fishes presenting a novel test of these competing hypotheses. TMAO ranged from 20.4 to 92.8 mmol/kg. Lipid content ranged from 0.50 to 4.7% WW. After completing a comprehensive search for depths available in the literature, provided here, we analyzed TMAO and lipid as a function of average, minimum and maximum depth of occurrence for 27 species of fishes from nine orders. We found that TMAO is positively correlated with all measures of habitat depth (hydrostatic pressure) but the relationship is strongest with average depth. We further showed using phylogenetic independent contrasts that this relationship was not influenced by the evolutionary relatedness of these species. Interestingly, we found that lipid content increased with depth, in direct contrast to previous studies. TMAO is thus also positively correlated with lipid content. While we are unable to distinguish between these hypotheses, we show that TMAO is strongly correlated with depth in mid-water fishes.

  10. SU-E-T-499: Comparison of Measured Tissue Phantom Ratios (TPR) Against Calculated From Percent Depth Doses (PDD) with and Without Peak Scatter Factor (PSF) in 6MV Open Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Narayanasamy, G; Cruz, W; Gutierrez, Alonso; Mavroidis, Panayiotis; Papanikolaou, N; Stathakis, S; Breton, C

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To examine the accuracy of measured tissue phantom ratios (TPR) values with TPR calculated from percentage depth dose (PDD) with and without peak scatter fraction (PSF) correction. Methods: For 6MV open beam, TPR and PDD values were measured using PTW Semiflex (31010) ionization field and reference chambers (0.125cc volume) in a PTW MP3-M water tank. PDD curves were measured at SSD of 100cm for 7 square fields from 3cm to 30cm. The TPR values were measured up to 22cm depth for the same fields by continuous water draining method with ionization chamber static at 100cm from source. A comparison study was performed between the (a) measured TPR, (b) TPR calculated from PDD without PSF, (c) TPR calculated from PDD with PSF and (d) clinical TPR from RadCalc (ver 6.2, Sun Nuclear Corp). Results: There is a field size, depth dependence on TPR values. For 10cmx10cm, the differences in surface dose (DDs), dose at 10cm depth (DD10) <0.5%; differences in dmax (Ddmax) <2mm for the 4 methods. The corresponding values for 30cmx30cm are DDs, DD10 <0.2% and Ddmax<3mm. Even though for 3cmx3cm field, DDs and DD10 <1% and Ddmax<1mm, the calculated TPR values with and without PSF correction differed by 2% at >20cm depth. In all field sizes at depths>28cm, (d) clinical TPR values are larger than that from (b) and (c) by >3%. Conclusion: Measured TPR in method (a) differ from calculated TPR in methods (b) and (c) to within 1% for depths < 28cm in all 7 fields in open 6MV beam. The dmax values are within 3mm of each other. The largest deviation of >3% was observed in clinical TPR values in method (d) for all fields at depths < 28cm.

  11. Resistance to Water Diffusion in the Stratum Corneum Is Depth-Dependent

    PubMed Central

    van Logtestijn, Mark D. A.; Domínguez-Hüttinger, Elisa; Stamatas, Georgios N.; Tanaka, Reiko J.

    2015-01-01

    The stratum corneum (SC) provides a permeability barrier that limits the inflow and outflow of water. The permeability barrier is continuously and dynamically formed, maintained, and degraded along the depth, from the bottom to the top, of the SC. Naturally, its functioning and structure also change dynamically in a depth-dependent manner. While transepidermal water loss is typically used to assess the function of the SC barrier, it fails to provide any information about the dynamic mechanisms that are responsible for the depth-dependent characteristics of the permeability barrier. This paper aims to quantitatively characterize the depth-dependency of the permeability barrier using in vivo non-invasive measurement data for understanding the underlying mechanisms for barrier formation, maintenance, and degradation. As a framework to combine existing experimental data, we propose a mathematical model of the SC, consisting of multiple compartments, to explicitly address and investigate the depth-dependency of the SC permeability barrier. Using this mathematical model, we derive a measure of the water permeability barrier, i.e. resistance to water diffusion in the SC, from the measurement data on transepidermal water loss and water concentration profiles measured non-invasively by Raman spectroscopy. The derived resistance profiles effectively characterize the depth-dependency of the permeability barrier, with three distinct regions corresponding to formation, maintenance, and degradation of the barrier. Quantitative characterization of the obtained resistance profiles allows us to compare and evaluate the permeability barrier of skin with different morphology and physiology (infants vs adults, different skin sites, before and after application of oils) and elucidates differences in underlying mechanisms of processing barriers. The resistance profiles were further used to predict the spatial-temporal effects of skin treatments by in silico experiments, in terms of

  12. SU-E-T-562: Scanned Percent Depth Dose Curve Discrepancy for Photon Beams with Physical Wedge in Place (Varian IX) Using Different Sensitive Volume Ion Chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, H; Sarkar, V; Rassiah-Szegedi, P; Huang, Y; Szegedi, M; Huang, L; Salter, B

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate and report the discrepancy of scanned percent depth dose (PDD) for photon beams with physical wedge in place when using ion chambers with different sensitive volumes. Methods/Materials: PDD curves of open fields and physical wedged fields (15, 30, 45, and 60 degree wedge) were scanned for photon beams (6MV and 10MV, Varian iX) with field size of 5x5 and 10x10 cm using three common scanning chambers with different sensitive volumes - PTW30013 (0.6cm3), PTW23323 (0.1cm3) and Exradin A16 (0.007cm3). The scanning system software used was OmniPro version 6.2, and the scanning water tank was the Scanditronix Wellhoffer RFA 300.The PDD curves from the three chambers were compared. Results: Scanned PDD curves of the same energy beams for open fields were almost identical between three chambers, but the wedged fields showed non-trivial differences. The largest differences were observed between chamber PTW30013 and Exradin A16. The differences increased as physical wedge angle increased. The differences also increased with depth, and were more pronounced for 6MV beam. Similar patterns were shown for both 5x5 and 10x10 cm field sizes. For open fields, all PDD values agreed with each other within 1% at 10cm depth and within 1.62% at 20 cm depth. For wedged fields, the difference of PDD values between PTW30013 and A16 reached 4.09% at 10cm depth, and 5.97% at 20 cm depth for 6MV with 60 degree physical wedge. Conclusion: We observed a significant difference in scanned PDD curves of photon beams with physical wedge in place obtained when using different sensitive volume ion chambers. The PDD curves scanned with the smallest sensitive volume ion chamber showed significant difference from larger chamber results, beyond 10cm depth. We believe this to be caused by varying response to beam hardening by the wedges.

  13. Ground-water contribution to dose from past Hanford Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Freshley, M.D.; Thorne, P.D.

    1992-08-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is being conducted to estimate radiation doses that populations and individuals could have received from Hanford Site operations from 1944 to the present. Four possible pathways by which radionuclides migrating in ground water on the Hanford Site could have reached the public have been identified: (1) through contaminated ground water migrating to the Columbia River; (2) through wells on or adjacent to the Hanford Site; (3) through wells next to the Columbia River downstream of Hanford that draw some or all of their water from the river (riparian wells); and (4) through atmospheric deposition resulting in contamination of a small watershed that, in turn, results in contamination of a shallow well or spring by transport in the ground water. These four pathways make up the ground-water pathway,'' which is the subject of this study. Assessment of the ground-water pathway was performed by (1) reviewing the existing extensive literature on ground water and ground-water monitoring at Hanford and (2) performing calculations to estimate radionuclide concentrations where no monitoring data were collected. Radiation doses that would result from exposure to these radionuclides were calculated.

  14. Fluctuating water depths affect American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) body condition in the Everglades, Florida, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brandt, Laura A.; Beauchamp, Jeffrey S.; Jeffery, Brian M.; Cherkiss, Michael S.; Mazzotti, Frank J.

    2016-01-01

    Successful restoration of wetland ecosystems requires knowledge of wetland hydrologic patterns and an understanding of how those patterns affect wetland plant and animal populations.Within the Everglades, Florida, USA restoration, an applied science strategy including conceptual ecological models linking drivers to indicators is being used to organize current scientific understanding to support restoration efforts. A key driver of the ecosystem affecting the distribution and abundance of organisms is the timing, distribution, and volume of water flows that result in water depth patterns across the landscape. American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) are one of the ecological indicators being used to assess Everglades restoration because they are a keystone species and integrate biological impacts of hydrological operations through all life stages. Alligator body condition (the relative fatness of an animal) is one of the metrics being used and targets have been set to allow us to track progress. We examined trends in alligator body condition using Fulton’s K over a 15 year period (2000–2014) at seven different wetland areas within the Everglades ecosystem, assessed patterns and trends relative to restoration targets, and related those trends to hydrologic variables. We developed a series of 17 a priori hypotheses that we tested with an information theoretic approach to identify which hydrologic factors affect alligator body condition. Alligator body condition was highest throughout the Everglades during the early 2000s and is approximately 5–10% lower now (2014). Values have varied by year, area, and hydrology. Body condition was positively correlated with range in water depth and fall water depth. Our top model was the “Current” model and included variables that describe current year hydrology (spring depth, fall depth, hydroperiod, range, interaction of range and fall depth, interaction of range and hydroperiod). Across all models, interaction

  15. The role of depth in regulating water quality and fish assemblages in oxbow lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goetz, Daniel B.; Miranda, Leandro E.; Kroger, Robert; Andrews, Caroline S.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated water quality and fish assemblages in deep (> 3.0 m; N = 7) and shallow (< 1.5 m; N = 6) floodplain lakes in the intensively cultivated Yazoo River Basin (Mississippi, USA) using indirect gradient multivariate procedures. Shallow lakes displayed wide diel oxygen fluctuations, some reaching hypoxic/anoxic conditions for extended periods of time, high suspended solids, and extreme water temperatures. Conversely, deeper lakes were represented by higher visibility, stable oxygen levels, and cooler water temperatures. Fish assemblages in shallow lakes were dominated by tolerant, small-bodied fishes and those able to breathe atmospheric oxygen. Deeper lakes had a greater representation of predators and other large-bodied fishes. Our evaluation suggests fish assemblages are reflective of oxbow lakes water quality, which is shaped by depth. Understanding the interactions between depth, water quality, and fish assemblages may facilitate development of effective management plans for improving conditions necessary to sustain diverse fish assemblages in agriculturally dominated basins.

  16. Nest survival of American Coots relative to grazing, burning, and water depths

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Austin, Jane E.; Buhl, Deborah A.

    2011-01-01

    Water and emergent vegetation are key features influencing nest site selection and success for many marsh-nesting waterbirds. Wetland management practices such as grazing, burning, and water-level manipulations directly affect these features and can influence nest survival. We used model selection and before-after-control-impact approaches to evaluate the effects of water depth and four common land-management practices or treatments, i.e., summer grazing, fall grazing, fall burning, and idle (no active treatment) on nest survival of American coots (Fulica americana) nesting at Grays Lake, a large montane wetland in southeast Idaho. The best model included the variables year × treatment, and quadratic functions of date, water depth, and nest age; height of vegetation at the nest did not improve the best model. However, results from the before-after-control-impact analysis indicate that management practices affected nest success via vegetation and involved interactions of hydrology, residual vegetation, and habitat composition. Nest success in idled fields changed little between pre- and post-treatment periods, whereas nest success declined in fields that were grazed or burned, with the most dramatic declines the year following treatments. The importance of water depth may be amplified in this wetland system because of rapid water-level withdrawal during the nesting season. Water and land-use values for area ranchers, management for nesting waterbirds, and long-term wetland function are important considerations in management of water levels and vegetation.

  17. (Depth-dose curves of the beta reference fields (147)Pm, (85)Kr and (90)Sr/(90)Y produced by the beta secondary standard BSS2.

    PubMed

    Brunzendorf, Jens

    2012-08-01

    The most common reference fields in beta dosimetry are the ISO 6980 series 1 radiation fields produced by the beta secondary standard BSS2 and its predecessor BSS. These reference fields require sealed beta radiation sources ((147)Pm, (85)Kr or (90)Sr/(90)Y) in combination with a source-specific beam-flattening filter, and are defined only at a given distance from the source. Every radiation sources shipped with the BSS2 is sold with a calibration certificate of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt. The calibration workflow also comprises regular depth-dose measurements. This work publishes complete depth-dose curves of the series 1 sources (147)Pm, (85)Kr and (90)Sr/(90)Y in ICRU tissue up to a depth of 11 mm,when all electrons are stopped. For this purpose, the individual depth-dose curves of all BSS2 sources calibrated so far have been determined, i.e. the complete datasets of all BSS2 beta sources have been re-evaluated. It includes 191 depth-dose curves of 116 different sources comprising more than 2200 data points in total. Appropriate analytical representations of the nuclide-specific depth-dose curves are provided for the first time.

  18. Direct absorbed dose to water determination based on water calorimetry in scanning proton beam delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Sarfehnia, A.; Clasie, B.; Chung, E.; Lu, H. M.; Flanz, J.; Cascio, E.; Engelsman, M.; Paganetti, H.; Seuntjens, J.

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: The aim of this manuscript is to describe the direct measurement of absolute absorbed dose to water in a scanned proton radiotherapy beam using a water calorimeter primary standard. Methods: The McGill water calorimeter, which has been validated in photon and electron beams as well as in HDR {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy, was used to measure the absorbed dose to water in double scattering and scanning proton irradiations. The measurements were made at the Massachusetts General Hospital proton radiotherapy facility. The correction factors in water calorimetry were numerically calculated and various parameters affecting their magnitude and uncertainty were studied. The absorbed dose to water was compared to that obtained using an Exradin T1 Chamber based on the IAEA TRS-398 protocol. Results: The overall 1-sigma uncertainty on absorbed dose to water amounts to 0.4% and 0.6% in scattered and scanned proton water calorimetry, respectively. This compares to an overall uncertainty of 1.9% for currently accepted IAEA TRS-398 reference absorbed dose measurement protocol. The absorbed dose from water calorimetry agrees with the results from TRS-398 well to within 1-sigma uncertainty. Conclusions: This work demonstrates that a primary absorbed dose standard based on water calorimetry is feasible in scattered and scanned proton beams.

  19. [Comparison of the absorbed dose at calibration depth of photon beams using the Japan Society of Medical Physics 12 beam quality conversion factor in the presence or absence of a waterproofing sleeve].

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Naoki; Takemura, Akihiro; Kita, Akinobu; Murai, Emi; Nishimoto, Yasuhiro; Toi, Akiko; Shimada, Masato; Sasamoto, Kouhei; Adachi, Toshiki

    2013-10-01

    In standard external beam radiotherapy dosimetry, which is based on absorbed dose by water, the absorbed dose at any calibration depth is calculated using the same beam quality conversion factor, regardless of the presence or absence of a waterproofing sleeve. In this study, we evaluated whether there were differences between absorbed doses at calibration depths calculated using a beam quality conversion factor including a wall correction factor that corresponds to a waterproofing sleeve thickness of 0.3 mm, and without a waterproofing sleeve. The Japan Society of Medical Physics (JSMP) has reported that the uncertainty of the results using a beam quality conversion factor that included a wall correction factor corresponding to a waterproofing sleeve thickness of 0.3 mm, regardless of the presence or absence of the sleeve, was 0.2%. This uncertainty proved to be in agreement with the reported range.

  20. Application of flowmeter and depth-dependent water quality data for improved production well construction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gossell, M.A.; Nishikawa, T.; Hanson, R.T.; Izbicki, J.A.; Tabidian, M.A.; Bertine, K.

    1999-01-01

    Ground water production wells commonly are designed to maximize well yield and, therefore, may be screened over several water-bearing zones. These water-bearing zones usually are identified, and their hydrogeologic characteristics and water quality are inferred, on the basis of indirect data such as geologic and geophysical logs. Production well designs based on these data may result in wells that are drilled deeper than necessary and are screened through zones having low permeability or poor-quality ground water. In this study, we examined the application of flowmeter logging and depth-dependent water quality samples for the improved design of production wells in a complex hydrogeologic setting. As a demonstration of these techniques, a flowmeter log and depth-dependent water quality data were collected from a long-screened production well within a multilayered coastal aquifer system in the Santa Clara-Calleguas Basin, Ventura County, California. Results showed that the well yields most of its water from four zones that constitute 58% of the screened interval. The importance of these zones to well yield was not readily discernible from indirect geologic or geophysical data. The flowmeter logs and downhole water quality data also show that small quantities of poor-quality water could degrade the overall quality of water from the well. The data obtained from one well can be applied to other proposed wells in the same hydrologic basin. The application of flowmeter and depth-dependent water quality data to well design can reduce installation costs and improve the quantity and quality of water produced from wells in complex multiple-aquifer systems.

  1. Soil Water Content Sensors as a Method of Measuring Ice Depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitaker, E.; Reed, D. E.; Desai, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    Lake ice depth provides important information about local and regional climate change, weather patterns, and recreational safety, as well as impacting in situ ecology and carbon cycling. However, it is challenging to measure ice depth continuously from a remote location, as existing methods are too large, expensive, and/or time-intensive. Therefore, we present a novel application that reduces the size and cost issues by using soil water content reflectometer sensors. Analysis of sensors deployed in an environmental chamber using a scale model of a lake demonstrated their value as accurate measures of the change in ice depth over any time period, through measurement of the liquid-to-solid phase change. A robust correlation exists between volumetric water content in time as a function of environmental temperature. This relationship allows us to convert volumetric water content into ice depth. An array of these sensors will be placed in Lake Mendota, Madison, Wisconsin in winter 2015-2016, to create a temporally high-resolution ice depth record, which will be used for ecological or climatological studies while also being transmitted to the public to increase recreational safety.

  2. The spacing of Langmuir circulation in water and layers of all depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Hsi-Heng; Phillips, William R. C.

    2004-11-01

    The instability to Langmuir circulation in surface layers bounded by a strong thermocline compared with water of finite depth bounded by a rigid bottom is considered. The instability mechanism is CL2 and the problem is posited in the context of weak shear beneath aligned irrotational surface gravity waves; the waves may be long, comparable with or short relative to the layer depth and the layer may be stratified. Of interest is the onset spacing of the cells in the presence of various boundary conditions, specifically, Dirichlet, Neumann and Cauchy. In accord with Cox & Leibovich's (1993) findings in shallow water with long waves, we find for all depths and wavelengths that stress free boundary conditions at the top and bottom of the layer give rise to onset at zero wavenumber while Cauchy boundary conditions (top and bottom) ensure nonzero onset wavenumbers. Nonzero onset wavenumbers also occur in water of finite depth (Dirichlet at the bottom) for both Neumann and Cauchy free surface conditions. However, the rigid bottom has a stabilizing effect and significantly higher Rayleigh numbers (and spanwise wavenumbers) are required for onset compared with layers of equal depth.

  3. Bottom depth and type for shallow waters: Hyperspectral observations from a blimp

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, ZhongPing; Carder, K.; Steward, R.

    1997-08-01

    In a study of a blimp transect over Tampa Bay (Florida), hyperspectral upwelling radiance over the sand and seagrass bottoms was measured. These measurements were converted to hyperspectral remote-sensing reflectances. Using a shallow-water remote-sensing-reflectance model, in-water optical properties, bottom depths and bottom albedos were derived analytically and simultaneously by an optimization procedure. In the process, curvatures of sand and seagrass albedos were used. Also used was a model of absorption spectrum of phytoplankton pigments. The derived bottom depths were compared with bathymetry charts and found to agree well. This study suggests that a low-flying blimp is a useful platform for the study and mapping of coastal water environments. The optical model as well as the data-reduction procedure used are practical for the retrieval of shallow water optical properties.

  4. Comparison of shallow water table depth algorithms used in SWAT2005

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fluctuation of the shallow water table depth (WTD) is important for planning drainage systems at the plot-, field-, and watershed-scale because its proximity to the ground surface impacts farm machine trafficability, crop development, agricultural chemical transport, soil salinity, and drainage....

  5. Incorporation of a new shallow water table depth algorithm into SWAT 2005

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fluctuation of the shallow water table depth (WTD) is important for planning drainage systems at the plot-, field-, and watershed-scale because its proximity to the surface impacts farm machine trafficability, crop development, agricultural chemical transport, soil salinity, and drainage. Theref...

  6. Simulation of emergence of winter wheat in response to soil temperature, water potential and planting depth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seedling emergence is a critical stage in the establishment of dryland wheat. Soil temperature, soil water potential and planting depth are important factors influencing emergence. These factors have considerable spatio-temporal variation making it difficult to predict the timing and percentage of w...

  7. Growth and Physiological Responses to Water Depths in Carex schmidtii Meinsh

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Hong; Liu, Ruiquan; Liu, Zinan; Wang, Xue; Luo, Wenbo; Sheng, Lianxi

    2015-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment was performed to investigate growth and physiological responses to water depth in completely submerged condition of a wetland plant Carex schmidtii Meinsh., one of the dominant species in the Longwan Crater Lake wetlands (China). Growth and physiological responses of C. schmidtii were investigated by growing under control (non-submerged) and three submerged conditions (5 cm, 15 cm and 25 cm water level). Total biomass was highest in control, intermediate in 5 cm treatment and lowest in the other two submerged treatments. Water depth prominently affected the first-order lateral root to main root mass ratio. Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity decreased but malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased as water depth increased. The starch contents showed no differences among the various treatments at the end of the experiment. However, soluble sugar contents were highest in control, intermediate in 5 cm and 15 cm treatments and lowest in 25 cm treatment. Our data suggest that submergence depth affected some aspects of growth and physiology of C. schmidtii, which can reduce anoxia damage not only through maintaining the non-elongation strategy in shoot part but also by adjusting biomass allocation to different root orders rather than adjusting root-shoot biomass allocation. PMID:26009895

  8. DYNAMICS OF A SUBTIDAL SEAGRASS LANDSCAPE: SEASONAL AND ANNUAL CHANGE IN RELATION TO WATER DEPTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The spatial heterogeneity of a subtidal marine landscape and the areal extent of both monospecific and mixed patches of seagrass species were studied in Tampa Bay, FL. Specifically, we examined the temporal dynamics of seagrass distribution and its relationship to water depth an...

  9. Growth and Physiological Responses to Water Depths in Carex schmidtii Meinsh.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hong; Liu, Ruiquan; Liu, Zinan; Wang, Xue; Luo, Wenbo; Sheng, Lianxi

    2015-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment was performed to investigate growth and physiological responses to water depth in completely submerged condition of a wetland plant Carex schmidtii Meinsh., one of the dominant species in the Longwan Crater Lake wetlands (China). Growth and physiological responses of C. schmidtii were investigated by growing under control (non-submerged) and three submerged conditions (5 cm, 15 cm and 25 cm water level). Total biomass was highest in control, intermediate in 5 cm treatment and lowest in the other two submerged treatments. Water depth prominently affected the first-order lateral root to main root mass ratio. Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity decreased but malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased as water depth increased. The starch contents showed no differences among the various treatments at the end of the experiment. However, soluble sugar contents were highest in control, intermediate in 5 cm and 15 cm treatments and lowest in 25 cm treatment. Our data suggest that submergence depth affected some aspects of growth and physiology of C. schmidtii, which can reduce anoxia damage not only through maintaining the non-elongation strategy in shoot part but also by adjusting biomass allocation to different root orders rather than adjusting root-shoot biomass allocation.

  10. Snow-depth and water-equivalent data for the Fairbanks area, Alaska, spring 1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plumb, E.W.; Lilly, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    Snow depths at 34 sites and snow-water equivalents at 13 sites in the Fairbanks area were monitored during the 1995 snowmelt period (March 30 to April 26) in the spring of 1995. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted this study in cooperation with the Fairbanks International Airport, the University of Alaska Fairbanks, the Alaska Department of Natural Resources-Division of Mining and Water Management, the U.S Army, Alaska, and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers-Alaska District. These data were collected to provide information about potential recharge of the ground-and surface-water systems during the snowmelt period in the Fairbanks area. This information is needed by companion geohydrologic studies of areas with known or suspected contaminants in the subsurface. Data-collection sites selected had open, boggy, wooded, or brushy vegetation cover and had different slope aspects. The deepest snow at any site, 27.1 inches, was recorded on April 1, 1995; the shallowest snow measured that day was 19.1 inches. The snow-water equivalents at these two sites were 5.9 inches and 4.5 inches, respectively. Snow depths and water equivalents were comparatively greater at open and bog sites than at wooded or brushy sites. Snow depths and water equivalents at all sites decreased throughout the measuring period. The decrease was more rapid at open and boggy sites than at wooded and brushy sites. Snow had completely disappeared from all sites by April 26, 1995.

  11. Vegetative Propagule Pressure and Water Depth Affect Biomass and Evenness of Submerged Macrophyte Communities

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hong-Li; Wang, Yong-Yang; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Pu; Zhang, Ming-Xiang; Yu, Fei-Hai

    2015-01-01

    Vegetative propagule pressure may affect the establishment and structure of aquatic plant communities that are commonly dominated by plants capable of clonal growth. We experimentally constructed aquatic communities consisting of four submerged macrophytes (Hydrilla verticillata, Ceratophyllum demersum, Elodea nuttallii and Myriophyllum spicatum) with three levels of vegetative propagule pressure (4, 8 and 16 shoot fragments for communities in each pot) and two levels of water depth (30 cm and 70 cm). Increasing vegetative propagule pressure and decreasing water level significantly increased the growth of the submerged macrophyte communities, suggesting that propagule pressure and water depth should be considered when utilizing vegetative propagules to re-establish submerged macrophyte communities in degraded aquatic ecosystems. However, increasing vegetative propagule pressure and decreasing water level significantly decreased evenness of the submerged macrophyte communities because they markedly increased the dominance of H. verticillata and E. nuttallii, but had little impact on that of C. demersum and M. spicatum. Thus, effects of vegetative propagule pressure and water depth are species-specific and increasing vegetative propagule pressure under lower water level can facilitate the establishment success of submerged macrophyte communities. PMID:26560705

  12. Vegetative Propagule Pressure and Water Depth Affect Biomass and Evenness of Submerged Macrophyte Communities.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong-Li; Wang, Yong-Yang; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Pu; Zhang, Ming-Xiang; Yu, Fei-Hai

    2015-01-01

    Vegetative propagule pressure may affect the establishment and structure of aquatic plant communities that are commonly dominated by plants capable of clonal growth. We experimentally constructed aquatic communities consisting of four submerged macrophytes (Hydrilla verticillata, Ceratophyllum demersum, Elodea nuttallii and Myriophyllum spicatum) with three levels of vegetative propagule pressure (4, 8 and 16 shoot fragments for communities in each pot) and two levels of water depth (30 cm and 70 cm). Increasing vegetative propagule pressure and decreasing water level significantly increased the growth of the submerged macrophyte communities, suggesting that propagule pressure and water depth should be considered when utilizing vegetative propagules to re-establish submerged macrophyte communities in degraded aquatic ecosystems. However, increasing vegetative propagule pressure and decreasing water level significantly decreased evenness of the submerged macrophyte communities because they markedly increased the dominance of H. verticillata and E. nuttallii, but had little impact on that of C. demersum and M. spicatum. Thus, effects of vegetative propagule pressure and water depth are species-specific and increasing vegetative propagule pressure under lower water level can facilitate the establishment success of submerged macrophyte communities. PMID:26560705

  13. Factors for converting dose measured in polystyrene phantoms to dose reported in water phantoms for incident proton beams

    SciTech Connect

    Moyers, M. F.; Vatnitsky, A. S.; Vatnitsky, S. M.

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: Previous dosimetry protocols allowed calibrations of proton beamline dose monitors to be performed in plastic phantoms. Nevertheless, dose determinations were referenced to absorbed dose-to-muscle or absorbed dose-to-water. The IAEA Code of Practice TRS 398 recommended that dose calibrations be performed with ionization chambers only in water phantoms because plastic-to-water dose conversion factors were not available with sufficient accuracy at the time of its writing. These factors are necessary, however, to evaluate the difference in doses delivered to patients if switching from calibration in plastic to a protocol that only allows calibration in water. Methods: This work measured polystyrene-to-water dose conversion factors for this purpose. Uncertainties in the results due to temperature, geometry, and chamber effects were minimized by using special experimental set-up procedures. The measurements were validated by Monte Carlo simulations. Results: At the peak of non-range-modulated beams, measured polystyrene-to-water factors ranged from 1.015 to 1.024 for beams with ranges from 36 to 315 mm. For beams with the same ranges and medium sized modulations, the factors ranged from 1.005 to 1.019. The measured results were used to generate tables of polystyrene-to-water dose conversion factors. Conclusions: The dose conversion factors can be used at clinical proton facilities to support beamline and patient specific dose per monitor unit calibrations performed in polystyrene phantoms.

  14. Seismic evidence of negligible water carried below 400-km depth in subducting lithosphere.

    PubMed

    Green, Harry W; Chen, Wang-Ping; Brudzinski, Michael R

    2010-10-14

    Strong evidence exists that water is carried from the surface into the upper mantle by hydrous minerals in the uppermost 10-12 km of subducting lithosphere, and more water may be added as the lithosphere bends and goes downwards. Significant amounts of that water are released as the lithosphere heats up, triggering earthquakes and fluxing arc volcanism. In addition, there is experimental evidence for high solubility of water in olivine, the most abundant mineral in the upper mantle, for even higher solubility in olivine's high-pressure polymorphs, wadsleyite and ringwoodite, and for the existence of dense hydrous magnesium silicates that potentially could carry water well into the lower mantle (deeper than 1,000 km). Here we compare experimental and seismic evidence to test whether patterns of seismicity and the stabilities of these potentially relevant hydrous phases are consistent with a wet lithosphere. We show that there is nearly a one-to-one correlation between dehydration of minerals and seismicity at depths less than about 250 km, and conclude that the dehydration of minerals is the trigger of instability that leads to seismicity. At greater depths, however, we find no correlation between occurrences of earthquakes and depths where breakdown of hydrous phases is expected. Lastly, we note that there is compelling evidence for the existence of metastable olivine (which, if present, can explain the distribution of deep-focus earthquakes) west of and within the subducting Tonga slab and also in three other subduction zones, despite metastable olivine being incompatible with even extremely small amounts of water (of the order of 100 p.p.m. by weight). We conclude that subducting slabs are essentially dry at depths below 400 km and thus do not provide a pathway for significant amounts of water to enter the mantle transition zone or the lower mantle.

  15. The Depths of Hydraulic Fracturing and Accompanying Water Use Across the United States.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Robert B; Lowry, Ella R; Pickle, Amy; Kang, Mary; DiGiulio, Dominic; Zhao, Kaiguang

    2015-08-01

    Reports highlight the safety of hydraulic fracturing for drinking water if it occurs "many hundreds of meters to kilometers underground". To our knowledge, however, no comprehensive analysis of hydraulic fracturing depths exists. Based on fracturing depths and water use for ∼44,000 wells reported between 2010 and 2013, the average fracturing depth across the United States was 8300 ft (∼2500 m). Many wells (6900; 16%) were fractured less than a mile from the surface, and 2600 wells (6%) were fractured above 3000 ft (900 m), particularly in Texas (850 wells), California (720), Arkansas (310), and Wyoming (300). Average water use per well nationally was 2,400,000 gallons (9,200,000 L), led by Arkansas (5,200,000 gallons), Louisiana (5,100,000 gallons), West Virginia (5,000,000 gallons), and Pennsylvania (4,500,000 gallons). Two thousand wells (∼5%) shallower than one mile and 350 wells (∼1%) shallower than 3000 ft were hydraulically fractured with >1 million gallons of water, particularly in Arkansas, New Mexico, Texas, Pennsylvania, and California. Because hydraulic fractures can propagate 2000 ft upward, shallow wells may warrant special safeguards, including a mandatory registry of locations, full chemical disclosure, and, where horizontal drilling is used, predrilling water testing to a radius 1000 ft beyond the greatest lateral extent.

  16. Transport of E. coli in a sandy soil as impacted by depth to water table.

    PubMed

    Stall, Christopher; Amoozegar, Aziz; Lindbo, David; Graves, Alexandria; Rashash, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Septic systems are considered a source of groundwater contamination. In the study described in this article, the fate of microbes applied to a sandy loam soil from North Carolina coastal plain as impacted by water table depth was studied. Soil materials were packed to a depth of 65 cm in 17 columns (15-cm diameter), and a water table was established at 30, 45, and 60 cm depths using five replications. Each day, 200 mL of an artificial septic tank effluent inoculated with E. coli were applied to the top of each column, a 100-mL sample was collected at the water table level and analyzed for E. coli, and 100 mL was drained from the bottom to maintain the water table. Two columns were used as control and received 200 mL/day of sterilized effluent. Neither 30 nor 45 cm of unsaturated soil was adequate to attenuate bacterial contamination, while 60 cm of separation appeared to be sufficient. Little bacterial contamination moved with the water table when it was lowered from 30 to 60 cm.

  17. The Depths of Hydraulic Fracturing and Accompanying Water Use Across the United States.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Robert B; Lowry, Ella R; Pickle, Amy; Kang, Mary; DiGiulio, Dominic; Zhao, Kaiguang

    2015-08-01

    Reports highlight the safety of hydraulic fracturing for drinking water if it occurs "many hundreds of meters to kilometers underground". To our knowledge, however, no comprehensive analysis of hydraulic fracturing depths exists. Based on fracturing depths and water use for ∼44,000 wells reported between 2010 and 2013, the average fracturing depth across the United States was 8300 ft (∼2500 m). Many wells (6900; 16%) were fractured less than a mile from the surface, and 2600 wells (6%) were fractured above 3000 ft (900 m), particularly in Texas (850 wells), California (720), Arkansas (310), and Wyoming (300). Average water use per well nationally was 2,400,000 gallons (9,200,000 L), led by Arkansas (5,200,000 gallons), Louisiana (5,100,000 gallons), West Virginia (5,000,000 gallons), and Pennsylvania (4,500,000 gallons). Two thousand wells (∼5%) shallower than one mile and 350 wells (∼1%) shallower than 3000 ft were hydraulically fractured with >1 million gallons of water, particularly in Arkansas, New Mexico, Texas, Pennsylvania, and California. Because hydraulic fractures can propagate 2000 ft upward, shallow wells may warrant special safeguards, including a mandatory registry of locations, full chemical disclosure, and, where horizontal drilling is used, predrilling water testing to a radius 1000 ft beyond the greatest lateral extent. PMID:26196164

  18. EBT2 film as a depth-dose measurement tool for radiotherapy beams over a wide range of energies and modalities

    SciTech Connect

    Arjomandy, Bijan; Tailor, Ramesh; Zhao Li; Devic, Slobodan

    2012-02-15

    Purpose: One of the fundamental parameters used for dose calculation is percentage depth-dose, generally measured employing ionization chambers. There are situations where use of ion chambers for measuring depth-doses is difficult or problematic. In such cases, radiochromic film might be an alternative. The EBT-2 model GAFCHROMIC film was investigated as a potential tool for depth-dose measurement in radiotherapy beams over a broad range of energies and modalities. Methods: Pieces of the EBT-2 model GAFCHROMIC EBT2 film were exposed to x-ray, electron, and proton beams used in radiotherapy. The beams employed for this study included kilovoltage x-rays (75 kVp), {sup 60}Co gamma-rays, megavoltage x-rays (18 MV), electrons (7 and 20 MeV), and pristine Bragg-peak proton beams (126 and 152 MeV). At each beam quality, film response was measured over the dose range of 0.4-8.0 Gy, which corresponds to optical densities ranging from 0.05 to 0.4 measured with a flat-bed document scanner. To assess precision in depth-dose measurements with the EBT-2 model GAFCHROMIC film, uncertainty in measured optical density was investigated with respect to variation in film-to-film and scanner-bed uniformity. Results: For most beams, percentage depth-doses measured with the EBT-2 model GAFCHROMIC film show an excellent agreement with those measured with ion chambers. Some discrepancies are observed in case of (i) kilovoltage x-rays at larger depths due to beam-hardening, and (ii) proton beams around Bragg-peak due to quenching effects. For these beams, an empirical polynomial correction produces better agreement with ion-chamber data. Conclusions: The EBT-2 model GAFCHROMIC film is an excellent secondary dosimeter for measurement of percentage depth-doses for a broad range of beam qualities and modalities used in radiotherapy. It offers an easy and efficient way to measure beam depth-dose data with a high spatial resolution.

  19. Changes in late-winter snowpack depth, water equivalent, and density in Maine, 1926-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hodgkins, G.A.; Dudley, R.W.

    2006-01-01

    Twenty-three snow-course sites in and near Maine, USA, with records spanning at least 50 years through to 2004 were tested for changes over time in snowpack depth, water equivalent, and density in March and April. Of the 23 sites, 18 had a significant decrease (Mann-Kendall test, p < 0??1) in snowpack depth or a significant increase in snowpack density over time. Data from four sites in the mountains of western Maine-northern New Hampshire with mostly complete records from 1926 to 2004 indicate that average snowpack depths have decreased by about 16% and densities have increased by about 11%. Average snowpack depths and water equivalents in western Maine-northern New Hampshire peaked in the 1950s and 1960s, and densities peaked in the most recent decade. Previous studies in western North America also found a water-equivalent peak in the third quarter of the 20th century. Published in 2006 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Estimating the Depth and Shape of Lake Vostok's Water Cavity from Aerogravity Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studinger, M.; Bell, R. E.; Tikku, A. A.

    2003-12-01

    The water circulation within Lake Vostok provides a viable mechanism for transporting mass and energy through the lake, enhancing the potential for the support of biota. The circulation pattern depends primarily on the geometry of the lake bathymetry. Water in shallow regions will warm more from the geothermal heat flux than in deeper parts, resulting in subtle lateral changes of water density. This temperature-induced change in water density is the primary driving force for the horizontal circulation within the lake. To date, only a few seismic soundings have provided estimates of the water depth of Lake Vostok. To determine the depth and shape of the water cavity over the entire lake we use gravity data acquired along a grid of flight lines traversing the region. The free-air gravity anomaly field reflects density variations related to both major geological and topographic structures and changes in the water depth of the lake. The gravity contribution from the deeper geological structures can be removed from the free-air anomaly by low-pass filtering of the data. The subglacial topography outside the lake and the geometry of the overlying ice sheet are well constrained from ice-penetrating radar measurements. The unknown parameter that dominates the filtered gravity anomaly is the relief of the bedrock-water interface. Assuming a constant density contrast across this boundary, the gravity data can be inverted for the bathymetry of the lake. The results show that Lake Vostok consists of two sub-basins, a northern and southern. The southern sub-basin is much deeper and approximately double the spatial area of the smaller northern sub-basin. The two sub-basins are separated by a saddle with very shallow water depths. The separation of Lake Vostok in two distinct sub-basins has important ramifications for the water circulation within the lake. The lake volume estimated from the inversion of gravity data is 5200 cubic km, three times bigger than previously thought

  1. TOPMODEL simulations of streamflow and depth to water table in Fishing Brook Watershed, New York, 2007-09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nystrom, Elizabeth A.; Burns, Douglas A.

    2011-01-01

    TOPMODEL uses a topographic wetness index computed from surface-elevation data to simulate streamflow and subsurface-saturation state, represented by the saturation deficit. Depth to water table was computed from simulated saturation-deficit values using computed soil properties. In the Fishing Brook Watershed, TOPMODEL was calibrated to the natural logarithm of streamflow at the study area outlet and depth to water table at Sixmile Wetland using a combined multiple-objective function. Runoff and depth to water table responded differently to some of the model parameters, and the combined multiple-objective function balanced the goodness-of-fit of the model realizations with respect to these parameters. Results show that TOPMODEL reasonably simulated runoff and depth to water table during the study period. The simulated runoff had a Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency of 0.738, but the model underpredicted total runoff by 14 percent. Depth to water table computed from simulated saturation-deficit values matched observed water-table depth moderately well; the root mean squared error of absolute depth to water table was 91 millimeters (mm), compared to the mean observed depth to water table of 205 mm. The correlation coefficient for temporal depth-to-water-table fluctuations was 0.624. The variability of the TOPMODEL simulations was assessed using prediction intervals grouped using the combined multiple-objective function. The calibrated TOPMODEL results for the entire study area were applied to several subwatersheds within the study area using computed hydrogeomorphic properties of the subwatersheds.

  2. Arsenic-related water quality with depth and water quality of well-head samples from production wells, Oklahoma, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becker, Carol J.; Smith, S. Jerrod; Greer, James R.; Smith, Kevin A.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey well profiler was used to describe arsenic-related water quality with well depth and identify zones yielding water with high arsenic concentrations in two production wells in central and western Oklahoma that yield water from the Permian-aged Garber-Wellington and Rush Springs aquifers, respectively. In addition, well-head samples were collected from 12 production wells yielding water with historically large concentrations of arsenic (greater than 10 micrograms per liter) from the Garber-Wellington aquifer, Rush Springs aquifer, and two minor aquifers: the Arbuckle-Timbered Hills aquifer in southern Oklahoma and a Permian-aged undefined aquifer in north-central Oklahoma. Three depth-dependent samples from a production well in the Rush Springs aquifer had similar water-quality characteristics to the well-head sample and did not show any substantial changes with depth. However, slightly larger arsenic concentrations in the two deepest depth-dependent samples indicate the zones yielding noncompliant arsenic concentrations are below the shallowest sampled depth. Five depth-dependent samples from a production well in the Garber-Wellington aquifer showed increases in arsenic concentrations with depth. Well-bore travel-time information and water-quality data from depth-dependent and well-head samples showed that most arsenic contaminated water (about 63 percent) was entering the borehole from perforations adjacent to or below the shroud that overlaid the pump. Arsenic concentrations ranged from 10.4 to 124 micrograms per liter in 11 of the 12 production wells sampled at the well head, exceeding the maximum contaminant level of 10 micrograms per liter for drinking water. pH values of the 12 well-head samples ranged from 6.9 to 9. Seven production wells in the Garber-Wellington aquifer had the largest arsenic concentrations ranging from 18.5 to 124 micrograms per liter. Large arsenic concentrations (10.4-18.5) and near neutral to slightly alkaline

  3. Estimating vegetation optical depth using L-band passive microwave airborne data in HiWATER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qi; Chai, Linna

    2014-11-01

    In this study, a relationship between polarization differences of soil emissivity at different incidence angles was constructed from a large quantity of simulated soil emissivity based on the Advanced Integrated Emission Model (AIEM) input parameters include: a frequency of 1.4 GHz (L-band), incident angles varying from 1°to 60° at a 1° interval, a wide range of soil moisture content and land surface roughness parameters. Then, we used this relationship and the ω-τ zero-order radiation transfer model to develop an inversion method of low vegetation optical depth at L-band, this work were under the assumption that there was no significant polarization difference between the vegetation signals. Based on this inversion method of low vegetation optical depth, we used the land surface passive microwave brightness temperature of Heihe Watershed obtained by airborne Polarimetric L-band Multibeam Radiometer (PLMR) in 2012 Heihe Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (HiWATER) to retrieve the corn optical depth in the flight areas, then the results were compared with the measured corn LAI. Results show that the retrieved corn optical depths were consisted with the measured LAI of corn. It proved that the corn optical depth inversion method proposed in this study was feasible. Moreover, the method was promising to apply to the satellite observations.

  4. Spectral model of depth-integrated water column photosynthesis and its inhibition by ultraviolet radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cullen, John J.; Davis, Richard F.; Huot, Yannick

    2012-03-01

    Depth-integrated models of primary production (DIMs) are used to estimate water column photosynthesis as a function of chlorophyll concentration, irradiance at the surface, the penetration of photosynthetically available radiation (PAR), and parameters of the relationship between photosynthesis and PAR. These models are inherently unable to account for variability in the ratio of photosynthetically utilizable radiation (PUR) to PAR with depth and water type, and they cannot account for the inhibition of photosynthesis by ultraviolet radiation, UVR. These important spectral effects — all sensitive to climate change — are readily described with numerical models that require many computations and are unsuitable for some important applications, including the estimation of aquatic productivity from remote sensing. We present a simple DIM that accounts for the spectral effects of irradiance on photosynthesis, including inhibition by UVR. Water column photosynthesis, normalized to surface chlorophyll and scaled to the maximum rate per unit chlorophyll, is described as a function of four dimensionless derived variables:E*PUR, PUR at the surface scaled to the saturation irradiance for photosynthesis; T*PUR, water transparency, normalized to a depth scale and weighted spectrally for photosynthetic absorption; E*PIR, surface irradiance weighted spectrally for inhibition of photosynthesis; and T*PIR, scaled transparency weighted for photosynthesis-inhibiting radiation. Simple functions of these variables closely approximate (within 6%) the results of a full-spectral numerical model of instantaneous and daily integrated water column photosynthesis with and without UVR for a broad range of water types, solar angles, stratospheric ozone concentrations and biological properties of phytoplankton. The spectral DIM is suitable for examining patterns in global ocean productivity and can be used to assess the biological effects of variations in solar radiation (e.g., ozone

  5. Field comparison of analytical results from discrete-depth ground water samplers

    SciTech Connect

    Zemo, D.A.; Delfino, T.A.; Gallinatti, J.D.; Baker, V.A.; Hilpert, L.R.

    1995-07-01

    Discrete-depth ground water samplers are used during environmental screening investigations to collect ground water samples in lieu of installing and sampling monitoring wells. Two of the most commonly used samplers are the BAT Enviroprobe and the QED HydroPunch I, which rely on differing sample collection mechanics. Although these devices have been on the market for several years, it was unknown what, if any, effect the differences would have on analytical results for ground water samples containing low to moderate concentrations of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This study investigated whether the discrete-depth ground water sampler used introduces statistically significant differences in analytical results. The goal was to provide a technical basis for allowing the two devices to be used interchangeably during screening investigations. Because this study was based on field samples, it included several sources of potential variability. It was necessary to separate differences due to sampler type from variability due to sampling location, sample handling, and laboratory analytical error. To statistically evaluate these sources of variability, the experiment was arranged in a nested design. Sixteen ground water samples were collected from eight random locations within a 15-foot by 15-foot grid. The grid was located in an area where shallow ground water was believed to be uniformly affected by VOCs. The data were evaluated using analysis of variance.

  6. Simplified Volume-Area-Depth Method for Estimating Water Storage of Isolated Prairie Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minke, A. G.; Westbrook, C. J.; van der Kamp, G.

    2009-05-01

    There are millions of wetlands in shallow depressions on the North American prairies but the quantity of water stored in these depressions remains poorly understood. Hayashi and van der Kamp (2000) used the relationship between volume (V), area (A) and depth (h) to develop an equation for estimating wetland storage. We tested the robustness of their full and simplified V-A-h methods to accurately estimate volume for the range of wetland shapes occurring across the Prairie Pothole Region. These results were contrasted with two commonly implemented V-A regression equations to determine which method estimates volume most accurately. We used detailed topographic data for 27 wetlands in Smith Creek and St. Denis watersheds, Saskatchewan that ranged in surface area and basin shape. The full V-A-h method was found to accurately estimate storage (errors <3%) across wetlands of various shapes, and is therefore suitable for calculating water storage in the variety of wetland surface shapes found in the prairies. Both V-A equations performed poorly, with volume underestimated by an average of 15% and 50% Analysis of the simplified V-A-h method showed that volume errors of <10% can be achieved if the basin and shape coefficients are derived properly. This would involve measuring depth and area twice, with sufficient time between measurements that the natural fluctuations in water storage are reflected. Practically, wetland area and depth should be measured in spring, following snowmelt when water levels are near the peak, and also in late summer prior to water depths dropping below 10 cm. These guidelines for applying the simplified V-A-h method will allow for accurate volume estimations when detailed topographic data are not available. Since the V-A equations were outperformed by the full and simplified V-A-h methods, we conclude that wetland depth and basin morphology should be considered when estimating volume. This will improve storage estimations of natural and human

  7. Nematode assemblages from the Kandalaksha Depression (White Sea, 251-288 m water depth)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miljutin, Dmitry M.; Miljutina, Maria A.; Tchesunov, Alexei V.; Mokievsky, Vadim O.

    2014-03-01

    The shallow-water nematodes of the White Sea are relatively well studied; however, information on the nematode fauna inhabiting the deepest part of this sea is very scarce. The composition of the nematode assemblages (at species and genus level) was studied in samples collected during four sampling occasions in the deepest part of the Kandalaksha Depression (the White Sea) in July 1998, October 1998, May 1999, and November 1999. Samples were collected from a depth of 251-288 m with the aid of a multicorer. In total, 59 nematode morphotypes belonging to 37 genera and 18 families were distinguished. The genera Sabatieria and Filipjeva dominated at all stations, followed by Aponema, Desmoscolex, and Quadricoma. The composition of the dominant genera can be considered typical for this depth range in temperate and Arctic waters, although Filipjeva and Aponema were among the dominant genera for the first time. The most abundant species were Sabatieria ornata, Aponema bathyalis, and Filipjeva filipjevi. In general, diversity of the nematode assemblages was lower than in the temperate and Arctic continental shelf and slope with reduced evenness and species richness. The evenness of nematode assemblages and other diversity indices decreased with increasing sediment depth. Based on the valid species and genera recorded, the nematode fauna of the Kandalaksha Depression showed a higher resemblance to that found in the shallow waters of Kandalaksha Bay.

  8. Spatio-temporal representativeness of euphotic depth in situ sampling in transitional coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhtala, Hanna; Tolvanen, Harri

    2016-06-01

    In dynamic coastal waters, the representativeness of spot sampling is limited to the measurement time and place due to local heterogeneity and irregular water property fluctuations. We assessed the representativeness of in situ sampling by analysing spot-sampled depth profiles of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) in dynamic coastal archipelago waters in the south-western Finnish coast of the Baltic Sea. First, we assessed the role of spatio-temporality within the underwater light dynamics. As a part of this approach, an anomaly detection procedure was tested on a dataset including a large archipelago area and extensive temporal coverage throughout the ice-free season. The results suggest that euphotic depth variability should be treated as a spatio-temporal process rather than considering spatial and temporal dimensions separately. Second, we assessed the representativeness of spot sampling through statistical analysis of comparative data from spatially denser sampling on three test sites on two optically different occasions. The datasets revealed variability in different dimensions and scales. The suitability of a dataset to reveal wanted phenomena can usually be improved by careful planning and by clearly defining the data sampling objectives beforehand. Nonetheless, conducting a sufficient in situ sampling in dynamic coastal area is still challenging: detecting the general patterns at all the relevant dimensions is complicated by the randomness effect, which reduces the reliability of spot samples on a more detailed scale. Our results indicate that good representativeness of a euphotic depth sampling location is not a stable feature in a highly dynamic environment.

  9. Elemental Water Impact Test: Phase 3 Plunge Depth of a 36-Inch Aluminum Tank Head

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vassilakos, Gregory J.

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft are being designed based on LS-DYNA water landing simulations. The Elemental Water Impact Test (EWIT) series was undertaken to assess the accuracy of LS-DYNA water impact simulations. Phase 3 featured a composite tank head that was tested at a range of heights to verify the ability to predict structural failure of composites. To support planning for Phase 3, a test series was conducted with an aluminum tank head dropped from heights of 2, 6, 10, and 12 feet to verify that the test article would not impact the bottom of the test pool. This report focuses on the comparisons of the measured plunge depths to LS-DYNA predictions. The results for the tank head model demonstrated the following. 1. LS-DYNA provides accurate predictions for peak accelerations. 2. LS-DYNA consistently under-predicts plunge depth. An allowance of at least 20% should be added to the LS-DYNA predictions. 3. The LS-DYNA predictions for plunge depth are relatively insensitive to the fluid-structure coupling stiffness.

  10. Shallow sea-floor reflectance and water depth derived by unmixing multispectral imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Bierwirth, P.N.; Lee, T.J.; Burne, R.V. Michigan Environmental Research Inst., Ann Arbor )

    1993-03-01

    A major problem for mapping shallow water zones by the analysis of remotely sensed data is that contrast effects due to water depth obscure and distort the special nature of the substrate. This paper outlines a new method which unmixes the exponential influence of depth in each pixel by employing a mathematical constraint. This leaves a multispectral residual which represents relative substrate reflectance. Input to the process are the raw multispectral data and water attenuation coefficients derived by the co-analysis of known bathymetry and remotely sensed data. Outputs are substrate-reflectance images corresponding to the input bands and a greyscale depth image. The method has been applied in the analysis of Landsat TM data at Hamelin Pool in Shark Bay, Western Australia. Algorithm derived substrate reflectance images for Landsat TM bands 1, 2, and 3 combined in color represent the optimum enhancement for mapping or classifying substrate types. As a result, this color image successfully delineated features, which were obscured in the raw data, such as the distributions of sea-grasses, microbial mats, and sandy area. 19 refs.

  11. The effect of depth of step on the water performance of a flying-boat hull model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Joe W

    1935-01-01

    NACA model 11-C was tested with four different depths of step to obtain information as to the effect of the depth of step on the water performance. The depths of step were selected to cover the practicable range of depths and in each case the included angle between the forebody and afterbody keels was kept the same 6-1/2 degrees. Small depths of step were found to give lower resistance at speeds below and at the hump speed of the model and greater depths of step lower resistance at high speeds. For low resistance throughout the speed range of the model investigated the most desirable depth of step is from 2.5 to 4.0 percent of the beam. The change of the best trim angle caused by variation of the depth of step was not appreciable. Increased depth of step caused increases in the maximum positive trimming moments at all trim angles investigated.

  12. Modeling relationships between water table depth and peat soil carbon loss in Southeast Asian plantations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Kimberly M.; Goodman, Lael K.; May-Tobin, Calen C.

    2015-07-01

    Plantation-associated drainage of Southeast Asian peatlands has accelerated in recent years. Draining exposes the upper peat layer to oxygen, leading to elevated decomposition rates and net soil carbon losses. Empirical studies indicate positive relationships between long-term water table (WT) depth and soil carbon loss rate in peatlands. These correlations potentially enable using WT depth as a proxy for soil carbon losses from peatland plantations. Here, we compile data from published research assessing WT depth and carbon balance in tropical plantations on peat. We model net carbon loss from subsidence studies, as well as soil respiration (heterotrophic and total) from closed chamber studies, as a function of WT depth. WT depth across all 12 studies and 59 sites is 67 ± 20 cm (mean ± standard deviation). Mean WT depth is positively related to net carbon loss, as well as soil respiration rate. Our models explain 45% of net carbon loss variation and 45-63% of soil respiration variation. At a 70 cm WT depth, the subsidence model suggests net carbon loss of 20 tC ha-1 yr-1 (95% confidence interval (CI) 18-22 tC ha-1 yr-1) for plantations drained for >2 yr. Closed chamber-measured total soil respiration at this depth is 20 tC-CO2 ha-1 yr-1 (CI 17-24 tC-CO2 ha-1 yr-1) while heterotrophic respiration is 17 tC-CO2 ha-1 yr-1 (CI 14-20 tC-CO2 ha-1 yr-1), ˜82% of total respiration. While land use is not a significant predictor of soil respiration, WT depths are greater at acacia (75 ± 16 cm) than oil palm (59 ± 15 cm) sample sites. Improved spatio-temporal sampling of the full suite of peat soil carbon fluxes—including fluvial carbon export and organic fertilizer inputs—will clarify multiple mechanisms leading to carbon loss and gain, supporting refined assessments of the global warming potential of peatland drainage.

  13. Influence of Water Table Depth on Pore Water Chemistry and Trihalomethane Formation Potential in Peatlands.

    PubMed

    Gough, Rachel; Holliman, Peter J; Fenner, Nathalie; Peacock, Mike; Freeman, Christopher

    2016-02-01

    Drained peatland catchments are reported to produce more colored, dissolved organic carbon (DOC)-rich water, presenting problems for potable water treatment. The blocking of peatland drainage ditches to restore the water table is increasingly being considered as a strategy to address this deterioration in water quality. However, the effect of ditch blocking on the potential of DOC to form trihalomethanes (THMs) has not been assessed. In this study, the effect of peat rewetting on pore water DOC concentration and characteristics (including THM formation potential [THMFP]) was assessed over 12 months using peat cores collected from two drained peatland sites. The data show little evidence of differences in DOC concentration or characteristics between the different treatments. The absence of any difference in the THMFP of pore water between treatments suggests that, in the short term at least, ditch blocking may not have an effect on the THMFP of waters draining peatland catchments. PMID:26803099

  14. Tides in the northeast Atlantic: Considerations for modelling water depth changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinton, A. C.

    A two-dimensional tidal model of the northeast Atlantic is used to simulate the M 2, S 2, μ2, M 4, MS 4 and M 6 tides for present sea level and with mean water level lowered or raised by a uniform number of metres over the model area. M 2+S 2 tides predict the present spring tidal range, although the other constituents are needed to predict spring tides in shallow water areas. The accuracy of the assumptions made in modelling is assessed. The relative amplitudes of the different tidal constituents vary, in a non-linear manner, depending on model water depth. Changes in the northeast Atlantic tides are relatively minor for tidal simulations with water depths 30 m below to 5 m above present levels. However, the situation is more complicated in the shallower waters of the northwest European shelf. Examples are given from a number of locations. Results from the Northeast Atlantic model are used to run larger scale models of Morecambe Bay on the west coast of Britain and The Wash on the east coast. The tidal changes within these embayments highlight the local nature of the variations, in the amplitude of different tidal constituents and the importance of the scale at which modelling is carried out.

  15. Determinants of the spatial covariation of primary productivity and water table depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koirala, S.; Jung, M.; de Graaf, I. E. M.; Reichstein, M.; Carvalhais, N.

    2015-12-01

    This study explores when, where and how the spatial variations of gross primary productivity (GPP) and water table depth (WTD) are linked at the global scale. Latest observation-based global datasets, at a relatively high resolution of ~10 km (5 arc-minutes), are used to analyse spatial partial correlations between GPP and WTD. Results indicate that strength, direction, and spatial distribution of the partial correlation change with climate, vegetation cover, and seasonal availability of precipitation and radiation. Shallower water table depth is associated with larger GPP (negative correlation) in 14.3-23.9% of the global land area in different seasons. Such negative correlations between GPP and WTD seem to prevail in arid to temperate climatic regions with crop, shrub, or Savanna vegetation covers. These regions often have WTD shallower than 15-20 m. Positive correlations, on the other hand, mostly occur in relatively humid forested regions, suggesting that large water uptake by tree roots decreases groundwater recharge and thus draws the water table down. Gradients of primarily positive to primarily negative correlations are arranged along decreasing tree cover, and increasing coverage of plants with C4-photosynthesis. This possibly indicates that the water use efficiency of ecosystems may also play a critical role in determining productivity-groundwater relationships.

  16. Modeling bulk density and snow water equivalent using daily snow depth observations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCreight, J. L.; Small, E. E.

    2013-10-01

    Bulk density is a fundamental property of snow relating its depth and mass. Previously, two simple models of bulk density (depending on snow depth, date, and location) have been developed to convert snow depth observations to snow water equivalent (SWE) estimates. However, these models were not intended for application at the daily time step. We develop a new model of bulk density for the daily timestep and demonstrate its improved skill over the existing models. Snow depth and density are negatively correlated at short (10 days) timescales while positively correlated at longer (90 days) timescales. We separate these scales of variability by modeling smoothed, daily snow depth (long time scales) and the observed positive and negative anomalies from the smoothed timeseries (short timescales) as separate terms. A climatology of fit is also included as a predictor variable. Over a half-million, daily observations of depth and SWE at 345 SNOTEL sites are used to fit models and evaluate their performance. For each location, we train the three models to the neighboring stations within 70 km, transfer the parameters to the location to be modeled, and evaluate modeled timeseries against the observations at that site. Our model exhibits improved statistics and qualitatively more-realistic behavior at the daily time step when sufficient local training data are available. We reduce density RMSE by 9.6% and 4.2% compared to previous models. Similarly, R2 increases from 0.46 to 0.52 to 0.56 across models. Removing the challenge of parameter transfer increases R2 scores for both the existing and new models, but the gain is greatest for the new model (R2 = 0.75). Our model shows general improvement over the existing models when data are more frequent than once every 5 days and at least 3 stations are available for training.

  17. Dose specification for 192Ir high dose rate brachytherapy in terms of dose-to-water-in-medium and dose-to-medium-in-medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paiva Fonseca, Gabriel; Carlsson Tedgren, Åsa; Reniers, Brigitte; Nilsson, Josef; Persson, Maria; Yoriyaz, Hélio; Verhaegen, Frank

    2015-06-01

    Dose calculation in high dose rate brachytherapy with 192Ir is usually based on the TG-43U1 protocol where all media are considered to be water. Several dose calculation algorithms have been developed that are capable of handling heterogeneities with two possibilities to report dose: dose-to-medium-in-medium (Dm,m) and dose-to-water-in-medium (Dw,m). The relation between Dm,m and Dw,m for 192Ir is the main goal of this study, in particular the dependence of Dw,m on the dose calculation approach using either large cavity theory (LCT) or small cavity theory (SCT). A head and neck case was selected due to the presence of media with a large range of atomic numbers relevant to tissues and mass densities such as air, soft tissues and bone interfaces. This case was simulated using a Monte Carlo (MC) code to score: Dm,m, Dw,m (LCT), mean photon energy and photon fluence. Dw,m (SCT) was derived from MC simulations using the ratio between the unrestricted collisional stopping power of the actual medium and water. Differences between Dm,m and Dw,m (SCT or LCT) can be negligible (<1%) for some tissues e.g. muscle and significant for other tissues with differences of up to 14% for bone. Using SCT or LCT approaches leads to differences between Dw,m (SCT) and Dw,m (LCT) up to 29% for bone and 36% for teeth. The mean photon energy distribution ranges from 222 keV up to 356 keV. However, results obtained using mean photon energies are not equivalent to the ones obtained using the full, local photon spectrum. This work concludes that it is essential that brachytherapy studies clearly report the dose quantity. It further shows that while differences between Dm,m and Dw,m (SCT) mainly depend on tissue type, differences between Dm,m and Dw,m (LCT) are, in addition, significantly dependent on the local photon energy fluence spectrum which varies with distance to implanted sources.

  18. Testing peatland water-table depth transfer functions using high-resolution hydrological monitoring data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swindles, Graeme T.; Holden, Joseph; Raby, Cassandra L.; Turner, T. Edward; Blundell, Antony; Charman, Dan J.; Menberu, Meseret Walle; Kløve, Bjørn

    2015-07-01

    Transfer functions are now commonly used to reconstruct past environmental variability from palaeoecological data. However, such approaches need to be critically appraised. Testate amoeba-based transfer functions are an established method for the quantitative reconstruction of past water-table variations in peatlands, and have been applied to research questions in palaeoclimatology, peatland ecohydrology and archaeology. We analysed automatically-logged peatland water-table data from dipwells located in England, Wales and Finland and a suite of three year, one year and summer water-table statistics were calculated from each location. Surface moss samples were extracted from beside each dipwell and the testate amoebae community composition was determined. Two published transfer functions were applied to the testate-amoeba data for prediction of water-table depth (England and Europe). Our results show that estimated water-table depths based on the testate amoeba community reflect directional changes, but that they are poor representations of the real mean or median water-table magnitudes for the study sites. We suggest that although testate amoeba-based reconstructions can be used to identify past shifts in peat hydrology, they cannot currently be used to establish precise hydrological baselines such as those needed to inform management and restoration of peatlands. One approach to avoid confusion with contemporary water-table determinations is to use residuals or standardised values for peatland water-table reconstructions. We contend that our test of transfer functions against independent instrumental data sets may be more powerful than relying on statistical testing alone.

  19. Cetacean distribution related with depth and slope in the Mediterranean waters off southern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cañadas, A.; Sagarminaga, R.; García-Tiscar, S.

    2002-11-01

    The northeastern section of the Alboran Sea is currently under consideration as a Special Area for Conservation under the European Union's Habitat Directive. Within this framework, the present study focuses on the distribution of cetaceans in this area and is part of the Spanish Ministry of the Environment's "Program for the Identification of Areas of Special Interest for the Conservation of Cetaceans in the Spanish Mediterranean". Shipboard visual surveys were conducted in 1992 and from 1995 to 2001 in the north-eastern Alboran Sea, covering 14,409 km. A total of 1,134 sightings of cetaceans were made. From the data collected, the distribution of seven species of odontocete was examined with respect to two physiographic variables, water depth and slope. Analyses of χ2 and fitting of GLMs demonstrated significant differences in distribution for all species, mainly with respect to depth. Kruskal-Wallis tests, factor analysis and discriminant function analysis showed that the species could be classified in two major groups, shallow-waters (short-beaked common dolphin and bottlenose dolphin) and deep-waters (striped dolphin, Risso's dolphin, long-finned pilot whale, sperm whale and beaked whale), respectively. Preferred habitats in terms of water depth were areas deeper than 600 m for the deep-water group, and the shallower ranges from shore to 400 m for the other. The distribution of cetaceans was further matched with that of their most common prey in order to establish which habitats could be considered important for their feeding. The resulting analysis highlighted two areas in the region as important habitats for the conservation of the most vulnerable species in the Mediterranean, the bottlenose and the common dolphin.

  20. Functional traits composition predict macrophytes community productivity along a water depth gradient in a freshwater lake.

    PubMed

    Fu, Hui; Zhong, Jiayou; Yuan, Guixiang; Ni, Leyi; Xie, Ping; Cao, Te

    2014-05-01

    Functional trait composition of plant communities has been proposed as a helpful key for understanding the mechanisms of biodiversity effects on ecosystem functioning. In this study, we applied a step-wise modeling procedure to test the relative effects of taxonomic diversity, functional identity, and functional diversity on macrophytes community productivity along water depth gradient. We sampled 42 plots and 1513 individual plants and measured 16 functional traits and abundance of 17 macrophyte species. Results showed that there was a significant decrease in taxonomic diversity, functional identity (i.e., stem dry mass content, leaf [C] and leaf [N]), and functional diversity (i.e., floating leaf, mean Julian flowering date and rooting depth) with increasing water depth. For the multiple-trait functional diversity (FD) indices, functional richness decreased, while functional divergence increased with water depth gradient. Macrophyte community productivity was strongly determined by functional trait composition within community, but not significantly affected by taxonomic diversity. Community-weighted means (CWM) showed a two times higher explanatory power relative to FD indices in determining variations in community productivity. For nine of sixteen traits, CWM and FD showed significant correlations with community productivity, although the strength and direction of those relations depended on selected trait. Furthermore, functional composition in a community affected productivity through either additive or opposite effects of CWM and FD, depending on the particular traits being considered. Our results suggested both mechanisms of mass ratio and niche complementarity can operate simultaneously on variations in community productivity, and considering both CWM and FD would lead to a more profound understanding of traits-productivity relationships.

  1. Aquila field - advanced contracting strategies for the offshore development, in 850 meter water depth

    SciTech Connect

    Cerrito, E.; Ciprigno, M.

    1996-12-31

    Aquila oil field is located in 850 meters of water in the middle of the Otranto Channel, in the Mediterranean Sea, at about 45 km from the shore and is subject to both difficult sea and weather conditions. The many difficulties, mainly due to the very high water depth, imposed the use of advanced technology, that could be obtained only through the direct association of contractor companies, leaders in their own field. Such a solution safeguards the technological reliability and allows the maximum control of time and cost. The selection of an FPSO (Floating, Production, Storage and Offloading) comes from a feasibility study indicating this solution as the only one, allowing the economical exploitation of the Aquila field. This paper deals with a series of technical solutions and contractual agreements with a Joint-Venture embracing two leading world contractors for developing, manufacturing and installing the FPSO {open_quotes}Agip Firenze{close_quotes}, permanently anchored at a world record 850 m water depth. The system includes flowlines and control lines. The ship, has been especially redesigned and purchased by contractors. They will use the vessel to manage the field development. Agip will provide the subsea production system: christmas tree and control system with artificial lift. The Aquila field development project aims to identify an economically viable, low risk method of producing hydrocarbons from a deep water location where previously the reserves were technologically and economically out of range.

  2. Historical Tracking of Nitrate in Contrasting Vineyard Using Water Isotopes and Nitrate Depth Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprenger, M.; Erhardt, M.; Riedel, M.; Weiler, M.

    2015-12-01

    The European Water Framework Directive (EWFD) aims to achieve a good chemical status for the groundwater bodies in Europe by the year 2015. Despite the effort to reduce the nitrate pollution from agriculture within the last two decades, there are still many groundwater aquifers that exceed nitrate concentrations above the EWFD threshold of 50 mg/l. Viticulture is seen as a major contributor of nitrate leaching and sowing of a green cover was shown to have a positive effect on lowering the nitrate loads in the upper 90 cm of the soil. However, the consequences for nitrate leaching into the subsoil were not yet tested. We analyzed the nitrate concentrations and pore water stable isotope composition to a depth of 380 cm in soil profiles under an old vineyard and a young vineyard with either soil tillage or permanent green cover in between the grapevines. The pore water stable isotopes were used to calibrate a soil physical model, which was then used to infer the age of the soil water at different depths. This way, we could relate elevated nitrate concentrations below an old vineyard to tillage processes that took place during the winter two years before the sampling. We further showed that the elevated nitrate concentration in the subsoil of a young vineyard can be related to the soil tillage prior to the planting of the new vineyard. If the soil is kept bare due to tillage, a nitrate concentration of 200 kg NO3--N/ha is found in 290 to 380 cm depth 2.5 years after the installation of the vineyard. The amount of nitrate leaching is considerably reduced due to a seeded green cover between the grapevines that takes up a high share of the mobilized nitrate reducing a potential contamination of the groundwater.

  3. Rooting depth: a key trait connecting water and carbon metabolism of trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savi, Tadeja; Dal Borgo, Anna; Casolo, Valentino; Bressan, Alice; Stenni, Barbara; Zini, Luca; Bertoncin, Paolo; Nardini, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    Drought episodes accompanied by heat waves are thought to be the main cause of increasing rates of tree decline and mortality in several biomes with consequent ecological/economical consequences. Three possible and not mutually exclusive mechanisms have been proposed to be the drivers of this phenomenon: hydraulic failure caused by massive xylem cavitation and leading to strong reduction of root-to-leaf water transport, carbon starvation caused by prolonged stomatal closure and leading to impairment of primary and secondary metabolism, and finally attacks of biotic agents. The different mechanisms have been reported to have different relevance in the different species. We analyzed the seasonal changes of water relations, xylem sap isotopic composition, and concentration of non-structural carbohydrates in four different woody species co-occurring in the same habitat during a summer drought. Analysis of rain and deep soil water isotopic composition were also performed. Different species showed differential access to deep water sources which influences the gas exchanges and the concentration of non structural carbohydrates (NSC) during the dry season. Species with access to deeper water maintained higher NSC content and were also able to better preserve the integrity of the water transport pathway. On the basis of our results, we propose that rooting depth is a key trait connecting water and carbon plant metabolism, thus mediating the likelihood of hydraulic failure vs carbon starvation in trees subjected to global warming.

  4. Initial yield to depth relation for water wells drilled into crystalline bedrock - Pinardville quadrangle, New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drew, L.J.; Schuenemeyer, J.H.; Amstrong, T.R.; Sutphin, D.M.

    2001-01-01

    A model is proposed to explain the statistical relations between the mean initial water well yields from eight time increments from 1984 to 1998 for wells drilled into the crystalline bedrock aquifer system in the Pinardville area of southern New Hampshire and the type of bedrock, mean well depth, and mean well elevation. Statistical analyses show that the mean total yield of drilling increments is positively correlated with mean total well depth and mean well elevation. In addition, the mean total well yield varies with rock type from a minimum of 46.9 L/min (12.4 gpm) in the Damon Pond granite to a maximum of 74.5 L/min (19.7 gpm) in the Permian pegmatite and granite unit. Across the eight drilling increments that comprise 211 wells each, the percentages of very low-yield wells (1.9 L/min [0.5 gpm] or less) and high-yield wells (151.4 L/min [40 gpm] or more) increased, and those of intermediate-yield wells decreased. As housing development progressed during the 1984 to 1998 interval, the mean depth of the wells and their elevations increased, and the mix of percentages of the bedrock types drilled changed markedly. The proposed model uses a feed-forward mechanism to explain the interaction between the increasing mean elevation, mean well depth, and percentages of very low-yielding wells and the mean well yield. The increasing percentages of very low-yielding wells through time and the economics of the housing market may control the system that forces the mean well depths, percentages of high-yield wells, and mean well yields to increase. The reason for the increasing percentages of very low-yield wells is uncertain, but the explanation is believed to involve the complex structural geology and tectonic history of the Pinardville quadrangle.

  5. Using inferential sensors for quality control of Everglades Depth Estimation Network water-level data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petkewich, Matthew D.; Daamen, Ruby C.; Roehl, Edwin A.; Conrads, Paul A.

    2016-09-29

    The Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN), with over 240 real-time gaging stations, provides hydrologic data for freshwater and tidal areas of the Everglades. These data are used to generate daily water-level and water-depth maps of the Everglades that are used to assess biotic responses to hydrologic change resulting from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan. The generation of EDEN daily water-level and water-depth maps is dependent on high quality real-time data from water-level stations. Real-time data are automatically checked for outliers by assigning minimum and maximum thresholds for each station. Small errors in the real-time data, such as gradual drift of malfunctioning pressure transducers, are more difficult to immediately identify with visual inspection of time-series plots and may only be identified during on-site inspections of the stations. Correcting these small errors in the data often is time consuming and water-level data may not be finalized for several months. To provide daily water-level and water-depth maps on a near real-time basis, EDEN needed an automated process to identify errors in water-level data and to provide estimates for missing or erroneous water-level data.The Automated Data Assurance and Management (ADAM) software uses inferential sensor technology often used in industrial applications. Rather than installing a redundant sensor to measure a process, such as an additional water-level station, inferential sensors, or virtual sensors, were developed for each station that make accurate estimates of the process measured by the hard sensor (water-level gaging station). The inferential sensors in the ADAM software are empirical models that use inputs from one or more proximal stations. The advantage of ADAM is that it provides a redundant signal to the sensor in the field without the environmental threats associated with field conditions at stations (flood or hurricane, for example). In the

  6. A Dispersive Estimate for the Linearized Water-Waves Equations in Finite Depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benoît, Mésognon-Gireau

    2016-09-01

    We prove a dispersive estimate for the solutions of the linearized Water-Waves equations in dimension {d=1} and {d=2} in presence of a flat bottom. Adapting the proof from Aynur (An optimal decay estimate for the linearized water wave equation in 2d. arXiv:1411.0963, 2014) in the case of infinite depth, we prove a decay with respect to time t of order {\\vert t \\vert^{-d/3}} for solutions with initial data φ such that {\\vertφ\\vert_{H^1}} , {\\vert xφ\\vert_{H^1}} are bounded. We also give variants to this result with different decays for a more convenient use of the dispersive estimate. We then give an existence result for the full Water-Waves equations in weighted spaces for practical uses of the proven dispersive estimates.

  7. High spatial variability in coral bleaching around Moorea (French Polynesia): patterns across locations and water depths.

    PubMed

    Penin, Lucie; Adjeroud, Mehdi; Schrimm, Muriel; Lenihan, Hunter Stanton

    2007-02-01

    Mass coral bleaching events are one of the main threats to coral reefs. A severe bleaching event impacted Moorea, French Polynesia, between March and July 2002, causing 55+/-14% of colonies to suffer bleaching around the island. However, bleaching varied significantly across coral genera, locations, and as a function of water depth, with a bleaching level as high as 72% at some stations. Corals in deeper water bleached at a higher rate than those in shallow water, and the north coast was more impacted than the west coast. The relatively small scale of variability in bleaching responses probably resulted from the interaction between extrinsic factors, including hydrodynamic condition, and intrinsic factors, such as differential adaptation of the coral/algal association.

  8. Using Inferential Sensors for Quality Control of Everglades Depth Estimation Network Water-Level Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petkewich, Matthew D.; Daamen, Ruby C.; Roehl, Edwin A.; Conrads, Paul A.

    2016-09-29

    The Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN), with over 240 real-time gaging stations, provides hydrologic data for freshwater and tidal areas of the Everglades. These data are used to generate daily water-level and water-depth maps of the Everglades that are used to assess biotic responses to hydrologic change resulting from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan. The generation of EDEN daily water-level and water-depth maps is dependent on high quality real-time data from water-level stations. Real-time data are automatically checked for outliers by assigning minimum and maximum thresholds for each station. Small errors in the real-time data, such as gradual drift of malfunctioning pressure transducers, are more difficult to immediately identify with visual inspection of time-series plots and may only be identified during on-site inspections of the stations. Correcting these small errors in the data often is time consuming and water-level data may not be finalized for several months. To provide daily water-level and water-depth maps on a near real-time basis, EDEN needed an automated process to identify errors in water-level data and to provide estimates for missing or erroneous water-level data.The Automated Data Assurance and Management (ADAM) software uses inferential sensor technology often used in industrial applications. Rather than installing a redundant sensor to measure a process, such as an additional water-level station, inferential sensors, or virtual sensors, were developed for each station that make accurate estimates of the process measured by the hard sensor (water-level gaging station). The inferential sensors in the ADAM software are empirical models that use inputs from one or more proximal stations. The advantage of ADAM is that it provides a redundant signal to the sensor in the field without the environmental threats associated with field conditions at stations (flood or hurricane, for example). In the

  9. Modeling bulk density and snow water equivalent using daily snow depth observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCreight, J. L.; Small, E. E.

    2014-03-01

    Bulk density is a fundamental property of snow relating its depth and mass. Previously, two simple models of bulk density (depending on snow depth, date, and location) have been developed to convert snow depth observations to snow water equivalent (SWE) estimates. However, these models were not intended for application at the daily time step. We develop a new model of bulk density for the daily time step and demonstrate its improved skill over the existing models. Snow depth and density are negatively correlated at short (10 days) timescales while positively correlated at longer (90 days) timescales. We separate these scales of variability by modeling smoothed, daily snow depth (long timescales) and the observed positive and negative anomalies from the smoothed time series (short timescales) as separate terms. A climatology of fit is also included as a predictor variable. Over half a million daily observations of depth and SWE at 345 snowpack telemetry (SNOTEL) sites are used to fit models and evaluate their performance. For each location, we train the three models to the neighboring stations within 70 km, transfer the parameters to the location to be modeled, and evaluate modeled time series against the observations at that site. Our model exhibits improved statistics and qualitatively more-realistic behavior at the daily time step when sufficient local training data are available. We reduce density root mean square error (RMSE) by 9.9 and 4.5% compared to previous models while increasing R2 from 0.46 to 0.52 to 0.56 across models. Focusing on the 21-day window around peak SWE in each water year, our model reduces density RMSE by 24 and 17.4% relative to the previous models, with R2 increasing from 0.55 to 0.58 to 0.71 across models. Removing the challenge of parameter transfer over the full observational record increases R2 scores for both the existing and new models, but the gain is greatest for the new model (R2 = 0.75). Our model shows general improvement over

  10. The impact of water temperature on the measurement of absolute dose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Naveed Mehdi

    To standardize reference dosimetry in radiation therapy, Task Group 51 (TG 51) of American Association of Physicist's in Medicine (AAPM) recommends that dose calibration measurements be made in a water tank at a depth of 10 cm and at a reference geometry. Methodologies are provided for calculating various correction factors to be applied in calculating the absolute dose. However the protocol does not specify the water temperature to be used. In practice, the temperature of water during dosimetry may vary considerably between independent sessions and different centers. In this work the effect of water temperature on absolute dosimetry has been investigated. Density of water varies with temperature, which in turn may impact the beam attenuation and scatter properties. Furthermore, due to thermal expansion or contraction air volume inside the chamber may change. All of these effects can result in a change in the measurement. Dosimetric measurements were made using a Farmer type ion chamber on a Varian Linear Accelerator for 6 MV and 23 MV photon energies for temperatures ranging from 10 to 40 °C. A thermal insulation was designed for the water tank in order to maintain relatively stable temperature over the duration of the experiment. Dose measured at higher temperatures were found to be consistently higher by a very small magnitude. Although the differences in dose were less than the uncertainty in each measurement, a linear regression of the data suggests that the trend is statistically significant with p-values of 0.002 and 0.013 for 6 and 23 MV beams respectively. For a 10 degree difference in water phantom temperatures, which is a realistic deviation across clinics, the final calculated reference dose can differ by 0.24% or more. To address this effect, first a reference temperature (e.g.22 °C) can be set as the standard; subsequently a correction factor can be implemented for deviations from this reference. Such a correction factor is expected to be of similar

  11. Natural activity concentrations in bottled drinking water and consequent doses.

    PubMed

    Kabadayi, Önder; Gümüs, Hasan

    2012-07-01

    The radioactivity concentrations of nuclides (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K in bottled drinking water from six different manufacturers from Turkey were measured using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. The measurement was done using a coaxial high-purity germanium detector system coupled to Ortec-Dspect jr digital MCA system. The average measured activity concentrations of the nuclides (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K are found to be 0.781, 1.05 and 2.19 Bq l(-1), respectively. The measured activity concentrations have been compared with similar studies from different locations. The annual effective doses for ingestion of radionuclides in the water are found to be 0.0246 mSv for (238)U and 0.169 mSv for (232)Th.

  12. Absorbed dose to water reference dosimetry using solid phantoms in the context of absorbed-dose protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Seuntjens, Jan; Olivares, Marina; Evans, Michael; Podgorsak, Ervin

    2005-09-15

    For reasons of phantom material reproducibility, the absorbed dose protocols of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) (TG-51) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) (TRS-398) have made the use of liquid water as a phantom material for reference dosimetry mandatory. In this work we provide a formal framework for the measurement of absorbed dose to water using ionization chambers calibrated in terms of absorbed dose to water but irradiated in solid phantoms. Such a framework is useful when there is a desire to put dose measurements using solid phantoms on an absolute basis. Putting solid phantom measurements on an absolute basis has distinct advantages in verification measurements and quality assurance. We introduce a phantom dose conversion factor that converts a measurement made in a solid phantom and analyzed using an absorbed dose calibration protocol into absorbed dose to water under reference conditions. We provide techniques to measure and calculate the dose transfer from solid phantom to water. For an Exradin A12 ionization chamber, we measured and calculated the phantom dose conversion factor for six Solid Water{sup TM} phantoms and for a single Lucite phantom for photon energies between {sup 60}Co and 18 MV photons. For Solid Water{sup TM} of certified grade, the difference between measured and calculated factors varied between 0.0% and 0.7% with the average dose conversion factor being low by 0.4% compared with the calculation whereas for Lucite, the agreement was within 0.2% for the one phantom examined. The composition of commercial plastic phantoms and their homogeneity may not always be reproducible and consistent with assumed composition. By comparing measured and calculated phantom conversion factors, our work provides methods to verify the consistency of a given plastic for the purpose of clinical reference dosimetry.

  13. Primary and secondary particle contributions to the depth dose distribution in a phantom shielded from solar flare and Van Allen protons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santoro, R. T.; Claiborne, H. C.; Alsmiller, R. G., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Calculations have been made using the nucleon-meson transport code NMTC to estimate the absorbed dose and dose equivalent distributions in astronauts inside space vehicles bombarded by solar flare and Van Allen protons. A spherical shell shield of specific radius and thickness with a 30-cm-diam. tissue ball at the geometric center was used to simulate the spacecraft-astronaut configuration. The absorbed dose and the dose equivalent from primary protons, secondary protons, heavy nuclei, charged pions, muons, photons, and positrons and electrons are given as a function of depth in the tissue phantom. Results are given for solar flare protons with a characteristic rigidity of 100 MV and for Van Allen protons in a 240-nautical-mile circular orbit at 30 degree inclination angle incident on both 20-g/sq cm-thick aluminum and polyethylene spherical shell shields.

  14. Evaluation of SNODAS snow depth and snow water equivalent estimates for the Colorado Rocky Mountains, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clow, David W.; Nanus, Leora; Verdin, Kristine L.; Schmidt, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    The National Weather Service's Snow Data Assimilation (SNODAS) program provides daily, gridded estimates of snow depth, snow water equivalent (SWE), and related snow parameters at a 1-km2 resolution for the conterminous USA. In this study, SNODAS snow depth and SWE estimates were compared with independent, ground-based snow survey data in the Colorado Rocky Mountains to assess SNODAS accuracy at the 1-km2 scale. Accuracy also was evaluated at the basin scale by comparing SNODAS model output to snowmelt runoff in 31 headwater basins with US Geological Survey stream gauges. Results from the snow surveys indicated that SNODAS performed well in forested areas, explaining 72% of the variance in snow depths and 77% of the variance in SWE. However, SNODAS showed poor agreement with measurements in alpine areas, explaining 16% of the variance in snow depth and 30% of the variance in SWE. At the basin scale, snowmelt runoff was moderately correlated (R2 = 0.52) with SNODAS model estimates. A simple method for adjusting SNODAS SWE estimates in alpine areas was developed that uses relations between prevailing wind direction, terrain, and vegetation to account for wind redistribution of snow in alpine terrain. The adjustments substantially improved agreement between measurements and SNODAS estimates, with the R2 of measured SWE values against SNODAS SWE estimates increasing from 0.42 to 0.63 and the root mean square error decreasing from 12 to 6 cm. Results from this study indicate that SNODAS can provide reliable data for input to moderate-scale to large-scale hydrologic models, which are essential for creating accurate runoff forecasts. Refinement of SNODAS SWE estimates for alpine areas to account for wind redistribution of snow could further improve model performance. Published 2011. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  15. Large-scale regionalization of water table depth in peatlands optimized for greenhouse gas emission upscaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechtold, M.; Tiemeyer, B.; Laggner, A.; Leppelt, T.; Frahm, E.; Belting, S.

    2014-04-01

    Fluxes of the three main greenhouse gases (GHG) CO2, CH4 and N2O from peat and other organic soils are strongly controlled by water table depth. Information about the spatial distribution of water level is thus a crucial input parameter when upscaling GHG emissions to large scales. Here, we investigate the potential of statistical modeling for the regionalization of water levels in organic soils when data covers only a small fraction of the peatlands of the final map. Our study area is Germany. Phreatic water level data from 53 peatlands in Germany were compiled in a new dataset comprising 1094 dip wells and 7155 years of data. For each dip well, numerous possible predictor variables were determined using nationally available data sources, which included information about land cover, ditch network, protected areas, topography, peatland characteristics and climatic boundary conditions. We applied boosted regression trees to identify dependencies between predictor variables and dip well specific long-term annual mean water level (WL) as well as a transformed form of it (WLt). The latter was obtained by assuming a hypothetical GHG transfer function and is linearly related to GHG emissions. Our results demonstrate that model calibration on WLt is superior. It increases the explained variance of the water level in the sensitive range for GHG emissions and avoids model bias in subsequent GHG upscaling. The final model explained 45% of WLt variance and was built on nine predictor variables that are based on information about land cover, peatland characteristics, drainage network, topography and climatic boundary conditions. Their individual effects on WLt and the observed parameter interactions provide insights into natural and anthropogenic boundary conditions that control water levels in organic soils. Our study also demonstrates that a large fraction of the observed WLt variance cannot be explained by nationally available predictor variables and that predictors with

  16. Conversion from dose-to-graphite to dose-to-water in an 80 MeV/A carbon ion beam.

    PubMed

    Rossomme, S; Palmans, H; Shipley, D; Thomas, R; Lee, N; Romano, F; Cirrone, P; Cuttone, G; Bertrand, D; Vynckier, S

    2013-08-21

    Based on experiments and numerical simulations, a study is carried out pertaining to the conversion of dose-to-graphite to dose-to-water in a carbon ion beam. This conversion is needed to establish graphite calorimeters as primary standards of absorbed dose in these beams. It is governed by the water-to-graphite mass collision stopping power ratio and fluence correction factors, which depend on the particle fluence distributions in each of the two media. The paper focuses on the experimental and numerical determination of this fluence correction factor for an 80 MeV/A carbon ion beam. Measurements have been performed in the nuclear physics laboratory INFN-LNS in Catania (Sicily, Italy). The numerical simulations have been made with a Geant4 Monte Carlo code through the GATE simulation platform. The experimental data are in good agreement with the simulated results for the fluence correction factors and are found to be close to unity. The experimental values increase with depth reaching 1.010 before the Bragg peak region. They have been determined with an uncertainty of 0.25%. Different numerical results are obtained depending on the level of approximation made in calculating the fluence correction factors. When considering carbon ions only, the difference between measured and calculated values is maximal just before the Bragg peak, but its value is less than 1.005. The numerical value is close to unity at the surface and increases to 1.005 near the Bragg peak. When the fluence of all charged particles is considered, the fluence correction factors are lower than unity at the surface and increase with depth up to 1.025 before the Bragg peak. Besides carbon ions, secondary particles created due to nuclear interactions have to be included in the analysis: boron ions ((10)B and (11)B), beryllium ions ((7)Be), alpha particles and protons. At the conclusion of this work, we have the conversion of dose-to-graphite to dose-to-water to apply to the response of a graphite

  17. Conversion from dose-to-graphite to dose-to-water in an 80 MeV/A carbon ion beam.

    PubMed

    Rossomme, S; Palmans, H; Shipley, D; Thomas, R; Lee, N; Romano, F; Cirrone, P; Cuttone, G; Bertrand, D; Vynckier, S

    2013-08-21

    Based on experiments and numerical simulations, a study is carried out pertaining to the conversion of dose-to-graphite to dose-to-water in a carbon ion beam. This conversion is needed to establish graphite calorimeters as primary standards of absorbed dose in these beams. It is governed by the water-to-graphite mass collision stopping power ratio and fluence correction factors, which depend on the particle fluence distributions in each of the two media. The paper focuses on the experimental and numerical determination of this fluence correction factor for an 80 MeV/A carbon ion beam. Measurements have been performed in the nuclear physics laboratory INFN-LNS in Catania (Sicily, Italy). The numerical simulations have been made with a Geant4 Monte Carlo code through the GATE simulation platform. The experimental data are in good agreement with the simulated results for the fluence correction factors and are found to be close to unity. The experimental values increase with depth reaching 1.010 before the Bragg peak region. They have been determined with an uncertainty of 0.25%. Different numerical results are obtained depending on the level of approximation made in calculating the fluence correction factors. When considering carbon ions only, the difference between measured and calculated values is maximal just before the Bragg peak, but its value is less than 1.005. The numerical value is close to unity at the surface and increases to 1.005 near the Bragg peak. When the fluence of all charged particles is considered, the fluence correction factors are lower than unity at the surface and increase with depth up to 1.025 before the Bragg peak. Besides carbon ions, secondary particles created due to nuclear interactions have to be included in the analysis: boron ions ((10)B and (11)B), beryllium ions ((7)Be), alpha particles and protons. At the conclusion of this work, we have the conversion of dose-to-graphite to dose-to-water to apply to the response of a graphite

  18. Evaluation of HCMM data for assessing soil moisture and water table depth. [South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, D. G.; Heilman, J. L.; Tunheim, J. A.; Westin, F. C.; Heilman, W. E.; Beutler, G. A.; Ness, S. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Soil moisture in the 0-cm to 4-cm layer could be estimated with 1-mm soil temperatures throughout the growing season of a rainfed barley crop in eastern South Dakota. Empirical equations were developed to reduce the effect of canopy cover when radiometrically estimating the soil temperature. Corrective equations were applied to an aircraft simulation of HCMM data for a diversity of crop types and land cover conditions to estimate the soil moisture. The average difference between observed and measured soil moisture was 1.6% of field capacity. Shallow alluvial aquifers were located with HCMM predawn data. After correcting the data for vegetation differences, equations were developed for predicting water table depths within the aquifer. A finite difference code simulating soil moisture and soil temperature shows that soils with different moisture profiles differed in soil temperatures in a well defined functional manner. A significant surface thermal anomaly was found to be associated with shallow water tables.

  19. Enhanced migratory waterfowl distribution modeling by inclusion of depth to water table data.

    PubMed

    Kreakie, Betty J; Fan, Ying; Keitt, Timothy H

    2012-01-01

    In addition to being used as a tool for ecological understanding, management and conservation of migratory waterfowl rely heavily on distribution models; yet these models have poor accuracy when compared to models of other bird groups. The goal of this study is to offer methods to enhance our ability to accurately model the spatial distributions of six migratory waterfowl species. This goal is accomplished by creating models based on species-specific annual cycles and introducing a depth to water table (DWT) data set. The DWT data set, a wetland proxy, is a simulated long-term measure of the point either at or below the surface where climate and geological/topographic water fluxes balance. For species occurrences, the USGS' banding bird data for six relatively common species was used. Distribution models are constructed using Random Forest and MaxEnt. Random Forest classification of habitat and non-habitat provided a measure of DWT variable importance, which indicated that DWT is as important, and often more important, to model accuracy as temperature, precipitation, elevation, and an alternative wetland measure. MaxEnt models that included DWT in addition to traditional predictor variables had a considerable increase in classification accuracy. Also, MaxEnt models created with DWT often had higher accuracy when compared with models created with an alternative measure of wetland habitat. By comparing maps of predicted probability of occurrence and response curves, it is possible to explore how different species respond to water table depth and how a species responds in different seasons. The results of this analysis also illustrate that, as expected, all waterfowl species are tightly affiliated with shallow water table habitat. However, this study illustrates that the intensity of affiliation is not constant between seasons for a species, nor is it consistent between species. PMID:22272288

  20. Enhanced Migratory Waterfowl Distribution Modeling by Inclusion of Depth to Water Table Data

    PubMed Central

    Kreakie, Betty J.; Fan, Ying; Keitt, Timothy H.

    2012-01-01

    In addition to being used as a tool for ecological understanding, management and conservation of migratory waterfowl rely heavily on distribution models; yet these models have poor accuracy when compared to models of other bird groups. The goal of this study is to offer methods to enhance our ability to accurately model the spatial distributions of six migratory waterfowl species. This goal is accomplished by creating models based on species-specific annual cycles and introducing a depth to water table (DWT) data set. The DWT data set, a wetland proxy, is a simulated long-term measure of the point either at or below the surface where climate and geological/topographic water fluxes balance. For species occurrences, the USGS' banding bird data for six relatively common species was used. Distribution models are constructed using Random Forest and MaxEnt. Random Forest classification of habitat and non-habitat provided a measure of DWT variable importance, which indicated that DWT is as important, and often more important, to model accuracy as temperature, precipitation, elevation, and an alternative wetland measure. MaxEnt models that included DWT in addition to traditional predictor variables had a considerable increase in classification accuracy. Also, MaxEnt models created with DWT often had higher accuracy when compared with models created with an alternative measure of wetland habitat. By comparing maps of predicted probability of occurrence and response curves, it is possible to explore how different species respond to water table depth and how a species responds in different seasons. The results of this analysis also illustrate that, as expected, all waterfowl species are tightly affiliated with shallow water table habitat. However, this study illustrates that the intensity of affiliation is not constant between seasons for a species, nor is it consistent between species. PMID:22272288

  1. Enhanced migratory waterfowl distribution modeling by inclusion of depth to water table data.

    PubMed

    Kreakie, Betty J; Fan, Ying; Keitt, Timothy H

    2012-01-01

    In addition to being used as a tool for ecological understanding, management and conservation of migratory waterfowl rely heavily on distribution models; yet these models have poor accuracy when compared to models of other bird groups. The goal of this study is to offer methods to enhance our ability to accurately model the spatial distributions of six migratory waterfowl species. This goal is accomplished by creating models based on species-specific annual cycles and introducing a depth to water table (DWT) data set. The DWT data set, a wetland proxy, is a simulated long-term measure of the point either at or below the surface where climate and geological/topographic water fluxes balance. For species occurrences, the USGS' banding bird data for six relatively common species was used. Distribution models are constructed using Random Forest and MaxEnt. Random Forest classification of habitat and non-habitat provided a measure of DWT variable importance, which indicated that DWT is as important, and often more important, to model accuracy as temperature, precipitation, elevation, and an alternative wetland measure. MaxEnt models that included DWT in addition to traditional predictor variables had a considerable increase in classification accuracy. Also, MaxEnt models created with DWT often had higher accuracy when compared with models created with an alternative measure of wetland habitat. By comparing maps of predicted probability of occurrence and response curves, it is possible to explore how different species respond to water table depth and how a species responds in different seasons. The results of this analysis also illustrate that, as expected, all waterfowl species are tightly affiliated with shallow water table habitat. However, this study illustrates that the intensity of affiliation is not constant between seasons for a species, nor is it consistent between species.

  2. The influence of water table depth and the free atmospheric state on convective rainfall predisposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonetti, Sara; Manoli, Gabriele; Domec, Jean-Christophe; Putti, Mario; Marani, Marco; Katul, Gabriel G.

    2015-04-01

    A mechanistic model for the soil-plant system is coupled to a conventional slab representation of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) to explore the role of groundwater table (WT) variations and free atmospheric (FA) states on convective rainfall predisposition (CRP) at a Loblolly pine plantation site situated in the lower coastal plain of North Carolina. Predisposition is quantified using the crossing between modeled lifting condensation level (LCL) and convectively grown ABL depth. The LCL-ABL depth crossing is necessary for air saturation but not sufficient for cloud formation and subsequent convective rainfall occurrence. However, such crossing forms the main template for which all subsequent dynamical processes regulating the formation (or suppression) of convective rainfall operate on. If the feedback between surface fluxes and FA conditions is neglected, a reduction in latent heat flux associated with reduced WT levels is shown to enhance the ABL-LCL crossing probability. When the soil-plant system is fully coupled with ABL dynamics thereby allowing feedback with ABL temperature and humidity, FA states remain the leading control on CRP. However, vegetation water stress plays a role in controlling ABL-LCL crossing when the humidity supply by the FA is within an intermediate range of values. When FA humidity supply is low, cloud formation is suppressed independent of surface latent heat flux. Similarly, when FA moisture supply is high, cloud formation can occur independent of surface latent heat flux. In an intermediate regime of FA moisture supply, the surface latent heat flux controlled by soil water availability can supplement (or suppress) the necessary water vapor leading to reduced LCL and subsequent ABL-LCL crossing. It is shown that this intermediate state corresponds to FA values around the mode in observed humidity lapse rates γw (between -2.5 × 10-6 and -1.5 × 10-6 kg kg-1m-1), suggesting that vegetation water uptake may be controlling CRP at

  3. Evaluation of the depth-integration method of measuring water discharge in large rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moody, J.A.; Troutman, B.M.

    1992-01-01

    The depth-integration method oor measuring water discharge makes a continuos measurement of the water velocity from the water surface to the bottom at 20 to 40 locations or verticals across a river. It is especially practical for large rivers where river traffic makes it impractical to use boats attached to taglines strung across the river or to use current meters suspended from bridges. This method has the additional advantage over the standard two- and eight-tenths method in that a discharge-weighted suspended-sediment sample can be collected at the same time. When this method is used in large rivers such as the Missouri, Mississippi and Ohio, a microwave navigation system is used to determine the ship's position at each vertical sampling location across the river, and to make accurate velocity corrections to compensate for shift drift. An essential feature is a hydraulic winch that can lower and raise the current meter at a constant transit velocity so that the velocities at all depths are measured for equal lengths of time. Field calibration measurements show that: (1) the mean velocity measured on the upcast (bottom to surface) is within 1% of the standard mean velocity determined by 9-11 point measurements; (2) if the transit velocity is less than 25% of the mean velocity, then average error in the mean velocity is 4% or less. The major source of bias error is a result of mounting the current meter above a sounding weight and sometimes above a suspended-sediment sampling bottle, which prevents measurement of the velocity all the way to the bottom. The measured mean velocity is slightly larger than the true mean velocity. This bias error in the discharge is largest in shallow water (approximately 8% for the Missouri River at Hermann, MO, where the mean depth was 4.3 m) and smallest in deeper water (approximately 3% for the Mississippi River at Vickbsurg, MS, where the mean depth was 14.5 m). The major source of random error in the discharge is the natural

  4. Depth dependence of absorbed dose, dose equivalent and linear energy transfer spectra of galactic and trapped particles in polyethylene and comparison with calculations of models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, J. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    A matched set of five tissue-equivalent proportional counters (TEPCs), embedded at the centers of 0 (bare), 3, 5, 8 and 12-inch-diameter polyethylene spheres, were flown on the Shuttle flight STS-81 (inclination 51.65 degrees, altitude approximately 400 km). The data obtained were separated into contributions from trapped protons and galactic cosmic radiation (GCR). From the measured linear energy transfer (LET) spectra, the absorbed dose and dose-equivalent rates were calculated. The results were compared to calculations made with the radiation transport model HZETRN/NUCFRG2, using the GCR free-space spectra, orbit-averaged geomagnetic transmission function and Shuttle shielding distributions. The comparison shows that the model fits the dose rates to a root mean square (rms) error of 5%, and dose-equivalent rates to an rms error of 10%. Fairly good agreement between the LET spectra was found; however, differences are seen at both low and high LET. These differences can be understood as due to the combined effects of chord-length variation and detector response function. These results rule out a number of radiation transport/nuclear fragmentation models. Similar comparisons of trapped-proton dose rates were made between calculations made with the proton transport model BRYNTRN using the AP-8 MIN trapped-proton model and Shuttle shielding distributions. The predictions of absorbed dose and dose-equivalent rates are fairly good. However, the prediction of the LET spectra below approximately 30 keV/microm shows the need to improve the AP-8 model. These results have strong implications for shielding requirements for an interplanetary manned mission.

  5. Dose and dose rate dependency of lipid peroxide formation in rat tissues by low level contamination with tritiated water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moisoi, N.; Petcu, I.

    1999-01-01

    The changes in peroxide level in different tissues (liver, kidney, small intestine, spleen, bone marrow) of rats exposed to low levels of tritiated water were investigated in relation to tissue radiosensitivity, the irradiation dose and the dose rate domain. The radiation exposure was performed by internal contamination of rats with tritiated water, in the 0 50cGy dose domain, with dose rates in the range of 0.01 2cGy/day. For the lower dose rates (< 0.35cGy/day) the peroxide levels did not increase for doses up to 10cGy, while a dose rate of 1 1.75cGy/day induced an increase in peroxide levels starting at 5cGy. The increases were more significant for the tissues with higher radiosensitivity: spleen, small intestine and bone marrow. For the 4.2 7cGy dose domain and very low dose rates, up to 0.1cGy/day, the peroxide level seemed to have an inverse dose rate dependency. Nous avons étudié la modification du niveau des peroxydes lipidiques pour des tissus ayant des radiosensibilités différentes (foie, rein, rate, intestin grêle, moelle osseuse) après irradiation de rats par contamination interne à l'eau tritiée dans le domaine des faibles doses (0 - 50 cGy) et faibles débits de doses (0,01 - 2 cGy/jour). L'irradiation au débit de dose inférieure à 0,35 cGy/jour, n'augmente le niveau de peroxydation que pour des doses supérieures à 10 cGy. Par contre, le débit de 1-1.75 cGy/jour induit une augmentation significative du paramètre étudié à partir de la dose de 5 cGy. Cette augmentation est plus accentuée pour la rate, l'intestin grêle et la moelle osseuse. Aux doses de 4,2-7 cGy et débits de doses très faibles (< 0.1 cGy), le niveau de peroxydation montre une dépendance inverse par rapport au débit de dose.

  6. Fish communities associated with cold-water corals vary with depth and substratum type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milligan, Rosanna J.; Spence, Gemma; Roberts, J. Murray; Bailey, David M.

    2016-08-01

    Understanding the processes that drive the distribution patterns of organisms and the scales over which these processes operate are vital when considering the effective management of species with high commercial or conservation value. In the deep sea, the importance of scleractinian cold-water corals (CWCs) to fish has been the focus of several studies but their role remains unclear. We propose this may be due to the confounding effects of multiple drivers operating over multiple spatial scales. The aims of this study were to investigate the role of CWCs in shaping fish community structure and individual species-habitat associations across four spatial scales in the NE Atlantic ranging from "regions" (separated by >500 km) to "substratum types" (contiguous). Demersal fish and substratum types were quantified from three regions: Logachev Mounds, Rockall Bank and Hebrides Terrace Seamount (HTS). PERMANOVA analyses showed significant differences in community composition between all regions which were most likely caused by differences in depths. Within regions, significant variation in community composition was recorded at scales of c. 20-3500 m. CWCs supported significantly different fish communities to non-CWC substrata at Rockall Bank, Logachev and the HTS. Single-species analyses using generalised linear mixed models showed that Sebastes sp. was strongly associated with CWCs at Rockall Bank and that Neocyttus helgae was more likely to occur in CWCs at the HTS. Depth had a significant effect on several other fish species. The results of this study suggest that the importance of CWCs to fish is species-specific and depends on the broader spatial context in which the substratum is found. The precautionary approach would be to assume that CWCs are important for associated fish, but must acknowledge that CWCs in different depths will not provide redundancy or replication within spatially-managed conservation networks.

  7. Soil water and vegetation responses to precipitation and changes in depth to ground water in Owens Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sorenson, Stephen K.; Dileanis, Peter D.; Branson, Farrel A.

    1991-01-01

    Vegetation on the floor of Owens Valley, California, is composed predominantly of phreatophytic desert communities that are adapted to small quantities of precipitation and alkaline soils. These plant communities are believed to be dependent on the continuing presence of a shallow water table. Maintaining existing plant communities is important to preserve the environmental quality of the valley. Proposals to pump additional quantities of ground water from the valley for export to the city of Los Angeles caused concern about the effect of pumping on the existing vegetation and how the plants would adapt to short- or long-term declines of the shallow water table. To test the ability of selected major shrub species to adapt to water-table decline, four sites were selected, pump-equipped wells were installed, and water-table drawdown was monitored. Soil samples were collected with a hand auger and analyzed by using the filter-paper method to monitor changes in soil water content and soil matric potential at test sites. Plant reactions were determined by measurements of plant cover, shoot growth, and xylem pressure potential. Results of 3 years of monitoring show that growth and cover repetition of the shrubs studied are affected greatly by the quantity of annual precipitation, especially at sites with coarse-textured soils. Plants were not affected by drying soil in the root zone until the maximum matric potential exceeded 4.3 pF (-1,950 kilopascal) at depths greater than 0.5 meter. Rabbit-brush was most sensitive to dry soil and was the only shrub species that died as the result of water stress from water-table drawdown. The change in cover repetition correlated positively with the magnitude of water-table drawdown at one site and negatively at another site. Measurements of xylem pressure potential taken before dawn correlated well with water content in the upper 1.5 meters of soil. The magnitude of water-table drawdown achieved by the pump-equipped wells was less

  8. Depth of cinder deposits and water-storage capacity at Cinder Lake, Coconino County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Macy, Jamie P.; Amoroso, Lee; Kennedy, Jeff; Unema, Joel

    2012-01-01

    The 2010 Schultz fire northeast of Flagstaff, Arizona, burned more than 15,000 acres on the east side of San Francisco Mountain from June 20 to July 3. As a result, several drainages in the burn area are now more susceptible to increased frequency and volume of runoff, and downstream areas are more susceptible to flooding. Resultant flooding in areas downgradient of the burn has resulted in extensive damage to private lands and residences, municipal water lines, and roads. Coconino County, which encompasses Flagstaff, has responded by deepening and expanding a system of roadside ditches to move flood water away from communities and into an area of open U.S. Forest Service lands, known as Cinder Lake, where rapid infiltration can occur. Water that has been recently channeled into the Cinder Lake area has infiltrated into the volcanic cinders and could eventually migrate to the deep regional groundwater-flow system that underlies the area. How much water can potentially be diverted into Cinder Lake is unknown, and Coconino County is interested in determining how much storage is available. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted geophysical surveys and drilled four boreholes to determine the depth of the cinder beds and their potential for water storage capacity. Results from the geophysical surveys and boreholes indicate that interbedded cinders and alluvial deposits are underlain by basalt at about 30 feet below land surface. An average total porosity for the upper 30 feet of deposits was calculated at 43 percent for an area of 300 acres surrounding the boreholes, which yields a total potential subsurface storage for Cinder Lake of about 4,000 acre-feet. Ongoing monitoring of storage change in the Cinder Lake area was initiated using a network of gravity stations.

  9. Sedimentological data indicate greater range of water depths for Costistricklandia lirata in the Southern Appalachians

    SciTech Connect

    Bolton, J.C. )

    1990-08-01

    Two distinct horizons of the pentamerid brachiopod Costistricklandia lirata occur in the upper part of the Red Mountain Formation (Lower Silurian) in northern Alabama. Stratigraphic and sedimentologic characteristics of the rocks associated with the brachiopods suggest water depths of 15-150 m during times of low rates of terrigenous influx. Costistricklandid assemblages from the lower horizon are composed of extremely large individuals in association with a diverse population of large corals. They are interpreted to have lived in a protected environment. In an overlying horizon, costistricklandids occur in growth position at the base of a thick siliciclastic interval. These brachiopods lived in a storm-dominated environment and were buried in situ by the rapid influx of sediment associated with a passing storm.

  10. Cathodic protection upgrade of the 1,050 ft water depth Cognac platform

    SciTech Connect

    Goolsby, A.D.; McGuire, D.P.

    1997-09-01

    This paper reports the steps of a cathodic protection upgrade of a three year old deep water platform (the Cognac structure, Mississippi Canyon 194A) installed in 1977/78. These steps include obtaining results from an ROV survey, using the survey data to calculate added currents needed to upgrade cathodic protection of the platform, achieving retrofit anode installation using then novel methods, and following-up with CP surveys showing the success of the upgrade. The authors calculated that 3,100 amperes of additional current applied at depths from 250 to 1,050 feet would be needed to achieve full cathodic protection of the well conductors and jacket of Cognac. Approximately 1,100 additional aluminum anodes were installed during the early 1980`s, using two novel installation methods. Installed cost was estimated at $5.4MM. Potentials since the time of the upgrade have been very satisfactory.

  11. Large-scale regionalization of water table depth in peatlands optimized for greenhouse gas emission upscaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechtold, M.; Tiemeyer, B.; Laggner, A.; Leppelt, T.; Frahm, E.; Belting, S.

    2014-09-01

    Fluxes of the three main greenhouse gases (GHG) CO2, CH4 and N2O from peat and other soils with high organic carbon contents are strongly controlled by water table depth. Information about the spatial distribution of water level is thus a crucial input parameter when upscaling GHG emissions to large scales. Here, we investigate the potential of statistical modeling for the regionalization of water levels in organic soils when data covers only a small fraction of the peatlands of the final map. Our study area is Germany. Phreatic water level data from 53 peatlands in Germany were compiled in a new data set comprising 1094 dip wells and 7155 years of data. For each dip well, numerous possible predictor variables were determined using nationally available data sources, which included information about land cover, ditch network, protected areas, topography, peatland characteristics and climatic boundary conditions. We applied boosted regression trees to identify dependencies between predictor variables and dip-well-specific long-term annual mean water level (WL) as well as a transformed form (WLt). The latter was obtained by assuming a hypothetical GHG transfer function and is linearly related to GHG emissions. Our results demonstrate that model calibration on WLt is superior. It increases the explained variance of the water level in the sensitive range for GHG emissions and avoids model bias in subsequent GHG upscaling. The final model explained 45% of WLt variance and was built on nine predictor variables that are based on information about land cover, peatland characteristics, drainage network, topography and climatic boundary conditions. Their individual effects on WLt and the observed parameter interactions provide insight into natural and anthropogenic boundary conditions that control water levels in organic soils. Our study also demonstrates that a large fraction of the observed WLt variance cannot be explained by nationally available predictor variables and

  12. Analysis of small field percent depth dose and profiles: Comparison of measurements with various detectors and effects of detector orientation with different jaw settings

    PubMed Central

    Godson, Henry Finlay; Ravikumar, M.; Sathiyan, S.; Ganesh, K. M.; Ponmalar, Y. Retna; Varatharaj, C.

    2016-01-01

    The advent of modern technologies in radiotherapy poses an increased challenge in the determination of dosimetric parameters of small fields that exhibit a high degree of uncertainty. Percent depth dose and beam profiles were acquired using different detectors in two different orientations. The parameters such as relative surface dose (DS), depth of dose maximum (Dmax), percentage dose at 10 cm (D10), penumbral width, flatness, and symmetry were evaluated with different detectors. The dosimetric data were acquired for fields defined by jaws alone, multileaf collimator (MLC) alone, and by MLC while the jaws were positioned at 0, 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 cm away from MLC leaf-end using a Varian linear accelerator with 6 MV photon beam. The accuracy in the measurement of dosimetric parameters with various detectors for three different field definitions was evaluated. The relative DS(38.1%) with photon field diode in parallel orientation was higher than electron field diode (EFD) (27.9%) values for 1 cm ×1 cm field. An overestimation of 5.7% and 8.6% in D10 depth were observed for 1 cm ×1 cm field with RK ion chamber in parallel and perpendicular orientation, respectively, for the fields defined by MLC while jaw positioned at the edge of the field when compared to EFD values in parallel orientation. For this field definition, the in-plane penumbral widths obtained with ion chamber in parallel and perpendicular orientation were 3.9 mm, 5.6 mm for 1 cm ×1 cm field, respectively. Among all detectors used in the study, the unshielded diodes were found to be an appropriate choice of detector for the measurement of beam parameters in small fields. PMID:27051165

  13. Analysis of small field percent depth dose and profiles: Comparison of measurements with various detectors and effects of detector orientation with different jaw settings.

    PubMed

    Godson, Henry Finlay; Ravikumar, M; Sathiyan, S; Ganesh, K M; Ponmalar, Y Retna; Varatharaj, C

    2016-01-01

    The advent of modern technologies in radiotherapy poses an increased challenge in the determination of dosimetric parameters of small fields that exhibit a high degree of uncertainty. Percent depth dose and beam profiles were acquired using different detectors in two different orientations. The parameters such as relative surface dose (D S), depth of dose maximum (D max), percentage dose at 10 cm (D 10), penumbral width, flatness, and symmetry were evaluated with different detectors. The dosimetric data were acquired for fields defined by jaws alone, multileaf collimator (MLC) alone, and by MLC while the jaws were positioned at 0, 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 cm away from MLC leaf-end using a Varian linear accelerator with 6 MV photon beam. The accuracy in the measurement of dosimetric parameters with various detectors for three different field definitions was evaluated. The relative D S(38.1%) with photon field diode in parallel orientation was higher than electron field diode (EFD) (27.9%) values for 1 cm ×1 cm field. An overestimation of 5.7% and 8.6% in D 10 depth were observed for 1 cm ×1 cm field with RK ion chamber in parallel and perpendicular orientation, respectively, for the fields defined by MLC while jaw positioned at the edge of the field when compared to EFD values in parallel orientation. For this field definition, the in-plane penumbral widths obtained with ion chamber in parallel and perpendicular orientation were 3.9 mm, 5.6 mm for 1 cm ×1 cm field, respectively. Among all detectors used in the study, the unshielded diodes were found to be an appropriate choice of detector for the measurement of beam parameters in small fields. PMID:27051165

  14. A Geant4 simulation of the depth dose percentage in brain tumors treatments using protons and carbon ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    José A. Diaz, M.; Torres, D. A.

    2016-07-01

    The deposited energy and dose distribution of beams of protons and carbon over a head are simulated using the free tool package Geant4 and the data analysis package ROOT-C++. The present work shows a methodology to understand the microscopical process occurring in a session of hadron-therapy using advance simulation tools.

  15. Gravity and geoid anomalies of the Philippine Sea: Evidence on the depth of compensation for the negative residual water depth anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowin, C.

    1982-01-01

    A negative free-air gravity anomaly which occurs in the central part of the Philippine Sea was examined to determine the distribution and nature of possible regional mass excesses or deficiencies. Geoid anomalies from GEOS-3 observation were positive. A negative residual geoid anomaly consistent with the area of negative free-air gravity anomalies were found. Theoretical gravity-topography and geoid-topography admittance functions indicated that high density mantle at about 60 km dept could account for the magnitudes of the gravity and residual geoid anomaly and the 1 km residual water depth anomaly in the Philippine Sea. The negative residual depth anomaly may be compensated for by excess density in the uppermost mantle, but the residual geoid and regional free-air gravity anomalies and a slow surface wave velocity structure might result from low-density warm upper mantle material lying beneath the zone of high-density uppermost mantle. From a horizontal disk approximation, the depth of the low-density warm mantle was estimated to be on the order of 200 km.

  16. Understanding patterns in global water table depth: the enormous data challenges (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Y.; Li, H.; Pokhrel, Y. N.; Miguez-Macho, G.

    2013-12-01

    The depth to groundwater can tell us much about where societies and land ecosystems can potentially depend on this water resource, but to have a coherent picture of this variable in space and time requires real data support. Here we outline the key roles that groundwater plays in land surface processes, and present some rudimentary effort in compiling observations and building simple models, the latter as a case study to expose the vast deficiency in data and the need for community-level, and international coordination. Key challenges include the establishment of a global network of groundwater time series for syntheses and analyses of patterns and trends (e.g., the Pan-Africa effort led by Richard Taylor), and a global database of upper crustal porosity and permeability for supporting model simulations (e.g., MacroStrat led by Shanan Peters and the new Digital Crust initiative at NSF-USGS Powell Synthesis Center). Real steps must be taken to build these community data infrastructure if we are to understand the functions of groundwater in shaping terrestrial water fluxes.

  17. A depth-averaged 2-D model of flow and sediment transport in coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, Alejandro; Wu, Weiming; Beck, Tanya M.

    2016-11-01

    A depth-averaged 2-D model has been developed to simulate unsteady flow and nonuniform sediment transport in coastal waters. The current motion is computed by solving the phase-averaged 2-D shallow water flow equations reformulated in terms of total-flux velocity, accounting for the effects of wave radiation stresses and general diffusion or mixing induced by current, waves, and wave breaking. The cross-shore boundary conditions are specified by assuming fully developed longshore current and wave setup that are determined using the reduced 1-D momentum equations. A 2-D wave spectral transformation model is used to calculate the wave height, period, direction, and radiation stresses, and a surface wave roller model is adopted to consider the effects of surface roller on the nearshore currents. The nonequilibrium transport of nonuniform total-load sediment is simulated, considering sediment entrainment by current and waves, the lag of sediment transport relative to the flow, and the hiding and exposure effect of nonuniform bed material. The flow and sediment transport equations are solved using an implicit finite volume method on a variety of meshes including nonuniform rectangular, telescoping (quadtree) rectangular, and hybrid triangular/quadrilateral meshes. The flow and wave models are integrated through a carefully designed steering process. The model has been tested in three field cases, showing generally good performance.

  18. [Effects of submarine topography and water depth on distribution of pelagic fish community in minnan-taiwan bank fishing ground].

    PubMed

    Fang, Shuimei; Yang, Shengyun; Zhang, Chengmao; Zhu, Jinfu

    2002-11-01

    According to the fishing record of the light-seine information vessel in Minnan-Taiwan bank ground during 1989 to 1999, the effects of submarine topography and water depth on distribution of pelagic fish community in Minnan-Taiwan bank fishing ground was studied. The results showed that the pelagic fish distributed concentratively, while the submarine topography and water depth varied widely, but in different fishing regions, the distribution of pelagic fishes was uneven. The distribution of fishing yield increased from north to south, and closed up from sides of the bank to south or north in the regions. Pelagic fish distributed mainly in mixed water in the southern Taiwan Strait, and in warm water in the Taiwan Strait. The central fishing grounds were at high salt regions. Close gathering regions of pelagic fish or central fishing ground would be varied with the seasonal variation of mixed water in the southern Taiwan Strait and warm water in the Taiwan Strait. Central fishing ground was not only related to submarine topography and water depth, but also related to wind direction, wind-power and various water systems. In the fishing ground, the gathering depth of pelagic fish was 30-60 m in spring and summer, and 40-80 m in autumn and winter.

  19. Predictive models of turbidity and water depth in the Doñana marshes using Landsat TM and ETM+ images.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Javier; Pacios, Fernando; Díaz-Delgado, Ricardo; Aragonés, David

    2009-05-01

    We have used Landsat-5 TM and Landsat-7 ETM+ images together with simultaneous ground-truth data at sample points in the Doñana marshes to predict water turbidity and depth from band reflectance using Generalized Additive Models. We have point samples for 12 different dates simultaneous with 7 Landsat-5 and 5 Landsat-7 overpasses. The best model for water turbidity in the marsh explained 38% of variance in ground-truth data and included as predictors band 3 (630-690 nm), band 5 (1550-1750 nm) and the ratio between bands 1 (450-520 nm) and 4 (760-900 nm). Water turbidity is easier to predict for water bodies like the Guadalquivir River and artificial ponds that are deep and not affected by bottom soil reflectance and aquatic vegetation. For the latter, a simple model using band 3 reflectance explains 78.6% of the variance. Water depth is easier to predict than turbidity. The best model for water depth in the marsh explains 78% of the variance and includes as predictors band 1, band 5, the ratio between band 2 (520-600 nm) and band 4, and bottom soil reflectance in band 4 in September, when the marsh is dry. The water turbidity and water depth models have been developed in order to reconstruct historical changes in Doñana wetlands during the last 30 years using the Landsat satellite images time series.

  20. Evaluation of CALIOP 532-nm Aerosol Optical Depth Over Opaque Water Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Z.; Winker, D.; Omar, A.; Vaughan, M.; Kar, J.; Trepte, C.; Hu, Y.; Schuster, G.

    2015-01-01

    With its height-resolved measurements and near global coverage, the CALIOP lidar onboard the CALIPSO satellite offers a new capability for aerosol retrievals in cloudy skies. Validation of these retrievals is difficult, however, as independent, collocated and co-temporal data sets are generally not available. In this paper, we evaluate CALIOP aerosol products above opaque water clouds by applying multiple retrieval techniques to CALIOP Level 1 profile data and comparing the results. This approach allows us to both characterize the accuracy of the CALIOP above-cloud aerosol optical depth (AOD) and develop an error budget that quantifies the relative contributions of different error sources. We focus on two spatial domains: the African dust transport pathway over the tropical North Atlantic and the African smoke transport pathway over the southeastern Atlantic. Six years of CALIOP observations (2007-2012) from the northern hemisphere summer and early fall are analyzed. The analysis is limited to cases where aerosol layers are located above opaque water clouds so that a constrained retrieval technique can be used to directly retrieve 532 nm aerosol optical depth and lidar ratio. For the moderately dense Sahara dust layers detected in the CALIOP data used in this study, the mean/median values of the lidar ratios derived from a constrained opaque water cloud (OWC) technique are 45.1/44.4 +/- 8.8 sr, which are somewhat larger than the value of 40 +/- 20 sr used in the CALIOP Level 2 (L2) data products. Comparisons of CALIOP L2 AOD with the OWC-retrieved AOD reveal that for nighttime conditions the L2 AOD in the dust region is underestimated on average by approx. 26% (0.183 vs. 0.247). Examination of the error sources indicates that errors in the L2 dust AOD are primarily due to using a lidar ratio that is somewhat too small. The mean/median lidar ratio retrieved for smoke is 70.8/70.4 +/- 16.2 sr, which is consistent with the modeled value of 70 +/- 28 sr used in the

  1. An estimate of the influence of sediment concentration and type on remote sensing penetration depth for various coastal waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitlock, C. H.

    1976-01-01

    Under the assumptions of collimated light, a homogenous water column, zero molecular scattering, and constant ratio of volume scattering function to scattering coefficient, estimates of the remote sensing depth parameter, Z90, are made for various coastal waters at 540 nm. Calculations indicate that sediment concentration and type have a strong influence on remote sensing depth when concentrations are below 5 mg/theta. Above 5 mg/theta, the absorption coefficient of the sediments becomes large in comparison to that of water, causing Z90 values to be less than 2 m with only small differences between various sediment types.

  2. Waveguide invariant active sonar target detection and depth classification in shallow water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldhahn, Ryan A.

    Reverberation and clutter are two of the principle obstacles to active sonar target detection in shallow water. Diffuse seabed backscatter can obscure low energy target returns, while clutter discretes, specific features of the sea floor, produce temporally compact returns which may be mistaken for targets of interest. Detecting weak targets in the presence of reverberation and discriminating water column targets from bottom clutter are thus critical to good performance in active sonar. Both problems are addressed in this thesis using the time-frequency interference pattern described by a constant known as the waveguide invariant which summarizes in a scalar parameter the dispersive properties of the ocean environment. Conventional active sonar detection involves constant false alarm rate (CFAR) normalization of the reverberation return which does not account for the frequency-selective fading in a wideband pulse caused by multipath propagation. An alternative to conventional reverberation estimation is presented, motivated by striations observed in time-frequency analysis of active sonar data. A mathematical model for these reverberation striations is derived using waveguide invariant theory. This model is then used to motivate waveguide invariant reverberation estimation which involves averaging the time-frequency spectrum along these striations. An evaluation of this reverberation estimate using real Mediterranean data is given and its use in a generalized likelihood ratio test (GLRT) based CFAR detector is demonstrated. CFAR detection using waveguide invariant reverberation estimates is shown to out-perform conventional cell-averaged and frequency-invariant CFAR detection methods in shallow water environments producing strong reverberation returns which exhibit the described striations. Results are presented on simulated and real Mediterranean data from the SCARAB98 experiment. The ability to discriminate between water column targets and clutter discretes is

  3. Airborne Sunphotometry of Aerosol Optical Depth and Columnar Water Vapor During ACE-Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redemann, Jens; Schmid, B.; Russell, P. B.; Livingston, J. M.; Eilers, J. A.; Ramirez, S. A.; Kahn, R.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    During the Intensive Field Campaign (IFC) of the Aerosol Characterization Experiment - Asia (ACE-Asia), March-May 2001, the 6-channel NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-6) operated during 15 of the 19 research flights aboard the NCAR C- 130, while its 14-channel counterpart (AATS- 14) was flown successfully on all 18 research flights of a Twin Otter aircraft operated by the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS), Monterey, CA. ACE-Asia was the fourth in a series of aerosol characterization experiments and focused on aerosol outflow from the Asian continent to the Pacific basin. Each ACE was designed to integrate suborbital and satellite measurements and models so as to reduce the uncertainty in calculations of the climate forcing due to aerosols. The Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometers measured solar beam transmission at 6 (380-1021 nm, AATS-6) and 14 wavelengths (353-1558 nm, AATS-14) respectively, yielding aerosol optical depth (AOD) spectra and column water vapor (CWV). Vertical differentiation in profiles yielded aerosol extinction and water vapor concentration. The wavelength dependence of AOD and extinction indicates that supermicron dust was often a major component of the aerosol. Frequently this dust-containing aerosol extended to high altitudes. For example, in data flights analyzed to date 34 +/- 13% of full-column AOD(525 nm) was above 3 km. In contrast, only 10 +/- 4% of CWV was above 3 km. In this paper, we will show first sunphotometer-derived results regarding the spatial variation of AOD and CWV, as well as the vertical distribution of aerosol extinction and water vapor concentration. Preliminary comparison studies between our AOD/aerosol extinction data and results from: (1) extinction products derived using in situ measurements and (2) AOD retrievals using the Multi-angle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR) aboard the TERRA satellite will also be presented.

  4. Evaluating the value of ENVISAT ASAR Data for the mapping and monitoring of peatland water table depths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechtold, Michel; Schlaffer, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    The Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) onboard ENVISAT collected C-Band microwave backscatter data from 2005 to 2012. Backscatter in the C-Band depends to a large degree on the roughness and the moisture status of vegetation and soil surface with a penetration depth of ca. 3 cm. In wetlands with stable high water levels, the annual soil surface moisture dynamics are very distinct compared to the surrounding areas, which allows the monitoring of such environments with ASAR data (Reschke et al. 2012). Also in drained peatlands, moisture status of vegetation and soil surface strongly depends on water table depth due to high hydraulic conductivities of many peat soils in the low suction range (Dettmann et al. 2014). We hypothesize that this allows the characterization of water table depths with ASAR data. Here we analyze whether ASAR data can be used for the spatial and temporal estimation of water table depths in different peatlands (natural, near-natural, agriculturally-used and rewetted). Mapping and monitoring of water table depths is of crucial importance, e.g. for upscaling greenhouse gas emissions and evaluating the success of peatland rewetting projects. Here, ASAR data is analyzed with a new map of water table depths for the organic soils in Germany (Bechtold et al. 2014) as well as with a comprehensive data set of monitored peatland water levels from 1100 dip wells and 54 peatlands. ASAR time series from the years 2005-2012 with irregular temporal sampling intervals of 3-14 days were processed. Areas covered by snow were masked. Primary results about the accuracy of spatial estimates show significant correlations between long-term backscatter statistics and spatially-averaged water table depths extracted from the map at the resolution of the ASAR data. Backscatter also correlates with long-term averages of point-scale water table depth data of the monitoring wells. For the latter, correlation is highest between the dry reference backscatter values and

  5. Evaluation of HCMM data for assessing soil moisture and water table depth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, D. G.; Heilman, J. L.; Tunheim, J. A.; Westin, F. C.; Heilman, W. E.; Beutler, G. A.; Ness, S. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Data were analyzed for variations in eastern South Dakota. Soil moisture in the 0-4 cm layer could be estimated with 1-mm soil temperatures throughout the growing season of a rainfed barley crop (% cover ranging from 30% to 90%) with an r squared = 0.81. Empirical equations were developed to reduce the effect of canopy cover when radiometrically estimating the 1-mm soil temperature, r squared = 0.88. The corrective equations were applied to an aircraft simulation of HCMM data for a diversity of crop types and land cover conditions to estimate the 0-4 cm soil moisture. The average difference between observed and measured soil moisture was 1.6% of field capacity. HCMM data were used to estimate the soil moisture for four dates with an r squared = 0.55 after correction for crop conditions. Location of shallow alluvial aquifers could be accomplished with HCMM predawn data. After correction of HCMM day data for vegetation differences, equations were developed for predicting water table depths within the aquifer (r=0.8).

  6. Decadal changes in the mid-depth water mass dynamic of the Northeastern Atlantic margin (Bay of Biscay)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montero-Serrano, Jean-Carlos; Frank, Norbert; Tisnérat-Laborde, Nadine; Colin, Christophe; Wu, Chung-Che; Lin, Ke; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Copard, Kevin; Orejas, Covadonga; Gori, Andrea; De Mol, Lies; Van Rooij, David; Reverdin, Gilles; Douville, Eric

    2013-02-01

    The lithium/magnesium (Li/Mg) molar ratios, radiocarbon measurements (Δ14C) and Nd-isotopic composition (εNd) of the aragonite skeleton of a branching cold-water coral (CWC) species Madrepora oculata collected alive in the Bay of Biscay at ∼691 m water depth were investigated to reconstruct a robust record of the mid-depth water mass dynamics between 1950 and 1990 AD. Temperature estimates based on the skeletons Li/Mg molar ratios reveal small decadal changes of about 1 °C at thermocline depth synchronous to and of similar amplitude as surface temperature anomalies. Δ14C measurements shows quasi-decadal oscillations of 15‰ around pre-bomb Δ14C average value of -59±6‰ and post-bomb Δ14C of -12±6‰, which most likely reflect decadal changes of water mass exchange across the thermocline. The coral εNd values remain in narrow ranges of -11.9 to -10.2, similar to the isotopic composition of East North Atlantic Central Water, but show highest values in the late 1950s, and early 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s. The punctuated changes of the coral Nd-isotopic composition may thus reflect periods of particular enhanced advection of temperate intermediate water (mid-depth Subpolar Gyre/Mediterranean Sea Water). Altogether, our robust multi-proxy record provides new evidence that Northern Hemisphere atmospheric variability (such as, North Atlantic Oscillation and East Atlantic pattern) drives changes not only in the thermocline but also in the mid-depth water-mass advection patterns in the Northeastern Atlantic margin. However, the interannual variability of our record remains to be tested.

  7. Some relationships between Secchi depth and inherent optical properties of natural waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, H. R.; Wouters, A. W.

    1978-01-01

    Relationships between the inherent and optical properties of the ocean (Gorden et al., 1975 and Preisendorfer, 1961) are combined with the Duntley-Preisendorfer equation to show the dependence of these properties on the depth at which a Secchi disk disappears from view. An expression relating the Secchi depth to the limiting contrast of the disk is derived in terms of the average beam attenuation coefficient, the average diffuse attenuation coefficient for downwelling irradiance, the albedo of the disk, and the reflectance functions at the Secchi depth and just below the surface. It is shown that combining Secchi depth observations with other optical properties yields significant information about the constituents of the medium.

  8. Determination of the contribution of livestock water ingestion to dose from the cow-milk pathway. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project: Dose code recovery activities, Calculation 002

    SciTech Connect

    Ikenberry, T.A.

    1992-12-01

    As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project, a series of calculations has been undertaken to evaluate the absolute and relative contribution of different exposure pathways to thyroid doses that may have been received by individuals living in the vicinity of the Hanford Site. These evaluations include some pathways that were included in the Phase I air-pathway dose evaluations (HEDR staff 1991, page xx), as well as other potential exposure pathways being evaluated for possible inclusion in the future HEDR modeling efforts. This calculation (002) examined the possible doses that may have been received by individuals who drank milk from cows that drank from sources of water (stock tanks and farm ponds) exposed to iodine-131 in the atmosphere during 1945.

  9. Evaluation of multi-resolution satellite sensors for assessing water quality and bottom depth of Lake Garda.

    PubMed

    Giardino, Claudia; Bresciani, Mariano; Cazzaniga, Ilaria; Schenk, Karin; Rieger, Patrizia; Braga, Federica; Matta, Erica; Brando, Vittorio E

    2014-12-15

    In this study we evaluate the capabilities of three satellite sensors for assessing water composition and bottom depth in Lake Garda, Italy. A consistent physics-based processing chain was applied to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) and RapidEye. Images gathered on 10 June 2014 were corrected for the atmospheric effects with the 6SV code. The computed remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) from MODIS and OLI were converted into water quality parameters by adopting a spectral inversion procedure based on a bio-optical model calibrated with optical properties of the lake. The same spectral inversion procedure was applied to RapidEye and to OLI data to map bottom depth. In situ measurements of Rrs and of concentrations of water quality parameters collected in five locations were used to evaluate the models. The bottom depth maps from OLI and RapidEye showed similar gradients up to 7 m (r = 0.72). The results indicate that: (1) the spatial and radiometric resolutions of OLI enabled mapping water constituents and bottom properties; (2) MODIS was appropriate for assessing water quality in the pelagic areas at a coarser spatial resolution; and (3) RapidEye had the capability to retrieve bottom depth at high spatial resolution. Future work should evaluate the performance of the three sensors in different bio-optical conditions.

  10. Evaluation of Multi-Resolution Satellite Sensors for Assessing Water Quality and Bottom Depth of Lake Garda

    PubMed Central

    Giardino, Claudia; Bresciani, Mariano; Cazzaniga, Ilaria; Schenk, Karin; Rieger, Patrizia; Braga, Federica; Matta, Erica; Brando, Vittorio E.

    2014-01-01

    In this study we evaluate the capabilities of three satellite sensors for assessing water composition and bottom depth in Lake Garda, Italy. A consistent physics-based processing chain was applied to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) and RapidEye. Images gathered on 10 June 2014 were corrected for the atmospheric effects with the 6SV code. The computed remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) from MODIS and OLI were converted into water quality parameters by adopting a spectral inversion procedure based on a bio-optical model calibrated with optical properties of the lake. The same spectral inversion procedure was applied to RapidEye and to OLI data to map bottom depth. In situ measurements of Rrs and of concentrations of water quality parameters collected in five locations were used to evaluate the models. The bottom depth maps from OLI and RapidEye showed similar gradients up to 7 m (r = 0.72). The results indicate that: (1) the spatial and radiometric resolutions of OLI enabled mapping water constituents and bottom properties; (2) MODIS was appropriate for assessing water quality in the pelagic areas at a coarser spatial resolution; and (3) RapidEye had the capability to retrieve bottom depth at high spatial resolution. Future work should evaluate the performance of the three sensors in different bio-optical conditions. PMID:25517691

  11. Evaluation of multi-resolution satellite sensors for assessing water quality and bottom depth of Lake Garda.

    PubMed

    Giardino, Claudia; Bresciani, Mariano; Cazzaniga, Ilaria; Schenk, Karin; Rieger, Patrizia; Braga, Federica; Matta, Erica; Brando, Vittorio E

    2014-01-01

    In this study we evaluate the capabilities of three satellite sensors for assessing water composition and bottom depth in Lake Garda, Italy. A consistent physics-based processing chain was applied to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) and RapidEye. Images gathered on 10 June 2014 were corrected for the atmospheric effects with the 6SV code. The computed remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) from MODIS and OLI were converted into water quality parameters by adopting a spectral inversion procedure based on a bio-optical model calibrated with optical properties of the lake. The same spectral inversion procedure was applied to RapidEye and to OLI data to map bottom depth. In situ measurements of Rrs and of concentrations of water quality parameters collected in five locations were used to evaluate the models. The bottom depth maps from OLI and RapidEye showed similar gradients up to 7 m (r = 0.72). The results indicate that: (1) the spatial and radiometric resolutions of OLI enabled mapping water constituents and bottom properties; (2) MODIS was appropriate for assessing water quality in the pelagic areas at a coarser spatial resolution; and (3) RapidEye had the capability to retrieve bottom depth at high spatial resolution. Future work should evaluate the performance of the three sensors in different bio-optical conditions. PMID:25517691

  12. Effects of water depth and spectral bandwidth on Stokes drift estimation based on short-term variation of wave conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myrhaug, Dag; Wang, Hong; Holmedal, Lars Erik

    2016-04-01

    The Stokes drift represents an important transport component of ocean circulation models. Locally it is responsible for transport of e.g. contaminated ballast water from ships, oil spills, plankton and larvae. It also plays an important role in mixing processes across the interphase between the atmosphere and the ocean. The Stokes drift is the mean Lagrangian velocity obtained from the water particle trajectory in the wave propagation direction; it is maximum at the surface, decreasing rapidly with the depth below the surface. The total mean mass transport is obtained by integrating the Stokes drift over the water depth; this is also referred to as the volume Stokes transport. The paper provides a simple analytical method which can be used to give estimates of the Stokes drift in moderate intermediate water depth based on short-term variation of wave conditions. This is achieved by using a joint distribution of individual wave heights and wave periods together with an explicit solution of the wave dispersion equation. The mean values of the surface Stokes drift and the volume Stokes transport for individual random waves within a sea state are presented, and the effects of water depth and spectral bandwidth parameter are discussed. Furthermore, example of results corresponding to typical field conditions are presented to demonstrate the application of the method, including the Stokes drift profile in the water column beneath the surface. Thus, the present analytical method can be used to estimate the Stokes drift in moderate intermediate water depth for random waves within a sea state based on available wave statistics.

  13. Impact of interspecific interactions on the soil water uptake depth in a young temperate mixed species plantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossiord, Charlotte; Gessler, Arthur; Granier, André; Berger, Sigrid; Bréchet, Claude; Hentschel, Rainer; Hommel, Robert; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael; Bonal, Damien

    2014-11-01

    Interactions between tree species in forests can be beneficial to ecosystem functions and services related to the carbon and water cycles by improving for example transpiration and productivity. However, little is known on below- and above-ground processes leading to these positive effects. We tested whether stratification in soil water uptake depth occurred between four tree species in a 10-year-old temperate mixed species plantation during a dry summer. We selected dominant and co-dominant trees of European beech, Sessile oak, Douglas fir and Norway spruce in areas with varying species diversity, competition intensity, and where different plant functional types (broadleaf vs. conifer) were present. We applied a deuterium labelling approach that consisted of spraying labelled water to the soil surface to create a strong vertical gradient of the deuterium isotope composition in the soil water. The deuterium isotope composition of both the xylem sap and the soil water was measured before labelling, and then again three days after labelling, to estimate the soil water uptake depth using a simple modelling approach. We also sampled leaves and needles from selected trees to measure their carbon isotope composition (a proxy for water use efficiency) and total nitrogen content. At the end of the summer, we found differences in the soil water uptake depth between plant functional types but not within types: on average, coniferous species extracted water from deeper layers than did broadleaved species. Neither species diversity nor competition intensity had a detectable influence on soil water uptake depth, foliar water use efficiency or foliar nitrogen concentration in the species studied. However, when coexisting with an increasing proportion of conifers, beech extracted water from progressively deeper soil layers. We conclude that complementarity for water uptake could occur in this 10-year-old plantation because of inherent differences among functional groups (conifers

  14. [Effects of water depth on the growth of Vallisneria natans and photosynthetic system II photochemical characteristics of the leaves].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xin; Zhang, Qi-Chao; Sun, Shu-Yun; Chen, Kai-Ning

    2014-06-01

    The effects of water depth on the growth of Vallisneria natans and photosynthetic system II photochemical characteristics of the leaves were investigated at three depths of 0.6, 1.3 and 2.0 m. The rapid fluorescence induction kinetics curves (OJIP) of the leaves were measured with Plant Efficiency Analyzer and analyzed with JIP-test. The results indicated that the light intensities at water depths of 0.6, 1.3 and 2.0 m were obviously different and the growth of V. natans was restricted under water depth of 2.0 m. Biomass, number of ramets, number of leaves, total root length, root surface area and other morphological indices decreased significantly with the increasing water depth, and the maximum leaf length, average leaf length, maximum leaf width changed insignificantly with the water depth. With the increasing water depth, absorption flux per reaction center (ABS/RC), trapped energy flux per RC (TR0/RC), electron transport flux per RC (ET0/RC), reduction of end acceptors at photosynthetic system I (PS I ) electron acceptor side per RC (RE0/ RC) decreased significantly. The dissipated energy flux per RC (DI0/RC) also decreased significantly, which led to no obvious difference in quantum yield for the reduction of end acceptors of PS I per photon absorbed (phiR0) and the efficiency for the trapped exciton to move an electron into the electron transport chain from QA- to the PS I end electron acceptors (deltaR0). Because the amount of active PS II RCs per CS increased significantly, photosynthesis per area of V. natans grown at 2.0 m was significantly greater than that of V. natans grown at 0.6 m. The performance index PIs, Ples, Plabs,.otal photochemistry efficiency of leaves of V. natans grown at 2.0 m was significantly in- creased, suggesting that light stress may promote a more efficient conversion of light energy to active chemical energy. V. natans leaves accommodate the low light intensity environment through activating inactive reaction centers but not

  15. What depth should deep-sea water be pumped up from in the South China Sea for medicinal research?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Shan; Liu, Hongbing; Yang, Xue; Li, Chunxia; Guan, Huashi

    2013-03-01

    In this study, seawater was pumped up from 150, 200, 300, 500 and 1000 m in the South China Sea and analyzed to make certain what depth should deep-sea water (DSW) be pumped up for medicinal usage. The pumping depth of DSW was determined on the basis of chemical ingredients. The analyses of inorganic elements and dissolved organic matter (DOM) were performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) respectively. The raw data were used for hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA). The results showed that seawater pumped up from 500 m and 1000 m was similar in their chemical ingredients, and was different from the seawater pumped up from other depths. These results indicated that seawater from more than 500 m depth had relatively stable chemical ingredients and could be used as DSW in the South China Sea.

  16. Rooting depth and water source flexibility of Arundo donax across a wide and topographically varied floodplain inferred from stable isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, G. W.; West, J. B.; Li, F.; Kui, L.

    2011-12-01

    Floodplain environments can exhibit strong gradients in soil moisture availability, from very dry to saturated, with important consequences for riparian vegetation transpiration and productivity and therefore ecohydrologic flowpaths. These gradients are often driven by geomorphic features that themselves can be affected by vegetation change over relatively short timescales. The Rio Grande has undergone substantial change in the past half century, including channel narrowing and significant expansion of non-native vegetation, often across previously unvegetated sandbars and natural levees. The objective of this study was to assess water sources for Arundo donax L. (giant reed), a now common invasive grass growing along the floodplains of the Rio Grande. Our hypotheses were: a) Arundo would switch from primarily shallow soil moisture to groundwater during periods of soil moisture deficit, but that this access would be limited by increasing groundwater depths, and b) transpiration would decline with floodplain elevation and decreasing surface soil moisture because of increasing depth to groundwater and surface soil moisture deficits. We used natural-abundance stable isotopes of oxygen (δ18O) and hydrogen (δ2H) to determine the water sources of Arundo along four approximately 100-meter transects arrayed perpendicular to the Rio Grande in southwest Texas. Surface soil water, river water, groundwater, precipitation and rhizome sections were collected every month from summer 2010 until summer 2011 to assess potential source water isotopic composition for Arundo. Mixing models were used to estimate Arundo dependence on surface soil moisture or groundwater. The isotopic compositions of groundwater and river water were similar throughout the year, indicating significant hyporheic exchange. As expected, the isotopic composition of precipitation events and a large flood event were distinct from the slowly-changing river and allowed an assessment of Arundo use of these

  17. Variation of Pressure with Depth of Water: Working with High-Tech and Low-Cost Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornek, Funda; Zziwa, Byansi Jude; Taganahan, Teresita D.

    2013-01-01

    When you dive underwater, you feel the pressure on your ears and, as you dive deeper, more pressure is felt. This article presents an activity that teachers might find useful for demonstrating the relationship between water depth and pressure. (Contains 5 figures and 1 table.)

  18. Effects of harvest regime and water depth on nutrient recovery from swine wastewater by growing Spirodela oligorrhiza.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiele; Shen, Genxiang

    2011-11-01

    Harvest regime and water depth were investigated to determine their effects on nutrient recovery from swine wastewater by a Spirodela oligorrhiza system. The results show that harvesting less duckweed at shorter intervals favored nutrient removal and total biomass production. Harvesting 20% of duckweed twice a week led to 66.3 and 109.4% higher total nitrogen and total phosphorus removals, respectively, and a duckweed production of 20.0 g fresh biomass/m2 x d--39.6% higher than that of harvesting 80% of duckweed once every 4 weeks. The water depth of duckweed system was of great importance to total nutrient removal. At the water depth of 40 cm, total nitrogen and total phosphorus removals were 2.05 and 2.16 times higher, respectively, than those at the water depth of 10 cm. However, because of the larger amount of nutrients in a deeper system, it took a longer time for the nutrient concentrations to decrease.

  19. Salt marsh recovery and oil spill remediation after in-situ burning: effects of water depth and burn duration.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qianxin; Mendelssohn, Irving A; Carney, Kenneth; Bryner, Nelson P; Walton, William D

    2002-02-15

    Effects of water depth, burn duration, and diesel fuel concentration on the relationship between recovery of marsh vegetation, soil temperature, and oil remediation during in-situ burning of oiled mesocosms were investigated. The water depth over the soil surface during in-situ burning was a major factor controlling recovery of the salt marsh grass, Spartina alterniflora. Ten centimeters of water overlying the soil surface was sufficient to protect the marsh soil from burn impacts with soil temperatures <37 degrees C and high plant survival rate. In contrast, a water table 10 cm below the soil surface resulted in mean soil temperatures > 100 degrees C at the 2-cm soil depth, which completely inhibited the post-burn recovery of S. alterniflora. Although poor plant recovery was also apparent in the treatments with 0 and 2 cm of water over the soil surface, this result was likely due to the chemical stress of the diesel fuel used to create the fire rather than the heat, per se, which never reached the estimated lethal temperature of 60 degrees C. In-situ burning effectively removed more than 95% of floating oil from the water surface. Thus, in-situ burning prevented the oil from potentially contaminating adjacent habitats. However, in-situ burning did not effectively remediate the oil that had penetrated the soil.

  20. Water Relations and Foliar Isotopic Composition of Prosopis tamarugo Phil., an Endemic Tree of the Atacama Desert Growing at Three Levels of Water Table Depth

    PubMed Central

    Garrido, Marco; Silva, Paola; Acevedo, Edmundo

    2016-01-01

    Prosopis tamarugo Phil. is a strict phreatophyte tree species endemic to the “Pampa del Tamarugal”, Atacama Desert. The extraction of water for various uses has increased the depth of the water table in the Pampa aquifers threatening its conservation. This study aimed to determine the effect of the groundwater table depth on the water relations of P. tamarugo and to present thresholds of groundwater depth (GWD) that can be used in the groundwater management of the P. tamarugo ecosystem. Three levels of GWD, 11.2 ± 0.3 m, 10.3 ± 0.3 m, and 7.1 ± 0.1 m, (the last GWD being our reference) were selected and groups of four individuals per GWD were studied in the months of January and July of the years 2011 through 2014. When the water table depth exceeded 10 m, P. tamarugo had lower pre-dawn and mid-day water potential but no differences were observed in minimum leaf stomatal resistance when compared to the condition of 7.1 m GWD; the leaf tissue increased its δ13C and δ18O composition. Furthermore, a smaller green canopy fraction of the trees and increased foliage loss in winter with increasing water table depth was observed. The differences observed in the physiological behavior of P. tamarugo trees, attributable to the ground water depth; show that increasing the depth of the water table from 7 to 11 m significantly affects the water status of P. tamarugo. The results indicate that P. tamarugo has an anisohydric stomatal behavior and that given a reduction in water supply it regulates the water demand via foliage loss. The growth and leaf physiological activities are highly sensitive to GWD. The foliage loss appears to prevent the trees from reaching water potentials leading to complete loss of hydraulic functionality by cavitation. The balance achieved between water supply and demand was reflected in the low variation of the water potential and of the variables related to gas exchange over time for a given GWD. This acclimation capacity of P. tamarugo after

  1. Water Relations and Foliar Isotopic Composition of Prosopis tamarugo Phil., an Endemic Tree of the Atacama Desert Growing at Three Levels of Water Table Depth.

    PubMed

    Garrido, Marco; Silva, Paola; Acevedo, Edmundo

    2016-01-01

    Prosopis tamarugo Phil. is a strict phreatophyte tree species endemic to the "Pampa del Tamarugal", Atacama Desert. The extraction of water for various uses has increased the depth of the water table in the Pampa aquifers threatening its conservation. This study aimed to determine the effect of the groundwater table depth on the water relations of P. tamarugo and to present thresholds of groundwater depth (GWD) that can be used in the groundwater management of the P. tamarugo ecosystem. Three levels of GWD, 11.2 ± 0.3 m, 10.3 ± 0.3 m, and 7.1 ± 0.1 m, (the last GWD being our reference) were selected and groups of four individuals per GWD were studied in the months of January and July of the years 2011 through 2014. When the water table depth exceeded 10 m, P. tamarugo had lower pre-dawn and mid-day water potential but no differences were observed in minimum leaf stomatal resistance when compared to the condition of 7.1 m GWD; the leaf tissue increased its δ(13)C and δ(18)O composition. Furthermore, a smaller green canopy fraction of the trees and increased foliage loss in winter with increasing water table depth was observed. The differences observed in the physiological behavior of P. tamarugo trees, attributable to the ground water depth; show that increasing the depth of the water table from 7 to 11 m significantly affects the water status of P. tamarugo. The results indicate that P. tamarugo has an anisohydric stomatal behavior and that given a reduction in water supply it regulates the water demand via foliage loss. The growth and leaf physiological activities are highly sensitive to GWD. The foliage loss appears to prevent the trees from reaching water potentials leading to complete loss of hydraulic functionality by cavitation. The balance achieved between water supply and demand was reflected in the low variation of the water potential and of the variables related to gas exchange over time for a given GWD. This acclimation capacity of P. tamarugo after

  2. Root Plasticity of Populus euphratica Seedlings in Response to Different Water Table Depths and Contrasting Sediment Types

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lijuan; Zhao, Chengyi; Li, Jun; Liu, Zhihui; Wang, Jianghong

    2015-01-01

    Riparian plants in arid regions face a highly variable water environment controlled by hydrological processes. To understand whether riparian plants adapt to such environments through plastic responses, we compared the root traits, biomass allocation and growth of Populus euphratica Oliv. Seedlings grown in lysimeters filled with clay or clay/river sand sediments under inundation and varying water table conditions. We hypothesized that adaptive phenotypic plasticity is likely to develop or be advantageous in seedlings of this species to allow them to adapt desert floodplain environments. Growth was significantly reduced by inundation. However, rather than following relatively fixed trait and allocation patterns, the seedlings displayed adaptive mechanisms involving the development of adventitious roots to enhance plant stability and obtain oxygen, together with a lower proportion of root biomass. At the whole-plant level, at deeper water table depths, seedlings allocated more biomass to the roots, and total root length increased with decreasing water table depths, regardless of the sediment, consistent with optimal partitioning theory. The sediment type had a significant effect on seedling root traits. P. euphratica displayed very different root traits in different sediment types under the same hydrological conditions, showing a greater first-order root number in clay sediment under shallower water table conditions, whereas rooting depth was greater in clay/river sand sediment under deep water table conditions. In clay sediment, seedlings responded to lower water availability via greater root elongation, while the root surface area was increased through increasing the total root length in clay/river sand sediment, suggesting that seedlings facing deeper water tables are not always likely to increase their root surface area to obtain more water. Our results indicate that P. euphratica seedlings are able to adapt to a range of water table conditions through plastic

  3. Root plasticity of Populus euphratica seedlings in response to different water table depths and contrasting sediment types.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lijuan; Zhao, Chengyi; Li, Jun; Liu, Zhihui; Wang, Jianghong

    2015-01-01

    Riparian plants in arid regions face a highly variable water environment controlled by hydrological processes. To understand whether riparian plants adapt to such environments through plastic responses, we compared the root traits, biomass allocation and growth of Populus euphratica Oliv. Seedlings grown in lysimeters filled with clay or clay/river sand sediments under inundation and varying water table conditions. We hypothesized that adaptive phenotypic plasticity is likely to develop or be advantageous in seedlings of this species to allow them to adapt desert floodplain environments. Growth was significantly reduced by inundation. However, rather than following relatively fixed trait and allocation patterns, the seedlings displayed adaptive mechanisms involving the development of adventitious roots to enhance plant stability and obtain oxygen, together with a lower proportion of root biomass. At the whole-plant level, at deeper water table depths, seedlings allocated more biomass to the roots, and total root length increased with decreasing water table depths, regardless of the sediment, consistent with optimal partitioning theory. The sediment type had a significant effect on seedling root traits. P. euphratica displayed very different root traits in different sediment types under the same hydrological conditions, showing a greater first-order root number in clay sediment under shallower water table conditions, whereas rooting depth was greater in clay/river sand sediment under deep water table conditions. In clay sediment, seedlings responded to lower water availability via greater root elongation, while the root surface area was increased through increasing the total root length in clay/river sand sediment, suggesting that seedlings facing deeper water tables are not always likely to increase their root surface area to obtain more water. Our results indicate that P. euphratica seedlings are able to adapt to a range of water table conditions through plastic

  4. Root plasticity of Populus euphratica seedlings in response to different water table depths and contrasting sediment types.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lijuan; Zhao, Chengyi; Li, Jun; Liu, Zhihui; Wang, Jianghong

    2015-01-01

    Riparian plants in arid regions face a highly variable water environment controlled by hydrological processes. To understand whether riparian plants adapt to such environments through plastic responses, we compared the root traits, biomass allocation and growth of Populus euphratica Oliv. Seedlings grown in lysimeters filled with clay or clay/river sand sediments under inundation and varying water table conditions. We hypothesized that adaptive phenotypic plasticity is likely to develop or be advantageous in seedlings of this species to allow them to adapt desert floodplain environments. Growth was significantly reduced by inundation. However, rather than following relatively fixed trait and allocation patterns, the seedlings displayed adaptive mechanisms involving the development of adventitious roots to enhance plant stability and obtain oxygen, together with a lower proportion of root biomass. At the whole-plant level, at deeper water table depths, seedlings allocated more biomass to the roots, and total root length increased with decreasing water table depths, regardless of the sediment, consistent with optimal partitioning theory. The sediment type had a significant effect on seedling root traits. P. euphratica displayed very different root traits in different sediment types under the same hydrological conditions, showing a greater first-order root number in clay sediment under shallower water table conditions, whereas rooting depth was greater in clay/river sand sediment under deep water table conditions. In clay sediment, seedlings responded to lower water availability via greater root elongation, while the root surface area was increased through increasing the total root length in clay/river sand sediment, suggesting that seedlings facing deeper water tables are not always likely to increase their root surface area to obtain more water. Our results indicate that P. euphratica seedlings are able to adapt to a range of water table conditions through plastic

  5. Use of ground penetrating radar for determination of water table depth and subsurface soil characteristics at Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hengari, Gideon M.; Hall, Carlton R.; Kozusko, Tim J.; Bostater, Charles R.

    2013-10-01

    Sustainable use and management of natural resources require strategic responses using non-destructive tools to provide spatial and temporal data for decision making. Experiments conducted at John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) demonstrate ground penetrating radar (GPR) can provide high-resolution images showing depth to water tables. GPR data at KSC were acquired using a MALÅ Rough Terrain 100 MHz Antenna. Data indicate strong correlation (R2=0.80) between measured water table depth (shallow monitoring wells and soil auger) and GPR estimated depth. The study demonstrated the use of GPR to detect Holocene and Pleistocene depositional environments such as Anastasia Formation that consists of admixtures of sand, shell and coquinoid limestone at a depth of 20-25 ft. This corresponds well with the relatively strong reflections from 7.5 to 13 m (125-215 ns) in GPR images. Interpretations derived from radar data coupled with other non-GPR data (wells data and soil auger data) will aid in the understanding of climate change impacts due to sea level rise on the scrub vegetation composition at KSC. Climate change is believed to have a potentially significant impact potential on near coastal ground water levels and associated water table depth. Understanding the impacts of ground water levels changes will, in turn, lead to improved conceptual conservation efforts and identifications of climate change adaptation concepts related to the recovery of the Florida scrub jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens) and other endangered or threatened species which are directly dependent on a healthy near coastal scrub habitat. Transfer of this inexpensive and non-destructive technology to other areas at KSC, Florida, and to other countries, may prove useful in the development of future conservation programs.

  6. Effects of Water Depth, Seasonal Exposure, and Substrate Orientation on Microbial Bioerosion in the Ionian Sea (Eastern Mediterranean)

    PubMed Central

    Färber, Claudia; Wisshak, Max; Pyko, Ines; Bellou, Nikoleta; Freiwald, André

    2015-01-01

    The effects of water depth, seasonal exposure, and substrate orientation on microbioerosion were studied by means of a settlement experiment deployed in 15, 50, 100, and 250 m water depth south-west of the Peloponnese Peninsula (Greece). At each depth, an experimental platform was exposed for a summer period, a winter period, and about an entire year. On the up- and down-facing side of each platform, substrates were fixed to document the succession of bioerosion traces, and to measure variations in bioerosion and accretion rates. In total, 29 different bioerosion traces were recorded revealing a dominance of microborings produced by phototrophic and organotrophic microendoliths, complemented by few macroborings, attachment scars, and grazing traces. The highest bioerosion activity was recorded in 15 m up-facing substrates in the shallow euphotic zone, largely driven by phototrophic cyanobacteria. Towards the chlorophyte-dominated deep euphotic to dysphotic zones and the organotroph-dominated aphotic zone the intensity of bioerosion and the diversity of bioerosion traces strongly decreased. During summer the activity of phototrophs was higher than during winter, which was likely stimulated by enhanced light availability due to more hours of daylight and increased irradiance angles. Stable water column stratification and a resulting nutrient depletion in shallow water led to lower turbidity levels and caused a shift in the photic zonation that was reflected by more phototrophs being active at greater depth. With respect to the subordinate bioerosion activity of organotrophs, fluctuations in temperature and the trophic regime were assumed to be the main seasonal controls. The observed patterns in overall bioeroder distribution and abundance were mirrored by the calculated carbonate budget with bioerosion rates exceeding carbonate accretion rates in shallow water and distinctly higher bioerosion rates at all depths during summer. These findings highlight the relevance

  7. Effects of water depth, seasonal exposure, and substrate orientation on microbial bioerosion in the Ionian Sea (Eastern Mediterranean).

    PubMed

    Färber, Claudia; Wisshak, Max; Pyko, Ines; Bellou, Nikoleta; Freiwald, André

    2015-01-01

    The effects of water depth, seasonal exposure, and substrate orientation on microbioerosion were studied by means of a settlement experiment deployed in 15, 50, 100, and 250 m water depth south-west of the Peloponnese Peninsula (Greece). At each depth, an experimental platform was exposed for a summer period, a winter period, and about an entire year. On the up- and down-facing side of each platform, substrates were fixed to document the succession of bioerosion traces, and to measure variations in bioerosion and accretion rates. In total, 29 different bioerosion traces were recorded revealing a dominance of microborings produced by phototrophic and organotrophic microendoliths, complemented by few macroborings, attachment scars, and grazing traces. The highest bioerosion activity was recorded in 15 m up-facing substrates in the shallow euphotic zone, largely driven by phototrophic cyanobacteria. Towards the chlorophyte-dominated deep euphotic to dysphotic zones and the organotroph-dominated aphotic zone the intensity of bioerosion and the diversity of bioerosion traces strongly decreased. During summer the activity of phototrophs was higher than during winter, which was likely stimulated by enhanced light availability due to more hours of daylight and increased irradiance angles. Stable water column stratification and a resulting nutrient depletion in shallow water led to lower turbidity levels and caused a shift in the photic zonation that was reflected by more phototrophs being active at greater depth. With respect to the subordinate bioerosion activity of organotrophs, fluctuations in temperature and the trophic regime were assumed to be the main seasonal controls. The observed patterns in overall bioeroder distribution and abundance were mirrored by the calculated carbonate budget with bioerosion rates exceeding carbonate accretion rates in shallow water and distinctly higher bioerosion rates at all depths during summer. These findings highlight the relevance

  8. Effects of water depth, seasonal exposure, and substrate orientation on microbial bioerosion in the Ionian Sea (Eastern Mediterranean).

    PubMed

    Färber, Claudia; Wisshak, Max; Pyko, Ines; Bellou, Nikoleta; Freiwald, André

    2015-01-01

    The effects of water depth, seasonal exposure, and substrate orientation on microbioerosion were studied by means of a settlement experiment deployed in 15, 50, 100, and 250 m water depth south-west of the Peloponnese Peninsula (Greece). At each depth, an experimental platform was exposed for a summer period, a winter period, and about an entire year. On the up- and down-facing side of each platform, substrates were fixed to document the succession of bioerosion traces, and to measure variations in bioerosion and accretion rates. In total, 29 different bioerosion traces were recorded revealing a dominance of microborings produced by phototrophic and organotrophic microendoliths, complemented by few macroborings, attachment scars, and grazing traces. The highest bioerosion activity was recorded in 15 m up-facing substrates in the shallow euphotic zone, largely driven by phototrophic cyanobacteria. Towards the chlorophyte-dominated deep euphotic to dysphotic zones and the organotroph-dominated aphotic zone the intensity of bioerosion and the diversity of bioerosion traces strongly decreased. During summer the activity of phototrophs was higher than during winter, which was likely stimulated by enhanced light availability due to more hours of daylight and increased irradiance angles. Stable water column stratification and a resulting nutrient depletion in shallow water led to lower turbidity levels and caused a shift in the photic zonation that was reflected by more phototrophs being active at greater depth. With respect to the subordinate bioerosion activity of organotrophs, fluctuations in temperature and the trophic regime were assumed to be the main seasonal controls. The observed patterns in overall bioeroder distribution and abundance were mirrored by the calculated carbonate budget with bioerosion rates exceeding carbonate accretion rates in shallow water and distinctly higher bioerosion rates at all depths during summer. These findings highlight the relevance

  9. Development of a chronic noncancer oral reference dose and drinking water screening level for sulfolane using benchmark dose modeling.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Chad M; Gaylor, David W; Tachovsky, J Andrew; Perry, Camarie; Carakostas, Michael C; Haws, Laurie C

    2013-12-01

    Sulfolane is a widely used industrial solvent that is often used for gas treatment (sour gas sweetening; hydrogen sulfide removal from shale and coal processes, etc.), and in the manufacture of polymers and electronics, and may be found in pharmaceuticals as a residual solvent used in the manufacturing processes. Sulfolane is considered a high production volume chemical with worldwide production around 18 000-36 000 tons per year. Given that sulfolane has been detected as a contaminant in groundwater, an important potential route of exposure is tap water ingestion. Because there are currently no federal drinking water standards for sulfolane in the USA, we developed a noncancer oral reference dose (RfD) based on benchmark dose modeling, as well as a tap water screening value that is protective of ingestion. Review of the available literature suggests that sulfolane is not likely to be mutagenic, clastogenic or carcinogenic, or pose reproductive or developmental health risks except perhaps at very high exposure concentrations. RfD values derived using benchmark dose modeling were 0.01-0.04 mg kg(-1) per day, although modeling of developmental endpoints resulted in higher values, approximately 0.4 mg kg(-1) per day. The lowest, most conservative, RfD of 0.01 mg kg(-1) per day was based on reduced white blood cell counts in female rats. This RfD was used to develop a tap water screening level that is protective of ingestion, viz. 365 µg l(-1). It is anticipated that these values, along with the hazard identification and dose-response modeling described herein, should be informative for risk assessors and regulators interested in setting health-protective drinking water guideline values for sulfolane.

  10. Estimation of the depth to the fresh-water/salt-water interface from vertical head gradients in wells in coastal and island aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izuka, S.K.; Gingerich, S.B.

    1998-01-01

    An accurate estimate of the depth to the theoretical interface between fresh, water and salt water is critical to estimates of well yields in coastal and island aquifers. The Ghyben-Herzberg relation, which is commonly used to estimate interface depth, can greatly underestimate or overestimate the fresh-water thickness, because it assumes no vertical head gradients and no vertical flow. Estimation of the interface depth needs to consider the vertical head gradients and aquifer anisotropy that may be present. This paper presents a method to calculate vertical head gradients using water-level measurements made during drilling of a partially penetrating well; the gradient is then used to estimate interface depth. Application of the method to a numerically simulated fresh-water/salt-water system shows that the method is most accurate when the gradient is measured in a deeply penetrating well. Even using a shallow well, the method more accurately estimates the interface position than does the Ghyben-Herzberg relation where substantial vertical head gradients exist. Application of the method to field data shows that drilling, collection methods of water-level data, and aquifer inhomogeneities can cause difficulties, but the effects of these difficulties can be minimized.

  11. Accurate Focal Depth Determination of Oceanic Earthquakes Using Water-column Reverberation and Some Implications for the Shrinking Plate Hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, F.; Huang, J.; Gordon, R. G.

    2015-12-01

    Investigation of oceanic earthquakes can play an important role in constraining the lateral and depth variations of the stress and strain-rate fields in oceanic lithosphere and of the thickness of the seismogenic layer as a function of lithosphere age, thereby providing us with critical insight into thermal and dynamic processes associated with the cooling and evolution of oceanic lithosphere. With the goal of estimating hypocentral depths more accurately, we observe clear water reverberations after the direct P wave on teleseismic records of oceanic earthquakes and develop a technique to estimate earthquake depths by using these reverberations. The Z-H grid search method allows the simultaneous determination of the sea floor depth (H) and earthquake depth (Z) with an uncertainty less than 1 km, which compares favorably with alternative approaches. We apply this method to two closely located earthquakes beneath the eastern Pacific. These earthquakes occur in ≈25 Ma-old lithosphere and were previously estimated to have very similar depths of ≈10-12 km. We find that the two events actually occurred at dissimilar depths of 2.5 km and 16.8 km beneath the seafloor, respectively within the oceanic crust and lithospheric mantle. The shallow and deep events are determined to be a thrust and normal earthquake, respectively, indicating that the stress field within the oceanic lithosphere changes from horizontal compression to horizontal extension as depth increases, which is consistent with the prediction of the lithospheric cooling model. Furthermore, we show that the P-axis of the newly investigated thrust-faulting earthquake is roughly perpendicular to that of the previously studied thrust event, consistent with the predictions of the shrinking-plate hypothesis.

  12. Accurate focal depth determination of oceanic earthquakes using water-column reverberation and some implications for the shrinking plate hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jianping; Niu, Fenglin; Gordon, Richard G.; Cui, Chao

    2015-12-01

    Investigation of oceanic earthquakes is useful for constraining the lateral and depth variations of the stress and strain-rate fields in oceanic lithosphere, and the thickness of the seismogenic layer as a function of lithosphere age, thereby providing us with critical insight into thermal and dynamic processes associated with the cooling and evolution of oceanic lithosphere. With the goal of estimating hypocentral depths more accurately, we observe clear water reverberations after the direct P wave on teleseismic records of oceanic earthquakes and develop a technique to estimate earthquake depths by using these reverberations. The Z-H grid search method allows the simultaneous determination of the sea floor depth (H) and earthquake depth (Z) with an uncertainty less than 1 km, which compares favorably with alternative approaches. We apply this method to two closely located earthquakes beneath the eastern Pacific. These earthquakes occurred in ∼25 Ma-old lithosphere and were previously estimated to have similar depths of ∼10-12 km. We find that the two events actually occurred at dissimilar depths of 2.5 km and 16.8 km beneath the seafloor, respectively, within the oceanic crust and lithospheric mantle. The shallow and deep events are determined to be a thrust and normal earthquake, respectively, indicating that the stress field within the oceanic lithosphere changes from horizontal deviatoric compression to horizontal deviatoric tension as depth increases, which is consistent with the prediction of lithospheric cooling models. Furthermore, we show that the P-axis of the newly investigated thrust-faulting earthquake is perpendicular to that of the previously studied thrust event, consistent with the predictions of the shrinking-plate hypothesis.

  13. Airborne detection of oceanic turbidity cell structure using depth-resolved laser-induced water Raman backscatter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoge, F. E.; Swift, R. N.

    1983-01-01

    Airborne laser-induced, depth-resolved water Raman backscatter is useful in the detection and mapping of water optical transmission variations. This test, together with other field experiments, has identified the need for additional field experiments to resolve the degree of the contribution to the depth-resolved, Raman-backscattered signal waveform that is due to (1) sea surface height or elevation probability density; (2) off-nadir laser beam angle relative to the mean sea surface; and (3) the Gelbstoff fluorescence background, and the analytical techniques required to remove it. When converted to along-track profiles, the waveforms obtained reveal cells of a decreased Raman backscatter superimposed on an overall trend of monotonically decreasing water column optical transmission.

  14. Halite depositional facies in a solar salt pond: A key to interpreting physical energy and water depth in ancient deposits?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson Handford, C.

    1990-08-01

    Subaqueous deposits of aragonite, gypsum, and halite are accumulating in shallow solar salt ponds constructed in the Pekelmeer, a sea-level sauna on Bonaire, Netherlands Antilles. Several halite facies are deposited in the crystallizer ponds in response to differences in water depth and wave energy. Cumulate halite, which originates as floating rafts, is present only along the protected, upwind margins of ponds where low-energy conditions foster their formation and preservation. Cornet crystals with peculiar mushroom- and mortarboard-shaped caps precipitate in centimetre-deep brine sheets within a couple of metres of the upwind or low-energy margins. Downwind from these margins, cornet and chevron halite precipitate on the pond floors in water depths ranging from a few centimetres to ˜60 cm. Halite pisoids with radial-concentric structure are precipitated in the swash zone along downwind high-energy shorelines where they form pebbly beaches. This study suggests that primary halite facies are energy and/or depth dependent and that some primary features, if preserved in ancient halite deposits, can be used to infer physical energy conditions, subenvironments such as low- to high-energy shorelines, and extremely shallow water depths in ancient evaporite basins.

  15. Using heat as a tracer to estimate the depth of rapid porewater advection below the sediment-water interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Alicia M.; Woodward, Gwendolyn L.; Savidge, William B.

    2016-07-01

    Rapid exchange of surface waters and porewaters in shallow sediments has important biogeochemical implications for streams and marine systems alike, but mapping these important reaction zones has been difficult. As a means of bridging the gap between the stream and submarine groundwater discharge communities we suggest that the rapid, transient mixing in this zone be called "hydrodynamic exchange". We then present a new model, MATTSI, which was developed to estimate the timing, depth and magnitude of hydrodynamic exchange below the sediment-water interface by inverting thermal time-series observations. The model uses an effective thermal dispersion term to emulate 3-D hydrodynamic exchange in a 1-D model. The effective dispersion is assumed to decline exponentially below the sediment water interface. Application of the model to a synthetic dataset and two field datasets from 50 km offshore in the South Atlantic Bight shows that exchange events can be clearly identified from thermal data. The model is relatively insensitive to realistic errors in sensor depth and thermal conductivity. Although the datasets tested here were too shallow to fully span the depth of flushing, we were able to estimate the depth of hydrodynamic exchange via sensitivity studies.

  16. Mass Spectral Analysis of Water Column Samples from a Single Depth Profile Near the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boysen, A. K.; Kujawinski, E. B.

    2010-12-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill is the largest offshore oil spill in history, spilling an estimated 4.9 million barrels of oil. Additionally, over 1.8 million gallons of dispersants have been applied, both through underwater and surface applications. The depth and volume of this spill as well as the underwater dispersant applications likely allowed for the dissolution of oil components into the water column during transport to the ocean surface. We examined the water-soluble components of dissolved organic matter, oil, and dispersants at various depths and locations within 10km of the wellhead in order to assess the degree of oil dissolution into the water column. Here we present results from analysis of four samples from a depth profile collected 1.16km from the wellhead. We used ultrahigh resolution negative-ion mode electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry, a technique that has been used to characterize both DOM and crude oil. We compared oil from the wellhead with the composition of different extracts from the water samples and observed hundreds of compounds which are present in both the original oil and the water column. The oil compounds contained in the extracts were similar for all four depths. Compounds within the heteroatom classes N and O were most abundant in the source oil, while oil compounds in the formula classes O2 and SO3 were enhanced in the water samples. Compounds from these classes may be good markers for tracing the impact of this spill in the Gulf of Mexico ecosystem.

  17. Influence of variable water depth and turbidity on microalgae production in a shallow estuarine lake system - A modelling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirok, Katrin; Scharler, Ursula M.

    2014-06-01

    Strongly varying water levels and turbidities are typical characteristics of the large shallow estuarine lake system of St. Lucia, one of the largest on the African continent. This theoretical study investigated the combined effects of variable water depth and turbidity on seasonal pelagic and benthic microalgae production using a mathematical model, in order to ascertain productivity levels during variable and extreme conditions. Simulated pelagic and benthic net production varied between 0.3 and 180 g C m-2 year-1 and 0 and 220 g C m-2 year-1, respectively, dependent on depth, turbidity, and variability in turbidity. Although not surprising production and biomass decreased with increasing turbidity and depth. A high variability in turbidity, i.e. an alteration of calm and windy days, could reduce or enhance the seasonal pelagic and benthic production by more than 30% compared to a low variability. The day-to-day variability in wind-induced turbidity therefore influences production in the long term. On the other hand, varying water depth within a year did not significantly influence the seasonal production for turbidities representative of Lake St. Lucia. Reduced lake area and volume as observed during dry periods in Lake St. Lucia did not reduce primary production of the entire system since desiccation resulted in lower water depth and thus increased light availability. This agrees with field observations suggesting little light limitation and high areal microalgal biomass during a period with below average rainfall (2005-2011). Thus, microalgae potentially fulfil their function in the lake food-web even under extreme drought conditions. We believe that these results are of general interest to shallow aquatic ecosystems that are sensitive to drought periods due to either human or natural causes.

  18. Water-transparency (Secchi Depth) monitoring in the China Sea with the SeaWiFS satellite sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xianqiang; Pan, Delu; Mao, Zhihua

    2004-10-01

    Water transparency (Secchi depth) is a basic parameter that describes the optical property of water, and it is a traditional item measured in situ. The traditional method of monitoring water transparency is the in-situ measurement by ship. However, because of its inherent shortcoming, this in situ method can not satisfy the requirement of the large-scale, quick and real-time monitoring of the water transparency. Therefore, it must be combined with the remote sensing technology to fulfill the monitoring of the water transparency. This paper studies the water transparency monitoring in China Sea by using SeaWiFS satellite sensor. First, the inversing algorithm of water transparency is introduced briefly, which based on the radiative transfer theory and bio-optical model of water. Second, the accuracy of the algorithm is validated by using the large-scale in-situ data from the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), which covered most of the Northwest Pacific ocean. The result shows the inversing relative error of water transparency is 22.6% by using the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) data, and it is even better in the open sea. Third, using this algorithm and SeaWiFS data, a remote sensing product data set of water transparency in China Sea was generated. Finally, we present the analysis of seasonal distribution and fluctuation patterns of water transparency in China Sea by using the generated remote sensing product collection of water transparency.

  19. Determination of zero-field size percent depth doses and tissue maximum ratios for stereotactic radiosurgery and IMRT dosimetry: comparison between experimental measurements and Monte Carlo simulation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chee-Wai; Cho, Sang Hyun; Taylor, Michael; Das, Indra J

    2007-08-01

    In this study, zero-field percent depth dose (PDD) and tissue maximum ratio (TMR) for 6 MV x rays have been determined by extrapolation from dosimetric measurements over the field size range 1 x 1-10 x 10 cm2. The key to small field dosimetry is the selection of a proper dosimeter for the measurements, as well as the alignment of the detector with the central axis (CAX) of beam. The measured PDD results are compared with those obtained from Monte Carlo (MC) simulation to examine the consistency and integrity of the measured data from which the zero-field PDD is extrapolated. Of the six most commonly used dosimeters in the clinic, the stereotactic diode field detector (SFD), the PTW Pinpoint, and the Exradin A14 are the most consistent and produce results within 2% of each other over the entire field size range 1 x 1-40 x 40 cm2. Although the diamond detector has the smallest sensitive volume, it is the least stable and tends to disagree with all other dosimeters by more than 10%. The zero-field PDD data extrapolated from larger field measurements obtained with the SFD are in good agreement with the MC results. The extrapolated and MC data agree within 2.5% over the clinical depth range (dmax-30 cm), when the MC data for the zero field are derived from a 1 X 1 cm2 field simulation using a miniphantom (1 x 1 x 48 cm3). The agreement between the measured PDD and the MC data based on a full phantom (48 x 48 x 48 cm3) simulation is fairly good within 1% at shallow depths to approximately 5% at 30 cm. Our results seem to indicate that zero-field TMR can be accurately calculated from PDD measurements with a proper choice of detector and a careful alignment of detector axis with the CAX. PMID:17879776

  20. The ecological response of Carex lasiocarpa community in the Riparian Wetlands to the environmental gradient of water depth in Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Luan, Zhaoqing; Wang, Zhongxin; Yan, Dandan; Liu, Guihua; Xu, Yingying

    2013-01-01

    The response of Carex lasiocarpa in riparian wetlands in Sanjiang Plain to the environmental gradient of water depth was analyzed by using the Gaussian Model based on the biomass and average height data, and the ecological water-depth amplitude of Carex lasiocarpa was derived. The results indicated that the optimum ecological water-depth amplitude of Carex lasiocarpa based on biomass was [13.45 cm, 29.78 cm], while the optimum ecological water-depth amplitude of Carex lasiocarpa based on average height was [2.31 cm, 40.11 cm]. The intersection of the ecological water-depth amplitudes based on biomass and height confirmed that the optimum ecological water-depth amplitude of Carex lasiocarpa was [13.45 cm, 29.78 cm] and the optimist growing water-depth of Carex lasiocarpa was 21.4 cm. The TWINSPAN, a polythetic and divisive classification tool, was used to classify the wetland ecological series into 6 associations. Result of TWINSPAN matrix classification reflected an obvious environmental gradient in these associations: water-depth gradient. The relation of biodiversity of Carex lasiocarpa community and water depth was determined by calculating the diversity index of each association.

  1. Cumulative soil water evaporation as a function of depth and time

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil water evaporation is an important component of the surface water balance and the surface energy balance. Accurate and dynamic measurements of soil water evaporation enhance the understanding of water and energy partitioning at the land-atmosphere interface. The objective of this study is to mea...

  2. A graphite calorimeter for absolute measurements of absorbed dose to water: application in medium-energy x-ray filtered beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, M.; Pimpinella, M.; Quini, M.; D'Arienzo, M.; Astefanoaei, I.; Loreti, S.; Guerra, A. S.

    2016-02-01

    The Italian National Institute of Ionizing Radiation Metrology (ENEA-INMRI) has designed and built a graphite calorimeter that, in a water phantom, has allowed the determination of the absorbed dose to water in medium-energy x-rays with generating voltages from 180 to 250 kV. The new standard is a miniaturized three-bodies calorimeter, with a disc-shaped core of 21 mm diameter and 2 mm thickness weighing 1.134 g, sealed in a PMMA waterproof envelope with air-evacuated gaps. The measured absorbed dose to graphite is converted into absorbed dose to water by means of an energy-dependent conversion factor obtained from Monte Carlo simulations. Heat-transfer correction factors were determined by FEM calculations. At a source-to-detector distance of 100 cm, a depth in water of 2 g cm-2, and at a dose rate of about 0.15 Gy min-1, results of calorimetric measurements of absorbed dose to water, D w, were compared to experimental determinations, D wK, obtained via an ionization chamber calibrated in terms of air kerma, according to established dosimetry protocols. The combined standard uncertainty of D w and D wK were estimated as 1.9% and 1.7%, respectively. The two absorbed dose to water determinations were in agreement within 1%, well below the stated measurement uncertainties. Advancements are in progress to extend the measurement capability of the new in-water-phantom graphite calorimeter to other filtered medium-energy x-ray qualities and to reduce the D w uncertainty to around 1%. The new calorimeter represents the first implementation of in-water-phantom graphite calorimetry in the kilovoltage range and, allowing independent determinations of D w, it will contribute to establish a robust system of absorbed dose to water primary standards for medium-energy x-ray beams.

  3. A simulation study to identify the sea water depth for the presence of air waves in sea bed logging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulkarim, Muhammad; Shafie, Afza; Yahya, Noorhana Binti; Razali, Radzuan; Ahmad, Wan Fatimah Wan

    2012-09-01

    Sea Bed Logging (SBL) is an offshore geophysical technique that can give information about resistivity variation beneath the seafloor. This information is crucial in offshore oil and gas exploration. However, data collected through this technique in shallow water at low frequencies is associated with a problem termed "air wave effect". The air wave effect is a phenomena resulting from Electro-Magnetic (EM) waves produced by the antenna (source) which interact with air-sea interface to generate air waves that diffuse from sea surface to the receivers. These air wave signals dominate the receivers at far offsets to the source and consequently, the refracted signal due the target is hardly distinguishable. The refracted signals from the target being masked by the airwaves can make it difficult to identify the hydrocarbon reservoir. The aim of this study is to investigate the sea water depth for the presence of air waves. Synthetic data are generated by simulating SBL environment without Hydro-Carbon (HC) target and varying the sea water depth from 1000m to 100m with the interval of 100m. The simulated distances for the source-receiver separation (offset) are divided into five ranges. The magnitude versus offset plot together with the Friedman and Wilcoxon statistical test are used to analyze the data. Results show that the air waves are present at 400m of sea water depth and below.

  4. Water column depth and light intensity modulate the zebrafish preference response in the black/white test.

    PubMed

    Córdova, Sandro Daniel; Dos Santos, Thainá Garbino; de Oliveira, Diogo Losch

    2016-04-21

    Currently, the black/white preference test has been used to evaluate anxiety-like behaviors in zebrafish. However, several inconsistent results have been reported across literature. Since animal behavior can be influenced by several environmental factors, the main goal of the present study was to investigate the influence of different water column depths and light intensities on zebrafish behavioral responses in the black/white test. On a 4cm water column depth, animals spent more time in the black than in the white compartment. However, when animals were tested in an 8cm water column, no significant difference was found. Using an inclined acrylic floor inside the aquarium, animals spent more time in the deep compartment when this was black. However, there is no difference in time spent in each compartment when the deeper compartment was white. For light intensity test, animals showed preference for the white compartment only when both compartments were illuminated with 100lx. For the others illumination settings, there was no difference in the compartment preference. In conclusion, our results suggest that variations in water column depth and light intensity can modulate zebrafish preference in the black/white test. These variations may be implicated in the discrepancies observed in literature. PMID:26960010

  5. Water column depth and light intensity modulate the zebrafish preference response in the black/white test.

    PubMed

    Córdova, Sandro Daniel; Dos Santos, Thainá Garbino; de Oliveira, Diogo Losch

    2016-04-21

    Currently, the black/white preference test has been used to evaluate anxiety-like behaviors in zebrafish. However, several inconsistent results have been reported across literature. Since animal behavior can be influenced by several environmental factors, the main goal of the present study was to investigate the influence of different water column depths and light intensities on zebrafish behavioral responses in the black/white test. On a 4cm water column depth, animals spent more time in the black than in the white compartment. However, when animals were tested in an 8cm water column, no significant difference was found. Using an inclined acrylic floor inside the aquarium, animals spent more time in the deep compartment when this was black. However, there is no difference in time spent in each compartment when the deeper compartment was white. For light intensity test, animals showed preference for the white compartment only when both compartments were illuminated with 100lx. For the others illumination settings, there was no difference in the compartment preference. In conclusion, our results suggest that variations in water column depth and light intensity can modulate zebrafish preference in the black/white test. These variations may be implicated in the discrepancies observed in literature.

  6. Effects of water depth and substrate color on the growth and body color of the red sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Senhao; Dong, Shuanglin; Gao, Qinfeng; Ren, Yichao; Wang, Fang

    2015-05-01

    Three color variants of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus are recognized, the red one is highly valued in the market. When the red variant is cultured in ponds in China, its body color changes from red to celadon in 3-6 months. The effects of water depth and substrate color on the growth and body color of this animal were investigated. Juveniles of red A. japonicus were cultured in cages suspended at a range of water depths (20, 50, 100, 150 and 200 cm). The specific growth rate of red sea cucumbers was significantly higher in animals cultured at deeper water layers compared with those grown at shallowers. Body weights were greatest for sea cucumbers cultured at a depth of 150 cm and their survival rates were highest at a depth of 200 cm. A scale to evaluate the color of red sea cucumbers ( R value) was developed using a Pantone standard color card. All stocked animals in the 9-month trial retained a red color, however the red body color was much more intense in sea cucumbers cultured at shallower depths, while animals suspended in deeper layers became pale. In a separate trial, A. japonicus were cultured in suspended cages with seven different colored substrates. Substrate color had a significant effect on the growth and body-color of red A. japonicus. The yield were greatest for A. japonicus cultured on a yellow substrate, followed by green > white > orange > red > black and blue. All sea cucumbers in the 7-month trial retained a red color, although the red was most intense (highest R value) in animals cultured on a blue substrate and pale (lowest R value) for animals cultured on a green substrate.

  7. Heterophylly in the yellow waterlily, Nuphar variegata (Nymphaeaceae): effects of [CO2], natural sediment type, and water depth.

    PubMed

    Titus, J E; Gary Sullivan, P

    2001-08-01

    We transplanted Nuphar variegata with submersed leaves only into natural lake sediments in pH-, [CO(2)]-, depth-, and temperature-controlled greenhouse tanks to test the hypotheses that more fertile sediment, lower free [CO(2)], and shallower depth would all stimulate the development of floating leaves. Sediment higher in porewater [NH(4)(+)] favored floating leaf development. Low CO(2)-grown plants initiated floating leaf development significantly earlier than high CO(2)-grown plants, which produced significantly more submersed leaves and fewer floating leaves. Mean floating leaf biomass was significantly greater than mean submersed leaf biomass but was not influenced by CO(2) enrichment, whereas mean submersed leaf biomass increased 88% at high [CO(2)]. At the shallower depth (35 cm), floating leaves required 50% less biomass investment per leaf than at 70 cm, and a significantly greater proportion of plants had floating leaves (70 vs. 23-43% at 35 vs. 70 cm, respectively) for the last three of the eight leaf censuses. Sediment type, water depth, and especially free [CO(2)] all can influence leaf morphogenesis in Nuphar variegata, and the development of more and larger submersed leaves with CO(2) enrichment favors the exploitation of high [CO(2)] when it is present in the water column.

  8. Offshore permafrost decay and massive seabed methane escape in water depths >20 m at the South Kara Sea shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portnov, A.; Mienert, J.; Cherkashov, G. A.

    2013-12-01

    We study the West-Yamal Shelf in the Kara Sea, offshore Western Russia. We present new high-resolution seismic data (2-16 kHz) and gas geochemical data from 2012 cruises. In high-resolution seismic data, we found extensive acoustic anomalies in the water column, which we interpreted to be gas (bubble) flares rising from the seafloor. These anomalies were widespread throughout the study area, but seemed to be limited to water depths > 20 meters below sea level (mbsl). One seepage site in ~6m water depth released gas that reached almost to the sea surface. The hydroacoustic anomalies are limited by the 20 m isobaths, and it may be controlled by the extension of permafrost that is still present below the seafloor at these depths providing an impermeable layer through which gas and other fluids cannot migrate. We detected acoustically transparent zones in sediments in the upper 2-5 meters below seafloor (mbsf). We interpret these acoustic anomalies to record the presence of free gas. Deeper seismic data show that acoustic anomalies in sediments near the seafloor are connected to gas chimneys that extend to depths >2000 mbsf. This suggests that gas is migrating from deeper hydrocarbon reservoirs and therefore it has very likely a thermogenic origin. In addition to the more widespread and disperse acoustically transparent zones, we discovered two prominent transparent mounds that are 1.5-2 km in diameter and that are elevated 10-15 meters above the seafloor. These features bear striking resemblance to the pingo-like features (PLF) that have been studied on the Beaufort Shelf (e.g. Shearer et al., 1971; Paull et al., 2007), and Pechora Sea (Rokos, 2009). Tentative results of numerical modelling estimate the thickness of permafrost, which was during the last sea level regression 170-300 meters thick. Based on the model of permafrost melting we state, that continuous sub-seabed permafrost may extend to water depths of ~20 m offshore creating a seal through which gas cannot

  9. The climate influence on the mid-depth Northeast Atlantic gyres viewed by cold-water corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montero-Serrano, Jean-Carlos; Frank, Norbert; Colin, Christophe; Wienberg, Claudia; Eisele, Markus

    2011-10-01

    The neodymium (Nd) isotopic composition (expressed in epsilon units, $\\varepsilon$Nd) of reef framework-forming cold-water corals provides unique measures of water mass provenance and mixing within the Northeast Atlantic today and in the past. A reconstruction of near thermocline water $\\varepsilon$Nd from cold-water corals of the Gulf of Cádiz and Porcupine Seabight spanning over the past 300,000 years, now revealed that climate cooling during Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 7.2 and MIS 8/9 led to a retraction of the mid-depth Subpolar Gyre (mSPG) to the west. Conversely, Northern Hemisphere warming and increasing fresh water fluxes to the northwest (Labrador Sea) favor a stronger eastward extension of the mSPG blocking the northward flow of temperate Atlantic water as observed during the early MIS 1 and the early stage MIS 5.5. These changes are likely the result of large-scale south-north displacement of the westerlies similar to present-day observations that the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is linked with mid-depth ocean circulation. Based on these observations, we hypothesize that further climate warming will also strengthen the mSPG leading to a salt and temperature decrease in the Northeast Atlantic whereas salinity and temperature will increase in the temperate Atlantic. However, the amplitude of such changes on North Atlantic overturning remains to be tested.

  10. Noncontact methods for measuring water-surface elevations and velocities in rivers: Implications for depth and discharge extraction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Jonathan M.; Kinzel, Paul J.; McDonald, Richard R.; Schmeeckle, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Recently developed optical and videographic methods for measuring water-surface properties in a noninvasive manner hold great promise for extracting river hydraulic and bathymetric information. This paper describes such a technique, concentrating on the method of infrared videog- raphy for measuring surface velocities and both acoustic (laboratory-based) and laser-scanning (field-based) techniques for measuring water-surface elevations. In ideal laboratory situations with simple flows, appropriate spatial and temporal averaging results in accurate water-surface elevations and water-surface velocities. In test cases, this accuracy is sufficient to allow direct inversion of the governing equations of motion to produce estimates of depth and discharge. Unlike other optical techniques for determining local depth that rely on transmissivity of the water column (bathymetric lidar, multi/hyperspectral correlation), this method uses only water-surface information, so even deep and/or turbid flows can be investigated. However, significant errors arise in areas of nonhydrostatic spatial accelerations, such as those associated with flow over bedforms or other relatively steep obstacles. Using laboratory measurements for test cases, the cause of these errors is examined and both a simple semi-empirical method and computational results are presented that can potentially reduce bathymetric inversion errors.

  11. Modeling scale-dependent runoff generation in a small semi-arid watershed accounting for rainfall intensity and water depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langhans, Christoph; Govers, Gerard; Diels, Jan; Stone, Jeffry J.; Nearing, Mark A.

    2014-07-01

    Observed scale effects of runoff on hillslopes and small watersheds derive from complex interactions of time-varying rainfall rates with runoff, infiltration and macro- and microtopographic structures. A little studied aspect of scale effects is the concept of water depth-dependent infiltration. For semi-arid rangeland it has been demonstrated that mounds underneath shrubs have a high infiltrability and lower lying compacted or stony inter-shrub areas have a lower infiltrability. It is hypothesized that runoff accumulation further downslope leads to increased water depth, inundating high infiltrability areas, which increases the area-averaged infiltration rate. A model was developed that combines the concepts of water depth-dependent infiltration, partial contributing area under variable rainfall intensity, and the Green-Ampt theory for point-scale infiltration. The model was applied to rainfall simulation data and natural rainfall-runoff data from a small sub-watershed (0.4 ha) of the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed in the semi-arid US Southwest. Its performance to reproduce observed hydrographs was compared to that of a conventional Green-Ampt model assuming complete inundation sheet flow, with runon infiltration, which is infiltration of runoff onto pervious downstream areas. Parameters were derived from rainfall simulations and from watershed-scale calibration directly from the rainfall-runoff events. The performance of the water depth-dependent model was better than that of the conventional model on the scale of a rainfall simulator plot, but on the scale of a small watershed the performance of both model types was similar. We believe that the proposed model contributes to a less scale-dependent way of modeling runoff and erosion on the hillslope-scale.

  12. A novel method for patient exit and entrance dose prediction based on water equivalent path length measured with an amorphous silicon electronic portal imaging device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavuma, Awusi; Glegg, Martin; Metwaly, Mohamed; Currie, Garry; Elliott, Alex

    2010-01-01

    In vivo dosimetry is one of the quality assurance tools used in radiotherapy to monitor the dose delivered to the patient. Electronic portal imaging device (EPID) images for a set of solid water phantoms of varying thicknesses were acquired and the data fitted onto a quadratic equation, which relates the reduction in photon beam intensity to the attenuation coefficient and material thickness at a reference condition. The quadratic model is used to convert the measured grey scale value into water equivalent path length (EPL) at each pixel for any material imaged by the detector. For any other non-reference conditions, scatter, field size and MU variation effects on the image were corrected by relative measurements using an ionization chamber and an EPID. The 2D EPL is linked to the percentage exit dose table, for different thicknesses and field sizes, thereby converting the plane pixel values at each point into a 2D dose map. The off-axis ratio is corrected using envelope and boundary profiles generated from the treatment planning system (TPS). The method requires field size, monitor unit and source-to-surface distance (SSD) as clinical input parameters to predict the exit dose, which is then used to determine the entrance dose. The measured pixel dose maps were compared with calculated doses from TPS for both entrance and exit depth of phantom. The gamma index at 3% dose difference (DD) and 3 mm distance to agreement (DTA) resulted in an average of 97% passing for the square fields of 5, 10, 15 and 20 cm. The exit dose EPID dose distributions predicted by the algorithm were in better agreement with TPS-calculated doses than phantom entrance dose distributions.

  13. Depth Estimation of Submerged Aquatic Vegetation in Clear Water Streams Using Low-Altitude Optical Remote Sensing.

    PubMed

    Visser, Fleur; Buis, Kerst; Verschoren, Veerle; Meire, Patrick

    2015-09-30

    UAVs and other low-altitude remote sensing platforms are proving very useful tools for remote sensing of river systems. Currently consumer grade cameras are still the most commonly used sensors for this purpose. In particular, progress is being made to obtain river bathymetry from the optical image data collected with such cameras, using the strong attenuation of light in water. No studies have yet applied this method to map submergence depth of aquatic vegetation, which has rather different reflectance characteristics from river bed substrate. This study therefore looked at the possibilities to use the optical image data to map submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) depth in shallow clear water streams. We first applied the Optimal Band Ratio Analysis method (OBRA) of Legleiter et al. (2009) to a dataset of spectral signatures from three macrophyte species in a clear water stream. The results showed that for each species the ratio of certain wavelengths were strongly associated with depth. A combined assessment of all species resulted in equally strong associations, indicating that the effect of spectral variation in vegetation is subsidiary to spectral variation due to depth changes. Strongest associations (R²-values ranging from 0.67 to 0.90 for different species) were found for combinations including one band in the near infrared (NIR) region between 825 and 925 nm and one band in the visible light region. Currently data of both high spatial and spectral resolution is not commonly available to apply the OBRA results directly to image data for SAV depth mapping. Instead a novel, low-cost data acquisition method was used to obtain six-band high spatial resolution image composites using a NIR sensitive DSLR camera. A field dataset of SAV submergence depths was used to develop regression models for the mapping of submergence depth from image pixel values. Band (combinations) providing the best performing models (R²-values up to 0.77) corresponded with the OBRA

  14. Depth Estimation of Submerged Aquatic Vegetation in Clear Water Streams Using Low-Altitude Optical Remote Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Visser, Fleur; Buis, Kerst; Verschoren, Veerle; Meire, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    UAVs and other low-altitude remote sensing platforms are proving very useful tools for remote sensing of river systems. Currently consumer grade cameras are still the most commonly used sensors for this purpose. In particular, progress is being made to obtain river bathymetry from the optical image data collected with such cameras, using the strong attenuation of light in water. No studies have yet applied this method to map submergence depth of aquatic vegetation, which has rather different reflectance characteristics from river bed substrate. This study therefore looked at the possibilities to use the optical image data to map submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) depth in shallow clear water streams. We first applied the Optimal Band Ratio Analysis method (OBRA) of Legleiter et al. (2009) to a dataset of spectral signatures from three macrophyte species in a clear water stream. The results showed that for each species the ratio of certain wavelengths were strongly associated with depth. A combined assessment of all species resulted in equally strong associations, indicating that the effect of spectral variation in vegetation is subsidiary to spectral variation due to depth changes. Strongest associations (R2-values ranging from 0.67 to 0.90 for different species) were found for combinations including one band in the near infrared (NIR) region between 825 and 925 nm and one band in the visible light region. Currently data of both high spatial and spectral resolution is not commonly available to apply the OBRA results directly to image data for SAV depth mapping. Instead a novel, low-cost data acquisition method was used to obtain six-band high spatial resolution image composites using a NIR sensitive DSLR camera. A field dataset of SAV submergence depths was used to develop regression models for the mapping of submergence depth from image pixel values. Band (combinations) providing the best performing models (R2-values up to 0.77) corresponded with the OBRA findings

  15. Absorbed dose to water: Standards and traceability for radiation oncology

    SciTech Connect

    Almond, P.R.

    1995-12-31

    Although the need for appropriate quantities and units for ionizing radiation has existed since shortly after discovery of X-rays, the quantities and units in general use today were not completely formalized until about 15 years ago. The development of appropriate national and international standards have also been ongoing. For many years the quantity, exposure, measured in units of roentgen was the national standard and they were also the quantity and units in which radiotherapy was described. With the introduction of megavoltage X-ray and electron-beam equipment and the adoption of the quantity {open_quotes}absorbed-dose{close_quotes} measured in units of rad (or gray) different approaches to calibrating these beams were needed. This was especially the case since the national standard in terms of exposure at a maximum photon energy for {sup 60}Co gamma rays was only available. Since the late 1960s various machine calibration protocols have been published. These protocols have to accommodate changes in modality, energy, quantities and units between the national standard and the user. Because of this, a new definition of traceability is proposed to accommodate the present system. By recording all intercomparisons and parameters used, an auditable calibration chain can be maintained. Even with the introduction of calibration protocols based upon national absorbed dose standards, the proposed traceability definition will still be needed.

  16. An experimental and calculated dose distribution in water around CDC K-type caesium-137 sources.

    PubMed

    Diffey, B L; Klevenhagen, S C

    1975-05-01

    The radiation distribution in water around caesium-137 K-type sources has been measured and the experimental results used to provide data for an expression for dose calculations which may be conveniently applied in computer programs. The calculated absorbed dose rate obtained in this manner is estimated to be within 3% of the actual dose rate for any point in water up to 8 cm from the source. It is also suggested that the strength of a brachytherapy source be expressed in terms of an experimental exposure rate at some well-defined distance since this quantity may be determined more precisely and with less ambiguity than source activity.

  17. Tsunami and acoustic-gravity waves in water of constant depth

    SciTech Connect

    Hendin, Gali; Stiassnie, Michael

    2013-08-15

    A study of wave radiation by a rather general bottom displacement, in a compressible ocean of otherwise constant depth, is carried out within the framework of a three-dimensional linear theory. Simple analytic expressions for the flow field, at large distance from the disturbance, are derived. Realistic numerical examples indicate that the Acoustic-Gravity waves, which significantly precede the Tsunami, are expected to leave a measurable signature on bottom-pressure records that should be considered for early detection of Tsunami.

  18. The influence of water depth and flow regime on phytoplankton biomass and community structure in a shallow, lowland river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leland, H.V.

    2003-01-01

    The taxonomic composition and biomass of phytoplankton in the San Joaquin River, California, were examined in relation to water depth, flow regime, and water chemistry. Without substantial tributary inflow, maintenance demands exceeded algal production during summer and autumn in this eutrophic, 'lowland type' river due to light-limiting conditions for algal growth. Streamflow from tributaries that drain the Sierra Nevada contributed to a substantial net gain in algal production during the spring and summer by increasing water transparency and the extent of turbulence. Abundances of the major taxa (centric diatoms, pennate diatoms and chlorophytes) indicated differing responses to the longitudinal variation in water depth and flow regime, with the areal extent of pools and other geomorphic features that influence time-for-development being a major contributing factor to the selection of species. Tychoplanktonic species were most abundant upstream and in tributaries that drain the San Joaquin Valley. Seasonally-varying factors such as water temperature that influence algal growth rates also contributed significantly to the selection of species. Nutrient limitation appears not to be a primary constraint on species selection in the phytoplankton of this river.

  19. Distribution of He-3 in the intermediate waters of the Indian Ocean: implications for mid-depth circulation and mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlosser, P.; Hohmann, R.; Winckler, G.; Newton, R.; Srinivasan, A.; Top, Z.; Lupton, J.; Jenkins, W.; Jean-Baptiste, P.

    2003-04-01

    Since the discovery of mantle He-3 in the ocean by Clarke et al. (1969) this isotope has been used in numerous studies of the mid-depth circulation of the ocean. Data from GEOSECS and a number of cruises dedicated to the mapping of He-3 in the Pacific Ocean provided a solid foundation for oceanographic applications even before the WOCE survey. In the Indian Ocean the data set was sparser and the WOCE Hydrographic Program for the first time provided coverage that was sufficiently dense to map out the major features of the 3He plumes. We present and discuss d3He distributions constructed from WOCE data, the GEOSECS survey, as well as from smaller cruises that aimed at defining sources on the Mid Ocean Ridges. The delta He-3 distributions are plotted on isopycnal surfaces corresponding to depths of major He-3 sources. The major plume can be found close to the depth of the Mid-Ocean Ridge crests. This main plume spreads from the western basin to the eastern Indian Ocean. It seems to be emanated from a limited stretch of the MOR near to, but distinctly off, the Triple Junction. It is slightly elongated in a southwestern direction and can easily be distinguished from the plumes originating in the Indonesian Throughflow regime and in the Gulf of Aden. The d3He values in the mid-depth plume emanating from the MOR decrease towards the south (ACC). This feature indicates ventilation in the Southern Ocean. It is concentrated at depths between 1500 and 3500 meters with maximum delta He-3 concentrations (about 18%) found around 2500 meters depth. The plume can easily be traced over distances of 2500 km or more. Implications of the delta He-3 field for mixing and spreading of the intermediate waters are discussed.

  20. New absorbed dose measurement with cylindrical water phantoms for multidetector CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, Takeshi; Araki, Fujio; Onizuka, Ryota; Hioki, Kazunari; Tomiyama, Yuuki; Yamashita, Yusuke

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to develop new dosimetry with cylindrical water phantoms for multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). The ionization measurement was performed with a Farmer ionization chamber at the center and four peripheral points in the body-type and head-type cylindrical water phantoms. The ionization was converted to the absorbed dose using a 60Co absorbed-dose-to-water calibration factor and Monte Carlo (MC) -calculated correction factors. The correction factors were calculated from MDCT (Brilliance iCT, 64-slice, Philips Electronics) modeled with GMctdospp (IMPS, Germany) software based on the EGSnrc MC code. The spectrum of incident x-ray beams and the configuration of a bowtie filter for MDCT were determined so that calculated photon intensity attenuation curves for aluminum (Al) and calculated off-center ratio (OCR) profiles in air coincided with those measured. The MC-calculated doses were calibrated by the absorbed dose measured at the center in both cylindrical water phantoms. Calculated doses were compared with measured doses at four peripheral points and the center in the phantom for various beam pitches and beam collimations. The calibration factors and the uncertainty of the absorbed dose determined using this method were also compared with those obtained by CTDIair (CT dose index in air). Calculated Al half-value layers and OCRs in air were within 0.3% and 3% agreement with the measured values, respectively. Calculated doses at four peripheral points and the centers for various beam pitches and beam collimations were within 5% and 2% agreement with measured values, respectively. The MC-calibration factors by our method were 44-50% lower than values by CTDIair due to the overbeaming effect. However, the calibration factors for CTDIair agreed within 5% with those of our method after correction for the overbeaming effect. Our method makes it possible to directly measure the absorbed dose for MDCT and is more robust and accurate than the

  1. New absorbed dose measurement with cylindrical water phantoms for multidetector CT.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Takeshi; Araki, Fujio; Onizuka, Ryota; Hioki, Kazunari; Tomiyama, Yuuki; Yamashita, Yusuke

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to develop new dosimetry with cylindrical water phantoms for multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). The ionization measurement was performed with a Farmer ionization chamber at the center and four peripheral points in the body-type and head-type cylindrical water phantoms. The ionization was converted to the absorbed dose using a (60)Co absorbed-dose-to-water calibration factor and Monte Carlo (MC) -calculated correction factors. The correction factors were calculated from MDCT (Brilliance iCT, 64-slice, Philips Electronics) modeled with GMctdospp (IMPS, Germany) software based on the EGSnrc MC code. The spectrum of incident x-ray beams and the configuration of a bowtie filter for MDCT were determined so that calculated photon intensity attenuation curves for aluminum (Al) and calculated off-center ratio (OCR) profiles in air coincided with those measured. The MC-calculated doses were calibrated by the absorbed dose measured at the center in both cylindrical water phantoms. Calculated doses were compared with measured doses at four peripheral points and the center in the phantom for various beam pitches and beam collimations. The calibration factors and the uncertainty of the absorbed dose determined using this method were also compared with those obtained by CTDIair (CT dose index in air). Calculated Al half-value layers and OCRs in air were within 0.3% and 3% agreement with the measured values, respectively. Calculated doses at four peripheral points and the centers for various beam pitches and beam collimations were within 5% and 2% agreement with measured values, respectively. The MC-calibration factors by our method were 44-50% lower than values by CTDIair due to the overbeaming effect. However, the calibration factors for CTDIair agreed within 5% with those of our method after correction for the overbeaming effect. Our method makes it possible to directly measure the absorbed dose for MDCT and is more robust and accurate than the

  2. The Incredible Shrinking Cup Lab: Connecting with Ocean and Great Lakes Scientists to Investigate the Effect of Depth and Water Pressure on Polystyrene

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Chantelle M.; Adams, Jacqueline M.; Hinchey, Elizabeth K.; Nestlerode, Janet A.; Patterson, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    Pressure increases rapidly with depth in a water body. Ocean and Great Lakes scientists often use this physical feature of water as the basis of a fun pastime performed aboard research vessels around the world: the shrinking of polystyrene cups. Depending on the depth to which the cups are deployed, the results can be quite striking! Capitalizing…

  3. Depth to water in the eastern Snake River Plain and surrounding tributary valleys, southwestern Idaho and eastern Oregon, calculated using water levels from 1980 to 1988

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maupin, Molly A.

    1992-01-01

    The vulnerability of ground water to contamination in Idaho is being assessed by the IDHW/DEQ (Idaho Department of Health and Welfare, Division of Environmental Quality), using a modified version of the Environmental Orotection Agency DRASTIC methods (Allers and others, 1985). The project was designed as a technique to: (1) Assign priorities for development of ground-water management and monitoring programs; (2) build support for, and public awareness of, vulnerability or ground water to contamination; (3) assist in the development of regulatory programs; and (4) provide access to technical data through the use of a GIS (geographic information system) (C. Grantha,, Idaho Department of Health and Welfare, written commun., 1989). A digital representation of first-encountered water below land surface is an important element in evaluating vulnerability of ground water to contamination. Depth-to-water values were developed using existing data and computer software to construct a GIS data set to be combined with a sols data set developed by the SCS (Soil Conservation Service) and IDHW/WQB (Idaho Department of Health and Welfare/Water Quality Bureau), and a recharge data set developed by the IDWR/RSF (Idaho Department of Water Resources/Remote Sensing Facility). The USGS (U.S. Geological Survey) developed digital depth-to-water values for eleven 1:100,000-scale quadrangles on the eastern Snake River Plain and surrounding tributary valleys.

  4. Depth to water in the western Snake River Plain and surrounding tributary valleys, southwestern Idaho and eastern Oregon, calculated using water levels from 1980 to 1988

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maupin, Molly A.

    1991-01-01

    The vulnerability of ground water to contamination in Idaho is being assessed by the ISHW/DEQ (Idaho Department of Health and Welfare, Division of Environmental Quality), using a modified version of the Environmental Protection Agency DRASTIC methods (Allers and others, 1985). The project was designed as a technique to: (1) Assign priorities for development of ground-water management and monitoring programs; (2) build support for, and public awareness of, vulnerability of ground water to contamination; (3) assist in the development of regulatory programs; and (4) provide access to technical data through the use of a GIS (geographic information system) (C. Grantham, Idaho Department of Health and Welfare, written commun., 1989). Digital representation of first-encountered water below land surface is an important element in evaluating vulnerability of ground water to contamination. Depth-to-water values were developed using existing data and computer software to construct a GIS data set to be combined with a soils data set developed by the SCS (Soul Conservation Service) and the IDHW/WQB (Idaho Department of Health and Welfare/Water Quality Bureau), and a recharge data set developed by the IDWR/RSF (idaho Department of Water Resources/Remote Sensing Facility). The USGS (U.S. Geological Survey) has developed digital depth-to-water values for eleven 1:100,00-scale quadrangles on the eastern Snake River Plain and surrounding tributary valleys.

  5. Interrelationships of petiole air canal architecture, water depth and convective air flow in Nymphaea odorata (Nymphaeaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Premise of the study--Nymphaea odorata grows in water up to 2 m deep, producing fewer, larger leaves in deeper water. This species has a convective flow system that moves gases from younger leaves through submerged parts to older leaves, aerating submerged parts. Petiole air canals are in the conv...

  6. Sensible Heat Measurements Indicating Depth and Magnitude of Subsurface Soil Water Evaporation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil water evaporation is typically determined by techniques that assume the latent heat flux originates from the soil surface. Here, we describe a new technique for determining in situ soil water evaporation dynamics from fine-scale measurements of soil temperature and thermal properties with heat ...

  7. Measured depth-dependence of waveguide invariant in shallow water with a summer profile.

    PubMed

    Turgut, Altan; Fialkowski, Laurie T; Schindall, Jeffrey A

    2016-06-01

    Acoustic-intensity striation patterns were measured in the time-frequency domain using an L-shaped array and two simultaneously towed broadband (350-650 Hz) sources at depths above and below the thermocline under summer profile conditions. Distributions of the waveguide invariant parameter β, extracted from the acoustic striation patterns, peak at different values when receivers are above or below the thermocline for a source that is below the thermocline. However, the distributions show similar characteristics when the source is above the thermocline. Experimental results are verified by a numerical analysis of phase slowness, group slowness, and relative amplitudes of acoustic modes.

  8. At what depths do magma-water eruptions breach the surface?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendel, JoAnna

    2014-09-01

    When magma ascends upward in the Earth's crust, it can react violently with groundwater, leading to underground explosions or even full-fledged eruptions. If they breach the surface, these phreatomagmatic eruptions leave debris that falls concentrically around the crater or cone. Previously, researchers have sought to determine the depth within the vent from which the eruption originated by looking at the types of ejected rocks and their original positions beneath the volcanoes, but Valentine et al. found that these two factors are not necessarily directly related.

  9. Measured depth-dependence of waveguide invariant in shallow water with a summer profile.

    PubMed

    Turgut, Altan; Fialkowski, Laurie T; Schindall, Jeffrey A

    2016-06-01

    Acoustic-intensity striation patterns were measured in the time-frequency domain using an L-shaped array and two simultaneously towed broadband (350-650 Hz) sources at depths above and below the thermocline under summer profile conditions. Distributions of the waveguide invariant parameter β, extracted from the acoustic striation patterns, peak at different values when receivers are above or below the thermocline for a source that is below the thermocline. However, the distributions show similar characteristics when the source is above the thermocline. Experimental results are verified by a numerical analysis of phase slowness, group slowness, and relative amplitudes of acoustic modes. PMID:27369170

  10. A deuterium-based labeling technique for the investigation of rooting depths, water uptake dynamics and unsaturated zone water transport in semiarid environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, M.; Koeniger, P.; Gaj, M.; Hamutoko, J. T.; Wanke, H.; Himmelsbach, T.

    2016-02-01

    Non- or minimum-invasive methods for the quantification of rooting depths of plants are rare, in particular in (semi-)arid regions; yet, this information is crucial for the parameterization of SVAT (Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere Transfer) models and understanding of processes within the hydrological cycle. We present a technique utilizing the stable isotope deuterium (2H) applied as artificial tracer to investigate the vertical extent of the root zone, characterize water uptake dynamics of trees and shrubs at different depths and monitor transport of water through the unsaturated zone of dry environments. One liter of 35% deuterated water (2H2O) was punctually applied at several depths (0.5 m, 1 m, 2 m, 2.5 m and 4 m) at six different plots at a natural forested site in the Cuvelai-Etosha Basin (CEB), Namibia/Angola. Subsequently, uptake of the tracer was monitored by collecting plant samples (xylem and transpired water) up to seven days after tracer injection. Soil profiles at the plots were taken after the campaign and again after six months in order to evaluate the transport and distribution of 2H within the unsaturated zone. Of 162 plant samples taken, 31 samples showed clear signals of artificially introduced 2H, of which all originate from the plots labeled up to 2 m depth. No artificially injected 2H was found in plants when tracer application occurred deeper than 2 m. Results further indicate a sharing of water resources between the investigated shrubs and trees in the upper 1 m whilst tree roots seem to have better access to deeper layers of the unsaturated zone. The soil profiles taken after six months reveal elevated 2H-concentrations from depths as great as 4 m up to 1 m below surface indicating upward transport of water vapor. Purely diffuse transport towards the soil surface yielded an estimated 0.4 mm over the dry season. Results are of particular significance for a more precise parameterization of SVAT models and the formulation of water balances in

  11. Natural radionuclides in bottled drinking waters produced in Croatia and their contribution to radiation dose.

    PubMed

    Rožmarić, Martina; Rogić, Matea; Benedik, Ljudmila; Strok, Marko

    2012-10-15

    Activity concentrations of (234)U, (238)U, (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (210)Po and (210)Pb in all Croatian bottled drinking natural spring and natural mineral water products, commercially available on the market, were determined. The samples originated from various geological regions of Croatia. Activity concentrations of measured radionuclides are in general decreasing in this order: (234)U>(238)U>(226)Ra>(228)Ra>(210)Pb>(210)Po and (226)Ra>(228)Ra>(234)U>(238)U>(210)Pb>(210)Po for natural spring and mineral waters, respectively. Based on the radionuclide activity concentrations average total annual effective ingestion doses for infants, children and adults, as well as contribution of each particular radionuclide to total dose, were assessed and discussed. The highest doses were calculated for children from 7 to 12 years of age, which makes them the most critical group of population. All values for each type of water, as well as for each population group, were well below the recommended reference dose level (RDL) of 0.1 mSv from one year's consumption of drinking water according to the European Commission recommendations from 1998. Contribution of each particular radionuclide to total doses varied among different water types and within each water type, as well as between different age groups, where the lowest contribution was found for uranium isotopes and the highest for (228)Ra.

  12. Responses to water depth and clipping of twenty−three plant species in an Indian monsoonal wetland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Middleton, Beth A.; van der Valk, Arnold; Davis, Craig B.

    2015-01-01

    Responses of species to disturbances give insights into how species might respond to future wetland changes. In this study, species of monsoonal wetlands belonging to various functional types (graminoid and non−graminoid emergents, submersed aquatic, floating−leaved aquatic) varied in their growth responses to water depth and harvesting. We tested the effects of water depth (moist soil, flooded) and clipping (unclipped, and clipped) on the biomass and longevity of twenty−three dominant plant species of monsoonal wetlands in the Keoladeo National Park, India in a controlled experiment. With respect to total biomass and survival, six species responded positively to flooding and twelve species responded negatively to clipping. Responses to flooding and clipping, however, sometimes interacted. Individualistic responses of species to water levels and clipping regimes were apparent; species within a functional group did not always respond similarly. Therefore, detailed information on the individualistic responses of species may be needed to predict the vegetation composition of post−disturbance wetlands. In particular, as demands for fresh water increase around the world, studies of life history constraints and responses to hydrological changes will aid wetland managers in developing strategies to conserve biodiversity.

  13. Chemical composition of selected Kansas brines as an aid to interpreting change in water chemistry with depth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dingman, R.J.; Angino, E.E.

    1969-01-01

    Chemical analyses of approximately 1,881 samples of water from selected Kansas brines define the variations of water chemistry with depth and aquifer age. The most concentrated brines are found in the Permian rocks which occupy the intermediate section of the geologic column of this area. Salinity decreases below the Permian until the Ordovician (Arbuckle) horizon is reached and then increases until the Precambrian basement rocks are reached. Chemically, the petroleum brines studied in this small area fit the generally accepted pattern of an increase in calcium, sodium and chloride content with increasing salinity. They do not fit the often-predicted trend of increases in the calcium to chloride ratio, calcium content and salinity with depth and geologic age. The calcium to chloride ratio tends to be asymptotic to about 0.2 with increasing chloride content. Sulfate tends to decrease with increasing calcium content. Bicarbonate content is relatively constant with depth. If many of the hypotheses concerning the chemistry of petroleum brines are valid, then the brines studied are anomolous. An alternative lies in accepting the thesis that exceptions to these hypotheses are rapidly becoming the rule and that indeed we still do not have a valid and general hypothesis to explain the origin and chemistry of petroleum brines. ?? 1969.

  14. Surface analysis and depth profiling of corrosion products formed in lead pipes used to supply low alkalinity drinking water.

    PubMed

    Davidson, C M; Peters, N J; Britton, A; Brady, L; Gardiner, P H E; Lewis, B D

    2004-01-01

    Modern analytical techniques have been applied to investigate the nature of lead pipe corrosion products formed in pH adjusted, orthophosphate-treated, low alkalinity water, under supply conditions. Depth profiling and surface analysis have been carried out on pipe samples obtained from the water distribution system in Glasgow, Scotland, UK. X-ray diffraction spectrometry identified basic lead carbonate, lead oxide and lead phosphate as the principal components. Scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry revealed the crystalline structure within the corrosion product and also showed spatial correlations existed between calcium, iron, lead, oxygen and phosphorus. Elemental profiling, conducted by means of secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and secondary neutrals mass spectrometry (SNMS) indicated that the corrosion product was not uniform with depth. However, no clear stratification was apparent. Indeed, counts obtained for carbonate, phosphate and oxide were well correlated within the depth range probed by SIMS. SNMS showed relationships existed between carbon, calcium, iron, and phosphorus within the bulk of the scale, as well as at the surface. SIMS imaging confirmed the relationship between calcium and lead and suggested there might also be an association between chloride and phosphorus.

  15. A semianalytical ocean color inversion algorithm with explicit water column depth and substrate reflectance parameterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinna, Lachlan I. W.; Fearns, Peter R. C.; Weeks, Scarla J.; Werdell, P. Jeremy; Reichstetter, Martina; Franz, Bryan A.; Shea, Donald M.; Feldman, Gene C.

    2015-03-01

    A semianalytical ocean color inversion algorithm was developed for improving retrievals of inherent optical properties (IOPs) in optically shallow waters. In clear, geometrically shallow waters, light reflected off the seafloor can contribute to the water-leaving radiance signal. This can have a confounding effect on ocean color algorithms developed for optically deep waters, leading to an overestimation of IOPs. The algorithm described here, the Shallow Water Inversion Model (SWIM), uses pre-existing knowledge of bathymetry and benthic substrate brightness to account for optically shallow effects. SWIM was incorporated into the NASA Ocean Biology Processing Group's L2GEN code and tested in waters of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Aqua time series (2002-2013). SWIM-derived values of the total non-water absorption coefficient at 443 nm, at(443), the particulate backscattering coefficient at 443 nm, bbp(443), and the diffuse attenuation coefficient at 488 nm, Kd(488), were compared with values derived using the Generalized Inherent Optical Properties algorithm (GIOP) and the Quasi-Analytical Algorithm (QAA). The results indicated that in clear, optically shallow waters SWIM-derived values of at(443), bbp(443), and Kd(443) were realistically lower than values derived using GIOP and QAA, in agreement with radiative transfer modeling. This signified that the benthic reflectance correction was performing as expected. However, in more optically complex waters, SWIM had difficulty converging to a solution, a likely consequence of internal IOP parameterizations. Whilst a comprehensive study of the SWIM algorithm's behavior was conducted, further work is needed to validate the algorithm using in situ data.

  16. A Semianalytical Ocean Color Inversion Algorithm with Explicit Water Column Depth and Substrate Reflectance Parameterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckinna, Lachlan I. W.; Werdell, P. Jeremy; Fearns, Peter R. C.; Weeks, Scarla J.; Reichstetter, Martina; Franz, Bryan A.; Shea, Donald M.; Feldman, Gene C.

    2015-01-01

    A semianalytical ocean color inversion algorithm was developed for improving retrievals of inherent optical properties (IOPs) in optically shallow waters. In clear, geometrically shallow waters, light reflected off the seafloor can contribute to the water-leaving radiance signal. This can have a confounding effect on ocean color algorithms developed for optically deep waters, leading to an overestimation of IOPs. The algorithm described here, the Shallow Water Inversion Model (SWIM), uses pre-existing knowledge of bathymetry and benthic substrate brightness to account for optically shallow effects. SWIM was incorporated into the NASA Ocean Biology Processing Group's L2GEN code and tested in waters of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Aqua time series (2002-2013). SWIM-derived values of the total non-water absorption coefficient at 443 nm, at(443), the particulate backscattering coefficient at 443 nm, bbp(443), and the diffuse attenuation coefficient at 488 nm, Kd(488), were compared with values derived using the Generalized Inherent Optical Properties algorithm (GIOP) and the Quasi-Analytical Algorithm (QAA). The results indicated that in clear, optically shallow waters SWIM-derived values of at(443), bbp(443), and Kd(443) were realistically lower than values derived using GIOP and QAA, in agreement with radiative transfer modeling. This signified that the benthic reflectance correction was performing as expected. However, in more optically complex waters, SWIM had difficulty converging to a solution, a likely consequence of internal IOP parameterizations. Whilst a comprehensive study of the SWIM algorithm's behavior was conducted, further work is needed to validate the algorithm using in situ data.

  17. CO2 snow depth and subsurface water-ice abundance in the northern hemisphere of Mars.

    PubMed

    Mitrofanov, I G; Zuber, M T; Litvak, M L; Boynton, W V; Smith, D E; Drake, D; Hamara, D; Kozyrev, A S; Sanin, A B; Shinohara, C; Saunders, R S; Tretyakov, V

    2003-06-27

    Observations of seasonal variations of neutron flux from the high-energy neutron detector (HEND) on Mars Odyssey combined with direct measurements of the thickness of condensed carbon dioxide by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) on Mars Global Surveyor show a latitudinal dependence of northern winter deposition of carbon dioxide. The observations are also consistent with a shallow substrate consisting of a layer with water ice overlain by a layer of drier soil. The lower ice-rich layer contains between 50 and 75 weight % water, indicating that the shallow subsurface at northern polar latitudes on Mars is even more water rich than that in the south.

  18. Defining restoration targets for water depth and salinity in wind-dominated Spartina patens (Ait.) Muhl. coastal marshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyman, J. A.; La Peyre, M. K.; Caldwell, A.; Piazza, S.; Thom, C.; Winslow, C.

    2009-10-01

    SummaryCoastal wetlands provide valued ecosystem functions but the sustainability of those functions often is threatened by artificial hydrologic conditions. It is widely recognized that increased flooding and salinity can stress emergent plants, but there are few measurements to guide restoration, management, and mitigation. Marsh flooding can be estimated over large areas with few data where winds have little effect on water levels, but quantifying flooding requires hourly measurements over long time periods where tides are wind-dominated such as the northern Gulf of Mexico. Estimating salinity of flood water requires direct daily measurements because coastal marshes are characterized by dynamic salinity gradients. We analyzed 399,772 hourly observations of water depth and 521,561 hourly observations of water salinity from 14 sites in Louisiana coastal marshes dominated by Spartina patens (Ait.) Muhl. Unlike predicted water levels, observed water levels varied monthly and annually. We attributed those observed variations to variations in river runoff and winds. In stable marshes with slow wetland loss rates, we found that marsh elevation averaged 1 cm above mean high water, 15 cm above mean water, and 32 cm above mean low water levels. Water salinity averaged 3.7 ppt during April, May, and June, and 5.4 ppt during July, August, and September. The daily, seasonal, and annual variation in water levels and salinity that were evident would support the contention that such variation be retained when designing and operating coastal wetland management and restoration projects. Our findings might be of interest to scientists, engineers, and managers involved in restoration, management, and restoration in other regions where S. patens or similar species are common but local data are unavailable.

  19. Defining restoration targets for water depth and salinity in wind-dominated Spartina patens (Ait.) Muhl. coastal marshes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nyman, J.A.; La Peyre, M.K.; Caldwell, A.; Piazza, S.; Thom, C.; Winslow, C.

    2009-01-01

    Coastal wetlands provide valued ecosystem functions but the sustainability of those functions often is threatened by artificial hydrologic conditions. It is widely recognized that increased flooding and salinity can stress emergent plants, but there are few measurements to guide restoration, management, and mitigation. Marsh flooding can be estimated over large areas with few data where winds have little effect on water levels, but quantifying flooding requires hourly measurements over long time periods where tides are wind-dominated such as the northern Gulf of Mexico. Estimating salinity of flood water requires direct daily measurements because coastal marshes are characterized by dynamic salinity gradients. We analyzed 399,772 hourly observations of water depth and 521,561 hourly observations of water salinity from 14 sites in Louisiana coastal marshes dominated by Spartina patens (Ait.) Muhl. Unlike predicted water levels, observed water levels varied monthly and annually. We attributed those observed variations to variations in river runoff and winds. In stable marshes with slow wetland loss rates, we found that marsh elevation averaged 1 cm above mean high water, 15 cm above mean water, and 32 cm above mean low water levels. Water salinity averaged 3.7 ppt during April, May, and June, and 5.4 ppt during July, August, and September. The daily, seasonal, and annual variation in water levels and salinity that were evident would support the contention that such variation be retained when designing and operating coastal wetland management and restoration projects. Our findings might be of interest to scientists, engineers, and managers involved in restoration, management, and restoration in other regions where S. patens or similar species are common but local data are unavailable. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  20. Defining restoration targets for water depth and salinity in wind-dominated Spartina patens (Ait.) Muhl. coastal marshes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nyman, J.A.; LaPeyre, Megan K.; Caldwell, Andral W.; Piazza, Sarai C.; Thom, C.; Winslow, C.

    2009-01-01

    Coastal wetlands provide valued ecosystem functions but the sustainability of those functions often is threatened by artificial hydrologic conditions. It is widely recognized that increased flooding and salinity can stress emergent plants, but there are few measurements to guide restoration, management, and mitigation. Marsh flooding can be estimated over large areas with few data where winds have little effect on water levels, but quantifying flooding requires hourly measurements over long time periods where tides are wind-dominated such as the northern Gulf of Mexico. Estimating salinity of flood water requires direct daily measurements because coastal marshes are characterized by dynamic salinity gradients. We analyzed 399,772 hourly observations of water depth and 521,561 hourly observations of water salinity from 14 sites in Louisiana coastal marshes dominated by Spartina patens (Ait.) Muhl. Unlike predicted water levels, observed water levels varied monthly and annually. We attributed those observed variations to variations in river runoff and winds. In stable marshes with slow wetland loss rates, we found that marsh elevation averaged 1 cm above mean high water, 15 cm above mean water, and 32 cm above mean low water levels. Water salinity averaged 3.7 ppt during April, May, and June, and 5.4 ppt during July, August, and September. The daily, seasonal, and annual variation in water levels and salinity that were evident would support the contention that such variation be retained when designing and operating coastal wetland management and restoration projects. Our findings might be of interest to scientists, engineers, and managers involved in restoration, management, and restoration in other regions where S. patens or similar species are common but local data are unavailable.

  1. Detailed documentation of dynamic changes in water depth and surface velocity during large flood at steep mountain stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, Yuko; Uchida, Taro

    2015-04-01

    Understanding discharge capacity of the channel and changes in hydraulic property during large storms are essential for the flash flood prediction, however, those information are limited for the steep mountain channels because of complex nature of steep channels and lack of measured data. Thus, we aimed to obtain detailed water level and surface velocity data during large flood at steep mountain channel and document how complex channel morphology could affect water flows during large storms. We installed water level and surface velocity sensors at cascade and 10m downstream pool cross section of the cascade-pool channel at Aono Research Forest of the Arboricultural Research Institute of The University of Tokyo Forests, in Japan and measured for 1-minutes interval. We could obtain data for storm with total precipitation of 288 mm falling in 59 hours with maximum rainfall intensity of 25 mm/hr on relatively wet condition. During this storm, relative water depth increased from 0.35 to 1.57m and surface velocity increased from 0.35 to 4.15m/s. As expected, changes in water depth, surface velocity and velocity profiles were complex and even different between adjacent cascade and pool cross section. Changes in flow characteristics occurred fist at the cascade when discharge increased to some point, water was suddenly stagnated locally at the foot of the cascade. From this moment, water level increased remarkably but surface velocity and velocity profile stayed almost constant at the cascade cross section. Then, at the downstream pool, when most of rocks were submerged at the mean depth of 0.7m, surface velocity suddenly started to increase remarkably and velocity profile changed, as they might develop negative flow in the lower portion of the profile, but water level did not increase as much. When rainfall diminished, first, surface velocity markedly declined and velocity profile went back to original state at the pool, then submerged flows at the bottom of the cascade

  2. Initial yield to depth relation for water wells drilled into crystalline bedrock--Pinardville quadrangle, New Hampshire.

    PubMed

    Drew, L J; Schuenemeyer, J H; Armstrong, T R; Sutphin, D M

    2001-01-01

    A model is proposed to explain the statistical relations between the mean initial water well yields from eight time increments from 1984 to 1998 for wells drilled into the crystalline bedrock aquifer system in the Pinardville area of southern New Hampshire and the type of bedrock, mean well depth, and mean well elevation. Statistical analyses show that the mean total yield of drilling increments is positively correlated with mean total well depth and mean well elevation. In addition, the mean total well yield varies with rock type from a minimum of 46.9 L/min (12.4 gpm) in the Damon Pond granite to a maximum of 74.5 L/min (19.7 gpm) in the Permian pegmatite and granite unit. Across the eight drilling increments that comprise 211 wells each, the percentages of very low-yield wells (1.9 L/min [0.5 gpm] or less) and high-yield wells (151.4 L/min [40 gpm] or more) increased, and those of intermediate-yield wells decreased. As housing development progressed during the 1984 to 1998 interval, the mean depth of the wells and their elevations increased, and the mix of percentages of the bedrock types drilled changed markedly. The proposed model uses a feed-forward mechanism to explain the interaction between the increasing mean elevation, mean well depth, and percentages of very low-yielding wells and the mean well yield. The increasing percentages of very low-yielding wells through time and the economics of the housing market may control the system that forces the mean well depths, percentages of high-yield wells, and mean well yields to increase. The reason for the increasing percentages of very low-yield wells is uncertain, but the explanation is believed to involve the complex structural geology and tectonic history of the Pinardville quadrangle.

  3. Initial yield to depth relation for water wells drilled into crystalline bedrock--Pinardville quadrangle, New Hampshire.

    PubMed

    Drew, L J; Schuenemeyer, J H; Armstrong, T R; Sutphin, D M

    2001-01-01

    A model is proposed to explain the statistical relations between the mean initial water well yields from eight time increments from 1984 to 1998 for wells drilled into the crystalline bedrock aquifer system in the Pinardville area of southern New Hampshire and the type of bedrock, mean well depth, and mean well elevation. Statistical analyses show that the mean total yield of drilling increments is positively correlated with mean total well depth and mean well elevation. In addition, the mean total well yield varies with rock type from a minimum of 46.9 L/min (12.4 gpm) in the Damon Pond granite to a maximum of 74.5 L/min (19.7 gpm) in the Permian pegmatite and granite unit. Across the eight drilling increments that comprise 211 wells each, the percentages of very low-yield wells (1.9 L/min [0.5 gpm] or less) and high-yield wells (151.4 L/min [40 gpm] or more) increased, and those of intermediate-yield wells decreased. As housing development progressed during the 1984 to 1998 interval, the mean depth of the wells and their elevations increased, and the mix of percentages of the bedrock types drilled changed markedly. The proposed model uses a feed-forward mechanism to explain the interaction between the increasing mean elevation, mean well depth, and percentages of very low-yielding wells and the mean well yield. The increasing percentages of very low-yielding wells through time and the economics of the housing market may control the system that forces the mean well depths, percentages of high-yield wells, and mean well yields to increase. The reason for the increasing percentages of very low-yield wells is uncertain, but the explanation is believed to involve the complex structural geology and tectonic history of the Pinardville quadrangle. PMID:11554245

  4. Map showing depth to pre-Cenozoic basement in the Death Valley ground-water model area, Nevada and California

    SciTech Connect

    Blakely, R.J.; Ponce, D.A.

    2002-03-12

    This map shows the depth to pre-Cenozoic basement in the Death Valley ground-water model area. It was prepared utilizing gravity (Ponce and others, 2001), geologic (Jennings and others, 1977; Stewart and Carlson, 1978), and drill-hole information. Geophysical investigations of the Death Valley ground-water model area are part of an interagency effort by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Department of Energy (Interagency Agreement DE-AI08-96NV11967) to help characterize the geology and hydrology of southwestern Nevada and parts of California. The Death Valley ground-water model is located between lat 35 degrees 00' and 38 degrees 15' N., and long 115 degrees and 118 degrees W.

  5. Absorbed dose-to-water protocol applied to synchrotron-generated x-rays at very high dose rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournier, P.; Crosbie, J. C.; Cornelius, I.; Berkvens, P.; Donzelli, M.; Clavel, A. H.; Rosenfeld, A. B.; Petasecca, M.; Lerch, M. L. F.; Bräuer-Krisch, E.

    2016-07-01

    Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is a new radiation treatment modality in the pre-clinical stage of development at the ID17 Biomedical Beamline of the European synchrotron radiation facility (ESRF) in Grenoble, France. MRT exploits the dose volume effect that is made possible through the spatial fractionation of the high dose rate synchrotron-generated x-ray beam into an array of microbeams. As an important step towards the development of a dosimetry protocol for MRT, we have applied the International Atomic Energy Agency’s TRS 398 absorbed dose-to-water protocol to the synchrotron x-ray beam in the case of the broad beam irradiation geometry (i.e. prior to spatial fractionation into microbeams). The very high dose rates observed here mean the ion recombination correction factor, k s , is the most challenging to quantify of all the necessary corrections to apply for ionization chamber based absolute dosimetry. In the course of this study, we have developed a new method, the so called ‘current ramping’ method, to determine k s for the specific irradiation and filtering conditions typically utilized throughout the development of MRT. Using the new approach we deduced an ion recombination correction factor of 1.047 for the maximum ESRF storage ring current (200 mA) under typical beam spectral filtering conditions in MRT. MRT trials are currently underway with veterinary patients at the ESRF that require additional filtering, and we have estimated a correction factor of 1.025 for these filtration conditions for the same ESRF storage ring current. The protocol described herein provides reference dosimetry data for the associated Treatment Planning System utilized in the current veterinary trials and anticipated future human clinical trials.

  6. Absorbed dose-to-water protocol applied to synchrotron-generated x-rays at very high dose rates.

    PubMed

    Fournier, P; Crosbie, J C; Cornelius, I; Berkvens, P; Donzelli, M; Clavel, A H; Rosenfeld, A B; Petasecca, M; Lerch, M L F; Bräuer-Krisch, E

    2016-07-21

    Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is a new radiation treatment modality in the pre-clinical stage of development at the ID17 Biomedical Beamline of the European synchrotron radiation facility (ESRF) in Grenoble, France. MRT exploits the dose volume effect that is made possible through the spatial fractionation of the high dose rate synchrotron-generated x-ray beam into an array of microbeams. As an important step towards the development of a dosimetry protocol for MRT, we have applied the International Atomic Energy Agency's TRS 398 absorbed dose-to-water protocol to the synchrotron x-ray beam in the case of the broad beam irradiation geometry (i.e. prior to spatial fractionation into microbeams). The very high dose rates observed here mean the ion recombination correction factor, k s , is the most challenging to quantify of all the necessary corrections to apply for ionization chamber based absolute dosimetry. In the course of this study, we have developed a new method, the so called 'current ramping' method, to determine k s for the specific irradiation and filtering conditions typically utilized throughout the development of MRT. Using the new approach we deduced an ion recombination correction factor of 1.047 for the maximum ESRF storage ring current (200 mA) under typical beam spectral filtering conditions in MRT. MRT trials are currently underway with veterinary patients at the ESRF that require additional filtering, and we have estimated a correction factor of 1.025 for these filtration conditions for the same ESRF storage ring current. The protocol described herein provides reference dosimetry data for the associated Treatment Planning System utilized in the current veterinary trials and anticipated future human clinical trials. PMID:27366861

  7. Seasonal and depth-related dynamics of prokaryotes and viruses in surface and deep waters of the northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Christian; Kerros, Marie-Emmanuelle; Weinbauer, Markus G.

    2009-11-01

    The study site located in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea was visited nine times in 2005-2006 to collect water samples from the epi- (5 m), meso- (200, 600 m), and bathypelagic (1000, 2000 m) zone. Total abundance of prokaryotes and viruses was determined by flow cytometry (FCM). Prokaryotic abundance in the epi-, meso-, and bathypelagic varied between 0.9 and 15.9×10 5, 0.6 and 2.1×10 5, and 0.3 and 1.3×10 5 ml -1, respectively. Variation of viral abundance in the epi-, meso-, and bathypelagic was between 1.2 and 57.5×10 6, 0.5 and 3.5×10 6, and 0.4 and 1.3×10 6 ml -1, respectively. The fraction of low (LNA) and high (HNA) nucleic acid prokaryotes averaged 42.9% and 57.1% throughout the water column and did not differ between depth layers. Throughout the water column the fraction of low, medium, and high fluorescent viruses (Vir-LF, Vir-MF, Vir-HF) averaged 66.3%, 30.2%, and 3.5%. Vir-LF and Vir-MF did not differ between depth layers; however, Vir-HF showed a preference for surface waters. The fraction of LNA cells decreased in the epi- and increased in the bathypelagic with decreasing stratification. The fraction of Vir-LF viruses increased in the epipelagic and decreased in the bathypelagic with increasing prokaryotic abundance. Also, the relationship between viral abundance and the bacterial community was different in surface and deep waters. The data suggest that different mechanisms of interaction between viruses and their prokaryotic hosts prevail at the surface and in deep waters.

  8. Changes in soil aggregate stability under different irrigation doses of waste water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morugán, Alicia; García-Orenes, Fuensanta; Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Arcenegui, Victoria; Bárcenas, Gema

    2010-05-01

    Freshwater availability and soil degradation are two of the most important environmental problems in the Mediterranean area acerbated by incorrect agricultural use of irrigation in which organic matter is not correctly managed, the use of low quality water for irrigation, and the inefficiency of dose irrigation. For these reasons strategies for saving water and for the restoration of the mean properties of soil are necessary. The use of treated waste water for the irrigation of agricultural land could be a good solution to these problems, as it reduces the utilization of fresh water and could potentially improve key soil properties. In this work we have been studying, for more than three years, the effects on soil properties of different doses of irrigation with waste water. Here we show the results on aggregate stability. The study is located in an agricultural area at Biar (Alicante, SE of Spain), with a crop of grape (Vitis labrusca). Three types of waters are being used in the irrigation of the soil: fresh water (control) (TC), and treated waste water from secondary (T2) and tertiary treatment (T3). Three different doses of irrigation have been applied to fit the efficiency of the irrigation to the crop and soil type: D10 (10 L m-2 every week during 17 months), D50 (50 L m-2 every fifteen days during 14 moths) and D30 (30 L m-2 every week during 6 months up to present day). The results showed a clear decrease of aggregate stability during the period we used the second dose (D50) independent of the type of water used. That dose of irrigation and frequency produced strong wetting and drying cycles (WD) in the soil, and this is suspected to be the main factor responsible for the results. When we changed the dose of irrigation to D30, reducing the quantity per event and increasing the frequency, the soil aggregate stability started to improve. This dose avoids strong drying periods between irrigation events and the aggregate stability is confirmed to be slowly

  9. Depth of immersion as a determinant of the natriuresis of water immersion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epstein, M.; Miller, M.; Schneider, N.

    1974-01-01

    The current study was undertaken to further assess the contribution of an immersion-induced hydrostatic pressure gradient on the redistribution of blood volume. The rate of sodium excretion by seated subjects was significantly increased by water immersion up to the chest and neck compared to waist immersion and controls. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that whereas immersion to the level of the diaphragm merely cancels the intravascular hydrostatic pressure gradient by providing an identical external gradient, immersion above the diaphragm level results in increased water pressure which tends to favor a shift in blood volume from the lower extremities.

  10. Oman-India pipeline sets survey challenges. Crossing involves most rugged terrain, water depths four times greater than previous attempts

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, J.

    1995-02-01

    Decisions concerning the route for the world`s deepest pipeline call for some of the most challenging commercial oceanographic and engineering surveys ever undertaken. Oman Oil Co.`s 1, 170-kilometer pipeline will carry 2 billion cubic feet of gas daily across the Arabian Sea from Oman to the northern coast of India at the Gulf of Kutch. Not only will the project be in water depths four times greater than any previous pipeline, but it will cross some of the world`s most rugged seabed terrain, traversing ridges and plunging into deep canyons. Project costs are likely to approach $5 billion.

  11. The two-dimensional problem of steady waves on water of finite depth: regimes without waves of small amplitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, Vladimir; Kuznetsov, Nikolay

    2005-10-01

    The two-dimensional problem of steady waves on water of finite depth is considered without assumptions about periodicity and symmetry of waves. A new form of Bernoulli's equation is derived, and it involves a new bifurcation parameter which is the product of the Froude number μ and the rate of flow ω. The main result obtained from this equation is the absence of waves, having sufficiently small amplitude, provided |μω|>1. To cite this article: V. Kozlov, N. Kuznetsov, C. R. Mecanique 333 (2005).

  12. Utilizing Depth of Colonization of Seagrasses to Develop Numeric Water Quality Criteria for Florida Estuaries

    EPA Science Inventory

    US EPA is working with state and local partners in Florida to develop numeric water quality criteria to protect estuaries from nutrient pollution. Similar to other nutrient management programs in Florida, EPA is considering status of seagrass habitats as an indicator of biologic...

  13. Assessment of satellite derived diffuse attenuation coefficients and euphotic depths in south Florida coastal waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    Optical data collected in coastal waters off South Florida and in the Caribbean Sea between January 2009 and December 2010 were used to evaluate products derived with three bio-optical inversion algorithms applied to MOIDS/Aqua, MODIS/Terra, and SeaWiFS satellite observations. Th...

  14. Discoloration of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tape as a proxy for water-table depth in peatlands: validation and assessment of seasonal variability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Booth, Robert K.; Hotchkiss, Sara C.; Wilcox, Douglas A.

    2005-01-01

    Summary: 1. Discoloration of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tape has been used in peatland ecological and hydrological studies as an inexpensive way to monitor changes in water-table depth and reducing conditions. 2. We investigated the relationship between depth of PVC tape discoloration and measured water-table depth at monthly time steps during the growing season within nine kettle peatlands of northern Wisconsin. Our specific objectives were to: (1) determine if PVC discoloration is an accurate method of inferring water-table depth in Sphagnum-dominated kettle peatlands of the region; (2) assess seasonal variability in the accuracy of the method; and (3) determine if systematic differences in accuracy occurred among microhabitats, PVC tape colour and peatlands. 3. Our results indicated that PVC tape discoloration can be used to describe gradients of water-table depth in kettle peatlands. However, accuracy differed among the peatlands studied, and was systematically biased in early spring and late summer/autumn. Regardless of the month when the tape was installed, the highest elevations of PVC tape discoloration showed the strongest correlation with midsummer (around July) water-table depth and average water-table depth during the growing season. 4. The PVC tape discoloration method should be used cautiously when precise estimates are needed of seasonal changes in the water-table.

  15. A multiproxy study of Holocene water-depth and environmental changes in Lake St Ana, Eastern Carpathian Mountains, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magyari, E. K.; Buczkó, K.; Braun, M.; Jakab, G.

    2009-04-01

    This study presents the results of a multi-disciplinary investigation carried out on the sediment of a crater lake (Lake Saint Ana, 950 m a.s.l.) from the Eastern Carpathian Mountains. The lake is set in a base-poor volcanic environment with oligotrophic and slightly acidic water. Loss-on-ignition, major and trace element, pollen, plant macrofossil and siliceous algae analyses were used to reconstruct Holocene environmental and water-depth changes. Diatom-based transfer functions were applied to estimate the lake's trophic status and pH, while reconstruction of the water-depth changes was based on the plant macrofossil and diatom records. The lowest Holocene water-depths were found between 9,000 and 7,400 calibrated BP years, when the crater was occupied by Sphagnum-bog and bog-pools. The major trend from 7,400 years BP was a gradual increase, but the basin was still dominated by poor-fen and poor fen-pools. Significant increases in water-depth, and meso/oligotrophic lake conditions were found from 5,350(1), 3,300(2) and 2,700 years BP. Of these, the first two coincided with major terrestrial vegetation changes, namely the establishment of Carpinus betulus on the crater slope (1), and the replacement of the lakeshore Picea abies forest by Fagus sylvatica (2). The chemical record clearly indicated significant soil changes along with the canopy changes (from coniferous to deciduous), that in turn led to increased in-lake productivity and pH. A further increase in water-depth around 2,700 years BP resulted in stable thermal stratification and hypolimnetic anoxia that via P-release further increased in-lake productivity and eventually led to phytoplankton blooms with large populations of Scenedesmus cf. S. brasiliensis. High productivity was depressed by anthropogenic lakeshore forest clearances commencing from ca. 1,000 years BP that led to the re-establishment of Picea abies on the lakeshore and consequent acidification of the lake-water. On the whole, these data

  16. Effective Dose Radon 222 of the Tap Water in Children and Adults People; Minab City, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Fakhri, Yadolah; Kargosha, Morteza; Langarizadeh, Ghazaleh; Zandsalimi, Yahya; Amirhajeloo, Leila Rasouli; Moradi, Mahboobeh; Moradi, Bigard; Mirzaei, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    222Rn is a radioactive, odorless, and colorless element which has a half-life of 3.83 days. One of 222Rn main resources are Groundwater (wells, springs, etc.). Hence, the use of groundwater with high concentration of 222Rn can increase the risk of lung and stomach cancers. Concentration of 222Rn in tap water of Minab city in two temperatures 5 and 15 ºC was measured by radon meter model RTM1668-2. The effective dose was calculated by equations proposed by UNSCEAR. Geometric mean concentration of 222Rn in drinking water was found to be 0.78±0.06 and 0.46±0.04 Bq/l at 5 and 15 °C (p value<0.05), respectively. The effective doses were 0.006 and 0.003 mSv/y for adults, and 0.011 and 0.007 mSv/y for the children, respectively (p value<0.05). Besides, the effective dose for adult through inhaling 222Rn at 5 and 15 °C were estimated 0.0021 and 0.0012mSv/y, respectively. Geometric mean concentration in 222Rn drinking water and effective dose received from drinking water and inhalation of 222Rn is lower than WHO and EPA standard limits. Increasing temperature of drinking water will decrease the effective dose received. Annual Effective dose received from inhalation and consumption of 222Rn in drinking water in children is more than adults. PMID:26573047

  17. Direct determination of the absorbed dose to water from 125I low dose-rate brachytherapy seeds using the new absorbed dose primary standard developed at ENEA-INMRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toni, M. P.; Pimpinella, M.; Pinto, M.; Quini, M.; Cappadozzi, G.; Silvestri, C.; Bottauscio, O.

    2012-10-01

    Low-intensity radioactive sources emitting low-energy photons are used in the clinic for low dose-rate brachytherapy treatments of tumours. The dosimetry of these sources is based on reference air kerma rate measurements. The absorbed dose rate to water at the reference depth d0 = 1 cm, \\dot {D}_{w,1\\,cm} , is then obtained by a conversion procedure with a large relative standard uncertainty of about 5%. This paper describes a primary standard developed at ENEA-INMRI to directly measure \\dot {D}_{w,1\\,cm} due to LDR sources. The standard is based on a large-angle and variable-volume ionization chamber, embedded in a graphite phantom and operating under ‘wall-less air chamber’ conditions. A set of correction and conversion factors, based on experiments and Monte Carlo simulations, are determined to obtain the value of Dw,1 cm from measurements of increment of ionization current with increasing chamber volume. The relative standard uncertainty on \\dot {D}_{w,1\\,cm} is 2.6%, which is appreciably lower than the current uncertainty. Characteristics of the standard, its associated uncertainty budget, and some experimental results are given for 125I BEBIG I25.S16.C brachytherapy seeds. Finally, results of the experimental determination of the dose-rate constant Λ1 cm, traceable to the Dw,1 cm and the low-energy air kerma ENEA-INMRI standards, are given. The relative standard uncertainty on Λ1 cm is 2.9%, appreciably lower than the typical uncertainty (4.8%) of the values available in the literature.

  18. The Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN) surface-water model, version 2

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Telis, Pamela A.; Xie, Zhixiao; Liu, Zhongwei; Li, Yingru; Conrads, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Three applications of the EDEN-modeled water surfaces and other EDEN datasets are presented in the report to show how scientists and resource managers are using EDEN datasets to analyze biological and ecological responses to hydrologic changes in the Everglades. The biological responses of two important Everglades species, alligators and wading birds, to changes in hydrology are described. The effects of hydrology on fire dynamics in the Everglades are also discussed.

  19. Measurement of absorbed dose-to-water for an HDR {sup 192}Ir source with ionization chambers in a sandwich setup

    SciTech Connect

    Araki, Fujio; Kouno, Tomohiro; Ohno, Takeshi; Kakei, Kiyotaka; Yoshiyama, Fumiaki; Kawamura, Shinji

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: In this study, a dedicated device for ion chamber measurements of absorbed dose-to-water for a Nucletron microSelectron-v2 HDR {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy source is presented. The device uses two ionization chambers in a so-called sandwich assembly. Using this setup and by taking the average reading of the two chambers, any dose error due to difficulties in absolute positioning (centering) of the source in between the chambers is cancelled to first order. The method's accuracy was examined by comparing measurements with absorbed dose-to-water determination based on the AAPM TG-43 protocol.Methods: The optimal source-to-chamber distance (SCD) for {sup 192}Ir dosimetry was determined from ion chamber measurements in a water phantom. The {sup 192}Ir source was sandwiched between two Exradin A1SL chambers (0.057 cm{sup 3}) at the optimal SCD separation. The measured ionization was converted to the absorbed dose-to-water using a {sup 60}Co calibration factor and a Monte Carlo-calculated beam quality conversion factor, k{sub Q}, for {sup 60}Co to {sup 192}Ir. An uncertainty estimate of the proposed method was determined based on reproducibility of measurements at different institutions for the same type of source.Results: The optimal distance for the A1SL chamber measurements was determined to be 5 cm from the {sup 192}Ir source center, considering the depth dependency of k{sub Q} for {sup 60}Co to {sup 192}Ir and the chamber positioning. The absorbed dose to water measured at (5 cm, 90°) on the transverse axis was 1.3% lower than TG-43 values and its reproducibility and overall uncertainty were 0.8% and 1.7%, respectively. The measurement doses at anisotropic points agreed within 1.5% with TG-43 values.Conclusions: The ion chamber measurement of absorbed dose-to-water with a sandwich method for the {sup 192}Ir source provides a more accurate, direct, and reference dose compared to the dose-to-water determination based on air-kerma strength in the TG-43 protocol

  20. Droplet size spectra and water-vapor concentration of laboratory water clouds: inversion of Fourier transform infrared (500-5000 cm(-1)) optical-depth measurement.

    PubMed

    Arnott, W P; Schmitt, C; Liu, Y; Hallett, J

    1997-07-20

    Infrared extinction optical depth (500-5000 cm(-1)) has been measured with a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer for clouds produced with an ultrasonic nebulizer. Direct measurement of the cloud droplet size spectra agree with size spectra retrieved from inversion of the extinction measurements. Both indicate that the range of droplet sizes is 1-14 mum. The retrieval was accomplished with an iterative algorithm that simultaneously obtains water-vapor concentration. The basis set of droplet extinction functions are computed once by using numerical integration of the Lorenz-Mie theory over narrow size bins, and a measured water-vapor extinction curve was used. Extinction and size spectra are measured and computed for both steady-state and dissipating clouds. It is demonstrated that anomalous diffraction theory produces relatively poor droplet size and synthetic extinction spectra and that extinction measurements are helpful in assessing the validity of various theories. Calculations of cloud liquid-water content from retrieved size distributions agree with a parameterization based on optical-depth measurements at a wave number of 906 cm(-1) for clouds that satisfy the size spectral range assumptions of the parameterization. Significance of droplet and vapor contribution to the total optical depth is used to evaluate the reliability of spectral inversions. PMID:18259335

  1. Droplet size spectra and water-vapor concentration of laboratory water clouds: inversion of Fourier transform infrared (500-5000 cm(-1)) optical-depth measurement.

    PubMed

    Arnott, W P; Schmitt, C; Liu, Y; Hallett, J

    1997-07-20

    Infrared extinction optical depth (500-5000 cm(-1)) has been measured with a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer for clouds produced with an ultrasonic nebulizer. Direct measurement of the cloud droplet size spectra agree with size spectra retrieved from inversion of the extinction measurements. Both indicate that the range of droplet sizes is 1-14 mum. The retrieval was accomplished with an iterative algorithm that simultaneously obtains water-vapor concentration. The basis set of droplet extinction functions are computed once by using numerical integration of the Lorenz-Mie theory over narrow size bins, and a measured water-vapor extinction curve was used. Extinction and size spectra are measured and computed for both steady-state and dissipating clouds. It is demonstrated that anomalous diffraction theory produces relatively poor droplet size and synthetic extinction spectra and that extinction measurements are helpful in assessing the validity of various theories. Calculations of cloud liquid-water content from retrieved size distributions agree with a parameterization based on optical-depth measurements at a wave number of 906 cm(-1) for clouds that satisfy the size spectral range assumptions of the parameterization. Significance of droplet and vapor contribution to the total optical depth is used to evaluate the reliability of spectral inversions.

  2. Transient temperature responses of hydronic radiant floor heating system by different pipe embedding depth and water supply condition.

    PubMed

    Chung, K S; Sohn, J Y; Baik, Y K; Kang, J S

    1993-07-01

    "Ondol" is a Korean unique heating system. It is a specific radiant floor heating system using combustion heat of briquette or timber in Korea. Such traditional "Ondol" is changed to radiant heating system with pipe-coil embedded in the floor or slab. This study has contributed to the understandings of the transient behaviours of Ondol-heated floor panels and enclosure exposed to this type of heating system. The result is that the water supply temperature had a large effect on the rate of increase in floor surface and room air temperature. But, in spite of a higher water supply temperature, the heat flow rate was not increased considerably. The shallow pipe embedding depths, of course, result in a low heat flow rate. PMID:8373479

  3. Transient temperature responses of hydronic radiant floor heating system by different pipe embedding depth and water supply condition.

    PubMed

    Chung, K S; Sohn, J Y; Baik, Y K; Kang, J S

    1993-07-01

    "Ondol" is a Korean unique heating system. It is a specific radiant floor heating system using combustion heat of briquette or timber in Korea. Such traditional "Ondol" is changed to radiant heating system with pipe-coil embedded in the floor or slab. This study has contributed to the understandings of the transient behaviours of Ondol-heated floor panels and enclosure exposed to this type of heating system. The result is that the water supply temperature had a large effect on the rate of increase in floor surface and room air temperature. But, in spite of a higher water supply temperature, the heat flow rate was not increased considerably. The shallow pipe embedding depths, of course, result in a low heat flow rate.

  4. Depth and Shape of the 0.94-microm Water Vapor Absorption Band for Clear and Cloudy Skies.

    PubMed

    Volz, F E

    1969-11-01

    Sky radiation near zenith and solar radiation in the rhosigmatau band region were recorded by means of a rotating interference filter (lambda0.98-0.88 microm) and a silicon detector. Although the spectral resolution of the simple spectrometer was not high, the water vapor content of the cloud free atmosphere was obtained with reasonable accuracy. The band depth of the radiation from thin, bright clouds was only slightly greater than that of the cloud free atmosphere, but dense and dark clouds showed deep bands mainly caused by increased path length as a result of multiple scattering. Considerable distortion of the band due to absorption by liquid water is observed in the radiation from very dark and dense clouds, and sometimes during snowfall. Some laboratory measurements are also discussed.

  5. Depth to and concentrations of water in large bodies of silicic magma. Progress report, July 1, 1982-June 30, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, A.T.

    1983-03-03

    Large bodies of silicic magma are potential sources of geothermal energy and ore. They also pose threats of catastrophic eruptions. The depths of such bodies are related to their economic potential and probably to their eruption mechanisms. The concentrations of water in the magmas are important for their eruptive and dynamical behavior and for the development of ores. Estimates of viscosity and density of melt require knowledge of concentration of water. The concentration of water in melt before ascent and eruption can be measured in inclusions of glass which became trapped in crystals before extrusion. The depth of a magma body can be estimated or delimited if we can find out the concentrations of both carbon dioxide and water in the inclusions of glass. Initial results on the Bishop Tuff of Long Valley Caldera, California yield 4.9 +- 0.5 percent H/sub 2/O for glass included in quartz from the Plinian air fall pumice. This result is comparable to the estimates of Hildreth (1977) of about 3.5 to 4.9 percent H/sub 2/O in the lowermost part of the Bishop ash flow. From January 1982 through December 1982, analyses of inclusions of glass in two additional quartz phenocrysts from the Plinian air fall unit of the Bishop Tuff revealed variable H/sub 2/O and CO/sub 2/. The corresponding partial pressures range between about 2000 and 5000 atmospheres, assuming gas saturation. The variation may be natural or caused by an analytical artifact. A computerized data file has been constructed to facilitate the storage and retrieval of published and unpublished chemical analyses of glasses and minerals. Some data on the Bishop Tuff are presently stored.

  6. Impact of intra- versus inter-annual snow depth variation on water relations and photosynthesis for two Great Basin Desert shrubs.

    PubMed

    Loik, Michael E; Griffith, Alden B; Alpert, Holly; Concilio, Amy L; Wade, Catherine E; Martinson, Sharon J

    2015-06-01

    Snowfall provides the majority of soil water in certain ecosystems of North America. We tested the hypothesis that snow depth variation affects soil water content, which in turn drives water potential (Ψ) and photosynthesis, over 10 years for two widespread shrubs of the western USA. Stem Ψ (Ψ stem) and photosynthetic gas exchange [stomatal conductance to water vapor (g s), and CO2 assimilation (A)] were measured in mid-June each year from 2004 to 2013 for Artemisia tridentata var. vaseyana (Asteraceae) and Purshia tridentata (Rosaceae). Snow fences were used to create increased or decreased snow depth plots. Snow depth on +snow plots was about twice that of ambient plots in most years, and 20 % lower on -snow plots, consistent with several down-scaled climate model projections. Maximal soil water content at 40- and 100-cm depths was correlated with February snow depth. For both species, multivariate ANOVA (MANOVA) showed that Ψ stem, g s, and A were significantly affected by intra-annual variation in snow depth. Within years, MANOVA showed that only A was significantly affected by spatial snow depth treatments for A. tridentata, and Ψ stem was significantly affected by snow depth for P. tridentata. Results show that stem water relations and photosynthetic gas exchange for these two cold desert shrub species in mid-June were more affected by inter-annual variation in snow depth by comparison to within-year spatial variation in snow depth. The results highlight the potential importance of changes in inter-annual variation in snowfall for future shrub photosynthesis in the western Great Basin Desert.

  7. Dose contribution from metabolized organically bound tritium after acute tritiated water intakes in humans.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, A; Galeriu, D; Richardson, R B

    1997-10-01

    Urine samples from eight male radiation workers who had an unplanned acute tritiated water intake were measured for tritium-in-urine up to 300 d post-exposure. During the first month or so post-exposure, these individuals increased their fluid intakes to accelerate the turnover rate of tritium in the body for dose mitigation. Their daily fluid intakes reverted to normal levels in the latter period of the study. A non-linear regressional analysis of the tritium-in-urine data showed that the average biological half-life of tritium in body water, with standard deviation, was 6.3 +/- 1.0 d (range, 5.0-8.1 d) and 8.4 +/- 2.0 d (range, 6.2-12.8 d) during the respective periods of increased fluid intake and the later period of normal fluid intake. A longer term component of tritium excretion was also observed with average biological half-life of 74 +/- 18 d (range, 58-104 d), indicating the incorporation of tritium, and its retention, in the organic fractions of the body. A mathematical model was developed and used to estimate the dose increase from the metabolized organically bound tritium on the basis of the kinetics of tritium-in-urine. The model accounts for a change in the rates of urinary excretion caused by variable fluid intakes. The average dose to the body, for the eight male workers, due to the metabolized organically bound tritium was estimated to be 6.2 +/- 1.3% (range, 3.5% to 8.9%) of the committed effective dose due to tritium in the body water. This value for the dose increase from organically bound tritium is in the range of the current recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection, i.e., organically bound tritium incorporated into the body contributes about 10% of the dose to the body water following tritiated water intakes.

  8. Instrumentation for investigation of the depth-dose distribution by the Liulin-5 instrument of a human phantom on the Russian segment of ISS for estimation of the radiation risk during long term space flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semkova, J.; Koleva, R.; Todorova, G.; Kanchev, N.; Petrov, V.; Shurshakov, V.; Tchhernykh, I.; Kireeva, S.

    2004-01-01

    Described is the Liulin-5 experiment and instrumentation, developed for investigation of the space radiation doses depth distribution in a human phantom on the Russian Segment of the International Space Station (ISS). Liulin-5 experiment is a part of the international project MATROSHKA-R on ISS. The experiment MATROSHKA-R is aimed to study the depth dose distribution at the sites of critical organs of the human body, using models of human body-anthropomorphic and spherical tissue-equivalent phantoms. The aim of Liulin-5 experiment is long term (4-5 years) investigation of the radiation environment dynamics inside the spherical tissue-equivalent phantom, mounted in different places of the Russian Segment of ISS. Energy deposition spectra, linear energy transfer spectra, flux and dose rates for protons and the biologically-relevant heavy ion components of the galactic cosmic radiation will be measured simultaneously with near real time resolution at different depths of the phantom by a telescope of silicon detectors. Data obtained together with data from other active and passive dosimeters will be used to estimate the radiation risk to the crewmembers, verify the models of radiation environment in low Earth orbit, validate body transport model and correlate organ level dose to skin dose. Presented are the test results of the prototype unit. The spherical phantom will be flown on the ISS in 2004 year and Liulin-5 experiment is planned for 2005 year. c2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Radiation dose to mouse liver cells from ingestion of tritiated food or water

    SciTech Connect

    Komatsu, K.; Okumura, Y.; Sakamoto, K. )

    1990-05-01

    Tritium incorporated into tissues and DNA of mice was studied after daily ingestion of tritiated food or tritiated water. The tritiated food used was a commercial preparation mixed with brine shrimp that had been reared in tritiated sea water. After ingestion of tritiated food or water for up to 22 d, the specific activity of 3H in tissues was measured as tissue-free-water 3H, tissue-bound 3H, and DNA-bound 3H. Carbon-14 glucose was added to food and drinking water to compare the 3H intake from food with that from water. The specific activity of 3H in tissues was then corrected by the specific activity of 14C in tissues to determine the 3H incorporation from the same amount of ingested food and water. DNA-bound 3H after the ingestion of tritiated food was 4.6 times higher than that of tritiated water, while tissue-bound 3H was 2.2 times higher. The radiation dose to liver from 3H incorporated through food was twofold higher than from tritiated water, which was mainly from the high incorporation of 3H into DNA. Our results demonstrated that the dose calculation based on tissue-free-water 3H alone would under-estimate the radiation exposure of the human population exposed to tritiated food.

  10. Theory, performance, and measured results with an improved absorbed dose water calorimeter. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Domen, S.T.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of this calorimeter is mainly the result of the low thermal diffusivity of water that retards a temperature change at a point along a temperature profile. The temperature change is sensed by two calibrated thermistors sandwiched between two polyethylene films that electrically insulate the thermistors from water. The product of the temperature rise and the specific heat of water gives the combined effect of the absorbed dose and any heat defect. Temperature drifts are quickly controlled by making slight changes in electrical power dissipated in the water. Compared to solid-bodied calorimeters requiring vacuum systems, it was easy to construct, to get into operation, and to operate.

  11. Simple Evaluation Method of Atmospheric Plasma Irradiation Dose using pH of Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koga, Kazunori; Sarinont, Thapanut; Amano, Takaaki; Seo, Hyunwoong; Itagaki, Naho; Nakatsu, Yoshimichi; Tanaka, Akiyo; Shiratani, Masaharu

    2015-09-01

    Atmospheric discharge plasmas are promising for agricultural productivity improvements and novel medical therapies, because plasma provides high flux of short-lifetime reactive species at low temperature, leading to low damage to living body. For the plasma-bio applications, various kinds of plasma systems are employed, thus common evaluation methods are needed to compare plasma irradiation dose quantitatively among the systems. Here we offer simple evaluation method of plasma irradiation dose using pH of water. Experiments were carried out with a scalable DBD device. 300 μl of deionized water was prepared into the quartz 96 microwell plate at 3 mm below electrode. The pH value has been measured just after 10 minutes irradiation. The pH value was evaluated as a function of plasma irradiation dose. Atmospheric air plasma irradiation decreases pH of water with increasing the dose. We also measured concentrations of chemical species such as nitrites, nitrates and H2O2. The results indicate our method is promising to evaluate plasma irradiation dose quantitatively.

  12. Collateral geochemical impacts of agricultural nitrogen enrichment from 1963 to 1985: a southern Wisconsin ground water depth profile.

    PubMed

    Browne, Bryant A; Kraft, George J; Bowling, Juliane M; Devita, William M; Mechenich, David J

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we used chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) age-dating to investigate the geochemistry of N enrichment within a bedrock aquifer depth profile beneath a south central Wisconsin agricultural landscape. Measurement of N(2)O and excess N(2) allowed us to reconstruct the total NO(3)(-) and total nitrogen (TN) leached to ground water and was essential for tracing the separate influences of soil nitrification and ground water denitrification in the collateral geochemical chronology. We identify four geochemical impacts due to a steady ground water N enrichment trajectory (39 +/- 2.2 micromol L(-1) yr(-1), r(2) = 0.96) over two decades (1963-1985) of rapidly escalating N use. First, as a by-product of soil nitrification, N(2)O entered ground water at a stable (r(2) = 0.99) mole ratio of 0.24 +/- 0.007 mole% (N(2)O-N/NO(3)-N). The gathering of excess N(2)O in ground water is a potential concern relative to greenhouse gas emissions and stratospheric ozone depletion after it discharges to surface water. Second, excess N(2) measurements revealed that NO(3)(-) was a prominent, mobile, labile electron acceptor comparable in importance to O(2.) Denitrification transformed 36 +/- 15 mole% (mol mol(-1) x 100) of the total N within the profile to N(2) gas, delaying exceedance of the NO(3)(-) drinking water standard by approximately 6 yr. Third, soil acids produced from nitrification substantially increased the concentrations of major, dolomitic ions (Ca, Mg, HCO(3)(-)) in ground water relative to pre-enrichment conditions. By 1985, concentrations approximately doubled; by 2006, CFC age-date projections suggest concentrations may have tripled. Finally, the nitrification induced mobilization of Ca may have caused a co-release of P from Ca-rich soil surfaces. Dissolved P increased from an approximate background value of 0.02 mg L(-1) in 1963 to 0.07 mg L(-1) in 1985. The CFC age-date projections suggest the concentration could have reached 0.11 mg L(-1) in ground water recharge by

  13. Determination of the contribution of livestock water ingestion to dose from the cow-milk pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Ikenberry, T.A.

    1992-12-01

    As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project, a series of calculations has been undertaken to evaluate the absolute and relative contribution of different exposure pathways to thyroid doses that may have been received by individuals living in the vicinity of the Hanford Site. These evaluations include some pathways that were included in the Phase I air-pathway dose evaluations (HEDR staff 1991, page xx), as well as other potential exposure pathways being evaluated for possible inclusion in the future HEDR modeling efforts. This calculation (002) examined the possible doses that may have been received by individuals who drank milk from cows that drank from sources of water (stock tanks and farm ponds) exposed to iodine-131 in the atmosphere during 1945.

  14. Abrupt changes in soil water content variability for various time scales and at different depths at the catchment scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenbaum, U.; Herbst, M.; Huisman, J. A.; Weuthen, A.; Petersen, T. J.; Western, A. W.; Vereecken, H.; Bogena, H. R.

    2010-12-01

    A current challenge in hydrology is to observe, explain and model soil water content (SWC) patterns across multiple space-time scales. A promising technique for the assessment of SWC patterns at the catchment scale is the wireless sensor network. This technique has the potential to continuously monitor three-dimensional SWC fields with high spatial and temporal resolution, i.e. to detect abrupt changes in SWC patterns. The objective of this study was to analyze the dynamics of SWC patterns at the TERENO forest hydrologic observatory Wüstebach (0.27 km2) for different depths (surface and subsurface soil) and various time scales (annual, seasonal scale and wetting and drying periods). We used the SoilNet wireless network system developed at Forschungszentrum Jülich. SWC measurements were taken every 15 minutes in three depths (5, 20, 50 cm) at 150 locations using EC-5 and 5TE sensors (Decagon Devices). This particular analysis is based on hourly aggregated SWC data measured from 1st of August 2009 to 31st of July 2010. Descriptive statistics and geostatistics were used to investigate the data set depending on soil depth and time scale. We analyzed the mean SWC, standard deviation, coefficient of variation and geostatististical parameters (nugget, sill and range) as a function of time and mean SWC. We found that the dynamics of SWC variability depended on depth, mean soil moisture status, time scale and wetting versus drying period. The magnitude and the variability of the mean SWC, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, and the range decreased with depth depending on soil moisture status. As already observed by others, the standard deviation peaked at medium (critical) SWC, which means that during wetting the standard deviation increased for mean SWC below the critical SWC and decreased above the mean SWC (and vice versa for drying). In addition, we observed that the standard deviation was higher during wetting periods than during drying periods in the

  15. Calculation of absorbed doses to water pools in severe accident sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, C.F.

    1991-12-01

    A methodology is presented for calculating the radiation dose to a water pool from the decay of uniformly distributed nuclides in that pool. Motivated by the need to accurately model radiolysis reactions of iodine, direct application is made to fission product sources dissolved or suspended in containment sumps or pools during a severe nuclear reactor accident. Two methods of calculating gamma absorption are discussed - one based on point-kernal integration and the other based on Monte Carlo techniques. Using least-squares minimization, the computed results are used to obtain a correlation that relates absorbed dose to source energy and surface-to-volume ratio of the pool. This correlation is applied to most relevant fission product nuclides and used to actually calculate transient sump dose rate in a pressurized-water reactor (PWR) severe accident sequence.

  16. The effect of dose and water treatment on EPR signals in irradiated fingernails.

    PubMed

    Marciniak, A; Ciesielski, B; Prawdzik-Dampc, A

    2014-11-01

    Fast and precise retrospective dosimetry is crucial in making decisions about medical procedures and safety measures in radiation accidents. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy has a potential as one of available biodosimetry methods for use in victims of such incidents. In this study, authors present the findings on EPR dosimetry in fingernails. Authors describe changes of EPR signals in unirradiated and irradiated nails in time after cutting and the effect of water on the mechanically induced and radiation-induced EPR signals measured ex vivo in the fingernails. The effect of dose on amplitude of the EPR signal was measured in nails that were soaked for 10 min in water after their irradiation. The obtained dose-response curves, which reflect changes in concentration of the radiation-induced RIS5 radicals, reach their maximum for doses of 40-60 Gy.

  17. Effective Dose of Radon 222 Bottled Water in Different Age Groups Humans: Bandar Abbas City, Iran.

    PubMed

    Fakhri, Yadolah; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Langarizadeh, Ghazaleh; Zandsalimi, Yahya; Amirhajeloo, Leila Rasouli; Kargosha, Morteza; Moradi, Mahboobeh; Moradi, Bigard; Mirzaei, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Radon 222 is a natural radioactive element with a half-life of 3.8 days. It is odorless and colorless as well as water-soluble. Consuming waters which contain high concentration of 222Rn would increase the effective dose received by different age groups. It would also be followed by an increased prevalence of cancer. In this research, 72 samples of the most commonly used bottled water in Bandar Abbas were collected in 3 consecutive months, May, June and July of 2013. Concentration 222Rn of was measured by radon-meter model RTM166-2. The effective dose received by the 4 age groups, male and female adults as well as children and infants was estimated using the equation proposed by UNSCEAR. The results revealed that the mean and range concentration of 222Rn in bottled waters were 641±9 Bq/m3 and 0-901 Bq/m3, respectively. The mean concentration of 222Rn in the well-known Marks followed this Zam Zam>Bishe>Koohrng>Dassani>Christal>Polour>Damavand>Sivan. Infants were observed to receive a higher effective dose than children. The highest and lowest effective dose received was found to belong to male adults and children, respectively. PMID:26383192

  18. Effective Dose of Radon 222 Bottled Water in Different Age Groups Humans: Bandar Abbas City, Iran.

    PubMed

    Fakhri, Yadolah; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Langarizadeh, Ghazaleh; Zandsalimi, Yahya; Amirhajeloo, Leila Rasouli; Kargosha, Morteza; Moradi, Mahboobeh; Moradi, Bigard; Mirzaei, Maryam

    2015-06-04

    Radon 222 is a natural radioactive element with a half-life of 3.8 days. It is odorless and colorless as well as water-soluble. Consuming waters which contain high concentration of 222Rn would increase the effective dose received by different age groups. It would also be followed by an increased prevalence of cancer. In this research, 72 samples of the most commonly used bottled water in Bandar Abbas were collected in 3 consecutive months, May, June and July of 2013. Concentration 222Rn of was measured by radon-meter model RTM166-2. The effective dose received by the 4 age groups, male and female adults as well as children and infants was estimated using the equation proposed by UNSCEAR. The results revealed that the mean and range concentration of 222Rn in bottled waters were 641±9 Bq/m3 and 0-901 Bq/m3, respectively. The mean concentration of 222Rn in the well-known Marks followed this Zam Zam>Bishe>Koohrng>Dassani>Christal>Polour>Damavand>Sivan. Infants were observed to receive a higher effective dose than children. The highest and lowest effective dose received was found to belong to male adults and children, respectively.

  19. Effective Dose of Radon 222 Bottled Water in Different Age Groups Humans: Bandar Abbas City, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Fakhri, Yadolah; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Langarizadeh, Ghazaleh; Zandsalimi, Yahya; Amirhajeloo, Leila Rasouli; Kargosha, Morteza; Moradi, Mahboobeh; Moradi, Bigard; Mirzaei, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Radon 222 is a natural radioactive element with a half-life of 3.8 days. It is odorless and colorless as well as water-soluble. Consuming waters which contain high concentration of 222Rn would increase the effective dose received by different age groups. It would also be followed by an increased prevalence of cancer. In this research, 72 samples of the most commonly used bottled water in Bandar Abbas were collected in 3 consecutive months, May, June and July of 2013. Concentration 222Rn of was measured by radon-meter model RTM166-2. The effective dose received by the 4 age groups, male and female adults as well as children and infants was estimated using the equation proposed by UNSCEAR. The results revealed that the mean and range concentration of 222Rn in bottled waters were 641±9 Bq/m3 and 0-901 Bq/m3, respectively. The mean concentration of 222Rn in the well-known Marks followed this Zam Zam>Bishe>Koohrng>Dassani>Christal>Polour>Damavand>Sivan. Infants were observed to receive a higher effective dose than children. The highest and lowest effective dose received was found to belong to male adults and children, respectively. PMID:26383192

  20. Voigt profile introduces optical depth dependent systematic errors - Detected in high resolution laboratory spectra of water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birk, Manfred; Wagner, Georg

    2016-02-01

    The Voigt profile commonly used in radiative transfer modeling of Earth's and planets' atmospheres for remote sensing/climate modeling produces systematic errors so far not accounted for. Saturated lines are systematically too narrow when calculated from pressure broadening parameters based on the analysis of laboratory data with the Voigt profile. This is caused by line narrowing effects leading to systematically too small fitted broadening parameters when applying the Voigt profile. These effective values are still valid to model non-saturated lines with sufficient accuracy. Saturated lines dominated by the wings of the line profile are sufficiently accurately modeled with a Voigt profile with the correct broadening parameters and are thus systematically too narrow when calculated with the effective values. The systematic error was quantified by mid infrared laboratory spectroscopy of the water ν2 fundamental. Correct Voigt profile based pressure broadening parameters for saturated lines were 3-4% larger than the effective ones in the spectroscopic database. Impacts on remote sensing and climate modeling are expected. Combination of saturated and non-saturated lines in the spectroscopic analysis will quantify line narrowing with unprecedented precision.

  1. The Fricke dosimeter as an absorbed dose to water primary standard for Ir-192 brachytherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Gamal, Islam; Cojocaru, Claudiu; Mainegra-Hing, Ernesto; McEwen, Malcolm

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this project was to develop an absorbed dose to water primary standard for Ir-192 brachytherapy based on the Fricke dosimeter. To achieve this within the framework of the existing TG-43 protocol, a determination of the absorbed dose to water at the reference position, D(r0,θ0), was undertaken. Prior to this investigation, the radiation chemical yield of the ferric ions (G-value) at the Ir-192 equivalent photon energy (0.380 MeV) was established by interpolating between G-values obtained for Co-60 and 250 kV x-rays. An irradiation geometry was developed with a cylindrical holder to contain the Fricke solution and allow irradiations in a water phantom to be conducted using a standard Nucletron microSelectron V2 HDR Ir-192 afterloader. Once the geometry and holder were optimized, the dose obtained with the Fricke system was compared to the standard method used in North America, based on air-kerma strength. Initial investigations focused on reproducible positioning of the ring-shaped holder for the Fricke solution with respect to the Ir-192 source and obtaining an acceptable type A uncertainty in the optical density measurements required to yield the absorbed dose. Source positioning was found to be reproducible to better than 0.3 mm, and a careful cleaning and control procedure reduced the variation in optical density reading due to contamination of the Fricke solution by the PMMA holder. It was found that fewer than 10 irradiations were required to yield a type A standard uncertainty of less than 0.5%. Correction factors to take account of the non-water components of the geometry and the volume averaging effect of the Fricke solution volume were obtained from Monte Carlo calculations. A sensitivity analysis showed that the dependence on the input data used (e.g. interaction cross-sections) was small with a type B uncertainty for these corrections estimated to be 0.2%. The combined standard uncertainty in the determination of absorbed dose to water

  2. The Fricke dosimeter as an absorbed dose to water primary standard for Ir-192 brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    El Gamal, Islam; Cojocaru, Claudiu; Mainegra-Hing, Ernesto; McEwen, Malcolm

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this project was to develop an absorbed dose to water primary standard for Ir-192 brachytherapy based on the Fricke dosimeter. To achieve this within the framework of the existing TG-43 protocol, a determination of the absorbed dose to water at the reference position, D(r0,θ0), was undertaken. Prior to this investigation, the radiation chemical yield of the ferric ions (G-value) at the Ir-192 equivalent photon energy (0.380 MeV) was established by interpolating between G-values obtained for Co-60 and 250 kV x-rays.An irradiation geometry was developed with a cylindrical holder to contain the Fricke solution and allow irradiations in a water phantom to be conducted using a standard Nucletron microSelectron V2 HDR Ir-192 afterloader. Once the geometry and holder were optimized, the dose obtained with the Fricke system was compared to the standard method used in North America, based on air-kerma strength.Initial investigations focused on reproducible positioning of the ring-shaped holder for the Fricke solution with respect to the Ir-192 source and obtaining an acceptable type A uncertainty in the optical density measurements required to yield the absorbed dose. Source positioning was found to be reproducible to better than 0.3 mm, and a careful cleaning and control procedure reduced the variation in optical density reading due to contamination of the Fricke solution by the PMMA holder. It was found that fewer than 10 irradiations were required to yield a type A standard uncertainty of less than 0.5%.Correction factors to take account of the non-water components of the geometry and the volume averaging effect of the Fricke solution volume were obtained from Monte Carlo calculations. A sensitivity analysis showed that the dependence on the input data used (e.g. interaction cross-sections) was small with a type B uncertainty for these corrections estimated to be 0.2%.The combined standard uncertainty in the determination of absorbed dose to water at

  3. First international comparison of primary absorbed dose to water standards in the medium-energy X-ray range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büermann, Ludwig; Guerra, Antonio Stefano; Pimpinella, Maria; Pinto, Massimo; de Pooter, Jacco; de Prez, Leon; Jansen, Bartel; Denoziere, Marc; Rapp, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    This report presents the results of the first international comparison of primary measurement standards of absorbed dose to water for the medium-energy X-ray range. Three of the participants (VSL, PTB, LNE-LNHB) used their existing water calorimeter based standards and one participant (ENEA) recently developed a new standard based on a water-graphite calorimeter. The participants calibrated three transfer chambers of the same type in terms of absorbed dose to water (NDw) and in addition in terms of air kerma (NK) using the CCRI radiation qualities in the range 100 kV to 250 kV. The additional NK values were intended to be used for a physical analysis of the ratios NDw/NK. All participants had previously participated in the BIPM.RI(I)-K3 key comparison of air kerma standards. Ratios of pairs of NMI's NK results of the current comparison were found to be consistent with the corresponding key comparison results within the expanded uncertainties of 0.6 % - 1 %. The NDw results were analysed in terms of the degrees of equivalence with the comparison reference values which were calculated for each beam quality as the weighted means of all results. The participant's results were consistent with the reference value within the expanded uncertainties. However, these expanded uncertainties varied significantly and ranged between about 1-1.8 % for the water calorimeter based standards and were estimated at 3.7 % for the water-graphite calorimeter. It was shown previously that the ratios NDw/NK for the type of ionization chamber used as transfer chamber in this comparison were very close (within less than 1 %) to the calculated values of (bar muen/ρ)w,ad, the mean values of the water-to-air ratio of the mass-energy-absorption coefficients at the depth d in water. Some of the participant's results deviated significantly from the expected behavior. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of

  4. Life cycle stage and water depth affect flooding-induced adventitious root formation in the terrestrial species Solanum dulcamara

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qian; Visser, Eric J. W.; de Kroon, Hans; Huber, Heidrun

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Flooding can occur at any stage of the life cycle of a plant, but often adaptive responses of plants are only studied at a single developmental stage. It may be anticipated that juvenile plants may respond differently from mature plants, as the amount of stored resources may differ and morphological changes can be constrained. Moreover, different water depths may require different strategies to cope with the flooding stress, the expression of which may also depend on developmental stage. This study investigated whether flooding-induced adventitious root formation and plant growth were affected by flooding depth in Solanum dulcamara plants at different developmental stages. Methods Juvenile plants without pre-formed adventitious root primordia and mature plants with primordia were subjected to shallow flooding or deep flooding for 5 weeks. Plant growth and the timing of adventitious root formation were monitored during the flooding treatments. Key Results Adventitious root formation in response to shallow flooding was significantly constrained in juvenile S. dulcamara plants compared with mature plants, and was delayed by deep flooding compared with shallow flooding. Complete submergence suppressed adventitious root formation until up to 2 weeks after shoots restored contact with the atmosphere. Independent of developmental stage, a strong positive correlation was found between adventitious root formation and total biomass accumulation during shallow flooding. Conclusions The potential to deploy an escape strategy (i.e. adventitious root formation) may change throughout a plant’s life cycle, and is largely dependent on flooding depth. Adaptive responses at a given stage of the life cycle thus do not necessarily predict how the plant responds to flooding in another growth stage. As variation in adventitious root formation also correlates with finally attained biomass, this variation may form the basis for variation in resistance to shallow

  5. From AAA to Acuros XB-clinical implications of selecting either Acuros XB dose-to-water or dose-to-medium.

    PubMed

    Zifodya, Jackson M; Challens, Cameron H C; Hsieh, Wen-Long

    2016-06-01

    When implementing Acuros XB (AXB) as a substitute for anisotropic analytic algorithm (AAA) in the Eclipse Treatment Planning System, one is faced with a dilemma of reporting either dose to medium, AXB-Dm or dose to water, AXB-Dw. To assist with decision making on selecting either AXB-Dm or AXB-Dw for dose reporting, a retrospective study of treated patients for head & neck (H&N), prostate, breast and lung is presented. Ten patients, previously treated using AAA plans, were selected for each site and re-planned with AXB-Dm and AXB-Dw. Re-planning was done with fixed monitor units (MU) as well as non-fixed MUs. Dose volume histograms (DVH) of targets and organs at risk (OAR), were analyzed in conjunction with ICRU-83 recommended dose reporting metrics. Additionally, comparisons of plan homogeneity indices (HI) and MUs were done to further highlight the differences between the algorithms. Results showed that, on average AAA overestimated dose to the target volume and OARs by less than 2.0 %. Comparisons between AXB-Dw and AXB-Dm, for all sites, also showed overall dose differences to be small (<1.5 %). However, in non-water biological media, dose differences between AXB-Dw and AXB-Dm, as large as 4.6 % were observed. AXB-Dw also tended to have unexpectedly high 3D maximum dose values (>135 % of prescription dose) for target volumes with high density materials. Homogeneity indices showed that AAA planning and optimization templates would need to be adjusted only for the H&N and Lung sites. MU comparison showed insignificant differences between AXB-Dw relative to AAA and between AXB-Dw relative to AXB-Dm. However AXB-Dm MUs relative to AAA, showed an average difference of about 1.3 % signifying an underdosage by AAA. In conclusion, when dose is reported as AXB-Dw, the effect that high density structures in the PTV has on the dose distribution should be carefully considered. As the results show overall small dose differences between the algorithms, when

  6. From AAA to Acuros XB-clinical implications of selecting either Acuros XB dose-to-water or dose-to-medium.

    PubMed

    Zifodya, Jackson M; Challens, Cameron H C; Hsieh, Wen-Long

    2016-06-01

    When implementing Acuros XB (AXB) as a substitute for anisotropic analytic algorithm (AAA) in the Eclipse Treatment Planning System, one is faced with a dilemma of reporting either dose to medium, AXB-Dm or dose to water, AXB-Dw. To assist with decision making on selecting either AXB-Dm or AXB-Dw for dose reporting, a retrospective study of treated patients for head & neck (H&N), prostate, breast and lung is presented. Ten patients, previously treated using AAA plans, were selected for each site and re-planned with AXB-Dm and AXB-Dw. Re-planning was done with fixed monitor units (MU) as well as non-fixed MUs. Dose volume histograms (DVH) of targets and organs at risk (OAR), were analyzed in conjunction with ICRU-83 recommended dose reporting metrics. Additionally, comparisons of plan homogeneity indices (HI) and MUs were done to further highlight the differences between the algorithms. Results showed that, on average AAA overestimated dose to the target volume and OARs by less than 2.0 %. Comparisons between AXB-Dw and AXB-Dm, for all sites, also showed overall dose differences to be small (<1.5 %). However, in non-water biological media, dose differences between AXB-Dw and AXB-Dm, as large as 4.6 % were observed. AXB-Dw also tended to have unexpectedly high 3D maximum dose values (>135 % of prescription dose) for target volumes with high density materials. Homogeneity indices showed that AAA planning and optimization templates would need to be adjusted only for the H&N and Lung sites. MU comparison showed insignificant differences between AXB-Dw relative to AAA and between AXB-Dw relative to AXB-Dm. However AXB-Dm MUs relative to AAA, showed an average difference of about 1.3 % signifying an underdosage by AAA. In conclusion, when dose is reported as AXB-Dw, the effect that high density structures in the PTV has on the dose distribution should be carefully considered. As the results show overall small dose differences between the algorithms, when

  7. Maps Showing Depth to Water Table, September 1976, and Area Inundated by the June 1975 Flood, Helena Valley, Lewis and Clark County, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilke, Kathleen R.; Johnson, M.V.

    1978-01-01

    Depth to water table, September 1976, and area inundated by the June 1975 flood in the Helena valley, Montana, are mapped on two sheets, Helena and East Helena 7.5-minute quadrangles, at scale 1:48,000. Depth to water table was mapped using water-level measurements from existing shallow observation wells and selected domestic wells, and from field reconnaissance of topography. A hydrograph shows water-level fluctuation in two wells located in different parts of the valley. Area inundated by the June 1975 flood was mapped from aerial photos along Prickly Pear and Tenmile Creeks and by field reconnaissance along Silver Creek. (Woodard-USGS)

  8. Longitudinal dose distribution and energy absorption in PMMA and water cylinders undergoing CT scans

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xinhua; Zhang, Da; Liu, Bob

    2014-10-15

    Purpose: The knowledge of longitudinal dose distribution provides the most direct view of the accumulated dose in computed tomography (CT) scanning. The purpose of this work was to perform a comprehensive study of dose distribution width and energy absorption with a wide range of subject sizes and beam irradiated lengths. Methods: Cumulative dose distribution along the z-axis was calculated based on the previously published CT dose equilibration data by Li, Zhang, and Liu [Med. Phys. 40, 031903 (10pp.) (2013)] and a mechanism for computing dose on axial lines by Li, Zhang, and Liu [Med. Phys. 39, 5347–5352 (2012)]. Full width at half maximum (FWHM), full width at tenth maximum (FWTM), the total energy (E) absorbed in a small cylinder of unit mass per centimeter square about the central or peripheral axis, and the energy (E{sub in}) absorbed inside irradiated length (L) were subsequently extracted from the dose distribution. Results: Extensive results of FWHM, FWTM, and E{sub in}/E were presented on the central and peripheral axes of infinitely long PMMA (diameters 6–50 cm) and water (diameters 6–55 cm) cylinders with L < 100 cm. FWHM was greater than the primary beam width only on the central axes of large phantoms and also with L ranging from a few centimeter to about 33 cm. FWTM generally increased with phantom diameter, and could be up to 32 cm longer than irradiated length, depending on L, phantom diameter and axis, but was insensitive to phantom material (PMMA or water). E{sub in}/E increased with L and asymptotically approached unity for large L. As phantom diameter increased, E{sub in}/E generally decreased, but asymptotically approached constant levels on the peripheral axes of large phantoms. A heuristic explanation of dose distribution width results was presented. Conclusions: This study enables the reader to gain a comprehensive view of dose distribution width and energy absorption and provides useful data for estimating doses to organs inside or

  9. Technical Note: Using wavelet analyses on water depth time series to detect glacial influence in high-mountain hydrosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cauvy-Fraunié, S.; Condom, T.; Rabatel, A.; Villacis, M.; Jacobsen, D.; Dangles, O.

    2013-04-01

    Worldwide, the rapid shrinking of glaciers in response to ongoing climate change is currently modifying the glacial meltwater contribution to hydrosystems in glacierized catchments. Assessing the contribution of glacier run-off to stream discharge is therefore of critical importance to evaluate potential impact of glacier retreat on water quality and aquatic biota. This task has challenged both glacier hydrologists and ecologists over the last 20 yr due to both structural and functional complexity of the glacier-stream system interface. Here we propose a new methodological approach based on wavelet analyses on water depth time series to determine the glacial influence in glacierized catchments. We performed water depth measurement using water pressure loggers over ten months in 15 stream sites in two glacier-fed catchments in the Ecuadorian Andes (> 4000 m). We determined the global wavelet spectrum of each time series and defined the Wavelet Glacier Signal (WGS) as the ratio between the global wavelet power spectrum value at a 24 h-scale and its corresponding significance value. To test the relevance of the WGS we compared it with the percentage of the glacier cover in the catchments, a metric of glacier influence often used in the literature. We then tested whether one month data could be sufficient to reliably determine the glacial influence. As expected we found that the WGS of glacier-fed streams decreased downstream with the increasing of non-glacial tributaries. We also found that the WGS and the percentage of the glacier cover in the catchment were significantly positively correlated and that one month data was sufficient to identify and compare the glacial influence between two sites, provided that the water level time series were acquired over the same period. Furthermore, we found that our method permits to detect glacial signal in supposedly non-glacial sites, thereby evidencing glacial meltwater infiltrations. While we specifically focused on the

  10. Natural radioactivity in various water samples and radiation dose estimations in Bolu province, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Gorur, F Korkmaz; Camgoz, H

    2014-10-01

    The level of natural radioactivity for Bolu province of north-western Turkey was assessed in this study. There is no information about radioactivity measurement reported in water samples in the Bolu province so far. For this reason, gross α and β activities of 55 different water samples collected from tap, spring, mineral, river and lake waters in Bolu were determined. The mean activity concentrations were 68.11 mBq L(-1), 169.44 mBq L(-1) for gross α and β in tap water. For all samples the gross β activity is always higher than the gross α activity. All value of the gross α were lower than the limit value of 500 mBq L(-1) while two spring and one mineral water samples were found to have gross β activity concentrations of greater than 1000 mBq L(-1). The associated age-dependent dose from all water ingestion in Bolu was estimated. The total dose for adults had an average value exceeds the WHO recommended limit value. The risk levels from the direct ingestion of the natural radionuclides in tap and mineral water in Bolu were determinated. The mean (210)Po and (228)Ra risk the value of tap and mineral waters slightly exceeds what some consider on acceptable risk of 10(-4) or less.

  11. Depth investigation of rapid sand filters for drinking water production reveals strong stratification in nitrification biokinetic behavior.

    PubMed

    Tatari, K; Smets, B F; Albrechtsen, H-J

    2016-09-15

    The biokinetic behavior of NH4(+) removal was investigated at different depths of a rapid sand filter treating groundwater for drinking water preparation. Filter materials from the top, middle and bottom layers of a full-scale filter were exposed to various controlled NH4(+) loadings in a continuous-flow lab-scale assay. NH4(+) removal capacity, estimated from short term loading up-shifts, was at least 10 times higher in the top than in the middle and bottom filter layers, consistent with the stratification of Ammonium Oxidizing Bacteria (AOB). AOB density increased consistently with the NH4(+) removal rate, indicating their primarily role in nitrification under the imposed experimental conditions. The maximum AOB cell specific NH4(+) removal rate observed at the bottom was at least 3 times lower compared to the top and middle layers. Additionally, a significant up-shift capacity (4.6 and 3.5 times) was displayed from the top and middle layers, but not from the bottom layer at increased loading conditions. Hence, AOB with different physiological responses were active at the different depths. The biokinetic analysis predicted that despite the low NH4(+) removal capacity at the bottom layer, the entire filter is able to cope with a 4-fold instantaneous loading increase without compromising the effluent NH4(+). Ultimately, this filter up-shift capacity was limited by the density of AOB and their biokinetic behavior, both of which were strongly stratified.

  12. Depth investigation of rapid sand filters for drinking water production reveals strong stratification in nitrification biokinetic behavior.

    PubMed

    Tatari, K; Smets, B F; Albrechtsen, H-J

    2016-09-15

    The biokinetic behavior of NH4(+) removal was investigated at different depths of a rapid sand filter treating groundwater for drinking water preparation. Filter materials from the top, middle and bottom layers of a full-scale filter were exposed to various controlled NH4(+) loadings in a continuous-flow lab-scale assay. NH4(+) removal capacity, estimated from short term loading up-shifts, was at least 10 times higher in the top than in the middle and bottom filter layers, consistent with the stratification of Ammonium Oxidizing Bacteria (AOB). AOB density increased consistently with the NH4(+) removal rate, indicating their primarily role in nitrification under the imposed experimental conditions. The maximum AOB cell specific NH4(+) removal rate observed at the bottom was at least 3 times lower compared to the top and middle layers. Additionally, a significant up-shift capacity (4.6 and 3.5 times) was displayed from the top and middle layers, but not from the bottom layer at increased loading conditions. Hence, AOB with different physiological responses were active at the different depths. The biokinetic analysis predicted that despite the low NH4(+) removal capacity at the bottom layer, the entire filter is able to cope with a 4-fold instantaneous loading increase without compromising the effluent NH4(+). Ultimately, this filter up-shift capacity was limited by the density of AOB and their biokinetic behavior, both of which were strongly stratified. PMID:27295615

  13. Development of a water calorimetry-based standard for absorbed dose to water in HDR {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Sarfehnia, Arman; Seuntjens, Jan

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: The aim of this article is to develop and evaluate a primary standard for HDR {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy based on 4 deg. C stagnant water calorimetry. Methods: The absolute absorbed dose to water was directly measured for several different Nucletron microSelectron {sup 192}Ir sources of air kerma strength ranging between 21 000 and 38 000 U and for source-to-detector separations ranging between 25 and 70 mm. The COMSOL MULTIPHYSICS software was used to accurately calculate the heat transport in a detailed model geometry. Through a coupling of the ''conduction and convection'' module with the ''Navier-Stokes incompressible fluid'' module in the software, both the conductive and convective effects were modeled. Results: A detailed uncertainty analysis resulted in an overall uncertainty in the absorbed dose of 1.90%(1{sigma}). However, this includes a 1.5% uncertainty associated with a nonlinear predrift correction which can be substantially reduced if sufficient time is provided for the system to come to a new equilibrium in between successive calorimetric runs, an opportunity not available to the authors in their clinical setting due to time constraints on the machine. An average normalized dose rate of 361{+-}7 {mu}Gy/(h U) at a source-to-detector separation of 55 mm was measured for the microSelectron {sup 192}Ir source based on water calorimetry. The measured absorbed dose per air kerma strength agreed to better than 0.8%(1{sigma}) with independent ionization chamber and EBT-1 Gafchromic film reference dosimetry as well as with the currently accepted AAPM TG-43 protocol measurements. Conclusions: This work paves the way toward a primary absorbed dose to water standard in {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy.

  14. Radiological characterization of tap waters in Croatia and the age dependent dose assessment.

    PubMed

    Rožmarić, Martina; Rogić, Matea; Benedik, Ljudmila; Barišić, Delko; Planinšek, Petra

    2014-09-01

    Activity concentrations of (234)U, (238)U, (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (210)Po and (210)Pb in tap waters, originating from various geological regions of Croatia, were determined. Activity concentrations of measured radionuclides are in general decreasing in this order: (238)U≈(234)U>(228)Ra≈(210)Pb>(226)Ra≈(210)Po. Based on the radionuclide activity concentrations average total annual internal doses for infants, children and adults, as well as contribution of each particular radionuclide to total dose, were assessed and discussed. The highest doses were calculated for infants, which makes them the most critical group of population. All values for each population group were well below the recommended reference dose level (RDL) of 0.1mSv from one year's consumption of drinking water according to European Commission recommendations from 1998. Contribution of each particular radionuclide to total doses varied among different age groups but for each group the lowest contribution was found for (226)Ra and the highest for (228)Ra. PMID:24997928

  15. A measurement of the muon-induced neutron yield in lead at a depth of 2850 m water equivalent

    SciTech Connect

    Reichhart, L.; Ghag, C.; Lindote, A.; Chepel, V.; DeViveiros, L.; Lopes, M. I.; Neves, F.; Pinto da Cunha, J.; Silva, C.; Solovov, V. N.; Akimov, D. Yu.; Belov, V. A.; Burenkov, A. A.; Kobyakin, A. S.; Kovalenko, A. G.; Stekhanov, V. N.; Araújo, H. M.; Bewick, A.; Currie, A.; Horn, M.; and others

    2013-08-08

    We present results from the measurement of the neutron production rate in lead by high energy cosmic-ray muons at a depth of 2850 m water equivalent (mean muon energy of 260 GeV). A tonne-scale highly segmented plastic scintillator detector was utilised to detect both the energy depositions from the traversing muons as well as the delayed radiative capture signals of the induced neutrons. Complementary Monte Carlo simulations reproduce well the distributions of muons and detected muon-induced neutrons. Absolute agreement between simulation and data is of the order of 25%. By comparing the measured and simulated neutron capture rates a neutron yield in pure lead of (5.78{sub −0.28}{sup +0.21})×10{sup −3} neutrons/muon/(g/cm{sup 2}) has been obtained.

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF DUAL ANCHORED SHEET PILE WALL METHOD TO INCREASE FRONT WATER DEPTH AND SEISMIC RESISTANCE OF EXISTING QUAY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Yasushi; Sato, Masakatsu; Kikuchi, Yoshiaki; Sugano, Takahiro; Morikawa, Yoshiyuki; Hoshino, Masami; Miki, Kenichi

    Recently the dual anchored sheet pile wall method has been developed to increase a front water depth and seismic resistance of existing quay walls by providing an additional anchor in the lower level of them to reduce a flexural moment of the sheet piles and a tension of the anchors. The existing technical information is not enough to evaluate the seismic behavior and the retrofit of the quay walls with anchors at two different levels. Therefore the experiments with a scale model set on the vibration table of the centrifugal apparatus as well as two dimensional effective stress analyses have been mobilized to investigate the seismic retrofit of the dual anchored sheet pile wall. The experiments and analyses demonstrate the increase the earthquake resistance of quay walls, because they showed the additional anchor can reduce the stress of the sheet walls to one half.

  17. A new monothalamous foraminiferan from 1000 to 6300 m water depth in the Weddell Sea: morphological and molecular characterisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gooday, Andrew J.; Holzmann, Maria; Guiard, Jackie; Cornelius, Nils; Pawlowski, Jan

    2004-07-01

    We describe Bathyallogromia weddellensis gen. & sp. nov., a deep-water, monothalamous foraminiferan from bathyal and abyssal sites in the western Weddell Sea. The species is characterised by a delicate, almost spherical, organic-walled test, a low, broad projecting apertural region, and light grey or greenish cytoplasm containing mineral grains and other inclusions. Molecular phylogenetic analyses, based on small subunit rRNA gene sequences, indicate that Bathyallogromia is an independent lineage branching within a clade of monothalamous foraminiferans, which also includes such genera as Saccammina, Gloiogullmia, Cylindrogullmia, Rhabdammina, Toxisarcon and Pilulina (?). Lack of significant genetic differences between specimens collected at depths ranging from 1000 to 6300 m suggests that B. weddellensis is adapted to conditions that span a broad bathymetric range.

  18. Korean coastal water depth/sediment and land cover mapping (1:25,000) by computer analysis of LANDSAT imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, K. Y.; Miller, L. D.

    1978-01-01

    Computer analysis was applied to single date LANDSAT MSS imagery of a sample coastal area near Seoul, Korea equivalent to a 1:50,000 topographic map. Supervised image processing yielded a test classification map from this sample image containing 12 classes: 5 water depth/sediment classes, 2 shoreline/tidal classes, and 5 coastal land cover classes at a scale of 1:25,000 and with a training set accuracy of 76%. Unsupervised image classification was applied to a subportion of the site analyzed and produced classification maps comparable in results in a spatial sense. The results of this test indicated that it is feasible to produce such quantitative maps for detailed study of dynamic coastal processes given a LANDSAT image data base at sufficiently frequent time intervals.

  19. Korean coastal water depth/sediment and land cover mapping /1:25,000/ by computer analysis of Landsat imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, K. Y.; Miller, L. D.

    1980-01-01

    Computer analysis was applied to single data Landsat MSS imagery of a coastal area near Seoul, Korea equivalent to a 1:50,000 topographic map, and featuring large dynamic sediment transport processes. Supervised image processing yielded a test classification map containing five water depth/sediment classes, two shoreline/tidal classes and five coastal land cover classes at a scale of 1:25,000 and with a training set accuracy of 76%; the training sets were selected by direct examination of the digitally displayed imagery. The unsupervised ISOCLAS (Senkus, 1976) clustering analysis was performed to assess the relative value of this approach to image classification in areas of sparse or nonexistent ground control. Results indicate that it is feasible to produce quantitative maps for detailed study of dynamic coastal processes given a Landsat image data base at sufficiently frequent time intervals.

  20. Natural radioactivity and dose estimation in underground water from the Sudety Mountains in Poland.

    PubMed

    Kozłowska, B; Walencik, A; Dorda, J

    2008-01-01

    Studies of natural radioactivity in spring water in Swieradów-Czerniawa Health Resort were performed with the use of nuclear and mass spectrometry techniques. The investigated region is situated in the Sudety Mountains, where uranium exploration was conducted in the early 1950s of the last century. Annual effective doses due to radionuclide intake were calculated for 4 out of 20 spring waters used for consumption by spa patients and inhabitants. The summed effective doses without 222Rn were of the range 0.4 microSv to 9.2 microSv, for patient for of a 20-day duration stay and from 1.3 microSv y(-1) to 26.7 microSv y(-1) for an inhabitant. The contribution of radon consumed with water raises these values to 209.4 microSv per 20 days and 608.3 microSv y(-1) for a patient and inhabitant, respectively.

  1. A graphite calorimeter for absolute measurements of absorbed dose to water: application in medium-energy x-ray filtered beams.

    PubMed

    Pinto, M; Pimpinella, M; Quini, M; D'Arienzo, M; Astefanoaei, I; Loreti, S; Guerra, A S

    2016-02-21

    The Italian National Institute of Ionizing Radiation Metrology (ENEA-INMRI) has designed and built a graphite calorimeter that, in a water phantom, has allowed the determination of the absorbed dose to water in medium-energy x-rays with generating voltages from 180 to 250 kV. The new standard is a miniaturized three-bodies calorimeter, with a disc-shaped core of 21 mm diameter and 2 mm thickness weighing 1.134 g, sealed in a PMMA waterproof envelope with air-evacuated gaps. The measured absorbed dose to graphite is converted into absorbed dose to water by means of an energy-dependent conversion factor obtained from Monte Carlo simulations. Heat-transfer correction factors were determined by FEM calculations. At a source-to-detector distance of 100 cm, a depth in water of 2 g cm(-2), and at a dose rate of about 0.15 Gy min(-1), results of calorimetric measurements of absorbed dose to water, D(w), were compared to experimental determinations, D wK, obtained via an ionization chamber calibrated in terms of air kerma, according to established dosimetry protocols. The combined standard uncertainty of D(w) and D(wK) were estimated as 1.9% and 1.7%, respectively. The two absorbed dose to water determinations were in agreement within 1%, well below the stated measurement uncertainties. Advancements are in progress to extend the measurement capability of the new in-water-phantom graphite calorimeter to other filtered medium-energy x-ray qualities and to reduce the D(w) uncertainty to around 1%. The new calorimeter represents the first implementation of in-water-phantom graphite calorimetry in the kilovoltage range and, allowing independent determinations of D(w), it will contribute to establish a robust system of absorbed dose to water primary standards for medium-energy x-ray beams. PMID:26841127

  2. Response of N₂O emissions to elevated water depth regulation: comparison of rhizosphere versus non-rhizosphere of Phragmites australis in a field-scale study.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xiao-Zhi; Chen, Kai-Ning; Wang, Zhao-de

    2016-03-01

    Emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) from wetland ecosystems are globally significant and have recently received increased attention. However, relatively few direct studies of these emissions in response to water depth-related changes in sediment ecosystems have been conducted, despite the likely role they play as hotspots of N2O production. We investigated depth-related differential responses of the dissolved inorganic nitrogen distribution in Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. rhizosphere versus non-rhizosphere sediments to determine if they accelerated N2O emissions and the release of inorganic nitrogen. Changes in static water depth and P. australis growth both had the potential to disrupt the distribution of porewater dissolved NH4 (+), NO3 (-), and NO2 (-) in profiles, and NO3 (-) had strong surface aggregation tendency and decreased significantly with depth. Conversely, the highest NO2 (-) contents were observed in deep water and the lowest in shallow water in the P. australis rhizosphere. When compared with NO3 (-), NH4 (+), and NO2 (-), fluxes from the rhizosphere were more sensitive to the effects of water depth, and both fluxes increased significantly at a depth of more than 1 m. Similarly, N2O emissions were obviously accelerated with increasing depth, although those from the rhizosphere were more readily controlled by P. australis. Pearson's correlation analysis showed that water depth was significantly related to N2O emission and NO2 (-) fluxes, and N2O emissions were also strongly dependent on NO2 (-) fluxes (r = 0.491, p < 0.05). The results presented herein provide new insights into inorganic nitrogen biogeochemical cycles in freshwater sediment ecosystems.

  3. Dose to tissue medium or water cavities as surrogate for the dose to cell nuclei at brachytherapy photon energies.

    PubMed

    Enger, Shirin A; Ahnesjö, Anders; Verhaegen, Frank; Beaulieu, Luc

    2012-07-21

    It has been suggested that modern dose calculation algorithms should be able to report absorbed dose both as dose to the local medium, D(m,m,) and as dose to a water cavity embedded in the medium, D(w,m), using conversion factors from cavity theory. Assuming that the cell nucleus with its DNA content is the most important target for biological response, the aim of this study is to investigate, by means of Monte Carlo (MC) simulations, the relationship of the dose to a cell nucleus in a medium, D(n,m,) to D(m,m) and D(w,m), for different combinations of cell nucleus compositions and tissue media for different photon energies used in brachytherapy. As D(n,m) is very impractical to calculate directly for routine treatment planning, while D(m,m) and D(w,m) are much easier to obtain, the questions arise which one of these quantities is the best surrogate for D(n,m) and which cavity theory assumptions should one use for its estimate. The Geant4.9.4 MC code was used to calculate D(m,m,) D(w,m) and D(n,m) for photon energies from 20 (representing the lower energy end of brachytherapy for ¹⁰³Pd or ¹²⁵I) to 300 keV (close to the mean energy of (¹⁹²Ir) and for the tissue media adipose, breast, prostate and muscle. To simulate the cell and its nucleus, concentric spherical cavities were placed inside a cubic phantom (10 × 10 × 10 mm³). The diameter of the simulated nuclei was set to 14 µm. For each tissue medium, three different setups were simulated; (a) D(n,m) was calculated with nuclei embedded in tissues (MC-D(n,m)). Four different published elemental compositions of cell nuclei were used. (b) D(w,m) was calculated with MC (MC-D(w,m)) and compared with large cavity theory calculated D(w,m) (LCT-D(w,m)), and small cavity theory calculated D(w,m) (SCT-D(w,m)). (c) D(m,m) was calculated with MC (MC-D(m,m)). MC-D(w,m) is a good substitute for MC-D(n,m) for all photon energies and for all simulated nucleus compositions and tissue types. SCT-D(w,m) can be used

  4. Soil moisture versus depth-to-water-level: Which is better for predicting plant composition in a restored floodplain wetland?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, E.; Loheide, S. P.

    2010-12-01

    Depth-to-water-level (DTWL) measurements in shallow groundwater piezometers are commonly used to develop relationships between wetland plant composition and the available water regime. Such relationships can provide useful predictions of plant composition for land managers under potential changing conditions (e.g., climate change, land use change, environmental flow releases, groundwater pumping) when combined with a hydrologic model. These analyses, however, implicitly use DTWL as a surrogate for the water regime within the root zone, which is experienced by plants. Bi-weekly field measurements of both variables (DTWL and SM) were made at a restored floodplain wetland over the 2009 and 2010 growing seasons. Plant species composition and percent cover were also sampled at the same locations (N=62). Nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMS) and nonparametric multiplicative regression (NPMR) were used to compare how effectively the two hydrologic metrics explain the overall plant community ordination space (NMS) and predict the probability of presence of certain dominant species (NPMR). Both statistical techniques revealed that SM was more successful than DTWL at explaining the overall plant community structure and predicting plant composition for certain dominant species. The predictive modeling results also suggest that hydrologic extremes on a species-specific basis are effective predictors of plant composition. Field evidence based on soil coring and geophysical imaging suggests that the reason for the discrepancy in the efficacy of the two hydrologic variables is the presence of a confining silt-clay layer in some areas of the floodplain that partially decouples soil moisture in the root zone from groundwater in a deeper gravel layer. While DTWL may be adequate as a predictive variable in vegetation modeling at some sites, SM is likely to be more valuable - especially at sites where soil moisture and groundwater are decoupled - at developing robust relationships

  5. Hydrogeochemical contrast between brown and grey sand aquifers in shallow depth of Bengal Basin: consequences for sustainable drinking water supply.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Ashis; Nath, Bibhash; Bhattacharya, Prosun; Halder, Dipti; Kundu, Amit K; Mandal, Ujjal; Mukherjee, Abhijit; Chatterjee, Debashis; Mörth, Carl-Magnus; Jacks, Gunnar

    2012-08-01

    Delineation of safe aquifer(s) that can be targeted by cheap drilling technology for tubewell (TW) installation becomes highly imperative to ensure access to safe and sustainable drinking water sources for the arsenic (As) affected population in Bengal Basin. This study investigates the potentiality of brown sand aquifers (BSA) as a safe drinking water source by characterizing its hydrogeochemical contrast to grey sand aquifers (GSA) within shallow depth (<70 m) over an area of 100 km(2) in Chakdaha Block of Nadia district, West Bengal, India. The results indicate that despite close similarity in major ion composition, the redox condition is markedly different in groundwater of the two studied aquifers. The redox condition in the BSA is delineated to be Mn oxy-hydroxide reducing, not sufficiently lowered for As mobilization into groundwater. In contrast, the enrichments of NH(4)(+), PO(4)(3-), Fe and As along with lower Eh in groundwater of GSA reflect reductive dissolution of Fe oxy-hydroxide coupled to microbially mediated oxidation of organic matter as the prevailing redox process causing As mobilization into groundwater of this aquifer type. In some portions of GSA the redox status even has reached to the stage of SO(4)(2-) reduction, which to some extent might sequester dissolved As from groundwater by co-precipitation with authigenic pyrite. Despite having low concentration of As in groundwater of the BSA the concentration of Mn often exceeds the drinking water guidelines, which warrants rigorous assessment of attendant health risk for Mn prior to considering mass scale exploitation of the BSA for possible sustainable drinking water supply.

  6. Dose-dependent inhibition of gastric injury by hydrogen in alkaline electrolyzed drinking water

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hydrogen has been reported to relieve damage in many disease models, and is a potential additive in drinking water to provide protective effects for patients as several clinical studies revealed. However, the absence of a dose–response relationship in the application of hydrogen is puzzling. We attempted to identify the dose–response relationship of hydrogen in alkaline electrolyzed drinking water through the aspirin induced gastric injury model. Methods In this study, hydrogen-rich alkaline water was obtained by adding H2 to electrolyzed water at one atmosphere pressure. After 2 weeks of drinking, we detected the gastric mucosal damage together with MPO, MDA and 8-OHdG in rat aspirin induced gastric injury model. Results Hydrogen-dose dependent inhibition was observed in stomach mucosal. Under pH 8.5, 0.07, 0.22 and 0.84 ppm hydrogen exhibited a high correlation with inhibitory effects showed by erosion area, MPO activity and MDA content in the stomach. Gastric histology also demonstrated the inhibition of damage by hydrogen-rich alkaline water. However, 8-OHdG level in serum did not have significant hydrogen-dose dependent effect. pH 9.5 showed higher but not significant inhibitory response compared with pH 8.5. Conclusions Hydrogen is effective in relieving the gastric injury induced by aspirin-HCl, and the inhibitory effect is dose-dependent. The reason behind this may be that hydrogen-rich water directly interacted with the target tissue, while the hydrogen concentration in blood was buffered by liver glycogen, evoking a suppressed dose–response effect. Drinking hydrogen-rich water may protect healthy individuals from gastric damage caused by oxidative stress. PMID:24589018

  7. Water Pressure in Depth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Mary Jean; Zenchak, John

    2011-01-01

    How can a science concept be taught in a way that generates interest, gives students the opportunity to consider other possibilities, does not lock them into one way of doing or seeing things, and gives them some ownership of their learning? These authors searched high and low for the perfect activity to illustrate a key concept for their partner…

  8. Experimental validation of a 2D overland flow model using high resolution water depth and velocity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cea, L.; Legout, C.; Darboux, F.; Esteves, M.; Nord, G.

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a validation of a two-dimensional overland flow model using empirical laboratory data. Unlike previous publications in which model performance is evaluated as the ability to predict an outlet hydrograph, we use high resolution 2D water depth and velocity data to analyze to what degree the model is able to reproduce the spatial distribution of these variables. Several overland flow conditions over two impervious surfaces of the order of one square meter with different micro and macro-roughness characteristics are studied. The first surface is a simplified representation of a sinusoidal terrain with three crests and furrows, while the second one is a mould of a real agricultural seedbed terrain. We analyze four different bed friction parameterizations and we show that the performance of formulations which consider the transition between laminar, smooth turbulent and rough turbulent flow do not improve the results obtained with Manning or Keulegan formulas for rough turbulent flow. The simulations performed show that using Keulegan formula with a physically-based definition of the bed roughness coefficient, a two-dimensional shallow water model is able to reproduce satisfactorily the flow hydrodynamics. It is shown that, even if the resolution of the topography data and numerical mesh are high enough to include all the small scale features of the bed surface, the roughness coefficient must account for the macro-roughness characteristics of the terrain in order to correctly reproduce the flow hydrodynamics.

  9. Bacterial diversity and biogeochemistry of different chemosynthetic habitats of the REGAB cold seep (West African margin, 3160 m water depth)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pop Ristova, P.; Wenzhöfer, F.; Ramette, A.; Zabel, M.; Fischer, D.; Kasten, S.; Boetius, A.

    2012-12-01

    The giant pockmark REGAB (West African margin, 3160 m water depth) is an active methane-emitting cold seep ecosystem, where the energy derived from microbially mediated oxidation of methane supports high biomass and diversity of chemosynthetic communities. Bare sediments interspersed with heterogeneous chemosynthetic assemblages of mytilid mussels, vesicomyid clams and siboglinid tubeworms form a complex seep ecosystem. To better understand if benthic bacterial communities reflect the patchy distribution of chemosynthetic fauna, all major chemosynthetic habitats at REGAB were investigated using an interdisciplinary approach combining pore water geochemistry, in situ quantification of fluxes and consumption of methane, as well as bacterial community fingerprinting. This study revealed that sediments populated by different fauna assemblages show distinct biogeochemical activities and are associated with distinct sediment bacterial communities. The methane consumption rates and methane effluxes ranged over one to two orders of magnitude across habitats, and reached highest values at the mussel habitat, which hosted a different bacterial community compared to the other habitats. Clam assemblages had a profound impact on the sediment geochemistry, but less so on the bacterial community structure. Moreover, all clam assemblages at REGAB were restricted to sediments characterized by complete methane consumption in the seafloor, and intermediate biogeochemical activity. Overall, variations in the sediment geochemistry were reflected in the distribution of both fauna and microbial communities; and were mostly determined by methane flux.

  10. A depth-averaged 2-D shallow water model for breaking and non-breaking long waves affected by rigid vegetation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper presents a depth-averaged two-dimensional shallow water model for simulating long waves in vegetated water bodies under breaking and non-breaking conditions. The effects of rigid vegetation are modelled in the form of drag and inertia forces as sink terms in the momentum equations. The dr...

  11. Efficient wetland surface water detection and monitoring via Landsat: Comparison with in situ data from the Everglades Depth Estimation Network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, John W.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is developing new Landsat science products. One, named Dynamic Surface Water Extent (DSWE), is focused on the representation of ground surface inundation as detected in cloud-/shadow-/snow-free pixels for scenes collected over the U.S. and its territories. Characterization of DSWE uncertainty to facilitate its appropriate use in science and resource management is a primary objective. A unique evaluation dataset developed from data made publicly available through the Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN) was used to evaluate one candidate DSWE algorithm that is relatively simple, requires no scene-based calibration data, and is intended to detect inundation in the presence of marshland vegetation. A conceptual model of expected algorithm performance in vegetated wetland environments was postulated, tested and revised. Agreement scores were calculated at the level of scenes and vegetation communities, vegetation index classes, water depths, and individual EDEN gage sites for a variety of temporal aggregations. Landsat Archive cloud cover attribution errors were documented. Cloud cover had some effect on model performance. Error rates increased with vegetation cover. Relatively low error rates for locations of little/no vegetation were unexpectedly dominated by omission errors due to variable substrates and mixed pixel effects. Examined discrepancies between satellite and in situ modeled inundation demonstrated the utility of such comparisons for EDEN database improvement. Importantly, there seems no trend or bias in candidate algorithm performance as a function of time or general hydrologic conditions, an important finding for long-term monitoring. The developed database and knowledge gained from this analysis will be used for improved evaluation of candidate DSWE algorithms as well as other measurements made on Everglades surface inundation, surface water heights and vegetation using radar, lidar and hyperspectral instruments

  12. Late Quaternary water depth changes in Hala Lake, northeastern Tibetan Plateau, derived from ostracod assemblages and sediment properties in multiple sediment records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Dada; Wünnemann, Bernd

    2014-07-01

    Late Pleistocene and Holocene climate dynamics along the marginal belt of the East Asian Summer Monsoon in China and their responses to hydrological cycles in lake basins of the Tibetan Plateau are still a matter of scientific discussion. Hala Lake, a closed 65 m deep lake basin in the western Qilian Mountains, Qinghai Province, is considered a monitor of climate-driven hydrological and environmental changes during the past 24 kyr BP. The distribution patterns of ostracod assemblages, stable isotopes, sediment-geochemical properties in four sediment records from different water depths and their combination with the unique limnological setting enabled us to reconstruct four major phases of centennial-scale water depth fluctuations from the global Last Glacial Maximum (ca 24 kyr BP) to the Present. Our results show that Hala Lake experienced a very shallow and small water body during the LGM and Lateglacial under cold and dry climate conditions. Rapid increase of water depth and contemporaneous lake expansion started at around 14 kyr BP (Phase I), most likely as a result of glacier melt due to the onset of climate warming. The lake reached >45 m water depth at around 13.5 kyr BP. Reduced water depth during the Younger Dryas spell (ca 12 kyr BP) may be attributed to a short-term return to cooler and drier conditions. During the early Holocene (Phase II), water depth increased further toward lake highstands close to its present level, with a highest lake level of up to 9 m above the present lakestand at 8.0-7.8 kyr BP. Besides continued glacier melt supply, we assume that summer monsoon effective moisture contributed to the overall water budget, but remained relatively unstable, favoring water depth fluctuations. A pronounced lower water depth falls into the period between 9.2 and 8.1 kyr BP, perhaps the result of weak monsoon influence or its complete absence, although the warming trend continued toward its optimum at ca 8-7 kyr BP. A distinct mass flow, most likely

  13. Phase 1 summaries of radionuclide concentration data for vegetation, river water, drinking water, and fish. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Denham, D.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Hanf, R.W.; Poston, T.M.; Thiede, M.E.; Woodruff, R.K.

    1993-06-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at the Hanford Site since 1944. As part of the HEDR Project, the Environmental Monitoring Data Task (Task 05) staff assemble, evaluate, and summarize key historical measurements of radionuclide concentrations in the environment as a result of Hanford operations. The scope of work performed during Phase I included initiating the search, recovery, and inventory of environmental reports. Summaries of the environmental monitoring data that were recovered and evaluated are presented for specific periods of interest. These periods include vegetation monitoring data (primarily sagebrush) for the years 1945 through 1947, Columbia River water and drinking water monitoring data for the years 1963 through 1966, and fish monitoring data for the years 1964 through 1966. Concern was limited to those radionuclides identified as the most likely major contributors to the dose potentially received by the public during the times of interest: phosphorous-32, copper-64, zinc-65, arsenic-76, and neptunium-239 in Columbia River fish and drinking water taken from the river, and iodine-131 in vegetation. This report documents the achievement of the Phase I objectives of the Environmental Monitoring Data Task.

  14. A feasibility study to estimate minimum surface-casing depths of oil and gas wells to prevent ground-water contamination in four areas of western Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buckwalter, T.F.; Squillace, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    Hydrologic data were evaluated from four areas of western Pennsylvania to estimate the minimum depth of well surface casing needed to prevent contamination of most of the fresh ground-water resources by oil and gas wells. The areas are representative of the different types of oil and gas activities and of the ground-water hydrology of most sections of the Appalachian Plateaus Physiographic Province in western Pennsylvania. Approximate delineation of the base of the fresh ground-water system was attempted by interpreting the following hydrologic data: (1) reports of freshwater and saltwater in oil and gas well-completion reports, (2) water well-completion reports, (3) geophysical logs, and (4) chemical analyses of well water. Because of the poor quality and scarcity of ground-water data, the altitude of the base of the fresh ground-water system in the four study areas cannot be accurately delineated. Consequently, minimum surface-casing depths for oil and gas wells cannot be estimated with confidence. Conscientious and reliable reporting of freshwater and saltwater during drilling of oil and gas wells would expand the existing data base. Reporting of field specific conductance of ground water would greatly enhance the value of the reports of ground water in oil and gas well-completion records. Water-bearing zones in bedrock are controlled mostly by the presence of secondary openings. The vertical and horizontal discontinuity of secondary openings may be responsible, in part, for large differences in altitudes of freshwater zones noted on completion records of adjacent oil and gas wells. In upland and hilltop topographies, maximum depths of fresh ground water are reported from several hundred feet below land surface to slightly more than 1,000 feet, but the few deep reports are not substantiated by results of laboratory analyses of dissolved-solids concentrations. Past and present drillers for shallow oil and gas wells commonly install surface casing to below the

  15. Effect of Sampling Depth on Air-Sea CO2 Flux Estimates in River-Stratified Arctic Coastal Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, L. A.; Papakyriakou, T. N.

    2015-12-01

    In summer-time Arctic coastal waters that are strongly influenced by river run-off, extreme stratification severely limits wind mixing, making it difficult to effectively sample the surface 'mixed layer', which can be as shallow as 1 m, from a ship. During two expeditions in southwestern Hudson Bay, off the Nelson, Hayes, and Churchill River estuaries, we confirmed that sampling depth has a strong impact on estimates of 'surface' pCO2 and calculated air-sea CO2 fluxes. We determined pCO2 in samples collected from 5 m, using a typical underway system on the ship's seawater supply; from the 'surface' rosette bottle, which was generally between 1 and 3 m; and using a niskin bottle deployed at 1 m and just below the surface from a small boat away from the ship. Our samples confirmed that the error in pCO2 derived from typical ship-board versus small-boat sampling at a single station could be nearly 90 μatm, leading to errors in the calculated air-sea CO2 flux of more than 0.1 mmol/(m2s). Attempting to extrapolate such fluxes over the 6,000,000 km2 area of the Arctic shelves would generate an error approaching a gigamol CO2/s. Averaging the station data over a cruise still resulted in an error of nearly 50% in the total flux estimate. Our results have implications not only for the design and execution of expedition-based sampling, but also for placement of in-situ sensors. Particularly in polar waters, sensors are usually deployed on moorings, well below the surface, to avoid damage and destruction from drifting ice. However, to obtain accurate information on air-sea fluxes in these areas, it is necessary to deploy sensors on ice-capable buoys that can position the sensors in true 'surface' waters.

  16. Empirical water depth predictions in Dublin Bay based on satellite EO multispectral imagery and multibeam data using spatially weighted geographical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteys, Xavier; Harris, Paul; Caloca, Silvia

    2014-05-01

    The coastal shallow water zone can be a challenging and expensive environment within which to acquire bathymetry and other oceanographic data using traditional survey methods. Dangers and limited swath coverage make some of these areas unfeasible to survey using ship borne systems, and turbidity can preclude marine LIDAR. As a result, an extensive part of the coastline worldwide remains completely unmapped. Satellite EO multispectral data, after processing, allows timely, cost efficient and quality controlled information to be used for planning, monitoring, and regulating coastal environments. It has the potential to deliver repetitive derivation of medium resolution bathymetry, coastal water properties and seafloor characteristics in shallow waters. Over the last 30 years satellite passive imaging methods for bathymetry extraction, implementing analytical or empirical methods, have had a limited success predicting water depths. Different wavelengths of the solar light penetrate the water column to varying depths. They can provide acceptable results up to 20 m but become less accurate in deeper waters. The study area is located in the inner part of Dublin Bay, on the East coast of Ireland. The region investigated is a C-shaped inlet covering an area of 10 km long and 5 km wide with water depths ranging from 0 to 10 m. The methodology employed on this research uses a ratio of reflectance from SPOT 5 satellite bands, differing to standard linear transform algorithms. High accuracy water depths were derived using multibeam data. The final empirical model uses spatially weighted geographical tools to retrieve predicted depths. The results of this paper confirm that SPOT satellite scenes are suitable to predict depths using empirical models in very shallow embayments. Spatial regression models show better adjustments in the predictions over non-spatial models. The spatial regression equation used provides realistic results down to 6 m below the water surface, with

  17. In situ burning of oil in coastal marshes. 1. Vegetation recovery and soil temperature as a function of water depth, oil type, and marsh type.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qianxin; Mendelssohn, Irving A; Bryner, Nelson P; Walton, William D

    2005-03-15

    In-situ burning of oiled wetlands potentially provides a cleanup technique that is generally consistent with present wetland management procedures. The effects of water depth (+10, +2, and -2 cm), oil type (crude and diesel), and oil penetration of sediment before the burn on the relationship between vegetation recovery and soil temperature for three coastal marsh types were investigated. The water depth over the soil surface during in-situ burning was a key factor controlling marsh plant recovery. Both the 10- and 2-cm water depths were sufficient to protect marsh vegetation from burning impacts, with surface soil temperatures of <35 and 48 degrees C, respectively. Plant survival rate and growth responses at these water depth burns were not significantly different from the unburned control. In contrast, a water table 2 cm below the soil surface during the burn resulted in high soil temperatures, with 90-200 degrees C at 0-0.5 cm soil depth and 55-75 degrees C at 1-2 cm soil depth. The 2-cm soil exposure to fire significantly impeded the post-burn recovery of Spartina alterniflora and Sagittaria lancifolia but did not detrimentally affect the recovery of Spartina patens and Distichlis spicata. Oil type (crude vs diesel) and oil applied to the marsh soil surface (0.5 L x m(-2)) before the burn did not significantly affect plant recovery. Thus, recovery is species-specific when no surface water exists. Even water at the soil surface will most likely protect wetland plants from burning impact.

  18. Radon Concentrations in Drinking Water in Beijing City, China and Contribution to Radiation Dose

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yun-Yun; Ma, Yong-Zhong; Cui, Hong-Xing; Liu, Jian-Xiang; Sun, Ya-Ru; Shang, Bing; Su, Xu

    2014-01-01

    222Rn concentrations in drinking water samples from Beijing City, China, were determined based on a simple method for the continuous monitoring of radon using a radon-in-air monitor coupled to an air-water exchanger. A total of 89 water samples were sampled and analyzed for their 222Rn content. The observed radon levels ranged from detection limit up to 49 Bq/L. The calculated arithmetic and geometric means of radon concentrations in all measured samples were equal to 5.87 and 4.63 Bq/L, respectively. The average annual effective dose from ingestion of radon in drinking water was 2.78 μSv, and that of inhalation of water-borne radon was 28.5 μSv. It is concluded that it is not the ingestion of waterborne radon, but inhalation of the radon escaping from water that is a substantial part of the radiological hazard. Radon in water is a big concern for public health, especially for consumers who directly use well water with very high radon concentration. PMID:25350007

  19. Radon concentrations in drinking water in Beijing City, China and contribution to radiation dose.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yun-Yun; Ma, Yong-Zhong; Cui, Hong-Xing; Liu, Jian-Xiang; Sun, Ya-Ru; Shang, Bing; Su, Xu

    2014-10-27

    (222)Rn concentrations in drinking water samples from Beijing City, China, were determined based on a simple method for the continuous monitoring of radon using a radon-in-air monitor coupled to an air-water exchanger. A total of 89 water samples were sampled and analyzed for their (222)Rn content. The observed radon levels ranged from detection limit up to 49 Bq/L. The calculated arithmetic and geometric means of radon concentrations in all measured samples were equal to 5.87 and 4.63 Bq/L, respectively. The average annual effective dose from ingestion of radon in drinking water was 2.78 μSv, and that of inhalation of water-borne radon was 28.5 μSv. It is concluded that it is not the ingestion of waterborne radon, but inhalation of the radon escaping from water that is a substantial part of the radiological hazard. Radon in water is a big concern for public health, especially for consumers who directly use well water with very high radon concentration.

  20. Relation of nitrate concentrations in ground water to well depth, well use, and land use in Franklin Township, Gloucester County, New Jersey, 1970-85

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacLeod, Cecilia Louise; Barringer, T.H.; Vowinkel, E.F.; Price, C.V.

    1995-01-01

    A water-quality data base was developed to permit the investigation of the relation of concentrations of nitrate (as nitrogen) in ground water to well depth, well use, and land use (agricultural, residential, urban nonresidential, and undeveloped) in Franklin Township. Nitrate concentrations in water from 868 wells tended to decrease with depth. A rank-order regression model of nitrate concen- trations and land-use percentages was fitted to data from 98 shallow domestic wells. The model, which explains about 25 percent of the variance in the data, indicated that nitrate concentration increased with the percentage of developed land in a well's buffer zone. Further stratification of the data based on well use (commercial, domestic, or agricultural/irrigation) indicated that elevated nitrate concentrations were more common in water from agricultural/irrigation wells than in water from domestic or commercial wells. Concentrations of nitrate were indicative of human activities in water from about one-third of the wells sampled but exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's maximum contaminant level of 10 milligrams per liter in water from only 1 percent of the wells. A sampling strategy in which water from wells of different depths located within areas in each of the four land-use categories is sampled yearly and analyzed for nitrate and other constituents would facilitate determination of the effects of human activities on ground-water quality.

  1. Feasibility of RACT for 3D dose measurement and range verification in a water phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Alsanea, Fahed; Moskvin, Vadim; Stantz, Keith M.

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: The objective of this study is to establish the feasibility of using radiation-induced acoustics to measure the range and Bragg peak dose from a pulsed proton beam. Simulation studies implementing a prototype scanner design based on computed tomographic methods were performed to investigate the sensitivity to proton range and integral dose. Methods: Derived from thermodynamic wave equation, the pressure signals generated from the dose deposited from a pulsed proton beam with a 1 cm lateral beam width and a range of 16, 20, and 27 cm in water using Monte Carlo methods were simulated. The resulting dosimetric images were reconstructed implementing a 3D filtered backprojection algorithm and the pressure signals acquired from a 71-transducer array with a cylindrical geometry (30 × 40 cm) rotated over 2π about its central axis. Dependencies on the detector bandwidth and proton beam pulse width were performed, after which, different noise levels were added to the detector signals (using 1 μs pulse width and a 0.5 MHz cutoff frequency/hydrophone) to investigate the statistical and systematic errors in the proton range (at 20 cm) and Bragg peak dose (of 1 cGy). Results: The reconstructed radioacoustic computed tomographic image intensity was shown to be linearly correlated to the dose within the Bragg peak. And, based on noise dependent studies, a detector sensitivity of 38 mPa was necessary to determine the proton range to within 1.0 mm (full-width at half-maximum) (systematic error < 150 μm) for a 1 cGy Bragg peak dose, where the integral dose within the Bragg peak was measured to within 2%. For existing hydrophone detector sensitivities, a Bragg peak dose of 1.6 cGy is possible. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that computed tomographic scanner based on ionizing radiation-induced acoustics can be used to verify dose distribution and proton range with centi-Gray sensitivity. Realizing this technology into the clinic has the potential to significantly

  2. ACE-Asia Aerosol Optical Depth and Water Vapor Measured by Airborne Sunphotometers and Related to Other Measurements and Calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livingston, John M.; Russell, P. B.; Schmid, B.; Redemann, J.; Eilers, J. A.; Ramirez, S. A.; Kahn, R.; Hegg, D.; Pilewskie, P.; Anderson, T.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In the Spring 2001 phase of the Asian Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-Asia), the 6-channel NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-6) operated on 15 of the 19 research flights of the NCAR C-130, while its 14-channel counterpart (AATS- 14) flew successfully on all 18 research flights of the CIRPAS Twin Otter. ACE-Asia studied aerosol outflow from the Asian continent to the Pacific basin. It was designed to integrate suborbital and satellite measurements and models so as to reduce the uncertainty in calculations of the climate forcing due to aerosols. AATS-6 and AATS-14 measured solar beam transmission at 6 and 14 wavelengths (380-1021 and 354-1558 nm, respectively), yielding aerosol optical depth (AOD) spectra and column water vapor (CWV). Vertical differentiation in profiles yielded aerosol extinction spectra and water vapor concentration. The wavelength dependence of these AOD and extinction spectra indicates that supermicron dust was often a major component of the ACE-Asia aerosol. Frequently this dust-containing aerosol extended to high altitudes. For example, in AATS- 14 profiles analyzed to date, 36% of full-column AOD at 525 nm was above 3 km. In contrast, only 10% of CWV was above 3 km. Analyses and applications of AATS-6 and AATS-14 data to date include comparisons to (i) extinction products derived using in situ measurements, (ii) extinction profiles derived from lidar measurements, and (iii) AOD retrievals from the Multi-angle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR) aboard the TERRA satellite. Other planned collaborative studies include comparisons to results from size spectrometers, chemical measurements, other satellite sensors, flux radiometers, and chemical transport models. Early results of these studies will be presented.

  3. Results from a winter 2009-2010 nearshore mooring test in 25 m water depth off Newport, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dever, E. P.; Waldorf, B. W.; Risien, C. M.

    2010-12-01

    As part of the NSF-funded Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI), two surface moorings will be placed in 25 m water depth off Newport, Oregon and Grays Harbor, Washington. These moorings are intended to acquire continuous observations over the inner-shelf, where the surface boundary layer interacts continuously with the ocean bottom boundary layer. The moorings will utilize the WHOI-developed stretch hose technology implemented at several operational moorings along the US east coast. For the purposes of mooring survival, the largest significant waves need to be considered. Analysis of the historical record indicates the 100-year return period storm would generate 14.5 m high waves. The harsh wind and wave conditions encountered over the inner-shelf have the potential to cause mooring failure either by destroying surface buoy components, or by causing subsurface mooring components to fail. For example, during a winter storm in December 2007, several NDBC moorings along the Oregon and Washington coasts broke. To test modeling of mooring performance under winter conditions we constructed a test/pilot mooring with hardware, communications and power similar to the OOI buoy design. The test focused on the survivability of components. The mooring was equipped with a load cell to examine responses under varying wave and mean flow conditions. A secondary objective of the deployment was to test Ship-to-Ship/Ship-to-Shore Wireless Access Protocol (SWAP) telemetry from the buoy to shore over a distance of 1.5 km. Load cell data as well as buoy instruments (conductivity, temperature) were telemetered. This test mooring was deployed near one of the OOI sites in 25 m of water off Newport, Oregon in late October 2009. The mooring parted in mid-March 2010, two weeks prior to planned recovery. We recovered all mooring components, and we will report on the mooring design, the test, and the science and engineering data received.

  4. Modelling Effects of Water Table Depth Variations on Net Ecosystem CO2 Exchange of a Western Canadian Peatland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezbahuddin, S.; Grant, R. F.; Flanagan, L. B.

    2014-12-01

    Water table depth (WTD) is one of the key drivers affecting aggradation and degradation of peatlands. Variations in WTD can alter the balance between gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (Re) and so cause a peatland to change between a sink and a source of carbon. Process based mathematical modelling can provide insights on WTD-net ecosystem productivity (NEP) interactions over peatlands. We deployed a process-based ecosystem model ecosys to examine the WTD effects on variations in NEP of a fen peatland in Alberta, Canada. Our modelled results showed that a growing season (May-August) WTD drawdown of ~0.3m from 2004-2007 caused more rapid decomposition in deeper peat layers so that Re increased by ~180 g C m-2 growing season -1. However, similar increase in GPP (~ 170 g C m-2 growing season -1) under deeper WTD condition due to more rapid microbial and root growth, and hence more rapid mineralization and nutrient uptake, left no net effect of WTD drawdown on NEP. The modelled ecosystem was overall a large sink of C (~ 100 g C m-2 yr-1) over the study period of 2004-2009. However, gradually diminishing GPP by ~ 70 g C m-2 growing season -1 with progressively deeper WTD during 2008-2009 indicated that further drawdown of WTD could alter the source sink status of these peatlands. These modelled results were corroborated against hourly eddy covariance (EC) net CO2 fluxes, latent heat and sensible heat fluxes (R2~0.75, a→0, b→1); and annual estimates of EC-gap filled NEP and partitioned GPP and Re over the site from 2004-2009. Our findings indicated the needs for coupling of soil-plant-atmosphere schemes for gases, water, energy, carbon and nutrients in models to adequately simulate WTD effects on peatland C stocks.

  5. Propagation of Scholte Waves in deep water in a seafloor with power-law shear velocity depth dependence.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorman, L. M.

    2015-12-01

    The seafloor plays an important role in the propagation ofseafloor noise because its low shear velocity forms a strongwaveguide and the high shear velocity gradient facilitatesconversion processes.In 2001 (JASA), O. A. Godin and D. M.F. Chapman studiedpropagation of interface (Scholte) waves in models with ashear speed profile with a power-law depth dependence.They analyzed of four datasets from shallow-watersites, which they fit well with two-parameter models.Furthermore, they show that for the exponent value of1/2, the mode wavefunctions are self-similar.Data from the deep seafloor from seafloor sources observedby Ocean-Bottom Seismographs frequently exhibit afundamental mode ending in an Airy phase with a frequencyof a few Hertz. This is, of course,, incompatiblewith self-similarity. Adjusting the power-law shear velocityprofile near the water interface, however, improvesthe fit of this simple model with a parsimoniousparameterization to data from the the deep seafloor.Approximation of a power-law model using thin layers ofuniform velocity is eased by using an editor with aninteractive graphical user interface.

  6. Bacterial diversity and biogeochemistry of different chemosynthetic habitats of the REGAB cold seep (West African margin, 3160 m water depth)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pop Ristova, P.; Wenzhöfer, F.; Ramette, A.; Zabel, M.; Fischer, D.; Kasten, S.; Boetius, A.

    2012-07-01

    The giant pockmark REGAB (West African margin, 3160 m water depth) is an active methane-emitting cold seep ecosystem, where the energy derived from microbially mediated oxidation of methane supports high biomass and diversity of chemosynthetic communities. Bare sediments interspersed with heterogeneous chemosynthetic assemblages of mytilid mussels, vesicomyid clams and siboglinid tubeworms form a complex seep ecosystem. To better understand if benthic bacterial communities reflect the patchy distribution of chemosynthetic fauna, all major chemosynthetic habitats at REGAB were investigated using an interdisciplinary approach combining porewater geochemistry, in situ quantification of fluxes and consumption of methane, as well bacterial community fingerprinting. This study revealed that sediments populated by different fauna assemblages show distinct biogeochemical activities and are associated with distinct sediment bacterial communities. The methane consumption and methane effluxes ranged over one to two orders of magnitude across habitats, and reached highest values at the mussel habitat, which hosted a different bacterial community compared to the other habitats. Clam assemblages had a profound impact on the sediment geochemistry, but less so on the bacterial community structure. Moreover, all clam assemblages at REGAB were restricted to sediments characterized by complete methane consumption in the seafloor, and intermediate biogeochemical activity. Overall, variations in the sediment geochemistry were reflected in the distribution of both fauna and microbial communities; and were mostly determined by methane flux.

  7. Water temperature variability as an indicator of shallow-depth groundwater behaviour in limestone areas in west Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowther, J.; Pitty, A. F.

    1982-05-01

    The temperatures of groundwaters and surface streams were determined regularly over a 1-yr. period at 139 sampling polints in three limestone areas of the Malay peninsula. The standard deviation (s.d.) of water temperatures recorded at each site provides a measure of temperature variability. Deeper groundwaters exhibit the narrowest temperature fluctuations (s.d. 0.05°C). Shallow-depth groundwaters have a greater temperature variability particularly those, such as vadose streams (mean s.d. 0.27°C) and diffuse-flow seepage in caves (mean s.d. 0.26°C), which encounter circulatory air within the aquifer. Surface streams display much wider fluctuations. Those in tin-mining areas have s.d.-values of over 2.0°C, and this is largely attributed to their small groundwater component and to their banks being mostly unvegetated. Temperature variability is shown to provide a sound basis for characterizing groundwater flow and identifying groundwater components in surface streams.

  8. Effect of higher order nonlinearity, directionality and finite water depth on wave statistics: Comparison of laboratory experiments, field data and numerical simulations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, Leandro; Onorato, Miguel; Monbaliu, Jaak; Toffoli, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    This research is focused on the study of nonlinear evolution of irregular wave fields in water of arbitrary depth by comparing laboratory experiments, field measurements and numerical simulations. It is now well accepted that modulational instability, known as one of the main mechanisms for the formation of rogue waves, induces strong departures from Gaussian statistics and second order based statistics. However, whereas non-Gaussian properties are remarkable when wave fields follow one direction of propagation over an infinite water depth, wave statistics only weakly deviate from Gaussianity when waves spread over a range of different directions. Over finite water depth, furthermore, wave instability attenuates overall and eventually vanishes for relative water depths as low as kh = 1.36 (where k is the wavenumber of the dominant waves and h the water depth). Recent experimental results, nonetheless, seem to indicate that oblique perturbations are capable of triggering and sustaining modulational instability even if kh < 1.36. In this regard, the aim of this research is to understand whether the combined effect of directionality and finite water depth has a significant effect on wave statistics and particularly on the occurrence of extremes. For this purpose, laboratory experiments in a large wave basin, numerical experiments solving the Euler equation of motion with the Higher Order Spectral Method (HOSM) and field experiments at the Lake George experimental site (Australia) have been compared to assess the role of third order nonlinearity, and particularly modulational instability, on wave statistics. Herein, we present a comparative analysis of the statistical properties (i.e. density function of the surface elevation and its statistical moments skewness and kurtosis) between laboratory experiments, simulations and in-situ data which provides a confrontation between the numerical results and real observations in laboratory and field conditions.

  9. Patterns in abundance and size of two deep-water gorgonian octocorals, in relation to depth and substrate features off Nova Scotia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Shana; Metaxas, Anna; Sameoto, Jessica; Lawton, Peter

    2009-12-01

    Deep-water corals form unique ecosystems, yet very little is known about factors that regulate their distribution and growth. The abundance and size of two deep-water gorgonian coral species, Paragorgia arborea and Primnoa resedaeformis, and their relationship with depth and substratum cover, were investigated at Northeast Channel, off Nova Scotia, in July 2006. This is the first study to measure abundance and size of these two coral species at depths >500 m in the Canadian Atlantic region. A total of 5 transects between 500 and 1000 m depth were examined using video collected by the remotely operated vehicle ROPOS. Abundance of both species was patchy, but higher at these deeper depths than at <500 m. Abundance generally declined with depth, and was moderately correlated with cover of hard substratum (cobble, boulder, bedrock). These relationships were stronger and less variable for P. resedaeformis than for P. arborea, suggesting that factors such as topographic relief may play an additional role in regulating distributions of P. arborea. Maximum colony height was 125 and 240 cm for P. resedaeformis and P. arborea, respectively, and much greater than recorded for depths <500 m. Overall, colony height and depth relationships were strong for both species, but variable among transects. P. resedaeformis showed a negative relationship with depth, while the opposite was observed for P. arborea, suggesting that the two species are affected differently by factors that vary with depth (e.g. temperature, fishing disturbance). Relationships between colony size and size of attachment stone were stronger for P. arborea, especially for overturned colonies, than for P. resedaeformis, suggesting that availability of suitably coarse substrate may be more important for the long-term persistence of P. arborea colonies.

  10. Dose calculations for the concrete water tunnels at 190-C Area, Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Kamboj, S.; Yu, C.

    1997-01-01

    The RESRAD-BUILD code was used to calculate the radiological dose from the contaminated concrete water tunnels at the 190-C Area at the Hanford Site. Two exposure scenarios, recreationist and maintenance worker, were considered. A residential scenario was not considered because the material was assumed to be left intact (i.e., the concrete would not be rubbleized because the location would not be suitable for construction of a house). The recreationist was assumed to use the tunnel for 8 hours per day for 1 week as an overnight shelter. The maintenance worker was assumed to spend 20 hours per year working in the tunnel. Six exposure pathways were considered in calculating the dose. Three external exposure pathways involved penetrating radiation emitted directly from the contaminated tunnel floor, emitted from radioactive particulates deposited on the tunnel floor, and resulting from submersion in airborne radioactive particulates. Three internal exposure pathways involved inhalation of airborne radioactive particulates; inadvertent direct ingestion of removable, contaminated material on the tunnel floor; and inadvertent indirect ingestion of airborne particulates deposited on the tunnel floor. The gradual removal of surface contamination over time and the ingrowth of decay products were considered in calculating the dose at different times. The maximum doses were estimated to be 1.5 mrem/yr for the recreationist and 0.34 mrem/yr for the maintenance worker.

  11. SU-E-T-516: Measurement of the Absorbed Dose Rate in Water Under Reference Conditions in a CyberKnife Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Aragon-Martinez, N; Hernandez-Guzman, A; Gomez-Munoz, A; Massillon-JL, G

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to measure the absorbed-dose-rate in a CyberKnife unit reference-field (6cm diameter) using three ionization chambers (IC) following the new IAEA/AAPM formalism and Gafchromic film (MD-V3-55 and EBT3) protocol according to our work reported previously. Methods: The absorbed-dose-rates were measured at 90cm and 70cm SSD in a 10cmx10cm field and at 70cm SSD in a 5.4cmx5.4cm equivalent to 6cm diameter field using a linac Varian iX. All measurements were performed at 10cm depth in water. The correction factors that account for the difference between the IC response on the reference field and the CyberKnife reference field, k-(Q-msr,Q)^(f-msr,f-ref), were evaluated and Gafchromic film were calibrated using the results obtained above. Under the CyberKnife reference conditions, the factors were used to measure the absorbed-dose-rate with IC according to the new formalism and the calibrated film was irradiated in water. The film calibration curve was used to evaluate the absorbed-dose-rate in the CyberKnife unit. Results: Difference up to 2.56% is observed between dose-rate measured with IC in the reference 10cmx10cm field, depending where the chamber was calibrated, which was not reflected in the correction factor k-(Q-msr,Q)^(f-msr,f-ref ) where variations of ~0.15%-0.5% were obtained. Within measurements uncertainties, maximum difference of 1.8% on the absorbed-dose-rate in the CyberKnife reference field is observed between all IC and the films Conclusion: Absorbed-dose-rate to water was measured in a CyberKnife reference field with acceptable accuracy (combined uncertainties ~1.32%-1.73%, k=1) using three IC and films. The MD-V3-55 film as well as the new IAEA/AAPM formalism can be considered as a suitable dosimetric method to measure absorbed-dose-rate to water in small and non-standard CyberKnife fields used in clinical treatments However, the EBT3 film is not appropriated due to the high uncertainty provided (combined uncertainty ~9%, k=1

  12. How hydrology determines seasonal and interannual variations in water table depth, surface energy exchange, and water stress in a tropical peatland: Modeling versus measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezbahuddin, M.; Grant, R. F.; Hirano, T.

    2015-11-01

    Soil carbon stocks in tropical peatlands have declined recently from water table depth (WTD) drawdown caused by increased frequency and intensity of climate extremes like El Niño and by artificial drainage. Restoration of these carbon stocks under these climatic and anthropogenic disturbances requires improved predictive capacity for hydrological feedbacks to ecological processes. Process-based modeling of tropical peatland ecohydrology could provide us with such capacity, but such modeling has thus far been limited. We aimed at using basic processes for water and O2 transport and their effects on ecosystem water, carbon, and nitrogen cycling to model seasonal and interannual variations of WTD and surface energy exchange. We tested these processes in a process-based model ecosys in a drained tropical Indonesian peatland from an El Niño year 2002 to a wetter year 2005. WTD was modeled from hydraulically driven water transfers controlled vertically by precipitation versus evapotranspiration (ET) and laterally by discharge versus recharge to or from an external reference WTD. These transfers caused WTD drawdown and soil drying to be modeled during dry seasons, which reduced ET and increased Bowen ratio by lowering stomatal conductance. More pronounced dry seasons in drier years 2002-2004 versus wetter year 2005 caused deeper WTD, more intense peat drying, and greater plant water stress. These modeled trends were well corroborated by site measurements as apparent in regression statistics of modeled versus observed WTD (R2 > 0.8), latent heat (R2 > 0.8), and sensible heat (R2 > 0.7) fluxes. Insights gained from this modeling would aid in predicting the fate of tropical peatlands under future drier climates.

  13. The effect of drought and interspecific interactions on depth of water uptake in deep- and shallow-rooting grassland species as determined by δ18O natural abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoekstra, N. J.; Finn, J. A.; Hofer, D.; Lüscher, A.

    2014-08-01

    Increased incidence of drought, as predicted under climate change, has the potential to negatively affect grassland production. Compared to monocultures, vertical belowground niche complementarity between shallow- and deep-rooting species may be an important mechanism resulting in higher yields and higher resistance to drought in grassland mixtures. However, very little is known about the belowground responses in grassland systems and increased insight into these processes may yield important information both to predict the effect of future climate change and better design agricultural systems to cope with this. This study assessed the effect of a 9-week experimental summer drought on the depth of water uptake of two shallow-rooting species (Lolium perenne L. and Trifolium repens L.) and two deep-rooting species (Cichorium intybus L. and Trifolium pratense L.) in grassland monocultures and four-species mixtures by using the natural abundance δ18O isotope method. We tested the following three hypotheses: (1) drought results in a shift of water uptake to deeper soil layers, (2) deep-rooting species take up a higher proportion of water from deeper soil layers relative to shallow-rooting species, and (3) as a result of interspecific interactions in mixtures, the water uptake of shallow-rooting species becomes shallower when grown together with deep-rooting species and vice versa, resulting in reduced niche overlap. The natural abundance δ18O technique provided novel insights into the depth of water uptake of deep- and shallow- rooting grassland species and revealed large shifts in depth of water uptake in response to drought and interspecific interactions. Compared to control conditions, drought reduced the proportional water uptake from 0-10 cm soil depth (PCWU0-10) of L. perenne, T. repens and C. intybus in monocultures by on average 54%. In contrast, the PCWU0-10 of T. pratense in monoculture increased by 44%, and only when grown in mixture did the PCWU0-10 of T

  14. Groundwater-soil moisture-climate interactions: lessons from idealized model experiments with forced water table depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducharne, Agnès; Lo, Min-Hui; Decharme, Bertrand; Wang, Fuxing; Cheruy, Frédérique; Ghattas, Josefine; Chien, Rong-You; lan, Chia-Wei; Colin, Jeanne; Tyteca, Sophie

    2016-04-01

    Groundwater (GW) constitutes by far the largest volume of liquid freshwater on Earth. The most active part is soil moisture (SM), recognized as a key variable of land/atmosphere interactions, especially in so-called transition zones, where/when SM varies between wet and dry values. But GW can also be stored in deeper reservoirs than soils, in particular unconfined aquifer systems, in which the saturated part is called the water table (WT). The latter is characterized by slow and mostly horizontal water flows towards the river network, with well-known buffering effects on streamflow variability. Where/when the WT is shallow enough, it can also sustain SM by means of capillary rise, thus increase evapotranspiration (ET), with potential impact on the climate system (including temperatures and precipitation). The large residence time of GW may also increase the Earth system's memory, with consequences on the persistence of extreme events, hydro-climatic predictability, and anthropogenic climate change, particularly the magnitude of regional warming. Here, our main goal is to explore the potential impacts of the water table depth (WTD) on historical climate through idealized model analyses. To this end, we force three state-of-the art land surface models (LSMs), namely CLM, ORCHIDEE, and SURFEX, with prescribed WTDs ranging from 0.5 to 10 m. The LSMs are run either off-line or coupled to their parent climate model, following LMIP/AMIP-like protocols for intercomparability. Within this framework, we want to assess the sensitivity of ET and the simulated climate to the WTD in a systematic way. In particular, we will identify and compare the patterns of the critical WTD, defined as the deepest one to achieve a significant change in ET. To this end, we estimate derivatives of ET with respect to WTD, which tell how the sensitivity of ET to a unit change in WTD evolves with WTD. In each grid-point, these derivatives can be used to define the critical WTD, given a threshold ET

  15. A Synthetic View of Delta Progradation, Distributary Channel Stability and Alluvial Aggradation in Terms of the Control of Basin Water Depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muto, T.

    2014-12-01

    Recent progress in experimental stratigraphy of river deltas has brought an implication that basin water depth seriously affects not only delta progradation, but also distributary channel behavior and alluvial aggradation of the delta plain. A series of experiments conducted with differential basement suggests that a prograding delta can retain its isotropic shoreline configuration even though there is significant variation in basin water depth in the transverse direction, and thus that local basin water depth affects local residence time and avulsion frequency of distributary channels. With deeper basin water, a delta progrades slowly, distributary channels migrate slowly and avulse less frequently, and the feeder alluvial system aggrades slowly. Another series of experiments, which were conducted to produce a 2D graded alluvial channel, reveals that a delta facing a very deep water basin does not prograde, its distributary channels do not migrate, and the feeder alluvial system does not aggrade at all (i.e. the state of grade). These experimental facts imply a synthetic understanding of delta progradation, distributary channel stability and alluvial aggradation, in terms of the control of basin water depth. This novel understanding can be expressed in part by a simple geometrical model. Dimensionless rates of (1) delta progradation, (2) channel migration and (3) alluvial aggradation are expressed with an identical numerical formula that can be specified only with dimensionless basin water depth and alluvial slope normalized with the delta's foreset slope. Values of those dimensionless rates, ranging between 0 and 1, denote how close the feeder alluvial system is to grade: 0 for grade and 1 for perfect aggradation. The three dimensionless rates, or grade index, are also applicable to a river delta growing with sea level change, as far as it retains an isotropic shoreline configuration.

  16. Radionuclide concentrations and dose assessment of cistern water and groundwater at the Marshall Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Noshkin, V.E.; Eagle, R.J.; Wong, K.M.; Jokela, T.A.; Robison, W.L.

    1981-03-16

    A radiological survey was conducted from September through November of 1978 to determine the concentrations of radionuclides in the terrestrial and marine environments of 11 atolls and 2 islands in the Northern Marshall Islands. More than 70 cistern and groundwater samples were collected at the atolls; the volume of each sample was between 55 and 100 l. The concentration of /sup 90/Sr in cistern water at most atolls is that expected from world-wide fallout in wet deposition. Except for Bikini and Rongelap, /sup 137/Cs concentrations in cistern water are in agreement with the average predicted concentrations from wet deposition. The /sup 239 +240/Pu concentrations are everywhere less than the predicted fallout concentrations except at Rongelap, Ailinginae, and Bikini where the measured and predicted concentrations are in general agreement. During the period sampled, most groundwater concentrations of /sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs were everywhere higher than the concentrations in cistern water. Concentrations of the transurancies in filtered groundwater solution were everywhere comparable to or less than the concentrations in cistern water. It is concluded that the concentrations of radionuclides detected during any single period may not necessarily reflect the long-term average concentrations or the concentrations that might be observed if a lined well were extended above the surface. In any case, at all atolls the /sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs concentrations in groundwater are below the concentration guidelines for drinking water recommended by the Environmental Protection Agency. The maximum annual dose rates and the 30- and 50-y integral doses are calculated for the intake of both cistern water and groundwater for each of the atolls.

  17. A Feasibility Study of Fricke Dosimetry as an Absorbed Dose to Water Standard for 192Ir HDR Sources

    PubMed Central

    deAlmeida, Carlos Eduardo; Ochoa, Ricardo; de Lima, Marilene Coelho; David, Mariano Gazineu; Pires, Evandro Jesus; Peixoto, José Guilherme; Salata, Camila; Bernal, Mario Antônio

    2014-01-01

    High dose rate brachytherapy (HDR) using 192Ir sources is well accepted as an important treatment option and thus requires an accurate dosimetry standard. However, a dosimetry standard for the direct measurement of the absolute dose to water for this particular source type is currently not available. An improved standard for the absorbed dose to water based on Fricke dosimetry of HDR 192Ir brachytherapy sources is presented in this study. The main goal of this paper is to demonstrate the potential usefulness of the Fricke dosimetry technique for the standardization of the quantity absorbed dose to water for 192Ir sources. A molded, double-walled, spherical vessel for water containing the Fricke solution was constructed based on the Fricke system. The authors measured the absorbed dose to water and compared it with the doses calculated using the AAPM TG-43 report. The overall combined uncertainty associated with the measurements using Fricke dosimetry was 1.4% for k = 1, which is better than the uncertainties reported in previous studies. These results are promising; hence, the use of Fricke dosimetry to measure the absorbed dose to water as a standard for HDR 192Ir may be possible in the future. PMID:25521914

  18. A feasibility study of Fricke dosimetry as an absorbed dose to water standard for 192Ir HDR sources.

    PubMed

    deAlmeida, Carlos Eduardo; Ochoa, Ricardo; Lima, Marilene Coelho de; David, Mariano Gazineu; Pires, Evandro Jesus; Peixoto, José Guilherme; Salata, Camila; Bernal, Mario Antônio

    2014-01-01

    High dose rate brachytherapy (HDR) using 192Ir sources is well accepted as an important treatment option and thus requires an accurate dosimetry standard. However, a dosimetry standard for the direct measurement of the absolute dose to water for this particular source type is currently not available. An improved standard for the absorbed dose to water based on Fricke dosimetry of HDR 192Ir brachytherapy sources is presented in this study. The main goal of this paper is to demonstrate the potential usefulness of the Fricke dosimetry technique for the standardization of the quantity absorbed dose to water for 192Ir sources. A molded, double-walled, spherical vessel for water containing the Fricke solution was constructed based on the Fricke system. The authors measured the absorbed dose to water and compared it with the doses calculated using the AAPM TG-43 report. The overall combined uncertainty associated with the measurements using Fricke dosimetry was 1.4% for k = 1, which is better than the uncertainties reported in previous studies. These results are promising; hence, the use of Fricke dosimetry to measure the absorbed dose to water as a standard for HDR 192Ir may be possible in the future. PMID:25521914

  19. The Incredible Shrinking Cup Lab: An Investigation of the Effect of Depth and Water Pressure on Polystyrene

    EPA Science Inventory

    This activity familiarizes students with the effects of increased depth on pressure and volume. Students will determine the volume of polystyrene cups before and after they are submerged to differing depths in the ocean and the Laurentian Great Lakes. Students will also calculate...

  20. Depth profiles of spectral and hydrological characteristics of water and their relation to abundances of green sulfur bacteria in the stratified lakes of the White Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharcheva, Anastasia V.; Krasnova, Elena D.; Gorlenko, Vladimir M.; Lunina, Olga N.; Savvichev, Alexander S.; Voronov, Dmitry A.; Zhiltsova, Anna A.; Patsaeva, Svetlana V.

    2016-04-01

    We analyze the results received from two expeditions performed in August-September 2013, August-September 2014 and February 2015 in the Kandalaksha Bay of the White Sea. Depth profiles of hydrological characteristics and optical properties of water were recorded for five marine lakes being on different stages of isolation from the White Sea. Those relic lakes demonstrate a tendency to meromixis and are characterized by apparent stratification of the water bodies from the brackish top layer to the bottom salt water. Maximal concentrations of anoxygenic phototrophs (green sulfur bacteria) were found at depths close to the redox interface in all the studied lakes. To discriminate differently pigmented groups of microorganisms the fluorescence emission spectra of bacteriochlorophylls from the living cells were used. We puzzle out the data on light spectrum propagation through the water body in each lake using optical properties of water (attenuation spectra) in the UV, visible and NIR ranges, as well as direct measurements of the total irradiances at various depths. The changes in optical characteristics of water in the stratified reservoirs due to cromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and microbial pigments affect the light intensity and its spectral distribution at each water layer thus influencing the living conditions for differently pigmented phototrophic microorganisms and determining the composition of microbial community.

  1. Direct measurement of absorbed dose to water in HDR {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy: Water calorimetry, ionization chamber, Gafchromic film, and TG-43

    SciTech Connect

    Sarfehnia, Arman; Kawrakow, Iwan; Seuntjens, Jan

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: Gafchromic film and ionometric calibration procedures for HDR {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy sources in terms of dose rate to water are presented and the experimental results are compared to the TG-43 protocol as well as with the absolute dose measurement results from a water calorimetry-based primary standard. Methods: EBT-1 Gafchromic films, an A1SL Exradin miniature Shonka thimble type chamber, and an SI HDR 1000 Plus well-type chamber (Standard Imaging, Inc., Middleton, WI) with an ADCL traceable S{sub k} calibration coefficient (following the AAPM TG-43 protocol) were used. The Farmer chamber and Gafchromic film measurements were performed directly in water. All results were compared to direct and absolute absorbed dose to water measurements from a 4 deg. C stagnant water calorimeter. Results: Based on water calorimetry, the authors measured the dose rate to water to be 361{+-}7 {mu}Gy/(h U) at a 55 mm source-to-detector separation. The dose rate normalized to air-kerma strength for all the techniques agree with the water calorimetry results to within 0.83%. The overall 1-sigma uncertainty on water calorimetry, ionization chamber, Gafchromic film, and TG-43 dose rate measurement amounts to 1.90%, 1.44%, 1.78%, and 2.50%, respectively. Conclusions: This work allows us to build a more realistic uncertainty estimate for absorbed dose to water determination using the TG-43 protocol. Furthermore, it provides the framework necessary for a shift from indirect HDR {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy dosimetry to a more accurate, direct, and absolute measurement of absorbed dose to water.

  2. User’s manual for the Automated Data Assurance and Management application developed for quality control of Everglades Depth Estimation Network water-level data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petkewich, Matthew D.; Daamen, Ruby C.; Roehl, Edwin A.; Conrads, Paul A.

    2016-09-29

    The generation of Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN) daily water-level and water-depth maps is dependent on high quality real-time data from over 240 water-level stations. To increase the accuracy of the daily water-surface maps, the Automated Data Assurance and Management (ADAM) tool was created by the U.S. Geological Survey as part of Greater Everglades Priority Ecosystems Science. The ADAM tool is used to provide accurate quality-assurance review of the real-time data from the EDEN network and allows estimation or replacement of missing or erroneous data. This user’s manual describes how to install and operate the ADAM software. File structure and operation of the ADAM software is explained using examples.

  3. User’s Manual for the Automated Data Assurance and Management Application Developed for Quality Control of Everglades Depth Estimation Network Water-Level Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petkewich, Matthew D.; Daamen, Ruby C.; Roehl, Edwin A.; Conrads, Paul A.

    2016-09-29

    The generation of Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN) daily water-level and water-depth maps is dependent on high quality real-time data from over 240 water-level stations. To increase the accuracy of the daily water-surface maps, the Automated Data Assurance and Management (ADAM) tool was created by the U.S. Geological Survey as part of Greater Everglades Priority Ecosystems Science. The ADAM tool is used to provide accurate quality-assurance review of the real-time data from the EDEN network and allows estimation or replacement of missing or erroneous data. This user’s manual describes how to install and operate the ADAM software. File structure and operation of the ADAM software is explained using examples.

  4. SU-E-T-544: Microscopic Dose Enhancement of Gold Nanoparticles in Water for Proton Therapy: A Simulation Study

    SciTech Connect

    Newpower, M; Ahmad, S; Chen, Y

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To quantify the microscopic dose and linear energy transfer (LET) enhancement of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) in water for proton therapy. Methods: The GEANT4 toolkit (version 10) with low energy electromagnetic classes was used to create a series of simulations where three radii (r=5, 20, 100 nm) of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were irradiated with 5 × 106 80 MeV protons. A cubic detector (10 × 10 × 10 um, divided in 25 × 25 × 25 voxels) were placed in a water phantom where the GNP rests in the center. The size of incident proton beam was set to be same as the GNPs and perpendicularly aiming to the target. Dose deposited to each voxel were recorded to calculate the overall deposited dose and the dose-averaged LET. The emitted secondary electron spectra were also collected in a spherical customized scorer (radius = 150 nm). Results: The average dose from a single GNP in a cubic water phantom was increased by 0.12 %, 1.12% and 2.3% and the mean dose-averaged LET was increased by 5.87% and 27.67% and 0.31% for GNP radius of 5 nm, 20 nm and 100 nm, respectively. Conclusion: The dose enhancement effect from the presence of a single GNP was qualified in a water phantom. A significant increase in the mean dose-averaged LET was found for 20 nm GNP.

  5. No shift to a deeper water uptake depth in response to summer drought of two lowland and sub-alpine C₃-grasslands in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Prechsl, Ulrich E; Burri, Susanne; Gilgen, Anna K; Kahmen, Ansgar; Buchmann, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Temperate C3-grasslands are of high agricultural and ecological importance in Central Europe. Plant growth and consequently grassland yields depend strongly on water supply during the growing season, which is projected to change in the future. We therefore investigated the effect of summer drought on the water uptake of an intensively managed lowland and an extensively managed sub-alpine grassland in Switzerland. Summer drought was simulated by using transparent shelters. Standing above- and belowground biomass was sampled during three growing seasons. Soil and plant xylem waters were analyzed for oxygen (and hydrogen) stable isotope ratios, and the depths of plant water uptake were estimated by two different approaches: (1) linear interpolation method and (2) Bayesian calibrated mixing model. Relative to the control, aboveground biomass was reduced under drought conditions. In contrast to our expectations, lowland grassland plants subjected to summer drought were more likely (43-68%) to rely on water in the topsoil (0-10 cm), whereas control plants relied less on the topsoil (4-37%) and shifted to deeper soil layers (20-35 cm) during the drought period (29-48%). Sub-alpine grassland plants did not differ significantly in uptake depth between drought and control plots during the drought period. Both approaches yielded similar results and showed that the drought treatment in the two grasslands did not induce a shift to deeper uptake depths, but rather continued or shifted water uptake to even more shallower soil depths. These findings illustrate the importance of shallow soil depths for plant performance under drought conditions.

  6. Ventilatory mechanics and the effects of water depth on breathing pattern in the aquatic caecilian Typhlonectes natans.

    PubMed

    Prabha, K C; Bernard, D G; Gardner, M; Smatresk, N J

    2000-01-01

    The breathing pattern in the aquatic caecilian Typhlonectes natans was investigated by recording airflow via a pneumotachograph under unrestrained normal physiological conditions. Ventilatory mechanics were assessed using airflow and pressure measurements from the buccal cavity and trachea. The breathing pattern consisted of an expiratory phase followed by a series of 10-15 small buccal pumps to inflate the lung, succeeded by a long non-ventilatory period. T. natans separate the expiratory and inspiratory gases in the buccal cavity and take several inspiratory pumps, distinguishing their breathing pattern from that of sarcopterygians. Hydrostatic pressure assisted exhalation. The tracheal pressure was greater than the water pressure at that depth, suggesting that pleuroperitoneal pressure as well as axial or pulmonary smooth muscles may have contributed to the process of exhalation. The frequency of lung ventilation was 6.33+/-0.84 breaths h(-)(1), and ventilation occurred via the nares. Compared with other amphibians, this low ventilatory frequency suggests that T. natans may have acquired very efficient pulmonary respiration as an adaptation for survival in their seasonally fluctuating natural habitat. Their respiratory pathway is quite unique, with the trachea separated into anterior, central and posterior regions. The anterior region serves as an air channel, the central region is attached to the tracheal lung, and the posterior region consists of a bifurcated air channel leading to the left and right posterior lungs. The lungs are narrow, elongated, profusely vascularized and compartmentalized. The posterior lungs extend to approximately two-thirds of the body length. On the basis of their breathing pattern, it appears that caecilians are phylogenetically derived from two-stroke breathers.

  7. Ventilatory mechanics and the effects of water depth on breathing pattern in the aquatic caecilian Typhlonectes natans.

    PubMed

    Prabha, K C; Bernard, D G; Gardner, M; Smatresk, N J

    2000-01-01

    The breathing pattern in the aquatic caecilian Typhlonectes natans was investigated by recording airflow via a pneumotachograph under unrestrained normal physiological conditions. Ventilatory mechanics were assessed using airflow and pressure measurements from the buccal cavity and trachea. The breathing pattern consisted of an expiratory phase followed by a series of 10-15 small buccal pumps to inflate the lung, succeeded by a long non-ventilatory period. T. natans separate the expiratory and inspiratory gases in the buccal cavity and take several inspiratory pumps, distinguishing their breathing pattern from that of sarcopterygians. Hydrostatic pressure assisted exhalation. The tracheal pressure was greater than the water pressure at that depth, suggesting that pleuroperitoneal pressure as well as axial or pulmonary smooth muscles may have contributed to the process of exhalation. The frequency of lung ventilation was 6.33+/-0.84 breaths h(-)(1), and ventilation occurred via the nares. Compared with other amphibians, this low ventilatory frequency suggests that T. natans may have acquired very efficient pulmonary respiration as an adaptation for survival in their seasonally fluctuating natural habitat. Their respiratory pathway is quite unique, with the trachea separated into anterior, central and posterior regions. The anterior region serves as an air channel, the central region is attached to the tracheal lung, and the posterior region consists of a bifurcated air channel leading to the left and right posterior lungs. The lungs are narrow, elongated, profusely vascularized and compartmentalized. The posterior lungs extend to approximately two-thirds of the body length. On the basis of their breathing pattern, it appears that caecilians are phylogenetically derived from two-stroke breathers. PMID:10607536

  8. Design and implementation of a water phantom for IMRT, arc therapy, and tomotherapy dose distribution measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Pallotta, Stefania; Marrazzo, Livia; Bucciolini, Marta

    2007-10-15

    The aim of this paper is to present a new phantom for arc therapy, intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and tomotherapy dose distribution measurement in pretreatment verification. The presented phantom is innovative for its use of water as the tissue equivalent material, together with a technical solution specifically designed to support radiographic or radiochromic film and ionization chambers in any desired position. The phantom comprise a Plexiglas container, whose present shape and dimensions offer the possibility to simulate a human torso or abdomen; the container can be filled with water by opening the upper cover. On the internal side of the cover, a set of carbon pipes can support film in the desired coronal, axial, or sagittal planes. At one of the two ends of the phantom, an ionization chamber can be positioned parallel to the rotation axis of the accelerator gantry in all possible positions within a 20 cm diameter cylinder, for film calibration purposes. Inhomogeneities can be inserted into the phantom using the same carbon pipes and plastic sheets used to support film. An example of vertebra-shaped inserts made of bone equivalent material is reported. Radiochromic film can be dipped in water, while radiographic film must be protected to prevent damage. To accomplish this, radiographic film is laminated using a cold laminating film. In order to assess the effects of both the lamination itself and the effects of water on laminated Kodak EDR2 film, the optical density (OD) of conventional, laminated, and laminated film immersed in water and exposed to a range of doses from 0 to 300 cGy were compared. The OD of the three samples receiving the same radiation dose did not present any significant difference, thus proving that laminated EDR2 film can also be used in water. A prerequisite for any dosimetric comparison between planned and measured data is a proper film to plan registration. The solution proposed here is an extrinsic in-plane registration

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of Thalassotalea sp. Strain ND16A Isolated from Eastern Mediterranean Sea Water Collected from a Depth of 1,055 Meters

    PubMed Central

    Stelling, Savannah C.; Utturkar, Sagar M.; Alshibli, Noor K.; Brown, Steven D.

    2014-01-01

    Thalassotalea sp. strain ND16A belongs to the family Colwelliaceae and was isolated from eastern Mediterranean Sea water at a depth of 1,055 m. Members of Colwelliaceae are ubiquitous marine heterotrophs. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Thalassotalea sp. strain ND16A, a member of the newly described genus Thalassotalea. PMID:25428976

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Thalassotalea sp. Strain ND16A Isolated from Eastern Mediterranean Sea Water Collected from a Depth of 1,055 Meters

    SciTech Connect

    Stelling, Savannah C.; Techtmann, Stephen M.; Utturkar, Sagar M.; Alshibli, Noor K.; Brown, Steven D.; Hazen, Terry C.

    2014-11-26

    Thalassotalea sp. strain ND16A belongs to the family Colwelliaceae and was isolated from eastern Mediterranean Sea water at a depth of 1,055 m. Members of Colwelliaceae are ubiquitous marine heterotrophs. Lastly, here we report the draft genome sequence of Thalassotalea sp. strain ND16A, a member of the newly described genus Thalassotalea.

  11. Dose to ‘water-like’ media or dose to tissue in MV photons radiotherapy treatment planning: still a matter of debate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreo, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    The difference between Monte Carlo Treatment Planning (MCTP) based on the assumption of ‘water-like’ tissues with densities obtained from CT procedures, or on tissue compositions derived from CT-determined densities, have been investigated. Stopping powers and electron fluences have been calculated for a range of media and body tissues for 6 MV photon beams, including changes in their physical data (density and stopping powers). These quantities have been used to determine absorbed doses using cavity theory. It is emphasized that tissue compositions given in ICRU or ICRP reports should not be given the standing of physical constants as they correspond to average values obtained for a limited number of human-body samples. It has been shown that mass stopping-power ratios to water are more dependent on patient-to-patient composition differences, and therefore on their mean excitation energies (I-values), than on mass density. Electron fluence in different media are also more dependent on media composition (and their I-values) than on density. However, as a consequence of the balance between fluence and stopping powers, doses calculated from their product are more constant than what the independent stopping powers and fluence variations suggest. Additionally, cancelations in dose ratios minimize the differences between the ‘water-like’ and ‘tissue’ approaches, yielding practically identical results except for bone, and to a lesser extent for adipose tissue. A priori, changing from one approach to another does not seem to be justified considering the large number of approximations and uncertainties involved throughout the treatment planning tissue segmentation and dose calculation procedures. The key issue continues to be the composition of tissues and their I-values, and as these cannot be obtained for individual patients, whatever approach is selected does not lead to significant differences from a water reference dose, the maximum of these being of the

  12. Dose to 'water-like' media or dose to tissue in MV photons radiotherapy treatment planning: still a matter of debate.

    PubMed

    Andreo, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    The difference between Monte Carlo Treatment Planning (MCTP) based on the assumption of 'water-like' tissues with densities obtained from CT procedures, or on tissue compositions derived from CT-determined densities, have been investigated. Stopping powers and electron fluences have been calculated for a range of media and body tissues for 6 MV photon beams, including changes in their physical data (density and stopping powers). These quantities have been used to determine absorbed doses using cavity theory. It is emphasized that tissue compositions given in ICRU or ICRP reports should not be given the standing of physical constants as they correspond to average values obtained for a limited number of human-body samples. It has been shown that mass stopping-power ratios to water are more dependent on patient-to-patient composition differences, and therefore on their mean excitation energies (I-values), than on mass density. Electron fluence in different media are also more dependent on media composition (and their I-values) than on density. However, as a consequence of the balance between fluence and stopping powers, doses calculated from their product are more constant than what the independent stopping powers and fluence variations suggest. Additionally, cancelations in dose ratios minimize the differences between the 'water-like' and 'tissue' approaches, yielding practically identical results except for bone, and to a lesser extent for adipose tissue. A priori, changing from one approach to another does not seem to be justified considering the large number of approximations and uncertainties involved throughout the treatment planning tissue segmentation and dose calculation procedures. The key issue continues to be the composition of tissues and their I-values, and as these cannot be obtained for individual patients, whatever approach is selected does not lead to significant differences from a water reference dose, the maximum of these being of the order of 5

  13. Plasticity in the Huber value contributes to homeostasis in leaf water relations of a mallee Eucalypt with variation to groundwater depth.

    PubMed

    Carter, Jennifer L; White, Donald A

    2009-11-01

    Information on how vegetation adapts to differences in water supply is critical for predicting vegetation survival, growth and water use, which, in turn, has important impacts on site hydrology. Many field studies assess adaptation to water stress by comparing between disparate sites, which makes it difficult to distinguish between physiological or morphological changes and long-term genetic adaptation. When planting trees into new environments, the phenotypic adaptations of a species to water stress will be of primary interest. This study examined the response to water availability of Eucalyptus kochii ssp. borealis (C. Gardner) D. Nicolle, commonly integrated with agriculture in south-western Australia for environmental and economic benefits. By choosing a site where the groundwater depth varied but where climate and soil type were the same, we were able to isolate tree response to water supply. Tree growth, leaf area and stand water use were much larger for trees over shallow groundwater than for trees over a deep water table below a silcrete hardpan. However, water use on a leaf area basis was similar in trees over deep and shallow groundwater, as were the minimum leaf water potential observed over different seasons and the turgor loss point. We conclude that homeostasis in leaf water use and water relations was maintained through a combination of stomatal control and adjustment of sapwood-to-leaf area ratios (Huber value). Differences in the Huber value with groundwater depth were associated with different sapwood-specific conductivity and water use on a sapwood area basis. Knowledge of the coordination between water supply, leaf area, sapwood area and leaf transpiration rate for different species will be important when predicting stand water use. PMID:19797243

  14. Stability of Doxycycline in Feed and Water and Minimal Effective Doses in Tetracycline-Inducible Systems.

    PubMed

    Redelsperger, Irka M; Taldone, Tony; Riedel, Elyn R; Lepherd, Michelle L; Lipman, Neil S; Wolf, Felix R

    2016-01-01

    Despite the extensive use of doxycycline in tetracycline-inducible rodent models, little is known regarding its stability in feed or water or the most effective route or dose. We assessed the concentrations of doxycycline in reverse-osmosis-purified (RO; pH 6.0) and acidified RO (pH 2.6) water in untinted or green-tinted bottles. Doxycycline remained stable in all groups for 7 d and in acidified water in untinted bottles for 14 d. Fungal growth occurred in nonacidified water in tinted and untinted bottles by 12 and 14 d, respectively, and in tinted bottles containing acidified water on day 14, but not in untinted bottles with acidified water. Doxycycline concentrations were also assessed before and at various points after the pelleting of feed from 2 vendors. Each batch was divided for storage at 4 °C, at room temperature, or within ventilated mouse isolator cages and then sampled monthly for 6 mo. Drying caused the greatest decline in doxycycline concentration, whereas γ-irradiation plus shipping and storage condition had minimal effect. Two mouse lines with tetracycline-inducible promoters received 25, 150, or 467 μg/mL or 2 mg/mL doxycycline in water and 200 or 625 ppm in feed before analysis of GFP expression. GFP was expressed in Rosa-rtTA2 mice at 150 μg/mL, whereas Cags-rtTA3 mice required 25 μg/mL. These studies indicate that 1) doxycycline-compounded feed can be handled in the same manner as standard rodent feed, 2) tinted water bottles are not necessary for maintaining drug concentrations, and 3) concentrations lower than those used typically may be effective in lines with tetracycline-inducible promoters. PMID:27423155

  15. Apparent Depth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nassar, Antonio B.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses a well-known optical refraction problem where the depth of an object in a liquid is determined. Proposes that many texts incorrectly solve the problem. Provides theory, equations, and diagrams. (MVL)

  16. Radon and radium concentration in water from North-West of Romania and the estimated doses.

    PubMed

    Moldovan, M; Benea, V; Niţă, D C; Papp, B; Burghele, B D; Bican-Brişan, N; Cosma, C

    2014-11-01

    In the present study, the measurements of radon were carried out using the LUK-VR system based on radon gas measurements with Lucas cells. The radium concentration in water was determined, with the same device, immediately after was established the radon equilibrium with radium. The results presented here are from a survey carried out in the N-W region of Transylvania (Romania) in which were investigated the radon concentrations in natural (spring, well and surface) and drinking (tap) waters. The results showed radon concentrations within the range of 0.4-187.3 Bq l(-1) with an average value of 15.9 Bq l(-1) whereas radium concentration varied between 0.05 and 0.825 Bq l(-1) with an average value of 0.087 Bq l(-1) for all types of water covered within this survey. The corresponding annual effective ingestion dose due to radon and radium from water was determined from drinking water used by the population inhabiting the area.

  17. Radon and radium concentration in water from North-West of Romania and the estimated doses.

    PubMed

    Moldovan, M; Benea, V; Niţă, D C; Papp, B; Burghele, B D; Bican-Brişan, N; Cosma, C

    2014-11-01

    In the present study, the measurements of radon were carried out using the LUK-VR system based on radon gas measurements with Lucas cells. The radium concentration in water was determined, with the same device, immediately after was established the radon equilibrium with radium. The results presented here are from a survey carried out in the N-W region of Transylvania (Romania) in which were investigated the radon concentrations in natural (spring, well and surface) and drinking (tap) waters. The results showed radon concentrations within the range of 0.4-187.3 Bq l(-1) with an average value of 15.9 Bq l(-1) whereas radium concentration varied between 0.05 and 0.825 Bq l(-1) with an average value of 0.087 Bq l(-1) for all types of water covered within this survey. The corresponding annual effective ingestion dose due to radon and radium from water was determined from drinking water used by the population inhabiting the area. PMID:25031036

  18. Estimation of the depth to the fresh-water/salt-water interface from vertical head gradients in wells in coastal and island aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izuka, Scot K.; Gingerich, Stephen B.

    An accurate estimate of the depth to the theoretical interface between fresh, water and salt water is critical to estimates of well yields in coastal and island aquifers. The Ghyben-Herzberg relation, which is commonly used to estimate interface depth, can greatly underestimate or overestimate the fresh-water thickness, because it assumes no vertical head gradients and no vertical flow. Estimation of the interface depth needs to consider the vertical head gradients and aquifer anisotropy that may be present. This paper presents a method to calculate vertical head gradients using water-level measurements made during drilling of a partially penetrating well; the gradient is then used to estimate interface depth. Application of the method to a numerically simulated fresh-water/salt-water system shows that the method is most accurate when the gradient is measured in a deeply penetrating well. Even using a shallow well, the method more accurately estimates the interface position than does the Ghyben-Herzberg relation where substantial vertical head gradients exist. Application of the method to field data shows that drilling, collection methods of water-level data, and aquifer inhomogeneities can cause difficulties, but the effects of these difficulties can be minimized. Résumé Une estimation précise de la profondeur de l'interface théorique entre l'eau douce et l'eau salée est un élément critique dans les estimations de rendement des puits dans les aquifères insulaires et littoraux. La relation de Ghyben-Herzberg, qui est habituellement utilisée pour estimer la profondeur de cette interface, peut fortement sous-estimer ou surestimer l'épaisseur de l'eau douce, parce qu'elle suppose l'absence de gradient vertical de charge et d'écoulement vertical. L'estimation de la profondeur de l'interface requiert de prendre en considération les gradients verticaux de charge et l'éventuelle anisotropie de l'aquifère. Cet article propose une méthode de calcul des

  19. Equivalent intraperitoneal doses of ibuprofen supplemented in drinking water or in diet: a behavioral and biochemical assay using antinociceptive and thromboxane inhibitory dose-response curves in mice.

    PubMed

    Salama, Raghda A M; El Gayar, Nesreen H; Georgy, Sonia S; Hamza, May

    2016-01-01

    Background. Ibuprofen is used chronically in different animal models of inflammation by administration in drinking water or in diet due to its short half-life. Though this practice has been used for years, ibuprofen doses were never assayed against parenteral dose-response curves. This study aims at identifying the equivalent intraperitoneal (i.p.) doses of ibuprofen, when it is administered in drinking water or in diet. Methods. Bioassays were performed using formalin test and incisional pain model for antinociceptive efficacy and serum TXB2 for eicosanoid inhibitory activity. The dose-response curve of i.p. administered ibuprofen was constructed for each test using 50, 75, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight (b.w.). The dose-response curves were constructed of phase 2a of the formalin test (the most sensitive phase to COX inhibitory agents), the area under the 'change in mechanical threshold'-time curve in the incisional pain model and serum TXB2 levels. The assayed ibuprofen concentrations administered in drinking water were 0.2, 0.35, 0.6 mg/ml and those administered in diet were 82, 263, 375 mg/kg diet. Results. The 3 concentrations applied in drinking water lay between 73.6 and 85.5 mg/kg b.w., i.p., in case of the formalin test; between 58.9 and 77.8 mg/kg b.w., i.p., in case of the incisional pain model; and between 71.8 and 125.8 mg/kg b.w., i.p., in case of serum TXB2 levels. The 3 concentrations administered in diet lay between 67.6 and 83.8 mg/kg b.w., i.p., in case of the formalin test; between 52.7 and 68.6 mg/kg b.w., i.p., in case of the incisional pain model; and between 63.6 and 92.5 mg/kg b.w., i.p., in case of serum TXB2 levels. Discussion. The increment in pharmacological effects of different doses of continuously administered ibuprofen in drinking water or diet do not parallel those of i.p. administered ibuprofen. It is therefore difficult to assume the equivalent parenteral daily doses based on mathematical calculations.

  20. Equivalent intraperitoneal doses of ibuprofen supplemented in drinking water or in diet: a behavioral and biochemical assay using antinociceptive and thromboxane inhibitory dose-response curves in mice.

    PubMed

    Salama, Raghda A M; El Gayar, Nesreen H; Georgy, Sonia S; Hamza, May

    2016-01-01

    Background. Ibuprofen is used chronically in different animal models of inflammation by administration in drinking water or in diet due to its short half-life. Though this practice has been used for years, ibuprofen doses were never assayed against parenteral dose-response curves. This study aims at identifying the equivalent intraperitoneal (i.p.) doses of ibuprofen, when it is administered in drinking water or in diet. Methods. Bioassays were performed using formalin test and incisional pain model for antinociceptive efficacy and serum TXB2 for eicosanoid inhibitory activity. The dose-response curve of i.p. administered ibuprofen was constructed for each test using 50, 75, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight (b.w.). The dose-response curves were constructed of phase 2a of the formalin test (the most sensitive phase to COX inhibitory agents), the area under the 'change in mechanical threshold'-time curve in the incisional pain model and serum TXB2 levels. The assayed ibuprofen concentrations administered in drinking water were 0.2, 0.35, 0.6 mg/ml and those administered in diet were 82, 263, 375 mg/kg diet. Results. The 3 concentrations applied in drinking water lay between 73.6 and 85.5 mg/kg b.w., i.p., in case of the formalin test; between 58.9 and 77.8 mg/kg b.w., i.p., in case of the incisional pain model; and between 71.8 and 125.8 mg/kg b.w., i.p., in case of serum TXB2 levels. The 3 concentrations administered in diet lay between 67.6 and 83.8 mg/kg b.w., i.p., in case of the formalin test; between 52.7 and 68.6 mg/kg b.w., i.p., in case of the incisional pain model; and between 63.6 and 92.5 mg/kg b.w., i.p., in case of serum TXB2 levels. Discussion. The increment in pharmacological effects of different doses of continuously administered ibuprofen in drinking water or diet do not parallel those of i.p. administered ibuprofen. It is therefore difficult to assume the equivalent parenteral daily doses based on mathematical calculations. PMID:27547547

  1. Activity concentrations and population dose from radium-226 in food and drinking water in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Y C; Lai, S Y; Huang, C C; Lin, Y M

    1997-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the radioactivity of 226Ra in environmental samples in Taiwan. Fish, pork, rice, flour, chicken, vegetable, milk, fruit, egg and water samples were collected and pretreated by radiochemical procedure to extract the 226Ra, and the activity concentrations of 226Ra were determined using a liquid scintillation counter. The 226Ra content of groundwater was 12.0 mBq l-1. The 226Ra contents of the food ranged from 0.02 Bq kg-1 fresh to 0.17 Bq kg-1 fresh. The annual internal dose from ingestion of 226Ra from food and drinking water per caput was evaluated to be 7.5 microSv.

  2. Landsat and TRMM imagery potentiality for assessing water superficial variation and bottom depth of shallow lake: case study of Lake Poopó.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satgé, F.; Espinoza, R.; Pillco, R.; Roig, H.; Timouk, F.; Garnier, J.; Bonnet, M. P.

    2015-12-01

    In flat regions, lake extent fluctuations may be used as an indicator of climate variability and/or pressures on water resources at the basin scale. In this context, an accurate delineation through remote sensing is a valuable tool. Here we focused on Lake Poopó located in the Bolivian Andean plateau at an elevation of about 3686 m. With an extent from 500 to 3000 km2 and a mean depth ranging from few cm to 2 m between dry and wet season, respectively, this lake is very sensitive to water use and climatic change. Field spectral-radiometric measurements were collected on both Lake shore and shallow regions in 2014. A total of 84 measurements matching with a Landsat-OLI 8 overpass were made available for our study. The database was used to test FLASSH atmospheric correction module of ENVI software under different parametrization. It shows the usefulness and necessity of such correction before using Landsat imagery. Then, five commonly used indexes for separating inland water (NDWI, MNDWI, WRI, NDVI and AWEI) were computed from Atmospheric corrected Landsat image and compared with field spectral-radiometric measurement. WRI was found the most suitable indexes to delineate Lake Poopó extent according to spectral-radiometric measurements. Using FLAASH atmospheric correction and WRI index, Landsat imagery was used to estimate Lake Poopó extent for a 17 years period from 1998 to 2015. Fluctuations are compared with rainfall measurement from TRMM TMPA-3B42 v7 and In Situ evaporation to highlights climatic or water use changes during this period. Finally, 130 water depth measurements collected in 2005 were used to establish a logarithmic correlation between WRI and water depth. The relation was applied for 2014 and computed water depths are in agreement with In Situ measurement with an overall RMSE value of 5 cm.

  3. 238U, 226Ra, 210Po concentrations of bottled mineral waters in Hungary and their committed effective dose.

    PubMed

    Kovács, T; Bodrogi, E; Dombovári, P; Somlai, J; Németh, Cs; Capote, A; Tarján, S

    2004-01-01

    Nowadays the consumption of bottled mineral waters has become very popular. The average consumption of these is 0.36 l d(-1) per person in Europe. A considerable segment of the population drinks almost only mineral water as drinking water, which is about 1 l d(-1). As is known, some kinds of mineral waters contain naturally occurring radionuclides in higher concentration than the usual drinking (tap) water. The WHO (1993) legislation concerning the drinking waters does not include the mineral waters. In our work, the concentrations of (226)Ra, (238)U and (210)Po were determined in mineral waters available in Hungary. To determine the (226)Ra concentration the emanation method was used. The (238)U and (210)Po concentrations were determined by alpha spectrometry using semiconductor detector. The dose contribution was calculated using the radionuclide concentrations and the dose conversion factors from the Basic Safety Standard IAEA (1995), for 1 l d(-1) mineral water consumption. In some cases the calculated doses were considerable higher than the limit for drinking waters. Especially for children the doses can be remarkably high.

  4. Derivation of a reference dose and drinking water equivalent level for 1,2,3-trichloropropane.

    PubMed

    Tardiff, Robert G; Carson, M Leigh

    2010-06-01

    In some US potable water supplies, 1,2,3-trichloropropane (TCP) has been present at ranges of non-detect to less than 100 ppb, resulting from past uses. In subchronic oral studies, TCP produced toxicity in kidneys, liver, and other tissues. TCP administered by corn oil gavage in chronic studies produced tumors at multiple sites in rats and mice; however, interpretation of these studies was impeded by substantial premature mortality. Drinking water equivalent levels (DWELs) were estimated for a lifetime of consumption by applying biologically-based safety/risk assessment approaches, including Monte Carlo techniques, and with consideration of kinetics and modes of action, to possibly replace default assumptions. Internationally recognized Frameworks for human relevance of animal data were employed to interpret the findings. Calculated were a reference dose (=39 microg/kg d) for non-cancer and Cancer Values (CV) (=10-14 microg/kg d) based on non-linear dose-response relationships for mutagenicity as a precursor of cancer. Lifetime Average Daily Intakes (LADI) are 3130 and 790-1120 microg/person-d for non-cancer and cancer, respectively. DWELs, estimated by applying a relative source contribution (RSC) of 50% to the LADIs, are 780 and 200-280 microg/L for non-cancer and cancer, respectively. These DWELs may inform establishment of formal/informal guidelines and standards to protect public health. PMID:20303376

  5. Natural radioactivity content in Bulgarian drinking waters and consequent dose estimation.

    PubMed

    Kamenova-Totzeva, R M; Kotova, R M; Tenev, J G; Totzev, A V; Badulin, V M

    2015-04-01

    Natural radioactivity in drinking water from Bulgaria was determined in 994 samples. Nine hundred and seventeen of them are from the Southwestern part of the country. The measured activity of natural uranium, (226)Ra, gross alpha and gross beta activity varied from 20 (5) ng l(-1) to 0.11 (3) mg l(-1), MDA to 0.39 (6) Bq l(-1), MDA to 6.23 (39) Bq l(-1) and 0.030 (7) Bq l(-1) to 0.98 (22) Bq l(-1), respectively. Approximately 33% of the investigated waters exceeded a gross alpha activity of 0.1 Bq l(-1), 1.8% a natural uranium concentration of 0.03 mg l(-1) and 1% an (226)Ra concentration of 0.15 Bq l(-1). Annual effective dose from natural radionuclides ranges from 0.0175 (43) µSv to 95.5 (2.6) µSv. Median values of the contribution of the (226)Ra and uranium to the indicative dose are 10.22 and 0.21 µSv y(-1), respectively. Poor relationships between (226)Ra/nat.U (r, 0.12) and for gross beta activity/natural uranium (nat.U) (r, 0.29) were observed. The relationships between nat.U/gross alpha activity (r, 0.50) and for gross alpha activity/gross beta activity (r, 0.52) concentration distributions were stronger. PMID:25227438

  6. TH-C-19A-01: Analytic Design Method to Make a 2D Planar, Segmented Ion Chamber Water-Equivalent for Proton Dose Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, W; Hollebeek, R; Teo, B; Maughan, R; Dolney, D

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Quality Assurance (QA) measurements of proton therapy fields must accurately measure steep longitudinal dose gradients as well as characterize the dose distribution laterally. Currently, available devices for two-dimensional field measurements perturb the dose distribution such that routine QA measurements performed at multiple depths require multiple field deliveries and are time consuming. Methods: A design procedure for a two-dimensional detector array is introduced whereby the proton energy loss and scatter are adjusted so that the downstream dose distribution is maintained to be equivalent to that which would occur in uniform water. Starting with the design for an existing, functional two-dimensional segmented ion chamber prototype, a compensating material is introduced downstream of the detector to simultaneously equate the energy loss and lateral scatter in the detector assembly to the values in water. An analytic formalism and procedure is demonstrated to calculate the properties of the compensating material in the general case of multiple layers of arbitrary material. The resulting design is validated with Monte Carlo simulations. Results: With respect to the specific prototype design considered, the results indicate that a graphite compensating layer of the proper dimensions can yield proton beam range perturbation less than 0.1mm and beam sigma perturbation less than 2% across the energy range of therapeutic proton beams. Conclusion: We have shown that, for a 2D gas-filled detector array, a graphite-compensating layer can balance the energy loss and multiple Coulomb scattering relative to uniform water. We have demonstrated an analytic formalism and procedure to determine a compensating material in the general case of multiple layers of arbitrary material. This work was supported by the US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command under Contract Agreement No. DAMD17-W81XWH-04-2-0022. Opinions, interpretations, conclusions and recommendations

  7. Estimation of the depth of sunlight penetration in natural waters for the remote sensing of chlorophyll a via in vivo fluorescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, H. R.

    1979-01-01

    In attempting to measure remotely the constituents of the ocean through spectral analysis of diffusely reflected sunlight, it is important to know the depth over which constituent concentrations can be estimated. Recently, considerable interest has been generated in the use of sunlight-excited fluorescence of chlorophyll a contained in photoplankton (in vivo) to determine remotely the chlorophyll a concentration in surface waters. In the present paper an estimate is provided for the depth to which chlorophyll a concentration can be determined from observations of the fluorescence.

  8. Effect of in-water oxygen prebreathing at different depths on decompression-induced bubble formation and platelet activation.

    PubMed

    Bosco, Gerardo; Yang, Zhong-jin; Di Tano, Guglielmo; Camporesi, Enrico M; Faralli, Fabio; Savini, Fabio; Landolfi, Angelo; Doria, Christian; Fanò, Giorgio

    2010-05-01

    Effect of in-water oxygen prebreathing at different depths on decompression-induced bubble formation and platelet activation in scuba divers was evaluated. Six volunteers participated in four diving protocols, with 2 wk of recovery between dives. On dive 1, before diving, all divers breathed normally for 20 min at the surface of the sea (Air). On dive 2, before diving, all divers breathed 100% oxygen for 20 min at the surface of the sea [normobaric oxygenation (NBO)]. On dive 3, before diving, all divers breathed 100% O2 for 20 min at 6 m of seawater [msw; hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO) 1.6 atmospheres absolute (ATA)]. On dive 4, before diving, all divers breathed 100% O2 for 20 min at 12 msw (HBO 2.2 ATA). Then they dove to 30 msw (4 ATA) for 20 min breathing air from scuba. After each dive, blood samples were collected as soon as the divers surfaced. Bubbles were measured at 20 and 50 min after decompression and converted to bubble count estimate (BCE) and numeric bubble grade (NBG). BCE and NBG were significantly lower in NBO than in Air [0.142+/-0.034 vs. 0.191+/-0.066 (P<0.05) and 1.61+/-0.25 vs. 1.89+/-0.31 (P<0.05), respectively] at 20 min, but not at 50 min. HBO at 1.6 ATA and 2.2 ATA has a similar significant effect of reducing BCE and NBG. BCE was 0.067+/-0.026 and 0.040+/-0.018 at 20 min and 0.030+/-0.022 and 0.020+/-0.020 at 50 min. NBG was 1.11+/-0.17 and 0.92+/-0.16 at 20 min and 0.83+/-0.18 and 0.75+/-0.16 at 50 min. Prebreathing NBO and HBO significantly alleviated decompression-induced platelet activation. Activation of CD62p was 3.0+/-0.4, 13.5+/-1.3, 10.7+/-0.9, 4.5+/-0.7, and 7.6+/-0.8% for baseline, Air, NBO, HBO at 1.6 ATA, and HBO at 2.2 ATA, respectively. The data show that prebreathing oxygen, more effective with HBO than NBO, decreases air bubbles and platelet activation and, therefore, may be beneficial in reducing the development of decompression sickness.

  9. Temperature, water availability, and nutrient levels at various soil depths-consequences for shallow-rooted desert succulents, including nurse plant effects. [Agave deserti; Ferocactus acanthodes; hilaria rigida

    SciTech Connect

    Nobel, P.S. )

    1989-10-01

    Soil conditions were evaluated over the rooting depths for Agave deserti and Ferocactus acanthodes from the northwestern Sonoran Desert. These succulents have mean root depths of only 10 cm when adults and even shallower distribution when seedlings, which often occur is association with the nurse plant Hilaria rigida, which also has shallow roots. Maximum soil temperatures in the 2 cm beneath bare ground were predicted to exceed 65 C, which is lethal to the roots of A. deserti and F. acanthodes, whereas H. rigida reduced the maximum surface temperatures by over 10 C, providing a microhabitat suitable for seedling establishment. Water Availability was defined as the soil-to-plant drop in water potential, for periods when the plants could take up water, integrated over time. Below 4 cm under bare ground, simulated Water Availability increased slightly with depth (to 35 cm) for a wet year, was fairly constant for an average year, and decreased for a dry year, indicating that the shallow rooting habit is more advantageous in drier years. Water uptake by H. rigida substantially reduced Water Availability for seedlings associated with this nurse plant. On the other hand, a 66-90% higher soil nitrogen level occurred under H. rigida, possibly representing its harvesting of this macronutrient from a wide ground area. Phosphorus was slightly less abundant in the soil under H. rigida compared with under bare ground, the potassium level was substantially higher, and the sodium level was substantially lower. All four elements varied greatly with depth, N and K decreasing and P and Na increasing. Based on the known growth responses of A. deserti and F. acanthodes to these four elements, growth was predicted to be higher for plants in soil from the shallower layers, most of the differences being due to nitrogen.

  10. Justification of the Nonlinear Schrödinger Equation for the Evolution of Gravity Driven 2D Surface Water Waves in a Canal of Finite Depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Düll, Wolf-Patrick; Schneider, Guido; Wayne, C. Eugene

    2016-05-01

    In 1968 V.E. Zakharov derived the Nonlinear Schrödinger equation for the two-dimensional water wave problem in the absence of surface tension, that is, for the evolution of gravity driven surface water waves, in order to describe slow temporal and spatial modulations of a spatially and temporarily oscillating wave packet. In this paper we give a rigorous proof that the wave packets in the two-dimensional water wave problem in a canal of finite depth can be approximated over a physically relevant timespan by solutions of the Nonlinear Schrödinger equation.

  11. Experimental determination of the absorbed dose to water in a scanned proton beam using a water calorimeter and an ionization chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnebin, Solange; Twerenbold, Damian; Pedroni, Eros; Meer, David; Zenklusen, Silvan; Bula, Christian

    2010-03-01

    The absorbed dose to water is the reference physical quantity for the energy absorbed in tissue when exposed to beams of ionizing radiation in radiotherapy. The SI unit of absorbed dose to water is the gray (Gy = 1 J/kg). Ionization chambers are used as the dosimeters of choice in the clinical environment because they show a high reproducibility and are easy to use. However, ionization chambers have to be calibrated in order to convert the measured electrical charge into absorbed dose to water. In addition, protocols require these conversion factors to be SI traceable to a primary standard of absorbed dose to water. We present experimental results where the ionization chamber used for the dosimetry for the scanned proton beam facility at PSI is compared with the direct determination of absorbed dose to water from the METAS primary standard water calorimeter. The agreement of 3.2% of the dose values measured by the two techniques are within their respective statistical uncertainties.

  12. Relationships among the water table depth, water and surface elevations, and the composition of vegetation in a temperate hummocky, ombrogenic, oligotrophic raised shrub bog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roulet, Nigel; Wilson, Paul; Malhora, Avni

    2016-04-01

    Microtopography, such as hummocks and hollows, pools, ridges and lawns are features that are believed to be a consequence of feedbacks among the local hydrology and the production and decomposition of organic material. To deductively test some of the postulates derived from several theoretical studies of the development of patterning on peatlands, over two consecutive years we examined the spatial and temporal relationships among the hummock - hollow microtopography, water table depths (WTD) and water elevations (WTE) in a raised, ombrotrophic bog (Mer Bleue, Canada) that has extensive and well developed microtopography. In each of two 20 x 20 m plots we measured the surface elevation at more than 1,000 points, the WTDs manually every two to three weeks at 100 wells located on a 2 x 2 m grid, and WTDs continuously at more than 20 sites at adjacent hummocks and hollows. In addition to the physical measurements we also measured the spatial pattern of the vegetation communities. The average difference in elevation between the hummocks and hollows was ~ 0.5 m and as was expected the WTDs were shallower in the hollows than under the hummocks. The spatial variability in WTDs over time was very consistent. We tested the coherence between WTDs and surface elevation and found for a total of 46 spatial surveys over the two years and both plots the slopes from mixed modelled regressions were not significantly different for over 80% of the surveys. The difference in WTEs in adjacent microtopographic features (i.e. water levels referenced to a common datum), which determine the hydraulic gradients between hummocks and hollows, was quite small. The small gradients and the consistent coherence between WTDs and surface elevation suggests there is little lateral movement of water among the microtopographic features. The vegetation analysis showed the plot closer to the center, the apex, of the bog had stronger relationships among WTD-microtopography and vegetation than a plot

  13. Effects of soil temperature and depth to ground water on first-year growth of a dryland riparian phreatophyte, Glycyrrhiza lepidota (American licorice)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andersen, Douglas C.; Nelson, S. Mark

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effects of soil temperature and depth to ground water on first-year growth of a facultative floodplain phreatophyte, Glycyrrhiza lepidota, in a 2-×-2 factorial greenhouse experiment. We grew plants in mesocosms subirrigated with water low in dissolved oxygen, mimicking natural systems, and set depth of ground water at 63 or 100 cm and soil temperature at cold (ambient) or warm (≤2.7°C above ambient). We hypothesized the moister (63 cm) and warmer soil would be most favorable and predicted faster growth of shoots and roots and greater nitrogen-fixation (thus, less uptake of mineral nitrogen) under those conditions. Growth in height was significantly faster in the moister treatment but was not affected by soil temperature. Final biomass of shoots and of roots, total biomass of plants, and root:shoot ratio indicated a significant effect only from depth of ground water. Final levels of soil mineral-nitrogen were as predicted, with level of nitrate in the moister treatment more than twice that in the drier treatment. No effect from soil temperature on level of soil-mineral nitrogen was detected. Our results suggest that establishment of G. lepidotarequires strict conditions of soil moisture, which may explain the patchy distribution of the species along southwestern dryland rivers.

  14. Improvement effect on the depth-dose distribution by CSF drainage and air infusion of a tumour-removed cavity in boron neutron capture therapy for malignant brain tumours.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Yoshinori; Ono, Koji; Miyatake, Shin-Ichi; Maruhashi, Akira

    2006-03-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) without craniotomy for malignant brain tumours was started using an epi-thermal neutron beam at the Kyoto University Reactor in June 2002. We have tried some techniques to overcome the treatable-depth limit in BNCT. One of the effective techniques is void formation utilizing a tumour-removed cavity. The tumorous part is removed by craniotomy about 1 week before a BNCT treatment in our protocol. Just before the BNCT irradiation, the cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) in the tumour-removed cavity is drained out, air is infused to the cavity and then the void is made. This void improves the neutron penetration, and the thermal neutron flux at depth increases. The phantom experiments and survey simulations modelling the CSF drainage and air infusion of the tumour-removed cavity were performed for the size and shape of the void. The advantage of the CSF drainage and air infusion is confirmed for the improvement in the depth-dose distribution. From the parametric surveys, it was confirmed that the cavity volume had good correlation with the improvement effect, and the larger effect was expected as the cavity volume was larger.

  15. Direct dose to water dosimetry for pretreatment IMRT verification using a modified EPID

    SciTech Connect

    Gustafsson, Helen; Vial, Philip; Kuncic, Zdenka; Baldock, Clive; Denham, James W.; Greer, Peter B.

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) are high resolution systems that produce electronic dose maps with minimal time required for equipment setup, and therefore potentially present a time-saving alternative for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) pretreatment verification. A modified commercial EPID was investigated operated with an opaque sheet blocking the optical signal produced in the phosphor layer as a precursor to a switched mode dual dosimetry-imaging EPID system. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using this system for direct dose to water dosimetry for pretreatment IMRT verification. Methods: A Varian amorphous silicon EPID was modified by placing an opaque sheet between the Gd{sub 2}S{sub 2}O:Tb phosphor layer and the photodiode array to block the optical photons. The EPID was thus converted to a direct-detecting system (dEPID), in which the high energy radiation deposits energy directly in the photodiode array. The copper build-up was replaced with d{sub max} solid water. Sixty-one IMRT beams of varying complexity were delivered to the EPID, to EDR2 dosimetric film and to a 2D ion chamber array (MapCheck). EPID data was compared to film and MapCheck data using gamma analysis with 3%, 3mm pass criteria. Results: The fraction of points that passed the gamma test was on average 98.1% and 98.6%, for the EPID versus film and EPID versus MapCheck comparisons, respectively. In the case of comparison with film, the majority of observed discrepancies were associated with problems related to film sensitivity or processing. Conclusions: The very close agreement between EPID and both film and MapCheck data demonstrates that the modified EPID is suitable for direct dose to water measurement for pretreatment IMRT verification. These results suggest a reconfigured EPID could be an efficient and accurate dosimeter. Alternatively, optical switching methods could be developed to produce a dual-mode EPID with both

  16. Variations in the depth distribution of phosphorus in soil profiles and implications for model-based catchment-scale predictions of phosphorus delivery to surface waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, P. N.; Deeks, L. K.; Wood, G. A.; Betson, M. J.; Lord, E. I.; Davison, P. S.

    2008-02-01

    SummaryThe PSYCHIC process-based model for predicting sediment and phosphorus (P) transfer within catchments uses spatial data on soil-P derived from the National Soil Inventory (NSI) data set. These soil-P values are based on bulked 0-15 cm depth and do not account for variations in soil-P with depth. We describe the depth distribution of soil-P (total and Olsen) in grassland and arable soils for the dominant soil types in the two PSYCHIC study catchments: the Avon and the Wye, UK. There were clear variations in soil-P (particularly Olsen-P) concentrations with depth in untilled grassland soils while concentrations of total-P were broadly constant within the plough layer of arable soils. Concentrations of Olsen-P in arable soils, however, exhibited maximum values near the soil surface reflecting surface applications of fertilisers and manures between consecutive ploughing events. When the soil-P concentrations for the surface soil (0-5 cm average) were compared to both the profile-averaged (0-15 cm) and the NSI (0-15 cm) values, those for the surface soil were considerably greater than those for the average 0-15 cm depth. Modelled estimates of P loss using the depth-weighted average soil-P concentrations for the 0-5 cm depth layer were up to 14% greater than those based on the NSI data set due to the preferential accumulation of P at the soil surface. These findings have important implications for the use of soil-P data (and other data) in models to predict P losses from land to water and the interpretation of these predictions for river basin management.

  17. Depth-resolved water column spectral absorption of sunlight by phytoplankon during the Southern Ocean Gas Exchange (SOGasEx) Lagrangian tracer experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargreaves, B. R.

    2008-12-01

    Optical measurements made during gas exchange tracer experiments in the Southern Ocean, Atlantic sector near 51°S, 38°W from March-April 2008 (SOGasEx) were used to develop daily integrated depth- resolved PAR absorbed by phytoplankton. Particulate and phytoplankton pigment spectral absorption coefficients (ap and aph), and methanol-extracted chlorophyll-a concentrations (chl-a) from discrete samples within and below the upper mixed layer (40 stations) were combined with data from optical casts where chlorophyll-a and cdom fluorescence and PAR scalar irradiance were measured (11 stations), PAR Kd was measured from a buoy free of ship shadow for 0-5m (11 stations), and Wetlabs AC-9 whole water absorption coefficients to 150m were measured (14 stations, with 3 in common with fluorescence data) to estimate depth-resolved values for both total spectral absorption and spectral PAR irradiance. By combining depth-adjusted spectral absorption of phytoplankton pigments (aph) with depth-adjusted PAR spectral irradiance we estimated depth-resolved daily PAR irradiance absorbed by photosynthetic pigments. These data can be compared with time-integrated primary production measurements conducted on deck where solar exposure or lamp exposure was modified to simulate a range of depths. Such a synthesis should improve our estimates of depth-integrated daily primary production, and ultimately contribute to refining estimates of carbon export rates to be incorporated into a carbon budget and CO2 air-sea flux models for the SOGasEx experiments.

  18. Map showing depth to pre-Cenozoic basement in the Death Valley ground-water model area, Nevada and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blakely, R.J.; Ponce, D.A.

    2001-01-01

    A depth to basement map of the Death Valley groundwater model area was prepared using over 40,0000 gravity stations as part of an interagency effort by the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Department of Energy to help characterize the geology and hydrology of southwest Nevada and parts of California.

  19. Quantitative oral dosing of water soluble and lipophilic contaminants in the Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    PubMed

    Schultz, I R; Reed, S; Pratt, A; Skillman, A D

    2007-02-01

    Quantitative oral dosing in fish can be challenging, particularly with water soluble contaminants, which can leach into the aquarium water prior to ingestion. We applied a method of bioencapsulation using newly hatched brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) nauplii to study the toxicokinetics of five chlorinated and brominated halogenated acetic acids (HAAs), which are drinking water disinfection by-products. These results are compared to those obtained in a previous study using a polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE-47), a highly lipophilic chemical. The HAAs and PBDE-47 were bioencapsulated using freshly hatched A. franciscana nauplii after incubation in concentrated solutions of the study chemicals for 18 h. Aliquots of the brine shrimp were quantitatively removed for chemical analysis and fed to individual fish that were able to consume 400-500 nauplii in less than 5 min. At select times after feeding, fish were euthanized and the HAA or PBDE-47 content determined. The absorption of HAAs was quantitatively similar to previous studies in rodents: rapid absorption with peak body levels occurring within 1-2 h, then rapidly declining with elimination half-life of 0.3-3 h depending on HAA. PBDE-47 was more slowly absorbed with peak levels occurring by 18 h and very slowly eliminated with an elimination half-life of 281 h. PMID:17188578

  20. Quantitative oral dosing of water soluble and lipophilic contaminants in the Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes)

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, Irv; Reed, Stacey M.; Pratt, Amanda V.; Skillman, Ann D.

    2007-02-01

    Quantitative oral dosing in fish can be challenging, particularly with water soluble contaminants, which can leach into the aquarium water prior to ingestion. We applied a method of bioencapsulation using newly hatched brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) nauplii to study the toxicokinetics of five chlorinated and brominated halogenated acetic acids (HAAs), which are drinking water disinfection by-products. These results are compared to those obtained in a previous study using a polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE-47), a highly lipophilic chemical. The HAAs and PBDE-47 were bioencapsulated using freshly hatched A. franciscana nauplii after incubation in concentrated solutions of the study chemicals for 18 h. Aliquots of the brine shrimp were quantitatively removed for chemical analysis and fed to individual fish that were able to consume 400–500 nauplii in less than 5min. At select times after feeding, fish were euthanized and the HAA or PBDE-47 content determined. The absorption of HAAs was quantitatively similar to previous studies in rodents: rapid absorptionwith peak body levels occurringwithin 1–2 h, then rapidly declining with elimination half-life of 0.3–3 h depending on HAA. PBDE-47 was more slowly absorbed with peak levels occurring by 18 h and very slowly eliminated with an elimination half-life of 281 h.

  1. Estimated depth to the water table and estimated rate of recharge in outcrops of the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers near Houston, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noble, J.E.; Bush, P.W.; Kasmarek, M.C.; Barbie, D.L.

    1996-01-01

    In 1989, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Harris-Galveston Coastal Subsidence District, began a field study to determine the depth to the water table and to estimate the rate of recharge in outcrops of the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers near Houston, Texas. The study area comprises about 2,000 square miles of outcrops of the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers in northwest Harris County, Montgomery County, and southern Walker County. Because of the scarcity of measurable water-table wells, depth to the water table below land surface was estimated using a surface geophysical technique, seismic refraction. The water table in the study area generally ranges from about 10 to 30 foot below land surface and typically is deeper in areas of relatively high land-surface altitude than in areas of relatively low land- surface altitude. The water table has demonstrated no long-term trends since ground-water development began, with the probable exception of the water table in the Katy area: There the water table is more than 75 feet deep, probably due to ground-water pumpage from deeper zones. An estimated rate of recharge in the aquifer outcrops was computed using the interface method in which environmental tritium is a ground-water tracer. The estimated average total recharge rate in the study area is 6 inches per year. This rate is an upper bound on the average recharge rate during the 37 years 1953-90 because it is based on the deepest penetration (about 80 feet) of postnuclear-testing tritium concentrations. The rate, which represents one of several components of a complex regional hydrologic budget, is considered reasonable but is not definitive because of uncertainty regarding the assumptions and parameters used in its computation.

  2. Effects of food, water depth, and temperature on diving activity of larval Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto: evidence for diving to forage.

    PubMed

    Phelan, Conan; Roitberg, Bernard D

    2013-12-01

    Anopheles gambiae larvae have frequently been observed to dive, but the ecology of this behavior has not been extensively examined. We manipulated food level, water depth, and temperature for individually-reared larvae and observed diving activity. Larvae dived more often under low food, which suggests that they dive to forage. There was only weak evidence for effects of water depth or temperature on diving. Experimental results are discussed in the context of energy budgets. Understanding larval ecology of this species is important for predicting how it will respond to environmental change. Further study is needed to assess the role that larval diving plays in both feeding ecology and thermal regulation of this and other medically important species.

  3. Experience in Wales (UK) of the optimisation of ortho-phosphate dosing for controlling lead in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Hayes, C R; Incledion, S; Balch, M

    2008-06-01

    Dwr Cymru Welsh Water supplies over three million people with drinking water throughout most of Wales (UK). Ortho-phosphate has increasingly been dosed at around 1 mg/L (P) to further reduce the corrosivity of supplies to the lead pipes which connect approximately 30% of houses to water mains in the company's area, additional to long-establish pH adjustment measures. The installation of new ortho-phosphate dosing schemes and the optimisation of these and existing dosing schemes, 29 schemes in total, were subject to a regulatory programme of work, agreed with the Drinking Water Inspectorate (DWI). Optimisation comprised (i) selection of appropriate ortho-phosphate doses by a procedure involving laboratory based plumbosolvency testing linked to zonal lead emission (compliance) modelling, (ii) tight dose control and (iii) extensive monitoring of lead in supply by random daytime (RDT) sampling and by the use of lead pipe test rigs. The successful outcome was confirmed by 99% of over 5,000 RDT samples complying with the future standard of 10 microg/L for lead in drinking water.

  4. Effects of Low-Dose Drinking Water Arsenic on Mouse Fetal and Postnatal Growth and Development

    PubMed Central

    Kozul-Horvath, Courtney D.; Zandbergen, Fokko; Jackson, Brian P.; Enelow, Richard I.; Hamilton, Joshua W.

    2012-01-01

    Background Arsenic (As) exposure is a significant worldwide environmental health concern. Chronic exposure via contaminated drinking water has been associated with an increased incidence of a number of diseases, including reproductive and developmental effects. The goal of this study was to identify adverse outcomes in a mouse model of early life exposure to low-dose drinking water As (10 ppb, current U.S. EPA Maximum Contaminant Level). Methodology and Findings C57B6/J pups were exposed to 10 ppb As, via the dam in her drinking water, either in utero and/or during the postnatal period. Birth outcomes, the growth of the F1 offspring, and health of the dams were assessed by a variety of measurements. Birth outcomes including litter weight, number of pups, and gestational length were unaffected. However, exposure during the in utero and postnatal period resulted in significant growth deficits in the offspring after birth, which was principally a result of decreased nutrients in the dam's breast milk. Cross-fostering of the pups reversed the growth deficit. Arsenic exposed dams displayed altered liver and breast milk triglyceride levels and serum profiles during pregnancy and lactation. The growth deficits in the F1 offspring resolved following separation from the dam and cessation of exposure in male mice, but did not resolve in female mice up to six weeks of age. Conclusions/Significance Exposure to As at the current U.S. drinking water standard during critical windows of development induces a number of adverse health outcomes for both the dam and offspring. Such effects may contribute to the increased disease risks observed in human populations. PMID:22693606

  5. Relations among water levels, specific conductance, and depths of bedrock fractures in four road-salt-contaminated wells in Maine, 2007–9

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schalk, Charles W.; Stasulis, Nicholas W.

    2012-01-01

    Data on groundwater-level, specific conductance (a surrogate for chloride), and temperature were collected continuously from 2007 through 2009 at four bedrock wells known to be affected by road salts in an effort to determine the effects of road salting and fractures in bedrock that intersect the well at a depth below the casing on the presence of chloride in groundwater. Dissolved-oxygen data collected periodically also were used to make inferences about the interaction of fractures and groundwater flow. Borehole geophysical tools were used to determine the depths of fractures in each well that were actively contributing flow to the well, under both static and pumped conditions; sample- and measurement-depths were selected to correspond to the depths of these active fractures. Samples of water from the wells, collected at depths corresponding to active bedrock fractures, were analyzed for chloride concentration and specific conductance; from these analyses, a linear relation between chloride concentration and specific conductance was established, and continuous and periodic measurements of specific conductance were assumed to represent chloride concentration of the well water at the depth of measurement. To varying degrees, specific conductance increased in at least two of the wells during winter and spring thaws; the shallowest well, which also was closest to the road receiving salt treatment during the winter, exhibited the largest changes in specific conductance during thaws. Recharge events during summer months, long after application of road salt had ceased for the year, also produced increases in specific conductance in some of the wells, indicating that chloride which had accumulated or sequestered in the overburden was transported to the wells throughout the year. Geophysical data and periodic profiles of water quality along the length of each well’s borehole indicated that the greatest changes in water quality were associated with active fractures; in

  6. Distribution depth of the transforming stage larvae of myctophid fishes in the subtropical tropical waters of the western North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sassa, Chiyuki; Kawaguchi, Kouichi; Hirota, Yuichi; Ishida, Minoru

    2007-12-01

    We describe the day-night vertical distribution patterns of 18 species or types of myctophid fish larvae at the transforming stage based on discrete depth sampling from the surface down to 1000-m depth in the subtropical-tropical western North Pacific. A total of 551 transforming stage larvae were collected at the 19 sampling stations. Except for the Diaphus species and Notolychnus valdiviae, all of the transforming stage larvae (including genera Benthosema, Bolinichthys, Centrobranchus, Ceratoscopelus, Diogenichthys, Hygophum, Lampanyctus, Lobianchia, Myctophum, Symbolophorus, and Triphoturus) were collected in the lower mesopelagic zone from 600- to 900-m depth during both day and night, showing no diel vertical migration (DVM). On the contrary, the Diaphus species and N. valdiviae larvae undergo DVM during the transforming stage, occurring below 200-m layer during the daytime and migrating up to the upper 150-m layer at night, i.e., they show earlier adaptation to juvenile-adult behaviors. Most myctophid fish larvae are known to undertake substantial ontogenetic vertical migration (OVM) from the epipelagic to mesopelagic zones during their early life stage. Although considerable sampling effort was carried out in this study, transforming larvae, except for the above two migratory ones, were not collected in the epipelagic and upper mesopelagic zones, strongly suggesting that their sinking speed would be high. It would be advantageous for survival to spend their highly vulnerable transforming stage in the lower mesopelagic zone, where predation pressures are lower and physical conditions are more stable than in the upper layers.

  7. The effects that well depth and wellhead protection have on bacterial contamination of private water wells in the Estes Park Valley, Colorado.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Thomas R

    2008-12-01

    Over the past five years, it is estimated that 10% of residential water wells have tested positive for total coliform and 2% for E.coli bacteria in the Estes Park Valley, Colorado. Many of these water wells are shallow or hand-dug in construction. In this study, samplings of 30 private untreated water wells were tested for total coliform bacteria in the Estes Park Valley. Water wells were classified into three categories for well depth (<99 feet [30.2 m], 100-199 feet [30.5-60.7 m], and >200 feet [61 m]) and for wellhead protection (poor, fair, and good). Results indicated that 71% of the wells less than 199 feet (60.7 m) tested positive for total coliform (chi2 = 15.559, p < .0001). Also, 71% of wells classified as having poor and fair wellhead protection tested positive for total coliform (chi2 = 13.084, p = .001). This study determined that wellhead protection and well depth does play a role in bacterial contamination of water wells.

  8. The application of powdered activated carbon for MIB and geosmin removal: predicting PAC doses in four raw waters.

    PubMed

    Cook, D; Newcombe, G; Sztajnbok, P

    2001-04-01

    Blooms of blue-green algae in reservoirs often produce the musty-earthy taste and odour algal metabolites 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) and geosmin. MIB and geosmin are not removed by conventional water treatment and their presence in the distribution system, even at low ng L-1 levels, can result in consumer complaints. Powdered activated carbon (PAC) can effectively remove MIB and geosmin when the correct dose is applied. The homogeneous surface diffusion model (HSDM) was used to predict PAC doses required to reduce MIB and geosmin concentrations to below 10 ng L-1 at four water treatment plants in Adelaide, South Australia. In jar tests, undertaken under treatment plant conditions, the predicted doses were found to produce water of the desired quality in three of the four waters. The poor predictions found in the fourth water, which had a considerably higher turbidity, were attributed to the incorporation of PAC in a larger, denser floc, leading to a reduced effective contact time of the adsorbent. It was found that higher doses of PAC were required for both compounds to produce acceptable quality water when turbidities rose above 26 NTU.

  9. Hydrologic Record Extension of Water-Level Data in the Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN) Using Artificial Neural Network Models, 2000-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conrads, Paul A.; Roehl, Edwin A.

    2007-01-01

    The Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN) is an integrated network of real-time water-level gaging stations, ground-elevation models, and water-surface models designed to provide scientists, engineers, and water-resource managers with current (2000-present) water-depth information for the entire freshwater portion of the greater Everglades. The U.S. Geological Survey Greater Everglades Priority Ecosystem Science provides support for EDEN and the goal of providing quality assured monitoring data for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan. To increase the accuracy of the water-surface models, 25 real-time water-level gaging stations were added to the network of 253 established water-level gaging stations. To incorporate the data from the newly added stations to the 7-year EDEN database in the greater Everglades, the short-term water-level records (generally less than 1 year) needed to be simulated back in time (hindcasted) to be concurrent with data from the established gaging stations in the database. A three-step modeling approach using artificial neural network models was used to estimate the water levels at the new stations. The artificial neural network models used static variables that represent the gaging station location and percent vegetation in addition to dynamic variables that represent water-level data from the established EDEN gaging stations. The final step of the modeling approach was to simulate the computed error of the initial estimate to increase the accuracy of the final water-level estimate. The three-step modeling approach for estimating water levels at the new EDEN gaging stations produced satisfactory results. The coefficients of determination (R2) for 21 of the 25 estimates were greater than 0.95, and all of the estimates (25 of 25) were greater than 0.82. The model estimates showed good agreement with the measured data. For some new EDEN stations with limited measured data, the record extension

  10. Hillslope-scale variability in seasonal frost depth and soil water content investigated by GPR on the southern margin of the sporadic permafrost zone on the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubrzycki, S.; Ma, Y.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Ground temperature data show that permafrost has recently been absent at a site on the southern edge of the sporadic permafrost zone on the Tibetan Plateau (TP). A detailed survey of seasonal frost depth (SFD) and soil water content (SWC) here is significant for understanding the hydrological response to thawing permafrost. However, little is known about the spatial heterogeneity of SFD and SWC at the hillslope-scale in this vulnerable permafrost region. Thus, high-frequency ground-penetrating radar (GPR) was applied to a field site that varied in terms of topography (slope, aspect and elevation) and surface environments (vegetation cover and stream presence). The GPR data and accompanying field observations of gravimetric water content and frost depth revealed a spatial variation at the hillslope-scale in SFD and SWC, and indicated that topography, vegetation and stream distribution significantly influence the patterns observed. The average SFD was much deeper along the north-facing slope, compared to the south-facing slope in early May and its thickness varied considerably with altitude along each slope. An increase in the extent of vegetation cover correlated with decreasing SFD. The SWC at shallow depth was higher along the south-facing slope than along the north-facing slope in the beginning of the thawing period. For slopes of both aspects, the SWC vertical profiles exhibited a similar variability, with SWC decreasing with depth, but at different rates. This study demonstrates that GPR provides an appropriate method for quantifying soil water content at hillslope scale on the Tibetan Plateau.

  11. Well Wishes: A Case on Septic Systems and Well Water Requiring In-Depth Analysis and Including Optional Laboratory Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walczak, Mary M.; Lantz, Juliette M.

    2004-01-01

    The case of Well Wishes involves students in a thorough examination of the interaction among nitrogen-composed species in the septic systems and well water, which helps to clean household water. The case supports the attainment of five goals for students, and can be analyzed through classroom discussions or laboratory experiments.

  12. Multiscale Observational Platforms and Bayesian Data Integration to Estimate Snow Depth and Snow-water-equivalent over the Ice-wedge Polygonal Tundra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wainwright, H. M.; Liljedahl, A. K.; Peterson, J.; Dafflon, B.; Ulrich, C.; Gusmeroli, A.; Hubbard, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    Snow has a profound impact on permafrost and ecosystem functioning in the Arctic tundra. Characterizing snow depths and snow-water-equivalent (SWE) is difficult over a large area, since they are quite heterogeneous, particularly in ice-wedge polygonal ground. In this study, we explore various strategies to characterize snow depths and SWE, using multiscale observational platforms, including a snow probe, ground penetrating radar (GPR), unmanned aerial system (UAS) and ground/airborne LiDAR. In addition, our statistical analysis and data locations are designed such that we can characterize the snow heterogeneity in multiple spatial scales. We demonstrate our approach using the datasets collected in the ice-wedge polygonal tundra near Barrow, AK. We first document the characteristics of each platform. GPR can cover ~100s meters, and also provide depth-averaged snow density. The UAS-based snow-surface elevation is used to estimate the snow depth over a larger area with much less labor than GPR. Snow density analysis, using both cores and GPR, suggests that the depth-averaged snow density is quite uniform over the site. The spatial variability of snow depths is then quantified, and correlated with various topographic measures (e.g., curvature) from the LiDAR digital elevation map as well as the wind direction. We explore different scales of moving average to separate micro and macro-topography. Results show that the wind factor is not significant in our case, except for at the edge of a drained thaw-lake basin. The wind distribution fills microtopographic lows (i.e., troughs and centers of low-centered polygons) and creates a smooth snow surface following the macro-topography, which depends on polygon sizes. Finally, we develop a Bayesian geostatistical method to integrate these multiscale datasets for estimating snow depths and SWE over the study site (~1km by 1km). We compare two strategies: interpolating (1) the residual of the topographic correlations or (2) the

  13. EURAMET.RI(I)-S7 comparison of alanine dosimetry systems for absorbed dose to water measurements in gamma- and x-radiation at radiotherapy levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Tristan; Anton, Mathias; Sharpe, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The National Physical Laboratory (NPL), the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) and the Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel (LNE-LNHB) are involved in the European project 'External Beam Cancer Therapy', a project of the European Metrology Research Programme. Within this project, the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)/alanine dosimetric method has been chosen for performing measurements in small fields such as those used in IMRT (intensity modulated radiation therapy). In this context, these three National Metrology Institutes (NMI) wished to compare the result of their alanine dosimetric systems (detector, modus operandi etc) at radiotherapy dose levels to check their consistency. This EURAMET.RI(I)-S7 comparison has been performed with the support of the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) which collected and distributed the results as a neutral organization, to ensure the comparison was 'blind'. Irradiations have been made under reference conditions by each laboratory in a 60Co beam and in an accelerator beam (10 MV or 12 MV) in a water phantom of 30 cm × 30 cm × 30 cm in a square field of 10 cm × 10 cm at the reference depth. Irradiations have been performed at known values of absorbed dose to water (Dw) within 10% of nominal doses of 5 Gy and 10 Gy, i.e. between 4.5 Gy and 5.5 Gy and between 9 Gy and 11 Gy, respectively. Each participant read out their dosimeters and assessed the doses using their own protocol (calibration curve, positioning device etc) as this comparison aims at comparing the complete dosimetric process. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the EPR/alanine dosimetry systems operated by National Metrology Institutes as a method of assuring therapy level doses with the accuracy required. The maximum deviation in the ratio of measured to applied dose is less than 1%. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key

  14. What makes mangroves attractive to fish? Use of artificial units to test the influence of water depth, cross-shelf location, and presence of root structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagelkerken, I.; Faunce, C. H.

    2008-09-01

    Mangroves are an attractive fish habitat because they provide shelter and food for juvenile fishes. However, because mangroves are almost always located in shallow water and in sheltered (i.e., lagoonal, estuarine or bay) environments, the degree to which the latter two factors contribute to the attractiveness of mangrove prop-roots as a fish habitat is unknown. Artificial Mangrove Units (AMUs) were placed at multiple depths and along a gradient from an embayment to, and including, the coral reef. Total fish density and species richness in AMUs placed in the embayment was lower at 1 m depth than at 2 and 3 m depth, suggesting that shallow water is not a prerequisite for the attractiveness of mangrove prop-roots as a fish habitat. Total fish density and species richness were equal or greater in AMUs on the coral reef than in the embayment, suggesting that placement of mangroves in a sheltered lagoonal environment is not solely responsible for the attractiveness of mangrove prop-roots either. After 3 weeks, removal of AMUs did not have a negative effect on total fish density or species richness. However, within the embayment AMU removal resulted in the complete collapse of the assemblage component comprised of species that use mangroves as juvenile habitats, highlighting the need for a species-based approach towards assessing the benefits provided by the presence of mangrove root structure for fishes.

  15. Diversity of active aerobic methanotrophs along depth profiles of arctic and subarctic lake water column and sediments

    PubMed Central

    He, Ruo; Wooller, Matthew J; Pohlman, John W; Quensen, John; Tiedje, James M; Leigh, Mary Beth

    2012-01-01

    Methane (CH4) emitted from high-latitude lakes accounts for 2–6% of the global atmospheric CH4 budget. Methanotrophs in lake sediments and water columns mitigate the amount of CH4 that enters the atmosphere, yet their identity and activity in arctic and subarctic lakes are poorly understood. We used stable isotope probing (SIP), quantitative PCR (Q-PCR), pyrosequencing and enrichment cultures to determine the identity and diversity of active aerobic methanotrophs in the water columns and sediments (0–25 cm) from an arctic tundra lake (Lake Qalluuraq) on the north slope of Alaska and a subarctic taiga lake (Lake Killarney) in Alaska's interior. The water column CH4 oxidation potential for these shallow (∼2 m deep) lakes was greatest in hypoxic bottom water from the subarctic lake. The type II methanotroph, Methylocystis, was prevalent in enrichment cultures of planktonic methanotrophs from the water columns. In the sediments, type I methanotrophs (Methylobacter, Methylosoma and Methylomonas) at the sediment-water interface (0–1 cm) were most active in assimilating CH4, whereas the type I methanotroph Methylobacter and/or type II methanotroph Methylocystis contributed substantially to carbon acquisition in the deeper (15–20 cm) sediments. In addition to methanotrophs, an unexpectedly high abundance of methylotrophs also actively utilized CH4-derived carbon. This study provides new insight into the identity and activity of methanotrophs in the sediments and water from high-latitude lakes. PMID:22592821

  16. Diversity of active aerobic methanotrophs along depth profiles of arctic and subarctic lake water column and sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    He, Ruo; Wooller, Matthew J.; Pohlman, John W.; Quensen, John; Tiedje, James M.; Leigh, Mary Beth

    2012-01-01

    Methane (CH4) emitted from high-latitude lakes accounts for 2–6% of the global atmospheric CH4 budget. Methanotrophs in lake sediments and water columns mitigate the amount of CH4 that enters the atmosphere, yet their identity and activity in arctic and subarctic lakes are poorly understood. We used stable isotope probing (SIP), quantitative PCR (Q-PCR), pyrosequencing and enrichment cultures to determine the identity and diversity of active aerobic methanotrophs in the water columns and sediments (0–25 cm) from an arctic tundra lake (Lake Qalluuraq) on the north slope of Alaska and a subarctic taiga lake (Lake Killarney) in Alaska's interior. The water column CH4 oxidation potential for these shallow (~2m deep) lakes was greatest in hypoxic bottom water from the subarctic lake. The type II methanotroph, Methylocystis, was prevalent in enrichment cultures of planktonic methanotrophs from the water columns. In the sediments, type I methanotrophs (Methylobacter, Methylosoma and Methylomonas) at the sediment-water interface (0–1 cm) were most active in assimilating CH4, whereas the type I methanotroph Methylobacter and/or type II methanotroph Methylocystis contributed substantially to carbon acquisition in the deeper (15–20 cm) sediments. In addition to methanotrophs, an unexpectedly high abundance of methylotrophs also actively utilized CH4-derived carbon. This study provides new insight into the identity and activity of methanotrophs in the sediments and water from high-latitude lakes.

  17. Spatially pooled depth-dependent reservoir storage, elevation, and water-quality data for selected reservoirs in Texas, January 1965-January 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burley, Thomas E.; Asquith, William H.; Brooks, Donald L.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Texas Tech University, constructed a dataset of selected reservoir storage (daily and instantaneous values), reservoir elevation (daily and instantaneous values), and water-quality data from 59 reservoirs throughout Texas. The period of record for the data is as large as January 1965-January 2010. Data were acquired from existing databases, spreadsheets, delimited text files, and hard-copy reports. The goal was to obtain as much data as possible; therefore, no data acquisition restrictions specifying a particular time window were used. Primary data sources include the USGS National Water Information System, the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality Surface Water-Quality Management Information System, and the Texas Water Development Board monthly Texas Water Condition Reports. Additional water-quality data for six reservoirs were obtained from USGS Texas Annual Water Data Reports. Data were combined from the multiple sources to create as complete a set of properties and constituents as the disparate databases allowed. By devising a unique per-reservoir short name to represent all sites on a reservoir regardless of their source, all sampling sites at a reservoir were spatially pooled by reservoir and temporally combined by date. Reservoir selection was based on various criteria including the availability of water-quality properties and constituents that might affect the trophic status of the reservoir and could also be important for understanding possible effects of climate change in the future. Other considerations in the selection of reservoirs included the general reservoir-specific period of record, the availability of concurrent reservoir storage or elevation data to match with water-quality data, and the availability of sample depth measurements. Additional separate selection criteria included historic information pertaining to blooms of golden algae. Physical properties and constituents were water

  18. A dose calculation algorithm with correction for proton-nucleus interactions in non-water materials for proton radiotherapy treatment planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inaniwa, T.; Kanematsu, N.; Sato, S.; Kohno, R.

    2016-01-01

    In treatment planning for proton radiotherapy, the dose measured in water is applied to the patient dose calculation with density scaling by stopping power ratio {ρ\\text{S}} . Since the body tissues are chemically different from water, this approximation may cause dose calculation errors, especially due to differences in nuclear interactions. We proposed and validated an algorithm for correcting these errors. The dose in water is decomposed into three constituents according to the physical interactions of protons in water: the dose from primary protons continuously slowing down by electromagnetic interactions, the dose from protons scattered by elastic and/or inelastic interactions, and the dose resulting from nonelastic interactions. The proportions of the three dose constituents differ between body tissues and water. We determine correction factors for the proportion of dose constituents with Monte Carlo simulations in various standard body tissues, and formulated them as functions of their {ρ\\text{S}} for patient dose calculation. The influence of nuclear interactions on dose was assessed by comparing the Monte Carlo simulated dose and the uncorrected dose in common phantom materials. The influence around the Bragg peak amounted to  -6% for polytetrafluoroethylene and 0.3% for polyethylene. The validity of the correction method was confirmed by comparing the simulated and corrected doses in the materials. The deviation was below 0.8% for all materials. The accuracy of the correction factors derived with Monte Carlo simulations was separately verified through irradiation experiments with a 235 MeV proton beam using common phantom materials. The corrected doses agreed with the measurements within 0.4% for all materials except graphite. The influence on tumor dose was assessed in a prostate case. The dose reduction in the tumor was below 0.5%. Our results verify that this algorithm is practical and accurate for proton radiotherapy treatment planning, and

  19. Sensitivity of water stress in a two-layered sandy grassland soil to variations in groundwater depth and soil hydraulic parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaei, M.; Seuntjens, P.; Joris, I.; Boënne, W.; Van Hoey, S.; Campling, P.; Cornelis, W. M.

    2015-07-01

    Monitoring and modeling tools may improve irrigation strategies in precision agriculture. We used non-invasive soil moisture monitoring, a crop growth and a soil hydrological model to predict soil-water content fluctuations and crop yield in a heterogeneous sandy grassland soil under supplementary irrigation. The sensitivity of the model to hydraulic parameters, water stress, crop yield and lower boundary conditions was assessed. Free drainage and incremental constant head conditions was implemented in a lower boundary sensitivity analysis. A time-dependent sensitivity analysis showed that changes in soil water content are mainly affected by the soil saturated hydraulic conductivity Ks and the Mualem-van Genuchten retention curve shape parameters n and α. Results further showed that different parameter optimization strategies (two-, three-, four- or six-parameter optimizations) did not affect the calculated water stress and water content as significantly as does the bottom boundary. For this case, a two-parameter scenario, where Ks was optimized for each layer under the condition of a constant groundwater depth at 135-140 cm, performed best. A larger yield reduction, and a larger number and longer duration of stress conditions occurred in the free drainage condition as compared to constant boundary conditions. Numerical results showed that optimal irrigation scheduling using the aforementioned water stress calculations can save up to 12-22 % irrigation water as compared to the current irrigation regime. This resulted in a yield increase of 4.5-6.5 %, simulated by crop growth model.

  20. Radiological assessment of water treatment processes in a water treatment plant in Saudi Arabia: Water and sludge radium content, radon air concentrations and dose rates.

    PubMed

    Al-Jaseem, Q Kh; Almasoud, Fahad I; Ababneh, Anas M; Al-Hobaib, A S

    2016-09-01

    There is an increase demand for clean water sources in Saudi Arabia and, yet, renewable water resources are very limited. This has forced the authorities to explore deep groundwater which is known to contain large concentrations of radionuclides, mainly radium isotopes. Lately, there has been an increase in the number of water treatment plants (WTPs) around the country. In this study, a radiological assessment of a WTP in Saudi Arabia was performed. Raw water was found to have total radium activity of 0.23Bq/L, which exceeds the international limit of 0.185Bq/L (5pCi/L). The WTP investigated uses three stages of treatment: flocculation/sedimentation, sand filtration and reverse osmosis. The radium removal efficiency was evaluated for each stage and the respective values were 33%, 22% and 98%. Moreover, the activity of radium in the solid waste generated from the WTP in the sedimentation and sand filtrations stages were measured and found to be 4490 and 6750Bq/kg, respectively, which exceed the national limit of 1000Bq/kg for radioactive waste. A radiological assessment of the air inside the WTP was also performed by measuring the radon concentrations and dose rates and were found in the ranges of 2-18Bq/m(3) and 70-1000nSv/h, respectively. The annual effective dose was calculated and the average values was found to be 0.3mSv which is below the 1mSv limit.