Science.gov

Sample records for water resources engineering

  1. Integrated water resources management using engineering measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y.

    2015-04-01

    The management process of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) consists of aspects of policies/strategies, measures (engineering measures and non-engineering measures) and organizational management structures, etc., among which engineering measures such as reservoirs, dikes, canals, etc., play the backbone that enables IWRM through redistribution and reallocation of water in time and space. Engineering measures are usually adopted for different objectives of water utilization and water disaster prevention, such as flood control and drought relief. The paper discusses the planning and implementation of engineering measures in IWRM of the Changjiang River, China. Planning and implementation practices of engineering measures for flood control and water utilization, etc., are presented. Operation practices of the Three Gorges Reservoir, particularly the development and application of regulation rules for flood management, power generation, water supply, ecosystem needs and sediment issues (e.g. erosion and siltation), are also presented. The experience obtained in the implementation of engineering measures in Changjiang River show that engineering measures are vital for IWRM. However, efforts should be made to deal with changes of the river system affected by the operation of engineering measures, in addition to escalatory development of new demands associated with socio-economic development.

  2. Hydraulic modeling development and application in water resources engineering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simoes, Francisco J.; Yang, Chih Ted; Wang, Lawrence K.

    2015-01-01

    The use of modeling has become widespread in water resources engineering and science to study rivers, lakes, estuaries, and coastal regions. For example, computer models are commonly used to forecast anthropogenic effects on the environment, and to help provide advanced mitigation measures against catastrophic events such as natural and dam-break floods. Linking hydraulic models to vegetation and habitat models has expanded their use in multidisciplinary applications to the riparian corridor. Implementation of these models in software packages on personal desktop computers has made them accessible to the general engineering community, and their use has been popularized by the need of minimal training due to intuitive graphical user interface front ends. Models are, however, complex and nontrivial, to the extent that even common terminology is sometimes ambiguous and often applied incorrectly. In fact, many efforts are currently under way in order to standardize terminology and offer guidelines for good practice, but none has yet reached unanimous acceptance. This chapter provides a view of the elements involved in modeling surface flows for the application in environmental water resources engineering. It presents the concepts and steps necessary for rational model development and use by starting with the exploration of the ideas involved in defining a model. Tangible form of those ideas is provided by the development of a mathematical and corresponding numerical hydraulic model, which is given with a substantial amount of detail. The issues of model deployment in a practical and productive work environment are also addressed. The chapter ends by presenting a few model applications highlighting the need for good quality control in model validation.

  3. Remote sensing programs and courses in engineering and water resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiefer, R. W.

    1981-01-01

    The content of typical basic and advanced remote sensing and image interpretation courses are described and typical remote sensing graduate programs of study in civil engineering and in interdisciplinary environmental remote sensing and water resources management programs are outlined. Ideally, graduate programs with an emphasis on remote sensing and image interpretation should be built around a core of five courses: (1) a basic course in fundamentals of remote sensing upon which the more specialized advanced remote sensing courses can build; (2) a course dealing with visual image interpretation; (3) a course dealing with quantitative (computer-based) image interpretation; (4) a basic photogrammetry course; and (5) a basic surveying course. These five courses comprise up to one-half of the course work required for the M.S. degree. The nature of other course work and thesis requirements vary greatly, depending on the department in which the degree is being awarded.

  4. Bridging Water Resources Policy and Environmental Engineering in the Classroom at Cornell University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, M. T.; Shaw, S. B.; Seifert, S.; Schwarz, T.

    2006-12-01

    Current university undergraduate students in environmental sciences and engineering are the next generation of environmental protection practitioners. Recognizing this, Cornell's Biological and Environmental Engineering department has developed a popular class, Watershed Engineering (BEE 473), specifically designed to bridge the too-common gap between water resources policy and state-of-art science and technology. Weekly homework assignments are to design real-life solutions to actual water resources problems, often with the objective of applying storm water policies to local situations. Where appropriate, usually in conjunction with recent amendments to the Federal Clean Water Act, this course introduces water resource protection tools and concepts developed in the Cornell Soil and Water Lab. Here we present several examples of how we build bridges between university classrooms and the complex world of water resources policy.

  5. ERTS program of the US Army Corps of Engineers. [water resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarman, J. W.

    1974-01-01

    The Army Corps of Engineers research and development efforts associated with the ERTS Program are confined to applications of investigation, design, construction, operation, and maintenance of water resource projects. Problems investigated covered: (1) resource inventory; (2) environmental impact; (3) pollution monitoring; (4) water circulation; (5) sediment transport; (6) data collection systems; (7) engineering; and (8) model verification. These problem areas were investigated in relation to bays, reservoirs, lakes, rivers, coasts, and regions. ERTS-1 imagery has been extremely valuable in developing techniques and is now being used in everyday applications.

  6. Sanitary engineering and water economy in Europe: with special reference to underground resources.

    PubMed

    KRUL, W F

    1957-01-01

    The author deals with a wide variety of aspects of water economy and the development of water resources, relating them to the sanitary engineering problems they give rise to. Among those aspects are the balance between available resources and water needs for various purposes; accumulation and storage of surface and ground water, and methods of replenishing ground water supplies; pollution and purification; and organizational measures to deal with the urgent problems raised by the heavy demands on the world's water supply as a result of both increased population and the increased need for agricultural and industrial development.The author considers that at the national level over-all plans for developing the water economy of countries might well be drawn up by national water boards and that the economy of inter-State river basins should receive international study. In such work the United Nations and its specialized agencies might be of assistance.

  7. Water Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomonson, V. V.

    1973-01-01

    Uses of ERTS-1 imagery and data for water resources surveys and management are summarized. Areas discussed are: (1) land use and geology; (2) flood plain and flood inundation mapping; (3) snow cover mapping; (4) glacier observations; (5) data collection systems; (6) surface waters; (7) wetlands mapping; (8) water quality; (9) soil mapping; (10) phreatophyte and riparian vegetation mapping; and (11) evapotranspiration.

  8. Water resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomonson, V. V.; Rango, A.

    1973-01-01

    The application of ERTS-1 imagery to the conservation and control of water resources is discussed. The effects of exisiting geology and land use in the water shed area on the hydrologic cycle and the general characteristics of runoff are described. The effects of floods, snowcover, and glaciers are analyzed. The use of ERTS-1 imagery to map surface water and wetland areas to provide rapid inventorying over large regions of water bodies is reported.

  9. Reformulation of Engineering Education at Undergraduate Level in the Faculdad de Ingenieria y Ciencias Hidricas Universidad Nacional del Litoral--Water Resources and Engineering Degrees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theiler, Julio; Isla, Miguel; Arrillaga, Hugo; Ceirano, Eduardo; Lozeco, Cristobal

    This paper explains the educational changes in the Water Resources Engineering program offered by the Universidad Nacional del Litoral in Santa Fe, Argentina, for the last 20 years at the undergraduate level. The need for modernizing the engineering teaching program occurred due to changes in the social system in which the concepts of development…

  10. Scientific Allocation of Water Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buras, Nathan

    Oriented for higher education students, researchers, practicing engineers and planners, this book surveys the state of the art of water resources engineering. A broad spectrum of issues is embraced in the treatment of water resources: quantity aspects as well as quality aspects within a systems approach. Using a rational mode for water resources…

  11. Postgraduate Programmes on Environmental Water Resources Engineering and Management in Greek Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latinopoulos, Pericles; Angelidis, Panagiotis

    2014-01-01

    The management of complex water problems is nowadays being practised through new ways and approaches. Therefore, water engineers, planners and managers should be appropriately educated through modern undergraduate curricula and by well-designed postgraduate specialisation programmes. Within this framework, a study of the specific characteristics…

  12. Water resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, D. B.

    1975-01-01

    Applications of remote sensing technology to analysis of watersheds, snow cover, snowmelt, water runoff, soil moisture, land use, playa lakes, flooding, and water quality are summarized. Recommendations are given for further utilization of this technology.

  13. System International d'Unites: Metric Measurement in Water Resources Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingeman, Peter C.

    This pamphlet gives definitions and symbols for the basic and derived metric units, prefixes, and conversion factors for units frequently used in water resources. Included are conversion factors for units of area, work, heat, power, pressure, viscosity, flow rate, and others. (BB)

  14. Advances in water engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Tebbutt, T.H.Y.

    1985-01-01

    Water is the world's most important natural resource and its efficient utilization requires a proper understanding of the multifunctional role of water in modern society. The philosophy of integrating both quality and quantity considerations of water engineering is an essential aspect of optimal use of resources and this book provides a collection of 41 papers to emphasize this philosophy. Each section of the contents includes a state-of-the art review followed by specialist contributions on a specific topic so that the reader can gain an overview of the area as well as being informed about the latest developments in particular aspects of the subject.

  15. Re-engineering the urban drainage system for resource recovery and protection of drinking water supplies.

    PubMed

    Gumbo, B

    2000-01-01

    The Harare metropolis in Zimbabwe, extending upstream from Manyame Dam in the Upper Manyame River Basin, consists of the City of Harare and its satellite towns: Chitungwiza, Norton, Epworth and Ruwa. The existing urban drainage system is typically a single-use-mixing system: water is used and discharged to "waste", excreta are flushed to sewers and eventually, after "treatment", the effluent is discharged to a drinking water supply source. Polluted urban storm water is evacuated as fast as possible. This system not only ignores the substantial value in "waste" materials, but it also exports problems to downstream communities and to vulnerable fresh-water sources. The question is how can the harare metropolis urban drainage system, which is complex and has evolved over time, be rearranged to achieve sustainability (i.e. water conservation, pollution prevention at source, protection of the vulnerable drinking water sources and recovery of valuable materials)? This paper reviews current concepts regarding the future development of the urban drainage system in line with the new vision of "Sustainable Cities of the Future". The Harare Metropolis in Zimbabwe is taken as a case, and philosophical options for re-engineering the drainage system are discussed. PMID:10842788

  16. The role of material engineering within the concept of an integrated water resources management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breiner, Raphael; Müller, Harald S.

    2016-09-01

    By means of a case study, the successful implementation of a rheologically optimised cement-based mortar for the construction as well as for the rehabilitation of rain water cisterns is presented in this paper. The material was developed within the scope of a German-Indonesian joint project ["Integrated Water Resources Management" (IWRM)], funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. Comprehensive rheological investigations are presented which provide the database for the optimization of the mortar with regard to its intended range of application. For the selection of the source materials, special emphasis was placed on the ready availability at low cost. The rheological properties of the fresh mortar allow an easy workability by hand while the hardened mortar shows a durable and tight appearance at the same time. The developed material can be used as a coating for walls, floors and ceilings of cisterns, for the local rehabilitation of damaged areas only or even as a construction material for complete new cisterns. The future multiplication of the IWRM project results within the region was assured by a local capacity development when the presented material concept was applied in practise in Indonesia for the construction of sustainable rain water cisterns in Gunung Kidul.

  17. The role of material engineering within the concept of an integrated water resources management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breiner, Raphael; Müller, Harald S.

    2016-05-01

    By means of a case study, the successful implementation of a rheologically optimised cement-based mortar for the construction as well as for the rehabilitation of rain water cisterns is presented in this paper. The material was developed within the scope of a German-Indonesian joint project ["Integrated Water Resources Management" (IWRM)], funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. Comprehensive rheological investigations are presented which provide the database for the optimization of the mortar with regard to its intended range of application. For the selection of the source materials, special emphasis was placed on the ready availability at low cost. The rheological properties of the fresh mortar allow an easy workability by hand while the hardened mortar shows a durable and tight appearance at the same time. The developed material can be used as a coating for walls, floors and ceilings of cisterns, for the local rehabilitation of damaged areas only or even as a construction material for complete new cisterns. The future multiplication of the IWRM project results within the region was assured by a local capacity development when the presented material concept was applied in practise in Indonesia for the construction of sustainable rain water cisterns in Gunung Kidul.

  18. Process oriented thinking as a key for integration of ecohydrology, biotechnology and engineering for sustainable water resources management and ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalewski, M.

    2015-04-01

    The recent high rate of environmental degradation due to unsustainable use of water and other natural resources and mismanagement, is, in many cases, the result of a dominant sectoral approach, limited communication between different users and agencies, and lack of knowledge transfer between different disciplines, and especially lack of dialogue between environmental scientists and engineers. There is no doubt that the genuine improvement of human well-being has to be based on understanding the complexity of interactions between abiotic, biotic and socio-economic systems. The major drivers of biogeosphere evolution and function have been the cycles of water and nutrients in a complex array of differing climates and catchment geomorphologies. In the face of global climate change and unequally distributed human populations, the recent sectoral mechanistic approach in natural resources management has to be replaced by an evolutionary systems approach based on well-integrated problem-solving and policy-oriented environmental science. Thus the principles of ecohydrology should be the basis for further integration of ecology, hydrology, engineering, biotechnology and other environmental sciences. Examples from UNESCO IHP VII show how the integration of these will not only increase the efficiency of measures to harmonize ecosystem potentials with societal needs, but also significantly reduce the costs of sustainable environmental management.

  19. Save Our Water Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromley, Albert W.

    The purpose of this booklet, developed as part of Project SOAR (Save Our American Resources), is to give Scout leaders some facts about the world's resources, the sources of water pollution, and how people can help in obtaining solutions. Among the topics discussed are the world's water resources, the water cycle, water quality, sources of water…

  20. A social-economic-engineering combined framework for decision making in water resources planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, E. S.; Lee, K. S.

    2008-10-01

    This study presents a new methodology not only to evaluate willingness to pays (WTPs) for the improvement of hydrological vulnerability using a choice experiment (CE) method but also to do a cost-benefit analysis (CBA) of some feasible alternatives combing the derived WTPs with an alternative evaluation index (AEI). The hydrological vulnerability consists of potential streamflow depletion (PSD), and potential water quality deterioration (PWQD) and can be quantified using a multi-criteria decision making technique and pressure-state-response (PSR) framework. PSD and PWQD not only provide survey respondents with sufficient site-specific information to avoid scope sensitivity in a choice experiment but also support the standard of dividing the study watershed into six sub-regions for site-fitted management. Therefore CE was applied to six regions one after the other, in order to determine WTPs for improvements on hydrological vulnerability considering the characteristics which are vulnerability, location, and preferences with regard to management objectives. The AEI was developed to prioritize the feasible alternatives using a continuous water quantity/quality simulation model as well as multi-criteria decision making techniques. All criteria for alternative performance were selected based on a driver-pressures-state-impact-response (DPSIR) framework, and their weights were estimated using an Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). In addition, the AEI that reflects on residents' preference with regard to management objectives was proposed in order to incite the stakeholder to participate in the decision making process. Finally, the economic values of each alternative are estimated by a newly developed method which combines the WTPs for improvements on hydrologic vulnerability with the AEI. This social-economic-engineering combined framework can provide the decision makers with more specific information as well as decrease the uncertainty of the CBA.

  1. Water Resources Research Catalog, Volume 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Science Information Exchange.

    Described are 4501 projects in progress during 1968 under the general headings: Nature of Water; Water Cycle; Water Supply Augmentation and Conservation; Water Quality Management and Control; Water Quality Management and Protection; Water Resources Planning; Resource Data; Engineering Works; and Manpower, Grants and Facilities. Each description…

  2. Water Resource Adaptation Program

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Water Resource Adaptation Program (WRAP) contributes to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (U.S. EPA) efforts to provide water resource managers and decision makers with the tools needed to adapt water resources to demographic and economic development, and future clim...

  3. Water, Ohio's Remarkable Resource.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groves, Carrie J.

    Information on water and water resources in Ohio is presented in seven sections. Water from Ohio streams, water storage, lakes in Ohio, and ground water are discussed in the first section ("Water, A Part of the Earth"). A brief discussion on the ecosystem is provided in the second section ("Water and Life"). Topics discussed in the third section…

  4. Developing Our Water Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volker, Adriaan

    1977-01-01

    Only very recently developed as a refined scientific discipline, hydrology has to cope with a complexity of problems concerning the present and future management of a vital natural resource, water. This article examines available water supplies and the problems and prospects of water resource development. (Author/MA)

  5. Analyzing water resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Report on water resources discusses problems in water measurement demand, use, and availability. Also discussed are sensing accuracies, parameter monitoring, and status of forecasting, modeling, and future measurement techniques.

  6. Splash! Water Resource Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southwest Florida Water Management District, Brooksville.

    This set of activities is designed to bring water resource education into the middle school classroom using an interdisciplinary approach. The packet contains timely, localized information about the water resources of west central Florida. Each activity is aligned to middle-school Sunshine State Standards. These hands-on, minds-on activities can…

  7. NASA Water Resources Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toll, David L.

    2011-01-01

    With increasing population pressure and water usage coupled with climate variability and change, water issues are being reported by numerous groups as the most critical environmental problems facing us in the 21st century. Competitive uses and the prevalence of river basins and aquifers that extend across boundaries engender political tensions between communities, stakeholders and countries. In addition to the numerous water availability issues, water quality related problems are seriously affecting human health and our environment. The potential crises and conflicts especially arise when water is competed among multiple uses. For example, urban areas, environmental and recreational uses, agriculture, and energy production compete for scarce resources, not only in the Western U.S. but throughout much of the U.S. and also in numerous parts of the world. Mitigating these conflicts and meeting water demands and needs requires using existing water resources more efficiently. The NASA Water Resources Program Element works to use NASA products and technology to address these critical water issues. The primary goal of the Water Resources is to facilitate application of NASA Earth science products as a routine use in integrated water resources management for the sustainable use of water. This also includes the extreme events of drought and floods and the adaptation to the impacts from climate change. NASA satellite and Earth system observations of water and related data provide a huge volume of valuable data in both near-real-time and extended back nearly 50 years about the Earth's land surface conditions such as precipitation, snow, soil moisture, water levels, land cover type, vegetation type, and health. NASA Water Resources Program works closely to use NASA and Earth science data with other U.S. government agencies, universities, and non-profit and private sector organizations both domestically and internationally. The NASA Water Resources Program organizes its

  8. Graphic engine resource management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bautin, Mikhail; Dwarakinath, Ashok; Chiueh, Tzi-cker

    2008-01-01

    Modern consumer-grade 3D graphic cards boast a computation/memory resource that can easily rival or even exceed that of standard desktop PCs. Although these cards are mainly designed for 3D gaming applications, their enormous computational power has attracted developers to port an increasing number of scientific computation programs to these cards, including matrix computation, collision detection, cryptography, database sorting, etc. As more and more applications run on 3D graphic cards, there is a need to allocate the computation/memory resource on these cards among the sharing applications more fairly and efficiently. In this paper, we describe the design, implementation and evaluation of a Graphic Processing Unit (GPU) scheduler based on Deficit Round Robin scheduling that successfully allocates to every process an equal share of the GPU time regardless of their demand. This scheduler, called GERM, estimates the execution time of each GPU command group based on dynamically collected statistics, and controls each process's GPU command production rate through its CPU scheduling priority. Measurements on the first GERM prototype show that this approach can keep the maximal GPU time consumption difference among concurrent GPU processes consistently below 5% for a variety of application mixes.

  9. Reformulated Neural Network (ReNN): a New Alternative for Data-driven Modelling in Hydrology and Water Resources Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razavi, S.; Tolson, B.; Burn, D.; Seglenieks, F.

    2012-04-01

    Reformulated Neural Network (ReNN) has been recently developed as an efficient and more effective alternative to feedforward multi-layer perceptron (MLP) neural networks [Razavi, S., and Tolson, B. A. (2011). "A new formulation for feedforward neural networks." IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks, 22(10), 1588-1598, DOI: 1510.1109/TNN.2011.2163169]. This presentation initially aims to introduce the ReNN to the water resources community and then demonstrates ReNN applications to water resources related problems. ReNN is essentially equivalent to a single-hidden-layer MLP neural network but defined on a new set of network variables which is more effective than the traditional set of network weights and biases. The main features of the new network variables are that they are geometrically interpretable and each variable has a distinct role in forming the network response. ReNN is more efficiently trained as it has a less complex error response surface. In addition to the ReNN training efficiency, the interpretability of the ReNN variables enables the users to monitor and understand the internal behaviour of the network while training. Regularization in the ReNN response can be also directly measured and controlled. This feature improves the generalization ability of the network. The appeal of the ReNN is demonstrated with two ReNN applications to water resources engineering problems. In the first application, the ReNN is used to model the rainfall-runoff relationships in multiple watersheds in the Great Lakes basin located in northeastern North America. Modelling inflows to the Great Lakes are of great importance to the management of the Great Lakes system. Due to the lack of some detailed physical data about existing control structures in many subwatersheds of this huge basin, the data-driven approach to modelling such as the ReNN are required to replace predictions from a physically-based rainfall runoff model. Unlike traditional MLPs, the ReNN does not necessarily

  10. Protecting Our Water Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewett, Jon

    1996-01-01

    Describes the watershed management approach for preserving water resources. Considers pollution sources ranging from industrial discharge to agricultural leachate and runoff and evaluates its impact on the total watershed environment. (JRH)

  11. Water - an inexhaustible resource?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Divenah, C.; Esperou, E.

    2012-04-01

    We have chosen to present the topic "Water", by illustrating problems that will give better opportunities for interdisciplinary work between Natural Science (Physics, Chemistry, Biology and Geology) teachers at first, but also English teachers and maybe others. Water is considered in general, in all its shapes and states. The question is not only about drinking water, but we would like to demonstrate that water can both be a fragile and short-lived resource in some ways, and an unlimited energy resource in others. Water exists on Earth in three states. It participates in a large number of chemical and physical processes (dissolution, dilution, biogeochemical cycles, repartition of heat in the oceans and the atmosphere, etc.), helping to maintain the homeostasis of the entire planet. It is linked to living beings, for which water is the major compound. The living beings essentially organized themselves into or around water, and this fact is also valid for human kind (energy, drinking, trade…). Water can also be a destroying agent for living beings (tsunamis, mud flows, collapse of electrical dams, pollution...) and for the solid earth (erosion, dissolution, fusion). I) Water, an essential resource for the human kind After having highlighted the disparities and geopolitical problems, the pupils will study the chemistry of water with its components and their origins (isotopes, water trip). Then the ways to make it drinkable will be presented (filtration, decantation, iceberg carrying…) II) From the origin of water... We could manage an activity where different groups put several hypotheses to the test, with the goal to understand the origin(s?) of water on Earth. Example: Isotopic signature of water showing its extraterrestrial origin.. Once done, we'll try to determine the origin of drinking water, as a fossil resource. Another use of isotopes will allow them to evaluate the drinking water age, to realize how precious it can be. III) Water as a sustainable energy

  12. Lunar Water Resource Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscatello, Anthony C.

    2008-01-01

    In cooperation with the Canadian Space Agency, the Northern Centre for Advanced Technology, Inc., the Carnegie-Mellon University, JPL, and NEPTEC, NASA has undertaken the In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) project called RESOLVE. This project is a ground demonstration of a system that would be sent to explore permanently shadowed polar lunar craters, drill into the regolith, determine what volatiles are present, and quantify them in addition to recovering oxygen by hydrogen reduction. The Lunar Prospector has determined these craters contain enhanced hydrogen concentrations averaging about 0.1%. If the hydrogen is in the form of water, the water concentration would be around 1%, which would translate into billions of tons of water on the Moon, a tremendous resource. The Lunar Water Resource Demonstration (LWRD) is a part of RESOLVE designed to capture lunar water and hydrogen and quantify them as a backup to gas chromatography analysis. This presentation will briefly review the design of LWRD and some of the results of testing the subsystem. RESOLVE is to be integrated with the Scarab rover from CMIJ and the whole system demonstrated on Mauna Kea on Hawaii in November 2008. The implications of lunar water for Mars exploration are two-fold: 1) RESOLVE and LWRD could be used in a similar fashion on Mars to locate and quantify water resources, and 2) electrolysis of lunar water could provide large amounts of liquid oxygen in LEO, leading to lower costs for travel to Mars, in addition to being very useful at lunar outposts.

  13. Heavy Vehicle and Engine Resource Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-03-01

    The Heavy Vehicle and Engine Resource Guide is a catalog of medium- and heavy-duty engines and vehicles with alternative fuel and advanced powertrain options. This edition covers model year 2003 engines and vehicles.

  14. Inland water resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The work is reported of the panel concerning the application of space technology to the improved management of the nation's inland resources. The progress since the 1967-68 study is briefly reviewed. The data needed for the management of inlet water ways, and the potential benefits of better management are discussed along with 16 proposed demonstration projects.

  15. Mathematical simulation of temperatures in deep impoundments: verification tests of the Water Resources Engineers, Inc. model - Horsetooth and Flaming Gorge Reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, D.L.; Sartoris, Jim J.

    1973-01-01

    Successful use of predictive mathematical models requires verification of the accuracy of the models by applying them to existing situations where the prediction can be compared with reality. A Corps of Engineers' modification of a deep reservoir thermal stratification model developed by Water Resources Engineers, Inc., was applied to two existing Bureau of Reclamation reservoirs for verification. Diffusion coefficients used for the Corps' Detroit Reservoir were found to apply to Horsetooth Reservoir in Colorado, for which very food computer input data were available. The Detroit diffusion coefficients gave a reasonable simulation of Flaming Gorge Reservoir in Wyoming and Utah, which has very complex and variable physical characteristics and for which only average-quality computer input data were available.

  16. 78 FR 10615 - Westfield Water Resources Department; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Westfield Water Resources Department; Notice of Application Accepted for.... Date filed: January 22, 2013. d. Applicant: Westfield Water Resources Department. e. Name of Project... Darling, Water Systems Engineer, Westfield Water Resources Department, 28 Sackett Street, Westfield,...

  17. International Symposium on Karst Water Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Back, William

    The International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS) and the International Association of Hydrogeologists (IAH) joined the Hacettepe University of Ankara, Turkey, in sponsoring the International Symposium on Karst Water Resources. The other sponsors of the symposium were the Karst Water Resources Research Center Project of Hacettepe University and the United Nations Development Program through the United Nations Department of Technical Cooperation for Development, in addition to the following government organizations of Turkey: Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources, State Hydraulic, Works (DSI), General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration (MTA), Electrical Power Resources Survey and Development Administration (EIE) and Geological Engineering Department of the Engineering Faculty and Karst Hydrogeology Research Group (KRG) at the Hacettepe University Earth Sciences Application and Research Center. Cooperating organizations included the Turkish National Committee of the International Hydrological Program, the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), and the International Water Resources Association (IWRA). The symposium was divided into two parts: a paper presentation session held at the new Turkish National Library in Ankara during July 7-12, 1985, and a field trip from Ankara through Konya and Antalya to Izmir during July 13-18. The symposium chairman was Gultekin Gunay of the Hydrogeological Engineering Department of Ankara's Hacettepe University, and the cochairman was A. Ivan Johnson, a water resources consultant from Denver, Colo., and editor of WaterWatch. Scientists from 27 countries were represented among the 200 or so participants in attendance.

  18. Engineering & Technical Resources on the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarzwalder, Robert

    1996-01-01

    Offers pointers on finding resources on the Internet that may be useful to engineers and scientists. Suggests steps that beginners can take to become acquainted with the Internet and defines common Internet terms. Presents a list of engineering Internet resources that include listservs, USENET groups, gophers, and World Wide Web sites. (Author/JMV)

  19. Interdisciplinary Methods in Water Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosens, Barbara; Fiedler, Fritz; Boll, Jan; Higgins, Lorie; Johnson, Gary; Kennedy, Brian; Strand, Eva; Wilson, Patrick; Laflin, Maureen

    2011-01-01

    In the face of a myriad of complex water resource issues, traditional disciplinary separation is ineffective in developing approaches to promote a sustainable water future. As part of a new graduate program in water resources, faculty at the University of Idaho have developed a course on interdisciplinary methods designed to prepare students for…

  20. Game theory and water resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madani, Kaveh

    2010-02-01

    SummaryManaging water resources systems usually involves conflicts. Behaviors of stakeholders, who might be willing to contribute to improvements and reach a win-win situation, sometimes result in worse conditions for all parties. Game theory can identify and interpret the behaviors of parties to water resource problems and describe how interactions of different parties who give priority to their own objectives, rather than system's objective, result in a system's evolution. Outcomes predicted by game theory often differ from results suggested by optimization methods which assume all parties are willing to act towards the best system-wide outcome. This study reviews applicability of game theory to water resources management and conflict resolution through a series of non-cooperative water resource games. The paper illustrates the dynamic structure of water resource problems and the importance of considering the game's evolution path while studying such problems.

  1. Water Resources Research and Interdisciplinary Hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeze, R. Allan

    1990-09-01

    Water Resource Research was born under the watchful eye of Walter Langbein, a modern-day Renaissance man whose interests spanned not only hydrology but all of the earth sciences, and not only the earth sciences but all of science. From its founding in1965 to the present day, the editors of WRR have always seen the journal as a medium of interdisciplinary interaction. On this 25th anniversary of WRR, I thought it might be worthwhile to look back on the interdisciplinary successes and failures of the past quarter decade, in our journal and in our science. There is no question that research in water resources is an interdisciplinary endeavor. At my university we have a graduate program in interdisciplinary hydrology on the books, and on those occasions when we gather together, there are students and faculty there from as many as seven different departments: geography, geology, soil science, forestry, civil engineering, mining engineering, and bioresource engineering. In addition, our campus hosts the Westwater Research Institute where physical scientists can get involved in interdisciplinary research with social scientists from regional and community planning, resource management, resource economics, commerce, and law. I suspect that many campuses have a similar breadth of water resources interests. It is this breadth that WRR is designed to serve.

  2. Policy Sciences in Water Resources Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummings, Ronald G.

    1984-07-01

    As the newly appointed Policy Sciences Editor for this journal, I would like to take this opportunity to introduce myself to WRR's readership as well as to offer a few comments concerning my views of policy sciences in water resources research. I am an economist working in the area of natural resources and environmental management. As such, I've spent a good part of my research career working with noneconomists. During 1969-1972, I worked in Mexico with hydrologists and engineers from Mexico's Water Resources Ministry in efforts to assess management/investment programs for reservoir systems and systems for interbasin water transfers. Between 1972 and 1975, while serving as Chairman of the Department of Resource Economics at the University of Rhode Island, my research involved collaborative efforts with biologists and soil scientists in studies concerning the conjunctive management of reservoirs for agricultural and lagoon systems and the control of salinity levels in soils and aquifers. Since 1975, at which time I joined the faculty at the University of New Mexico, I have worked with engineers at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in developing operation/management models for hot, dry rock geothermal systems and, more recently, with legal scholars and hydrologists in analyses of water rights issues. Thus I am comfortable with and appreciative of research conducted by my colleagues in systems engineering, operations research, and hydrology, as well as those in economics, law, and other social sciences.

  3. EAWAG: An Environmental Science and Engineering Resource.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Stanton

    1980-01-01

    Interviewed is the director of a Swiss research and teaching institute in the field of water resources, water pollution control, and waste management. Topics include lake studies, research programs and priorities, advisory services, and the organizational structure of EAWAG. (BT)

  4. Water resources of Manatee County, Florida. Water-resources investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.P.

    1983-03-01

    Rapid development of Manatee County in southwest Florida is creating water-resource problems. The report presents an evaluation of the water resources and potential effects of water-resource developments. Most streams in the county have small drainage basins and low yields. The principal aquifers are the surficial, minor artesian, and the Floridan. The Floridan aquifer is the major source of irrigation water in the county. The minor artesian aquifer is a highly developed source of water for small rural supplies. Withdrawals of 20 to 50 million gallons per day from the Floridan aquifer since the 1950's have caused declines in the potentiometric surface of about 20 to 50 feet. The quality of ground water is good except in the coastal and southern parts of the county.

  5. Water Conservation Resource List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NJEA Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Alarmed by the growing water shortage, the New Jersey State Office of Dissemination has prepared this annotated list of free or inexpensive instructional materials for teaching about water conservation, K-l2. A tipsheet for home water conservation is appended. (Editor/SJL)

  6. Water Resources Data, Louisiana, Water Year 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goree, B.B.; Lovelace, W.M.; Montgomery, P.A.; Resweber, J.C.; Sasser, D.C., Jr.; Walters, David J.

    2002-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2001 water year for Louisiana consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground water. This report contains records for water discharge at 71 gaging stations; stage only for 73 gaging stations and 7 lakes; water quality for 66 surface-water stations (including 39 gaging stations) and 92 wells; and water levels for 205 observation wells. Also included are data for 166 crest-stage and flood-profile partial-record stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites not included in the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Louisiana.

  7. Water resources data, Louisiana, water year 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baumann, Todd; Goree, B.B.; Lovelace, W.M.; Montgomery, P.A.; Resweber, J.C.; Ross, Garron B.; Sasser, D.C., Jr.; Walters, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2003 water year for Louisiana consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground water. This report contains records for water discharge at 76 gaging stations; stage only for 86 gaging stations and 7 lakes; water quality for 56 surface-water stations (including 44 gaging stations) and 142 wells; and water levels for 313 observation wells. Also included are data for 158 crest-stage and flood-profile partial-record stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites not included in the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal and State agencies in Louisiana.

  8. Water Resources Data, Louisiana, Water Year 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goree, B.B.; Lovelace, W.M.; Montgomery, P.A.; Resweber, J.C.; Sasser, D.C., Jr.; Walters, David J.

    2001-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2000 water year for Louisiana consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground water. This report contains records for water discharge at 66 gaging stations; stage only for 70 gaging stations and 7 lakes; water quality for 45 surface-water stations (including 25 gaging stations) and 108 wells; and water levels for 221 observation wells. Also included are data for 204 crest-stage and flood-profile partial-record stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites not included in the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Louisiana.

  9. Sanitary engineering and water economy in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Krul, W. F. J. M.

    1957-01-01

    The author deals with a wide variety of aspects of water economy and the development of water resources, relating them to the sanitary engineering problems they give rise to. Among those aspects are the balance between available resources and water needs for various purposes; accumulation and storage of surface and ground water, and methods of replenishing ground water supplies; pollution and purification; and organizational measures to deal with the urgent problems raised by the heavy demands on the world's water supply as a result of both increased population and the increased need for agricultural and industrial development. The author considers that at the national level over-all plans for developing the water economy of countries might well be drawn up by national water boards and that the economy of inter-State river basins should receive international study. In such work the United Nations and its specialized agencies might be of assistance. PMID:13472427

  10. Water resources data, Colorado, water year 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crowfoot, R.M.; Payne, W.F.; O'Neill, G. B.; Boulger, R.W.

    2005-01-01

    Water-resources data for Colorado for the 2004 water year (WY) in this report consist of records of stage and discharge of streams; and stage and contents of one reservoir. This report contains discharge records for 312 gaging stations, stage and contents of 1 lake and reservoir, discharge measurements for 1 partial-record low-flow station and 1 miscellaneous site, and peak-flow information for 22 crest-stage partial-record stations. Three pertinent stations operated by bordering states, and 34 stations operated by the Colorado Division of Water Resources are included in this report. All records (except as just noted) were collected and computed by the Water Resources Discipline of the U.S. Geological Survey under the direction of J.E. Kircher, Director, USGS Colorado Water Science Center. These data represent that part of the National Water Information System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies.

  11. Water resources data, Indiana, water year 1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, James A.; Keeton, Charles R.; Benedict, Brian L.; Hammil, Lowell E.

    1994-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1993 water year for Indiana consist of records of discharge, stage, and water quality of streams and wells; reservoir stage and contents; and water levels in lakes and wells. This report contains records of discharge for 175 stream-gaging station, stage for 5 stream station, 1 sediment station, stage and contents for 1 reservoir, water quality for 3 streams, and water levels for 80 lakes and 94 observation wells. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey in Indiana in cooperation with State and Federal agencies.

  12. Water resources data, Indiana, water year 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, James A.; Deiwert, Clyde E.

    1992-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1991 water year for Indiana consist of records of discharge, stage, and water quality of streams and wells; reservoir stage and contents; and water levels in lakes and wells. This report contains records of discharge for 183 stream-gaging stations, stage for 7 stream stations, stage and contents for 1 reservoir, water quality for 3 streams, and water levels for 80 lakes and 95 observation wells. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey in Indiana in cooperation with State and Federal Agencies.

  13. Water resources data, Indiana, water year 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, James A.; Keeton, Charles R.; Benedict, Brian L.; Hammil, Lowell E.

    1993-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1992 water year for Indiana consist of records of discharge, stage, and water quality of streams and wells; reservoir stage and contents; and water levels in lakes and wells. This report contains records of discharge for 175 stream-gaging stations, stage for 7 stream stations, 1 sediment station, stage and contents for 1 reservoir, water quality for 3 streams, and water levels for 80 lakes and 94 observation wells. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey in Indiana in cooperation with State and Federal agencies.

  14. Water, Society and the future of water resources research (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    The subject of water and society is broad, but at heart is the study of water as a resource, essential to human activities, a vital input to food and energy production, the sustaining medium for ecosystems and yet also a destructive hazard. Society demands, withdraws, competes, uses and wastes the resource in dynamic counterpart. The science of water management emerges from this interface, a field at the nexus of engineering and geoscience, with substantial influence from economics and other social sciences. Within this purview are some of the most pressing environmental questions of our time, such as adaptation to climate change, direct and indirect connections between water and energy policy, the continuing dependence of agriculture on depletion of the world's aquifers, the conservation or preservation of ecosystems within increasingly human-influenced river systems, and food security and poverty reduction for the earth's poorest inhabitants. This presentation will present and support the hypothesis that water resources research is a scientific enterprise separate from, yet closely interrelated to, hydrologic science. We will explore the scientific basis of water resources research, review pressing research questions and opportunities, and propose an action plan for the advancement of the science of water management. Finally, the presentation will propose a Chapman Conference on Water and Society: The Future of Water Resources Research in the spring of 2015.

  15. Water resources data, Arkansas, 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brossett, T.H.; Evans, D.A.

    2003-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2002 water year for Arkansas consist of records of discharge and water quality (physical measurements and chemical concentrations) of streams, water quality of lakes, and groundwater levels and ground-water quality. Data from selected sites in Missouri and Oklahoma also are included. This report contains daily discharge records for 108 surface-water gaging stations and 87 peak-discharge partial-record stations, water-quality data for 65 surface-water stations and 5 wells, and water levels for 15 observation wells. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. Note: Historically, this report has been published as a paper report. Beginning with the 2002 water year report, these reports will be available from the World Wide Web at http://ar.water.usgs.gov.

  16. Water resources data, Nebraska, water year 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hitch, D. E.; Soensken, P.J.; Sebree, S.K.; Wilson, K.E.; Walczyk, V.C.; Drudik, R.A.; Miller, J.D.; Hull, S.H.

    2005-01-01

    The Nebraska water resources data report for water year 2004 includes records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; water elevation and/or contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and quality of ground water in wells. This report contains records of stream stage for 3 stations; stream discharge for 101 continuous and 5 crest-stage gaging stations, and 6 miscellaneous sites; stream water quality for 7 gaging stations and 40 miscellaneous sites; water elevation and/or contents for 2 lakes and 1 reservoir; ground-water levels for 74 observation wells; and ground-water quality for 200 wells. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected in and near Nebraska by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies.

  17. Water Resources Data, Alaska, Water Year 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyer, D.F.; Solin, G.L.; Apgar, M.L.; Hess, D.L.; Swenson, W.A.

    2002-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2001 water year for Alaska consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stages of lakes; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. This volume contains records for water discharge at 112 gaging stations; stage or contents only at 4 gaging stations; water quality at 37 gaging stations; and water levels for 30 observation wells. Also included are data for 51 crest-stage partial-record stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Alaska.

  18. Water Resources of Rapides Parish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffith, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Rapides Parish, located in central Louisiana, contains fresh groundwater and surface-water resources. In 2005, about 443 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) were withdrawn from water sources in Rapides Parish. About 92 percent (409 Mgal/d) was withdrawn from surface water, and 8 percent (34 Mgal/d) was withdrawn from groundwater. Withdrawals for power generation accounted for 91 percent (403 Mgal/d) of the total water withdrawn. Withdrawals for other uses included public supply (27 Mgal/d), irrigation (9 Mgal/d), and aquaculture (3 Mgal/d). Water withdrawals in the parish generally increased from 1960 to 1995 and decreased from 1995 to 2005. This fact sheet summarizes basic information on the water resources of Rapides Parish, La. Information on groundwater and surface-water availability, quality, development, use, and trends is based on previously published reports listed in the references section.

  19. Water Resources Data, Kentucky, Water Year 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McClain, D.L.; Byrd, F.D.; Brown, A.C.; Moses, C.R.

    2003-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2002 water year for Kentucky consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and lakes; and water levels of wells. This report includes daily discharge records for 120 streamgaging stations. It also includes water-quality data for eight stations sampled at regular intervals, continuous temperature at four stations, and continuous water quality at nine stations. Ground-water levels are published for 8 recording and 23 partial-record sites. Precipitation data at regular intervals are published for one site. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurement and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Kentucky.

  20. Water Resources Data, Kentucky, Water Year 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McClain, D.L.; Brown, A.C.; Moses, C.R.; Darnell, R.S.

    2004-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2003 water year for Kentucky consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and lakes; and water levels of wells. This report includes daily discharge records for 127 stream-gaging stations. It also includes water-quality data for eight stations sampled at regular intervals, continuous temperature at seven stations, and continuous water quality at nine stations. Ground-water levels are published for 8 recording and 16 partial-record sites. Precipitation data at regular intervals are published for one site. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurement and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Kentucky.

  1. Water resources data, Kentucky, water year 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McClain, Dennis L.; Moses, Clifford R.; Darnell, Roy S.

    2005-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2004 water year for Kentucky consist of records of stage, discharge, and water-quality of streams and lakes; and water levels of wells. This report includes daily discharge records for 131 stream-stations. It also includes water-quality data for 15 stations sampled at regular intervals, continuous temperature at 7 stations, and continuous water-quality at 11 stations. Ground-water levels are published for 8 recording and 22 partial record sites. Precipitation data at a regular interval are published for two sites. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Kentucky.

  2. Water resources data, Indiana, water year 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, James A.; Keeton, Charles R.; Hammil, Lowell E.; Nguyen, Hieu T.; Majors, Deborah K.

    2002-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2001 water year for Indiana consists of records of discharge, stage, and water quality of streams and wells; reservoir stage and contents; and water levels in lakes and wells. This report contains records of discharge for 163 stream-gaging stations, stage for 8 stream stations, stage and contents for 1 reservoir, water quality for 1 stream, water temperature at 11 sites, sediment analysis for 1 stream, water levels for 78 lakes and 88 observation wells. Also included are records of miscellaneous discharge measurements, miscellaneous levels and miscellaneous water-quality, not part of the systematic data-collection program. Data contained in this report represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey in Indiana in cooperation with State and Federal agencies.

  3. Water Resources Data, Indiana, Water Year 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morlock, Scott E.; Nguyen, Hieu T.; Majors, Deborah K.

    2004-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2003 water year for Indiana consists of records of discharge, stage, and water quality of streams and wells; reservoir stage and contents; and water levels in lakes and wells. This report contains records of discharge for 148 stream-gaging stations, stage for 16 stream stations, stage and contents for 1 reservoir, water quality for 5 streams, water temperature at 17 sites, sediment analysis for 2 streams, water levels for 8 lakes and 88 observation wells. Also included are records of miscellaneous discharge measurements, miscellaneous levels and miscellaneous water-quality, not part of the systematic data-collection program. Data contained in this report represent that part of the National Water Information System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey in Indiana in cooperation with State and Federal agencies.

  4. Virtual water trade and world water resources.

    PubMed

    Oki, T; Kanae, S

    2004-01-01

    Global virtual water trade was quantitatively estimated and evaluated. The basic idea of how to estimate unit requirement of water resources to produce each commodity is introduced and values for major agricultural and stock products are presented. The concept of virtual water and the quantitative estimates can help in assessing a more realistic water scarcity index in each country, projecting future water demand for food supply, increasing public awareness on water, and identifying the processes wasting water in the production. Really required water in exporting countries is generally smaller than virtually required water in importing countries, reflecting the comparative advantage of water use efficiency, and it is estimated to be 680 km3/y for 2000. On the contrary the virtually required water for the same year is estimated to be 1,130 km3/y, and the difference of 450 km3/y is virtually saved by global trade. However, solely virtual water should not be used for any decision making since the idea of virtual water implies only the usage and influence of water and no concerns on social, cultural, and environmental implications. Virtual water trade also does not consider other limiting factors than water.

  5. Virtual water trade and world water resources.

    PubMed

    Oki, T; Kanae, S

    2004-01-01

    Global virtual water trade was quantitatively estimated and evaluated. The basic idea of how to estimate unit requirement of water resources to produce each commodity is introduced and values for major agricultural and stock products are presented. The concept of virtual water and the quantitative estimates can help in assessing a more realistic water scarcity index in each country, projecting future water demand for food supply, increasing public awareness on water, and identifying the processes wasting water in the production. Really required water in exporting countries is generally smaller than virtually required water in importing countries, reflecting the comparative advantage of water use efficiency, and it is estimated to be 680 km3/y for 2000. On the contrary the virtually required water for the same year is estimated to be 1,130 km3/y, and the difference of 450 km3/y is virtually saved by global trade. However, solely virtual water should not be used for any decision making since the idea of virtual water implies only the usage and influence of water and no concerns on social, cultural, and environmental implications. Virtual water trade also does not consider other limiting factors than water. PMID:15195440

  6. Water resources data, Indiana, water year 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, James A.; Keeton, Charles R.; Hammil, Lowell E.; Nguyen, Hieu T.; Majors, Deborah K.

    2001-01-01

    Water resource data for the 2000 water year for Indiana consists of records of discharge, stage, and water quality of streams and wells; reservoir stage and contents; and water levels in lakes and wells. This report contains records of discharge for 166 stream-gaging stations, stage for 7 stream stations, stage and contents for 1 reservoir, water quality for 2 streams, sediment analysis for 1 stream, water levels for 79 lakes and 89 observation wells. Also included are records of miscellaneous discharge measurements, miscellaneous levels and miscellaneous water-quality, not part of the systematic data-collection program. Data contained in this report represent that part of the the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey in Indiana in cooperation with State and Federal agencies.

  7. Water Resources Data, Alabama, Water Year 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearman, J.L.; Stricklin, V.E.; Psinakis, W.L.

    2003-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2002 water year for Alabama consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stages and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels in wells. This report includes records on both surface and ground water in the State. Specifically, it contains: (1) discharge records for 131 streamflow-gaging stations, for 41 partial-record or miscellaneous streamflow stations; (2) stage and content records for 14 lakes and reservoirs and stage at 47 stations; (3) water-quality records for 12 streamflow-gaging stations, for 17 ungaged streamsites, and for 2 precipitation stations; (4) water temperature at 14 surfacewater stations; (5) specific conductance and dissolved oxygen at 12 stations; (6) turbidity at 3 stations; (7) sediment data at 6 stations; (8) water-level records for 2 recording observation wells; and (9) water-quality records for 21 ground-water stations. Also included are lists of active and discontinued continuous-record surface-water-quality stations, and partial-record and miscellaneous surface-water-quality stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Alabama.

  8. Water Resources Data, Mississippi, Water Year 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morris, F., III; Turnipseed, D.P.; Storm, J.B.

    2003-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2002 water year for Mississippi consist of records of surface water and ground water in the State. Specifically, it contains: (1) Discharge records for 91 streamflow-gaging stations, stage records for 22 of these gaging stations, discharge records for 91 partial-record stations or miscellaneous streamflow sites, including 13 flood hydrograph partial-record stations, 78 crest-stage partial-record stations, and 0 special study and miscellaneous sites; (2) stage only at 9 gaging stations; (3) water-quality records for 13 streamflow-gaging stations, 7 stage-only stations, and 3 water-quality monitor stations, 0 partial-record stations or miscellaneous sites, 97 short-term study sites, and 39 wells; and (4) water-level records for 18 observation wells. Records obtained from water-resources investigations are also included in special sections of the report. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey, and cooperating local, State, and Federal agencies in Mississippi.

  9. Taking stock of water resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuttle, William

    You can only manage what you measure. If this maxim is correct, then a recent report by the U.S. Geological Survey [2002] promises a vast improvement in water management in the United States. The report proposes a consolidated, national accounting of availability and use of fresh water. The proposed accounting clearly will be superior to the present absence of a nationwide assessment of fresh water resources. But is it enough? Traditionally, water managers have measured the availability of fresh water by comparing the volume of water available from various sources against estimated demand. The proposed national assessment adheres to this approach. Gauging water by volume is fine if we are only interested in whether our glasses will be full or empty. But throw an endangered species or wetland preservation into the mix, and the picture becomes less clear.

  10. Water resources of Vernon Parish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prakken, Lawrence B.; Griffith, Jason M.; Fendick, Robert B.

    2012-01-01

    In 2005, about 6.67 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) of water were withdrawn in Vernon Parish, Louisiana, including about 6.46 Mgal/d from groundwater sources and 0.21 Mgal/d from surface-water sources. Public-supply use accounted for about 76 percent (5.06 Mgal/d) of the total water withdrawn. Other categories of use included rural domestic, livestock, general irrigation, and aquaculture. Based on water-use data collected at 5-year intervals from 1960 to 2005, water withdrawals in the parish peaked in 1990 at about 10.4 Mgal/d. This fact sheet summarizes basic information on the water resources of Vernon Parish, La. Information on groundwater and surface-water availability, quality, development, use, and trends is based on previously published reports listed in the Selected References section.

  11. Water resources of Bossier Parish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prakken, Lawrence B.; Griffith, Jason M.

    2011-01-01

    In 2005, about 15.8 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) of water were withdrawn in Bossier Parish, Louisiana, including 4.12 Mgal/d from groundwater sources and about 11.7 Mgal/d from surface-water sources. Public-supply use accounted for about 78 percent (12.4 Mgal/d) of the total water withdrawn. Other categories of use included industry, rural domestic, livestock, rice irrigation, general irrigation, and aquaculture. Based on water-use data collected at 5-year intervals from 1960 to 2005, water withdrawals in the parish increased from 4.96 to 15.8 Mgal/d. This fact sheet summarizes basic information on the water resources of Bossier Parish, La. Information on groundwater and surface-water availability, quality, development, use, and trends is based on previously published reports listed in the Selected References section.

  12. Lunar Water Resource Demonstration (LWRD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscatello, Anthony C.

    2009-01-01

    Lunar Water Resource Demonstration (LWRD) is part of RESOLVE (Regolith and Environment Science & Oxygen and Lunar Volatile Extraction). RESOLVE is an ISRU ground demonstration: (1) A rover to explore a permanently shadowed crater at the south or north pole of the Moon (2) Drill core samples down to 1 meter (3) Heat the core samples to 150C (4) Analyze gases and capture water and/or hydrogen evolved (5) Use hydrogen reduction to extract oxygen from regolith

  13. Sustainable water services and interaction with water resources in Europe and in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barraqué, B.; Formiga Johnsson, R. M.; Britto, A. L.

    2007-09-01

    The increasing interaction between large cities and nature makes "urban water" an issue: water resources and water services - including public water supply, sewage collection and treatment, and in large cities, storm water control -, which had become separate issues thanks to the process of water transport and treatment technologies, are now increasingly interfering with each other. We cannot take nature for granted anymore, and we need to protect water resources, if only to reduce the long term cost of transporting and treating water. In this paper, we compare the historical development of water industry technologies in European and Brazilian metropolitan areas, in their socio-economic and political context, tracing it through three "ages" of water technology and services which developed under civil engineering, sanitary engineering, and environmental engineering perspectives: the "quantity of water" and civil engineering paradigm was developed on the assumption that water should be drawn from natural environments far from the cities; in the "water quality" and chemical/sanitation engineering paradigm, water treatment was invented and allowed cities to take water from rivers closer to them and treat it, but also to reduce sewer discharge impacts; finally, the environmental engineering paradigm proposes to overcome the supply side perspective, by introducing demand side management, water conservation, water allocation flexibilisation, and an integrated approach to water services, water resources management, and land use policies.

  14. Water Resources of Ascension Parish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffith, J.M.; Fendick, R.B.

    2009-01-01

    Ascension Parish, located along the banks of the Mississippi River in south-central Louisiana, contains fresh groundwater and surface-water resources. In 2005, about 202 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) were withdrawn from water sources in Ascension Parish. About 94 percent (190 Mgal/d) was withdrawn from surface water, and 6 percent (12 Mgal/d) was withdrawn from groundwater. Additional water is supplied to Ascension Parish for public-supply use from East Baton Rouge Parish. Withdrawals for industrial use accounted for 95 percent (192 Mgal/d) of the total water withdrawn. Withdrawals for other uses included public-supply (4 Mgal/d), rural-domestic (3 Mgal/d), and aquaculture (3 Mgal/d). Water withdrawals in the parish generally increased from 1960 to 1995 and decreased from 1995 to 2005. This fact sheet summarizes basic information on the water resources of Ascension Parish, La. Information on groundwater and surface-water availability, quality, development, use, and trends is based on previously published reports listed in the references section.

  15. Water Resources Research supports water economics submissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Ronald C.

    2012-09-01

    AGU's international interdisciplinary journal Water Resources Research (WRR) publishes original contributions in hydrology; the physical, chemical, and biological sciences; and the social and policy sciences, including economics, systems analysis, sociology, and law. With the rising relevance of water economics and related social sciences, the editors of WRR continue to encourage submissions on economics and policy. WRR was originally founded in the mid 1960s by Walter Langbein and economist Allen Kneese. Several former WRR editors have been economists—including David Brookshire, Ron Cummings, and Chuck Howe—and many landmark articles in water economics have been published in WRR.

  16. The development of water services and their interaction with water resources in European and Brazilian cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barraqué, B.; Formiga Johnsson, R. M.; Nogueira de Paiva Britto, A. L.

    2008-08-01

    The extension and complexity of large cities creates "urban water" and a related issue: public water services, including public water supply, sewage collection and treatment, and storm water control, had previously become a policy sector separate from water resource allocation issues thanks to water transport and treatment technologies. Large metropolitan areas today cannot take nature for granted anymore, and they need to protect water resources, if only to reduce the long term cost of transporting and treating water. In this paper, we compare the historical development of water services in European and Brazilian metropolitan areas, placing the technological developments in their geographic, socio-economic and political contexts. Our frame is to follow the successive contributions of civil engineering, sanitary engineering, and environmental engineering: the "quantity of water" and civil engineering paradigm allowed to mobilise water in and out of the city, and up the hills or the floors; in the "water quality" and chemical/sanitary engineering paradigm, water treatment gave more freedom to cities to take water from rivers closer to them, but also to reduce sewer discharge impacts; lastly, the environmental engineering paradigm proposes to overcome the supply side perspective, by introducing demand side management, water conservation, water allocation flexibilisation, and an integrated approach to water services, water resources management, and land use policies.

  17. Water from (waste)water--the dependable water resource.

    PubMed

    Asano, Takashi

    2002-01-01

    Water reclamation and reuse provides a unique and viable opportunity to augment traditional water supplies. As a multi-disciplined and important element of water resources development and management, water reuse can help to close the loop between water supply and wastewater disposal. Effective water reuse requires integration of water and reclaimed water supply functions. The successful development of this dependable water resource depends upon close examination and synthesis of elements from infrastructure and facilities planning, wastewater treatment plant siting, treatment process reliability, economic and financial analyses, and water utility management. In this paper, fundamental concepts of water reuse are discussed including definitions, historical developments, the role of water recycling in the hydrologic cycle, categories of water reuse, water quality criteria and regulatory requirements, and technological innovations for the safe use of reclaimed water. The paper emphasizes the integration of this alternative water supply into water resources planning, and the emergence of modern water reclamation and reuse practices from wastewater to reclaimed water to repurified water. PMID:12019829

  18. Water Resources of Lafayette Parish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fendick, Robert B.; Griffith, Jason M.; Prakken, Lawrence B.

    2011-01-01

    Fresh groundwater and surface water resources are available in Lafayette Parish, which is located in south-central Louisiana. In 2005, more than 47 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) were withdrawn from water sources in Lafayette Parish. About 92 percent (43.7 Mgal/d) of withdrawals was groundwater, and 8 percent (3.6 Mgal/d) was surface water. Public-supply withdrawals accounted for nearly 49 percent (23 Mgal/d) of the total groundwater use, with the cities of Lafayette and Carencro using about 21 Mgal/d. Withdrawals for other uses included about 10.4 Mgal/d for rice irrigation and about 8.4 Mgal/d for aquaculture. Water withdrawals in Lafayette Parish increased from 33 Mgal/d in 1995 to about 47 Mgal/d in 2005. This fact sheet summarizes information on the water resources of Lafayette Parish, La. Information on groundwater and surface-water availability, quality, development, use, and trends is based on previously published reports listed in the references section.

  19. Water Resources of Caddo Parish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prakken, Lawrence B.; Griffith, Jason M.

    2011-01-01

    In 2005, about 72.9 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) of water were withdrawn in Caddo Parish, Louisiana, including about 7.70 Mgal/d from groundwater sources and 65.2 Mgal/d from surface-water sources. Public-supply use accounted for about 71 percent, and power generation accounted for about 19 percent of the total water withdrawn. Other categories of use included general irrigation, rural domestic, aquaculture, livestock, and industrial. Water-use data collected at 5-year intervals from 1960 to 2005 indicate water withdrawals in the parish peaked in 1965 and generally decreased afterwards, primarily because of reduced surface-water withdrawals for power generation. From 1965 to 2005, surface-water withdrawals for power generation declined from 419 to 14.2 Mgal/d. This fact sheet summarizes basic information on the water resources of Caddo Parish, La. Information on groundwater and surface-water availability, quality, development, use, and trends is based on previously published reports listed in the references section.

  20. Water resources of Webster Parish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prakken, Lawrence B.; Griffith, Jason M.

    2011-01-01

    In 2005, about 9.52 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) of water were withdrawn in Webster Parish, Louisiana (fig. 1), including about 9.33 Mgal/d from groundwater sources and 0.19 Mgal/d from surface-water sources1 (table 1). Publicsupply use accounted for about 70 percent of the total water withdrawn. Other categories of use included industrial, rural domestic, livestock, general irrigation, and aquaculture (table 2). Water-use data collected at 5-year intervals from 1960 to 2005 indicate water withdrawals in Webster Parish decreased substantially from 1970 to 1980; surface-water withdrawals for industrial use decreased from about 37 to 0 Mgal/d because of a paper mill closure in 1979. From 1980 to 2000, total water withdrawals in the parish ranged from 7 to 8 Mgal/d (fig. 2). This fact sheet summarizes basic information on the water resources of Webster Parish, La. Information on groundwater and surface-water availability, quality, development, use, and trends is based on previously published reports listed in the Selected References section.

  1. Water resources data, Kentucky. Water year 1991

    SciTech Connect

    McClain, D.L.; Byrd, F.D.; Brown, A.C.

    1991-12-31

    Water resources data for the 1991 water year for Kentucky consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and lakes; and water-levels of wells. This report includes daily discharge records for 115 stream-gaging stations. It also includes water-quality data for 38 stations sampled at regular intervals. Also published are 13 daily temperature and 8 specific conductance records, and 85 miscellaneous temperature and specific conductance determinations for the gaging stations. Suspended-sediment data for 12 stations (of which 5 are daily) are also published. Ground-water levels are published for 23 recording and 117 partial sites. Precipitation data at a regular interval is published for 1 site. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurement and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the US Geological Survey and cooperation State and Federal agencies in Kentucky.

  2. Water resources of Allen Parish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prakken, Lawrence B.; Griffith, Jason M.; Fendick, Robert B.

    2012-01-01

    In 2005, approximately 29.2 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) of water were withdrawn in Allen Parish, Louisiana, including about 26.8 Mgal/d from groundwater sources and 2.45 Mgal/d from surface-water sources. Rice irrigation accounted for 74 percent (21.7 Mgal/d) of the total water withdrawn. Other categories of use included public supply, industrial, rural domestic, livestock, general irrigation, and aquaculture. Water-use data collected at 5-year intervals from 1960 to 2005 indicate water withdrawals in the parish were greatest in 1960 (119 Mgal/d) and 1980 (98.7 Mgal/d). The substantial decrease in surface-water use between 1960 and 1965 is primarily attributable to rice-irrigation withdrawals declining from 61.2 to 6.74 Mgal/d. This fact sheet summarizes information on the water resources of Allen Parish, La. Information on groundwater and surface-water availability, quality, development, use, and trends is based on previously published reports listed in the Selected References section.

  3. Water Resources Division training catalog

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hotchkiss, W.R.; Foxhoven, L.A.

    1984-01-01

    The National Training Center provides technical and management sessions nesessary for the conductance of the U.S. Geological Survey 's training programs. This catalog describes the facilities and staff at the Lakewood Training Center and describes Water Resources Division training courses available through the center. In addition, the catalog describes the procedures for gaining admission, formulas for calculating fees, and discussion of course evaluations. (USGS)

  4. Scouting It Out: Interpreting Water Resources at the National Jamboree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Dave

    1998-01-01

    Federal natural-resource-management agencies combined efforts with volunteer scouting staff to develop a conservation area at the 1997 National Boy Scout Jamboree. Profiles the program, which adopted the theme of environmental stewardship, and focuses on how the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers interpreted water resources. The exhibit highlighted the…

  5. Water Resources of Beauregard Parish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prakken, Lawrence B.; Griffith, Jason M.; Fendick, Robert B.

    2012-01-01

    In 2005, about 30.6 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) of water was withdrawn in Beauregard Parish, Louisiana, including about 30.4 Mgal/d from groundwater sources and 0.1 Mgal/d from surface water sources. Industrial use, primarily for wood products, accounted for about 72 percent (22.0 Mgal/d) of the total water withdrawn. Other categories of use included public supply, rural domestic, livestock, rice irrigation, general irrigation, and aquaculture. Water-use data collected at 5-year intervals from 1960 to 2005 indicate water withdrawals in the parish peaked at about 43.5 Mgal/d in 1985. The large increase in groundwater usage from 1970 to 1975 was primarily due to industrial withdrawals, which increased from 3.64 Mgl/d in 1970 to 29.0 Mgal/d in 1975. This fact sheet summarizes information on the water resources of Beauregard Parish, La. Information on groundwater and surface-water availability, quality, development, use, and trends is based on previously published reports listed in the Selected References section.

  6. Front Range Infrastructure Resources Project: water-resources activities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robson, Stanley G.; Heiny, Janet S.

    1998-01-01

    Infrastructure, such as roads, buildings, airports, and dams, is built and maintained by use of large quantities of natural resources such as aggregate (sand and gravel), energy, and water. As urban area expand, local sources of these resource are becoming inaccessible (gravel cannot be mined from under a subdivision, for example), or the cost of recovery of the resource becomes prohibitive (oil and gas drilling in urban areas is costly), or the resources may become unfit for some use (pollution of ground water may preclude its use as a water supply). Governmental land-use decision and environmental mandates can further preclude development of natural resources. If infrastructure resources are to remain economically available. current resource information must be available for use in well-reasoned decisions bout future land use. Ground water is an infrastructure resource that is present in shallow aquifers and deeper bedrock aquifers that underlie much of the 2,450-square-mile demonstration area of the Colorado Front Range Infrastructure Resources Project. In 1996, mapping of the area's ground-water resources was undertaken as a U.S. Geological Survey project in cooperation with the Colorado Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources, and the Colorado Water Conservation Board.

  7. Uncertainty Management in Urban Water Engineering Adaptation to Climate Change

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current water resource planning and engineering assume a stationary climate, in which the observed historical water flow rate and water quality variations are often used to define the technical basis. When the non-stationarity is considered, however, climate change projection co...

  8. Water resources assessment and prediction in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guangsheng; Dai, Ning; Yang, Jianqing; Wang, Jinxing

    2016-10-01

    Water resources assessment in China, can be classified into three groups: (i) comprehensive water resources assessment, (ii) annual water resources assessment, and (iii) industrial project water resources assessment. Comprehensive water resources assessment is the conventional assessment where the frequency distribution of water resources in basins or provincial regions are analyzed. For the annual water resources assessment, water resources of the last year in basins or provincial regions are usually assessed. For the industrial project water resources assessment, the water resources situation before the construction of industrial project has to be assessed. To address the climate and environmental changes, hydrological and statistical models are widely applied for studies on assessing water resources changes. For the water resources prediction in China usually the monthly runoff prediction is used. In most low flow seasons, the flow recession curve is commonly used as prediction method. In the humid regions, the rainfall-runoff ensemble prediction (ESP) has been widely applied for the monthly runoff prediction. The conditional probability method for the monthly runoff prediction was also applied to assess next month runoff probability under a fixed initial condition.

  9. Summary Analysis [United States Water Resources Council].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roose, John B.; Cobb, Gary D.

    This report contains a summary and analysis of public response to the Water Resources Council proposed principles and standards and its accompanying draft environmental impact statement for planning the use of water and related land resources as well as planning and evaluating water and related land resources programs and projects. Both written…

  10. Increasing life expectancy of water resources literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heistermann, M.; Francke, T.; Georgi, C.; Bronstert, A.

    2014-06-01

    In a study from 2008, Larivière and colleagues showed, for the field of natural sciences and engineering, that the median age of cited references is increasing over time. This result was considered counterintuitive: with the advent of electronic search engines, online journal issues and open access publications, one could have expected that cited literature is becoming younger. That study has motivated us to take a closer look at the changes in the age distribution of references that have been cited in water resources journals since 1965. Not only could we confirm the findings of Larivière and colleagues. We were also able to show that the aging is mainly happening in the oldest 10-25% of an average reference list. This is consistent with our analysis of top-cited papers in the field of water resources. Rankings based on total citations since 1965 consistently show the dominance of old literature, including text books and research papers in equal shares. For most top-cited old-timers, citations are still growing exponentially. There is strong evidence that most citations are attracted by publications that introduced methods which meanwhile belong to the standard toolset of researchers and practitioners in the field of water resources. Although we think that this trend should not be overinterpreted as a sign of stagnancy, there might be cause for concern regarding how authors select their references. We question the increasing citation of textbook knowledge as it holds the risk that reference lists become overcrowded, and that the readability of papers deteriorates.

  11. Water resources investigations in New York, 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finch, Anne J.

    1980-01-01

    This report describes the water-resources investigations conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in New York in 1980; many of these studies will continue into 1981 or longer. The Geological Survey began its water-resources studies in New York State in 1895 with a stream-gaging program in the Catskill Mountain region and entered its first cooperative program, with the Office of the State Engineer, in 1900. Since 1910, the Survey has maintained a District office in Albany to direct its water investigations within the State. A Long Island subdistrict office was established in 1932 to monitor and study the ground-water situation in this area of increasing urbanization. Subdistrict offices are also maintained in Ithaca and Albany to collect and interpret data from western and eastern New York, respectively. A field station is maintained in Potsdam to collect records in the northernmost part of the State. A bibliography of reports published or released in 1980 by the New York District is included. (USGS)

  12. NASA Earth Resources Survey Symposium. Volume 1-D: Water resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Conference papers on water resources and management are summarized. Summaries cover land use, flood control and prediction, watersheds and the effects of snow melt, soil moisture content, and the usefulness of satellite remote sensors in detecting ground and surface water.

  13. Water resources thesaurus: A vocabulary for indexing and retrieving the literature of water resources research and development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1980-01-01

    This Water Resources Thesaurus encompasses such broad research areas as the hydrologic cycle, supply of and demand for water, conservation and best use of available supplies of water, methods of increasing supplies, and the economic, legal, social, engineering, recreational, biological, geographical, ecological, and qualitative aspects of water resources. This volume represents a major revision of the previous edition of the Thesaurus, published in 1971. The principal source of terms for this edition has been the indexing used in Selected Water Resources Abstracts (SWRA). Since its inception in 1968, SWRA has indexed tens of thousands of publications. Its indexing terminology has been developed by expert abstracters and researchers, and represents the range of disciplines related to research, development, and management of water resources.

  14. Slowflow Signatures of Sustainable Water Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, S. S.; Smith, B.

    2012-12-01

    Land transformation changes the sustainability of water resources by (a) altering the vegetation, impervious landcover, and drainage of the land surface hydrology system; (b) increasing withdrawals from surface and groundwater systems to support human water use; and (c) re-engineering the water budget through water and wastewater infrastructure that conveys interbasin water transfers and modifies both recharge and subsurface drainage. Slowflow derived from observed streamflow integrates watershed-scale hydrologic forcings and cumulative landscape changes. Multiple slowflow indices derived from USGS streamflow records are used to frame an endpoint mixing model of dominant hydrologic processes and human hydrologic alteration. Multimetric slowflow fingerprints can support more refined process-based inferences, distinguishing, e.g., changes in hydrologic response - (runoff and recharge) from changes in hydraulic response (effective aquifer drainage) in regional streamflow analysis. Examples drawn from USGS streamflow records along the urban-rural landuse gradient in the watersheds of the Baltimore Ecosystem Study (an NSF Urban Long Term Ecological Research site in the Baltimore Metropolitan area) and piedmont Hydroclimatic Data Network (HCDN) basins in the Chesapeake Bay watershed, are used to illustrate multimetric fingerprinting of slowflow response. Within the inherent limits of equifinality in observed streamflow response, multimetric slowflow analysis can refine the signature and attribution of hydroclimatic variability and human hydrologic alteration inferred from regional streamflow information.

  15. Contamination of water resources by pathogenic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Water-borne pathogen contamination in water resources and related diseases are a major water quality concern throughout the world. Increasing interest in controlling water-borne pathogens in water resources evidenced by a large number of recent publications clearly attests to the need for studies that synthesize knowledge from multiple fields covering comparative aspects of pathogen contamination, and unify them in a single place in order to present and address the problem as a whole. Providing a broader perceptive of pathogen contamination in freshwater (rivers, lakes, reservoirs, groundwater) and saline water (estuaries and coastal waters) resources, this review paper attempts to develop the first comprehensive single source of existing information on pathogen contamination in multiple types of water resources. In addition, a comprehensive discussion describes the challenges associated with using indicator organisms. Potential impacts of water resources development on pathogen contamination as well as challenges that lie ahead for addressing pathogen contamination are also discussed. PMID:25006540

  16. Contamination of water resources by pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Pramod K; Kass, Philip H; Soupir, Michelle L; Biswas, Sagor; Singh, Vijay P

    2014-01-01

    Water-borne pathogen contamination in water resources and related diseases are a major water quality concern throughout the world. Increasing interest in controlling water-borne pathogens in water resources evidenced by a large number of recent publications clearly attests to the need for studies that synthesize knowledge from multiple fields covering comparative aspects of pathogen contamination, and unify them in a single place in order to present and address the problem as a whole. Providing a broader perceptive of pathogen contamination in freshwater (rivers, lakes, reservoirs, groundwater) and saline water (estuaries and coastal waters) resources, this review paper attempts to develop the first comprehensive single source of existing information on pathogen contamination in multiple types of water resources. In addition, a comprehensive discussion describes the challenges associated with using indicator organisms. Potential impacts of water resources development on pathogen contamination as well as challenges that lie ahead for addressing pathogen contamination are also discussed.

  17. Research on Texas Water and Recreation Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Texas Agricultural Experiment Station.

    The need for research pertaining to the best use of water and recreation resources in Texas is emphasized in these four papers presented at the 1968 Experiment Station Conference, College Station, Texas. "Parameters of Water Resources in Texas" identifies and elaborates upon the important elements presently constituting the water resources…

  18. Water resources of Carbon County, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartos, Timothy T.; Hallberg, Laura L.; Mason, Jon P.; Norris, Jodi R.; Miller, Kirk A.

    2006-01-01

    Carbon County is located in the south-central part of Wyoming and is the third largest county in the State. A study to describe the physical and chemical characteristics of surface-water and ground-water resources in Carbon County was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Wyoming State Engineer's Office. Evaluations of streamflow and stream-water quality were limited to analyses of historical data and descriptions of previous investigations. Surface-water data were not collected as part of the study. Forty-five ground-water-quality samples were collected as part of the study and the results from an additional 618 historical ground-water-quality samples were reviewed. Available hydrogeologic characteristics for various aquifers in hydrogeologic units throughout the county also are described. Flow characteristics of streams in Carbon County vary substantially depending on regional and local basin char-acteristics and anthropogenic factors. Precipitation in the county is variable with high mountainous areas receiving several times the annual precipitation of basin lowland areas. For this reason, streams with headwaters in mountainous areas generally are perennial, whereas most streams in the county with headwaters in basin lowland areas are ephemeral, flowing only as a result of regional or local rainfall or snowmelt runoff. Flow characteristics of most perennial streams are altered substantially by diversions and regulation. Water-quality characteristics of selected streams in and near Carbon County during water years 1966 through 1986 varied. Concentrations of dissolved constituents and suspended sediment were smallest at sites on streams with headwaters in mountainous areas because of resistant geologic units, large diluting streamflows, and increased vegetative cover compared to sites on streams with headwaters in basin lowlands. Both water-table and artesian conditions occur in aquifers within the county. Shallow ground water is

  19. World water dynamics: global modeling of water resources.

    PubMed

    Simonovic, Slobodan P

    2002-11-01

    The growing scarcity of fresh and clean water is among the most important issues facing civilization in the 21st century. Despite the growing attention to a chronic, pernicious crisis in world's water resources our ability to correctly assess and predict global water availability, use and balance is still quite limited. An attempt is documented here in modeling global world water resources using system dynamics approach. Water resources sector (quantity and quality) is integrated with five sectors that drive industrial growth: population; agriculture; economy; nonrenewable resources; and persistent pollution. WorldWater model is developed on the basis of the last version of World3 model. Simulations of world water dynamics with WorldWater indicate that there is a strong relationship between the world water resources and future industrial growth of the world. It is also shown that the water pollution is the most important future water issue on the global level. PMID:12448404

  20. Water resources of Sweetwater County, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mason, Jon P.; Miller, Kirk A.

    2004-01-01

    Sweetwater County is located in the southwestern part of Wyoming and is the largest county in the State. A study to quantify the availability and describe the chemical quality of surface-water and ground-water resources in Sweetwater County was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Wyoming State Engineers Office. Most of the county has an arid climate. For this reason a large amount of the flow in perennial streams within the county is derived from outside the county. Likewise, much of the ground-water recharge to aquifers within the county is from flows into the county, and occurs slowly. Surface-water data were not collected as part of the study. Evaluations of streamflow and stream-water quality were limited to analyses of historical data and descriptions of previous investigations. Forty-six new ground-water-quality samples were collected as part of the study and the results from an additional 782 historical ground-water-quality samples were reviewed. Available hydrogeologic characteristics for various aquifers throughout the county also are described. Flow characteristics of streams in Sweetwater County vary substantially depending on regional and local basin characteristics and anthropogenic factors. Because precipitation amounts in the county are small, most streams in the county are ephemeral, flowing only as a result of regional or local rainfall or snowmelt runoff. Flows in perennial streams in the county generally are a result of snowmelt runoff in the mountainous headwater areas to the north, west, and south of the county. Flow characteristics of most perennial streams are altered substantially by diversions and regulation. Water-quality characteristics of selected streams in and near Sweetwater County during water years 1974 through 1983 were variable. Concentrations of dissolved constituents, suspended sediment, and bacteria generally were smallest at sites on the Green River because of resistant geologic units, increased

  1. Water resource management: an Indian perspective.

    PubMed

    Khadse, G K; Labhasetwar, P K; Wate, S R

    2012-10-01

    Water is precious natural resource for sustaining life and environment. Effective and sustainable management of water resources is vital for ensuring sustainable development. In view of the vital importance of water for human and animal life, for maintaining ecological balance and for economic and developmental activities of all kinds, and considering its increasing scarcity, the planning and management of water resource and its optimal, economical and equitable use has become a matter of the utmost urgency. Management of water resources in India is of paramount importance to sustain one billion plus population. Water management is a composite area with linkage to various sectors of Indian economy including the agricultural, industrial, domestic and household, power, environment, fisheries and transportation sector. The water resources management practices should be based on increasing the water supply and managing the water demand under the stressed water availability conditions. For maintaining the quality of freshwater, water quality management strategies are required to be evolved and implemented. Decision support systems are required to be developed for planning and management of the water resources project. There is interplay of various factors that govern access and utilization of water resources and in light of the increasing demand for water it becomes important to look for holistic and people-centered approaches for water management. Clearly, drinking water is too fundamental and serious an issue to be left to one institution alone. It needs the combined initiative and action of all, if at all we are serious in socioeconomic development. Safe drinking water can be assured, provided we set our mind to address it. The present article deals with the review of various options for sustainable water resource management in India.

  2. International cooperation in water resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, J.R.; Beall, R.M.; Giusti, E.V.

    1979-01-01

    bewildering variety of organizations, there certainly exists, for any nation, group, or individual, a demonstrated mechanism for almost any conceivable form of international cooperation in hydrology and water resources. ?? 1979 Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft.

  3. Water-Resources Manpower: Supply and Demand Patterns to 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, James E.

    Relating the supply of scientific manpower to the educational potential of the general population and the productive capacity of the educational system, this study disaggregates independent projections of scientific manpower supply and demand to yield projections for water resources manpower. This supply of engineers, natural scientists, and…

  4. Global Hydrological Cycles and World Water Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oki, Taikan; Kanae, Shinjiro

    2006-08-01

    Water is a naturally circulating resource that is constantly recharged. Therefore, even though the stocks of water in natural and artificial reservoirs are helpful to increase the available water resources for human society, the flow of water should be the main focus in water resources assessments. The climate system puts an upper limit on the circulation rate of available renewable freshwater resources (RFWR). Although current global withdrawals are well below the upper limit, more than two billion people live in highly water-stressed areas because of the uneven distribution of RFWR in time and space. Climate change is expected to accelerate water cycles and thereby increase the available RFWR. This would slow down the increase of people living under water stress; however, changes in seasonal patterns and increasing probability of extreme events may offset this effect. Reducing current vulnerability will be the first step to prepare for such anticipated changes.

  5. Water resources and the urban environment

    SciTech Connect

    Loucks, E.D.

    1998-07-01

    140 abstracts from the conference cover topics such as urban stormwater management; geographic information systems, hydrologic and hydraulic computer modeling; groundwater analysis and management; drinking water supply and quality; and international water resources issues.

  6. 1980 Water resources program in Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1981-01-01

    The Water Resources Division investigates and reports on the occurrence, quantity, quality, distribution, and movement of surface and underground water. Work of the Division is described in detail later in this report.

  7. Water Resources and Supply Adaptation: A paradigm Shifting for Future Climate?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Climate change adds another layer of complexity in planning, engineering and management of water resources and urban water infrastructures. Yet our current practice is confined to the traditional approach that evaluates developmental scenarios and their sustainability mostly by a...

  8. Climate Change and Water Resources Management: A Federal Perspective

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brekke, Levi D.; Kiang, Julie E.; Olsen, J. Rolf; Pulwarty, Roger S.; Raff, David A.; Turnipseed, D. Phil; Webb, Robert S.; White, Kathleen D.

    2009-01-01

    Many challenges, including climate change, face the Nation's water managers. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has provided estimates of how climate may change, but more understanding of the processes driving the changes, the sequences of the changes, and the manifestation of these global changes at different scales could be beneficial. Since the changes will likely affect fundamental drivers of the hydrological cycle, climate change may have a large impact on water resources and water resources managers. The purpose of this interagency report prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is to explore strategies to improve water management by tracking, anticipating, and responding to climate change. This report describes the existing and still needed underpinning science crucial to addressing the many impacts of climate change on water resources management.

  9. Water resources data, Arizona, water year 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisk, G.G.; Duet, N.R.; McGuire, E.H.; Angeroth, C.E.; Castillo, N.K.; Smith, C.F.

    2005-01-01

    The USGS Arizona Water Science Center water data report includes records on both surface water and ground water in the State for water year 2004. Specifically, it contains: (1) Discharge records for 206 streamflow-gaging stations and 21 crest-stage, partial-record streamflow stations; (2) stage and (or) content records for 8 lakes and reservoirs; (3) water-quality records for 20 streamflow-gaging stations; (4) ground-water levels and compaction values for 14 stations; and (5) water levels for 18 wells.

  10. Water resources of Duval County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phelps, G.G.

    1994-01-01

    The report describes the hydrology and water resources of Duval County, the development of its water supplies, and water use within the county. Also included are descriptions of various natural features of the county (such as topography and geology), an explanation of the hydrologic cycle, and an interpretation of the relationship between them. Ground-water and surface-water resources and principal water-quality features within the county are also discussed. The report is intended to provide the general public with an overview of the water resources Of Duval County, and to increase public awareness of water issues. Information is presented in nontechnical language to enable the general reader to understand facts about water as a part of nature, and the problems associated with its development and use.

  11. Water Resources Data, Arizona, Water Year 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisk, G.G.; Duet, N.R.; Evans, D.W.; Angeroth, C.E.; Castillo, N.K.; Longsworth, S.A.

    2004-01-01

    The Arizona District water data report includes records on both surface water and ground water in the State for water year 2003. Specifically, it contains: (1) discharge records for 203 streamflow-gaging stations, for 29 crest-stage, partial-record streamflow stations, and 50 miscellaneous sites; (2) stage and (or) content only records for 9 lakes and reservoirs; (3) water-quality records for 29 streamflow-gaging stations; (4) ground-water levels and compaction values for 14 stations; and (5) water levels for 19 wells.

  12. Water Resources Research October 1, 1979 - September 30, 1980: Summary statements of research activities by the Water Resources Division

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1981-01-01

    Research in the WRD had its beginnings in the late 1950's when the "core research" line item was added to the Congressional budget. Since this time the Federal program has grown from a "basic sciences" program to one that includes a broad spectrum of basic and applied scientific investigations. Water resources research in WRD includes the study of water in all its phases and uses the basic sciences of mathematics, chemistry, physics, biology, geology and engineering to gain a fundamental understanding of the processes that affect the movement of water and its chemical constituents through hydrologic systems. The basic knowledge and methodologies derived from water resources research are applicable not only to the solution of current problems associated with the Nation's water resources, but also to anticipated hydrologic issues.

  13. Overview of the Environmental and Water Resources Institute's "Guidelines For Integrated Water Resources Management" Project

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald Sehlke

    2005-03-01

    Integrated Water Resources Management is a systematic approach to optimizing our understanding, control and management of water resources within a basin to meet multiple objectives. Recognition of the need for integrating water resources within basins is not unique to the Environmental and Water Resources Institute’s Integrated Water Resources Management Task Committee. Many individuals, governments and other organizations have attempted to develop holistic water resources management programs. In some cases, the results have been very effective and in other cases, valiant attempts have fallen far short of their initial goals. The intent of this Task Committee is to provide a set of guidelines that discusses the concepts, methods and tools necessary for integrating and optimizing the management of the physical resources and to optimize and integrate programs, organizations, infrastructure, and socioeconomic institutions into comprehensive water resources management programs.

  14. Water resources of St. Helena Parish, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Vincent E.; Prakken, Lawrence B.

    2016-07-27

    Information concerning the availability, use, and quality of water in St. Helena Parish, Louisiana, is critical for proper water-resource management. The purpose of this fact sheet is to present information that can be used by water managers, parish residents, and others for stewardship of this vital resource. Information on the availability, past and current use, use trends, and water quality from groundwater and surface-water sources in the parish is presented. Previously published reports and data stored in the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water Information System (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis) are the primary sources of the information presented here.

  15. Water resources of Tangipahoa Parish, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Vincent E.; Prakken, Lawrence B.

    2016-07-25

    Information concerning the availability, use, and quality of water in Tangipahoa Parish, Louisiana, is critical for proper water-resource management. The purpose of this fact sheet is to present information that can be used by water managers, parish residents, and others for stewardship of this vital resource. Information on the availability, past and current use, use trends, and water quality from groundwater and surface-water sources in the parish is presented. Previously published reports and data stored in the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water Information System (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis) are the primary sources of the information presented here.

  16. Water resources of Livingston Parish, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Vincent E.; Prakken, Lawrence B.

    2016-07-27

    Information concerning the availability, use, and quality of water in Livingston Parish, Louisiana, is critical for proper water-resource management. The purpose of this fact sheet is to present information that can be used by water managers, parish residents, and others for stewardship of this vital resource. Information on the availability, past and current use, use trends, and water quality from groundwater and surface-water sources in the parish is presented. Previously published reports and data stored in the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water Information System (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis) are the primary sources of the information presented here.

  17. Water resources data, Connecticut, water year 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrison, Jonathan; Sargent, T.C.; Martin, J.W.; Norris, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    This report includes records on both surface and ground water in the State. Specifically, it contains: (1) discharge records for 52 streamflow-gaging stations and for 38 partial-record streamflow stations and miscellaneous sites; (2) stage-only records for 4 tidal-gaging stations; (3) water-quality records for 17 streamflow-gaging stations, for 18 ungaged stream sites, and temperature at 1 reservoir site; and (4) water-level records for 73 observation wells. Additional water-quality data are published for 16 miscellaneous surface-water sites and for 19 miscellaneous ground-water sites, which were not part of the systematic data-collection program.

  18. An innovative method for water resources carrying capacity research--Metabolic theory of regional water resources.

    PubMed

    Ren, Chongfeng; Guo, Ping; Li, Mo; Li, Ruihuan

    2016-02-01

    The shortage and uneven spatial and temporal distribution of water resources has seriously restricted the sustainable development of regional society and economy. In this study, a metabolic theory for regional water resources was proposed by introducing the biological metabolism concept into the carrying capacity of regional water resources. In the organic metabolic process of water resources, the socio-economic system consumes water resources, while products, services and pollutants, etc. are output. Furthermore, an evaluation index system which takes into the characteristics of the regional water resources, the socio-economic system and the sustainable development principle was established based on the proposed theory. The theory was then applied to a case study to prove its availability. Further, suggestions aiming at improving the regional water carrying capacity were given on the basis of a comprehensive analysis of the current water resources situation. PMID:26683766

  19. Water resources data, Connecticut, water year 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrison, Jonathan; Provencher, P.L.; Martin, J.W.; Norris, J.R.

    2005-01-01

    This report includes records on both surface and ground water in the State. Specifically, it contains: (1) discharge records for 51 streamflow-gaging stations and for 42 partial-record streamflow stations and miscellaneous sites; (2) stage-only records for 4 tidal-gaging stations; (3) water-quality records for 16 streamflow-gaging stations, for 20 ungaged stream sites, and temperature at 1 reservoir site; and (4) water-level records for 74 observation wells. Additional data are published for 3 miscellaneous surface-water sites and for 60 miscellaneous ground-water sites, which were not part of the systematic data-collection program.

  20. Water footprint as a tool for integrated water resources management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldaya, Maite; Hoekstra, Arjen

    2010-05-01

    In a context where water resources are unevenly distributed and, in some regions precipitation and drought conditions are increasing, enhanced water management is a major challenge to final consumers, businesses, water resource users, water managers and policymakers in general. By linking a large range of sectors and issues, virtual water trade and water footprint analyses provide an appropriate framework to find potential solutions and contribute to a better management of water resources. The water footprint is an indicator of freshwater use that looks not only at direct water use of a consumer or producer, but also at the indirect water use. The water footprint of a product is the volume of freshwater used to produce the product, measured over the full supply chain. It is a multi-dimensional indicator, showing water consumption volumes by source and polluted volumes by type of pollution; all components of a total water footprint are specified geographically and temporally. The water footprint breaks down into three components: the blue (volume of freshwater evaporated from surface or groundwater systems), green (water volume evaporated from rainwater stored in the soil as soil moisture) and grey water footprint (the volume of polluted water associated with the production of goods and services). Closely linked to the concept of water footprint is that of virtual water trade, which represents the amount of water embedded in traded products. Many nations save domestic water resources by importing water-intensive products and exporting commodities that are less water intensive. National water saving through the import of a product can imply saving water at a global level if the flow is from sites with high to sites with low water productivity. Virtual water trade between nations and even continents could thus be used as an instrument to improve global water use efficiency and to achieve water security in water-poor regions of the world. The virtual water trade

  1. Assessing Water and Carbon Footprints for Sustainable Water Resource Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    The key points of this presentation are: (1) Water footprint and carbon footprint as two sustainability attributes in adaptations to climate and socioeconomic changes, (2) Necessary to evaluate carbon and water footprints relative to constraints in resource capacity, (3) Critical...

  2. Education Highlights: Non-Traditional Water Resources

    ScienceCinema

    Maldonado, Nicole; MacDonell, Margaret

    2016-07-12

    Argonne intern Nicole Virella Maldonado from the University of Puerto Rico-San Juan, Río Piedras campus, worked with Argonne mentor Margaret MacDonell in studying the use of nontraditional waters for energy and agriculture, including impaired and reclaimed waters. This research will help communities preserve their limited fresh water resources for other uses.

  3. National water resources and problems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oltman, Roy E.; MacKichan, Kenneth A.; Mesnier, Glennon N.; Rainwater, Frank H.; Thomasson, Horace G.

    1960-01-01

    Water problems exist in all parts of the United States. Furthermore, the problems are becoming more acute and widespread as population and industry grow. The need is pressing for wider appreciation of the nature of water problems. This requires a background of basic facts about the occurrence of water, its quantity and quality, and the manner in which it is used. This report records some of these basic facts. The facts are that the United States as a whole is well endowed with water. Many water problems (which exist in our country) are caused, however,by poor distribution of water in time and place. Because the nationwide supply of water is large, any given locality could be supplied with water sufficient in quantity and suitable in quality, provided that those who need the water can pay the cost. For the most part, then, water problems are basically social and economic. While management is needed, both locally and regionally, with flexibility to respond to broad geographic patterns of economic and social development.

  4. Advancing Cyberinfrastructure to support high resolution water resources modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarboton, D. G.; Ogden, F. L.; Jones, N.; Horsburgh, J. S.

    2012-12-01

    Addressing the problem of how the availability and quality of water resources at large scales are sensitive to climate variability, watershed alterations and management activities requires computational resources that combine data from multiple sources and support integrated modeling. Related cyberinfrastructure challenges include: 1) how can we best structure data and computer models to address this scientific problem through the use of high-performance and data-intensive computing, and 2) how can we do this in a way that discipline scientists without extensive computational and algorithmic knowledge and experience can take advantage of advances in cyberinfrastructure? This presentation will describe a new system called CI-WATER that is being developed to address these challenges and advance high resolution water resources modeling in the Western U.S. We are building on existing tools that enable collaboration to develop model and data interfaces that link integrated system models running within an HPC environment to multiple data sources. Our goal is to enhance the use of computational simulation and data-intensive modeling to better understand water resources. Addressing water resource problems in the Western U.S. requires simulation of natural and engineered systems, as well as representation of legal (water rights) and institutional constraints alongside the representation of physical processes. We are establishing data services to represent the engineered infrastructure and legal and institutional systems in a way that they can be used with high resolution multi-physics watershed modeling at high spatial resolution. These services will enable incorporation of location-specific information on water management infrastructure and systems into the assessment of regional water availability in the face of growing demands, uncertain future meteorological forcings, and existing prior-appropriations water rights. This presentation will discuss the informatics

  5. 30 CFR 402.6 - Water-Resources Research Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water-Resources Research Program. 402.6 Section 402.6 Mineral Resources GEOLOGICAL SURVEY, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR WATER-RESOURCES RESEARCH PROGRAM AND THE WATER-RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM Description of Water-Resources Programs §...

  6. Water-resources activities in Ohio, 1986 (water fact sheet)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hindall, S.M.

    1986-01-01

    The Ohio District of the Water Resources Division, U.S. Geological Survey, provides information on Ohio 's water resources for the overall benefit of the State and the Nation. An integral part of the Survey 's mission is to conduct investigations of the Nation 's land, mineral, and water resources, and to publish and disseminate the information needed to understand, to plan the use of, and to manage these resources. The activities fall into eight broad categories: collection of hydrologic data; water resources investigations and assessments; basic and problem-oriented hydrologic and water related research; acquisition of information useful in predicting and delineating water related natural hazards; coordination of the activities of all Federal agencies in the acquisition of water data, and operation of water information centers; dissemination of data and the results of investigations; provision of scientific and technical assistance in hydrologic studies; and the administration of the State Water Resources Research Institute Program and the National Water Resources Research Grant Program. (Lantz-PTT)

  7. Water Resources Division in the 1980's

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chase, Edith B.; Moore, John E.; Rickert, David A.

    1983-01-01

    The Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey has the principal responsibility within the Federal government for providing hydrologic information and appraising the Nation's water resounds. The Geological Survey is unique among government organizations because it has neither regulatory nor developmental authority--its sole product is information that is made available equally to all interested parties. This report describes the Water Resources Division's mission, organization, source of funds, and major programs. Three types of programs are described: long-term programs, which include the Federal-State cooperative program, coordination of Federal water-data acquisition, assistance to other Federal agencies, the national research program, the national water-data exchange, the water resources scientific information center, the national water-use information program, hydrologic-data collection, and international hydrology activities; topical programs, which include hazardous waste hydrology, coal and oil-shale hydrology, regional aquifer system analyses, acid rain, volcano hazards, and national water-resources conditions; and technical-assistance programs. Emphasis is on programs that will contribute to identifying, mitigating, or solving nationwide water-resources problems in the 1980's. A discussion of how the data and information axe disseminated and a selected list of references complete the report.

  8. Managing water resources for crop production

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, J. S.; Batchelor, C. H.

    1997-01-01

    Increasing crop production to meet the food requirements of the world's growing population will put great pressure on global water resources. Given that the vast freshwater resources that are available in the world are far from fully exploited, globally there should be sufficient water for future agricultural requirements. However, there are large areas where low water supply and high human demand may lead to regional shortages of water for future food production. In these arid and semi-arid areas, where water is a major constraint on production, improving water resource management is crucial if Malthusian disasters are to be avoided. There is considerable scope for improvement, since in both dryland and irrigated agriculture only about one-third of the available water (as rainfall, surface, or groundwater) is used to grow useful plants. This paper illustrates a range of techniques that could lead to increased crop production by improving agricultural water use efficiency. This may be achieved by increasing the total amount of water available to plants or by increasing the efficiency with which that water is used to produce biomass. Although the crash from the Malthusian precipice may ultimately be inevitable if population growth is not addressed, the time taken to reach the edge of the precipice could be lengthened by more efficient use of existing water resources.

  9. Science for Stewardship of California's Water Resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is the primary Federal agency responsible for scientific evaluation of the natural resources of the United States, including its water. To meet the demands of a growing California, the U.S. Geological Survey's California Water Science Center provides essential science to help Federal, State, and local water agencies evaluate and manage California's critical water resources; adapt to a changing climate; assess, predict, and mitigate natural hazards, such as mudslides and debris flows; and protect the health of rivers, forests, wetlands, and other habitats. The following are some of the ways the USGS is working with other agencies to protect California's water resources and assure that Californians have safe and reliable water supplies for now and in the future.

  10. 18 CFR 701.76 - The Water Resources Council Staff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true The Water Resources Council Staff. 701.76 Section 701.76 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Headquarters Organization § 701.76 The Water Resources Council Staff. The...

  11. 18 CFR 701.76 - The Water Resources Council Staff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false The Water Resources Council Staff. 701.76 Section 701.76 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Headquarters Organization § 701.76 The Water Resources Council Staff. The...

  12. 18 CFR 701.76 - The Water Resources Council Staff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false The Water Resources Council Staff. 701.76 Section 701.76 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Headquarters Organization § 701.76 The Water Resources Council Staff. The...

  13. 18 CFR 701.76 - The Water Resources Council Staff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false The Water Resources Council Staff. 701.76 Section 701.76 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Headquarters Organization § 701.76 The Water Resources Council Staff. The...

  14. 18 CFR 701.76 - The Water Resources Council Staff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false The Water Resources Council Staff. 701.76 Section 701.76 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Headquarters Organization § 701.76 The Water Resources Council Staff. The...

  15. Criticality of Water: Aligning Water and Mineral Resources Assessment.

    PubMed

    Sonderegger, Thomas; Pfister, Stephan; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2015-10-20

    The concept of criticality has been used to assess whether a resource may become a limiting factor to economic activities. It has been primarily applied to nonrenewable resources, in particular to metals. However, renewable resources such as water may also be overused and become a limiting factor. In this paper, we therefore developed a water criticality method that allows for a new, user-oriented assessment of water availability and accessibility. Comparability of criticality across resources is desirable, which is why the presented adaptation of the criticality approach to water is based on a metal criticality method, whose basic structure is maintained. With respect to the necessary adaptations to the water context, a transparent water criticality framework is proposed that may pave the way for future integrated criticality assessment of metals, water, and other resources. Water criticality scores were calculated for 159 countries subdivided into 512 geographic units for the year 2000. Results allow for a detailed analysis of criticality profiles, revealing locally specific characteristics of water criticality. This is useful for the screening of sites and their related water criticality, for indication of water related problems and possible mitigation options and water policies, and for future water scenario analysis.

  16. Criticality of Water: Aligning Water and Mineral Resources Assessment.

    PubMed

    Sonderegger, Thomas; Pfister, Stephan; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2015-10-20

    The concept of criticality has been used to assess whether a resource may become a limiting factor to economic activities. It has been primarily applied to nonrenewable resources, in particular to metals. However, renewable resources such as water may also be overused and become a limiting factor. In this paper, we therefore developed a water criticality method that allows for a new, user-oriented assessment of water availability and accessibility. Comparability of criticality across resources is desirable, which is why the presented adaptation of the criticality approach to water is based on a metal criticality method, whose basic structure is maintained. With respect to the necessary adaptations to the water context, a transparent water criticality framework is proposed that may pave the way for future integrated criticality assessment of metals, water, and other resources. Water criticality scores were calculated for 159 countries subdivided into 512 geographic units for the year 2000. Results allow for a detailed analysis of criticality profiles, revealing locally specific characteristics of water criticality. This is useful for the screening of sites and their related water criticality, for indication of water related problems and possible mitigation options and water policies, and for future water scenario analysis. PMID:26392153

  17. Water resources of Sedgwick County, Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bevans, H.E.

    1989-01-01

    Hydrologic data from streams, impoundments, and wells are interpreted to: (1) document water resources characteristics; (2) describe causes and extent of changes in water resources characteristics; and (3) evaluate water resources as sources of supply. During 1985, about 134,200 acre-ft of water (84% groundwater) were used for public (42%), irrigation, (40%), industrial (14%), and domestic (4%) supplies. Streamflow and groundwater levels are related directly to precipitation, and major rivers are sustained by groundwater inflow. Significant groundwater level declines have occurred only in the Wichita well field. The Arkansas and Ninnescah Rivers have sodium chloride type water; the Little Arkansas River, calcium bicarbonate type water. Water quality characteristics of water in small streams and wells depend primarily on local geology. The Wellington Formation commonly yields calcium sulfate type water; Ninnescah Shale and unconsolidated deposits generally yield calcium bicarbonate type water. Sodium chloride and calcium sulfate type water in the area often have dissolved-solids concentrations exceeding 1,000 mg/L. Water contamination by treated sewage effluent was detected inparts of the Arkansas River, Little Arkansas River, and Cowskin Creek. Nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen contamination was detected in 11 of 101 wells; oilfield brine was detected in the Wichita-Valley Center Floodway, Prairie Creek, Whitewater Creek, and 16 of 101 wells; and agricultural pesticides were detected in 8 of 14 impoundments and 5 of 19 wells. Generally, the water is acceptable for most uses. (USGS)

  18. Water resources and hydrogeology of Mars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, V. R.; Gulick, V. C.; Kargel, J. S.

    From the perspective of energy expenditure, ice is the most economical water resource to target for exploration on Mars. Theoretical stability criteria indicate the planetary-scale potential for ground ice poleward of about 40° latitude. Geologic indicators can constrain the exploration. Particularly useful in this regard are fluidized ejecta blankets, periglacial features, and relict glacial landforms. The relationship of such geomorphological indicators to the modern water resources is dictated by the processes responsible for water cycling in the Martian past and the extension of those processes to the present. The geomorphological evidence indicates extensive water cycling in the geologic past. Exploration strategies can develop around the resource potential of hydrated minerals, hydrothermal systems, and ground ice based on an evolving practical experience as resources are discovered.

  19. Water resources data-Maine water year 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, G.J.; Caldwell, J.M.; Cloutier, A.R.; Flight, L.E.

    2005-01-01

    The Water Resources Dicipline of the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with State, Federal,and other local governmental agencies, obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the water resources of Maine each year. These data, accumulated during the many water years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. Water-resources data for the 2004 water year for Maine consists of records of stage, discharge, ground water levels, water quality of streams and ground-water wells, precipitation quantity, and snow quantity. This report contains discharge records for: 6 gage-height stations, 62 discharge gaging stations, stream water-quality data for 6 stations, water level for 23 ground-water wells, water-quality data for 24 ground-water wells, precipitation quantity data for 15 stations, and snow quantity data for 80 stations, Additional water data were collected at other sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as special study and miscellaneous record sections.

  20. Regional Water-Resources Studies in Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bauer, Eva M.; Watermolen, Shannon C.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Water-resources information for the State of Nevada should be readily accessible to community planners and the general public in a user-friendly web environment and should be actively managed and maintained with accurate historic and current hydrologic data. The USGS, in cooperation with State of Nevada and local government agencies, has established a data framework that provides critical hydrologic information to meet the challenges of water resources planning for Nevada.

  1. Water resources of Lafourche Parish, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prakken, Lawrence B.; Lovelace, John K.

    2013-01-01

    This fact sheet presents a brief overview of groundwater and surface-water resources in Lafourche Parish, Louisiana. Information on the availability, past and current use trends, and water quality from groundwater and surface-water sources in the parish is discussed. Previously published reports and data stored in the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water Information System (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis) are the primary sources of the information presented here.

  2. Water resources of Jefferson Parish, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prakken, Lawrence B.; Lovelace, John K.

    2014-01-01

    This fact sheet presents a brief overview of groundwater and surface-water resources in Jefferson Parish, Louisiana. Information on the availability, use, and quality of water from groundwater and surface-water sources in the parish is discussed. Previously published reports and data stored in the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water Information System (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis) are the primary sources of this information.

  3. Water resources of Cameron Parish, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prakken, Lawrence B.

    2014-01-01

    This fact sheet presents a brief overview of groundwater and surface-water resources in Cameron Parish, Louisiana. Information on the availability, use, and quality of water from groundwater and surface-water sources in the parish is discussed. Previously published reports and data stored in the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water Information System (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis) are the primary sources of this information.

  4. Water resources activities of the USGS, 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, E. T.

    1993-01-01

    The Water Resources Division (WRD) of the U.S. Geological Survey has the principal responsibility within the Federal Government for providing hydrologic information and appraising the Nation's water resources. The USGS is unique among government organizations because it has neither regulatory nor developmental authority. Information that is made available equally to all interested parties is the sole product of the WRD. The mission, organization, source of funds, and major programs of the WRD are discussed in this report. Three types of programs are described: long-term programs, topical programs, and support programs. Emphasis is on programs that will contribute to identifying, mitigating, or solving nationwide water-resources problems in the remaining years of the 20th century. Completing the report are discussions of how the hydrologic data and information are disseminated and an index. The report describes the water-resources mission of the WRD and discusses the organization and principal sources of funds that support the activities conducted to meet this mission. Descriptions are given of the most significant water-resources activities, how the hydrologic data and information are disseminated is discussed. Each description of a significant water-resources activity has the following parts: 'Introduction', 'Activities', 'Recent Accomplishments' and 'Funding'. (USGS)

  5. North Africa develops scarce water resources

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-10

    In the 1980s, Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco are planning to spend millions of dollars in an effort to improve and develop their water resources. In each of these three countries water resource development has been identified as crucial to future growth. Traditional trade histories could be altered as water projects provide business opportunities to foreign companies. Descriptions of major and typical water projects in each country are provided to aid American companies identify programs which might interest them. Most importantly, though, is the discussion of various national attitudes, traditions, and laws that would be invaluable to a firm interested in export contracts in the individual countries. Addresses for government agencies acting as primary points of contact for American companies interested in pursuing water resource related projects in Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia are included. (SAC)

  6. Water resources activities, Georgia District, 1986

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Casteel, Carolyn A.; Ballew, Mary D.

    1987-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, through its Water Resources Division , investigates the occurrence, quantity, quality, distribution, and movement of the surface and underground water that composes the Nation 's water resources. Much of the work is a cooperative effort in which planning and financial support are shared by state and local governments and other federal agencies. This report contains a brief description of the water-resources investigations in Georgia in which the Geological Survey participates, and a list of selected references. Water-resources data for the 1985 water year for Georgia consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and groundwater levels. These data include discharge records for 108 gaging stations; water quality for 43 continuous stations, 109 periodic stations, and miscellaneous sites; peak stage and discharge only for 130 crest-stage partial-record stations and 44 miscellaneous sites; and water levels of 27 observation wells. Nineteen Georgia District projects are summarized. (Lantz-PTT)

  7. Water Availability and Management of Water Resources

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the most pressing national and global issues is the availability of freshwater due to global climate change, energy scarcity issues and the increase in world population and accompanying economic growth. Estimates of water supplies and flows through the world's hydrologic c...

  8. Water resources of Terrebonne Parish, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prakken, Lawrence B.; Lovelace, John K.; White, Vincent E.

    2014-01-01

    Information concerning the availability, use, and quality of water in Terrebonne Parish, Louisiana, is critical for proper water-supply management. The purpose of this fact sheet is to present information that can be used by water managers, parish residents, and others for stewardship of this vital resource. Information on the availability, past and current use, use trends,and water quality from groundwater and surface-water sources in the parish is presented. Previously published reports and data stored in the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water Information System http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis are the primary sources of the information presented here.

  9. Water resources of Vermilion Parish, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prakken, Lawrence B.; White, Vincent E.

    2014-01-01

    Information concerning the availability, use, and quality of water in Vermilion Parish, Louisiana, is critical for proper water-supply management. The purpose of this fact sheet is to present information that can be used by water managers, parish residents, and others for stewardship of this vital resource. Information on the availability, past and current use, use trends, and water quality from groundwater and surface-water sources in the parish is presented. Previously published reports and data stored in the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water Information System (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis) are the primary sources of the information presented here.

  10. Water resources of De Soto Parish, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prakken, Lawrence B.; White, Vincent E.

    2014-01-01

    Information concerning the availability, use, and quality of water in De Soto Parish, Louisiana, is critical for proper water-supply management. The purpose of this fact sheet is to present information that can be used by water managers, parish residents, and others for stewardship of this vital resource. Information on the availability, past and current use, use trends, and water quality from groundwater and surface-water sources in the parish is presented. Previously published reports and data stored in the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water Information System (http://waterdata. usgs.gov/nwis) are the primary sources of the information presented here.

  11. Water resources of Sabine Parish, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prakken, Lawrence B.; White, Vincent E.; Lovelace, John K.

    2014-01-01

    Information concerning the availability, use, and quality of water in Sabine Parish, Louisiana, is critical for proper water-supply management. The purpose of this fact sheet is to present information that can be used by water managers, parish residents, and others for stewardship of this vital resource. Information on the availability, past and current use, use trends, and water quality from groundwater and surface-water sources in the parish is presented. Previously published reports and data stored in the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) National Water Information System (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis) are the primary sources of the information presented here.

  12. Water resources of Jefferson Davis Parish, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Vincent E.; Prakken, Lawrence B.

    2014-01-01

    Information concerning the availability, use, and quality of water in Jefferson Davis Parish, Louisiana, is critical for proper water-supply management. The purpose of this fact sheet is to present information that can be used by water managers, parish residents, and others for stewardship of this vital resource. Information on the availability, past and current use, use trends, and water quality from groundwater and surface-water sources in the parish is presented. Previously published reports and data stored in the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water Information System (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis) are the primary sources of the information presented here.

  13. Water resources of Orleans Parish, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prakken, Lawrence B.; White, Vincent E.; Lovelace, John K.

    2014-01-01

    Information concerning the availability, use, and quality of water in Orleans Parish, Louisiana, is critical for proper water-supply management. The purpose of this fact sheet is to present information that can be used by water managers, parish residents, and others for stewardship of this vital resource. Information on the availability, past and current use, use trends, and water quality from groundwater and surface-water sources in the parish is presented. Previously published reports and data stored in the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water Information System (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis) are the primary sources of the information presented here.

  14. Water resources of La Salle Parish, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Vincent E.; Prakken, Lawrence B.

    2015-01-01

    Information concerning the availability, use, and quality of water in La Salle Parish, Louisiana, is critical for proper water-supply management. The purpose of this fact sheet is to present information that can be used by water managers, parish residents, and others for stewardship of this vital resource. Information on the availability, past and current use, use trends, and water quality from groundwater and surface-water sources in the parish is presented. Previously published reports and data stored in the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water Information System (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis) are the primary sources of the information presented here.

  15. Water resources of Caldwell Parish, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prakken, Lawrence B.; White, Vincent E.

    2014-01-01

    Information concerning the availability, use, and quality of water in Caldwell Parish, Louisiana, is critical for proper water-supply management. The purpose of this fact sheet is to present information that can be used by water managers, parish residents, and others for stewardship of this vital resource. Information on the availability, past and current use, use trends, and water quality from groundwater and surface-water sources in the parish is presented. Previously published reports and data stored in the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water Information System (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis) are the primary sources of the information presented here.

  16. Water resources of St. Charles Parish, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Vincent E.; Prakken, Lawrence B.

    2015-01-01

    Information concerning the availability, use, and quality of water in St. Charles Parish, Louisiana, is critical for proper water-supply management. The purpose of this fact sheet is to present information that can be used by water managers, parish residents, and others for stewardship of this vital resource. Information on the availability, past and current use, use trends, and water quality from groundwater and surface-water sources in the parish is presented. Previously published reports and data stored in the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water Information System (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis) are the primary sources of the information presented here.

  17. Water resources of West Feliciana Parish, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prakken, Lawrence B.; Lovelace, John K.; Tomaszewski, Dan J.; Griffith, Jason M.

    2014-01-01

    Information concerning the availability, use, and quality of water in West Feliciana Parish, Louisiana, is critical for proper water-supply management. The purpose of this fact sheet is to present information that can be used by water managers, parish residents, and others for stewardship of this vital resource. Information on the availability, past and current use, use trends, and water quality from groundwater and surface-water sources in the parish is discussed. Previously published reports and data stored in the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water Information System (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis) are the primary sources of the information presented here.

  18. Water resources of Acadia Parish, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prakken, Larry B.; White, Vincent E.

    2014-01-01

    Information concerning the availability, use, and quality of water in Acadia Parish, Louisiana, is critical for proper water-supply management. The purpose of this fact sheet is to present information that can be used by water managers, parish residents, and others for stewardship of this vital resource. Information on the availability, past and current use, use trends, and water quality from groundwater and surface-water sources in the parish is presented. Previously published reports and data stored in the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water Information System (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis) are the primary sources of the information presented here.

  19. Water resources of St. Mary Parish, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prakken, Lawrence B.; White, Vincent E.; Lovelace, John K.

    2014-01-01

    Information concerning the availability, use, and quality of water in St. Mary Parish, Louisiana, is critical for proper water-supply management. The purpose of this fact sheet is to present information that can be used by water managers, parish residents, and others for management of this vital resource. Information on the availability, past and current use, use trends, and water quality from groundwater and surface-water sources in the parish is presented. Previously published reports and data stored in the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water Information System (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis) are the primary sources of the information presented here.

  20. Water resources of St. James Parish, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Vincent E.; Prakken, Lawrence B.

    2015-01-01

    Information concerning the availability, use, and quality of water in St. James Parish, Louisiana, is critical for proper water-supply management. The purpose of this fact sheet is to present information that can be used by water managers, parish residents, and others for stewardship of this vital resource. Information on the availability, past and current use, use trends, and water quality from groundwater and surface-water sources in the parish is presented. Previously published reports and data stored in the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water Information System (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis) are the primary sources of the information presented here.

  1. Guide to Louisiana's ground-water resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuart, C.G.; Knochenmus, D.D.; McGee, B.D.

    1994-01-01

    Ground water is one of the most valuable and abundant natural resources of Louisiana. Of the 4-.4 million people who live in the State, 61 percent use ground water as a source for drinking water. Most industrial and rural users and half of the irrigation users in the State rely on ground water. Quantity, however, is not the only aspect that makes ground water so valuable; quality also is important for its use. In most areas, little or no water treatment is required for drinking water and industrial purposes. Knowledge of Louisiana's ground-water resources is needed to ensure proper development and protection of this valuable resource. This report is designed to inform citizens about the availability and quality of ground water in Louisiana. It is not intended as a technical reference; rather, it is a guide to ground water and the significant role this resource plays in the state. Most of the ground water that is used in the State is withdrawn from 13 aquifers and aquifer systems: the Cockfield, Sparta, and Carrizo-Wilcox aquifersin northern Louisiana; Chicot aquifer system, Evangeline aquifer, Jasper aquifer system, and Catahoula aquifer in central and southwestern Louisiana; the Chicot equivalent, Evangeline equivalent, and Jasper equivalent aquifer systems in southeastern Louisiana; and the MississippiRiver alluvial, Red River alluvial, and upland terrace aquifers that are statewide. Ground water is affected by man's activities on the land surface, and the major ground-water concerns in Louisiana are: (1) contamination from surface disposal of hazardous waste, agricultural chemicals, and petroleum products; (2) contamination from surface wastes and saltwater through abandoned wells; (3) saltwater encroachment; and (4) local overdevelopment. Information about ground water in Louisiana is extensive and available to the public. Several State and Federal agencies provide published and unpublished material upon request.

  2. Water Resources Availability in Kabul, Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbari, A. M.; Chornack, M. P.; Coplen, T. B.; Emerson, D. G.; Litke, D. W.; Mack, T. J.; Plummer, N.; Verdin, J. P.; Verstraeten, I. M.

    2008-12-01

    The availability of water resources is vital to the rebuilding of Kabul, Afghanistan. In recent years, droughts and increased water use for drinking water and agriculture have resulted in widespread drying of wells. Increasing numbers of returning refugees, rapid population growth, and potential climate change have led to heightened concerns for future water availability. The U.S. Geological Survey, with support from the U.S. Agency for International Development, began collaboration with the Afghanistan Geological Survey and Ministry of Energy and Water on water-resource investigations in the Kabul Basin in 2004. This has led to the compilation of historic and recent water- resources data, creation of monitoring networks, analyses of geologic, geophysical, and remotely sensed data. The study presented herein provides an assessment of ground-water availability through the use of multidisciplinary hydrogeologic data analysis. Data elements include population density, climate, snowpack, geology, mineralogy, surface water, ground water, water quality, isotopic information, and water use. Data were integrated through the use of conceptual ground-water-flow model analysis and provide information necessary to make improved water-resource planning and management decisions in the Kabul Basin. Ground water is currently obtained from a shallow, less than 100-m thick, highly productive aquifer. CFC, tritium, and stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopic analyses indicate that most water in the shallow aquifer appears to be recharged post 1970 by snowmelt-supplied river leakage and secondarily by late winter precipitation. Analyses indicate that increasing withdrawals are likely to result in declining water levels and may cause more than 50 percent of shallow supply wells to become dry or inoperative particularly in urbanized areas. The water quality in the shallow aquifer is deteriorated in urban areas by poor sanitation and water availability concerns may be compounded by poor well

  3. Water Resources System Archetypes: Towards a Holistic Understanding of Persistent Water Resources Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirchi, A.; Watkins, D. W.; Madani, K.

    2011-12-01

    Water resources modeling, a well-established tool in water resources planning and management practice, facilitates understanding of the physical and socio-economic processes impacting the wellbeing of humans and ecosystems. While watershed models continue to become more holistic, there is a need for appropriate frameworks and tools for integrated conceptualization of problems to provide reliable qualitative and quantitative bases for policy selection. In recent decades, water resources professionals have become increasingly cognizant of important feedback relationships within water resources systems. We contend that a systems thinking paradigm is required to facilitate characterization of the closed-loop nature of these feedbacks. Furthermore, a close look at different water resources issues reveals that, while many water resources problems are essentially very similar in nature, they continuously appear in different geographical locations. In the systems thinking literature, a number of generic system structures known as system archetypes have been identified to describe common patterns of problematic behavior within systems. In this research, we identify some main system archetypes governing water resources systems, demonstrating their benefits for holistic understanding of various classes of persistent water resources problems. Using the eutrophication problem of Lake Allegan, Michigan, as a case study, we illustrate how the diagnostic tools of system dynamics modeling can facilitate identification of problematic feedbacks within water resources systems and provide insights for sustainable development.

  4. Water resources in the next millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Warren

    As pressures from an exponentially increasing population and economic expectations rise against a finite water resource, how do we address management? This was the main focus of the Dubai International Conference on Water Resources and Integrated Management in the Third Millennium in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, 2-6 February 2002. The invited forum attracted an eclectic mix of international thinkers from five continents. Presentations and discussions on hydrology policy/property rights, and management strategies focused mainly on problems of water supply, irrigation, and/or ecosystems.

  5. Water resources, chapter 2, part B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Various applications and projected applications of active microwave instruments for studying water resources. Most applications involve use of an imaging system operating primarily at wavelengths of less than 30 cm (i.e., K-, X-, and L-bands). Discussion is also included concerning longer wavelength nonimaging systems for use in sounding polar glaciers and icecaps (e.g., Greenland and the Antarctic). The section is divided into six topics: (1) stream runoff, drainage basin analysis, and floods, (2) lake detection and fluctuating levels, (3) coastal processes and wetlands, (4) seasonally and permanently frozen (permafrost) ground, (5) solid water resources (snow, ice, and glaciers), and (6) water pollution.

  6. Water resources management. World Bank policy paper

    SciTech Connect

    Easter, K.W.; Feder, G.; Le Moigne, G.; Duda, A.M.; Forsyth, E.

    1993-01-01

    Water resources have been one of the most important areas of World Bank lending during the past three decades. Through its support for sector work and investments in irrigation, water supply, sanitation, flood control, and hydropower, the Bank has contributed to the development of many countries and helped provide essential services to many communities. Moreover, the Bank and governments have not taken sufficient account of environmental concerns in the management of water resources. (Copyright (c) 1993 International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank.)

  7. An imminent human resource crisis in ground water hydrology?

    PubMed

    Stephens, Daniel B

    2009-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence, mostly from the United States, suggests that it has become increasingly difficult to find well-trained, entry-level ground water hydrologists to fill open positions in consulting firms and regulatory agencies. The future prospects for filling positions that require training in ground water hydrology are assessed by considering three factors: the market, the numbers of qualified students entering colleges and universities, and the aging of the existing workforce. The environmental and water resources consulting industry has seen continuous albeit variable growth, and demand for environmental scientists and hydrologists is expected to increase significantly. Conversely, students' interest and their enrollment in hydrology and water resources programs have waned in recent years, and the interests of students within these departments have shifted away from ground water hydrology in some schools. This decrease in the numbers of U.S. students graduating in hydrology or emphasizing ground water hydrology is coinciding with the aging of and pending retirement of ground water scientists and engineers in the baby boomer generation. We need to both trigger the imagination of students at the elementary school level so that they later want to apply science and math and communicate the career opportunities in ground water hydrology to those high school and college graduates who have acquired the appropriate technical background. Because the success of a consulting firm, research organization, or regulatory agency is derived from the skills and judgment of the employees, human resources will be an increasingly more critical strategic issue for many years.

  8. Sustainability of ground-water resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alley, William M.; Reilly, Thomas E.; Franke, O. Lehn

    1999-01-01

    The pumpage of fresh ground water in the United States in 1995 was estimated to be approximately 77 billion gallons per day (Solley and others, 1998), which is about 8 percent of the estimated 1 trillion gallons per day of natural recharge to the Nation's ground-water systems (Nace, 1960). From an overall national perspective, the ground-water resource appears ample. Locally, however, the availability of ground water varies widely. Moreover, only a part of the ground water stored in the subsurface can be recovered by wells in an economic manner and without adverse consequences.

  9. Ground-water resources of Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, R.C.; Lohman, S.W.; Frye, J.C.; Waite, H.A.; McLaughlin, Thad G.; Latta, Bruce

    1940-01-01

    Importance of ground-water resources.—The importance of Kansas' ground-water resources may be emphasized from various viewpoints and in different ways. More than three-fourths of the public water supplies of Kansas are obtained from wells. In 1939, only 60 out of 375 municipal water supplies in Kansas, which is 16 percent, utilized surface waters. If the water wells of the cities and those located on all privately owned land in the state were suddenly destroyed, making it necessary to go to streams, springs, lakes (which are almost all artificial), and ponds for water supply domestic, stock, and industrial use, there would be almost incalculable difficulty and expense. If one could not go to springs, or dig new wells, or use any surface water derived from underground flow, much of Kansas would become uninhabitable.  These suggested conditions seem absurd, but they emphasize our dependence on ground-water resources. Fromm a quantitative standpoint, ground-water supplies existent in Kansas far outweigh surface waters that are present in the state at any one time. No exact figures for such comparison can be given, but, taking 384 square miles as the total surface water area of the state and estimating an average water depth of five feet, the computed volume of surface waters is found to be 1/100th of that of the conservatively estimated ground-water storage in Kansas. The latter takes account only of potable fresh water and is based on an assumed mean thickness of ten feet of reservoir having an effective porosity of twenty percent. It is to be remembered, however, that most of the surface water is run-off, which soon leaves the state, stream valleys being replenished from rainfall and flow from ground-water reservoirs. Most of the ground-water supplies, on the other hand, have existed for many years with almost no appreciable movement--in fact, it is reasonably certain that some well water drawn from beneath the surface of Kansas in 1940 represents rainfall in

  10. University of Idaho Water of the West Initiative: Development of a sustainable, interdisciplinary water resources program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boll, J.; Cosens, B.; Fiedler, F.; Link, T.; Wilson, P.; Harris, C.; Tuller, M.; Johnson, G.; Kennedy, B.

    2006-12-01

    Recently, an interdisciplinary group of faculty from the University of Idaho was awarded a major internal grant for their project "Water of the West (WoW)" to launch an interdisciplinary Water Resources Graduate Education Program. This Water Resources program will facilitate research and education to influence both the scientific understanding of the resource and how it is managed, and advance the decision-making processes that are the means to address competing societal values. By educating students to integrate environmental sciences, socio-economic, and political issues, the WoW project advances the University's land grant mission to promote economic and social development in the state of Idaho. This will be accomplished through novel experiential interdisciplinary education activities; creation of interdisciplinary research efforts among water resources faculty; and focusing on urgent regional problems with an approach that will involve and provide information to local communities. The Water Resources Program will integrate physical and biological sciences, social science, law, policy and engineering to address problems associated with stewardship of our scarce water resources. As part of the WoW project, faculty will: (1) develop an integrative problem-solving framework; (2) develop activities to broaden WR education; (3) collaborate with the College of Law to offer a concurrent J.D. degree, (4) develop a virtual system of watersheds for teaching and research, and (5) attract graduate students for team-based education. The new program involves 50 faculty from six colleges and thirteen departments across the university. This university-wide initiative is strengthened by collaboration with the Idaho Water Resources Research Institute, and participation from off-campus Centers in Idaho Falls, Boise, Twin Falls, and Coeur d'Alene. We hope this presentation will attract university faculty, water resources professionals, and others for stimulating discussions on

  11. Population and water resources: a delicate balance.

    PubMed

    Falkenmark, M; Widstrand, C

    1992-11-01

    Various avenues exist to minimize the effects of the current water crisis in some regions of the world and the more widespread problems that will threaten the world in the future. Active management of existing water resources and a reduction in population growth in water-scarce areas are needed to minimize the effects of the water crisis. National boundaries do not effect water systems. Cooperation and commitment of local, national, and international governments, institutions, and other organizations are needed to manage water systems. Development in each country must entail conscientious and effective balancing of unavoidable manipulations of the land and the unavoidable environmental impacts of those manipulations. The conditions of environmental sustainability must include protection of land productivity, ground water potability, and biodiversity. Humans must deal with these factors either by adopting methods to protect natural systems or by correcting existing damage and reducing future problems. They need to understand the demographic forces in each country so they can balance society's rising needs for clean water with the finite amount of water available. Factors affecting future needs at all levels include rapid rural-urban migration, high fertility, and changing patterns of international population movement. Given an increased awareness of global water systems, demographic trends, and active management of resources, the fragile balance between population and water can be maintained. PMID:12344702

  12. Population and water resources: a delicate balance.

    PubMed

    Falkenmark, M; Widstrand, C

    1992-11-01

    Various avenues exist to minimize the effects of the current water crisis in some regions of the world and the more widespread problems that will threaten the world in the future. Active management of existing water resources and a reduction in population growth in water-scarce areas are needed to minimize the effects of the water crisis. National boundaries do not effect water systems. Cooperation and commitment of local, national, and international governments, institutions, and other organizations are needed to manage water systems. Development in each country must entail conscientious and effective balancing of unavoidable manipulations of the land and the unavoidable environmental impacts of those manipulations. The conditions of environmental sustainability must include protection of land productivity, ground water potability, and biodiversity. Humans must deal with these factors either by adopting methods to protect natural systems or by correcting existing damage and reducing future problems. They need to understand the demographic forces in each country so they can balance society's rising needs for clean water with the finite amount of water available. Factors affecting future needs at all levels include rapid rural-urban migration, high fertility, and changing patterns of international population movement. Given an increased awareness of global water systems, demographic trends, and active management of resources, the fragile balance between population and water can be maintained.

  13. Water Intensity of Electricity from Geothermal Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, G. S.; Glassley, W. E.

    2010-12-01

    BACKGROUND Electricity from geothermal resources could play a significant role in the United States over the next few decades; a 2006 study by MIT expects a capacity of 100GWe by 2050 as feasible; approximately 10% of total electricity generating capacity up from less than 1% today. However, there is limited research on the water requirements and impacts of generating electricity from geothermal resources - conventional as well as enhanced. To the best of our knowledge, there is no baseline exists for water requirements of geothermal electricity. Water is primarily required for cooling and dissipation of waste heat in the power plants, and to account for fluid losses during heat mining of enhanced geothermal resources. MODEL DESCRIPTION We have developed a model to assess and characterize water requirements of electricity from hydrothermal resources and enhanced geothermal resources (EGS). Our model also considers a host of factors that influence cooling water requirements ; these include the temperature and chemical composition of geothermal resource; installed power generation technology - flash, organic rankine cycle and the various configurations of these technologies; cooling technologies including air cooled condensers, wet recirculating cooling, and hybrid cooling; and finally water treatment and recycling installations. We expect to identify critical factors and technologies. Requirements for freshwater, degraded water and geothermal fluid are separately estimated. METHODOLOGY We have adopted a lifecycle analysis perspective that estimates water consumption at the goethermal field and power plant, and accounts for transmission and distribution losses before reaching the end user. Our model depends upon an extensive literature review to determine various relationships necessary to determine water usage - for example relationship between thermal efficiency and temperature of a binary power plant, or differences in efficiency between various ORC configurations

  14. Environmental resource document for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Irving, J.S.

    1993-07-01

    This document contains information related to the environmental characterization of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The INEL is a major US Department of Energy facility in southeastern Idaho dedicated to nuclear research, waste management, environmental restoration, and other activities related to the development of technology. Environmental information covered in this document includes land, air, water, and ecological resources; socioeconomic characteristics and land use; and cultural, aesthetic, and scenic resources.

  15. Environmental resource document for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Irving, J.S.

    1993-07-01

    This document contains information related to the environmental characterization of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The INEL is a major US Department of Energy facility in southeastern Idaho dedicated to nuclear research, waste management, environmental restoration, and other activities related to the development of technology. Environmental information covered in this document includes land, air, water, and ecological resources; socioeconomic characteristics and land use; and cultural, aesthetic, and scenic resources.

  16. Undergraduate Program Focuses on International Issues in Water Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyler, Scott W.; Silliman, Stephen E.; Campana, Michael E.

    2004-03-01

    For the past two summers, faculty from the University of Notre Dame, the University of Nevada, Reno, and the University of New Mexico have directed a National Science Foundation (NSF) Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) site focusing on issues in international water resources. (See REU Site on Water Resources in Developing Countries, www.nd.edu/~reuwater/). The overarching objective of this project is to engage and educate U.S. students in the issues and problems facing the world's nations in water resource development and potable water supply. The stated goals of NSF's Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) program are to expand student participation in all areas of research, and specifically, to attract a diverse group of students into the fields of science and engineering, including graduate-level studies. In addition, international REU sites often seek to develop students who can be ``globally competen;'' that is, understand science and engineering in frameworks other than a North American perspective. (More information on international REU sites and site development can be found at www.nsftokyo.org/REU/ and www.nsf.gov/sbe/int/.)

  17. NASA's Applied Sciences for Water Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doorn, Bradley; Toll, David; Engman, Ted

    2011-01-01

    The Earth Systems Division within NASA has the primary responsibility for the Earth Science Applied Science Program and the objective to accelerate the use of NASA science results in applications to help solve problems important to society and the economy. The primary goal of the Earth Science Applied Science Program is to improve future and current operational systems by infusing them with scientific knowledge of the Earth system gained through space-based observation, assimilation of new observations, and development and deployment of enabling technologies, systems, and capabilities. This paper discusses one of the major problems facing water resources managers, that of having timely and accurate data to drive their decision support tools. It then describes how NASA?s science and space based satellites may be used to overcome this problem. Opportunities for the water resources community to participate in NASA?s Water Resources Applications Program are described.

  18. [Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B permit application: Volume 6, Revision 3: Engineering Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    This report is part of revision 3 to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act part B permit application for the WIPP facility. Engineering drawings and details are included on the following: fire protection sprinkler system and fire water collection system; fault analysis and protective device coordination; primary power distribution, area electrical diagrams; paving details; fencing plan; railroad access plan; and access road plans.

  19. [Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B permit application: Volume 6, Revision 3: Engineering Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    This report is part of revision 3 to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act part B permit application for the WIPP facility. Engineering drawings and details are included on the following: fire protection sprinkler system and fire water collection system; fault analysis and protective device coordination; primary power distribution, area electrical diagrams; paving details; fencing plan; railroad access plan; and access road plans.

  20. Water resources planning for rivers draining into Mobile Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    April, G. C.

    1976-01-01

    The application of remote sensing, automatic data processing, modeling and other aerospace related technologies to hydrological engineering and water resource management are discussed for the entire river drainage system which feeds the Mobile Bay estuary. The adaptation and implementation of existing mathematical modeling methods are investigated for the purpose of describing the behavior of Mobile Bay. Of particular importance are the interactions that system variables such as river flow rate, wind direction and speed, and tidal state have on the water movement and quality within the bay system.

  1. Profiles--Mechanical Engineering: Human Resources and Funding. Special Report. Surveys of Science Resources Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Melissa J.

    This report was developed by the National Science Foundation to focus attention on a particular field of engineering. It addresses the human resources and funding for mechanical engineering programs through several perspectives. The first major section, "Personnel," discusses employment levels and trends, salaries, sectors of employment, jobs in…

  2. Higher Resolution for Water Resources Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumenil-Gates, L.

    2009-12-01

    The Earth system science community is providing an increasing range of science results for the benefit of achieving the Millennium Development Goals. In addressing questions such as reducing poverty and hunger, achieving sustainable global development, or by defining adaptation strategies for climate change, one of the key issues will be the quantitative description and understanding of the global water cycle, which will allow useful projections of available future water resources for several decades ahead. The quantities of global water cycle elements that we observe today - and deal with in hydrologic and atmospheric modeling - are already very different from the natural flows as human influence on the water cycle by storage, consumption and edifice has been going on for millennia, and climate change is expected to add more uncertainty. In this case Tony Blair’s comment that perhaps the most worrying problem is climate change does not cover the full story. We shall also have to quantify how the human demand for water resources and alterations of the various elements of the water cycle may proceed in the future: will there be enough of the precious water resource to sustain current and future demands by the various sectors involved? The topics that stakeholders and decision makers concerned with managing water resources are interested in cover a variety of human uses such as agriculture, energy production, ecological flow requirements to sustain biodiversity and ecosystem services, or human cultural aspects, recreation and human well-being - all typically most relevant at the regional or local scales, this being quite different from the relatively large-scale that the IPCC assessment addresses. Halfway through the Millennium process, the knowledge base of the global water cycle is still limited. The sustainability of regional water resources is best assessed through a research program that combines high-resolution climate and hydrologic models for expected

  3. Water resources of Claiborne Parish, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fendick, Robert B.; Prakken, Lawrence B.; Griffith, Jason M.

    2013-01-01

    This fact sheet summarizes basic information on the water resources of Claiborne Parish. Information on groundwater and surface-water availability, quality, development, use, and trends is based on previously published reports listed in the Cited References section. In 2010, about 2.60 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) of water were withdrawn in Claiborne Parish, Louisiana, including about 2.42 Mgal/d from groundwater sources and 0.18 Mgal/d from surface-water sources. Public-supply use accounted for about 84 percent of the total water withdrawn. Other categories of use included industrial, rural domestic, livestock, and general irrigation. Water-use data collected at 5-year intervals from 1960 to 2010 indicated that total water withdrawals in the parish have ranged from about 2.6 to 3.9 Mgal/d.

  4. Modeling Renewable Water Resources under Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Tang, Q.

    2014-12-01

    The impacts of climate change on renewable water resources are usually assessed using hydrological models driven by downscaled climate outputs from global climate models. Most hydrological models do not have explicit parameterization of vegetation and thus are unable to assess the effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 on stomatal conductance and water loss of leaf. The response of vegetation to elevated atmospheric CO2 would reduce evaporation and affect runoff and renewable water resources. To date, the impacts of elevated CO2 on vegetation transpiration were not well addressed in assessment of water resources under climate change. In this study, the distributed biosphere-hydrological (DBH) model, which incorporates a simple biosphere model into a distributed hydrological scheme, was used to assess the impacts of elevated CO2 on vegetation transpiration and consequent runoff. The DBH model was driven by five General Circulation Models (GCMs) under four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). For each climate scenario, two model experiments were conducted. The atmospheric CO2 concentration in one experiment was assumed to remain at the level of 2000 and increased as described by the RCPs in the other experiment. The results showed that the elevated CO2 would result in decrease in evapotranspiration, increase in runoff, and have considerable impacts on water resources. However, CO2 induced runoff change is generally small in dry areas likely because vegetation is usually sparse in the arid area.

  5. Managing Water Resources for Drought: Insights from California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medellin-Azuara, Josue; Lund, Jay

    2016-04-01

    Droughts bring great opportunities to better understand and improve water systems. California's economic powerhouse relies on highly engineered water systems to fulfill large and growing urban and agricultural water demands. Current and past droughts show these systems are highly robust and resilient to droughts, as they recover promptly. However, environmental systems remain highly vulnerable and have shown less resilience to drought, with each drought bringing additional native species closer to extinction, often with little recovery following the drought. This paper provides an overview of the economic and ecosystem impacts of the recent multi-year drought in California in the context of a global economy. We explore the potential of water markets, groundwater management and use of remote sensing technology to improve understanding of adaptation to drought. Insights for future management of water resources and scientific work are discussed.

  6. Water Resources Data, New Mexico, Water Year 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borland, J.P.; Ong, Kim

    1995-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1994 water year for New Mexico consist of records of discharge and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells and springs. This report contains discharge records for 184 gaging stations; stage and contents for 26 lakes and reservoirs; water quality for 51 gaging stations and 72 wells; and water levels at 132 observation wells. Also included are 109 crest-stage partial-record stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not involved in the systematic data collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in New Mexico.

  7. Water resources data for New Mexico, water year 1975

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1976-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1975 water year for New Mexico consist of records of discharge and water quality of streams; stage, contents and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells and springs. This report contains discharge records for 201 gaging stations; stage and contents far 23 lakes and reservoirs; water quality for 62 gaging stations, 77 partial-record flow stations, 1 reservoir, 47 springs and 197 wells; and water levels for 93 observation wells. Also included are 162 crest-stage partial-record stations and 2 low-flow partial-record stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic da,ta collection program, and are pu,blis"Q,ed as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in New Mexico.

  8. Linking water resources to food security through virtual water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamea, Stefania

    2014-05-01

    The largest use of global freshwater resources is related to food production. While each day we drink about 2 liters of water, we consume (eating) about 4000 liters of ''virtual water'', which represents the freshwater used to produce crop-based and livestock-based food. Considering human water consumption as a whole, most part originates from agriculture (85.8%), and only minor parts come from industry (9.6%) or households (4.6%). These numbers shed light on the great pressure of humanity on global freshwater resources and justify the increasing interest towards this form of environmental impact, usually known as ''water footprint''. Virtual water is a key variable in establishing the nexus between water and food. In fact, water resources used for agricultural production determine local food availability, and impact the international trade of agricultural goods. Trade, in turn, makes food commodities available to nations which are not otherwise self-sufficient, in terms of water resources or food, and it establishes an equilibrium between food demand and production at the global scale. Therefore, food security strongly relies on international food trade, but also on the use of distant and foreign water resources, which need to be acknowledged and investigated. Virtual water embedded in production and international trade follows the fate of food on the trade network, generating virtual flows of great magnitude (e.g., 2800 km3 in 2010) and defining local and global virtual water balances worldwide. The resulting water-food nexus is critical for the societal and economic development, and it has several implications ranging from population dynamics to the competing use of freshwater resources, from dietary guidelines to globalization of trade, from externalization of pollution to policy making and to socio-economic wealth. All these implications represent a great challenge for future research, not only in hydrology but in the many fields related to this

  9. Cooperative water resource technology transfer program

    SciTech Connect

    D'itri, F.M.

    1982-06-01

    This cooperative water resource technology transfer program sought to develop/present educational programs (conferences/seminars/workshops) and technology transfer brochures to enhance public awareness/appreciation of state water quality problems and to stress economic tradeoffs needed to resolve given problems. Accomplishments of this program for the different conferences held 1979-1981 are described (inland lake eutrophication: causes, effects, and remedies; contamination of groundwater supplies by toxic chemicals: causes, effects, and prevention; supplemental irrigation; stormwater management; cooperative research needs for renovation and reuse of municipal water in agriculture; selection and management of vegetation for slow rate and overland flow land application systems to treat municipal wastewater; effects of acid precipitation on ecological systems: Great Lakes region; water competition in Michigan; Michigan natural resources outlook.

  10. Architecture of a federated query engine for heterogeneous resources.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Richard L; Matney, Susan; Livne, Oren E; Bray, Bruce E; Mitchell, Joyce A; Narus, Scott P

    2009-01-01

    The Federated Utah Research and Translational Health e-Repository (FURTHeR) is a Utah statewide informatics platform for the new Center for Clinical and Translational Science at the University of Utah. We have been working on one of FURTHeR's key components, a federated query engine for heterogeneous resources, that we believe has the potential to meet some of the fundamental needs of translational science to access and integrate diverse biomedical data and promote discovery of new knowledge. The architecture of the federated query engine for heterogeneous resources is described and demonstrated.

  11. Architecture of a Federated Query Engine for Heterogeneous Resources

    PubMed Central

    Bradshaw, Richard L.; Matney, Susan; Livne, Oren E.; Bray, Bruce E.; Mitchell, Joyce A.; Narus, Scott P.

    2009-01-01

    The Federated Utah Research and Translational Health e-Repository (FURTHeR) is a Utah statewide informatics platform for the new Center for Clinical and Translational Science at the University of Utah. We have been working on one of FURTHeR’s key components, a federated query engine for heterogeneous resources, that we believe has the potential to meet some of the fundamental needs of translational science to access and integrate diverse biomedical data and promote discovery of new knowledge. The architecture of the federated query engine for heterogeneous resources is described and demonstrated. PMID:20351825

  12. Engineering Water Analysis Laboratory Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    The purposes of water treatment in a marine steam power plant are to prevent damage to boilers, steam-operated equipment, and steam and condensate lives, and to keep all equipment operating at the highest level of efficiency. This laboratory exercise is designed to provide students with experiences in making accurate boiler water tests and to…

  13. 30 CFR 402.6 - Water-Resources Research Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... hydrologic cycle; (2) Supply and demand for water; (3) Demineralization of saline and other impaired waters... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Water-Resources Research Program. 402.6 Section 402.6 Mineral Resources GEOLOGICAL SURVEY, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR WATER-RESOURCES RESEARCH...

  14. 30 CFR 402.6 - Water-Resources Research Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... hydrologic cycle; (2) Supply and demand for water; (3) Demineralization of saline and other impaired waters... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Water-Resources Research Program. 402.6 Section 402.6 Mineral Resources GEOLOGICAL SURVEY, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR WATER-RESOURCES RESEARCH...

  15. 30 CFR 402.6 - Water-Resources Research Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... hydrologic cycle; (2) Supply and demand for water; (3) Demineralization of saline and other impaired waters... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Water-Resources Research Program. 402.6 Section 402.6 Mineral Resources GEOLOGICAL SURVEY, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR WATER-RESOURCES RESEARCH...

  16. 30 CFR 402.6 - Water-Resources Research Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... hydrologic cycle; (2) Supply and demand for water; (3) Demineralization of saline and other impaired waters... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Water-Resources Research Program. 402.6 Section 402.6 Mineral Resources GEOLOGICAL SURVEY, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR WATER-RESOURCES RESEARCH...

  17. WATER: Water Activities Teaching Environmental Responsibility: Teacher Resource, Environmental Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Ed, Ed.; And Others

    This activity book was developed as part of an effort to protect water quality of the Stillwater River, Ohio, through a Watershed Protection Project. It is designed to raise teachers' and students' awareness and trigger a sense of stewardship towards the preservation of water resources. The activities are generally appropriate for elementary age…

  18. Game Theory in water resources management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsanevaki, Styliani Maria; Varouchakis, Emmanouil; Karatzas, George

    2015-04-01

    Rural water management is a basic requirement for the development of the primary sector and involves the exploitation of surface/ground-water resources. Rational management requires the study of parameters that determine their exploitation mainly environmental, economic and social. These parameters reflect the influence of irrigation on the aquifer behaviour and on the level-streamflow of nearby rivers as well as on the profit from the farming activity for the farmers' welfare. The question of rural water management belongs to the socio-political problems, since the factors involved are closely related to user behaviour and state position. By applying Game Theory one seeks to simulate the behaviour of the system 'surface/ground-water resources to water-users' with a model based on a well-known game, "The Prisoner's Dilemma" for economic development of the farmers without overexploitation of the water resources. This is a game of two players that have been extensively studied in Game Theory, economy and politics because it can describe real-world cases. The present proposal aims to investigate the rural water management issue that is referred to two competitive small partnerships organised to manage their agricultural production and to achieve a better profit. For the farmers' activities water is required and ground-water is generally preferable because consists a more stable recourse than river-water which in most of the cases in Greece are of intermittent flow. If the two farmer groups cooperate and exploit the agreed water quantities they will gain equal profits and benefit from the sustainable availability of the water recourses (p). If both groups overexploitate the resource to maximize profit, then in the medium-term they will incur a loss (g), due to the water resources reduction and the increase of the pumping costs. If one overexploit the resource while the other use the necessary required, then the first will gain great benefit (P), and the second will

  19. The protection and development of historic Lougang water resource features along Lake Tai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, J.; Tan, X. M.; Li, Y. P.; Wan, J. H.; Liu, J. G.; Zhou, B.

    2016-08-01

    Overcoming the conflicts between protecting water resource heritage features and the sustainable development of modern society is a major undertaking. Lougangs (rivulets) and polders are Lake-Tai-Basin-specific water resource engineering projects that hold a significant historic position. This paper presents background on water resource heritage features, based on the origins and evolution of Lougangs along Lake Tai. Through analysis of their value and current standing, we propose countermeasures for protection and development of the Lougang water resource heritage features along Lake Tai.

  20. Impact of climate change on water resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Dan; Werners, Saskia; Ludwig, Fulco

    2014-05-01

    Climate change will affect hydrological regimes of rivers, and have a direct impact on availability, renewability, and quality of water resources. To better understand current and future water resources in the Pearl River basin, here we assess the impact of climate change on river discharge, and identify whether climate change will lead to increasing water availability or scarcity at the catchment scale. The Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model is used for hydrological simulation driven by WATCH (the Integrated Project Water and Global Change) forcing data (1958-2001), WATCH forcing data ERA interim (1979-2001) and ten bias-corrected projected climate scenarios from MPI-ESM-LR, HadGEM2-ES, CNRM-CM5, IPSL-CM5A-LR and EC-EARTH forced by RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 (1961-2099). All subbasins except Yujiang basin show a decrease in streamflow from 1961 to 2099. The results also indicate that the wet season will become more wet, and the dry season will become drier over the whole Pearl River basin after 2030. Highly uneven spatial and temporal distribution of water resources may result in water shortages and severe hazards in this region.

  1. Water Resources Impacts on Tribal Irrigation Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minihane, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) Branch of Irrigation and Power provides oversight and technical support to select irrigation projects and systems on tribal lands. The BIA provides operations and maintenance support for 16 irrigation systems. To make the best use of limited resources, the BIA must incorporate climate change impacts on hydrology and water management for these irrigation systems in the coming decades. The 16 irrigation projects discussed here are divided into three climatological regions: the Pacific Northwest Region, the Greater Rocky Mountain Region, and the Western, Southwest, & Navajo Region. Significant climate projections that impact irrigation systems in one or more of these regions include increased temperatures and evaporative demand, earlier snowmelt and runoff, an increase in floods, an increase in heavy precipitation events, an increase in the frequency and intensity of droughts, and declining water supplies. Some irrigation projects are particularly vulnerable to these climate impacts because they are in already water-stressed areas or areas in which water resources are over-allocated. Other irrigation projects will have to adjust their storage and water management strategies to accommodate changes in the timing of streamflow. Overall, though, the BIA will be better able to assist tribal nations by incorporating expected climate impacts into their water resources management practices.

  2. Environmental Education Compendium for Water Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    Interdisciplinary by nature, environmental education is appropriate in any subject area and many educators often integrate environmental concepts into their lesson plans. This compendium of 109 collections of curriculum materials has been developed to assist educators in their selection of materials focusing on water resources. Curricula cover…

  3. Water resources in the Japanese Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takagi, T.

    2005-12-01

    Due to its limited land area and limited range of natural resources (particularly fuel), Japan has developed a highly efficient economy in terms of resource utilization. This also applies to water resources. For sustainable use of water resources in the Japanese Islands, integrated and unified analyses of the data of groundwater by the nation and local governments have been needed. Land area of the Japanese Islands is 377,000 square kilometers, which is equivalent to the area of the state of Montana, but extends for 3,600 kilometers along the margin of the Eurasian continent. Mountainous areas separated by isolated, narrow plains make up 80 % of the land area. Due to the topography of Japan, rivers are generally short with steep grades, the longest being only 367 kilometers in length. Average annual precipitation is 1,600 millimeters but is highly seasonal. The annual water demand was approximately 87 billion cubic meters during the past 25 years, which represents 21 % of the total usable water. The water demand for agriculture makes up 66 % of the total water demand, and 96 % of the water for agricultural uses is used for the irrigation of rice paddies. Municipal and industrial uses make up 15.4 and 18.9 % of the demand, respectively (as of 2000). Nearly 80 % of the water used by industry in recycled. Approximately 87 % of the water demand is supplied from surface water with the rest from ground water. Because of its mountainous topography, the extent of individual aquifers is far smaller than in United States. Groundwater basins in the Japanese Islands are classified into the following six types: plain type (thick Quaternary strata); basin type (intermontane terraces and fans; hill type (highly eroded old volcanoes); volcano type (permeable lava and pyroclasitc flows comprising Quaternary strato volcanoes); pyroclastic type (thick tuff associated with large caldera formations); and limestone type (limestone blocks with karsts). Of the above types, the only major

  4. Ground water and surface water; a single resource

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winter, Thomas C.; Harvey, Judson W.; Franke, O. Lehn; Alley, William M.

    1998-01-01

    The importance of considering ground water and surface water as a single resource has become increasingly evident. Issues related to water supply, water quality, and degradation of aquatic environments are reported on frequently. The interaction of ground water and surface water has been shown to be a significant concern in many of these issues. Contaminated aquifers that discharge to streams can result in long-term contamination of surface water; conversely, streams can be a major source of contamination to aquifers. Surface water commonly is hydraulically connected to ground water, but the interactions are difficult to observe and measure. The purpose of this report is to present our current understanding of these processes and activities as well as limitations in our knowledge and ability to characterize them.

  5. Injected Water Augments Cooling In Turboshaft Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biesiadny, Thomas J.; Berger, Brett; Klann, Gary A.; Clark, David A.

    1989-01-01

    Report describes experiments in which water injected into compressor-bleed cooling air of aircraft turboshaft engine. Injection of water previously suggested as way to provide additional cooling needed to sustain operation at power levels higher than usual. Involves turbine-inlet temperatures high enough to shorten lives of first-stage high-pressure turbine blades. Latent heat of vaporization of injected water serves as additional heat sink to maintain blades at design operating temperatures during high-power operation.

  6. Resource reliability, accessibility and governance: pillars for managing water resources to achieve water security in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biggs, E. M.; Duncan, J.; Atkinson, P.; Dash, J.

    2013-12-01

    As one of the world's most water-abundant countries, Nepal has plenty of water yet resources are both spatially and temporally unevenly distributed. With a population heavily engaged in subsistence farming, whereby livelihoods are entirely dependent on rain-fed agriculture, changes in freshwater resources can substantially impact upon survival. The two main sources of water in Nepal come from monsoon precipitation and glacial runoff. The former is essential for sustaining livelihoods where communities have little or no access to perennial water resources. Much of Nepal's population live in the southern Mid-Hills and Terai regions where dependency on the monsoon system is high and climate-environment interactions are intricate. Any fluctuations in precipitation can severely affect essential potable resources and food security. As the population continues to expand in Nepal, and pressures build on access to adequate and clean water resources, there is a need for institutions to cooperate and increase the effectiveness of water management policies. This research presents a framework detailing three fundamental pillars for managing water resources to achieve sustainable water security in Nepal. These are (i) resource reliability; (ii) adequate accessibility; and (iii) effective governance. Evidence is presented which indicates that water resources are adequate in Nepal to sustain the population. In addition, aspects of climate change are having less impact than previously perceived e.g. results from trend analysis of precipitation time-series indicate a decrease in monsoon extremes and interannual variation over the last half-century. However, accessibility to clean water resources and the potential for water storage is limiting the use of these resources. This issue is particularly prevalent given the heterogeneity in spatial and temporal distributions of water. Water governance is also ineffective due to government instability and a lack of continuity in policy

  7. Water resources of Assumption Parish, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prakken, Lawrence B.; Lovelace, John K.

    2013-01-01

    Information concerning the availability, use, and quality of water in Assumption Parish, Louisiana, is critical for proper water-supply management. The purpose of this fact sheet is to present information that can be used by water managers, parish residents, and others for management of this vital resource. Information on the availability, past and current use, use trends, and water quality from groundwater and surface-water sources in the parish is presented. Previously published reports and data stored in the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water Information System (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis) are the primary sources of the information presented here. In 2010, about 21.4 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) of water were withdrawn in Assumption Parish, including about 12.4 Mgal/d from surface-water sources and 9.03 Mgal/d from groundwater sources. Withdrawals for industrial use accounted for about 16.4 Mgal/d or 76 percent of the total water withdrawn. Other categories of use included public supply, rural domestic, livestock, general irrigation, and aquaculture.Water-use data collected at 5-year intervals from 1960 to 2010 indicated that water withdrawals peaked in 2000 at about 29.7 Mgal/d.

  8. Water-resources investigations in Wisconsin, 1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maertz, D.E.

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study are to provide continuous discharge records for selected rivers at specific sites to supply the needs for: regulation, analytical studies, definition of statistical properties, trends analysis, determination of the occurrence, and distribution of water in streams for planning. The project is also designed to determine lake levels and to provide discharge for floods, low-flow conditions, and for water-quality investigations. Requests for streamflow data and information relating to streamflow in Wisconsin are answered. Basic data are published annually in "Water Resources Data Wisconsin."

  9. Water resources activities in Kentucky, 1986

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Faust, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Division, conducts three major types of activities in Kentucky in order to provide hydrologic information and understanding needed for the best management of Kentucky 's and the Nation 's water resources. These activities are: (1) Data collection and dissemination; (2) Water-resources appraisals (interpretive studies); and (3) Research. Activities described in some detail following: (1) collection of surface - and groundwater data; (2) operation of stations to collect data on water quality, atmospheric deposition, and sedimentation; (3) flood investigations; (4) water use; (5) small area flood hydrology; (6) feasibility of disposal of radioactive disposal in deep crystalline rocks; (7) development of a groundwater model for the Louisville area; (8) travel times for streams in the Kentucky River Basin; (9) the impact of sinkholes and streams on groundwater flow in a carbonate aquifer system; (10) sedimentation and erosion rates at the Maxey Flats Radioactive Waste Burial site; and (11) evaluation of techniques for evaluating the cumulative impacts of mining as applied to coal fields in Kentucky. (Lantz-PTT)

  10. Geothermal Water Use: Life Cycle Water Consumption, Water Resource Assessment, and Water Policy Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, Jenna N.

    2014-06-10

    This report examines life cycle water consumption for various geothermal technologies to better understand factors that affect water consumption across the life cycle (e.g., power plant cooling, belowground fluid losses) and to assess the potential water challenges that future geothermal power generation projects may face. Previous reports in this series quantified the life cycle freshwater requirements of geothermal power-generating systems, explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids, and assessed future water demand by geothermal power plants according to growth projections for the industry. This report seeks to extend those analyses by including EGS flash, both as part of the life cycle analysis and water resource assessment. A regional water resource assessment based upon the life cycle results is also presented. Finally, the legal framework of water with respect to geothermal resources in the states with active geothermal development is also analyzed.

  11. Entropy, recycling and macroeconomics of water resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakatsanis, Georgios; Mamassis, Nikos; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2014-05-01

    We propose a macroeconomic model for water quantity and quality supply multipliers derived by water recycling (Karakatsanis et al. 2013). Macroeconomic models that incorporate natural resource conservation have become increasingly important (European Commission et al. 2012). In addition, as an estimated 80% of globally used freshwater is not reused (United Nations 2012), under increasing population trends, water recycling becomes a solution of high priority. Recycling of water resources creates two major conservation effects: (1) conservation of water in reservoirs and aquifers and (2) conservation of ecosystem carrying capacity due to wastewater flux reduction. Statistical distribution properties of the recycling efficiencies -on both water quantity and quality- for each sector are of vital economic importance. Uncertainty and complexity of water reuse in sectors are statistically quantified by entropy. High entropy of recycling efficiency values signifies greater efficiency dispersion; which -in turn- may indicate the need for additional infrastructure for the statistical distribution's both shifting and concentration towards higher efficiencies that lead to higher supply multipliers. Keywords: Entropy, water recycling, water supply multipliers, conservation, recycling efficiencies, macroeconomics References 1. European Commission (EC), Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), International Monetary Fund (IMF), Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), United Nations (UN) and World Bank (2012), System of Environmental and Economic Accounting (SEEA) Central Framework (White cover publication), United Nations Statistics Division 2. Karakatsanis, G., N. Mamassis, D. Koutsoyiannis and A. Efstratiades (2013), Entropy and reliability of water use via a statistical approach of scarcity, 5th EGU Leonardo Conference - Hydrofractals 2013 - STAHY '13, Kos Island, Greece, European Geosciences Union, International Association of Hydrological Sciences

  12. Research of water resources allocation of South-to-North Water Diversion East Route Project in Jiangsu Province ,Eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, C.

    2015-12-01

    Optimized allocation of water resources is the important means of solving regional water shortage and can improve the utilization of water resources. Water resources allocation in the large-scale water diversion project area is the current research focus. This research takes the east route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project in Jiangsu province as the research area, based on the hydrological model, agricultural irrigation quota model, and water project scheduling model, a water resources allocation model was constructed. The research carried on generalized regional water supply network, simulated the water supply, water demand and water deficit in agriculture, industry, life, ecology and lock under the status quo and planning engineering conditions. According to the results, the east route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project is helpful to improve regional water shortage situation. The results showed that pump output increase by 2.8 billion cubic meters of water. On the conditions of P = 95%, 75% and 50%, compared with the benchmark year, water demand increases slightly due to the need of social and economic development in planning years, and water supply increased significantly because of new diversion ability. Water deficit are greatly reduced by 74.9% especially in the commonly drought condition because of the new project operation and optimized allocation of water resources.

  13. Integrated water resources modelling for assessing sustainable water governance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skoulikaris, Charalampos; Ganoulis, Jacques; Tsoukalas, Ioannis; Makropoulos, Christos; Gkatzogianni, Eleni; Michas, Spyros

    2015-04-01

    Climatic variations and resulting future uncertainties, increasing anthropogenic pressures, changes in political boundaries, ineffective or dysfunctional governance of natural resources and environmental degradation are some of the most fundamental challenges with which worldwide initiatives fostering the "think globally, act locally" concept are concerned. Different initiatives target the protection of the environment through sustainable development; Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) and Transboundary Water Resources Management (TWRM) in the case of internationally shared waters are frameworks that have gained wide political acceptance at international level and form part of water resources management planning and implementation on a global scale. Both concepts contribute in promoting economic efficiency, social equity and environmental sustainability. Inspired by these holistic management approaches, the present work describes an effort that uses integrated water resources modelling for the development of an integrated, coherent and flexible water governance tool. This work in which a sequence of computer based models and tools are linked together, aims at the evaluation of the sustainable operation of projects generating renewable energy from water as well as the sustainability of agricultural demands and environmental security in terms of environmental flow under various climatic and operational conditions. More specifically, catchment hydrological modelling is coupled with dams' simulation models and thereafter with models dedicated to water resources management and planning,while the bridging of models is conducted through geographic information systems and custom programming tools. For the case of Mesta/Nestos river basin different priority rules in the dams' operational schedule (e.g. priority given to power production as opposed to irrigation needs and vice versa), as well as different irrigation demands, e.g. current water demands as opposed to

  14. Water resources of Lincoln County, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eddy-Miller, C. A.; Plafcan, Maria; Clark, M.L.

    1996-01-01

    Streamflow and ground-water quantity and quality data were collected and analyzed, 1993 through 1995, and historical data were compiled to summarize the water resources of Lincoln County.Deposits of Quaternary age, in the valleys of the Bear River and Salt River, had the most well development of any geologic unit in the county.The most productive alluvial aquifers were located in the Bear River Valley and Star Valley with pumping wells discharging up to 2,000 gallons perminute. The ground-water connection between the Overthrust Belt and the Green River Basin is restricted as a result of the folding and faulting that occurred during middle Mesozoic and early Cenozoic time. Total water use in Lincoln County during 1993 was estimated to be 405,000 million gallons. Surface water was the source for 98 percent of the water used in the county. Hydroelectric power generation and irrigation used the largest amounts of water. Dissolved-solids concentrations varied greatly for water samples collected from 35 geologic units inventoried. Dissolved-solids concentrations in all water samples from the LaneyMember of the Green River Formation were greater than the Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level of 500 milligrams per liter established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Statistical analysis of data collected from wells in the Star Valley monitoring study indicated there was no significant difference between data collected during different seasons, and no correlation between the nitrate concentrations and depth to ground water.

  15. Water resources of St. Bernard Parish, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prakken, Larry B.

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, about 261 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) of water were withdrawn in St. Bernard Parish, Louisiana, almost entirely from surface-water sources. Industrial use accounted for about 97 percent (253 Mgal/d) of the total water withdrawn. Other categories of use included public supply, rural domestic, and livestock. Water-use data collected at 5-year intervals from 1960 to 2010 indicated that total water withdrawals in the parish ranged from about 138 to 720 Mgal/d, with industrial use of surface water making up the bulk of water withdrawals. The large decline in surface-water withdrawals from 1980 to 1985 was largely attributable to a decrease in industrial use from 654 Mgal/d in 1980 to 127 Mgal/d in 1985. This fact sheet summarizes basic information on the water resources of St. Bernard Parish. Information on groundwater and surface-water availability, quality, development, use, and trends is based on previously published reports listed in the Selected References section.

  16. Water resources of Plaquemines Parish, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prakken, Larry B.

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, about 85.1 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) of water were withdrawn in Plaquemines Parish, Louisiana. Surface-water sources accounted for almost all withdrawals; groundwater sources accounted for only 0.04 Mgal/d. Industrial use accounted for about 92 percent of the total water withdrawn. Other categories of use included public supply, rural domestic, and livestock. Water-use data collected at 5-year intervals from 1960 to 2010 indicated that water withdrawals in Plaquemines Parish peaked at about 177 Mgal/d in 1975. The peak resulted primarily from an increase in industrial surface-water withdrawals from about 23.8 Mgal/d in 1970 to 171 Mgal/d in 1975. Since 1975, water withdrawals have ranged from about 157 to 85.1 Mgal/d, with industrial surface-water withdrawals accounting for most of the variation. This fact sheet summarizes basic information on the water resources of Plaquemines Parish. Information on groundwater and surface-water availability, quality, development, use, and trends is based on previously published reports listed in the Selected References section.

  17. Water resources review: Wheeler Reservoir, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Wallus, R.; Cox, J.P.

    1990-09-01

    Protection and enhancement of water quality is essential for attaining the full complement of beneficial uses of TVA reservoirs. The responsibility for improving and protecting TVA reservoir water quality is shared by various federal, state, and local agencies, as well as the thousands of corporations and property owners whose individual decisions affect water quality. TVA's role in this shared responsibility includes collecting and evaluating water resources data, disseminating water resources information, and acting as a catalyst to bring together agencies and individuals that have a responsibility or vested interest in correcting problems that have been identified. This report is one in a series of status reports that will be prepared for each of TVA's reservoirs. The purpose of this status report is to provide an up-to-date overview of the characteristics and conditions of Wheeler Reservoir, including: reservoir purposes and operation; physical characteristics of the reservoir and the watershed; water quality conditions: aquatic biological conditions: designated, actual, and potential uses of the reservoir and impairments of those uses; ongoing or planned reservoir management activities. Information and data presented here are form the most recent reports, publications, and original data available. 21 refs., 8 figs., 29 tabs.

  18. Water resources data, Idaho, 2003; Volume 3. Ground water records

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, A.M.; Conti, S.N.; O'Dell, I.

    2003-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2003 water year for Idaho consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; discharge of irrigation diversions; and water levels and water quality of groundwater. The three volumes of this report contain discharge records for 208 stream-gaging stations and 14 irrigation diversions; stage only records for 6 stream-gaging stations; stage only for 6 lakes and reservoirs; contents only for 13 lakes and reservoirs; water-quality for 50 stream-gaging stations and partial record sites, 3 lakes sites, and 398 groundwater wells; and water levels for 427 observation network wells and 900 special project wells. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements. Volumes 1 & 2 contain the surface-water and surface-water-quality records. Volume 3 contains the ground-water and ground-water-quality records. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Idaho, adjacent States, and Canada.

  19. Water resources data, Idaho, 2004; Volume 3. Ground water records

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, A.M.; Conti, S.N.; O'Dell, I.

    2005-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2004 water year for Idaho consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; discharge of irrigation diversions; and water levels and water quality of groundwater. The three volumes of this report contain discharge records for 209 stream-gaging stations and 8 irrigation diversions; stage only records for 6 stream-gaging stations; stage only for 6 lakes and reservoirs; contents only for 13 lakes and reservoirs; water-quality for 39 stream-gaging stations and partial record sites, 18 lakes sites, and 395 groundwater wells; and water levels for 425 observation network wells. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements. Volumes 1 & 2 contain the surface-water and surface-water-quality records. Volume 3 contains the ground-water and ground-water-quality records. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Idaho, adjacent States, and Canada.

  20. Water resources of Natchitoches Parish, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fendick, Robert B.; Prakken, Larry B.; Griffith, Jason M.

    2013-01-01

    In 2005, about 33.8 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) was withdrawn from water sources in Natchitoches Parish, Louisiana. Surface water sources accounted for about 86 percent (29.2 Mgal/d) of all withdrawals whereas groundwater sources accounted for about 14 percent (4.62 Mgal/d). Withdrawals for industrial use accounted for about 42 percent (14.1 Mgal/d) of the total water withdrawn (table 2). Other categories of use included public supply, rural domestic, livestock, rice irrigation, general irrigation, and aquaculture. The city of Natchitoches used almost 5.6 Mgal/d (about 5.2 Mgal/d of surface water and 0.4 Mgal/d of ground water) for public supply. Water-use data collected at 5-year intervals from 1960 to 2005 indicated that total water withdrawals increased from about 3.5 Mgal/d in 1960 to a peak of almost 35 Mgal/d in 2000. This fact sheet summarizes basic information on the water resources of Natchitoches Parish. Information on groundwater and surface-water availability, quality, development, use, and trends is based on previously published reports listed in the Selected References section.

  1. Water resources data-Maine, water year 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, G.J.; Caldwell, J.M.; Cloutier, A.R.

    2004-01-01

    This volume of the annual hydrologic data report of Maine is one of a series of annual reports that document data gathered from the U.S. Geological Survey's surface- and ground-water data-collection networks in each State, Puerto Rico, and the Trust Territories. These records of streamflow, ground-water levels, and quality of water provide the hydrologic information needed by State, local, and Federal agencies, and the private sector for developing and managing our Nation's land and water resources.

  2. Lunar Water Resource Demonstration (LWRD) Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscatello, Anthony C.; Captain, Janine E.; Quinn, Jacqueline W.; Gibson, Tracy L.; Perusich, Stephen A.; Weis, Kyle H.

    2009-01-01

    NASA has undertaken the In-Situ Resource Utilization (lSRU) project called RESOLVE (Regolith and Environment Science & Oxygen and Lunar Volatile Extraction). This project is an Earth-based lunar precursor demonstration of a system that could be sent to explore permanently shadowed polar lunar craters, where it would drill into regolith, quantify the volatiles that are present, and extract oxygen by hydrogen reduction of iron oxides. The RESOLVE chemical processing system was mounted within the CMU rover "Scarab" and successfully demonstrated on Hawaii's Mauna Kea volcano in November 2008. This technology could be used on Mars as well. As described at the 2008 Mars Society Convention, the Lunar Water Resource Demonstration (LWRD) supports the objectives of the RESOLVE project by capturing and quantifying water and hydrogen released by regolith upon heating. Field test results for the quantification of water using LWRD showed that the volcanic ash (tephra) samples contained 0.15-0.41% water, in agreement with GC water measurements. Reduction of the RH in the surge tank to near zero during recirculation show that the water is captured by the water beds as desired. The water can be recovered by heating the Water Beds to 230 C or higher. Test results for the capture and quantification of pure hydrogen have shown that over 90% of the hydrogen can be captured and 98% of the absorbed hydrogen can be recovered upon heating the hydride to 400 C and desorbing the hydrogen several times into the evacuated surge tank. Thus, the essential requirement of capturing hydrogen and recovering it has been demonstrated. ,

  3. Water Resources Data for Oregon, Water Year 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herrett, T.A.; Hess, G.W.; House, J.G.; Ruppert, G.P.; Courts, M.L.

    2004-01-01

    The annual Oregon hydrologic data report is one of a series of annual reports that document hydrologic data gathered from the U.S. Geological Survey's surface- and ground-water data-collection networks in each State, Puerto Rico, and the Trust Territories. These records of streamflow, ground-water levels, and quality of water provide the hydrologic information needed by State, local and Federal agencies, and the private sector for developing and managing our Nation's land and water resources. This report includes records on both surface and ground water in Oregon and contains discharge records for 199 stream-gaging stations, 25 partial-record or miscellaneous streamflow stations, and 8 crest-stage partial-record streamflow stations; stage-only records for 6 gaging stations; stage and content records for 26 lakes and reservoirs; and water-quality records collected at 127 streamflow-gaging stations, 2 atmospheric deposition stations, and 11 ground-water sites.

  4. Water Resources Data for Oregon, Water Year 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herrett, T.A.; Hess, G.W.; House, J.G.; Ruppert, G.P.; Courts, M.L.

    2003-01-01

    The annual Oregon hydrologic data report is one of a series of annual reports that document hydrologic data gathered from the U.S. Geological Survey's surface- and ground-water data-collection networks in each State, Puerto Rico, and the Trust Territories. These records of streamflow, ground-water levels, and quality of water provide the hydrologic information needed by State, local and Federal agencies, and the private sector for developing and managing our Nation's land and water resources. This report includes records on both surface and ground water in the State and contains discharge records for 181 stream-gaging stations, 47 partial-record or miscellaneous streamflow stations, and 8 crest-stage partial-record streamflow stations; stage-only records for 6 gaging stations; stage and content records for 26 lakes and reservoirs; and water-quality records for 127 streamflow-gaging stations, 2 atmospheric deposition stations, and 11 ground-water sites.

  5. Ground-water models for water resource planning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    In the past decade hydrogeologists have emphasized the development of computer-based mathematical models to aid in the understanding of flow, the transport of solutes, transport of heat, and deformation in the ground-water system. These models have been used to provide information and predictions for water managers. Too frequently, ground-water was neglected in water resource planning because managers believed that it could not be adequately evaluated in terms of availability, quality, and effect of development on surface-water supplies. Now, however, with newly developed digital ground-water models, effects of development can be predicted. Such models have been used to predict hydrologic and quality changes under different stresses. These models have grown in complexity over the last ten years from simple one-layer models to three-dimensional simulations of ground-water flow, which may include solute transport, heat transport, effects of land subsidence, and encroachment of saltwater. Case histories illustrate how predictive ground-water models have provided the information needed for the sound planning and management of water resources in the USA. ?? 1983 D. Reidel Publishing Company.

  6. Game theory and shared water resource management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najafi, H.; Bagheri, A.

    2011-12-01

    Based on the "New Periodic Table" (NPT) of 2×2 order games by Robinson and Goforth (2005) this study explores all possible game structures, representing a conflict over a shared water resource between two countries. Each game is analyzed to find the possible outcomes (equilibria), Pareto-optimal outcomes, as well as dominant strategies of the players. It is explained why in practice, parties may behave in a way, resulting in Pareto-inferior outcomes and how parties may change their behavior with the structural changes of the game. Further, how parties may develop cooperative solutions through negotiations and involvement of third parties. This work provides useful policy insights into shared water resource problems and identifies the likely structure of such games in the future and the evolution path of the games.

  7. Meet the Editors: Water Resources Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Mohi

    2006-02-01

    On 1 January 2005, a five-member team assumed editorial responsibility for Water Resources Research (WRR). A year later the team of Brian Berkowitz, Amilcare Porporato, Thomas Torgersen, Scott Tyler, and Editor-in-Chief Marc Parlange are pleased with the successes of several changes to the journal. ``WRR is the international stage where new and emerging ideas are discussed and where the directions for scientific research in all aspects of hydrology are charted,'' explained Porporato. ``This is the reason why we have worked hard with our associate editors to attract `opinion papers,' `inspired reviews,' and, more recently, `rapid communications.''' The aim of these new paper types is to encourage discussion of water resource issues relevant to society and to quickly present new results that advance theoretical, mathematical, technological, and experimental observations, Porporato said.

  8. Water-resources investigations in Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maertz, D.E.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study are to provide continuous discharge records for selected rivers at specific sites to supply the needs for regulation, analytical studies, definition of statistical properties, trends analysis, determination of the occurrence, and distribution of water in streams for planning. The project is also LOCATION: Statewide PROJECT CHIEF: Barry K. Holmstrom PERIOD OF PROJECT: July 1913-Continuing designed to determine lake levels and to provide discharge for floods, low-flow conditions, and for waterquality investigations. Requests for streamflow data and information relating to streamflow in Wisconsin are answered. Basic data are published annually in the report "Water Resources Data-Wisconsin."

  9. Troubled waters: managing our vital resources.

    PubMed

    1999-03-01

    Presented are articles from Global Issues, an electronic journal of the US Information Agency that focuses on managing the water resources of the world. The three main articles are as follows: 1) ¿The Quiet Revolution to Restore Our Aquatic Ecosystems¿, 2) ¿Charting a New Course to Save America's Waters¿, and 3) ¿Freshwater: Will the World's Future Needs be Met?¿ The journal also presents commentaries on the age-old water shortage in the Middle East; solutions to water waste on the farm and in cities; managing water scarcity in the driest region of the US; and a new approach to environmental management in the Bermejo River in Argentina and Bolivia. Furthermore, this issue contains statistics on water usage and supplies and a report that examines proposals for policies that could set the world on a better course for water management. Lastly, this issue provides a bibliography of books, documents, and articles on freshwater issues as well as a list of Internet sites offering further information on water quality, supplies, and conservation. PMID:12290381

  10. Water resources of Walworth County, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kume, Jack; Howells, Lewis

    1987-01-01

    The water resources of Walworth County, South Dakota are for the most part undeveloped. In 1978, only about 10,000 acre-feet of water was used for irrigation, stock, domestic, and public supplies; most of this water came form Lake Oahe on the Missouri River, and was used for irrigation. The lake stores about 22 million acre-feet of water; the average annual flow of the Missouri River is about 16 million acre-feet. Tributary streams normally are dry at least 10 months per year. Average annual net surface runoff from the county is 7,900 acre-feet. At least 99 percent of the precipitation per year is lost by evapotranspiration. An estimated 1.2 million acre-feet of water is stored in eight aquifers in the glacial drift. The water generally is suitable for irrigation, stock, and domestic use. It is estimated that more than 55 million acre-feet of water is stored in nine aquifers in the bedrock. These aquifers are in the Dakota Formation, Inyan Kara Group, Sundance and Minnelusa Formations, Madison Group, Devonian strata, and Stony Mountain, Red River, and Deadwood Formations. The water is slightly to very saline and, at best, is suitable for livestock and marginally acceptable for domestic supplies. (USGS)

  11. Ethos, equity, and the water resource

    SciTech Connect

    Leopold, L.B. )

    1990-03-01

    The author uses two concepts, well known to ancient civilizations but latterly forgotten, in an analysis of some aspects of water resource use. First, democratic governance at the will of the people is effective and responsive as long as the exists an ethos in administration - a set of beliefs that guide decision making even though unwritten into law. Second, democrat guidance is effective when equity - fairness to all - is not submerged to private or narrow interests.

  12. Integrated Water Resources Management: A Global Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, V.; Cohen, M.; Akudago, J.; Keith, D.; Palaniappan, M.

    2011-12-01

    The diversity of water resources endowments and the societal arrangements to use, manage, and govern water makes defining a single paradigm or lens through which to define, prioritize and evaluate interventions in the water sector particularly challenging. Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) emerged as the dominant intervention paradigm for water sector interventions in the early 1990s. Since then, while many successful implementations of IWRM have been demonstrated at the local, basin, national and trans-national scales, IWRM has also been severely criticized by the global water community as "having a dubious record that has never been comprehensively analyzed", "curiously ambiguous", and "ineffective at best and counterproductive at worst". Does IWRM hold together as a coherent paradigm or is it a convenient buzzword to describe a diverse collection of water sector interventions? We analyzed 184 case study summaries of IWRM interventions on the Global Water Partnership (GWP) website. The case studies were assessed to find the nature, scale, objectives and outcomes of IWRM. The analysis does not suggest any coherence in IWRM as a paradigm - but does indicate distinct regional trends in IWRM. First, IWRM was done at very different scales in different regions. In Africa two-thirds of the IWRM interventions involved creating national or transnational organizations. In contrast, in Asia and South America, almost two-thirds were watershed, basin, or local body initiatives. Second, IWRM interventions involved very different types of activities in different regions. In Africa and Europe, IWRM entailed creation of policy documents, basin plans and institution building. In contrast, in Asia and Latin America the interventions were much more likely to entail new technology, infrastructure or watershed measures. In Australia, economic measures, new laws and enforcement mechanisms were more commonly used than anywhere else.

  13. 33 CFR 209.345 - Water resource policies and authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water resource policies and... ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.345 Water resource policies and authorities... other Non-Federal Entities on Authorized Water Resources Projects.” (3) Section 221, FCA of 1970 (Pub....

  14. 33 CFR 209.345 - Water resource policies and authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Water resource policies and... ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.345 Water resource policies and authorities... other Non-Federal Entities on Authorized Water Resources Projects.” (3) Section 221, FCA of 1970 (Pub....

  15. Water Matters. Water Resources Teacher's Guide, Vol. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauffman, Sue Cox

    This teachers guide is designed to accompany a series of posters developed through the U.S. Geological Survey's Water Resources Education Initiative, a cooperative effort between public and private education interests. It provides teacher guidance, background information, suggestions for a variety of classroom activities, and supplemental resource…

  16. Water resources of Ponape, Caroline Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van der Brug, Otto

    1984-01-01

    Ponape is the third largest island in the western Pacific, with a land area of 129 square miles. The island is volcanic, nearly circular in shape, and covered with lush tropical vegetation. The mountainous interior has the highest peaks in the western Pacific. Annual rainfall at Kolonia and other coastal areas is 191 inches. Inland at higher elevations, the rainfall is considerably higher. The upper Nanpil River basin averages about 340 inches annually. Runoff-to-rainfall ratios for Ponapean streams show that about two thirds of the rain falling on the island runs off. Flow-duration curves show the similarity of the geology, vegetation, and rainfall of the drainage basins and indicate little ground-water contribution to surface runoff. Surface-water quality is excellent as shown by 53 chemical anlyses of water from 19 streams. Water of the Nanpil River, the source of water for the central water system, is especially low in dissolved elements and solids. This report summarizes in one volume all the hydrologic data collected and provides analyses that may be used by planning and public works officials as a basis for making decisions on the development and management of their water resources. (USGS)

  17. TEPCO's Approach to Power-Engineer Human Resource Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Masaki

    We think 'human resources and technology' is developed only by self-training continuously, keeping higher motivation and practicing repeatedly. Moreover it is indispensable for sustainable development of company. Management vision, top-down message with vertical communication, and bottom-up systematic approaches are necessary for sustainable human resource development, sharing the value with coordination, and in addition, OJT and Off-JT method should be used effectively. This paper shows TEPCO's attempts to develop engineers' technical skills as a reference of a in-company continuing professional development.

  18. Quantitative water quality with ERTS-1. [Kansas water resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yarger, H. L.; Mccauley, J. R.; James, G. W.; Magnuson, L. M.; Marzolf, G. R.

    1974-01-01

    Analyses of ERTS-1 MSS computer compatible tapes of reservoir scenes in Kansas along with ground truth show that MSS bands and band ratios can be used for reliable prediction of suspended loads up to at least 900 ppm. The major reservoirs in Kansas, as well as in other Great Plains states, are playing increasingly important roles in flood control, recreation, agriculture, and urban water supply. Satellite imagery is proving useful for acquiring timely low cost water quality data required for optimum management of these fresh water resources.

  19. Uncertainty Management in Urban Water Engineering Adaptation to Climate Change - abstract

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current water resource planning and engineering assume a stationary climate, in which the observed historical water flow rate and water quality variations are often used to define the technical basis. When the non-stationarity is considered, however, climate change projection co...

  20. Increasing Awareness of Sustainable Water Management for Future Civil Engineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilic, Suzana; Karleusa, Barbara; Deluka-Tibljas, Aleksandra

    2010-05-01

    organised together with civil engineering students from the University of Rijeka. The aims of this field visit are: to learn about traditional water supply from an underground storage of rain water called cisterna; and to find out from inhabitants about their current water usage habits and expectations, and how these might change when they get water from the main water supply system. This joint activity has been beneficial for both groups of students. The engineering students become aware of the importance of the social aspects in designing the water supply system, while the geography students learn about the engineering challenges entailed. Both groups learn that water consumption increases with the provision of water through pipeline systems and that this needs to be taken into account in the design of water supply and management of water resources. Importantly, they learn the benefits of traditional sustainable water supply methods, which could be implemented as primary or additional sources of water supply in other areas.In summary, both groups of students develop their professional knowledge and skills as well as generic and transferable skills, which are very important for those who will continue to a career in the design and management of water systems.

  1. Water Resources Data Massachusetts and Rhode Island Water Year 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Socolow, R.S.; Zanca, J.L.; Murino, Domenic; Ramsbey, L.R.

    2000-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with State agencies, obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the water resources of Massachusetts and Rhode Island each water year. These data, accumulated during many water years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the States. To make these data readily available to interested parties outside the Geological Survey, the data are published annually in this report series entitled 'Water Resources Data-Massachusetts and Rhode Island.' Hydrologic data are also available through the Massachusetts-Rhode Island District Home Page on the world-wide web (http://ma.water.usgs.gov). Historical data and real-time data (for sites equipped with satellite gage-height telemeter) are also available. The home page also contains a link to the U.S. Geological Survey National Home Page where streamflow data from locations throughout the United States can be retrieved. This report series includes records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; contents of lakes and reservoirs; water levels of ground-water wells; and water quality of ground-water wells. This volume contains discharge records at 90 gaging stations; stage records at 2 gaging stations; monthend contents of 4 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 31 gaging stations; water quality at 27 observation wells; and water levels for 139 observation wells. Locations of these sites are shown in figures 1 and 2. Short-term water-quality data were collected at 21 gaging stations and 27 observation wells and are shown in figure 3. Miscellaneous hydrologic data were collected at various sites that were not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous discharge measurements. The data in this report represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies

  2. Water as an urban resource and nuisance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, H.E.; Schneider, William Joseph

    1970-01-01

    The water resource, which is widely and irregularly distributed on earth, is available to man for such enjoyment and development and use as he sees fit, some use being essential to his existence. Natural variations in the quantity and quality of water are inevitable and, if they cause annoyance or injury to someone, are accepted as one of the hardships that this planet imposes upon its inhabitants; such variations are recognized as "acts of God." However, if any man or society is partly responsible for these variations, which may cause such annoyance or injury, and may become a nuisance (an invasion or disturbance of the rights of others) such a man or society may perhaps be subject to injunctions and damage suits. Legal disputes over water as a nuisance are generally deeply involved with problems of the respective rights of plaintiff and defendant. These respective rights vary among the States.

  3. Water resources of the Truk Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van der Brug, Otto

    1983-01-01

    The Truk Islands, part of the Caroline Islands in the western Pacific, consist of 19 volcanic islands and about 65 coral islets. The volcanic islands and some of the coral islets are scattered in an 820-square-mile lagoon enclosed by a 125-mile long barrier reef. Moen, although not the largest, is by far the most developed island and is the adminstrative, commercial, educational, and transporation center of the islands. Monthly rainfall records for most years are available since 1903. Rainfall-runoff comparisons show that about half the annual rainfall runs off as surface water into Truk Lagoon. Flow characteristics of the major streams, based on more than 11 years of record, are provided and the application of data for possible use in the design of reservoirs and rain catchments is included. Historical and present development of all water sources is given. The chemical analyses of surface and ground water on Moen, with the exception of water from well 9, show the good quality of the water sources. This report summarizes all hydrologic data collected and provides interpretations that can be used for development and management of the water resources. (USGS)

  4. Modeling, Instrumentation, Automation, and Optimization of Water Resource Recovery Facilities.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Michael W; Kabouris, John C

    2016-10-01

    A review of the literature published in 2015 on topics relating to water resource recovery facilities (WRRF) in the areas of modeling, automation, measurement and sensors and optimization of wastewater treatment (or water resource reclamation) is presented. PMID:27620091

  5. Water resources of Indiana County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, D.R.; McElroy, T.A.

    1997-01-01

    Indiana County, west-central Pennsylvania, is a major producer of coal and natural gas. Water managers and residents are concerned about the effects of mining and natural gas exploration on the surface- and ground-water resources of the county. This study assesses the quality and quantity of water in Indiana County. Ground- and surface-water sources are used for public supplies that serve 61 percent of the total population of the county. The remaining 39 percent of the population live in rural areas and rely on cisterns and wells and springs that tap shallow aquifers. Most of the county is underlain by rocks of Middle to Upper Pennsylvanian age. From oldest to youngest, they are the Allegheny Group, the Glenshaw Formation, the Casselman Formation, and the Monongahela Group. Almost all the coals mined are in the Allegheny Group and the Monongahela Group. Ground water in Indiana County flows through fractures in the rock. The size and extent of the fractures, which are controlled by lithology, topography, and structure, determine the sustained yield of wells. Topography has a significant control over the yields of wells sited in the Allegheny Group. Properly sited wells in the Glenshaw Formation may have yields adequate for municipal, commercial, or industrial uses. The Casselman Formation yields adequate amounts of water for domestic use. Yield of the Monongahela Group is small, and the water may not be of suitable quality for most uses. Yields of hilltop wells may be marginal, but valley wells may yield sufficient amounts for large-volume users. Data on the other rock units are sparse to nonexistent. Few wells in the county yield more than 40 gallons per minute. Most of the wells that do are in valleys where alluvial deposits are extensive enough to be mapable. Short-term water-level fluctuations are variable from well to well. Seasonal water-level fluctuations are controlled by time of year and amount of precipitation. The quality of water from the Casselman

  6. Water resources data for Oregon, water year 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herrett, Thomas A.; Hess, Glenn W.; House, Jon G.; Ruppert, Gregory P.; Courts, Mary-Lorraine

    2005-01-01

    The annual Oregon water data report is one of a series of annual reports that document hydrologic data gathered from the U.S. Geological Survey's surface- and ground-water data-collection networks in each State, Puerto Rico, and the Trust Territories. These records of streamflow, ground-water levels, and quality of water provide the hydrologic information needed by State, local, Tribal, and Federal agencies and the private sector for developing and managing our Nation's land and water resources. This report contains water year 2004 data for both surface and ground water, including discharge records for 209 streamflow-gaging stations, 42 partial-record or miscellaneous streamflow stations, and 9 crest-stage partial-record streamflow stations; stage-only records for 6 gaging stations; stage and content records for 15 lakes and reservoirs; water-level records from 12 long-term observation wells; and water-quality records collected at 133 streamflow-gaging stations and 1 atmospheric deposition station.

  7. Using Case Studies to Teach Interdisciplinary Water Resource Sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orr, C. H.; Tillotson, K.

    2012-12-01

    Teaching about water resources and often emphasizes the biophysical sciences to understand highly complex hydrologic, ecologic and engineering systems, yet most impediments to improving management emerge from social processes. Challenges to more sustainable management often result from trade-offs among stakeholders (e.g., ecosystem services, energy, municipal use, and agriculture) and occur while allocating resources to competing goals of economic development, social equity, and efficient governance. Competing interests operating across multiple scales can increase tensions and prevent collaborative resolution of resource management problems. Here we discuss using specific, place-based cases to teach the interdisciplinary context of water management. Using a case approach allows instructors to first explore the geologic and hydrologic setting of a specific problem to let students understand where water comes from, then how it is used by people and ecosystems, and finally what conflicts arise from mismatches between water quality, quantity, timing, human demand, and ecosystem needs. The case approach helps students focus on specific problem to understand how the landscape influences water availability, without needing to first learn everything about the relevant fields. We look at geology, hydrology and climate in specific watersheds before addressing the human and ecosystem aspects of the broader, integrated system. This gives students the context to understand what limits water availability and how a water budget constrains possible solutions to sustainability problems. It also mimics the approach we have taken in research addressing these problems. In an example case the Spokane Coeur D'Alene basin, spanning the border between SE Washington and NW Idaho, includes a sole source aquifer system with high exchange between surface water and a highly conductive aquifer. The Spokane River does not meet water quality standards and is likely to face climate driven shifts

  8. Water Resources Management for Shale Energy Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoxtheimer, D.

    2015-12-01

    The increase in the exploration and extraction of hydrocarbons, especially natural gas, from shale formations has been facilitated by advents in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technologies. Shale energy resources are very promising as an abundant energy source, though environmental challenges exist with their development, including potential adverse impacts to water quality. The well drilling and construction process itself has the potential to impact groundwater quality, however if proper protocols are followed and well integrity is established then impacts such as methane migration or drilling fluids releases can be minimized. Once a shale well has been drilled and hydraulically fractured, approximately 10-50% of the volume of injected fluids (flowback fluids) may flow out of the well initially with continued generation of fluids (produced fluids) throughout the well's productive life. Produced fluid TDS concentrations often exceed 200,000 mg/L, with elevated levels of strontium (Sr), bromide (Br), sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), barium (Ba), chloride (Cl), radionuclides originating from the shale formation as well as fracturing additives. Storing, managing and properly disposisng of these fluids is critical to ensure water resources are not impacted by unintended releases. The most recent data in Pennsylvania suggests an estimated 85% of the produced fluids were being recycled for hydraulic fracturing operations, while many other states reuse less than 50% of these fluids and rely moreso on underground injection wells for disposal. Over the last few years there has been a shift to reuse more produced fluids during well fracturing operations in shale plays around the U.S., which has a combination of economic, regulatory, environmental, and technological drivers. The reuse of water is cost-competitive with sourcing of fresh water and disposal of flowback, especially when considering the costs of advanced treatment to or disposal well injection and lessens

  9. Optimality versus stability in water resource allocation.

    PubMed

    Read, Laura; Madani, Kaveh; Inanloo, Bahareh

    2014-01-15

    Water allocation is a growing concern in a developing world where limited resources like fresh water are in greater demand by more parties. Negotiations over allocations often involve multiple groups with disparate social, economic, and political status and needs, who are seeking a management solution for a wide range of demands. Optimization techniques for identifying the Pareto-optimal (social planner solution) to multi-criteria multi-participant problems are commonly implemented, although often reaching agreement for this solution is difficult. In negotiations with multiple-decision makers, parties who base decisions on individual rationality may find the social planner solution to be unfair, thus creating a need to evaluate the willingness to cooperate and practicality of a cooperative allocation solution, i.e., the solution's stability. This paper suggests seeking solutions for multi-participant resource allocation problems through an economics-based power index allocation method. This method can inform on allocation schemes that quantify a party's willingness to participate in a negotiation rather than opt for no agreement. Through comparison of the suggested method with a range of distance-based multi-criteria decision making rules, namely, least squares, MAXIMIN, MINIMAX, and compromise programming, this paper shows that optimality and stability can produce different allocation solutions. The mismatch between the socially-optimal alternative and the most stable alternative can potentially result in parties leaving the negotiation as they may be too dissatisfied with their resource share. This finding has important policy implications as it justifies why stakeholders may not accept the socially optimal solution in practice, and underlies the necessity of considering stability where it may be more appropriate to give up an unstable Pareto-optimal solution for an inferior stable one. Authors suggest assessing the stability of an allocation solution as an

  10. Accelerated Capacity Development in Water Resources Education: the experiences of the Ethiopian Institute of Water Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alamirew, T.; Mekonnen, G.; Viglione, A.

    2012-04-01

    Ethiopia recently recognises that the water resources development is the major entry point in poverty alleviation and sustainable development. Water in Ethiopia plays a key role in the Water-Energy-Food-nexus. Over 98% of the electricity in the country is generated using hydropower and yet about 2000 MW has been developed. Out of the 3.5 Mha potentially irrigable land, only 0.25 Mha has been developed to date. Access to drinking water supply coverage is among the lowest in the world. One of the limiting factors in harnessing the resource base is the absence of water professionals to face the fast growing demand in education, research, development in the water sector. Recognising this, in collaboration with University of Connecticut of the United States, Addis Ababa University launched the Ethiopian Institute of Water Resources (EIWR) by enrolling 18 PhD and 24 MSc students. The program is unique in that much of the course instructors are coming from US and European Universities, but deliver courses together with Ethiopian collaborators. This is supposed to facilitate knowledge and experience transfer from the US/EU scientist to Ethiopian counterparts. The theses/dissertations are designed to focus on Ethiopia's immediate hydrological problems on selected basins, and will be coordinated by three advisors for each PhD - one from US/EU, one from Ethiopian Universities, and one water professional from the sector. We report here the lessons learned in setting up the EIWR institute and the education program.

  11. AOIPS water resources data management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merritt, E. S.; Shotwell, R. L.; Place, M. C.; Belknap, N. J.

    1976-01-01

    A geocoded data management system applicable for hydrological applications was designed to demonstrate the utility of the Atmospheric and Oceanographic Information Processing System (AOIPS) for hydrological applications. Within that context, the geocoded hydrology data management system was designed to take advantage of the interactive capability of the AOIPS hardware. Portions of the Water Resource Data Management System which best demonstrate the interactive nature of the hydrology data management system were implemented on the AOIPS. A hydrological case study was prepared using all data supplied for the Bear River watershed located in northwest Utah, southeast Idaho, and western Wyoming.

  12. AOIPS water resources data management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanwie, P.

    1977-01-01

    The text and computer-generated displays used to demonstrate the AOIPS (Atmospheric and Oceanographic Information Processing System) water resources data management system are investigated. The system was developed to assist hydrologists in analyzing the physical processes occurring in watersheds. It was designed to alleviate some of the problems encountered while investigating the complex interrelationships of variables such as land-cover type, topography, precipitation, snow melt, surface runoff, evapotranspiration, and streamflow rates. The system has an interactive image processing capability and a color video display to display results as they are obtained.

  13. Ground-water models for water resources planning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, John E.

    1980-01-01

    In the past decade hydrologists have emphasized the development of computer-based mathematical models to aid in the understanding of flow, the transport of solutes, transport of heat, and deformation in the groundwater system. These models have been used to provide information and predictions for water managers. Too frequently, groundwater was neglected in water-resource planning because managers believed that it could not be adequately evaluated in terms of availability, quality, and effect of development on surface water supplies. Now, however, with newly developed digital groundwater models, effects of development can be predicted. Such models have been used to predict hydrologic and quality changes under different stresses. These models have grown in complexity over the last 10 years from simple one-layer flow models to three-dimensional simulations of groundwater flow which may include solute transport, heat transport, effects of land subsidence, and encroachment of salt water. This paper illustrates, through case histories, how predictive groundwater models have provided the information needed for the sound planning and management of water resources in the United States. (USGS)

  14. INTEGRATING SOURCE WATER PROTECTION AND DRINKING WATER TREATMENT: U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S WATER SUPPLY AND WATER RESOURCES DIVISION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Water Supply and Water Resources Division (WSWRD) is an internationally recognized water research organization established to assist in responding to public health concerns related to drinking water supplies. WSWRD has evolved from...

  15. INTERGRATING SOURCE WATER PROTECTION AND DRINKING WATER TREATMENT: U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S WATER SUPPLY AND WATER RESOURCES DIVISION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Water Supply and Water Resources Division (WSWRD) is an internationally recognized water research organization established to assist in responding to public health concerns related to drinking water supplies. WSWRD has evolved from...

  16. Water-resources data for the United States: water year 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2009-01-01

    Water resources data are published annually for use by engineers, scientists, managers, educators, and the general public. These archival products supplement direct access to current and historical water data provided by NWISWeb. Beginning with Water Year 2006, annual water data reports are available as individual electronic Site Data Sheets for the entire Nation for retrieval, download, and localized printing on demand. National distribution includes tabular and map interfaces for search, query, display and download of data. From 1962 until 2005, reports were published by State as paper documents, although most reports since the mid-1990s are also available in electronic form through this web page. Reports prior to 1962 were published in occasional USGS Water-Supply Papers and other reports.

  17. Water-resources data for the United States: water year 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2010-01-01

    Water resources data are published annually for use by engineers, scientists, managers, educators, and the general public. These archival products supplement direct access to current and historical water data provided by NWISWeb. Beginning with Water Year 2006, annual water data reports are available as individual electronic Site Data Sheets for the entire Nation for retrieval, download, and localized printing on demand. National distribution includes tabular and map interfaces for search, query, display and download of data. From 1962 until 2005, reports were published by State as paper documents, although most reports since the mid-1990s are also available in electronic form through this web page. Reports prior to 1962 were published in occasional USGS Water-Supply Papers and other reports.

  18. Water-resources data for the United States: water year 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2007-01-01

    Water resources data are published annually for use by engineers, scientists, managers, educators, and the general public. These archival products supplement direct access to current and historical water data provided by NWISWeb. Beginning with Water Year 2006, annual water data reports are available as individual electronic Site Data Sheets for the entire Nation for retrieval, download, and localized printing on demand. National distribution includes tabular and map interfaces for search, query, display and download of data. From 1962 until 2005, reports were published by State as paper documents, although most reports since the mid-1990s are also available in electronic form through this web page. Reports prior to 1962 were published in occasional USGS Water-Supply Papers and other reports.

  19. Water-resources data for the United States: water year 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2008-01-01

    Water resources data are published annually for use by engineers, scientists, managers, educators, and the general public. These archival products supplement direct access to current and historical water data provided by NWISWeb. Beginning with Water Year 2006, annual water data reports are available as individual electronic Site Data Sheets for the entire Nation for retrieval, download, and localized printing on demand. National distribution includes tabular and map interfaces for search, query, display and download of data. From 1962 until 2005, reports were published by State as paper documents, although most reports since the mid-1990s are also available in electronic form through this web page. Reports prior to 1962 were published in occasional USGS Water-Supply Papers and other reports.

  20. Water resources of the Palau Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van der Brug, Otto

    1984-01-01

    The Palau Islands are a group of 350 islands, ranging in size from a few hundred square feet to the 153-square-mile island of Babelthuap. Babelthuap is the second largest island in the Western Pacific and comprises more than 80 percent of the total land area of the Palau Islands. Most of the islands are uninhabited limestone ridges covered with dense vegetation. These islands have no freshwater resources and are not included in this report. The island of Koror with an area of 3.6 square miles is the administrative, commercial, and population center of Palau and has an annual average rainfall of 148 inches. Short-term rainfall records at other locations in the islands indicate little variation in annual rainfall throughout the Palau Islands. Runoff-to-rainfall ratios for streams on Babelthuap show that about 70 percent of the rain falling on the island runs off to the ocean. The uniformity of rainfall and basin characteristics is shown by the excellent correlation between mean annual rainfall on Koror and streamflow on Babelthuap and by the close correlations between discharge at gaging stations and partial-record sites. Surface water quality is generally very good as shown by 55 chemical analyses of water from 18 sources. The dissolved solids concentration of water samples did not exceed 66 milligrams per liter. This report summarizes in one volume hydrologic data collection in a 14-year period of study and provides interpretations of the data than can be used by planners and public works officials as a basis for making decisions on the development and management of the islands ' water resources.

  1. Investigation on Reservoir Operation of Agricultural Water Resources Management for Drought Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, C. L.

    2015-12-01

    Investigation on Reservoir Operation of Agricultural Water Resources Management for Drought Mitigation Chung-Lien Cheng, Wen-Ping Tsai, Fi-John Chang* Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, Da-An District, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, ROC.Corresponding author: Fi-John Chang (changfj@ntu.edu.tw) AbstractIn Taiwan, the population growth and economic development has led to considerable and increasing demands for natural water resources in the last decades. Under such condition, water shortage problems have frequently occurred in northern Taiwan in recent years such that water is usually transferred from irrigation sectors to public sectors during drought periods. Facing the uneven spatial and temporal distribution of water resources and the problems of increasing water shortages, it is a primary and critical issue to simultaneously satisfy multiple water uses through adequate reservoir operations for sustainable water resources management. Therefore, we intend to build an intelligent reservoir operation system for the assessment of agricultural water resources management strategy in response to food security during drought periods. This study first uses the grey system to forecast the agricultural water demand during February and April for assessing future agricultural water demands. In the second part, we build an intelligent water resources system by using the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II), an optimization tool, for searching the water allocation series based on different water demand scenarios created from the first part to optimize the water supply operation for different water sectors. The results can be a reference guide for adequate agricultural water resources management during drought periods. Keywords: Non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II); Grey System; Optimization; Agricultural Water Resources Management.

  2. Water Resources Council Proposed Principles and Standards for Planning Water and Related Land Resources. Notice of Public Review and Hearing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Archives and Records Services (GSA), Washington, DC. Office of the Federal Register.

    Presented in this notice of a public review and hearing are the proposed Principles and Standards for planning water and related land resources of the United States. Developed by the Water Resources Council pursuant to the Water Resources Planning Act of 1965 (Public Law 89-80), the purpose is to achieve objectives, determined cooperatively,…

  3. Assessment tools for dryland water resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkby, Mike; Gallart, Francesc; Irvine, Brian; Fleskens, Luuk; Froebrich, Jochen

    2013-04-01

    Since water resources are scarce across dryland areas, including Mediterranean Europe and much of Africa, the sparseness of meteo and hydrometric networks require the application of indirect methods to make best use of existing resources, and to plan for future needs in a world of changing climates. Although remote sensing methods may be among the most effective for present conditions, they have limited forecasting potential. Here we apply coarse scale modelling approaches, based on partitioning precipitation between evapotranspiration, runoff and recharge , and making use of CRU interpolated gridded climate data for the present and recent past, with offsets for future conditions based on GCM scenarios. These methods can be applied at a range of scales: first to provide broad regionalisation patterns for hydrological response and second to provide default background data that can be supplemented by local data to provide site-specific advice to land managers. These methods have been applied in the EU MIRAGE project to regionalise the frequency of the dry phase in temporary streams during the Mediterranean summer, to help define reference ecological conditions across the humid to arid spectrum. They are also being applied in the EU WAHARA project to support the sharing of appropriate good practice for water harvesting in semi-arid Africa, in partnership with researchers in Ethiopia, Tunisia, Zambia and Burkina-Faso. Initial results show where it appropriate to consider transferring techniques between climatically comparable areas.

  4. Water resources of Kosrae, Caroline Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van der Brug, Otto

    1984-01-01

    Kosrae is a high volcanic island about 42 square miles in area and the easternmost of the Caroline Islands. Mount Finkol (Mt. Crozer), at 2,065 feet, is the highest point on the island. Mountainous ridges descend sharply to narrow coastal strips which support a population of 5,500 people. Many streams, some quite large relative to the size of the island, drain radially from the interior. The average annual discharge of surface water amounts to almost 7 million gallons per square mile per day. Annual rainfall for coastal areas on Kosrae averages about 200 inches, and is similar to the rainfall for coastal areas on the island of Ponape, about 340 statute miles to the northwest. Rainfall in the interior was estimated at 225 inches per year of which about two thirds runs off as streamflow. Surface-water quality is very good as shown by 42 chemical analyses of water from 12 streams. This report summarizes in one volume the hydrologic data collected and provides interpretations that can be used by planning and public works officials as a basis for making decisions on the development and management of their water resources. (USGS)

  5. Water Resources Data, New Jersey, Water Year 2003 - Volume 2. Ground-Water Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Walter D.

    2004-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2003 water year for New Jersey are presented in three volumes, and consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams: stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground water. Volume 2 contains a summary of the hydrologic conditions for 2003 water year; a listing of current water resource projects in New Jersey; a bibliography of water-related reports, articles, and fact sheets completed by the Geological Survey in recent years; records of ground-water levels from 185 wells; and a table of discontinued observation wells for which ground-water-level data are available. The locations of the ground-water level sites are shown on figure 4. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, Sate, and local agencies in New Jersey.

  6. Water resources data, New Jersey, water year 2005.Volume 2 - ground-water data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Walter D.

    2006-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2005 water year for New Jersey are presented in three volumes, and consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams: stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground water. Volume 2 contains a summary of the hydrologic conditions for 2005 water year; a listing of current water resource projects in New Jersey; a bibliography of water-related reports, articles, and fact sheets completed by the Geological Survey in recent years; records of ground-water levels from 214 wells; and a table of discontinued observation wells for which ground-water-level data are available. The locations of the ground-water level sites are shown on figure 4. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in New Jersey.

  7. Water resources data, New Jersey, water year 2004--volume 2. ground-water data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Walter D.

    2005-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2004 water year for New Jersey are presented in three volumes, and consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams: stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground water. Volume 2 contains a summary of the hydrologic conditions for 2004 water year; a listing of current water resource projects in New Jersey; a bibliography of water-related reports, articles, and fact sheets completed by the Geological Survey in recent years; records of ground-water levels from 196 wells; and a table of discontinued observation wells for which ground-water-level data are available. The locations of the ground-water level sites are shown on figure 4. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, Sate, and local agencies in New Jersey.

  8. Water resources of King County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richardson, Donald; Bingham, J.W.; Madison, R.J.; Williams, R.

    1968-01-01

    Although the total supply of water in King County is large, water problems are inevitable because of the large and rapidly expanding population. The county contains a third of the 3 million people in Washington, most of the population being concentrated in the Seattle metropolitan area. King County includes parts of two major physiographic features: the western area is part of the Puget Sound Lowland, and the eastern area is part of the Cascade Range. In these two areas, the terrain, weather, and natural resources (including water) contrast markedly. Average annual precipitation in the county is about 80 inches, ranging from about 30 inches near Puget Sound to more than 150 inches in parts of the Cascades. Annual evapotranspiration is estimated to range from 15 to 24 inches. Average annual runoff ranges from about 15 inches in the lowlands to more than 100 inches in the mountains. Most of the streamflow is in the major basins of the county--the Green-Duwamish, Lake Washington, and Snoqualmie basins. The largest of these is the Snoqualmie River basin (693 square miles), where average annual runoff during the period 1931-60 was about 79 inches. During the same period, annual runoff in the Lake Washington basin ( 607 square miles) averaged about 32 inches, and in the Green-Duwamish River basin (483 square miles), about 46 inches. Seasonal runoff is generally characterized by several high-flow periods in the winter, medium flows in the spring, and sustained low flows in the summer and fall. When floods occur in the county they come almost exclusively between October and March. The threat of flood damage is greatest on the flood plaits of the larger rivers, but in the Green-Duwamish Valley the threat was greatly reduced with the completion of Howard A. Hanson Dam in 1962. In the Snoqualmie River basin, where no such dam exists, the potential damage from a major flood increases each year as additional land is developed in the Snoqualmie Valley. 0nly moderate amounts of

  9. Scenario Planning of California Water Resources with Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, H.; Chung, F. I.; Anderson, J.

    2008-12-01

    Several advances have been made in using climate change projection information in water resources planning in California. Since there is uncertainty about future climate, 12 climate change projections were used to assess impacts on SWP and CVP operations. Average results for the 12 projections are presented in this summary. Current SWP and CVP infrastructure, regulations and operating rules were assumed. These studies indicate that climate change is expected to reduce the reliability of the SWP and CVP water supply systems. Annual Delta exports are expected to be reduced by 8% by mid-century and 15% by the end of the century. This would lead to reduced water deliveries south of the Delta. Decreases in reservoir carryover storage of 16% by mid-century and 28% by the end of the century would reduce the system's flexibility during water shortages. Groundwater pumping in the Sacramento Valley is expected to increase by 8% by mid-century and by 13% at the end of the century to augment surface water supplies. Power supply from the combined SWP and CVP is expected to decrease by 5% at mid-century and 8% by the end of the century. It is anticipated that the SWP and CVP will become vulnerable to operational interruption in about 10% of the years by mid-century and 15% of the years at the end of the century. To meet current regulatory requirements and to maintain minimum system operations during the vulnerable years, an additional 420 TAF/year of water by mid-century and an additional 610 TAF/year of water by the end of the century would be needed. This water could be obtained through additional water supplies, reductions in water demands, or a combination of the two. These results indicate a need to explore adaptation measures to improve the reliability of future water supplies in California. Because uncertainties associated with impacts analyses increase as the projection moves further into the future, and because a practical engineering planning horizon for most

  10. Water resources data--North Dakota, water year 2004, volume 2. Ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, S.M.; Wald, J.D.

    2005-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2004 water year for North Dakota consists of records of discharge, stage, and water quality for streams; contents, stage, and water quality for lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality for ground-water wells. Volume 2 contains water-level records for 135 ground-water wells and water-quality records for 97 monitoring wells. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in North Dakota.

  11. Water resources of the Southeast Lowlands, Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luckey, R.R.; Fuller, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    The Southeast Lowlands of Missouri occupies 4,000 square miles of prime agricultural land of the Coastal Plain in the extreme southeastern corner of Missouri. Even though this area receives about 4 feet of rainfall per year, there is a rapidly increasing demand for water for irrigation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the water resources of this area with particular emphasis on the extent of irrigation and the potential of the groundwater system to support further irrigation development. The area is underlain by consolidated aquifers of Paleozoic age and unconsolidated aquifers of Mesozoic and Cenozoic age. The consolidated aquifers, although possessing the potential to yield large quantities of water, generally are not used throughout much of the area because they lie at considerable death and alternate supplies are readily available. The McNairy aquifer, which underlies about three-fourths of the area, ranges from 0 to 600 feet in thickness with the top lying from 0 to more than 2,200 feet below land surface. This system is attractive as a municipal water supply because of its large artesian head and the small iron and hardness concentrations of the water. Although this system is now used exclusively for municipal water supplies, the McNairy may become more important in the future as a heat source. The Wilcox Group (undivided), which underlies more than one-half of the area and almost always lies less than 300 feet below land surface, is as much as 1,400 feet thick. However, usually only the basal 250 to 500 feet of this group is used as an aquifer. This system, which in some areas is capable of yielding as much as 1,500 gallons per minute to properly constructed wells, is now primarily used for municipal supplies. The alluvial aquifer underlies most of the area and is locally capable of yielding more than 3,000 gallons per minute. This aquifer generally is 100 to 200 feet thick, but in several places more than 250 feet of alluvium has been reported

  12. Water resources of Spink County, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamilton, L.J.; Howells, L.W.

    1996-01-01

    Spink County, an agricultural area of about 1,505 square miles, is in the flat to gently rolling James River lowland of east-central South Dakota. The water resources are characterized by the highly variable flows of the James River and its tributaries and by aquifers both in glacial deposits of sand and gravel, and in sandstone in the bedrock. Glacial aquifers underlie about half of the county, and bedrock aquifers underlie most of the county. The James River is an intermittent prairie stream that drains nearly 8,900 square miles north of Spink County and has an average annual discharge of about 124 cubic feet per second where it enters the county. The discharge is augmented by the flow of Snake and Turtle Creeks, each of which has an average annual flow of about 25 to 30 cubic feet per second. Streamflow is unreliable as a water supply because precipitation, which averages 18.5 inches annually, is erratic both in volume and in distribution, and because the average annual potential evapotranspiration rate is 43 inches. The flow of tributaries generally ceases by summer, and zero flows are common in the James River in fall and winter. Aquifers in glacial drift deposits store nearly 3.3 million acre-feet of fresh to slightly saline water at depths of from near land surface to more than 500 feet below land surface beneath an area of about 760 square miles. Yields of properly developed wells in the more productive aquifers exceed 1,000 gallons per minute in some areas. Withdrawals from the aquifers, mostly for irrigation, totaled about 15,000 acre-feet of water in 1990. Water levels in observation wells generally have declined less than 15 feet over several decades of increasing pumpage for irrigation, but locally have declined nearly 30 feet. Water levels generally rose during the wet period of 1983-86. In Spink County, bedrock aquifers store more than 40 million acre-feet of slightly to moderately saline water at depths of from 80 to about 1,300 feet below land

  13. Water resources of the Yap Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van der Brug, Otto

    1984-01-01

    The Yap Islands consist of four major islands, Yap, Gagil-Tamil, Maap, and Rumung. Of these, Yap Island has more than half the total land area, most of the population, and almost all of the economic development. The islands of Maap and Rumung together compose only 15 percent of the land area and population. Average annual rainfall over the Yap Islands amounts to 122 inches. Rainfall-runoff comparisons indicate that about half of the annual rainfall runs off to the ocean on Yap Island and Gagil-Tamil. Streams on Gagil-Tamil are perennial but streams on Yap Island are dry an average of 3 months per year due to geologic differences. Analyses of water samples from 23 sources show the good quality and the chemical similarity of surface and ground water. This report summarizes the hydrologic data collected and provides interpretations that can be used by the planning and public works officials of Yap to make decisions concerning development and management of their water resources.

  14. Integrated Water Resources Simulation Model for Rural Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.-H.; Liao, W.-T.; Tung, C.-P.

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop several water resources simulation models for residence houses, constructed wetlands and farms and then integrate these models for a rural community. Domestic and irrigation water uses are the major water demand in rural community. To build up a model estimating domestic water demand for residence houses, the average water use per person per day should be accounted first, including water uses of kitchen, bathroom, toilet and laundry. On the other hand, rice is the major crop in the study region, and its productive efficiency sometimes depends on the quantity of irrigation water. The water demand can be estimated by crop water use, field leakage and water distribution loss. Irrigation water comes from rainfall, water supply system and reclaimed water which treated by constructed wetland. In recent years, constructed wetlands play an important role in water resources recycle. They can purify domestic wastewater for water recycling and reuse. After treating from constructed wetlands, the reclaimed water can be reused in washing toilets, watering gardens and irrigating farms. Constructed wetland is one of highly economic benefits for treating wastewater through imitating the processing mechanism of natural wetlands. In general, the treatment efficiency of constructed wetlands is determined by evapotranspiration, inflow, and water temperature. This study uses system dynamics modeling to develop models for different water resource components in a rural community. Furthermore, these models are integrated into a whole system. The model not only is utilized to simulate how water moves through different components, including residence houses, constructed wetlands and farms, but also evaluates the efficiency of water use. By analyzing the flow of water, the water resource simulation model can optimizes water resource distribution under different scenarios, and the result can provide suggestions for designing water resource system of a

  15. Water--1970. Chemical Engineering Progress Symposium Series No. 107, Volume 67, 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cecil, Lawrence K., Ed.

    Due to the tremendous interest in all phases of environmental control, particularly with reference to water pollution control, the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE) is attempting to provide the lay public with accurate information about water resources so they may react with proper knowledge and constructive activity. This anthology…

  16. Water resources of south-central Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gann, E.E.; Harvey, Edward Joseph; Miller, Don E.

    1976-01-01

    This atlas describes hydrology in an area of approximately 23 ,000 sq mi and includes all or parts of 38 counties in Missouri. The area is bounded on the north by the southern edge of the Missouri River flood plain, on the east by the Mississippi River and the Plateaus-Lowlands boundary (Ozark Escarpment), on the south by the Missouri-Arkansas State line, and on the west by the western drainage divides of the Gasconade and White River basins. The alluvial valley of the Missouri River is excluded. Although the populations of several rural counties in the area have declined in recent years, significant population increases have occurred in the vicinity of the two principal population centers, St. Louis in the northeast and Springfield in the southwest. Future population increases are expected to occur as a result of continued urban expansion, increased recreational use of land and water resources, and additional development of the mining industry. (Woodard-USGS)

  17. Multidimensional Simulation Applied to Water Resources Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camara, A. S.; Ferreira, F. C.; Loucks, D. P.; Seixas, M. J.

    1990-09-01

    A framework for an integrated decision aiding simulation (IDEAS) methodology using numerical, linguistic, and pictorial entities and operations is introduced. IDEAS relies upon traditional numerical formulations, logical rules to handle linguistic entities with linguistic values, and a set of pictorial operations. Pictorial entities are defined by their shape, size, color, and position. Pictorial operators include reproduction (copy of a pictorial entity), mutation (expansion, rotation, translation, change in color), fertile encounters (intersection, reunion), and sterile encounters (absorption). Interaction between numerical, linguistic, and pictorial entities is handled through logical rules or a simplified vector calculus operation. This approach is shown to be applicable to various environmental and water resources management analyses using a model to assess the impacts of an oil spill. Future developments, including IDEAS implementation on parallel processing machines, are also discussed.

  18. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

    Presented is a compilation of over 3,000 abstracts on print and non-print materials related to water quality and water resources education. Entries are included from all levels of governmental sources, private concerns, and educational institutions. Each entry includes: title, author, cross references, descriptors, and availability. (CLS)

  19. Environmental Tracers for Determining Water Resource Vulnerability to Climate Change

    SciTech Connect

    Singleton, M

    2009-07-08

    Predicted changes in the climate will have profound impacts on water availability in the Western US, but large uncertainties exist in our ability to predict how natural and engineered hydrological systems will respond. Most predictions suggest that the impacts of climate change on California water resources are likely to include a decrease in the percentage of precipitation that falls as snow, earlier onset of snow-pack melting, and an increase in the number of rain on snow events. These processes will require changes in infrastructure for water storage and flood control, since much of our current water supply system is built around the storage of winter precipitation as mountain snow pack. Alpine aquifers play a critical role by storing and releasing snowmelt as baseflow to streams long after seasonal precipitation and the disappearance of the snow pack, and in this manner significantly impact the stream flow that drives our water distribution systems. Mountain groundwater recharge and, in particular, the contribution of snowmelt to recharge and baseflow, has been identified as a potentially significant effect missing from current climate change impact studies. The goal of this work is to understand the behavior of critical hydrologic systems, with an emphasis on providing ground truth for next generation models of climate-water system interactions by implementing LLNL capabilities in environmental tracer and isotopic science. We are using noble gas concentrations and multiple isotopic tracers ({sup 3}H/{sup 3}He, {sup 35}S, {sup 222}Rn, {sup 2}H/{sup 1}H, {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O, and {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C) in groundwater and stream water in a small alpine catchment to (1) provide a snapshot of temperature, altitude, and physical processes at the time of recharge, (2) determine subsurface residence times (over time scales ranging from months to decades) of different groundwater age components, and (3) deconvolve the contribution of these different groundwater components

  20. Sustainable water management under future uncertainty with eco-engineering decision scaling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poff, N LeRoy; Brown, Casey M; Grantham, Theodore; Matthews, John H; Palmer, Margaret A.; Spence, Caitlin M; Wilby, Robert L.; Haasnoot, Marjolijn; Mendoza, Guillermo F; Dominique, Kathleen C; Baeza, Andres

    2015-01-01

    Managing freshwater resources sustainably under future climatic and hydrological uncertainty poses novel challenges. Rehabilitation of ageing infrastructure and construction of new dams are widely viewed as solutions to diminish climate risk, but attaining the broad goal of freshwater sustainability will require expansion of the prevailing water resources management paradigm beyond narrow economic criteria to include socially valued ecosystem functions and services. We introduce a new decision framework, eco-engineering decision scaling (EEDS), that explicitly and quantitatively explores trade-offs in stakeholder-defined engineering and ecological performance metrics across a range of possible management actions under unknown future hydrological and climate states. We illustrate its potential application through a hypothetical case study of the Iowa River, USA. EEDS holds promise as a powerful framework for operationalizing freshwater sustainability under future hydrological uncertainty by fostering collaboration across historically conflicting perspectives of water resource engineering and river conservation ecology to design and operate water infrastructure for social and environmental benefits.

  1. Sustainable water management under future uncertainty with eco-engineering decision scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poff, N. Leroy; Brown, Casey M.; Grantham, Theodore E.; Matthews, John H.; Palmer, Margaret A.; Spence, Caitlin M.; Wilby, Robert L.; Haasnoot, Marjolijn; Mendoza, Guillermo F.; Dominique, Kathleen C.; Baeza, Andres

    2016-01-01

    Managing freshwater resources sustainably under future climatic and hydrological uncertainty poses novel challenges. Rehabilitation of ageing infrastructure and construction of new dams are widely viewed as solutions to diminish climate risk, but attaining the broad goal of freshwater sustainability will require expansion of the prevailing water resources management paradigm beyond narrow economic criteria to include socially valued ecosystem functions and services. We introduce a new decision framework, eco-engineering decision scaling (EEDS), that explicitly and quantitatively explores trade-offs in stakeholder-defined engineering and ecological performance metrics across a range of possible management actions under unknown future hydrological and climate states. We illustrate its potential application through a hypothetical case study of the Iowa River, USA. EEDS holds promise as a powerful framework for operationalizing freshwater sustainability under future hydrological uncertainty by fostering collaboration across historically conflicting perspectives of water resource engineering and river conservation ecology to design and operate water infrastructure for social and environmental benefits.

  2. Managing Scarce Water Resources in China's Coal Power Industry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Zhong, Lijin; Fu, Xiaotian; Zhao, Zhongnan

    2016-06-01

    Coal power generation capacity is expanding rapidly in the arid northwest regions in China. Its impact on water resources is attracting growing concerns from policy-makers, researchers, as well as mass media. This paper briefly describes the situation of electricity-water conflict in China and provides a comprehensive review on a variety of water resources management policies in China's coal power industry. These policies range from mandatory regulations to incentive-based instruments, covering water withdrawal standards, technological requirements on water saving, unconventional water resources utilization (such as reclaimed municipal wastewater, seawater, and mine water), water resources fee, and water permit transfer. Implementing these policies jointly is of crucial importance for alleviating the water stress from the expanding coal power industry in China.

  3. Managing Scarce Water Resources in China's Coal Power Industry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Zhong, Lijin; Fu, Xiaotian; Zhao, Zhongnan

    2016-06-01

    Coal power generation capacity is expanding rapidly in the arid northwest regions in China. Its impact on water resources is attracting growing concerns from policy-makers, researchers, as well as mass media. This paper briefly describes the situation of electricity-water conflict in China and provides a comprehensive review on a variety of water resources management policies in China's coal power industry. These policies range from mandatory regulations to incentive-based instruments, covering water withdrawal standards, technological requirements on water saving, unconventional water resources utilization (such as reclaimed municipal wastewater, seawater, and mine water), water resources fee, and water permit transfer. Implementing these policies jointly is of crucial importance for alleviating the water stress from the expanding coal power industry in China. PMID:26908125

  4. Managing Scarce Water Resources in China's Coal Power Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chao; Zhong, Lijin; Fu, Xiaotian; Zhao, Zhongnan

    2016-06-01

    Coal power generation capacity is expanding rapidly in the arid northwest regions in China. Its impact on water resources is attracting growing concerns from policy-makers, researchers, as well as mass media. This paper briefly describes the situation of electricity-water conflict in China and provides a comprehensive review on a variety of water resources management policies in China's coal power industry. These policies range from mandatory regulations to incentive-based instruments, covering water withdrawal standards, technological requirements on water saving, unconventional water resources utilization (such as reclaimed municipal wastewater, seawater, and mine water), water resources fee, and water permit transfer. Implementing these policies jointly is of crucial importance for alleviating the water stress from the expanding coal power industry in China.

  5. Hydrology and water resources in Caspian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddadi Moghaddam, Kourosh

    2016-10-01

    Precipitation is the main driver of the water balance variability of the water over space and time, and changes in precipitation have very important implications for hydrology and water resources. Variations in precipitation over daily, seasonal, annual, and decadal time scales influence hydrological variability over time in a catchment. Flood frequency is affected by changes in the year-to-year variability in precipitation and by changes in short-term rainfall properties. Desiccation of the Caspian Sea is one of the world's most serious ecosystem catastrophes. The Persian Sturgeon (Acipenser persicus) caught under 10 m depth using bottom trawl net by research vessel during winter 2012, summer and winter 2013 and spring 2014 in east, central and west of southern parts of Caspian Sea, then, their diets were investigated. During 136 trawling in the aimed seasons, Persian sturgeon with 1 to 2 years old and 179.67 × 0.2 g (body weight) and 29.97 ± 0.4 cm (Total length) captured. Examination of stomach contents in the sturgeon specimens revealed that the food spectrum was composed of bony fishes (Neogobius sp., Atherina sp. and Clupeonella delicatula), invertebrates belonging to the family Ampharetidae polychaeta worms including (Hypanai sp. and Nereis diversicolor), various crustaceans (Gammarus sp. and Paramysis sp.). Investigation on stomach contents of sturgeon Acipenser persicus caught under 10 m depth in 2012 to 2013 surveys showed that there is significant difference in the consumed food. The most food diversity have been observed in winter 2013, also Polychaeta is the primary consumed food and crustacean is the secondary one (P > 0.05), no new types of food (such as bony fishes or benthics) have been observed on food chain of Acipenser persicus and shows no significant difference (P > 0.05).

  6. Water resources by orbital remote sensing: Examples of applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martini, P. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    Selected applications of orbital remote sensing to water resources undertaken by INPE are described. General specifications of Earth application satellites and technical characteristics of LANDSAT 1, 2, 3, and 4 subsystems are described. Spatial, temporal and spectral image attributes of water as well as methods of image analysis for applications to water resources are discussed. Selected examples are referred to flood monitoring, analysis of water suspended sediments, spatial distribution of pollutants, inventory of surface water bodies and mapping of alluvial aquifers.

  7. Vulnerability of drinking water supplies to engineered nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Troester, Martin; Brauch, Heinz-Juergen; Hofmann, Thilo

    2016-06-01

    The production and use of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) inevitably leads to their release into aquatic environments, with the quantities involved expected to increase significantly in the future. Concerns therefore arise over the possibility that ENPs might pose a threat to drinking water supplies. Investigations into the vulnerability of drinking water supplies to ENPs are hampered by the absence of suitable analytical methods that are capable of detecting and quantifiying ENPs in complex aqueous matrices. Analytical data concerning the presence of ENPs in drinking water supplies is therefore scarce. The eventual fate of ENPs in the natural environment and in processes that are important for drinking water production are currently being investigated through laboratory based-experiments and modelling. Although the information obtained from these studies may not, as yet, be sufficient to allow comprehensive assessment of the complete life-cycle of ENPs, it does provide a valuable starting point for predicting the significance of ENPs to drinking water supplies. This review therefore addresses the vulnerability of drinking water supplies to ENPs. The risk of ENPs entering drinking water is discussed and predicted for drinking water produced from groundwater and from surface water. Our evaluation is based on reviewing published data concerning ENP production amounts and release patterns, the occurrence and behavior of ENPs in aquatic systems relevant for drinking water supply and ENP removability in drinking water purification processes. Quantitative predictions are made based on realistic high-input case scenarios. The results of our synthesis of current knowledge suggest that the risk probability of ENPs being present in surface water resources is generally limited, but that particular local conditions may increase the probability of raw water contamination by ENPs. Drinking water extracted from porous media aquifers are not generally considered to be prone to ENP

  8. Vulnerability of drinking water supplies to engineered nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Troester, Martin; Brauch, Heinz-Juergen; Hofmann, Thilo

    2016-06-01

    The production and use of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) inevitably leads to their release into aquatic environments, with the quantities involved expected to increase significantly in the future. Concerns therefore arise over the possibility that ENPs might pose a threat to drinking water supplies. Investigations into the vulnerability of drinking water supplies to ENPs are hampered by the absence of suitable analytical methods that are capable of detecting and quantifiying ENPs in complex aqueous matrices. Analytical data concerning the presence of ENPs in drinking water supplies is therefore scarce. The eventual fate of ENPs in the natural environment and in processes that are important for drinking water production are currently being investigated through laboratory based-experiments and modelling. Although the information obtained from these studies may not, as yet, be sufficient to allow comprehensive assessment of the complete life-cycle of ENPs, it does provide a valuable starting point for predicting the significance of ENPs to drinking water supplies. This review therefore addresses the vulnerability of drinking water supplies to ENPs. The risk of ENPs entering drinking water is discussed and predicted for drinking water produced from groundwater and from surface water. Our evaluation is based on reviewing published data concerning ENP production amounts and release patterns, the occurrence and behavior of ENPs in aquatic systems relevant for drinking water supply and ENP removability in drinking water purification processes. Quantitative predictions are made based on realistic high-input case scenarios. The results of our synthesis of current knowledge suggest that the risk probability of ENPs being present in surface water resources is generally limited, but that particular local conditions may increase the probability of raw water contamination by ENPs. Drinking water extracted from porous media aquifers are not generally considered to be prone to ENP

  9. Community Education for Participation in Water Resource Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenrich, J. William; and others

    1969-01-01

    The School of Natural Resources and the Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan aided the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in promoting public education about, and participation in, the Susquehanna River Basin Project. (SE)

  10. Water resources data, North Carolina, water year 2003. Volume 1B: Surface-water records

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ragland, B.C.; Barker, R.G.; Robinson, J.B.

    2004-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2003 water year for North Carolina consist of records of stage, discharge, water quality for streams; stage and contents for lakes and reservoirs; precipitation; and ground-water levels and water quality of ground water. Volume 1 contains discharge records for 213 gaging stations; stage for 61 gaging stations; and continuous precipitation at 118 sites. Volume 2 contains ground-water-level data from 143 observation wells and ground-water-quality data from 72 wells. The collection of water-resources data in North Carolina is a part of the National Water-Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with State, municipal, and Federal agencies.

  11. Acid mine water treatment using engineered wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinmann, Robert L. P.

    1990-03-01

    During the last two decades, the United States mining industry has greatly increased the amount it spends on pollution control. The application of biotechnology to mine water can reduce the industry's water treatment costs (estimated at over a million dollars a day) and improve water quality in streams and rivers adversely affected by acidic mine water draining from abandoned mines. Biological treatment of mine waste water is typically conducted in a series of small excavated ponds that resemble, in a superficial way, a small marsh area. The ponds are engineered to first facilitate bacterial oxidation of iron; ideally, the water then flows through a composted organic substrate that supports a population of sulfate-reducing bacteria. The latter process raises the pH. During the past four years, over 400 wetland water treatment systems have been built on mined lands as a result of research by the U.S. Bureau of Mines. In general, mine operators find that the wetlands reduce chemical treatment costs enough to repay the cost of wetland construction in less than a year. Actual rates of iron removal at field sites have been used to develop empirical sizing criteria based on iron loading and pH. If the pH is 6 or above, the wetland area (m2) required is equivalent to the iron load (grams/day) divided by 10. Theis requirement doubles at a pH of 4 to 5. At a pH below 4, the iron load (grams/day) should be divided by 2 to estimate the area required (m2).

  12. Total Water Management: The New Paradigm for Urban Water Resources Planning

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a growing need for urban water managers to take a more holistic view of their water resource systems as population growth, urbanization, and current resource management practices put different stresses on local water resources and urban infrastructure. Total Water Manag...

  13. Integration of hydrogeology and soil science for sustainable water resources-focus on water quantity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased biofuel production has heightened awareness of the strong linkages between crop water use and depletion of water resources. Irrigated agriculture consumed 90% of global fresh water resources during the past century. Addressing crop water use and depletion of groundwater resources requires ...

  14. Multi-agent Water Resources Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelletti, A.; Giuliani, M.

    2011-12-01

    Increasing environmental awareness and emerging trends such as water trading, energy market, deregulation and democratization of water-related services are challenging integrated water resources planning and management worldwide. The traditional approach to water management design based on sector-by-sector optimization has to be reshaped to account for multiple interrelated decision-makers and many stakeholders with increasing decision power. Centralized management, though interesting from a conceptual point of view, is unfeasible in most of the modern social and institutional contexts, and often economically inefficient. Coordinated management, where different actors interact within a full open trust exchange paradigm under some institutional supervision is a promising alternative to the ideal centralized solution and the actual uncoordinated practices. This is a significant issue in most of the Southern Alps regulated lakes, where upstream hydropower reservoirs maximize their benefit independently form downstream users; it becomes even more relevant in the case of transboundary systems, where water management upstream affects water availability downstream (e.g. the River Zambesi flowing through Zambia, Zimbabwe and Mozambique or the Red River flowing from South-Western China through Northern Vietnam. In this study we apply Multi-Agent Systems (MAS) theory to design an optimal management in a decentralized way, considering a set of multiple autonomous agents acting in the same environment and taking into account the pay-off of individual water users, which are inherently distributed along the river and need to coordinate to jointly reach their objectives. In this way each real-world actor, representing the decision-making entity (e.g. the operator of a reservoir or a diversion dam) can be represented one-to-one by a computer agent, defined as a computer system that is situated in some environment and that is capable of autonomous action in this environment in

  15. Current perspectives in contaminant hydrology and water resources sustainability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    Human society depends on liquid freshwater resources to meet drinking, sanitation and hygiene, agriculture, and industry needs. Improved resource monitoring and better understanding of the anthropogenic threats to freshwater environments are critical to efficient management of freshwater resources and ultimately to the survival and quality of life of the global human population. This book helps address the need for improved freshwater resource monitoring and threat assessment by presenting current reviews and case studies focused on the fate and transport of contaminants in the environment and on the sustainability of groundwater and surface-water resources around the world. It is intended for students and professionals working in hydrology and water resources management.

  16. Water Resources Data, California, Water Year 1991. Volume 5. Ground-Water Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, J.A.; Fong-Frydendal, L. J.; Baker, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1991 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 5 contains water levels for 1,069 observation wells and water-quality data for 276 monitoring wells and 2 springs. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System opera?ted by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  17. Water resources of the Roseau River Watershed, Northwestern Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winter, Thomas C.; Maclay, R.W.; Pike, G.M.

    1967-01-01

    This report is a general appraisal of the water resources in the Roseau River watershed unit. Detailed studies of water movement through the ground-water reservoir are needed for more exact determination of the amount of water immediately available and the specific effects of water-management practices.

  18. Quantitative determination of engine water ingestion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parikh, P.; Hernan, M.; Sarohia, V.

    1986-01-01

    A nonintrusive optical technique is described for determination of liquid mass flux in a droplet laden airstream. The techniques were developed for quantitative determination of engine water ingestion resulting from heavy rain or wheel spray. Independent measurements of the liquid water content (LWC) of the droplet laden airstream and of the droplet velocities were made at the stimulated nacelle inlet plane for the liquid mass flux determination. The LWC was measured by illuminating and photographing the droplets contained within a thin slice of the flow field by means of a sheet of light from a pulsed laser. A fluorescent dye introduced in the water enchanced the droplet image definition. The droplet velocities were determined from double exposed photographs of the moving droplet field. The technique was initially applied to a steady spray generated in a wind tunnel. It was found that although the spray was initially steady, the aerodynamic breakup process was inherently unsteady. This resulted in a wide variation of the instantaneous LWC of the droplet laden airstream. The standard deviation of ten separate LWC measurements was 31% of the average. However, the liquid mass flux calculated from the average LWC and droplet velocities came within 10% of the known water ingestion rate.

  19. Water - Essential Resource of the Southern Flint River Basin, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warner, Debbie; Norton, Virgil

    2004-01-01

    Introduction Abundant water resources of the Flint River Basin have played a major role in the history and development of southwestern Georgia. The Flint River-along with its tributaries, wetlands, and swamps-and the productive aquifers of the river basin are essential components of the area's diverse ecosystems. These resources also are necessary for sustained agricultural, industrial, and municipal activities. Increasing, and in some cases conflicting, demand for water makes careful monitoring and wise planning and management of southwestern Georgia's water resources critical to the ecological and economic future of the area. This poster presents the major issues associated with increasing competition for water resources in the southern Flint River Basin.

  20. Water-resources activities in Florida, 1988-89

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glenn, Mildred E.

    1989-01-01

    This report contains summary statements of water resources activities in Florida conducted by the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with Federal, State , and local agencies during 1988. These activities are part of the Federal program of appraising the Nation 's water resources. Included are brief descriptions of the nature and scope of all active studies, summaries of significant results for 1988 and anticipated accomplishments during 1989. Water resources appraisals in Florida are highly diversified, ranging from hydrologic records networks to interpretive appraisals of water resources and applied research to develop investigative techniques. Thus, water-resources investigations range from basic descriptive water-availability studies for areas of low-intensity water development and management to sophisticated cause and effect studies in areas of high-intensity water development and management. The interpretive reports and records that are products of the investigations are a principal hydrologic foundation upon which the plans for development, management, and protection of Florida 's water resources may be used. Water data and information required to implement sound water-management programs in highly urbanized areas relate to the quantity and quality of storm runoff, sources of aquifer contamination, injection of wastes into deep strata, underground storage of freshwater, artificial recharge of aquifers, environmental effects of reuse of water, and effects of land development on changes in ground-and surface-water quality. In some parts of the State broad areas are largely rural. Future growth is anticipated in many of these. This report is intended to inform those agencies vitally interested in the water resources of Florida as to the current status and objectives of the U.S. Geological Survey cooperative program. The mission of this program is to collect, interpret, and publish information on water resources. Almost all of

  1. A stochastic optimization approach for integrated urban water resource planning.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y; Chen, J; Zeng, S; Sun, F; Dong, X

    2013-01-01

    Urban water is facing the challenges of both scarcity and water quality deterioration. Consideration of nonconventional water resources has increasingly become essential over the last decade in urban water resource planning. In addition, rapid urbanization and economic development has led to an increasing uncertain water demand and fragile water infrastructures. Planning of urban water resources is thus in need of not only an integrated consideration of both conventional and nonconventional urban water resources including reclaimed wastewater and harvested rainwater, but also the ability to design under gross future uncertainties for better reliability. This paper developed an integrated nonlinear stochastic optimization model for urban water resource evaluation and planning in order to optimize urban water flows. It accounted for not only water quantity but also water quality from different sources and for different uses with different costs. The model successfully applied to a case study in Beijing, which is facing a significant water shortage. The results reveal how various urban water resources could be cost-effectively allocated by different planning alternatives and how their reliabilities would change.

  2. Water Resources Data - New Jersey, Water Year 1999, Volume 3, Water-Quality Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeLuca, M.J.; Romanok, K.M.; Riskin, M.L.; Mattes, G.L.; Thomas, A.M.; Gray, B.J.

    2000-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1999 water year for New Jersey are presented in three volumes, and consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground water. Volume 3 contains a summary of surface and ground water hydrologic conditions for the 1999 water year, a listing of current water-resource projects in New Jersey, a bibliography of water-related reports, articles, and fact sheets for New Jersey completed by the Geological Survey in recent years, water-quality records of chemical analyses from 133 surface-water stations, 46 miscellaneous surface-water sites, 30 ground-water stations, 41 miscellaneous ground-water sites, and records of daily statistics of temperature and other physical measurements from 17 continuous-monitoring stations. Locations of water-quality stations are shown in figures 11 and 17-20. Locations of miscellaneous water-quality sites are shown in figures 29-32 and 34. These data represent the part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in New Jersey.

  3. Technical Review of Water-Resources Investigations of the Tule Desert, Lincoln County, Southern Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berger, David L.; Halford, Keith J.; Belcher, Wayne R.; Lico, Michael S.

    2008-01-01

    The Nevada State Engineer in Ruling No. 5181 required Lincoln County and Vidler Water Company, Inc., to provide results from additional water-resources studies of Tule Desert in southern Nevada to support water-rights application 64692. As outlined by the ruling, the additional studies were to include the determination of the amount of ground water available from the Tule Desert basin, ground-water recharge to the Tule Desert, and the direction of ground-water flow. Results of these additional studies were published in five reports prepared for Lincoln County and Vidler Water Company, Inc. The National Park Service formally requested that the U.S. Geological Survey provide technical reviews of these five reports. The Nevada State Engineer in Ruling No. 5181 required Lincoln County and Vidler Water Company, Inc., to provide results from additional water-resources studies of Tule Desert in southern Nevada to support water-rights application 64692. As outlined by the ruling, the additional studies were to include the determination of the amount of ground water available from the Tule Desert basin, ground-water recharge to the Tule Desert, and the direction of ground-water flow. Results of these additional studies were published in five reports prepared for Lincoln County and Vidler Water Company, Inc. The National Park Service formally requested that the U.S. Geological Survey provide technical reviews of these five reports.

  4. Domestic livestock resources of Turkey: water buffalo.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Orhan; Ertugrul, Mehmet; Wilson, Richard Trevor

    2012-04-01

    Water buffalo are an ancient component of Turkey's domestic livestock resources. Commonly referred to as the Anatolian buffalo the animal is part of the Mediterranean group which includes Syrian, Egyptian and Southeast European animals. Once quite numerous, there have been drastic reductions in their numbers since the 1970s due to intensification of dairy activities, agricultural mechanization and changing consumer preferences. The main areas of distribution are in northwest Turkey in the Marmara and Black Sea Regions. Buffalo are kept in small herds by livestock and mixed crop-livestock farmers. Milk is the main product, meat is largely a by-product of the dairy function and provision of the once-important draught power is now a minor output. Buffalo milk is used to prepare a variety of speciality products but output of both milk and meat is very low in comparison to cattle. Conditions of welfare and health status are not optimal. Internal parasites are a constraint on productivity. Some buffalo are being used for conservation grazing in the Black Sea area to maintain optimal conditions for bird life in a nature reserve. Long neglected by government there are recent activities to establish conservation herds, set up in vitro banks and undertake molecular characterization. More effort is needed by government to promote buffalo production and to engage the general public in conservation of their national heritage.

  5. Domestic livestock resources of Turkey: water buffalo.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Orhan; Ertugrul, Mehmet; Wilson, Richard Trevor

    2012-04-01

    Water buffalo are an ancient component of Turkey's domestic livestock resources. Commonly referred to as the Anatolian buffalo the animal is part of the Mediterranean group which includes Syrian, Egyptian and Southeast European animals. Once quite numerous, there have been drastic reductions in their numbers since the 1970s due to intensification of dairy activities, agricultural mechanization and changing consumer preferences. The main areas of distribution are in northwest Turkey in the Marmara and Black Sea Regions. Buffalo are kept in small herds by livestock and mixed crop-livestock farmers. Milk is the main product, meat is largely a by-product of the dairy function and provision of the once-important draught power is now a minor output. Buffalo milk is used to prepare a variety of speciality products but output of both milk and meat is very low in comparison to cattle. Conditions of welfare and health status are not optimal. Internal parasites are a constraint on productivity. Some buffalo are being used for conservation grazing in the Black Sea area to maintain optimal conditions for bird life in a nature reserve. Long neglected by government there are recent activities to establish conservation herds, set up in vitro banks and undertake molecular characterization. More effort is needed by government to promote buffalo production and to engage the general public in conservation of their national heritage. PMID:21870064

  6. Application of remote sensing to water resources problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clapp, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    The following conclusions were reached concerning the applications of remote sensing to water resources problems: (1) Remote sensing methods provide the most practical method of obtaining data for many water resources problems; (2) the multi-disciplinary approach is essential to the effective application of remote sensing to water resource problems; (3) there is a correlation between the amount of suspended solids in an effluent discharged into a water body and reflected energy; (4) remote sensing provides for more effective and accurate monitoring, discovery and characterization of the mixing zone of effluent discharged into a receiving water body; and (5) it is possible to differentiate between blue and blue-green algae.

  7. Water resources data, New Mexico, water year 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1992-01-01

    managing our Nation's land and water resources. Hydrologic data for New Mexico are contained in this volume. This report is the culmination of a concerted effort by dedicated personnel of the u.s. Geological Survey who collected, compiled, analyzed. verified, and organized the data. and who typed, edited, and assembled the report. The authors had primary responsibility for assuring that the information contained herein is accurate. complete, and adheres to Geological Survey policy and established guidelines. The following individuals contributed significantly to the completion of the "report: Deanne E. Kimball Cynthia J. Shattuck K.M. Lange, M.F. Ortiz,and K.L. Hamilton processed the text of the report, and B. J. Henson drafted the illustrations.

  8. Water resources data, Maryland and Delaware, water year 1997, volume 2. ground-water data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smigaj, Michael J.; Saffer, Richard W.; Starsoneck, Roger J.; Tegeler, Judith L.

    1998-01-01

    The Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with State agencies, obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the water resources of Maryland and Delaware each water year. These data, accumulated during many water years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. To make these data readily available to interested parties outside the U.S. Geological Survey, the data are published annually in this report series entitled 'Water Resources Data - Maryland and Delaware.' This series of annual reports for Maryland and Delaware began with the 1961 water year with a report that contained only data relating to the quantities of surface water. For the 1964 water year, a similar report was introduced that contained only data relating to water quality. Beginning with the l975 water year, the report format was changed to present, in one volume, data on quantities of surface water, quality of surface and ground water, and ground-water levels. In the 1989 water year, the report format was changed to two volumes. Both volumes contained data on quantities of surface water, quality of surface and ground water, and ground-water levels. Volume 1 contained data on the Atlantic Slope Basins (Delaware River thru Patuxent River) and Volume 2 contained data on the Monongahela and Potomac River basins. Beginning with the 1991 water year, Volume 1 contains all information on quantities of surface water and surface- water-quality data and Volume 2 contains ground-water levels and ground-water-quality data. This report is Volume 2 in our 1998 series and includes records of water levels and water quality of ground-water wells and springs. It contains records for water levels at 397 observation wells, discharge data for 6 springs, and water quality at 107 wells. Location of ground-water level wells are shown on figures 3 and 4. The location for the ground-water-quality sites are shown on figures 5

  9. Mycobacteria inactivation using Engineered Water Nanostructures (EWNS)

    PubMed Central

    Pyrgiotakis, Georgios; McDevitt, James; Gao, Ya; Branco, Alan; Eleftheriadou, Mary; Lemos, Bernardo; Nardell, Edward; Demokritou, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Airborne transmitted pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) cause serious, often fatal infectious disease with enormous global health implications. Due to their unique cell wall and slow growth, mycobacteria are among the most resilient microbial forms. Herein we evaluate the ability of an emerging, chemical-free, nanotechnology-based method to inactivate M. parafortuitum (Mtb surrogate). This method is based on the transformation of atmospheric water vapor into engineered water nano-structures (EWNS) via electrospray. We demonstrate that the EWNS can interact with and inactivate airborne mycobacteria, reducing their concentration levels significantly. Additionally, EWNS can inactivate M. parafortuitum on surfaces eight times faster than the control. The mechanism of mycobacteria inactivation was also investigated in this study. It was demonstrated that the EWNS effectively deliver the reactive oxygen species, encapsulated during the electrospray process, to the bacteria oxidizing their cell membrane resulting into inactivation. Overall, this is a method with the potential to become an effective intervention technology in the battle against airborne infections. From the Clinical Editor This study demonstrates the feasibility of mycobacterium inactivation in airborne form or on contact surfaces using electrospray activated water nano-structures. Given that the method is free of toxic chemicals, this might become an important tool in the prevention of mycobacterial infections, which are notoriously hard to treat. PMID:24632246

  10. Water Resources Data, New Jersey, Water Year 2005Volume 3 - Water-Quality Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeLuca, Michael J.; Heckathorn, Heather A.; Lewis, Jason M.; Gray, Bonnie J.; Feinson, Lawrence S.

    2006-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2005 water year for New Jersey are presented in three volumes, and consists of records of stage, discharge, and water-quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water-quality of ground water. Volume 3 contains a summary of surface- and ground-water hydrologic conditions for the 2005 water year, a listing of current water-resources projects in New Jersey, a bibliography of water-related reports, articles, and fact sheets for New Jersey completed by the Geological Survey in recent years, water-quality records of chemical analyses from 118 continuing-record surface-water stations, 30 ground-water sites, records of daily statistics of temperature and other physical measurements from 9 continuous-recording stations, and 5 special studies that included 89 stream, 11 lake, and 29 ground-water sites. Locations of water-quality stations are shown in figures 23-25. Locations of special-study sites are shown in figures 41-46. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating federal, state, and local agencies in New Jersey.

  11. Water Resources Data, New Jersey, Water Year 2003; Volume 3. Water-Quality Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeLuca, Michael J.; Hoppe, Heidi L.; Heckathorn, Heather A.; Riskin, Melissa L.; Gray, Bonnie J.; Melvin, Emma-Lynn; Liu, Nicholas A.

    2004-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2003 water year for New Jersey are presented in three volumes, and consists of records of stage, discharge, and water-quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water-quality of ground water. Volume 3 contains a summary of surface- and ground-water hydrologic conditions for the 2003 water year, a listing of current water-resources projects in New Jersey, a bibliography of water-related reports, articles, and fact sheets for New Jersey completed by the Geological Survey in recent years, water-quality records of chemical analyses from 123 continuing-record surface-water stations, 35 ground-water sites, records of daily statistics of temperature and other physical measurements from 20 continuous-recording stations, and 5 special-study sites consisting of 2 surface-water sites, 1 spring site, and 240 groundwater sites. Locations of water-quality stations are shown in figures 21-25. Locations of special-study sites are shown in figures 49-53. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating federal, state, and local agencies in New Jersey.

  12. Technologies for water resources management: an integrated approach to manage global and regional water resources

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, W. C., LLNL

    1998-03-23

    Recent droughts in California have highlighted and refocused attention on the problem of providing reliable sources of water to sustain the State`s future economic development. Specific elements of concern include not only the stability and availability of future water supplies in the State, but also how current surface and groundwater storage and distribution systems may be more effectively managed and upgraded, how treated wastewater may be more widely recycled, and how legislative and regulatory processes may be used or modified to address conflicts between advocates of urban growth, industrial, agricultural, and environmental concerns. California is not alone with respect to these issues. They are clearly relevant throughout the West, and are becoming more so in other parts of the US. They have become increasingly important in developing and highly populated nations such as China, India, and Mexico. They are critically important in the Middle East and Southeast Asia, especially as they relate to regional stability and security issues. Indeed, in almost all cases, there are underlying themes of `reliability` and `sustainability` that pertain to the assurance of current and future water supplies, as well as a broader set of `stability` and `security` issues that relate to these assurances--or lack thereof--to the political and economic future of various countries and regions. In this latter sense, and with respect to regions such as China, the Middle East, and Southeast Asia, water resource issues may take on a very serious strategic nature, one that is most illustrative and central to the emerging notion of `environmental security.` In this report, we have identified a suite of technical tools that, when developed and integrated together, may prove effective in providing regional governments the ability to manage their water resources. Our goal is to formulate a framework for an Integrated Systems Analysis (ISA): As a strategic planning tool for managing

  13. Fiscal Year 1990 program report: Oklahoma Water Resources Research Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, T.C.

    1991-09-01

    The FY 1990 Oklahoma Water Resources Research Institute research program addressed the issues of surface and ground water quality and management of water resources. It emphasized the determination of water quality and remediation of water resources determined to be contaminated. Research projects funded by the OWRRI to address these issues included: an investigation of the rate and quality of groundwater recharge to shallow aquifers; the development of a field application to determine microbial populations in soil; the improvement of parameter estimation for multipurpose hydrologic models; an investigation of the effect of inorganic cations and water-soluble polymers on the mobility and persistence of sulfonylurea herbicides; an analysis of the impacts on local economies of large, water-based natural resource projects using a Social Accounting Matrix (SAM); an investigation of methods for assessing nutrient limitation in streams; an evaluation of the use of microorganisms with elevated enzyme activity as a potential in-situ aquifer restoration technique.

  14. Water resources of the Russian rivers and their changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgievsky, Mikhail

    2016-10-01

    This paper is a review of the recent investigations related to changes in river water resources of the Russian Federation performed at the State Hydrological Institute (SHI). The long-term water resources fluctuations and their changes during the last decades including the significant changes in seasonal runoff are presented. The preliminary estimates of the possible future changes are also given.

  15. On the matter of sustainable water resources management

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter attempts to develop the concept of sustainability and make it operational in the realm of water resources management. Water is unique in its primacy among natural resources as an essential component of life itself. Due to its equally unique chemical and physical prop...

  16. The Wealth of Water: The Value of an Essential Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rathburn, Melanie K.; Baum, Karina J.

    2011-01-01

    Many students take water availability for granted and yet, by 2025, two-thirds of the world will not have access to clean drinking water. This case study is designed to encourage students to think about water as a limited natural resource and is used to highlight how the exploitation of water can have far-reaching social, political, and economic…

  17. Assessment of Resources and Needs for Water Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations and Water, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Presents a brief history of water resource utilization, the present availability and uses of water, and strategies for water management. Three characteristic features of water demand management are explained: (1) emphasis on non-structural measures; (2) multi-dimensional organization and policies; (3) emphasis on research. (MA)

  18. History of the State Water Resources Research Institute Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burton, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    The State Water Resources Research Institute Program, established in 1964, consists of 54 Water Resources Research Institutes located at land-grant universities in each of the 50 states and Puerto Rico, the District of Columbia, Guam, and the Virgin Islands. The program evolved from the Water Resources Research Act of 1964, as amended, the Water Research and Development Act of 1978, Public Law 94-457, and the Water Research and Development Act of 1984. These laws authorize the following components of the Institute Program: (1) the annual allotment and matching grants program for the institutes and (2) the additional and saline water research programs for organizations in addition to the State Water Resources Research Institutes. This report summarizes the legislative history, budget history, research program development, and program accomplishments. The State Water Resources Research Program has been administered to by the Office of Water Resources Research (OWRR) (1964-1974), the Office of Water Research and Technology (OWRT) (1974-1982), the Office of Water Policy (OWP) (1982-1983) , and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) (1983-present). (USGS)

  19. Natural resources accounting: A tool for water resources management in Botswana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hambira, Wame L.

    Natural Resource Accounting (NRA) has become an important environmental/natural resources management tool in recent years. It provides information on stocks of a resource available at a particular point in time and what activities the resource is being used for. The conventional System of National Income Accounts (SNA) normally does not capture the cost of depletion, degradation or pollution of natural resources. This encourages unsustainable use of natural resources since the costs are not reflected when assessing the country’s economic performance or development progress. NRA is thus an attempt to integrate environmental issues into the conventional national accounts. The water sector is one sector that could greatly benefit from this natural resource management tool. Botswana has adopted NRA as a natural resource management tool and has so far developed accounts for minerals, livestock and water. The focus of this paper is on Water Accounting (WA) in relation to Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM). IWRM is concerned with coordinated development and management of water in order to maximise economic and social welfare without compromising the sustainability of ecosystems. WA helps fill data gaps since it provides the required information for IWRM to be achieved. The aim of this paper therefore is to evaluate the Water Accounts of Botswana Report of 2006 to determine the extent to which it can contribute to integrated water resources management. The paper is based on literature review and the results show that: the available water stocks vary depending on rainfall patterns, well fields are over utilised, there has been growth in consumption, and more than 80% of the waste water produced is not being put to use. These results calls for changes in policies, role of institutions and practices pertaining to water resources management which is what IWRM is all about hence the paper concludes that indeed WA can contribute to the realisation of IWRM.

  20. Vegetation plays an important role in mediating future water resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ukkola, A. M.; Keenan, T. F.; Kelley, D. I.; Prentice, I. C.

    2016-09-01

    Future environmental change is expected to modify the global hydrological cycle, with consequences for the regional distribution of freshwater supplies. Regional precipitation projections, however, differ largely between models, making future water resource projections highly uncertain. Using two representative concentration pathways and nine climate models, we estimate 21st century water resources across Australia, employing both a process-based dynamic vegetation model and a simple hydrological framework commonly used in water resource studies to separate the effects of climate and vegetation on water resources. We show surprisingly robust, pathway-independent regional patterns of change in water resources despite large uncertainties in precipitation projections. Increasing plant water use efficiency (due to the changing atmospheric CO2) and reduced green vegetation cover (due to the changing climate) relieve pressure on water resources for the highly populated, humid coastal regions of eastern Australia. By contrast, in semi-arid regions across Australia, runoff declines are amplified by CO2-induced greening, which leads to increased vegetation water use. These findings highlight the importance of including vegetation dynamics in future water resource projections.

  1. Learning about water resource sharing through game play

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewen, Tracy; Seibert, Jan

    2016-10-01

    Games are an optimal way to teach about water resource sharing, as they allow real-world scenarios to be enacted. Both students and professionals learning about water resource management can benefit from playing games, through the process of understanding both the complexity of sharing of resources between different groups and decision outcomes. Here we address how games can be used to teach about water resource sharing, through both playing and developing water games. An evaluation of using the web-based game Irrigania in the classroom setting, supported by feedback from several educators who have used Irrigania to teach about the sustainable use of water resources, and decision making, at university and high school levels, finds Irrigania to be an effective and easy tool to incorporate into a curriculum. The development of two water games in a course for masters students in geography is also presented as a way to teach and communicate about water resource sharing. Through game development, students learned soft skills, including critical thinking, problem solving, team work, and time management, and overall the process was found to be an effective way to learn about water resource decision outcomes. This paper concludes with a discussion of learning outcomes from both playing and developing water games.

  2. Review of water resource potential for developing geothermal resource sites in the western United States

    SciTech Connect

    Sonnichsen, J.C. Jr.

    1980-07-01

    Water resources at 28 known geothermal resource areas (KGRAs) in the western United States are reviewed. Primary emphasis is placed upon examination of the waer resources, both surface and ground, that exist in the vicinity of the KGRAs located in the southwestern states of California, Arizona, Utah, Nevada, and New Mexico. In most of these regions water has been in short supply for many years and consequently a discussion of competing demands is included to provide an appropriate perspective on overall usage. A discussion of the water resources in the vicinity of KGRAs in the States of Montana, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington are also included.

  3. Engineered photocatalysts for detoxification of waste water

    SciTech Connect

    Majumder, S.A.; Prairie, M.R.; Shelnutt, J.A.; Khan, S.U.M.

    1996-12-01

    This report describes progress on the development of engineered photocatalysts for the detoxification of water polluted with toxic organic compounds and heavy metals. We examined a range of different oxide supports (titania, alumina, magnesia and manganese dioxide) for tin uroporphyrin and investigated the efficacy of a few different porphyrins. A water-soluble octaacetic-acid-tetraphenylporphyrin and its derivatives have been synthesized and characterized in an attempt to design a porphyrin catalyst with a larger binding pocket. We have also investigated photocatalytic processes on both single crystal and powder forms of semiconducting SiC with an ultimate goal of developing a dual-semiconductor system combining TiO{sub 2} and SiC. Mathematical modeling was also performed to identify parameters that can improve the efficiency of SiC-based photocatalytic systems. Although the conceptual TiO{sub 2}/SiC photodiode shows some promises for photoreduction processes, SiC itself was found to be an inefficient photocatalyst when combined with TiO{sub 2}. Alternative semiconductors with bandgap and band potentials similar to SiC should be tested in the future for further development and a practical utilization of the dual photodiode concept.

  4. Water resources data, North Carolina, water year 2005. Volume 1: Surface-water records

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walters, D.A.; Robinson, J.B.; Barker, R.G.

    2006-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2005 water year for North Carolina consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality for streams; stage and contents for lakes and reservoirs; precipitation; and ground-water levels and water quality of ground water. Volume 1 contains discharge records for 215 gaging stations; stage and contents for 60 lakes and reservoirs; stage only records for 25 gaging stations; elevations for 10 stations; water quality for 35 gaging stations and continuous water quality for 19 sites; and continuous precipitation at 127 sites. Volume 2 contains ground-water-level data from 180 observation wells, ground-water-quality data from 36 wells, continuous water quality for 3 sites and continuous precipitation at 4 sites. Additional water data were collected at 53 sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements in Volume 1. The collection of water-resources data in North Carolina is a part of the National Water-Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with State, municipal, and Federal agencies.

  5. Water resources data, North Carolina, water year 2004. Volume 1: Surface-water records

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walters, D.A.; Robinson, J.B.; Barker, R.G.

    2005-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2004 water year for North Carolina consist of records of stage, discharge, water quality for streams; stage and contents for lakes and reservoirs; precipitation; and ground-water levels and water quality of ground water. Volume 1 contains discharge records for 217 gaging stations; stage and contents for 58 lakes and reservoirs; stage only records for 22 gaging stations; elevations for 9 stations; water quality for 39 gaging stations and 5 miscellaneous sites, and continuous water quality for 35 sites; and continuous precipitation at 127 sites. Volume 2 contains ground-water-level data from 161 observation wells, ground-water-quality data from 38 wells, continuous water quality for 7 sites and continuous precipitation at 7 sites. Additional water data were collected at 51 sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements in Volume 1. The collection of water-resources data in North Carolina is a part of the National Water-Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with State, municipal, and Federal agencies.

  6. Water Resources Data, New Jersey, Water Year 2000. Volume 3. Water-Quality Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeLuca, M.J.; Mattes, G.L.; Burns, H.L.; Thomas, A.M.; Gray, B.J.; Doyle, H.A.

    2001-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2000 water year for New Jersey are presented in three volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharage, and quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and levels and quality of ground water. Volume 3 contains a summary of surface and ground water hydrologic conditions for the 2000 water year, a listing of current water-resource projects in New Jersey, a bibliography of water-related reports, articles, and fact sheets for New Jersey completed by the Geological Survey in recent years, water-quality records of chemical analyses from 125 continuing-record surface-water stations, 62 miscellaneous surface-water sites, 73 ground-water sites, and records of daily statistics of temperature and other physical measurements from 45 continuous-recording stations. Locations of water-quality stations are shown in figures 18-20. Locations of miscellaneous water-quality sites are shown in figures 11 and 42-49. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in New Jersey.

  7. Manatee County government's commitment to Florida's water resources

    SciTech Connect

    Hunsicker, C.

    1998-07-01

    With ever increasing development demands in coastal areas and subsequent declines in natural resources, especially water, coastal communities must identify creative options for sustaining remaining water resources and an accepted standard of living. The Manatee County agricultural reuse project, using reclaimed wastewater is part of a water resource program, is designed to meet these challenges. The reuse system works in concert with consumer conservation practices and efficiency of use measures which are being implemented by all public and private sector water users in this southwest Florida community.

  8. Water resources investigations in Mississippi, 1984-85

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lamonds, A.G.; Moss, Carol

    1984-01-01

    This report describes the activities of the Water Resources Division in Mississippi. It summarizes progress made in water-resources investigations and related activities in the current fiscal year ending September 30, 1984, and outlines the work to be accomplished during the fiscal year ending September 30, 1985. Its specific purpose is to inform cooperating State, local, and other Federal agencies about all activities of this Division in water investigations in Mississippi and to give those cooperators a better understanding of how their participation fits into the total USGS program of water resources investigations. (USGS)

  9. What about tomorrow. [Water resources and usage

    SciTech Connect

    Tufty, B.

    1984-08-01

    Our major national problems with water concern the distribution and use of water. Major conceptual plans to augment present water supplies are discussed, including the damming of Long Island Sound and towing icebergs from the Arctic. New and improved methods of irrigation are described, along with pricing incentives to encourage water conservation. The need for and general goals of a national water plan are outlined.

  10. Fuzzy pricing for urban water resources: model construction and application.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ranhang; Chen, Shouyu

    2008-08-01

    A rational water price system plays a crucial role in the optimal allocation of water resources. In this paper, a fuzzy pricing model for urban water resources is presented, which consists of a multi-criteria fuzzy evaluation model and a water resources price (WRP) computation model. Various factors affecting WRP are comprehensively evaluated with multiple levels and objectives in the multi-criteria fuzzy evaluation model, while the price vectors of water resources are constructed in the WRP computation model according to the definition of the bearing water price index, and then WRP is calculated. With the incorporation of an operator's knowledge, it considers iterative weights and subjective preference of operators for weight-assessment. The weights determined are more rational and the evaluation results are more realistic. Particularly, dual water supply is considered in the study. Different prices being fixed for water resources with different qualities conforms to the law of water resources value (WRV) itself. A high-quality groundwater price computation model is also proposed to provide optimal water allocation and to meet higher living standards. The developed model is applied in Jinan for evaluating its validity. The method presented in this paper offers some new directions in the research of WRP. PMID:17499421

  11. Water resources data, Virginia, water year 2004 volume 2. Ground-water-level and ground-water-quality records

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Roger K.; Powell, Eugene D.; Guyer, Joel R.; Owens, Joseph A.

    2005-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2004 water year for Virginia consist of records of water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. This report (Volume 2. Ground-Water-Level and Ground-Water-Quality Records) contains water levels at 346 observation wells and water quality at 40 wells. Locations of these wells are shown on figures 4 through 9. The data in this report represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Virginia.

  12. Water resources data, North Carolina, water year 2002. Volume 1B: Surface-water records

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ragland, B.C.; Barker, R.G.; Robinson, J.B.

    2003-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2002 water year for North Carolina consist of records of stage, discharge, water quality for streams; stage and contents for lakes and reservoirs; precipitation; and ground-water levels and water quality of ground water. Volume 1 contains discharge records for 211 gaging stations; stage and contents for 62 lakes and reservoirs; stage for 20 gaging stations; water quality for 52 gaging stations and 7 miscellaneous sites, and continuous water quality for 30 sites; and continuous precipitation at 109 sites. Volume 2 contains ground-water-level data from 143 observation wells and ground-water-quality data from 72 wells. Additional water data were collected at 85 sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements in Volume 1. The collection of water-resources data in North Carolina is a part of the National Water-Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with State, municipal, and Federal agencies.

  13. Water Resources Data, New Jersey, Water Year 2002--Volume 2. Ground-Water Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2003-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2002 water year for New Jersey are presented in three volumes, and consists of records of stage, discharge, and quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and levels and quality of ground water. Volume 3 contains a summary of surface- and ground-water hydrologic conditions for the 2002 water year, a listing of current water-resources projects in New Jersey, a bibliography of water-related reports, articles, and fact sheets for New Jersey completed by the Geological Survey in recent years, water-quality records of chemical analyses from 118 continuing-record surface-water stations, 15 miscellaneous ground-water sites, and records of daily statistics of temperature and other physical measurements from 6 continuous-recording stations. Locations of water-quality stations are shown in figures 12-14. Locations of miscellaneous water-quality sites are shown in figures 40-41. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating federal, state, and local agencies in New Jersey.

  14. Water Resources Data, New Jersey, Water Year 2002--Volume 3. Water-Quality Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeLuca, M.J.; Hoppe, H.L.; Heckathorn, H.A.; Gray, B.J.; Riskin, M.L.

    2003-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2002 water year for New Jersey are presented in three volumes, and consists of records of stage, discharge, and quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and levels and quality of ground water. Volume 3 contains a summary of surface- and ground-water hydrologic conditions for the 2002 water year, a listing of current water-resources projects in New Jersey, a bibliography of water-related reports, articles, and fact sheets for New Jersey completed by the Geological Survey in recent years, water-quality records of chemical analyses from 118 continuing-record surface-water stations, 15 miscellaneous ground-water sites, and records of daily statistics of temperature and other physical measurements from 6 continuous-recording stations. Locations of water-quality stations are shown in figures 12-14. Locations of miscellaneous water-quality sites are shown in figures 40-41. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating federal, state, and local agencies in New Jersey.

  15. Water resources of the Indianapolis area, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roberts, Claude Martin; Widman, L.E.; Brown, P.N.

    1955-01-01

    Difficulties in supplying water have occurred and will continue to occur from time to time when demands on ground-water sources are excessively heavy for long periods of time and locally where pumped wells are too closely spaced. Under such conditions ground-water levels decline rapidly and remain depressed for some time. Such a condition may constitute what could be called a water shortage. As the demand for water increases there is need for conservation and wise use of available surface and ground-water supplies. 

  16. Treatment of petroleum-contaminated water resources: modern techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogharnitskaya, O. V.; Konovalov, V. V.; Dmitrieva, N. V.; Belozerova, D. S.; Strelnikova, A. B.

    2016-09-01

    The article deals with the issue of petroleum-contaminated water resources. The authors have analyzed the dynamics of oil spills, including the world's largest ones, and claimed the issue to be global. The modern methods of mitigating oil spill effects have been studied, as well as the modern techniques of water resource treatment. The particular attention is paid to peat sorbent production, which is considered a promising trend of petroleum- contaminated water treatment.

  17. Highly efficient 6-stroke engine cycle with water injection

    SciTech Connect

    Szybist, James P; Conklin, James C

    2012-10-23

    A six-stroke engine cycle having improved efficiency. Heat is recovered from the engine combustion gases by using a 6-stroke engine cycle in which combustion gases are partially vented proximate the bottom-dead-center position of the fourth stroke cycle, and water is injected proximate the top-dead-center position of the fourth stroke cycle.

  18. A Bachelor of Engineering Technology Curriculum in Water Quality Management: Course Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Charles A.; And Others

    Contained are course guides for a Bachelor of Engineering Technology (BET) Curriculum in Water Quality Management. Detailed course content, as well as instructional resources, are included in this volume. Each guide is written in behavioral terms using the instructional objective format. A suggested curriculum is shown with methods of…

  19. Water Resources Data, Florida, Water Year 2001, Volume 3B. Southwest Florida Ground Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoker, Y.E.; Kane, R.L.; Fletcher, W.L.

    2002-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2001 water year in Florida consist of continuous or daily discharges for 406 streams, periodic discharge for 12 streams, continuous daily stage for 142 streams, periodic stage for 12 streams, peak stage and discharge for 37 streams, continuous or daily elevations for 11 lakes, periodic elevations for 30 lakes; continuous ground-water levels for 424 wells, periodic ground-water levels for 1,426 wells, and quality-of-water data for 80 surface-water sites and 245 wells. The data for Southwest Florida include records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, water quality of lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 3B contains records for continuous ground-water elevations for 128 wells; periodic ground-water elevations at 33 wells; miscellaneous ground-water elevations at 347 wells; and water quality at 25 ground-water sites. These data represent the national Water Data System records collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating local, state, and federal agencies in Florida.

  20. Water resources data, Florida, water year 2005. Volume 3B: Southwest Florida ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kane, Richard L.

    2005-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2005 water year in Florida consist of continuous or daily discharges for 429 streams, periodic discharge for 9 streams, continuous or daily stage for 218 streams, periodic stage for 5 streams, peak stage for 28 streams and peak discharge for 28 streams, continuous or daily elevations for 15 lakes, periodic elevations for 23 lakes; continuous ground-water levels for 401 wells, periodic ground-water levels for 1,098 wells, and quality-of-water data for 211 surface-water sites and 208 wells. The data for Southwest Florida include records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, water quality of lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 3B contains records for continuous ground-water elevations for 108 wells; periodic ground-water elevations at 24 wells; miscellaneous ground-water elevations at 354 wells; and water quality at 2 ground-water sites. These data represent the national Water Data System records collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating local, state, and federal agencies in Florida.

  1. Water resources data Florida, water year 2004: Volume 3B: southwest Florida ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kane, Richard L.

    2004-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2004 water year in Florida consist of continuous or daily discharges for 405 streams, periodic discharge for 12 streams, continuous or daily stage for 159 streams, periodic stage for 19 streams, peak stage for 30 streams and peak discharge for 30 streams, continuous or daily elevations for 14 lakes, periodic elevations for 23 lakes; continuous ground-water levels for 408 wells, periodic ground-water levels for 1,188 wells, and quality-of-water data for 140 surface-water sites and 240 wells. The data for Southwest Florida include records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, water quality of lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 3B contains records for continuous ground-water elevations for 98 wells; periodic ground-water elevations at 56 wells; miscellaneous ground-water elevations at 374 wells; and water quality at 25 ground-water sites. These data represent the national Water Data System records collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating local, state, and federal agencies in Florida.

  2. Water Resources Data, Florida, Water Year 2002, Volume 3B. Southwest Florida Ground Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kane, R.L.; Fletcher, W.L.

    2003-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2002 water year in Florida consist of continuous or daily discharges for 392 streams, periodic discharge for 15 streams, continuous daily stage for 191 streams, periodic stage for 13 streams, peak stage for 33 streams and peak discharge for 33 streams, continuous or daily elevations for 14 lakes, periodic elevations for 49 lakes; continuous ground-water levels for 418 wells, periodic ground-water levels for 1,287 wells, and quality-of-water data for 116 surface-water sites and 291 wells. The data for Southwest Florida include records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, water quality of lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 3B contains records for continuous ground-water elevations for 125 wells; periodic ground-water elevations at 31 wells; miscellaneous ground-water elevations at 377 wells; and water quality at 46 ground-water sites. These data represent the national Water Data System records collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating local, state, and federal agencies in Florida.

  3. Water Resources Data, Florida, Water Year 2003, Volume 3B: Southwest Florida Ground Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kane, Richard L.; Fletcher, William L.; Lane, Susan L.

    2004-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2003 water year in Florida consist of continuous or daily discharges for 385 streams, periodic discharge for 13 streams, continuous daily stage for 255 streams, periodic stage for 13 streams, peak stage for 36 streams and peak discharge for 36 streams, continuous or daily elevations for 13 lakes, periodic elevations for 46 lakes; continuous ground-water levels for 441 wells, periodic ground-water levels for 1,227 wells, and quality-of-water data for 133 surface-water sites and 308 wells. The data for Southwest Florida include records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, water quality of lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 3B contains records for continuous ground-water elevations for 128 wells; periodic ground-water elevations at 31 wells; miscellaneous ground-water elevations at 405 wells; and water quality at 32 ground-water sites. These data represent the national Water Data System records collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating local, state, and federal agencies in Florida.

  4. Evaluating participation in water resource management: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, G.; BlöSchl, G.; Loucks, D. P.

    2012-11-01

    Key documents such as the European Water Framework Directive and the U.S. Clean Water Act state that public and stakeholder participation in water resource management is required. Participation aims to enhance resource management and involve individuals and groups in a democratic way. Evaluation of participatory programs and projects is necessary to assess whether these objectives are being achieved and to identify how participatory programs and projects can be improved. The different methods of evaluation can be classified into three groups: (i) process evaluation assesses the quality of participation process, for example, whether it is legitimate and promotes equal power between participants, (ii) intermediary outcome evaluation assesses the achievement of mainly nontangible outcomes, such as trust and communication, as well as short- to medium-term tangible outcomes, such as agreements and institutional change, and (iii) resource management outcome evaluation assesses the achievement of changes in resource management, such as water quality improvements. Process evaluation forms a major component of the literature but can rarely indicate whether a participation program improves water resource management. Resource management outcome evaluation is challenging because resource changes often emerge beyond the typical period covered by the evaluation and because changes cannot always be clearly related to participation activities. Intermediary outcome evaluation has been given less attention than process evaluation but can identify some real achievements and side benefits that emerge through participation. This review suggests that intermediary outcome evaluation should play a more important role in evaluating participation in water resource management.

  5. Ground water resources of Lee County

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gordon, Donivan L.

    1980-01-01

    In terms of these factors, there are few locations in Lee County where the availability of ground water is not limited to some degree. The most common limitation is poor water quality, that is, highly mineralized ground water. Secondary limitations are generally related to poor distribution, small yields from some sources, and poor accessibility due to the great depths to adequate sources.

  6. Water resources data, North Carolina, water year 2001. Volume 1B: Surface-water records

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ragland, B.C.; Barker, R.G.; Robinson, J.B.

    2002-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2001 water year for North Carolina consist of records of stage, discharge, water-quality for streams; stage and contents for lakes and reservoirs; precipitation; and ground water levels and water-quality of ground-water. Volume 1 contains discharge records for 209 gaging stations; stage and contents for 62 lakes and reservoirs; stage for 52 gaging stations; water quality for 101 gaging stations and 91 miscellaneous sites; continuous daily tide stage at 4 sites; and continuous precipitation at 98 sites. Volume 2 contains ground-water-level data from 136 observation wells and ground-water-quality data from 68 wells. Additional water data were collected at 84 sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements in Volume 1. The collection of water-resources data in North Carolina is a part of the National Water-Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with State, municipal, and Federal agencies.

  7. Water resources of Taos County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrabrant, Lynn A.

    1993-01-01

    In Taos County, ground water generally is unconfined and moves toward the Rio Grande or perennial streams. Water quality is good except in some areas where water has high values of specific conductance and hardness and contains high concentrations of dissolved solids and fluoride. Most wells are completed in alluvial sediments of Quaternary and Tertiary age in the Costilla Plains. A few wells are completed in basalt of the Taos Plateau and in alluvium of stream channels in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains. Depths to water in wells range from less than 1 to 1,080 feet below land surface. Well yields range from 1 to 3,000 gallons per minute. Water levels in wells in Sunshine Valley dropped 5 to 50 feet between 1955 and 1970. Ground-water irrigation has since declined and water levels have risen. Surface-water records show the county is a net producer of water. The average discharge gained in the Rio Grande as it flows through the county was 271,700 acre-feet per year for water years 1931-89. The highest mean monthly discharge occurs in May or June due to snowmelt runoff. Water quality ranges from good in upstream reaches to fair in lower reaches. Surface water was the source for 93 percent of water withdrawn in 1990, but ground water was used for all public supply, domestic, and industrial purposes. The largest water use is irrigation. About 28,500 acres were irrigated in 1990; alfalfa, native pasture, and planted pasture accounted for 91 percent of this acreage.

  8. Landsat - What is operational in water resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, E. M.; Munday, J. C., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Applications of Landsat data in hydrology and water quality measurement were examined to determine which applications are operational. In hydrology, the principal applications have been surface water inventory, and land cover analysis for (1) runoff modeling and (2) abatement planning for non-point pollution and erosion. In water quality measurement, the principal applications have been: (1) trophic state assessment, and (2) measurement of turbidity and suspended sediment. The following applications were found to be operational: mapping of surface water, snow cover, and land cover (USGS Level 1) for watershed applications; measurement of turbidity, Secchi disk depth, suspended sediment concentration, and water depth.

  9. Water resources of Washington Parish, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Vincent E.; Prakken, Lawrence B.

    2016-06-13

    In 2010, about 34.55 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) of water were withdrawn in Washington Parish, including about 28.10 Mgal/d from groundwater sources and 6.44 Mgal/d from surface-water sources1 (table 1). Withdrawals for industrial use accounted for about 52 percent (17.80 Mgal/d) of the total water withdrawn (table 2). Other categories of use included public supply, rural domestic, irrigation, and livestock. Water-use data collected at 5-year intervals from 1960 to 2010 (fig. 2) indicated that water withdrawals peaked in 1975 at about 51.9 Mgal/d.

  10. Resource Management and Contingencies in Aerospace Concurrent Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karpati, Gabe; Hyde, Tupper; Peabody, Hume; Garrison, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    significant concern in designing complex systems implementing new technologies is that while knowledge about the system is acquired incrementally, substantial financial commitments, even make-or-break decisions, must be made upfront, essentially in the unknown. One practice that helps in dealing with this dichotomy is the smart embedding of contingencies and margins in the design to serve as buffers against surprises. This issue presents itself in full force in the aerospace industry, where unprecedented systems are formulated and committed to as a matter of routine. As more and more aerospace mission concepts are generated by concurrent design laboratories, it is imperative that such laboratories apply well thought-out contingency and margin structures to their designs. The first part of this publication provides an overview of resource management techniques and standards used in the aerospace industry. That is followed by a thought provoking treatise on margin policies. The expose presents the actual flight telemetry data recorded by the thermal discipline during several recent NASA Goddard Space Flight Center missions. The margins actually achieved in flight are compared against pre-flight predictions, and the appropriateness and the ramifications of having designed with rigid margins to bounding stacked worst case conditions are assessed. The second half of the paper examines the particular issues associated with the application of contingencies and margins in the concurrent engineering environment. In closure, a discipline-by-discipline disclosure of the contingency and margin policies in use at the Integrated Design Center at NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center is made.

  11. Exploring water as building bricks in enzyme engineering.

    PubMed

    Hendil-Forssell, Peter; Martinelle, Mats; Syrén, Per-Olof

    2015-12-18

    A novel enzyme engineering strategy for accelerated catalysis based on redesigning a water network through protein backbone deshielding is presented. Fundamental insight into the energetic consequences associated with the design is discussed in the light of experimental results and computer simulations. Using water as biobricks provides unique opportunities when transition state stabilisation is not easily attained by traditional enzyme engineering.

  12. The future of water resources systems analysis: Toward a scientific framework for sustainable water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Casey M.; Lund, Jay R.; Cai, Ximing; Reed, Patrick M.; Zagona, Edith A.; Ostfeld, Avi; Hall, Jim; Characklis, Gregory W.; Yu, Winston; Brekke, Levi

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a short history of water resources systems analysis from its beginnings in the Harvard Water Program, through its continuing evolution toward a general field of water resources systems science. Current systems analysis practice is widespread and addresses the most challenging water issues of our times, including water scarcity and drought, climate change, providing water for food and energy production, decision making amid competing objectives, and bringing economic incentives to bear on water use. The emergence of public recognition and concern for the state of water resources provides an opportune moment for the field to reorient to meet the complex, interdependent, interdisciplinary, and global nature of today's water challenges. At present, water resources systems analysis is limited by low scientific and academic visibility relative to its influence in practice and bridled by localized findings that are difficult to generalize. The evident success of water resource systems analysis in practice (which is set out in this paper) needs in future to be strengthened by substantiating the field as the science of water resources that seeks to predict the water resources variables and outcomes that are important to governments, industries, and the public the world over. Doing so promotes the scientific credibility of the field, provides understanding of the state of water resources and furnishes the basis for predicting the impacts of our water choices.

  13. Water resources and the urban environment--98

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, T.E.

    1998-07-01

    This report contains all the papers presented at the meeting. There are 25 sessions and one poster session in the document. The Sessions are: (1) Landfill gas/groundwater interactions; (2) Urban solids management; (3) Local issues; (4) Surface water quality studies 1; (5) Reductive treatment of hazardous wastes with zero-valent iron; (6) Water reuse 1; (7) Biosolids management; (8) GIS information systems 1; (9) Drinking water distribution; (10) Anaerobic treatment; (11) Water reuse 2; (12) Municipal wastewater treatment technology; (13) GIS information systems 2; (14) Drinking water treatment 1; (15) Risk-based site remediation; (16) Small urban watersheds; (17) Disinfection; (18) Air pollution control and risk assessment; (19) Drinking water treatment 2; (20) Biological wastewater treatment; (21) Wastewater treatment; (22) Decentralized small-scale alternative wastewater management systems; (23) General environmental issues; (24) Drinking water treatment 3; and (25) Groundwater remediation. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the database.

  14. Fort Clatsop National Memoraial water resources scoping report. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    Fort Clatsop National Memorial (FOCL) is located in extreme northwestern Oregon within the Columbia River estuary. Because of its lower watershed location, the water-related resources at Fort Clatsop National Memorial are affected by adjacent land-use activities. Water-related issues addressed within the report include: an assessment of potential water quality degradation from nonpoint source pollution related to land use within the adjacent watershed; an evaluation of water-related inventory and monitoring needs; the need for a wetlands restoration feasibility study; and, an overview of water resources-related aspects of park development and operational activities.

  15. Current water resources activities in Arkansas, 1984-85

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Louthian, B.L.; Gann, E.E.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes water resources activities conducted by the Arkansas District of the U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Division, during fiscal years 1984 and 1985. Activities included surface water, groundwater, water quality, and water-use investigations. Twenty-five projects were funded during 1984 and 1985. For each project, a description of the project objectives, approach, plans and reports is included. Lists are included of reports completed during the period and of reports previously published by, or in conjunction with the Geological Survey. (USGS)

  16. Current water resources activities in Arkansas, 1986-87

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Louthian, B.L.; Gann, E.E.

    1988-01-01

    This report describes water resources activities conducted by the Arkansas District of the U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Division during fiscal years 1986 and 1987. Activities included surface water, groundwater, water quality, and water-use investigations. Eighteen projects were funded during 1986 and 1987. For each project, a description of the project objectives, approach, plans and reports is included. Lists are included of reports completed during the period and of reports previously published by, or in conjunction with, the Geological Survey. (USGS)

  17. Monograph for using paleoflood data in Water Resources Applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swain, R.E.; Jarrett, R.D.

    2004-01-01

    The Environmental and Water Resources Institute (EWRI) Technical Committee on Surface Water Hydrology is sponsoring a Task Committee on Paleoflood Hydrology to prepare a monograph entitled, "Use of Paleoflood and Historical Data in Water Resources Applications." This paper introduces the subject of paleoflood hydrology and discusses the topics, which are expected to be included in the monograph. The procedure for preparing and reviewing the monograph will also be discussed. The paleoflood hydrology monograph will include a discussion of types of hydrologic and paleoflood data, paleostage indicators, flood chronology, modeling methods, interpretation issues, water resources applications and case studies, and research needs. Paleoflood data collection and analysis techniques will be presented, and various applications in water-resources investigations will be provided. An overview of several flood frequency analysis approaches, which consider historical and paleoflood data along with systematic streamflow records, will be presented. The monograph is scheduled for completion and publication in 2001. Copyright ASCE 2004.

  18. [Optimal allocation of irrigation water resources based on systematical strategy].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shuai; Zhang, Shu-qing

    2015-01-01

    With the development of the society and economy, as well as the rapid increase of population, more and more water is needed by human, which intensified the shortage of water resources. The scarcity of water resources and growing competition of water in different water use sectors reduce water availability for irrigation, so it is significant to plan and manage irrigation water resources scientifically and reasonably for improving water use efficiency (WUE) and ensuring food security. Many investigations indicate that WUE can be increased by optimization of water use. However, present studies focused primarily on a particular aspect or scale, which lack systematic analysis on the problem of irrigation water allocation. By summarizing previous related studies, especially those based on intelligent algorithms, this article proposed a multi-level, multi-scale framework for allocating irrigation water, and illustrated the basic theory of each component of the framework. Systematical strategy of optimal irrigation water allocation can not only control the total volume of irrigation water on the time scale, but also reduce water loss on the spatial scale. It could provide scientific basis and technical support for improving the irrigation water management level and ensuring the food security. PMID:25985685

  19. Saline-water resources of Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winslow, Allen George; Kister, Lester Ray

    1956-01-01

    Most of the aquifers in Texas contain saline water in some parts, and a few are capable of producing large quantities of saline water. Of the early Paleozoic formations, the Hickory sandstone member of the Riley formation of Cambrian age and the Ellenburger group of Ordovician age are potential sources of small to moderate supplies of saline water in parts of central and west-central Texas.

  20. Engaging the creative to better build science into water resource solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klos, P. Z.

    2014-12-01

    Psychological thought suggests that social engagement with an environmental problem requires 1) cognitive understanding of the problem, 2) emotional engagement with the problem, and 3) perceived efficacy that there is something we can do to solve the problem. Within the water sciences, we form problem-focused, cross-disciplinary teams to help address complex water resource problems, but often we only seek teammates from other disciplines within the realms of engineering and the natural/social sciences. Here I argue that this science-centric focus fails to fully solve these water resource problems, and often the science goes unheard because it is heavily cognitive and lacks the ability to effectively engage the audience through crucial social-psychological aspects of emotion and efficacy. To solve this, future cross-disciplinary collaborations that seek to include creative actors from the worlds of art, humanities, and design can begin to provide a much stronger overlap of the cognition, emotion, and efficacy needed to communicate the science, engage the audience, and create the solutions needed to solve or world's most complex water resource problems. Disciplines across the arts, sciences, and engineering all bring unique strengths that, through collaboration, allow for uniquely creative modes of art-science overlap that can engage people through additions of emotion and efficacy that compliment the science and go beyond the traditional cognitive approach. I highlight examples of this art-science overlap in action and argue that water resource collaborations like these will be more likely to have their hydrologic science accepted and applied by those who decide on water resource solutions. For this Pop-up Talk session, I aim to share the details of this proposed framework in the context of my own research and the work of others. I hope to incite discussion regarding the utility and relevance of this framework as a future option for other water resource

  1. Idaho Wilderness Water Resources Protection Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Risch, James E. [R-ID

    2013-08-01

    08/01/2013 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.876, which became Public Law 113-136 on 7/25/2014. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  2. Water resources of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sayre, Albert N.

    1950-01-01

    The concerns that has grown gradually in recent years over the future of our water supplies has been forcefully dramatized by the water shortage that New York City is now experiencing. This shortage is not the first that has affected an American community and it is not the most serious. Ample sources of additional water are known to exist in Upstate New York and construction that will bring this water to the city is being pushed as rapidly as possible. Nevertheless, the fact that our largest city, the center of our business life, has a water shortage, even though it is temporary, causes even the layman to realize something of the importance that water has in our national life and our national economy. In nearly every State in the Union, one or more communities now has or has had water problems as serious as or more serious than that which face New York City. These problems are springing up in increasing numbers and it is high time that serious consideration be given to the question of the adequacy of our water supplies. If the crisis in New York serves to bring this face into national focus, New York's misfortune may in the long run be a blessing in disguise.

  3. Water resources and hydrology of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, V. R.; Gulick, V. C.; Kargel, J. S.; Strom, R. G.

    1991-01-01

    The surface of Mars has been extensively modified by a large variety of water erosional and depositional processes. Although liquid water is presently unstable on the planet's surface, in its cold, hyperarid climate, there is abundant geomorphological evidence of past fluvial valley development multiple episodes of catastrophic flooding, periglacial landforms, ice-related permafrost, lake deposits, eroded impact craters and possible glacial landforms throughout much of Mars' geological history. The amount of water required to form such features is estimated to be equivalent to a planet-wide layer approximately 50 meters deep. Some of this water undoubtedly was removed from the planet by atmospheric escape processes, but much probably remains in the subsurface of Mars. Jakosky summarized the present partitioning of water on Mars, expressed as an average global depth, as follows: in the polar caps, 30 meters; in the megaregolith, 500 to 1000 meters; structurally bound in clays, 10 meters; and in high latitude regolith, a few meters. However, most of this water is probably in the form of ice, except in anomalous areas of possible near surface liquid water, and in regions where hydrothermal systems are still active. The best locations for prospecting are those areas where water or ice is sufficiently concentrated at shallow enough depths to make it feasible to pump out or mine.

  4. Assessment of water resources potential of Ceará state (Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araujo, Angelo; Pereira, Diamantino; Pereira, Paulo

    2016-04-01

    quantitative assessment of natural features either biotic or abiotic. These results quantify water resources and their distribution in a large region with important climatic differences. They constitute a basis for the knowledge of regional issues concerning water needs, flood and droughts events and even engineering solutions for water resources management.

  5. Water resources activities in Kentucky, 1993-94

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maglothin, L. S.; Forbes, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is the principal Federal water-resources data collection and investigation agency. Through the Water Resources Division District Office in Kentucky, the USGS investigates the occurrence, distribution, quantity, movement, and chemical and biological quality of surface and ground water in the State. The mission of this program is to collect, interpret, and publish information on water resources. Almost all research and data collection is a cooperative effort in which planning and financial support are shared by State and local agencies and governments. Other activities are funded by other Federal agencies or by direct Congressional appropriation. This report is intended to inform the public and cooperating agencies, vitally interested in the water resources of Kentucky, as to the current status of the Distfict's data collection and investigation program. Included in the report are summaries of water-resources activities in Kentucky conducted by the USGS. Also included is a description of the USGS mission and program, District organization, funding sources and cooperating agencies, and a list of USGS publications relevant to the water resources of the State.

  6. Water resources of northeast North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilder, Hugh B.; Robison, Tully M.; Lindskov, K.L.

    1978-01-01

    Several water-related problems are associated with economic development of northeast North Carolina. The solution to these problems depends in part on adequate knowledge of the hydrology of this 8,930 square mile coastal area. Average annual precipitation on the area is about 50 inches. Of this amount, about 34 inches returns to the atmosphere by evapotranspiration, about 15 inches leaves the area as runoff, and about one inch leaves through ground-water outflow. No large stream originates within the area, but major streams entering from the north and west bring in three times as much streamflow as originates within the study area. The flat, low-lying terrane does not offer opportunities for extensive development of surface-water supplies through the use of reservoirs. Much of the surface water is contaminated by saltwater from the ocean. Ground water occurs in three major aquifers, all of which contain both freshwater and saltwater.

  7. Water Resources Data, Florida, Water Year 2003, Volume 3A: Southwest Florida Surface Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kane, R.L.; Fletcher, W.L.

    2004-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2003 water year in Florida consist of continuous or daily discharges for 385 streams, periodic discharge for 13 streams, continuous daily stage for 255 streams, periodic stage for 13 streams, peak stage for 36 streams and peak discharge for 36 streams, continuous or daily elevations for 13 lakes, periodic elevations for 46 lakes; continuous ground-water levels for 441 wells, periodic ground-water levels for 1,227 wells, and quality-of-water data for 133 surface-water sites and 308 wells. The data for Southwest Florida include records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, water quality of lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 3A contains continuous or daily discharge for 103 streams, periodic discharge for 7 streams, continuous or daily stage for 67 streams, periodic stage for 13 streams, peak stage and discharge for 8 streams, continuous or daily elevations for 2 lakes, periodic elevations for 26 lakes, and quality-of-water data for 62 surface-water sites. These data represent the national Water Data System records collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating local, state, and federal agencies in Florida.

  8. Water Resources Data, Florida, Water Year 2001, Volume 3A. Southwest Florida Surface Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoker, Y.E.; Kane, R.L.; Fletcher, W.L.

    2002-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2001 water year in Florida consist of continuous or daily discharges for 406 streams, periodic discharge for 12 streams, continuous daily stage for 142 streams, periodic stage for 12 streams, peak stage and discharge for 37 streams, continuous or daily elevations for 11 lakes, periodic elevations for 30 lakes; continuous ground-water levels for 424 wells, periodic ground-water levels for 1,426 wells, and quality-of-water data for 80 surface-water sites and 245 wells. The data for Southwest Florida include records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, water quality of lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 3A contains continuous or daily discharge for 83 streams, periodic discharge for 10 streams, continuous or daily stage for 43 streams, peak stage and discharge for 8 streams, continuous or daily elevations for 2 lakes, periodic elevations for 26 lakes, and quality-of-water data for 37 surface-water sites. These data represent the national Water Data System records collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating local, state, and federal agencies in Florida.

  9. Water Resources Data, Florida, Water Year 2002, Volume 3A. Southwest Florida Surface Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kane, R.L.; Fletcher, W.L.

    2003-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2002 water year in Florida consist of continuous or daily discharges for 392 streams, periodic discharge for 15 streams, continuous daily stage for 191 streams, periodic stage for 13 streams, peak stage for 33 streams and peak discharge for 33 streams, continuous or daily elevations for 14 lakes, periodic elevations for 49 lakes; continuous ground-water levels for 418 wells, periodic ground-water levels for 1,287 wells, and quality-of-water data for 116 surface-water sites and 291 wells. The data for Southwest Florida include records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, water quality of lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 3A contains continuous or daily discharge for 99 streams, periodic discharge for 11 streams, continuous or daily stage for 63 streams, peak stage and discharge for 7 streams, continuous or daily elevations for 2 lakes, periodic elevations for 26 lakes, and quality-of-water data for 59 surface-water sites. These data represent the national Water Data System records collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating local, state, and federal agencies in Florida.

  10. Water resources data, Florida, water year 2004, volume 3A: southwest Florida surface water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kane, Richard L.

    2004-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2004 water year in Florida consist of continuous or daily discharges for 405 streams, periodic discharge for 12 streams, continuous daily stage for 159 streams, periodic stage for 19 streams, peak stage for 30 streams and peak discharge for 30 streams, continuous or daily elevations for 14 lakes, periodic elevations for 23 lakes; continuous ground-water levels for 408 wells, periodic ground-water levels for 1,188 wells, and quality-of-water data for 140 surface-water sites and 240 wells. The data for Southwest Florida include records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, water quality of lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 3A contains continuous or daily discharge for 104 streams, periodic discharge for 6 streams, continuous or daily stage for 36 streams, periodic stage for 14 streams, peak stage and discharge for 8 streams, continuous or daily elevations for 2 lakes, periodic elevations for 3 lakes, and quality-of-water data for 58 surface-water sites. These data represent the national Water Data System records collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating local, state, and federal agencies in Florida.

  11. Water resources data, Florida, water year 2005. Volume 3A: Southwest Florida surface water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kane, Richard L.; Dickman, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2005 water year in Florida consist of continuous or daily discharges for 429 streams, periodic discharge for 9 streams, continuous or daily stage for 218 streams, periodic stage for 5 streams, peak stage for 28 streams and peak discharge for 28 streams, continuous or daily elevations for 15 lakes, periodic elevations for 23 lakes; continuous ground-water levels for 401 wells, periodic ground-water levels for 1,098 wells, and quality-of-water data for 211 surface-water sites and 208 wells. The data for Southwest Florida include records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, water quality of lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 3A contains records for continuous or daily discharge for 113 streams, periodic discharge for 4 streams, continuous or daily stage for 80 streams, periodic stage for 2 stream, peak stage and discharge for 8 streams, continuous or daily elevations for 3 lakes, continous or daily elevations for 3 lakes, and quality of water for 75 surface water sites. These data represent the national Water Data System records collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating local, state, and federal agencies in Florida.

  12. 18 CFR 701.3 - Purpose of the Water Resources Council.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purpose of the Water Resources Council. 701.3 Section 701.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Introduction § 701.3 Purpose of the Water Resources Council. It is the purpose of...

  13. 18 CFR 701.3 - Purpose of the Water Resources Council.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Purpose of the Water Resources Council. 701.3 Section 701.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Introduction § 701.3 Purpose of the Water Resources Council. It is the purpose of...

  14. 18 CFR 701.3 - Purpose of the Water Resources Council.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Purpose of the Water Resources Council. 701.3 Section 701.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Introduction § 701.3 Purpose of the Water Resources Council. It is the purpose of...

  15. 18 CFR 701.3 - Purpose of the Water Resources Council.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Purpose of the Water Resources Council. 701.3 Section 701.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Introduction § 701.3 Purpose of the Water Resources Council. It is the purpose of...

  16. 18 CFR 701.3 - Purpose of the Water Resources Council.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Purpose of the Water Resources Council. 701.3 Section 701.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Introduction § 701.3 Purpose of the Water Resources Council. It is the purpose of...

  17. Water Resources Data: New Jersey, Water Year 1998, Volume 1, Surface-Water Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, T.J.; Centinaro, G.L.; Dudek, J.F.; Corcino, V.; Stekroadt, G.C.; McTigure, R.C.

    1999-01-01

    This volume of the annual hydrologic data report of New Jersey is one of a series of annual reports that document hydrologic data gathered from the U.S. Geological Survey's surface- and ground-water data-collection networks in each State, Puerto Rico, and the Trust Territories. These records of streamflow, ground-water levels, and water quality provide the hydrologic information needed by state, local and federal agencies, and the private sector for developing and managing our Nation's land and water resources.

  18. The role of hydrology in water resources management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamir, U.

    2011-12-01

    Modern water resources management developed as a branch of science based engineering since the landmark publication of Mass et al. (1962&1967) which emerged from the Harvard Water Program. Clearly, water was managed much earlier, in fact since the early days of civilization, as evidenced by the publication of Vitruvius on architecture in the 1st Century BC, but the 1950s marked the advent of modeling enabled by computers, which transformed the field we call Water Resources Management (WRM). Since then, thousands of papers have been published and thousands of decisions and projects have been aided by WRM methodologies and model results. This presentation is not an historical review of water resources management, although it appears in a session titled The Evolution of WRM Paradigms. Instead, it is an attempt to discuss the role of hydrology as a feeder of information for the management domain. The issues faced by hydrologists who work to serve and support WRM will be discussed and elucidated by case studies. For hydrologists, some of the important points in this regard are: - Planning, design and operation are three interconnected "layers" of WRM. Planning is where the sources and consumers are identified, the overall "architecture" of a proposed system is laid out, including its topology and connectivity. Design is where sizes of facilities are fixed. Operational policy determines the operation of the system under a selected forecasted set of typical and/or critical conditions, while real-time operation means setting the operational variables for a defined time period ahead (hour, day, week, month, year). The three "layers" are inter-connected and inter-dependent, but still can be addressed differently. - Hydrological data of different types are required, according to the management issue being addressed. They range from short term now-casting/forecasting for real-time operation and response, e.g., for flood protection, to long-term time probabilistic series and

  19. Current water resources activities in Alabama, fiscal year 1986

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slack, L.J.; Meadows, E.A.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the current (as of 1986) water resources activities of the U.S. Geological Survey in Alabama. The responsibilities and objectives of the Survey; organization of the Alabama District; sources of funding; current projects; hydrologic data program; and a selected bibliography of hydrologic reports are presented. Water resources projects are undertaken usually at the request of and with partial funding from another agency, provided: they are high priority problems and generally identified to fall within the mission of the Water Resources Division and they are consistent with the Program Management Plan developed by the Water Resources Division in Alabama to meet the long range plan for hydrologic data in the State. (USGS)

  20. Index of current water-resources activities in Ohio, 1985

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eberle, Michael

    1985-01-01

    This report summarizes the U. S. Geological Survey 's Water Resources Division 's program in Ohio in 1985. The work of the Ohio District is carried out through the District office in Columbus and a field office in New Philadelphia. Collection of basic data needed for continuing determination and evaluation of the quantity, quality, and use of Ohio 's water resources is the responsibility of the District 's Hydrologic Surveillance Section. The Hydrologic Investigations Section conducts analytical and interpretive water-resource appraisals describing the occurrence, availability, and the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of surface and groundwater. In addition to introductory material describing the structure of the Ohio District, information is presented on current projects, sites at which basic surface- and groundwater data are collected , and reports of Ohio 's water resources published by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating agencies. (USGS)

  1. Georgia's Ground-Water Resources and Monitoring Network, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2008-01-01

    Ground water is an abundant resource in Georgia, providing 1.45 billion gallons per day, or 22 percent, of the total freshwater used (including thermoelectric) in the State (Fanning, 2003). Contrasting geologic features and landforms of the physiographic provinces of Georgia affect the quantity and quality of ground water throughout the State. Most ground-water withdrawals are in the Coastal Plain in the southern one-half of the State, where aquifers are highly productive. For a more complete discussion of the State's ground-water resources, see Leeth and others (2005).

  2. Surface water resources issues analysis: Wheeler Reservoir watershed region

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, J.P.

    1990-02-01

    This report is one in a continuing series of periodic water resources issues analyses (WRIAs) conducted within the various local drainage basins that comprise the larger Tennessee River drainage basin. These analyses, based primarily upon existing information gathered from a variety of sources, perform several functions: document known or probable water quality issues that should be addressed by TVA or others; identify specific needs for additional information; guide routine surface water monitoring programs; and provide focus for planning and setting priorities for subsequent water quality assessments, mitigative activities, and resource management projects. 4 refs., 1 fig., 16 tabs.

  3. Water resources investigation program for Rio Aconcagua Valley, Chile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, John Ezra

    1969-01-01

    This report, prepared at the request of the Government of Chile under the auspices of the U. S. Agency for International Development (US AID), is based on a 2-month assignment (Oct. 22 to Dec. 31, 1969) of the author and outlines a program of water resources studies. The study program, if followed to its conclusion, will provide the basic hydrologic and hydrogeologic information and analysis essential for planning optimum future development and use of the water resources of the valley.

  4. Water resources of the Cumberland area, Maryland-West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, R. R.; LeFever, F. F.; Martin, R. O. R.; Otton, E. G.

    1950-01-01

    The report was prepared in response to a request from the United States Department of Commerce, which desired an appraisal of the water resources of the Cumberland atra in order to evaluate the effect of the availability of water on the economic development of the area. Accordingly, the purpose of this report is to summarize the available water information and to describe the hydrologic factors that affect the availability of water.

  5. Water on Mars - Volatile history and resource availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakosky, Bruce M.

    1990-09-01

    An attempt is made to define the available deposits of water in the near-surface region of Mars which will be available to human exploration missions. The Martian seasonal water cycle is reviewed, and geochemical and geological constraints on the availability of water are examined. It is concluded that the only sure source of water in amounts significant as a resource are in the polar ice deposits.

  6. Water on Mars - Volatile history and resource availability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jakosky, Bruce M.

    1990-01-01

    An attempt is made to define the available deposits of water in the near-surface region of Mars which will be available to human exploration missions. The Martian seasonal water cycle is reviewed, and geochemical and geological constraints on the availability of water are examined. It is concluded that the only sure source of water in amounts significant as a resource are in the polar ice deposits.

  7. Advances in water resources monitoring from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomonson, V. V.

    1974-01-01

    Nimbus-5 observations indicate that over the oceans the total precipitable water in a column of atmosphere can be estimated to within + or - 10%, the liquid water content of clouds can be estimated to within + or - 25%, areas of precipitation can be delineated, and broad estimates of the precipitation rate obtained. ERTS-1 observations permit the measurement of snow covered area to within a few percent of drainage basin area and snowline altitudes can be estimated to within 60 meters. Surface water areas as small as 1 hectare can be inventoried over large regions such as playa lakes region of West Texas and Eastern New Mexico. In addition, changes in land use on water-sheds occurring as a result of forest fires, urban development, clear cutting, or strip mining can be rapidly obtained.

  8. Student Understanding of Water and Water Resources: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Michael J.

    This paper reviews the educational research related to student understanding of water and water resources. The literature is drawn primarily from science and environmental education literature and is divided into student knowledge of: physical and chemical properties, biology, earth systems and water resources. The majority of work has been in the…

  9. Water-resources investigations in Wisconsin, 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bruce, Jennifer L.; Greenwood, Michelle M.; Jones, Susan Z.

    2004-01-01

    The statewide average precipitation for the 2003 water year was 27.42 inches, which was 5.22 inches less than the normal annual precipitation of 32.64 inches for water years 1971–2000. Average precipitation values affecting streamflow conditions ranged from 67 percent in southeast Wisconsin to 99 percent in northeast Wisconsin with a statewide average of 84 percent (summary tables provided by Ed Hopkins, State Climatology Office, University of Wisconsin, Madison, written commun., 2004).

  10. Water Efficient Energy Production for Geothermal Resources

    SciTech Connect

    GTO

    2015-06-01

    Water consumption in geothermal energy development occurs at several stages along the life cycle of the plant, during construction of the wells, piping, and plant; during hydroshearing and testing of the reservoir (for EGS); and during operation of the plant. These stages are highlighted in the illustration above. For more information about actual water use during these stages, please see the back of this sheet..

  11. Water resources regulation based on ET management - A case study on Huabei Plain in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S.

    2012-04-01

    Because of the unreasonable exploitation and use of water, the problems such as shortage of water amount and deterioration of water quality are prominent on Huabei Plain in China. In this region the conflicts arose among the domestic, industrial and agricultural water use, and the proportion of the agricultural water consumption is more than 70%. Therefore it is very important to well regulate the water resources in this region, especially the agricultural water use. Since the actual consumption of regional water resources over agricultural area is evaporation and transpiration (denoted as ET), regional net water consumption (i.e. ETtotal), which is estimated by ET of plowland, represents the actual water consumption of the region as well as the effects of water saving. In this paper the idea of the ET management is to combine the reduction of the exploitation of groundwater with the resource saving, and to integrate the engineering water-saving measures, agricultural water-saving measures with water-saving management. The aim of the ET management is to reduce the present ET to the objective ET, and it is represented by the objective indexes, e.g. the regional ETtotal is reduced to the multi-year-mean recharged water amount, the recharge of groundwater is dynamical balanced with the exploitation, and finally the zero-over-exploitation of groundwater is achieved. The objective ET is determined by the regional available water amount, which is calculated based on precipitation and available water amount recharged from outside the region, as well as other factors such as the allocation scheme of water resources. The key technical points of distribution method of water rights based on objective ET are: 1) the objective-ET distribution schemes of water rights in wet year and dry year are added to the water-right distribution based on multi-year-mean objective ET; 2) the distribution methods of surface-water rights and groundwater rights are explored to match the

  12. Water resources of southeastern Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Takasaki, K.J.; Mink, John F.

    1982-01-01

    Southeastern Oahu comprises the eastern end of the Koolau Range and is divided into two roughly equal parts by the crest of the range. The northside of the crest is commonly called the windward side and the southside, the leeward. Precipitous cliffs aproned by a gently sloping landscape are the main topographic features on the windward side. The leeward side is a gentle lava-flow slope incised by steep narrow valleys. The main Koolau fissure zone, including the caldera, lies on the windward side. The leeward side includes minor rift zones that are perpendicular to and intersect the main fissure zone. Dikes in the main fissure zone strike from nearly east-west in the eastern end to about N. 55? W. in the western part. Dikes in the minor rift zones strike from north-south to slightly northeasterly. Water use is about 18 Mgal/d (million gallons per day) of which only 4 Mgal/d is obtained locally from ground-water sources. About a third of the 14 Mgal/d deficit is imported from sources northwest of the study area on the windward side and the remainder from sources in the Honolulu and Pearl Harbor areas on the leeward side. The 4 Mgal/d being developed represents only about 3 percent of the area's rainfall compared to a development-rainfall ratio of 20 percent for the rest of the island. Streams are short and flashy. Perennial streamflow to the sea occurs only in Maunawili Valley and in the Waimanalo area. Mean annual discharge is estimated at 20 Mgal/d in the windward side and at 15 Mgal/d on the leeward side. Low flow, expressed as the flow that is equaled or exceeded 90 percent of the time, is 5 Mgal/d windward of the crest and zero leeward of it. Most fresh ground water occurs in lava flows of the Koolau Volcanics. It is impounded by dikes in the rift zones and floats on saline ground water as lenses outside the rift zones. Small but important bodies of freshwater are perched in volcanic rocks of the Honolulu Group in Maunawili Valley. Fresh ground water occurs in

  13. Final Report: California water resources research and applicationscenter

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Norman L.

    2003-05-30

    The California Water Resources RESAC objectives were toutilize NASA data to provide state-of-the-art real-time and forecastinformation (observation and simulation) on hydroclimate, water quantityand quality, and runoff related hazards to water resources managers(e.g., NWS, CA Dept. of Water Resources, USBR), the insurance industry,emergency response agencies, policy decision-makers, and the generalpublic. In addition, the RESAC acts as an umbrella organization fosteringgrowing collaborations and partnerships. It was built on the foundationestablished through the U.S. Global Change Research Program and theNational and California Assessments. It is designed to support theongoing regional and national assessment process by improving ourunderstanding of specific regional features of the climate system and itsimpacts, and facilitating the dissemination of these results throughdata, publications, and outreach.The California Water Resources RESACproduces three types of regional climate products that are enhanced byincorporation of NASA satellite data: (1) short-term (2-3 day) weatherand streamflow forecasts, (2) seasonal hydroclimate, and (3) long-termclimate change scenarios and hydrologic impacts. Our team has built anexcellent record in providing quantitative precipitation and streamflowforecasts to the water resources and weather prediction communities. Wehave been working with scientists from various University of Californiainstitutions and government agencies to improve weather and streamflowpredictions and studies of regional hydroclimate, and its impacts onwater resources, the environment, and the economy.

  14. Water resources of Rockland Basin, southeastern Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Rhea P.; Young, H.W.

    1982-01-01

    Rockland basin comprises about 320 sq mi of the Snake River drainage in southeastern Idaho. Mountain ranges bordering the basin are composed predominantly of limestone and are complexly faulted. Major aquifers include Holocene alluvium, Quaternary-Tertiary volcanic rocks, and Tertiary sedimentary rocks. Groundwater occurs under water table conditions except where it is locally confined. Groundwater discharges to springs in the Deep Creek Mountains and maintains perennial streamflow. Near the mouth of Rock Creek, groundwater movement is northward toward the Snake River. Underflow is estimated to be 51,000 acre-ft/yr. Total water yield available to Rockland basin is estimated to be 5.0 in. (85,000 acre-ft) of the estimated 17.3 in. of annual precipitation. Evapotranspiration ranges from 9.9 to 17 in./yr, depending, in part, on altitude of the land surface. An estimated 12,000 acre-ft of surface water and 3,500 acre-ft of groundwater are used annually for irrigation. Less than 100 acre-ft of water is used for public supply, domestic, and stock supplies. East Fork Rock Creek supplies the most surface water for irrigation of agricultural lands. At the present (1980) state of groundwater development in Rockland basin, streams and aquifers are hydraulically connected. Pumping of groundwater in increased quantities from wells near streams will affect groundwater movement and may diminish streamflow. There are no long-term regional water table declines at present. Continued water level monitoring of selected wells may aid in documenting effects of future management practices on the groundwater system. (Author 's abstract)

  15. Water resources of Yankton County, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bugliosi, E.F.

    1986-01-01

    The major surface-water sources in Yankton County, South Dakota are Lewis and Clark Lake, Marindahl and Beaver Lakes, and the Missouri and James Rivers. The James River has an average flow of 375 cu ft/sec and the Missouri River at Yankton has an average flow of 26,410 cu ft/sec. Major aquifers are the Dakota, the Niobrara, and the Lower James-Missouri glacial outwash. Depth to the Dakota aquifer, which underlies the entire county, ranges from about 300 to more than 500 ft below land surface. Wells completed in this artesian aquifer below altitudes of 1 ,260 ft will flow from 3 to 60 gallons/min at the land surface when properly constructed. Recharge is by subsurface inflow from the west. The water is a calcium sulfate type and is suitable in most cases for domestic, livestock, and irrigation uses. The Niobrara aquifer, which underlies the northeast and southwest parts of the county, may be under artesian or water-table conditions. Well yields vary but usually are suitable only for domestic use. Recharge to the northeast part of the aquifer is from precipitation infiltrating the overlying glacial deposits. The southwest part receives recharge as subsurface inflow from the west and from precipitation. The water is a magnesium sulfate type. The Lower James-Missouri aquifer underlies almost 50% of the county. Water in the aquifer is present under both artesian and water-table conditions. Wells can be expected to yield at least 1,000 gallons/min. Recharge is from subsurface inflow from the north and west, the Missouri River to the south, and from precipitation. The water is predominantly calcium sodium sulfate type, and specific conductance and hardness average 1,910 micromhs and 870 milligrams/L, respectively. (USGS)

  16. The science, information, and engineering needed to manage water availability and quality in 2050: Chapter 23

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hirsch, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter explores four water resources issues: 1) hydrologic variability, hazards, water supply and ecosystem preservation; 2) urban landscape design; 3) non-point source water quality, and 4) climate change, resiliency, and nonstationarity. It also considers what science, technology, and engineering practice may be needed in the coming decades to sustain water supplies and ecosystems in the face of increasing stresses from a growing demand for water. Dealing with these four water resource issues in the highly uncertain future would will demand predictive models that are rooted in real-world data. In a non-stationary world, continuity of observations is crucial. All watersheds are influenced by human actions through changes in land use, water use, and climate. The focus of water planning and management between today and 2050 will depend more than ever on collection and analysis of long-term data to learn about the evolving state of the system, understanding ecosystem processes in the water and on the landscape, and finding innovative ways to manage water as a shared resource. This includes sharing water with our neighbors on the landscape, sharing with the other species that depend on water, and sharing with future generations.

  17. Bringing ecosystem services into integrated water resources management.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuang; Crossman, Neville D; Nolan, Martin; Ghirmay, Hiyoba

    2013-11-15

    In this paper we propose an ecosystem service framework to support integrated water resource management and apply it to the Murray-Darling Basin in Australia. Water resources in the Murray-Darling Basin have been over-allocated for irrigation use with the consequent degradation of freshwater ecosystems. In line with integrated water resource management principles, Australian Government reforms are reducing the amount of water diverted for irrigation to improve ecosystem health. However, limited understanding of the broader benefits and trade-offs associated with reducing irrigation diversions has hampered the planning process supporting this reform. Ecosystem services offer an integrative framework to identify the broader benefits associated with integrated water resource management in the Murray-Darling Basin, thereby providing support for the Government to reform decision-making. We conducted a multi-criteria decision analysis for ranking regional potentials to provide ecosystem services at river basin scale. We surveyed the wider public about their understanding of, and priorities for, managing ecosystem services and then integrated the results with spatially explicit indicators of ecosystem service provision. The preliminary results of this work identified the sub-catchments with the greatest potential synergies and trade-offs of ecosystem service provision under the integrated water resources management reform process. With future development, our framework could be used as a decision support tool by those grappling with the challenge of the sustainable allocation of water between irrigation and the environment. PMID:23900082

  18. Bringing ecosystem services into integrated water resources management.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuang; Crossman, Neville D; Nolan, Martin; Ghirmay, Hiyoba

    2013-11-15

    In this paper we propose an ecosystem service framework to support integrated water resource management and apply it to the Murray-Darling Basin in Australia. Water resources in the Murray-Darling Basin have been over-allocated for irrigation use with the consequent degradation of freshwater ecosystems. In line with integrated water resource management principles, Australian Government reforms are reducing the amount of water diverted for irrigation to improve ecosystem health. However, limited understanding of the broader benefits and trade-offs associated with reducing irrigation diversions has hampered the planning process supporting this reform. Ecosystem services offer an integrative framework to identify the broader benefits associated with integrated water resource management in the Murray-Darling Basin, thereby providing support for the Government to reform decision-making. We conducted a multi-criteria decision analysis for ranking regional potentials to provide ecosystem services at river basin scale. We surveyed the wider public about their understanding of, and priorities for, managing ecosystem services and then integrated the results with spatially explicit indicators of ecosystem service provision. The preliminary results of this work identified the sub-catchments with the greatest potential synergies and trade-offs of ecosystem service provision under the integrated water resources management reform process. With future development, our framework could be used as a decision support tool by those grappling with the challenge of the sustainable allocation of water between irrigation and the environment.

  19. NASA'S Water Resources Element Within the Applied Sciences Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toll, David; Doorn, Bradley; Engman, Edwin

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Applied Sciences Program works within NASA Earth sciences to leverage investment of satellite and information systems to increase the benefits to society through the widest practical use of NASA research results. Such observations provide a huge volume of valuable data in both near-real-time and extended back nearly 50 years about the Earth's land surface conditions such as land cover type, vegetation type and health, precipitation, snow, soil moisture, and water levels and radiation. Observations of this type combined with models and analysis enable satellite-based assessment of numerous water resources management activities. The primary goal of the Earth Science Applied Science Program is to improve future and current operational systems by infusing them with scientific knowledge of the Earth system gained through space-based observation, model results, and development and deployment of enabling technologies, systems, and capabilities. Water resources is one of eight elements in the Applied Sciences Program and it addresses concerns and decision making related to water quantity and water quality. With increasing population pressure and water usage coupled with climate variability and change, water issues are being reported by numerous groups as the most critical environmental problems facing us in the 21st century. Competitive uses and the prevalence of river basins and aquifers that extend across boundaries engender political tensions between communities, stakeholders and countries. Mitigating these conflicts and meeting water demands requires using existing resources more efficiently. The potential crises and conflicts arise when water is competed among multiple uses. For example, urban areas, environmental and recreational uses, agriculture, and energy production compete for scarce resources, not only in the Western U.S. but throughout much of the U.S. but also in many parts of the world. In addition to water availability issues, water quality related

  20. Science to support the understanding of Ohio's water resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shaffer, Kimberly; Kula, Stephanie; Bambach, Phil; Runkle, Donna

    2012-01-01

    Ohio’s water resources support a complex web of human activities and nature—clean and abundant water is needed for drinking, recreation, farming, and industry, as well as for fish and wildlife needs. The distribution of rainfall can cause floods and droughts, which affects streamflow, groundwater, water availability, water quality, recreation, and aquatic habitats. Ohio is bordered by the Ohio River and Lake Erie and has over 44,000 miles of streams and more than 60,000 lakes and ponds (State of Ohio, 1994). Nearly all the rural population obtain drinking water from groundwater sources. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) works in cooperation with local, State, and other Federal agencies, as well as universities, to furnish decisionmakers, policymakers, USGS scientists, and the general public with reliable scientific information and tools to assist them in management, stewardship, and use of Ohio’s natural resources. The diversity of scientific expertise among USGS personnel enables them to carry out large- and small-scale multidisciplinary studies. The USGS is unique among government organizations because it has neither regulatory nor developmental authority—its sole product is reliable, impartial, credible, relevant, and timely scientific information, equally accessible and available to everyone. The USGS Ohio Water Science Center provides reliable hydrologic and water-related ecological information to aid in the understanding of use and management of the Nation’s water resources, in general, and Ohio’s water resources, in particular. This fact sheet provides an overview of current (2012) or recently completed USGS studies and data activities pertaining to water resources in Ohio. More information regarding projects of the USGS Ohio Water Science Center is available at http://oh.water.usgs.gov/.

  1. Applications of remote sensing to water resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Analyses were made of selected long-term (1985 and beyond) objectives, with the intent of determining if significant data-related problems would be encountered and to develop alternative solutions to any potential problems. One long-term objective selected for analysis was Water Availability Forecasting. A brief overview was scheduled in FY-77 of the objective -- primarily a fact-finding study to allow Data Management personnel to gain adequate background information to perform subsequent data system analyses. This report, includes discussions on some of the larger problems currently encountered in water measurement, the potential users of water availability forecasts, projected demands of users, current sensing accuracies, required parameter monitoring, status of forecasting modeling, and some measurement accuracies likely to be achievable by 1980 and 1990.

  2. Water resources of St. John the Baptist Parish, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Vincent E.; Prakken, Lawrence B.; Fendick, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    Information concerning the availability, use, and quality of water in St. John the Baptist Parish, Louisiana, is critical for proper water-supply management. The purpose of this fact sheet is to present information that can be used by water managers, parish residents, and others for stewardship of this vital resource. Information on the availability, past and current use, use trends, and water quality from groundwater and surface-water sources in the parish is presented. Previously published reports and data stored in the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water Information System (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis) are the primary sources of the information presented here.

  3. Water resources of East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Vincent E.; Prakken, Lawrence B.

    2015-01-01

    Information concerning the availability, use, and quality of water in East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana, is critical for proper water-supply management. The purpose of this fact sheet is to present information that can be used by water managers, parish residents, and others for stewardship of this vital resource. Information on the availability, past and current use, use trends, and water quality from groundwater and surface-water sources in the parish is presented. Previously published reports and data stored in the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water Information System (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis) are the primary sources of the information presented here.

  4. Treatment Technology and Alternative Water Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    At this point in our settlement of the planet Earth, with over seven billion human inhabitants, there are very few unallocated sources of fresh water. We are turning slowly toward "alternatives" such as municipal and industrial wastewater, saline groundwater, the sea, irrigation return flow, and produced water that comes up with oil and gas deposits from deep beneath the surface of the earth. Slowly turning, not because of a lack in technological ability, but because it takes a large capital investment to acquire and treat these sources to a level at which they can be used. The regulatory system is not geared up for alternative sources and treatment processes. Permitting can be circular, contradictory, time consuming, and very expensive. The purpose for the water, or the value of the product obtained using the water, must be such that the capital and ongoing expense seem reasonable. There are so many technological solutions for recovering water quality that choosing the most reliable, economical, and environmentally sound technology involves unraveling the "best" weave of treatment processes from a tangled knot of alternatives. Aside from permitting issues, which are beyond the topic for this presentation, the "best" weave of processes will be composed of four strands specifically fitted to the local situation: energy, pretreatment, driving force for separation processes, and waste management. A range of treatment technologies will be examined in this presentation with a focus on how the quality of the feed water, available power sources, materials, and waste management opportunities aid in choosing the best weave of treatment technologies, and how innovative use of a wide variety of driving forces are increasing the efficiency of treatment processes.

  5. Water resources data, Ohio: Water year 1991. Volume 2, St. Lawrence River Basin: Statewide project data

    SciTech Connect

    Shindel, H.L.; Klingler, J.H.; Mangus, J.P.; Trimble, L.E.

    1992-03-01

    The Water Resources Division of the US Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with State agencies, obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the water resources of Ohio each water year. These data, accumulated during many years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. To make these data readily available to interested parties outside the USGS, the data are published annually in this report series entitled ``Water Resources Data--Ohio.`` This report (in two volumes) includes records on surface water and ground water in the State. Specifically, it contains: (1) Discharge records for 131 streamflow-gaging stations, 95 miscellaneous sites; (2) stage and content records for 5 streams, lakes, and reservoirs; (3) water-quality for 40 streamflow-gaging stations, 378 wells, and 74 partial-record sites; and (4) water levels for 431 observation wells.

  6. Montana water resources research report No. 136

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-06-01

    This project investigated the chemistry of precipitation in the western mountain region of Montana. Of particular concern was the acid content of the snowfall. Seventy-seven snow samples were collected during the winter of 1982 and analyzed for chemical constitutents. Several of the samples indicated the presence of acid precipitation; however, in general the study areas were not being subjected to acid precipitation. Surface water samples were collected from twenty-eight lakes and streams. Chemical analyses of these water samples indicated that many of the lakes could be classified as moderately or extremely sensitive to acid precipitation, based on their respective calcium saturation index. 13 references, 2 figures, 5 tables.

  7. Water resources of Windward Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Takasaki, K.J.; Hirashima, George Tokusuke; Lubke, E.R.

    1969-01-01

    Windward Oahu lies in a large cavity--an erosional remnant of the Koolau volcanic dome at its greatest stage of growth. Outcrops include volcanic rocks associated with caldera collapse and the main fissure zone which is marked by a dike complex that extends along the main axis of the dome. The fissure zone intersects and underlies the Koolau Range north of Waiahole Valley. South of Waiahole Valley, the crest of the Koolau Range is in the marginal dike zone, an area of scattered dikes. The crest of the range forms the western boundary of windward Oahu. Dikes, mostly vertical and parallel or subparallel to the fissure zone, control movement and discharge of ground water because they are less permeable than the rocks they intrude. Dikes impound or partly impound ground water by preventing or retarding its movement toward discharge points. The top of this water, called high-level water in Hawaii, is at an altitude of about 1,000 feet in the north end of windward Oahu and 400 feet near the south end in Waimanalo Valley. It underlies most of the area and extends near or to the surface in poorly permeable rocks in low-lying areas. Permeability is high in less weathered mountain areas and is highest farthest away from the dike complex. Ground-water storage fluctuates to some degree owing to limited changes in the level of the ground-water reservoir--maximum storage is about 60,000 million gallons. The fluctuations control the rate at which ground water discharges. Even at its lowest recorded level, the reservoir contains a major part of the storage capacity because most of the area is perennially saturated to or near the surface. Tunnels have reduced storage by about 26,000 million gallons--only a fraction of the total storage--by breaching dike controls. Much of the reduction in storage can be restored if the .breached dike controls are replaced by flow-regulating bulkheads. Perennial streams intersect high-level water and collectively form its principal discharge. The

  8. What Do Experienced Water Managers Think of Water Resources of Our Nation and Its Management Infrastructure?

    PubMed

    Hossain, Faisal; Arnold, Jeffrey; Beighley, Ed; Brown, Casey; Burian, Steve; Chen, Ji; Mitra, Anindita; Niyogi, Dev; Pielke, Roger; Tidwell, Vincent; Wegner, Dave

    2015-01-01

    This article represents the second report by an ASCE Task Committee "Infrastructure Impacts of Landscape-driven Weather Change" under the ASCE Watershed Management Technical Committee and the ASCE Hydroclimate Technical Committee. Herein, the 'infrastructure impacts" are referred to as infrastructure-sensitive changes in weather and climate patterns (extremes and non-extremes) that are modulated, among other factors, by changes in landscape, land use and land cover change. In this first report, the article argued for explicitly considering the well-established feedbacks triggered by infrastructure systems to the land-atmosphere system via landscape change. In this report by the ASCE Task Committee (TC), we present the results of this ASCE TC's survey of a cross section of experienced water managers using a set of carefully crafted questions. These questions covered water resources management, infrastructure resiliency and recommendations for inclusion in education and curriculum. We describe here the specifics of the survey and the results obtained in the form of statistical averages on the 'perception' of these managers. Finally, we discuss what these 'perception' averages may indicate to the ASCE TC and community as a whole for stewardship of the civil engineering profession. The survey and the responses gathered are not exhaustive nor do they represent the ASCE-endorsed viewpoint. However, the survey provides a critical first step to developing the framework of a research and education plan for ASCE. Given the Water Resources Reform and Development Act passed in 2014, we must now take into account the perceived concerns of the water management community.

  9. What Do Experienced Water Managers Think of Water Resources of Our Nation and Its Management Infrastructure?

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Faisal; Arnold, Jeffrey; Beighley, Ed; Brown, Casey; Burian, Steve; Chen, Ji; Mitra, Anindita; Niyogi, Dev; Pielke, Roger; Tidwell, Vincent; Wegner, Dave

    2015-01-01

    This article represents the second report by an ASCE Task Committee “Infrastructure Impacts of Landscape-driven Weather Change” under the ASCE Watershed Management Technical Committee and the ASCE Hydroclimate Technical Committee. Herein, the ‘infrastructure impacts” are referred to as infrastructure-sensitive changes in weather and climate patterns (extremes and non-extremes) that are modulated, among other factors, by changes in landscape, land use and land cover change. In this first report, the article argued for explicitly considering the well-established feedbacks triggered by infrastructure systems to the land-atmosphere system via landscape change. In this report by the ASCE Task Committee (TC), we present the results of this ASCE TC’s survey of a cross section of experienced water managers using a set of carefully crafted questions. These questions covered water resources management, infrastructure resiliency and recommendations for inclusion in education and curriculum. We describe here the specifics of the survey and the results obtained in the form of statistical averages on the ‘perception’ of these managers. Finally, we discuss what these ‘perception’ averages may indicate to the ASCE TC and community as a whole for stewardship of the civil engineering profession. The survey and the responses gathered are not exhaustive nor do they represent the ASCE-endorsed viewpoint. However, the survey provides a critical first step to developing the framework of a research and education plan for ASCE. Given the Water Resources Reform and Development Act passed in 2014, we must now take into account the perceived concerns of the water management community. PMID:26544045

  10. What Do Experienced Water Managers Think of Water Resources of Our Nation and Its Management Infrastructure?

    PubMed

    Hossain, Faisal; Arnold, Jeffrey; Beighley, Ed; Brown, Casey; Burian, Steve; Chen, Ji; Mitra, Anindita; Niyogi, Dev; Pielke, Roger; Tidwell, Vincent; Wegner, Dave

    2015-01-01

    This article represents the second report by an ASCE Task Committee "Infrastructure Impacts of Landscape-driven Weather Change" under the ASCE Watershed Management Technical Committee and the ASCE Hydroclimate Technical Committee. Herein, the 'infrastructure impacts" are referred to as infrastructure-sensitive changes in weather and climate patterns (extremes and non-extremes) that are modulated, among other factors, by changes in landscape, land use and land cover change. In this first report, the article argued for explicitly considering the well-established feedbacks triggered by infrastructure systems to the land-atmosphere system via landscape change. In this report by the ASCE Task Committee (TC), we present the results of this ASCE TC's survey of a cross section of experienced water managers using a set of carefully crafted questions. These questions covered water resources management, infrastructure resiliency and recommendations for inclusion in education and curriculum. We describe here the specifics of the survey and the results obtained in the form of statistical averages on the 'perception' of these managers. Finally, we discuss what these 'perception' averages may indicate to the ASCE TC and community as a whole for stewardship of the civil engineering profession. The survey and the responses gathered are not exhaustive nor do they represent the ASCE-endorsed viewpoint. However, the survey provides a critical first step to developing the framework of a research and education plan for ASCE. Given the Water Resources Reform and Development Act passed in 2014, we must now take into account the perceived concerns of the water management community. PMID:26544045

  11. 78 FR 18562 - Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related Land Resources...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ... QUALITY Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related Land Resources... Quality. ACTION: Draft guidelines with request for comments. SUMMARY: Section 2031 of the Water Resources... Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related Land Resources Implementation...

  12. Impact of remote sensing upon the planning, management and development of water resources, appendix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castruccio, P. A.; Loats, H. L.; Fowler, T. R.; Frech, S. L.

    1975-01-01

    Lists are presented of water resource agencies from the federal, state, Water Resources Research Institute, university, local, and private sectors. Information is provided on their water resource activities, computers, and models used. For Basic doc., see N75-25263.

  13. 76 FR 27344 - Water Resources Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Mojave National Preserve, San...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... will evaluate different approaches for water resources management to determine the potential impacts on... National Park Service Water Resources Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Mojave National... Prepare a Water Resources Management Plan/ Environmental Impact Statement for Mojave National...

  14. Ground-water resources of Cambodia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rasmussen, William Charles; Bradford, Gary M.

    1977-01-01

    Cambodia (now the Khmer Republic), in tropical, humid southeast Asia, has an area of 175,630 km and a population of about 5 million. The Mekong River, one of the world's largest rivers, flows through Cambodia. Also, the Tonle Sap (Grand Lac), a highly productive fresh-water lake, functions as a huge off-channel storage reservoir for flood flow of the Mekong River. Surfacewater discharge in streams and rivers of Cambodia is abundant during the wet season, mid-May through mid-November, when 85 percent of the precipitation falls, but is frequently deficient during the remainder of the year. Annual rainfall ranges from 1,370 mm in the central lowlands to more than 5,000 mm in the mountainous highlands. The mean annual temperature for the country is 27.5?C and the evaporation rate is high. During 1960-63, 1,103 holes were drilled in 16 of the 18 khets (provinces), of which 795 or approximately 72 percent, were productive wells at rates ranging from 1.1 to 2,967 l/min. The productive wells ranged in depth from 2 to 209.4 m and were 23.2 m deep on the average. Mr. Rasmussen ' studied the subsurface geology of Cambodia in considerable detail by examining drillers' logs and constructing nine geologic cross sections. The principal aquifer tapped by drilled wells in Cambodia is the Old Alluvium. In many places, however, dug wells and a few shallow drilled wells obtain water from the Young Alluvium. Sandstone of the Indosinias Formation yields moderate to small quantities of water to wells in a number of places. Also, wells tapping water-bearing basalt have a small to moderate yield. The quality of water is recorded in only a few analyses. The dissolved solids concentrations appear to be generally low so that the water is usable for most purposes without treatment. Some well waters, however, are high in iron and would have to be aerated and filtered before use. In this report, well records are tabulated, and the geology and hydrology is discussed by khets. The bulk of the

  15. Assessing Water and Carbon Footprints for Green Water Resource Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    This slide presentation will focus on the following points: (1) Water footprint and carbon footprint are two criteria evaluating the greenness in urban development, (2) Two cases are examined and presented: water footprints in energy productions and carbon footprints in water ...

  16. Water resources data--Illinois, water year 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weldon, E.A.; Morgan, D.P.; Cann, L.M.

    2004-01-01

    This annual Water-Data Report for Illinois contains current water year (Oct. 1, 2003, to Sept. 30, 2004) and historical data of discharge, stage, water quality and biology of streams; stage of lakes and reservoirs; levels and quality of ground water; and records of precipitation, air temperature, dew point, solar radiation, and wind speed. The current year's (2004) data provided in this report include (1) discharge for 177 surface-water gaging stations and for 10 crest-stage partial-record stations; (2) stage for 27 surface-water gaging stations; (3) stage for 8 reservoirs; (4) water-quality records for 7 surface-water stations; (5) sediment-discharge records for 16 surface-water stations; (6) water-level records for 14 ground-water wells; (7) precipitation records for 50 rain gages; (8) records of air temperature, dew point, solar radiation and wind speed for 1 meteorological station; and (9) biological records for 6 sample sites. Also included are miscellaneous data collected at various sites not in the systematic data-collection network. Data were collected and compiled as a part of the National Water Information System (NWIS) maintained by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with Federal, State, and local agencies.

  17. Water resources: Research network to track alpine water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The water cycle in alpine environments worldwide supplies fresh water to vast downstream areas inhabited by more than half of humanity. The International Network for Alpine Research Catchment Hydrology (INARCH) was launched this year by the Global Energy and Water Exchanges project of the World Clim...

  18. Introducing Water-Treatment Subjects into Chemical Engineering Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caceres, L.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Proposes that inclusion of waste water treatment subjects within the chemical engineering curriculum can provide students with direct access to environmental issues from both a biotechnological and an ethical perspective. The descriptive details of water recycling at a copper plant and waste water stabilization ponds exemplify this approach from…

  19. The Sparta Aquifer: A Sustainable Water Resource?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKee, Paul W.; Hays, Phillip D.

    2002-01-01

    Introduction The Sparta aquifer is an aquifer of regional importance within the Mississippi embayment aquifer system. It consists of varying amounts of unconsolidated sand, inter-stratified with silt and clay lenses within the Sparta Sand of the Claiborne Group. It extends from south Texas, north into Louisiana, Arkansas, and Tennessee, and eastward into Mississippi and Alabama (fig. 1). On both the west and east sides of the Mississippi embayment, the Sparta aquifer is exposed at the surface (outcrops) and is locally unconfined; it becomes confined as it dips toward the axis of the embayment, (generally corresponding with the Mississippi River) and southward toward the Gulf of Mexico where it is deeply buried in the subsurface (Hosman, 1968). Generalized ground-water flow in the Sparta aquifer is from the outcrop areas to the axis (center) of the embayment (fig. 2). In Arkansas, the Sparta aquifer outcrops parallel to the Fall Line at the western extreme of the Mississippi embayment (the Fall Line is a line dividing the mountainous highlands of Arkansas from the lowland area); and the formation dips from its outcrop area to the southeast. The Sparta aquifer supplies water for municipalities, industries such as paper production, and to a lesser degree, irrigation of agricultural crops (fig. 3). This report highlights hydrologic conditions of the aquifer in Arkansas County as an example of how water use is affecting water levels.

  20. Review of Water Resources and Desalination Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    MILLER, JAMES E.

    2003-03-01

    Water shortages affect 88 developing countries that are home to half of the world's population. In these places, 80-90% of all diseases and 30% of all deaths result from poor water quality. Furthermore, over the next 25 years, the number of people affected by severe water shortages is expected to increase fourfold. Low cost methods to desalinate brackish water and sea water can help reverse this destabilizing trend. Desalination has now been practiced on a large scale for more than 50 years. During this time continual improvements have been made, and the major technologies are now remarkably efficient, reliable, and inexpensive. For many years, thermal technologies were the only viable option, and multi-stage flash (MSF) was established as the baseline technology. Multi-effect evaporation (MEE) is now the state-of-the-art thermal technology, but has not been widely implemented. With the growth of membrane science, reverse osmosis (RO) overtook MSF as the leading desalination technology, and should be considered the baseline technology. Presently, RO of seawater can be accomplished with an energy expenditure in the range of 11-60 kJ/kg at a cost of $2 to $4 per 1000 gallons. The theoretical minimum energy expenditure is 3-7 kJ/kg. Since RO is a fairly mature technology, further improvements are likely to be incremental in nature, unless design improvements allow major savings in capital costs. Therefore, the best hope to dramatically decrease desalination costs is to develop ''out of the box'' technologies. These ''out of the box'' approaches must offer a significant advantage over RO (or MEE, if waste heat is available) if they are to be viable. When making these comparisons, it is crucial that the specifics of the calculation are understood so that the comparison is made on a fair and equivalent basis.

  1. Water resources of Red River Parish, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newcome, Roy; Page, Leland Vernon

    1963-01-01

    Red River Parish is on the eastern flank of the Sabine uplift in northwestern Louisiana. The 'area is underlain by lignitic clay and sand of Paleocene and Eocene age which dip to the east at the rate of about 30 feet per mile. The Red River is entrenched in these rocks in the western part of the parish. Alternating valley filling and erosion during the Quaternary period have resulted in the present lowland with flanking terraces. In the flood-plain area moderate to large quantities of very hard, iron-bearing water, suitable for irrigation, are available to wells in the alluvial sand and gravel of Quaternary age. The aquifer ranges in thickness from 20 to slightly more than 100 feet. It is recharged by downward seepage of rainfall through overlying clay and silt, by inflow from older sands adjacent to and beneath the entrenched valley, and by infiltration from the streams where the water table is below stream level during flood stages or as a result of pumping. Water levels are highest in the middle of the valley. Ground water moves mainly toward the Red River on the east and Bayou Pierre on the west, but small amounts move down the valley. Computations based on water-level and aquifer-test data indicate that the Quaternary alluvium contains more than 330 billion gallons of ground water in storage and that the maximum discharge of ground water to the streams is slightly more than 30 mgd (million gallons per day). At times of high river stage, surface water flows into the aquifer at a rate that depends in part upon the height and duration of the river stage. Moderate supplies of soft, iron-bearing water may be obtained from dissected Pleistocene terrace deposits that flank the flood plains of the Red River and Black Lake Bayou. However, the quantity of water that can be pumped from these deposits varies widely from place to place because of differences in the areal extent and saturated thickness of the segments of the deposits; this extent and thickness are governed

  2. Water Resources Data North Dakota Water Year 2003, Volume 1. Surface Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, S.M.; Lundgren, R.F.; Sether, B.A.; Norbeck, S.W.; Lambrecht, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2003 water year for North Dakota consists of records of discharge, stage, and water quality for streams; contents, stage, and water quality for lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality for ground-water wells. Volume 1 contains records of water discharge for 108 streamflow-gaging stations; stage only for 24 river-stage stations; contents and/or stage for 14 lake or reservoir stations; annual maximum discharge for 32 crest-stage stations; and water-quality for 99 streamflow-gaging stations, 5 river-stage stations, 11 lake or reservoir stations, 8 miscellaneous sample sites on rivers, and 63 miscellaneous sample sites on lakes and wetlands. Data are included for 7 water-quality monitor sites on streams and 2 precipitation-chemistry stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in North Dakota.

  3. Water Resources Data North Dakota Water Year 2001, Volume 1. Surface Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harkness, R.E.; Berkas, W.R.; Norbeck, S.W.; Robinson, S.M.

    2002-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2001 water year for North Dakota consists of records of discharge, stage, and water quality for streams; contents, stage, and water quality for lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality for ground-water wells. Volume 1 contains records of water discharge for 103 streamflow-gaging stations; stage only for 20 river-stage stations; contents and/or stage for 13 lake or reservoir stations; annual maximum discharge for 35 crest-stage stations; and water-quality for 94 streamflow-gaging stations, 2 river-stage stations, 9 lake or reservoir stations, 7 miscellaneous sample sites on rivers, and 58 miscellaneous sample sites on lakes and wetlands. Data are included for 9 water-quality monitor sites on streams and 2 precipitation-chemistry stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in North Dakota.

  4. Water Resources Data, Florida, Water Year 2003 Volume 2A: South Florida Surface Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, C.; Woolverton, J.; Overton, K.

    2004-01-01

    Water resources data for 2003 water year in Florida consists of continuous or daily discharge for 385 streams, periodic discharge for 13 streams, continuous or daily stage for 255 streams, periodic stage for 13 stream, peak discharge for 36 streams, and peak stage for 36 streams, continuous or daily elevations for 13 lakes, periodic elevations for 46 lakes, continuous ground-water levels for 441 wells, periodic ground-water levels for 1227 wells, quality of water data for 133 surface-water sites, and 308 wells. The data for South Florida included continuous or daily discharge for 72 streams, continuous or daily stage for 50 streams, no peak stage discharge for streams, 1 continuous elevation for lake, continuous ground-water levels for 237 wells, periodic ground-water levels for 248 wells, water quality for 25 surface-water sites, and 161 wells. These data represent the National Water Data System records collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperation with local, state, and federal agencies in Florida.

  5. Water resources data-Florida water year 2004volume 2A: south Florida surface water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, C.; Woolverton, J.; Overton, K.

    2005-01-01

    Water resources data for 2004 water year in Florida consists of continuous or daily discharge for 405 streams, periodic discharge for 12 streams, continuous or daily stage for 159 streams, periodic stage for 19 stream, peak discharge for 30 streams, and peak stage for 30 streams, continuous or daily elevations for 14 lakes, periodic elevations for 23 lakes, continuous ground-water levels for 408 wells, periodic ground-water levels for 1188 wells, quality of water data for 140 surface-water sites, and 240 wells. The data for South Florida included continuous or daily discharge for 86 streams, continuous or daily stage for 54 streams, no peak stage discharge for streams, 1 continuous elevation for lake, continuous ground-water levels for 257 wells, periodic ground-water levels for 226 wells, water quality for 39 surface-water sites, and 149 wells. These data represent the National Water Data System records collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating local, State, and Federal agencies in Florida.

  6. Water Resources Data, Florida, Water Year 2001, Volume 2A. South Florida Surface Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, C.; Woolverton, J.; Overton, K.

    2002-01-01

    Water resources data for 2001 water year in Florida consists of continuous or daily discharge for 404 streams, periodic discharge for 15 streams, continuous or daily stage for 154 streams, periodic stage for 12 stream, peak discharge for 37 streams, and peak stage for 37 streams, continuous or daily elevations for 12 lakes, periodic elevations for 50 lakes, continuous ground-water levels for 426 wells, periodic ground-water levels for 1251 wells, quality of water data for 112 surface-water sites, and 235 wells. The data for South Florida included continuous or daily discharge for 89 streams, continuous or daily stage for 64 streams, no peak stage discharge for streams, 1 continuous elevation for lake, continuous ground-water levels for 244 wells, periodic ground-water levels for 255 wells, water quality for 32 surface-water sites, and 166 wells. The data represent the National Water Data System records collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperation with local, state, and federal agencies in Florida.

  7. Water resources data, Florida, water year 2005. Volume 2A: south Florida surface water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, C.; Overton, K.

    2006-01-01

    Water resources data for 2005 water year in Florida consists of continuous or daily discharge for 429 streams, periodic discharge for 9 streams, continuous or daily stage for 218 streams, periodic stage for 5 stream, peak discharge for 28 streams, and peak stage for 28 streams, continuous or daily elevations for 15 lakes, periodic elevations for 23 lakes, continuous ground-water levels for 401 wells, periodic ground-water levels for 1,098 wells, quality of water data for 211 surface-water sites, and 208 wells. The data for South Florida included continuous or daily discharge for 91 streams, continuous or daily stage for 62 streams, no peak stage discharge for streams, 1 continuous elevation for lake, continuous ground-water levels for 248 wells, periodic ground-water levels for 187 wells, water quality for 54 surface-water sites, and 121 wells. These data represent the National Water Data System records collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating local, State, and Federal agencies in Florida.

  8. Water Resources Data, Florida, Water Year 2002, Volume 2A. South Florida Surface Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, C.; Woolverton, J.; Overton, K.

    2003-01-01

    Water resources data for 2002 water year in Florida consists of continuous or daily discharge for 392 streams, periodic discharge for 15 streams, continuous or daily stage for 191 streams, periodic stage for 13 stream, peak discharge for 33 streams, and peak stage for 33 streams, continuous or daily elevations for 14 lakes, periodic elevations for 49 lakes, continuous ground-water levels for 418 wells, periodic ground-water levels for 1287 wells, quality of water data for 116 surface-water sites, and 291 wells. The data for South Florida included continuous or daily discharge for 71 streams, continuous or daily stage for 49 streams, no peak stage discharge for streams, 1 continuous elevation for lake, continuous ground-water levels for 238 wells, periodic ground-water levels for 260 wells, water quality for 24 surface-water sites, and 159 wells. The data represent the National Water Data System records collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperation with local, state, and federal agencies in Florida.

  9. Water resources data for Florida water year 2004volume 1A. northeast Florida surface water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herrett, Thomas A.; Hess, Glen W.; House, Jon G.; Ruppert, Gregory P.; Courts, Mary-Lorraine

    2005-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2004 water year in Florida consist of continuous or daily discharge for 405 streams, periodic discharge for 12 streams, continuous or daily stage for 159 streams, periodic stage for 19 streams, peak stage and discharge for 30 streams; continuous or daily elevations for 14 lakes, periodic elevations for 23 lakes; continuous ground-water levels for 408 wells, periodic ground-water levels for 1,157 wells; quality-of-water data for 140 surface-water sites and 239 wells. The data for northeast Florida include continuous or daily discharge for 140 streams, periodic discharge for 4 streams, continuous or daily stage for 58 streams, periodic stage for 3 streams; peak stage and discharge for 0 streams; continuous or daily elevations for 10 lakes, periodic elevations for 20 lakes; continuous ground water levels for 50 wells, periodic ground-water levels for 522 wells; quality-of-water data for 40 surface-water sites and 66 wells. These data represent the National Water Data System records collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating local, State and Federal agencies in Florida.

  10. Water Resources Data North Dakota Water Year 2002 Volume 1. Surface Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harkness, R.E.; Lundgren, R.F.; Norbeck, S.W.; Robinson, S.M.; Sether, B.A.

    2003-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2002 water year for North Dakota consists of records of discharge, stage, and water quality for streams; contents, stage, and water quality for lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality for ground-water wells. Volume 1 contains records of water discharge for 106 streamflow-gaging stations; stage only for 22 river-stage stations; contents and/or stage for 14 lake or reservoir stations; annual maximum discharge for 35 crest-stage stations; and water-quality for 96 streamflow-gaging stations, 3 river-stage stations, 11 lake or reservoir stations, 8 miscellaneous sample sites on rivers, and 63 miscellaneous sample sites on lakes and wetlands. Data are included for 7 water-quality monitor sites on streams and 2 precipitation-chemistry stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in North Dakota.

  11. Water resources data--North Dakota, water year 2004, volume 1. Surface water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, S.M.; Lundgren, R.F.; Sether, B.A.; Norbeck, S.W.; Lambrecht, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2004 water year for North Dakota consists of records of discharge, stage, and water quality for streams; contents, stage, and water quality for lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality for ground-water wells. Volume 1 contains records of water discharge for 106 streamflow-gaging stations; stage only for 23 river-stage stations; contents and/or stage for 14 lake or reservoir stations; annual maximum discharge for 31 crest-stage stations; and water-quality for 92 streamflow-gaging stations, 6 river-stage stations, 15 lake or reservoir stations, 22 miscellaneous sample sites on rivers, and 67 miscellaneous sample sites on lakes and wetlands. Data are included for 5 water-quality monitor sites on streams and 2 precipitation-chemistry stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in North Dakota.

  12. Historical review of the international water-resources program of the U.S. Geological Survey, 1940-70

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, George C.

    1976-01-01

    The review describes the history of the U.S. Geological Survey 's (USGS) activities in international water-resources investigations and institutional development as well as exchange in scientific and applied hydrology during 1940-70. The bulk of these activities has been carried out under the auspices of the U.S. Department of State, U.S. Agency for International Development and its predecessors, the United Nations and its specialized agencies, and the regional intergovernmental agencies. The central objectives of the USGS ' international water-resources activities have been to strengthen the administrative, staff, and operational functions of counterpart governmental hydrological and water-resources agencies; to improve the skills and capabilities of host-country scientific, engineering, and technical personnel; to exchange research specialists and publications in the sharing of advances in hydrological knowledge and methodology; and to participate in mutually beneficial international organizations, symposia, conferences, seminars, and special programs dedicated to various aspects of scientific and applied hydrology. Between 1940 and 1970, USGS hydrogeologists, water chemists, engineers, and hydrologists completed 340 short- and long-term project-oriented international assignments in some 80 host countries. During the same time more than 428 water scientists, engineers, and technicians from 60 countries have received academic and in-service training through USGS water-resources facilities in the United States. Also in this period some 336 reports of a technical and scientific nature have resulted from water-resources projects in the U.S bilateral program. (Woodard-USGS)

  13. Balancing water resource conservation and food security in China

    PubMed Central

    Dalin, Carole; Qiu, Huanguang; Hanasaki, Naota; Mauzerall, Denise L.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    China’s economic growth is expected to continue into the next decades, accompanied by sustained urbanization and industrialization. The associated increase in demand for land, water resources, and rich foods will deepen the challenge of sustainably feeding the population and balancing agricultural and environmental policies. We combine a hydrologic model with an economic model to project China’s future food trade patterns and embedded water resources by 2030 and to analyze the effects of targeted irrigation reductions on this system, notably on national agricultural water consumption and food self-sufficiency. We simulate interprovincial and international food trade with a general equilibrium welfare model and a linear programming optimization, and we obtain province-level estimates of commodities’ virtual water content with a hydrologic model. We find that reducing irrigated land in regions highly dependent on scarce river flow and nonrenewable groundwater resources, such as Inner Mongolia and the greater Beijing area, can improve the efficiency of agriculture and trade regarding water resources. It can also avoid significant consumption of irrigation water across China (up to 14.8 km3/y, reduction by 14%), while incurring relatively small decreases in national food self-sufficiency (e.g., by 3% for wheat). Other researchers found that a national, rather than local, water policy would have similar effects on food production but would only reduce irrigation water consumption by 5%. PMID:25825748

  14. Balancing water resource conservation and food security in China.

    PubMed

    Dalin, Carole; Qiu, Huanguang; Hanasaki, Naota; Mauzerall, Denise L; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2015-04-14

    China's economic growth is expected to continue into the next decades, accompanied by sustained urbanization and industrialization. The associated increase in demand for land, water resources, and rich foods will deepen the challenge of sustainably feeding the population and balancing agricultural and environmental policies. We combine a hydrologic model with an economic model to project China's future food trade patterns and embedded water resources by 2030 and to analyze the effects of targeted irrigation reductions on this system, notably on national agricultural water consumption and food self-sufficiency. We simulate interprovincial and international food trade with a general equilibrium welfare model and a linear programming optimization, and we obtain province-level estimates of commodities' virtual water content with a hydrologic model. We find that reducing irrigated land in regions highly dependent on scarce river flow and nonrenewable groundwater resources, such as Inner Mongolia and the greater Beijing area, can improve the efficiency of agriculture and trade regarding water resources. It can also avoid significant consumption of irrigation water across China (up to 14.8 km(3)/y, reduction by 14%), while incurring relatively small decreases in national food self-sufficiency (e.g., by 3% for wheat). Other researchers found that a national, rather than local, water policy would have similar effects on food production but would only reduce irrigation water consumption by 5%.

  15. Water Resource Preservation: Personal Values and Public Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, John C.

    1979-01-01

    A survey instrument collected data from heads of households in Washington concerning attitudes on seven possible water use priorities. Personal values were also surveyed for the sample population. Orientation to water resource preservation was found to relate to personal values. (RE)

  16. Water Resource Uses and Recreational Activities in Rural Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adekoya, Adebola

    1991-01-01

    This study surveys rural Nigerian residents concerning local water resource uses and tourists' recreational activities with respect to scales of awareness, understanding, and incentive. Results indicate a public willingness to encourage and finance the rural development of water bodies for agricultural purposes exclusive of investment for tourism…

  17. Advances in water resources assessment with SWAT - an overview

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper introduces a Special Issue containing 12 research articles which present current applications of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) for water resources assessment. Firstly, an overview of selected recently published articles with application of SWAT is given. The articles address ...

  18. Applications of space technology to water resources management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomonson, V. V.

    1977-01-01

    Space technology transfer is discussed in terms of applying visible and infrared remote sensing measurement to water resources management. Mapping and monitoring of snowcovered areas, hydrologic land use, and surface water areas are discussed, using information acquired from LANDSAT and NOAA satellite systems.

  19. Balancing water resource conservation and food security in China.

    PubMed

    Dalin, Carole; Qiu, Huanguang; Hanasaki, Naota; Mauzerall, Denise L; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2015-04-14

    China's economic growth is expected to continue into the next decades, accompanied by sustained urbanization and industrialization. The associated increase in demand for land, water resources, and rich foods will deepen the challenge of sustainably feeding the population and balancing agricultural and environmental policies. We combine a hydrologic model with an economic model to project China's future food trade patterns and embedded water resources by 2030 and to analyze the effects of targeted irrigation reductions on this system, notably on national agricultural water consumption and food self-sufficiency. We simulate interprovincial and international food trade with a general equilibrium welfare model and a linear programming optimization, and we obtain province-level estimates of commodities' virtual water content with a hydrologic model. We find that reducing irrigated land in regions highly dependent on scarce river flow and nonrenewable groundwater resources, such as Inner Mongolia and the greater Beijing area, can improve the efficiency of agriculture and trade regarding water resources. It can also avoid significant consumption of irrigation water across China (up to 14.8 km(3)/y, reduction by 14%), while incurring relatively small decreases in national food self-sufficiency (e.g., by 3% for wheat). Other researchers found that a national, rather than local, water policy would have similar effects on food production but would only reduce irrigation water consumption by 5%. PMID:25825748

  20. Modeling and analysis of collective management of water resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilmant, A.; van der Zaag, P.; Fortemps, P.

    2006-09-01

    Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) recommends, among other things, that the management of water resources systems be carried out at the lowest appropriate level in order to increase the transparency, acceptability and efficiency of the decision-making process. Empowering water users and stakeholders transforms the decision-making process by enlarging the number of point of views that must be considered as well as the set of rules through which decisions are taken. This paper investigates the impact of different group decision-making approaches on the operating policies of a water resource. To achieve this, the water resource allocation problem is formulated as an optimization problem which seeks to maximize the aggregated satisfaction of various water users corresponding to different approaches to collective choice, namely the utilitarian and the egalitarian ones. The optimal operating policies are then used in simulation and compared. The concepts are illustrated with a multipurpose reservoir in Chile. The analysis of simulation results reveals that if this reservoir were to be managed by its water users, both approaches to collective choice would yield significantly different operating policies. The paper concludes that the transfer of management to water users must be carefully implemented if a reasonable trade-off between equity and efficiency is to be achieved.

  1. Modeling and analysis of collective management of water resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilmant, A.; van der Zaag, P.; Fortemps, P.

    2007-01-01

    Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) recommends, among other things, that the management of water resources systems be carried out at the lowest appropriate level in order to increase the transparency, acceptability and efficiency of the decision-making process. Empowering water users and stakeholders transforms the decision-making process by enlarging the number of point of views that must be considered as well as the set of rules through which decisions are taken. This paper investigates the impact of different group decision-making approaches on the operating policies of a water resource. To achieve this, the water resource allocation problem is formulated as an optimization problem which seeks to maximize the aggregated satisfaction of various water users corresponding to different approaches to collective choice, namely the utilitarian and the egalitarian ones. The optimal operating policies are then used in simulation and compared. The concepts are illustrated with a multipurpose reservoir in Chile. The analysis of simulation results reveals that if this reservoir were to be managed by its water users, both approaches to collective choice would yield significantly different operating policies. The paper concludes that the transfer of management to water users must be carefully implemented if a reasonable trade-off between equity and efficiency is to be achieved.

  2. 30 CFR 402.7 - Water-Resources Technology Development Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Water-Resources Technology Development Program... RESEARCH PROGRAM AND THE WATER-RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM Description of Water-Resources Programs § 402.7 Water-Resources Technology Development Program. (a) Subject to the availability...

  3. 30 CFR 402.7 - Water-Resources Technology Development Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Water-Resources Technology Development Program... RESEARCH PROGRAM AND THE WATER-RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM Description of Water-Resources Programs § 402.7 Water-Resources Technology Development Program. (a) Subject to the availability...

  4. 30 CFR 402.7 - Water-Resources Technology Development Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Water-Resources Technology Development Program... RESEARCH PROGRAM AND THE WATER-RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM Description of Water-Resources Programs § 402.7 Water-Resources Technology Development Program. (a) Subject to the availability...

  5. 30 CFR 402.7 - Water-Resources Technology Development Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Water-Resources Technology Development Program... RESEARCH PROGRAM AND THE WATER-RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM Description of Water-Resources Programs § 402.7 Water-Resources Technology Development Program. (a) Subject to the availability...

  6. 30 CFR 402.7 - Water-Resources Technology Development Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water-Resources Technology Development Program... RESEARCH PROGRAM AND THE WATER-RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM Description of Water-Resources Programs § 402.7 Water-Resources Technology Development Program. (a) Subject to the availability...

  7. Isotopes and sustainability of ground water resources, North China Plain.

    PubMed

    Zongyu, Chen; Zhenlong, Nie; Zhaoji, Zhang; Jixiang, Qi; Yunju, Nan

    2005-01-01

    Ground water in deep confined aquifers is one of the major water resources for agricultural, industrial, and domestic uses in the North China Plain. Detailed information on ground water age and recharge is vital for the proper management of these water resources, and to this end, we used carbon 14 of dissolved inorganic carbon and tritium in water to measure the age and determine the recharge areas of ground water in the North China Plain. These isotopic data suggest that most ground water in the piedmont part of the North China Plain is <40 years old and is recharged locally. In contrast, ground water in the central and littoral portions of the North China Plain is 10,000 to 25,000 years old. The delta18O (deltaD) values of this ground water are 1.7 per thousand (11 per thousand) less than that in the piedmont plain ground water and possibly reflect water recharged during a cooler climate during the last glaciation. The temperature of this recharge, based on delta18O values, ranges from 3.7 degrees C to 8.4 degrees C, compared to 12 degrees C to 13 degrees C of modern recharge water. The isotopic data set combined indicates that ground water in the central and littoral part of the North China Plain is being mined under non-steady state conditions.

  8. Fiscal year 1990 program report: Louisiana Water Resources Research Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Constant, W.D.

    1991-10-01

    The 1990 cooperative research program of the Louisiana Water Resources Research Institute (LWRRI) addressed priority water resources problem areas identified for Louisiana - management of surface water supplies, groundwater control and restoration, wastewater treatment alternatives, and treatment of point and nonpoint sources of pollution. Four research projects funded to address these priority issues were: (1) A Feasibility Analysis of the Use of Louisiana Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment, (2) Use of Soil Biofilter Beds for Treating High Organic, Low Toxicity Wastewater, (3) Studies on the Uptake, Accumulation and Metabolism of 2,4-Dichlorophenol and Pentachlorophenol by Lemna gibba, and (4) Application of Colloidal Gas Aphrons for Soil Washing and Groundwater Remediation.

  9. NASA Data for Water Resources Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toll, David; Houser, Paul; Arsenault, Kristi; Entin, Jared

    2004-01-01

    Water Management Applications is one of twelve elements in the Earth Science Enterprise National Applications Program. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is supporting the Applications Program through partnering with other organizations to use NASA project results, such as from satellite instruments and Earth system models to enhance the organizations critical needs. The focus thus far has been: 1) estimating water storage including snowpack and soil moisture, 2) modeling and predicting water fluxes such as evapotranspiration (ET), precipitation and river runoff, and 3) remote sensing of water quality, including both point source (e.g., turbidity and productivity) and non-point source (e.g., land cover conversion such as forest to agriculture yielding higher nutrient runoff). The objectives of the partnering cover three steps of: 1) Evaluation, 2) Verification and Validation, and 3) Benchmark Report. We are working with the U.S. federal agencies including the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) and the Department of Agriculture (USDA). We are using several of their Decision Support Systems (DSS) tools. This includes the DSS support tools BASINS used by EPA, Riverware and AWARDS ET ToolBox by USBR and SWAT by USDA and EPA. Regional application sites using NASA data across the US. are currently being eliminated for the DSS tools. The current NASA data emphasized thus far are from the Land Data Assimilation Systems WAS) and MODIS satellite products. We are currently in the first two steps of evaluation and verification validation. Water Management Applications is one of twelve elements in the Earth Science Enterprise s National Applications Program. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is supporting the Applications Program through partnering with other organizations to use NASA project results, such as from satellite instruments and Earth system models to enhance the organizations critical needs. The focus thus far has been: 1

  10. Research on agrichemicals in water resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkart, Michael R.; Onstad, Charles A.; Bubenzer, Gary D.

    A plan to study the effects of agricultural systems on the occurrence of agricultural chemicals in ground and surface waters is being formulated by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the U.S. Geological Survey. Initial research will focus on the herbicides atrazine and alachlor, the insecticide carbofuran, and plant nutrient, nitrate, in the midwest cornbelt. The cornbelt has uniquely similar agriculture over a large area. Many hydrologic and agronomic scientific disciplines from several federal and state agencies are being integrated to conduct research at several scales. The integration of information from this research is intended to lead to the identification of major processes affecting agrichemical fate and ultimately to development of farming systems that protect, improve, or remediate water quality.

  11. Water resources review: Ocoee reservoirs, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, J.P.

    1990-08-01

    Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) is preparing a series of reports to make technical information on individual TVA reservoirs readily accessible. These reports provide a summary of reservoir purpose and operation; physical characteristics of the reservoir and watershed; water quality conditions; aquatic biological conditions; and designated, actual and potential uses of the reservoir and impairments of those use. This reservoir status report addressed the three Ocoee Reservoirs in Polk County, Tennessee.

  12. Water resources of Weston County, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lowry, M.E.; Head, W.J.; Rankl, J.G.; Busby, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    Surface water is scarce in Weston County, Wyoming. Groundwater has been developed from rocks ranging in age from Mississippian to Holocene. Adequate supplies for domestic or stock use can be developed from wells generally less than 1,000 ft deep, except in the area underlain by a thick sequence of predominantly marine shale that will yield only small quantities of very mineralized water. In the early 1960 's decreases in artesian pressures occurred in some wells completed in the Lakota Formation of Early Cretaceous age and Pahasapa Limestone of Early Mississippian age. Only the decrease in the Lakota was attributed to development of water from the formation. Extensive development of either of these aquifers, however, may result in significant interference between nearby wells completed within the same aquifer. There are other aquifers within a few hundred feet of the overlying Lakota Formation that could be developed as an alternative to the Lakota to help limit the loss of pressure. The much deeper Pahasapa Limestone generally is developed because of the large supplies that are possible. Because there are no other large yield aquifers, there are no alternatives to limit the loss of pressure of the Pahasapa in the event of increased development. (USGS)

  13. Water resources data, Iowa, water year 2001, Volume 2. surface water--Missouri River basin, and ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nalley, G.M.; Gorman, J.G.; Goodrich, R.D.; Miller, V.E.; Turco, M.J.; Linhart, S.M.

    2002-01-01

    The Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with State, county, municipal, and other Federal agencies, obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the water resources of Iowa each water year. These data, accumulated during many water years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. To make this data readily available to interested parties outside of the Geological Survey, the data is published annually in this report series entitled “Water Resources Data - Iowa” as part of the National Water Data System. Water resources data for water year 2001 for Iowa consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground water. This report, in two volumes, contains stage or discharge records for 132 gaging stations; stage records for 9 lakes and reservoirs; water-quality records for 4 gaging stations; sediment records for 13 gaging stations; and water levels for 163 ground-water observation wells. Also included are peak-flow data for 92 crest-stage partial-record stations, water-quality data from 86 municipal wells, and precipitation data collected at 6 gaging stations and 2 precipitation sites. Additional water data were collected at various sites not included in the systematic data-collection program, and are published here as miscellaneous measurements and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating local, State, and Federal agencies in Iowa.Records of discharge or stage of streams, and contents or stage of lakes and reservoirs were first published in a series of U.S. Geological Survey water-supply papers entitled “Surface Water Supply of the United States.” Through September 30, 1960, these water-supply papers were published in an annual series; during 1961-65 and 1966-70, they

  14. Water resources in a changing climate: An Idaho research initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walden, V. P.

    2009-12-01

    A new initiative in Idaho funded by NSF EPSCoR will build state-wide research infrastructure to address how changes in future climatic conditions may impact water resources, as well as ecological and human systems. This project is supporting complementary field studies on a highly managed river system (Snake River Plain) and a relatively unmanaged system (Salmon River Basin). The project aims to fill a critical niche in hydrology by understanding the connection between surface flow and groundwater. Research capacity is being developed in three main areas: 1) hydroclimatology to improve modeling of water resources affected by climate change, 2) integration of hydrology and economic modeling in the Snake River basin, and 3) highly interdisciplinary research in the Salmon River basin involving climate, water, fire, insect infestations, geomorphology, and stream health. The project will also enhance outreach and educational experiences in climate change and water resources. A description of the new initiative and the activities associated with it will be given.

  15. Activities affecting surface water resources: A general overview

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    In November 1987, P.E.I. signed a federal/provincial work-sharing arrangement on water resource management focusing on groundwater pollution, surface water degradation and estuarine eutrophication. The surface water program was designed to identify current surface water uses and users within 12 major watersheds across the Island containing 26 individual rivers, as well as problems arising due to practices that degrade the quality of surface water and restricts its value to other user groups. This report presents a general overview of the program, covering the general characteristics of the Island; operations in agriculture, fish and wildlife, forestry, recreation, fisheries, and industry; alterations of natural features of waterways; wetlands; additional watershed activities such as hydrometric stations and subdivision development; and activities affecting surface water resources such as sedimentation sources, pollution point sources and instream obstructions.

  16. Georgia's Surface-Water Resources and Streamflow Monitoring Network, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2008-01-01

    Surface water provides 5 billion gallons per day, or 78 percent, of the total freshwater used (including thermoelectric) in Georgia (Fanning, 2003). Climate, geology, and landforms control the natural distribution of Georgia's water resources. Georgia is a 'headwaters' State, with most of the rivers beginning in northern Georgia and increasing in size downstream (see map at right for major watersheds). Surface water is the primary source of water in the northern one-half of the State, including the Atlanta metropolitan area, where limited ground-water resources are difficult to obtain. In Georgia, periodic droughts exacerbate competition for surface-water supplies. Many areas of Georgia also face a threat of flooding because of spring frontal thunderstorms and the potential for hurricanes from both the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico. As the population of Georgia increases, these flood risks will increase with development in flood-risk zones, particularly in the coastal region.

  17. Continuous real-time water information: an important Kansas resource

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loving, Brian L.; Putnam, James E.; Turk, Donita M.

    2014-01-01

    Continuous real-time information on streams, lakes, and groundwater is an important Kansas resource that can safeguard lives and property, and ensure adequate water resources for a healthy State economy. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) operates approximately 230 water-monitoring stations at Kansas streams, lakes, and groundwater sites. Most of these stations are funded cooperatively in partnerships with local, tribal, State, or other Federal agencies. The USGS real-time water-monitoring network provides long-term, accurate, and objective information that meets the needs of many customers. Whether the customer is a water-management or water-quality agency, an emergency planner, a power or navigational official, a farmer, a canoeist, or a fisherman, all can benefit from the continuous real-time water information gathered by the USGS.

  18. NASA Space Engineering Research Center for utilization of local planetary resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramohalli, Kumar; Lewis, John S.

    1990-01-01

    The University of Arizona and NASA have joined to form the UA/NASA Space Engineering Research Center. The purpose of the Center is to discover, characterize, extract, process, and fabricate useful products from the extraterrestrial resources available in the inner solar system (the moon, Mars, and nearby asteroids). Individual progress reports covering the center's research projects are presented and emphasis is placed on the following topics: propellant production, oxygen production, ilmenite, lunar resources, asteroid resources, Mars resources, space-based materials processing, extraterrestrial construction materials processing, resource discovery and characterization, mission planning, and resource utilization.

  19. 4. VIEW NORTH, YARD NORTH OF ENGINE HOUSE, SHOWING WATER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW NORTH, YARD NORTH OF ENGINE HOUSE, SHOWING WATER TANK AND SHOP Photocopy of photograph, 1941 (Courtesy of Chesapeake Beach Railway Museum; L. W. Rice, photographer) - Chesapeake Beach Railroad Engine House, 21 Yost Place, Seat Pleasant, Prince George's County, MD

  20. Water Resources Data, Florida, Water Year 2003, Volume 1B: Northeast Florida Ground Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    George, H.G.; Nazarian, A.P.; Dickerson, S.M.

    2004-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2003 water year in Florida consist of continuous or daily discharge for 385 streams, periodic discharge for 13 streams, continuous or daily stage for 255 streams, periodic stage for 13 streams, peak stage and discharge for 36 streams; continuous or daily elevations for 13 lakes, periodic elevations for 46 lakes; continuous ground-water levels for 441 wells, periodic ground-water levels for 1,227 wells; quality-of-water data for 133 surface-water sites and 308 wells. The data for northeast Florida include continuous or daily discharge for 138 streams, periodic discharge for 3 streams, continuous or daily stage for 61 streams, periodic stage for 0 streams; peak stage and discharge for 0 streams; continuous or daily elevations for 9 lakes, periodic elevations for 20 lakes; continuous ground water levels for 73 wells, periodic groundwater levels for 543 wells; quality-of-water data for 43 surface-water sites and 115 wells. These data represent the National Water Data System records collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating local, State and Federal agencies in Florida.

  1. Guide to North Dakota's Ground-Water Resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paulson, Q.F.

    1983-01-01

    Ground water, the water we pump from the Earth through wells or that which flows naturally from springs, is one of North Dakota's most valuable resources. More than 60 percent of the people living in the State use ground water for one purpose of another. It is the only source of water for thousands of farm families and their livestock. Almost all smaller cities and villages depend solely on groudn water as a source of supply. Increasingly, ground water is being used to irrigate crops and grasslands (fig. 1) during protracted dry spells so common in North Dakota. During recent years there has been a rapid development of rural water ditribution systems in which thousands of farms and rurals residences are connected via underground pipeline to a single water source, usually wells pumping ground water.

  2. How Climate Change Affects Water Resources in the Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schädler, B.

    2009-04-01

    Water resources in the Alps are abundant, but long term observed climatological, glaciological and hydrological time series clearly show ongoing climate changes. And regional climate change scenarios indicate even more changes. Will we experience more severe natural disasters in the Alps and will water scarcity affect alpine agriculture and tourism? Or might the importance of the Alps as «Water Tower of Europe» even grow?

  3. Trihalomethane formation potential of Kentucky River water. Water resources investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Rathbun, R.E.; White, K.D.; Evaldi, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    Trihalomethane compounds are chlorinated and brominated derivatives of methane that are formed when a natural water is disinfected with free chlorine to produce drinking water. These compounds result when the free chlorine used for disinfection reacts with the dissolved organic carbon of the water. The trihalomethane formation potential of water from the Kentucky River was determined for the period from July of 1988 through March of 1990. Multiple-linear regression analysis of the experimental data indicated that the trihalomethane formation potential was strongly dependent on the pH and dissolved organic carbon concentration and was only slightly dependent on the initial free-chlorine concentration.

  4. Water resources and the land-water interface.

    PubMed

    Karr, J R; Schlosser, I J

    1978-07-21

    Development and implementation of local and regional plans to control nonpoint sources of pollution from agricultural land are major mandates of section 208 of Public Law 92-500. Many planners tend to equate erosion control as measured by the universal soil loss equation with improvements in water quality. Others implement channel management practices which degrade rather than improve water quality and thereby decrease the effectiveness of other efforts to control nonpoint sources. Planners rarely recognize the importance of the land-water interface in regulating water quality in agricultural watersheds. More effective planning can result from the development of "best management systems" which incorporate theory from all relevant disciplines.

  5. Water resources data, Oakland County, Michigan 2001-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aichele, S.S.; Crowley, S.L.; Tariska, C.K.; Stopar, J.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents water resources data used to produce a series of interpretive reports on the quantity and quality of water in Oakland County for Oakland County, Michigan. Some of these data have been published elsewhere, but are provided here in one report. This report has two main sections. The first section provides an overview of the methods used to collect the various types of data. The second section is a series of data tables containing ground-water-level data, synoptically measured stream-water-quality data, synoptically measured lake-water-quality data, and the results of a macroinvertebrate and habitat assessment.

  6. Water: the resource that gets used & used & used for everything!

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vandas, Stephen; Farrar, Frank; Ramos-Ginés, Orlando

    1996-01-01

    Water truly Is a resource that gets used and used for everything. The same Water can be utilized many times. This poster depicts 12 water uses which ere labeled in bold red letters, beginning with mining end ending with transportation. Withdrawals (water removed from the river or ground), distribution, and returns (water returned to the river or ground) are depicted by the blue arrows. The poster is folded Into 8 1/2" x 11" panels; front and back panels can easily be photocopied.

  7. The Educational Philosophy and Development Direction of School of Foreign Studies in Engineering Colleges in China: A Case Study of North China University of Water Resources and Electric Power (NCWU)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xinqiang, Wei

    2012-01-01

    This paper gives a brief analysis on the educational advantages and objects of NCWU. It believes that the educational philosophy and development direction of foreign school in engineering colleges must be set up on the basis of need of China and talents need, moreover, the development of the School of Foreign Studies must be analyzed by…

  8. Water-Resources Investigations in Wisconsin, 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hueschen, K. A.; Jones, S.Z.; Fuller, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    Runoff for rivers in the state ranged from 67 percent of the average annual runoff (1964–2001) at the Kewaunee River site in the northeast part of the state to 160 percent of the average annual runoff (1944–2001) at the Eau Galle River at Spring Valley site in the west central part of the state. Departures of runoff in the 2001 water year as a percent of long-term average runoff in the state (determined using stations with drainage areas greater than 150 square miles and at least 20 years of record) are shown in figure 4.

  9. Water-Resources Investigations in Wisconsin, 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maertz, Diane E.; Fuller, Jan A.

    2001-01-01

    Runoff differed for rivers throughout the State and ranged from 33 percent in east central Wisconsin to 166 percent in south central Wisconsin. Runoff was lowest (33 percent of the average annual runoff from 1964- 2000) for the Lake Michigan tributary Kewaunee River near Kewaunee, and highest (166 percent of the average annual runoff from 1974-2000) for the Pheasant Branch at Middleton station in south central Wisconsin. Departures of runoff in the 2000 water year as a percent of long-term average runoff in the State (determined using stations with drainage areas greater than 150 square miles and at least 20 years of record) are shown in Figure 4.

  10. Water-Resources Investigations in Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maertz, D. E.

    1997-01-01

    Runoff was variable for rivers throughout the State ranging from 64 percent in southwest Wisconsin to 212 percent in east central Wisconsin. Runoff was lowest (64 percent of the average annual runoff from 1935-96) for the Platte River near Rockville and highest (212 percent of the average annual runoff from 1949-69, 1988-96) for the South Branch Rock River at Waupun. Departures of runoff in the 1996 water year as a percent of long-term average runoff in the State are shown in Figure 4. EXPLANATION

  11. Water-resources investigations in Wisconsin, 1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maertz, D. E.

    1995-01-01

    Runoff was variable for rivers throughout the State ranging from 60 percent in southeast Wisconsin to 142 percent in west-central Wisconsin. Runoff was lowest (60 percent of the average annual runoff from 1972-94) for the Pike River near Racine. Runoff was highest (142 percent of the average annual runoff from 1915-19, 1935-94) for the Trempealeau River at Dodge. Departure of runoff in the 1994 water year as a percent of long-term average runoff in the State are shown in Figure 4.

  12. Water-resources investigations in Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maertz, D.E.; Maertz, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    Runoff differed for rivers throughout the State and ranged from 70 percent in southeast Wisconsin to 169 percent in west central and northwest Wisconsin. Runoff was lowest (70 percent of the average annual runoff from 1964-97) for the Root River Canal near Franklin and highest (169 percent of the average annual runoff from 1902-70, 1987-97) for the Apple River near Somerset. Departures of runoff in the 1997 water year as a percent of long-term average runoff in the State are shown in Figure 4.

  13. Impact of Water Intensity and Efficiency on Water Resources Sustainability in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    BIN, Lingling; XU, Xinyi; YANG, Zhongwen; XU, Kui

    2015-04-01

    Water problems in China have characters of less per capita, highly developed and low efficiency; it is essential to pay close attention to the sustainable utilization of water resources. This paper aims to explore the impact of human activities on the sustainability of water resources in China. Three important factors affecting sustainability significantly were involved: Water Resources (WR), Water Intensity (WI) and Water Efficiency (WE). Assessment of the three factors were conducted in 356 cities in mainland China, and each indicator is graded from "very low" to "very high" according to the eigenvalue magnitude. China is then classified into four zones to differentiate regional variations of the impact of human activities on water sustainability. Results show that 34% of the areas have high WI values and 58% have low WE values. It is recommended that water resource polices be turned to a more sustainable management strategy in areas with high intensity and low efficiency and sustainability significantly low. Zone I regions should be focused on particular attention for its exploitation of water resources reached an extreme state, water efficiency should be highly improved and water-saving management policy implemented to maintain the sustainable development of water resources and ecosystems.

  14. Water resources transfers through Chinese interprovincial and foreign food trade

    PubMed Central

    Dalin, Carole; Hanasaki, Naota; Qiu, Huanguang; Mauzerall, Denise L.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    China’s water resources are under increasing pressure from socioeconomic development, diet shifts, and climate change. Agriculture still concentrates most of the national water withdrawal. Moreover, a spatial mismatch in water and arable land availability—with abundant agricultural land and little water resources in the north—increases water scarcity and results in virtual water transfers from drier to wetter regions through agricultural trade. We use a general equilibrium welfare model and linear programming optimization to model interprovincial food trade in China. We combine these trade flows with province-level estimates of commodities’ virtual water content to build China’s domestic and foreign virtual water trade network. We observe large variations in agricultural water-use efficiency among provinces. In addition, some provinces particularly rely on irrigation vs. rainwater. We analyze the virtual water flow patterns and the corresponding water savings. We find that this interprovincial network is highly connected and the flow distribution is relatively homogeneous. A significant share of water flows is from international imports (20%), which are dominated by soy (93%). We find that China’s domestic food trade is efficient in terms of rainwater but inefficient regarding irrigation, meaning that dry, irrigation-intensive provinces tend to export to wetter, less irrigation-intensive ones. Importantly, when incorporating foreign imports, China’s soy trade switches from an inefficient system to a particularly efficient one for saving water resources (20 km3/y irrigation water savings, 41 km3/y total). Finally, we identify specific provinces (e.g., Inner Mongolia) and products (e.g., corn) that show high potential for irrigation productivity improvements. PMID:24958864

  15. Water resources transfers through Chinese interprovincial and foreign food trade.

    PubMed

    Dalin, Carole; Hanasaki, Naota; Qiu, Huanguang; Mauzerall, Denise L; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2014-07-01

    China's water resources are under increasing pressure from socioeconomic development, diet shifts, and climate change. Agriculture still concentrates most of the national water withdrawal. Moreover, a spatial mismatch in water and arable land availability--with abundant agricultural land and little water resources in the north--increases water scarcity and results in virtual water transfers from drier to wetter regions through agricultural trade. We use a general equilibrium welfare model and linear programming optimization to model interprovincial food trade in China. We combine these trade flows with province-level estimates of commodities' virtual water content to build China's domestic and foreign virtual water trade network. We observe large variations in agricultural water-use efficiency among provinces. In addition, some provinces particularly rely on irrigation vs. rainwater. We analyze the virtual water flow patterns and the corresponding water savings. We find that this interprovincial network is highly connected and the flow distribution is relatively homogeneous. A significant share of water flows is from international imports (20%), which are dominated by soy (93%). We find that China's domestic food trade is efficient in terms of rainwater but inefficient regarding irrigation, meaning that dry, irrigation-intensive provinces tend to export to wetter, less irrigation-intensive ones. Importantly, when incorporating foreign imports, China's soy trade switches from an inefficient system to a particularly efficient one for saving water resources (20 km(3)/y irrigation water savings, 41 km(3)/y total). Finally, we identify specific provinces (e.g., Inner Mongolia) and products (e.g., corn) that show high potential for irrigation productivity improvements. PMID:24958864

  16. Water Resources Management In The Eastern Himalayan Urban Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bomjan, S.

    The Himalayan ecosystem is one of the most important and threatened ecosystems on the earth. In this region, the scarcity of water in general, and drinking water in par- ticular is affecting common people and drawing the attention of researchers. Given the present situation and governance, in the near future it is most likely to deteriorate further. With expanding population and urbanization, accelerating human activities, and increasing per capita water consumption, problem of water supply in the moun- tain households will be certainly acute in the coming years. This crisis of decreasing availability of water is not only going to hamper the economic development of the region, but is also likely to threaten the very survival of the already marginalised and deprived people who are also on the brink of poverty and are incapable of coping with such crisis. Sustainable water harvesting and management of water resources offers the best hope for meeting the challenges of the growing water crisis. For this appropriate policy intervention, use of latest technology, application of tools like GIS and information from the satellite imageries, community participation and use of tra- ditional knowledge and traditional water management practices will be essential to overcome the challenge of looming water crisis. Darjiling Himalaya, located in the eastern Himalayas has a fragile environment and it is witnessing serious problems both in quality and quantity of water supply. Weak institutional arrangements, lack of awareness among citizens and a gap in the effective arrangements are huge stumbling blocks. This region is endowed with abundance of water resources and rich ecosystem. Therefore, this calls for an effective and participatory water management system with due attention given to the upgradation and expansion of the existing infrastructure. This paper takes a stock of the existing water resources in the Darjiling Himalaya, especially around the town of Darjiling, discusses

  17. Water resources transfers through Chinese interprovincial and foreign food trade.

    PubMed

    Dalin, Carole; Hanasaki, Naota; Qiu, Huanguang; Mauzerall, Denise L; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2014-07-01

    China's water resources are under increasing pressure from socioeconomic development, diet shifts, and climate change. Agriculture still concentrates most of the national water withdrawal. Moreover, a spatial mismatch in water and arable land availability--with abundant agricultural land and little water resources in the north--increases water scarcity and results in virtual water transfers from drier to wetter regions through agricultural trade. We use a general equilibrium welfare model and linear programming optimization to model interprovincial food trade in China. We combine these trade flows with province-level estimates of commodities' virtual water content to build China's domestic and foreign virtual water trade network. We observe large variations in agricultural water-use efficiency among provinces. In addition, some provinces particularly rely on irrigation vs. rainwater. We analyze the virtual water flow patterns and the corresponding water savings. We find that this interprovincial network is highly connected and the flow distribution is relatively homogeneous. A significant share of water flows is from international imports (20%), which are dominated by soy (93%). We find that China's domestic food trade is efficient in terms of rainwater but inefficient regarding irrigation, meaning that dry, irrigation-intensive provinces tend to export to wetter, less irrigation-intensive ones. Importantly, when incorporating foreign imports, China's soy trade switches from an inefficient system to a particularly efficient one for saving water resources (20 km(3)/y irrigation water savings, 41 km(3)/y total). Finally, we identify specific provinces (e.g., Inner Mongolia) and products (e.g., corn) that show high potential for irrigation productivity improvements.

  18. NASA Remote Sensing Observations for Water Resource and Infrastructure Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granger, S. L.; Armstrong, L.; Farr, T.; Geller, G.; Heath, E.; Hyon, J.; Lavoie, S.; McDonald, K.; Realmuto, V.; Stough, T.; Szana, K.

    2008-12-01

    Decision support tools employed by water resource and infrastructure managers often utilize data products obtained from local sources or national/regional databases of historic surveys and observations. Incorporation of data from these sources can be laborious and time consuming as new products must be identified, cleaned and archived for each new study site. Adding remote sensing observations to the list of sources holds promise for a timely, consistent, global product to aid decision support at regional and global scales by providing global observations of geophysical parameters including soil moisture, precipitation, atmospheric temperature, derived evapotranspiration, and snow extent needed for hydrologic models and decision support tools. However, issues such as spatial and temporal resolution arise when attempting to integrate remote sensing observations into existing decision support tools. We are working to overcome these and other challenges through partnerships with water resource managers, tool developers and other stakeholders. We are developing a new data processing framework, enabled by a core GIS server, to seamlessly pull together observations from disparate sources for synthesis into information products and visualizations useful to the water resources community. A case study approach is being taken to develop the system by working closely with water infrastructure and resource managers to integrate remote observations into infrastructure, hydrologic and water resource decision tools. We present the results of a case study utilizing observations from the PALS aircraft instrument as a proxy for NASA's upcoming Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission and an existing commercial decision support tool.

  19. Clean option: Berkeley Pit water treatment and resource recovery strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, M.A.; Orth, R.J.; Elmore, M.R.; Monzyk, B.F.

    1995-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Technology Development, established the Resource Recovery Project (RRP) in 1992 as a five-year effort to evaluate and demonstrate multiple technologies for recovering water, metals, and other industrial resources from contaminated surface and groundwater. Natural water resources located throughout the DOE complex and the and western states have been rendered unusable because of contamination from heavy metals. The Berkeley Pit, a large, inactive, open pit copper mine located in Butte, Montana, along with its associated groundwater system, has been selected by the RRP for use as a feedstock for a test bed facility located there. The test bed facility provides the infrastructure needed to evaluate promising technologies at the pilot plant scale. Data obtained from testing these technologies was used to assess their applicability for similar mine drainage water applications throughout the western states and at DOE. The objective of the Clean Option project is to develop strategies that provides a comprehensive and integrated approach to resource recovery using the Berkeley Pit water as a feedstock. The strategies not only consider the immediate problem of resource recovery from the contaminated water, but also manage the subsequent treatment of all resulting process streams. The strategies also employ the philosophy of waste minimization to optimize reduction of the waste volume requiring disposal, and the recovery and reuse of processing materials.

  20. Some aspects of integrated water resources management in central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaydarova, V.; Penkova, N.; Pak, E.; Poberejsky, L.; Beltrao, J.

    2003-04-01

    Two main tasks are to be implemented for elaboration of the governmental water distribution criteria in Central Asia: 1 -development of the common methodological basis for the intergovernmental water distribution; and 2 - to reopen and continue both theoretical and experimental researches of various aspects of the wastewater reuse. The prospects of socio economic development of all Central Asian countries are substantially defined by the water resources availability. The water resources of Central Asia belong, mainly, watersheds of the Syr-Darya and Amu Darya rivers. The basic flow of Amu Darya is formed in territory of Tajikistan. Then the Amu Darya river proceeds along border of Afghanistan with Uzbekistan, crosses Turkmenistan and again comes back to Uzbekistan and then runs into the Aral Sea. The Syr-Darya is second river on the water discharge and is first river on length in Central Asia. The basic flow of Syr Darya is formed in territory of Kyrgyzstan. Then the Syr-Darya river crosses of Uzbekistan and Tajikistan and runs into the Aral Sea in territory of Kazakhstan. During the Soviet Union the water resources of two river watersheds were divided among the Central Asian republics on the basis of the general plans developed by the center in Moscow. In the beginning of 90s years, after taking of sovereignty by the former Soviet republics, the unified control system of water resources management was abolished and the various approaches to its transformation caused by features of the national economy developing, elected models of transition from command to market mechanisms of economic activity, and also specificity of political and social processes in each of the states of region were planned. The distinctions of modern priorities of economic development of the states of region have generated the contradiction of interests in the intergovernmental water distribution that can in the long term become complicated even more in connection with the increasing of water

  1. Are sustainable water resources possible in northwestern India?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troy, T. J.; Devineni, N.; Perveen, S.; Robertson, A. W.; Lall, U.

    2012-12-01

    Sustainable water resources can have many definitions with the simplest as a supply-demand problem, with climate dictating the supply of water and human water use the demand. One sign of a system that is not sustainable would be falling groundwater tables, as is the case in northwest India. This region serves as the country's breadbasket, and irrigated agriculture is ubiquitous. The state of Punjab alone produces 22% of the country's wheat and 13% of all the country's grains while only accounting for 1.5% of the country's area. Although the region receives an average precipitation of 600mm per year, it is dominated by monsoonal rainfall with streamflow augmented by upstream snowmelt and glacial melt in spring and summer that is released from a large dam into canals. Large agricultural water demands occur both during the rainy season as well as during the drier winter season. Water and food security are inextricably linked here, and when considering how to manage water sustainably, the consequences on agriculture must also be considered. In this study, we evaluate what a sustainable water resources system would look like in this region, accounting for current climate, crop water demands, and available reservoir storage. The effects of multiple water-saving scenarios are considered, such as crop choice, cropped area, and the use of forecasts in irrigation scheduling. We find that the current system is untenable and hard decisions will have to be made by policymakers in order to halt the depletion of groundwater and manage the region's water resources in a sustainable, effective manner. This work serves as a prototype for evaluating water resources in other regions with high seasonal variability in rainfall and streamflow and large irrigation demands.

  2. Water resources data, New Jersey, water year 2005. Volume 1 - surface-water data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, B.T.; Hoppe, H.L.; Centinaro, G.L.; Dudek, J.F.; Painter, B.S.; Protz, A.R.; Reed, T.J.; Shvanda, J.C.; Watson, A.F.

    2006-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2005 water year for New Jersey are presented in three volumes, and consists of records of stage, discharge, and water-quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water-quality of ground water. Volume 1 contains discharge records for 103 gaging stations; tide summaries at 28 tidal gaging stations; stage and contents at 34 lakes and reservoirs; and diversions from 50 surface-water sources. Also included are stage and discharge for 116 crest-stage partial-record stations, stage-only at 33 tidal crest-stage gages, and discharge for 155 low-flow partial-record stations. Locations of these sites are shown in figures 8-11. Additional discharge measurements were made at 222 miscellaneous sites that are not part of the systematic data-collection program. Discontinued station tables for gaging stations, crest-stage gages, tidal crest-stage and tidal gaging stations show historical coverage. The data in this report represent that part of the National Water Information System (NWIS) data collected by the United States Geological Survey (USGS). Hydrologic conditions are also described for this water year, including stream-flow, precipitation, reservoir conditions, and air temperatures.

  3. Water-Resources Investigations in Wisconsin, 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maertz, Diane E.

    2000-01-01

    Runoff differed for rivers throughout the State and ranged from 46 percent in east central Wisconsin to 157 percent in south central Wisconsin. Runoff was lowest (46 percent of the average annual runoff from 1989-99) for the Duck Creek near Oneida station and highest (157 percent of the average annual runoff from 1949-69, 1988-99) for the South Branch Rock River at Waupun station in south central Wisconsin. Departures of runoff in the 1999 water year as a percent of long-term average runoff in the State (determined using stations with drainage areas greater than 150 square miles and at least 20 years of record) are shown in Figure 4.

  4. The use of the Internet as an engineering resource

    SciTech Connect

    McCluney, S.A.; Hlavinka, M.W.

    1996-12-31

    A wealth of information covering almost every conceivable topic is available by way of the Internet. A significant amount of this information is useful to the engineer. Also, the Internet makes it possible to connect computers and communicate information in a variety of ways. This article discusses the basic aspects of the Internet as well as the ways in which an engineer might use it.

  5. North-South Partnership in Water Resource Education and Research - Lessons learnt from U.S.-Ethiopia Partnership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebremichael, M.

    2015-12-01

    In 2010, Ethiopian and U.S. universities formed partnership to train critical mass of Ethiopians in modern water resources tools, techniques, skills and knowledge, and to strengthen the institutional capacity of Ethiopian universities to establish graduate-level programs in Ethiopia. The partnership established Ethiopia's first water resource research institute, two graduate-level programs (water resource engineering and management, water and health) that are currently training about 100 students at M.S. and Ph.D. levels, summer undergraduate outreach program that provided community-based research experience in water resource for undergraduate students, and short-term trainings to practitioners and policy makers. The design, implementation and impact of these programs have had limitations and successes. In this presentation, I will provide lessons learnt from this partnership, and suggestions of elements required for successful North-South partnership in higher education and research.

  6. Water Foundations Teachers Guide. The Science of Florida's Water Resources: Lesson Plans for Teachers and Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This document features lesson plans for teachers and students on Florida's water resources. The guide is divided into four grade levels: K-2, 3-5, 6-8, and 9-12. Each grade level includes objectives, guides, and five lesson plans. K-2 lesson plans include: (1) "We Are Water"; (2) "Why Water is Extra Special"; (3) "Water's Changing Shapes"; (4)…

  7. Water resources of Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Handy, A.H.; Twenter, F.R.

    1985-01-01

    Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore has abundant picturesque and useful water resources. These resources include 12 inland lakes that range in size from 6 to 765 acres, 10 small streams that flow to Lake Superior, 40 miles of Lake Superior lakeshore, and aquifers capable of yielding water to wells in most places.The Jacobsville Sandstone, Munising Sandstone, and glacial deposits are the sources for domestic water supplies. The Jacobsville Sandstone is the principal source of water from Miners Castle to Au Sable Point, the Munising Sandstone is the source of water in the vicinity of Grand Sable Lake, and glacial deposits provide water for Park Headquarters at Sand Point. Specific capacities range from 0.1 to 1 (gal/min)/ft (gallons per minute per foot) of drawdown for the Jacobsville Sandstone and from 1 to 14 (gal/min)/ft for the glacial deposits. Specific capacity for the Munising Sandstone is about 1 (gal/min)/ft of drawdown.Water from both surface- and ground-water sources generally is suitable for human consumption. Concentrations of dissolved solids range from 43 to 112 mg/L (milligrams per liter) in water from lakes, from 53 to 155 mg/L in water from streams, and from 68 to 313 mg/L in ground water. The amount of suspended-sediment particles in streams is generally less than 17 mg/L.

  8. Fragmented local governance and water resource management outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Hong; Keane, Timothy D; Bernard, Eric A

    2015-03-01

    Fragmented jurisdictions and decision making structures can result in destructive competition and/or a lack of systematic cooperation that can hamper effective resource management and environmental planning, although the value of local autonomy and stakeholder participations should not be underestimated. This study empirically examines if political fragmentation in local governance is a significant barrier to successful resource management. To test this hypothesis, the authors quantify the degree of political fragmentation at two different geographical scales - 1) site-level: 12-digit watersheds and 2) regional: metropolitan statistical areas or equivalent regions - and analyze how water resource management outcomes vary with the level of political fragmentation using nationwide land cover and stream gauge information in the U.S. Regression analysis shows water quality declines (or slower quality improvements), measured in terms of total suspended solids, are associated with both site-level and regional political fragmentation indicators, suggesting that political fragmentation can make resource management more challenging.

  9. Collection, storage, retrieval, and publication of water-resources data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Showen, C. R.

    1978-01-01

    This publication represents a series of papers devoted to the subject of collection, storage, retrieval, and publication of hydrologic data. The papers were presented by members of the U.S. Geological Survey at the International Seminar on Organization and Operation of Hydrologic Services, Ottawa, Canada, July 15-16, 1976, sponsored by the World Meteorological Organization. The first paper, ' Standardization of Hydrologic Measurements, ' by George F. Smoot discusses the need for standardization of the methods and instruments used in measuring hydrologic data. The second paper, ' Use of Earth Satellites for Automation of Hydrologic Data Collection, ' by Richard W. Paulson discusses the use of inexpensive battery-operated radios to transmit realtime hydrologic data to earth satellites and back to ground receiving stations for computer processing. The third paper, ' Operation Hydrometeorological Data-Collection System for the Columbia River, ' by Nicholas A. Kallio discusses the operation of a complex water-management system for a large river basin utilizing the latest automatic telemetry and processing devices. The fourth paper, ' Storage and Retrieval of Water-Resources Data, ' by Charles R. Showen discusses the U.S. Geological Survey 's National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System (WATSTORE) and its use in processing water resources data. The final paper, ' Publication of Water Resources Data, ' by S. M. Lang and C. B. Ham discusses the requirement for publication of water-resources data to meet the needs of a widespread audience and for archival purposes. (See W78-09324 thru W78-09328) (Woodard-USGS)

  10. Near real time water resources data for river basin management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulson, R. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Twenty Data Collection Platforms (DCP) are being field installed on USGS water resources stations in the Delaware River Basin. DCP's have been successfully installed and are operating well on five stream gaging stations, three observation wells, and one water quality monitor in the basin. DCP's have been installed at nine additional water quality monitors, and work is progressing on interfacing the platforms to the monitors. ERTS-related water resources data from the platforms are being provided in near real time, by the Goddard Space Flight Center to the Pennsylvania district, Water Resources Division, U.S. Geological Survey. On a daily basis, the data are computer processed by the Survey and provided to the Delaware River Basin Commission. Each daily summary contains data that were relayed during 4 or 5 of the 15 orbits made by ERTS-1 during the previous day. Water resources parameters relays by the platforms include dissolved oxygen concentrations, temperature, pH, specific conductance, well level, and stream gage height, which is used to compute stream flow for the daily summary.

  11. Managing Water Resource Challenges in the Congo River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aloysius, N. R.

    2015-12-01

    Water resources in the tropical regions are under pressure from human appropriation and climate change. Current understanding of interactions between hydrology and climate in the tropical regions is inadequate. This is particularly true for the Congo River Basin (CRB), which also lacks hydroclimate data. Global climate models (GCM) show limited skills in simulating CRB's climate, and their future projections vary widely. Yet, GCMs provide the most credible scenarios of future climate, based upon which changes in water resources can be predicted with coupled hydrological models. The objectives of my work are to i) elucidate the spatial and temporal variability of water resources by developing a spatially explicit hydrological model suitable for describing key processes and fluxes, ii) evaluate the performance of GCMs in simulating precipitation and temperature and iii) develop a set of climate change scenarios for the basin. In addition, I also quantify the risks and reliabilities in smallholder rain-fed agriculture and demonstrates how available water resources can be utilized to increase crop yields. Key processes and fluxes of CRB's hydrological cycle are amply characterized by the hydrology model. Climate change projections are evaluated using a multi-model ensemble approach under different greenhouse gas emission scenarios. The near-term projections of climate and hydrological fluxes are not affected by emission scenarios. However, towards the mid-21st century, projections are emission scenario dependent. Available freshwater resources are projected to increase in the CRB, except in the semiarid southeast. These increases present new opportunities and challenges for augmenting human appropriation of water resources. By evaluating agricultural water requirements, and timing and availability of precipitation, I challenge the conventional wisdom that low agriculture productivities in the CRB are primarily attributable to nutrient limitation. Results show that

  12. Adaptation of water resource systems to an uncertain future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, C. L.; Blenkinsop, S.; Fowler, H. J.; Burton, A.; Dawson, R. J.; Glenis, V.; Manning, L. J.; Kilsby, C. G.

    2015-09-01

    Globally, water resources management faces significant challenges from changing climate and growing populations. At local scales, the information provided by climate models is insufficient to support the water sector in making future adaptation decisions. Furthermore, projections of change in local water resources are wrought with uncertainties surrounding natural variability, future greenhouse gas emissions, model structure, population growth and water consumption habits. To analyse the magnitude of these uncertainties, and their implications for local scale water resource planning, we present a top-down approach for testing climate change adaptation options using probabilistic climate scenarios and demand projections. An integrated modelling framework is developed which implements a new, gridded spatial weather generator, coupled with a rainfall-runoff model and water resource management simulation model. We use this to provide projections of the number of days, and associated uncertainty that will require implementation of demand saving measures such as hose pipe bans and drought orders. Results, which are demonstrated for the Thames basin, UK, indicate existing water supplies are sensitive to a changing climate and an increasing population, and that the frequency of severe demand saving measures are projected to increase. Considering both climate projections and population growth the median number of drought order occurrences may increase five-fold. The effectiveness of a range of demand management and supply options have been tested and shown to provide significant benefits in terms of reducing the number of demand saving days. We found that increased supply arising from various adaptation options may compensate for increasingly variable flows; however, without reductions in overall demand for water resources such options will be insufficient on their own to adapt to uncertainties in the projected changes in climate and population. For example, a 30

  13. NASA'S Water Resources Element Within the Applied Sciences Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toll, David; Doorn, Bradley; Engman, Edwin

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Earth Systems Division has the primary responsibility for the Applied Science Program and the objective to accelerate the use of NASA science results in applications to help solve problems important to society and the economy. The primary goal of the NASA Applied Science Program is to improve future and current operational systems by infusing them with scientific knowledge of the Earth system gained through space-based observation, assimilation of new observations, and development and deployment of enabling technologies, systems, and capabilities. This paper discusses major problems facing water resources managers, including having timely and accurate data to drive their decision support tools. It then describes how NASA's science and space based satellites may be used to overcome this problem. Opportunities for the water resources community to participate in NASA's Water Resources Applications Program are described.

  14. Advanced Water Purification System for In Situ Resource Utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anthony, Stephen M.; Jolley, Scott T.; Captain, James G.

    2013-01-01

    One of NASA's goals is to enable longterm human presence in space, without the need for continuous replenishment of consumables from Earth. In situ resource utilization (ISRU) is the use of extraterrestrial resources to support activities such as human life-support, material fabrication and repair, and radiation shielding. Potential sources of ISRU resources include lunar and Martian regolith, and Martian atmosphere. Water and byproducts (including hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids) can be produced from lunar regolith via a high-temperature hydrogen reduction reaction and passing the produced gas through a condenser. center dot Due to the high solubility of HCI and HF in water, these byproducts are expected to be present in the product stream (up to 20,000 ppm) and must be removed (less than 10 ppm) prior to water consumption or electrolysis.

  15. An Evaluation of Streaming Digital Video Resources in On- and Off-Campus Engineering Management Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Stuart

    2007-01-01

    A recent television documentary on the Columbia space shuttle disaster was converted to streaming digital video format for educational use by on- and off-campus students in an engineering management study unit examining issues in professional engineering ethics. An evaluation was conducted to assess the effectiveness of this new resource. Use of…

  16. Biotechnology for a renewable resources chemicals and fuels industry, biochemical engineering R and D

    SciTech Connect

    Villet, R.H.

    1980-04-01

    To establish an effective biotechnology of biomass processing for the production of fuels and chemicals, an integration of research in biochemical engineering, microbial genetics, and biochemistry is required. Reduction of the costs of producing chemicals and fuels from renewable resources will hinge on extensive research in biochemical engineering.

  17. Manpower and Financial Resources Allocated to Academic Science and Engineering Activities, 1965-71.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Div. of Science Resources Studies.

    This report summarizes the results of the National Science Foundation's biennial survey of manpower and financial resources for scientific engineering activities at institutions of higher education, 1971. The survey was conducted by mail questionnaires sent to 2,198 universities and colleges that maintained science and engineering programs, and…

  18. Hydromentor: An integrated water resources monitoring and management system at modified semi-arid watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasiliades, Lampros; Sidiropoulos, Pantelis; Tzabiras, John; Kokkinos, Konstantinos; Spiliotopoulos, Marios; Papaioannou, George; Fafoutis, Chrysostomos; Michailidou, Kalliopi; Tziatzios, George; Loukas, Athanasios; Mylopoulos, Nikitas

    2015-04-01

    Natural and engineered water systems interact throughout watersheds and while there is clearly a link between watershed activities and the quantity and quality of water entering the engineered environment, these systems are considered distinct operational systems. As a result, the strategic approach to data management and modeling within the two systems is very different, leading to significant difficulties in integrating the two systems in order to make comprehensive watershed decisions. In this paper, we describe the "HYDROMENTOR" research project, a highly-structured data storage and exchange system that integrates multiple tools and models describing both natural and modified environments, to provide an integrated tool for management of water resources. Our underlying objective in presenting our conceptual design for this water information system is to develop an integrated and automated system that will achieve monitoring and management of the water quantity and quality at watershed level for both surface water (rivers and lakes) and ground water resources (aquifers). The uniqueness of the system is the integrated treatment of the water resources management issue in terms of water quantity and quality in current climate conditions and in future conditions of climatic change. On an operational level, the system provides automated warnings when the availability, use and pollution levels exceed allowable limits pre-set by the management authorities. Decision making with respect to the apportionment of water use by surface and ground water resources are aided through this system, while the relationship between the polluting activity of a source to total incoming pollution by sources are determined; this way, the best management practices for dealing with a crisis are proposed. The computational system allows the development and application of actions, interventions and policies (alternative management scenarios) so that the impacts of climate change in quantity

  19. Roadmap for sustainable water resources in southwestern North America.

    PubMed

    Gleick, Peter H

    2010-12-14

    The management of water resources in arid and semiarid areas has long been a challenge, from ancient Mesopotamia to the modern southwestern United States. As our understanding of the hydrological and climatological cycles has improved, and our ability to manipulate the hydrologic cycle has increased, so too have the challenges associated with managing a limited natural resource for a growing population. Modern civilization has made remarkable progress in water management in the past few centuries. Burgeoning cities now survive in desert regions, relying on a mix of simple and complex technologies and management systems to bring adequate water and remove wastewater. These systems have permitted agricultural production and urban concentrations to expand in regions previously thought to have inadequate moisture. However, evidence is also mounting that our current management and use of water is unsustainable. Physical, economic, and ecological limits constrain the development of new supplies and additional water withdrawals, even in regions not previously thought vulnerable to water constraints. New kinds of limits are forcing water managers and policy makers to rethink previous assumptions about population, technology, regional planning, and forms of development. In addition, new threats, especially the challenges posed by climatic changes, are now apparent. Sustainably managing and using water in arid and semiarid regions such as the southwestern United States will require new thinking about water in an interdisciplinary and integrated way. The good news is that a wide range of options suggest a roadmap for sustainable water management and use in the coming decades.

  20. Roadmap for sustainable water resources in southwestern North America

    PubMed Central

    Gleick, Peter H.

    2010-01-01

    The management of water resources in arid and semiarid areas has long been a challenge, from ancient Mesopotamia to the modern southwestern United States. As our understanding of the hydrological and climatological cycles has improved, and our ability to manipulate the hydrologic cycle has increased, so too have the challenges associated with managing a limited natural resource for a growing population. Modern civilization has made remarkable progress in water management in the past few centuries. Burgeoning cities now survive in desert regions, relying on a mix of simple and complex technologies and management systems to bring adequate water and remove wastewater. These systems have permitted agricultural production and urban concentrations to expand in regions previously thought to have inadequate moisture. However, evidence is also mounting that our current management and use of water is unsustainable. Physical, economic, and ecological limits constrain the development of new supplies and additional water withdrawals, even in regions not previously thought vulnerable to water constraints. New kinds of limits are forcing water managers and policy makers to rethink previous assumptions about population, technology, regional planning, and forms of development. In addition, new threats, especially the challenges posed by climatic changes, are now apparent. Sustainably managing and using water in arid and semiarid regions such as the southwestern United States will require new thinking about water in an interdisciplinary and integrated way. The good news is that a wide range of options suggest a roadmap for sustainable water management and use in the coming decades. PMID:21149725