Science.gov

Sample records for water technical support

  1. GROUND WATER TECHNICAL SUPPORT CENTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Office of Research and Development operates a Ground Water Technical Support Center (GWTSC). The Center provides support on issues regarding subsurface contamination, contaminant fluxes to other media (e.g., surface water or air), and ecosystem restoration. The GWTSC creat...

  2. EPA'S GROUND WATER TECHNICAL SUPPORT CENTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose and the services provided by EPA's Ground Water Technical Support Center (GWTSC) will be presented. In 1987 the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, Regional Waste Management Offices, and ORD established the Technical Support Project (TSP)

    The purpos...

  3. Ground Water Technical Support Center (GWTSC) Annual ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Ground Water Technical Support Center (GWTSC) is part of the Ground Water and Ecosystems Restoration Division (GWERD), which is based in the Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Center in Ada, Oklahoma. The GWERD is a research division of U.S. EPA’s National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL). The GWTSC is one of an interlinked group of specialized Technical Support Centersthat were established under the Technical Support Project (TSP). The GWTSC provides technical support on issues related to groundwater. Specifically, the GWTSC provides technical support to U.S. EPA and State regulators for issues and problems related to:1. subsurface contamination (contaminants in ground water, soils and sediments),2. cross-media transfer (movement of contaminants from the subsurface to other media such as surface water or air), and3. restoration of impacted ecosystems.The GWTSC works with Remedial Project Managers (RPMs) and other decision makers to solve specific problems at Superfund, RCRA (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act), Brownfields sites, and ecosystem restoration sites. The Ground Water Technical Support Center (GWTSC) is part of the Ground Water and Ecosystems Restoration Division (GWERD), which is based in the Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Center in Ada, Oklahoma. The GWERD is a research division of U.S. EPA’s National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL). The GWTSC is one of an interlinked group of specialized Technical Suppo

  4. ORD Scientific and Engineering Technical Support for RPMs – Ground Water Technical Support Center

    EPA Science Inventory

    ORD Scientific and Engineering Technical Support for RPMs (and Others) is a hybrid informational and panel session that focuses on the technical support available from EPA’s Office of Research and Development (ORD) to RPMs and other EPA cleanup program staff. Examples of technica...

  5. Ground Water Technical Support Center (GWTSC) Annual Report Fiscal Year 2014 (FY14)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Ground Water Technical Support Center (GWTSC) is part of the Ground Water and Ecosystems Restoration Division (GWERD), which is based in the Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Center in Ada, Oklahoma. The GWERD is a research division of U.S. EPA's National Risk Management...

  6. Ground Water Technical Support Center (GWTSC) Annual Report Fiscal Year 2015

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Ground Water Technical Support Center (GWTSC) is part of the Ground Water and Ecosystems Restoration Division (GWERD), which is based in the Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Center in Ada, Oklahoma. The GWERD is a research division of U.S. EPA’s National Risk Management ...

  7. Ground Water Technical Support Center (GWTSC) Annual Report FY 2012: October 2011 – September 2012

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Ground Water Technical Support Center (GWTSC) is part of the Ground Water and Ecosystems Restoration Division (GWERD), which is based in the Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Center in Ada, Oklahoma. The GWERD is a research division of U.S. EPA's National Risk Management...

  8. ERD WATERSHED AND WATER QUALITY MODEL DEVELOPMENT AND TECHNICAL SUPPORT PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ERD has a long history in providing model research and development and technical support to Regions, States and the Office of Water for watersheds/water quality ecosystem research. The ERD efforts are described in major subtasks comprising the Program. Briefly, these are:

  9. ERLN Technical Support for Labs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Environmental Response Laboratory Network provides policies and guidance on lab and data requirements, Standardized Analytical Methods, and technical support for water and radiological sampling and analysis

  10. SUPERFUND TECHNICAL SUPPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under this task, technical support is provided to Regional Remedial Project Managers (RPMs)/On-Scene Coordinators (OSCs) at Superfund, RCRA, and Brownfields sites contaminated with hazardous materials by the Technical Support Center (TSC) for Monitoring and Site Characterization....

  11. Technical support to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for the boiling water reactor blowdown heat transfer program

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, R.E.

    Results are presented of studies conducted by Aerojet Nuclear Company (ANC) in FY 1975 to support the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on the boiling water reactor blowdown heat transfer (BWR-BDHT) program. The support provided by ANC is that of an independent assessor of the program to ensure that the data obtained are adequate for verification of analytical models used for predicting reactor response to a postulated loss-of-coolant accident. The support included reviews of program plans, objectives, measurements, and actual data. Additional activity included analysis of experimental system performance and evaluation of the RELAP4 computer code as applied to the experiments.

  12. Technical Support for Contaminated Sites | Science Inventory ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In 1987, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Office of Research and Development (ORD), Office of Land and Emergency Management, and EPA Regional waste management offices established the Technical Support Project. The creation of the Technical Support Project enabled ORD to provide effective technical assistance by ensuring ORD scientists and engineers were accessible to the Agency’s Office and Regional decision makers, including Remedial Project Managers, On-Scene Coordinators, and corrective action staff. Five ORD Technical Support Centers (TSCs) were created to facilitate this technical assistance. Three of the five TSCs are supported by the Sustainable and Healthy Communities Research Program, and are summarized in the poster being presented:• Engineering Technical Support Center (ETSC) in Cincinnati, Ohio• Ground Water Technical Support Center (GWTSC) in Ada, Oklahoma• Site Characterization and Monitoring Technical Support Center (SCMTSC) in Atlanta, GeorgiaOver the past 29 years, the Technical Support Centers have provided numerous influential products to its internal Agency clients and to those at the State level (through the EPA Regions). These products include, but are not limited to the following: Annual TSC reports from the three Centers, a hard-rock mining conference every other year, PRO-UCL software development for site characterization statistics, groundwater modeling using state-of-the-art modeling software, numerical mo

  13. Engineering Technical Support Center (ETSC)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ETSC is EPA’s technical support and resource centers responsible for providing specialized scientific and engineering support to decision-makers in the Agency’s ten regional offices, states, communities, and local businesses.

  14. Technical Support for Contaminated Sites

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1987, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Office of Research and Development (ORD), Office of Land and Emergency Management, and EPA Regional waste management offices established the Technical Support Project. The creation of the Technical Support Project enabled...

  15. Technical Support Documents Used to Develop the Chesapeake Bay TMDL

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Chesapeake Bay TMDL development was supported by several technical documents for water quality standards and allocation methodologies specific to the Chesapeake Bay. This page provides the technical support documents.

  16. USDI DCS technical support: Mississippi Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preble, D. M.

    1975-01-01

    The objective of the technical support effort is to provide hardware and data processing support to DCS users so that application of the system may be simply and effectively implemented. Technical support at Mississippi Test Facility (MTF) is concerned primarily with on-site hardware. The first objective of the DCP hardware support was to assure that standard measuring apparatus and techniques used by the USGS could be adapted to the DCS. The second objective was to try to standardize the miscellaneous variety of parameters into a standard instrument set. The third objective was to provide the necessary accessories to simplify the use and complement the capabilities of the DCP. The standard USGS sites have been interfaced and are presently operating. These sites are stream gauge, ground water level and line operated quality of water. Evapotranspiration, meteorological and battery operated quality of water sites are planned for near future DCP operation. Three accessories which are under test or development are the Chu antenna, solar power supply and add-on memory. The DCP has proven to be relatively easy to interface with many monitors. The large antenna is awkward to install and transport. The DCS has met the original requirements well; it has and is proving that an operation, satellite-based data collection system is feasible.

  17. Vulnerability of U.S. water supply to shortage: a technical document supporting the Forest Service 2010 RPA Assessment

    Treesearch

    Romano Foti; Jorge A. Ramirez; Thomas C. Brown

    2012-01-01

    Comparison of projected future water demand and supply across the conterminous United States indicates that, due to improving efficiency in water use, expected increases in population and economic activity do not by themselves pose a serious threat of large-scale water shortages. However, climate change can increase water demand and decrease water supply to the extent...

  18. EPA Technical Support Centers (TSC): FY14 Lessons ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA’s Technical Support Centers (TSC) included in ORD’s Safe and Healthy Communities (SHC) Research Action Plan fill the need for supplying subject-matter experts to continually assess state-of-the-art research and practices and channel this information to users in both direct applications (i.e., site-specific technical support) and general applications (i.e., technical transfer activities such as technical guidance documents, conferences, or workshops) . The TSCs are charged with providing solutions by: 1) linking EPA research to Agency decision-makers; 2) applying best practices to real world field applications; and 3) channeling feedback from field application to research communities. The TSP goal is to provide Regional Remedial Project Managers (RPMs), Corrective Action Staff, and On-Scene Coordinators (OSCs) with a diverse set of readily-accessible resources for technical assistance. This research summary provides six case studies – two from each of the three TSCs (Ground Water Technical Support Center, Engineering Technical Support Center, and Site Characterization Technical Support Center) – to exemplify and summarize the variety of TSC approaches that contribute to fulfilling the TSP mission. EPA’s Technical Support Centers (TSC) included in ORD’s Safe and Healthy Communities (SHC) Research Action Plan fill the need for supplying subject-matter experts to continually assess state-of-the-art research and practices and channel this informati

  19. Planning a DSN support section technical library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, T.; Chatburn, C. C.

    1980-01-01

    The planning procedure being used to establish a technical library for the Deep Space Network support section is described. The inventory and survey methods employed are described and the preliminary results of these methods are discussed.

  20. USACE AIS Transmit Technical Support Summary Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    the TAG block for the correct transmitters, and then send to the USACE AIS network. B. Outbound openings in the USCG firewall for the USCG Message...USACE AIS Transmit Technical Support Summary Report Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited...September 2014 Report No. CD-D-09-15 USACE AIS Transmit Technical Support Summary Report ii UNCLAS//Public | CG-926 RDC | I. Gonin et al. Public

  1. Engineering Technical Support Center Annual Report Fiscal ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or Agency) Office of Research and Development (ORD) created the Engineering Technical Support Center (ETSC) in 1987, one of several technical support centers created as part of the Technical Support Project (TSP). ETSC provides engineering expertise to Agency program and regional offices and remediation teams working at contaminated sites across the country. The ETSC is operated within ORD’s Land Remediation and Pollution Control Division (LRPCD) of the National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) in Cincinnati, Ohio. The ETSC’s mission is to provide site-specific scientific and engineering technical support to Remedial Project Managers, On-Scene Coordinators, and other remediation personnel at contaminated sites. This allows local, regional, or national authorities to work more quickly, efficiently, and cost effectively, while also increasing the technical experience of the remediation team. Since its inception, the ETSC has supported countless projects across all EPA Regions in almost all states and territories. This report highlights significant projects the ETSC supported in fiscal year 2015 (FY15). These projects addressed an array of environmental scenarios, such as remote mining contamination, expansive landfill waste, cumulative impacts from multiple contamination sources, and persistent threats from abandoned industrial sites. Constructing and testing new and innovative treatment technol

  2. Technical requirements for bioassay support services

    SciTech Connect

    Hickman, D.P.; Anderson, A.L.

    1991-05-01

    This document provides the technical basis for the Chem-Nuclear Geotech (Geotech) bioassay program. It includes information and details that can be used as a model in providing technical contents and requirements for bioassay laboratory support, either internally or in solicitations by Geotech to obtain subcontractor laboratory support. It provides a detailed summary and description of the types of bioassay samples to be expected in support of Geotech remedial projects for the US Department of Energy and the bioassay services and analytical requirements necessary to process such samples, including required limits of sensitivity. General responsibilities of the bioassay laboratory are alsomore » addressed, including quality assurance. Peripheral information of importance to the program is included in the appendices of this document. 7 tabs.« less

  3. Water Operations Technical Support Program: Proceedings of the Seminar on Water Quality (9th) Held in San Antonio, Texas on 16-20 March 1992

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-10-01

    System Model for Water Quality Control by Jackson K. Brown ...................................... 119 Management Technique for Long-Term Flow... Modeling Activities for the ARCS Program by David C. Cowgill ...................................... 141 Toxicity and Chemistry Testing of Great Lakes...225 Combined Hydrodynamic and Water Quality Modeling of Lower Green Bay by David J. Mark, Barry W. Bunch, and Norman W. Scheffner

  4. Engineering, technical, and management support services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes by task the engineering, technical, and management support services provided by Vitro Corporation to NASA Headquarters Office of Safety, Reliability, Maintainability, and Quality Assurance (now called Office of Safety and Mission Assurance (OSMA)) (Code Q) under Contract Number NASW-4311 from the period February 10, 1994. Each task summary includes significant Vitro accomplishments, conclusions, and recommendations for future efforts in each of the divisions within OSMA.

  5. Engineering Technical Support Center Annual Report Fiscal Year 2015

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or Agency) Office of Research and Development (ORD) created the Engineering Technical Support Center (ETSC) in 1987, one of several technical support centers created as part of the Technical Support Project (TSP). ETSC provid...

  6. Integrated Solar Upper Stage Technical Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworske, Donald A.

    1998-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center is participating in the Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) program. This program is a ground-based demonstration of an upper stage concept that will be used to generate both solar propulsion and solar power. Solar energy collected by a primary concentrator is directed into the aperture of a secondary concentrator and further concentrated into the aperture of a heat receiver. The energy stored in the receiver-absorber-converter is used to heat hydrogen gas to provide propulsion during the orbital transfer portion of the mission. During the balance of the mission, electric power is generated by thermionic diodes. Several materials issues were addressed as part of the technical support portion of the ISUS program, including: 1) Evaluation of primary concentrator coupons; 2) Evaluation of secondary concentrator coupons; 3) Evaluation of receiver-absorber-converter coupons; 4) Evaluation of in-test witness coupons. Two different types of primary concentrator coupons were evaluated from two different contractors-replicated coupons made from graphite-epoxy composite and coupons made from microsheet glass. Specular reflectivity measurements identified the replicated graphite-epoxy composite coupons as the primary concentrator material of choice. Several different secondary concentrator materials were evaluated, including a variety of silver and rhodium reflectors. The specular reflectivity of these materials was evaluated under vacuum at temperatures up to 800 C. The optical properties of several coupons of rhenium on graphite were evaluated to predict the thermal performance of the receiver-absorber-converter. Finally, during the ground test demonstration, witness coupons placed in strategic locations throughout the thermal vacuum facility were evaluated for contaminants. All testing for the ISUS program was completed successfully in 1997. Investigations related to materials issues have proven helpful in understanding the operation of the test

  7. 2005 v4.2 Technical Support Document

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Technical Support Document for the Final Transport Rule describes how updated 2005 NEI, version 2 emissions and were processed for air quality modeling in support of the Cross-state Air Pollution Rule (CSAPR).

  8. 2005 v4.3 Technical Support Document

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Emissions Modeling for the Final Mercury and Air Toxics Standards Technical Support Document describes how updated 2005 NEI, version 2 emissions were processed for air quality modeling in support of the final Mercury and Air Toxics Standards (MATS).

  9. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 67 - Technical Support Document

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Technical Support Document A Appendix A to Part 67 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...—Technical Support Document Note: EPA will make copies of appendix A available from: Director, Stationary...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 66 - Technical Support Document

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Technical Support Document A Appendix A to Part 66 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...—Technical Support Document Note: For text of appendix A see appendix A to part 67. ...

  11. Climate and Energy-Water-Land System Interactions Technical Report to the U.S. Department of Energy in Support of the National Climate Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Skaggs, Richard; Hibbard, Kathleen A.; Frumhoff, Peter

    2012-03-01

    This report provides a framework to characterize and understand the important elements of climate and energy-water-land (EWL) system interactions. It identifies many of the important issues, discusses our understanding of those issues, and presents a long-term research program research needs to address the priority scientific challenges and gaps in our understanding. Much of the discussion is organized around two discrete case studies with the broad themes of (1) extreme events and (2) regional intercomparisons. These case studies help demonstrate unique ways in which energy-water-land interactions can occur and be influenced by climate.

  12. Technical Support Project for Cleaning Up Contaminated Sites - Expertise Directory

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This directory is searchable and provides a snapshot of the various types of expertise possessed by the current members of the three Technical Support Project forums. It is based on input provided by the members themselves.

  13. AHMCT Intelligent Roadway Information System (IRIS) technical support and testing

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-12-31

    This report documents the research project AHMCT IRIS Technical Support and Testing, : performed under contract 65A0275, Task ID 1777. It presents an overview of the Intelligent : Roadway Information System (IRIS), and its design and function. ...

  14. AHMCT Intelligent Roadway Information System (IRIS) technical support and testing.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-12-01

    This report documents the research project AHMCT IRIS Technical Support and Testing, : performed under contract 65A0275, Task ID 1777. It presents an overview of the Intelligent : Roadway Information System (IRIS), and its design and function. ...

  15. Technical Support Document for Title V Permitting of Printing Facilities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Stationary source emissions monitoring is required to demonstrate that a source is meeting the requirements in Federal or state rules, including Title V. This document provides the technical support for compliance in the printing and publishing industry.

  16. Draft federal GHG accounting and reporting : technical support document

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-07-01

    This is a technical support document (TSD) that accompanies the Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting Guidance (or Guidance). This document provides detailed information on the inventory reporting process and accepted calculation methodolog...

  17. City Reach Code Technical Support Document

    SciTech Connect

    Athalye, Rahul A.; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Jian

    This report describes and analyzes a set of energy efficiency measures that will save 20% energy over ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013. The measures will be used to formulate a Reach Code for cities aiming to go beyond national model energy codes. A coalition of U.S. cities together with other stakeholders wanted to facilitate the development of voluntary guidelines and standards that can be implemented in stages at the city level to improve building energy efficiency. The coalition's efforts are being supported by the U.S. Department of Energy via Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and in collaboration with the New Buildings Institute.

  18. California Tribal Nations Technical Water Research

    SciTech Connect

    Ben, C; Coty, J

    2005-08-15

    This research focused on identifying the key technical water issues of federally recognized California Native American tribes, the context within which these water issues arise for the tribes, and an appropriate format for potentially opening further dialogue on water research issues between the tribes and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) scientists. At LLNL, a Water Quality and Resource Management Issues Workshop held in January of 2003 resulted in multiple recommendations, one proposing a LLNL dialogue with California tribes to further inform LLNL's prioritization of water issues based on identified needs across national sectors. The focus of this aforementioned Water Qualitymore » and Resource Management Issues Workshop was to identify national and international priority water research issues with which LLNL may align their research efforts and contribute to resolving these needs. LLNL staff researched various sectors to delineate the key water issues associated with each. This preliminary water issue research included diverse entities such as international water agencies, federal and state agencies, industry, non-governmental agencies, and private organizations. The key (identified) water issues across these sectors were presented to workshop attendees and used during workshop debates and sessions. However, the key water issues of federally recognized Native American tribes remained less understood, resulting in a workshop proposal for additional research and LLNL potentially hosting a dialog with representatives of these tribes. Federally recognized Native American tribes have a unique government-to-government relationship with the United States (U.S.) government, in contrast to other sectors researched for the workshop. Within the U.S., the number of federally recognized tribes currently stands at 562 and, in addition to this large number of tribes, much diversity across these tribes exists. For the purposes of this preliminary research and

  19. Transforming South-South technical support to fight noncommunicable diseases.

    PubMed

    Shakow, Aaron D A; Bukhman, Gene; Adebona, Olumuyiwa; Greene, Jeremy; de Dieu Ngirabega, Jean; Binagwaho, Agnès

    2012-03-01

    At the UN High-Level Meeting on non-communicable diseases (NCD) in September 2011, each member state was challenged to create a multisectoral national policy and plan for the prevention and control of non-communicable disease by 2013. Few low-income countries, however, currently have such plans. Their governments are likely to turn for assistance in drafting and implementation to multilateral agencies and Contract Technical Support Organizations recommended by development partners. Yet because many NCD seen in the lowest-income countries differ significantly from those prevalent elsewhere, existing providers of external technical support may lack the necessary experience to support strategic planning for NCD interventions in these settings. This article reviews currently available mechanisms of technical support for health sector planning. It places them in the broader historical context of post- World War II international development assistance and the more recent campaigns for horizontal "South-South" cooperation and aid effectiveness. It proposes bilateral technical assistance by low income-countries themselves as the natural evolution of development assistance in health. Such programs, it argues, may be able to improve the quality of technical support to low-income countries for strategic planning in the NCD area while directing resources to the regions where they are most needed. Copyright © 2012 World Heart Federation (Geneva). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Technical challenges involved in supporting the Lambda Point Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrac, D.; Israelsson, U.; Otth, D.; Simmons, L.; Staats, J.; Thompson, A.

    1990-01-01

    The Lambda Point Experiment (LPE) is one of the instruments included in the U.S. Microgravity Payload Mission 1 planned for one of the Space Shuttle flights in 1992. The objective of the experiment is to measure the heat capacity of liquid helium within a narrow interval around the transition between superfluid and normal helium (the lambda point) with an unprecedented temperature resolution of about 10 to the -10th. Multiple technical challenges are presented in the areas of structural support, safety analysis, and modal frequency tests. This paper describes the technical challenges of JPL's multidisciplinary involvement in support of these experiments in microgravity.

  1. Site Characterization and Monitoring Technical Support Center FY16 Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    SCMTSC’s primary goal is to provide technical assistance to regional programs on complex hazardous waste site characterization issues. This annual report illustrates the range and extent of projects that SCMTSC supported in FY 2016. Our principal audiences are site project manage...

  2. EPA Technical Support Centers (TSC): FY14 Lessons Learned

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA’s Technical Support Centers (TSC) included in ORD’s Safe and Healthy Communities (SHC) Research Action Plan fill the need for supplying subject-matter experts to continually assess state-of-the-art research and practices and channel this information to users in both direct ap...

  3. Technical assessment of PSSC-supported experiments and demonstrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A description of CTS and ATS short-term and long-term satellite demonstration supported through usage of a satellite communication ground station complex is presented. User assessments about the programmatic impact of their demonstrations and experiments were summarized. The technical planning and coordination process involved in satellite utilization is also presented.

  4. Obtaining Technical Support for Superfund, RCRA and Brownfields Site Issues Fact Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA’s Technical Support Centers (TSCs) and other technical support services are available to Regional RemedialProject Managers, Corrective Action Staff, and On-Scene Coordinators needing specialized technical expertisefor specific tasks or projects.

  5. 78 FR 70586 - Technical Support Document: Technical Update of the Social Cost of Carbon for Regulatory Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ... OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET Technical Support Document: Technical Update of the Social Cost of... Budget, Executive Office of the President. ACTION: Notice of availability and request for comments. SUMMARY: The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) requests comments on the Technical Support Document...

  6. Water Walls for Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammoudeh, Mona (Inventor); Flynn, Michael T. (Inventor); Gormly, Sherwin J. (Inventor); Richardson, Tra-My Justine (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A method and associated system for processing waste gases, liquids and solids, produced by human activity, to separate (i) liquids suitable for processing to produce potable water, (ii) solids and liquids suitable for construction of walls suitable for enclosing a habitat volume and for radiation shielding, and (iii) other fluids and solids that are not suitable for processing. A forward osmosis process and a reverse osmosis process are sequentially combined to reduce fouling and to permit accumulation of different processable substances. The invention may be used for long term life support of human activity.

  7. Effects and effectiveness of dynamic arm supports: a technical review.

    PubMed

    van der Heide, Loek A; Gelderblom, Gert Jan; de Witte, Luc P

    2015-01-01

    Numerous dynamic arm supports have been developed in recent decades to increase independence in the performance of activities of daily living. Much effort and money have been spent on their development and prescription, yet insight into their effects and effectiveness is lacking. This article is a systematic review of evaluations of dynamic arm supports. The 8 technical evaluations, 12 usability evaluations, and 27 outcome studies together make 47 evaluations. Technical evaluations were often used as input for new developments and directed at balancing quality, forces and torques, and range of motion of prototypes. Usability studies were mostly single-measure designs that had varying results as to whether devices were usable for potential users. An increased ability to perform activities of daily living and user satisfaction were reported in outcome studies. However, the use of dynamic arm supports in the home situation was reported to be low. Gaining insight into why devices are not used when their developers believe them to be effective seems crucial for every new dynamic arm support developed. The methodological quality of the outcome studies was often low, so it is important that this is improved in the future.

  8. PRODUCTION OF HEAVY WATER SAVANNAH RIVER AND DANA PLANTS. Technical Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Bebbington, W.P.; Thayer, V.R. eds.; Proctor, J.F. comp.

    1959-07-01

    A summary is presented of the basic technical iniormation that pertains to processes that are used at the Dana and Savannah River Plants for the production of heavy water. The manual is intended primarily for plant operating and technical personnel and was prepared to supplement and provide technical support for detailed operating procedures. Introductory sections contain some background information on the history, uses, available processes, and analytical procedures for heavy water. They also include a general comparison of the design and laserformance of the two plants and an analysis of their differences. The technology of the heavy water separation processesmore » used, namely hydrogen sulfide exchange, distillation of water, and electrolysis is discussed in detail. The manufacture and storage of hydrogen sulfide gas and the process water treatment facilities are also discussed. (auth)« less

  9. Water Resources Research supports water economics submissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Ronald C.

    2012-09-01

    AGU's international interdisciplinary journal Water Resources Research (WRR) publishes original contributions in hydrology; the physical, chemical, and biological sciences; and the social and policy sciences, including economics, systems analysis, sociology, and law. With the rising relevance of water economics and related social sciences, the editors of WRR continue to encourage submissions on economics and policy. WRR was originally founded in the mid 1960s by Walter Langbein and economist Allen Kneese. Several former WRR editors have been economists—including David Brookshire, Ron Cummings, and Chuck Howe—and many landmark articles in water economics have been published in WRR.

  10. Fluor Hanford, Inc. Groundwater and Technical Integration Support (Master Project) Quality Assurance Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Fix, N. J.

    The scope of the Fluor Hanford, Inc. Groundwater and Technical Integration Support (Master Project) is to provide technical and integration support to Fluor Hanford, Inc., including operable unit investigations at 300-FF-5 and other groundwater operable units, strategic integration, technical integration and assessments, remediation decision support, and science and technology. This Quality Assurance Management Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by the Fluor Hanford, Inc. Groundwater and Technical Integration Support (Master Project).

  11. Technical Review of Water-Resources Investigations of the Tule Desert, Lincoln County, Southern Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berger, David L.; Halford, Keith J.; Belcher, Wayne R.; Lico, Michael S.

    2008-01-01

    The Nevada State Engineer in Ruling No. 5181 required Lincoln County and Vidler Water Company, Inc., to provide results from additional water-resources studies of Tule Desert in southern Nevada to support water-rights application 64692. As outlined by the ruling, the additional studies were to include the determination of the amount of ground water available from the Tule Desert basin, ground-water recharge to the Tule Desert, and the direction of ground-water flow. Results of these additional studies were published in five reports prepared for Lincoln County and Vidler Water Company, Inc. The National Park Service formally requested that the U.S. Geological Survey provide technical reviews of these five reports. The Nevada State Engineer in Ruling No. 5181 required Lincoln County and Vidler Water Company, Inc., to provide results from additional water-resources studies of Tule Desert in southern Nevada to support water-rights application 64692. As outlined by the ruling, the additional studies were to include the determination of the amount of ground water available from the Tule Desert basin, ground-water recharge to the Tule Desert, and the direction of ground-water flow. Results of these additional studies were published in five reports prepared for Lincoln County and Vidler Water Company, Inc. The National Park Service formally requested that the U.S. Geological Survey provide technical reviews of these five reports.

  12. Identifying Effective Strategies to Providing Technical Support to One-to-One Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Mark W.

    2013-01-01

    The problem of this study was that while one-to-one initiatives in the K-12 environment are growing, the technical support personnel that work in these environments are experiencing problems supporting these initiatives. The purposes of this study were to: (a) identify common problems of providing technical support in a one-to-one laptop program,…

  13. Air Quality Modeling Technical Support Document for the Final Cross State Air Pollution Rule Update

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In this technical support document (TSD) we describe the air quality modeling performed to support the final Cross State Air Pollution Rule for the 2008 ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS).

  14. Air Quality Modeling Technical Support Document for the 2015 Ozone NAAQS Preliminary Interstate Transport Assessment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In this technical support document (TSD) EPA describes the air quality modeling performed to support the 2015 ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) preliminary interstate transport assessment Notice of Data Availability (NODA).

  15. 75 FR 19297 - Energy Conservation Program: Public Meeting and Availability of the Preliminary Technical Support...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ... Conservation Program: Public Meeting and Availability of the Preliminary Technical Support Document for Walk-In... and availability of the preliminary technical support document regarding energy conservation standards..., the deadline for requesting to speak at the public meeting, and the deadline for submitting written...

  16. Decision support system for drinking water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janža, M.

    2012-04-01

    The problems in drinking water management are complex and often solutions must be reached under strict time constrains. This is especially distinct in case of environmental accidents in the catchment areas of the wells that are used for drinking water supply. The beneficial tools that can help decision makers and make program of activities more efficient are decision support systems (DSS). In general they are defined as computer-based support systems that help decision makers utilize data and models to solve unstructured problems. The presented DSS was developed in the frame of INCOME project which is focused on the long-term stable and safe drinking water supply in Ljubljana. The two main water resources Ljubljana polje and Barje alluvial aquifers are characterized by a strong interconnection of surface and groundwater, high vulnerability, high velocities of groundwater flow and pollutant transport. In case of sudden pollution, reactions should be very fast to avoid serious impact to the water supply. In the area high pressures arising from urbanization, industry, traffic, agriculture and old environmental burdens. The aim of the developed DSS is to optimize the activities in cases of emergency water management and to optimize the administrative work regarding the activities that can improve groundwater quality status. The DSS is an interactive computer system that utilizes data base, hydrological modelling, and experts' and stakeholders' knowledge. It consists of three components, tackling the different abovementioned issues in water management. The first one utilizes the work on identification, cleaning up and restoration of illegal dumpsites that are a serious threat to the qualitative status of groundwater. The other two components utilize the predictive capability of the hydrological model and scenario analysis. The user interacts with the system by a graphical interface that guides the user step-by-step to the recommended remedial measures. Consequently, the

  17. Modelling the Reasons for Training Choices: Technical Paper. Support Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Andrew; Oczkowski, Eddie; Hill, Mark

    2009-01-01

    This report provides the technical details on the modelling aspects of identifying significant drivers for the reasons for using certain types of training and for the choice of training types. The employed data is from the 2005 Survey of Employer Use and Views of the VET system (SEUV). The data has previously been analysed in NCVER (2006). This…

  18. Technical Basis for Water Chemistry Control of IGSCC in Boiling Water Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Barry; Garcia, Susan

    Boiling water reactors (BWRs) operate with very high purity water. However, even the utilization of near theoretical conductivity water cannot prevent intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of sensitized stainless steel, wrought nickel alloys and nickel weld metals under oxygenated conditions. IGSCC can be further accelerated by the presence of certain impurities dissolved in the coolant. The goal of this paper is to present the technical basis for controlling various impurities under both oxygenated, i.e., normal water chemistry (NWC) and deoxygenated, i.e., hydrogen water chemistry (HWC) conditions for mitigation of IGSCC. More specifically, the effects of typical BWR ionic impurities (e.g., sulfate, chloride, nitrate, borate, phosphate, etc.) on IGSCC propensities in both NWC and HWC environments will be discussed. The technical basis for zinc addition to the BWR coolant will also provided along with an in-plant example of the most severe water chemistry transient to date.

  19. Technical Support Document for Version 3.6.1 of the COMcheck Software

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, Rosemarie; Connell, Linda M.; Gowri, Krishnan

    2009-09-29

    This technical support document (TSD) is designed to explain the technical basis for the COMcheck software as originally developed based on the ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-1989 (Standard 90.1-1989). Documentation for other national model codes and standards and specific state energy codes supported in COMcheck has been added to this report as appendices. These appendices are intended to provide technical documentation for features specific to the supported codes and for any changes made for state-specific codes that differ from the standard features that support compliance with the national model codes and standards.

  20. Support Materials for the Software Technical Review Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    the Software Technical Review Process Softwar-e reviewing is a general term applied to techniques for the use of human hitellectual power to detect...more systematic than random. It utilizes data supplied by students, rather than relying solely on the subjective opinions of the instructor. The...The experience of other users is now essential.) "• Are the resulting grades accurate? (Thus far, they appear to correlate with student grades on

  1. Technical Assistance and Program Support; DOD Historical Black Colleges and Universities and Minority Institutions Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-04-01

    AD Award Number: DAMD17-98-2-8012 TITLE: Technical Assistance and Program Support; DOD Historical Black Colleges and Universities and Minority...2000 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Annual (1 May 99 - 30 Apr 00): 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Technical Assistance and Program Support; DOD...UNCF’s Infrastructure Development Assistance Program (IDAP) has been involved myriad of tasks to support the Department of Defense’s interest to

  2. Computer Supported Education at Fox Valley Technical Institute. IBM Application Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Business Machines Corp., White Plains, NY.

    Fox Valley Technical Institute (FVTI) has developed an approach to education which emphasizes competency-based, round-the-clock education entailing short terms, flexible class schedules, and individualized instruction and which has as its focus strong computer support at classroom, technical, and management levels. The college provides 6,000…

  3. Decision Support for Integrated Energy-Water Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tidwell, V. C.; William, H.; Klise, G.; Kobos, P. H.; Malczynski, L. A.

    2008-12-01

    perspectives, the tool may help highlight looming changes where policy, technical, economic, and data collection options may alleviate stresses within the underlying water systems that support electricity generation. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04- 94AL85000.

  4. Technical Report for Water Circulation Pumping System for Trihalomethanes (THMs)

    SciTech Connect

    Bellah, W.

    2015-06-08

    The TSWWS was added as an active source of supply to the permit (No. 03-10-13P-003) in 2010, but has never been used due to the potential for formation of trihalomethanes (THMs) in the distribution system. THMs are formed as a by-product when chlorine is used to disinfect water for drinking. THMs are a group of chemicals generally referred to as disinfection by-products (DBPs). THMs result from the reaction of chlorine with organic matter that is present in the water. Some of the THMs are volatile and may easily vaporize into the air. This fact forms the basis of the designmore » of the system discussed in this technical report. In addition, the design is based on the results of a study that has shown success using aeration as a means to reduce TTHMs to within allowable concentration levels with turn-over times as long as ten days. The Primary Drinking Water Standards of Regulated Contaminants Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for TTHMs is 80 parts per billion (ppb). No other changes to the existing drinking water distribution system and chlorination operations are anticipated before switching to the TSWWS as the primary drinking water source. The two groundwater wells (Wells 20 and 18) which are currently the primary and backup water sources for the system would be maintained for use as backup supply. In the future, one of the wells may be removed from the system. A permit amendment would be filed at that time if this modification was deemed appropriate.« less

  5. Engineering Technical Support Center Annual Report Fiscal Year 2016

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report highlights significant projects that the ETSC supported in fiscal year 2016. These projects have addressed an array of environmental scenarios, including, but not limited to remote mining contamination, expansive landfill waste, cumulative impacts from multiple contam...

  6. TECHNICAL SUPPORT FOR RADIOLOGICAL EMERGENCY PROTECTION ACTION RECOMMENDATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    RPD staff provide techical support for other EPA offices, other Federal departments and agencies and to state and local governments in preparing for and responding to radiological and nuclear emergencies under the National Response Framework's Nuclear/Radiological Incident Annex....

  7. Automated water monitor system field demonstration test report. Volume 2: Technical summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, R. L.; Jeffers, E. L.; Perreira, J.; Poel, J. D.; Nibley, D.; Nuss, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    The NASA Automatic Water Monitor System was installed in a water reclamation facility to evaluate the technical and cost feasibility of producing high quality reclaimed water. Data gathered during this field demonstration test are reported.

  8. The CHPRC Groundwater and Technical Integration Support (Master Project) Quality Assurance Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Fix, N. J.

    The scope of the CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company, LLC (CHPRC) Groundwater and Technical Integration Support (Master Project) is for Pacific Northwest National Laboratory staff to provide technical and integration support to CHPRC. This work includes conducting investigations at the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit and other groundwater operable units, and providing strategic integration, technical integration and assessments, remediation decision support, and science and technology. The projects under this Master Project will be defined and included within the Master Project throughout the fiscal year, and will be incorporated into the Master Project Plan. This Quality Assurance Management Plan provides the quality assurancemore » requirements and processes that will be followed by the CHPRC Groundwater and Technical Integration Support (Master Project) and all releases associated with the CHPRC Soil and Groundwater Remediation Project. The plan is designed to be used exclusively by project staff.« less

  9. A Theory of Sex Differences in Technical Aptitude and Some Supporting Evidence.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Frank L

    2011-11-01

    In this article, I present a theory that explains the origin of sex differences in technical aptitudes. The theory takes as proven that there are no sex differences in general mental ability (GMA), and it postulates that sex differences in technical aptitude (TA) stem from differences in experience in technical areas, which is in turn based on sex differences in technical interests. Using a large data set, I tested and found support for four predictions made by this theory: (a) the construct level correlation between technical aptitude and GMA is larger for females than males, (b) the observed and true score variability of technical aptitude is greater among males than females, (c) at every level of GMA females have lower levels of technical aptitude, and (d) technical aptitude measures used as estimates of GMA for decision purposes would result in underestimation of GMA levels for girls and women. Given that GMA carries the weight of prediction of job performance, the support found for this last prediction suggests that, for many jobs, technical aptitude tests may underpredict the job performance of female applicants and employees. Future research should examine this question. © Association for Psychological Science 2011.

  10. Emerging Water Contaminants: Technical, Legal and Policy Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deeb, R. A.; Kresic, N.; Laugier, M. C.; Kavanaugh, M. C.

    2002-12-01

    Approximately 120 new chemicals are created each year due to ever-improving industry and technology markets. Releases of new contaminants into the environment can occur during production, use and disposal of these chemicals thereby leading to potential contamination of water supply sources. Very few emerging contaminants are regulated. In addition, knowledge gaps regarding emerging contaminants include lack health effects, occurrence (either because these compounds are not measured or because concentrations are below detection limits of readily available analytical techniques) and fate and transport in the environment especially with regards to mobility and persistence. The sources of these compounds are numerous. One source is treated wastewater, which is re-injected into groundwater aquifers for indirect potable reuse purposes. Emerging compounds of concern can be classified in various classes. This presentation will focus on contaminants, which have emerged in the last 10 years including pharmaceuticals (antibiotics/drugs), personal care products (polycyclic musks), pesticides/herbicides, industrial solvents (1,4-dioxane), gasoline additives (MTBE), disinfection byproducts such as NDMA (N-nitrosodimethylamine), and inorganic compounds such as perchlorate and arsenic. This presentation will present technical, legal and legislative challenges posed by the presence of these contaminants in water. Background information including chemical's history of use, sources in the environments, nationwide occurrence, physical and chemical properties, behavior in the environment and technologies for removal from soil and water will be presented. In addition, case studies on MTBE, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, 1,4-dioxane, arsenic and NDMA will be discussed.

  11. Review of Technical Studies in the United States in Support of Burnup Credit Regulatory Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, John C; Parks, Cecil V; Mueller, Don

    2010-01-01

    Taking credit for the reduction in reactivity associated with fuel depletion can enable more cost-effective, higher-density storage, transport, disposal, and reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) while maintaining sufficient subcritical margin to establish an adequate safety basis. Consequently, there continues to be considerable interest in the United States (U.S.), as well as internationally, in the increased use of burnup credit in SNF operations, particularly related to storage, transport, and disposal of commercial SNF. This interest has motivated numerous technical studies related to the application of burnup credit, both domestically and internationally, as well as the design of SNF storage, transportmore » and disposal systems that rely on burnup credit for maintaining subcriticality. Responding to industry requests and needs, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated a burnup credit research program in 1999, with support from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), to develop regulatory guidance and the supporting technical bases for allowing and expanding the use of burnup credit in pressurized-water reactor SNF storage and transport applications. Although this NRC research program has not been continuous since its inception, considerable progress has been achieved in many key areas in terms of increased understanding of relevant phenomena and issues, availability of relevant information and data, and subsequently updated regulatory guidance for expanded use of burnup credit. This paper reviews technical studies performed by ORNL for the U.S. NRC burnup credit research program. Examples of topics include reactivity effects associated with reactor operating characteristics, fuel assembly characteristics, burnable absorbers, control rods, spatial burnup distributions, cooling time, and assembly misloading; methods and data for validation of isotopic composition predictions; methods and data for validation of criticality calculations; and

  12. The quality assurance liaison: Combined technical and quality assurance support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolivar, S. L.; Day, J. L.

    1993-03-01

    The role of the quality assurance liaison, the responsibilities of this position, and the evolutionary changes in duties over the last six years are described. The role of the quality assurance liaison has had a very positive impact on the Los Alamos Yucca Mountain Site Characterization (YW) quality assurance program. Having both technical and quality assurance expertise, the quality assurance liaisons are able to facilitate communications with scientists on quality assurance issues and requirements, thereby generating greater productivity in scientific investigations. The quality assurance liaisons help ensure that the scientific community knows and implements existing requirements, is aware of new or changing regulations, and is able to conduct scientific work within Project requirements. The influence of the role of the quality assurance liaison can be measured by an overall improvement in attitude of the staff regarding quality assurance requirements and improved job performance, as well as a decrease in deficiencies identified during both internal and external audits and surveillances. This has resulted in a more effective implementation of quality assurance requirements.

  13. 2007 Version 5.0 Technical Support Document

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Preparation of Emissions Inventories for the Version 5.0, 2007 Emissions Modeling Platform describes how emissions based on the 2008 NEI, version 2 and were processed to represent the year 2007 in support of air quality modeling of the PM NAAQS.

  14. 2005 v4.1 Technical Support Document

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Preparation of Emission Inventories for the Version 4.1, 2005-based Platform describes how emissions from the 2005 NEI, version 2 and were processed for air quality modeling in support of the Boiler MACT and the Mercury and Air Toxics Standards.

  15. Engineering Technical Support Center Annual Report Fiscal Year 2013; Technical Support and Innovative Research for Contaminated Sites

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes a variety of significant projects that the ETSC, located in the Land Remediation and Pollution Control Division (LRPCD), National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL), has supported throughout fiscal year 2013. Projects have addressed an array of env...

  16. Engineering Technical Support Center Annual Report Fiscal Year 2014; Technical Support and Innovative Research for Contaminated Sites

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report highlights significant projects that the ETSC has supported throughout fiscal year 2014. Projects have addressed an array of environmental scenarios, including but not limited to remote mining contamination, expansive landfill waste, sediment remediation by capping, ...

  17. Technical support plan for HANDI 2000 business management system

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.E.

    The Hanford Data Integration 2000 (HANDI 2000) Project will result in an integrated and comprehensive set of functional applications containing core information necessary to support the Project Hanford Management Contract. It is based on the Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) product solution with commercially proven business processes. The PassPort (PP) software is an integrated application for Accounts Payable, Contract Management, Inventory Management, and Purchasing. The PeopleSoft (PS) software is an integrated application for General Ledger, Project Costing, Human Resources, Payroll, Benefits, and Training. The implementation of this set of products, as the first deliverable of the HAND1 2000 Project, is referred to asmore » Business Management System (BMS) and Chemical Management.« less

  18. External Technical Support for School Improvement: Critical Issues from the Chilean Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osses, Alejandra; Bellei, Cristián; Valenzuela, Juan Pablo

    2015-01-01

    To what extent school improvement processes can be initiated and sustained from the outside has been a relevant question for policy-makers seeking to increase quality in education. Since 2008, the Chilean Government is strongly promoting the use of external technical support (ETS) services to support school improvement processes, as part of the…

  19. Technical Support Services for the Office of Naval Research Littoral Warfare Advanced Development Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-30

    Technical Support Services for the Office of Naval Research Littoral Warfare Advanced Development Project William R. Metzger Marine...Support Services for the Office of Naval Research Littoral Warfare Advanced Development Project 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  20. Transboundary Water: Improving Methodologies and Developing Integrated Tools to Support Water Security

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hakimdavar, Raha; Wood, Danielle; Eylander, John; Peters-Lidard, Christa; Smith, Jane; Doorn, Brad; Green, David; Hummel, Corey; Moore, Thomas C.

    2018-01-01

    River basins for which transboundary coordination and governance is a factor are of concern to US national security, yet there is often a lack of sufficient data-driven information available at the needed time horizons to inform transboundary water decision-making for the intelligence, defense, and foreign policy communities. To address this need, a two-day workshop entitled Transboundary Water: Improving Methodologies and Developing Integrated Tools to Support Global Water Security was held in August 2017 in Maryland. The committee that organized and convened the workshop (the Organizing Committee) included representatives from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the US Army Corps of Engineers Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC), and the US Air Force. The primary goal of the workshop was to advance knowledge on the current US Government and partners' technical information needs and gaps to support national security interests in relation to transboundary water. The workshop also aimed to identify avenues for greater communication and collaboration among the scientific, intelligence, defense, and foreign policy communities. The discussion around transboundary water was considered in the context of the greater global water challenges facing US national security.

  1. Technical, Managerial and Financial (TMF) Capacity Resources for Small Drinking Water Systems

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Resources are available to help public water systems build the technical, managerial and financial (TMF) capacity. TMF capacity is necessary to achieve and maintain long-term sustainability and compliance with national safe drinking water regulations.

  2. 75 FR 50884 - Navigation and Navigable Waters; Technical, Organizational, and Conforming Amendments, Sector...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... 3 and 165 to reflect changes in Coast Guard internal organizational structure. Sector Portland and... 1625-ZA25 Navigation and Navigable Waters; Technical, Organizational, and Conforming Amendments, Sector... Waters; Technical, Organizational, and Conforming Amendments, Sector Columbia River.'' 2. On page 48564...

  3. USAF/SCEEE Graduate Student Summer Support Program (1982). Management and Technical Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-01

    AD-A130 767 USAF/SCEEE GRADUATE STUDENT SUMMER SUPPORT PROGRAM (1982) MANAGEMENT AND..(U) SOUTHEASTERN CENTER FORELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION INC...SUMMER SUPPORT PROGRAM Conducted by Southeastern Center for Electrical Engineering Education under USAF Contract Number F49620-82-C-0035 MANAGEMENT ...UNITED STATES AIR FORCE GRADUATE STUDENT SL24MER SUPPORT PROGRAM 1982 PROGRAM MANAGEMENT AND TECHNICAL REPORT SOUTHEASTERN CENTER FOR ELECTRICAL

  4. 129. ARAII Administrative and technical support building (ARA606) sections showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    129. ARA-II Administrative and technical support building (ARA-606) sections showing roof and wall details and longitudinal section. C.A. Sundberg and Associates 866-area/ALPR-606-A-5. Date: May 1958. Ineel index code no. 070-0606-00-822-102828. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  5. 127. ARAII Administrative and technical support building (ARA606) ground floor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    127. ARA-II Administrative and technical support building (ARA-606) ground floor plan. Indicates use of rooms for classrooms, offices, and lunch room. C.A. Sundberg and Associates 866-area-ALPR-606-A-2. Date: June 1958. Ineel index code no. 070-0606-00-822-102825. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  6. 128. ARAII Administrative and technical support building (ARA606) elevations for ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    128. ARA-II Administrative and technical support building (ARA-606) elevations for northwest, southwest, northeast, and southeast sides. C.A. Sundberg and Associates 866-area/ALPR-606-A-3. Date: May 1958. Ineel index code no. 070-0606-00-822-102826. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  7. Distance Education Programs in Texas Community & Technical Colleges: Assessing Student Support Services in a Virtual Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luedtke, Cherry Beth

    This project evaluates the status of distance learning at 54 public, two-year community, and technical colleges in Texas. Data was collected from the Web sites of each of the institutions. The Web site data indicted that 44 of the colleges refer specifically to distance education courses offered. To assess what student support services are…

  8. Innovative Socio-Technical Environments in Support of Distributed Intelligence and Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, G; Konomi, S.

    2007-01-01

    Individual, unaided human abilities are constrained. Media have helped us to transcend boundaries in thinking, working, learning and collaborating by supporting "distributed intelligence". Wireless and mobile technologies provide new opportunities for creating novel socio-technical environments and thereby empowering humans, but not without…

  9. Supporting Minority-Serving Institutions in Their Program Improvement Efforts: A Responsive Technical Assistance Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bay, Mary; Lopez-Reyna, Norma A.; Guillory, Barbara L.

    2012-01-01

    To reform a special education teacher preparation program can be gratifying, difficult, complex, political, and urgently needed. The Monarch Center, a federally funded technical assistance center, was established to guide and support minority-serving institutions in their efforts to improve their teacher preparation programs. Four guidelines…

  10. The Relationship between Return on Profitability and Costs of Outsourcing Information Technology Technical Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odion, Segun

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative correlational research study was to examine the relationship between costs of operation and total return on profitability of outsourcing information technology technical support in a two-year period of outsourcing operations. United States of America list of Fortune 1000 companies' chief information officers…

  11. Friend or Foe? New Managerialism and Technical, Administrative and Clerical Support Staff in Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pick, David; Teo, Stephen; Yeung, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess and conceptualise the effects of new managerialism-related organisational reforms in three Australian public universities on technical, administrative and clerical support staff job stressors and job satisfaction. Using a mixed method approach consisting of a quantitative core component and qualitative…

  12. Groundwater Technical Support Center (GWTSC) Annual Report Fiscal Year 2016 (FY16)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Groundwater Technical Support Center (GWTSC) is part of the Groundwater, Watershed, and Ecosystem Restoration Division (GWERD), which is based in the Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Center in Ada, Oklahoma. The GWERD is a research division of EPA’s National Risk M...

  13. 78 FR 20503 - Energy Conservation Program: Availability of the Interim Technical Support Document for High...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-05

    ... Conservation Program: Availability of the Interim Technical Support Document for High-Intensity Discharge Lamps... high-intensity discharge (HID) lamps energy conservation standards in the Federal Register. This... interim analysis for high- intensity discharge lamps energy conservation standards. The notice provided...

  14. Human System Simulation in Support of Human Performance Technical Basis at NPPs

    SciTech Connect

    David Gertman; Katya Le Blanc; alan mecham

    2010-06-01

    This paper focuses on strategies and progress toward establishing the Idaho National Laboratory’s (INL’s) Human Systems Simulator Laboratory at the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES), a consortium of Idaho State Universities. The INL is one of the National Laboratories of the US Department of Energy. One of the first planned applications for the Human Systems Simulator Laboratory is implementation of a dynamic nuclear power plant simulation (NPP) where studies of operator workload, situation awareness, performance and preference will be carried out in simulated control rooms including nuclear power plant control rooms. Simulation offers a means by which to reviewmore » operational concepts, improve design practices and provide a technical basis for licensing decisions. In preparation for the next generation power plant and current government and industry efforts in support of light water reactor sustainability, human operators will be attached to a suite of physiological measurement instruments and, in combination with traditional Human Factors Measurement techniques, carry out control room tasks in simulated advanced digital and hybrid analog/digital control rooms. The current focus of the Human Systems Simulator Laboratory is building core competence in quantitative and qualitative measurements of situation awareness and workload. Of particular interest is whether introduction of digital systems including automated procedures has the potential to reduce workload and enhance safety while improving situation awareness or whether workload is merely shifted and situation awareness is modified in yet to be determined ways. Data analysis is carried out by engineers and scientists and includes measures of the physical and neurological correlates of human performance. The current approach supports a user-centered design philosophy (see ISO 13407 “Human Centered Design Process for Interactive Systems, 1999) wherein the context for task performance along

  15. Non-governmental organizational health operations in humanitarian crises: the case for technical support units.

    PubMed

    Greenough, P Gregg; Nazerali, Rahim; Fink, Sheri; VanRooyen, Michael J

    2007-01-01

    As the humanitarian health response industry grows, there is a need for technical health expertise that can build an evidence base around outcome measures and raise the quality and accountability of the health relief response. We propose the formation of technical support units (TSUs), entities of health expertise institutionalized within humanitarian non-governmental organizations (NGOs), which will bridge the gap between the demand for evidence-based, humanitarian programming and the field capacity to accomplish it. With the input of major humanitarian NGOs and donors, this paper discusses the attributes and capacities ofTSUs; and the mechanisms for creating and enhancing TSUs within the NGO management structure.

  16. Ancient water supports today's energy needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Odorico, Paolo; Natyzak, Jennifer L.; Castner, Elizabeth A.; Davis, Kyle F.; Emery, Kyle A.; Gephart, Jessica A.; Leach, Allison M.; Pace, Michael L.; Galloway, James N.

    2017-05-01

    The water footprint for fossil fuels typically accounts for water utilized in mining and fuel processing, whereas the water footprint of biofuels assesses the agricultural water used by crops through their lifetime. Fossil fuels have an additional water footprint that is not easily accounted for: ancient water that was used by plants millions of years ago, before they were transformed into fossil fuel. How much water is mankind using from the past to sustain current energy needs? We evaluate the link between ancient water virtually embodied in fossil fuels to current global energy demands by determining the water demand required to replace fossil fuels with biomass produced with water from the present. Using equal energy units of wood, bioethanol, and biodiesel to replace coal, natural gas, and crude oil, respectively, the resulting water demand is 7.39 × 1013 m3 y-1, approximately the same as the total annual evaporation from all land masses and transpiration from all terrestrial vegetation. Thus, there are strong hydrologic constraints to a reliance on biofuel energy produced with water from the present because the conversion from fossil fuels to biofuels would have a disproportionate and unsustainable impact on the modern water. By using fossil fuels to meet today's energy needs, we are virtually using water from a geological past. The water cycle is insufficient to sustain the production of the fuel presently consumed by human societies. Thus, non-fuel-based renewable energy sources are needed to decrease mankind's reliance on fossil fuel energy without placing an overwhelming pressure on global freshwater resources.

  17. Technical Support Document for Version 3.9.1 of the COMcheck Software

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, Rosemarie; Connell, Linda M.; Gowri, Krishnan

    2012-09-01

    COMcheck provides an optional way to demonstrate compliance with commercial and high-rise residential building energy codes. Commercial buildings include all use groups except single family and multifamily not over three stories in height. COMcheck was originally based on ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-1989 (Standard 90.1-1989) requirements and is intended for use with various codes based on Standard 90.1, including the Codification of ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-1989 (90.1-1989 Code) (ASHRAE 1989a, 1993b) and ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-1999 (Standard 90.1-1999). This includes jurisdictions that have adopted the 90.1-1989 Code, Standard 90.1-1989, Standard 90.1-1999, or their own code based on one of these. We view Standard 90.1-1989more » and the 90.1-1989 Code as having equivalent technical content and have used both as source documents in developing COMcheck. This technical support document (TSD) is designed to explain the technical basis for the COMcheck software as originally developed based on the ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-1989 (Standard 90.1-1989). Documentation for other national model codes and standards and specific state energy codes supported in COMcheck has been added to this report as appendices. These appendices are intended to provide technical documentation for features specific to the supported codes and for any changes made for state-specific codes that differ from the standard features that support compliance with the national model codes and standards. Beginning with COMcheck version 3.8.0, support for 90.1-1989, 90.1-1999, and the 1998 IECC and version 3.9.0 support for 2000 and 2001 IECC are no longer included, but those sections remain in this document for reference purposes.« less

  18. Water Quality Criteria, Report of the National Technical Advisory Committee to the Secretary of the Interior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Interior, Washington, DC. Federal Water Pollution Control Administration.

    Contained are reports of five subcommittees of the National Technical Advisory Committee on Water Quality Criteria. Subcommittees were recreation and aesthetics; public water supplies; fish, other aquatic life, and wildlife; agricultural uses; and industrial water supplies. Each committee report contains discussion of the problem area, criteria…

  19. Summary of technical testimony in the Colorado Water Division 1 Trial

    Treesearch

    Nancy (Tech. Coord.) Gordon

    1995-01-01

    The Colorado Water Division 1 Water Rights Trial was one of the most significant federal reserved instream flow water rights cases to occur since the Supreme Court of the United States ruled in the case of United States v. New Mexico in 1978. This document summarize the large amount of technical data and information pertaining to the disciplines of geomorphology,...

  20. Monitored Natural Attenuation of Inorganic Contaminants in Ground WaterTechnical Report Series

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will cover the development and content of new EPA Technical Resource Documents on the application of monitored natural attenuation for inorganic contaminants in ground water. This presentation discusses the various mechanisms that are recognized to result in th...

  1. NUTRIENT CRITERIA TECHNICAL GUIDANCE MANUAL - ESTUARINE AND COASTAL MARINE WATERS, OCTOBER 2001

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nutrient overenrichment is a major cause of water pollution in the United States. The purpose of this manual is to provide scientifically defensible technical guidance to assist States, authorized Tribes, and other governmental entities in developing numeric nutrient criteria fo...

  2. Technical support for Life Sciences communities on a production grid infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Michel, Franck; Montagnat, Johan; Glatard, Tristan

    2012-01-01

    Production operation of large distributed computing infrastructures (DCI) still requires a lot of human intervention to reach acceptable quality of service. This may be achievable for scientific communities with solid IT support, but it remains a show-stopper for others. Some application execution environments are used to hide runtime technical issues from end users. But they mostly aim at fault-tolerance rather than incident resolution, and their operation still requires substantial manpower. A longer-term support activity is thus needed to ensure sustained quality of service for Virtual Organisations (VO). This paper describes how the biomed VO has addressed this challenge by setting up a technical support team. Its organisation, tooling, daily tasks, and procedures are described. Results are shown in terms of resource usage by end users, amount of reported incidents, and developed software tools. Based on our experience, we suggest ways to measure the impact of the technical support, perspectives to decrease its human cost and make it more community-specific.

  3. Technical Support Document for Version 3.9.0 of the COMcheck Software

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, Rosemarie; Connell, Linda M.; Gowri, Krishnan

    2011-09-01

    COMcheck provides an optional way to demonstrate compliance with commercial and high-rise residential building energy codes. Commercial buildings include all use groups except single family and multifamily not over three stories in height. COMcheck was originally based on ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-1989 (Standard 90.1-1989) requirements and is intended for use with various codes based on Standard 90.1, including the Codification of ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-1989 (90.1-1989 Code) (ASHRAE 1989a, 1993b) and ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-1999 (Standard 90.1-1999). This includes jurisdictions that have adopted the 90.1-1989 Code, Standard 90.1-1989, Standard 90.1-1999, or their own code based on one of these. We view Standard 90.1-1989more » and the 90.1-1989 Code as having equivalent technical content and have used both as source documents in developing COMcheck. This technical support document (TSD) is designed to explain the technical basis for the COMcheck software as originally developed based on the ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-1989 (Standard 90.1-1989). Documentation for other national model codes and standards and specific state energy codes supported in COMcheck has been added to this report as appendices. These appendices are intended to provide technical documentation for features specific to the supported codes and for any changes made for state-specific codes that differ from the standard features that support compliance with the national model codes and standards. Beginning with COMcheck version 3.8.0, support for 90.1-1989, 90.1-1999, and the 1998 IECC are no longer included, but those sections remain in this document for reference purposes.« less

  4. Ground-water management under the appropriation doctrine. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Ralston, D.; Bruhl, E.J.

    The purpose of the research is to better understand the characteristics of ground-water management under the prior-appropriation doctrine in the western United States. The general objective is to summarize the legal and administrative controls on ground-water use in eight western states and to compare the impacts of these controls on ground water systems.

  5. Air Quality Modeling Technical Support Document for the 2008 Ozone NAAQS Cross-State Air Pollution Rule Proposal

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In this technical support document (TSD) we describe the air quality modeling performed to support the proposed Cross-State Air Pollution Rule for the 2008 ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)

  6. Strategic petroleum reserve supporting research. Quarterly technical report, January 1-March 31, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Woodward, P.W.

    1986-01-01

    The basic objective is to provide technical support to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Office (SPRO), through the Bartlesville Project Office. This support includes routine analyses, experimental research, and technical consultation at the SPRO's request. Accomplishments for this past quarter include: stable D, /sup 34/S, and /sup 13/C isotope ratio analyses for 27 samples of SPR crude oil; gas chromatographic simulated distillation (Sim-dis) of 74 SPR crude samples; sim-dis of sludge samples to check for bimodal distributions; data for 8 comprehensive analyses have been entered into the Bonner and Moore ''Crude Assay II'' library; 25 samples which included both whole crudesmore » and distillate fractions were chromatographed using Siemens dual-oven GC and PIANO software; separation of 4 sludge samples into acid, base, and neutral fractions by ion exchange chromatography; and proton and sodium-23 NMR measurements of sludge samples. 1 fig., 5 tabs.« less

  7. The effects of customers' mobile experience and technical support on the intention to use mobile banking.

    PubMed

    Chung, Namho; Kwon, Soon Jae

    2009-10-01

    While mobile banking has become an integral part of banking activities, it has also caused systems-related stress and consequent distrust among mobile banking users. This study looks into the phenomenon of technology adoption for mobile banking users and identifies potential factors that nurture positive intentions toward mobile banking usage. It examines the effects of a customer's mobile experience and technical support on mobile banking acceptance and explains how some variables affect this intention. After a literature review, the method of empirical analysis using a structured questionnaire is developed. Hierarchical Moderated Regression Analyses (HMRA) is used to examine the model. We find that mobile experience and technical support tend to strengthen the relationship between technological characteristics and a customer's intention to use the mobile technology.

  8. Decision support for water quality management of contaminants of emerging concern.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Astrid; Ter Laak, Thomas; Bronders, Jan; Desmet, Nele; Christoffels, Ekkehard; van Wezel, Annemarie; van der Hoek, Jan Peter

    2017-05-15

    Water authorities and drinking water companies are challenged with the question if, where and how to abate contaminants of emerging concern in the urban water cycle. The most effective strategy under given conditions is often unclear to these stakeholders as it requires insight into several aspects of the contaminants such as sources, properties, and mitigation options. Furthermore the various parties in the urban water cycle are not always aware of each other's requirements and priorities. Processes to set priorities and come to agreements are lacking, hampering the articulation and implementation of possible solutions. To support decision makers with this task, a decision support system was developed to serve as a point of departure for getting the relevant stakeholders together and finding common ground. The decision support system was iteratively developed in stages. Stakeholders were interviewed and a decision support system prototype developed. Subsequently, this prototype was evaluated by the stakeholders and adjusted accordingly. The iterative process lead to a final system focused on the management of contaminants of emerging concern within the urban water cycle, from wastewater, surface water and groundwater to drinking water, that suggests mitigation methods beyond technical solutions. Possible wastewater and drinking water treatment techniques in combination with decentralised and non-technical methods were taken into account in an integrated way. The system contains background information on contaminants of emerging concern such as physical/chemical characteristics, toxicity and legislative frameworks, water cycle entrance pathways and a database with associated possible mitigation methods. Monitoring data can be uploaded to assess environmental and human health risks in a specific water system. The developed system was received with great interest by potential users, and implemented in an international water cycle network. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  9. Technical Support Document: 50% Energy Savings Design Technology Packages for Highway Lodging Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Wei; Gowri, Krishnan; Lane, Michael D.

    2009-09-28

    This Technical Support Document (TSD) describes the process, methodology and assumptions for development of the 50% Energy Savings Design Technology Packages for Highway Lodging Buildings, a design guidance document intended to provide recommendations for achieving 50% energy savings in highway lodging properties over the energy-efficiency levels contained in ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings.

  10. Technical Support Document for Version 3.4.0 of the COMcheck Software

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, Rosemarie; Connell, Linda M.; Gowri, Krishnan

    2007-09-14

    COMcheck provides an optional way to demonstrate compliance with commercial and high-rise residential building energy codes. Commercial buildings include all use groups except single family and multifamily not over three stories in height. COMcheck was originally based on ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-1989 (Standard 90.1-1989) requirements and is intended for use with various codes based on Standard 90.1, including the Codification of ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-1989 (90.1-1989 Code) (ASHRAE 1989a, 1993b) and ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-1999 (Standard 90.1-1999). This includes jurisdictions that have adopted the 90.1-1989 Code, Standard 90.1-1989, Standard 90.1-1999, or their own code based on one of these. We view Standard 90.1-1989more » and the 90.1-1989 Code as having equivalent technical content and have used both as source documents in developing COMcheck. This technical support document (TSD) is designed to explain the technical basis for the COMcheck software as originally developed based on the ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-1989 (Standard 90.1-1989). Documentation for other national model codes and standards and specific state energy codes supported in COMcheck has been added to this report as appendices. These appendices are intended to provide technical documentation for features specific to the supported codes and for any changes made for state-specific codes that differ from the standard features that support compliance with the national model codes and standards.« less

  11. Kinetics of Supercritical Water Oxidation. SERDP Compliance Technical Thrust Area

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-01-01

    main stream velocity ratio (vj/ Vrx ) and jet-to-main stream diameter ratio) were different for the two tees. As a result, the "fast" tee was providing...Opposed-Flow Tee with no Inserts: Organic/Water Oxidant/Water Feed Feed Flow Conditions: vj (cm/s) 20-64 vj/ Vrx = 0.2-0.25 _ Rej =905-2920 To Reactor...Oxidant/Water Feed New Side-Entry Tee with 0.01" ID inserts: Organic/Water Feed Flow Conditions: vi (cm/s) 775-2,500 vj/ Vrx = 7.5-9.3 Rej =5,700-18,000

  12. Chemistry, manufacturing and control (CMC) and clinical trial technical support for influenza vaccine manufacturers.

    PubMed

    Wahid, Rahnuma; Holt, Renee; Hjorth, Richard; Berlanda Scorza, Francesco

    2016-10-26

    With the support of the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA) of the US Department of Health and Human Services, PATH has contributed to the World Health Organization's (WHO's) Global Action Plan for Influenza Vaccines (GAP) by providing technical and clinical assistance to several developing country vaccine manufacturers (DCVMs). GAP builds regionally based independent and sustainable influenza vaccine production capacity to mitigate the overall global shortage of influenza vaccines. The program also ensures adequate influenza vaccine manufacturing capacity in the event of an influenza pandemic. Since 2009, PATH has worked closely with two DCVMs in Vietnam: the Institute of Vaccines and Medical Biologicals (IVAC) and VABIOTECH. Beginning in 2013, PATH also began working with Torlak Institute in Serbia; Instituto Butantan in Brazil; Serum Institute of India Private Ltd. in India; and Changchun BCHT Biotechnology Co. (BCHT) in China. The DCVMs supported under the GAP program all had existing influenza vaccine manufacturing capability and required technical support from PATH to improve vaccine yield, process efficiency, and product formulation. PATH has provided customized technical support for the manufacturing process to each DCVM based on their respective requirements. Additionally, PATH, working with BARDA and WHO, supported several DCVMs in the clinical development of influenza vaccine candidates progressing toward national licensure or WHO prequalification. As a result of the activities outlined in this review, several companies were able to make excellent progress in developing state-of-the-art manufacturing processes and completing early phase clinical trials. Licensure trials are currently ongoing or planned for several DCVMs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Decision support systems in water and wastewater treatment process selection and design: a review.

    PubMed

    Hamouda, M A; Anderson, W B; Huck, P M

    2009-01-01

    The continuously changing drivers of the water treatment industry, embodied by rigorous environmental and health regulations and the challenge of emerging contaminants, necessitates the development of decision support systems for the selection of appropriate treatment trains. This paper explores a systematic approach to developing decision support systems, which includes the analysis of the treatment problem(s), knowledge acquisition and representation, and the identification and evaluation of criteria controlling the selection of optimal treatment systems. The objective of this article is to review approaches and methods used in decision support systems developed to aid in the selection, sequencing of unit processes and design of drinking water, domestic wastewater, and industrial wastewater treatment systems. Not surprisingly, technical considerations were found to dominate the logic of the developed systems. Most of the existing decision-support tools employ heuristic knowledge. It has been determined that there is a need to develop integrated decision support systems that are generic, usable and consider a system analysis approach.

  14. NASA UAV Airborne Science Capabilities in Support of Water Resource Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fladeland, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    This workshop presentation focuses on potential uses of unmanned aircraft observations in support of water resource management and agriculture. The presentation will provide an overview of NASA Airborne Science capabilities with an emphasis on past UAV missions to provide context on accomplishments as well as technical challenges. I will also focus on recent NASA Ames efforts to assist in irrigation management and invasive species management using airborne and satellite datasets.

  15. A socio-technical model to explore urban water systems scenarios.

    PubMed

    de Haan, Fjalar J; Ferguson, Briony C; Deletic, Ana; Brown, Rebekah R

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on the ongoing work and research involved in the development of a socio-technical model of urban water systems. Socio-technical means the model is not so much concerned with the technical or biophysical aspects of urban water systems, but rather with the social and institutional implications of the urban water infrastructure and vice versa. A socio-technical model, in the view purported in this article, produces scenarios of different urban water servicing solutions gaining or losing influence in meeting water-related societal needs, like potable water, drainage, environmental health and amenity. The urban water system is parameterised with vectors of the relative influence of each servicing solution. The model is a software implementation of the Multi-Pattern Approach, a theory on societal systems, like urban water systems, and how these develop and go through transitions under various internal and external conditions. Acknowledging that social dynamics comes with severe and non-reducible uncertainties, the model is set up to be exploratory, meaning that for any initial condition several possible future scenarios are produced. This article gives a concise overview of the necessary theoretical background, the model architecture and some initial test results using a drainage example.

  16. Monitored Natural Attenuation For Radionuclides In Ground Water - Technical Issues

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remediation of ground water contaminated with radionuclides may be achieved using attenuation-based technologies. These technologies may rely on engineered processes (e.g., bioremediation) or natural processes (e.g., monitored natural attentuation) within the subsurface. In gen...

  17. The evaluator as technical assistant: A model for systemic reform support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Century, Jeanne Rose

    This study explored evaluation of systemic reform. Specifically, it focused on the evaluation of a systemic effort to improve K-8 science, mathematics and technology education. The evaluation was of particular interest because it used both technical assistance and evaluation strategies. Through studying the combination of these roles, this investigation set out to increase understanding of potentially new evaluator roles, distinguish important characteristics of the evaluator/project participant relationship, and identify how these roles and characteristics contribute to effective evaluation of systemic science education reform. This qualitative study used interview, document analysis, and participant observation as methods of data collection. Interviews were conducted with project leaders, project participants, and evaluators and focused on the evaluation strategies and process, the use of the evaluation, and technical assistance. Documents analyzed included transcripts of evaluation team meetings and reports, memoranda and other print materials generated by the project leaders and the evaluators. Data analysis consisted of analytic and interpretive procedures consistent with the qualitative data collected and entailed a combined process of coding transcripts of interviews and meetings, field notes, and other documents; analyzing and organizing findings; writing of reflective and analytic memos; and designing and diagramming conceptual relationships. The data analysis resulted in the development of the Multi-Function Model for Systemic Reform Support. This model organizes systemic reform support into three functions: evaluation, technical assistance, and a third, named here as "systemic perspective." These functions work together to support the project's educational goals as well as a larger goal--building capacity in project participants. This model can now serve as an informed starting point or "blueprint" for strategically supporting systemic reform.

  18. Organizational Structures and Processes to Support and Sustain Effective Technical Assistance in a State-Wide Multi-Tiered System of Support Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Julie Q.; Russell, Christine; Dyer, Stephanie; Metcalf, Terri; Rahschulte, Rebecca L.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the national proliferation of technical assistance as a driver for school reform and as a model for embedded and sustained professional development, very little is known about the organizational structures and processes needed to support technical assistance. The purpose of this paper is to describe a structured needs assessment process…

  19. The role of organisational support in teleworker wellbeing: a socio-technical systems approach.

    PubMed

    Bentley, T A; Teo, S T T; McLeod, L; Tan, F; Bosua, R; Gloet, M

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of telework and other forms of mobile working enabled by digital technology is increasing markedly. Following a socio-technical systems approach, this study aims to examine the role of organisational social support and specific support for teleworkers in influencing teleworker wellbeing, the mediating role of social isolation, potentially resulting from a person-environment mismatch in these relationships, and possible differences in these relationships between low-intensity and hybrid teleworkers. Teleworkers' (n = 804) perceptions of support and telework outcomes (psychological strain, job satisfaction, and social isolation) were collected using an on-line survey of teleworking employees distributed within 28 New Zealand organisations where knowledge work was undertaken. Organisational social support and teleworker support was associated with increased job satisfaction and reduced psychological strain. Social isolation mediated the relationship between organisational social support and the two outcome variables, and some differences were observed in the structural relationships for hybrid and low-intensity teleworker sub-samples. These findings suggest that providing the necessary organisational and teleworker support is important for enhancing the teleworker-environment fit and thereby ensuring desirable telework outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  20. Information support of monitoring of technical condition of buildings in construction risk area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skachkova, M. E.; Lepihina, O. Y.; Ignatova, V. V.

    2018-05-01

    The paper presents the results of the research devoted to the development of a model of information support of monitoring buildings technical condition; these buildings are located in the construction risk area. As a result of the visual and instrumental survey, as well as the analysis of existing approaches and techniques, attributive and cartographic databases have been created. These databases allow monitoring defects and damages of buildings located in a 30-meter risk area from the object under construction. The classification of structures and defects of these buildings under survey is presented. The functional capabilities of the developed model and the field of it practical applications are determined.

  1. Effects of Demographic Characteristics, Educational Background, and Supporting Factors on ICT Readiness of Technical and Vocational Teachers in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alazzam, Abu-Obaideh; Bakar, Ab Rahim; Hamzah, Ramlah; Asimiran, S.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine ICT readiness and the effects of demographic characteristics, educational background, and support factors on the ICT readiness of technical and vocational teachers in Malaysia. The questionnaire was administered to 329 technical and vocational teachers who are teaching engineering subjects in Malaysian…

  2. Bi-Level Decision Making for Supporting Energy and Water Nexus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Vesselinov, V. V.

    2016-12-01

    The inseparable relationship between energy production and water resources has led to the emerging energy-water nexus concept, which provides a means for integrated management and decision making of these two critical resources. However, the energy-water nexus frequently involves decision makers with different and competing management objectives. Furthermore, there is a challenge that decision makers and stakeholders might be making decisions sequentially from a higher level to a lower level, instead of at the same decision level, whereby the objective of a decision maker at a higher level should be satisfied first. In this study, a bi-level decision model is advanced to handle such decision-making situations for managing the energy-water nexus. The work represents a unique contribution to developing an integrated decision-support framework/tool to quantify and analyze the tradeoffs between the two-level energy-water nexus decision makers. Here, plans for electricity generation, fuel supply, water supply, capacity expansion of the power plants and environmental impacts are optimized to provide effective decision support. The developed decision-support framework is implemented in Julia (a high-level, high-performance dynamic programming language for technical computing) and is a part of the MADS (Model Analyses & Decision Support) framework (http://mads.lanl.gov). To demonstrate the capabilities of the developed methodology, a series of analyses are performed for synthetic problems consistent with actual real-world energy-water nexus management problems.

  3. Solar hot water space heating system. Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Van Dam, T

    1979-08-13

    A retrofit solar heating system was installed on Madison Hall at Jordan College, Cedar Springs, Michigan. The system provides heating and domestic water preheating for a campus dormitory. Freeze protection is provided by a draindown system. The building and solar system, construction progress, and design changes are described. Included in appendices are: condensate trap design, structural analysis, pictures of installation, operating instructions, maintenance instructions, and as-built drawings. (MHR)

  4. Technical activities report: Heat, water, and mechanical studies

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, W.K.

    1951-10-04

    Topics in the heat studies section include: front and rear face reflector shields at the C-pile; process tube channel thermocouples; water temperature limits for horizontal rods; slug temperature and thermal conductivity calculations; maximum slug-end cap temperature; boiling consideration studies; scram time limit for Panellit alarm; heat transfer test; slug stresses; thermal insulation of bottom tube row at C-pile; flow tests; present pile enrichment; electric analog; and measurement of thermal contact resistance. Topics in the water studies section include: 100-D flow laboratory; process water studies; fundamental studies on film formation; coatings on tip-offs; can difference tests; slug jacket abrasion at highmore » flow rates; corrosion studies; front tube dummy slugs; metallographic examination of tubes from H-pile; fifty-tube mock-up; induction heating facility; operational procedures and standards; vertical safety rod dropping time tests; recirculation; and power recovery. Mechanical development studies include: effect of Sphincter seal and lubricant VSR drop time; slug damage; slug bubble tester; P-13 removal; chemical slug stripper; effect of process tube rib spacing and width; ink facility installation; charging and discharging machines; process tube creep; flapper nozzle assembly test; test of single gun barrel assembly; pigtail fixture test; horizontal rod gland seal test; function test of C-pile; and intermediate test of Ball 3-X and VSR systems.« less

  5. (Review Draft) Radiation Site Cleanup Regulations: Technical Support Document For The Development Of Radionuclide Cleanup Levels For Soil

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document describes parts of the technical analysis being undertaken in support of standards that ensure certain sites are cleaned up to a level that is protective of human health and the environment before they are released for public use.

  6. Health Facility Graduation from Donor-Supported Intensive Technical Assistance and Associated Factors in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Koni, Phillip; Chishinga, Nathaniel; Nyirenda, Lameck; Kasonde, Prisca; Nsakanya, Richard; Welsh, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The FHI360-led Zambia Prevention Care and Treatment partnership II (ZPCT II) with funding from United States Agency for International Development, supports the Zambian Ministry of Health in scaling up HIV/AIDS services. To improve the quality of HIV/AIDS services, ZPCT II provides technical assistance until desired standards are met and districts are weaned-off intensive technical support, a process referred to as district graduation. This study describes the graduation process and determines performance domains associated with district graduation. Data were collected from 275 health facilities in 39 districts in 5 provinces of Zambia between 2008 and 2012. Performance in technical capacity, commodity management, data management and human resources domains were assessed in the following services areas: HIV counselling and testing and prevention of mother to child transmission, antiretroviral therapy/clinical care, pharmacy and laboratory. The overall mean percentage score was calculated by obtaining the mean of mean percentage scores for the four domains. Logistic regression models were used to obtain odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the domain mean percentage scores in graduated versus non-graduated districts; according to rural-urban, and province strata. 24 districts out of 39 graduated from intensive donor supported technical assistance while 15 districts did not graduate. The overall mean percentage score for all four domains was statistically significantly higher in graduated than non-graduated districts (93.2% versus 91.2%, OR = 1.34, 95%CI:1.20-1.49); including rural settings (92.4% versus 89.4%, OR = 1.43,95%CI:1.24-1.65). The mean percentage score in human resource domain was statistically significantly higher in graduated than non-graduated districts (93.6% versus 71.6%, OR = 5.81, 95%CI: 4.29-7.86) and in both rural and urban settings. QA/QI tools can be used to assess performance at health facilities and determine readiness for

  7. Health Facility Graduation from Donor-Supported Intensive Technical Assistance and Associated Factors in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Koni, Phillip; Chishinga, Nathaniel; Nyirenda, Lameck; Kasonde, Prisca; Nsakanya, Richard; Welsh, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The FHI360-led Zambia Prevention Care and Treatment partnership II (ZPCT II) with funding from United States Agency for International Development, supports the Zambian Ministry of Health in scaling up HIV/AIDS services. To improve the quality of HIV/AIDS services, ZPCT II provides technical assistance until desired standards are met and districts are weaned-off intensive technical support, a process referred to as district graduation. This study describes the graduation process and determines performance domains associated with district graduation. Methods Data were collected from 275 health facilities in 39 districts in 5 provinces of Zambia between 2008 and 2012. Performance in technical capacity, commodity management, data management and human resources domains were assessed in the following services areas: HIV counselling and testing and prevention of mother to child transmission, antiretroviral therapy/clinical care, pharmacy and laboratory. The overall mean percentage score was calculated by obtaining the mean of mean percentage scores for the four domains. Logistic regression models were used to obtain odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the domain mean percentage scores in graduated versus non-graduated districts; according to rural-urban, and province strata. Results 24 districts out of 39 graduated from intensive donor supported technical assistance while 15 districts did not graduate. The overall mean percentage score for all four domains was statistically significantly higher in graduated than non-graduated districts (93.2% versus 91.2%, OR = 1.34, 95%CI:1.20–1.49); including rural settings (92.4% versus 89.4%, OR = 1.43,95%CI:1.24–1.65). The mean percentage score in human resource domain was statistically significantly higher in graduated than non-graduated districts (93.6% versus 71.6%, OR = 5.81, 95%CI: 4.29–7.86) and in both rural and urban settings. Conclusions QA/QI tools can be used to assess performance at

  8. ERTS-1 DCS technical support provided by Wallops Station. [ground truth stations and DCP repair depot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R.

    1975-01-01

    Wallops Station accepted the tasks of providing ground truth to several ERTS investigators, operating a DCP repair depot, designing and building an airborne DCP Data Acquisition System, and providing aircraft underflight support for several other investigators. Additionally, the data bank is generally available for use by ERTS and other investigators that have a scientific interest in data pertaining to the Chesapeake Bay area. Working with DCS has provided a means of evaluating the system as a data collection device possibly applicable to ongoing Earth Resources Program activities in the Chesapeake Bay area as well as providing useful data and services to other ERTS investigators. The two areas of technical support provided by Wallops, ground truth stations and repair for DCPs, are briefly discussed.

  9. The strategy for improving water-quality monitoring in the United States; final report of the Intergovernmental Task Force on Monitoring Water Quality; technical appendices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1995-01-01

    The Intergovernmental Task Force on Monitoring Water Quality (ITFM) prepared this report in collaboration with representatives of all levels of government and the private sector. The report recommends a strategy for nationwide water-quality monitoring and technical monitoring improvements to support sound water-quality decisionmaking. The strategy is intended to achieve a better return on public and private investments in monitoring, environmental protection, and natural resources management. It is also designed to expand the base of information useful to a variety of users at multiple geographic scales. Institutional and technical changes are needed to improve water-quality monitoring and to meet the full range of monitoring requirements. Monitoring must be incorporated as a critical element of program planning, implementation, and evaluation. The strategy includes recommendations in many key elements, such as the development of goal-oriented monitoring and indicators, institutional collaboration, and methods comparability. Initial actions have been taken to implement the strategy. Several Federal agencies have jointly purchased and shared remotely sensed land-cover information needed for water assessment. Major agency data systems are using common data-element names and reference tables that will ensure easy sharing of data. A number of States have held meetings with collectors of water information to initiate statewide monitoring strategies. New monitoring guidance has been developed for Federal water-quality grants to States. Many State offices have changed monitoring programs to place emphasis on priority watersheds and to improve assessment of water quality. As the competition increases for adequate supplies of clean water, concerns about public health and the environment escalate, and more demands are placed on the water information infrastructure. To meet these demands, the collaborative approach has already produced benefits, which will continue to grow as

  10. 'water splitting' by titanium exchanged zeolite A. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznicki, S.M.; Eyring, E.M.

    1978-09-01

    Visually detectable and chromatographically and mass spectrally identified hydrogen gas evolves from titanium (III) exchanged zeolite A immersed in water and illuminated with visible light. Titanium(III) exchanged zeolite X and zeolite Y do not produce this reaction. A photochemically produced, oxygenated titanium free radical (detected by electron spin resonance) not previously described is the species in the zeolite that reduces protons to molecular hydrogen. The other product of this reduction step is a nonradical, oxygenated titanium species of probable empirical formula TiO4. Heating the spent oxygenated titanium containing zeolite A under vacuum at 375 C restores over fifty percent ofmore » the free radical. Unlike previously reported systems, heating does not restore the original aquotitanium(III) species in the zeolite. Thus a means other than heating must be found to achieve a closed photochemical cycle that harnesses visible solar energy in the production of molecular hydrogen. The titanium exchanged zeolite A does, however, lend itself to a thermolysis of water previously described by Kasai and Bishop. (Author)« less

  11. Water Systems Project 1: Current Systems and Regulatory Support

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water Systems Project 1 objectives: 1) Supply research results to support federal regulations and guidance; 2) provide strategies to regions, states, and communities for improved regulatory compliance, and 3) provide rapid and effective emergency response where appropriate (e.g. ...

  12. VIEW ALONG SUPPORT ROAD, LOOKING TOWARD ELEVATED WATER STORAGE TANK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW ALONG SUPPORT ROAD, LOOKING TOWARD ELEVATED WATER STORAGE TANK (BUILDING 2824), WITH EDUCATION CENTER (BUILDING 2670) AT LEFT BACKGROUND. VIEW TO NORTHEAST - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, U.S. Route 9, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  13. VIEW OF TWO HEAVY WATER STORAGE TANKS (BEHIND SUPPORT COLUMNS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF TWO HEAVY WATER STORAGE TANKS (BEHIND SUPPORT COLUMNS AND STEEL BEAMS), SUB-BASEMENT LEVEL -27’, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Physics Assembly Laboratory, Area A/M, Savannah River Site, Aiken, Aiken County, SC

  14. Technical-economic modelling of integrated water management: wastewater reuse in a French island.

    PubMed

    Xu, P; Valette, F; Brissaud, F; Fazio, A; Lazarova, V

    2001-01-01

    An integrated technical-economic model is used to address water management issues in the French island of Noirmoutier. The model simulates potable water production and supply, potable and non potable water demand and consumption, wastewater collection, treatment and disposal, water storage, transportation and reuse. A variety of water management scenarios is assessed through technical, economic and environmental evaluation. The scenarios include wastewater reclamation and reuse for agricultural and landscape irrigation as well as domestic non potable application, desalination of seawater and brackish groundwater for potable water supply. The study shows that, in Noirmoutier, wastewater reclamation and reuse for crop irrigation is the most cost-effective solution to the lack of water resources and the protection of sensitive environment. Some water management projects which are regarded as having less economic benefit in the short-term may become competitive in the future, as a result of tightened environmental policy, changed public attitudes and advanced water treatment technologies. The model provides an appropriate tool for water resources planning and management.

  15. Cycle water chemistry based on film forming amines at power plants: evaluation of technical guidance documents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyachenko, F. V.; Petrova, T. I.

    2017-11-01

    Efficiency and reliability of the equipment in fossil power plants as well as in combined cycle power plants depend on the corrosion processes and deposit formation in steam/water circuit. In order to decrease these processes different water chemistries are used. Today the great attention is being attracted to the application of film forming amines and film forming amine products. The International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS) consolidated the information from all over the World, and based on the research studies and operating experience of researchers and engineers from 21 countries, developed and authorized the Technical Guidance Document: “Application of Film Forming Amines in Fossil, Combined Cycle, and Biomass Power Plants” in 2016. This article describe Russian and International technical guidance documents for the cycle water chemistries based on film forming amines at fossil and combined cycle power plants.

  16. Environmental Control and Life Support System, Water Recovery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Group of the Flight Projects Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is responsible for designing and building the life support systems that will provide the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) a comfortable environment in which to live and work. This is a close-up view of ECLSS Water Recovery System (WRS) racks. The MSFC's ECLSS Group overseas much of the development of the hardware that will allow a constant supply of clean water for four to six crewmembers aboard the ISS. The WRS provides clean water through the reclamation of wastewaters, including water obtained from the Space Shuttle's fuel cells, crewmember urine, used shower, handwash and oral hygiene water cabin humidity condensate, and Extravehicular Activity (EVA) wastes. The WRS is comprised of a Urine Processor Assembly (UPA), and a Water Processor Assembly (WPA). The UPA accepts and processes pretreated crewmember urine to allow it to be processed along with other wastewaters in the WPA, which removes free gas, organic, and nonorganic constituents before the water goes through a series of multifiltration beds for further purification. Product water quality is monitored primarily through conductivity measurements. Unacceptable water is sent back through the WPA for reprocessing. Clean water is sent to a storage tank. The water must meet stringent purity standards before consumption by the crew. The UPA provided by the MSFC and the WRA is provided by the prime contractor, Hamilton Sundstrand Space Systems, International (HSSSI) from Cornecticut.

  17. Designing water demand management schemes using a socio-technical modelling approach.

    PubMed

    Baki, Sotiria; Rozos, Evangelos; Makropoulos, Christos

    2018-05-01

    Although it is now widely acknowledged that urban water systems (UWSs) are complex socio-technical systems and that a shift towards a socio-technical approach is critical in achieving sustainable urban water management, still, more often than not, UWSs are designed using a segmented modelling approach. As such, either the analysis focuses on the description of the purely technical sub-system, without explicitly taking into account the system's dynamic socio-economic processes, or a more interdisciplinary approach is followed, but delivered through relatively coarse models, which often fail to provide a thorough representation of the urban water cycle and hence cannot deliver accurate estimations of the hydrosystem's responses. In this work we propose an integrated modelling approach for the study of the complete socio-technical UWS that also takes into account socio-economic and climatic variability. We have developed an integrated model, which is used to investigate the diffusion of household water conservation technologies and its effects on the UWS, under different socio-economic and climatic scenarios. The integrated model is formed by coupling a System Dynamics model that simulates the water technology adoption process, and the Urban Water Optioneering Tool (UWOT) for the detailed simulation of the urban water cycle. The model and approach are tested and demonstrated in an urban redevelopment area in Athens, Greece under different socio-economic scenarios and policy interventions. It is suggested that the proposed approach can establish quantifiable links between socio-economic change and UWS responses and therefore assist decision makers in designing more effective and resilient long-term strategies for water conservation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Monitored Natural Attenuation of Inorganic Contaminants in Ground Water Volume 1 – Technical Basis for Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document represents the first volume of a set of three volumes that address the technical basis and requirements for assessing the potential applicability of MNA as part of a ground-water remedy for plumes with non-radionuclide and/or radionuclide inorganic contaminants. Vo...

  19. Control of the Physical and Technical Properties of Water in Technological Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klopotov, V. D.; Gorlenko, N. P.; Sarkisov, Yu S.; Kulchenko, A. K.; Klopotov, A. A.

    2016-08-01

    The physical and technical properties of water activated by the electrochemical treatment in a two-chamber electrolizer are investigated. The regularities of changes inthe values of acidity, redox potential, ionic composition, concentration of oxygen, structural organization of catholyte and anolyte are revealed. The possibility of controlling the properties of the liquid for more efficient extraction of polymetallic minerals by flotation is described.

  20. 75 FR 49408 - Navigation and Navigable Waters; Technical, Organizational, and Conforming Amendments, Bridges

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ... Conforming Amendments, Bridges AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule makes non... technical corrections to Coast Guard bridge and navigable waters regulations. This rule will have no... announces or gathers public opinion or other information regarding bridge matters, nor will it change the...

  1. Electronic Communities: a Forum for Supporting Women Professionals and Students in Technical and Scientific Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Single, Peg Boyle; Muller, Carol B.; Cunningham, Christine M.; Single, Richard M.

    In this article, we report on electronic discussion lists (e-lists) sponsored by MentorNet, the National Electronic Industrial Mentoring Network for Women in Engineering and Science. Using the Internet, the MentorNet program connects students in engineering and science with mentors working in industry. These e-lists are a feature of MentorNet's larger electronic mentoring program and were sponsored to foster the establishment of community among women engineering and science students and men and women professionals in those fields. This research supports the hypothesis that electronic communications can be used to develop community among engineering and science students and professionals and identifies factors influencing the emergence of electronic communities (e-communities). The e-lists that emerged into self-sustaining e-communities were focused on topic-based themes, such as balancing personal and work life, issues pertaining to women in engineering and science, and job searching. These e-communities were perceived to be safe places, embraced a diversity of opinions and experiences, and sanctioned personal and meaningful postings on the part of the participants. The e-communities maintained three to four simultaneous threaded discussions and were sustained by professionals who served as facilitators by seeding the e-lists with discussion topics. The e-lists were sponsored to provide women students participating in MentorNet with access to groups of technical and scientific professionals. In addition to providing benefits to the students, the e-lists also provided the professionals with opportunities to engage in peer mentoring with other, mostly female, technical and scientific professionals. We discuss the implications of our findings for developing e-communities and for serving the needs of women in technical and scientific fields.

  2. [Structure and characteristics of technical support that psychiatric social workers of prefectural governments provide for municipalities].

    PubMed

    Okada, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The support to municipalities by prefectural governments has become necessary in the fields of mental health and welfare. Therefore, psychiatric social workers (PSW) ordered from the prefectural governor has been providing technical support (TS) that promote community activities of the municipality and improve staff support for persons with mental disabilities. The purpose of this study was to identify empirical structure and characteristics of TS that PSW provide for municipality staff.Method Semi-structured interviews were conducted with seven certified PSW randomly selected from the membership list of the National Psychiatric Social Worker Organization. Inclusion criteria required participants to have more than 10 years of experience at the prefectural government and experience providing TS in the last five years. Interviews focused on two situations: a casework and a project related to mental health. Interview data were analyzed using a qualitative content method, setting a framework for the consultation process.Results The analysis included five categories < > and 15 subcategories [ ], which consisted of 37 concepts. In category with municipalities consisted of [complementary relationship] and [partnership]. The category included two subcategories, [analyze/judgment from the conditions spread in front of] and [analyze/judgment be the accumulated skills and knowledge in person]. In category support policy>, six policies were considered as important, including [problem solving and promoting action], [fostering person centered care perspective], [promoting the understanding of residents], [provide psychological support to the staff], [clarify responsibility as the municipal officials], and [coordinate to improve the environment]. Category <support techniques> consisted of both [support indirectly] and [support cooperatively]. The last category

  3. Technical Support Document: Development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Large Hospitals - 50% Energy Savings

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnema, E.; Leach, M.; Pless, S.

    2013-06-01

    This Technical Support Document describes the process and methodology for the development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Large Hospitals: Achieving 50% Energy Savings Toward a Net Zero Energy Building (AEDG-LH) ASHRAE et al. (2011b). The AEDG-LH is intended to provide recommendations for achieving 50% whole-building energy savings in large hospitals over levels achieved by following Standard 90.1-2004. The AEDG-LH was created for a 'standard' mid- to large-size hospital, typically at least 100,000 ft2, but the strategies apply to all sizes and classifications of new construction hospital buildings. Its primary focus is new construction, but recommendations may be applicablemore » to facilities undergoing total renovation, and in part to many other hospital renovation, addition, remodeling, and modernization projects (including changes to one or more systems in existing buildings).« less

  4. Technical support for the EPA cleanup rule on radioactively contaminated sites

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, H.B.; Newman, A.; Wolbarst, A.B.

    1995-12-31

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing a radiation site cleanup regulation for the protection of the public from radionuclide contamination at sites that are to be cleaned up and released for public use. The regulation will apply to sites under the control of Federal agencies, and to sites licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) or NRC Agreement States. The agency is therefore conducting a comprehensive technical analysis aimed at developing information that will be used to support the rule. This presentation describes the regulation and the approach developed to determine how radiological health impacts and volumes ofmore » soil requiring remediation vary as functions of the possible cleanup dose or risk level.« less

  5. Technical Support Document: The Development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Highway Lodging Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Wei; Jarnagin, Ronald E.; Gowri, Krishnan

    2008-09-30

    This Technical Support Document (TSD) describes the process and methodology for development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Highway Lodgings (AEDG-HL or the Guide), a design guidance document intended to provide recommendations for achieving 30% energy savings in highway lodging properties over levels contained in ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-1999, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings. The AEDG-HL is the fifth in a series of guides being developed by a partnership of organizations, including the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (ASHRAE), the American Institute of Architects (AIA), the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA),more » the United States Green Buildings Council (USGBC), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).« less

  6. CCD detector development projects by the Beamline Technical Support Group at the Advanced Photon Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, John H.; Fernandez, Patricia; Madden, Tim; Molitsky, Michael; Weizeorick, John

    2007-11-01

    This paper will describe two ongoing detector projects being developed by the Beamline Technical Support Group at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The first project is the design and construction of two detectors: a single-CCD system and a two-by-two Mosaic CCD camera for Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS). Both of these systems utilize the Kodak KAF-4320E CCD coupled to fiber optic tapers, custom mechanical hardware, electronics, and software developed at ANL. The second project is a Fast-CCD (FCCD) detector being developed in a collaboration between ANL and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). This detector will use ANL-designed readout electronics and a custom LBNL-designed CCD, with 480×480 pixels and 96 outputs, giving very fast readout.

  7. Technical knowledge and water resources management: A comparative study of river basin councils, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemos, Maria Carmen; Bell, Andrew R.; Engle, Nathan L.; Formiga-Johnsson, Rosa Maria; Nelson, Donald R.

    2010-06-01

    Better understanding of the factors that shape the use of technical knowledge in water management is important both to increase its relevance to decision-making and sustainable governance and to inform knowledge producers where needs lie. This is particularly critical in the context of the many stressors threatening water resources around the world. Recent scholarship focusing on innovative water management institutions emphasizes knowledge use as critical to water systems' adaptive capacity to respond to these stressors. For the past 15 years, water resources management in Brazil has undergone an encompassing reform that has created a set of participatory councils at the river basin level. Using data from a survey of 626 members of these councils across 18 river basins, this article examines the use of technical knowledge (e.g., climate and weather forecasts, reservoir streamflow models, environmental impact assessments, among others) within these councils. It finds that use of knowledge positively aligns with access, a more diverse and broader discussion agenda, and a higher sense of effectiveness. Yet, use of technical knowledge is also associated with skewed levels of power within the councils.

  8. The Limpopo Non-Metropolitan Drinking Water Supplier Response to a Diagnostic Tool for Technical Compliance

    PubMed Central

    Nefale, Avhashoni D.; Kamika, Ilunga; Obi, Chikwelu L.

    2017-01-01

    Water services providers should supply water that is fit for human consumption, taking into account multi-barrier approaches and technical aspects such as design aspects, operation monitoring, final water quality compliance monitoring, plant monitoring practices, maintenance, and risk management practices. Against this background, this study focused on applying the diagnostic tool for technical compliance as well as assessing the compliance of water treatment plants with management norms. Six plants in the Vhembe District Municipality were selected; the Vondo, Malamulele, Mutshedzi, and Mutale plants (conventional), and the Dzingahe and Tshedza package plants. During the first assessment, four (Malamulele, Mutshedzi, Mutale and Dzingahe) plants scored between 44% and 49% and achieved Class 3 certification, revealing serious challenges requiring immediate intervention. Two water plants (Vondo and Tshedza, scoring 53% and 63%, respectively) were in the Class 2 category, revealing serious challenges requiring attention and improvement. During the second assessment, all plants scored between 63% and 87% (Class 2 category). The greatest improvement (30%) was noted for the Dzingahe and Tshedza plants, followed by the Malamulele plant, while the Mutale, Vondo, and Mutshedzi plants improved their scores by 20%, 17% and 14%, respectively. After corrective actions and re-measurement, no plant complied. It is recommended that Water Services Providers (WSPs) regularly apply the diagnostic tools and water safety plans as developed in order to comply with applicable standards. PMID:28753964

  9. The Limpopo Non-Metropolitan Drinking Water Supplier Response to a Diagnostic Tool for Technical Compliance.

    PubMed

    Nefale, Avhashoni D; Kamika, Ilunga; Obi, Chikwelu L; Momba, Maggy Nb

    2017-07-19

    Water services providers should supply water that is fit for human consumption, taking into account multi-barrier approaches and technical aspects such as design aspects, operation monitoring, final water quality compliance monitoring, plant monitoring practices, maintenance, and risk management practices. Against this background, this study focused on applying the diagnostic tool for technical compliance as well as assessing the compliance of water treatment plants with management norms. Six plants in the Vhembe District Municipality were selected; the Vondo, Malamulele, Mutshedzi, and Mutale plants (conventional), and the Dzingahe and Tshedza package plants. During the first assessment, four (Malamulele, Mutshedzi, Mutale and Dzingahe) plants scored between 44% and 49% and achieved Class 3 certification, revealing serious challenges requiring immediate intervention. Two water plants (Vondo and Tshedza, scoring 53% and 63%, respectively) were in the Class 2 category, revealing serious challenges requiring attention and improvement. During the second assessment, all plants scored between 63% and 87% (Class 2 category). The greatest improvement (30%) was noted for the Dzingahe and Tshedza plants, followed by the Malamulele plant, while the Mutale, Vondo, and Mutshedzi plants improved their scores by 20%, 17% and 14%, respectively. After corrective actions and re-measurement, no plant complied. It is recommended that Water Services Providers (WSPs) regularly apply the diagnostic tools and water safety plans as developed in order to comply with applicable standards.

  10. A water management decision support system contributing to sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horváth, Klaudia; van Esch, Bart; Baayen, Jorn; Pothof, Ivo; Talsma, Jan; van Heeringen, Klaas-Jan

    2017-04-01

    Deltares and Eindhoven University of Technology are developing a new decision support system (DSS) for regional water authorities. In order to maintain water levels in the Dutch polder system, water should be drained and pumped out from the polders to the sea. The time and amount of pumping depends on the current sea level, the water level in the polder, the weather forecast and the electricity price forecast and possibly local renewable power production. This is a multivariable optimisation problem, where the goal is to keep the water level in the polder within certain bounds. By optimizing the operation of the pumps the energy usage and costs can be reduced, hence the operation of the regional water authorities can be more sustainable, while also anticipating on increasing share of renewables in the energy mix in a cost-effective way. The decision support system, based on Delft-FEWS as operational data-integration platform, is running an optimization model built in RTC-Tools 2, which is performing real-time optimization in order to calculate the pumping strategy. It is taking into account the present and future circumstances. As being the core of the real time decision support system, RTC-Tools 2 fulfils the key requirements to a DSS: it is fast, robust and always finds the optimal solution. These properties are associated with convex optimization. In such problems the global optimum can always be found. The challenge in the development is to maintain the convex formulation of all the non-linear components in the system, i.e. open channels, hydraulic structures, and pumps. The system is introduced through 4 pilot projects, one of which is a pilot of the Dutch Water Authority Rivierenland. This is a typical Dutch polder system: several polders are drained to the main water system, the Linge. The water from the Linge can be released to the main rivers that are subject to tidal fluctuations. In case of low tide, water can be released via the gates. In case of high

  11. Technical Note: Seasonality in alpine water resources management - a regional assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanham, D.; Fleischhacker, E.; Rauch, W.

    2008-01-01

    Alpine regions are particularly affected by seasonal variations in water demand and water availability. Especially the winter period is critical from an operational point of view, as being characterised by high water demands due to tourism and low water availability due to the temporal storage of precipitation as snow and ice. The clear definition of summer and winter periods is thus an essential prerequisite for water resource management in alpine regions. This paper presents a GIS-based multi criteria method to determine the winter season. A snow cover duration dataset serves as basis for this analysis. Different water demand stakeholders, the alpine hydrology and the present day water supply infrastructure are taken into account. Technical snow-making and (winter) tourism were identified as the two major seasonal water demand stakeholders in the study area, which is the Kitzbueheler region in the Austrian Alps. Based upon different geographical datasets winter was defined as the period from December to March, and summer as the period from April to November. By determining potential regional water balance deficits or surpluses in the present day situation and in future, important management decisions such as water storage and allocation can be made and transposed to the local level.

  12. Risk perception and water fluoridation support and opposition in Australia.

    PubMed

    Armfield, Jason Mathew; Akers, Harry Francis

    2010-01-01

    A considerable body of evidence confirms that water fluoridation effectively reduces the community incidence of dental caries with minimal side effects. However, proposals to introduce this widely endorsed public-health measure are often perceived as controversial, and public opinion frequently plays a role in the outcome. Despite this, the public's perception of risk associated with water fluoridation has not been well researched and remains poorly understood. Our objectives were to determine whether risk perceptions reflecting various "outrage" factors are associated with water fluoridation support and opposition. We conducted a cross-sectional questionnaire survey of a national sample of 517 Australian adults (response rate = 34.7 percent) aged 18-92 years. Approximately 70.5 percent of respondents supported water fluoridation, with 15.1 percent opposed and 14.3 percent neutral. Sixteen of the 20 assessed outrage factors were significantly associated with water fluoridation stance in the predicted direction, with greater outrage being related to increased water fluoridation opposition. An overall outrage index computed from the 16 significant outrage factors accounted for a statistically significant 58 percent of the variance in water fluoridation stance beyond the effects of age, gender, socioeconomic status, and age and presence of children. Outrage factors are important aspects of the public's perception of risk in relation to water fluoridation. Given that water fluoridation appears to be a low-risk, high-outrage controversy, efforts to mitigate the level of public outrage, rather than continuing to deny possible hazards, may offer a worthwhile strategy in gaining public acceptance for the extension of water fluoridation.

  13. Science to support the understanding of Ohio's water resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shaffer, Kimberly; Kula, Stephanie; Bambach, Phil; Runkle, Donna

    2012-01-01

    Ohio’s water resources support a complex web of human activities and nature—clean and abundant water is needed for drinking, recreation, farming, and industry, as well as for fish and wildlife needs. The distribution of rainfall can cause floods and droughts, which affects streamflow, groundwater, water availability, water quality, recreation, and aquatic habitats. Ohio is bordered by the Ohio River and Lake Erie and has over 44,000 miles of streams and more than 60,000 lakes and ponds (State of Ohio, 1994). Nearly all the rural population obtain drinking water from groundwater sources. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) works in cooperation with local, State, and other Federal agencies, as well as universities, to furnish decisionmakers, policymakers, USGS scientists, and the general public with reliable scientific information and tools to assist them in management, stewardship, and use of Ohio’s natural resources. The diversity of scientific expertise among USGS personnel enables them to carry out large- and small-scale multidisciplinary studies. The USGS is unique among government organizations because it has neither regulatory nor developmental authority—its sole product is reliable, impartial, credible, relevant, and timely scientific information, equally accessible and available to everyone. The USGS Ohio Water Science Center provides reliable hydrologic and water-related ecological information to aid in the understanding of use and management of the Nation’s water resources, in general, and Ohio’s water resources, in particular. This fact sheet provides an overview of current (2012) or recently completed USGS studies and data activities pertaining to water resources in Ohio. More information regarding projects of the USGS Ohio Water Science Center is available at http://oh.water.usgs.gov/.

  14. Study of space shuttle EVA/IVA support requirements. Volume 1: Technical summary report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copeland, R. J.; Wood, P. W., Jr.; Cox, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    Results are summarized which were obtained for equipment requirements for the space shuttle EVA/IVA pressure suit, life support system, mobility aids, vehicle support provisions, and energy 4 support. An initial study of tasks, guidelines, and constraints and a special task on the impact of a 10 psia orbiter cabin atmosphere are included. Supporting studies not related exclusively to any one group of equipment requirements are also summarized. Representative EVA/IVA task scenarios were defined based on an evaluation of missions and payloads. Analysis of the scenarios resulted in a total of 788 EVA/IVA's in the 1979-1990 time frame, for an average of 1.3 per shuttle flight. Duration was estimated to be under 4 hours on 98% of the EVA/IVA's, and distance from the airlock was determined to be 70 feet or less 96% of the time. Payload water vapor sensitivity was estimated to be significant on 9%-17% of the flights. Further analysis of the scenarios was carried out to determine specific equipment characteristics, such as suit cycle and mobility requirements.

  15. Multi-objective, multiple participant decision support for water management in the Andarax catchment, Almeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Cauwenbergh, N.; Pinte, D.; Tilmant, A.; Frances, I.; Pulido-Bosch, A.; Vanclooster, M.

    2008-04-01

    Water management in the Andarax river basin (Almeria, Spain) is a multi-objective, multi-participant, long-term decision-making problem that faces several challenges. Adequate water allocation needs informed decisions to meet increasing socio-economic demands while respecting the environmental integrity of this basin. Key players in the Andarax water sector include the municipality of Almeria, the irrigators involved in the intensive greenhouse agricultural sector, and booming second residences. A decision support system (DSS) is developed to rank different sustainable planning and management alternatives according to their socio-economic and environmental performance. The DSS is intimately linked to sustainability indicators and is designed through a public participation process. Indicators are linked to criteria reflecting stakeholders concerns in the 2005 field survey, such as fulfilling water demand, water price, technical and economical efficiency, social and environmental impacts. Indicators can be partly quantified after simulating the operation of the groundwater reservoir over a 20-year planning period and partly through a parallel expert evaluation process. To predict the impact of future water demand in the catchment, several development scenarios are designed to be evaluated in the DSS. The successive multi-criteria analysis of the performance indicators permits the ranking of the different management alternatives according to the multiple objectives formulated by the different sectors/participants. This allows more informed and transparent decision-making processes for the Andarax river basin, recognizing both the socio-economic and environmental dimensions of water resources management.

  16. Geolocation Support for Water Supply and Sewerage Projects in Azerbaijan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qocamanov, M. H.; Gurbanov, Ch. Z.

    2016-10-01

    Drinking water supply and sewerage system designing and reconstruction projects are being extensively conducted in Azerbaijan Republic. During implementation of such projects, collecting large amount of information about the area and detailed investigations are crucial. Joint use of the aerospace monitoring and GIS play an essential role for the studies of the impact of environmental factors, development of the analytical information systems and others, while achieving the reliable performance of the existing and designed major water supply pipelines, as well as construction and exploitation of the technical installations. With our participation the GIS has been created in "Azersu" OJSC that includes systematic database of the drinking water supply and sewerage system, and rain water networks to carry out necessary geo information analysis. GIScreated based on "Microstation" platform and aerospace data. Should be mentioned that, in the country, specifically in large cities (i.e. Baku, Ganja, Sumqait, etc.,) drinking water supply pipelines cross regions with different physico-geographical conditions, geo-morphological compositions and seismotectonics.Mains water supply lines in many accidents occur during the operation, it also creates problems with drinking water consumers. In some cases the damage is caused by large-scale accidents. Long-term experience gives reason to say that the elimination of the consequences of accidents is a major cost. Therefore, to avoid such events and to prevent their exploitation and geodetic monitoring system to improve the rules on key issues. Therefore, constant control of the plan-height positioning, geodetic measurements for the detailed examination of the dynamics, repetition of the geodetic measurements for certain time intervals, or in other words regular monitoring is very important. During geodetic monitoring using the GIS has special significance. Given that, collecting geodetic monitoring measurements of the main pipelines

  17. Monitoring And Modeling Environmental Water Quality To Support Environmental Water Purchase Decision-making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Null, S. E.; Elmore, L.; Mouzon, N. R.; Wood, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    More than 25 million cubic meters (20,000 acre feet) of water has been purchased from willing agricultural sellers for environmental flows in Nevada's Walker River to improve riverine habitat and connectivity with downstream Walker Lake. Reduced instream flows limit native fish populations, like Lahontan cutthroat trout, through warm daily stream temperatures and low dissolved oxygen concentrations. Environmental water purchases maintain instream flows, although effects on water quality are more varied. We use multi-year water quality monitoring and physically-based hydrodynamic and water quality modeling to estimate streamflow, water temperature, and dissolved oxygen concentrations with alternative environmental water purchases. We simulate water temperature and dissolved oxygen changes from increased streamflow to prioritize the time periods and locations that environmental water purchases most enhance trout habitat as a function of water quality. Monitoring results indicate stream temperature and dissolved oxygen limitations generally exist in the 115 kilometers upstream of Walker Lake (about 37% of the study area) from approximately May through September, and this reach acts as a water quality barrier for fish passage. Model results indicate that low streamflows generally coincide with critically warm stream temperatures, water quality refugia exist on a tributary of the Walker River, and environmental water purchases may improve stream temperature and dissolved oxygen conditions for some reaches and seasons, especially in dry years and prolonged droughts. This research supports environmental water purchase decision-making and allows water purchase decisions to be prioritized with other river restoration alternatives.

  18. Proposing buffer zones and simple technical solutions for safeguarding river water quality and public health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podimata, M. V.; Bekri, E. S.; Yannopoulos, P. C.

    2012-04-01

    Framework Directive (WFD) 2000/60, but a practical necessity for the safeguarding of public health and ecosystem health, in general. The present study aims at developing a simple methodology for assessing spatial distribution characteristics of pollution in Erymanthos catchment. Pollution loads at various sites in Erymanthos watershed were illustrated with Geographical Information System (GIS). Flow rates of Erymanthos River were also taken into consideration. Based on previous studies, in situ river discharges have been compared to simulated discharges in order to calibrate the rainfall-runoff model ENNS which can then predict future scenarios regarding the river flow rates with consideration of climate change effects. The goal of this study is to detect the pertinent points and suggest a) suitable buffer zones in areas with high pollution risk and b) simple technical works in order to prevent the main channel of Erymanthos River from direct polluting discharges. The above systems could also act supportively in groundwater enrichment, forest protection and soil erosion prevention. Authors believe that the results of the study could assist authorities and engineers to design and develop strategies of improving river water quality and safeguarding public health. The proposed measures may be applicable to other catchments as well.

  19. A conservation ontology and knowledge base to support delivery of technical assistance to agricultural producers in the united states

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Information systems supporting the delivery of conservation technical assistance by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) to agricultural producers on working lands have become increasingly complex over the past 25 years. They are constrained by inconsistent coordination of domain knowl...

  20. RE: Request for Correction, Technical Support Document, Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reporting from the Petroleum and Natural Gas Industry

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Industrial Energy Consumers of America (IECA) joins the U.S. Chamber of Commerce in its request for correction of information developed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in a background technical support document titled Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reporting from the Petroleum and Natural Gas Industry

  1. Review of Final Year MSP Evaluations, Performance Period 2007. Analytic and Technical Support for Mathematics and Science Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobronnikov, Ellen; Rhodes, Hilary; Bradley, Cay

    2010-01-01

    This final report culminates the evaluation and technical assistance provided for the U.S. Department of Education's Mathematics and Science Partnership (MSP) Program and its projects since 2005. As part of this support, Abt Associates looked across the portfolio of projects funded by the MSP program to draw lessons on best practices. This…

  2. 34 CFR 380.6 - What activities may the Secretary fund under technical assistance supported employment projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION SPECIAL PROJECTS AND DEMONSTRATIONS FOR PROVIDING SUPPORTED EMPLOYMENT SERVICES TO INDIVIDUALS... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What activities may the Secretary fund under technical...

  3. Water-oil separation performance of technical textiles used for marine pollution disasters.

    PubMed

    Seddighi, Mahdi; Hejazi, Sayyed Mahdi

    2015-07-15

    Oil is principally one of the most important energy sources in the world. However, as long as oil is explored and transported for being used, there will be the risk of the spillage into the marine environment. The use of technical textiles, i.e. fibrous beds, is a conventional separation technique for oil/water emulsion since it is efficient and easy to design. In this paper, the recovery of oil by technical textiles was mathematically modeled based on the structural parameters of textile and the capillary mechanism. Eleven types of commercial technical textiles with different properties were prepared for the experimental program. The experimental design included fiber type (polypropylene and polyester), fabric type (woven and/or nonwoven), fabric thickness and fabric areal density. Consequently, the absorption capacities of different technical textile samples were derived by the use of theoretical and experimental methods. The results show that there is a well fitness between theoretical outputs and experimental data. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Innovative Tools for Water Quality/Quantity Management: New York City's Operations Support Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Schaake, J. C.; Day, G. N.; Porter, J.; Sheer, D. P.; Pyke, G.

    2011-12-01

    The New York City Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) manages New York City's water supply, which is comprised of over 20 reservoirs and supplies more than 1 billion gallons of water per day to over 9 million customers. Recently, DEP has initiated design of an Operations Support Tool (OST), a state-of-the-art decision support system to provide computational and predictive support for water supply operations and planning. This presentation describes the technical structure of OST, including the underlying water supply and water quality models, data sources and database management, reservoir inflow forecasts, and the functionalities required to meet the needs of a diverse group of end users. OST is a major upgrade of DEP's current water supply - water quality model, developed to evaluate alternatives for controlling turbidity in NYC's Catskill reservoirs. While the current model relies on historical hydrologic and meteorological data, OST can be driven by forecasted future conditions. It will receive a variety of near-real-time data from a number of sources. OST will support two major types of simulations: long-term, for evaluating policy or infrastructure changes over an extended period of time; and short-term "position analysis" (PA) simulations, consisting of multiple short simulations, all starting from the same initial conditions. Typically, the starting conditions for a PA run will represent those for the current day and traces of forecasted hydrology will drive the model for the duration of the simulation period. The result of these simulations will be a distribution of future system states based on system operating rules and the range of input ensemble streamflow predictions. DEP managers will analyze the output distributions and make operation decisions using risk-based metrics such as probability of refill. Currently, in the developmental stages of OST, forecasts are based on antecedent hydrologic conditions and are statistical in nature. The

  5. Feasible way of Human Solid and Liquid Wastes' Inclusion Into Intersystem Mass Exchange of Biological-Technical Life Support Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushakova, Sofya; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Tikhomirova, Natalia; Kudenko, Yurii; Griboskaya, Illiada; Gros, Jean-Bernard; Lasseur, Christophe

    The basic objective arising at use of mineralized human solid and liquid wastes serving as the source of mineral elements for plants cultivation in biological-technical life support systems appears to be NaCl presence in them. The given work is aimed at feasibility study of mineralized human metabolites' utilization for nutrient solutions' preparation for their further employment at a long-term cultivation of uneven-aged wheat and Salicornia europaea L. cenosis in a conveyer regime. Human solid and liquid wastes were mineralized by the "wet incineration" method developed by Yu. Kudenko. On their base the solutions were prepared which were used for cultivation of 5-aged wheat conveyer with the time step-interval of 14 days. Wheat was cultivated by hydroponics method on expanded clay aggregate. For partial demineralization of nutrient solution every two weeks after regular wheat harvesting 12 L of solution was withdrawn from the wheat irrigation tank and used for Salicornia europaea cultivation by the water culture method in a conveyer regime. The Salicornia europaea conveyer was represented by 2 ages with the time step-interval of 14 days. Resulting from repeating withdrawal of the solution used for wheat cultivation, sodium concentration in the wheat irrigation solution did not exceed 400 mg/l, and mineral elements contained in the taken solution were used for Salicornia europaea cultivation. The experiment lasted 7 months. Total wheat biomass productivity averaged 30.1 g*m-2*day-1 at harvest index equal to 36.8The work was carried out under support of SB RAS grant 132 and INTAS 05-1000008-8010

  6. Advancing Cyberinfrastructure to support high resolution water resources modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarboton, D. G.; Ogden, F. L.; Jones, N.; Horsburgh, J. S.

    2012-12-01

    Addressing the problem of how the availability and quality of water resources at large scales are sensitive to climate variability, watershed alterations and management activities requires computational resources that combine data from multiple sources and support integrated modeling. Related cyberinfrastructure challenges include: 1) how can we best structure data and computer models to address this scientific problem through the use of high-performance and data-intensive computing, and 2) how can we do this in a way that discipline scientists without extensive computational and algorithmic knowledge and experience can take advantage of advances in cyberinfrastructure? This presentation will describe a new system called CI-WATER that is being developed to address these challenges and advance high resolution water resources modeling in the Western U.S. We are building on existing tools that enable collaboration to develop model and data interfaces that link integrated system models running within an HPC environment to multiple data sources. Our goal is to enhance the use of computational simulation and data-intensive modeling to better understand water resources. Addressing water resource problems in the Western U.S. requires simulation of natural and engineered systems, as well as representation of legal (water rights) and institutional constraints alongside the representation of physical processes. We are establishing data services to represent the engineered infrastructure and legal and institutional systems in a way that they can be used with high resolution multi-physics watershed modeling at high spatial resolution. These services will enable incorporation of location-specific information on water management infrastructure and systems into the assessment of regional water availability in the face of growing demands, uncertain future meteorological forcings, and existing prior-appropriations water rights. This presentation will discuss the informatics

  7. Environmental Support Specialist, Blocks III & IV, 17-5. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This military-developed text contains the second section of a four-part course to train environmental support specialists. Covered in the individual course blocks are operative principles of water treatment plants (principles of water treatment plants, the clarification process, water systems filters, chemical disinfection, taste and odor control,…

  8. Status of the Node 3 Regenerative Environmental Cpntrol& Life Support System Water Recovery & Oxygen Generation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrasquillo, Robyn L.

    2003-01-01

    NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center is providing three racks containing regenerative water recovery and oxygen generation systems (WRS and OGS) for flight on the lnternational Space Station s (ISS) Node 3 element. The major assemblies included in these racks are the Water Processor Assembly (WPA), Urine Processor Assembly (UPA), Oxygen Generation Assembly (OGA), and the Power Supply Module (PSM) supporting the OGA. The WPA and OGA are provided by Hamilton Sundstrand Space Systems lnternational (HSSSI), while the UPA and PSM are being designed and manufactured in-house by MSFC. The assemblies are currently in the manufacturing and test phase and are to be completed and integrated into flight racks this year. This paper gives an overview of the technologies and system designs, technical challenges encountered and solved, and the current status.

  9. Tethys: A Platform for Water Resources Modeling and Decision Support Apps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, J.; Swain, N. R.

    2015-12-01

    The interactive nature of web applications or "web apps" makes it an excellent medium for conveying complex scientific concepts to lay audiences and creating decision support tools that harness cutting edge modeling techniques. However, the technical expertise required to develop web apps represents a barrier for would-be developers. This barrier can be characterized by the following hurdles that developers must overcome: (1) identify, select, and install software that meet the spatial and computational capabilities commonly required for water resources modeling; (2) orchestrate the use of multiple free and open source (FOSS) projects and navigate their differing application programming interfaces; (3) learn the multi-language programming skills required for modern web development; and (4) develop a web-secure and fully featured web portal to host the app. Tethys Platform has been developed to lower the technical barrier and minimize the initial development investment that prohibits many scientists and engineers from making use of the web app medium. It includes (1) a suite of FOSS that address the unique data and computational needs common to water resources web app development, (2) a Python software development kit that streamlines development, and (3) a customizable web portal that is used to deploy the completed web apps. Tethys synthesizes several software projects including PostGIS, 52°North WPS, GeoServer, Google Maps™, OpenLayers, and Highcharts. It has been used to develop a broad array of web apps for water resources modeling and decision support for several projects including CI-WATER, HydroShare, and the National Flood Interoperability Experiment. The presentation will include live demos of some of the apps that have been developed using Tethys to demonstrate its capabilities.

  10. Compact Water Vapor Exchanger for Regenerative Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo; Anderson, Molly; Hodgson, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Thermal and environmental control systems for future exploration spacecraft must meet challenging requirements for efficient operation and conservation of resources. Regenerative CO2 removal systems are attractive for these missions because they do not use consumable CO2 absorbers. However, these systems also absorb and vent water to space along with carbon dioxide. This paper describes an innovative device designed to minimize water lost from regenerative CO2 control systems. Design studies and proof-of-concept testing have shown the feasibility of a compact, efficient membrane water vapor exchanger (WVX) that will conserve water while meeting challenging requirements for operation on future spacecraft. Compared to conventional WVX designs, the innovative membrane WVX described here has the potential for high water recovery efficiency, compact size, and very low pressure losses. The key innovation is a method for maintaining highly uniform flow channels in a WVX core built from water-permeable membranes. The proof-of-concept WVX incorporates all the key design features of a prototypical unit, except that it is relatively small scale (1/23 relative to a unit sized for a crew of six) and some components were fabricated using non-prototypical methods. The proof-of-concept WVX achieved over 90% water recovery efficiency in a compact core in good agreement with analysis models. Furthermore the overall pressure drop is very small (less than 0.5 in. H2O, total for both flow streams) and meets requirements for service in environmental control and life support systems on future spacecraft. These results show that the WVX provides very uniform flow through flow channels for both the humid and dry streams. Measurements also show that CO2 diffusion through the water-permeable membranes will have negligible effect on the CO2 partial pressure in the spacecraft atmosphere.

  11. Independent technical support for the frozen soil barrier installation and operation at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (F1 Site)

    SciTech Connect

    Looney, Brian B.; Jackson, Dennis G.; Truex, Michael J.

    TEPCO is implementing a number of water countermeasures to limit the releases and impacts of contaminated water to the surrounding environment. The diverse countermeasures work together in an integrated manner to provide different types, and several levels, of protection. In general, the strategy represents a comprehensive example of a “defense in depth” concept that is used for nuclear facilities around the world. One of the key countermeasures is a frozen soil barrier encircling the damaged reactor facilities. The frozen barrier is intended to limit the flow of water into the area and provide TEPCO the ability to reduce the amountmore » of contaminated water that requires treatment and storage. The National Laboratory team supports the selection of artificial ground freezing and the incorporation of the frozen soil barrier in the contaminated water countermeasures -- the technical characteristics of a frozen barrier are relatively well suited to the Fukushima-specific conditions and the need for inflow reduction. Further, our independent review generally supports the TEPCO/Kajima design, installation strategy and operation plan.« less

  12. Engineering Technical Support Center, Innovative Science and Technical Support for Cost-Effective Cleanups: Five Year Summary Report for 2007-2012

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes a variety of significant projects that ETSC and its colleagues in the Land Remediation and Pollution Control Division (LRPCD) have supported during the last five years. Projects have addressed an array of environmental scenarios, including remote mining co...

  13. Technical and economical evaluation of water recycling in the carwash industry with membrane processes.

    PubMed

    Boussu, K; Eelen, D; Vanassche, S; Vandecasteele, C; Van der Bruggen, B; Van Baelen, G; Colen, W; Vanassche, S

    2008-01-01

    In the carwash industry, water recycling is necessary to be in accordance with present and upcoming environmental laws. As this is not possible with traditional techniques, membrane processes (like ultrafiltration (UF) and nanofiltration (NF)) are technically and economically evaluated in this study. Concerning the technical part, there needs to be a compromise between a high permeate permeability on the one hand and a high permeate purity on the other hand. Depending on the use of the purified wastewater, ultrafiltration (to recycle wastewater in the main wash cycle) or nanofiltration (to recycle wastewater in the rinsing step) would be the optimal choice. Concerning the financial part, the implementation of membrane processes in the wastewater purification installation is economically feasible, especially when expensive tap water is used as pure water. These positive evaluations imply that membrane processes can be useful to recycle wastewater in the carwash industry, on condition that the right membrane type (with the least membrane fouling) and the right process format (e.g., hybrid process of UF and/or NF with a biological treatment) is selected. Copyright IWA Publishing 2008.

  14. Modeling Study of the Marano and Grado Lagoon (Italy) to Support the Regional Water Protection Plan) TO SUPPORT THE REGIONAL WATER PROTECTION PLAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scroccaro, Isabella; Mattassi, Giorgio

    2014-05-01

    The Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC (WFD) contemplates the classification of water bodies and establishes the quality objectives of water bodies to achieve a good status within 2015. Further, the Italian law which takes in the WFD with Decree n. 152/2006, allows to identify some water bodies as heavily modified (HMWB). The Regional Administration, involved in the setting up of the Water Protection Plan, according with the above mentioned decree and directive, has to establish specific programs to maintain or conform water quality to the requested quality objectives, also for heavily modified water bodies that have to reach the ecological potential. In the north-eastern part of Italy, in the Friuli Venezia Giulia Region, the Marano and Grado Lagoon is the most complex transitional ecosystem in which four water bodies have been temporarily classified as heavily modified. They are identified as FM1, FM2, FM3 and FM4. In particular, FM2 - "Paludo della Carogna" and FM3 - "Barbana" water bodies seem to be characterized by some confinement since they are delimited by a bridge, called "Ponte Belvedere". The preliminary evaluation of the quality status of FM2 and FM3 water bodies is conditioned by the value of one of the quality criteria: the macrophytes. In fact, macrophytes are represented by very few species in these two water bodies. In a preliminary way the overall judgement of FM2 and FM3 water bodies has been indicated by the experts as scarse. This means that a specific programme of measures has to be proposed to improve the quality status of these water bodies in order to reach the ecological potential. In this context modeling may be used as a scientific and technical tool to support the evaluation on FM2 and FM3 water bodies and the effectiveness of specific measures for the achievement of the quality objectives. Numerical simulations of the Marano and Grado lagoon were performed for hydrodynamic circulation, temperature and salinity behavior with the

  15. Fact Sheet: A Technical Guide to Ground-Water Model Selection at Sites Contaminated with Radioactive Substances

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This fact sheet summarizes the findings of a report drafted by a joint Interagency Environmental Pathway Modeling Working Group. It is to be used by technical staff responsible for implementing flow and transport models to support cleanup decisions.

  16. Boiling water reactor radiation shielded Control Rod Drive Housing Supports

    SciTech Connect

    Baversten, B.; Linden, M.J.

    1995-03-01

    The Control Rod Drive (CRD) mechanisms are located in the area below the reactor vessel in a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR). Specifically, these CRDs are located between the bottom of the reactor vessel and above an interlocking structure of steel bars and rods, herein identified as CRD Housing Supports. The CRD Housing Supports are designed to limit the travel of a Control Rod and Control Rod Drive in the event that the CRD vessel attachement went to fail, allowing the CRD to be ejected from the vessel. By limiting the travel of the ejected CRD, the supports prevent a nuclearmore » overpower excursion that could occur as a result of the ejected CRD. The Housing Support structure must be disassembled in order to remove CRDs for replacement or maintenance. The disassembly task can require a significant amount of outage time and personnel radiation exposure dependent on the number and location of the CRDs to be changed out. This paper presents a way to minimize personal radiation exposure through the re-design of the Housing Support structure. The following paragraphs also delineate a method of avoiding the awkward, manual, handling of the structure under the reactor vessel during a CRD change out.« less

  17. Human Factors and Technical Considerations for a Computerized Operator Support System Prototype

    SciTech Connect

    Ulrich, Thomas Anthony; Lew, Roger Thomas; Medema, Heather Dawne

    2015-09-01

    A prototype computerized operator support system (COSS) has been developed in order to demonstrate the concept and provide a test bed for further research. The prototype is based on four underlying elements consisting of a digital alarm system, computer-based procedures, PI&D system representations, and a recommender module for mitigation actions. At this point, the prototype simulates an interface to a sensor validation module and a fault diagnosis module. These two modules will be fully integrated in the next version of the prototype. The initial version of the prototype is now operational at the Idaho National Laboratory using the U.S. Departmentmore » of Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Human Systems Simulation Laboratory (HSSL). The HSSL is a full-scope, full-scale glass top simulator capable of simulating existing and future nuclear power plant main control rooms. The COSS is interfaced to the Generic Pressurized Water Reactor (gPWR) simulator with industry-typical control board layouts. The glass top panels display realistic images of the control boards that can be operated by touch gestures. A section of the simulated control board was dedicated to the COSS human-system interface (HSI), which resulted in a seamless integration of the COSS into the normal control room environment. A COSS demonstration scenario has been developed for the prototype involving the Chemical & Volume Control System (CVCS) of the PWR simulator. It involves a primary coolant leak outside of containment that would require tripping the reactor if not mitigated in a very short timeframe. The COSS prototype presents a series of operator screens that provide the needed information and soft controls to successfully mitigate the event.« less

  18. U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY RESEARCH AND TECHNICAL SUPPORT NEEDS RELATED TO CONCEPTUAL MODEL DEVELOPMENT FOR SUBSURFACE REACTIVE TRANSPORT MODELING OF INORGANIC CONTAMINANTS, RADIONUCLIDES, AND NUTRIENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Office of Research and Development is responsible to EPA's Office of Solid Waste to provide research and technical support for waste site closures and the development of technical guidance in support of environmental regulations and programmatic policies. ORD is also respo...

  19. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Reactor Safety Technologies Pathway Technical Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Corradini, M. L.; Peko, D.; Farmer, M.

    In the aftermath of the March 2011 multi-unit accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (Fukushima), the nuclear community has been reassessing certain safety assumptions about nuclear reactor plant design, operations and emergency actions, particularly with respect to extreme events that might occur and that are beyond each plant’s current design basis. Because of our significant domestic investment in nuclear reactor technology (99 operating reactors in the fleet of commercial LWRs with five under construction), the United States has been a major leader internationally in these activities. The U.S. nuclear industry is voluntarily pursuing a number of additional safetymore » initiatives. The NRC continues to evaluate and, where deemed appropriate, establish new requirements for ensuring adequate protection of public health and safety in the occurrence of low probability events at nuclear plants; (e.g., mitigation strategies for beyond design basis events initiated by external events like seismic or flooding initiators). The DOE has also played a major role in the U.S. response to the Fukushima accident. Initially, DOE worked with the Japanese and the international community to help develop a more complete understanding of the Fukushima accident progression and its consequences, and to respond to various safety concerns emerging from uncertainties about the nature of and the effects from the accident. DOE R&D activities are focused on providing scientific and technical insights, data, analyses methods that ultimately support industry efforts to enhance safety. These activities are expected to further enhance the safety performance of currently operating U.S. nuclear power plants as well as better characterize the safety performance of future U.S. plants. In pursuing this area of R&D, DOE recognizes that the commercial nuclear industry is ultimately responsible for the safe operation of licensed nuclear facilities. As such, industry is considered the

  20. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program: Reactor Safety Technologies Pathway Technical Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Corradini, M. L.

    In the aftermath of the March 2011 multi-unit accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (Fukushima), the nuclear community has been reassessing certain safety assumptions about nuclear reactor plant design, operations and emergency actions, particularly with respect to extreme events that might occur and that are beyond each plant’s current design basis. Because of our significant domestic investment in nuclear reactor technology (99 operating reactors in the fleet of commercial LWRs with five under construction), the United States has been a major leader internationally in these activities. The U.S. nuclear industry is voluntarily pursuing a number of additional safetymore » initiatives. The NRC continues to evaluate and, where deemed appropriate, establish new requirements for ensuring adequate protection of public health and safety in the occurrence of low probability events at nuclear plants; (e.g., mitigation strategies for beyond design basis events initiated by external events like seismic or flooding initiators). The DOE has also played a major role in the U.S. response to the Fukushima accident. Initially, DOE worked with the Japanese and the international community to help develop a more complete understanding of the Fukushima accident progression and its consequences, and to respond to various safety concerns emerging from uncertainties about the nature of and the effects from the accident. DOE R&D activities are focused on providing scientific and technical insights, data, analyses methods that ultimately support industry efforts to enhance safety. These activities are expected to further enhance the safety performance of currently operating U.S. nuclear power plants as well as better characterize the safety performance of future U.S. plants. In pursuing this area of R&D, DOE recognizes that the commercial nuclear industry is ultimately responsible for the safe operation of licensed nuclear facilities. As such, industry is considered the

  1. Iron supported on bioinspired green silica for water remediation.

    PubMed

    Alotaibi, Khalid M; Shiels, Lewis; Lacaze, Laure; Peshkur, Tanya A; Anderson, Peter; Machala, Libor; Critchley, Kevin; Patwardhan, Siddharth V; Gibson, Lorraine T

    2017-01-01

    Iron has been used previously in water decontamination, either unsupported or supported on clays, polymers, carbons or ceramics such as silica. However, the reported synthesis procedures are tedious, lengthy (involving various steps), and either utilise or produce toxic chemicals. Herein, the use of a simple, rapid, bio-inspired green synthesis method is reported to prepare, for the first time, a family of iron supported on green nanosilica materials (Fe@GN) to create new technological solutions for water remediation. In particular, Fe@GN were employed for the removal of arsenate ions as a model for potentially toxic elements in aqueous solution. Several characterization techniques were used to study the physical, structural and chemical properties of the new Fe@GN. When evaluated as an adsorption platform for the removal of arsenate ions, Fe@GN exhibited high adsorption capacity (69 mg of As per g of Fe@GN) with superior kinetics (reaching ∼35 mg As per g sorbent per hr) - threefold higher than the highest removal rates reported to date. Moreover, a method was developed to regenerate the Fe@GN allowing for a full recovery and reuse of the adsorbent in subsequent extractions; strongly highlighting the potential technological benefits of these new green materials.

  2. Improvements in agricultural water decision support using remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, M. T.

    2012-12-01

    Population driven water scarcity, aggravated by climate-driven evaporative demand in dry regions of the world, has the potential of transforming ecological and social systems to the point of armed conflict. Water shortages will be most severe in agricultural areas, as the priority shifts to urban and industrial use. In order to design, evaluate, and monitor appropriate mitigation strategies, predictive models must be developed that quantify exposure to water shortage. Remote sensing data has been used for more than three decades now to parametrize these models, because field measurements are costly and difficult in remote regions of the world. In the past decade, decision-makers for the first time can make accurate and near real-time evaluations of field conditions with the advent of hyper- spatial and spectral and coarse resolution continuous remote sensing data. Here, we summarize two projects representing diverse applications of remote sensing to improve agricultural water decision support. The first project employs MODIS (coarse resolution continuous data) to drive an evapotranspiration index, which is combined with the Standardized Precipitation Index driven by meteorological satellite data to improve famine early warning in Africa. The combined index is evaluated using district-level crop yield data from Kenya and Malawi and national-level crop yield data from the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization. The second project utilizes hyper- spatial (GeoEye 1, Quickbird, IKONOS, and RapidEye) and spectral (Hyperion/ALI), as well as multi-spectral (Landsat ETM+, SPOT, and MODIS) data to develop biomass estimates for key crops (alfalfa, corn, cotton, and rice) in the Central Valley of California. Crop biomass is an important indicator of crop water productivity. The remote sensing data is combined using various data fusion techniques and evaluated with field data collected in the summer of 2012. We conclude with a brief discussion on implementation of

  3. Technical devices of powered roof support for the top coal caving as automation objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikitenko, M. S.; Kizilov, S. A.; Nikolaev, P. I.; Kuznetsov, I. S.

    2018-05-01

    In the paper technical devices for the top coal caving as automation objects in the composition of the longwall mining complex (LTCC) are considered. The proposed concept for automation of the top coal caving process allows caving efficiency to be ensured, coal dilution to be prevented, conveyor overloading to be prevented, the shearer service personnel to be unloaded, the influence of the “human factor” to be reduced.

  4. Technical Support and Documentation Management for 25 Ton All Terrain Crane (ATEC).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-11

    Rationale Report * Market Investigation and Supplement " Technical Feasibility Test Having considered material contained in the above documents and...Operational issues will be evaluated by OTEC as observers to the qualification testing . A logistics demonstration will be conducted in parallel with PPQT...Organizational OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration D-1 APPENDIX D - LIST OF ACRONYMNS (Continued) OTEC Operational Test and Evaluation Command OTP

  5. Ground Water Remediation Technologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA's Ground Water and Ecosystems Restoration Division (GWERD) conducts research and provides technical assistance to support the development of strategies and technologies to protect and restore ground water, surface water, and ecosystems impacted by man-made and natural...

  6. Task Order 22 – Engineering and Technical Support, Deep Borehole Field Test. AREVA Summary Review Report

    SciTech Connect

    Denton, Mark A.

    Under Task Order 22 of the industry Advisory and Assistance Services (A&AS) Contract to the Department of Energy (DOE) DE-NE0000291, AREVA has been tasked with providing assistance with engineering, analysis, cost estimating, and design support of a system for disposal of radioactive wastes in deep boreholes (without the use of radioactive waste). As part of this task order, AREVA was requested, through a letter of technical direction, to evaluate Sandia National Laboratory’s (SNL’s) waste package borehole emplacement system concept recommendation using input from DOE and SNL. This summary review report (SRR) documents this evaluation, with its focus on the primarymore » input document titled: “Deep Borehole Field Test Specifications/M2FT-15SN0817091” Rev. 1 [1], hereafter referred to as the “M2 report.” The M2 report focuses on the conceptual design development for the Deep Borehole Field Test (DBFT), mainly the test waste packages (WPs) and the system for demonstrating emplacement and retrieval of those packages in the Field Test Borehole (FTB). This SRR follows the same outline as the M2 report, which allows for easy correlation between AREVA’s review comments, discussion, potential proposed alternatives, and path forward with information established in the M2 report. AREVA’s assessment focused on three primary elements of the M2 report: the conceptual design of the WPs proposed for deep borehole disposal (DBD), the mode of emplacement of the WP into DBD, and the conceptual design of the DBFT. AREVA concurs with the M2 report’s selection of the wireline emplacement mode specifically over the drill-string emplacement mode and generically over alternative emplacement modes. Table 5-1 of this SRR compares the pros and cons of each emplacement mode considered viable for DBD. The primary positive characteristics of the wireline emplacement mode include: (1) considered a mature technology; (2) operations are relatively simple; (3) probability of a

  7. Scotland's Water Map: Understanding water sector links to support decision making for the Hydro Nation Agenda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falconer, Ruth E.; Gilmour, Daniel; Duffy, Alison; Isaacs, John; Stojanovic, Vladeta; O'Keeffe, Juliette; Blackwood, David

    2015-04-01

    The value of Scotland's water and sewerage market is projected to grow to £1.24bn by 2016/17. Developing future opportunities must take place alongside maintaining current service provision; however the demand on water and waste water services is constantly evolving. An integrated approach to water management requires an understanding of complex interactions that exist between key actors in the sector to allow water management strategies to exploit inter-sectorial links. Successful integrated analysis of the water sector in Scotland will support management activities key to responding to the Hydro Nation themes of 1) Governance and international development 2) Environmental protection 3) Economic opportunities 4) Research development. In order to deliver on these objectives an approach is required to capture and communicate the scope and scale of the water sector and its interconnectedness. The methodology required to determine scope, scale and interconnectedness of water sector involved the identification and application of an appropriate range of techniques from the Information and Knowledge Management disciplines combined with the Information Visualisation field. Scope and scale of the water sector was identified by a desk based study and this data was visualized using a geographic map. Sector interconnectedness was determined by interviewing key actors. The interviews identified the stakeholders associated with information flows, and the purpose of the information transfer through Reporting/Managing (R/M), Influence and Information sharing (I) or Control (C) activities. Primary information flows were also scored with respect to importance against the 4 key Hydro Nation agenda themes. Many organisations were identified who interact within Scotland's water sector including the Scottish Government and Ministers, the Regulators (WICS, DWQR, SEPA), Scottish Water (core and non-core functions), plus many other stakeholders ranging from research institutions to

  8. Technical support and delegation to practice staff - status quo and (possible) future perspectives for primary health care in Germany.

    PubMed

    Urban, Elisabeth; Ose, Dominik; Joos, Stefanie; Szecsenyi, Joachim; Miksch, Antje

    2012-08-01

    Primary health care in industrialized countries faces major challenges due to demographic changes, an increasing prevalence of chronic diseases and a shortage of primary care physicians. One approach to counteract these developments might be to reduce primary care physicians' workload supported by the use of health information technology (HIT) and non-physician practice staff. In 2009, the U.S. Commonwealth Fund (CWF) conducted an international survey of primary care physicians which the present secondary descriptive analysis is based on. The aim of this analysis was twofold: First, to explore to what extend German primary care physicians already get support by HIT and non-physician practice staff, and second, to show possible future perspectives. The CWF questionnaire was sent to a representative random sample of 1,500 primary care physicians all over Germany. The data was descriptively analyzed. Group comparisons regarding differences in gender and age groups were made by means of Chi Square Tests for categorical variables. An alpha-level of p < 0.05 was used for statistical significance. Altogether 715 primary care physicians answered the questionnaire (response rate 49%). Seventy percent of the physicians use electronic medical records. Technical features such as electronic ordering and access to laboratory parameters are mainly used. However, the majority does not routinely use technical functions for drug prescribing, reminder-systems for guideline-based interventions or recall of patients. Six percent of surveyed physicians are able to transfer prescriptions electronically to a pharmacy, 1% use email communication with patients regularly. Seventy-two percent of primary care physicians get support by non-physician practice staff in patient care, mostly in administrative tasks or routine preventive services. One fourth of physicians is supported in telephone calls to the patient or in patient education and counseling. Within this sample the majority of primary

  9. Neuromuscular and technical abilities related to age in water-polo players.

    PubMed

    De Siati, Fabio; Laffaye, Guillaume; Gatta, Giorgio; Dello Iacono, Antonio; Ardigò, Luca Paolo; Padulo, Johnny

    2016-08-01

    Testing is one of the important tasks in any multi-step sport programme. In most ball games, coaches assess motor, physical and technical skills on a regular basis in early stages of talent identification in order to further athletes' development. The purpose of the study was to investigate anthropometric variables and vertical jump heights as a free throw effectiveness predictor in water-polo players of different age groups. Two hundred and thirty-six young (10-18 years) male water-polo players partitioned into three age groups underwent anthropometric variables' measures and squat- and countermovement-jump tests, and performed water-polo free throws. Anthropometric variables, vertical jump heights and throw speed - as a proxy for free throw effectiveness - resulted different over age groups. Particularly, throw speed changed from 9.28 to 13.70 m · s(-1) (+48%) from younger to older players. A multiple-regression model indicated that body height, squat-jump height and throw time together explain 52% of variance of throw speed. In conclusion, tall height, high lower limb power and throwing quickness appeared to be relevant determinants for effective free throws. Such indications can help coaches during talent identification and development processes, even by means of novel training strategies. Further research is needed over different maturity statuses.

  10. Technical assessment of Mir-1 life support hardware for the international space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, K. L.; Bagdigian, R. M.; Carrasquillo, R. L.; Carter, D. L.; Franks, G. D.; Holder, D. W., Jr.; Hutchens, C. F.; Ogle, K. Y.; Perry, J. L.; Ray, C. D.

    1994-01-01

    NASA has been progressively learning the design and performance of the Russian life support systems utilized in their Mir space station. In 1992, a plan was implemented to assess the benefits of the Mir-1 life support systems to the Freedom program. Three primary tasks focused on: evaluating the operational Mir-1 support technologies and understanding if specific Russian systems could be directly utilized on the American space station and if Russian technology design information could prove useful in improving the current design of the planned American life support equipment; evaluating the ongoing Russian life support technology development activities to determine areas of potential long-term application to the U.S. space station; and utilizing the expertise of their space station life support systems to evaluate the benefits to the current U.S. space station program which included the integration of the Russian Mir-1 designs with the U.S. designs to support a crew of six.

  11. Water research to support society: past, present and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arheimer, Berit

    2014-05-01

    . Historical changes in focus areas clearly reflect the shifts in societal needs, going from industrialization to the information society and globalization. Present research needs will be illustrated in the on-going practical work to support water managers and decision makers with hydrological forecasts, climate change impact assessments, improved water status for biodiversity and statistics for dimensioning safe infrastructure. Different approaches to applied research and ways to implement new knowledge in society will be discussed. Future research is suggested to embrace the complexity of the water systems by linking scales, monitoring systems, processes, disciplines and various users. Some ingredients to achieve a coordinated effort in the scientific community will be suggested, based on new technology, multi-data, transparency and the principles of sharing. To handle the problems of the Antropocene, improved knowledge accumulation to advance science and interactions with other disciplines is absolutely necessary. These should be the basic elements of Panta Rhei.

  12. Water flow algorithm decision support tool for travelling salesman problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamarudin, Anis Aklima; Othman, Zulaiha Ali; Sarim, Hafiz Mohd

    2016-08-01

    This paper discuss about the role of Decision Support Tool in Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP) for helping the researchers who doing research in same area will get the better result from the proposed algorithm. A study has been conducted and Rapid Application Development (RAD) model has been use as a methodology which includes requirement planning, user design, construction and cutover. Water Flow Algorithm (WFA) with initialization technique improvement is used as the proposed algorithm in this study for evaluating effectiveness against TSP cases. For DST evaluation will go through usability testing conducted on system use, quality of information, quality of interface and overall satisfaction. Evaluation is needed for determine whether this tool can assists user in making a decision to solve TSP problems with the proposed algorithm or not. Some statistical result shown the ability of this tool in term of helping researchers to conduct the experiments on the WFA with improvements TSP initialization.

  13. Tethys: A Platform for Water Resources Modeling and Decision Support Apps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swain, N. R.; Christensen, S. D.; Jones, N.; Nelson, E. J.

    2014-12-01

    Cloud-based applications or apps are a promising medium through which water resources models and data can be conveyed in a user-friendly environment—making them more accessible to decision-makers and stakeholders. In the context of this work, a water resources web app is a web application that exposes limited modeling functionality for a scenario exploration activity in a structured workflow (e.g.: land use change runoff analysis, snowmelt runoff prediction, and flood potential analysis). The technical expertise required to develop water resources web apps can be a barrier to many potential developers of water resources apps. One challenge that developers face is in providing spatial storage, analysis, and visualization for the spatial data that is inherent to water resources models. The software projects that provide this functionality are non-standard to web development and there are a large number of free and open source software (FOSS) projects to choose from. In addition, it is often required to synthesize several software projects to provide all of the needed functionality. Another challenge for the developer will be orchestrating the use of several software components. Consequently, the initial software development investment required to deploy an effective water resources cloud-based application can be substantial. The Tethys Platform has been developed to lower the technical barrier and minimize the initial development investment that prohibits many scientists and engineers from making use of the web app medium. Tethys synthesizes several software projects including PostGIS for spatial storage, 52°North WPS for spatial analysis, GeoServer for spatial publishing, Google Earth™, Google Maps™ and OpenLayers for spatial visualization, and Highcharts for plotting tabular data. The software selection came after a literature review of software projects being used to create existing earth sciences web apps. All of the software is linked via a Python

  14. Employer-Supported Training in Australia: Participation, Demand and Supply. NCVER Technical Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Chandra

    2017-01-01

    This report provides an analysis of employer-supported training in Australia. Employer-supported training is the largest share of adult education and training in all Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries. It has benefits for individuals, firms, and society. Cross-country studies have shown a positive association…

  15. Scientific and Technical Support for the Galileo Net Flux Radiometer Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sromovsky, Lawrence A.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes work in support of the Galileo Net Flux Radiometer (NFR), an instrument mounted on the Galileo probe, a spacecraft designed for entry into and direct measurements of Jupiter's atmosphere. Tasks originally proposed for the post launch period are briefly as follows: attend and support PSG (Project Science Group) and other project science meetings; support in-flight checkouts; maintain and keep safe the spare instrument and GSE (Ground Support Equipment); organize and maintain documentation; finish NFR calibration measurements, documentation, and analysis; characterize and diagnose instrument anomalies; develop descent data analysis tools; and science data analysis and publication. Because we had the capability to satisfy a project support need we also subsequently proposed and were funded to make ground- based observations of Jupiter during the period surrounding the Galileo arrival at Jupiter, using the Swedish Solar Telescope at La Palma, Canary Islands. The following section (11) provides background information on the NFR instrument.

  16. Dredging Operations Technical Support Program. Design and Management of Dredged Material Containment Areas to Improve Hydraulic Performance.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-01

    in chlorine contact chambers were not sensit ive to experimentil procedure, and ’"When the dye test was repeated on the same hsin undcr ident i ; I I...neither YA t 1idth nor Ienzth ar’ 1n t -r,1ined i u , nd i t ion, costs are , iunti , t ion I .< and N . ( u yen % and Iltl ;I<,, r[i,. hte used tc com...DREDGING OPERATIONS TECHNICAL SUPPORT PROGRAM TEHIA REPORT D-87-2 DESIGN AND MANAGEMENT OF DREDGED MATERIAL CONTAINMENT AREAS TO% N IMPROVE

  17. Technical Support Document: Development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for K-12 Schools--30% Energy Savings

    SciTech Connect

    Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.; Long, N.

    2007-09-01

    This Technical Support Document describes the process and methodology for the development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for K-12 School Buildings (K-12 AEDG), a design guidance document intended to provide recommendations for achieving 30% energy savings in K-12 Schools over levels contained in ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-1999, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings. The 30% energy savings target is the first step toward achieving net-zero energy schools; schools that, on an annual basis, draw from outside sources less or equal energy than they generate on site from renewable energy sources.

  18. Nevada Applied Ecology Information Center: a review of technical information support provided to the Nevada Applied Ecology Group

    SciTech Connect

    Fore, C.S.; Pfuderer, H.A.

    The Nevada Applied Ecology Information Center (NAEIC) was established in January 1972 to serve the needs of the Nevada Applied Ecology Group (NAEG) by identifying, collecting, analyzing, and disseminating technical information relevant to NAEG programs. Since its inception, the NAEIC has been active in providing specialized information support to NAEG staff in the following research areas: (1) environmental aspects of the transuranics; (2) historic literature (pre-1962) on plutonium and uranium; (3) cleanup and treatment of radioactively contaminated land; (4) bioenvironmental aspects of europium and rhodium; (5) NAEG contractor reports; and (6) uptake of radioactivity by food crops.

  19. Platform development for merging various information sources for water management: methodological, technical and operational aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvao, Diogo

    2013-04-01

    As a result of various economic, social and environmental factors, we can all experience the increase in importance of water resources at a global scale. As a consequence, we can also notice the increasing need of methods and systems capable of efficiently managing and combining the rich and heterogeneous data available that concerns, directly or indirectly, these water resources, such as in-situ monitoring station data, Earth Observation images and measurements, Meteorological modeling forecasts and Hydrological modeling. Under the scope of the MyWater project, we developed a water management system capable of satisfying just such needs, under a flexible platform capable of accommodating future challenges, not only in terms of sources of data but also on applicable models to extract information from it. From a methodological point of view, the MyWater platform obtains data from distinct sources, and in distinct formats, be they Satellite images or meteorological model forecasts, transforms and combines them in ways that allow them to be fed to a variety of hydrological models (such as MOHID Land, SIMGRO, etc…), which themselves can also be combined, using such approaches as those advocated by the OpenMI standard, to extract information in an automated and time efficient manner. Such an approach brings its own deal of challenges, and further research was developed under this project on the best ways to combine such data and on novel approaches to hydrological modeling (like the PriceXD model). From a technical point of view, the MyWater platform is structured according to a classical SOA architecture, with a flexible object oriented modular backend service responsible for all the model process management and data treatment, while the information extracted can be interacted with using a variety of frontends, from a web portal, including also a desktop client, down to mobile phone and tablet applications. From an operational point of view, a user can not only see

  20. Ground Water Technical Considerations during the Five-Year Review Process

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This issue paper has been developed to highlight technical considerations as well as technical resources available to Remedial Project Managers (RPMs) in conducting Five-Year Reviews (FYRs) at CERCLA1 sites with contaminated groundwater.

  1. [Mesoamerican Public Health Institute: technical support and capacity strengthening arm of the Mesoamerican Public Health System].

    PubMed

    González-Block, Miguel A; Molina-Rodríguez, Juan Francisco; Becerril, Víctor; Vargas, Emily

    2011-01-01

    The Mesoamerican Public Health Institute (IMSP) was constituted in 2009 as the technical organ of the Mesoamerican Public Health System (SMSP) and the Virtual Network of Academic Institutions. Health system capacity strengthening needs and preliminary training results were assessed in the first phase. The SMSP Master Plans were content-analyzed for each priority and members of the Malaria and Dengue Working Group were surveyed. The training needs required for each SMSP priority area were identified and knowledge management needs for malaria and dengue analyzed. Competencies were mapped across strategic, tactical and operative personnel that will be requiring them. IMSP trained in its first year 91 persons in eight countries. IMSP is responding to the Mesoamerican region's public health needs.

  2. Use of reinforced soil foundation (RSF) to support shallow foundation : technical summary report, November 2008.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-11-01

    The presence of a weak soil supporting structural foundations results in low load bearing capacity and : excessive settlements, which can cause structural damage, reduction in durability, and/or deterioration in : performance level. Conventional trea...

  3. Technical engineering services in support of the Nike-Tomahawk sounding rocket vehicle system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Task assignments in support of the Nike-Tomahawk vehicles, which were completed from May, 1970 through November 1972 are reported. The services reported include: analytical, design and drafting, fabrication and modification, and field engineering.

  4. Supporting tobacco control: stimulating local newspaper coverage with a technical assistance website for local coalitions.

    PubMed

    Buller, David B; Bettinghaus, Erwin P; Helme, Donald; Young, Walter F; Borland, Ron; Maloy, Julie A; Cutter, Gary R; Andersen, Peter A; Walther, Joseph B

    2011-11-01

    A large and growing literature confirms that well-designed web-based programs can be effective in preventing or treating several chronic diseases. This study examined how the Internet can deliver information and train community activists and specifically tested the effects of web-based technical assistance on local tobacco control coalitions' efforts to use media advocacy to advance their agendas. The authors compared a highly interactive, Enhanced website (intervention) to a noninteractive, Basic text-based website (comparison) in Colorado communities. A total of 24 tobacco control coalitions led by local county health departments and nursing services were enrolled in the project and randomly assigned to use either the intervention or comparison website. A total of 73 local daily and weekly newspapers were identified in the service areas of 23 of the 24 coalitions. A posttest assessment of newspaper coverage was conducted to locate all newspaper articles with tobacco control information published between January 1 and April 9, 2004, the last 3 months of the intervention. Although there was no evidence of a treatment effect on the frequency of newspaper articles on tobacco-related issues, there was, however, evidence that newspapers in counties where the coalition had access to the Enhanced website printed more stories focused on local/regional issues and more anti-tobacco local/regional stories than in the counties where coalitions had access to the Basic website. Coalitions can improve their influence on local media for community tobacco control when high-quality online technical assistance, training, and resources are available to them.

  5. From Management to Negotiation: Technical and Institutional Innovations for Integrated Water Resource Management in the Upper Comoé River Basin, Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roncoli, Carla; Kirshen, Paul; Etkin, Derek; Sanon, Moussa; Somé, Léopold; Dembélé, Youssouf; Sanfo, Bienvenue J.; Zoungrana, Jacqueline; Hoogenboom, Gerrit

    2009-10-01

    This study focuses on the potential role of technical and institutional innovations for improving water management in a multi-user context in Burkina Faso. We focus on a system centered on three reservoirs that capture the waters of the Upper Comoé River Basin and servicing a diversity of users, including a sugar manufacturing company, a urban water supply utility, a farmer cooperative, and other downstream users. Due to variable and declining rainfall and expanding users’ needs, drastic fluctuations in water supply and demand occur during each dry season. A decision support tool was developed through participatory research to enable users to assess the impact of alternative release and diversion schedules on deficits faced by each user. The tool is meant to be applied in the context of consultative planning by a local user committee that has been created by a new national integrated water management policy. We contend that both solid science and good governance are instrumental in realizing efficient and equitable water management and adaptation to climate variability and change. But, while modeling tools and negotiation platforms may assist users in managing climate risk, they also introduce additional uncertainties into the deliberative process. It is therefore imperative to understand how these technological and institutional innovations frame water use issues and decisions to ensure that such framing is consistent with the goals of integrated water resource management.

  6. Phase 1 engineering and technical data report for the thermal control extravehicular life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A shuttle EVLSS Thermal Control System (TCS) is defined. Thirteen heat rejection subsystems, thirteen water management subsystems, nine humidity control subsystems, three pressure control schemes and five temperature control schemes are evaluated. Sixteen integrated TCS systems are studied, and an optimum system is selected based on quantitative weighting of weight, volume, cost, complexity and other factors. The selected sybsystem contains a sublimator for heat rejection, a bubble expansion tank for water management, and a slurper and rotary separator for humidity control. Design of the selected subsystem prototype hardware is presented.

  7. Negotiation Support Systems for Facilitating International Water Conflicts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirchi, A.; Madani, K.; Rouhani, O. M.

    2011-12-01

    Two decades after the collapse of the Soviet Union, Caspian Sea -the largest inland body of water on earth- continues to be the subject of one of the world's most insurmountable disputes, involving Iran, Russia, and the new sovereign states of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Turkmenistan. The conflict is over the legal status of this multinational water body, which supplies almost all of the world's black caviar, and holds about 10% and 4% of the world's oil and gas reserves, respectively. Typically, proposed division methods for sharing the Caspian Sea and its valuable resources focus either on the areal shares or on the oil and gas shares of the parties. As such, total gains of littoral states under different division methods have remained unclear. In this study, we have developed the Caspian Sea Negotiation Support System (NSS) to delineate optimal boundaries for sharing the sea. The Caspian Sea NSS facilitates simultaneous consideration of the countries' areal and resource shares from the sea under different sharing methods. The developed model is run under different division scenarios to provide insights into the sensitivity of the countries' gains and locations of nautical boundaries to the proposed division rules and the economic values of the Caspian Sea resources. The results are highly sensitive to the proposed division rules, and there is an indirect relationship between the allocated area and resource shares. The main policy implication of the study is that explicit quantification of the countries' resource and areal gains under any suggested legal regime for governing the Caspian Sea is a precursor the success of the negotiations.

  8. Dredging Operations Technical Support Program. Management Strategy for Disposal of Dredged Material: Contaminant Testing and Controls.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-08-01

    laboratory test using a rainfall simulator has been developed ( Westerdahl and Skogerboe 1981) and is being used to predict surface runoff water quality...Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act of 1972)," US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, Miss. Westerdahl , H. E., and

  9. Scientific and Technical Support for the Galileo Net Flux Radiometer Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sromovsky, Lawrence A.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes work in support of the Galileo Net Flux Radiometer (NFR), an instrument mounted on the Galileo probe, a spacecraft designed for entry into and direct measurements of Jupiter's atmosphere. Tasks originally proposed for the post launch period covered by NCC 2-854 are briefly as follows: attend and support PSG (Project Science Group) and other project science meetings; support in-flight checkouts; maintain and keep safe the spare instrument and GSE (Ground Support Equipment); organize and maintain documentation; finish NFR calibration measurements, documentation, and analysis; characterize and diagnose instrument anomalies; develop descent data analysis tools; and science data analysis and publication. Because we had the capability to satisfy a project support need we also subsequently proposed and were funded to make ground-based observations of Jupiter during the period surrounding the Galileo arrival at Jupiter, using the Swedish Solar Telescope at La Palma, Canary Islands. The following section provides background information on the NFR instrument. Section 3 contains the final report of work done.

  10. Environmental Support Specialist, Blocks VI & VII, 17-7. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This military-developed text contains the final section of a four-part course to train environmental support specialists. Covered in the individual course blocks are maintenance of water and waste processing system components (external corrosion control, cathodic protection, drive equipment, pipelines and valves, meters and recorders, chemical…

  11. Technical Basis for the Removal of Unremediated Nitrate Salt Sampling (UNS) to Support LANL Treatment Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Funk, David John

    2016-05-05

    The sampling of unremediated nitrate salts (UNS) was originally proposed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Los Alamos National Security, LLC (LANS) (collectively, the Permittees) as a means to ensure adequate understanding and characterization of the problematic waste stream created when the Permittees remediated these nitrate salts-bearing waste with an organic absorbent. The proposal to sample the UNS was driven by a lack of understanding with respect to the radioactive contamination release that occurred within the underground repository at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in February 14, 2014, as well as recommendations made by a Peer Reviewmore » Team. As discussed, the Permittees believe that current knowledge and understanding of the waste has sufficiently matured such that this additional sampling is not required. Perhaps more importantly, the risk of both chemical and radiological exposure to the workers sampling the UNS drum material is unwarranted. This memo provides the technical justification and rationale for excluding the UNS sampling from the treatment studies.« less

  12. Data development technical support document for the aircraft crash risk analysis methodology (ACRAM) standard

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, C.Y.; Glaser, R.E.; Mensing, R.W.

    1996-08-01

    The Aircraft Crash Risk Analysis Methodology (ACRAM) Panel has been formed by the US Department of Energy Office of Defense Programs (DOE/DP) for the purpose of developing a standard methodology for determining the risk from aircraft crashes onto DOE ground facilities. In order to accomplish this goal, the ACRAM panel has been divided into four teams, the data development team, the model evaluation team, the structural analysis team, and the consequence team. Each team, consisting of at least one member of the ACRAM plus additional DOE and DOE contractor personnel, specializes in the development of the methodology assigned to thatmore » team. This report documents the work performed by the data development team and provides the technical basis for the data used by the ACRAM Standard for determining the aircraft crash frequency. This report should be used to provide the generic data needed to calculate the aircraft crash frequency into the facility under consideration as part of the process for determining the aircraft crash risk to ground facilities as given by the DOE Standard Aircraft Crash Risk Assessment Methodology (ACRAM). Some broad guidance is presented on how to obtain the needed site-specific and facility specific data but this data is not provided by this document.« less

  13. Environmental Support Specialist, Block V, 17-6. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This military-developed text contains the third section of a four-part course to train environmental support specialists. Covered in the individual sections are field sanitation, classes and sources of waste, composition and characteristics of sewage, principles of sewage treatment, primary waste treatment, secondary waste treatment, tertiary…

  14. CHARGE Image Generator: Theory of Operation and Author Language Support. Technical Report 75-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunwaldsen, Roger L.

    The image generator function and author language software support for the CHARGE (Color Halftone Area Graphics Environment) Interactive Graphics System are described. Designed initially for use in computer-assisted instruction (CAI) systems, the CHARGE Interactive Graphics System can provide graphic displays for various applications including…

  15. Supporting Concrete Visual Thinking in Multiplicative Reasoning: Difficulties and Opportunities. Technical Report 88-16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaput, James J.

    The Educational Technology Center has attempted to develop a series of computer based learning environments to support the learning and application of multiplicative reasoning. The work and software described in this paper, including the teaching experiment that generated the error phenomena examined, is part of a larger ongoing research project.…

  16. Resource Materials To Support Your Environmental Education Efforts. EE-TIPS (Environmental Education Technical Information Packages).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North American Association for Environmental Education, Troy, OH.

    This collection gathers together over 50 high-quality materials to support environmental education (EE) curricula. Because each community has unique environmental and educational needs, the guide includes a broad set of educational materials that can be adapted to a variety of settings. The materials can be used to supplement educational…

  17. Dredging Operations Technical Support Program. Transformation, Fixation, and Mobilization of Arsenic and Antimony in Contaminated Sediments.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    transferred -. to a 2.8-f wide mouth erlenmeyer flask. Sufficient distiLled deionized 1 38 -... 3 .° - . N,. 0 a V0 1- f I. S.0 cc SL ’S. 0 *1’*, -E C) C 5...water-to- dry -sediment weight ratio of 15:1. The sediment-water mixtures were kept in suspension by continuous stirring with a magnetic stirrer. Sediment...pH 5.0, pit 6.5, and pH 8.0). Each Eh-pH combination was amended with 75 Wg of As(V)/g dry weight of sediment as sodium arsenate and 25 wg Sb/g dry

  18. Benthic Faunal Colonization of an Offshore Borrow Pit in Southeastern Florida. Dredging Operations Technical Support Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-10-01

    180 and 30* C, while water salinities vary between 33 and 37 ppt, depending primarily on seasonal rainfall patterns and discharge through local inlets...strategists are characteristically small-bodied, short-lived, and have high fecundity, efficient dispersal mechanisms , and rapid growth rates. Species... mechanisms , and slow growth rates. Recolonization of a disturbed area is thus generally initiated by r-strategists. Theoretically, r-selected species

  19. Health-based ingestion exposure guidelines for Vibrio cholerae: Technical basis for water reuse applications.

    PubMed

    Watson, Annetta P; Armstrong, Anthony Q; White, George H; Thran, Brandolyn H

    2018-02-01

    U.S. military and allied contingency operations are increasingly occurring in locations with limited, unstable or compromised fresh water supplies. Non-potable graywater reuse is currently under assessment as a viable means to increase mission sustainability while significantly reducing the resources, logistics and attack vulnerabilities posed by transport of fresh water. Development of health-based (non-potable) exposure guidelines for the potential microbial components of graywater would provide a logical and consistent human-health basis for water reuse strategies. Such health-based strategies will support not only improved water security for contingency operations, but also sustainable military operations. Dose-response assessment of Vibrio cholerae based on adult human oral exposure data were coupled with operational water exposure scenario parameters common to numerous military activities, and then used to derive health risk-based water concentrations. The microbial risk assessment approach utilized oral human exposure V. cholerae dose studies in open literature. Selected studies focused on gastrointestinal illness associated with experimental infection by specific V. cholerae serogroups most often associated with epidemics and pandemics (O1 and O139). Nonlinear dose-response model analyses estimated V. cholerae effective doses (EDs) aligned with gastrointestinal illness severity categories characterized by diarrheal purge volume. The EDs and water exposure assumptions were used to derive Risk-Based Water Concentrations (CFU/100mL) for mission-critical illness severity levels over a range of water use activities common to military operations. Human dose-response studies, data and analyses indicate that ingestion exposures at the estimated ED 1 (50CFU) are unlikely to be associated with diarrheal illness while ingestion exposures at the lower limit (200CFU) of the estimated ED 10 are not expected to result in a level of diarrheal illness associated with

  20. Comparing multi-criteria decision analysis and integrated assessment to support long-term water supply planning

    PubMed Central

    Maurer, Max; Lienert, Judit

    2017-01-01

    We compare the use of multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA)–or more precisely, models used in multi-attribute value theory (MAVT)–to integrated assessment (IA) models for supporting long-term water supply planning in a small town case study in Switzerland. They are used to evaluate thirteen system scale water supply alternatives in four future scenarios regarding forty-four objectives, covering technical, social, environmental, and economic aspects. The alternatives encompass both conventional and unconventional solutions and differ regarding technical, spatial and organizational characteristics. This paper focuses on the impact assessment and final evaluation step of the structured MCDA decision support process. We analyze the performance of the alternatives for ten stakeholders. We demonstrate the implications of model assumptions by comparing two IA and three MAVT evaluation model layouts of different complexity. For this comparison, we focus on the validity (ranking stability), desirability (value), and distinguishability (value range) of the alternatives given the five model layouts. These layouts exclude or include stakeholder preferences and uncertainties. Even though all five led us to identify the same best alternatives, they did not produce identical rankings. We found that the MAVT-type models provide higher distinguishability and a more robust basis for discussion than the IA-type models. The needed complexity of the model, however, should be determined based on the intended use of the model within the decision support process. The best-performing alternatives had consistently strong performance for all stakeholders and future scenarios, whereas the current water supply system was outperformed in all evaluation layouts. The best-performing alternatives comprise proactive pipe rehabilitation, adapted firefighting provisions, and decentralized water storage and/or treatment. We present recommendations for possible ways of improving water supply

  1. MATERIALS SUPPORTING THE NEW RECREATIONAL WATER QUALITY CRITERIA FOR PATHOGENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is developing new, rapid methods for monitoring water quality at beaches to determine adequacy of water quality for swimming. The methods being developed rely upon quantitive polymerase chain reaction technology. They will permit real time decisions regarding beach closures...

  2. DoD Physical Security Technical Support at the 1980 Winter Olympics Village.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-02

    support were provided to the 1980 Winter Olympic Games were: (1) Physical Security, (2) Communications- Electronics , and (3) Medical via the New York Army...vibration-based Fence Pro- tection System (FPS), manufactured by General Telephone and Electronics (GT& E ) and installed for the Federal Bureau of Prisons...CM (Mr. Woomert) DRSXY-GB (Mr. R. E . Cam) Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005 Commander US Army Communications and Electronics Material Readiness

  3. Life support systems analysis and technical trades for a lunar outpost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrall, J. F.; Ganapathi, G. B.; Rohatgi, N. K.; Seshan, P. K.

    1994-01-01

    The NASA/JPL life support systems analysis (LISSA) software tool was used to perform life support system analysis and technology trades for a Lunar Outpost. The life support system was modeled using a chemical process simulation program on a steady-state, one-person, daily basis. Inputs to the LiSSA model include metabolic balance load data, hygiene load data, technology selection, process operational assumptions and mission parameter assumptions. A baseline set of technologies has been used against which comparisons have been made by running twenty-two cases with technology substitutions. System, subsystem, and technology weights and powers are compared for a crew of 4 and missions of 90 and 600 days. By assigning a weight value to power, equivalent system weights are compared. Several less-developed technologies show potential advantages over the baseline. Solid waste treatment technologies show weight and power disadvantages but one could have benefits associated with the reduction of hazardous wastes and very long missions. Technology development towards reducing the weight of resupplies and lighter materials of construction was recommended. It was also recommended that as technologies are funded for development, contractors should be required to generate and report data useful for quantitative technology comparisons.

  4. Economics research supporting water resource stewardship in the Pacific Northwest.

    Treesearch

    Laurie L. Houston; Jeffrey D. Kline; Ralph J. Alig

    2002-01-01

    The use of water increasingly involves complex tradeoffs among biophysical, economic, ecological, and societal values. Knowledge about the value of water to different users and methods with which to evaluate biophysical, economic, ecological, and social tradeoffs associated with allocating limited water resources among competing uses is vital to devising appropriate...

  5. Sub-marine groundwater for the supply of drinking water. A review of the hydro-geological potential and its technical and economical feasibility.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haakon Bakken, Tor; Mangset, Lars Erik

    2010-05-01

    assumptions as Zhou and Tol (2005), it is found that utilisation of sub-marine groundwater can be economically competitive. The calculation gives an expected unit cost of 1,23 US /m3. Performed Monte Carlo-simulations give 5 % and 95 % percentiles equal to the unit cost levels 1,07 and 1,39 US /m3, respectively. This is not far from the proposed feasibility benchmark of 1,14 US /m3 by Zhou and Tol (2005), or the average costs of 1,46 US /m3 derived from their large database of built desalination plants (based on reverse osmosis-technology). The dominating cost driver is considered being the salinity of the sub-marine groundwater, affecting the need for water treatment and consequently energy consumption. Hence it is concluded that a premise for the proposed technical concept is that the sub-marine groundwater holds sufficiently better quality (lower salinity) than the ambient sea water to justify the additional costs related to exploration and exploitation of the sub-marine water resource (i.e. the additional off-shore oil & gas technologies). A review of publications mainly from the US, supported by a limited number of publications originating from European research groups, were all positive in their conclusions that fresh and brackish water can be found on the continental shelf. These indications may therefore suggest that sub-marine groundwater may be a realistic alternative to desalination of sea water, seen from an economic point of view. Lower energy consumption related to treatment of less saline sub-marine groundwater moreover implies that environmental benefits, assuming the use of fossil fuels as energy source to water desalination, may be achieved.

  6. Geospatial Data Fusion and Multigroup Decision Support for Surface Water Quality Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, A. Y.; Osidele, O.; Green, R. T.; Xie, H.

    2010-12-01

    Social networking and social media have gained significant popularity and brought fundamental changes to many facets of our everyday life. With the ever-increasing adoption of GPS-enabled gadgets and technology, location-based content is likely to play a central role in social networking sites. While location-based content is not new to the geoscience community, where geographic information systems (GIS) are extensively used, the delivery of useful geospatial data to targeted user groups for decision support is new. Decision makers and modelers ought to make more effective use of the new web-based tools to expand the scope of environmental awareness education, public outreach, and stakeholder interaction. Environmental decision processes are often rife with uncertainty and controversy, requiring integration of multiple sources of information and compromises between diverse interests. Fusing of multisource, multiscale environmental data for multigroup decision support is a challenging task. Toward this goal, a multigroup decision support platform should strive to achieve transparency, impartiality, and timely synthesis of information. The latter criterion often constitutes a major technical bottleneck to traditional GIS-based media, featuring large file or image sizes and requiring special processing before web deployment. Many tools and design patterns have appeared in recent years to ease the situation somewhat. In this project, we explore the use of Web 2.0 technologies for “pushing” location-based content to multigroups involved in surface water quality management and decision making. In particular, our granular bottom-up approach facilitates effective delivery of information to most relevant user groups. Our location-based content includes in-situ and remotely sensed data disseminated by NASA and other national and local agencies. Our project is demonstrated for managing the total maximum daily load (TMDL) program in the Arroyo Colorado coastal river basin

  7. Defense Information Systems Agency Technical Integration Support (DISA- TIS). MUMPS Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    usable in DoD, MUMPS must continue to improve in its support of DoD and OSE standards such as SQL , X-Windows, POSIX, PHIGS, etc. MUMPS and large AlSs...Language ( SQL ), X-Windows, and Graphical Kernel Services (GKS)) 2.2.2.3 FIPS Adoption by NIST The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST...many of the performance tuning mechanisms that must be performed explicitly with other systems. The VA looks forward to the SQL binding (1993 ANS) that

  8. Continuing professional development: researching non-technical competencies can support cognitive reappraisal and reduced stress in clinicians.

    PubMed

    Kinnison, Tierney; May, Stephen

    2017-09-09

    Generic professional capabilities (non-technical competencies) are increasingly valued for their links to patient outcomes and clinician well-being. This study explores the emotional change, and practice-related outcomes, of participants of a veterinary professional key skills (PKS) continuing professional development (CPD) module. Reflective summaries produced by participants were analysed. A change in emotion, from 'negative' to 'positive', was the focus of analysis. Sections regarding these emotions were thematically analysed. Analysis was performed on 46 summaries. Three themes were identified: 'the PKS module' (centred on reluctance becoming surprise and stimulation), 'developing non-technical competencies' (unease to confidence) and 'stress and coping through a reflective focus' (anxiety to harmony). The changing emotions were connected to positive cognitive reappraisal and often behaviour changes, benefitting self, practice, clients and patients. The PKS module teaches participants to reflect; a new and challenging concept. The consequences of this enabled participants to understand the importance of professional topics, to be appreciative as well as critical, and to enjoy their job. Importantly, the module stimulated coping responses. Better understanding of roles led to participants having more reasonable expectations of themselves, more appreciation of their work and reduced stress. This research supports more attention to professional skills CPD for health professions. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Participation in Training for Depression Care Quality Improvement: A Randomized Trial of Community Engagement or Technical Support.

    PubMed

    Chung, Bowen; Ngo, Victoria K; Ong, Michael K; Pulido, Esmeralda; Jones, Felica; Gilmore, James; Stoker-Mtume, Norma; Johnson, Megan; Tang, Lingqi; Wells, Kenneth Brooks; Sherbourne, Cathy; Miranda, Jeanne

    2015-08-01

    Community engagement and planning (CEP) could improve dissemination of depression care quality improvement in underresourced communities, but whether its effects on provider training participation differ from those of standard technical assistance, or resources for services (RS), is unknown. This study compared program- and staff-level participation in depression care quality improvement training among programs enrolled in CEP, which trained networks of health care and social-community agencies jointly, and RS, which provided technical support to individual programs. Matched programs from health care and social-community service sectors in two communities were randomly assigned to RS or CEP. Data were from 1,622 eligible staff members from 95 enrolled programs. Primary outcomes were any staff trained (for programs) and total hours of training (for staff). Secondary staff-level outcomes were hours of training in specific depression collaborative care components. CEP programs were more likely than RS programs to participate in any training (p=.006). Within health care sectors, CEP programs were more likely than RS programs to participate in training (p=.016), but within social-community sectors, there was no difference in training by intervention. Among staff who participated in training, mean training hours were greater among CEP programs versus RS programs for any type of training (p<.001) and for training related to each component of depression care (p<.001) except medication management. CEP may be an effective strategy to promote staff participation in depression care improvement efforts in underresourced communities.

  10. Lessons Learned in Over a Decade of Technical Support for U.S. Nuclear Cyber Security Programmes

    SciTech Connect

    Glantz, Clifford S.; Landine, Guy P.; Craig, Philip A.

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s (PNNL) nuclear cyber security team has been providing technical support to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) since 2002. This team has provided cyber security technical experties in conducting cyber security inspections, developing of regulatory rules and guidance, reviewing facility cyber security plans, developing inspection guidance, and developing and teaching NRC inspectors how to conduct cyber security assessments. The extensive experience the PNNL team has gathered has allowed them to compile a lenghty list of recommendations on how to improve cyber security programs and conduct assessments. A selected set of recommendations are presented, including the needmore » to: integrate an array of defenisve strategies into a facility’s cyber security program, coordinate physical and cyber security activities, train phycial security forces to resist a cyber-enabled physical attack, improve estimates of the consequences of a cyber attack, properly resource cyber security assessments, appropropriately account for insider threats, routinely monitor security devices for potential attacks, supplement compliance-based requirements with risk-based decision making, and introduce the concept of resilience into cyber security programs.« less

  11. Team Meetings within Clinical Domains - Exploring the Use of Routines and Technical Support for Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groth, Kristina; Lantz, Ann; Sallnäs, Eva-Lotta; Frykholm, Oscar; Green, Anders

    Today, it is common that a team of clinicians, from different disciplines, instead of one single doctor, care for a patient. This is especially true when it concerns more complicated diseases in highly specialised health care. Going from one doctor to a team of doctors raises new dimensions/problems/issues when deciding about the diagnosis and how to treat the patient. Instead of one person deciding, based on the information given from others, a group of people need to agree on a decision. How do the participants during such decision meetings argue for their experience and skill? What kind of technologies are available and how do they support the communication in the meeting? Måseide (2006), for example, focuses on how different forms of evidence influence and regulate the judgements and decisions of medical practitioners during such meetings. Groth et al. (2008), for example, focuses on the technology used during such meetings, with a focus on audio, video, and images.

  12. Outer planet entry probe system study. Volume 2: Supporting technical studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The environment, science investigations, and general mission analysis considerations are given first. These data are followed by discussions of the studies pertaining to the planets Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. Except for Neptune, each planet discussion is divided into two parts: (1) parametric activities and (2) probe definition for that planet, or the application of a given probe for that planet. The Neptune discussion is limited to parametrics in the area of science and mission analysis. Each of the probe system definitions consists of system and subsystem details including telecommunications, data handling, power pyrotechnics, attitude control, structures, propulsion, thermal control, and probe to spacecraft integration. The first configuration is discussed in detail and the subsequent configuration discussions are limited to the differences. Finally, the hardware availability to support a probe system and commonality of science, missions, and subsystems for use at the various planets are considered.

  13. CPOE: a clear purpose plus top-notch technical support equals high physician adoption.

    PubMed

    Birk, Susan

    2010-01-01

    As with any fundamental change, the transition to computerized physician order entry [CPOE] is not a risk-free endeavor, major questions hover around this facet of the arduous and controversial paper-to-electronic conversion currently preoccupying the healthcare industry: Could physician over-reliance on electronic prompts actually lead to an increase in some types of medical errors? Could automated workstations ultimately hinder safety and the delivery of quality care by diminishing face-to-face communication and nuanced discussions? In an ironic twist, could electronic solutions insidiously leach creativity, intuition and judgment from good medicine by keeping physicians tied to tools that consume their time but do not offer effective clinical decision support?

  14. Technical Support Document: Development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Medium to Big Box Retail Buildings - 50% Energy Savings

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnema, E.; Leach, M.; Pless, S.

    2013-06-01

    This Technical Support Document describes the process and methodology for the development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Medium to Big Box Retail Buildings: Achieving 50% Energy Savings Toward a Net Zero Energy Building (AEDG-MBBR) ASHRAE et al. (2011b). The AEDG-MBBR is intended to provide recommendations for achieving 50% whole-building energy savings in retail stores over levels achieved by following ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings (Standard 90.1-2004) (ASHRAE 2004b). The AEDG-MBBR was developed in collaboration with the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American Institute of Architects (AIA), themore » Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IES), the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC), and the U.S. Department of Energy.« less

  15. Technical Support Document: Development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Medium to Big Box Retail Buildings - 50% Energy Savings

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnema, Eric; Leach, Matt; Pless, Shanti

    2013-06-05

    This Technical Support Document describes the process and methodology for the development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Medium to Big Box Retail Buildings: Achieving 50% Energy Savings Toward a Net Zero Energy Building (AEDG-MBBR) ASHRAE et al. (2011b). The AEDG-MBBR is intended to provide recommendations for achieving 50% whole-building energy savings in retail stores over levels achieved by following ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings (Standard 90.1-2004) (ASHRAE 2004b). The AEDG-MBBR was developed in collaboration with the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American Institute of Architects (AIA), themore » Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IES), the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC), and the U.S. Department of Energy.« less

  16. NASA Technology Utilization House technical support package Summary of results and house description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The Technology Utilization House (Tech House) was designed and constructed to demonstrate to the building industry and the public the benefits of aerospace technology and other new technology that are presently available or will be in very near future. Use of solar energy, conservation of energy and of water, safety, and security were incorporated in the design of the house. The terms to be incorporated into the house and to assist in the design of the house were evaluated. An architectural engineering team was employed to investigate energy conservation ideas, determine cost effectiveness of new materials and systems, and prepare specifications and drawings for the house. The Tech House was constructed during the spring of 1976. All the systems were monitored to insure proper operation, and data were collected during a one year occupancy. Results obtained during the family live-in period, comments on the acceptance of the various energy-saving systems by the family, and suggestions for improvement of the systems are presented.

  17. Technical-Induced Hemolysis in Patients with Respiratory Failure Supported with Veno-Venous ECMO - Prevalence and Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Lehle, Karla; Philipp, Alois; Zeman, Florian; Lunz, Dirk; Lubnow, Matthias; Wendel, Hans-Peter; Göbölös, Laszlo; Schmid, Christof; Müller, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the prevalence and risk factors for technical-induced hemolysis in adults supported with veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (vvECMO) and to analyze the effect of hemolytic episodes on outcome. This was a retrospective, single-center study that included 318 adult patients (Regensburg ECMO Registry, 2009-2014) with acute respiratory failure treated with different modern miniaturized ECMO systems. Free plasma hemoglobin (fHb) was used as indicator for hemolysis. Throughout a cumulative support duration of 4,142 days on ECMO only 1.7% of the fHb levels were above a critical value of 500 mg/l. A grave rise in fHb indicated pumphead thrombosis (n = 8), while acute oxygenator thrombosis (n = 15) did not affect fHb. Replacement of the pumphead normalized fHb within two days. Neither pump or cannula type nor duration on the first system was associated with hemolysis. Multiple trauma, need for kidney replacement therapy, increased daily red blood cell transfusion requirements, and high blood flow (3.0-4.5 L/min) through small-sized cannulas significantly resulted in augmented blood cell trauma. Survivors were characterized by lower peak levels of fHb [90 (60, 142) mg/l] in comparison to non-survivors [148 (91, 256) mg/l, p≤0.001]. In conclusion, marked hemolysis is not common in vvECMO with modern devices. Clinically obvious hemolysis often is caused by pumphead thrombosis. High flow velocity through small cannulas may also cause technical-induced hemolysis. In patients who developed lung failure due to trauma, fHb was elevated independantly of ECMO. In our cohort, the occurance of hemolysis was associated with increased mortality.

  18. Technical-Induced Hemolysis in Patients with Respiratory Failure Supported with Veno-Venous ECMO – Prevalence and Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Lehle, Karla; Philipp, Alois; Zeman, Florian; Lunz, Dirk; Lubnow, Matthias; Wendel, Hans-Peter; Göbölös, Laszlo; Schmid, Christof; Müller, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the prevalence and risk factors for technical-induced hemolysis in adults supported with veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (vvECMO) and to analyze the effect of hemolytic episodes on outcome. This was a retrospective, single-center study that included 318 adult patients (Regensburg ECMO Registry, 2009–2014) with acute respiratory failure treated with different modern miniaturized ECMO systems. Free plasma hemoglobin (fHb) was used as indicator for hemolysis. Throughout a cumulative support duration of 4,142 days on ECMO only 1.7% of the fHb levels were above a critical value of 500 mg/l. A grave rise in fHb indicated pumphead thrombosis (n = 8), while acute oxygenator thrombosis (n = 15) did not affect fHb. Replacement of the pumphead normalized fHb within two days. Neither pump or cannula type nor duration on the first system was associated with hemolysis. Multiple trauma, need for kidney replacement therapy, increased daily red blood cell transfusion requirements, and high blood flow (3.0–4.5 L/min) through small-sized cannulas significantly resulted in augmented blood cell trauma. Survivors were characterized by lower peak levels of fHb [90 (60, 142) mg/l] in comparison to non-survivors [148 (91, 256) mg/l, p≤0.001]. In conclusion, marked hemolysis is not common in vvECMO with modern devices. Clinically obvious hemolysis often is caused by pumphead thrombosis. High flow velocity through small cannulas may also cause technical-induced hemolysis. In patients who developed lung failure due to trauma, fHb was elevated independantly of ECMO. In our cohort, the occurance of hemolysis was associated with increased mortality. PMID:26606144

  19. The Controlled Ecological Life Support System Antarctic Analog Project: Prototype Crop Production and Water Treatment System Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bubenheim, David L.; Flynn, Michael T.; Bates, Maynard; Schlick, Greg; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Antarctic Analog Project (CAAP), is a joint endeavor between the National Science Foundation, Office of Polar Programs (NSF-OPP) and the NASA. The fundamental objective is to develop, deploy, and operate a testbed of advanced life support technologies at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station that enable the objectives of both the NSF and NASA. The functions of food production, water purification, and waste treatment, recycle and reduction provided by CAAP will improve the quality of life for the South Pole inhabitants, reduce logistics dependence, enhance safety and minimize environmental impacts associated with human presence on the polar plateau. Because of the analogous technical, scientific, and mission features with Planetary missions such as a mission to Mars, CAAP provides NASA with a method for validating technologies and overall approaches to supporting humans. Prototype systems for sewage treatment, water recycle and crop production are being evaluated at Ames Research Center. The product water from sewage treatment using a Wiped-Film Rotating Disk is suitable for input to the crop production system. The crop production system has provided an enhanced level of performance compared with projected performance for plant-based life support: an approximate 50% increase in productivity per unit area, more than a 65% decrease in power for plant lighting, and more than a 75% decrease in the total power requirement to produce an equivalent mass of edible biomass.

  20. Modelling Per Capita Water Demand Change to Support System Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, M. E.; Islam, S.

    2016-12-01

    Water utilities have a number of levers to influence customer water usage. These include levers to proactively slow demand growth over time such as building and landscape codes as well as levers to decrease demands quickly in response to water stress including price increases, education campaigns, water restrictions, and incentive programs. Even actions aimed at short term reductions can result in long term water usage declines when substantial changes are made in water efficiency, as in incentives for fixture replacement or turf removal, or usage patterns such as permanent lawn watering restrictions. Demand change is therefore linked to hydrological conditions and to the effects of past management decisions - both typically included in water supply planning models. Yet, demand is typically incorporated exogenously using scenarios or endogenously using only price, though utilities also use rules and incentives issued in response to water stress and codes specifying standards for new construction to influence water usage. Explicitly including these policy levers in planning models enables concurrent testing of infrastructure and policy strategies and illuminates interactions between the two. The City of Las Vegas is used as a case study to develop and demonstrate this modeling approach. First, a statistical analysis of system data was employed to rule out alternate hypotheses of per capita demand decrease such as changes in population density and economic structure. Next, four demand sub-models were developed including one baseline model in which demand is a function of only price. The sub-models were then calibrated and tested using monthly data from 1997 to 2012. Finally, the best performing sub-model was integrated with a full supply and demand model. The results highlight the importance of both modeling water demand dynamics endogenously and taking a broader view of the variables influencing demand change.

  1. Design and technical support for development of a molded fabric space suit joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, L. Howard

    1994-01-01

    NASA Ames Research Center has under design a new joint or element for use in a space suit. The design concept involves molding a fabric to a geometry developed at Ames. Unusual characteristics of this design include the need to produce a fabric molding draw ratio on the order of thirty percent circumferentially on the surface. Previous work done at NASA on molded fabric joints has shown that standard, NASA qualified polyester fabrics as are currently available in the textile industry for use in suits have a maximum of about fifteen percent draw ratio. NASA has done the fundamental design for a prototype joint and of a mold which would impart the correct shape to the fabric support layer of the joint. NASA also has the capability to test a finished product for suitability and reliability. Responsibilities resting with Georgia Tech in the design effort for this project are textile related, namely fiber selection, fabric design to achieve the properties of the objective design, and determining production means and sources for the fabrics. The project goals are to produce a prototype joint using the NASA design for evaluation of effectiveness by NASA, and to establish the sources and specifications which would allow reliable and repeatable production of the joint.

  2. Unattended network operations technology assessment study. Technical support for defining advanced satellite systems concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Kent M.; Holdridge, Mark; Odubiyi, Jide; Jaworski, Allan; Morgan, Herbert K.

    1991-01-01

    The results are summarized of an unattended network operations technology assessment study for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). The scope of the work included: (1) identified possible enhancements due to the proposed Mars communications network; (2) identified network operations on Mars; (3) performed a technology assessment of possible supporting technologies based on current and future approaches to network operations; and (4) developed a plan for the testing and development of these technologies. The most important results obtained are as follows: (1) addition of a third Mars Relay Satellite (MRS) and MRS cross link capabilities will enhance the network's fault tolerance capabilities through improved connectivity; (2) network functions can be divided into the six basic ISO network functional groups; (3) distributed artificial intelligence technologies will augment more traditional network management technologies to form the technological infrastructure of a virtually unattended network; and (4) a great effort is required to bring the current network technology levels for manned space communications up to the level needed for an automated fault tolerance Mars communications network.

  3. Application of Decision Support Tools for Integrated Water Resources Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) involves “a process which promotes the coordinated development and management of water, land, and related resources in order to maximize the resultant economic and social welfare in an equitable manner without compromising the su...

  4. A DECISION SUPPORT TOOL FOR SUSTAINABLE URBAN WATER MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cities have to seek sustainable development to meet the needs of the growing human populations while managing and minimizing their impact on the natural environment. The water system is an important component in any urban area. Urban water management involves the interaction be...

  5. Metrics for the technical performance evaluation of light water reactor accident-tolerant fuel

    DOE PAGES

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.; Todosow, Michael; Montgomery, Robert; ...

    2017-03-26

    The safe, reliable, and economic operation of the nation’s nuclear power reactor fleet has always been a top priority for the nuclear industry. Continual improvement of technology, including advanced materials and nuclear fuels, remains central to the industry’s success. Enhancing the accident tolerance of light water reactors (LWRs) became a topic of serious discussion following the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake, resulting tsunami, and subsequent damage to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant complex. The overall goal for the development of accident-tolerant fuel (ATF) for LWRs is to identify alternative fuel system technologies to further enhance the safety, competitiveness, andmore » economics of commercial nuclear power. Designed for use in the current fleet of commercial LWRs or in reactor concepts with design certifications (GEN-III+), fuels with enhanced accident tolerance would endure loss of active cooling in the reactor core for a considerably longer period of time than the current fuel system while maintaining or improving performance during normal operations. The complex multiphysics behavior of LWR nuclear fuel in the integrated reactor system makes defining specific material or design improvements difficult; as such, establishing desirable performance attributes is critical in guiding the design and development of fuels and cladding with enhanced accident tolerance. Research and development of ATF in the United States is conducted under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cycle Research and Development Advanced Fuels Campaign. The DOE is sponsoring multiple teams to develop ATF concepts within multiple national laboratories, universities, and the nuclear industry. Concepts under investigation offer both evolutionary and revolutionary changes to the current nuclear fuel system. This study summarizes the technical evaluation methodology proposed in the United States to aid in the optimization and prioritization of candidate ATF

  6. Modeling the Gila-San Francisco Basin using system dynamics in support of the 2004 Arizona Water Settlement Act.

    SciTech Connect

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; Peplinski, William J.

    2012-04-01

    Water resource management requires collaborative solutions that cross institutional and political boundaries. This work describes the development and use of a computer-based tool for assessing the impact of additional water allocation from the Gila River and the San Francisco River prescribed in the 2004 Arizona Water Settlements Act. Between 2005 and 2010, Sandia National Laboratories engaged concerned citizens, local water stakeholders, and key federal and state agencies to collaboratively create the Gila-San Francisco Decision Support Tool. Based on principles of system dynamics, the tool is founded on a hydrologic balance of surface water, groundwater, and their associated coupling between watermore » resources and demands. The tool is fitted with a user interface to facilitate sensitivity studies of various water supply and demand scenarios. The model also projects the consumptive use of water in the region as well as the potential CUFA (Consumptive Use and Forbearance Agreement which stipulates when and where Arizona Water Settlements Act diversions can be made) diversion over a 26-year horizon. Scenarios are selected to enhance our understanding of the potential human impacts on the rivers ecological health in New Mexico; in particular, different case studies thematic to water conservation, water rights, and minimum flow are tested using the model. The impact on potential CUFA diversions, agricultural consumptive use, and surface water availability are assessed relative to the changes imposed in the scenarios. While it has been difficult to gage the acceptance level from the stakeholders, the technical information that the model provides are valuable for facilitating dialogues in the context of the new settlement.« less

  7. Decision making technical support study for the US Army's Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, D.L.; Dobson, J.E.

    1990-08-01

    This report examines the adequacy of current command and control systems designed to make timely decisions that would enable sufficient warning and protective response to an accident at the Edgewood area of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, and at Pine Bluff Arsenal (PBA), Arkansas. Institutional procedures designed to facilitate rapid accident assessment, characterization, warning, notification, and response after the onset of an emergency and computer-assisted decision-making aids designed to provide salient information to on- and-off-post emergency responders are examined. The character of emergency decision making at APG and PBA, as well as potential needs for improvements to decision-making practices, procedures,more » and automated decision-support systems (ADSSs), are described and recommendations are offered to guide equipment acquisition and improve on- and off-post command and control relationships. We recommend that (1) a continued effort be made to integrate on- and off-post command control, and decision-making procedures to permit rapid decision making; (2) the pathways for alert and notification among on- and off-post officials be improved and that responsibilities and chain of command among off-post agencies be clarified; (3) greater attention be given to organizational and social context factors that affect the adequacy of response and the likelihood that decision-making systems will work as intended; and (4) faster improvements be made to on-post ADSSs being developed at APG and PBA, which hold considerable promise for depicting vast amounts of information. Phased development and procurement of computer-assisted decision-making tools should be undertaken to balance immediate needs against available resources and to ensure flexibility, equity among sites, and compatibility among on- and off-post systems. 112 refs., 6 tabs.« less

  8. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Pad B Catenary Capability Analysis and Technical Exchange Meeting (TEM) Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Timmy R.; Kichak, Robert; Rakov, Vladimir; Kithil, Richard, Jr.; Sargent, Noel B.

    2009-01-01

    The existing lightning protection system at Pad 39B for the Space Shuttle is an outgrowth of a system that was put in place for the Apollo Program. Dr. Frank Fisher of Lightning Technologies was a key participant in the design and implementation of that system. He conveyed to the NESC team that the catenary wire provision was put in place quickly (as assurance against possible vehicle damage causing critical launch delays) rather than being implemented as a comprehensive system designed to provide a high degree of guaranteed protection. Also, the technology of lightning protection has evolved over time with considerable work being conducted by groups such as the electric utilities companies, aircraft manufacturers, universities, and others. Several accepted present-day methods for analysis of lightning protection were used by Drs. Medelius and Mata to study the expected lightning environment for the Pad 39B facility and to analyze the degree of protection against direct lightning attachment to the Space Shuttle. The specific physical configuration directly affects the vulnerability, so cases that were considered included the RSS next to and rolled back from the Space Shuttle, and the GOx Vent Arm both extended and withdrawn from the ET. Elements of the lightning protection system at Pad 39B are shown in Figure 6.0-1 and consist of an 80 foot insulating mast on top of the Fixed Support Structure (FSS), a catenary wire system that runs from the mast in a North/South direction to grounds 1000 feet away on each side of the mast, the RSS which can either be next to or away from the Space Shuttle, and a GOx vent that can either be extended or retracted from the top of the ET.

  9. Technical support for digital systems technology development. Task order 1: ISP contention analysis and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stehle, Roy H.; Ogier, Richard G.

    1993-01-01

    Alternatives for realizing a packet-based network switch for use on a frequency division multiple access/time division multiplexed (FDMA/TDM) geostationary communication satellite were investigated. Each of the eight downlink beams supports eight directed dwells. The design needed to accommodate multicast packets with very low probability of loss due to contention. Three switch architectures were designed and analyzed. An output-queued, shared bus system yielded a functionally simple system, utilizing a first-in, first-out (FIFO) memory per downlink dwell, but at the expense of a large total memory requirement. A shared memory architecture offered the most efficiency in memory requirements, requiring about half the memory of the shared bus design. The processing requirement for the shared-memory system adds system complexity that may offset the benefits of the smaller memory. An alternative design using a shared memory buffer per downlink beam decreases circuit complexity through a distributed design, and requires at most 1000 packets of memory more than the completely shared memory design. Modifications to the basic packet switch designs were proposed to accommodate circuit-switched traffic, which must be served on a periodic basis with minimal delay. Methods for dynamically controlling the downlink dwell lengths were developed and analyzed. These methods adapt quickly to changing traffic demands, and do not add significant complexity or cost to the satellite and ground station designs. Methods for reducing the memory requirement by not requiring the satellite to store full packets were also proposed and analyzed. In addition, optimal packet and dwell lengths were computed as functions of memory size for the three switch architectures.

  10. Anticipating on amplifying water stress: Optimal crop production supported by anticipatory water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartholomeus, Ruud; van den Eertwegh, Gé; Simons, Gijs

    2015-04-01

    Agricultural crop yields depend largely on the soil moisture conditions in the root zone. Drought but especially an excess of water in the root zone and herewith limited availability of soil oxygen reduces crop yield. With ongoing climate change, more prolonged dry periods alternate with more intensive rainfall events, which changes soil moisture dynamics. With unaltered water management practices, reduced crop yield due to both drought stress and waterlogging will increase. Therefore, both farmers and water management authorities need to be provided with opportunities to reduce risks of decreasing crop yields. In The Netherlands, agricultural production of crops represents a market exceeding 2 billion euros annually. Given the increased variability in meteorological conditions and the resulting larger variations in soil moisture contents, it is of large economic importance to provide farmers and water management authorities with tools to mitigate risks of reduced crop yield by anticipatory water management, both at field and at regional scale. We provide the development and the field application of a decision support system (DSS), which allows to optimize crop yield by timely anticipation on drought and waterlogging situations. By using this DSS, we will minimize plant water stress through automated drainage and irrigation management. In order to optimize soil moisture conditions for crop growth, the interacting processes in the soil-plant-atmosphere system need to be considered explicitly. Our study comprises both the set-up and application of the DSS on a pilot plot in The Netherlands, in order to evaluate its implementation into daily agricultural practice. The DSS focusses on anticipatory water management at the field scale, i.e. the unit scale of interest to a farmer. We combine parallel field measurements ('observe'), process-based model simulations ('predict'), and the novel Climate Adaptive Drainage (CAD) system ('adjust') to optimize soil moisture

  11. Air and water quality monitor assessment of life support subsystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitley, Ken; Carrasquillo, Robyn L.; Holder, D.; Humphries, R.

    1988-01-01

    Preprotype air revitalization and water reclamation subsystems (Mole Sieve, Sabatier, Static Feed Electrolyzer, Trace Contaminant Control, and Thermoelectric Integrated Membrane Evaporative Subsystem) were operated and tested independently and in an integrated arrangement. During each test, water and/or gas samples were taken from each subsystem so that overall subsystem performance could be determined. The overall test design and objectives for both subsystem and integrated subsystem tests were limited, and no effort was made to meet water or gas specifications. The results of chemical analyses for each of the participating subsystems are presented along with other selected samples which were analyzed for physical properties and microbiologicals.

  12. WaterSense Specification for Showerheads Supporting Statement

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WaterSense collaborated with the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)/Canadian Standards Association (CSA) Joint Harmonization Task Force to develop the specification criteria for high-efficiency showerheads.

  13. Chlordane (Technical)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW of CHLORDANE ( TECHNICAL ) ( CAS No . 12789 - 03 - 6 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) December 1997 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC TABLE OF CONTENTS Authors and Reviewers . . . . . . . . . . . . .

  14. Enabling Real-time Water Decision Support Services Using Model as a Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, T.; Minsker, B. S.; Lee, J. S.; Salas, F. R.; Maidment, D. R.; David, C. H.

    2014-12-01

    Through application of computational methods and an integrated information system, data and river modeling services can help researchers and decision makers more rapidly understand river conditions under alternative scenarios. To enable this capability, workflows (i.e., analysis and model steps) are created and published as Web services delivered through an internet browser, including model inputs, a published workflow service, and visualized outputs. The RAPID model, which is a river routing model developed at University of Texas Austin for parallel computation of river discharge, has been implemented as a workflow and published as a Web application. This allows non-technical users to remotely execute the model and visualize results as a service through a simple Web interface. The model service and Web application has been prototyped in the San Antonio and Guadalupe River Basin in Texas, with input from university and agency partners. In the future, optimization model workflows will be developed to link with the RAPID model workflow to provide real-time water allocation decision support services.

  15. Producing Scientific and Strategic Guidance for California's Department of Water Resources: The Climate Change Technical Advisory Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyakum, J. R.; Austin, B. N.; Curtis, D. C.; Anderson, M.; Alpert, H.; Young, S.; Herson, A.; Schwarz, A.; Kavvas, M. L.; Langridge, R.; Lynn, E.; Anderson, J.; Redmond, K. T.; Dettinger, M. D.; Correa, M.; Franco, G.; Cayan, D.; Georgakakos, K.

    2015-12-01

    Diverse areas of expertise are needed to describe and assess a changing climate and provide guidance for the agency that runs the largest state-built, multi-purpose water project in the U.S. California's State Water Project provides: drinking water for more than 25 million people, flood control, power generation, recreation, fish and wildlife protection, and water quality improvements. Hydrologic impacts under a changing climate include rising seas, reduced ratio of snow to rain, earlier snowmelt and higher temperatures; all of which are being detected. To improve the scientific basis for decisions and enhance the consistency of climate change approaches, the California Department of Water Resources (DWR) empaneled a Climate Change Technical Advisory Group (CCTAG) for guidance on the scientific aspects of climate change, its impacts on water resources, the use and creation of planning approaches and analytical tools, and the development of adaptation responses. To carry out DWR's mission, incorporation of climate change into DWR's planning, projects, and other activities must be consistent, science-based, and continually improved through an iterative process. Hydrologists, academicians, modelers, planners, lawyers and practitioners convened regularly to tackle these complicated issues in water management policy, including climate change impacts on extreme events. Actions taken in response to the CCTAG recommendations will move California toward more sustainable management of water and related resources. DWR will release a technical report of CCTAG guidance and perspectives in 2015. The process to convene, collaborate and distribute the findings of this CCTAG will be the focus of this presentation. An academician and water resources practitioner will share their perspectives on the processes driving CCTAG's work.

  16. Regional survey supports national initiative for 'water-only' schools in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Mansoor, Osman David; Ali, Rukhsana; Richards, Ruth

    2017-10-01

    To support a national initiative to remove sugary drinks from schools and limit drinks to water or unflavoured milk ('water-only'). We emailed all 201 schools with primary school aged children in the Greater Wellington region with a survey on (1) current status of, (2) support needs for, and (3) barriers to or lessons learned from, a 'water-only' school policy. Only 78 (39%) of schools responded. Most supported 'water-only': 22 (28%) had implemented a policy; 10 (13%) in process of doing so; 22 (28%) were considering it; and 12 (15%) were 'water-only', but did not have a policy. Only 12 (15%) were not considering a 'water-only' policy. The main barrier reported was lack of community and/or family support. Many schools did not see any barriers beyond the time needed for consultation. Monitoring and communication were identified as key to success. A quarter of schools requested public health nurse support for a 'water-only' policy. The survey elicited a range of views on 'water-only' policies for schools, but suggests that 'water-only' may be an emerging norm for schools. Implications for public health: Our survey shows how local assessment can support a national initiative by providing a baseline, identifying schools that want support, and sharing lessons. Making schools 'water-only' could be a first step in changing our children's environment to prevent obesity. © 2017 Regional Public Health.

  17. Waste-water characterization and hazardous-waste technical assistance survey, Bergstrom AFB tTxas. Final report, 6-15 March 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Hedgecock, N.S.

    1990-01-01

    At the request of 67 Combat Support Group/DEEV the Air Force Occupational and Environmental Health Laboratory conducted a waste-water characterization and hazardous-waste technical assistance survey at Bergstrom AFB (BAFB) from 6-15 Mar 89. The scope of the waste-water survey was to characterize the effluent exiting the base and the effluent from 23 industrial facilities and 10 food-serving facilities. The scope of the hazardous-waste survey was to address hazardous-waste-management practices and explore opportunities for hazardous waste minimization. Specific recommendations from the survey include: (1) Accompany City of Austin personnel during waste-water sampling procedures; (2) Sample at the manhole exiting the mainmore » lift station rather than at the lift station wet well; (3) Split waste-water samples with the City of Austin for comparison of results; (4) Ensure that oil/water separators and grease traps are functioning properly and are cleaned out regularly; (5) Limit the quantity of soaps and solvents discharged down the drain to the sanitary sewer; (6) Establish a waste disposal contract for the removal of wastes in the Petroleum Oils and Lubricants underground storage tanks. (7) Remove, analyze, and properly dispose of oil contaminated soil from accumulation sites. (8) Move indoors or secure, cover, and berm the aluminum sign reconditioning tank at 67 Civil Engineering Squadron Protective Coating. (9) Connect 67 Combat Repair Squadron Test Cell floor drains to the sanitary sewer.« less

  18. Analysis of radiation exposure for naval units of Operation Crossroads. Volume 3. (Appendix B) support ships. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Weitz, R.; Thomas, C.; Klemm, J.

    1982-03-03

    External radiation doses are reconstructed for crews of support and target ships of Joint Task Force One at Operation CROSSROADS, 1946. Volume I describes the reconstruction methodology, which consists of modeling the radiation environment, to include the radioactivity of lagoon water, target ships, and support ship contamination; retracing ship paths through this environment; and calculating the doses to shipboard personnel. The USS RECLAIMER, a support ship, is selected as a representative ship to demonstrate this methodology. Doses for all other ships are summarized. Volume II (Appendix A) details the results for target ship personnel. Volume III (Appendix B) details themore » results for support ship personnel. Calculated doses for more than 36,000 personnel aboard support ships while at Bikini range from zero to 1.7 rem. Of those approximately 34,000 are less than 0.5 rem. From the models provided, doses due to target ship reboarding and doses accrued after departure from Bikini can be calculated, based on the individual circumstances of exposure.« less

  19. ICU staffing: identification and survey of staff involved in providing technical support services to Australian and New Zealand intensive care units.

    PubMed

    Carter, B G; Kiraly, N; Hochmann, M; Stephens, R; Osborne, A

    2007-04-01

    We conducted a survey of all (200) Australian and New Zealand intensive care units to determine the presence and nature of staff employed in a technical support role. Specifically, we attempted to identify staff who are formally employed in a role where they are directly responsible for the equipment used in intensive care. Of 130 returned surveys, 80 units (62%) reported not having any personnel in this role. In these units technical tasks were most commonly performed by registered nurses (79%) but were also performed by a variety of other personnel. Fifty units (38%), consisting of approximately 105 individuals providing a total of 84.3 EFTs and most commonly in public (84%) or metropolitan (70%) hospitals or level 3 (64%) intensive care units, did have one or more staff acting in a formal technical support role. The most common groups filling the technical support role were nurses (42%), technicians (24%), biomedical engineers (10%) and technologists (6%). The most common duties performed were equipment troubleshooting (92%), training (80%), equipment evaluation (80%), ordering supplies (77%), consumable evaluation (75%), equipment cleaning (73%), delivery of supplies (70%), handling product recalls (65%), equipment maintenance (65%) and sitting on hospital committees (52%). This is the first attempt to identify and understand the technical support role in Australian and New Zealand intensive care units. Numerous issues remain and future work will hopefully add to our findings, with the possibility of formal recognition of the role, training and/or accreditation and its extension into other hospital departments.

  20. Urban Waters Grant Supports Chester’s Green Plan

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Pennsylvania Horticultural Society (PHS) is using an EPA Urban Waters Small Grant to train employees and under-skilled and at-risk residents of the City of Chester, PA, in maintaining trees and other green features to control stormwater pollution.

  1. WaterSense Specification for Flushometer-Valve Water Closets Supporting Statement

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) WaterSense program released its specification for flushometer-valve water closets to further promote and enhance the market for water-efficient commercial restroom plumbing fixtures.

  2. TECHNICAL SUPPORT TO NASA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pluto-New Horizon Mission will use a radioisotope thermoelectric generator fueled by plutonium-238 to provide electric power for the scientific instruments. This activity plans for actions to be taken if there is a malfunction during the launch. Also, EPA's RPD provided tec...

  3. Removal of Surrogate Bacteriophages and Enteric Viruses from Seeded Environmental Waters Using a Semi-technical Ultrafiltration Unit.

    PubMed

    Frohnert, Anne; Kreißel, Katja; Lipp, Pia; Dizer, Halim; Hambsch, Beate; Szewzyk, Regine; Selinka, Hans-Christoph

    2015-03-19

    Experiments to determine the removal of viruses in different types of water (surface water from two reservoirs for drinking water treatment, treated groundwater and groundwater contaminated with either 5 or 30 % of wastewater) by ultrafiltration were performed with a semi-technical ultrafiltration unit. Concentrations of human adenoviruses (HAdVs), murine norovirus (MNV), and the bacteriophages MS2, ΦX174 and PRD1 were measured in the feed water and the filtrate, and log removal values were calculated. Bacteria added to the feed water were not detected in the filtrates. In contrast, in most cases viruses and bacteriophages were still present in the filtrates: log removal values were in the range of 1.4-6.3 depending on virus sizes and water qualities. Best removals were observed with bacteriophage PRD1 and HAdVs, followed by MNV and phages MS2 and ΦX174. Virus size, however, was not the only criterion for efficient removal. In diluted wastewater as compared to drinking water and uncontaminated environmental waters, virus removal was clearly higher for all viruses, most likely due to higher membrane fouling. For quality assessment purposes of membrane filtration efficiencies with regard to the elimination of human viruses the small bacteriophages MS2 and ΦX174 should be used as conservative viral indicators.

  4. Research on Current Water Systems and Regulatory Support

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project will supply research results to support federal regulations and guidance. It will also provide strategies to regions, states, and communities for improved regulatory compliance and rapid and effective emergency response where appropriate (e.g. harmful algal bloom out...

  5. Transforming Agricultural Water Management in Support of Ecosystem Restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Hanlon, Edward; Capece, John

    Threats to ecosystems are not local; they have to be handled with the global view in mind. Eliminating Florida farms, in order to meet its environmental goals, would simply move the needed agricultural production overseas, where environmentally less sensitive approaches are often used, thus yielding no net ecological benefit. South Florida is uniquely positioned to lead in the creation of sustainable agricultural systems, given its population, technology, and environmental restoration imperative. Florida should therefore aggressively focus on developing sustainable systems that deliver both agricultural production and environmental services. This presentation introduces a new farming concept of dealing with Florida’s agriculturalmore » land issues. The state purchases large land areas in order to manage the land easily and with ecosystem services in mind. The proposed new farming concept is an alternative to the current “two sides of the ditch” model, in which on one side are yield-maximizing, input-intensive, commodity price-dependent farms, while on the other side are publicly-financed, nutrient-removing treatment areas and water reservoirs trying to mitigate the externalized costs of food production systems and other human-induced problems. The proposed approach is rental of the land back to agriculture during the restoration transition period in order to increase water storage (allowing for greater water flow-through and/or water storage on farms), preventing issues such as nutrients removal, using flood-tolerant crops and reducing soil subsidence. Since the proposed approach is still being developed, there exist various unknown variables and considerations. However, working towards a long-term sustainable scenario needs to be the way ahead, as the threats are global and balancing the environment and agriculture is a serious global challenge.« less

  6. Inclusion of products of physicochemical oxidation of organic wastes in matter recycling of biological-technical life support systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Kudenko, Yurii; Trifonov, Sergei; Ushakova, Sofya

    Inclusion of products of human and plant wastes' `wet' incineration in 22 medium using alter-nating current into matter recycling of biological-technical life support system (BTLSS) has been considered. Fluid and gaseous components have been shown to be the products of such processing. In particular, the final product contained all necessary for plant cultivation nitrogen forms: NO2, NO3, NH4+. As the base solution included urine than NH4+ form dominated. At human solid wastes' mineralization NO2 NH4+ were registered in approximately equal amount. Comparative analysis of mineral composition of oxidized human wastes' and standard Knop solutions has been carried out. On the grounds of that analysis the dilution methods of solutions prepared with addition of oxidized human wastes for their further use for plant irrigation have been suggested. Reasonable levels of wheat productivity cultivated at use of given solutions have been obtained. CO2, N2 and O2 have been determined to be the main gas components of the gas admixture emitted within the given process. These gases easily integrate in matter recycling process of closed ecosystem. The data of plants' cultivation feasibility in the atmosphere obtained after closing of gas loop including physicochemical facility and vegetation chamber with plants-representatives of LSS phototrophic unit has been received. Conclusion of advance research on creation of matter recycling process in the integrated physical-chemical-biological model system has been drawn.

  7. 75 FR 47211 - Navigation and Navigable Waters; Technical, Organizational, and Conforming Amendments, Sector...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-05

    ... Puget Sound, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule makes non-substantive... technical corrections to reflect the renaming of Sector Seattle to Sector Puget Sound as part of the Coast... organizational structure. Sector Seattle has been disestablished and Sector Puget Sound has been established in...

  8. Population and harvest trends of big game and small game species: a technical document supporting the USDA Forest Service Interim Update of the 2000 RPA Assessment

    Treesearch

    Curtis H. Flather; Michael S. Knowles; Stephen J. Brady

    2009-01-01

    This technical document supports the Forest Service's requirement to assess the status of renewable natural resources as mandated by the Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources Planning Act of 1974 (RPA). It updates past reports on national and regional trends in population and harvest estimates for species classified as big game and small game. The trends...

  9. Technical College Instructors' Perceptions of the Impact of Online Readiness and of Student Support Services on Student Success in Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowd, Nathan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine how Wisconsin Technical College (WTCS) administrators and online instructors perceive the impact of online learner readiness and student support services to be on student success in online courses. The study used a modified three-round Delphi technique to determine to collect data. The results indicated…

  10. Geographic patterns of at-risk species: A technical document supporting the USDA Forest Service Interim Update of the 2000 RPA Assessment

    Treesearch

    Curtis H. Flather; Michael S. Knowles; Jason McNees

    2008-01-01

    This technical document supports the Forest Service's requirement to assess the status of renewable natural resources as mandated by the Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources Planning Act of 1974. It updates past reports on the trends and geographic patterns of species formally listed as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. We...

  11. New Jersey Technical Assistance Project (N.J. TAP): "Educational Resources and Support Services on Behalf of Children with Multiple Sensory Impairment." Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey State Dept. of Education, Trenton.

    This final report describes activities and accomplishments of the New Jersey Technical Assistance Project, a project to improve educational resources and support services for students with multiple sensory impairment (deaf-blindness). Activities and accomplishments are presented in a tabular format for each project goal and objective. The project…

  12. Levers supporting tariff growth for water services: evidence from a contingent valuation analysis.

    PubMed

    Guerrini, Andrea; Vigolo, Vania; Romano, Giulia; Testa, Federico

    2018-02-01

    The backwardness of the water utilities sector necessitates urgent investment in infrastructure to improve water quality and efficiency in water supply networks. A policy of tariff growth represents the main source to sustain such investments. Therefore, customer engagement in the form of willingness to pay (WTP) is highly desirable by water utilities to obtain social legitimization and support. This study examines the determinants of consumers' WTP for improvement programs for three drinking water issues: quality of water sources, renewal of water mains, and building of new wastewater treatment plants. The study is based on a survey conducted among a sample of 587 customers of a water utility located in the province of Verona in the north of Italy. The contingence valuation method is used to measure WTP. Specifically, an ordinal logistic regression model yields the following significant determinants of WTP: quality of water and services provided, preference for privatization of the water utility, sustainable consumption of water, and some socio-demographic variables. The findings provide interesting insights into the drivers of WTP as well as managerial recommendations for water utilities. In particular, the findings show that water utilities need to improve service and water quality to increase customers' acceptance of tariff growth. In addition, utilities should invest in customer education and communication activities focusing on specific age groups (e.g., older customers) to enhance their WTP. Finally, communication strategies should reinforce the possible role of liberalization and privatization in supporting infrastructure investments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. 76 FR 72197 - Yuba County Water Agency; Notice of Panel Meeting and Technical Conference Details

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 2246-058] Yuba County Water... for the Yuba County Water Agency's (YCWA) Yuba River Hydroelectric Project No. 2246. NMFS disputed the... for anadromous fish; (2) hydrology for anadromous fish; (3) water temperatures for anadromous fish...

  14. Grower networks support adoption of innovations in pollination management: The roles of social learning, technical learning, and personal experience.

    PubMed

    Garbach, Kelly; Morgan, Geoffrey P

    2017-12-15

    Management decisions underpinning availability of ecosystem services and the organisms that provide them in agroecosystems, such as pollinators and pollination services, have emerged as a foremost consideration for both conservation and crop production goals. There is growing evidence that innovative management practices can support diverse pollinators and increase crop pollination. However, there is also considerable debate regarding factors that support adoption of these innovative practices. This study investigated pollination management practices and related knowledge systems in a major crop producing region of southwest Michigan in the United States, where 367 growers were surveyed to evaluate adoption of three innovative practices that are at various stages of adoption. The goals of this quantitative, social survey were to investigate grower experience with concerns and benefits associated with each practice, as well as the influence of grower networks, which are comprised of contacts that reflect potential pathways for social and technical learning. The results demonstrated that 17% of growers adopted combinations of bees (e.g. honey bees, Apis mellifera, with other species), representing an innovation in use by early adopters; 49% of growers adopted flowering cover crops, an innovation in use by the early majority 55% of growers retained permanent habitat for pollinators, an innovation in use by the late majority. Not all growers adopted innovative practices. We found that growers' personal experience with potential benefits and concerns related to the management practices had significant positive and negative relationships, respectively, with adoption of all three innovations. The influence of these communication links likely has different levels of importance, depending on the stage of the adoption that a practice is experiencing in the agricultural community. Social learning was positively associated with adopting the use of combinations of bees

  15. State and territorial use of ground-water strategy grant funds (Section 106 Clean Water Act). Technical report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-05-01

    This document reports on the activities of States in FY 85 and 86 in developing and implementing State ground-water protection strategies using Clean Water Act Section 106 funds. Every State and all but one territory has participated in the program. Strategies have included emphasis on the need to consolidate State and local agency efforts, and to provide clear policy direction, greater public awareness and education concerning ground-water protection.

  16. Water Resistant Container Technical Basis Document for the TA-55 Criticality Safety Program

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Paul Herrick; Teague, Jonathan Gayle

    Criticality safety at TA-55 relies on nuclear material containers that are water resistant to prevent significant amounts of water from coming into contact with fissile material in the event of a fire that causes a breach of glovevbox confinement and subsequent fire water ingress. A “water tight container” is a container that will not allow more than 50ml of water ingress when fully submerged, except when under sufficient pressure to produce structural discontinuity. There are many types of containers, welded containers, hermetically sealed containers, filtered containers, etc.

  17. Improving Water Management Decision Support Tools Using NASA Satellite and Modeling Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toll, D. L.; Arsenault, K.; Nigro, J.; Pinheiro, A.; Engman, E. T.; Triggs, J.; Cosgrove, B.; Alonge, C.; Boyle, D.; Allen, R.; Townsend, P.; Ni-Meister, W.

    2006-05-01

    One of twelve Applications of National priority within NASA's Applied Science Program, the Water Management Program Element addresses concerns and decision making related to water availability, water forecast and water quality. The goal of the Water Management Program Element is to encourage water management organizations to use NASA Earth science data, models products, technology and other capabilities in their decision support tools for problem solving. The Water Management Program Element partners with Federal agencies, academia, private firms, and may include international organizations. This paper further describes the Water Management Program with the objective of informing the applications community of the potential opportunities for using NASA science products for problem solving. We will illustrate some ongoing and application Water Management projects evaluating and benchmarking NASA data with partnering federal agencies and their decision support tools: 1) Environmental Protection Agency for water quality; 2) Bureau of Reclamation for water supply, demand and forecast; and 3) NOAA National Weather Service for improved weather prediction. Examples of the types of NASA contributions to the these agency decision support tools include: 1) satellite observations within models assist to estimate water storage, i.e., snow water equivalent, soil moisture, aquifer volumes, or reservoir storages; 2) model derived products, i.e., evapotranspiration, precipitation, runoff, ground water recharge, and other 4-dimensional data assimilation products; 3) improve water quality, assessments by using improved inputs from NASA models (precipitation, evaporation) and satellite observations (e.g., temperature, turbidity, land cover) to nonpoint source models; and 4) water (i.e., precipitation) and temperature predictions from days to decades over local, regional and global scales.

  18. Modelling multiple threats to water security in the Peruvian Amazon using the WaterWorld Policy Support System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Soesbergen, A. J. J.; Mulligan, M.

    2013-06-01

    This paper explores a multitude of threats to water security in the Peruvian Amazon using the WaterWorld policy support system. WaterWorld is a spatially explicit, physically-based globally-applicable model for baseline and scenario water balance that is particularly well suited to heterogeneous environments with little locally available data (e.g. ungauged basins) and which is delivered through a simple web interface, requiring little local capacity for use. The model is capable of producing a hydrological baseline representing the mean water balance for 1950-2000 and allows for examining impacts of population, climate and land use change as well as land and water management interventions on hydrology. This paper describes the application of WaterWorld to the Peruvian Amazon, an area that is increasingly under pressure from deforestation and water pollution as a result of population growth, rural to urban migration and oil and gas extraction, potentially impacting both water quantity and water quality. By applying single and combined scenarios of: climate change, deforestation around existing and planned roads, population growth and rural-urban migration, mining and oil and gas exploitation, we explore the potential combined impacts of these multiple changes on water resources in the Peruvian Amazon and discuss the likely pathways for adaptation to and mitigation against their worst effects. See Mulligan et al. (2013) for a similar analysis for the entire Amazon Basin.

  19. Critical insights for a sustainability framework to address integrated community water services: Technical metrics and approaches.

    PubMed

    Xue, Xiaobo; Schoen, Mary E; Ma, Xin Cissy; Hawkins, Troy R; Ashbolt, Nicholas J; Cashdollar, Jennifer; Garland, Jay

    2015-06-15

    Planning for sustainable community water systems requires a comprehensive understanding and assessment of the integrated source-drinking-wastewater systems over their life-cycles. Although traditional life cycle assessment and similar tools (e.g. footprints and emergy) have been applied to elements of these water services (i.e. water resources, drinking water, stormwater or wastewater treatment alone), we argue for the importance of developing and combining the system-based tools and metrics in order to holistically evaluate the complete water service system based on the concept of integrated resource management. We analyzed the strengths and weaknesses of key system-based tools and metrics, and discuss future directions to identify more sustainable municipal water services. Such efforts may include the need for novel metrics that address system adaptability to future changes and infrastructure robustness. Caution is also necessary when coupling fundamentally different tools so to avoid misunderstanding and consequently misleading decision-making. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Technical Note: The determination of enclosed water volume in large flexible-wall mesocosms "KOSMOS"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czerny, J.; Schulz, K. G.; Krug, S. A.; Ludwig, A.; Riebesell, U.

    2013-03-01

    The volume of water enclosed inside flexible-wall mesocosm bags is hard to estimate using geometrical calculations and can be strongly variable among bags of the same dimensions. Here we present a method for precise water volume determination in mesocosms using salinity as a tracer. Knowledge of the precise volume of water enclosed allows establishment of exactly planned treatment concentrations and calculation of elemental budgets.

  1. Support Documents for EPA’s Third Review of Existing Drinking Water Standards

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The support documents for the Six-Year Review 3 of existing National Primary Drinking Water Standards contain extensive information including protocol for the review, and chemical contaminant health effects among others

  2. Support Documents for EPA’s Second Review of Existing Drinking Water Standards

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The support documents for the Six-Year Review 2 of existing National Primary Drinking Water Standards contain extensive information including protocol for the review, and chemical contaminant health effects among others

  3. Documentation Supporting D.C. Water's Request for Reimbursement After the 2009 Presidential Inauguration

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DC Water located in Washington, DC incurred costs for activities related to the Presidential Inauguration in January 2009. Support included the purchase and installation of special manhole covers with security features.

  4. EPA Partners with Maine DEP to Provide Technical Assistance Support, Improve Environmental and Public Health in Maine

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 1 is collaborating with the Maine Department of Environmental Protection (ME DEP) to provide free technical assistance for municipalities and businesses in Maine.

  5. FY 2016 Grant Announcement: FY 2016 Technical Analysis and Programmatic Evaluation Support to the Chesapeake Bay Program Partnership

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Chesapeake Bay Program Office is announcing a Request for Proposals for applicants to provide the Chesapeake Bay Program partners with a proposal(s) for providing technical analysis and programmatic evaluation

  6. Metabolic modelling to support long term strategic decisions on water supply systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciriello, Valentina; Felisa, Giada; Lauriola, Ilaria; Pomanti, Flavio; Di Federico, Vittorio

    2017-04-01

    Water resources are essential for the economic development and sustenance of anthropic activities belonging to the civil, agricultural and industrial sectors. Nevertheless, availability of water resources is not uniformly distributed in space and time. Moreover, the increasing water demand, mainly due to population growth and expansion of agricultural crops, may cause increasing water stress conditions, if combined with the effects of climate change. Under these circumstances, it is necessary to improve the resilience of water supply systems both in terms of infrastructures and environmental compliance. Metabolic modelling approaches represent a flexible tool able to provide support to decision making in the long term, based on sustainability criteria. These approaches mimic the water supply network through a set of material and energy fluxes that interact and influence each other. By analyzing these fluxes, a suite of key performance indicators is evaluated in order to identify which kind of interventions may be applied to increase the sustainability of the system. Here, we adopt these concepts to analyze the water supply network of Reggio-Emilia (Italy) which is supported by water withdrawals from both surface water and groundwater bodies. We analyze different scenarios, including possible reduction of water withdrawals from one of the different sources as a consequence of a decrease in water availability under present and future scenarios. On these basis, we identify preventive strategies for a dynamic management of the water supply system.

  7. A Decision Support System for Drinking Water Production Integrating Health Risks Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Delpla, Ianis; Monteith, Donald T.; Freeman, Chris; Haftka, Joris; Hermens, Joop; Jones, Timothy G.; Baurès, Estelle; Jung, Aude-Valérie; Thomas, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    The issue of drinking water quality compliance in small and medium scale water services is of paramount importance in relation to the 98/83/CE European Drinking Water Directive (DWD). Additionally, concerns are being expressed over the implementation of the DWD with respect to possible impacts on water quality from forecast changes in European climate with global warming and further anticipated reductions in north European acid emissions. Consequently, we have developed a decision support system (DSS) named ARTEM-WQ (AwaReness Tool for the Evaluation and Mitigation of drinking Water Quality issues resulting from environmental changes) to support decision making by small and medium plant operators and other water stakeholders. ARTEM-WQ is based on a sequential risk analysis approach that includes consideration of catchment characteristics, climatic conditions and treatment operations. It provides a holistic evaluation of the water system, while also assessing human health risks of organic contaminants potentially present in treated waters (steroids, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, bisphenol-a, polychlorobiphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, petrochemical hydrocarbons and disinfection by-products; n = 109). Moreover, the system provides recommendations for improvement while supporting decision making in its widest context. The tool has been tested on various European catchments and shows a promising potential to inform water managers of risks and appropriate mitigative actions. Further improvements should include toxicological knowledge advancement, environmental background pollutant concentrations and the assessment of the impact of distribution systems on water quality variation. PMID:25046634

  8. A decision support system for drinking water production integrating health risks assessment.

    PubMed

    Delpla, Ianis; Monteith, Donald T; Freeman, Chris; Haftka, Joris; Hermens, Joop; Jones, Timothy G; Baurès, Estelle; Jung, Aude-Valérie; Thomas, Olivier

    2014-07-18

    The issue of drinking water quality compliance in small and medium scale water services is of paramount importance in relation to the 98/83/CE European Drinking Water Directive (DWD). Additionally, concerns are being expressed over the implementation of the DWD with respect to possible impacts on water quality from forecast changes in European climate with global warming and further anticipated reductions in north European acid emissions. Consequently, we have developed a decision support system (DSS) named ARTEM-WQ (AwaReness Tool for the Evaluation and Mitigation of drinking Water Quality issues resulting from environmental changes) to support decision making by small and medium plant operators and other water stakeholders. ARTEM-WQ is based on a sequential risk analysis approach that includes consideration of catchment characteristics, climatic conditions and treatment operations. It provides a holistic evaluation of the water system, while also assessing human health risks of organic contaminants potentially present in treated waters (steroids, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, bisphenol-a, polychlorobiphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, petrochemical hydrocarbons and disinfection by-products; n = 109). Moreover, the system provides recommendations for improvement while supporting decision making in its widest context. The tool has been tested on various European catchments and shows a promising potential to inform water managers of risks and appropriate mitigative actions. Further improvements should include toxicological knowledge advancement, environmental background pollutant concentrations and the assessment of the impact of distribution systems on water quality variation.

  9. Water Quality-Chapter 5 for National Wetland Condition Assessment technical report

    EPA Science Inventory

    Objectives of the water quality data analyses presented here are to examine the extent to which water quality could be sampled across US wetlands, to evaluate the various measurement endpoints obtained (e.g., variability, repeatability, information content), to present broad patt...

  10. Wisconsin's Lake Superior Basin Water Quality Study. Supplement. Technical Report No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whisnant, David M., Ed.

    During the period extending from May 1972 through April 1973, an investigation of the overall water quality conditions of streams flowing into Lake Superior from the entire state of Wisconsin was conducted. The goal of this publication was to provide much needed regional information on water quality, drainage basins, pollution sources and loads,…

  11. [A case study regarding the technical and public health feasibility of collecting water from fog].

    PubMed

    García-Ubaque, César A; Vaca-Bohórquez, Martha L; García-Ubaque, Juan C

    2013-01-01

    Evaluating the collection of water for human consumption from fog nets in San Antonio (Cundinamarca department). Water was collected from fog using a prototype 6 m²sensor unit which was installed In the area for 53 days; this water was analysed to assess its quality regarding human consumption. The collection area's average daily volume was 43.26 L/day and the parameters evaluated met the minimum values established by local regulations for drinking water (RAS 2000), except for pH. This technique represents an alternative for obtaining water fit for human consumption and can be scaled-up to produce the quantity needed for communities living in low rainfall areas. It can thereby lead to improving such populations' health conditions. Its economic feasibility should thus be assessed regarding its implementation and sustainability.

  12. Satellite irrigation management support with the terrestrial observation and prediction system: A framework for integration of satellite & surface observations to support improvements in agricultural water resource management

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In California and other regions vulnerable to water shortages, satellite-derived estimates of key hydrologic parameters can support agricultural producers and water managers in maximizing the benefits of available water supplies. The Satellite Irrigation Management Support (SIMS) project combines N...

  13. Identifying Cost-Effective Water Resources Management Strategies: Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) is a public-domain software application designed to aid decision makers with integrated water resources management. The tool allows water resource managers and planners to screen a wide-range of management practices for c...

  14. A Decision-Support System for Sustainable Water Distribution System Planning.

    PubMed

    Freund, Alina; Aydin, Nazli Yonca; Zeckzer, Dirk; Hagen, Hans

    2017-01-01

    An interactive decision-support system (DSS) can help experts prepare water resource management plans for decision makers and stakeholders. The design of the proposed prototype incorporates visualization techniques such as circle views, grid layout, small multiple maps, and node simplification to improve the data readability of water distribution systems. A case study with three urban water management and sanitary engineering experts revealed that the proposed DSS is satisfactory, efficient, and effective.

  15. [OurPuppet - Caring support with an interactive puppet for informal caregivers : Opportunities and challenges in the social and technical developmental process].

    PubMed

    Kuhlmann, Andrea; Reuter, Verena; Schramek, Renate; Dimitrov, Todor; Görnig, Matthias; Matip, Eva-Maria; Matthies, Olaf; Naroska, Edwin

    2018-01-01

    The "OurPuppet" project comprises a sensor-based, interactive puppet that will be developed to communicate with people in need of care during a short period of absence of the informal caregiver. Specially qualified puppet guides will support the use of the new technical development. They instruct people with dementia and caregivers on how to use the puppet and supervise the (informal) care relationship through discussions on a regular basis. The article shows the specific components of users' needs for which the concrete technical development should find answers. It also focuses on the opportunities and challenges for the technical and social developmental process accompanied by these demands. The analysis of the users' needs is based on a participatory approach. Semi-structured focus group interviews were conducted with informal caregivers, nurses and volunteers in order to identify typical situations in home care settings. The interviews were paraphrased and summarized in order to deduce inductive categories (qualitative data analysis), which describe everyday situations that the technical system should address. Such analyses provide information about the needs of potential users and indicate how to design such technical systems. Furthermore, opportunities and challenges of the development process as well as important contextual information were identified.

  16. A Practical Review of Integrated Urban Water Models: Applications as Decision Support Tools and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosleh, L.; Negahban-Azar, M.

    2017-12-01

    The integrated urban water management has become a necessity due to the high rate of urbanization, water scarcity, and climate variability. Climate and demographic changes, shifting the social attitude toward the water usage, and insufficiencies in system resilience increase the pressure on the water resources. Alongside with the water management, modeling urban water systems have progressed from traditional view to comprise alternatives such as decentralized water and wastewater systems, fit-for-purpose practice, graywater/rainwater reuse, and green infrastructure. While there are review papers available focusing on the technical part of the models, they seem to be more beneficial for model developers. Some of the models analyze a number of scenarios considering factors such as climate change and demography and their future impacts. However, others only focus on quality and quantity of water in a supply/demand approach. For example, optimizing the size of water or waste water store, characterizing the supply and quantity of urban stormwater and waste water, and link source of water to demand. A detailed and practical comparison of such models has become a necessity for the practitioner and policy makers. This research compares more than 7 most commonly used integrated urban water cycle models and critically reviews their capabilities, input requirements, output and their applications. The output of such detailed comparison will help the policy makers for the decision process in the built environment to compare and choose the best models that meet their goals. The results of this research show that we need a transition from developing/using integrated water cycle models to integrated system models which incorporate urban water infrastructures and ecological and economic factors. Such models can help decision makers to reflect other important criteria but with the focus on urban water management. The research also showed that there is a need in exploring

  17. PFAS methods and guidance for sampling and analyzing water and other environmental media (Technical Brief)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's methods for analyzing PFAS in environmental media are in various stages of development. This fact sheet summarizes EPA's analytical methods development for groundwater, surface water, wastewater, and solids, including soils, sediments, and biosolids

  18. Estimating the discharge for ordinary high water levels in Kansas : [technical summary].

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-09-01

    The water resource design community in Kansas, including the Kansas Department : of Transportation (KDOT), is required to obtain appropriate permits for construction : projects. Projects that involve stream modification, including drainage structures...

  19. Monitored Natural Attenuation For Inorganic Contaminants In Ground Water - Technical Issues

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remediation of ground water contaminated with radionuclides may be achieved using attenuation-based technologies. These technologies may rely on engineered processes (e.g., bioremediation) or natural processes (e.g., monitored natural attenuation) within the subsurface. In gene...

  20. A Technical Guide to Ground-Water Model Selection at Sites Contaminated with Radioactive Substances

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report addresses the selection of ground-water flow and contaminant transport models and is intended to be used by hydrogeologists and geoscientists responsible for selecting transport models for use at sites containing radioactive materials.

  1. Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support Systems: An Update on Waste Water Reclamation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferner, Kathleen M.

    1994-01-01

    Since the mid-1980's, work has been ongoing In the development of the various environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) for the space station. Part of this effort has been focused on the development of a new subsystem to reclaim waste water that had not been previously required for shuttle missions. Because of the extended manned missions proposed, reclamation of waste water becomes imperative to avoid the weight penalties associated with resupplying a crew's entire water needs for consumption and daily hygiene. Hamilton Standard, under contract to Boeing Aerospace and Electronics, has been designing the water reclamation system for space station use. Since June of 1991, Hamilton Standard has developed a combined water processor capable of reclaiming potable quality water from waste hygiene water, used laundry water, processed urine, Shuttle fuel cell water, humidity condensate and other minor waste water sources. The system was assembled and then tested with over 27,700 pounds of 'real' waste water. During the 1700 hours of system operation required to process this waste water, potable quality water meeting NASA and Boeing specifications was produced. This paper gives a schematic overview of the system, describes the test conditions and test results and outlines the next steps for system development.

  2. Community Knowledge about Water: Who Has Better Knowledge and Is This Associated with Water-Related Behaviors and Support for Water-Related Policies?

    PubMed Central

    Fielding, Kelly S.; Newton, Fiona J.

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable approaches to water management require broad community acceptance of changes in policy, practice and technology, which in turn, requires an engaged community. A critical first step in building an engaged community is to identify community knowledge about water management, an issue rarely examined in research. To address this, we surveyed a representative sample of Australian adults (n = 5172). Knowledge was assessed using 15 questions about impact of household activities on waterways, the urban water cycle, and water management. This survey also examined demographics, psychosocial characteristics, exposure to water-related information, and water-related behaviors and policy support. Participants correctly answered a mean of 8.0 questions (Range 0–15). Most respondents knew that household actions can reduce water use and influence waterway health, whereas less than one third correctly identified that domestic wastewater is treated prior to entering waterways, urban stormwater is not treated, and that these are carried via different pipes. Higher water knowledge was associated with older age, higher education and living in non-urban areas. Poorer water knowledge was associated with speaking a language other than English in the home. Garden size, experience of water restrictions, satisfaction, waterway use for swimming, and certain information sources were also associated with knowledge. Greater water knowledge was associated with adoption of water-saving and pollution-reduction behaviors, and support for both alternative water sources and raingardens. These findings confirm the importance of community knowledge, and identify potential subgroups who may require additional targeting to build knowledge and support for water management initiatives. PMID:27428372

  3. Community Knowledge about Water: Who Has Better Knowledge and Is This Associated with Water-Related Behaviors and Support for Water-Related Policies?

    PubMed

    Dean, Angela J; Fielding, Kelly S; Newton, Fiona J

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable approaches to water management require broad community acceptance of changes in policy, practice and technology, which in turn, requires an engaged community. A critical first step in building an engaged community is to identify community knowledge about water management, an issue rarely examined in research. To address this, we surveyed a representative sample of Australian adults (n = 5172). Knowledge was assessed using 15 questions about impact of household activities on waterways, the urban water cycle, and water management. This survey also examined demographics, psychosocial characteristics, exposure to water-related information, and water-related behaviors and policy support. Participants correctly answered a mean of 8.0 questions (Range 0-15). Most respondents knew that household actions can reduce water use and influence waterway health, whereas less than one third correctly identified that domestic wastewater is treated prior to entering waterways, urban stormwater is not treated, and that these are carried via different pipes. Higher water knowledge was associated with older age, higher education and living in non-urban areas. Poorer water knowledge was associated with speaking a language other than English in the home. Garden size, experience of water restrictions, satisfaction, waterway use for swimming, and certain information sources were also associated with knowledge. Greater water knowledge was associated with adoption of water-saving and pollution-reduction behaviors, and support for both alternative water sources and raingardens. These findings confirm the importance of community knowledge, and identify potential subgroups who may require additional targeting to build knowledge and support for water management initiatives.

  4. Climate Change in Colorado: Developing a Synthesis of the Science to Support Water Resources Management and Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, A. J.; Barsugli, J. J.; Averyt, K. B.; Deheza, V.; Udall, B.

    2008-12-01

    In 2007 Colorado's Governor Ritter issued a Colorado Climate Action Plan, in response to the risks associated with climate change and sets a goal to adapt to those climate changes "that cannot be avoided." The Western Water Assessment, a NOAA funded RISA program, was commissioned to do a synthesis of the science on climate change aimed at planners, decisionmakers, and policymakers in water in Colorado. Changes in Colorado's climate and implications for water resources are occurring in a global context. The objective of the report is to communicate the state of the science regarding the physical aspects of climate change that are important for evaluating impacts on Colorado's water resources, and to support state efforts to develop a water adaptation plan. However, the identification of specific climate change impacts on water resources is beyond the scope of this report. Water managers have a long history of adapting to changing circumstances, including changes in economies and land use, environmental concerns, and population growth. Climate change will further affect the decisions made about use of water. However, current water management practices may not be robust enough to cope with this climate change. This presentation reports on the process of developing the report and challenges we faced. We developed the report based on ongoing interactions with the water management community and discussions with them about their decision processes and needs. A second presentation (see Barsugli et al) presents the synthesis findings from the report. We followed the IPCC WG1 model of observations, attribution, and projections. However, many published studies and datasets include information about Colorado, there are few climate studies that focus only on the state. Consequently, many important scientific analyses for Colorado have not been done, and Colorado- specific information is often imbedded in or averaged with studies of the larger Western U.S. We used findings from

  5. An Integrated Decision Support System for Water Quality Management of Songhua River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haiping; Yin, Qiuxiao; Chen, Ling

    2010-11-01

    In the Songhua River Basin of China, many water resource and water environment conflicts interact. A Decision Support System (DSS) for the water quality management has been established for the Basin. The System is featured by the incorporation of a numerical water quality model system into a conventional water quality management system which usually consists of geographic information system (GIS), WebGIS technology, database system and network technology. The model system is built based on DHI MIKE software comprising of a basin rainfall-runoff module, a basin pollution load evaluation module, a river hydrodynamic module and a river water quality module. The DSS provides a friendly graphical user interface that enables the rapid and transparent calculation of various water quality management scenarios, and also enables the convenient access and interpretation of the modeling results to assist the decision-making.

  6. The need for sustainability and alignment of future support for National Immunization Technical Advisory Groups (NITAGs) in low and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Howard, Natasha; Bell, Sadie; Walls, Helen; Blanchard, Laurence; Brenzel, Logan; Jit, Mark; Mounier-Jack, Sandra

    2018-02-22

    National Immunisation Technical Advisory Groups (NITAGs) provide independent guidance to health ministries to support evidence-based and nationally relevant immunisation decisions. We examined NITAGs' value, sustainability, and need for support in low and middle-income countries, drawing from a mixed-methods study including 130 global and national-level key informant interviews. NITAGs were particularly valued for providing independent and nationally owned evidence-based decision-making (EBDM), but needed to be integrated within national processes to effectively balance independence and influence. Participants agreed that most NITAGs, being relatively new, would need developmental and strengthening support for at least a decade. While national governments could support NITAG functioning, external support is likely needed for requisite capacity building. This might come from Gavi mechanisms and WHO, but would require alignment among stakeholders to be effective.

  7. Technical note: drifting versus anchored flux chambers for measuring greenhouse gas emissions from running waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorke, A.; Bodmer, P.; Noss, C.; Alshboul, Z.; Koschorreck, M.; Somlai-Haase, C.; Bastviken, D.; Flury, S.; McGinnis, D. F.; Maeck, A.; Müller, D.; Premke, K.

    2015-12-01

    Stream networks have recently been discovered to be major but poorly constrained natural greenhouse gas (GHG) sources. A fundamental problem is that several measurement approaches have been used without cross-comparisons. Flux chambers represent a potentially powerful methodological approach if robust and reliable ways to use chambers on running water can be defined. Here we compare the use of anchored and freely drifting chambers on various streams with different flow velocities. The study clearly shows that (1) anchored chambers enhance turbulence under the chambers and thus elevate fluxes, (2) drifting chambers have a very small impact on the water turbulence under the chamber and thus generate more reliable fluxes, (3) the bias of the anchored chambers greatly depends on chamber design and sampling conditions, and (4) there is a promising method to reduce the bias from anchored chambers by using a flexible plastic foil collar to seal the chambers to the water surface, rather than having rigid chamber walls penetrating into the water. Altogether, these results provide novel guidance on how to apply flux chambers in running water, which will have important consequences for measurements to constrain the global GHG balances.

  8. Technical Note: Drifting vs. anchored flux chambers for measuring greenhouse gas emissions from running waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorke, A.; Bodmer, P.; Noss, C.; Alshboul, Z.; Koschorreck, M.; Somlai, C.; Bastviken, D.; Flury, S.; McGinnis, D. F.; Maeck, A.; Müller, D.; Premke, K.

    2015-09-01

    Stream networks were recently discovered as major but poorly constrained natural greenhouse gas (GHG) sources. A fundamental problem is that several measurement approaches have been used without cross comparisons. Flux chambers represent a potentially powerful methodological approach if robust and reliable ways to use chambers on running water can be defined. Here we compare the use of anchored and freely drifting chambers on various streams having different flow velocities. The study clearly shows that (1) drifting chambers have a very small impact on the water turbulence under the chamber and thus generate more reliable fluxes, (2) anchored chambers enhance turbulence under the chambers and thus elevate fluxes, (3) the bias of the anchored chambers greatly depends on chamber design and sampling conditions, and (4) there is a promising method to reduce the bias from anchored chambers by using a flexible plastic foil seal to the water surface rather than having rigid chamber walls penetrating into the water. Altogether, these results provide novel guidance on how to apply flux chambers in running water, which will have important consequences for measurements to constrain the global GHG balances.

  9. Technical report series: North Alabama water quality assessment: Volume 4, Bacteriological quality

    SciTech Connect

    Meinert, D.L.

    1986-07-01

    This report evaluates bacteriological water quality in the Shoals area of North Alabama by collection of samples at water contact recreation areas on Pickwick and Wilson Reservoirs. Samples collected in the summer of 1985 in the Muscle Shoals region at 15 public use and public access areas on Pickwick and Wilson Reservoirs indicate good quality. All 15 of the recreation areas sampled had geometric mean concentrations well below the criterion for water contact recreation (200 fecal coliform bacteria per 100 m1 of sample). Further, FC/FS were quite low and did not indicate any sources of human waste to these areas.more » The fecal streptococcus data were the first to be collected are recreation areas on Pickwick and Wilson Reservoirs.« less

  10. 21st Century Educators: Developing and Supporting Great Career and Technical Education Teachers. Special Issues Brief. Revised Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacques, Catherine; Potemski, Amy

    2014-01-01

    This Special Issues Brief from the Center on Great Teachers and Leaders (GTL Center) offers insight into three human capital management policies that are critical for career and technical education (CTE) teachers: certification, performance evaluation, and professional development. CTE teachers are uniquely positioned to improve college and career…

  11. Critical insights for a sustainability framework to address integrated community water services: Technical metrics and approaches

    EPA Science Inventory

    Planning for sustainable community water systems requires a comprehensive understanding and assessment of the integrated source-drinking-wastewater systems over their life-cycles. Although traditional life cycle assessment and similar tools (e.g. footprints and emergy) have been ...

  12. Wisconsin's Lake Superior Basin Water Quality Study. Technical Report No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickas, Albert B., Ed.

    This hydrologic study focuses on Wisconsin's Lake Superior Basin. Water is the most important natural resource in this area which includes Douglass, Bayfield, Ashland, and Iron counties. This study was undertaken to determine the character of this hydrologic base and to determine the effects and extent of man-influenced disturbances. It includes…

  13. Technical Approaches for Answering the Question: What is the condition of the Nation's Waters?

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Aquatic Resource Surveys were designed to answer the question of the status and trends in the condition of each of our aquatic resources: coastal waters, lakes and reservoirs, rivers and streams and wetlands. At the higher levels, the EPA is consistently asked a see...

  14. TECHNICAL FACT SHEET: A Systematic Evaluation of Dissolved Metals Loss during Water Sample Filtration

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research study examined how water quality collection and filtration approaches, including commonly used capsule and disc syringe filters, may cause losses in the amounts of soluble lead and copper found in a sample. A variety of commercially available filter materials with a...

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF A FIRETUBE BOILER FIRING COAL/OIL/WATER MIXTURES. VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This volume describes emission results from sampling of flue gas from a firetube boiler burning a coal/oil/water (COW) mixture and COW with soda ash added (COW+SA) to control SO2 emissions. Measurements included: continuous monitoring of flue gas emissions; source assessment samp...

  16. Technical Note: Detection of gas bubble leakage via correlation of water column multibeam images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider von Deimling, J.; Papenberg, C.

    2011-07-01

    Hydroacoustic detection of natural gas release from the seafloor has been conducted in the past by using singlebeam echosounders. In contrast modern multibeam swath mapping systems allow much wider coverage, higher resolution, and offer 3-D spatial correlation. However, up to the present, the extremely high data rate hampers water column backscatter investigations. More sophisticated visualization and processing techniques for water column backscatter analysis are still under development. We here present such water column backscattering data gathered with a 50 kHz prototype multibeam system. Water column backscattering data is presented in videoframes grabbed over 75 s and a "re-sorted" singlebeam presentation. Thus individual gas bubbles rising from the 24 m deep seafloor clearly emerge in the acoustic images and rise velocities can be determined. A sophisticated processing scheme is introduced to identify those rising gas bubbles in the hydroacoustic data. It applies a cross-correlation technique similar to that used in Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) to the acoustic backscatter images. Tempo-spatial drift patterns of the bubbles are assessed and match very well measured and theoretical rise patterns. The application of this processing scheme to our field data gives impressive results with respect to unambiguous bubble detection and remote bubble rise velocimetry. The method can identify and exclude the main driver for misinterpretations, i.e. fish-mediated echoes. Even though image-based cross-correlation techniques are well known in the field of fluid mechanics for high resolution and non-inversive current flow field analysis, this technique was never applied in the proposed sense for an acoustic bubble detector.

  17. Ingham County Geriatric Medical Care Facility solar water-heating system refurbishments. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    The tasks of the refurbishment of a damaged solar water heating system are outlined. The system is a closed loop, 50% glycol antifreeze system consisting of 14 rows of 6 series manifolds each containing 6 solar collectors connected in parallel for a total of 504 modules. The Wyle Laboratories' test report for the Revere Model 132 flat plate collector is appended. A collector test plan and photographs are also appended. Reference CAPE-2834. (LS)

  18. MX Siting Investigation. Water Resources Program, Technical Summary Report. Volume II.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-30

    Selected digital computer techniques for groundwater resource evaluation, Illinois State Water Survey, Bulletin No. 55. Robinson, B. P., Thordarson , W., and...34, American Geophysical Union Transactions, v. 16. Thordarson , W., and Robinson, B. P., 1971, Wells and springs in California and Nevada within 100... Thordarson , W., 1975, Hydrogeologic and hydro- chemical framework, south-central Great Basin, Nevada- * California, with special reference to the Nevada

  19. Science to support the understanding of Ohio's water resources, 2016-17

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shaffer, Kimberly; Kula, Stephanie P.; Shaffer, Kimberly; Kula, Stephanie P.

    2016-12-19

    Ohio’s water resources support a complex web of human activities and nature—clean and abundant water is needed for drinking, recreation, farming, and industry, as well as for fish and wildlife needs. Although rainfall in normal years can support these activities and needs, occasional floods and droughts can disrupt streamflow, groundwater, water availability, water quality, recreation, and aquatic habitats. Ohio is bordered by the Ohio River and Lake Erie; it has over 44,000 miles of streams and more than 60,000 lakes and ponds (State of Ohio, 1994). Nearly all of the rural population obtains drinking water from groundwater sources. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) works in cooperation with local, State, and other Federal agencies, as well as universities, to furnish decisionmakers, policy makers, USGS scientists, and the general public with reliable scientific information and tools to assist them in management, stewardship, and use of Ohio’s natural resources. The diversity of scientific expertise among USGS personnel enables them to carry out large- and small-scale multidisciplinary studies. The USGS is unique among government organizations because it has neither regulatory nor developmental authority—its sole product is impartial, credible, relevant, and timely scientific information, equally accessible and available to everyone. The USGS Ohio Water Science Center provides reliable hydrologic and water-related ecological information to aid in the understanding of the use and management of the Nation’s water resources, in general, and Ohio’s water resources, in particular. This fact sheet provides an overview of current (2016) or recently completed USGS studies and data activities pertaining to water resources in Ohio. More information regarding projects of the USGS Ohio Water Science Center is available at http://oh.water.usgs.gov/.

  20. Technical Note: Bed conduction impact on fiber optic DTS water temperature measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donnell Meininger, T.; Selker, J. S.

    2014-07-01

    Error in Distributed Temperature Sensor (DTS) water temperature measurements may be introduced by contact of the fiber optic cable sensor with bed materials (e.g., seafloor, lakebed, stream bed). Heat conduction from the bed materials can affect cable temperature and the resulting DTS measurements. In the Middle Fork John Day River, apparent water temperature measurements were influenced by cable sensor contact with aquatic vegetation and fine sediment bed materials. Affected cable segments measured a diurnal temperature range reduced by 10% and lagged by 20-40 min relative to that of ambient stream temperature. The diurnal temperature range deeper within the vegetation-sediment bed material was reduced 70% and lagged 240 min relative to ambient stream temperature. These site-specific results illustrate the potential magnitude of bed-conduction impacts with buried DTS measurements. Researchers who deploy DTS for water temperature monitoring should understand the importance of the environment into which the cable is placed on the range and phase of temperature measurements.

  1. Toward an evidence-based system for innovation support for implementing innovations with quality: tools, training, technical assistance, and quality assurance/quality improvement.

    PubMed

    Wandersman, Abraham; Chien, Victoria H; Katz, Jason

    2012-12-01

    An individual or organization that sets out to implement an innovation (e.g., a new technology, program, or policy) generally requires support. In the Interactive Systems Framework for Dissemination and Implementation, a Support System should work with Delivery Systems (national, state and/or local entities such as health and human service organizations, community-based organizations, schools) to enhance their capacity for quality implementation of innovations. The literature on the Support System [corrected] has been underresearched and under-developedThis article begins to conceptualize theory, research, and action for an evidence-based system for innovation support (EBSIS). EBSIS describes key priorities for strengthening the science and practice of support. The major goal of EBSIS is to enhance the research and practice of support in order to build capacity in the Delivery System for implementing innovations with quality, and thereby, help the Delivery System achieve outcomes. EBSIS is guided by a logic model that includes four key support components: tools, training, technical assistance, and quality assurance/quality improvement. EBSIS uses the Getting To Outcomes approach to accountability to aid the identification and synthesis of concepts, tools, and evidence for support. We conclude with some discussion of the current status of EBSIS and possible next steps, including the development of collaborative researcher-practitioner-funder-consumer partnerships to accelerate accumulation of knowledge on the Support System.

  2. Demand driven decision support for efficient water resources allocation in irrigated agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuetze, Niels; Grießbach, Ulrike Ulrike; Röhm, Patric; Stange, Peter; Wagner, Michael; Seidel, Sabine; Werisch, Stefan; Barfus, Klemens

    2014-05-01

    Due to climate change, extreme weather conditions, such as longer dry spells in the summer months, may have an increasing impact on the agriculture in Saxony (Eastern Germany). For this reason, and, additionally, declining amounts of rainfall during the growing season the use of irrigation will be more important in future in Eastern Germany. To cope with this higher demand of water, a new decision support framework is developed which focuses on an integrated management of both irrigation water supply and demand. For modeling the regional water demand, local (and site-specific) water demand functions are used which are derived from the optimized agronomic response at farms scale. To account for climate variability the agronomic response is represented by stochastic crop water production functions (SCWPF) which provide the estimated yield subject to the minimum amount of irrigation water. These functions take into account the different soil types, crops and stochastically generated climate scenarios. By applying mathematical interpolation and optimization techniques, the SCWPF's are used to compute the water demand considering different constraints, for instance variable and fix costs or the producer price. This generic approach enables the computation for both multiple crops at farm scale as well as of the aggregated response to water pricing at a regional scale for full and deficit irrigation systems. Within the SAPHIR (SAxonian Platform for High Performance Irrigation) project a prototype of a decision support system is developed which helps to evaluate combined water supply and demand management policies for an effective and efficient utilization of water in order to meet future demands. The prototype is implemented as a web-based decision support system and it is based on a service-oriented geo-database architecture.

  3. A comparison of the legal frameworks supporting water management in Europe and China.

    PubMed

    Yang, X; Griffiths, I M

    2010-01-01

    This paper has compared the legal frameworks supporting water management in Europe and China, with special focus on integrated river basin management (IRBM) to identify synergies and opportunities in policymaking and implementation. The research shows that China has committed to the efficient management of water resources through various policy tools during the current period. This commitment, however, has often been interrupted and distorted by politics, resulting in the neglect of socioeconomic and environmental priorities. The European legal framework supporting water management underwent a complex and lengthy development, but with the adoption of the Water Framework Directive provides a policy model on which to develop an integrated and sustainable approach to river basin management, elements of which may help to meet the demands of the emerging 21st century Chinese society on these critical natural resources.

  4. Opening the black box of spring water microbiology from alpine karst aquifers to support proactive drinking water resource management.

    PubMed

    Savio, Domenico; Stadler, Philipp; Reischer, Georg H; Kirschner, Alexander K T; Demeter, Katalin; Linke, Rita; Blaschke, Alfred P; Sommer, Regina; Szewzyk, Ulrich; Wilhartitz, Inés C; Mach, Robert L; Stadler, Hermann; Farnleitner, Andreas H

    2018-01-01

    Over the past 15 years, pioneering interdisciplinary research has been performed on the microbiology of hydrogeologically well-defined alpine karst springs located in the Northern Calcareous Alps (NCA) of Austria. This article gives an overview on these activities and links them to other relevant research. Results from the NCA springs and comparable sites revealed that spring water harbors abundant natural microbial communities even in aquifers with high water residence times and the absence of immediate surface influence. Apparently, hydrogeology has a strong impact on the concentration and size of the observed microbes, and total cell counts (TCC) were suggested as a useful means for spring type classification. Measurement of microbial activities at the NCA springs revealed extremely low microbial growth rates in the base flow component of the studied spring waters and indicated the importance of biofilm-associated microbial activities in sediments and on rock surfaces. Based on genetic analysis, the autochthonous microbial endokarst community (AMEC) versus transient microbial endokarst community (TMEC) concept was proposed for the NCA springs, and further details within this overview article are given to prompt its future evaluation. In this regard, it is well known that during high-discharge situations, surface-associated microbes and nutrients such as from soil habitats or human settlements-potentially containing fecal-associated pathogens as the most critical water-quality hazard-may be rapidly flushed into vulnerable karst aquifers. In this context, a framework for the comprehensive analysis of microbial pollution has been proposed for the NCA springs to support the sustainable management of drinking water safety in accordance with recent World Health Organization guidelines. Near-real-time online water quality monitoring, microbial source tracking (MST) and MST-guided quantitative microbial-risk assessment (QMRA) are examples of the proposed analytical

  5. Devising a consensus definition and framework for non-technical skills in healthcare to support educational design: A modified Delphi study.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Morris; Baker, Paul; Catchpole, Ken; Darbyshire, Daniel; Schocken, Dawn

    2015-01-01

    Non-technical skills are a subset of human factors that focus on the individual and promote safety through teamwork and awareness. There is no widely adopted competency- or outcome-based framework for non-technical skills training in healthcare. The authors set out to devise such a framework using a modified Delphi approach. An exhaustive list of published and team suggested items was presented to the expert panel for ranking and to propose a definition. In the second round, a focused list was presented, as well as the proposed definition elements. The finalised framework was sent to the panel for review. Sixteen experts participated. The final framework consists of 16 competencies for all and eight specific competencies for team leaders. The consensus definition describes non-technical skills as "a set of social (communication and team work) and cognitive (analytical and personal behaviour) skills that support high quality, safe, effective and efficient inter-professional care within the complex healthcare system". The authors have produced a new competency framework, through the works of an International expert panel, which is not discipline specific that can be used by curriculum developers, educational innovators and clinical teachers to support developments in the field.

  6. Implementing supercritical water oxidation technology in a lunar base environmental control/life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer Sedej, M.

    1985-01-01

    A supercritical water oxidation system (SCWOS) offers several advantages for a lunar base environmental control/life support system (ECLSS) compared to an ECLSS based on Space Station technology. In supercritically heated water (630 K, 250 atm) organic materials mix freely with oxygen and undergo complete combustion. Inorganic salts lose solubility and precipitate out. Implementation of SCWOS can make an ECLSS more efficient and reliable by elimination of several subsystems and by reduction in potential losses of life support consumables. More complete closure of the total system reduces resupply requirements from the earth, a crucial cost item in maintaining a lunar base.

  7. Expert stakeholder attitudes and support for alternative water sources in a groundwater depleted region.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Treavor H; Overdevest, Christine; Christiansen, Lisa; Ishii, Stephanie K L

    2012-10-15

    The main objectives of this research were to quantify the risks/benefits and impacts of alternative water sources (AWSs) as perceived by expert stakeholders and to evaluate the overall support for multiple AWSs by expert stakeholders. The St. Johns River (SJR) basin, FL, USA was chosen as a case study for AWSs because it is a fresh groundwater depleted region and there are ongoing activities related to water supply planning. Expert stakeholders included federal, state, and local governments, public utilities, consulting engineering and industry, and environmental and social non-governmental organizations. AWSs under consideration in the SJR basin include surface water, desalination, water reclamation, and water conservation. A two-phase research approach was followed that focused on expert stakeholders. First, an elicitation study was used to identify salient beliefs about AWSs. Open-ended questions were asked about the risks/benefits of AWSs in terms of the three pillars of sustainability: ecological, economic, and human health impacts. Second, an online survey was constructed using beliefs identified during the elicitation study. The online survey was used to quantify attitudes toward and overall support for AWSs. The salient beliefs of expert stakeholders were dominated by the ecological pillar of sustainability. The support of expert stakeholders for AWSs, from least favorable to most favorable, was surface water withdrawalswater reclamation<water conservation, and was shaped by attitudes. The results of this research provide an improved understanding of the beliefs and attitudes that influence decision-makers involved in water supply planning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Application of an Environmental Decision Support System to a Water Quality Trading Program Affected by Surface Water Diversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obropta, Christopher C.; Niazi, Mehran; Kardos, Josef S.

    2008-12-01

    Environmental decision support systems (EDSSs) are an emerging tool used to integrate the evaluation of highly complex and interrelated physicochemical, biological, hydrological, social, and economic aspects of environmental problems. An EDSS approach is developed to address hot-spot concerns for a water quality trading program intended to implement the total maximum daily load (TMDL) for phosphorus in the Non-Tidal Passaic River Basin of New Jersey. Twenty-two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) spread throughout the watershed are considered the major sources of phosphorus loading to the river system. Periodic surface water diversions to a major reservoir from the confluence of two key tributaries alter the natural hydrology of the watershed and must be considered in the development of a trading framework that ensures protection of water quality. An EDSS is applied that enables the selection of a water quality trading framework that protects the watershed from phosphorus-induced hot spots. The EDSS employs Simon’s (1960) three stages of the decision-making process: intelligence, design, and choice. The identification of two potential hot spots and three diversion scenarios enables the delineation of three management areas for buying and selling of phosphorus credits among WWTPs. The result shows that the most conservative option entails consideration of two possible diversion scenarios, and trading between management areas is restricted accordingly. The method described here is believed to be the first application of an EDSS to a water quality trading program that explicitly accounts for surface water diversions.

  9. Developing a Framework of Innovative Trials to Support Water Companies Strategic Response to WFD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitehead, Jodie; Cherry, Katherine; Revens, Neasa; O'Hanlon, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Slug control in high risk fields and catchments can have serious implications for water companies, threatening compliance with drinking water standards and challenging the Water Framework Directive's requirement that additional water treatment is avoided. Severn Trent Water has established a framework of innovative trails at a range of scales and locations to help shape the company's strategic, sustainable response to elevated metaldehyde concentrations at drinking water abstractions. Currently four contrasting trials are underway, two at the catchment scale, one at the field scale and one at the 'operational site' scale at locations across the English Midlands. This presentation provides an overview of the different approaches, their effectiveness to date and lessons learnt to aid strategy development. The first trial entitled Farmer's as Producers of Clean Water adopts a 'results orientated' approach, rewarding farmers for improvements in water quality at the catchment scale and allowing farmers to decide how best to manage the issue on their land with no prescribed measures. It acknowledges that co-ordinated action is needed across the catchment to see improvements in water quality, and that by incentivising outcomes rather than actions, land owners and farmers may take greater ownership of water quality issues. The second project explores the potential for a 'zero metaldehyde' catchment with all farmers throughout the catchment being financial supported to use a water friendly alternative to metaldehyde. This project is being compared to more voluntary approaches adopted elsewhere. The third project is a field scale trial to test the efficacy of alternative products to metaldehyde and different pellet formulations. Field drains are being sampled following heavy rain and crop damaged assessed to review the benefits to water quality and crops. The final project considers what Severn Trent Water can do from an operational perspective, investigating the size and

  10. A satellite data-driven, client-server decision support application for agricultural water resources management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maneta, M. P.; Johnson, L.; Kimball, J. S.

    2016-12-01

    Water cycle extremes such as droughts and floods present a challenge for water managers and for policy makers responsible for the administration of water supplies in agricultural regions. In addition to the inherent uncertainties associated with forecasting extreme weather events, water planners need to anticipate water demands and water user behavior in atypical circumstances. This requires the use decision support systems capable of simulating agricultural water demand with the latest available data. Unfortunately, managers from local and regional agencies often use different datasets of variable quality, which complicates coordinated action. In previous work we have demonstrated novel methodologies to use satellite-based observational technologies, in conjunction with hydro-economic models and state of the art data assimilation methods, to enable robust regional assessment and prediction of drought impacts on agricultural production, water resources, and land allocation. These methods create an opportunity for new, cost-effective analysis tools to support policy and decision-making over large spatial extents. The methods can be driven with information from existing satellite-derived operational products, such as the Satellite Irrigation Management Support system (SIMS) operational over California, the Cropland Data Layer (CDL), and using a modified light-use efficiency algorithm to retrieve crop yield from the synergistic use of MODIS and Landsat imagery. Here we present an integration of this modeling framework in a client-server architecture based on the Hydra platform. Assimilation and processing of resource intensive remote sensing data, as well as hydrologic and other ancillary information occur on the server side. This information is processed and summarized as attributes in water demand nodes that are part of a vector description of the water distribution network. With this architecture, our decision support system becomes a light weight `app` that

  11. A Satellite Data-Driven, Client-Server Decision Support Application for Agricultural Water Resources Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Lee F.; Maneta, Marco P.; Kimball, John S.

    2016-01-01

    Water cycle extremes such as droughts and floods present a challenge for water managers and for policy makers responsible for the administration of water supplies in agricultural regions. In addition to the inherent uncertainties associated with forecasting extreme weather events, water planners need to anticipate water demands and water user behavior in a typical circumstances. This requires the use decision support systems capable of simulating agricultural water demand with the latest available data. Unfortunately, managers from local and regional agencies often use different datasets of variable quality, which complicates coordinated action. In previous work we have demonstrated novel methodologies to use satellite-based observational technologies, in conjunction with hydro-economic models and state of the art data assimilation methods, to enable robust regional assessment and prediction of drought impacts on agricultural production, water resources, and land allocation. These methods create an opportunity for new, cost-effective analysis tools to support policy and decision-making over large spatial extents. The methods can be driven with information from existing satellite-derived operational products, such as the Satellite Irrigation Management Support system (SIMS) operational over California, the Cropland Data Layer (CDL), and using a modified light-use efficiency algorithm to retrieve crop yield from the synergistic use of MODIS and Landsat imagery. Here we present an integration of this modeling framework in a client-server architecture based on the Hydra platform. Assimilation and processing of resource intensive remote sensing data, as well as hydrologic and other ancillary information occur on the server side. This information is processed and summarized as attributes in water demand nodes that are part of a vector description of the water distribution network. With this architecture, our decision support system becomes a light weight 'app' that

  12. Study of water diffusion on single-supported bilayer lipid membranes by quasielastic neutron scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, M.; Miskowiec, A.; Hansen, F. Y.; Taub, H.; Jenkins, T.; Tyagi, M.; Diallo, S. O.; Mamontov, E.; Herwig, K. W.; Wang, S.-K.

    2012-05-01

    High-energy-resolution quasielastic neutron scattering has been used to elucidate the diffusion of water molecules in proximity to single bilayer lipid membranes supported on a silicon substrate. By varying sample temperature, level of hydration, and deuteration, we identify three different types of diffusive water motion: bulk-like, confined, and bound. The motion of bulk-like and confined water molecules is fast compared to those bound to the lipid head groups (7-10 H2O molecules per lipid), which move on the same nanosecond time scale as H atoms within the lipid molecules.

  13. Opening the black box of spring water microbiology from alpine karst aquifers to support proactive drinking water resource management

    PubMed Central

    Savio, Domenico; Stadler, Philipp; Reischer, Georg H.; Kirschner, Alexander K.T.; Demeter, Katalin; Linke, Rita; Blaschke, Alfred P.; Sommer, Regina; Szewzyk, Ulrich; Wilhartitz, Inés C.; Mach, Robert L.; Stadler, Hermann

    2018-01-01

    Over the past 15 years, pioneering interdisciplinary research has been performed on the microbiology of hydrogeologically well‐defined alpine karst springs located in the Northern Calcareous Alps (NCA) of Austria. This article gives an overview on these activities and links them to other relevant research. Results from the NCA springs and comparable sites revealed that spring water harbors abundant natural microbial communities even in aquifers with high water residence times and the absence of immediate surface influence. Apparently, hydrogeology has a strong impact on the concentration and size of the observed microbes, and total cell counts (TCC) were suggested as a useful means for spring type classification. Measurement of microbial activities at the NCA springs revealed extremely low microbial growth rates in the base flow component of the studied spring waters and indicated the importance of biofilm‐associated microbial activities in sediments and on rock surfaces. Based on genetic analysis, the autochthonous microbial endokarst community (AMEC) versus transient microbial endokarst community (TMEC) concept was proposed for the NCA springs, and further details within this overview article are given to prompt its future evaluation. In this regard, it is well known that during high‐discharge situations, surface‐associated microbes and nutrients such as from soil habitats or human settlements—potentially containing fecal‐associated pathogens as the most critical water‐quality hazard—may be rapidly flushed into vulnerable karst aquifers. In this context, a framework for the comprehensive analysis of microbial pollution has been proposed for the NCA springs to support the sustainable management of drinking water safety in accordance with recent World Health Organization guidelines. Near‐real‐time online water quality monitoring, microbial source tracking (MST) and MST‐guided quantitative microbial‐risk assessment (QMRA) are examples of

  14. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program: Risk-Informed Safety Margins Characterization (RISMC) Pathway Technical Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Curtis; Rabiti, Cristian; Martineau, Richard

    Safety is central to the design, licensing, operation, and economics of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). As the current Light Water Reactor (LWR) NPPs age beyond 60 years, there are possibilities for increased frequency of Systems, Structures, and Components (SSCs) degradations or failures that initiate safety-significant events, reduce existing accident mitigation capabilities, or create new failure modes. Plant designers commonly “over-design” portions of NPPs and provide robustness in the form of redundant and diverse engineered safety features to ensure that, even in the case of well-beyond design basis scenarios, public health and safety will be protected with a very high degreemore » of assurance. This form of defense-in-depth is a reasoned response to uncertainties and is often referred to generically as “safety margin.” Historically, specific safety margin provisions have been formulated, primarily based on “engineering judgment.”« less

  15. Technical Note: Detection of gas bubble leakage via correlation of water column multibeam images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider von Deimling, J.; Papenberg, C.

    2012-03-01

    Hydroacoustic detection of natural gas release from the seafloor has been conducted in the past by using singlebeam echosounders. In contrast, modern multibeam swath mapping systems allow much wider coverage, higher resolution, and offer 3-D spatial correlation. Up to the present, the extremely high data rate hampers water column backscatter investigations and more sophisticated visualization and processing techniques are needed. Here, we present water column backscatter data acquired with a 50 kHz prototype multibeam system over a period of 75 seconds. Display types are of swath-images as well as of a "re-sorted" singlebeam presentation. Thus, individual and/or groups of gas bubbles rising from the 24 m deep seafloor clearly emerge in the acoustic images, making it possible to estimate rise velocities. A sophisticated processing scheme is introduced to identify those rising gas bubbles in the hydroacoustic data. We apply a cross-correlation technique adapted from particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) to the acoustic backscatter images. Temporal and spatial drift patterns of the bubbles are assessed and are shown to match very well to measured and theoretical rise patterns. The application of this processing to our field data gives clear results with respect to unambiguous bubble detection and remote bubble rise velocimetry. The method can identify and exclude the main source of misinterpretations, i.e. fish-mediated echoes. Although image-based cross-correlation techniques are well known in the field of fluid mechanics for high resolution and non-inversive current flow field analysis, we present the first application of this technique as an acoustic bubble detector.

  16. Decision Support System for an efficient irrigation water management in semi arid environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, M. A.; Islam, M.; Hafeez, M. M.; Flugel, W. A.

    2009-12-01

    A significant increase in agricultural productivity over the last few decades has protected the world from episodes of hunger and food shortages. Water management in irrigated agriculture was instrumental in achieving those gains. Water resources are under high pressure due to rapid population growth and increased competition among various sectors. Access to reliable data on water availability, quantity and quality can provide the necessary foundation for sound management of water resources. There are many traditional methods for matching water demand and supply, however imbalances between demand and supply remain inevitable. It is possible to reduce the imbalances considerably through development of appropriate irrigation water management tool that take into account various factors such as soil type, irrigation water supply, and crop water demand. All components of water balance need to be understood and quantified for efficient and sustainable management of water resources. Application of an intelligent Decision Support System (DSS) is becoming significant. A DSS incorporates knowledge and expertise within the decision support framework. It is an integrated set of data, functions, models and other relevant information that efficiently processes input data, simulates models and displays the results in a user friendly format. It helps in decision-making process, to analyse the problem and explore various scenarios to make the most appropriate decision for water management. This paper deals with the Coleambally Irrigation Area (CIA) located in Murrumbidgee catchment, NSW, Australia. An Integrated River Information System called Coleambally IRIS has been developed to improve the irrigation water management ranging from farm to sub-system and system level. It is a web-based information management system with a focus on time series and geospatial hydrological, climatic and remote sensing data including land cover class, surface temperature, soil moisture, Normalized

  17. KMCLib 1.1: Extended random number support and technical updates to the KMCLib general framework for kinetic Monte-Carlo simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leetmaa, Mikael; Skorodumova, Natalia V.

    2015-11-01

    We here present a revised version, v1.1, of the KMCLib general framework for kinetic Monte-Carlo (KMC) simulations. The generation of random numbers in KMCLib now relies on the C++11 standard library implementation, and support has been added for the user to choose from a set of C++11 implemented random number generators. The Mersenne-twister, the 24 and 48 bit RANLUX and a 'minimal-standard' PRNG are supported. We have also included the possibility to use true random numbers via the C++11 std::random_device generator. This release also includes technical updates to support the use of an extended range of operating systems and compilers.

  18. System Dynamics Approach for Critical Infrastructure and Decision Support. A Model for a Potable Water System.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasqualini, D.; Witkowski, M.

    2005-12-01

    The Critical Infrastructure Protection / Decision Support System (CIP/DSS) project, supported by the Science and Technology Office, has been developing a risk-informed Decision Support System that provides insights for making critical infrastructure protection decisions. The system considers seventeen different Department of Homeland Security defined Critical Infrastructures (potable water system, telecommunications, public health, economics, etc.) and their primary interdependencies. These infrastructures have been modeling in one model called CIP/DSS Metropolitan Model. The modeling approach used is a system dynamics modeling approach. System dynamics modeling combines control theory and the nonlinear dynamics theory, which is defined by a set of coupled differential equations, which seeks to explain how the structure of a given system determines its behavior. In this poster we present a system dynamics model for one of the seventeen critical infrastructures, a generic metropolitan potable water system (MPWS). Three are the goals: 1) to gain a better understanding of the MPWS infrastructure; 2) to identify improvements that would help protect MPWS; and 3) to understand the consequences, interdependencies, and impacts, when perturbations occur to the system. The model represents raw water sources, the metropolitan water treatment process, storage of treated water, damage and repair to the MPWS, distribution of water, and end user demand, but does not explicitly represent the detailed network topology of an actual MPWS. The MPWS model is dependent upon inputs from the metropolitan population, energy, telecommunication, public health, and transportation models as well as the national water and transportation models. We present modeling results and sensitivity analysis indicating critical choke points, negative and positive feedback loops in the system. A general scenario is also analyzed where the potable water system responds to a generic disruption.

  19. The Watershed and River Systems Management Program: Decision Support for Water- and Environmental-Resource Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leavesley, G.; Markstrom, S.; Frevert, D.; Fulp, T.; Zagona, E.; Viger, R.

    2004-12-01

    Increasing demands for limited fresh-water supplies, and increasing complexity of water-management issues, present the water-resource manager with the difficult task of achieving an equitable balance of water allocation among a diverse group of water users. The Watershed and River System Management Program (WARSMP) is a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Bureau of Reclamation (BOR) to develop and deploy a database-centered, decision-support system (DSS) to address these multi-objective, resource-management problems. The decision-support system couples the USGS Modular Modeling System (MMS) with the BOR RiverWare tools using a shared relational database. MMS is an integrated system of computer software that provides a research and operational framework to support the development and integration of a wide variety of hydrologic and ecosystem models, and their application to water- and ecosystem-resource management. RiverWare is an object-oriented reservoir and river-system modeling framework developed to provide tools for evaluating and applying water-allocation and management strategies. The modeling capabilities of MMS and Riverware include simulating watershed runoff, reservoir inflows, and the impacts of resource-management decisions on municipal, agricultural, and industrial water users, environmental concerns, power generation, and recreational interests. Forecasts of future climatic conditions are a key component in the application of MMS models to resource-management decisions. Forecast methods applied in MMS include a modified version of the National Weather Service's Extended Streamflow Prediction Program (ESP) and statistical downscaling from atmospheric models. The WARSMP DSS is currently operational in the Gunnison River Basin, Colorado; Yakima River Basin, Washington; Rio Grande Basin in Colorado and New Mexico; and Truckee River Basin in California and Nevada.

  20. Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool: An approach for incorporating LID into integrated water management plans

    EPA Science Inventory

    To assist communities in the evaluation of green infrastructure, low impact development, and land conservation practices as part of an Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) approach, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) has supported the development of the Wat...

  1. AN OPEN-SOURCE COMMUNITY WEB SITE TO SUPPORT GROUND-WATER MODEL TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A community wiki wiki web site has been created as a resource to support ground-water model development and testing. The Groundwater Gourmet wiki is a repository for user supplied analytical and numerical recipes, how-to's, and examples. Members are encouraged to submit analyti...

  2. SITE CHARACTERIZATION TO SUPPORT MODEL DEVELOPMENT FOR CONTAMINANTS IN GROUND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of conceptual and predictive models is an important tool to guide site characterization in support of monitoring contaminants in ground water. The accuracy of predictive models is limited by the adequacy of the input data and the assumptions made to constrain mod...

  3. OASIS: A GEOGRAPHICAL DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR GROUND-WATER CONTAMINANT MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three new software technologies were applied to develop an efficient and easy to use decision support system for ground-water contaminant modeling. Graphical interfaces create a more intuitive and effective form of communication with the computer compared to text-based interfaces...

  4. 77 FR 76170 - Presumption of Exposure to Herbicides for Blue Water Navy Vietnam Veterans Not Supported

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Presumption of Exposure to Herbicides for Blue Water Navy Vietnam Veterans Not Supported ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: On May 20, 2011, at the request of the Department of... during the Vietnam War. After careful review of the IOM report, the Secretary determines that the...

  5. Magnetic silica supported palladium catalyst: synthesis of allyl aryl ethers in water

    EPA Science Inventory

    A simple and benign procedure for the synthesis of aryl allyl ethers has been developed using phenols, allyl acetates and magnetically recyclable silica supported palladium catalyst in water; performance of reaction in air and easy separation of the catalyst using an external mag...

  6. Learn About Laboratory Certification for Drinking Water

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA’s Office of Water Technical Support Center implements the Drinking Water Laboratory Certification Program in partnership with EPA Regions, EPA’s Office of Research and Development, and States.

  7. Acid precipitation: compositional changes during throughfall; soil water. Technical completion report

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, R.

    1984-12-01

    Lysimeters were installed at two soil depths within each of the three major ecosystems on Camels Hump Mountain. Collections were made weekly during the frost-free season of 1982 and 1983. Samples were analyzed for pH, conductivity, and a broad range of metals, anionic and cationic constituents, and for other physical properties. The findings included: soil solutions obtained from the upper-elevations in a northern coniferous forest zone are significantly more acidic than those from the lower elevation hardwood forest zone; soil solutions for all ecological zones are more acidic in the spring during and shortly after snowmelt than they are latermore » in the frost free-season; aluminum in soil solutions from the upper elevations is present in concentrations known to be phytotoxic to seedlings of forest trees and to groundcover plants; cadmium, Pb, and Zn are, in the spring, present in concentrations that are close to being phytotoxic; there are changes in the ratios of divalent cations to specific metals during the season and as functions of altitude and forest zones; nitrate concentration in soil water are also elevation- and time dependent.« less

  8. Dust control at longwalls with water infusion and foam. Technical progress report through November 30, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Foam spray equipment and materials for dust suppression on longwall double drum shearer faces have been procured. This equipment includes metering pumps, foam generators and mounting brackets, foam solutions, flow meters, real time and gravimetric sampling equipment, hoses and valve banks. Initial tests have been conducted in the laboratory with three types of generators and five types of foam solutions. Based on these tests, Senior Conflow's cluster spray and Onyx Chemical Company's millifoam solution have been selected. For pumping foam solution to the shearer, Jon Bean's 2 hp, 120 VAC single-phase ceramic lined piston pump has been selected. For fieldmore » tests, equipment has been installed underground in Dobbin mine in Upper Freeport seam on Eickhoff EDW 300 double drum shearer. Foamspray tests have been conducted. Real time and gravimetric dust samples have been collected. Real time sampling results indicate a dust level reduction of up to 37 percent with foam spray compared to the base case of water sprays.« less

  9. Technology assessment and strategy for development of a Rapid Field Water Microbiology Test Kit. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, D.R.; Schaub, S.A.

    1991-09-01

    A literature and market search of existing technology for the detection, identification, and quantification of microorganisms in water was conducted. Based upon the availability of technologies and their configurations, an assessment of the appropriate strategies to pursue for the near and long term development plans in development of the Rapid Field Bacteriology Test Kit was performed. Near term technologies to improve the Army's capability to detect microorganisms would appear to be essentially improvements in versatility and measurement of coliform indicator organisms. New chromogenic and fluorogenic indicator substances associated with new substrates appear to be best suited for test kit developmentmore » either for quantitative membrane filter tests or presence/absence and multiple fermentation tests. Test times, incubator requirements, and operator involvement appear to be similar to older technologies. Long term development would appear to favor such technologies as genetic probes with amplification of the hydridized nucleic acid materials of positive samples, and some immunological based systems such as enzyme linked, immuno-sorbent assays. In both cases, the major problems would appear to be sample preparation and development of signal strengths from the reactions which would allow the user to see results in 1 hour.« less

  10. Supporting the extensive dairy sheep smallholders of the semi-arid region of Crete through technical intervention.

    PubMed

    Volanis, M; Stefanakis, A; Hadjigeorgiou, I; Zoiopoulos, P

    2007-06-01

    The objective of this field study was to depict the extensive system of dairy sheep farming in the semi-arid environment of the island of Crete and to assess the potential margins of improvement through technical intervention. Forty-three family-run farms keeping a total of 13,870 sheep were surveyed in seven representative areas of the island. Several parameters were dealt with, concerning socio-economy, flock management and productivity. Study areas differed widely regarding feeds supplied per sheep, land cultivated for feeds, grazing land utilized and housing space. A range of parameters were recorded on flock size and their production characteristics such as births, fertility and number of lambs weaned. Milk yield and parameters associated with milk quality, such as somatic cell counts and total microbial flora, were also recorded. Technical intervention was directed towards removal of non-productive animals, programming of matings, balancing of diets, management of grazing lands and health care. Ewe fertility and numbers of lambs weaned per ewe, as well as harvested milk and milk quality (based on somatic cell counts and microbial load of milk) were also significantly improved. Information derived from this study stresses the important role of extension services to small farm sustainability and contributes to our knowledge of the dairy sheep farming systems in countries around the Mediterranean and elsewhere.

  11. Dynamic Behaviour and Seismic Response of Ground Supported Cylindrical Water Tanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asha, Joseph; Glory, Joseph

    2018-05-01

    Liquid storage tank such as in water distribution systems, petroleum plants etc., constitute a vital component of life line systems. Reducing earthquake effects on liquid storage tanks, to minimize the environmental and economic impact of these effects, have always been an important engineering concern. In this paper, the dynamic behavior of cylindrical ground supported concrete water tanks with different aspect ratios is investigated using finite element software ANSYS. The natural frequencies and modal responses are obtained for impulsive and convective modes of vibration. The natural frequency of vibration of the tank is observed to be the lowest at maximum water depth. The fundamental impulsive frequency increases as water level reduces and for water level less than 1/3 of tank height, there is significantly no change in impulsive frequency. The effect of wall flexibility on dynamic behavior of the tank is investigated by performing the modal analysis of flexible and rigid tanks. For a partially filled tank, the results of the present study are of significant relevance. The response of the tank to the transient loading as horizontal ground motion of El Centro earthquake is studied for various water heights. As the height of water on the tank increases, the ultimate maximum seismic response parameters are also observed to be increased. The location of maximum hoop stress varies in accordance with the variations in input ground motion and water fill condition whereas shear and bending moment are maximum at the base.

  12. Risk management frameworks: supporting the next generation of Murray-Darling Basin water sharing plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podger, G. M.; Cuddy, S. M.; Peeters, L.; Smith, T.; Bark, R. H.; Black, D. C.; Wallbrink, P.

    2014-09-01

    Water jurisdictions in Australia are required to prepare and implement water resource plans. In developing these plans the common goal is realising the best possible use of the water resources - maximising outcomes while minimising negative impacts. This requires managing the risks associated with assessing and balancing cultural, industrial, agricultural, social and environmental demands for water within a competitive and resource-limited environment. Recognising this, conformance to international risk management principles (ISO 31000:2009) have been embedded within the Murray-Darling Basin Plan. Yet, to date, there has been little strategic investment by water jurisdictions in bridging the gap between principle and practice. The ISO 31000 principles and the risk management framework that embodies them align well with an adaptive management paradigm within which to conduct water resource planning. They also provide an integrative framework for the development of workflows that link risk analysis with risk evaluation and mitigation (adaptation) scenarios, providing a transparent, repeatable and robust platform. This study, through a demonstration use case and a series of workflows, demonstrates to policy makers how these principles can be used to support the development of the next generation of water sharing plans in 2019. The workflows consider the uncertainty associated with climate and flow inputs, and model parameters on irrigation and hydropower production, meeting environmental flow objectives and recreational use of the water resource. The results provide insights to the risks associated with meeting a range of different objectives.

  13. Evaluation of Crop-Water Consumption Simulation to Support Agricultural Water Resource Management using Satellite-based Water Cycle Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, M.; Bolten, J. D.; Lakshmi, V.

    2016-12-01

    Water scarcity is one of the main factors limiting agricultural development. Numerical models integrated with remote sensing datasets are increasingly being used operationally as inputs for crop water balance models and agricultural forecasting due to increasing availability of high temporal and spatial resolution datasets. However, the model accuracy in simulating soil water content is affected by the accuracy of the soil hydraulic parameters used in the model, which are used in the governing equations. However, soil databases are known to have a high uncertainty across scales. Also, for agricultural sites, the in-situ measurements of soil moisture are currently limited to discrete measurements at specific locations, and such point-based measurements do not represent the spatial distribution at a larger scale accurately, as soil moisture is highly variable both spatially and temporally. The present study utilizes effective soil hydraulic parameters obtained using a 1-km downscaled microwave remote sensing soil moisture product based on the NASA Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) using the genetic algorithm inverse method within the Catchment Land Surface Model (CLSM). Secondly, to provide realistic irrigation estimates for agricultural sites, an irrigation scheme within the land surface model is triggered when the root-zone soil moisture deficit reaches the threshold, 50% with respect to the maximum available water capacity obtained from the effective soil hydraulic parameters. An additional important criterion utilized is the estimation of crop water consumption based on dynamic root growth and uptake in root zone layer. Model performance is evaluated using MODIS land surface temperature (LST) product. The soil moisture estimates for the root zone are also validated with the in situ field data, for three sites (2- irrigated and 1- rainfed) located at the University of Nebraska Agricultural Research and Development Center near Mead, NE and monitored

  14. Technical Note: Novel method for water vapour monitoring using wireless communication networks measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, N.; Alpert, P.; Messer, H.

    2009-04-01

    We propose a new technique that overcomes the obstacles of the existing methods for monitoring near-surface water vapour, by estimating humidity from data collected through existing wireless communication networks. Weather conditions and atmospheric phenomena affect the electromagnetic channel, causing attenuations to the radio signals. Thus, wireless communication networks are in effect built-in environmental monitoring facilities. The wireless microwave links, used in these networks, are widely deployed by cellular providers for backhaul communication between base stations, a few tens of meters above ground level. As a result, if all available measurements are used, the proposed method can provide moisture observations with high spatial resolution and potentially high temporal resolution. Further, the implementation cost is minimal, since the data used are already collected and saved by the cellular operators. In addition - many of these links are installed in areas where access is difficult such as orographic terrain and complex topography. As such, our method enables measurements in places that have been hard to measure in the past, or have never been measured before. The technique is restricted to weather conditions which exclude rain, fog or clouds along the propagation path. Strong winds that may cause movement of the link transmitter or receiver (or both) may also interfere with the ability to conduct accurate measurements. We present results from real-data measurements taken from two microwave links used in a backhaul cellular network that show convincing correlation to surface station humidity measurements. The measurements were taken daily in two sites, one in northern Israel (28 measurements), the other in central Israel (29 measurements). The correlation between the microwave link measurements and the humidity gauges were 0.9 and 0.82 for the north and central sites, respectively. The Root Mean Square Differences (RMSD) were 1.8 g/m3 and 3.4 g/m3 for

  15. Documentation of the runqual module for ADDAMS: Comparison of predicted runoff water quality with standards. Environmental effects of dredging. Technical notes

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, P.R.; Gibson, A.C.; Dardeau, E.A.

    This technical note has a twofold purpose: to describe a technique for comparing the predicted quality of surface runoff from confined dredged material disposal areas with applicable water quality standards and to document a computer program called RUNQUAL, written for that purpose as a part of the Automated Dredging and Disposal Alternatives Management System (ADDAMS).

  16. Environmental effects of dredging. Documentation of the efqual module for ADDAMS: Comparison of predicted effluent water quality with standards. Technical notes

    SciTech Connect

    Palermo, M.R.; Schroeder, P.R.

    This technical note describes a technique for comparison of the predicted quality of effluent discharged from confined dredged material disposal areas with applicable water quality standards. This note also serves as documentation of a computer program called EFQUAL written for that purpose as part of the Automated Dredging and Disposal Alternatives Management System (ADDAMS).

  17. Capture and isotopic exchange method for water and hydrogen isotopes on zeolite catalysts up to technical scale for pre-study of processing highly tritiated water

    SciTech Connect

    Michling, R.; Braun, A.; Cristescu, I.

    2015-03-15

    Highly tritiated water (HTW) may be generated at ITER by various processes and, due to the excessive radio toxicity, the self-radiolysis and the exceedingly corrosive property of HTW, a potential hazard is associated with its storage and process. Therefore, the capture and exchange method for HTW utilizing Molecular Sieve Beds (MSB) was investigated in view of adsorption capacity, isotopic exchange performance and process parameters. For the MSB, different types of zeolite were selected. All zeolite materials were additionally coated with platinum. The following work comprised the selection of the most efficient zeolite candidate based on detailed parametric studies during themore » H{sub 2}/D{sub 2}O laboratory scale exchange experiments (about 25 g zeolite per bed) at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK). For the zeolite, characterization analytical techniques such as Infrared Spectroscopy, Thermogravimetry and online mass spectrometry were implemented. Followed by further investigation of the selected zeolite catalyst under full technical operation, a MSB (about 22 kg zeolite) was processed with hydrogen flow rates up to 60 mol*h{sup -1} and deuterated water loads up to 1.6 kg in view of later ITER processing of arising HTW. (authors)« less

  18. Puget Sound Tidal Energy In-Water Testing and Development Project Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Collar, Craig W

    2012-11-16

    Tidal energy represents potential for the generation of renewable, emission free, environmentally benign, and cost effective energy from tidal flows. A successful tidal energy demonstration project in Puget Sound, Washington may enable significant commercial development resulting in important benefits for the northwest region and the nation. This project promoted the United States Department of Energy's Wind and Hydropower Technologies Program's goals of advancing the commercial viability, cost-competitiveness, and market acceptance of marine hydrokinetic systems. The objective of the Puget Sound Tidal Energy Demonstration Project is to conduct in-water testing and evaluation of tidal energy technology as a first step towardmore » potential construction of a commercial-scale tidal energy power plant. The specific goal of the project phase covered by this award was to conduct all activities necessary to complete engineering design and obtain construction approvals for a pilot demonstration plant in the Admiralty Inlet region of the Puget Sound. Public Utility District No. 1 of Snohomish County (The District) accomplished the objectives of this award through four tasks: Detailed Admiralty Inlet Site Studies, Plant Design and Construction Planning, Environmental and Regulatory Activities, and Management and Reporting. Pre-Installation studies completed under this award provided invaluable data used for site selection, environmental evaluation and permitting, plant design, and construction planning. However, these data gathering efforts are not only important to the Admiralty Inlet pilot project. Lessons learned, in particular environmental data gathering methods, can be applied to future tidal energy projects in the United States and other parts of the world. The District collaborated extensively with project stakeholders to complete the tasks for this award. This included Federal, State, and local government agencies, tribal governments, environmental groups, and

  19. A Wireless Sensor Network-Based Approach with Decision Support for Monitoring Lake Water Quality.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaoci; Yi, Jianjun; Chen, Shaoli; Zhu, Xiaomin

    2015-11-19

    Online monitoring and water quality analysis of lakes are urgently needed. A feasible and effective approach is to use a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN). Lake water environments, like other real world environments, present many changing and unpredictable situations. To ensure flexibility in such an environment, the WSN node has to be prepared to deal with varying situations. This paper presents a WSN self-configuration approach for lake water quality monitoring. The approach is based on the integration of a semantic framework, where a reasoner can make decisions on the configuration of WSN services. We present a WSN ontology and the relevant water quality monitoring context information, which considers its suitability in a pervasive computing environment. We also propose a rule-based reasoning engine that is used to conduct decision support through reasoning techniques and context-awareness. To evaluate the approach, we conduct usability experiments and performance benchmarks.

  20. Improving Depression Care for Adults With Serious Mental Illness in Underresourced Areas: Community Coalitions Versus Technical Support.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Enrico G; Shaner, Roderick; Tang, Lingqi; Chung, Bowen; Jones, Felica; Whittington, Yolanda; Miranda, Jeanne; Wells, Kenneth B

    2018-02-01

    Community Partners in Care (CPIC) was a group-randomized study of two approaches to implementing expanded collaborative depression care: Community Engagement and Planning (CEP), a coalition approach, and Resources for Services (RS), a technical assistance approach. Collaborative care networks in both arms involved health care and other agencies in five service sectors. This study examined six- and 12-month outcomes for CPIC participants with serious mental illness. This secondary analysis focused on low-income CPIC participants from racial-ethnic minority groups with serious mental illness in underresourced Los Angeles communities (N=504). Serious mental illness was defined as self-reported severe depression (≥20 on the Patient Health Questionnaire-8) at baseline or a lifetime history of bipolar disorder or psychosis. Logistic and Poisson regression with multiple imputation and response weights, controlling for covariates, was used to model intervention effects. Among CPIC participants, 50% had serious mental illness. Among those with serious mental illness, CEP relative to RS reduced the likelihood of poor mental health-related quality of life (OR=.62, 95% CI=.41-.95) but not depression (primary outcomes); reduced the likelihood of having homelessness risk factors and behavioral health hospitalizations; increased the likelihood of mental wellness; reduced specialty mental health medication and counseling visits; and increased faith-based depression visits (each p<.05) at six months. There were no statistically significant 12-month effects. Findings suggest that a coalition approach to implementing expanded collaborative depression care, compared with technical assistance to individual programs, may reduce short-term behavioral health hospitalizations and improve mental health-related quality of life and some social outcomes for adults with serious mental illness, although no evidence was found for long-term effects in this subsample.

  1. REAL-TIME high-resolution urban surface water flood mapping to support flood emergency management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, M.; Yu, D.; Wilby, R.

    2016-12-01

    Strong evidence has shown that urban flood risks will substantially increase because of urbanisation, economic growth, and more frequent weather extremes. To effectively manage these risks require not only traditional grey engineering solutions, but also a green management solution. Surface water flood risk maps based on return period are useful for planning purposes, but are limited for application in flood emergencies, because of the spatiotemporal heterogeneity of rainfall and complex urban topography. Therefore, a REAL-TIME urban surface water mapping system is highly beneficial to increasing urban resilience to surface water flooding. This study integrated numerical weather forecast and high-resolution urban surface water modelling into a real-time multi-level surface water mapping system for Leicester City in the UK. For rainfall forecast, the 1km composite rain radar from the Met Office was used, and we used the advanced rainfall-runoff model - FloodMap to predict urban surface water at both city-level (10m-20m) and street-level (2m-5m). The system is capable of projecting 3-hour urban surface water flood, driven by rainfall derived from UK Met Office radar. Moreover, this system includes real-time accessibility mapping to assist the decision-making of emergency responders. This will allow accessibility (e.g. time to travel) from individual emergency service stations (e.g. Fire & Rescue; Ambulance) to vulnerable places to be evaluated. The mapping results will support contingency planning by emergency responders ahead of potential flood events.

  2. Redistribution of wastewater alkalinity with a microbial fuel cell to support nitrification of reject water.

    PubMed

    Modin, Oskar; Fukushi, Kensuke; Rabaey, Korneel; Rozendal, René A; Yamamoto, Kazuo

    2011-04-01

    In wastewater treatment plants, the reject water from the sludge treatment processes typically contains high ammonium concentrations, which constitute a significant internal nitrogen load in the plant. Often, a separate nitrification reactor is used to treat the reject water before it is fed back into the plant. The nitrification reaction consumes alkalinity, which has to be replenished by dosing e.g. NaOH or Ca(OH)(2). In this study, we investigated the use of a two-compartment microbial fuel cell (MFC) to redistribute alkalinity from influent wastewater to support nitrification of reject water. In an MFC, alkalinity is consumed in the anode compartment and produced in the cathode compartment. We use this phenomenon and the fact that the influent wastewater flow is many times larger than the reject water flow to transfer alkalinity from the influent wastewater to the reject water. In a laboratory-scale system, ammonium oxidation of synthetic reject water passed through the cathode chamber of an MFC, increased from 73.8 ± 8.9 mgN/L under open-circuit conditions to 160.1 ± 4.8 mgN/L when a current of 1.96 ± 0.37 mA (15.1 mA/L total MFC liquid volume) was flowing through the MFC. These results demonstrated the positive effect of an MFC on ammonium oxidation of alkalinity-limited reject water. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Attitudinal Factors and Personal Characteristics Influence Support for Shellfish Aquaculture in Rhode Island (US) Coastal Waters.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Tracey M; Jin, Di

    2018-05-01

    This study explores public interests associated with shellfish aquaculture development in coastal waters of Rhode Island (US). Specifically, we examine (1) the levels of public support for (or opposition to) shellfish aquaculture development and (2) factors driving the levels of support, using survey data and ordinal logistic regressions. Results of the analysis identify several key attitudinal factors affecting individual's support for shellfish aquaculture in Rhode Island (RI). The level of support is positively associated with attitudes related to shellfish aquaculture's benefits to the local economy and its role as a nutritional food option, and negatively influenced by attitudes related to aquaculture farms' effects on aesthetic quality and their interference with other uses. Findings highlight that support for (or opposition to) aquaculture in RI is driven more by attitudes associated with social impacts than by those associated with environmental impacts. The level of support is also affected by personal characteristics related to an individual's participation in recreational activities. For instance, bicycle riders tend to be supportive of shellfish aquaculture while respondents who participate in sailing and birding are less supportive. By identifying the broader public's interests in shellfish aquaculture, findings from this study and others like it can be used to address public concerns, incorporate public perceptions and attitudes into permitting decisions, and develop outreach targeted at specific stakeholder groups.

  4. Dredging Operations Technical Support Program. General Decisionmaking Framework for Management of Dredged Material: Example Application to Commencement Bay, Washington.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    Figure 4) and was used to predict surface runoff water quality from dredged material as part of the CE/EPA FVP ( Westerdahl and Skogerboe 1981; Lee and...Sedimrnts," Miscellaneous Paper D-83-1, US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS. Westerdahl , H. E., and Skogerboe, J. G. 1981

  5. Recreation and protected land resources in the United States: a technical document supporting the Forest Service 2010 RPA Assessment

    Treesearch

    H. Ken Cordell; Carter J. Betz; Stanley J. Zarnoch

    2013-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the public and private land and water resources of the United States. Described is use of natural and developed land as recreation resources with an emphasis on nature-based recreation. Also described is land protection through conservation organizations and public funding programs, with an emphasis on protecting private land through...

  6. Utilization of a New Intracranial Support Catheter as an Intermediate Aspiration Catheter in the Treatment of Acute Ischemic Stroke: Technical Report on Initial Experience.

    PubMed

    Lozano, J Diego; Massari, Francesco; Howk, Mary C; de Macedo Rodrigues, Katyucia; Brooks, Christopher; Perras, Mary; Rex, David E; Wakhloo, Ajay K; Kühn, Anna Luisa; Puri, Ajit S

    2016-05-21

    The endovascular management of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) due to emergency large vessel occlusion (ELVO) has become the standard of care after the recent publication of landmark randomized, controlled trials. Mechanical thrombectomy, in addition to intravenous thrombolysis (within 4.5 hours when eligible), is now part of the algorithm of the standard of care when treating AIS in patients with ELVO in the anterior circulation up to six hours after symptom onset. A newly introduced device, the Arc™ intracranial support catheter (Medtronic, Irvine, USA), is specifically designed for the introduction of neurointerventional devices into the cerebral vasculature and facilitates the delivery of microcatheters into smaller, more distal intracranial vessels. This technical report describes the use of the Arc™ intracranial support catheter in the setting of AIS.

  7. Utilization of a New Intracranial Support Catheter as an Intermediate Aspiration Catheter in the Treatment of Acute Ischemic Stroke: Technical Report on Initial Experience

    PubMed Central

    Lozano, J. Diego; Massari, Francesco; Howk, Mary C; de Macedo Rodrigues, Katyucia; Brooks, Christopher; Perras, Mary; Rex, David E; Wakhloo, Ajay K; Kühn, Anna Luisa

    2016-01-01

    The endovascular management of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) due to emergency large vessel occlusion (ELVO) has become the standard of care after the recent publication of landmark randomized, controlled trials. Mechanical thrombectomy, in addition to intravenous thrombolysis (within 4.5 hours when eligible), is now part of the algorithm of the standard of care when treating AIS in patients with ELVO in the anterior circulation up to six hours after symptom onset. A newly introduced device, the Arc™ intracranial support catheter (Medtronic, Irvine, USA), is specifically designed for the introduction of neurointerventional devices into the cerebral vasculature and facilitates the delivery of microcatheters into smaller, more distal intracranial vessels. This technical report describes the use of the Arc™ intracranial support catheter in the setting of AIS. PMID:27382525

  8. Graphene-based materials supported advanced oxidation processes for water and wastewater treatment: a review.

    PubMed

    Nidheesh, Puthiya Veetil

    2017-12-01

    Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) received much attention in the field of water and wastewater treatment due to its ability to mineralize persistent organic pollutants from water medium. The addition of graphene-based materials increased the efficiency of all AOPs significantly. The present review analyzes the performance of graphene-based materials that supported AOPs in detail. Recent developments in this field are highlighted. A special focus has been awarded for the performance enhancement mechanism of AOPs in the presence of graphene-based materials.

  9. Solid polymer electrolyte water electrolysis preprototype subsystem. [oxygen production for life support systems on space stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Hardware and controls developed for an electrolysis demonstration unit for use with the life sciences payload program and in NASA's regenerative life support evaluation program are described. Components discussed include: the electrolysis module; power conditioner; phase separator-pump and hydrogen differential regulator; pressure regulation of O2, He, and N2; air-cooled heat exchanger; water accumulator; fluid flow sight gage assembly; catalytic O2/H2 sensor; gas flow sensors; low voltage power supply; 100 Amp DC contactor assembly; and the water purifier design.

  10. Nanosheet Supported Single-Metal Atom Bifunctional Catalyst for Overall Water Splitting.

    PubMed

    Ling, Chongyi; Shi, Li; Ouyang, Yixin; Zeng, Xiao Cheng; Wang, Jinlan

    2017-08-09

    Nanosheet supported single-atom catalysts (SACs) can make full use of metal atoms and yet entail high selectivity and activity, and bifunctional catalysts can enable higher performance while lowering the cost than two separate unifunctional catalysts. Supported single-atom bifunctional catalysts are therefore of great economic interest and scientific importance. Here, on the basis of first-principles computations, we report a design of the first single-atom bifunctional eletrocatalyst, namely, isolated nickel atom supported on β 12 boron monolayer (Ni 1 /β 12 -BM), to achieve overall water splitting. This nanosheet supported SAC exhibits remarkable electrocatalytic performance with the computed overpotential for oxygen/hydrogen evolution reaction being just 0.40/0.06 V. The ab initio molecular dynamics simulation shows that the SAC can survive up to 800 K elevated temperature, while enacting a high energy barrier of 1.68 eV to prevent isolated Ni atoms from clustering. A viable experimental route for the synthesis of Ni 1 /β 12 -BM SAC is demonstrated from computer simulation. The desired nanosheet supported single-atom bifunctional catalysts not only show great potential for achieving overall water splitting but also offer cost-effective opportunities for advancing clean energy technology.

  11. Sewer-mining: A water reuse option supporting circular economy, public service provision and entrepreneurship.

    PubMed

    Makropoulos, C; Rozos, E; Tsoukalas, I; Plevri, A; Karakatsanis, G; Karagiannidis, L; Makri, E; Lioumis, C; Noutsopoulos, C; Mamais, D; Rippis, C; Lytras, E

    2018-06-15

    Water scarcity, either due to increased urbanisation or climatic variability, has motivated societies to reduce pressure on water resources mainly by reducing water demand. However, this practice alone is not sufficient to guarantee the quality of life that high quality water services underpin, especially within a context of increased urbanisation. As such, the idea of water reuse has been gaining momentum for some time and has recently found a more general context within the idea of the Circular Economy. This paper is set within the context of an ongoing discussion between centralized and decentralized water reuse techniques and the investigation of trade-offs between efficiency and economic viability of reuse at different scales. Specifically, we argue for an intermediate scale of a water reuse option termed 'sewer-mining', which could be considered a reuse scheme at the neighbourhood scale. We suggest that sewer mining (a) provides a feasible alternative reuse option when the geography of the wastewater treatment plant is problematic, (b) relies on mature treatment technologies and (c) presents an opportunity for Small Medium Enterprises (SME) to be involved in the water market, securing environmental, social and economic benefits. To support this argument, we report on a pilot sewer-mining application in Athens, Greece. The pilot, integrates two subsystems: a packaged treatment unit and an information and communications technology (ICT) infrastructure. The paper reports on the pilot's overall performance and critically evaluates the potential of the sewer-mining idea to become a significant piece of the circular economy puzzle for water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The New York City Operations Support Tool: Supporting Water Supply Operations for Millions in an Era of Changing Patterns in Hydrological Extreme Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matonse, A. H.; Porter, J. H.; Frei, A.

    2015-12-01

    Providing an average 1.1 billion gallons (~ 4.2 x 106 cubic meters) of drinking water per day to approximately nine million people in New York City (NYC) and four upstate counties, the NYC water supply is among the world's largest unfiltered systems. In addition to providing a reliable water supply in terms of water quantity and quality, the city has to fulfill other flow objectives to serve downstream communities. At times, such as during extreme hydrological events, water quality issues may restrict water usage for parts of the system. To support a risk-based water supply decision making process NYC has developed the Operations Support Tool (OST). OST combines a water supply systems model with reservoir water quality models, near real time data ingestion, data base management and an ensemble hydrological forecast. A number of reports have addressed the frequency and intensities of extreme hydrological events across the continental US. In the northeastern US studies have indicated an increase in the frequency of extremely large precipitation and streamflow events during the most recent decades. During this presentation we describe OST and, using case studies we demonstrate how this tool has been useful to support operational decisions. We also want to motivate a discussion about how undergoing changes in patterns of hydrological extreme events elevate the challenge faced by water supply managers and the role of the scientific community to integrate nonstationarity approaches in hydrologic forecast and modeling.

  13. [The nursing profession regarding limitation of life support treatment in the intensive care units. Technical and practical features].

    PubMed

    Falcó-Pegueroles, A

    2009-01-01

    The scientific and technical developments in medicine in the recent decades have greatly helped to increase life expectancy and quality of life of many patients. In hospitals, this technological scenario has clearly influenced patient care, for example, in the Intensive Medicine Departments, leading to new clinical perspectives and has made the growing complexity of giving treatment and making decisions more evident. In some cases, it is difficult to predict how beneficial intensive medical care can be when there is no reasonable prospect of improving the patient's health, prolonging their life in situations with poor prognosis or dramatically reducing their quality of life. The clinical diagnosis of irreversibility, through indicators of severity and principles of beneficence, autonomy and justice in the professional conduct are the elements that give rise to the consideration of withholding and withdrawing treatment in the critical patient. However, there are other factors that need to be taken into consideration and that are analyzed by professional ethics and bioethics. It is from this approach that any decision involving withholding and withdrawing treatment should be taken so that these decisions can be considered estimable form an ethical point of view. The nursing professional in intensive care units is expected to actively participate in decision making by contributing with their humanizing vision and care ethics. They should be aware of their contribution in the medical team behaving, representing and encouraging the requirements of bioethics.

  14. The Impact of the Student Support Services Program on the Retention of Students at Southeast Kentucky Community and Technical College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundy, Carolyn Mitchell

    2017-01-01

    As retention becomes more of a key issue for community colleges, it is important that these institutions create an environment that is easy to navigate if they are to retain a greater percentage of their students. This study investigates the impact of the Student Support Services (SSS) program on the retention of students at Southeast Kentucky…

  15. Support of experimental high energy physics research at the University of South Carolina. Final technical report, 1980--1992

    SciTech Connect

    Childers, R.L.; Darden, C.W.; Rosenfeld, C.

    1992-12-31

    Twelve years of support by the US Department of Energy have turned a two man team with no equipment and no graduate students working on a single experiment into an active group of four professors, one post-doctoral research associate and three graduate students working with appropriate equipment on three major experiments and several other projects. 162 references.

  16. Catalytic hydrodechlorination of trichloroethylene in water with supported CMC-stabilized palladium nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Man; Bacik, Deborah B; Roberts, Christopher B; Zhao, Dongye

    2013-07-01

    In this work, we developed and tested a new class of supported Pd catalysts by immobilizing CMC (carboxymethyl cellulose) stabilized Pd nanoparticles onto alumina support. The alumina supported Pd nanoparticles were able to facilitate rapid and complete hydrodechlorination of TCE (trichloroethylene) without intermediate by-products detected. With a Pd mass loading of 0.33 wt% of the alumina mass, the observed pseudo first order reaction rate constant, k(obs), for the catalyst was increased from 28 to 109 L/min/g when CMC concentration was raised from 0.005 to 0.15 wt%. The activity increase was in accord with an increase of the Pd dispersion (measured via CO chemisorption) from 30.4% to 45.1%. Compared to the commercial alumina supported Pd, which has a lower Pd dispersion of 21%, our CMC-stabilized Pd nanoparticles offered more than 7 times greater activity. Pre-calcination treatment of the supported catalyst resulted in minor drop in activity, yet greatly reduced bleeding (<6%) of the Pd nanoparticles from the support during multiple cycles of applications. The presence of DOM (dissolved organic matter) at up to 10 mg/L as TOC had negligible effect on the catalytic activity. The alumina supported CMC-stabilized Pd nanoparticles may serve as a class of more effective catalysts for water treatment uses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Microgravity effects on water supply and substrate properties in porous matrix root support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bingham, G. E.; Jones, S. B.; Or, D.; Podolski, I. G.; Levinskikh, M. A.; Sytchov, V. N.; Ivanova, T.; Kostov, P.; Sapunova, S.; Dandolov, I.; hide

    2000-01-01

    The control of water content and water movement in granular substrate-based plant root systems in microgravity is a complex problem. Improper water and oxygen delivery to plant roots has delayed studies of the effects of microgravity on plant development and the use of plants in physical and mental life support systems. Our international effort (USA, Russia and Bulgaria) has upgraded the plant growth facilities on the Mir Orbital Station (OS) and used them to study the full life cycle of plants. The Bulgarian-Russian-developed Svet Space Greenhouse (SG) system was upgraded on the Mir OS in 1996. The US developed Gas Exchange Measurement System (GEMS) greatly extends the range of environmental parameters monitored. The Svet-GEMS complex was used to grow a fully developed wheat crop during 1996. The growth rate and development of these plants compared well with earth grown plants indicating that the root zone water and oxygen stresses that have limited plant development in previous long-duration experiments have been overcome. However, management of the root environment during this experiment involved several significant changes in control settings as the relationship between the water delivery system, water status sensors, and the substrate changed during the growth cycles. c 2001 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Microgravity Effects on Water Supply and Substrate Properties in Porous Matrix Root Support Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingham, G. E.; Jones, S. B.; Or, D.; Podolski, I. G.; Levinskikh, M. A.; Sytchov, V. N.; Ivanova, T.; Kostov, P.; Sapunova, S.; Dandolov, I.; Bubenheim, D. B.; Jahns, G.

    2000-12-01

    The control of water content and water movement in granular substrate-based plant root systems in microgravity is a complex problem. Improper water and oxygen delivery to plant roots has delayed studies of the effects of microgravity on plant development and the use of plants in physical and mental life support systems. Our international effort (USA, Russia and Bulgaria) has upgraded the plant growth facilities on the Mir Orbital Station (OS) and used them to study the full life cycle of plants. The Bulgarian-Russian-developed Svet Space Greenhouse (SG) system was upgraded on the Mir OS in 1996. The US developed Gas Exchange Measurement System (GEMS) greatly extends the range of environmental parameters monitored. The Svet-GEMS complex was used to grow a fully developed wheat crop during 1996. The growth rate and development of these plants compared well with earth grown plants indicating that the root zone water and oxygen stresses that have limited plant development in previous long-duration experiments have been overcome. However, management of the root environment during this experiment involved several significant changes in control settings as the relationship between the water delivery system, water status sensors, and the substrate changed during the growth cycles.

  19. Computer-supported games and role plays in teaching water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoekstra, A. Y.

    2012-08-01

    There is an increasing demand for an interdisciplinary approach in teaching water management. Computer-supported games and role plays offer the potential of creating an environment in which different disciplines come together and in which students are challenged to develop integrated understanding. Two examples are discussed. The River Basin Game is a common-pool resource game in which participants experience the risk of over-abstractions of water in a river basin and learn how this risk relates to the complexity of the system, the conflict between individual and group optimums and the difficulty in achieving good cooperation. The Globalization of Water Role Play makes participants familiar with the global dimension of water management by letting them experience how national governments can integrate considerations of water scarcity and domestic water productivities into decisions on international trade in commodities like food, cotton and bio-energy. The two examples illustrate that play sessions inspire participants to think about the functioning of systems as a whole and to develop good cooperative courses of action, whereby both uncertainties about the system and the presence of different values and perspectives among participants play a role.

  20. Total Water Measurements Using In Situ UV Fragment Fluorescence Spectroscopy in Support of CRYSTAL-FACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, James G.

    2004-01-01

    Given both the powerful diagnostic importance of the condensed phases of water for dynamics and the impact of phase changes in water on the radiation field, the accurate, in situ observation of total water is of central importance to CRYSTAL-FACE. This is clear both from the defined scientific objectives of the NRA and from developments in the coupled fields of stratosphere/troposphere exchange, cirrus cloud formation/removal and mechanisms for the distribution of water vapor in the middle/upper troposphere. Accordingly, we were funded under NASA Grant NAG5-115487 to perform the following tasks for the CRYSTAL-FACE mission that took place in Key West, Florida, during July 2001: 1) Prepare the Total Water instrument for integration into the WB57F and test flights scheduled for Spring 2002. 2) Calibrate and prepare the Total Water instrument for the Summer 2002 CRYSTAL-FACE science flights based in Jacksonville, Florida. 3) Provide both science and engineering support for the above-mentioned efforts. 4) Analyze and interpret the CRYSTAL-FACE data in collaboration with the other mission scientists. 5) Attend the proposed science workshop in Spring 2003. 6) Publish the data and analysis in peer-reviewed journals.

  1. Information support for decision making on dispatching control of water distribution in irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurchenko, I. F.

    2018-05-01

    The research has been carried out on developing the technique of supporting decision making for on-line control, operational management of water allocation for the interfarm irrigation projects basing on the analytical patterns of dispatcher control. This technique provides an increase of labour productivity as well as higher management quality due to the improved level of automation, as well as decision making optimization taking into account diagnostics of the issues, solutions classification, information being required to the decision makers.

  2. Supplemental irrigation as an initiative to support water and food security: A global evaluation of the potential to support and increase precipitation-fed wheat production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smilovic, M.; Gleeson, T. P.; Adamowski, J. F.; Langhorn, C.; Kienzle, S. W.

    2016-12-01

    Supplemental irrigation is the practice of supporting precipitation-fed agriculture with limited irrigation. Precipitation-fed agriculture dominates the agricultural landscape, but is vulnerable to intraseasonal and interannual variability in precipitation and climate. The interplay between food security, water resources, ecosystem health, energy, and livelihoods necessitates evaluating and integrating initiatives that increase agricultural production while reducing demands on water resources. Supplemental irrigation is the practice of minimally irrigating in an effort to stabilize and increase agricultural production, as well as increase water productivity - the amount of crop produced per unit of water. The potential of supplemental irrigation to support both water and food security has yet to be evaluated at regional and global scales. We evaluate whether supplemental irrigation could stabilize and increase agricultural production of wheat by determining locally-calibrated water use-crop yield relationships, known as crop-water production functions. Crop-water production functions are functions of seasonal water use and crop yield, and previous efforts have largely ignored the effects of the temporal distribution of water use throughout the growing season. We significantly improve upon these efforts and provide an opportunity to evaluate supplemental irrigation that appropriately acknowledges the effects of irrigation scheduling. Integrating agroclimatic and crop data with the crop-water model Aquacrop, we determine the increases in wheat production achieved by maximizing water productivity, sharing limited water between different years, and other irrigation scenarios. The methodology presented and evaluation of supplemental irrigation provides water mangers, policy makers, governments, and non-governmental organizations the tools to appropriately understand and determine the potential of this initiative to support precipitation-fed agriculture.

  3. ARRA FEMP Technical Assistance -- Federal Aviation Administration Project 209 -- Control Tower and Support Building, Palm Springs, CA

    SciTech Connect

    Arends, J.; Sandusky, William F.

    2010-03-31

    This report represents findings of a design review team that evaluated construction documents (at the 100% level) and operating specifications for a new control tower and support building that will be built in Palm Springs, California by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The focus of the review was to identify measures that could be incorporated into the final design and operating specifications that would result in additional energy savings for the FAA that would not have otherwise occurred.

  4. Modelling tools to support the harmonization of Water Framework Directive and Common Agricultural Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tediosi, A.; Bulgheroni, C.; Sali, G.; Facchi, A.; Gandolfi, C.

    2009-04-01

    After a few years from the delivery of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) the need to link agriculture and WFD has emerged as one of the highest priorities; therefore, it is important to discuss on how the EU Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) can contribute to the achievements of the WFD objectives. The recent CAP reform - known as Mid Term Review (MTR) or Fischler Reform - has increased the opportunities, offering to farmers increased support to address some environmental issues. The central novelty coming from the MTR is the introduction of a farm single payment which aims to the Decoupling of EU Agricultural Support from production. Other MTR important topics deal with the Modulation of the payments, the Cross-Compliance and the strengthening of the Rural Development policy. All these new elements will affect the farmers' behaviour, steering their productive choices for the future, which, in turn, will have consequences on the water demand for irrigation. Indeed, from the water quantity viewpoint, agriculture is a large consumer and improving water use efficiency is one of the main issues at stake, following the increasing impacts of water scarcity and droughts across Europe in a context of climate change. According to a recent survey of the European Commission the saving potential in the agricultural sector is 43% of present abstraction and 95% of it is concentrated in southern europe. Many models have been developed to forecast the farmers' behaviour as a consequence of agricultural policies, both at sector and regional level; all of them are founded on Mathematical Programming techniques and many of them use the Positive approach, which better fits the territorial dimension. A large body of literature also exists focusing on the assessment of irrigation water requirements. The examples of conjunctive modelling of the two aspects are however much more limited. The work presented has got some innovative aspects: not only does it couple an economical model

  5. On the mobility of carbon-supported platinum nanoparticles towards unveiling cathode degradation in water electrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paciok, Paul; Schalenbach, Maximilian; Carmo, Marcelo; Stolten, Detlef

    2017-10-01

    This study investigates the influence of the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) overpotential on the mobility of carbon-supported platinum particles. The migration of the platinum over the carbon support was analyzed by means of identical location transmission electron microscopy (IL-TEM). While at potentials of 0.1 and 0 V vs. reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE), no changes to the Pt/C material were observed. With a decrease of the overpotential to -0.1 V vs. RHE, an increase in the quantity of migrating platinum particles took place. At -0.2 V vs. RHE, a further rise in the particle migration was observed. The effect of the overpotential on the migration was explained by a higher hydrogen generation rate, the formation of a hydrogen monolayer on the platinum and the resulting changes of the platinum support distance. The mechanisms revealed in this study could describe a relevant source of degradation of PEM water electrolyzers.

  6. Strengthening government management capacity to scale up HIV prevention programs through the use of Technical Support Units: lessons from Karnataka state, India

    PubMed Central

    Sgaier, Sema K; Anthony, John; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Baer, James; Malve, Vidyacharan; Bhalla, Aparajita; Hugar, Vijaykumar S

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Scaling up HIV prevention programming among key populations (female sex workers and men who have sex with men) has been a central strategy of the Government of India. However, state governments have lacked the technical and managerial capacity to oversee and scale up interventions or to absorb donor-funded programs. In response, the national government contracted Technical Support Units (TSUs), teams with expertise from the private and nongovernmental sectors, to collaborate with and assist state governments. In 2008, a TSU was established in Karnataka, one of 6 Indian states with the highest HIV prevalence in the country and where monitoring showed that its prevention programs were reaching only 5% of key populations. The TSU provided support to the state in 5 key areas: assisting in strategic planning, rolling out a comprehensive monitoring and evaluation system, providing supportive supervision to intervention units, facilitating training, and assisting with information, education, and communication activities. This collaborative management model helped to increase capacity of the state, enabling it to take over funding and oversight of HIV prevention programs previously funded through donors. With the combined efforts of the TSU and the state government, the number of intervention units statewide increased from 40 to 126 between 2009 and 2013. Monthly contacts with female sex workers increased from 5% in 2008 to 88% in 2012, and with men who have sex with men, from 36% in 2009 to 81% in 2012. There were also increases in the proportion of both populations who visited HIV testing and counseling centers (from 3% to 47% among female sex workers and from 6% to 33% among men who have sex with men) and sexually transmitted infection clinics (from 4% to 75% among female sex workers and from 7% to 67% among men who have sex with men). Changes in sexual behaviors among key populations were also documented. For example, between 2008 and 2010, the proportion of

  7. Optimization of water balance within the martian crew life support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sychev, V.; Levinskikh, M.

    The present-day scenarios of the first exploration mission differ in the total length crew size period of the stay on Mars etc However no matter the scenario one of the common problems is optimization of water balance within the crew life support system Water balance optimization implies in addition to regeneration of atmospheric moisture and urine also dehydration of biowastes In this mission all wastes will be stored and for this reason safe storage is prerequisite Investigations of two-component laboratory BLSS in which the autotrophic component was composed of algae Spirulina platensis and the heterotrophic component was represented by Japanese quail Coturnix coturnix japonica dom showed that optimization of the autotrophic and heterotrophic gas exchange and water regeneration from quail biowastes could raise the system susbstance balance to 76 of the total balance during autonomic cultivation of algae and birds In these investigations dehydration of quail biowastes caused significant pollution of water and air by organics toxic for humans It was demonstrated that the sorption technologies applied on the Russian space station MIR and ISS cannot fully absorb organic contaminants released in the process of quail wastes drying Algal suspension as a hydrobiological filter was able to control the organic pollination of both air and water These results are in agreement with the data of ground-based simulation studies with participation of human subjects at IBMP According to the simulation data intensive

  8. Water oxidation by size selected Co 27 clusters supported on Fe 2O 3

    DOE PAGES

    Pellin, Michael J.; Riha, Shannon C.; Tyo, Eric C.; ...

    2016-09-22

    The complexity of the water oxidation reaction makes understanding the role of individual catalytic sites critical to improving the process. Here, size-selected 27-atom cobalt clusters (Co 27) deposited on hematite (Fe 2O 3) anodes were tested for water oxidation activity. The uniformity of these anodes allows measurement of the activity of catalytic sites of well-defined nuclearity and known density. Grazing incidence X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (GIXANES) characterization of the anodes before and after electrochemical cycling demonstrates that these Co 27 clusters are stable to dissolution even in the harsh water oxidation electrochemical environment. They are also stable under illumination atmore » the equivalent of 0.4suns irradiation. The clusters show turnover rates for water oxidation that are comparable or higher than those reported for Pd- and Co-based materials or for hematite. The support for the Co 27 clusters is Fe 2O 3 grown by atomic layer deposition on a Si chip. We have chosen to deposit a Fe2O3 layer that is only a few unit cells thick (2nm), to remove complications related to exciton diffusion. We find that the electrocatalytic and the photoelectrocatalytic activity of the Co 27/Fe 2O 3 material is significantly improved when the samples are annealed (with the clusters already deposited). Lastly, given that the support is thin and that the cluster deposition density is equivalent to approximately 5% of an atomic monolayer, we suggest that annealing may significantly improve the exciton diffusion from the support to the catalytic moiety.« less

  9. NASA COAST and OCEANIA Airborne Missions Support Ecosystem and Water Quality Research in the Coastal Zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guild, Liane; Kudela, Raphael; Hooker, Stanford; Morrow, John; Russell, Philip; Palacios, Sherry; Livingston, John M.; Negrey, Kendra; Torres-Perez, Juan; Broughton, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    NASA has a continuing requirement to collect high-quality in situ data for the vicarious calibration of current and next generation ocean color satellite sensors and to validate the algorithms that use the remotely sensed observations. Recent NASA airborne missions over Monterey Bay, CA, have demonstrated novel above- and in-water measurement capabilities supporting a combined airborne sensor approach (imaging spectrometer, microradiometers, and a sun photometer). The results characterize coastal atmospheric and aquatic properties through an end-to-end assessment of image acquisition, atmospheric correction, algorithm application, plus sea-truth observations from state-of-the-art instrument systems. The primary goal is to demonstrate the following in support of calibration and validation exercises for satellite coastal ocean color products: 1) the utility of a multi-sensor airborne instrument suite to assess the bio-optical properties of coastal California, including water quality; and 2) the importance of contemporaneous atmospheric measurements to improve atmospheric correction in the coastal zone. The imaging spectrometer (Headwall) is optimized in the blue spectral domain to emphasize remote sensing of marine and freshwater ecosystems. The novel airborne instrument, Coastal Airborne In-situ Radiometers (C-AIR) provides measurements of apparent optical properties with high dynamic range and fidelity for deriving exact water leaving radiances at the land-ocean boundary, including radiometrically shallow aquatic ecosystems. Simultaneous measurements supporting empirical atmospheric correction of image data are accomplished using the Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14). Flight operations are presented for the instrument payloads using the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS) Twin Otter flown over Monterey Bay during the seasonal fall algal bloom in 2011 (COAST) and 2013 (OCEANIA) to support bio-optical measurements of

  10. OpenDanubia - An integrated, modular simulation system to support regional water resource management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muerth, M.; Waldmann, D.; Heinzeller, C.; Hennicker, R.; Mauser, W.

    2012-04-01

    The already completed, multi-disciplinary research project GLOWA-Danube has developed a regional scale, integrated modeling system, which was successfully applied on the 77,000 km2 Upper Danube basin to investigate the impact of Global Change on both the natural and anthropogenic water cycle. At the end of the last project phase, the integrated modeling system was transferred into the open source project OpenDanubia, which now provides both the core system as well as all major model components to the general public. First, this will enable decision makers from government, business and management to use OpenDanubia as a tool for proactive management of water resources in the context of global change. Secondly, the model framework to support integrated simulations and all simulation models developed for OpenDanubia in the scope of GLOWA-Danube are further available for future developments and research questions. OpenDanubia allows for the investigation of water-related scenarios considering different ecological and economic aspects to support both scientists and policy makers to design policies for sustainable environmental management. OpenDanubia is designed as a framework-based, distributed system. The model system couples spatially distributed physical and socio-economic process during run-time, taking into account their mutual influence. To simulate the potential future impacts of Global Change on agriculture, industrial production, water supply, households and tourism businesses, so-called deep actor models are implemented in OpenDanubia. All important water-related fluxes and storages in the natural environment are implemented in OpenDanubia as spatially explicit, process-based modules. This includes the land surface water and energy balance, dynamic plant water uptake, ground water recharge and flow as well as river routing and reservoirs. Although the complete system is relatively demanding on data requirements and hardware requirements, the modular structure

  11. GWERD Overview: U.S. EPA's Ground Water and Ecosystems Restoration Division

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA's Ground Water and Ecosystems Restoration Division (GWERD) conducts research and provides technical assistance to support the development of strategies and technologies to protect and restore ground water, surface water, and ecosystems impacted by man-made and natural...

  12. Explanation-aware computing of the prognosis for breast cancer supported by IK-DCBRC: Technical innovation.

    PubMed

    Khelassi, Abdeldjalil

    2014-01-01

    Active research is being conducted to determine the prognosis for breast cancer. However, the uncertainty is a major obstacle in this domain of medical research. In that context, explanation-aware computing has the potential for providing meaningful interactions between complex medical applications and users, which would ensure a significant reduction of uncertainty and risks. This paper presents an explanation-aware agent, supported by Intensive Knowledge-Distributed Case-Based Reasoning Classifier (IK-DCBRC), to reduce the uncertainty and risks associated with the diagnosis of breast cancer. A meaningful explanation is generated by inferring from a rule-based system according to the level of abstraction and the reasoning traces. The computer-aided detection is conducted by IK-DCBRC, which is a multi-agent system that applies the case-based reasoning paradigm and a fuzzy similarity function for the automatic prognosis by the class of breast tumors, i.e. malignant or benign, from a pattern of cytological images. A meaningful interaction between the physician and the computer-aided diagnosis system, IK-DCBRC, is achieved via an intelligent agent. The physician can observe the trace of reasoning, terms, justifications, and the strategy to be used to decrease the risks and doubts associated with the automatic diagnosis. The capability of the system we have developed was proven by an example in which conflicts were clarified and transparency was ensured. The explanation agent ensures the transparency of the automatic diagnosis of breast cancer supported by IK-DCBRC, which decreases uncertainty and risks and detects some conflicts.

  13. Characteristics of mineral nutrition of plants in the bio-technical life support system with human wastes included in mass exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhomirova, Natalia; Ushakova, Sofya; Kalacheva, Galina; Tikhomirov, Alexander

    2016-09-01

    The study addresses the effectiveness of using ion exchange substrates (IES) to optimize mineral nutrition of plants grown in the nutrient solutions containing oxidized human wastes for application in bio-technical life support systems. The study shows that the addition of IES to the root-inhabited substrate is favorable for the growth of wheat vegetative organs but causes a decrease in the grain yield. By contrast, the addition of IES to the nutrient solution does not influence the growth of vegetative organs but favors normal development of wheat reproductive organs. Thus, to choose the proper method of adjusting the solution with IES, one should take into account specific parameters of plant growth and development and the possibility of multiple recycling of IES based on the liquid products of mineralization of human wastes.

  14. Institutional change to support regime transformation: Lessons from Australia's water sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werbeloff, Lara; Brown, Rebekah; Cocklin, Chris

    2017-07-01

    Institutional change is fundamental to regime transformation, and a necessary part of moving toward integrated water management. However, insight into the role of institutional change processes in such transitions is currently limited. A more nuanced understanding of institutional frameworks is necessary, both to advance understanding of institutional change in the context of transitions toward improved water management and to inform strategies for guiding such processes. To this end, we examine two contemporary cases of transformative change in Australia's urban water sector, exploring the evolution of institutional change in each city. This paper offers insights into regime transformation, providing guidance on types of institutional structures and the ways structure-change initiatives can be sequenced to support a transition. The results reveal the importance of regulation in embedding regime change and suggest that engagement with structural frameworks should begin early in transition processes to ensure the timely introduction of supporting regulation. Our findings also highlight the inextricable link between culture-based and structure-based change initiatives, and the importance of using a diverse range of institutional change mechanisms in a mutually reinforcing way to provide a strong foundation for change. These findings provide a foundation for further scholarly examination of institutional change mechanisms, while also serving to inform the strategic activities of transition-oriented organizations and actors.

  15. Studies of Water Diffusion on Single-Supported Bilayer Lipid Membranes by Quasielastic Neutron Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, M.; Miskowiec, A.; Wang, S.-K.; Taub, H.; Jenkins, T.; Tyagi, M.; Neumann, D. A.; Hansen, F. Y.

    2010-03-01

    Bilayer lipid membranes supported on a solid surface are attractive model systems for understanding the structure and dynamics of more complex biological membranes that form the outer boundary of living cells. We have recently demonstrated the feasibility of using quasielastic neutron scattering to study on a ˜1 ns time scale the diffusion of water bound to single-supported bilayer lipid membranes. Two different membrane samples characterized by AFM were investigated: protonated DMPC + D2O and tail-deuterated DMPC + H2O. Both fully hydrated membranes were deposited onto SiO2-coated Si(100) substrates. Measurements of elastic neutron intensity as a function of temperature on the High Flux Backscattering Spectrometer at NIST reveal features in the diffusive motion of water that have not been observed previously using multilayer membrane stacks. On slow cooling, the elastic intensity shows sharp step-like increases in the temperature range 265 to 272 K that we tentatively interpret as successive mobile-to-immobile transitions of water bound to the membrane.

  16. A hybrid system dynamics and optimization approach for supporting sustainable water resources planning in Zhengzhou City, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhi; Li, Chunhui; Wang, Xuan; Peng, Cong; Cai, Yanpeng; Huang, Weichen

    2018-01-01

    Problems with water resources restrict the sustainable development of a city with water shortages. Based on system dynamics (SD) theory, a model of sustainable utilization of water resources using the STELLA software has been established. This model consists of four subsystems: population system, economic system, water supply system and water demand system. The boundaries of the four subsystems are vague, but they are closely related and interdependent. The model is applied to Zhengzhou City, China, which has a serious water shortage. The difference between the water supply and demand is very prominent in Zhengzhou City. The model was verified with data from 2009 to 2013. The results show that water demand of Zhengzhou City will reach 2.57 billion m3 in 2020. A water resources optimization model is developed based on interval-parameter two-stage stochastic programming. The objective of the model is to allocate water resources to each water sector and make the lowest cost under the minimum water demand. Using the simulation results, decision makers can easily weigh the costs of the system, the water allocation objectives, and the system risk. The hybrid system dynamics method and optimization model is a rational try to support water resources management in many cities, particularly for cities with potential water shortage and it is solidly supported with previous studies and collected data.

  17. Sunlight-Driven Hydrogen Formation by Membrane-Supported Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Nathan S.

    2014-03-26

    This report describes the significant advances in the development of the polymer-supported photoelectrochemical water-splitting system that was proposed under DOE grant number DE-FG02-05ER15754. We developed Si microwire-array photoelectrodes, demonstrated control over the material and light-absorption properties of the microwire-array photoelectrodes, developed inexpensive processes for synthesizing the arrays, and doped the arrays p-type for use as photocathodes. We also developed techniques for depositing metal-nanoparticle catalysts of the hydrogen-evolution reaction (HER) on the wire arrays, investigated the stability and catalytic performance of the nanoparticles, and demonstrated that Ni-Mo alloys are promising earth-abundant catalysts of the HER. We also developed methods that allowmore » reuse of the single-crystalline Si substrates used for microwire growth and methods of embedding the microwire photocathodes in plastic to enable large-scale processing and deployment of the technology. Furthermore we developed techniques for controlling the structure of WO3 films, and demonstrated that structural control can improve the quantum yield of photoanodes. Thus, by the conclusion of this project, we demonstrated significant advances in the development of all components of a sunlight-driven membrane-supported photoelectrochemical water-splitting system. This final report provides descriptions of some of the scientific accomplishments that were achieved under the support of this project and also provides references to the peer-reviewed publications that resulted from this effort.« less

  18. Comparison of biofilm ecology supporting growth of individual Naegleria species in a drinking water distribution system.

    PubMed

    Puzon, Geoffrey J; Wylie, Jason T; Walsh, Tom; Braun, Kalan; Morgan, Matthew J

    2017-04-01

    Free-living amoebae (FLA) are common components of microbial communities in drinking water distribution systems (DWDS). FLA are of clinical importance both as pathogens and as reservoirs for bacterial pathogens, so identifying the conditions promoting amoebae colonisation of DWDSs is an important public health concern for water utilities. We used high-throughput amplicon sequencing to compare eukaryotic and bacterial communities associated with DWDS biofilms supporting distinct FLA species (Naegleria fowleri, N. lovaniensis or Vermamoeba sp.) at sites with similar physical/chemical conditions. Eukaryote and bacterial communities were characteristics of different FLA species presence, and biofilms supporting Naegleria growth had higher bacterial richness and higher abundance of Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes (bacteria), Nematoda and Rotifera (eukaryota). The eukaryotic community in the biofilms had the greatest difference in relation to the presence of N. fowleri, while the bacterial community identified individual bacterial families associated with the presence of different Naegleria species. Our results demonstrate that ecogenomics data provide a powerful tool for studying the microbial and meiobiotal content of biofilms, and, in these samples can effectively discriminate biofilm communities supporting pathogenic N. fowleri. The identification of microbial species associated with N. fowleri could further be used in the management and control of N. fowleri in DWDS. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Operator decision support system for integrated wastewater management including wastewater treatment plants and receiving water bodies.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minsoo; Kim, Yejin; Kim, Hyosoo; Piao, Wenhua; Kim, Changwon

    2016-06-01

    An operator decision support system (ODSS) is proposed to support operators of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in making appropriate decisions. This system accounts for water quality (WQ) variations in WWTP influent and effluent and in the receiving water body (RWB). The proposed system is comprised of two diagnosis modules, three prediction modules, and a scenario-based supporting module (SSM). In the diagnosis modules, the WQs of the influent and effluent WWTP and of the RWB are assessed via multivariate analysis. Three prediction modules based on the k-nearest neighbors (k-NN) method, activated sludge model no. 2d (ASM2d) model, and QUAL2E model are used to forecast WQs for 3 days in advance. To compare various operating alternatives, SSM is applied to test various predetermined operating conditions in terms of overall oxygen transfer coefficient (Kla), waste sludge flow rate (Qw), return sludge flow rate (Qr), and internal recycle flow rate (Qir). In the case of unacceptable total phosphorus (TP), SSM provides appropriate information for the chemical treatment. The constructed ODSS was tested using data collected from Geumho River, which was the RWB, and S WWTP in Daegu City, South Korea. The results demonstrate the capability of the proposed ODSS to provide WWTP operators with more objective qualitative and quantitative assessments of WWTP and RWB WQs. Moreover, the current study shows that ODSS, using data collected from the study area, can be used to identify operational alternatives through SSM at an integrated urban wastewater management level.

  20. Resource modelling for control: how hydrogeological modelling can support a water quality monitoring infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scozzari, Andrea; Doveri, Marco

    2015-04-01

    The knowledge of the physical/chemical processes implied with the exploitation of water bodies for human consumption is an essential tool for the optimisation of the monitoring infrastructure. Due to their increasing importance in the context of human consumption (at least in the EU), this work focuses on groundwater resources. In the framework of drinkable water networks, the physical and data-driven modelling of transport phenomena in groundwater can help optimising the sensor network and validating the acquired data. This work proposes the combined usage of physical and data-driven modelling as a support to the design and maximisation of results from a network of distributed sensors. In particular, the validation of physico-chemical measurements and the detection of eventual anomalies by a set of continuous measurements take benefit from the knowledge of the domain from which water is abstracted, and its expected characteristics. Change-detection techniques based on non-specific sensors (presented by quite a large literature during the last two decades) have to deal with the classical issues of maximising correct detections and minimising false alarms, the latter of the two being the most typical problem to be faced, in the view of designing truly applicable monitoring systems. In this context, the definition of "anomaly" in terms of distance from an expected value or feature characterising the quality of water implies the definition of a suitable metric and the knowledge of the physical and chemical peculiarities of the natural domain from which water is exploited, with its implications in terms of characteristics of the water resource.

  1. Supporting diverse data providers in the open water data initiative: Communicating water data quality and fitness of use

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larsen, Sara; Hamilton, Stuart; Lucido, Jessica M.; Garner, Bradley D.; Young, Dwane

    2016-01-01

    Shared, trusted, timely data are essential elements for the cooperation needed to optimize economic, ecologic, and public safety concerns related to water. The Open Water Data Initiative (OWDI) will provide a fully scalable platform that can support a wide variety of data from many diverse providers. Many of these will be larger, well-established, and trusted agencies with a history of providing well-documented, standardized, and archive-ready products. However, some potential partners may be smaller, distributed, and relatively unknown or untested as data providers. The data these partners will provide are valuable and can be used to fill in many data gaps, but can also be variable in quality or supplied in nonstandardized formats. They may also reflect the smaller partners' variable budgets and missions, be intermittent, or of unknown provenance. A challenge for the OWDI will be to convey the quality and the contextual “fitness” of data from providers other than the most trusted brands. This article reviews past and current methods for documenting data quality. Three case studies are provided that describe processes and pathways for effective data-sharing and publication initiatives. They also illustrate how partners may work together to find a metadata reporting threshold that encourages participation while maintaining high data integrity. And lastly, potential governance is proposed that may assist smaller partners with short- and long-term participation in the OWDI.

  2. Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator; An Enhanced Evaporative Cooling Systems for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit Portable Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bue, Grant C.; Makinen, Janice V.; Miller, Sean.; Campbell, Colin; Lynch, Bill; Vogel, Matt; Craft, Jesse; Petty, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator - Baseline heat rejection technology for the Portable Life Support System of the Advanced EMU center dot Replaces sublimator in the current EMU center dot Contamination insensitive center dot Can work with Lithium Chloride Absorber Radiator in Spacesuit Evaporator Absorber Radiator (SEAR) to reject heat and reuse evaporated water The Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME) is being developed to replace the sublimator for future generation spacesuits. Water in LCVG absorbs body heat while circulating center dot Warm water pumped through SWME center dot SWME evaporates water vapor, while maintaining liquid water - Cools water center dot Cooled water is then recirculated through LCVG. center dot LCVG water lost due to evaporation (cooling) is replaced from feedwater The Independent TCV Manifold reduces design complexity and manufacturing difficulty of the SWME End Cap. center dot The offset motor for the new BPV reduces the volume profile of the SWME by laying the motor flat on the End Cap alongside the TCV.

  3. Modelling soil water retention using support vector machines with genetic algorithm optimisation.

    PubMed

    Lamorski, Krzysztof; Sławiński, Cezary; Moreno, Felix; Barna, Gyöngyi; Skierucha, Wojciech; Arrue, José L

    2014-01-01

    This work presents point pedotransfer function (PTF) models of the soil water retention curve. The developed models allowed for estimation of the soil water content for the specified soil water potentials: -0.98, -3.10, -9.81, -31.02, -491.66, and -1554.78 kPa, based on the following soil characteristics: soil granulometric composition, total porosity, and bulk density. Support Vector Machines (SVM) methodology was used for model development. A new methodology for elaboration of retention function models is proposed. Alternative to previous attempts known from literature, the ν-SVM method was used for model development and the results were compared with the formerly used the C-SVM method. For the purpose of models' parameters search, genetic algorithms were used as an optimisation framework. A new form of the aim function used for models parameters search is proposed which allowed for development of models with better prediction capabilities. This new aim function avoids overestimation of models which is typically encountered when root mean squared error is used as an aim function. Elaborated models showed good agreement with measured soil water retention data. Achieved coefficients of determination values were in the range 0.67-0.92. Studies demonstrated usability of ν-SVM methodology together with genetic algorithm optimisation for retention modelling which gave better performing models than other tested approaches.

  4. Biological support media influence the bacterial biofouling community in reverse osmosis water reclamation demonstration plants.

    PubMed

    Ferrera, Isabel; Mas, Jordi; Taberna, Elisenda; Sanz, Joan; Sánchez, Olga

    2015-01-01

    The diversity of the bacterial community developed in different stages of two reverse osmosis (RO) water reclamation demonstration plants designed in a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Tarragona (Spain) was characterized by applying 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The plants were fed by secondary treated effluent to a conventional pretreatment train prior to the two-pass RO system. Plants differed in the material used in the filtration process, which was sand in one demonstration plant and Scandinavian schists in the second plant. The results showed the presence of a highly diverse and complex community in the biofilms, mainly composed of members of the Betaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes in all stages, with the presence of some typical wastewater bacteria, suggesting a feed water origin. Community similarities analyses revealed that samples clustered according to filter type, highlighting the critical influence of the biological supporting medium in biofilm community structure.

  5. AQUATOOL, a generalized decision-support system for water-resources planning and operational management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreu, J.; Capilla, J.; Sanchís, E.

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes a generic decision-support system (DSS) which was originally designed for the planning stage of dicision-making associated with complex river basins. Subsequently, it was expanded to incorporate modules relating to the operational stage of decision-making. Computer-assisted design modules allow any complex water-resource system to be represented in graphical form, giving access to geographically referenced databases and knowledge bases. The modelling capability includes basin simulation and optimization modules, an aquifer flow modelling module and two modules for risk assessment. The Segura and Tagus river basins have been used as case studies in the development and validation phases. The value of this DSS is demonstrated by the fact that both River Basin Agencies currently use a version for the efficient management of their water resources.

  6. Electron beam-induced immobilization of laccase on porous supports for waste water treatment applications.

    PubMed

    Jahangiri, Elham; Reichelt, Senta; Thomas, Isabell; Hausmann, Kristin; Schlosser, Dietmar; Schulze, Agnes

    2014-08-08

    The versatile oxidase enzyme laccase was immobilized on porous supports such as polymer membranes and cryogels with a view of using such biocatalysts in bioreactors aiming at the degradation of environmental pollutants in wastewater. Besides a large surface area for supporting the biocatalyst, the aforementioned porous systems also offer the possibility for simultaneous filtration applications in wastewater treatment. Herein a "green" water-based, initiator-free, and straightforward route to highly reactive membrane and cryogel-based bioreactors is presented, where laccase was immobilized onto the porous polymer supports using a water-based electron beam-initiated grafting reaction. In a second approach, the laccase redox mediators 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and syringaldehyde were cross-linked instead of the enzyme via electron irradiation in a frozen aqueous poly(acrylate) mixture in a one pot set-up, yielding a mechanical stable macroporous cryogel with interconnected pores ranging from 10 to 50 µm in size. The membranes as well as the cryogels were characterized regarding their morphology, chemical composition, and catalytic activity. The reactivity towards waste- water pollutants was demonstrated by the degradation of the model compound bisphenol A (BPA). Both membrane- and cryogel-immobilized laccase remained highly active after electron beam irradiation. Apparent specific BPA removal rates were higher for cryogel- than for membrane-immobilized and free laccase, whereas membrane-immobilized laccase was more stable with respect to maintenance of enzymatic activity and prevention of enzyme leakage from the carrier than cryogel-immobilized laccase. Cryogel-immobilized redox mediators remained functional in accelerating the laccase-catalyzed BPA degradation, and especially ABTS was found to act more efficiently in immobilized than in freely dissolved state.

  7. Water Operations Technical Support Program. Water Quality Management for Reservoirs and Tailwaters. Report 1. In-Reservoir Water Quality Management Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    at rates sufficient to bring about increased production of algae and rooted plants and decreased reservoir volume. Associated with this process are...manganese, hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, and carbon dioxide. Further, the production and death of plants throughout the reservoir, followed by...increase in biological production and a decrease in volume or storage capacity. Figure 4 illustrates these incomes and some of the major in-reservoir

  8. Sharing the opportunity cost among power companies to support hydropower-to-environment water transfers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilmant, Amaury; Marques, Guilherme

    2016-04-01

    Among the environmental impacts caused by dams, the alteration of flow regimes is one of the most critical to river ecosystems given its influence in long river reaches and its continuous pattern. Provided it is technically feasible, the reoperation of hydroelectric reservoir systems can, in principle, mitigate the impacts on degraded freshwater ecosystems by recovering some of the natural flow regime. The typical approach to implement hydropower-to-environment water transfers focuses on the reoperation of the dam located immediately upstream of the environmentally sensitive area, meaning that only one power station will bear the brunt of the benefits forgone for the power sector. By ignoring the contribution of upstream infrastructures to the alteration of the flow regime, the opportunity cost associated with the restoration of a flow regime is not equitably distributed among the power companies in the river basin, therefore slowing the establishment of environmental flow programs. Yet, there is no criterion, nor institutional mechanisms, to ensure a fair distribution of the opportunity cost among power stations. This paper addresses this issue by comparing four rules to redistribute the costs faced by the power sector when environmental flows must be implemented in a multireservoir system. The rules are based on the the installed capacity of the power plants, the live storage capacity of the reservoirs, the ratio between the incremental flows and the live storage capacity, and the extent of the storage services; that is, the volume of water effectively transferred by each reservoir. The analysis is carried out using the Parana River Basin (Brazil) as a case study.

  9. Overview of the SAE G-11 RMSL (Reliability, Maintainability, Supportability, and Logistics) Division Activities and Technical Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singhal, Surendra N.

    2003-01-01

    The SAE G-11 RMSL (Reliability, Maintainability, Supportability, and Logistics) Division activities include identification and fulfillment of joint industry, government, and academia needs for development and implementation of RMSL technologies. Four Projects in the Probabilistic Methods area and two in the area of RMSL have been identified. These are: (1) Evaluation of Probabilistic Technology - progress has been made toward the selection of probabilistic application cases. Future effort will focus on assessment of multiple probabilistic softwares in solving selected engineering problems using probabilistic methods. Relevance to Industry & Government - Case studies of typical problems encountering uncertainties, results of solutions to these problems run by different codes, and recommendations on which code is applicable for what problems; (2) Probabilistic Input Preparation - progress has been made in identifying problem cases such as those with no data, little data and sufficient data. Future effort will focus on developing guidelines for preparing input for probabilistic analysis, especially with no or little data. Relevance to Industry & Government - Too often, we get bogged down thinking we need a lot of data before we can quantify uncertainties. Not True. There are ways to do credible probabilistic analysis with little data; (3) Probabilistic Reliability - probabilistic reliability literature search has been completed along with what differentiates it from statistical reliability. Work on computation of reliability based on quantification of uncertainties in primitive variables is in progress. Relevance to Industry & Government - Correct reliability computations both at the component and system level are needed so one can design an item based on its expected usage and life span; (4) Real World Applications of Probabilistic Methods (PM) - A draft of volume 1 comprising aerospace applications has been released. Volume 2, a compilation of real world

  10. Can Earth System Model Provide Reasonable Natural Runoff Estimates to Support Water Management Studies?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, S. C.; Shi, X.; Kumar, J.; Ricciuto, D. M.; Mao, J.; Thornton, P. E.

    2017-12-01

    With the concern of changing hydrologic regime, there is a crucial need to better understand how water availability may change and influence water management decisions in the projected future climate conditions. Despite that surface hydrology has long been simulated by land model within the Earth System modeling (ESM) framework, given the coarser horizontal resolution and lack of engineering-level calibration, raw runoff from ESM is generally discarded by water resource managers when conducting hydro-climate impact assessments. To identify a likely path to improve the credibility of ESM-simulated natural runoff, we conducted regional model simulation using the land component (ALM) of the Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy (ACME) version 1 focusing on the conterminous United States (CONUS). Two very different forcing data sets, including (1) the conventional 0.5° CRUNCEP (v5, 1901-2013) and (2) the 1-km Daymet (v3, 1980-2013) aggregated to 0.5°, were used to conduct 20th century transient simulation with satellite phenology. Additional meteorologic and hydrologic observations, including PRISM precipitation and U.S. Geological Survey WaterWatch runoff, were used for model evaluation. For various CONUS hydrologic regions (such as Pacific Northwest), we found that Daymet can significantly improve the reasonableness of simulated ALM runoff even without intensive calibration. The large dry bias of CRUNCEP precipitation (evaluated by PRISM) in multiple CONUS hydrologic regions is believed to be the main reason causing runoff underestimation. The results suggest that when driving with skillful precipitation estimates, ESM has the ability to produce reasonable natural runoff estimates to support further water management studies. Nevertheless, model calibration will be required for regions (such as Upper Colorado) where ill performance is showed for multiple different forcings.

  11. PNNL Technical Support to The Implementation of EMTA and EMTA-NLA Models in Autodesk® Moldflow® Packages

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Wang, Jin

    2012-12-01

    Under the Predictive Engineering effort, PNNL developed linear and nonlinear property prediction models for long-fiber thermoplastics (LFTs). These models were implemented in PNNL’s EMTA and EMTA-NLA codes. While EMTA is a standalone software for the computation of the composites thermoelastic properties, EMTA-NLA presents a series of nonlinear models implemented in ABAQUS® via user subroutines for structural analyses. In all these models, it is assumed that the fibers are linear elastic while the matrix material can exhibit a linear or typical nonlinear behavior depending on the loading prescribed to the composite. The key idea is to model the constitutive behavior ofmore » the matrix material and then to use an Eshelby-Mori-Tanaka approach (EMTA) combined with numerical techniques for fiber length and orientation distributions to determine the behavior of the as-formed composite. The basic property prediction models of EMTA and EMTA-NLA have been subject for implementation in the Autodesk® Moldflow® software packages. These models are the elastic stiffness model accounting for fiber length and orientation distributions, the fiber/matrix interface debonding model, and the elastic-plastic models. The PNNL elastic-plastic models for LFTs describes the composite nonlinear stress-strain response up to failure by an elastic-plastic formulation associated with either a micromechanical criterion to predict failure or a continuum damage mechanics formulation coupling damage to plasticity. All the models account for fiber length and orientation distributions as well as fiber/matrix debonding that can occur at any stage of loading. In an effort to transfer the technologies developed under the Predictive Engineering project to the American automotive and plastics industries, PNNL has obtained the approval of the DOE Office of Vehicle Technologies to provide Autodesk, Inc. with the technical support for the implementation of the basic property prediction models of EMTA

  12. A transdisciplinary approach for supporting the integration of ecosystem services into land and water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatt Siew, Tuck; Döll, Petra

    2015-04-01

    Transdisciplinary approaches are useful for supporting integrated land and water management. However, the implementation of the approach in practice to facilitate the co-production of useable socio-hydrological (and -ecological) knowledge among scientists and stakeholders is challenging. It requires appropriate methods to bring individuals with diverse interests and needs together and to integrate their knowledge for generating shared perspectives/understanding, identifying common goals, and developing actionable management strategies. The approach and the methods need, particularly, to be adapted to the local political and socio-cultural conditions. To demonstrate how knowledge co-production and integration can be done in practice, we present a transdisciplinary approach which has been implemented and adapted for supporting land and water management that takes ecosystem services into account in an arid region in northwestern China. Our approach comprises three steps: (1) stakeholder analysis and interdisciplinary knowledge integration, (2) elicitation of perspectives of scientists and stakeholders, scenario development, and identification of management strategies, and (3) evaluation of knowledge integration and social learning. Our adapted approach has enabled interdisciplinary and cross-sectoral communication among scientists and stakeholders. Furthermore, the application of a combination of participatory methods, including actor modeling, Bayesian Network modeling, and participatory scenario development, has contributed to the integration of system, target, and transformation knowledge of involved stakeholders. The realization of identified management strategies is unknown because other important and representative decision makers have not been involved in the transdisciplinary research process. The contribution of our transdisciplinary approach to social learning still needs to be assessed.

  13. Developing a Dynamic SPARROW Water Quality Decision Support System Using NASA Remotely-Sensed Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Hamdan, M. Z.; Smith, R. A.; Hoos, A.; Schwarz, G. E.; Alexander, R. B.; Crosson, W. L.; Srikishen, J.; Estes, M., Jr.; Cruise, J.; Al-Hamdan, A.; Ellenburg, W. L., II; Flores, A.; Sanford, W. E.; Zell, W.; Reitz, M.; Miller, M. P.; Journey, C. A.; Befus, K. M.; Swann, R.; Herder, T.; Sherwood, E.; Leverone, J.; Shelton, M.; Smith, E. T.; Anastasiou, C. J.; Seachrist, J.; Hughes, A.; Graves, D.

    2017-12-01

    The USGS Spatially Referenced Regression on Watershed Attributes (SPARROW) surface water quality modeling system has been widely used for long term, steady state water quality analysis. However, users have increasingly requested a dynamic version of SPARROW that can provide seasonal estimates of nutrients and suspended sediment to receiving waters. The goal of this NASA-funded project is to develop a dynamic decision support system to enhance the southeast SPARROW water quality model and finer-scale dynamic models for selected coastal watersheds through the use of remotely-sensed data and other NASA Land Information System (LIS) products. The spatial and temporal scale of satellite remote sensing products and LIS modeling data make these sources ideal for the purposes of development and operation of the dynamic SPARROW model. Remote sensing products including MODIS vegetation indices, SMAP surface soil moisture, and OMI atmospheric chemistry along with LIS-derived evapotranspiration (ET) and soil temperature and moisture products will be included in model development and operation. MODIS data will also be used to map annual land cover/land use in the study areas and in conjunction with Landsat and Sentinel to identify disturbed areas that might be sources of sediment and increased phosphorus loading through exposure of the bare soil. These data and others constitute the independent variables in a regression analysis whose dependent variables are the water quality constituents total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and suspended sediment. Remotely-sensed variables such as vegetation indices and ET can be proxies for nutrient uptake by vegetation; MODIS Leaf Area Index can indicate sources of phosphorus from vegetation; soil moisture and temperature are known to control rates of denitrification; and bare soil areas serve as sources of enhanced nutrient and sediment production. The enhanced SPARROW dynamic models will provide improved tools for end users to manage water

  14. Alaska's Secondary Science Teachers and Students Receive Earth Systems Science Knowledge, GIS Know How and University Technical Support for Pre- College Research Experiences: The EDGE Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connor, C. L.; Prakash, A.

    2007-12-01

    Alaska's secondary school teachers are increasingly required to provide Earth systems science (ESS) education that integrates student observations of local natural processes related to rapid climate change with geospatial datasets and satellite imagery using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technology. Such skills are also valued in various employment sectors of the state where job opportunities requiring Earth science and GIS training are increasing. University of Alaska's EDGE (Experiential Discoveries in Geoscience Education) program has provided training and classroom resources for 3 cohorts of inservice Alaska science and math teachers in GIS and Earth Systems Science (2005-2007). Summer workshops include geologic field experiences, GIS instruction, computer equipment and technical support for groups of Alaska high school (HS) and middle school (MS) science teachers each June and their students in August. Since 2005, EDGE has increased Alaska science and math teachers' Earth science content knowledge and developed their GIS and computer skills. In addition, EDGE has guided teachers using a follow-up, fall online course that provided more extensive ESS knowledge linked with classroom standards and provided course content that was directly transferable into their MS and HS science classrooms. EDGE teachers were mentored by University faculty and technical staff as they guided their own students through semester-scale, science fair style projects using geospatial data that was student- collected. EDGE program assessment indicates that all teachers have improved their ESS knowledge, GIS knowledge, and the use of technology in their classrooms. More than 230 middle school students have learned GIS, from EDGE teachers and 50 EDGE secondary students have conducted original research related to landscape change and its impacts on their own communities. Longer-term EDGE goals include improving student performance on the newly implemented (spring 2008) 10th grade

  15. Technical support document: Energy conservation standards for consumer products: Dishwashers, clothes washers, and clothes dryers including: Environmental impacts; regulatory impact analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act as amended (P.L. 94-163), establishes energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products specifically covered by the Act. The legislation requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended standards for these and other types of products at specified times. This Technical Support Document presents the methodology, data and results from the analysis of the energy and economic impacts of standards on dishwashers, clothes washers, and clothes dryers. The economic impact analysis is performed in five major areas: An Engineering Analysis, which establishes technical feasibility and product attributesmore » including costs of design options to improve appliance efficiency. A Consumer Analysis at two levels: national aggregate impacts, and impacts on individuals. The national aggregate impacts include forecasts of appliance sales, efficiencies, energy use, and consumer expenditures. The individual impacts are analyzed by Life-Cycle Cost (LCC), Payback Periods, and Cost of Conserved Energy (CCE), which evaluate the savings in operating expenses relative to increases in purchase price; A Manufacturer Analysis, which provides an estimate of manufacturers' response to the proposed standards. Their response is quantified by changes in several measures of financial performance for a firm. An Industry Impact Analysis shows financial and competitive impacts on the appliance industry. A Utility Analysis that measures the impacts of the altered energy-consumption patterns on electric utilities. A Environmental Effects analysis, which estimates changes in emissions of carbon dioxide, sulfur oxides, and nitrogen oxides, due to reduced energy consumption in the home and at the power plant. A Regulatory Impact Analysis collects the results of all the analyses into the net benefits and costs from a national perspective. 47 figs., 171 tabs. (JF)« less

  16. Polymer supported gold nanoparticles: Synthesis and characterization of functionalized polystyrene-supported gold nanoparticles and their application in catalytic oxidation of alcohols in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaboudin, Babak; Khanmohammadi, Hamid; Kazemi, Foad

    2017-12-01

    Sulfonated polystyrene microsphere were functionalized using ethylene diamine to introduce amine groups to the polymer chains. The amine functionalized polymers were used as a support for gold nanoparticles. A thorough structural characterization has been carried out by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images, EDS, CHN and atomic absorption spectroscopy. The polymer supported gold nanoparticles was found to be an efficient catalyst for the oxidation of alcohols in water.

  17. Application of biomonitoring and support vector machine in water quality assessment*

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Yue; Xu, Jian-yu; Wang, Zhu-wei

    2012-01-01

    The behavior of schools of zebrafish (Danio rerio) was studied in acute toxicity environments. Behavioral features were extracted and a method for water quality assessment using support vector machine (SVM) was developed. The behavioral parameters of fish were recorded and analyzed during one hour in an environment of a 24-h half-lethal concentration (LC50) of a pollutant. The data were used to develop a method to evaluate water quality, so as to give an early indication of toxicity. Four kinds of metal ions (Cu2+, Hg2+, Cr6+, and Cd2+) were used for toxicity testing. To enhance the efficiency and accuracy of assessment, a method combining SVM and a genetic algorithm (GA) was used. The results showed that the average prediction accuracy of the method was over 80% and the time cost was acceptable. The method gave satisfactory results for a variety of metal pollutants, demonstrating that this is an effective approach to the classification of water quality. PMID:22467374

  18. Design of a surface-based factory for the production of life support and technology support products. Phase 2: Integrated water system for a space colony

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Phase 2 of a conceptual design of an integrated water treatment system to support a space colony is presented. This includes a breathable air manufacturing system, a means of drilling for underground water, and storage of water for future use. The system is to supply quality water for biological consumption, farming, residential and industrial use and the water source is assumed to be artesian or subsurface and on Mars. Design criteria and major assumptions are itemized. A general block diagram of the expected treatment system is provided. The design capacity of the system is discussed, including a summary of potential users and the level of treatment required; and, finally, various treatment technologies are described.

  19. Technical Assistance Needs Assessments (TANAs)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Technical Assistance Needs Assessment (TANA) is a process to identify whether a community requires additional support from EPA in order to understand technical information and have meaningful participation in the Superfund decision-making process.

  20. Physical and chemical parameter correlations with technical and technological characteristics of heating systems and the presence of Legionella spp. in the hot water supply.

    PubMed

    Rakić, Anita; Štambuk-Giljanović, Nives

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of Legionella spp. and compare the quality of hot water between four facilities for accommodation located in Southern Croatia (the Split-Dalmatian County). The research included data collection on the technical and technological characteristics in the period from 2009 to 2012. The survey included a type of construction material for the distribution and internal networks, heating system water heater type, and water consumption. Changes in water quality were monitored by determination of the physical and chemical parameters (temperature, pH, free chlorine residual concentrations, iron, zinc, copper and manganese) in the samples, as well as the presence and concentration of bacteria Legionella spp. The temperature is an important factor for the development of biofilms, and it is in negative correlation with the appearance of Legionella spp. Positive correlations between the Fe and Zn concentrations and Legionella spp. were established, while the inhibitory effect of a higher Cu concentration on the Legionella spp. concentration was proven. Legionella spp. were identified in 38/126 (30.2%) of the water samples from the heating system with zinc-coated pipes, as well as in 78/299 (26.1%) of the samples from systems with plastic pipes. A similar number of Legionella spp. positive samples were established regardless of the type of the water heating system (central or independent). The study confirms the necessity of regular microbial contamination monitoring of the drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs).

  1. Gold-supported cerium-doped NiO x catalysts for water oxidation

    DOE PAGES

    Ng, Jia Wei Desmond; García-Melchor, Max; Bajdich, Michal; ...

    2016-04-29

    Here, the development of high-performance catalysts for the oxygen-evolution reaction (OER) is paramount for cost-effective conversion of renewable electricity to fuels and chemicals. Here we report the significant enhancement of the OER activity of electrodeposited NiO x films resulting from the combined effects of using cerium as a dopant and gold as a metal support. This NiCeO x–Au catalyst delivers high OER activity in alkaline media, and is among the most active OER electrocatalysts yet reported. On the basis of experimental observations and theoretical modelling, we ascribe the activity to a combination of electronic, geometric and support effects, where highlymore » active under-coordinated sites at the oxide support interface are modified by the local chemical binding environment and by doping the host Ni oxide with Ce. The NiCeO x–Au catalyst is further demonstrated in a device context by pairing it with a nickel–molybdenum hydrogen evolution catalyst in a water electrolyser, which delivers 50 mA consistently at 1.5 V over 24 h of continuous operation.« less

  2. Remote-Sensing and Automated Water Resources Tracking: Near Real-Time Decision Support for Water Managers Facing Drought and Flood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiter, M. E.; Elliott, N.; Veloz, S.; Love, F.; Moody, D.; Hickey, C.; Fitzgibbon, M.; Reynolds, M.; Esralew, R.

    2016-12-01

    Innovative approaches for tracking the Earth's natural resources, especially water which is essential for all living things, are essential during a time of rapid environmental change. The Central Valley is a nexus for water resources in California, draining the Sacramento and San Joaquin River watersheds. The distribution of water throughout California and the Central Valley, while dynamic, is highly managed through an extensive regional network of canals, levees, and pumps. Water allocation and delivery is determined through a complex set of rules based on water contracts, historic priority, and other California water policies. Furthermore, urban centers, agriculture, and the environment throughout the state are already competing for water, particularly during drought. Competition for water is likely to intensify as California is projected to experience continued increases in demand due to population growth and more arid growing conditions, while also having reduced or modified water supply due to climate change. As a result, it is difficult to understand or predict how water will be used to fulfill wildlife and wetland conservation needs. A better understanding of the spatial distribution of water in near real-time can facilitate adaptation of water resource management to changing conditions on the landscape, both over the near- and long-term. The Landsat satellite mission delivers imagery every 16-days from nearly every place on the earth at a high spatial resolution. We have integrated remote sensing of satellite data, classification modeling, bioinformatics, optimization, and ecological analyses to develop an automated near real-time water resources tracking and decision-support system for the Central Valley of California. Our innovative system has applications for coordinated water management in the Central Valley to support people, places, and wildlife and is being used to understand the factors that drive variation in the distribution and abundance of water

  3. Non-Equilibrium Plasma Applications for Water Purification Supporting Human Spaceflight and Terrestrial Point-of-Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blankson, Isaiah M.; Foster, John E.; Adamovsky, Grigory

    2016-01-01

    2016 NASA Glenn Technology Day Panel Presentation on May 24, 2016. The panel description is: Environmental Impact: NASA Glenn Water Capabilities Both global water scarcity and water treatment concerns are two of the most predominant environmental issues of our time. Glenn researchers share insights on a snow sensing technique, hyper spectral imaging of Lake Erie algal blooms, and a discussion on non-equilibrium plasma applications for water purification supporting human spaceflight and terrestrial point-of-use. The panel moderator will be Bryan Stubbs, Executive Director of the Cleveland Water Alliance.

  4. Fisk-based criteria to support validation of detection methods for drinking water and air.

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonell, M.; Bhattacharyya, M.; Finster, M.

    2009-02-18

    This report was prepared to support the validation of analytical methods for threat contaminants under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) program. It is designed to serve as a resource for certain applications of benchmark and fate information for homeland security threat contaminants. The report identifies risk-based criteria from existing health benchmarks for drinking water and air for potential use as validation targets. The focus is on benchmarks for chronic public exposures. The priority sources are standard EPA concentration limits for drinking water and air, along with oral and inhalation toxicity values. Many contaminantsmore » identified as homeland security threats to drinking water or air would convert to other chemicals within minutes to hours of being released. For this reason, a fate analysis has been performed to identify potential transformation products and removal half-lives in air and water so appropriate forms can be targeted for detection over time. The risk-based criteria presented in this report to frame method validation are expected to be lower than actual operational targets based on realistic exposures following a release. Note that many target criteria provided in this report are taken from available benchmarks without assessing the underlying toxicological details. That is, although the relevance of the chemical form and analogues are evaluated, the toxicological interpretations and extrapolations conducted by the authoring organizations are not. It is also important to emphasize that such targets in the current analysis are not health-based advisory levels to guide homeland security responses. This integrated evaluation of chronic public benchmarks and contaminant fate has identified more than 200 risk-based criteria as method validation targets across numerous contaminants and fate products in drinking water and air combined. The gap in directly applicable values is

  5. Technical Support. Focus on Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiers, Naomi

    1996-01-01

    Describes work conditions, education and training needs, and salaries of the following technician careers: auto/diesel technicians, auto body repairers, general maintenance mechanics, heating/air conditioning/refrigeration, paralegals, engineering technicians, science technicians, computer repairers, and drafters. (SK)

  6. Technical, analytical and computer support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The development of a rigorous mathematical model for the design and performance analysis of cylindrical silicon-germanium thermoelectric generators is reported that consists of two parts, a steady-state (static) and a transient (dynamic) part. The material study task involves the definition and implementation of a material study that aims to experimentally characterize the long term behavior of the thermoelectric properties of silicon-germanium alloys as a function of temperature. Analytical and experimental efforts are aimed at the determination of the sublimation characteristics of silicon germanium alloys and the study of sublimation effects on RTG performance. Studies are also performed on a variety of specific topics on thermoelectric energy conversion.

  7. FNOC In Situ Technical Support.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-01

    09 NM2*20 MSGLINE*14 CONJDP*04 SEXY *05 CON VERT*O7 ACOULAB ACOULAB*06 Correct meter to feet conversion error (if more 20SVP pt). DATE ROUTINE... PORN , TASS, and PTARF (MOFT produces ASRAPL & BLKDATA for FASOTRAGRU moffett). (DRUN*106 S2 4682) B-9 UPDTE DATE: 12/15/81*1 .- PROGRAM PROGRAMMER

  8. DEVELOPING A TECHNICAL BASIS FOR REDUCING RISK FROM ARSENIC EXPOSURE IN WATER RESOURCES ACROSS THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Successful prevention of public exposure to arsenic in ground-water resources impacted by natural sources or contaminated sites is dependent on scientifically-based strategies for site remediation and water resource management. Research within the National Risk Management Resear...

  9. Integration of Water Resource Models with Fayetteville Shale Decision Support and Information System

    SciTech Connect

    Cothren, Jackson; Thoma, Greg; DiLuzio, Mauro

    2013-06-30

    ) methodology to assess the shifting and alteration of the flow regime within the river and streams of the study area. 2) Evaluate the effect of measurable land use changes related to gas development (well-pad placement, access road completion, etc.) on surface water flow in the region (Task/Section 3.7). Results showed that since the upsurge in shale-gas related activities in the Fayetteville Shale Play (between 2006 and 2010), shale-gas related infrastructure in the region have increase by 78%. This change in land-cover in comparison with other land-cover classes such as forest, urban, pasture, agricultural and water indicates the highest rate of change in any land-cover category for the study period. A Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) flow model of the Little Red River watershed simulated from 2000 to 2009 showed a 10% increase in storm water runoff. A forecast scenario based on the assumption that 2010 land-cover does not see any significant change over the forecast period (2010 to 2020) also showed a 10% increase in storm water runoff. Further analyses showed that this change in the stream-flow regime for the forecast period is attributable to the increase in land-cover as introduced by the shale-gas infrastructure. 3) Upgrade the Fayetteville Shale Information System to include information on watershed status. (Tasks/Sections 2.1 and 2.2). This development occurred early in the project period, and technological improvements in web-map API’s have made it possible to further improve the map. The current sites (http://lingo.cast.uark.edu) is available but is currently being upgraded to a more modern interface and robust mapping engine using funds outside this project. 4) Incorporate the methodologies developed in Tasks/Sections 3.5 and 3.7 into a Spatial Decision Support System for use by regulatory agencies and producers in the play. The resulting system is available at http://fayshale.cast.uark.edu and is under review the Arkansas Natural Resources Commission.« less

  10. Integrating conflict analysis and consensus reaching in a decision support system for water resource management.

    PubMed

    Giordano, R; Passarella, G; Uricchio, V F; Vurro, M

    2007-07-01

    The importance of shared decision processes in water management derives from the awareness of the inadequacy of traditional--i.e. engineering--approaches in dealing with complex and ill-structured problems. It is becoming increasingly obvious that traditional problem solving and decision support techniques, based on optimisation and factual knowledge, have to be combined with stakeholder based policy design and implementation. The aim of our research is the definition of an integrated decision support system for consensus achievement (IDSS-C) able to support a participative decision-making process in all its phases: problem definition and structuring, identification of the possible alternatives, formulation of participants' judgments, and consensus achievement. Furthermore, the IDSS-C aims at structuring, i.e. systematising the knowledge which has emerged during the participative process in order to make it comprehensible for the decision-makers and functional for the decision process. Problem structuring methods (PSM) and multi-group evaluation methods (MEM) have been integrated in the IDSS-C. PSM are used to support the stakeholders in providing their perspective of the problem and to elicit their interests and preferences, while MEM are used to define not only the degree of consensus for each alternative, highlighting those where the agreement is high, but also the consensus label for each alternative and the behaviour of individuals during the participative decision-making. The IDSS-C is applied experimentally to a decision process regarding the use of treated wastewater for agricultural irrigation in the Apulia Region (southern Italy).

  11. A decision support system for water supply in watersheds with recurrent wildfires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Regina; Fernandes, Luís; Pereira, Mário; Cortes, Rui; Pacheco, Fernando

    2015-04-01

    area which was covered by scrubs (69%), forests (22%) and heterogeneous agricultural areas (9%). A close relationship was found between the concentration of phosphorus in river water and the occurrence of forest fires. The annual and monthly phosphorus concentrations are influenced by the burned area and the river flow discharge. However, the hydrologic conditions prevail in the sense that, for similar values of burnt area, the maximum phosphorous concentration is higher in dry than in wet years. In addition, the phosphorus concentrations in the water bodies exceeded the limits imposed by the National and European legislation for good ecological status, human consumption and multiple uses mostly in last years of the study period. The fire frequency is a key variable in the planning and management of water bodies within a fire-prone watershed. The impacts of wildfires on water quality may become periodical instead of occasional as a consequence of the reduced precipitation and increased fire frequency and intensity projected for the near future climate. This work was supported by national funds by FCT - Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology, under the project PEst-OE/AGR/UI4033/2014 and by the project SUSTAINSYS: Environmental Sustainable Agro-Forestry Systems (NORTE-07-0124-FEDER-000044), financed by the North Portugal Regional Operational Programme (ON.2 - O Novo Norte), under the National Strategic Reference Framework (QREN), through the European Regional Development Fund (FEDER), as well as by National Funds (PIDDAC) through the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT/MEC).

  12. A decision support tool for sustainable planning of urban water systems: presenting the Dynamic Urban Water Simulation Model.

    PubMed

    Willuweit, Lars; O'Sullivan, John J

    2013-12-15

    Population growth, urbanisation and climate change represent significant pressures on urban water resources, requiring water managers to consider a wider array of management options that account for economic, social and environmental factors. The Dynamic Urban Water Simulation Model (DUWSiM) developed in this study links urban water balance concepts with the land use dynamics model MOLAND and the climate model LARS-WG, providing a platform for long term planning of urban water supply and water demand by analysing the effects of urbanisation scenarios and climatic changes on the urban water cycle. Based on potential urbanisation scenarios and their effects on a city's water cycle, DUWSiM provides the functionality for assessing the feasibility of centralised and decentralised water supply and water demand management options based on forecasted water demand, stormwater and wastewater generation, whole life cost and energy and potential for water recycling. DUWSiM has been tested using data from Dublin, the capital of Ireland, and it has been shown that the model is able to satisfactorily predict water demand and stormwater runoff. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A Decision Support System For The Real-Time Allocation Of The Water Resource Of The Tarim River Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, J.; Wang, G.; Liu, R.

    2008-12-01

    The Tarim River Basin is the longest inland river in China. Due to water scarcity, ecologically-fragile is becoming a significant constraint to sustainable development in this region. To effectively manage the limited water resources for ecological purposes and for conventional water utilization purposes, a real-time water resources allocation Decision Support System (DSS) has been developed. Based on workflows of the water resources regulations and comprehensive analysis of the efficiency and feasibility of water management strategies, the DSS includes information systems that perform data acquisition, management and visualization, and model systems that perform hydrological forecast, water demand prediction, flow routing simulation and water resources optimization of the hydrological and water utilization process. An optimization and process control strategy is employed to dynamically allocate the water resources among the different stakeholders. The competitive targets and constraints are taken into considered by multi-objective optimization and with different priorities. The DSS of the Tarim River Basin has been developed and been successfully utilized to support the water resources management of the Tarim River Basin since 2005.

  14. Like a bridge over troubled water? A longitudinal study of general social support, colleague support, and leader support as recovery factors after a traumatic event

    PubMed Central

    Birkeland, Marianne Skogbrott; Nielsen, Morten Birkeland; Hansen, Marianne Bang; Knardahl, Stein; Heir, Trond

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Whereas the association between social support and psychological distress has been well-established through both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies, less is known about whether social support influences rate of change in psychological distress over time. Nor is it clear whether social support predicts baseline psychological distress, or, more importantly, whether social support may contribute to more rapid recovery following trauma exposure. Objective: This study aimed to determine the extent to which social support contributed to the recovery process among individuals with psychological distress after being exposed to trauma. Methods: Prospective survey data from ministry employees were collected 10, 22, and 34 months after the 2011 Oslo bombing that targeted the governmental quarters. We explored recovery in a clinical subsample (N = 238) of individuals with elevated levels of psychological distress (defined as mean 10-item Hopkins symptom checklist score > 1.85) one year after the event. A linear latent growth curve of psychological distress with general social support from friends and family, colleague support, and leader support as predictors was examined. Results: High levels of general social support and leader support were independently associated with a more rapid decline in psychological distress over time. Conclusions: General social support, as well as support from a leader in one’s working life, may facilitate recovery from psychological distress after exposure to a traumatic event. Enhancing social support from family and friends, as well as in work settings, may benefit those with psychological distress following a traumatic workplace event. PMID:28451070

  15. Fact Sheet: Environmental Pathway Models-Ground-Water Modeling in Support of Remedial Decision Making at Sites Contaminated with Radioactive Material

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This fact sheet was designed to be used by technical staff responsible for identifying and implementing flow and transport models to support cleanup decisions at hazardous and radioactive waste sites.

  16. Catalytic degradation of the nerve agent VX by water-swelled polystyrene-supported ammonium fluorides.

    PubMed

    Marciano, Daniele; Goldvaser, Michael; Columbus, Ishay; Zafrani, Yossi

    2011-10-21

    The catalytic degradation of the nerve agent VX (O-ethyl S-2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl methylphosphonothioate) by water-swelled polymer-supported ammonium fluorides is described. VX (0.06-0.53 mol/mol F(-)) is rapidly degraded (t(1/2) ∼ 10-30 min) to form the "G-analogue" (O-ethyl methylphosphonofluoridate), which hydrolyzes (t(1/2) ∼ 1-1.5 h) to the nontoxic EMPA (ethyl methylphosphonic acid). The toxic desethyl-VX is not formed. The catalytic effect of fluoride is maintained even when 6 equiv of VX are loaded. GB (O-isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate) and desethyl-VX agents are also degraded under these conditions.

  17. Element exchange in a water-and gas-closed biological life support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-01-01

    Liquid human wastes and household water used for nutrition of wheat made possible to realize 24% closure for the mineral exchange in an experiment with a 2-component version of ``Bios-3'' life support system (LSS) Input-output balances of revealed, that elements (primarily trace elements) within the system. The structural materials (steel, titanium), expanded clay aggregate, and catalytic furnace catalysts. By the end of experiment, the permanent nutrient solution, plants, and the human diet gradually built up Ni, Cr, Al, Fe, V, Zn, Cu, and Mo. Thorough selection and pretreatment of materials can substantially reduce this accumulation. To enhance closure of the mineral exchange involves processing of human- metabolic wastes and inedible biomes inside LSS. An efficient method to oxidize wastes by hydrogen peroxide in a quartz reactor at the temperature of 80°C controlled electromagnetic field is proposed.

  18. Element exchange in a water-and gas-closed biological life support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gribovskaya, I. V.; Kudenko, Yu. A.; Gitelson, J. I.

    1997-01-01

    Liquid human wastes and household water used for nutrition of wheat made possible to realize 24% closure for the mineral exchange in an experiment with a 2-component version of ``Bios-3'' life support system (LSS) Input-output balances of revealed, that elements (primarily trace elements) within the system. The structural materials (steel, titanium), expanded clay aggregate, and catalytic furnace catalysts. By the end of experiment, the permanent nutrient solution, plants, and the human diet gradually built up Ni, Cr, Al, Fe, V, Zn, Cu, and Mo. Thorough selection and pretreatment of materials can substantially reduce this accumulation. To enhance closure of the mineral exchange involves processing of human- metabolic wastes and inedible biomes inside LSS. An efficient method to oxidize wastes by hydrogen peroxide in a quartz reactor at the temperature of 80 degC controlled electromagnetic field is proposed.

  19. Bond cleavage of lignin model compounds into aromatic monomers using supported metal catalysts in supercritical water

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Aritomo; Mimura, Naoki; Shirai, Masayuki; Sato, Osamu

    2017-01-01

    More efficient use of lignin carbon is necessary for carbon-efficient utilization of lignocellulosic biomass. Conversion of lignin into valuable aromatic compounds requires the cleavage of C–O ether bonds and C–C bonds between lignin monomer units. The catalytic cleavage of C–O bonds is still challenging, and cleavage of C–C bonds is even more difficult. Here, we report cleavage of the aromatic C–O bonds in lignin model compounds using supported metal catalysts in supercritical water without adding hydrogen gas and without causing hydrogenation of the aromatic rings. The cleavage of the C–C bond in bibenzyl was also achieved with Rh/C as a catalyst. Use of this technique may greatly facilitate the conversion of lignin into valuable aromatic compounds. PMID:28387304

  20. Waste-water characterization and hazardous-waste technical assistance survey, Mather AFB California. Final report, 28 November-9 December 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, S.P.; Hedgecock, N.S.

    1989-10-01

    Personnel from the AFOEHL conducted a waste-water characterization and hazardous-waste technical assistance survey at MAFB from 28 Nov to 9 Dec 1988. The scope of this survey was to characterize the waste-water, address hazardous-waste-management practices, and explore opportunities for hazardous waste minimization. The waste water survey team analyzed the base's industrial effluent, effluent from oil/water separators, and storm water. The team performed a shop-by-shop evaluation of chemical-waste-management practices. Survey results showed that MAFB needs to improve its hazardous-waste-management program. Recommendations for improvement include: (1) Collecting two additional grab samples on separate days from the hospital discharge. Analyze for EPA Methodmore » 601 to determine if the grab sample from the survey gives a true indication of what is being discharged. (2) Locate the source and prevent mercury from the hospital from discharging into the sanitary sewer. (3) Dilute the soaps used for cleaning at the Fuels Lab, Building 7060. (4) Investigate the source of chromium from the Photo Lab. (5) Clean out the sewer system manhole directly downgradient from the Photo Lab. (6) Locate the source of contamination in the West Ditch Outfall. (7) Reconnect the two oil/water separators that discharge into the storm sewerage system. (8) Investigate the source of methylene chloride coming on the base. (9) Investigate the source of mercury at Fuel Cell Repair, building 7005.« less

  1. Use of graphene supported on aminopropyl silica for microextraction of parabens from water samples.

    PubMed

    Fumes, Bruno Henrique; Lanças, Fernando Mauro

    2017-03-03

    This paper describes the synthesis, characterization and use of graphene supported on aminopropyl silica through covalent bonds (Si-G) as a sorbent for microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS). Five parabens (methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl and benzyl) present in water matrices were used as model compounds for this evaluation. The Si-G phase was compared to other sorbents used in MEPS (C18 and Strata™-X) and also with graphene supported on primary-secondary amine (PSA) silica, where Si-G showed better results. After this, the MEPS experimental parameters were optimized using the Si-G sorbent. The following variables were optimized through univariate experiments: pH (4,7 and 10), desorption solvent (ACN:MeOH (50:50), ACN:H 2 O (40:60), MeOH and ACN) and ionic strength (0, 10 and 20% of NaCl). A factorial design 2 6-2 was then employed to evaluate other variables, such as the sample volume, desorption volume, sampling cycles, wash cycles and desorption cycles, as well as the influence of NaCl% on the extraction performance. The optimized method achieved a linear range of 0.2-20μg/L for most parabens; weighted calibration models were employed during the linearity evaluation to reduce the absolute sum of the residue values and improve R 2 , which ranged from 0.9753 to 0.9849. The method's accuracy was 82.3-119.2%; precision, evaluated as the coefficient of variance for intraday and interday analysis, ranged from 1.5 to 19.2%. After evaluation of the figures of merit, the method was applied to the determination of parabens in water samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Methodological approach and tools for systems thinking in health systems research: technical assistants' support of health administration reform in the Democratic Republic of Congo as an application.

    PubMed

    Ribesse, Nathalie; Bossyns, Paul; Marchal, Bruno; Karemere, Hermes; Burman, Christopher J; Macq, Jean

    2017-03-01

    In the field of development cooperation, interest in systems thinking and complex systems theories as a methodological approach is increasingly recognised. And so it is in health systems research, which informs health development aid interventions. However, practical applications remain scarce to date. The objective of this article is to contribute to the body of knowledge by presenting the tools inspired by systems thinking and complexity theories and methodological lessons learned from their application. These tools were used in a case study. Detailed results of this study are in process for publication in additional articles. Applying a complexity 'lens', the subject of the case study is the role of long-term international technical assistance in supporting health administration reform at the provincial level in the Democratic Republic of Congo. The Methods section presents the guiding principles of systems thinking and complex systems, their relevance and implication for the subject under study, and the existing tools associated with those theories which inspired us in the design of the data collection and analysis process. The tools and their application processes are presented in the results section, and followed in the discussion section by the critical analysis of their innovative potential and emergent challenges. The overall methodology provides a coherent whole, each tool bringing a different and complementary perspective on the system.

  3. New tools for an old trade: a socio-technical appraisal of how electronic decision support is used by primary care practitioners.

    PubMed

    Peiris, David; Usherwood, Tim; Weeramanthri, Tarun; Cass, Alan; Patel, Anushka

    2011-11-01

    This article explores Australian general practitioners' (GPs) views on a novel electronic decision support (EDS) tool being developed for cardiovascular disease management. We use Timmermans and Berg's technology-in-practice approach to examine how technologies influence and are influenced by the social networks in which they are placed. In all, 21 general practitioners who piloted the tool were interviewed. The tool occupied an ill-defined middle ground in a dialectical relationship between GPs' routine care and factors promoting best practice. Drawing on Lipsky's concept of 'street-level bureaucrats', the tool's ability to process workloads expeditiously was of greatest appeal to GPs. This feature of the tool gave it the potential to alter the structure, process and content of healthcare encounters. The credibility of EDS tools appears to be mediated by fluid notions of best practice, based on an expert scrutiny of the evidence, synthesis via authoritative guidelines and dissemination through trusted and often informal networks. Balanced against this is the importance of 'soft' forms of knowledge such as intuition and timing in everyday decision-making. This resonates with Aristotle's theory of phronesis (practical wisdom) and may render EDS tools inconsequential if they merely process biomedical data. While EDS tools show promise in improving health practitioner performance, the socio-technical dimensions of their implementation warrant careful consideration. © 2011 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2011 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Coordination-Supported Imidazolate Networks: Water- and Heat-Stable Mesoporous Polymers for Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pengfei; Yang, Shize; Chisholm, Matthew F; Jiang, Xueguang; Huang, Caili; Dai, Sheng

    2017-07-26

    The poor water stability of most porous coordination polymers (PCPs) or metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) is widely recognized as a barrier hampering their practical applications. Here, a facile and scalable route to prepare metal-containing polymers with a good stability in boiling water (100 °C, 24 h) and air (up to 390 °C) is presented. The bifunctional 1-vinylimidazole (VIm) with a coordinating site and a polymerizable organic group is introduced as the building block. This core strategy includes the synthesis of a rigid monomer with four VIm branches through a coordination process at room temperature, followed by a radical polymerization. We refer to this material as coordination-supported imidazolate networks (CINs). Interestingly, CINs are composed of rich mesopores from 2-15 nm, as characterized by low-energy (60 kV) STEM-HAADF images. In particular, the stable CINs illustrate a high turnover frequency (TOF) of 779 h -1 in the catalytic oxidation of phenol with H 2 O as the green solvent. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Coordination-Supported Imidazolate Networks: Water- and Heat-Stable Mesoporous Polymers for Catalysis

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Pengfei; Yang, Shize; Chisholm, Matthew F.; ...

    2017-05-29

    The poor water stability of most porous coordination polymers (PCPs) or metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) is widely recognised as a barrier hampering their practical applications. Herein, a facile and scalable route to prepare metal-containing polymers with a good stability in boiling water (100°C, 24 h) and air (up to 390°C) is presented. The bifunctional 1-vinylimidazole (VIm) with both a coordinating site and a polymerizable organic group is introduced as the building block. This core strategy includes the synthesis of a rigid monomer with four VIm branches via a coordination process at room temperature, followed by a radical polymerization. Here we callmore » this material Coordination-supported Imidazolate Networks (CINs). Interestingly, CINs are composed of rich mesopores from 2 to 15 nm, as characterized by low-energy (60 kV) STEM-HAADF images. Especially, the stable CINs illustrate a high turnover frequency (TOF) of 779 h -1 in the catalytic oxidation of phenol with H 2O as the green solvent.« less

  6. PRESSURIZED WATER REACTOR (PWR) PROJECT TECHNICAL PROGRESS REPORT FOR THE PERIOD DECEMBER 24, 1959 TO FEBRUARY 23, 1960

    SciTech Connect

    None

    < 9 A < 2 6 < 7 4 8 9 6 2 6 equalizing vent valves on air locks 2, 4, and 5 was completed. An evaluation of the failed main coolant pump No. 1-80-F-737 was completed. The design for installing combination ball check and manual stop valves on the boiler water level sight glasses, to prevent the escape of steam should a defective sight glass develop, was completed. The main coolant pumps No. 80 and No. 79 were modified by increasing the radial clearance of the impeller wear ring and by removing the upper labyrinth ring. A designmore » for relocating the cooling water flow orifice 17-J4-17 was completed. Metallurgy: Preliminary data from the Bett 69-1 in-pile thermal conductivity capsules indicate that the thermal conductivity of as-sintered ZrO/sub 2/ 34 wt.% UO/sub 2/ appears to decrease from an initial value of about 1.6 Btu/hr-ft- deg F to about 0.7 Btu/hr-ft- deg F after 17 days irradiation in an estimated perturbed flux of 4 x 10/sup 13/. The thermal conductivities of UO/sub 2/ and BeO 51 wt.% UO/sub 2/ fuel remained unchanged during this time. Examination of the two failed X-3-1 fuel plates and the two failed CR-V-m fuel plates showed that a definite burnup limitation exists for bulk UO/sub 2/i of about 16 x 10/sup 20/ to 21.5 x 10/sup 20/ fissions/cc at which point the fuel increases in volume about 4- -5%. Irradiation of both fine and coarse dis-persions of 28 wt.% UO/sub 2/in BeO to exposures of about 11 x 10/sup 20/ fissions/cc shows this material has very poor dimensional stabllity and poor fission gas retention ability. The fine particles dispersion showed approximately 4.8 times the thickness increase as did the coarse particles. Interim examination of a bulk B/sub 4/ burnable poison plate irradiated in the HB-1 loop to about 60 at.% B/sup 10/ burnup showed a 17% increase in plate thickness. The technical feasibility of fabricating blanket receptacles with full length fuel channels and an integral cover plate by form rolling was established. Hack

  7. Modelling multiple threats to water security in the Peruvian Amazon using the WaterWorld policy support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Soesbergen, A. J. J.; Mulligan, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the application of WaterWorld (www.policysupport.org/waterworld) to the Peruvian Amazon, an area that is increasingly under pressure from deforestation and water pollution as a result of population growth, rural-to-urban migration and oil and gas extraction, potentially impacting both water quantity and water quality. By applying single and combined plausible scenarios of climate change, deforestation around existing and planned roads, population growth and rural-urban migration, mining and oil and gas exploitation, we explore the potential combined impacts of these multiple changes on water resources in the Peruvian Amazon.

  8. Systems analysis - a new paradigm and decision support tools for the water framework directive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruen, M.

    2007-06-01

    In the early days of Systems Analysis the focus was on providing tools for optimisation, modelling and simulation for use by experts. Now there is a recognition of the need to develop and disseminate tools to assist in making decisions, negotiating compromises and communicating preferences that can easily be used by stakeholders without the need for specialist training. The Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires public participation and thus provides a strong incentive for progress in this direction. This paper places the new paradigm in the context of the classical one and discusses some of the new approaches which can be used in the implementation of the WFD. These include multi-criteria decision support methods suitable for environmental problems, adaptive management, cognitive mapping, social learning and cooperative design and group decision-making. Concordance methods (such as ELECTRE) and the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) are identified as multi-criteria methods that can be readily integrated into Decision Support Systems (DSS) that deal with complex environmental issues with very many criteria, some of which are qualitative. The expanding use of the new paradigm provides an opportunity to observe and learn from the interaction of stakeholders with the new technology and to assess its effectiveness. This is best done by trained sociologists fully integrated into the processes. The WINCOMS research project is an example applied to the implementation of the WFD in Ireland.

  9. Systems Analysis - a new paradigm and decision support tools for the water framework directive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruen, M.

    2008-05-01

    In the early days of Systems Analysis the focus was on providing tools for optimisation, modelling and simulation for use by experts. Now there is a recognition of the need to develop and disseminate tools to assist in making decisions, negotiating compromises and communicating preferences that can easily be used by stakeholders without the need for specialist training. The Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires public participation and thus provides a strong incentive for progress in this direction. This paper places the new paradigm in the context of the classical one and discusses some of the new approaches which can be used in the implementation of the WFD. These include multi-criteria decision support methods suitable for environmental problems, adaptive management, cognitive mapping, social learning and cooperative design and group decision-making. Concordance methods (such as ELECTRE) and the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) are identified as multi-criteria methods that can be readily integrated into Decision Support Systems (DSS) that deal with complex environmental issues with very many criteria, some of which are qualitative. The expanding use of the new paradigm provides an opportunity to observe and learn from the interaction of stakeholders with the new technology and to assess its effectiveness.

  10. A Methodology for Evaluating and Ranking Water Quantity Indicators in Support of Ecosystem-Based Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, C. Andrew; Kershner, Jessi; Samhouri, Jameal; O'Neill, Sandra; Levin, Phillip S.

    2012-03-01

    Ecosystem-based Management (EBM) is an approach that includes different management priorities and requires a balance between anthropogenic and ecological resource demands. Indicators can be used to monitor ecosystem status and trends, and assess whether projects and/or programs are leading to the achievement of management goals. As such, the careful selection of a suite of indicators is a crucial exercise. In this paper we describe an indicator evaluation and selection process designed to support the EBM approach in Puget Sound. The first step in this process was the development of a general framework for selecting indicators. The framework, designed to transparently include both scientific and policy considerations into the selection and evaluation process, was developed and then utilized in the organization and determination of a preliminary set of indicators. Next, the indicators were assessed against a set of nineteen distinct criteria that describe the model characteristics of an indicator. A literature review was performed for each indicator to determine the extent to which it satisfied each of the evaluation criteria. The result of each literature review was summarized in a numerical matrix, allowing comparison, and demonstrating the extent of scientific reliability. Finally, an approach for ranking indicators was developed to explore the effects of intended purpose on indicator selection. We identified several sets of scientifically valid and policy-relevant indicators that included metrics such as annual-7 day low flow and water system reliability, which are supportive of the EBM approach in the Puget Sound.

  11. Technical writing versus technical writing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dillingham, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    Two terms, two job categories, 'technical writer' and 'technical author' are discussed in terms of industrial and business requirements and standards. A distinction between 'technical writing' and technical 'writing' is made. The term 'technical editor' is also considered. Problems inherent in the design of programs to prepare and train students for these jobs are discussed. A closer alliance between industry and academia is suggested as a means of preparing students with competent technical communication skills (especially writing and editing skills) and good technical skills.

  12. Gold coast seaway smartrelease decision support system: optimising recycled water release in a sub tropical estuarine environment.

    PubMed

    Stuart, G; Hollingsworth, A; Thomsen, F; Szylkarski, S; Khan, S; Tomlinson, R; Kirkpatrick, S; Catterall, K; Capati, B

    2009-01-01

    Gold Coast Water is responsible for the management of the water, recycled water and wastewater assets of the City of the Gold Coast on Australia's east coast. Excess treated recycled water is released at the Gold Coast Seaway, a man-made channel connecting the Broadwater Estuary with the Pacific Ocean, on an outgoing tide in order for the recycled water to be dispersed before the tide changes and re-enters the Broadwater estuary. Rapid population growth has placed increasing demands on the city's recycled water release system and an investigation of the capacity of the Broadwater to assimilate a greater volume of recycled water over a longer release period was undertaken in 2007. As an outcome, Gold Coast Water was granted an extension of the existing release licence from 10.5 hours per day to 13.3 hours per day from the Coombabah wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The Seaway SmartRelease Project has been designed to optimise the release of the recycled water from the Coombabah WWTP in order to minimise the impact to the receiving estuarine water quality and maximise the cost efficiency of pumping. In order achieve this; an optimisation study that involves intensive hydrodynamic and water quality monitoring, numerical modelling and a web-based decision support system is underway. An intensive monitoring campaign provided information on water levels, currents, winds, waves, nutrients and bacterial levels within the Broadwater. This data was then used to calibrate and verify numerical models using the MIKE by DHI suite of software. The Decision Support System will then collect continually measured data such as water levels, interact with the WWTP SCADA system, run the numerical models and provide the optimal time window to release the required amount of recycled water from the WWTP within the licence specifications.

  13. A Web-Based Decision Support System for Assessing Regional Water-Quality Conditions and Management Actions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Booth, N.L.; Everman, E.J.; Kuo, I.-L.; Sprague, L.; Murphy, L.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Assessment Program has completed a number of water-quality prediction models for nitrogen and phosphorus for the conterminous United States as well as for regional areas of the nation. In addition to estimating water-quality conditions at unmonitored streams, the calibrated SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) models can be used to produce estimates of yield, flow-weighted concentration, or load of constituents in water under various land-use condition, change, or resource management scenarios. A web-based decision support infrastructure has been developed to provide access to SPARROW simulation results on stream water-quality conditions and to offer sophisticated scenario testing capabilities for research and water-quality planning via a graphical user interface with familiar controls. The SPARROW decision support system (DSS) is delivered through a web browser over an Internet connection, making it widely accessible to the public in a format that allows users to easily display water-quality conditions and to describe, test, and share modeled scenarios of future conditions. SPARROW models currently supported by the DSS are based on the modified digital versions of the 1:500,000-scale River Reach File (RF1) and 1:100,000-scale National Hydrography Dataset (medium-resolution, NHDPlus) stream networks. ?? 2011 American Water Resources Association. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  14. An Assessment of the Support Service Needs of Career and Technical Education Teachers and Their Students with Limited English Proficiency in Selected Pennsylvania AVTS's

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichowski, Chester P.; Nunez, Frances

    2005-01-01

    A survey was conducted among a population of 350 Career and Technical Education, CTE, teachers from 12 Career Technical Education Centers, CTC, sites in seven counties throughout Pennsylvania (return rate = 64%). The participating schools demographic settings, which were selected by the respondents, were closely divided between rural (37.9%) and…

  15. Demonstration of an advanced solar garden with a water ceiling. Final technical report, July 1, 1979-June 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Maes, R.; Riseng, C.; Thomas, G.

    1980-09-01

    A history of the solar garden with the addition of the transparent water ceiling is presented, and a statement of the overall goals of the program is given. The objectives of the water ceiling grant are detailed. The rationale of the transparent water ceiling is developed and its implementation in the solar garden is described. The experimental procedures for evaluating the water ceiling as an integral part of an ongoing garden agricultural experiment are discussed and the results presented. The water ceiling has proven useful in providing extra thermal capacity to the solar garden. It provides heat at night aftermore » the water has been warmed during the day and retards overheating in the daytime by absorbing infrared energy into the water. In growing non-flowering plants, such as lettuce and Chinese cabbage, the water ceiling showed no noticeable degradation in yield or maturation rate. In flowering plants, such as tomatoes, the reduced light levels delayed yields by a couple of weeks but the total yield was only slightly diminished. In geographic areas where there is less cloud cover than in Michigan the water ceiling could be much more effective.« less

  16. Dose Modeling Evaluations and Technical Support Document For the Authorized Limits Request for the DOE-Owned Property Outside the Limited Area, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Boerner, A. J.; Maldonado, D. G.; Hansen, Tom

    2012-09-01

    derived soil guidelines as inputs into the code was also performed to determine the maximum (peak) dose for all receptors. This report contains the technical basis in support of the DOE?s derivation of ALs for the 'Property.' A complete description of the methodology, including an assessment of the input parameters, model inputs, and results is provided in this report. This report also provides initial recommendations on applying the derived soil guidelines.« less

  17. Experimental Facilities in Water Resources Education. A Contribution to the International Hydrological Programme. UNESCO Technical Papers in Hydrology No. 24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This monograph is intended to guide teachers of water resources, technicians and university students in establishing physical facilities which can introduce learners to methods, techniques, and instruments used in water resources management and assessment. It is not intended to serve as an exhaustive list of equipment and their descriptions or as…

  18. 24 CFR 583.140 - Technical assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Technical assistance. 583.140... Technical assistance. (a) General. HUD may set aside funds annually to provide technical assistance, either... technical assistance is for the purpose of promoting the development of supportive housing and supportive...

  19. Water use assessments supporting company-specific growth and sustainability goals

    Treesearch

    John Beebe

    2016-01-01

    In areas with increasing demand for water, addressing water use objectives has long been a primary environmental objective and key concern among industrial water users including paper mills and other forest product companies. However, in recent years, water use metrics and related information (including population change, climate information, and land use...

  20. Education of Technicians for Water Conservation and Wastewater Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooking, Walter J.

    There is a growing need for supportive personnel with technical preparation in water and wastewater purification and water resource conservation. A curriculum and program guide was developed in 1965-66 by Fayetteville Technical Institute for use by institutions interested in establishing a program to educate technicians. Meeting the need for…

  1. Feasibility study of a pressure fed engine for a water recoverable space shuttle booster Volume 2: Technical, phase A effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Design and systems considerations are presented on an engine concept selection for further preliminary design and program evaluation. These data have been prepared from a feasibility study of a pressure-fed engine for the water recoverable space shuttle booster.

  2. Guidelines for replacement of deficient bridges with low-water stream crossings in the rural Midwest : technical summary.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2017-02-01

    This report provides guidance to public officials and engineers considering the replacement of a deficient or obsolete bridge with a low-water stream crossing (LWSC). An LWSC is a structure that is occasionally overtopped by floodwaters and is likely...

  3. Comparative Measurement of Microcystins in Diverse Surface Waters using ADDA-ELISA, LC-MS/MS, and MMPB Technical

    EPA Science Inventory

    The measurement of microcystins, cyanotoxins associated with cyanobacterial blooms which are increasingly prevalent in inland waters, is complicated by the diversity of congeners which have been observed in the environment. At present, more than 150 microcystin congeners have bee...

  4. Determination of need for water soaking period in measurement of concrete volume of permeable voids : technical summary.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-10-01

    Water permeability of concrete is one of the key factors concerning : many concrete deterioration problems. It is often evaluated indirectly by : measuring the volume of permeable voids through the KT-73 (2012) testing : procedures. These procedures ...

  5. Evaluating the hydrological functioning and the supply of water provisioning services to support the ecosystem-water-food-energy nexus in the Arno river basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacetti, Tommaso; Willaarts, Barbara; Caporali, Enrica; Schroeder Esselbach, Boris

    2017-04-01

    Water, flowing in a basin, underpins key provisioning ecosystem services like freshwater supply, food and energy production. River basin management largely determines the type of water-related ecosystem services (WES) that are provided and the extent to which trade-offs and synergies might arise. Gaining insights on the ecohydrological behavior of a basin and on the conflicting anthropic pressures on the available water resources allows to identify the most important WES, as well as the existence of WES supply and demand hotspots. This information is crucial for water resources management and, in the context of the European Union, also required to comply with the requirements of the Water Framework Directive (WFD). The purpose of this research is to quantify the provisioning WES in the upstream part of the Arno river basin (Central Italy) and identify WES hotspots and fluxes. Current information on how water is allocated in the Arno basin remains scarce, despite the increasing water demand by some sectors, particularly irrigation, and a number of emerging conflicts among users. It is expected that research outputs can support the improvement of the existing management framework, moving from the classical DPSIR (Driving forces, Pressure, State, Impact e Response) approach, where impacts must be reduced or mitigated, to a more proactive framework to support the sustainability of the Arno basin and meet the different policy goals. The eco-hydrological model SWAT (Soil Water Assessment Tool) is applied to spatially quantify the provision of WES. The preliminary results of this research indicate that the highest amount of water yield, i.e. net amount of water that contributes to streamflow and represents the main blue water fund, originates in the northern part of the basin, characterized by forest areas. In contrast, the southern part of the basin, which is mainly agriculturally used, gives a minor contribution to the overall water yield, in direct proportion to the

  6. Fouling-Resistant Membranes for Treating Concentrated Brines for Water Reuse in Advanced Energy Systems- Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hendren, Zachary; Choi, Young Chul

    The high total dissolved solids (TDS) levels in the wastewater quality generated from unconventional oil and gas development make the current state-of-the art approach to water treatment/disposal untenable. Our proposed membrane technology approach addresses the two major challenges associated with this water: 1) the membrane distillation process removes the high TDS content, which is often 8 times higher than that of seawater, and 2) our novel membrane coating prevents the formation of scale that would otherwise pose a significant operational hurdle. This is accomplished through next-generation electrically conductive membranes that mitigate fouling beyond what is currently possible, and allow formore » the flexibility to treat to the water to levels desirable for multiple reuse options, thus reducing fresh water withdrawal, all the way to direct disposal into the environment. The overall project objective was to demonstrate the efficacy of membrane distillation (MD) as a cost-savings technology to treat concentrated brines (such as, but not limited to, produced waters generated from fossil fuel extraction) that have high levels of TDS for beneficial water reuse in power production and other industrial operations as well as agricultural and municipal water uses. In addition, a novel fouling-resistant nanocomposite membrane was developed to reduce the need for chemicals to address membrane scaling due to the precipitation of divalent ions in high-TDS waters and improve overall MD performance via an electrically conductive membrane distillation process (ECMD). This anti-fouling membrane technology platform is based on incorporating carbon nanotubes (CNTs) into the surface layer of existing, commercially available MD membranes. The CNTs impart electrical conductivity to the membrane surface to prevent membrane scaling and fouling when an electrical potential is applied.« less

  7. Fungus hyphae-supported alumina: An efficient and reclaimable adsorbent for fluoride removal from water.

    PubMed

    Yang, Weichun; Tian, Shunqi; Tang, Qiongzhi; Chai, Liyuan; Wang, Haiying

    2017-06-15

    A reclaimable adsorbent of fungus hyphae-supported alumina (FHSA) bio-nanocomposites was developed, characterized and applied in fluoride removal from water. This adsorbent can be fast assembled and disassemble reversibly, promising efficient reclamation and high accessible surface area for fluoride adsorption. Adsorption experiments demonstrate that the FHSA performed well over a considerable wide pH range of 3-10 with high fluoride removal efficiencies (>66.3%). The adsorption capacity was 105.60mgg -1 for FHSA, much higher than that for the alumina nanoparticles (50.55mgg -1 ) and pure fungus hyphae (22.47mgg -1 ). The adsorption capacity calculated by the pure content of alumina in the FHSA is 340.27mgg -1 of alumina. Kinetics data reveal that the fluoride adsorption process on the FHSA was fast, nearly 90% fluoride adsorption can be achieved within 40min. The fluoride adsorption on the FHSA is mainly due to the surface complexes formation of fluoride with AlOH and the attraction between protonated NH 2 and fluoride through hydrogen bonding. Findings demonstrate that the FHSA has potential applicability in fluoride removal due to its strong fluoride adsorbility and the easy reclamation by its fast reversible assembly and disassembly feature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. An Open-source Community Web Site To Support Ground-Water Model Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraemer, S. R.; Bakker, M.; Craig, J. R.

    2007-12-01

    A community wiki wiki web site has been created as a resource to support ground-water model development and testing. The Groundwater Gourmet wiki is a repository for user supplied analytical and numerical recipes, howtos, and examples. Members are encouraged to submit analytical solutions, including source code and documentation. A diversity of code snippets are sought in a variety of languages, including Fortran, C, C++, Matlab, Python. In the spirit of a wiki, all contributions may be edited and altered by other users, and open source licensing is promoted. Community accepted contributions are graduated into the library of analytic solutions and organized into either a Strack (Groundwater Mechanics, 1989) or Bruggeman (Analytical Solutions of Geohydrological Problems, 1999) classification. The examples section of the wiki are meant to include laboratory experiments (e.g., Hele Shaw), classical benchmark problems (e.g., Henry Problem), and controlled field experiments (e.g., Borden landfill and Cape Cod tracer tests). Although this work was reviewed by EPA and approved for publication, it may not necessarily reflect official Agency policy. Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use.

  9. Advanced Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation is planned to be a 10-15 minute "catalytic" focused presentation to be scheduled during one of the working sessions at the TIM. This presentation will focus on Advanced Life Support technologies key to future human Space Exploration as outlined in the Vision, and will include basic requirements, assessment of the state-of-the-art and gaps, and include specific technology metrics. The presentation will be technical in character, lean heavily on data in published ALS documents (such as the Baseline Values and Assumptions Document) but not provide specific technical details or build to information on any technology mentioned (thus the presentation will be benign from an export control and a new technology perspective). The topics presented will be focused on the following elements of Advanced Life Support: air revitalization, water recovery, waste management, thermal control, habitation systems, food systems and bioregenerative life support.

  10. Technical note: Validation of an automated system for monitoring and restricting water intake in group-housed beef steers.

    PubMed

    Allwardt, K; Ahlberg, C; Broocks, A; Bruno, K; Taylor, A; Place, S; Richards, C; Krehbiel, C; Calvo-Lorenzo, M; DeSilva, U; VanOverbeke, D; Mateescu, R; Goad, C; Rolf, M M

    2017-09-01

    The Insentec Roughage Intake Control (RIC) system has been validated for the collection of water intake; however, this system has not been validated for water restriction. The objective of this validation was to evaluate the agreement between direct observations and automated intakes collected by the RIC system under both ad libitum and restricted water conditions. A total of 239 crossbred steers were used in a 3-d validation trial, which assessed intake values generated by the RIC electronic intake monitoring system for both ad libitum water intake ( = 122; BASE) and restricted water intake ( = 117; RES). Direct human observations were collected on 4 Insentec water bins for three 24-h periods and three 12-h periods for BASE and RES, respectively. An intake event was noted by the observer when the electronic identification of the animal was read by the transponder and the gate lowered, and starting and ending bin weights were recorded for each intake event. Data from direct observations across each validation period were compared to automated observations generated from the RIC system. Missing beginning or ending weight values for visual observations occasionally occurred due to the observer being unable to capture the value before the monitor changed when bin activity was high. To estimate the impact of these missing values, analyses denoted as OBS were completed with the incomplete record coded as missing data. These analyses were contrasted with analyses where observations with a single missing beginning or end weight (but not both) were assumed to be identical to that which was recorded by the Insentec system (OBS). Difference in mean total intake across BASE steers was 0.60 ± 2.06 kg OBS (0.54 ± 1.99 kg OBS) greater for system observations than visual observations. The comparison of mean total intake across the 3 RES validation days was 0.53 ± 2.30 kg OBS (0.13 ± 1.83 kg OBS) greater for system observations than direct observations. Day was not a

  11. Integrating multisensor satellite data merging and image reconstruction in support of machine learning for better water quality management.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ni-Bin; Bai, Kaixu; Chen, Chi-Farn

    2017-10-01

    Monitoring water quality changes in lakes, reservoirs, estuaries, and coastal waters is critical in response to the needs for sustainable development. This study develops a remote sensing-based multiscale modeling system by integrating multi-sensor satellite data merging and image reconstruction algorithms in support of feature extraction with machine learning leading to automate continuous water quality monitoring in environmentally sensitive regions. This new Earth observation platform, termed "cross-mission data merging and image reconstruction with machine learning" (CDMIM), is capable of merging multiple satellite imageries to provide daily water quality monitoring through a series of image processing, enhancement, reconstruction, and data mining/machine learning techniques. Two existing key algorithms, including Spectral Information Adaptation and Synthesis Scheme (SIASS) and SMart Information Reconstruction (SMIR), are highlighted to support feature extraction and content-based mapping. Whereas SIASS can support various data merging efforts to merge images collected from cross-mission satellite sensors, SMIR can overcome data gaps by reconstructing the information of value-missing pixels due to impacts such as cloud obstruction. Practical implementation of CDMIM was assessed by predicting the water quality over seasons in terms of the concentrations of nutrients and chlorophyll-a, as well as water clarity in Lake Nicaragua, providing synergistic efforts to better monitor the aquatic environment and offer insightful lake watershed management strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Site selection for drinking-water pumping boreholes using a fuzzy spatial decision support system in the Korinthia prefecture, SE Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonakos, Andreas K.; Voudouris, Konstantinos S.; Lambrakis, Nikolaos I.

    2014-12-01

    The implementation of a geographic information system (GIS)/fuzzy spatial decision support system in the selection of sites for drinking-water pumping boreholes is described. Groundwater is the main source of domestic supply and irrigation in Korinthia prefecture, south-eastern Greece. Water demand has increased considerably over the last 30 years and is mainly met by groundwater abstracted via numerous wells and boreholes. The definition of the most "suitable" site for the drilling of new boreholes is a major issue in this area. A method of allocating suitable locations has been developed based on multicriteria analysis and fuzzy logic. Twelve parameters were finally involved in the model, prearranged into three categories: borehole yield, groundwater quality, and economic and technical constraints. GIS was used to create a classification map of the research area, based on the suitability of each point for the placement of new borehole fields. The coastal part of the study area is completely unsuitable, whereas high values of suitability are recorded in the south-western part. The study demonstrated that the method of multicriteria analysis in combination with fuzzy logic is a useful tool for selecting the best sites for new borehole drilling on a regional scale. The results could be used by local authorities and decision-makers for integrated groundwater resources management.

  13. The water treatment and recycling in 105-day bioregenerative life support experiment in the Lunar Palace 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Beizhen; Zhu, Guorong; Liu, Bojie; Su, Qiang; Deng, Shengda; Yang, Lige; Liu, Guanghui; Dong, Chen; Wang, Minjuan; Liu, Hong

    2017-11-01

    In the bioregenerative life support system (BLSS), water recycling is one of the essential issues. The Lunar Palace 1, a ground-based bioregenerative life support system experimental facility, has been developed by our team and a 105-day closed bioregenerative life support experiment with multi-crew involved has been accomplished within this large-scale facility. During the 105-day experiment, activated carbon-absorption/ultra-filtration, membrane-biological activated carbon reactor and reduced pressure distillation technology have been used to purify the condensate water, sanitary & kitchen wastewater and urine, respectively. The results demonstrated that the combination of those technologies can achieve 100% regeneration of the water inside the Lunar Palace 1. The purified condensate water (the clean water) could meet the standards for drinking water quality in China (GB5749-2006). The treatment capacity of the membrane-biological activated carbon reactor for sanitary & kitchen wastewater could reach 150 kg/d. During the 105-d experiment, the average volume loading of the bioreactor was 0.441 kgCOD/(m3d), and the average COD removal efficiency was about 85.3%. The quality of the purified sanitary & kitchen wastewater (the greywater) could meet the standards for irrigation water quality (GB 5084-2005). In addition, during the 105-day experiment, the total excreted urine volume of three crew members was 346 L and the contained water was totally treated and recovered. The removal efficiency of ion from urine was about 88.12%. Moreover, partial nitrogen within the urine was recovered as well and the average recovery ratio was about 20.5%. The study laid a foundation for the water recycling technologies which could be used in BLSS for lunar or Mars bases.

  14. Technical and economic analysis of solvent-based lithium-ion electrode drying with water and NMP

    DOE PAGES

    Wood, David L.; Quass, Jeffrey D.; Li, Jianlin; ...

    2017-05-16

    Processing lithium-ion battery (LIB) electrode dispersions with water as the solvent during primary drying offers many advantages over N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP). An in-depth analysis of the comparative drying costs of LIB electrodes is discussed for both NMP- and water-based dispersion processing in terms of battery pack $/kWh. Electrode coating manufacturing and capital equipment cost savings are compared for water vs. conventional NMP organic solvent processing. A major finding of this work is that the total electrode manufacturing costs, whether water- or NMP-based, contribute about 8–9% of the total pack cost. However, it was found that up to a 2 × reductionmore » in electrode processing (drying and solvent recovery) cost can be expected along with a $3–6 M savings in associated plant capital equipment (for a plant producing 100,000 10-kWh Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) batteries) using water as the electrode solvent. This paper shows a different perspective in that the most important benefits of aqueous electrode processing actually revolve around capital equipment savings and environmental stewardship and not processing cost savings.« less

  15. SPE (tm) water electrolyzers in support of mission from planet Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcelroy, J. F.

    1991-01-01

    During the 1970's, the Solid Polymer Electrolyte (SPE) water electrolyzer, which uses ion exchange membranes as its sole electrolyte, was developed for nuclear submarine metabolic oxygen production. SPE water electrolyzer developments included operation at up to 3,000 psia and at current densities in excess of 1,000 amps per square foot. The SPE water electrolyzer system has accumulated tens of thousands of system hours with the Navies of both the United States and the United Kingdom. During the 1980's, the basic SPE water electrolyzer cell structure developed for the Navies was incorporated into several demonstrators for NASA's Space Station Program. Among these were: (1) the SPE regenerative fuel cell for electrical energy storage; (2) the SPE water electrolyzer for metabolic oxygen production; and (3) the high pressure SPE water electrolyzer for reboost propellant production. In the 1990's, emphasis will be the development of SPE water electrolyzers for Mission from Planet Earth. Currently defined potential applications for the SPE water electrolyzer include: (1) SPE water electrolyzers operating at high pressure as part of a regenerative fuel cell extraterrestrial surface energy storage system; (2) SPE water electrolyzers for propellant production from extraterrestrial indigenous materials; and (3) SPE water electrolyzers for metabolic oxygen and potable water production from reclaimed water.

  16. EPA’s Research to Support On-Site Non-potable Water Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    As the reuse of alternative water sources continues to gain popularity, public utilities and other stakeholders are seeking guidance on pathogen treatment requirements and monitoring approaches for nonpotable use of onsite collected water (e.g. combined wastewater, graywater, sto...

  17. DECISION-SUPPORT TOOLS FOR PREDICTING THE PERFORMANCE OF WATER DISTRIBUTION AND WASTEWATER COLLECTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water and wastewater infrastructure systems represent a major capital investment; utilities must ensure they are getting the highest yield possible on their investment, both in terms of dollars and water quality. Accurate information related to equipment, pipe characteristics, l...

  18. DECISION-SUPPORT TOOLS FOR PREDICTING THE PERFORMANCE OF WATER DISTRIBUTION AND WASTEWATER COLLECTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water and wastewater infrastructure systems represent a major capital investment; utilities must ensure they are getting the highest yield possible on their investment, both in terms of dollars and water quality. Accurate information related to equipment, pipe characteristics, lo...

  19. Integrated Modeling and Decision-Support System for Water Management in the Puget Sound Basin: Snow Caps to White Caps

    SciTech Connect

    Copping, Andrea E.; Yang, Zhaoqing; Voisin, Nathalie

    2013-12-01

    Final Report for the EPA-sponsored project Snow Caps to White Caps that provides data products and insight for water resource managers to support their predictions and management actions to address future changes in water resources (fresh and marine) in the Puget Sound basin. This report details the efforts of a team of scientists and engineers from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the University of Washington (UW) to examine the movement of water in the Snohomish Basin, within the watershed and the estuary, under present and future conditions, using a set of linked numerical models.

  20. A tap water turbidity crisis in Tel Aviv, Israel, due to technical failure: toxicological and risk management issues.

    PubMed

    Winston, Gary; Lerman, Shlomo; Goldberger, Shalom; Collins, Malcolm; Leventhal, Alex

    2003-06-01

    Herein, we report on the actual events linked to an ammonia spillage into the main waterline of the Tel-Aviv metropolitan area and its surrounding municipalities. Based upon a large magnitude increase of unknown origin in the turbidity and ammonia levels of the main drinking water supply, area residents were warned of possible serious contamination and advised to refrain from drinking tap water until further notice. Turbidity was later linked only to CaCO3, which was precipitated from the water due to the rise in pH caused by the excessive ammonia levels. The source of the ammonia (a malfunction of the measurement buoy in the ammonia tank) was not identified until several days after the warning was issued. The toxicological implications of the turbidity and ammonia elevations are considered and reconciled with the management strategies that followed. Of consequence to the management of this crisis was the approach of Ministry of Health officials to regard the ammonia, from the onset, as an indicator of several possible sources of origin rather than as a contaminant. Decision-making policies were hampered by ineffective communication between the national water supplier and government health officials. An outcome of this crisis was a heightened awareness of the potential of a water crisis occurring during peace time and not only in association with terrorist activities, to which Israeli citizens are highly sensitized. Finally, the present paper may serve to guide municipal environmental and health officials more appropriately in the event of similar drinking water crises in Israel or elsewhere.

  1. Preserving the Finger Lakes for the Future: A Prototype Decision Support System for Water Resource Management, Open Space, and Agricultural Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brower, Robert

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes the activity conducted under NASA Grant NAG13-02059 entitled "Preserving the Finger Lakes for the Future" A Prototype Decision Support System for Water Resources Management, Open Space and Agricultural Protection, for the period of September 26, 2003 to September 25, 2004. The RACNE continues to utilize the services of its affiliate, the Institute for the Application of Geospatial Technology at Cayuga Community College, Inc. (IAGT), for the purposes of this project under its permanent operating agreement with IAGT. IAGT is a 501(c)(3) not-for-profit Corporation created by the RACNE for the purpose of carrying out its programmatic and administrative mission. The "Preserving the Finger Lakes for the Future" project has progressed and evolved as planned, with the continuation or initiation of a number of program facets at programmatic, technical, and inter-agency levels. The project has grown, starting with the well received core concept of the Virtual Management Operations Center (VMOC), to the functional Watershed Virtual Management Operations Center (W-VMOC) prototype, to the more advanced Finger Lakes Decision Support System (FLDSS) prototype, deployed for evaluation and assessment to a wide variety of agencies and organizations in the Finger Lakes region and beyond. This suite of tools offers the advanced, compelling functionality of interactive 3D visualization interfaced with 2D mapping, all accessed via Internet or virtually any kind of distributed computer network.

  2. Technical Note: Interleaved Bipolar Acquisition and Low-rank Reconstruction for Water-Fat Separation in MRI.

    PubMed

    Cho, JaeJin; Park, HyunWook

    2018-05-17

    To acquire interleaved bipolar data and reconstruct the full data using low-rank property for water fat separation. Bipolar acquisition suffers from issues related to gradient switching, the opposite gradient polarities, and other system imperfections, which prevent accurate water-fat separation. In this study, an interleaved bipolar acquisition scheme and a low-rank reconstruction method were proposed to reduce issues from the bipolar gradients while achieving a short imaging time. The proposed interleaved bipolar acquisition scheme collects echo-time signals from both gradient polarities; however, the sequence increases the imaging time. To reduce the imaging time, the signals were subsampled at every dimension of k-space. The low-rank property of the bipolar acquisition was defined and exploited to estimate the full data from the acquired subsampled data. To eliminate the bipolar issues, in the proposed method, the water-fat separation was performed separately for each gradient polarity, and the results for the positive and negative gradient polarities were combined after the water-fat separation. A phantom study and in-vivo experiments were conducted on a 3T Siemens Verio system. The results for the proposed method were compared with the results of the fully sampled interleaved bipolar acquisition and Soliman's method, which was the previous water-fat separation approach for reducing the issues of bipolar gradients and accelerating the interleaved bipolar acquisition. The proposed method provided accurate water and fat images without the issues of bipolar gradients and demonstrated a better performance compared with the results of the previous methods. The water-fat separation using the bipolar acquisition has several benefits including a short echo-spacing time. However, it suffers from bipolar-gradient issues such as strong gradient switching, system imperfection, and eddy current effects. This study demonstrated that accurate water-fat separated images can

  3. Minimizing Disparities and Developing Support by Identifying Differences in Confidence and Knowledge Related to Water Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Melissa; Lamm, Alexa J.

    2016-01-01

    Extension educators face challenges as they strive to keep up with critical issues in their communities, such as those surrounding water. A growing population and a diminishing water supply necessitate that Florida residents become more knowledgeable about water issues. We conducted research to determine how confident both the general public and…

  4. WaterSense Specification for Commercial Pre-Rinse Spray Valves Supporting Statement

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) WaterSense program released a specification for PRSVs to earn the WaterSense label on September 19, 2013, in order to further improve the nation’s water and energy efficiency.

  5. The inventions technology on water resources to support environmental engineering based infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunjoto, S.

    2017-03-01

    Since the Stockholm Declaration, declared on the United Nation Conference on the Human Environment in Sweden on 5-16 June 1972 and attended the 113 country delegations, all the infrastructure construction should comply the sustainable development. As a consequence, almost research and studies were directing to the environmental aspect of construction including on water resources engineering. This paper will present the inventions which are very useful for the design of infrastructure, especially on the Groundwater engineering. This field has been rapidly developed since the publication of the well known law of flow through porous materials by Henri Darcy in 1856 on his book "Les fontaine publiques de la ville de Dijon". This law states that the discharge through porous media is proportional to the product of the hydraulic gradient, the cross-sectional area normal to the flow and the coefficient of permeability of the material. Forchheimer in 1930 developed a breakthrough formula by simplifying solution in a steady state flow condition especially in the case of radial flow to compute the permeability coefficient of casing hole or tube test with zero inflow discharge. The outflow discharge on the holes is equal to shape factor of tip of casing (F) multiplied by coefficient of permeability of soils (K) and multiplied by hydraulic head (H). In 1988, Sunjoto derived an equation in unsteady state flow condition based on this formula. In 2002, Sunjoto developed several formulas of shape factor as the parameters of the equation. In the beginning this formula is implemented to compute for the dimension of recharge well as the best method of water conservation for the urban area. After a long research this formula can be implemented to compute the drawdown on pumping or coefficient of permeability of soil by pumping test. This method can substitute the former methods like Theis (1935), Cooper-Jacob (1946), Chow (1952), Glover (1966), Papadopulos-Cooper (1967), Todd (1980

  6. Rational risk-based decision support for drinking water well managers by optimized monitoring designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enzenhöfer, R.; Geiges, A.; Nowak, W.

    2011-12-01

    Advection-based well-head protection zones are commonly used to manage the contamination risk of drinking water wells. Considering the insufficient knowledge about hazards and transport properties within the catchment, current Water Safety Plans recommend that catchment managers and stakeholders know, control and monitor all possible hazards within the catchments and perform rational risk-based decisions. Our goal is to supply catchment managers with the required probabilistic risk information, and to generate tools that allow for optimal and rational allocation of resources between improved monitoring versus extended safety margins and risk mitigation measures. To support risk managers with the indispensable information, we address the epistemic uncertainty of advective-dispersive solute transport and well vulnerability (Enzenhoefer et al., 2011) within a stochastic simulation framework. Our framework can separate between uncertainty of contaminant location and actual dilution of peak concentrations by resolving heterogeneity with high-resolution Monte-Carlo simulation. To keep computational costs low, we solve the reverse temporal moment transport equation. Only in post-processing, we recover the time-dependent solute breakthrough curves and the deduced well vulnerability criteria from temporal moments by non-linear optimization. Our first step towards optimal risk management is optimal positioning of sampling locations and optimal choice of data types to reduce best the epistemic prediction uncertainty for well-head delineation, using the cross-bred Likelihood Uncertainty Estimator (CLUE, Leube et al., 2011) for optimal sampling design. Better monitoring leads to more reliable and realistic protection zones and thus helps catchment managers to better justify smaller, yet conservative safety margins. In order to allow an optimal choice in sampling strategies, we compare the trade-off in monitoring versus the delineation costs by accounting for ill

  7. Natural and human drivers of salinity in reservoirs and their implications in water supply operation through a Decision Support System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras, Eva; Gómez-Beas, Raquel; Linares-Sáez, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    changes from 3800 to 5100 μScm-1 in the deepest layers are found with a similar daily water inflow. On the other hand, when reservoir water level is low, salinity increases around 1000 μScm-1 are found with a 2 m water level falling. In view of the influence of water level in the reservoir dynamics, this factor should be considered when dam operation decisions are taken by managers in terms of satisfying the water demand. The results will be implemented in a Decision Support System that is being displayed in the Guadalhorce River and which includes prediction of water quantity and quality in the reservoir in terms of salinity, involving water level and water inflow forecasting as the main factors to control the state of the reservoir and therefore with implications in water management. This methodology could be implemented in other reservoirs with high salinity and be adapted to other substances (such as nutrients and heavy metals) associated to water inflow in water bodies where water quality and quantity are driven by human decisions factors besides natural factors such as floods and dynamics of flows in the reservoir.

  8. Technical Report: Understanding Functional Lyotropic Liquid Crystal Network Phase Self-Assembly and the Properties of Nanoconfined Water

    SciTech Connect

    Mahanthappa, Mahesh K; Yethiraj, Arun

    Through the synergistic interplay of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, chemical synthesis, and materials characterization by X-ray and neutron scattering techniques, this project investigated the phase behaviors of new classes of aqueous lyotropic liquid crystals (LLCs) and the properties of water nanoconfined within their pores. A portion of our studies focused on the synthesis of new classes of alkylsulfonic acid and alkylphosphonate amphiphiles, which were shown to undergo water-induced self-assembly to form a wide variety of nanostructured morphologies with unusually high degrees of long-range translational order observed by small- angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Sample LLC morphologies that were observed include themore » lamellar (L!), tricontinuous double gyroid (G), hexagonally-packed cylinders (H), and low symmetry discontinuous micellar (I) Frank-Kasper phases. Since the G and H phases are the most promising for the development of selective ion transporting membranes for energy applications, we sought the characterize the structure and dynamics of water confined within the sub-3 nm pores of these LLCs using wide-angle neutron diffraction (WAND) and quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) experiments performed at the Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we validated models for analyzing this QENS data to obtain water self-diffusion coefficients in LLC G and H phases of carboxylate and sulfonate surfactant LLCs as a function of the identities of their charge compensating counterions.« less

  9. Scoping risk assessment protection against oil spills in the marine waters of northwest Washington State, volume 2. technical appendices

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1997-07-18

    On April 28, 1996 the White House issued the Department of Transportation (DOT) : Action Plan to Address Vessel and Environmental Safety in Puget Sound-Area Waters. : The Action Plan outlines several related tasks, the first stage of which was to : r...

  10. The application of impedance measurement to assess biofilm development on technical materials used for water supply system construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Mirela; Traczewska, Teodora; Grzebyk, Tomasz

    2017-11-01

    The lack of biological stability of water which is introduced into the network, leads primarily to its secondary contamination during transport to the consumer. The water that is biologically unstable creates ideal conditions for colonization of the inner surface of pipelines by microorganisms and adhesion of their products (biocorrosion). The studies was conducted using the identified microorganisms isolated from the water supply network which accounted inocula in continuous culture of biofilm in CDC reactor. As a result of studies it was revealed the presence of biofilm formed on different materials polyethylene, polypropylene, polyvinyl chloride, polybutylene. Microbiological biodiversity of organisms inhabiting a biofilm of the diversity of nucleic acids was used. It was observed the amount of the psychrophilic bacteria oscillation in the effluent from the reactor. It was also determined the affinity of various bacteria to the plastic through adhesion measurement using impedance spectroscopy. For impedance measurements apparatus SIGNAL RECOVERY 7280 DSP LOCK-IN AMPLIFIER was used, recording impedance components (real and imaginary). The results will allow for the creation of biosensor systems that can be used in predicting health risks in connection with drinking water and taking corrective actions.

  11. Problems in water recycling for Space Station Freedom and long duration life support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janik, D. S.; Crump, W. J.; Macler, B. A.; Wydeven, T., Jr.; Sauer, R. L.

    1989-01-01

    A biologically-enhanced, physical/chemical terminal water treatment testbed for the Space Station Freedom is proposed. Recycled water requirements for human, animal, plant and/or combined crews for long duration space missions are discussed. An effective terminal treatment method for recycled water reclamation systems that is based on using granular activated carbon as the principal active agent and the controls of microbial contamination and growth within recycled water systems are examined. The roles of plants in water recycling within CELSS is studied.

  12. GIS-based Geospatial Infrastructure of Water Resource Assessment for Supporting Oil Shale Development in Piceance Basin of Northwestern Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Wei; Minnick, Matthew D; Mattson, Earl D

    endeavor encountered many technical challenging and hasn't been done in the past for any oil shale basin. The database built during this study remains valuable for any other future studies involving oil shale and water resource management in the Piceance Basin. The methodology applied in the development of the GIS based Geospatial Infrastructure can be readily adapted for other professionals to develop database structure for other similar basins.« less

  13. Mission Applications Support at NASA: The Proposal Surface Water and Ocean Topography Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, Margaret; Peterson, Craig; Callahan, Phil

    2013-09-01

    The NASA Applied Sciences Program is actively supporting an agency-wide effort to formalize a mission-level data applications approach. The program goal is to engage early-phase NASA Earth satellite mission project teams with applied science representation in the flight mission planning process. The end objective is to "to engage applications-oriented users and organizations early in the satellite mission lifecycle to enable them to envision possible applications and integrate end-user needs into satellite mission planning as a way to increase the benefits to the nation."Two mission applications representatives have been selected for each early phase Tier 2 mission, including the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission concept. These representatives are tasked with identifying and organizing the applications communities and developing and promoting a process for the mission to optimize the reach of existing applications efforts in order to enhance the applications value of the missions. An early project-level awareness of mission planning decisions that may increase or decrease the utility of data products to diverse user and potential user communities (communities of practice and communities of potential, respectively) has high value and potential return to the mission and to the users.Successful strategies to enhance science and practical applications of projected SWOT data streams will require engaging with and facilitating between representatives in the science, societal applications, and mission planning communities.Some of the elements of this program include:• Identify early adopters of data products• Coordinate applications team, including;Project Scientist, Payload Scientist, ProjectManager, data processing lead• Describe mission and products sufficiently inearly stage of development to effectively incorporate all potential usersProducts and activities resulting from this effort will include (but are not limited to); workshops, workshop

  14. A TECHNICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE CURRENT WATER POLICY BOUNDARY AT U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, PADUCAH GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANT, PADUCAH, KENTUCKY

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2012-12-13

    In 1988, groundwater contaminated with trichloroethene (TCE) and technetium-99 (Tc-99) was identified in samples collected from residential water wells withdrawing groundwater from the Regional Gravel Aquifer (RGA) north of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) facility. In response, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) provided temporary drinking water supplies to approximately 100 potentially affected residents by initially supplying bottled water, water tanks, and water-treatment systems, and then by extending municipal water lines, all at no cost, to those persons whose wells could be affected by contaminated groundwater. The Water Policy boundary was established in 1993. In the Policy, DOE agreedmore » to pay the reasonable monthly cost of water for homes and businesses and, in exchange, many of the land owners signed license agreements committing to cease using the groundwater via rural water wells. In 2012, DOE requested that Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), managing contractor of Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), provide an independent assessment of the quality and quantity of the existing groundwater monitoring data and determine if there is sufficient information to support a modification to the boundary of the current Water Policy. As a result of the assessment, ORAU concludes that sufficient groundwater monitoring data exists to determine that a shrinkage and/or shift of the plume(s) responsible for the initial development of this policy has occurred. Specifically, there is compelling evidence that the TCE plume is undergoing shrinkage due to natural attenuation and associated degradation. The plume shrinkage (and migration) has also been augmented in local areas where large volumes of groundwater were recovered by pump-and treat remedial systems along the eastern and western boundaries of the Northwest Plume, and in other areas where pump-and-treat systems have been deployed by DOE to remove source contaminants. The

  15. SITE CHARACTERIZATION TO SUPPORT DEVELOPMENT OF CONCEPTUAL SITE MODELS AND TRANSPORT MODELS FOR MONITORING CONTAMINANTS IN GROUND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of conceptual and predictive models is an important tool to guide site characterization in support of monitoring contaminants in ground water. The accuracy of predictive models is limited by the adequacy of the input data and the assumptions made to constrain mod...

  16. Selective hydrogenation of amides to alcohols in water solvent over a heterogeneous CeO2-supported Ru catalyst.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Masazumi; Ishikawa, Susumu; Betchaku, Mii; Nakagawa, Yoshinao; Tomishige, Keiichi

    2018-06-20

    CeO2-supported Ru (Ru/CeO2) worked as an effective and reusable heterogeneous catalyst for the selective dissociation of the C-N bond in amides, particularly primary amides, with H2 in water solvent at low reaction temperature of 333 K, and high yields of the corresponding alcohols were obtained from primary amides.

  17. Hydrologic and water-quality data for U.S. Coast Guard Support Center Kodiak, Alaska, 1987-89

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glass, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    Hydrologic and water-quality data were collected at the U.S. Coast Guard Support Center Kodiak on Kodiak Island, Alaska, to determine regional ground-water conditions and if contamination of soils, ground water, or surface water has occurred. Eighteen areas of possible contamination were identified. Ground-water levels, surface- water stages, surface-water discharges, and results of field and laboratory analyses of soil and water samples are presented in tabular form. Many quality-assurance samples had detectable concentrations of methylene chloride and 1,2-dichloroethane, which may be due to sampling or laboratory contamination. Concentrations were as great as 5.9 micrograms per liter for methylene chloride and 2.6 micrograms per liter for 1,2-dichloroethane. Excluding 1,2-dichloroethane, most soil, ground-water, and surface-water samples contained no detectable concentrations of the organic constituents that were analyzed. Chemical analyses were performed on two lake-bed-material samples and more than 100 soil samples. The median lead concentration was 9.8 milligrams per kilogram. Concentrations of tetrachloroethene were as great as 1.1 milligram per kilogram in soils near a laundry. Water samples were collected from 101 wells. The maximum benzene concentration detected in ground water was 78 micrograms per liter from a well at the air station near a site where aviation fuel was spilled. Wells near a laundry yielded water having concentrations of tetrachloroethene as great as 3,000 micrograms per liter, and vinyl chloride as great as 440 micrograms per liter. A well in a former aviation gasoline storage area yielded water with a concentration of trichloroethene as great as 66 micrograms per liter. Water samples were collected from 59 sites on streams, lakes, or ponds. Surface-water samples had much lower concen- trations of organic compounds; the highest concentration of benzene was 2.2 micrograms per liter in a stream near a former aviation-fuel storage area and

  18. Using Support Vector Machines to Automatically Extract Open Water Signatures from POLDER Multi-Angle Data Over Boreal Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierce, J.; Diaz-Barrios, M.; Pinzon, J.; Ustin, S. L.; Shih, P.; Tournois, S.; Zarco-Tejada, P. J.; Vanderbilt, V. C.; Perry, G. L.; Brass, James A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This study used Support Vector Machines to classify multiangle POLDER data. Boreal wetland ecosystems cover an estimated 90 x 10(exp 6) ha, about 36% of global wetlands, and are a major source of trace gases emissions to the atmosphere. Four to 20 percent of the global emission of methane to the atmosphere comes from wetlands north of 4 degrees N latitude. Large uncertainties in emissions exist because of large spatial and temporal variation in the production and consumption of methane. Accurate knowledge of the areal extent of open water and inundated vegetation is critical to estimating magnitudes of trace gas emissions. Improvements in land cover mapping have been sought using physical-modeling approaches, neural networks, and active microwave, examples that demonstrate the difficulties of separating open water, inundated vegetation and dry upland vegetation. Here we examine the feasibility of using a support vector machine to classify POLDER data representing open water, inundated vegetation and dry upland vegetation.

  19. A Review of the Experimental and Modeling Development of a Water Phase Change Heat Exchanger for Future Exploration Support Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cognata, Thomas; Leimkuehler, Thomas; Ramaswamy, Balasubramaniam; Nayagam, Vedha; Hasan, Mohammad; Stephan, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Water affords manifold benefits for human space exploration. Its properties make it useful for the storage of thermal energy as a Phase Change Material (PCM) in thermal control systems, in radiation shielding against Solar Particle Events (SPE) for the protection of crew members, and it is indisputably necessary for human life support. This paper envisions a single application for water which addresses these benefits for future exploration support vehicles and it describes recent experimental and modeling work that has been performed in order to arrive at a description of the thermal behavior of such a system. Experimental units have been developed and tested which permit the evaluation of the many parameters of design for such a system with emphasis on the latent energy content, temperature rise, mass, and interstitial material geometry. The experimental results are used to develop a robust and well correlated model which is intended to guide future design efforts toward the multi-purposed water PCM heat exchanger envisioned.

  20. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems Technologies Technical Program Plan for FY 2016

    SciTech Connect

    Hallbert, Bruce Perry; Thomas, Kenneth David

    2015-10-01

    Reliable instrumentation, information, and control (II&C) systems technologies are essential to ensuring safe and efficient operation of the U.S. light water reactor (LWR) fleet. These technologies affect every aspect of nuclear power plant (NPP) and balance-of-plant operations. In 1997, the National Research Council conducted a study concerning the challenges involved in modernization of digital instrumentation and control systems in NPPs. Their findings identified the need for new II&C technology integration.