Science.gov

Sample records for water-moderated water-cooled power

  1. Department of Energy's team's analyses of Soviet designed VVERs (water-cooled water-moderated atomic energy reactors)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-01

    This document contains apprendices A through P of this report. Topics discussed are: a cronyms and technical terms, accident analyses reactivity control; Soviet safety regulations; radionuclide inventory; decay heat; operations and maintenance; steam supply system; concrete and concrete structures; seismicity; site information; neutronic parameters; loss of electric power; diesel generator reliability; Soviet codes and standards; and comparisons of PWR and VVER features. (FI)

  2. 78 FR 35330 - Initial Test Programs for Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ... COMMISSION Initial Test Programs for Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... revision to Regulatory Guide (RG), 1.68, ``Initial Test Programs for Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants... Initial Test Programs (ITPs) for light water cooled nuclear power plants. ADDRESSES: Please refer...

  3. 77 FR 73056 - Initial Test Programs for Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-07

    ... COMMISSION Initial Test Programs for Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission...) is issuing for public comment draft regulatory guide (DG), DG-1259, ``Initial Test Programs for Water... considers acceptable for Initial Test Programs (ITPs) for light water cooled nuclear power plants....

  4. 78 FR 64029 - Cost-Benefit Analysis for Radwaste Systems for Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Reactors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... COMMISSION Cost-Benefit Analysis for Radwaste Systems for Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Reactors AGENCY... Systems for Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Reactors,'' in which the NRC made editorial corrections and... analysis for liquid and gaseous radwaste system components for light water nuclear power...

  5. Numerical analysis on the beam quality improvements of high power chemical laser system with water cooled mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Kai; Li, Bin; Xu, Xiao-jun

    2011-06-01

    Chemical laser is one of the most widely used high power infrared sources. Thermal deformation of mirrors in a resonator is a key factor which hinders the improvement of the beam quality in high power chemical lasers, and it has been a matter of the utmost concern in the design of high power chemical laser systems. Water-cooled technique is one of the most widely methods employed in cooling mirrors in high power laser systems. Several kinds of water-cooled mirrors have been studied by researchers in the world. Research teams of the United States and Russia have done a lot of work and their water cooled mirrors behave very well. In China, the study of micro-channel water cooled silicon mirror has been carried out by Cheng Zuhai in detail and the research of water jet cooled mirror has been performed by Li Bin. Both the two types of water cooled mirrors show excellent capabilities in alleviating the thermal deformation of mirrors. However, the issues that how and to what extent the beam quality is improved when the water cooled mirrors are involved have not been analyzed so far. In this paper, through numerical simulations, the beam qualities of linear resonators with various types of water cooled mirrors are analyzed in detail, and the effects of the two types of water cooled mirrors are compared. The thermal distortion of uncooled Si mirrors is characterized by Zernike polynomials and the beam quality is characterized with Strehl ratio, β factor, and M2 factor, which degenerates as the beam oscillates in the distorted resonator. The aberrance of mirrors non-uniformly heated by high energy laser mainly distributes on the low-even-order Zernike polynomials. When the uncooled Si mirrors are replaced by water cooled mirrors, the distortion decreases greatly and the beam quality is improved a lot. Although the performance of the water jet cooled mirror on mitigating distortion is better than the micro-channel water cooled mirror, the resonator made up of two water jet

  6. Water-cooled, in-cavity apertures for high power operation of FEL oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, S.; Li, J.; Wu, Y. K.

    2009-07-01

    In an oscillator FEL, higher-order harmonic radiation from wigglers can cause serious damage to the downstream FEL resonator mirror and limit the maximum electron beam current for FEL operation due to thermal overload. These problems can be effectively dealt with for FELs driven by helical wigglers using a system to block off-axis wiggler harmonic radiation. In this paper, we report a new scheme to block the off-axis radiation from helical wigglers using a set of motorized, water-cooled, in-cavity apertures. These apertures can reduce the wiggler harmonic radiation power load on the downstream FEL resonator mirror by two orders of magnitude or more. With these apertures, we were able to operate the Duke FEL with record high intracavity power in infrared and visible wavelengths and extend FEL operation into ultraviolet wavelengths with a large electron beam current. The technique for limiting wiggler harmonic radiation using in-cavity apertures is expected to be useful for other types of FEL oscillators including high average power FEL oscillators driven by superconducting linacs.

  7. 10 CFR Appendix J to Part 50 - Primary Reactor Containment Leakage Testing for Water-Cooled Power Reactors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Primary Reactor Containment Leakage Testing for Water-Cooled Power Reactors J Appendix J to Part 50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES Pt. 50, App. J Appendix J to Part 50—Primary Reactor...

  8. Hydraulic design of a re-circulating water cooling system of a combined cycle power plant in Thailand

    SciTech Connect

    Sarkar, C.K.; Pandit, D.R.; Kwon, S.G.

    1998-12-31

    The paper describes the hydraulic design and hydraulic transient analysis of the re-circulating water cooling system of the combined cyclo Sipco power cogeneration plant in Thailand. The power plant of 450 MW total capacity is proposed to be built in two stages. Stage one will produce 300 MW of power and will consist of two gas turbine generators (GTG) and one steam turbine generator (STG). Stage two will produce 150 MW of power and will consist of one GTG and one STG. The cooling system will consist of one GTG and one STG. The cooling system will consist of cooling towers, a combined collecting basin and pump intake sump, pumps and motors, and separate conveyance systems and condensers for the generator units in the two stages. In a re-circulating water cooling system, cold water is pumped from the pump intake sump to the condensers through the conveyance system and hot water from the condensers is carried through the returning pipeline system to the cooling towers, whence the water after cooling is drained into the sump at the base of the towers. Total cooling water requirement for the system in stage one is estimated to be 112,000 gallons per minute (GPM), and that in stage two, 56,000 GPM. The sump is designed using the computer program HEC-2, developed by the US Army Corps of Engineers (COE) and the pump intake basin, following the recommendations of the Hydraulic Institute. The pumps were sized by computing the head loss in the system, and, the steady state and transient performances (during pump start-up and shut-down procedures and due to possible power or mechanical failure of one or all pumps) of the system were analyzed by mathematically modeling the system using the computer program WHAMO (Water Hammer nd Mass Oscillations), also developed by the COE.

  9. Natural Circulation in Water Cooled Nuclear Power Plants Phenomena, models, and methodology for system reliability assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Jose Reyes

    2005-02-14

    In recent years it has been recognized that the application of passive safety systems (i.e., those whose operation takes advantage of natural forces such as convection and gravity), can contribute to simplification and potentially to improved economics of new nuclear power plant designs. In 1991 the IAEA Conference on ''The Safety of Nuclear Power: Strategy for the Future'' noted that for new plants the use of passive safety features is a desirable method of achieving simplification and increasing the reliability of the performance of essential safety functions, and should be used wherever appropriate''.

  10. WATER COOLED RETORT COVER

    DOEpatents

    Ash, W.J.; Pozzi, J.F.

    1962-05-01

    A retort cover is designed for use in the production of magnesium metal by the condensation of vaporized metal on a collecting surface. The cover includes a condensing surface, insulating means adjacent to the condensing surface, ind a water-cooled means for the insulating means. The irrangement of insulation and the cooling means permits the magnesium to be condensed at a high temperature and in massive nonpyrophoric form. (AEC)

  11. Feasibility Study of Supercritical Light Water Cooled Reactors for Electric Power Production, Progress Report for Work Through September 2003, 2nd Annual/8th Quarterly Report

    SciTech Connect

    Philip E. MacDonald

    2003-09-01

    The supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR) is one of the six reactor technologies selected for research and development under the Generation-IV program. SCWRs are promising advanced nuclear systems because of their high thermal efficiency (i.e., about 45% vs. about 33% efficiency for current Light Water Reactors, LWRs) and considerable plant simplification. SCWRs are basically LWRs operating at higher pressure and temperatures with a direct once-through cycle. Operation above the critical pressure eliminates coolant boiling, so the coolant remains single-phase throughout the system. Thus the need for recirculation and jet pumps, a pressurizer, steam generators, steam separators and dryers is eliminated. The main mission of the SCWR is generation of low-cost electricity. It is built upon two proven technologies, LWRs, which are the most commonly deployed power generating reactors in the world, and supercritical fossil-fired boilers, a large number of which is also in use around the world.

  12. Water cooled steam jet

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, E.P. Jr.

    1999-01-12

    A water cooled steam jet for transferring fluid and preventing vapor lock, or vaporization of the fluid being transferred, has a venturi nozzle and a cooling jacket. The venturi nozzle produces a high velocity flow which creates a vacuum to draw fluid from a source of fluid. The venturi nozzle has a converging section connected to a source of steam, a diffuser section attached to an outlet and a throat portion disposed there between. The cooling jacket surrounds the venturi nozzle and a suction tube through which the fluid is being drawn into the venturi nozzle. Coolant flows through the cooling jacket. The cooling jacket dissipates heat generated by the venturi nozzle to prevent vapor lock. 2 figs.

  13. Water cooled steam jet

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, Jr., Edward P.

    1999-01-01

    A water cooled steam jet for transferring fluid and preventing vapor lock, or vaporization of the fluid being transferred, has a venturi nozzle and a cooling jacket. The venturi nozzle produces a high velocity flow which creates a vacuum to draw fluid from a source of fluid. The venturi nozzle has a converging section connected to a source of steam, a diffuser section attached to an outlet and a throat portion disposed therebetween. The cooling jacket surrounds the venturi nozzle and a suction tube through which the fluid is being drawn into the venturi nozzle. Coolant flows through the cooling jacket. The cooling jacket dissipates heat generated by the venturi nozzle to prevent vapor lock.

  14. Water Cooled Mirror Design

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Gregory E.; Holloway, Michael Andrew; Pulliam, Elias Noel

    2015-03-30

    This design is intended to replace the current mirror setup being used for the NorthStar Moly 99 project in order to monitor the target coupon. The existing setup has limited movement for camera alignment and is difficult to align properly. This proposed conceptual design for a water cooled mirror will allow for greater thermal transfer between the mirror and the water block. It will also improve positioning of the mirror by using flexible vacuum hosing and a ball head joint capable of a wide range of motion. Incorporating this design into the target monitoring system will provide more efficient cooling of the mirror which will improve the amount of diffraction caused by the heating of the mirror. The process of aligning the mirror for accurate position will be greatly improved by increasing the range of motion by offering six degrees of freedom.

  15. 10 CFR Appendix J to Part 50 - Primary Reactor Containment Leakage Testing for Water-Cooled Power Reactors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and feedwater piping and other systems which penetrate containment of direct-cycle boiling water power..., pressurized with air, nitrogen, or pneumatic fluid specified in the technical specifications or associated... pressure loss of the test chamber of the containment penetration pressurized with air, nitrogen,...

  16. Development and construction of a high-power, 3000 m{sup 3}/h, 0.5 MPa, sodium pump without water cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Golovko, V.S.; Dronnik, L.M.; D`yachenko, U.D.

    1995-01-01

    The concept of modular flat linear induction pumps (FLIP) without water cooling of the winding has been proposed and developed at the MHD Laboratory, Khar`kov, Ukraine. In these pumps, the total flow rate is equal to the sum of the flow rates of all the modules. The concept proposed can be useful when designing high-power electromagnetic pumps for the main loops of a fast breeder reactor with liquid sodium as the heat carrier. As a prototype, a high-power modular FLIP was developed and built in cooperation with the MHD Laboratory and two plants, the Electromechanical plant and the Turbine Plant at Khar`kov. This was a two-module FLIP, with the following design parameters: liquid to be pumped is sodium at 350{degrees}C, flowrate 3000 M{sup 3}/h, head 0.5 MPa, frequency 37.5 Hz, efficiency 38%, number of poles 10, pole pitch 276 mm, wall thickness 6 mm, and mass 25 tons. No-load tests of the inductors and the hermeticity of the ducts have been carried out. The problem of {open_quotes}hot{close_quotes} operation tests is still to be solved.

  17. Feasibility Study of Supercritical Light Water Cooled Fast Reactors for Actinide Burning and Electric Power Production, 3rd Quarterly Report

    SciTech Connect

    Mac Donald, Philip Elsworth

    2002-06-01

    The use of light water at supercritical pressures as the coolant in a nuclear reactor offers the potential for considerable plant simplification and consequent capital and O&M cost reduction compared with current light water reactor (LWR) designs. Also, given the thermodynamic conditions of the coolant at the core outlet (i.e. temperature and pressure beyond the water critical point), very high thermal efficiencies of the power conversion cycle are possible (i.e. up to about 45%). Because no change of phase occurs in the core, the need for steam separators and dryers as well as for BWR-type re-circulation pumps is eliminated, which, for a given reactor power, results in a substantially shorter reactor vessel and smaller containment building than the current BWRs. Furthermore, in a direct cycle the steam generators are not needed.

  18. The impact of water use fees on dispatching and water requirements for water-cooled power plants in Texas.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Kelly T; Blackhurst, Michael F; King, Carey W; Webber, Michael E

    2014-06-17

    We utilize a unit commitment and dispatch model to estimate how water use fees on power generators would affect dispatching and water requirements by the power sector in the Electric Reliability Council of Texas' (ERCOT) electric grid. Fees ranging from 10 to 1000 USD per acre-foot were separately applied to water withdrawals and consumption. Fees were chosen to be comparable in cost to a range of water supply projects proposed in the Texas Water Development Board's State Water Plan to meet demand through 2050. We found that these fees can reduce water withdrawals and consumption for cooling thermoelectric power plants in ERCOT by as much as 75% and 23%, respectively. To achieve these water savings, wholesale electricity generation costs might increase as much as 120% based on 2011 fuel costs and generation characteristics. We estimate that water saved through these fees is not as cost-effective as conventional long-term water supply projects. However, the electric grid offers short-term flexibility that conventional water supply projects do not. Furthermore, this manuscript discusses conditions under which the grid could be effective at "supplying" water, particularly during emergency drought conditions, by changing its operational conditions.

  19. Feasibility Study of Supercritical Light Water Cooled Fast Reactors for Actinide Burning and Electric Power Production, Progress Report for Work Through September 2002, 4th Quarterly Report

    SciTech Connect

    Mac Donald, Philip Elsworth

    2002-09-01

    The use of light water at supercritical pressures as the coolant in a nuclear reactor offers the potential for considerable plant simplification and consequent capital and O&M cost reduction compared with current light water reactor (LWR) designs. Also, given the thermodynamic conditions of the coolant at the core outlet (i.e. temperature and pressure beyond the water critical point), very high thermal efficiencies of the power conversion cycle are possible (i.e. up to about 45%). Because no change of phase occurs in the core, the need for steam separators and dryers as well as for BWR-type re-circulation pumps is eliminated, which, for a given reactor power, results in a substantially shorter reactor vessel and smaller containment building than the current BWRs. Furthermore, in a direct cycle the steam generators are not needed. If no additional moderator is added to the fuel rod lattice, it is possible to attain fast neutron energy spectrum conditions in a supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR). This type of core can make use of either fertile or fertile-free fuel and retain a hard spectrum to effectively burn plutonium and minor actinides from LWR spent fuel while efficiently generating electricity. One can also add moderation and design a thermal spectrum SCWR. The Generation IV Roadmap effort has identified the thermal spectrum SCWR (followed by the fast spectrum SCWR) as one of the advanced concepts that should be developed for future use. Therefore, the work in this NERI project is addressing both types of SCWRs.

  20. Wetland Water Cooling Partnership: The Use of Constructed Wetlands to Enhance Thermoelectric Power Plant Cooling and Mitigate the Demand of Surface Water Use

    SciTech Connect

    Apfelbaum, Steven; Duvall, Kenneth; Nelson, Theresa; Mensing, Douglas; Bengtson, Harlan; Eppich, John; Penhallegon, Clayton; Thompson, Ry

    2013-09-30

    ancillary socio-economic, ecosystem, and water treatment/polishing benefits when used to complement water resources at thermoelectric power plants. Through the Phase II pilot study segment of the contract, the project team partnered with Progress Energy Florida (now Duke Energy Florida) to quantify the wetland water cooling benefits at their Hines Energy Complex in Bartow, Florida. The project was designed to test the wetland’s ability to cool and cleanse power plant cooling pond water while providing wildlife habitat and water harvesting benefits. Data collected during the monitoring period was used to calibrate a STELLA model developed for the site. It was also used to inform management recommendations for the demonstration site, and to provide guidance on the use of cooling wetlands for other power plants around the country. As a part of the pilot study, Duke Energy is scaling up the demonstration project to a larger, commercial scale wetland instrumented with monitoring equipment. Construction is expected to be finalized in early 2014.

  1. Water-Cooled Optical Thermometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menna, A. A.

    1987-01-01

    Water-cooled optical probe measures temperature of nearby radiating object. Intended primarily for use in silicon-growing furnace for measuring and controlling temperatures of silicon ribbon, meniscus, cartridge surfaces, heaters, or other parts. Cooling water and flushing gas cool fiber-optic probe and keep it clean. Fiber passes thermal radiation from observed surface to measuring instrument.

  2. HEAVY WATER MODERATED NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Szilard, L.

    1958-04-29

    A nuclear reactor of the type which utilizes uranium fuel elements and a liquid coolant is described. The fuel elements are in the form of elongated tubes and are disposed within outer tubes extending through a tank containing heavy water, which acts as a moderator. The ends of the fuel tubes are connected by inlet and discharge headers, and liquid bismuth is circulated between the headers and through the fuel tubes for cooling. Helium is circulated through the annular space between the outer tubes in the tank and the fuel tubes to cool the water moderator to prevent boiling. The fuel tubes are covered with a steel lining, and suitable control means, heat exchange means, and pumping means for the coolants are provided to complete the reactor assembly.

  3. Water cooled static pressure probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lagen, Nicholas T. (Inventor); Eves, John W. (Inventor); Reece, Garland D. (Inventor); Geissinger, Steve L. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    An improved static pressure probe containing a water cooling mechanism is disclosed. This probe has a hollow interior containing a central coolant tube and multiple individual pressure measurement tubes connected to holes placed on the exterior. Coolant from the central tube symmetrically immerses the interior of the probe, allowing it to sustain high temperature (in the region of 2500 F) supersonic jet flow indefinitely, while still recording accurate pressure data. The coolant exits the probe body by way of a reservoir attached to the aft of the probe. The pressure measurement tubes are joined to a single, larger manifold in the reservoir. This manifold is attached to a pressure transducer that records the average static pressure.

  4. Electrochemistry of Water-Cooled Nuclear Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Macdonald, Dgiby; Urquidi-Macdonald, Mirna; Pitt, Jonathan

    2006-08-08

    This project developed a comprehensive mathematical and simulation model for calculating thermal hydraulic, electrochemical, and corrosion parameters, viz. temperature, fluid flow velocity, pH, corrosion potential, hydrogen injection, oxygen contamination, stress corrosion cracking, crack growth rate, and other important quantities in the coolant circuits of water-cooled nuclear power plants, including both Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) and Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs). The model is being used to assess the three major operational problems in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR), which include mass transport, activity transport, and the axial offset anomaly, and provide a powerful tool for predicting the accumulation of SCC damage in BWR primary coolant circuits as a function of operating history. Another achievement of the project is the development of a simulation tool to serve both as a training tool for plant operators and as an engineering test-bed to evaluate new equipment and operating strategies (normal operation, cold shut down and others). The development and implementation of the model allows us to estimate the activity transport or "radiation fields" around the primary loop and the vessel, as a function of the operating parameters and the water chemistry.

  5. Preliminary studies on the heat exchanger option for S-CO{sub 2} power conversion cycle coupled to water cooled SMR

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, Y.; Lee, J.; Lee, J. I.

    2012-07-01

    For more than a half century, the steam Rankine cycle had been the major power conversion cycle for a nuclear power plant. However, as the interest on the next generation reactors grows, a variety of alternative power conversion systems have been studied. Among them, the S-CO{sub 2} cycle (Supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle) is considered as a promising candidate due to several benefits such as 1) Relatively high thermal efficiency at relatively low turbine inlet temperature, 2) High efficiency with simple lay-out 3) Compactness of turbo-machineries. 4) Compactness of total cycle combined with PCHE (Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger). According to the conventional classification of heat exchangers (HE), there are three kind of HE, 1) Tubular HEs, 2) Plate-type HEs, 3) Extended surface HEs. So far, the researcher has mostly assumed PCHE type HE for the S-CO{sub 2} cycle due to its compactness with reasonably low pressure drop. However, PCHE is currently one of the most expensive components in the cycle, which can have a negative effect on the economics of the cycle. Therefore, an alternative for the HE should be seriously investigated. By comparing the operating condition (pressure and temperature) there are three kind of HE in the S-CO{sub 2} cycle, 1) IHX (Intermediate Heat exchanger) 2) Recuperator and 3) Pre-cooler. In each heat exchanger, hot side and cold side coolants are different, i.e. reactor coolant to S-CO{sub 2} (IHX), S-CO{sub 2} to S-CO{sub 2}(Recuperator), S-CO{sub 2} to water (Pre-cooler). By considering all the attributes mentioned above, all existing types of heat exchangers are compared to find a possible alternative to PCHE. The comparing factors are 1) Size(volume), 2) Cost. Plate fin type HEs are considered to be the most competitive heat exchanger regarding the size and the cost after some improvements on the design limit are made. (authors)

  6. Air and water cooled modulator

    DOEpatents

    Birx, D.L.; Arnold, P.A.; Ball, D.G.; Cook, E.G.

    1995-09-05

    A compact high power magnetic compression apparatus and method are disclosed for delivering high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output which does not require the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids such as chlorofluorocarbons either as a dielectric or as a coolant, and which discharges very little waste heat into the surrounding air. A first magnetic switch has cooling channels formed therethrough to facilitate the removal of excess heat. The first magnetic switch is mounted on a printed circuit board. A pulse transformer comprised of a plurality of discrete electrically insulated and magnetically coupled units is also mounted on said printed board and is electrically coupled to the first magnetic switch. The pulse transformer also has cooling means attached thereto for removing heat from the pulse transformer. A second magnetic switch also having cooling means for removing excess heat is electrically coupled to the pulse transformer. Thus, the present invention is able to provide high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output without the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids and without discharging significant waste heat into the surrounding air. 9 figs.

  7. Air and water cooled modulator

    DOEpatents

    Birx, Daniel L.; Arnold, Phillip A.; Ball, Don G.; Cook, Edward G.

    1995-01-01

    A compact high power magnetic compression apparatus and method for delivering high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output which does not require the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids such as chlorofluorocarbons either as a dielectric or as a coolant, and which discharges very little waste heat into the surrounding air. A first magnetic switch has cooling channels formed therethrough to facilitate the removal of excess heat. The first magnetic switch is mounted on a printed circuit board. A pulse transformer comprised of a plurality of discrete electrically insulated and magnetically coupled units is also mounted on said printed board and is electrically coupled to the first magnetic switch. The pulse transformer also has cooling means attached thereto for removing heat from the pulse transformer. A second magnetic switch also having cooling means for removing excess heat is electrically coupled to the pulse transformer. Thus, the present invention is able to provide high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output without the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids and without discharging significant waste heat into the surrounding air.

  8. Cooling of Gas Turbines. 6 - Computed Temperature Distribution through Cross Section of Water-Cooled Turbine Blade

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1947-05-01

    AERONAUTICS Figure 7. - Cross section of water-cooleä turbine blade showing location and size of seven coolant...Power Plants.~ Jet and~ Turbine ($) [SECTION. Turbines (I3) [CROSS DEFERENCES. Turbine blades - Thermal measurements (95350); Turbine blades ...section of water-cooled turbine blade FORG’N. TITLE: v.. ’V, ORIGINATING AGENCY. TRANSLATION. National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics

  9. Feasibility Study of Supercritical Light Water Cooled Reactors for Electric Power Production, Nuclear Energy Research Initiative Project 2001-001, Westinghouse Electric Co. Grant Number: DE-FG07-02SF22533, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Philip E. MacDonald

    2005-01-01

    The supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR) is one of the six reactor technologies selected for research and development under the Generation IV program. SCWRs are promising advanced nuclear systems because of their high thermal efficiency (i.e., about 45% versus about 33% efficiency for current Light Water Reactors [LWRs]) and considerable plant simplification. SCWRs are basically LWRs operating at higher pressure and temperatures with a direct once-through cycle. Operation above the critical pressure eliminates coolant boiling, so the coolant remains single-phase throughout the system. Thus, the need for a pressurizer, steam generators, steam separators, and dryers is eliminated. The main mission of the SCWR is generation of low-cost electricity. It is built upon two proven technologies: LWRs, which are the most commonly deployed power generating reactors in the world, and supercritical fossil-fired boilers, a large number of which are also in use around the world. The reference SCWR design for the U.S. program is a direct cycle system operating at 25.0 MPa, with core inlet and outlet temperatures of 280 and 500 C, respectively. The coolant density decreases from about 760 kg/m3 at the core inlet to about 90 kg/m3 at the core outlet. The inlet flow splits with about 10% of the inlet flow going down the space between the core barrel and the reactor pressure vessel (the downcomer) and about 90% of the inlet flow going to the plenum at the top of the rector pressure vessel, to then flow down through the core in special water rods to the inlet plenum. Here it mixes with the feedwater from the downcomer and flows upward to remove the heat in the fuel channels. This strategy is employed to provide good moderation at the top of the core. The coolant is heated to about 500 C and delivered to the turbine. The purpose of this NERI project was to assess the reference U.S. Generation IV SCWR design and explore alternatives to determine feasibility. The project was

  10. Microchannel water cooling of silicon x-ray monochromator crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Arthur, J.; Tompkins, W.H.; Troxel, C. Jr. ); Contolini, R.J.; Schmitt, E. ); Bilderback, D.H.; Henderson, C.; White, J.; Settersten, T. )

    1992-01-01

    The use in silicon x-ray monochromator crystals of water cooling channels with dimensions optimized for efficient heat transfer from silicon to water has been investigated. Such channels are typically about 40 {mu}m wide and 400 {mu}m deep. Procedures have been found for reliably producing microchannel-cooled crystals with very small amounts of residual strain. These crystals have been tested at a high-power wiggler beam line at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source, using an x-ray beam having total power in excess of 250 W and normal-incidence power density greater than 5 W/mm{sup 2}. Under these conditions, the surface-temperature rise of a typical microchannel-cooled crystal was less than 5 {degree}C, and degradation of the (111) rocking curve at 12 keV was very slight. The cooling efficiency is consistent with analytic calculations.

  11. Prospects for development of an innovative water-cooled nuclear reactor for supercritical parameters of coolant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalyakin, S. G.; Kirillov, P. L.; Baranaev, Yu. D.; Glebov, A. P.; Bogoslovskaya, G. P.; Nikitenko, M. P.; Makhin, V. M.; Churkin, A. N.

    2014-08-01

    The state of nuclear power engineering as of February 1, 2014 and the accomplished elaborations of a supercritical-pressure water-cooled reactor are briefly reviewed, and the prospects of this new project are discussed based on this review. The new project rests on the experience gained from the development and operation of stationary water-cooled reactor plants, including VVERs, PWRs, BWRs, and RBMKs (their combined service life totals more than 15 000 reactor-years), and long-term experience gained around the world with operation of thermal power plants the turbines of which are driven by steam with supercritical and ultrasupercritical parameters. The advantages of such reactor are pointed out together with the scientific-technical problems that need to be solved during further development of such installations. The knowledge gained for the last decade makes it possible to refine the concept and to commence the work on designing an experimental small-capacity reactor.

  12. Water-cooled target modules for steady-state operation of the W7-X divertor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boscary, J.; Greuner, H.; Czerwinski, M.; Mendelevitch, B.; Pfefferle, K.; Renner, H.

    2003-09-01

    The stellarator WENDELSTEIN 7-X (W7-X) includes water-cooled plasma facing components (PFCs) to allow steady-state operation and to provide an efficient particle and power exhaust up to 10 MW for a maximum pulse duration of 30 min. Ten divertor units are arranged along the helical edge of the fivefold periodic plasma column. The three-dimensional shape and positioning of the target surfaces are optimized to address physics issues for a wide range of experimental parameters, which influence the topology of the boundary. The three-dimensional target surfaces are reproduced by a series of consecutive plane target elements as a set of parallel water-cooled elements positioned onto the frameworks of target modules. The design and arrangement of target modules and elements are described.

  13. Computational Simulation of a Water-Cooled Heat Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozarth, Duane

    2008-01-01

    A Fortran-language computer program for simulating the operation of a water-cooled vapor-compression heat pump in any orientation with respect to gravity has been developed by modifying a prior general-purpose heat-pump design code used at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).

  14. Accident analysis of heavy water cooled thorium breeder reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Yulianti, Yanti; Su’ud, Zaki; Takaki, Naoyuki

    2015-04-16

    Thorium has lately attracted considerable attention because it is accumulating as a by-product of large scale rare earth mining. The objective of research is to analyze transient behavior of a heavy water cooled thorium breeder that is designed by Tokai University and Tokyo Institute of Technology. That is oxide fueled, PWR type reactor with heavy water as primary coolant. An example of the optimized core has relatively small moderator to fuel volume ratio (MFR) of 0.6 and the characteristics of the core are burn-up of 67 GWd/t, breeding ratio of 1.08, burn-up reactivity loss during cycles of < 0.2% dk/k, and negative coolant reactivity coefficient. One of the nuclear reactor accidents types examined here is Unprotected Transient over Power (UTOP) due to withdrawing of the control rod that result in the positive reactivity insertion so that the reactor power will increase rapidly. Another accident type is Unprotected Loss of Flow (ULOF) that caused by failure of coolant pumps. To analyze the reactor accidents, neutron distribution calculation in the nuclear reactor is the most important factor. The best expression for the neutron distribution is the Boltzmann transport equation. However, solving this equation is very difficult so that the space-time diffusion equation is commonly used. Usually, space-time diffusion equation is solved by employing a point kinetics approach. However, this approach is less accurate for a spatially heterogeneous nuclear reactor and the nuclear reactor with quite large reactivity input. Direct method is therefore used to solve space-time diffusion equation which consider spatial factor in detail during nuclear reactor accident simulation. Set of equations that obtained from full implicit finite-difference method is solved by using iterative methods. The indication of UTOP accident is decreasing macroscopic absorption cross-section that results large external reactivity, and ULOF accident is indicated by decreasing coolant flow. The

  15. Deployment Scenario of Heavy Water Cooled Thorium Breeder Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Mardiansah, Deby; Takaki, Naoyuki

    2010-06-22

    Deployment scenario of heavy water cooled thorium breeder reactor has been studied. We have assumed to use plutonium and thorium oxide fuel in water cooled reactor to produce {sup 233}U which will be used in thorium breeder reactor. The objective is to analysis the potential of water cooled Th-Pu reactor for replacing all of current LWRs especially in Japan. In this paper, the standard Pressurize Water Reactor (PWR) has been designed to produce 3423 MWt; (i) Th-Pu PWR, (ii) Th-Pu HWR (MFR = 1.0) and (iii) Th-Pu HWR (MFR 1.2). The properties and performance of the core were investigated by using cell and core calculation code. Th-Pu PWR or HWR produces {sup 233}U to introduce thorium breeder reactor. The result showed that to replace all (60 GWe) LWR by thorium breeder reactor within a period of one century, Th-Pu oxide fueled PWR has insufficient capability to produce necessary amount of {sup 233}U and Th-Pu oxide fueled HWR has almost enough potential to produce {sup 233}U but shows positive void reactivity coefficient.

  16. Thermal Hydraulic Design and Analysis of a Water-Cooled Ceramic Breeder Blanket with Superheated Steam for CFETR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Xiaoman; Ma, Xuebin; Jiang, Kecheng; Chen, Lei; Huang, Kai; Liu, Songlin

    2015-09-01

    The water-cooled ceramic breeder blanket (WCCB) is one of the blanket candidates for China fusion engineering test reactor (CFETR). In order to improve power generation efficiency and tritium breeding ratio, WCCB with superheated steam is under development. The thermal-hydraulic design is the key to achieve the purpose of safe heat removal and efficient power generation under normal and partial loading operation conditions. In this paper, the coolant flow scheme was designed and one self-developed analytical program was developed, based on a theoretical heat transfer model and empirical correlations. Employing this program, the design and analysis of related thermal-hydraulic parameters were performed under different fusion power conditions. The results indicated that the superheated steam water-cooled blanket is feasible. supported by the National Special Project for Magnetic Confined Nuclear Fusion Energy of China (Nos. 2013GB108004, 2014GB122000 and 2014GB119000), and National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11175207)

  17. Improved water-cooled cyclone constructions in CFBs

    SciTech Connect

    Alliston, M.G.; Luomaharju, T.; Kokko, A.

    1999-07-01

    The construction of CFB boilers has advanced in comparison with early designs. One improvement has been the use of water or steam cooled cyclones, which allows the use of thin refractories and minimizes maintenance needs. Cooled cyclones are also tolerant of wide load variations when the main fuel is biologically based, and coal or some other fuel is used as a back-up. With uncooled cyclones, load changes with high volatile fuels can mean significant temperature transients in the refractory, due to post-combustion phenomena in the cyclone. Kvaerner's development of water-cooled cyclones for CFBs began in the early 1980s. The first boiler with this design was delivered in 1985 in Sweden. Since then, Kvaerner Pulping has delivered over twenty units with cooled cyclones, in capacity ranging from small units up to 400 MW{sub th}. Among these units, Kvaerner has developed unconventional solutions for CFBs, in order to simplify the constructions and to increase the reliability for different applications. The first of them was CYMIC{reg{underscore}sign}, which has its water-cooled cyclone built inside the boiler furnace. There are two commercial CYMIC boilers in operation and one in project stages. The largest CYMIC in operation is a 185 MW{sub th} industrial boiler burning various fuels. For even larger scale units Kvaerner developed the Integrated Cylindrical Cyclone and Loopseal (ICCL) assembly. One of these installations is in operation in USA, having steaming capacity of over 500 t/h. The design bases of these new solutions are quite different in comparison with conventional cyclones. Therefore, an important part of the development has been cold model testing and mathematical modeling of the cyclones. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in water-cooled cyclone construction. The new solutions, their full-scale experience, and a comparison of the actual experience with the preliminary modeling work are introduced.

  18. Pink-Beam, Highly-Accurate Compact Water Cooled Slits

    SciTech Connect

    Lyndaker, Aaron; Deyhim, Alex; Jayne, Richard; Waterman, Dave; Caletka, Dave; Steadman, Paul; Dhesi, Sarnjeet

    2007-01-19

    Advanced Design Consulting, Inc. (ADC) has designed accurate compact slits for applications where high precision is required. The system consists of vertical and horizontal slit mechanisms, a vacuum vessel which houses them, water cooling lines with vacuum guards connected to the individual blades, stepper motors with linear encoders, limit (home position) switches and electrical connections including internal wiring for a drain current measurement system. The total slit size is adjustable from 0 to 15 mm both vertically and horizontally. Each of the four blades are individually controlled and motorized. In this paper, a summary of the design and Finite Element Analysis of the system are presented.

  19. Water cooled metal optics for the Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    McKinney, W.R.; Irick, S.C.; Lunt, D.L.J.

    1991-10-28

    The program for providing water cooled metal optics for the Advanced Light Source at Berkeley is reviewed with respect to fabrication and metrology of the surfaces. Materials choices, surface figure and smoothness specifications, and metrology systems for measuring the plated metal surfaces are discussed. Results from prototype mirrors and grating blanks will be presented, which show exceptionally low microroughness and mid-period error. We will briefly describe out improved version of the Long Trace Profiler, and its importance to out metrology program. We have completely redesigned the mechanical, optical and computational parts of the profiler system with the cooperation of Peter Takacs of Brookhaven, Continental Optical, and Baker Manufacturing. Most important is that one of our profilers is in use at the vendor to allow testing during fabrication. Metrology from the first water cooled mirror for an ALS beamline is presented as an example. The preplating processing and grinding and polishing were done by Tucson Optical. We will show significantly better surface microroughness on electroless nickel, over large areas, than has been reported previously.

  20. Numerical analysis of thermal effects in semiconductor disk laser with water cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Renjiang; Pan, Yingjun; Jiang, Maohua; Zhang, Peng

    2014-11-01

    This paper has established a thermal model of Vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor laser (VECSELs) with water-cooled heatsink, calculated the distribution of temperature field with finite element method, and studied the effects of pumping light, heat transfer coefficient, and heatsink characteristics on the maximum temperature of the quantum well. Calculations show that there is an optimal heat transfer coefficient value interval, thermal conductivity of the VECSELs heatsink will have a significant impact on the maximum temperature of the quantum well, and increasing area of cooler heatsink would help to improve heat dissipation performance. It also shows that the maximum temperature of the quantum well has a linear relationship with pump power, and a nearly inverse relationship with the spot size. Due to thermal diffusion of water-cooled heatsink for VECSELs point heat source, the maximum temperature of quantum well is not sensitive to thickness and area of the heatsink, heat dissipation performance which uses a diamond heatsink is about 1.7 times the oxygen-free copper heatsink.

  1. Hot ion plasma production in HIP-1 using water-cooled hollow cathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinmann, J. J.; Lauver, M. R.; Patch, R. W.; Layman, R. W.; Snyder, A.

    1975-01-01

    A steady-state ExB plasma was formed by applying a strong radially inward dc electric field near the mirror throats. Most of the results were for hydrogen, but deuterium and helium plasmas were also studied. Three water-cooled hollow cathodes were operated in the hot-ion plasma mode with the following results: (1) thermally emitting cathodes were not required to achieve the hot-ion mode; (2) steady-state operation (several minutes) was attained; (3) input powers greater than 40 kW were achieved; (4) cathode outside diameters were increased from 1.2 cm (uncooled) to 4.4 cm (water-cooled); (5) steady-state hydrogen plasma with ion temperatures from 185 to 770 eV and electron temperatures from 5 to 21 eV were produced. Scaling relations were empirically obtained for discharge current, ion temperature, electron temperature, and relative ion density as a function of hydrogen gas feed rate, magnetic field, and cathode voltage. Neutrons were produced from deuterium plasma, but it was not established whether thay came from the plasma volume or from the electrode surfaces.

  2. Temperature dynamics and control of a water-cooled fuel cell stack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Keefe, Daniel; El-Sharkh, M. Y.; Telotte, John C.; Palanki, Srinivas

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, a time-varying proportional-integral (PI) controller is designed for controlling the temperature of a water-cooled 5 kW hydrogen fuel cell stack. This controller is designed using a mathematical model for the stack temperature, which is derived using basic chemical engineering material and energy balances. The controller affects the stack temperature by changing the flow rate of cooling water that passes across the stack. The model is then analyzed using a number of power demand profiles to determine the effectiveness of the controller. The results show that a time-varying PI controller is adequate for maintaining the stack temperature within 5 K of the target point.

  3. Water cooled breeder program summary report (LWBR (Light Water Breeder Reactor) development program)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-10-01

    The purpose of the Department of Energy Water Cooled Breeder Program was to demonstrate pratical breeding in a uranium-233/thorium fueled core while producing electrical energy in a commercial water reactor generating station. A demonstration Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) was successfully operated for more than 29,000 effective full power hours in the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. The reactor operated with an availability factor of 76% and had a gross electrical output of 2,128,943,470 kilowatt hours. Following operation, the expended core was examined and no evidence of any fuel element defects was found. Nondestructive assay of 524 fuel rods determined that 1.39 percent more fissile fuel was present at the end of core life than at the beginning, proving that breeding had occurred. This demonstrates the existence of a vast source of electrical energy using plentiful domestic thorium potentially capable of supplying the entire national need for many centuries. To build on the successful design and operation of the Shippingport Breeder Core and to provide the technology to implement this concept, several reactor designs of large breeders and prebreeders were developed for commercial-sized plants of 900--1000 Mw(e) net. This report summarizes the Water Cooled Breeder Program from its inception in 1965 to its completion in 1987. Four hundred thirty-six technical reports are referenced which document the work conducted as part of this program. This work demonstrated that the Light Water Breeder Reactor is a viable alternative as a PWR replacement in the next generation of nuclear reactors. This transition would only require a minimum of change in design and fabrication of the reactor and operation of the plant.

  4. Water-cooled radiofrequency neuroablation for sacroiliac joint dysfunctional pain

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Binay Kumar; Dey, Samarjit; Biswas, Saumya; Mohan, Varinder Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Sacroiliac (SI) joint dysfunction is a common source of chronic low-back pain. Recent evidences from different parts of the world suggest that cooled radiofrequency (RF) neuroablation of sacral nerves supplying SI joints has superior pain alleviating properties than available existing treatment options for SI joint dysfunctional pain. A 35-year-old male had intractable bilateral SI joint pain (numeric rating scale [NRS] – 9/10) with poor treatment response to intra-articular steroid therapy. Bilateral water cooled = RF was applied for neuroablation of nerves supplying both SI joints. Postprocedure pain intensity was 5/10 and after 7 days it was 2/10. On 18th-month follow-up, he is pain free except for mild pain (NRS 2/10) on occasional extreme twisting of the back. This case attempts to highlight that sacral neuroablation based on cooled RF technique can be a long lasting remedial option for chronic SI joint pain unresponsive to conventional treatment. PMID:28096589

  5. Water-cooled radiofrequency neuroablation for sacroiliac joint dysfunctional pain.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Binay Kumar; Dey, Samarjit; Biswas, Saumya; Mohan, Varinder Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Sacroiliac (SI) joint dysfunction is a common source of chronic low-back pain. Recent evidences from different parts of the world suggest that cooled radiofrequency (RF) neuroablation of sacral nerves supplying SI joints has superior pain alleviating properties than available existing treatment options for SI joint dysfunctional pain. A 35-year-old male had intractable bilateral SI joint pain (numeric rating scale [NRS] - 9/10) with poor treatment response to intra-articular steroid therapy. Bilateral water cooled = RF was applied for neuroablation of nerves supplying both SI joints. Postprocedure pain intensity was 5/10 and after 7 days it was 2/10. On 18(th)-month follow-up, he is pain free except for mild pain (NRS 2/10) on occasional extreme twisting of the back. This case attempts to highlight that sacral neuroablation based on cooled RF technique can be a long lasting remedial option for chronic SI joint pain unresponsive to conventional treatment.

  6. Note: High turn density magnetic coils with improved low pressure water cooling for use in atom optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay Parry, Nicholas; Baker, Mark; Neely, Tyler; Carey, Thomas; Bell, Thomas; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina

    2014-08-01

    We describe a magnetic coil design utilizing concentrically wound electro-magnetic insulating (EMI) foil (25.4 μm Kapton backing and 127 μm thick layers). The magnetic coils are easily configurable for different coil sizes, while providing large surfaces for low-pressure (0.12 bar) water cooling. The coils have turn densities of ˜5 mm-1 and achieve a maximum of 377 G at 2.1 kW driving power, measured at a distance 37.9 mm from the axial center of the coil. The coils achieve a steady-state temperature increase of 36.7°C/kW.

  7. Analysis of Time-Dependent Tritium Breeding Capability of Water Cooled Ceramic Breeder Blanket for CFETR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Fangfang; Zhang, Xiaokang; Pu, Yong; Zhu, Qingjun; Liu, Songlin

    2016-08-01

    Attaining tritium self-sufficiency is an important mission for the Chinese Fusion Engineering Testing Reactor (CFETR) operating on a Deuterium-Tritium (D-T) fuel cycle. It is necessary to study the tritium breeding ratio (TBR) and breeding tritium inventory variation with operation time so as to provide an accurate data for dynamic modeling and analysis of the tritium fuel cycle. A water cooled ceramic breeder (WCCB) blanket is one candidate of blanket concepts for the CFETR. Based on the detailed 3D neutronics model of CFETR with the WCCB blanket, the time-dependent TBR and tritium surplus were evaluated by a coupling calculation of the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP) and the fusion activation code FISPACT-2007. The results indicated that the TBR and tritium surplus of the WCCB blanket were a function of operation time and fusion power due to the Li consumption in breeder and material activation. In addition, by comparison with the results calculated by using the 3D neutronics model and employing the transfer factor constant from 1D to 3D, it is noted that 1D analysis leads to an over-estimation for the time-dependent tritium breeding capability when fusion power is larger than 1000 MW. supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (Nos. 2013GB108004, 2015GB108002, and 2014GB119000), and by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11175207)

  8. Water-cooled furnace heads for use with standard muffle tube furnaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. J.; Mullins, O.

    1975-01-01

    The design of water-cooled furnace seals for use in high-temperature controlled-atmosphere gas and vacuum studies is presented in detailed engineering drawings. Limiting design factors and advantages are discussed.

  9. Experimental study of the decrease in the temperature of an air/water-cooled turbine blade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryzhov, A. A.; Sereda, A. V.; Shaiakberov, V. F.; Iskakov, K. M.; Shatalov, Iu. S.

    Results of the full-scale testing of an air/water-cooled deflector-type turbine blade are reported. Data on the decrease in the temperature of the cooling air and of the blade are presented and compared with the calculated values. An analysis of the results indicates that the use of air/water cooling makes it possible to significantly reduce the temperature of the cooling air and of the blade with practically no increase in the engine weight and dimensions.

  10. Repair of a water-cooled field coil for a hydroelectric motor/generator

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, L.J. III

    1983-01-01

    Four reversible pump/turbine units at TVA's Raccoon Mountain Pumped-Storage Plant were placed in service in 1978 to 1979. The stator and rotor windings for the motor/generators are direct water cooled. This paper describes repairs to a water-cooled coil of one of the 24 field poles of Unit No. 3 motor/generator placed in service in February 1979.

  11. Improving of the photovoltaic / thermal system performance using water cooling technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussien, Hashim A.; Numan, Ali H.; Abdulmunem, Abdulmunem R.

    2015-04-01

    This work is devoted to improving the electrical efficiency by reducing the rate of thermal energy of a photovoltaic/thermal system (PV/T).This is achieved by design cooling technique which consists of a heat exchanger and water circulating pipes placed at PV module rear surface to solve the problem of the high heat stored inside the PV cells during the operation. An experimental rig is designed to investigate and evaluate PV module performance with the proposed cooling technique. This cooling technique is the first work in Iraq to dissipate the heat from PV module. The experimental results indicated that due to the heat loss by convection between water and the PV panel's upper surface, an increase of output power is achieved. It was found that without active cooling, the temperature of the PV module was high and solar cells could only achieve a conversion efficiency of about 8%. However, when the PV module was operated under active water cooling condition, the temperature was dropped from 76.8°C without cooling to 70.1°C with active cooling. This temperature dropping led to increase in the electrical efficiency of solar panel to 9.8% at optimum mass flow rate (0.2L/s) and thermal efficiency to (12.3%).

  12. A water-cooled mirror system for synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiGennaro, Richard; Gee, Bruce; Guigli, Jim; Hogrefe, Henning; Howells, Malcolm; Rarback, Harvey

    1988-04-01

    This paper describes the design and performance of a directly-cooled soft X-ray mirror system which has been developed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for synchrotron radiation beam lines in which mirror thermal distortion must be minimized for acceptable optical performance . Two similar mirror systems are being built: the first mirror has been installed and operated at the National Synchrotron Light Source on the X-17T miniundulator beam line and will be moved to the permanent X-1 beam line when a new, more powerful undulator is installed there. The second system is being built for installation at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory on Beam Line VI, where the total absorbed power on the mirror may be as high as 2400 W with a peak absorbed power density of 520 W/cm 2. Direct cooling by convection is achieved using internal water channels in a brazed, dispersion-strengthened copper and OFHC copper substrate with a polished electroless-nickel surface. A simple kinematic linkage and flexural pivot mounting provide for mirror positioning about two rotational axes that coincide with the optical surface. Surface figure metrology, optical configurations, and tolerancing are also discussed. This work was supported by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy, under contract #DE-AC03-76SF00098.

  13. A water-cooled mirror system for synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    DiGennaro, R.; Gee, B.; Guigli, J.; Hogrefe, H.; Howells, M.; Rarback, H.

    1987-06-01

    This paper describes the design and performance of a directly-cooled soft x-ray mirror system which has been developed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for synchrotron radiation beam lines in which mirror thermal distortion must be minimized for acceptable optical performance. Two similar mirror systems are being built: the first mirror has been installed and operated at the National Synchrotron Light Source on the X-17T mini-undulator beam line and will be moved to the permanent X-1 beam line when a new, more powerful undulator is installed there. The second system is being built for installation at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory on Beam Line VI, where the total absorbed power on the mirror may be as high as 2400 W with peak absorbed power density of 520 W/cm/sup 2/. Direct cooling by convection is achieved using internal water channels in a brazed, dispersion-strengthened copper and OFHC copper substrate with a polished electroless-nickel surface. A simple kinematic linkage and flexural pivot mounting provide for mirror positioning about two rotational axes that coincide with the optical surface. Surface figure metrology, optical configurations, and tolerancing are also discussed. 11 refs., 8 figs.

  14. Fluidized bed heat exchanger with water cooled air distributor and dust hopper

    DOEpatents

    Jukkola, Walfred W.; Leon, Albert M.; Van Dyk, Jr., Garritt C.; McCoy, Daniel E.; Fisher, Barry L.; Saiers, Timothy L.; Karstetter, Marlin E.

    1981-11-24

    A fluidized bed heat exchanger is provided in which air is passed through a bed of particulate material containing fuel. A steam-water natural circulation system is provided for heat exchange and the housing of the heat exchanger has a water-wall type construction. Vertical in-bed heat exchange tubes are provided and the air distributor is water-cooled. A water-cooled dust hopper is provided in the housing to collect particulates from the combustion gases and separate the combustion zone from a volume within said housing in which convection heat exchange tubes are provided to extract heat from the exiting combustion gases.

  15. Locating of leaks in water-cooled generator stator bars using perfluorocarbon tracers

    SciTech Connect

    Loss, W.M.; Dietz, R.N.

    1991-09-01

    Water cooled stator bars in power plant generators often fail during the maintenance cycle due to water leakage. After the hydrogen pressure in the generator shell has been released water can leak through cracks in the copper and through the insulation. Leaking bars, but not the leaks themselves, are detected with so-called hi-pot'' (high potential) tests where direct electrical current is applied to the stator bar windings. A study initiated by ConEd and Brookhaven's Tracer Technology Center to explore the cause of these leakage problems to determine if the failures originate in the manufacturing process or are created in service by phase related torque stresses. To this purpose bars that had failed the hi-pot test were investigated first with the insulation in place and then stripped to the bare copper. The bars were pressurized with gases containing perfluorocarbon tracers and the magnitude and location of the leaks was detected by using tracers technology principles and instruments such as the double source'' method and the Dual Trap Analyzer. In the second part of the project the windings within a generator were tested in-situ for leaks during an outage using tracer principles. Recommendations are given suggesting the shut down of stator bar cooling water before hydrogen bleeding during outages and a revision of the current vent flow rate. The new standard should establish a reasonable leak rate for the stator bar windings proper and exclude leakage of pump seals and connections. Testing during the maintenance cycle in generators should include routine tracer leak detection following the hi-pot test.

  16. Locating of leaks in water-cooled generator stator bars using perfluorocarbon tracers

    SciTech Connect

    Loss, W.M.; Dietz, R.N.

    1991-09-01

    Water cooled stator bars in power plant generators often fail during the maintenance cycle due to water leakage. After the hydrogen pressure in the generator shell has been released water can leak through cracks in the copper and through the insulation. Leaking bars, but not the leaks themselves, are detected with so-called ``hi-pot`` (high potential) tests where direct electrical current is applied to the stator bar windings. A study initiated by ConEd and Brookhaven`s Tracer Technology Center to explore the cause of these leakage problems to determine if the failures originate in the manufacturing process or are created in service by phase related torque stresses. To this purpose bars that had failed the hi-pot test were investigated first with the insulation in place and then stripped to the bare copper. The bars were pressurized with gases containing perfluorocarbon tracers and the magnitude and location of the leaks was detected by using tracers technology principles and instruments such as the ``double source`` method and the Dual Trap Analyzer. In the second part of the project the windings within a generator were tested in-situ for leaks during an outage using tracer principles. Recommendations are given suggesting the shut down of stator bar cooling water before hydrogen bleeding during outages and a revision of the current vent flow rate. The new standard should establish a reasonable leak rate for the stator bar windings proper and exclude leakage of pump seals and connections. Testing during the maintenance cycle in generators should include routine tracer leak detection following the hi-pot test.

  17. Note: High turn density magnetic coils with improved low pressure water cooling for use in atom optics

    SciTech Connect

    McKay Parry, Nicholas Neely, Tyler; Carey, Thomas; Bell, Thomas; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina; Baker, Mark

    2014-08-15

    We describe a magnetic coil design utilizing concentrically wound electro-magnetic insulating (EMI) foil (25.4 μm Kapton backing and 127 μm thick layers). The magnetic coils are easily configurable for different coil sizes, while providing large surfaces for low-pressure (0.12 bar) water cooling. The coils have turn densities of ∼5 mm{sup −1} and achieve a maximum of 377 G at 2.1 kW driving power, measured at a distance 37.9 mm from the axial center of the coil. The coils achieve a steady-state temperature increase of 36.7°C/kW.

  18. The Effects of Cylinder Head Gasket Opening on Engine Temperature Distribution for a Water-Cooled Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, J. Y.; Chi, G. X.

    2017-02-01

    In a liquid-cooled engine, coolant is pumped throughout the water jacket of the engine, drawing heat from the cylinder head, pistons, combustion chambers, cylinder walls, and valves, etc. If the engine temperature is too high or too low, various problems will occur. These include overheating of the lubricating oil and engine parts, excessive stresses between engine parts, loss of power, incomplete burning of fuel, etc. Thus, the engine should be maintained at the proper operating temperature. This study investigated the effects of different cylinder head gasket opening on the engine temperature distributions in a water-cooled motorcycle engine. The numerical predictions for the temperature distribution are in good agreement with the experimental data within 20%.

  19. Water cooled silicon crystals for X-ray monochromators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahl, R.; Shah, R.; Jackson, K.; Tonnessen, T.

    1992-07-01

    Insertion devices (wigglers and undulators) proposed for synchrotron radiation sources will produce up to 10 kW/cm2 of thermal loading. In a double crystal monochromator, the first crystal must absorb nearly all of this output power, as it diffracts the desired wavelength to the second crystal. Storage rings currently projected or under construction produce heat loads of this intensity and thus require significantly improved optical element cooling methods to preserve the spectral quality of the output radiation. As beam intensities reach these higher levels, analysis of the thermal performance of passive and actively cooled optical elements becomes more and more critical because such elements are a cost effective means for producing a cooled crystal that performs to its design specifications the first time it is installed in the beamline. The Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International is applying the experience gained in high energy laser optics research (the design of cooled IR and UV optical components for free electron lasers) to the problems of cooled X-ray monochromator crystals and grazing incidence VUV optics. In this paper, a set of first order parametric calculations and a second order finite element calculation were performed to determine surface temperature rise, coolant pressure drop and surface distortion in a single crystal silicon heat exchanger with heat loads of 100 to 550 W/cm2. Two different heat exchanger designs (microchannels and pin post cell) and two different coolants (water and liquid gallium) were analyzed to assess performance advantages of each.

  20. Correction analysis for a supersonic water cooled total temperature probe tested to 1370 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lagen, Nicholas T.; Seiner, John M.

    1991-01-01

    The authors address the thermal analysis of a water cooled supersonic total temperature probe tested in a Mach 2 flow, up to 1366 K total temperature. The goal of this experiment was the determination of high-temperature supersonic jet mean flow temperatures. An 8.99 cm exit diameter water cooled nozzle was used in the tests. It was designed for exit Mach 2 at 1366 K exit total temperature. Data along the jet centerline were obtained for total temperatures of 755 K, 1089 K, and 1366 K. The data from the total temperature probe were affected by the water coolant. The probe was tested through a range of temperatures between 755 K and 1366 K with and without the cooling system turned on. The results were used to develop a relationship between the indicated thermocouple bead temperature and the freestream total temperature. The analysis and calculated temperatures are presented.

  1. Evaluation of water cooled supersonic temperature and pressure probes for application to 1366 K flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lagen, Nicholas; Seiner, John M.

    1990-01-01

    Water cooled supersonic probes are developed to investigate total pressure, static pressure, and total temperature in high-temperature jet plumes and thereby determine the mean flow properties. Two probe concepts, designed for operation at up to 1366 K in a Mach 2 flow, are tested on a water cooled nozzle. The two probe designs - the unsymmetric four-tube cooling configuration and the symmetric annular cooling design - take measurements at 755, 1089, and 1366 K of the three parameters. The cooled total and static pressure readings are found to agree with previous test results with uncooled configurations. The total-temperature probe, however, is affected by the introduction of water coolant, and effect which is explained by the increased heat transfer across the thermocouple-bead surface. Further investigation of the effect of coolant on the temperature probe is proposed to mitigate the effect and calculate more accurate temperatures in jet plumes.

  2. Development and selection of heat-resistant tool steels for water-cooled dies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kremney, L. S.; Zabezhinskii, A. Ya.

    1980-02-01

    Alloying and heat treatment of tool steels for water-cooled dies to improve the service life in high-speed automatic presses must ensure: 1) The lowest but still sufficient level of hardening during precipitation hardening; 2) the smallest amount of carbide not dissolved during quenching; 3) prevention of the decomposition of martensite in grain boundaries during tempering; 4) a structure of lath martensite.

  3. Water cooling system leak proofing strategy for the Plasma Couette Experiment Upgrade (PCX-U)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Mike; Flanagan, Ken; Hernandez, Wilson; Jaeger, Austin; Laufman-Wollitzer, Lauren; Nikolau, Ethan; Tabbutt, Megan; Waleffe, Roger; Wallace, John; Xu, Yufan; Forest, Cary

    2016-10-01

    An improved system for water cooling several experimental components has been installed for the Plasma Couette Experiment Upgrade (PCX-U). The most important aspect of the upgrade was to cool the new SmCo permanent magnet cage array. Many methods of connecting water cooling pipes, tubes, and fittings were employed balancing several factors. These factors included ease of assembly/disassembly, reliability, operating pressure, operating temperature, chemical reactivity, and cost. The actions taken to develop the water cooling system will be discussed and illustrated. A focus will be made on sealing cooling water leaks from the inside out on small diameter metal passages (including extrusions, tubing, and fittings). These passages were located inside a vacuum environment, and only the ends of each passage were accessible to do the work. The vacuum vessel of PCX-U is a 1 meter diameter, 1 meter tall cylinder comprised of 0.25'' thick stainless steel. PCX-U has one removable end. Rings of SmCo magnets attached to a removable frame create a cusp field to contain the plasma and provide a resonance surface for the RF. This work is supported by the NSF.

  4. Water cooling system for an air-breathing hypersonic test vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petley, Dennis H.; Dziedzic, William M.

    1993-01-01

    This study provides concepts for hypersonic experimental scramjet test vehicles which have low cost and low risk. Cryogenic hydrogen is used as the fuel and coolant. Secondary water cooling systems were designed. Three concepts are shown: an all hydrogen cooling system, a secondary open loop water cooled system, and a secondary closed loop water cooled system. The open loop concept uses high pressure helium (15,000 psi) to drive water through the cooling system while maintaining the pressure in the water tank. The water flows through the turbine side of the turbopump to pump hydrogen fuel. The water is then allowed to vent. In the closed loop concept high pressure, room temperature, compressed liquid water is circulated. In flight water pressure is limited to 6000 psi by venting some of the water. Water is circulated through cooling channels via an ejector which uses high pressure gas to drive a water jet. The cooling systems are presented along with finite difference steady-state and transient analysis results. The results from this study indicate that water used as a secondary coolant can be designed to increase experimental test time, produce minimum venting of fluid and reduce overall development cost.

  5. Evaluation of water cooled supersonic temperature and pressure probes for application to 2000 F flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lagen, Nicholas T.; Seiner, John M.

    1990-01-01

    The development of water cooled supersonic probes used to study high temperature jet plumes is addressed. These probes are: total pressure, static pressure, and total temperature. The motivation for these experiments is the determination of high temperature supersonic jet mean flow properties. A 3.54 inch exit diameter water cooled nozzle was used in the tests. It is designed for exit Mach 2 at 2000 F exit total temperature. Tests were conducted using water cooled probes capable of operating in Mach 2 flow, up to 2000 F total temperature. Of the two designs tested, an annular cooling method was chosen as superior. Data at the jet exit planes, and along the jet centerline, were obtained for total temperatures of 900 F, 1500 F, and 2000 F, for each of the probes. The data obtained from the total and static pressure probes are consistent with prior low temperature results. However, the data obtained from the total temperature probe was affected by the water coolant. The total temperature probe was tested up to 2000 F with, and without, the cooling system turned on to better understand the heat transfer process at the thermocouple bead. The rate of heat transfer across the thermocouple bead was greater when the coolant was turned on than when the coolant was turned off. This accounted for the lower temperature measurement by the cooled probe. The velocity and Mach number at the exit plane and centerline locations were determined from the Rayleigh-Pitot tube formula.

  6. Performance evaluation of heat-stressed commercial broilers provided water-cooled floor perches.

    PubMed

    Reilly, W M; Koelkebeck, K W; Harrison, P C

    1991-08-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether water-cooled floor perches would be utilized by commercial broilers exposed to a constant hot ambient environment; and subsequently, whether utilization of these perches would improve performance beyond those provided uncooled floor perches. A total of 330 day-old commercial broiler chicks were randomly allocated to six pens (2.44 m2) in an environmentally controlled facility and maintained in a thermoneutral brooding environment for 16 days. Following this period, 240 birds were selected on a body weight basis and randomly assigned to the six pens. A perch constructed from steel pipe (2.44 m length, 5.0 cm diameter) was then placed diagonally on the litter covered floor of each pen. The birds were first exposed to a thermoneutral period (27.7 C), during which time cooling of the perches in three replicate pens was initiated by circulating tap water. The other three experimental pens received ambient perches. Ambient temperature was then raised to 32.6 C for the following 4 wk. The results of the present study showed that utilization of water-cooled perches by broilers was greater (P less than or equal to .01) than ambient perch utilization throughout the 32.6 C period. Average daily gain was greatest (P less than or equal to .01) for broilers exposed to cool perches. Additionally, they consume more feed (P less than or equal to .05), on a daily basis, than those given ambient perches during the heat-stress period. Broilers exposed to water-cooled perches also had a more efficient gain to feed ratio (P less than or equal to .01). At the completion of the study, final body weight and total body weight gain were greater (P less than or equal to .05) for broilers given water-cooled perches compared with those exposed to ambient perches. Total amount of feed consumed and total feed efficiency were only moderately affected (P less than or equal to .10) by perch treatments. These results indicated that water-cooled perches were

  7. An economic analysis of a light and heavy water moderated reactor synergy: burning americium using recycled uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Wojtaszek, D.; Edwards, G.

    2013-07-01

    An economic analysis is presented for a proposed synergistic system between 2 nuclear utilities, one operating light water reactors (LWR) and another running a fleet of heavy water moderated reactors (HWR). Americium is partitioned from LWR spent nuclear fuel (SNF) to be transmuted in HWRs, with a consequent averted disposal cost to the LWR operator. In return, reprocessed uranium (RU) is supplied to the HWRs in sufficient quantities to support their operation both as power generators and americium burners. Two simplifying assumptions have been made. First, the economic value of RU is a linear function of the cost of fresh natural uranium (NU), and secondly, plutonium recycling for a third utility running a mixed oxide (MOX) fuelled reactor fleet has been already taking place, so that the extra cost of americium recycling is manageable. We conclude that, in order for this scenario to be economically attractive to the LWR operator, the averted disposal cost due to partitioning americium from LWR spent fuel must exceed 214 dollars per kg, comparable to estimates of the permanent disposal cost of the high level waste (HLW) from reprocessing spent LWR fuel. (authors)

  8. A 200 W diode-side-pumped CW 2 μm Tm:YAG laser with water cooling at 8°C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, D.; Peng, Q.; Du, S.; Xu, J.; Guo, Y.; Yang, J.; Bo, Y.; Zhang, J.; Cui, D.; Xu, Z.

    2011-04-01

    A water-cooled 785 nm diode-side-pumped high-power CW Tm:YAG laser system at 2 μm is reported. 200 W output power is achieved with cooling water running at 8°C. As far as we know, this is the highest output power for a diode-pumped all solid-state 2 μm Tm:YAG laser. The output corresponds to optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 11.2%, with a slope efficiency of about 22.8%. To make the system structure simple, only deionized water is used as the coolant instead of alcohol- or glycol-water mixture or the liquid nitrogen in the reported high-power Tm rod laser experiments, which were performed at low temperature near the freezing point of water, or even below.

  9. A comparison of the heat transfer capabilities of two manufacturing methods for high heat flux water-cooled devices

    SciTech Connect

    McKoon, R.H.

    1986-10-01

    An experimental program was undertaken to compare the heat transfer characteristics of water-cooled copper devices manufactured via conventional drilled passage construction and via a technique whereby molten copper is cast over a network of preformed cooling tubes. Two similar test blocks were constructed; one using the drilled passage technique, the other via casting copper over Monel pipe. Each test block was mounted in a vacuum system and heated uniformly on the top surface using a swept electron beam. From the measured absorbed powers and resultant temperatures, an overall heat transfer coefficient was calculated. The maximum heat transfer coefficient calculated for the case of the drilled passage test block was 2534 Btu/hr/ft/sup 2///sup 0/F. This corresponded to an absorbed power density of 320 w/cm/sup 2/ and resulted in a maximum recorded copper temperature of 346/sup 0/C. Corresponding figures for the cast test block were 363 Btu/hr/ft/sup 2///sup 0/F, 91 w/cm/sup 2/, and 453/sup 0/C.

  10. Effect of thermal barrier coatings on the performance of steam and water-cooled gas turbine/steam turbine combined cycle system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nainiger, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    An analytical study was made of the performance of air, steam, and water-cooled gas-turbine/steam turbine combined-cycle systems with and without thermal-barrier coatings. For steam cooling, thermal barrier coatings permit an increase in the turbine inlet temperature from 1205 C (2200 F), resulting in an efficiency improvement of 1.9 percentage points. The maximum specific power improvement with thermal barriers is 32.4 percent, when the turbine inlet temperature is increased from 1425 C (2600 F) to 1675 C (3050 F) and the airfoil temperature is kept the same. For water cooling, the maximum efficiency improvement is 2.2 percentage points at a turbine inlet temperature of 1683 C (3062 F) and the maximum specific power improvement is 36.6 percent by increasing the turbine inlet temperature from 1425 C (2600 F) to 1730 C (3150 F) and keeping the airfoil temperatures the same. These improvements are greater than that obtained with combined cycles using air cooling at a turbine inlet temperature of 1205 C (2200 F). The large temperature differences across the thermal barriers at these high temperatures, however, indicate that thermal stresses may present obstacles to the use of coatings at high turbine inlet temperatures.

  11. Summary of experimental data for critical arrays of water moderated Fast Test Reactor fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Durst, B.M.; Bierman, S.R.; Clayton, E.D.; Mincey, J.F.; Primm, R.T. III

    1981-05-01

    A research program, funded by the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), was initiated at Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to acquire experimental data on heterogeneous water moderated arrays of Fast Test Reactor (FTR) fuel pins. The objective of this program is to provide critical experiment data for validating calculational techniques used in criticality assessments of reprocessing equipment containing FTR-type fuels. Consequently, the experiments were designed to permit accurate definition in Monte Carlo computer codes currently used in these assessments. Square and triangular pitched lattices of fuel have been constructed under a variety of conditions covering the range from undermoderated to overmoderated arrays. Experiments were conducted composed of arrays which were water reflected, partially concrete reflected, and arrays with interspersed solid neutron absorbers. The absorbers utilized were Boral, and cadmium plates and gadolinium cylindrical rods. Data from non-CFRP sponsored subcritical experiments (previously performed at Hanford) also are included.

  12. Feasibility Study of Supercritical Light Water Cooled Reactors for Electric Power Production

    SciTech Connect

    Philip MacDonald; Jacopo Buongiorno; James Sterbentz; Cliff Davis; Robert Witt; Gary Was; J. McKinley; S. Teysseyre; Luca Oriani; Vefa Kucukboyaci; Lawrence Conway; N. Jonsson: Bin Liu

    2005-02-13

    The supercritical water reactor (SCWR) has been the object of interest throughout the nuclear Generation IV community because of its high potential: a simple, direct cycle, compact configuration; elimination of many traditional LWR components, operation at coolant temperatures much higher than traditional LWRs and thus high thermal efficiency. It could be said that the SWR was viewed as the water counterpart to the high temperature gas reactor.

  13. Water-Cooled Data Center Packs More Power Per Rack | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Frank Blanchard and Ken Michaels, Staff Writers Behind each tall, black computer rack in the data center at the Advanced Technology Research Facility (ATRF) is something both strangely familiar and oddly out of place: It looks like a radiator. The back door of each cabinet is gridded with the coils of the Liebert cooling system, which circulates chilled water to remove heat generated by the high-speed, high-capacity, fault-tolerant equipment.

  14. Fuel Breeding and Core Behavior Analyses on In Core Fuel Management of Water Cooled Thorium Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Permana, Sidik; Sekimoto, Hiroshi; Waris, Abdul; Subhki, Muhamad Nurul; Ismail,

    2010-12-23

    Thorium fuel cycle with recycled U-233 has been widely recognized having some contributions to improve the water-cooled breeder reactor program which has been shown by a feasible area of breeding and negative void reactivity which confirms that fissile of 233U contributes to better fuel breeding and effective for obtaining negative void reactivity coefficient as the main fissile material. The present study has the objective to estimate the effect of whole core configuration as well as burnup effects to the reactor core profile by adopting two dimensional model of fuel core management. About more than 40 months of cycle period has been employed for one cycle fuel irradiation of three batches fuel system for large water cooled thorium reactors. All position of fuel arrangement contributes to the total core conversion ratio which gives conversion ratio less than unity of at the BOC and it contributes to higher than unity (1.01) at the EOC after some irradiation process. Inner part and central part give the important part of breeding contribution with increasing burnup process, while criticality is reduced with increasing the irradiation time. Feasibility of breeding capability of water-cooled thorium reactors for whole core fuel arrangement has confirmed from the obtained conversion ratio which shows higher than unity. Whole core analysis on evaluating reactivity change which is caused by the change of voided condition has been employed for conservative assumption that 100% coolant and moderator are voided. It obtained always a negative void reactivity coefficient during reactor operation which shows relatively more negative void coefficient at BOC (fresh fuel composition), and it becomes less negative void coefficient with increasing the operation time. Negative value of void reactivity coefficient shows the reactor has good safety properties in relation to the reactivity profile which is the main parameter in term of criticality safety analysis. Therefore, this

  15. Soy-Based, Water-Cooled, TC W-III Two Cycle Engine Oil

    SciTech Connect

    Scharf, Curtis R.; Miller, Mark E.

    2003-08-30

    The objective of this project was to achieve technical approval and commercial launch for a biodegradable soy oil-based, environmentally safe, TC W-III performance, water-cooled, two cycle engine oil. To do so would: (1) develop a new use for RBD soybean oil; (2) increase soybean utilization in North America in the range of 500 K-3.0 MM bushels; and (3) open up supply opportunities of 1.5-5.0 MM bushels worldwide. These goals have been successfully obtained.

  16. Preparation of semi-solid aluminum alloy slurry poured through a water-cooled serpentine channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zheng-Zhou; Mao, Wei-Min; Wu, Zong-Chuang

    2012-01-01

    A water-cooled serpentine channel pouring process was invented to produce semi-solid A356 aluminum alloy slurry for rheocasting, and the effects of pouring temperature and circulating cooling water flux on the microstructure of the slurry were investigated. The results show that at the pouring temperature of 640-680°C and the circulating cooling water flux of 0.9 m3/h, the semi-solid A356 aluminum alloy slurry with spherical primary α(Al) grains can be obtained, whose shape factors are between 0.78 and 0.86 and the grain diameter can reach 48-68 μm. When the pouring temperatures are at 660-680°C, only a very thin solidified shell remains inside the serpentine channel and can be removed easily. When the serpentine channel is cooled with circulating water, the microstructure of the semi-solid slurry can be improved, and the serpentine channel is quickly cooled to room temperature after the completion of one pouring. In terms of the productivity of the special equipment, the water-cooled serpentine channel is economical and efficient.

  17. The cast structure of a 7075 alloy produced by a water-cooling centrifugal casting method

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, J.W. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering); Jong, S.H.

    1994-03-01

    A water-cooling centrifugal casting method was applied to cast the 7075 Al alloy to generate a much finer cast structure than that produced by conventional ingot casting methods. The effects of casting parameters, i.e., rotation speed, pouring temperature, water flow, and grain refiner, on casting structure were systematically studied so that the optimum casting condition and the solidification mechanism could be established. The typical cast structure along the thickness direction of a cast ring could be divided into four equiaxed zones, including the chill zone which is in contact with the mold wall. All zones have their characteristic grain size, morphology, and relative thickness, which are all dependent on the casting condition. The optimum casting condition yielding the finest structure available was found to be 3,000 rpm, 650 C, and sufficient water cooling. A uniform portion occupying 90 pct of the whole thickness and having a grain size of 17 [mu]m could be achieved under such a casting condition. When a grain refiner was added, the whole ring became further concentrated with grains of fine structure. A mechanism concerning the overall effects of rapid solidification, turbulent flow, and centrifugal force has been proposed for the present casting method and might explain the zone-structure formation and the effects of the casting parameters on microstructural features.

  18. The progress of the water cooled separator CFB boiler in China

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Junfu; Zhang Jiansheng; Yue Guangxi

    1999-07-01

    Since the first pilot 75 t/h water cooled separator CFB boiler was in operation in 1996, a hot test program has been conducted by Tsinghua University and several boiler works, so as to promote scaling of the CFB boiler. The present paper introduces the test program and the primary results, such as the separator efficiency, material balance, solid bulk density, heat transfer along the height of the furnace, etc. Besides the traditional test technology, some newly developed apparatus was used in the hot test. According to the experience obtained from the boiler, the improvement measure was taken for the second and third boiler, which were in commercial operation in 1998. The first operation experience of the second and third boiler proves the effect of the improvement. Considering the experience and the test program, the scaling up design of water cooled separator was done. The present paper also introduces the design consideration of the 130 t/h and 220 t/h CFB boiler.

  19. Heat Transfer Modeling of an Annular On-Line Spray Water Cooling Process for Electric-Resistance-Welded Steel Pipe.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zejun; Han, Huiquan; Ren, Wei; Huang, Guangjie

    2015-01-01

    On-line spray water cooling (OSWC) of electric-resistance-welded (ERW) steel pipes can replace the conventional off-line heat treatment process and become an important and critical procedure. The OSWC process improves production efficiency, decreases costs, and enhances the mechanical properties of ERW steel pipe, especially the impact properties of the weld joint. In this paper, an annular OSWC process is investigated based on an experimental simulation platform that can obtain precise real-time measurements of the temperature of the pipe, the water pressure and flux, etc. The effects of the modes of annular spray water cooling and related cooling parameters on the mechanical properties of the pipe are investigated. The temperature evolutions of the inner and outer walls of the pipe are measured during the spray water cooling process, and the uniformity of mechanical properties along the circumferential and longitudinal directions is investigated. A heat transfer coefficient model of spray water cooling is developed based on measured temperature data in conjunction with simulation using the finite element method. Industrial tests prove the validity of the heat transfer model of a steel pipe undergoing spray water cooling. The research results can provide a basis for the industrial application of the OSWC process in the production of ERW steel pipes.

  20. Heat Transfer Modeling of an Annular On-Line Spray Water Cooling Process for Electric-Resistance-Welded Steel Pipe

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zejun; Han, Huiquan; Ren, Wei; Huang, Guangjie

    2015-01-01

    On-line spray water cooling (OSWC) of electric-resistance-welded (ERW) steel pipes can replace the conventional off-line heat treatment process and become an important and critical procedure. The OSWC process improves production efficiency, decreases costs, and enhances the mechanical properties of ERW steel pipe, especially the impact properties of the weld joint. In this paper, an annular OSWC process is investigated based on an experimental simulation platform that can obtain precise real-time measurements of the temperature of the pipe, the water pressure and flux, etc. The effects of the modes of annular spray water cooling and related cooling parameters on the mechanical properties of the pipe are investigated. The temperature evolutions of the inner and outer walls of the pipe are measured during the spray water cooling process, and the uniformity of mechanical properties along the circumferential and longitudinal directions is investigated. A heat transfer coefficient model of spray water cooling is developed based on measured temperature data in conjunction with simulation using the finite element method. Industrial tests prove the validity of the heat transfer model of a steel pipe undergoing spray water cooling. The research results can provide a basis for the industrial application of the OSWC process in the production of ERW steel pipes. PMID:26201073

  1. Alloy development for first wall materials used in water-cooling type fusion reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiuchi, K.; Ishiyama, T.; Hishinuma, A.

    1991-03-01

    Austenitic stainless steels with high resistance to IASCC were developed for the first wall used in a water cooling type fusion reactor. New alloys with ultra low carbon content were designed to improve all-round properties relevant to the reliability below 450°C, by enhancing the austenite phase stability and purifying the austenite matrix. For this purpose, these were manufactured by means of controlling minor elements, adjusting principal elements and applying SAR thermomechanical treatment. The major characteristics of these alloys were compared with that of Type 316 and JPCA. These alloys showed a good swelling resistance to electron irradiation and high cracking resistance to high heat fluxes of hydrogen beam. The ductility loss and decrease of tensile strength at the objective temperature were also minimized.

  2. A water-cooled x-ray monochromator for using off-axis undulator beam.

    SciTech Connect

    Khounsary, A.; Maser, J.

    2000-12-11

    Undulator beamlines at third-generation synchrotrons x-ray sources are designed to use the high-brilliance radiation that is contained in the central cone of the generated x-ray beams. The rest of the x-ray beam is often unused. Moreover, in some cases, such as in the zone-plate-based microfocusing beamlines, only a small part of the central radiation cone around the optical axis is used. In this paper, a side-station branch line at the Advanced Photon Source that takes advantage of some of the unused off-axis photons in a microfocusing x-ray beamline is described. Detailed information on the design and analysis of a high-heat-load water-cooled monochromator developed for this beamline is provided.

  3. The first pilot compact CFB boiler with water cooled separator in China

    SciTech Connect

    Yue Guangxi; Li Yan; Lu Xiaoma; Zhang Yanguo; Liu Qing; Lu Junfu; Zhao Xiaoxing

    1997-12-31

    The square cyclone was experimentally investigated in Tsinghua University. The flow field in the cyclone was measured and numerically simulated. The investigation prove that the corner of square cyclone created turbulence to decrease the collection efficiency. The acceleration of solid particles at the inlet of the square cyclone was also a factor for good efficiency. The collection efficiency has been improved by a carefully designed curved inlet of the cyclone which received the patent in China. The patented water cooled cyclone was used in a design of improved 75 T/h CFB boiler. The demonstration of the boiler started test operation in April 1996 at Jianjiang Cement Co. in Sichuan Province. The first operation will be used for adjusting the boiler. Further tests will be done to confirm the performance of the boiler.

  4. Passive decay heat removal system for water-cooled nuclear reactors

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, Charles W.

    1991-01-01

    A passive decay-heat removal system for a water-cooled nuclear reactor employs a closed heat transfer loop having heat-exchanging coils inside an open-topped, insulated box located inside the reactor vessel, below its normal water level, in communication with a condenser located outside of containment and exposed to the atmosphere. The heat transfer loop is located such that the evaporator is in a position where, when the water level drops in the reactor, it will become exposed to steam. Vapor produced in the evaporator passes upward to the condenser above the normal water level. In operation, condensation in the condenser removes heat from the system, and the condensed liquid is returned to the evaporator. The system is disposed such that during normal reactor operations where the water level is at its usual position, very little heat will be removed from the system, but during emergency, low water level conditions, substantial amounts of decay heat will be removed.

  5. Mathematical model and calculation of water-cooling efficiency in a film-filled cooling tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laptev, A. G.; Lapteva, E. A.

    2016-10-01

    Different approaches to simulation of momentum, mass, and energy transfer in packed beds are considered. The mathematical model of heat and mass transfer in a wetted packed bed for turbulent gas flow and laminar wave counter flow of the fluid film in sprinkler units of a water-cooling tower is presented. The packed bed is represented as the set of equivalent channels with correction to twisting. The idea put forward by P. Kapitsa on representation of waves on the interphase film surface as elements of the surface roughness in interaction with the gas flow is used. The temperature and moisture content profiles are found from the solution of differential equations of heat and mass transfer written for the equivalent channel with the volume heat and mass source. The equations for calculation of the average coefficients of heat emission and mass exchange in regular and irregular beds with different contact elements, as well as the expression for calculation of the average turbulent exchange coefficient are presented. The given formulas determine these coefficients for the known hydraulic resistance of the packed bed element. The results of solution of the system of equations are presented, and the water temperature profiles are shown for different sprinkler units in industrial water-cooling towers. The comparison with experimental data on thermal efficiency of the cooling tower is made; this allows one to determine the temperature of the cooled water at the output. The technical solutions on increasing the cooling tower performance by equalization of the air velocity profile at the input and creation of an additional phase contact region using irregular elements "Inzhekhim" are considered.

  6. Minor actinide transmutation in thorium and uranium matrices in heavy water moderated reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatti, Zaki; Hyland, B.; Edwards, G.W.R.

    2013-07-01

    The irradiation of Th{sup 232} breeds fewer of the problematic minor actinides (Np, Am, Cm) than the irradiation of U{sup 238}. This characteristic makes thorium an attractive potential matrix for the transmutation of these minor actinides, as these species can be transmuted without the creation of new actinides as is the case with a uranium fuel matrix. Minor actinides are the main contributors to long term decay heat and radiotoxicity of spent fuel, so reducing their concentration can greatly increase the capacity of a long term deep geological repository. Mixing minor actinides with thorium, three times more common in the Earth's crust than natural uranium, has the additional advantage of improving the sustainability of the fuel cycle. In this work, lattice cell calculations have been performed to determine the results of transmuting minor actinides from light water reactor spent fuel in a thorium matrix. 15-year-cooled group-extracted transuranic elements (Np, Pu, Am, Cm) from light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel were used as the fissile component in a thorium-based fuel in a heavy water moderated reactor (HWR). The minor actinide (MA) transmutation rates, spent fuel activity, decay heat and radiotoxicity, are compared with those obtained when the MA were mixed instead with natural uranium and taken to the same burnup. Each bundle contained a central pin containing a burnable neutron absorber whose initial concentration was adjusted to have the same reactivity response (in units of the delayed neutron fraction β) for coolant voiding as standard NU fuel. (authors)

  7. Modifications to MELCOR for the analysis of heavy-water moderated, U-A1 fuel reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Church, J.P. ); Leonard, M.T.; Williams, K.A. )

    1990-01-01

    The MELCOR computer code is being used as the point of departure to develop an integrated severe accident analysis computer code for the heavy-water moderated U-Al fuel reactors. The resulting computer code (MELCOR/SR) provides a practical and comprehensive analytical tool for evaluating severe accident behavior in the Savannah River Site (SRS) production reactors. The technical scope of this development effort is summarized in this paper. Other companion papers are cited that provide additional details regarding particular models.

  8. Post exercise changes in compartmental body temperature accompanying intermittent cold water cooling in the hyperthermic horse.

    PubMed

    Marlin, D J; Scott, C M; Roberts, C A; Casas, I; Holah, G; Schroter, R C

    1998-01-01

    Whereas the efficacy of cold water cooling of horses has been demonstrated by several studies, the dynamics of temperature changes within and between compartments (primarily muscle, blood [core], skin and deep core [rectal]) have not been investigated. Changes in body temperature associated with cold water cooling were investigated in the hyperthermic horse. Muscle (TMU), pulmonary artery (TPA), rectal (TREC), tail-skin (TTSK) and coat surface (TCOAT) temperatures, were monitored continuously in 5 Thoroughbred horses during and after exercise in hot humid (30 degrees C and 80% RH) conditions on a treadmill. Horses were cooled in the hot humid environment with cold water (approximately 6 degrees C) for 6 30 s periods. Between each 30 s cooling period the horses stood for 30 s. A total of 180 l of cold water was applied. Horses were monitored for a further 4 min following the final cooling period. From the end of exercise to the end of the final cooling (6.5 min), mean (+/- s.e.) rates of decrease for TTSK and TPA were similar (0.8 +/- 0.1 and 0.8 +/- 0.1 degrees C/min, respectively). The effects on TMU and TREC were less marked, with average rates of 0.2 +/- 0.1 and 0.0 +/- 0.1 degrees C/min, respectively. During the first 4 min of cooling, TPA fell during the 30 s period of water application and rose during each 30 s period of standing. When TPA fell below approximately 36.5 degrees C, these variations were suppressed and TPA rose steadily, despite continued applications; TREC and TMU continued to fall, although less rapidly than before. These observations are consistent with the onset of skin vasoconstriction at low TPA. The mechanism is mediated through a cooling of circulating blood volume providing a greater capacity for heat transfer between muscle and circulation. Intermittent application of cold water (approximately 6 degrees C) improves heat removal without apparent deleterious effects and is well tolerated. Even when hypothermia develops (based on TPA

  9. The effectiveness of power-generating complexes constructed on the basis of nuclear power plants combined with additional sources of energy determined taking risk factors into account

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aminov, R. Z.; Khrustalev, V. A.; Portyankin, A. V.

    2015-02-01

    The effectiveness of combining nuclear power plants equipped with water-cooled water-moderated power-generating reactors (VVER) with other sources of energy within unified power-generating complexes is analyzed. The use of such power-generating complexes makes it possible to achieve the necessary load pickup capability and flexibility in performing the mandatory selective primary and emergency control of load, as well as participation in passing the night minimums of electric load curves while retaining high values of the capacity utilization factor of the entire power-generating complex at higher levels of the steam-turbine part efficiency. Versions involving combined use of nuclear power plants with hydrogen toppings and gas turbine units for generating electricity are considered. In view of the fact that hydrogen is an unsafe energy carrier, the use of which introduces additional elements of risk, a procedure for evaluating these risks under different conditions of implementing the fuel-and-hydrogen cycle at nuclear power plants is proposed. Risk accounting technique with the use of statistical data is considered, including the characteristics of hydrogen and gas pipelines, and the process pipelines equipment tightness loss occurrence rate. The expected intensities of fires and explosions at nuclear power plants fitted with hydrogen toppings and gas turbine units are calculated. In estimating the damage inflicted by events (fires and explosions) occurred in nuclear power plant turbine buildings, the US statistical data were used. Conservative scenarios of fires and explosions of hydrogen-air mixtures in nuclear power plant turbine buildings are presented. Results from calculations of the introduced annual risk to the attained net annual profit ratio in commensurable versions are given. This ratio can be used in selecting projects characterized by the most technically attainable and socially acceptable safety.

  10. Fabrication of gas turbine water-cooled composite nozzle and bucket hardware employing plasma spray process

    DOEpatents

    Schilke, Peter W.; Muth, Myron C.; Schilling, William F.; Rairden, III, John R.

    1983-01-01

    In the method for fabrication of water-cooled composite nozzle and bucket hardware for high temperature gas turbines, a high thermal conductivity copper alloy is applied, employing a high velocity/low pressure (HV/LP) plasma arc spraying process, to an assembly comprising a structural framework of copper alloy or a nickel-based super alloy, or combination of the two, and overlying cooling tubes. The copper alloy is plamsa sprayed to a coating thickness sufficient to completely cover the cooling tubes, and to allow for machining back of the copper alloy to create a smooth surface having a thickness of from 0.010 inch (0.254 mm) to 0.150 inch (3.18 mm) or more. The layer of copper applied by the plasma spraying has no continuous porosity, and advantageously may readily be employed to sustain a pressure differential during hot isostatic pressing (HIP) bonding of the overall structure to enhance bonding by solid state diffusion between the component parts of the structure.

  11. Improvement in Stability of SPring-8 Standard X-Ray Monochromators with Water-Cooled Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Miura, Takanori; Tanaka, Masayuki; Kishimoto, Hikaru; Matsuzaki, Yasuhisa; Shimizu, Nobtaka; Kawano, Yoshiaki; Kumasaka, Takashi; Yamamoto, Masaki; Koganezawa, Tomoyuki; Sato, Masugu; Hirosawa, Ichiro; Senba, Yasunori; Ohashi, Haruhiko; Goto, Shunji; Ishikawa, Tetsuya

    2010-06-01

    SPring-8 standard double-crystal monochromators containing water-cooled crystals were stabilized to a sufficient level to function as a part of optics components to supply stable microfocused x-ray beams, by determining causes of the instability and then removing them. The instability was caused by two factors—thermal deformation of fine stepper stages in the monochromator, which resulted in reduction in beam intensity with time, and vibrations of coolant supply units and vacuum pumps, which resulted in fluctuation in beam intensity. We remodeled the crystal holders to maintain the stage temperatures constant with water, attached x-ray and electron shields to the stages in order to prevent their warming up, introduced accumulators in the water circuits to absorb pressure pulsation, used polyurethane tubes to stabilize water flow, and placed rubber cushions un der scroll vacuum pumps. As a result, the intensity reduction rate of the beam decreased from 26% to 1% per hour and the intensity fluctuation from 13% to 1%. The monochromators were also modified to prevent radiation damage to the crystals, materials used as a water seal, and motor cables.

  12. Passive decay heat removal system for water-cooled nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Forseberg, C.W.

    1990-01-01

    This document describes passive decay-heat removal system for a water-cooled nuclear reactor which employs a closed heat transfer loop having heat-exchanging coils inside an open-topped, insulated evaporator located inside the reactor vessel, below its normal water level, in communication with a condenser located outside of containment and exposed to the atmosphere. The heat transfer loop is located such that the evaporator is in a position where, when the water level drops in the reactor, it will become exposed to steam. Vapor produced in the evaporator passes upward to the condenser above the normal water level. In operation, condensation in the condenser removes heat from the system, and the condensed liquid is returned to the evaporator. The system is disposed such that during normal reactor operations where the water level is at its usual position, very little heat will be removed from the system, but during emergency, low water level conditions, substantial amounts of decay heat will be removed.

  13. Neutronics Comparison Analysis of the Water Cooled Ceramics Breeding Blanket for CFETR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jia; Zhang, Xiaokang; Gao, Fangfang; Pu, Yong

    2016-02-01

    China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR) is an ITER-like fusion engineering test reactor that is intended to fill the scientific and technical gaps between ITER and DEMO. One of the main missions of CFETR is to achieve a tritium breeding ratio that is no less than 1.2 to ensure tritium self-sufficiency. A concept design for a water cooled ceramics breeding blanket (WCCB) is presented based on a scheme with the breeder and the multiplier located in separate panels for CFETR. Based on this concept, a one-dimensional (1D) radial built breeding blanket was first designed, and then several three-dimensional models were developed with various neutron source definitions and breeding blanket module arrangements based on the 1D radial build. A set of nuclear analyses have been carried out to compare the differences in neutronics characteristics given by different calculation models, addressing neutron wall loading (NWL), tritium breeding ratio (TBR), fast neutron flux on inboard side and nuclear heating deposition on main in-vessel components. The impact of differences in modeling on the nuclear performance has been analyzed and summarized regarding the WCCB concept design. supported by the National Special Project for Magnetic Confined Nuclear Fusion Energy (Nos. 2013GB108004, 2014GB122000, and 2014GB119000), and National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11175207)

  14. Measurements of erbium laser-ablation efficiency in hard dental tissues under different water cooling conditions.

    PubMed

    Kuščer, Lovro; Diaci, Janez

    2013-10-01

    Laser triangulation measurements of Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG laser-ablated volumes in hard dental tissues are made, in order to verify the possible existence of a "hydrokinetic" effect that has been proposed as an alternative to the "subsurface water expansion" mechanism for hard-tissue laser ablation. No evidence of the hydrokinetic effect could be observed under a broad range of tested laser parameters and water cooling conditions. On the contrary, the application of water spray during laser exposure of hard dental material is observed to diminish the laser-ablation efficiency (AE) in comparison with laser exposure under the absence of water spray. Our findings are in agreement with the generally accepted principle of action for erbium laser ablation, which is based on fast subsurface expansion of laser-heated water trapped within the interstitial structure of hard dental tissues. Our measurements also show that the well-known phenomenon of ablation stalling, during a series of consecutive laser pulses, can primarily be attributed to the blocking of laser light by the loosely bound and recondensed desiccated minerals that collect on the tooth surface during and following laser ablation. In addition to the prevention of tooth bulk temperature buildup, a positive function of the water spray that is typically used with erbium dental lasers is to rehydrate these minerals, and thus sustaining the subsurface expansion ablation process. A negative side effect of using a continuous water spray is that the AE gets reduced due to the laser light being partially absorbed in the water-spray particles above the tooth and in the collected water pool on the tooth surface. Finally, no evidence of the influence of the water absorption shift on the hypothesized increase in the AE of the Er,Cr:YSGG wavelength is observed.

  15. Numerical Calculation of the Peaking Factor of a Water-Cooled W/Cu Monoblock for a Divertor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Le; Chang, Haiping; Zhang, Jingyang; Xu, Tiejun

    2015-09-01

    In order to accurately predict the incident critical heat flux (ICHF, the heat flux at the heated surface when CHF occurs) of a water-cooled W/Cu monoblock for a divertor, the exact knowledge of its peaking factors (fp) under one-sided heating conditions with different design parameters is a key issue. In this paper, the heat conduction in the solid domain of a water-cooled W/Cu monoblock is calculated numerically by assuming the local heat transfer coefficients (HTC) of the cooling wall to be functions of the local wall temperature, so as to obtain fp. The reliability of the calculation method is validated by an experimental example result, with the maximum error of 2.1% only. The effects of geometric and flow parameters on the fp of a water-cooled W/Cu monoblock are investigated. Within the scope of this study, it is shown that the fp increases with increasing dimensionless W/Cu monoblock width and armour thickness (the shortest distance between the heated surface and Cu layer), and the maximum increases are 43.8% and 22.4% respectively. The dimensionless W/Cu monoblock height and Cu thickness have little effect on fp. The increase of Reynolds number and Jakob number causes the increase of fp, and the maximum increases are 6.8% and 9.6% respectively. Based on the calculated results, an empirical correlation on peaking factor is obtained via regression. These results provide a valuable reference for the thermal-hydraulic design of water-cooled divertors. supported by National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (No. 2010GB104005) and Funding of Jiangsu Innovation Program for Graduate Education, China (CXLX12_0170), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China

  16. Control of heat transfer in continuous-feeding Czochralski-silicon crystal growth with a water-cooled jacket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Wenhan; Liu, Lijun

    2017-01-01

    The continuous-feeding Czochralski method is an effective method to reduce the cost of single crystal silicon. By promoting the crystal growth rate, the cost can be reduced further. However, more latent heat will be released at the melt-crystal interface under a high crystal growth rate. In this study, a water-cooled jacket was applied to enhance the heat transfer at the melt-crystal interface. Quasi-steady-state numerical calculation was employed to investigate the impact of the water-cooled jacket on the heat transfer at the melt-crystal interface. Latent heat released during the crystal growth process at the melt-crystal interface and absorbed during feedstock melting at the feeding zone was modeled in the simulations. The results show that, by using the water-cooled jacket, heat transfer in the growing crystal is enhanced significantly. Melt-crystal interface deflection and thermal stress increase simultaneously due to the increase of radial temperature at the melt-crystal interface. With a modified heat shield design, heat transfer at the melt-crystal interface is well controlled. The crystal growth rate can be increased by 20%.

  17. Annular seed-blanket thorium fuel core concepts for heavy water moderated reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Bromley, B.P.; Hyland, B.

    2013-07-01

    New reactor concepts to implement thorium-based fuel cycles have been explored to achieve maximum resource utilization. Pressure tube heavy water reactors (PT-HWR) are highly advantageous for implementing the use of thorium-based fuels because of their high neutron economy and on-line re-fuelling capability. The use of heterogeneous seed-blanket core concepts in a PT-HWR where higher-fissile-content seed fuel bundles are physically separate from lower-fissile-content blanket bundles allows more flexibility and control in fuel management to maximize the fissile utilization and conversion of fertile fuel. The lattice concept chosen is a 35-element bundle made with a homogeneous mixture of reactor grade Pu and Th, and with a central zirconia rod to help reduce coolant void reactivity. Several annular heterogeneous seed-blanket core concepts with plutonium-thorium-based fuels in a 700-MWe-class PT-HWR were analyzed, using a once-through thorium (OTT) cycle. Different combinations of seed and blanket fuel were tested to determine the impact on core-average burnup, fissile utilization, power distributions, and other performance parameters. It was found that the various core concepts can achieve a fissile utilization that is up to 30% higher than is currently achieved in a PT-HWR using conventional natural uranium fuel bundles. Up to 67% of the Pu is consumed; up to 43% of the energy is produced from thorium, and up to 363 kg/year of U-233 is produced. Seed-blanket cores with ∼50% content of low-power blanket bundles may require power de-rating (∼58% to 65%) to avoid exceeding maximum limits for peak channel power, bundle power and linear element ratings. (authors)

  18. Prediction of critical heat flux in water-cooled plasma facing components using computational fluid dynamics.

    SciTech Connect

    Bullock, James H.; Youchison, Dennis Lee; Ulrickson, Michael Andrew

    2010-11-01

    Several commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes now have the capability to analyze Eulerian two-phase flow using the Rohsenow nucleate boiling model. Analysis of boiling due to one-sided heating in plasma facing components (pfcs) is now receiving attention during the design of water-cooled first wall panels for ITER that may encounter heat fluxes as high as 5 MW/m2. Empirical thermalhydraulic design correlations developed for long fission reactor channels are not reliable when applied to pfcs because fully developed flow conditions seldom exist. Star-CCM+ is one of the commercial CFD codes that can model two-phase flows. Like others, it implements the RPI model for nucleate boiling, but it also seamlessly transitions to a volume-of-fluid model for film boiling. By benchmarking the results of our 3d models against recent experiments on critical heat flux for both smooth rectangular channels and hypervapotrons, we determined the six unique input parameters that accurately characterize the boiling physics for ITER flow conditions under a wide range of absorbed heat flux. We can now exploit this capability to predict the onset of critical heat flux in these components. In addition, the results clearly illustrate the production and transport of vapor and its effect on heat transfer in pfcs from nucleate boiling through transition to film boiling. This article describes the boiling physics implemented in CCM+ and compares the computational results to the benchmark experiments carried out independently in the United States and Russia. Temperature distributions agreed to within 10 C for a wide range of heat fluxes from 3 MW/m2 to 10 MW/m2 and flow velocities from 1 m/s to 10 m/s in these devices. Although the analysis is incapable of capturing the stochastic nature of critical heat flux (i.e., time and location may depend on a local materials defect or turbulence phenomenon), it is highly reliable in determining the heat flux where boiling instabilities begin

  19. Checkerboard seed-blanket thorium fuel core concepts for heavy water moderated reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Bromley, B.P.; Hyland, B.

    2013-07-01

    New reactor concepts to implement thorium-based fuel cycles have been explored to achieve maximum resource utilization. Pressure tube heavy water reactors (PT-HWR) are highly advantageous for implementing the use of thorium-based fuels because of their high neutron economy and on-line re-fuelling capability. The use of heterogeneous seed-blanket core concepts in a PT-HWR where higher-fissile-content seed fuel bundles are physically separate from lower-fissile-content blanket bundles allows more flexibility and control in fuel management to maximize the fissile utilization and conversion of fertile fuel. The lattice concept chosen was a 35-element bundle made with a homogeneous mixture of reactor grade Pu (about 67 wt% fissile) and Th, and with a central zirconia rod to help reduce coolant void reactivity. Several checkerboard heterogeneous seed-blanket core concepts with plutonium-thorium-based fuels in a 700-MWe-class PT-HWR were analyzed, using a once-through thorium (OTT) cycle. Different combinations of seed and blanket fuel were tested to determine the impact on core-average burnup, fissile utilization, power distributions, and other performance parameters. It was found that various checkerboard core concepts can achieve a fissile utilization that is up to 26% higher than that achieved in a PT-HWR using more conventional natural uranium fuel bundles. Up to 60% of the Pu is consumed; up to 43% of the energy is produced from thorium, and up to 303 kg/year of Pa-233/U-233/U-235 are produced. Checkerboard cores with about 50% of low-power blanket bundles may require power de-rating (65% to 74%) to avoid exceeding maximum limits for channel and bundle powers and linear element ratings. (authors)

  20. Lattice cell and full core physics of internally cooled annular fuel in heavy water moderated reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, J.; Hamilton, H.; Hyland, B.

    2013-07-01

    A program is underway at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) to develop a new fuel bundle concept to enable greater burnups for PT-HWR (pressure tube heavy water reactor) cores. One option that AECL is investigating is an internally cooled annular fuel (ICAF) element concept. ICAF contains annular cylindrical pellets with cladding on the inner and outer diameters. Coolant flows along the outside of the element and through the centre. With such a concept, the maximum fuel temperature as a function of linear element rating is significantly reduced compared to conventional, solid-rod type fuel. The preliminary ICAF bundle concept considered in this study contains 24 half-metre long internally cooled annular fuel elements and one non-fuelled centre pin. The introduction of the non-fuelled centre pin reduces the coolant void reactivity (CVR), which is the increase in reactivity that occurs on voiding the coolant in accident scenarios. Lattice cell and full core physics calculations of the preliminary ICAF fuel bundle concept have been performed for medium burnups of approximately 18 GWd/tU using WIMS-AECL and reactor fuel simulation program (RFSP). The results will be used to assist in concept configuration optimization. The effects of radial and axial core power distributions, linear element power ratings, refuelling rates and operational power ramps have been analyzed. The results suggest that burnups of greater than 18 GWd/tU can be achieved in current reactor designs. At approximately 18 GWd/tU, expected maximum linear element ratings in a PT-HWR with online-refuelling are approximately 90 kW/m. These conditions would be prohibitive for solid-rod fuel, but may be possible in ICAF fuel given the reduced maximum fuel temperature as a function of linear element rating. (authors)

  1. The Corrected Simulation Method of Critical Heat Flux Prediction for Water-Cooled Divertor Based on Euler Homogeneous Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jingyang; Han, Le; Chang, Haiping; Liu, Nan; Xu, Tiejun

    2016-02-01

    An accurate critical heat flux (CHF) prediction method is the key factor for realizing the steady-state operation of a water-cooled divertor that works under one-sided high heating flux conditions. An improved CHF prediction method based on Euler's homogeneous model for flow boiling combined with realizable k-ɛ model for single-phase flow is adopted in this paper in which time relaxation coefficients are corrected by the Hertz-Knudsen formula in order to improve the calculation accuracy of vapor-liquid conversion efficiency under high heating flux conditions. Moreover, local large differences of liquid physical properties due to the extreme nonuniform heating flux on cooling wall along the circumference direction are revised by formula IAPWS-IF97. Therefore, this method can improve the calculation accuracy of heat and mass transfer between liquid phase and vapor phase in a CHF prediction simulation of water-cooled divertors under the one-sided high heating condition. An experimental example is simulated based on the improved and the uncorrected methods. The simulation results, such as temperature, void fraction and heat transfer coefficient, are analyzed to achieve the CHF prediction. The results show that the maximum error of CHF based on the improved method is 23.7%, while that of CHF based on uncorrected method is up to 188%, as compared with the experiment results of Ref. [12]. Finally, this method is verified by comparison with the experimental data obtained by International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), with a maximum error of 6% only. This method provides an efficient tool for the CHF prediction of water-cooled divertors. supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (No. 2010GB104005) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51406085)

  2. Cooling of Gas Turbines. 6; Computed Temperature Distribution Through Cross Section of Water-Cooled Turbine Blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livingood, John N. B.; Sams, Eldon W.

    1947-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of the cross-sectional temperature distribution of a water-cooled turbine blade was made using the relaxation method to solve the differential equation derived from the analysis. The analysis was applied to specific turbine blade and the studies icluded investigations of the accuracy of simple methods to determine the temperature distribution along the mean line of the rear part of the blade, of the possible effect of varying the perimetric distribution of the hot gas-to -metal heat transfer coefficient, and of the effect of changing the thermal conductivity of the blade metal for a constant cross sectional area blade with two quarter inch diameter coolant passages.

  3. A New HOM Water Cooled Absorber for the PEP-II B-factory Low Energy Ring

    SciTech Connect

    Weathersby, Stephen; Kosovsky, Michael; Kurita, Nadine; Novokhatski, Alexander; Seeman, John; /SLAC

    2006-09-05

    At high currents and small bunch lengths beam line components in the PEP-II B-factory experience RF induced heating from higher order RF modes (HOMs) produced by scattered intense beam fields. A design for a passive HOM water cooled absorber for the PEP-II low energy ring is presented. This device is situated near HOM producing beamline components such as collimators and provide HOM damping for dipole and quadrupole modes without impacting beam impedance. We optimized the impedance characteristics of the device through the evaluation of absorber effectiveness for specific modes using scattering parameter and wakefield analysis. Operational results are presented and agree very well with the predicted effectiveness.

  4. Development of a brazing process for the production of water- cooled bipolar plates made of chromium-coated metal foils for PEM fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, M.; Hoehlich, D.; Scharf, I.; Lampke, T.; Hollaender, U.; Maier, H. J.

    2016-03-01

    Beside lithium batteries, PEM fuel cells are the most promising strategy as a power source to achieve the targets for introducing and increasing the usage of electric vehicles. Due to limited space and weight problems, water cooled, metallic bipolar plates in a fuel cell metal stack are preferred in motor vehicles. These plates are stamped metal sheets with a complex structure, interconnected media-tight. To meet the multiple tasks and requirements in use, complex and expensive combinations of materials are currently in use (carbon fiber composites, graphite, gold-plated nickel, stainless and acid resistant steel). The production of such plates is expensive as it is connected with considerable effort or the usage of precious metals. As an alternative, metalloid nitrides (CrN, VN, W2N, etc.) show a high chemical resistance, hardness and a good conductivity. So this material category meets the basic requirements of a top layer. However, the standard methods for their production (PVD, CVD) are expensive and have a slow deposition rate and a lower layer thicknesses. Because of these limitations, a full functionality over the life cycle of a bipolar plate is not guaranteed. The contribution shows the development and quantification of an alternative production process for bipolar plates. The expectation is to get significant advantages from the combination of chromium electrodeposition and thermochemical treatment to form chromium nitrides. Both processes are well researched and suitable for series production. The thermochemical treatment of the chromium layer also enables a process-integrated brazing.

  5. The influence of EI-21 redox ion-exchange resins on the secondary-coolant circuit water chemistry of vehicular nuclear power installations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moskvin, L. N.; Rakov, V. T.

    2015-06-01

    The results obtained from testing the secondary-coolant circuit water chemistry of full-scale land-based prototype bench models of vehicular nuclear power installations equipped with water-cooled water-moderated and liquid-metal reactor plants are presented. The influence of copper-containing redox ionexchange resins intended for chemically deoxygenating steam condensate on the working fluid circulation loop's water chemistry is determined. The influence of redox ion-exchange resins on the water chemistry is evaluated by generalizing an array of data obtained in the course of extended monitoring using the methods relating to physicochemical analysis of the quality of condensate-feedwater path media and the methods relating to metallographic analysis of the state of a faulty steam generator's tube system surfaces. The deoxygenating effectiveness of the normal state turbine condensate vacuum deaeration system is experimentally determined. The refusal from applying redox ion-exchange resins in the condensate polishing ion-exchange filters is formulated based on the obtained data on the adverse effect of copper-containing redox ionexchange resins on the condensate-feedwater path water chemistry and based on the data testifying a sufficient effect from using the normal state turbine condensate vacuum deaeration system. Data on long-term operation of the prototype bench model of a vehicular nuclear power installation without subjecting the turbine condensate to chemical deoxygenation are presented.

  6. Application of a water cooling treatment and its effect on coal-based reduction of high-chromium vanadium and titanium iron ore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Song-tao; Zhou, Mi; Jiang, Tao; Guan, Shan-fei; Zhang, Wei-jun; Xue, Xiang-xin

    2016-12-01

    A water cooling treatment was applied in the coal-based reduction of high-chromium vanadium and titanium (V-Ti-Cr) iron ore from the Hongge region of Panzhihua, China. Its effects on the metallization ratio ( η), S removal ratio ( R S), and P removal ratio ( R P) were studied and analyzed on the basis of chemical composition determined via inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. The metallic iron particle size and the element distribution of Fe, V, Cr, and Ti in a reduced briquette after water cooling treatment at 1350°C were determined and observed via scanning electron microscopy. The results show that the water cooling treatment improved the η, R S, and R P in the coal-based reduction of V-Ti-Cr iron ore compared to those obtained with a furnace cooling treatment. Meanwhile, the particle size of metallic iron obtained via the water cooling treatment was smaller than that of metallic iron obtained via the furnace cooling treatment; however, the particle size reached 70 μm at 1350°C, which is substantially larger than the minimum particle size required (20 μm) for magnetic separation. Therefore, the water cooling treatment described in this work is a good method for improving the quality of metallic iron in coal-based reduction and it could be applied in the coal-based reduction of V-Ti-Cr iron ore followed by magnetic separation.

  7. 10 CFR Appendix J to Part 50 - Primary Reactor Containment Leakage Testing for Water-Cooled Power Reactors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... boundary, as defined in § 50.2(v), and serves as an essentially leak-tight barrier against the uncontrolled... under post-accident conditions, such as the containment heat removal system, need not be vented....

  8. 10 CFR Appendix J to Part 50 - Primary Reactor Containment Leakage Testing for Water-Cooled Power Reactors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... be performed as a prerequisite to the performance of Type A tests. During the period between the... methods. Repairs and/or adjustments to equipment shall be made and Type A test performed. The corrective.... Acceptable means of performing preoperation and periodic Type B tests include: (a) Examination by halide...

  9. 10 CFR Appendix J to Part 50 - Primary Reactor Containment Leakage Testing for Water-Cooled Power Reactors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... their normal mode, and need not be vented. Systems that are normally filled with water and operating... returning the reactor to an operating mode requiring containment integrity. For primary reactor containment... surfaces of the containment structures and components shall be performed prior to any Type A test...

  10. Fabrication of water-cooled laser silicon mirror by direct laser sintering.

    PubMed

    He, Chongwen; Zhu, Haihong; Hu, Panpan

    2014-04-21

    Coppery heat sink with micro pores and Sub-millimeter channel has been fabricated by direct laser sintering on the back of the silicon mirror. To verify the heat dissipation capability of the fabricated heat sink, a Twyman-Green interferometer was employed to measure the thermal deformation of the silicon mirror radiated by a high power laser. It is shown that the thermal deformation of the mirror increases with the irradiating time and laser intensity. The heat balance can be achieved after several seconds of laser irradiation even when the net absorbed laser power density is up to 5.3 × 10(5) W/m(2). The time for reaching the heat balance also increases with the laser intensity. The maximum thermal deformation of the mirror is 0.65 µm if the net absorbed laser power density is 5.3 × 10(5) W/m(2).

  11. Spent nuclear fuel project cold vacuum drying facility tempered water and tempered water cooling system design description

    SciTech Connect

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1998-11-30

    This document provides the System Design Description (SDD) for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) Tempered Water (TW) and Tempered Water Cooling (TWC) System . The SDD was developed in conjunction with HNF-SD-SNF-SAR-002, Safety Analysis Report for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility, Phase 2, Supporting Installation of Processing Systems (Garvin 1998), The HNF-SD-SNF-DRD-O02, 1998, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Design Requirements, and the CVDF Design Summary Report. The SDD contains general descriptions of the TW and TWC equipment, the system functions, requirements and interfaces. The SDD provides references for design and fabrication details, operation sequences and maintenance. This SOD has been developed for the SNFP Operations Organization and shall be updated, expanded, and revised in accordance with future design, construction and startup phases of the CVDF until the CVDF final ORR is approved.

  12. The design and performance of a water cooling system for a prototype coupled cavity linear particle accelerator for the spallation neutron source

    SciTech Connect

    Bernardin, J. D.; Ammerman, C. N.; Hopkins, S. M.

    2002-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is a facility being designed for scientific and industrial research and development. The SNS will generate and employ neutrons as a research tool in a variety of disciplines including biology, material science, superconductivity, chemistry, etc. The neutrons will be produced by bombarding a heavy metal target with a high-energy beam of protons, generated and accelerated with a linear particle accelerator, or linac. The low energy end of the linac consists of, in part, a multi-cell copper structure termed a coupled cavity linac (CCL). The CCL is responsible for accelerating the protons from an energy of 87 MeV, to 185 MeV. Acceleration of the charged protons is achieved by the use of large electrical field gradients established within specially designed contoured cavities of the CCL. While a large amount of the electrical energy is used to accelerate the protons, approximately 60-80% of this electrical energy is dissipated in the CCL's copper structure. To maintain an acceptable operating temperature, as well as minimize thermal stresses and maintain desired contours of the accelerator cavities, the electrical waste heat must be removed from the CCL structure. This is done using specially designed water cooling passages within the linac's copper structure. Cooling water is supplied to these cooling passages by a complex water cooling and temperature control system. This paper discusses the design, analysis, and testing of a water cooling system for a prototype CCL. First, the design concept and method of water temperature control is discussed. Second, the layout of the prototype water cooling system, including the selection of plumbing components, instrumentation, as well as controller hardware and software is presented. Next, the development of a numerical network model used to size the pump, heat exchanger, and plumbing equipment, is discussed. Finally, empirical pressure, flow rate, and temperature data from the prototype CCL

  13. Magnetically Diffused Radial Electric-Arc Air Heater Employing Water-Cooled Copper Electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayo, R. F.; Davis, D. D., Jr.

    1962-01-01

    A magnetically rotated electric-arc air heater has been developed that is novel in that an intense magnetic field of the order of 10,000 to 25,000 gauss is employed. This field is supplied by a coil that is connected in series with the arc. Experimentation with this heater has shown that the presence of an intense magnetic field transverse to the arc results in diffusion of the arc and that the arc has a positive effective resistance. With the field coil in series with the arc, highly stable arc operation is obtained from a battery power supply. External ballast is not required to stabilize the arc when it is operating at maximum power level. The electrode erosion rate is so low that the airstream contamination is no more than 0.07 percent and may be substantially less.

  14. Nuclear characteristics of a fissioning uranium plasma test reactor with light-water cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmarsh, C. L., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    An analytical study was performed to determine a design configuration for a cavity test reactor. Test section criteria were that an average flux of 10 to the 15th power neutrons/sq cm/sec (E less than or equal to 0.12 eV) be supplied to a 61-cm-diameter spherical cavity at 200-atm pressure. Design objectives were to minimize required driver power, to use existing fuel-element technology, and to obtain fuel-element life of 10 to 100 full-power hours. Parameter calculations were made on moderator region size and material, driver fuel arrangement, control system, and structure in order to determine a feasible configuration. Although not optimized, a configuration was selected which would meet design criteria. The driver fuel region was a cylindrical annular region, one element thick, of 33 MTR-type H2O-cooled elements (Al-U fuel plate configuration), each 101 cm long. The region between the spherical test cavity and the cylindrical driver fuel region was Be (10 vol. % H2O coolant) with a midplane dimension of 8 cm. Exterior to the driver fuel, the 25-cm-thick cylindrical and axial reflectors were also Be with 10 vol. % H2O coolant. The entire reactor was contained in a 10-cm-thick steel pressure vessel, and the 200-atm cavity pressure was equalized throughout the driver reactor. Fuel-element life was 50 hr at the required driver power of 200 MW. Reactor control would be achieved with rotating poison drums located in the cylindrical reflector region. A control range of about 18 percent delta k/k was required for reactor operation.

  15. Static Thermal Design Analyses of Supercritical Water-Cooled Fast Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Jaewoon, Yoo; Yoshiaki, Oka; Jue, Yang; Jie, Liu

    2006-07-01

    Subchannel analyses have been carried out for SWFR. PCST difference arising from sub-channel heterogeneity has been calculated by using the improved sub-channel analysis code STARS and that was evaluated to be about 18 deg. C. Several suggestions have been also made for reducing the PCST difference arising from channel heterogeneity. Effect of local power peaking on deflection of cladding surface temperature is explained with actual pin power distribution taken from core depletion calculation in this paper. Maximum cladding surface temperature at nominal condition is evaluated to be 645.3 deg. C over the cycle. Statistical thermal design uncertainty associated with PCST calculation is evaluated by Monte-Carlo sampling technique combined with sub-channel analysis code. Maximum design uncertainty of PCST is calculated to be 51 deg C and is in a good agreement with that from RTDP method. Influence of downward flow in seed region on system sensitivity is investigated by improved Monte-Carlo thermal design procedure. Static thermal design limit of MCST is 701 deg. C (650 deg. C for nominal + 51 deg. C) within 95/95 limit for SWFR. (authors)

  16. Neutronic performance of high-density LEU fuels in water-moderated and water-reflected research reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Bretscher, M.M.; Matos, J.E.

    1996-09-01

    At the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) meeting in September 1994, Durand reported that the maximum uranium loading attainable with U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} fuel is about 6.0 g U/cm{sup 3}. The French Commissariat a l`Energie Atomique (CEA) plan to perform irradiation tests with 5 plates at this loading. Compagnie pour L`Etude et La Realisation de Combustibles Atomiques (CERCA) has also fabricated a few uranium nitride (UN) plates with a uranium density in the fuel meat of 7.0 g/cm{sup 3} and found that UN is compatible with the aluminum matrix at temperatures below 500 C. High density dispersion fuels proposed for development include U-Zr(4 wt%)-Nb(2 wt%), U-Mo(5 wt%), and U-Mo(9 wt%). The purpose of this note is to examine the relative neutronic behavior of these high density fuels in a typical light water-reflected and water-moderated MTR-type research reactor. The results show that a dispersion of the U-Zr-Nb alloy has the most favorable neutronic properties and offers the potential for uranium densities greater than 8.0 g/cm{sup 3}. On the other hand, UN is the least reactive fuel because of the relatively large {sup 14}N(n,p) cross section. For a fixed value of k{sub eff}, the required {sup 235}U loading per fuel element is least for the U-Zr-Nb fuel and steadily increases for the U-Mo(5%), U-Mo(9%), and UN fuels. Because of volume fraction limitations, the UO{sub 2} dispersions are only useful for uranium densities below 5.0 g/cm{sup 3}. In this density range, however, UO{sub 2} is more reactive than U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}.

  17. Structure and Performance of a 600MWe Supercritical CFB Boiler with Water Cooled Panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Nie, L.; Hu, X. K.; Yue, G. X.; Li, W. K.; We, Y. X.; Lu, J. F.; Che, D. F.

    The circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustion technology is one of the approved clean combustion technologies, and the power supply efficiency can be improved combining with the supercritical technology. A 600MWe supercritical CFB boiler is introduced in this paper. This boiler is designed based on the success of 300 MWe CFB boilers, which has a single furnace with three cyclones without external heat exchangers. There are twin furnaces and twin air distributors in the boiler. The water walls of the twin furnace above dense bed combines to a common fence wall with some channels to balance the pressure of the two furnaces. The smooth tubes are adopted in membrane water wall with mixing header. Six cyclones are located beside the furnace as well as six loopseals and six external heat exchangers. The hydrodynamic characteristic of water wall is available with the modeling prediction. And the performance of the 600MWe supercritical CFB boiler is also investigated.

  18. The performance of a mobile air conditioning system with a water cooled condenser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Battista, Davide; Cipollone, Roberto

    2015-11-01

    Vehicle technological evolution lived, in recent years, a strong acceleration due to the increased awareness of environmental issues related to pollutants and climate altering emissions. This resulted in a series of international regulations on automotive sector which put technical challenges that must consider the engine and the vehicle as a global system, in order to improve the overall efficiency of the system. The air conditioning system of the cabin, for instance, is the one of the most important auxiliaries in a vehicle and requires significant powers. Its performances can be significantly improved if it is integrated within the engine cooling circuit, eventually modified with more temperature levels. In this paper, the Authors present a mathematical model of the A/C system, starting from its single components: compressors, condenser, flush valve and evaporator and a comparison between different refrigerant fluid. In particular, it is introduced the opportunity to have an A/C condenser cooled by a water circuit instead of the external air linked to the vehicle speed, as in the actual traditional configuration. The A/C condenser, in fact, could be housed on a low temperature water circuit, reducing the condensing temperature of the refrigeration cycle with a considerable efficiency increase.

  19. The improved microstructures and properties of 7075 alloys produced by a water-cooling centrifugal casting method

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, J.W.; Jong, S.H.; Liu, W.P.

    1996-07-01

    A centrifugal water-cooling casting method was used to cast a 7075 alloy with the aim of refining the grain and inclusion size and improving mechanical properties in the wrought condition. Conventional ingot casting methods were also used and investigated for comparison with the centrifugal casting method. The results show that by the centrifugal casting method, a small equiaxed grain size, 17 {micro}m, is obtained in as-cast condition. Only 50 minutes are required for material homogenization. After rolling to obtain sheet, a grain size of 15 {times} 8 {times} 6 {micro}m and an inclusion size of 2 to 3 {micro}m are achieved. Fine-grained centrifugal-cast 7075 alloy exhibits higher strength than the ingot-cast one in the early stages of aging but poorer in the latter stages. However, its ductility and combination of strength and ductility is superior to the ingot-cast ones at all aging times. The reduction in strength in the latter aging stages for the fine-grained structure arises from its higher volume fraction of soft precipitate free zones. The improved ductility is attributed to the higher fraction of transgranular fracture, higher transgranular fracture strain, and intergranular fracture strain. Fine-grained 7075 alloy also displays significant improvements in the exfoliation corrosion resistance. These improvements are related to the increased density of attacking sites on the surface and the increased turns for crack propagation along grain boundaries.

  20. The demise of the early Eocene greenhouse - Decoupled deep and surface water cooling in the eastern North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bornemann, André; D'haenens, Simon; Norris, Richard D.; Speijer, Robert P.

    2016-10-01

    Early Paleogene greenhouse climate culminated during the early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO, 50 to 53 Ma). This episode of global warmth is subsequently followed by an almost 20 million year-long cooling trend leading to the Eocene-Oligocene glaciation of Antarctica. Here we present the first detailed planktic and benthic foraminiferal isotope single site record (δ13C, δ18O) of late Paleocene to middle Eocene age from the North Atlantic (Deep Sea Drilling Project Site 401, Bay of Biscay). Good core recovery in combination with well preserved foraminifera makes this site suitable for correlations and comparison with previously published long-term records from the Pacific Ocean (e.g. Allison Guyot, Shatsky Rise), the Southern Ocean (Maud Rise) and the equatorial Atlantic (Demerara Rise). Whereas our North Atlantic benthic foraminiferal δ18O and δ13C data agree with the global trend showing the long-term shift toward heavier δ18O values, we only observe minor surface water δ18O changes during the middle Eocene (if at all) in planktic foraminiferal data. Apparently, the surface North Atlantic did not cool substantially during the middle Eocene. Thus, the North Atlantic appears to have had a different surface ocean cooling history during the middle Eocene than the southern hemisphere, whereas cooler deep-water masses were comparatively well mixed. Our results are in agreement with previously published findings from Tanzania, which also support the idea of a muted post-EECO surface-water cooling outside the southern high-latitudes.

  1. Water Powered Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Space Spin-Offs, Inc. under a contract with Lewis Research Center and Marshall Space Flight Center produced a new water-powered saw that cuts through concrete and steel plate reducing danger of explosion or electric shock in rescue and other operations. In prototype unit efficient water-powered turbine drives an 8 inch diameter grinding disk at 6,600 rpm. Exhaust water cools disk and workpiece quenching any sparks produced by cutting head. At maximum power, tool easily cuts through quarter inch steel plate. Adapter heads for chain saws, impact wrenches, heavy duty drills, and power hack saws can be fitted.

  2. Possibility of using tube shell tables for calculating the heat-transfer crisis in rod bundles of water-cooled reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Zhukov, Y.M.

    1995-02-01

    Empirical correlations are used to calculate the conditions for the appearance of a crisis of heat transfer in the core of a water-cooled reactor under normal operating conditions or during accidents. Experimental data obtained on models which simulate, to one degree of another, the geometry, the operating parameters, and the form of the radial energy-release field in real fuel assemblies are used to develop and verify such recommendations.

  3. ULTRA HIGH POWER TRANSMISSION LINE TECHNIQUES

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The ultra-high power transmission line techniques including both failure mechanisms and component design are discussed. Failures resulting from...a waveguide. In view of the many advantages of the low loss mode in circular waveguide for ultra-high power levels, a mode transducer and a two...percent of the peak power of a standard rectangular wave guide. Water cooling is provided for high average power operation. Analysis of mode sup pression

  4. Standardisation of water-moderated 241Am-Be neutron source using De Pangher neutron long counter: experimental and Monte Carlo modelling.

    PubMed

    Ghodke, Shobha; Kumari, Sujatha; Singh, Yashoda; Sathian, V; Mahant, A K; Sharma, D N

    2012-02-01

    A convenient neutron source is made for calibration of neutron survey instruments and personal dosimeters that are used in various nuclear installations such as fuel reprocessing, waste management, fuel fabrication and oil and well logging facilities, etc. This source consists of a bare (241)Am-Be neutron source placed at the centre of a 15-cm radius stainless steel spherical shell filled with distilled water. This paper describes the standardisation of the source at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, using De Pangher neutron long counter both experimentally and using the Monte Carlo simulation. The ratio of neutron yield of water moderated to the bare (241)Am-Be neutron source was found to be 0.573. From the simulation, the neutron-fluence-weighted average energy of water-moderated (241)Am-Be source (fluence-weighted average energy of 2.25 MeV, dose-weighted average energy of 3.55 MeV) was found to be nearly the same as that of a (252)Cf source (fluence-weighted average energy of 2.1 MeV, dose-weighted average energy of 2.3 MeV). This source can be used for calibration in addition to (252)Cf, to study the variation in response of neutron monitoring instruments.

  5. High-power Faraday isolators based on TAG ceramics.

    PubMed

    Zheleznov, Dmitry; Starobor, Aleksey; Palashov, Oleg; Chen, Chong; Zhou, Shengming

    2014-02-10

    The Faraday isolator based on a new magneto-optical medium--TAG (terbium aluminum garnet) ceramics was implemented and investigated experimentally. The magneto-optical element was temperature-stabilized using water cooling. The device provides a stable isolation ratio of 38 dB at 300 W laser power. Estimates show high performance of the device at a kilowatt laser power.

  6. Subscale, hydrogen-burning, airframe-integrated-scramjet: Experimental and theoretical evaluation of a water cooled strut airframe-integrated-scramjet: Experimental leading edge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinckney, S. Z.; Guy, R. W.; Beach, H. L., Jr.; Rogers, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    A water-cooled leading-edge design for an engine/airframe integrated scramjet model strut leading edge was evaluated. The cooling design employs a copper cooling tube brazed just downstream of the leading edge of a wedge-shaped strut which is constructed of oxygen-free copper. The survival of the strut leading edge during a series of tests at stagnation point heating rates confirms the practicality of the cooling design. A finite difference thermal model of the strut was also proven valid by the reasonable agreement of calculated and measured values of surface temperature and cooling-water heat transfer.

  7. Theoretical analysis of transurethral laser-induced thermo-therapy for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Evaluation of a water-cooled applicator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturesson, C.; Andersson-Engels, S.

    1996-03-01

    A mathematical model for predicting the temperature rise in transurethral laser-induced thermo-therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia was developed. In the model an optical line source emitting light from an Nd:YAG laser isotropically was placed in the urethra. Water cooling of the urethral epithelium was modelled using a two-tube system. The relationship between the difference in outlet and inlet water temperatures and the highest tissue temperature level reached was theoretically investigated. It was found that the water temperature difference was linearly dependent on the steady-state maximum tissue temperature. The theoretical calculations suggest that the water-cooled applicator can be used to measure the maximum tissue temperature. With temperature control, the prostatic tissue temperature can be prevented from exceeding the boiling point of water, excluding tissue carbonization. The model was also used to evaluate the influence of a number of different parameters on the damaged tissue volume. Increasing the urethral lumen radius by a factor of two by means of inserting different sized tubes was found to augment the tissue volume raised to therapeutic temperatures by up to 50%. The calculations showed that cooling of the urethral epithelium can result in an increase in the damaged volume by 80% as compared to not applying any cooling. The temperature of the cooling water was found to influence the tissue temperature only to a small extent.

  8. LIGHT WATER MODERATED NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Christy, R.F.; Weinberg, A.M.

    1957-09-17

    A uranium fuel reactor designed to utilize light water as a moderator is described. The reactor core is in a tank at the bottom of a substantially cylindrical cross-section pit, the core being supported by an apertured grid member and comprised of hexagonal tubes each containing a pluralily of fuel rods held in a geometrical arrangement between end caps of the tubes. The end caps are apertured to permit passage of the coolant water through the tubes and the fuel elements are aluminum clad to prevent corrosion. The tubes are hexagonally arranged in the center of the tank providing an amulus between the core and tank wall which is filled with water to serve as a reflector. In use, the entire pit and tank are filled with water in which is circulated during operation by coming in at the bottom of the tank, passing upwardly through the grid member and fuel tubes and carried off near the top of the pit, thereby picking up the heat generated by the fuel elements during the fission thereof. With this particular design the light water coolant can also be used as the moderator when the uranium is enriched by fissionable isotope to an abundance of U/sup 235/ between 0.78% and 2%.

  9. Determination of blade-to-coolant heat-transfer coefficients on a forced-convection, water-cooled, single-stage turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freche, John C; Schum, Eugene F

    1951-01-01

    Blade-to-coolant convective heat-transfer coefficients were obtained on a forced-convection water-cooled single-stage turbine over a large laminar flow range and over a portion of the transition range between laminar and turbulent flow. The convective coefficients were correlated by the general relation for forced-convection heat transfer with laminar flow. Natural-convection heat transfer was negligible for this turbine over the Grashof number range investigated. Comparison of turbine data with stationary tube data for the laminar flow of heated liquids showed good agreement. Calculated average midspan blade temperatures using theoretical gas-to-blade coefficients and blade-to-coolant coefficients from stationary-tube data resulted in close agreement with experimental data.

  10. Blade-to-coolant heat-transfer results and operating data from a natural-convection water-cooled single-stage turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diaguila, Anthony J; Freche, John C

    1951-01-01

    Blade-to-coolant heat-transfer data and operating data were obtained with a natural-convection water-cooled turbine over range of turbine speeds and inlet-gas temperatures. The convective coefficients were correlated by the general relation for natural-convection heat transfer. The turbine data were displaced from a theoretical equation for natural convection heat transfer in the turbulent region and from natural-convection data obtained with vertical cylinders and plates; possible disruption of natural convection circulation within the blade coolant passages was thus indicated. Comparison of non dimensional temperature-ratio parameters for the blade leading edge, midchord, and trailing edge indicated that the blade cooling effectiveness is greatest at the midchord and least at the trailing edge.

  11. Computation Results from a Parametric Study to Determine Bounding Critical Systems of Homogeneously Water-Moderated Mixed Plutonium--Uranium Oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Shimizu, Y.

    2001-01-11

    This report provides computational results of an extensive study to examine the following: (1) infinite media neutron-multiplication factors; (2) material bucklings; (3) bounding infinite media critical concentrations; (4) bounding finite critical dimensions of water-reflected and homogeneously water-moderated one-dimensional systems (i.e., spheres, cylinders of infinite length, and slabs that are infinite in two dimensions) that were comprised of various proportions and densities of plutonium oxides and uranium oxides, each having various isotopic compositions; and (5) sensitivity coefficients of delta k-eff with respect to critical geometry delta dimensions were determined for each of the three geometries that were studied. The study was undertaken to support the development of a standard that is sponsored by the International Standards Organization (ISO) under Technical Committee 85, Nuclear Energy (TC 85)--Subcommittee 5, Nuclear Fuel Technology (SC 5)--Working Group 8, Standardization of Calculations, Procedures and Practices Related to Criticality Safety (WG 8). The designation and title of the ISO TC 85/SC 5/WG 8 standard working draft is WD 14941, ''Nuclear energy--Fissile materials--Nuclear criticality control and safety of plutonium-uranium oxide fuel mixtures outside of reactors.'' Various ISO member participants performed similar computational studies using their indigenous computational codes to provide comparative results for analysis in the development of the standard.

  12. Feasibility study for use of the natural convection shutdown heat removal test facility (NSTF) for VHTR water-cooled RCCS shutdown.

    SciTech Connect

    Tzanos, C.P.; Farmer, M.T.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2007-08-31

    In summary, a scaling analysis of a water-cooled Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) system was performed based on generic information on the RCCS design of PBMR. The analysis demonstrates that the water-cooled RCCS can be simulated at the ANL NSTF facility at a prototypic scale in the lateral direction and about half scale in the vertical direction. Because, by necessity, the scaling is based on a number of approximations, and because no analytical information is available on the performance of a reference water-cooled RCCS, the scaling analysis presented here needs to be 'validated' by analysis of the steady state and transient performance of a reference water-cooled RCCS design. The analysis of the RCCS performance by CFD and system codes presents a number of challenges including: strong 3-D effects in the cavity and the RCCS tubes; simulation of turbulence in flows characterized by natural circulation, high Rayleigh numbers and low Reynolds numbers; validity of heat transfer correlations for system codes for heat transfer in the cavity and the annulus of the RCCS tubes; the potential of nucleate boiling in the tubes; water flashing in the upper section of the RCCS return line (during limiting transient); and two-phase flow phenomena in the water tanks. The limited simulation of heat transfer in cavities presented in Section 4.0, strongly underscores the need of experimental work to validate CFD codes, and heat transfer correlations for system codes, and to support the analysis and design of the RCCS. Based on the conclusions of the scaling analysis, a schematic that illustrates key attributes of the experiment system is shown in Fig. 4. This system contains the same physical elements as the PBMR RCCS, plus additional equipment to facilitate data gathering to support code validation. In particular, the prototype consists of a series of oval standpipes surrounding the reactor vessel to provide cooling of the reactor cavity during both normal and off

  13. Conceptual design description for the tritium recovery system for the US ITER Li sub 2 O/Be water cooled blanket

    SciTech Connect

    Finn, P.A.; Sze, D.K. ); Clemmer, R.G. )

    1990-09-01

    The tritium recovery system for the US ITER Li{sub 2}O/Be water cooled blanket processes two separate helium purge streams to recovery tritium from the Li{sub 2}O zones and the Be zones of the blanket, to process the waste products, and to recirculate the helium back to the blanket. The components are selected to minimize the tritium inventory of the recovery system, and to minimize waste products. The system is robust to either an increase in the tritium release rate or to an in-leak of water in the purge system. Three major components were used to process these streams, first, 5A molecular sieves at {minus}196{degree}C separate hydrogen from the helium, second, a solid oxide electrolysis unit is used to reduce all molecular water, and third, a palladium/silver diffuser is used to ensure that only hydrogen (H{sub 2}, HT) species reach the cryogenic distillation unit. The total tritium process inventory is 20g. The total capital cost is {approximately}$14M. Technical advantages of a solid oxide electrolysis unit and a palladium/silver diffuser are presented. 5 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  14. Conceptual design description for the tritium recovery system for the US ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) Li sub 2 O/Be water cooled blanket

    SciTech Connect

    Finn, P.A.; Sze, D.K. . Fusion Power Program); Clemmer, R.G. )

    1990-11-01

    The tritium recovery system for the US ITER Li{sub 2}O/Be water cooled blanket processes two separate helium purge streams to recover tritium from the Li{sub 2}O zones and the Be zones of the blanket, to process the waste products, and to recirculate the helium back to the blanket. The components are selected to minimize the tritium inventory of the recovery system, and to minimize waste products. The system is robust to either an increase in the tritium release rate or to an in-leak of water in the purge system. Three major components were used to process these streams, first, 5A molecular sieves at {minus}196{degree}C separate hydrogen from the helium, second, a solid oxide electrolysis unit is used to reduce all molecular water, and third, a palladium/silver diffuser is used to ensure that only hydrogen (H{sub 2}, HT) species reach the cryogenic distillation unit. Other units are present to recover tritium from waste products but the three major components are the basis of the blanket tritium recovery system. 32 refs.

  15. Achievements in the development of the Water Cooled Solid Breeder Test Blanket Module of Japan to the milestones for installation in ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuru, Daigo; Tanigawa, Hisashi; Hirose, Takanori; Mohri, Kensuke; Seki, Yohji; Enoeda, Mikio; Ezato, Koichiro; Suzuki, Satoshi; Nishi, Hiroshi; Akiba, Masato

    2009-06-01

    As the primary candidate of ITER Test Blanket Module (TBM) to be tested under the leadership of Japan, a water cooled solid breeder (WCSB) TBM is being developed. This paper shows the recent achievements towards the milestones of ITER TBMs prior to the installation, which consist of design integration in ITER, module qualification and safety assessment. With respect to the design integration, targeting the detailed design final report in 2012, structure designs of the WCSB TBM and the interfacing components (common frame and backside shielding) that are placed in a test port of ITER and the layout of the cooling system are presented. As for the module qualification, a real-scale first wall mock-up fabricated by using the hot isostatic pressing method by structural material of reduced activation martensitic ferritic steel, F82H, and flow and irradiation test of the mock-up are presented. As for safety milestones, the contents of the preliminary safety report in 2008 consisting of source term identification, failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) and identification of postulated initiating events (PIEs) and safety analyses are presented.

  16. "Hot" for Warm Water Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    IBM Corporation; Energy Efficient HPC Working Group; Hewlett Packard Corporation; SGI; Cray Inc.; Intel Corporation; U.S. Army Engineer Research Development Center; Coles, Henry; Ellsworth, Michael; Martinez, David J.; Bailey, Anna-Maria; Banisadr, Farhad; Bates, Natalie; Coghlan, Susan; Cowley, David E.; Dube, Nicholas; Fields, Parks; Greenberg, Steve; Iyengar, Madhusudan; Kulesza, Peter R.; Loncaric, Josip; McCann, Tim; Pautsch, Greg; Patterson, Michael K.; Rivera, Richard G.; Rottman, Greg K.; Sartor, Dale; Tschudi, William; Vinson, Wade; Wescott, Ralph

    2011-08-26

    Liquid cooling is key to reducing energy consumption for this generation of supercomputers and remains on the roadmap for the foreseeable future. This is because the heat capacity of liquids is orders of magnitude larger than that of air and once heat has been transferred to a liquid, it can be removed from the datacenter efficiently. The transition from air to liquid cooling is an inflection point providing an opportunity to work collectively to set guidelines for facilitating the energy efficiency of liquid-cooled High Performance Computing (HPC) facilities and systems. The vision is to use non-compressor-based cooling, to facilitate heat re-use, and thereby build solutions that are more energy-efficient, less carbon intensive and more cost effective than their air-cooled predecessors. The Energy Efficient HPC Working Group is developing guidelines for warmer liquid-cooling temperatures in order to standardize facility and HPC equipment, and provide more opportunity for reuse of waste heat. This report describes the development of those guidelines.

  17. A CONTINUOUS HIGH POWER BEAM DUMP OF THE HOT-DOG-COOKER TYPE

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, Kiyoshi

    1980-03-01

    A beam dump with partially rotating water-cooled tube arrays is proposed and studied for the dump of continuous high power density unneutralized ion beams out of the neutral beam injectors. Analyses were made of both steady and transient heat transfer characteristics.

  18. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 50 - General Design Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Containment Atmosphere Cleanup Systems 42 Testing of Containment Atmosphere Cleanup Systems 43 Cooling Water 44 Inspection of Cooling Water System 45 Testing of Cooling Water System 46 V. Reactor Containment... requirements for the principal design criteria for water-cooled nuclear power plants similar in design...

  19. Experimental investigation of steady state high power MPD thrusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegmann, Thomas; Auweter-Kurtz, Monika; Habiger, Harald A.; Kurtz, Helmut L.; Schrade, Herbert O.

    1992-07-01

    MPD thrusters with different geometries, nozzle type and cylindrical, were compared under various operating parameters. The effects of mass flow rate and power input on the operating conditions were explored, and plasma parameters were determined with both probe measurements and optical diagnostics. Besides water-cooled plasma accelerators, tests with a hot anode thruster having a radiation-cooled anode were performed. They showed the feasibility of large radiating tungsten anodes and a lower voltage level than water-cooled devices. A systematic study of the various instabilities of the arc and the plasma flow occurring at high power levels was begun. The cathode erosion and its mechanisms were examined with purified propellant gases.

  20. High voltage solar cell power generating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, E., Jr.; Opjorden, R. W.; Hoffman, A. C.

    1974-01-01

    A laboratory solar power system regulated by on-panel switches has been delivered for operating high power (3 kW), high voltage (15,000 volt) loads (communication tubes, ion thrusters). The modular system consists of 26 solar arrays, each with an integral light source and cooling system. A typical array contains 2,560 series-connected cells. Each light source consists of twenty 500-watt tungsten iodide lamps providing plus or minus 5 percent uniformity at one solar constant. An array temperature of less than 40 C is achieved using an infrared filter, a water-cooled plate, a vacuum hold-down system, and air flushing.

  1. Partially-reflected water-moderated square-piteched U(6.90)O2 fuel rod lattices with 0.67 fuel to water volume ratio (0.800 CM Pitch)

    SciTech Connect

    Harms, Gary A.

    2015-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Nuclear Energy Research Initiative funded the design and construction of the Seven Percent Critical Experiment (7uPCX) at Sandia National Laboratories. The start-up of the experiment facility and the execution of the experiments described here were funded by the DOE Nuclear Criticality Safety Program. The 7uPCX is designed to investigate critical systems with fuel for light water reactors in the enrichment range above 5% 235U. The 7uPCX assembly is a water-moderated and -reflected array of aluminum-clad square-pitched U(6.90%)O2 fuel rods.

  2. High power radio frequency attenuation device

    DOEpatents

    Kerns, Quentin A.; Miller, Harold W.

    1984-01-01

    A resistor device for attenuating radio frequency power includes a radio frequency conductor connected to a series of fins formed of high relative magnetic permeability material. The fins are dimensional to accommodate the skin depth of the current conduction therethrough, as well as an inner heat conducting portion where current does not travel. Thermal connections for air or water cooling are provided for the inner heat conducting portions of each fin. Also disclosed is a resistor device to selectively alternate unwanted radio frequency energy in a resonant cavity.

  3. Long-term effects of a single application of a water-cooled pulsed Nd:YAG laser in supplement to scaling and root planing in patients with periodontal inflammation.

    PubMed

    Qadri, Talat; Javed, Fawad; Poddani, Pavlina; Tunér, Jan; Gustafsson, Anders

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the long-term effects of a single application of a water-cooled pulsed neodymium yttrium aluminium garnet (Nd:YAG) laser, in combination with scaling and root planing (SRP) for the treatment of periodontal inflammation. Twenty-two patients were included in this split-mouth single blind randomized controlled clinical trial. The parameters of the air and water-cooled Nd:YAG laser were: 4 W, 80 mJ/pulse, 50 Hz and a pulse width of 350 μs. The "test side" was treated with a single application of Nd:YAG laser and SRP; while the "control side " was treated with SRP alone. At baseline, and after a median follow-up time of 20 months (range 12-39), periodontal inflammatory parameters (plaque index [PI], gingival index [GI], probing pocket depth [PPD]), and marginal bone loss (on digital bite-wing radiographs) were measured. Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) was collected from the teeth 35, 36, 45, and 46 at baseline and at follow-up. Pl (p < 0.01), GI (p < 0.01), and PPD (p < 0.001) were significantly lower on the test side compared to the control side at follow-up. Radiological results showed significantly less bone loss on the test side compared to the control side (p < 0.05). GCF volume was lower on the test side compared to the control side (p < 0.01). In conclusion, a single application of Nd:YAG laser in combination with SRP had a positive long-term effect on periodontal health compared to treatment by SRP alone.

  4. Thermodynamic Analysis of the Use a Chemical Heat Pump to Link a Supercritical Water-Cooled Nuclear Reactor and a Thermochemical Water-Splitting Cycle for Hydrogen Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granovskii, Mikhail; Dincer, Ibrahim; Rosen, Marc A.; Pioro, Igor

    Increases in the power generation efficiency of nuclear power plants (NPPs) are mainly limited by the permissible temperatures in nuclear reactors and the corresponding temperatures and pressures of the coolants in reactors. Coolant parameters are limited by the corrosion rates of materials and nuclear-reactor safety constraints. The advanced construction materials for the next generation of CANDU reactors, which employ supercritical water (SCW) as a coolant and heat carrier, permit improved “steam” parameters (outlet temperatures up to 625°C and pressures of about 25 MPa). An increase in the temperature of steam allows it to be utilized in thermochemical water splitting cycles to produce hydrogen. These methods are considered by many to be among the most efficient ways to produce hydrogen from water and to have advantages over traditional low-temperature water electrolysis. However, even lower temperature water splitting cycles (Cu-Cl, UT-3, etc.) require an intensive heat supply at temperatures higher than 550-600°C. A sufficient increase in the heat transfer from the nuclear reactor to a thermochemical water splitting cycle, without jeopardizing nuclear reactor safety, might be effectively achieved by application of a heat pump, which increases the temperature of the heat supplied by virtue of a cyclic process driven by mechanical or electrical work. Here, a high-temperature chemical heat pump, which employs the reversible catalytic methane conversion reaction, is proposed. The reaction shift from exothermic to endothermic and back is achieved by a change of the steam concentration in the reaction mixture. This heat pump, coupled with the second steam cycle of a SCW nuclear power generation plant on one side and a thermochemical water splitting cycle on the other, increases the temperature of the “nuclear” heat and, consequently, the intensity of heat transfer into the water splitting cycle. A comparative preliminary thermodynamic analysis is conducted

  5. An ultra-high-vacuum mirror box with three remotely-operated water-cooled mirrors for the U13U wiggler/undulator spectroscopy branch line at the national synchrotron light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hulbert, Steven L.; Rotela, Elbio; Shleifer, Mark

    1990-05-01

    We describe an ultra-high-vacuum mirror box with three independent remotely operated water-cooled mirrors which serve to focus a diverging input beam onto a common focal point. Each of the mirrors may be adjusted by independent rotations about two perpendicular axes in the mirror surface plane which intersect at the pole of the mirror and by linear motion along an axis orthogonal to the two rotation axes. These motions permit the surfaces of the three mirrors to lie on a common sphere, thereby forming the equivalent of a single mirror three times longer than any of the individual mirrors without the extreme cost and inherent figure error of such a lengthy mirror. The design is based on the combination of a double-axis gimbal mechanism and a linear extraction mechanism. Each mirror mechanism is fixed to a large rectangular flange attached to the mirror chamber by a special Helicoflex seal . All motions for each of the three mirrors are provided by stepping motors through special mechanisms with three bellows, one for a two-axis rotation and two for linear motion. Helicoflex Company, 400 Myrtle Avenue, Boonton, NJ 07005, USA.

  6. High-power radio-frequency attenuation device

    DOEpatents

    Kerns, Q.A.; Miller, H.W.

    1981-12-30

    A resistor device for attenuating radio frequency power includes a radio frequency conductor connected to a series of fins formed of high relative magnetic permeability material. The fins are dimensional to accommodate the skin depth of the current conduction therethrough, as well as an inner heat conducting portion where current does not travel. Thermal connections for air or water cooling are provided for the inner heat conducting portions of each fin. Also disclosed is a resistor device to selectively alternate unwanted radio frequency energy in a resonant cavity.

  7. Power Balance Estimation in Long Duration Discharges on QUEST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanada, K.; Zushi, H.; Idei, H.; Nakamura, K.; Ishiguro, M.; Tashima, S.; I. Kalinnikova, E.; Nagashima, Y.; Hasegawa, M.; Fujisawa, A.; Higashijima, A.; Kawasaki, S.; Nakashima, H.; Mitarai, O.; Fukuyama, A.; Takase, Y.; Gao, X.; H., Liu; Qian, J.; Ono, M.; Raman, R.

    2016-11-01

    Fully non-inductive plasma start-up was successfully achieved by using a well-controlled microwave source on the spherical tokamak, QUEST. Non-inductive plasmas were maintained for approximately 3-5 min, during which time power balance estimates could be achieved by monitoring wall and cooling-water temperatures. Approximately 70%-90% of the injected power could be accounted for by calorimetric measurements and approximately half of the injected power was found to be deposited on the vessel wall, which is slightly dependent on the magnetic configuration. The power distribution to water-cooled limiters, which are expected to be exposed to local heat loads, depends significantly on the magnetic configuration, however some of the deposited power is due to energetic electrons, which have large poloidal orbits and are likely to be deposited on the plasma facing components.

  8. Spallator: a new option for nuclear power

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberg, M.; Grand, P.; Takahashi, H.; Powell, J.R.; Kouts, H.J.

    1983-06-01

    The principles of the spallator reactor are reviewed. Advances in linear accelerator technology allow the design and construction of high current (hundreds of mA) continuous wave high energy (thousands of MeV) proton machines in the near term. Spallation neutronic calculations building on existing experimental results, indicate substantial neutron yields on uranium targets. Spallator target assembly designs based on water cooled reactor technology indicate operable efficient systems. Fuel cycles are presented which supply fissile material to thermal power reactors and reduce fission product waste. Preliminary comparative analysis indicates an economically competitive system in which a single purpose self-sufficient spallator supplies fuel to a number of LWRs. The spallator assures a long-term LWR power reactor economy. International interest in advancing the technology is indicated.

  9. Water cooling of HVDC thyristor valves

    SciTech Connect

    Lips, H.P. )

    1994-10-01

    It is generally accepted that water is a very effective medium to remove heat losses from any type of equipment. When used for HVDC thyristor valves, the fundamentals of electrolyte conduction and water chemistry need to be considered in the design of the cooling circuit. The characteristics of the materials used, in conjunction with high voltage stresses and circuit configuration, play an important role to assure longevity and corrosion-free performance.

  10. Advancements in high-power diode laser stacks for defense applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Rajiv; Merchen, David; Stapleton, Dean; Patterson, Steve; Kissel, Heiko; Fassbender, Wilhlem; Biesenbach, Jens

    2012-06-01

    This paper reports on the latest advancements in vertical high-power diode laser stacks using micro-channel coolers, which deliver the most compact footprint, power scalability and highest power/bar of any diode laser package. We present electro-optical (E-O) data on water-cooled stacks with wavelengths ranging from 7xx nm to 9xx nm and power levels of up to 5.8kW, delivered @ 200W/bar, CW mode, and a power-conversion efficiency of >60%, with both-axis collimation on a bar-to-bar pitch of 1.78mm. Also, presented is E-O data on a compact, conductively cooled, hardsoldered, stack package based on conventional CuW and AlN materials, with bar-to-bar pitch of 1.8mm, delivering average power/bar >15W operating up to 25% duty cycle, 10ms pulses @ 45C. The water-cooled stacks can be used as pump-sources for diode-pumped alkali lasers (DPALs) or for more traditional diode-pumped solid-state lasers (DPSSL). which are power/brightness scaled for directed energy weapons applications and the conductively-cooled stacks as illuminators.

  11. High-power air-cooled SiC-clad Nd:YVO4 slab lasers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Niu, Jinfu; Xu, Jianqiu; Xu, Jingzhong

    2011-05-15

    We demonstrate a diode-pumped, air-cooled, 100 W class SiC-clad Nd:YVO(4) active slab laser based on diffusion bonding of two SiC plates to a thin Nd:YVO(4) slab. We obtained 83 W of cw output power with a slope efficiency of 27% without water cooling. This demonstration initiates a novel (to the best of our knowledge) cooling design for efficient removal of waste heat generated from the diode edge-pumped high-power slab laser at room temperature.

  12. High voltage solar cell power generating system for regulated solar array development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, E., Jr.; Hoffman, A. C.

    1973-01-01

    A laboratory solar power system regulated by on-panel switches has been delivered for operating high power (3 kw), high voltage (15,000 volt) loads (communication tubes, ion thrusters). The modular system consists of 26 solar arrays, each with an integral light source and cooling system. A typical array contains 2560 series-connected cells. Each light source consists of twenty 500 watt tungsten iodide lamps providing plus or minus 5 per cent uniformity at one solar constant. An array temperature of less than 40 C is achieved using an infrared filter, a water cooled plate, a vacuum hold-down system, and air flushing.

  13. High-power diode-side-pumped rod Tm:YAG laser at 2.07 μm.

    PubMed

    Wang, Caili; Niu, Yanxiong; Du, Shifeng; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Zhichao; Li, Fangqin; Xu, Jialin; Bo, Yong; Peng, Qinjun; Cui, Dafu; Zhang, Jingyuan; Xu, Zuyan

    2013-11-01

    We report a high-power diode-laser (LD) side-pumped rod Tm:YAG laser of around 2 μm. The laser was water-cooled at 8°C and yielded a maximum output power of 267 W at 2.07 μm, which is the highest output power for an all solid-state cw 2.07 μm rod Tm:YAG laser reported as far as we know. The corresponding optical-optical conversion efficiency was 20.7%, and the slope efficiency was about 29.8%, respectively.

  14. A novel power block for CSP systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mittelman, Gur; Epstein, Michael

    2010-10-15

    Concentrating Solar Thermal Power (CSP) and in particular parabolic trough, is a proven large-scale solar power technology. However, CSP cost is not yet competitive with conventional alternatives unless subsidized. Current CSP plants typically include a condensing steam cycle power block which was preferably designed for a continuous operation and higher operating conditions and therefore, limits the overall plant cost effectiveness and deployment. The drawbacks of this power block are as follows: (i) no power generation during low insolation periods (ii) expensive, large condenser (typically water cooled) due to the poor extracted steam properties (high specific volume, sub-atmospheric pressure) and (iii) high installation and operation costs. In the current study, a different power block scheme is proposed to eliminate these obstacles. This power block includes a top Rankine cycle with a back pressure steam turbine and a bottoming Kalina cycle comprising another back pressure turbine and using ammonia-water mixture as a working fluid. The bottoming (moderate temperature) cycle allows power production during low insolation periods. Because of the superior ammonia-water vapor properties, the condensing system requirements are much less demanding and the operation costs are lowered. Accordingly, air cooled condensers can be used with lower economical penalty. Another advantage is that back pressure steam turbines have a less complex design than condensing steam turbines which make their costs lower. All of these improvements could make the combined cycle unit more cost effective. This unit can be applicable in both parabolic trough and central receiver (solar tower) plants. The potential advantage of the new power block is illustrated by a detailed techno-economical analysis of two 50 MW parabolic trough power plants, comparing between the standard and the novel power block. The results indicate that the proposed plant suggests a 4-11% electricity cost saving

  15. Initial results for a 170 GHz high power ITER waveguide component test stand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigelow, Timothy; Barker, Alan; Dukes, Carl; Killough, Stephen; Kaufman, Michael; White, John; Bell, Gary; Hanson, Greg; Rasmussen, Dave

    2014-10-01

    A high power microwave test stand is being setup at ORNL to enable prototype testing of 170 GHz cw waveguide components being developed for the ITER ECH system. The ITER ECH system will utilize 63.5 mm diameter evacuated corrugated waveguide and will have 24 >150 m long runs. A 170 GHz 1 MW class gyrotron is being developed by Communications and Power Industries and is nearing completion. A HVDC power supply, water-cooling and control system has been partially tested in preparation for arrival of the gyrotron. The power supply and water-cooling system are being designed to operate for >3600 second pulses to simulate the operating conditions planned for the ITER ECH system. The gyrotron Gaussian beam output has a single mirror for focusing into a 63.5 mm corrugated waveguide in the vertical plane. The output beam and mirror are enclosed in an evacuated duct with absorber for stray radiation. Beam alignment with the waveguide is a critical task so a combination of mirror tilt adjustments and a bellows for offsets will be provided. Analysis of thermal patterns on thin witness plates will provide gyrotron mode purity and waveguide coupling efficiency data. Pre-prototype waveguide components and two dummy loads are available for initial operational testing of the gyrotron. ORNL is managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U.S. Dept. of Energy under Contract DE-AC-05-00OR22725.

  16. Laser Diode Cooling For High Average Power Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mundinger, David C.; Beach, Raymond J.; Benett, William J.; Solarz, Richard W.; Sperry, Verry

    1989-06-01

    Many applications for semiconductor lasers that require high average power are limited by the inability to remove the waste heat generated by the diode lasers. In order to reduce the cost and complexity of these applications a heat sink package has been developed which is based on water cooled silicon microstructures. Thermal resistivities of less than 0.025°C/01/cm2) have been measured which should be adequate for up to CW operation of diode laser arrays. This concept can easily be scaled to large areas and is ideal for high average power solid state laser pumping. Several packages which illustrate the essential features of this design have been fabricated and tested. The theory of operation will be briefly covered, and several conceptual designs will be described. Also the fabrication and assembly procedures and measured levels of performance will be discussed.

  17. Transient heat pipe investigations for space power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Merrigan, M.A.; Keddy, E.S.; Sena, J.T.

    1985-01-01

    A 4-meter long, high temperature, high power, molybdenum-lithium heat pipe has been fabricated and tested in transient and steady state operation at temperatures to 1500 K. Maximum power throughput during the tests was approximately 37 kW/cm/sup 2/ for the 1.4 cm diameter vapor space of the annular wick heat pipe. The evaporator flux density for the tests was 150.0 W/cm/sup 2/ over a length of 40 cm. Condenser length was approximately 3.0 m with radiant heat rejection from the condenser to a coaxial, water cooled radiation calorimeter. A variable radiation shield, controllable from the outside of the vacuum enclosure, was used to vary the load on the heat pipe during the tests. 1 ref., 9 figs.

  18. An improved method for stripping cladding light in high power fiber lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tenglong; Wu, Juan; Sun, Yinghong; Wang, Yanshan; Ma, Yi

    2015-02-01

    In order to ensure the high power all-fiber laser reliability and excellent beam quality, it is necessary to strip the unwanted cladding light. The common method for stripping cladding light is to recoat the double cladding fiber with a high index gel, but localized heating and low thermal conductivity of the recoating gel are the prime factors limiting the power-handling capability of the cladding power stripper(CPS). An improved fabrication technique to manufacture the CPS is presented. Light stripping section of the fiber is fused with a transparent quartz tube, by applying different amount of etchant along the quartz tube, frosted surface is created and uniformly removal of the cladding light is achieved. The quartz tube is joined to water-cooled thermal enclosure tightly without the gel to avoid heat aggregation. The power-handling capability of the device is tested under 200W of cladding light, and attenuation of 20 dB is achieved.

  19. Active cooling solutions for high power laser diodes stacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karni, Yoram; Klumel, Genady; Levy, Moshe; Berk, Yuri; Openhaim, Yaki; Gridish, Yaakov; Elgali, Asher; Avisar, Meir; Blonder, Moshe; Sagy, Hila; Gertsenshtein, Alex

    2008-02-01

    High power water cooled diode lasers find increasing demand in biomedical, cosmetic and industrial applications, where very high brightness and power are required. The high brightness is achieved either by increasing the power of each bar or by reducing the emitting area of the stacks. Two new products will be presented: Horizontal CW stacks with output power as high as 1kW using 80 W bars with emitting area width as low as 50 μm Vertical QCW stacks with output power as high as 1.2kW using 120 W bars. Heat removal from high power laser stacks often requires microchannel coolers operated with finely filtered deionized (DI) water. However, for certain industrial applications the reliability of this cooling method is widely considered insufficient due to leakage failures caused the highly corrosive DI water. Two solutions to the above problem will be discussed. A microchannel cooler-based package, which vastly reduces the corrosion problem, and a novel high-power laser diode stack that completely eliminates it. The latter solution is especially effective for pulsed applications in high duty cycle range.

  20. Final design of the control and auxiliary systems for the Balcones 60 MJ homopolar pulse power supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hildenbrand, D. J.; Pichot, M. A.; Price, J. H.

    1986-11-01

    Design criteria and features of a 60 MJ pulse power supply to be operated at the Center for Electromechanics at the University of Texas are described. The system is driven by six 10 MJ homopolar generators (HPG) which can be operated in series, in parallel, or in combination configurations. Component modularity, operational dependability, repetition rate, maintainability, drive train simplicity and failsafe operation criteria were met in the final design. The generators have removable brush assemblies and water cooled field coil assemblies and hydrostatic bearings. A block diagram is provided of the control I-O architecture and back-up systems and operational procedures are outlined.

  1. STARFIRE: a commercial tokamak fusion power plant study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    STARFIRE is a 1200 MWe central station fusion electric power plant that utilizes a deuterium-tritium fueled tokamak reactor as a heat source. Emphasis has been placed on developing design features which will provide for simpler assembly and maintenance, and improved safety and environmental characteristics. The major features of STARFIRE include a steady-state operating mode based on continuous rf lower-hybrid current drive and auxiliary heating, solid tritium breeder material, pressurized water cooling, limiter/vacuum system for impurity control and exhaust, high tritium burnup and low vulnerable tritium inventories, superconducting EF coils outside the superconducting TF coils, fully remote maintenance, and a low-activation shield. A comprehensive conceptual design has been developed including reactor features, support facilities and a complete balance of plant. A construction schedule and cost estimate are presented, as well as study conclusions and recommendations.

  2. Small-Scale Geothermal Power Plant Field Verification Projects: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Kutscher, C.

    2001-07-03

    In the spring of 2000, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory issued a Request for Proposal for the construction of small-scale (300 kilowatt [kW] to 1 megawatt [MW]) geothermal power plants in the western United States. Five projects were selected for funding. Of these five, subcontracts have been completed for three, and preliminary design work is being conducted. The three projects currently under contract represent a variety of concepts and locations: a 1-MW evaporatively enhanced, air-cooled binary-cycle plant in Nevada; a 1-MW water-cooled Kalina-cycle plant in New Mexico; and a 750-kW low-temperature flash plant in Utah. All three also incorporate direct heating: onion dehydration, heating for a fish hatchery, and greenhouse heating, respectively. These projects are expected to begin operation between April 2002 and September 2003. In each case, detailed data on performance and costs will be taken over a 3-year period.

  3. A Solar Thermophotovoltaic Electric Generator for Remote Power Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fatemi, Navid S.

    1998-01-01

    We have successfully demonstrated that a solar thermophotovoltaic (TPV) system with a SiC graybody emitter and the monolithic interconnected module device technology can be realized. A custom-designed solar cavity was made to house the SiC emitter and the MIM strings for testing in a Stirling dish solar concentrator. Five 1x1-cm MIMs, with a bandgap of 0.74 eV,were mounted on a specially designed water-cooled heatsink and were electrically connected in series to form a string. Two such strings were fabricated and tested, as well as high-performance 2x2-cm MIMs with a bandgap of 0.74 eV. Very high output power density values between 0.82 and 0.90 W/sq cm were observed for an average emitter temperature of 1501 K.

  4. A Solar Thermophotovoltaic Electric Generator for Remote Power Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fatemi, Navid S.

    1998-01-01

    We have successfully demonstrated that a solar thermophotovoltaic (TPV) system with a SiC graybody emitter and the monolithic interconnected module device technology can be realized. A custom-designed solar cavity was made to house the SiC emitter and the Monolithic Integrated Module (MIM) strings for testing in a Stirling dish solar concentrator. Five 1x1-cm MIMs, with a bandgap of 0.74 eV, were mounted on a specially designed water-cooled heatsink and were electrically connected in series to form a string. Two such strings were fabricated and tested, as well as high-performance 2x2-cm MIMs with a bandgap of 0.74 eV. Very high output power density values between 0.82 and 0.90 W/ square cm were observed for an average emitter temperature of 1501 K.

  5. Minimization of the Ohmic Loss of Grooved Polarizer Mirrors in High-Power ECRH Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, D.; Leuterer, F.; Kasparek, W.; Stober, J.

    2017-02-01

    A set of two corrugated polarizer mirrors is typically used in high-power electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) systems to provide the required polarization of the ECRH output beam. The ohmic losses of these mirrors can significantly exceed the losses of plane mirrors depending on the polarization of the incident beam with respect to the orientation of the grooves. Since polarizer mirrors incorporated into miter bends of a corrugated waveguide line are limited in size, active water cooling can become critical in high-power cw systems like the one for ITER. The ohmic loss of polarizer mirrors has been investigated experimentally at high power. A strategy to minimize the losses for given mirror geometries has been found.

  6. A new high current laboratory and pulsed homopolar generator power supply at the University of Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floyd, J. E.; Aanstoos, T. A.

    1984-03-01

    The University of Texas at Austin is constructing a facility for research in pulse power technology for the Center for Electromechanics at the Balcones Research Center. The facility, designed to support high-current experiments, will be powered by six homopolar generators, each rated at 10 MJ and arranged to allow matching the requirements of resistive and inductive loads at various voltage and current combinations. Topics covered include the high bay, the power supply configuration and parameters, the speed and field control, and the magnetic circuit. Also considered are the removable air-cooled brushes, the water-cooled field coils, the hydraulic motor sizing and direct coupling, the low-impedance removable field coils, and the hydrostatic bearing design.

  7. NASA Ames Research Center 60 MW Power Supply Modernization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choy, Yuen Ching; Ilinets, Boris V.; Miller, Ted; Nagel, Kirsten (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Ames Research Center 60 MW DC Power Supply was built in 1974 to provide controlled DC power for the Thermophysics Facility Arc Jet Laboratory. The Power Supply has gradually losing reliability due to outdated technology and component life limitation. NASA has decided to upgrade the existing rectifier modules with contemporary high-power electronics and control equipment. NASA plans to complete this project in 2001. This project includes a complete replacement of obsolete thyristor stacks in all six rectifier modules and rectifier bridge control system. High power water-cooled thyristors and freewheeling diodes will be used. The rating of each of the six modules will be 4000 A at 5500 V. The control firing angle signal will be sent from the Facility Control System to six modules via fiberoptic cable. The Power Supply control and monitoring system will include a Master PLC in the Facility building and a Slave PLC in each rectifier module. This system will also monitor each thyristor level in each stack and the auxiliary equipment.

  8. Next Generation Geothermal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Brugman, John; Hattar, Mai; Nichols, Kenneth; Esaki, Yuri

    1995-09-01

    A number of current and prospective power plant concepts were investigated to evaluate their potential to serve as the basis of the next generation geothermal power plant (NGGPP). The NGGPP has been envisaged as a power plant that would be more cost competitive (than current geothermal power plants) with fossil fuel power plants, would efficiently use resources and mitigate the risk of reservoir under-performance, and minimize or eliminate emission of pollutants and consumption of surface and ground water. Power plant concepts were analyzed using resource characteristics at ten different geothermal sites located in the western United States. Concepts were developed into viable power plant processes, capital costs were estimated and levelized busbar costs determined. Thus, the study results should be considered as useful indicators of the commercial viability of the various power plants concepts that were investigated. Broadly, the different power plant concepts that were analyzed in this study fall into the following categories: commercial binary and flash plants, advanced binary plants, advanced flash plants, flash/binary hybrid plants, and fossil/geothed hybrid plants. Commercial binary plants were evaluated using commercial isobutane as a working fluid; both air-cooling and water-cooling were considered. Advanced binary concepts included cycles using synchronous turbine-generators, cycles with metastable expansion, and cycles utilizing mixtures as working fluids. Dual flash steam plants were used as the model for the commercial flash cycle. The following advanced flash concepts were examined: dual flash with rotary separator turbine, dual flash with steam reheater, dual flash with hot water turbine, and subatmospheric flash. Both dual flash and binary cycles were combined with other cycles to develop a number of hybrid cycles: dual flash binary bottoming cycle, dual flash backpressure turbine binary cycle, dual flash gas turbine cycle, and binary gas turbine

  9. Design of Recycle PWR with Heavy Water Moderation

    SciTech Connect

    Hibi, K.; Uchita, M.

    2002-07-01

    This study shows the conceptual plant design of the recycle PWR (RPWR), which is an innovative MOX-PWR with breeding ratios around 1.1 moderated by heavy water. Most of the plant systems of RPWR can employ the systems of PWRs. RPWR has no acid boron systems and has a small tritium removal system. The construction and operation costs are similar to the current PWRs. While, heavy water cost will be decreased drastically with up-to-date producing methods. The reliability for the plant systems of RPWR is high and R and D cost for realizing RPWR is very low because the core design of RPWR is fundamentally based on the current PWR technology. (authors)

  10. Design of Recycle Pressurized Water Reactor with Heavy Water Moderation

    SciTech Connect

    Hibi, Koki; Uchita, Masato

    2004-03-15

    This study presents the conceptual design of the recycle pressurized water reactor (RPWR), which is an innovative PWR fueled with mixed oxide, moderated by heavy water, and having breeding ratios around 1.1. Most of the systems of RPWR can employ those of PWRs. The RPWR has no boric acid systems and has a small tritium removal system. The construction and operation costs would be similar to those of current PWRs. Heavy water cost has decreased drastically with up-to-date producing methods. The reliability of the systems of the RPWR is high, and the research and development cost for RPWR is very low because the core design is fundamentally based on the current PWR technology.

  11. Water-Moderated and -Reflected Slabs of Uranium Oxyfluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Margaret A. Marshall; John D. Bess; J. Blair Briggs; Clinton Gross

    2010-09-01

    A series of ten experiments were conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Critical Experiment Facility in December 1955, and January 1956, in an attempt to determine critical conditions for a slab of aqueous uranium oxyfluoride (UO2F2). These experiments were recorded in an Oak Ridge Critical Experiments Logbook and results were published in a journal of the American Nuclear Society, Nuclear Science and Engineering, by J. K. Fox, L. W. Gilley, and J. H. Marable (Reference 1). The purpose of these experiments was to obtain the minimum critical thickness of an effectively infinite slab of UO2F2 solution by extrapolation of experimental data. To do this the slab thickness was varied and critical solution and water-reflector heights were measured using two different fuel solutions. Of the ten conducted experiments eight of the experiments reached critical conditions but the results of only six of the experiments were published in Reference 1. All ten experiments were evaluated from which five critical configurations were judged as acceptable criticality safety benchmarks. The total uncertainty in the acceptable benchmarks is between 0.25 and 0.33 % ?k/keff. UO2F2 fuel is also evaluated in HEU-SOL-THERM-043, HEU-SOL-THERM-011, and HEU-SOL-THERM-012, but these those evaluation reports are for large reflected and unreflected spheres. Aluminum cylinders of UO2F2 are evaluated in HEU-SOL-THERM-050.

  12. METHOD OF OPERATING A HEAVY WATER MODERATED REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Vernon, H.C.

    1962-08-14

    A method of removing fission products from the heavy water used in a slurry type nuclear reactor is described. According to the process the slurry is steam distilled with carbon tetrachloride so that at least a part of the heavy water and carbon tetrachloride are vaporized; the heavy water and carbon tetrachloride are separated; the carbon tetrachloride is returned to the steam distillation column at different points in the column to aid in depositing the slurry particles at the bottom of the column; and the heavy water portion of the condensate is purified. (AEC)

  13. Robust focusing optics for high-power laser welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAllister, Blake

    2014-02-01

    As available power levels from both fiber and disc lasers rapidly increase, so does the need for more robust beam delivery solutions. Traditional transmissive optics for 1 micron lasers have proven to be problematic in the presence of higher power densities and are more susceptible to focal shift. A new, fully-reflective, optical solution has been developed using mirrors rather than lenses and windows to achieve the required stable focal spot, while still protecting the delicate fiber end. This patent-approved beam focusing solution, referred to as high power reflective focusing optic (HPRFO), involves specialty mirrors and a flowing gas orifice that prevents ingress of contaminants into the optically sensitive region of the assembly. These mirrors also provide a unique solution for increasing the distance between the sensitive optics and the contamination-filled region at the work, without sacrificing spot size. Longer focal lengths and lower power densities on large mass, water-cooled, copper mirrors deliver the robustness needed at increasingly high power levels. The HPRFO exhibits excellent beam quality and minimal focal shift at a fraction of commercially available optics, and has demonstrated consistent reliability on applications requiring 15 kW with prolonged beam-on times.

  14. Evolution of the core physics concept for the Canadian supercritical water reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Pencer, J.; Colton, A.; Wang, X.; Gaudet, M.; Hamilton, H.; Yetisir, M.

    2013-07-01

    The supercritical water cooled reactor (SCWR) is one of the advanced reactor concepts chosen by the GEN-IV International Forum (GIF) for research and development efforts. Canada's contribution is the Canadian SCWR, a heavy water moderated, pressure tube supercritical light water cooled reactor. Recent developments in the SCWR lattice and core concepts, primarily the introduction of a large central flow tube filled with coolant combined with a two-ring fuel assembly, have enabled significant improvements compared to earlier concepts. These improvements include a reduction in coolant void reactivity (CVR) by more than 10 mk, and an almost 40% increase in fuel exit burnup, which is achieved via balanced power distribution between the fuel pins in the fuel assembly. In this paper the evolution of the physics concept is reviewed, and the present lattice and core physics concepts are presented.

  15. Formation of a nuclear reactor's molten core bath in a crucible-type corium catcher for a nuclear power station equipped with VVER reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beshta, S. V.; Vitol', S. A.; Granovskii, V. S.; Kalyago, E. K.; Kovtunova, S. V.; Krushinov, E. V.; Sulatskaya, M. B.; Sulatskii, A. A.; Khabenskii, V. B.; Al'Myashev, V. I.; Gusarov, V. V.

    2011-05-01

    Results from a calculation study on analyzing the formation of a melt bath in a crucible-type catcher for the conditions of a severe accident at a nuclear power station equipped with VVER-1000 reactors are presented. It is shown that the heat loads exerted on the water-cooled walls of the corium catcher shell are limited to a permissible level at which the necessary margins to nucleate boiling crisis and to destruction are ensured under the conditions of thermal and mechanical loading of the shell. An important role of sacrificial material in the efficient operation of the corium catcher is pointed out.

  16. Physical model and experimental results of cathode erosion related to power supply ripple

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, W. J.; O'Hair, E. A.; Hatfield, L. L.; Kristiansen, M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the physical effects of power supply ripple on cathode erosion and cathode arc attachment in a water-cooled, 30 kW nitrogen arcjet. Experimental results are presented for 2 percent thoriated tungsten, which show that the long-term cathode erosion rate is a decreasing function of current ripple over the range 1-13 percent. Above this range, the cathode discharge becomes unstable, and the erosion rate rapidly increases. A qualitative model of this effect is given in terms of a magnetically induced radial motion of the arc column, and an overall increase in the cathode spot radius due to the higher peak current associated with higher ripple. The most important effect of power supply ripple is therefore shown to be its ability to collectively drive the cathode attachment away from the cathode center. This leads to an increase in the cathode attachment area, and a subsequent decrease in the cathode erosion rate.

  17. Transient performance investigation of a space power system heat pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Merrigan, M.A.; Keddy, E.S.; Sena, J.T.

    1986-01-01

    Start-up, shut-down, and peak power tests have been conducted with a molybdenum-lithium heat pipe at temperatures to 1500 K. The heat pipe was radiation coupled to a water cooled calorimeter for the tests with rf induction heating used for the input to the evaporator region. Maximum power throughput in the tests was 36.8 kw corresponding to a power density of 23 kw/cm/sup 2/ for the 1.4 cm diameter vapor space of the annular wick heat pipe. The corresponding evaporator flux density was approximately 150 w/cm/sup 2/ over an evaporator length of 40 cm at peak power. Condenser length for the tests was approximately 3.0 m. A variable geometry radiation shield was used to vary the load on the heat pipe during the tests. Results of the tests showed that liquid depletion in the evaporator region of the heat pipe could occur in shut-down and prevent restart of the heat pipe. Changes in surface emissivity of the heat pipe condenser surface were shown to affect the shut-down and re-start limits. 12 figs.

  18. Combined heat and power for the City of London

    SciTech Connect

    Mullins, P.

    1994-06-01

    The first phase of an innovative combined heat and power (CHP) system for the City of London is now almost complete and should be operating at full capacity by the end of 1994. Test runs are taking place. The system is powered by two large 18-cylinder Waertsilae Vasa 46GD multifuel engines developing a total of just under 32 MW of power. The engines drive ABB Stromberg HSG 160O water-cooled generators with electrical efficiencies exceeding 97%. The station will use natural gas and heavy fuel oil to generate electricity for the grid, hot water for district heating and chilled water for air conditioning. In the first phase of the project, underground pipework and cabling will connect the power station to various buildings in the City including the Barbican Center, Guildhall and the Museum of London/Bastion House. State-of-the-art emission control equipment has been installed to reduce NO[sub x] and SO[sub 2] by over 90%. 5 figs.

  19. Klystron Cluster Scheme for ILC High Power RF Distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Nantista, Christopher; Adolphsen, Chris; /SLAC

    2009-07-06

    We present a concept for powering the main linacs of the International Linear Collider (ILC) by delivering high power RF from the surface via overmoded, low-loss waveguides at widely spaced intervals. The baseline design employs a two-tunnel layout, with klystrons and modulators evenly distributed along a service tunnel running parallel to the accelerator tunnel. This new idea eliminates the need for the service tunnel. It also brings most of the warm heat load to the surface, dramatically reducing the tunnel water cooling and HVAC requirements. In the envisioned configuration, groups of 70 klystrons and modulators are clustered in surface buildings every 2.5 km. Their outputs are combined into two half-meter diameter circular TE{sub 01} mode evacuated waveguides. These are directed via special bends through a deep shaft and along the tunnel, one upstream and one downstream. Each feeds approximately 1.25 km of linac with power tapped off in 10 MW portions at 38 m intervals. The power is extracted through a novel coaxial tap-off (CTO), after which the local distribution is as it would be from a klystron. The tap-off design is also employed in reverse for the initial combining.

  20. High-power, low-pressure, inductively coupled RF plasma source using a FET-based inverter power supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komizunai, Shota; Oikawa, Kohei; Saito, Yuta; Takahashi, Kazunori; Ando, Akira

    2015-01-01

    A high-density plasma of density greater than 1019 m-3 is successfully produced in 1.5 Pa argon by an inductively coupled RF discharge with a 70-mm-diameter source cavity, where a 10-turn water-cooled RF loop antenna is wound onto the source tube and an axial magnetic field of ˜70 G is applied by two solenoids to reduce plasma loss onto the source cavity. The RF antenna is powered from a frequency-tunable field-effect-transistor-based inverter power supply, which does not require variable capacitors to match the impedance, at a frequency of ˜350 kHz and the RF power can be increased up to ˜8 kW. It is also demonstrated that the source is operational with an axial magnetic field provided by permanent magnet (PM) arrays; then the density in the case of the PM arrays is higher than that in the case of the solenoids. The role of the magnetic filter downstream of the source tube is demonstrated; a radially uniform plasma density exceeding 1018 m-3 and an electron temperature of ˜1-2 eV are obtained at ˜100 mm downstream of the open exit of the source tube.

  1. Water-cooled insulated steam-injection wells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Back, L. H.; Jaffe, L. D.

    1980-01-01

    Water is used as insulated coolant and heat-transfer medium for steam-injection oil wells. Approach is somewhat analogous to cooling system in liquid-propellant rocket. In addition to trapping and delivering heat to steam-injection point, water will also keep casing cooler, preventing or reducing casing failures caused by thermal stresses.

  2. Water pressure and flow regulation for water-cooled lasers.

    PubMed

    Chambers, J K; Talansky, M L

    1988-05-01

    We experienced laser water valve failure resulting from poor water quality, frequent laser shutdowns from low water flow rates, and unnecessary service calls shortly after installing a new laser. The water valve failure resulted from deposits and corrosion. A dirt/rust water filter was installed, and no further water valve failure has occurred. A flow meter was added to the water system to adjust flow rates. It clearly shows when laser shutdowns are caused by low flow rates and indicates the need for water filter changes. Water pressure was monitored and is most affected by use of the laser. A convenient electric water control, activated by the laser key switch, has proved to be reliable. The water control is kept open by a timer ten minutes after the laser is shut off. We determined that our laser shutdowns were related to transient drops in water flow rates and possibly to draw off of water in other parts of the hospital.

  3. Condensate polishers for brackish water-cooled PWRs

    SciTech Connect

    Sadler, M.A.; Darvill, M.R.; Bickerstaffe, J.A.; Chakravorti, R.; Siegwarth, D.P.

    1986-07-01

    The objectives of project RP 1571-5 ''Optimization of Pressurized Water Reactor Secondary Water Treatment: Task 4 Conceptual Design Options - Condensate Polishing'' were to provide detailed guidelines for the design of a condensate polishing system for retrofitting to a seawater cooled PWR. For this purpose a national 1100MW PWR with recirculating steam generators was defined. The polished water to be produced by this plant must be of such a quality so as to permit the advisory SGOG guidelines on impurity levels in Steam Generator water to be achieved. Target maximum impurity levels in the final polished water were proposed by the RP 1571 Project review Team and adopted for this study.

  4. Thermal-hydraulic limitations on water-cooled limiters

    SciTech Connect

    Cha, Y.S.; Misra, B.

    1984-08-01

    An assessment of the cooling requirements for fusion reactor components, such as the first wall and limiter/divertor, was carried out using pressurized water as the coolant. In order to establish the coolant operating conditions, a survey of the literature on departure from nucleate boiling, critical heat flux, asymmetrical heating and heat transfer augmentation techniques was carried out. The experimental data and the empirical correlations indicate that thermal protection for the fusion reactor components based on current design concepts can be provided with an adequate margin of safety without resorting to either high coolant velocities, excessive coolant pressures, or heat transfer augmentation techniques. If, however, the future designs require heat transfer enhancement techniques, experimental verification would be necessary since no data on heat transfer augmentation techniques exist for complex geometries, especially under asymmetrically heated conditions. Since the data presented herein concern primarily thermal protection, the final design should consider other factors such as thermal stresses, temperature limits, and fatigue.

  5. Rotation and penetrative convection in water cooled from below}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alboussiere, T.; Labrosse, S.; Dubuffet, F.; Thibon, F.; Huguet, L.; Deguen, R.

    2012-12-01

    It has already been suggested that the outer core of the Earth might not be entirely in a convective regime [1], for instance in a region close to the CMB where the heat conducted along the adiabat could be larger than the net heat transfer and where compositional buoyancy vanishes. Radial dependence of thermal conductivity could also produce neighbouring stable and unstable regions. To what extent does convection spread into the stable region is then an important issue. Liquid water and its maximum density at 4°C provides a convenient way to observe penetrative convection. We have performed experiments where a volume of water (of square cross-section 16 cm by 16 cm and height 20 cm) initially at room temperature (around 22°C) is then suddenly cooled around 0°C at the bottom while the sides and top walls are (imperfectly) thermally insulated. Near the bottom, where temperature is below 4°C, unstable buoyancy conditions prevail and we observe convective cells. Above 4°C, quiescent stable stratification is observed. Temperature is close to 4°C within the bulk of the convective zone, so that the flux of heat extracted from the bottom is used to change the temperature from 22°C to 4°C within the successive layers of water, while the height of the convective zone increases and eventually reaches the top of the volume. Temperatures have been measured on a array of 15 PT100 probes protruding 5 mm into water along a vertical side wall. the extreme probes are 1 cm away from the lower and upper boundaries respectively. The evolution of all 15 temperatures can be seen on left-hand side of Fig. 1. Another type of information was obtained from a synthetic schlieren technique, whereby pictures of a random pattern placed behind the transparent water-filled box (perspex walls) are taken every 5 s with a digital camera. The cross-correlation of the different images provides a dynamical visualization of the gradients of refraction index within the volume of water. A snapshot is displayed on the right-hand side of Fig. 1. In a second step, we will analyze the influence of rotation on the configuration described above. The experiments will be performed in October and the results will be available for discussion during the AGU fall meeting. When transposed to the conditions of the Earth's outer core, we expect to be able to assess how stable and unstable regions can exist next to each other. [1] Braginsky, S.I., Phys. Earth Planet. Int., vol. 111, 21--34, 1999; Temperatures on the left, time derivative of index horizontal gradient on the right

  6. Low-pressure water-cooled inductively coupled plasma torch

    DOEpatents

    Seliskar, C.J.; Warner, D.K.

    1984-02-16

    An inductively coupled plasma torch is provided which comprises an inner tube, including a sample injection port to which the sample to be tested is supplied and comprising an enlarged central portion in which the plasma flame is confined; an outer tube surrounding the inner tube and containing water therein for cooling the inner tube, the outer tube including a water inlet port to which water is supplied and a water outlet port spaced from the water inlet port and from which water is removed after flowing through the outer tube; and an rf induction coil for inducing the plasma in the gas passing into the tube through the sample injection port. The sample injection port comprises a capillary tube including a reduced diameter orifice, projecting into the lower end of the inner tube. The water inlet is located at the lower end of the outer tube and the rf heating coil is disposed around the outer tube above and adjacent to the water inlet.

  7. Low-pressure water-cooled inductively coupled plasma torch

    DOEpatents

    Seliskar, Carl J.; Warner, David K.

    1988-12-27

    An inductively coupled plasma torch is provided which comprises an inner tube, including a sample injection port to which the sample to be tested is supplied and comprising an enlarged central portion in which the plasma flame is confined; an outer tube surrounding the inner tube and containing water therein for cooling the inner tube, the outer tube including a water inlet port to which water is supplied and a water outlet port spaced from the water inlet port and from which water is removed after flowing through the outer tube; and an r.f. induction coil for inducing the plasma in the gas passing into the tube through the sample injection port. The sample injection port comprises a capillary tube including a reduced diameter orifice, projecting into the lower end of the inner tube. The water inlet is located at the lower end of the outer tube and the r.f. heating coil is disposed around the outer tube above and adjacent to the water inlet.

  8. Transient Load Following and Control Analysis of Advanced S-CO2 Power Conversion with Dry Air Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Moisseytsev, Anton; Sienicki, James J.

    2016-01-01

    Supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO2) Brayton cycles are under development as advanced energy converters for advanced nuclear reactors, especially the Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR). The use of dry air cooling for direct heat rejection to the atmosphere ultimate heat sink is increasingly becoming a requirement in many regions due to restrictions on water use. The transient load following and control behavior of an SFR with an S-CO2 cycle power converter utilizing dry air cooling have been investigated. With extension and adjustment of the previously existing control strategy for direct water cooling, S-CO2 cycle power converters can also be used for load following operation in regions where dry air cooling is a requirement

  9. Radio frequency vacuum feedthroughs for high-power ICRF heating applications

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, T.L.; Baity, F.W.; Hoffman, D.J.; Whealton, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    Frequently, high-power pulsed ion cyclotron range of frequency experiments are limited by breakdown at the vacuum feedthrough. This paper describes the development and testing of vacuum feedthroughs to increase both reliability and capability. The ultimate goal of the program is to develop a continuous-wave feedthrough for the next generation of fusion experiments. A feedthrough concept currently under investigation consists of a simple, cylindrical alumina ceramic brazed between tapered coaxial conductors. A prototype has been tested to voltage levels in excess of 100 kV for 100-ms pulses and 70 kV for 5-s pulses at 28 MHz. Insertion-voltage-standing-wave ratios are <1.15:1 for frequencies below 450 MHz. An upgraded water-cooled version being fabricated for use on TEXTOR will be described.

  10. An experimental study of energy loss mechanisms and efficiency considerations in the low power dc arcjet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, F. M.

    1985-01-01

    The potential utility of the low power dc arcjet in auxiliary propulsion was investigated. It was indicated that improvements in the areas of stability, energy efficiency, reliability, and electrode erosion are necessary to obtain a useful device. A water-cooled arcjet simulator was tested to investigate both the energy loss mechanisms at the electrodes and the stability of different conventional arcjet configurations in the presence of a vortex flow field. It is shown that in certain configurations only 25 to 30 percent of the input energy is lost to the electrodes. It is also shown that vortex stabilization is not difficult to obtain in many cases at the flow rates used and that a careful starting procedure is effective in minimizing electrode damage.

  11. An experimental study of energy loss mechanisms and efficiency consideration in the low power dc arcjet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, F. M.

    1985-01-01

    The potential utility of the low power dc arcjet in auxiliary propulsion was investigated. It was indicated that improvements in the areas of stability, energy efficiency, reliability, and electrode erosion are necessary to obtain a useful device. A water-cooled arcjet simulator was tested to investigate both the energy loss mechanisms at the electrodes and the stability of different conventional arcjet configurations in the presence of a vortex flow field. It is shown that in certain configurations only 25 to 30% of the input energy is lost to the electrodes. It is also shown that vortex stabilization is not difficult to obtain in many cases at the flow rates used and that a careful starting procedure is effective in minimizing electrode damage.

  12. Power Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aho, Timothy A.

    1998-01-01

    Describes how to integrate technology into old buildings beginning with an evaluation of the electric power systems. A case study is highlighted showing the process in determining existing conditions, assessing electric power needs, and designing upgrades. (GR)

  13. Pulsed power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, David H.

    Pulsed power systems are critical elements for such prospective weapons technologies as high-power microwaves, electrothermal and electromagnetic projectile launchers, neutral particle beams, space-based FELs, ground-based lasers, and charged particle beams. Pulsed power will also be essential for the development of nonweapon military systems such as lidars and ultrawideband radars, and could serve as the bases for nuclear weapon effect simulators. The pulsed power generation requirements for each of these systems is considered.

  14. Power processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarz, F. C.

    1971-01-01

    Processing of electric power has been presented as a discipline that draws on almost every field of electrical engineering, including system and control theory, communications theory, electronic network design, and power component technology. The cost of power processing equipment, which often equals that of expensive, sophisticated, and unconventional sources of electrical energy, such as solar batteries, is a significant consideration in the choice of electric power systems.

  15. Terbium gallium garnet ceramic-based Faraday isolator with compensation of thermally induced depolarization for high-energy pulsed lasers with kilowatt average power

    SciTech Connect

    Yasuhara, Ryo; Snetkov, Ilya; Starobor, Alexey; Palashov, Oleg

    2014-12-15

    A scalable aperture Faraday isolator for high-energy pulsed lasers with kW-level average power was demonstrated using terbium gallium garnet ceramics with water cooling and compensation of thermally induced depolarization in a magnetic field. An isolation ratio of 35 dB (depolarization ratio γ of 3.4 × 10{sup −4}) was experimentally observed at a maximum laser power of 740 W. By using this result, we estimated that this isolator maintains an isolation ratio of 30 dB for laser powers of up to 2.7 kW. Our results provide the solution for achieving optical isolation in high-energy (100 J to kJ) laser systems with a repetition rate greater than 10 Hz.

  16. Space Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Appropriate directions for the applied research and technology programs that will develop space power systems for U.S. future space missions beyond 1995 are explored. Spacecraft power supplies; space stations, space power reactors, solar arrays, thermoelectric generators, energy storage, and communication satellites are among the topics discussed.

  17. Power supply

    DOEpatents

    Yakymyshyn, Christopher Paul; Hamilton, Pamela Jane; Brubaker, Michael Allen

    2007-12-04

    A modular, low weight impedance dropping power supply with battery backup is disclosed that can be connected to a high voltage AC source and provide electrical power at a lower voltage. The design can be scaled over a wide range of input voltages and over a wide range of output voltages and delivered power.

  18. Development of a high temperature solar powered water chiller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    English, R. A.

    1982-03-01

    The objectives of this program are: to develop a high temperature solar powered air cooled 25 ton chiller utilizing 250 to 300 F solar hot water suitable for commercial and multi-family applications; to study, design, and build a prototype Rankine powered vapor compression cycle; and to demonstrate and evaluate performance through steady state and dynamic laboratory testing. Cycle studies and preliminary turbo machine studies were completed under Phase I establishing the final conceptual approach and anticipated cost/performance. The evaluation of the working fluid thermal stability has satisfactorily shown that R-113 has excellent life potential in an oil-free steel boiler at the maximum expected temperature, 320 F, for this application. The detailed design of the turbo machine and the chiller has been completed. The turbomachine has been completed and has successfully passed its qualification tests on air. The chiller has been built in the water cooled configuration, has been installed in a test facility, instrumented and charged. A two stage boiler feed pump has been developed and successfully tested on R-113 in a separate loop.

  19. Electric power

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, M.

    1988-01-01

    This text examines the critical problems faced by the electric power industry, shown in the context of a detailed description of the history and development of the industry. A new industry initiative is proposed that will allow for a more effective response to industry fluctuations. Topics covered include developments in power technology federal nuclear power regulation and legislation, environmentalism and conservationism, industry financial problems, capital minimization, and responses to utility responsibility.

  20. Diamond optical components for high-power and high-energy laser applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anoikin, Eugene; Muhr, Alexander; Bennett, Andrew; Twitchen, Daniel; de Wit, Henk

    2015-02-01

    High-power and high-energy laser systems have firmly established their industrial presence with applications that span materials processing; high - precision and high - throughput manufacturing; semiconductors, and defense. Along with high average power CO2 lasers operating at wavelengths of ~ 10 microns, solid state lasers and fiber lasers operating at ~ 1 micron wavelength are now increasingly being used, both in the high average power and high energy pulse regimes. In recent years, polycrystalline diamond has become the material of choice when it comes to making optical components for multi-kilowatt CO2 lasers at 10 micron, outperforming ZnSe due to its superior thermo-mechanical characteristics. For 1 micron laser systems, fused silica has to date been the most popular optical material owing to its outstanding optical properties. This paper characterizes high - power / high - energy performance of anti-reflection coated optical windows made of different grades of diamond (single crystal, polycrystalline) and of fused silica. Thermo-optical modeling results are also presented for water cooled mounted optical windows. Laser - induced damage threshold tests are performed and analyzed. It is concluded that diamond is a superior optical material for working with extremely high-power and high-energy laser beams at 1 micron wavelength.

  1. Fission Surface Power Systems (FSPS) Project Final Report for the Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP): Fission Surface Power, Transition Face to Face

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palac, Donald T.

    2011-01-01

    The Fission Surface Power Systems Project became part of the ETDP on October 1, 2008. Its goal was to demonstrate fission power system technology readiness in an operationally relevant environment, while providing data on fission system characteristics pertinent to the use of a fission power system on planetary surfaces. During fiscal years 08 to 10, the FSPS project activities were dominated by hardware demonstrations of component technologies, to verify their readiness for inclusion in the fission surface power system. These Pathfinders demonstrated multi-kWe Stirling power conversion operating with heat delivered via liquid metal NaK, composite Ti/H2O heat pipe radiator panel operations at 400 K input water temperature, no-moving-part electromagnetic liquid metal pump operation with NaK at flight-like temperatures, and subscale performance of an electric resistance reactor simulator capable of reproducing characteristics of a nuclear reactor for the purpose of system-level testing, and a longer list of component technologies included in the attached report. Based on the successful conclusion of Pathfinder testing, work began in 2010 on design and development of the Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU), a full-scale 1/4 power system-level non-nuclear assembly of a reactor simulator, power conversion, heat rejection, instrumentation and controls, and power management and distribution. The TDU will be developed and fabricated during fiscal years 11 and 12, culminating in initial testing with water cooling replacing the heat rejection system in 2012, and complete testing of the full TDU by the end of 2014. Due to its importance for Mars exploration, potential applicability to missions preceding Mars missions, and readiness for an early system-level demonstration, the Enabling Technology Development and Demonstration program is currently planning to continue the project as the Fission Power Systems project, including emphasis on the TDU completion and testing.

  2. High Power Flex-Propellant Arcjet Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litchford, Ron J.

    2011-01-01

    A MW-class electrothermal arcjet based on a water-cooled, wall-stabilized, constricted arc discharge configuration was subjected to extensive performance testing using hydrogen and simulated ammonia propellants with the deliberate aim of advancing technology readiness level for potential space propulsion applications. The breadboard design incorporates alternating conductor/insulator wafers to form a discharge barrel enclosure with a 2.5-cm internal bore diameter and an overall length of approximately 1 meter. Swirling propellant flow is introduced into the barrel, and a DC arc discharge mode is established between a backplate tungsten cathode button and a downstream ringanode/ spin-coil assembly. The arc-heated propellant then enters a short mixing plenum and is accelerated through a converging-diverging graphite nozzle. This innovative design configuration differs substantially from conventional arcjet thrusters, in which the throat functions as constrictor and the expansion nozzle serves as the anode, and permits the attainment of an equilibrium sonic throat (EST) condition. During the test program, applied electrical input power was varied between 0.5-1 MW with hydrogen and simulated ammonia flow rates in the range of 4-12 g/s and 15-35 g/s, respectively. The ranges of investigated specific input energy therefore fell between 50-250 MJ/kg for hydrogen and 10-60 MJ/kg for ammonia. In both cases, observed arc efficiencies were between 40-60 percent as determined via a simple heat balance method based on electrical input power and coolant water calorimeter measurements. These experimental results were found to be in excellent agreement with theoretical chemical equilibrium predictions, thereby validating the EST assumption and enabling the utilization of standard TDK nozzle expansion analyses to reliably infer baseline thruster performance characteristics. Inferred specific impulse performance accounting for recombination kinetics during the expansion process

  3. Diastatic power

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    diastatic power: Diastatic power, abbreviated DP, is the total activity of malt starch degrading enzymes that hydrolyze starch to fermentable sugars. The starch degrading enzymes contributing to this process are a-amylase, ß-amylase, limit dextrinase, and a-glucosidase. The driving force for DP a...

  4. Power Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fluellen, Jerry E., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Power Teaching weaves four factors into a seamless whole: standards, teaching thinking, research based strategies, and critical inquiry. As a prototype in its first year of development with an urban fifth grade class, the power teaching model connects selected district standards, thinking routines from Harvard University Project Zero Research…

  5. Powerful Literacies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowther, Jim, Ed.; Hamilton, Mary, Ed.; Tett, Lyn, Ed.

    These 15 papers share a common theme: seeking to promote literacy as a powerful tool for challenging existing inequalities and dependencies. "Powerful Literacies" (Jim Crowther et al.) is an introduction. Section 1 establishes the theoretical and policy frameworks that underpin the book and shows how literacy is situated in different…

  6. Power system

    DOEpatents

    Hickam, Christopher Dale

    2008-03-18

    A power system includes a prime mover, a transmission, and a fluid coupler having a selectively engageable lockup clutch. The fluid coupler may be drivingly connected between the prime mover and the transmission. Additionally, the power system may include a motor/generator drivingly connected to at least one of the prime mover and the transmission. The power-system may also include power-system controls configured to execute a control method. The control method may include selecting one of a plurality of modes of operation of the power system. Additionally, the control method may include controlling the operating state of the lockup clutch dependent upon the mode of operation selected. The control method may also include controlling the operating state of the motor/generator dependent upon the mode of operation selected.

  7. Power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, G.

    1982-01-01

    Significant events in current, prototype, and experimental utility power generating systems in 1981 are reviewed. The acceleration of licensing and the renewal of plans for reprocessing of fuel for nuclear power plants are discussed, including the rise of French reactor-produced electricity to over 40% of the country's electrical output. A 4.5 MW fuel cell neared completion in New York City, while three 2.5 MW NASA-designed windpowered generators began producing power in the state of Washington. Static bar compensators, nonflammable-liquid cooled power transformers, and ZnO surge arrestors were used by utilities for the first time, and the integration of a coal gasifier-combined cycle power plant approached the planning phase. An MHD generator was run for 1000 hours and produced 50-60 kWe, while a 20 MVA superconducting generator was readied for testing.

  8. From the first nuclear power plant to fourth-generation nuclear power installations [on the 60th anniversary of the World's First nuclear power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachkov, V. I.; Kalyakin, S. G.; Kukharchuk, O. F.; Orlov, Yu. I.; Sorokin, A. P.

    2014-05-01

    Successful commissioning in the 1954 of the World's First nuclear power plant constructed at the Institute for Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE) in Obninsk signaled a turn from military programs to peaceful utilization of atomic energy. Up to the decommissioning of this plant, the AM reactor served as one of the main reactor bases on which neutron-physical investigations and investigations in solid state physics were carried out, fuel rods and electricity generating channels were tested, and isotope products were bred. The plant served as a center for training Soviet and foreign specialists on nuclear power plants, the personnel of the Lenin nuclear-powered icebreaker, and others. The IPPE development history is linked with the names of I.V. Kurchatov, A.I. Leipunskii, D.I. Blokhintsev, A.P. Aleksandrov, and E.P. Slavskii. More than 120 projects of various nuclear power installations were developed under the scientific leadership of the IPPE for submarine, terrestrial, and space applications, including two water-cooled power units at the Beloyarsk NPP in Ural, the Bilibino nuclear cogeneration station in Chukotka, crawler-mounted transportable TES-3 power station, the BN-350 reactor in Kazakhstan, and the BN-600 power unit at the Beloyarsk NPP. Owing to efforts taken on implementing the program for developing fast-neutron reactors, Russia occupied leading positions around the world in this field. All this time, IPPE specialists worked on elaborating the principles of energy supertechnologies of the 21st century. New large experimental installations have been put in operation, including the nuclear-laser setup B, the EGP-15 accelerator, the large physical setup BFS, the high-pressure setup SVD-2; scientific, engineering, and technological schools have been established in the field of high- and intermediate-energy nuclear physics, electrostatic accelerators of multicharge ions, plasma processes in thermionic converters and nuclear-pumped lasers, physics of compact

  9. Coupled thermo-optical modeling of high power operation of Tm, Ho:YLF solid-state lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louchev, Oleg A.; Urata, Yoshiharu; Saito, Norihito; Wada, Satoshi

    2007-06-01

    Integrated computational model for operation of co-doped Tm,Ho solid-state lasers is developed coupling (i) 8-level rate equations with (ii) TEM00 laser beam distribution, and (iii) complex heat dissipation model. Simulations done for Q-switched ~0.1 J giant pulse generation by Tm,Ho:YLF laser show that ~43 % of the 780 nm light diode side-pumped energy is directly transformed into the heat inside the crystal, whereas ~45 % is the spontaneously emitted radiation from 3F 4, 5I 7 , 3H 4 and 3H 5 levels. In water-cooled operation this radiation is absorbed inside the thermal boundary layer where the heat transfer is dominated by heat conduction. In high-power operation the resulting temperature increase is shown to lead to (i) significant decrease in giant pulse energy and (ii) thermal lensing.

  10. Solid state power amplifier as 805 MHz master source for the LANSCE coupled-cavity linac

    SciTech Connect

    Lyles, J.; Davis, J.

    1998-12-31

    From 100 to 800 MeV, the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) proton linac receives RF power from forty-four 1.25 MW klystrons at 805 Megahertz (MHz). A single master RF source provides a continuous high level phase reference signal which drives the klystrons along the 731 meter-long linac through a coaxial transmission line. A single point failure of this system can deenergize the entire coupled-cavity linac (CCL) RF plant. The authors replaced a physically large air-cooled tetrode amplifier with a compact water-cooled unit based on modular amplifier pallets developed at LANSCE. Each 600 Watt pallet utilizes eight push-pull bipolar power transistor pairs operated in class AB. Four of these can easily provide the 2000 watt reference carrier from the stable master RF source. A radial splitter and combiner parallels the modules. This amplifier has proven to be completely reliable after two years of operation without failure. A second unit was constructed and installed for redundancy, and the old tetrode system was removed in 1998. The compact packaging for cooling, DC power, impedance matching, RF interconnection, and power combining met the electrical and mechanical requirements. CRT display of individual collector currents and RF levels is made possible with built-in samplers and a VXI data acquisition unit.

  11. Power performance

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.

    1996-04-01

    Two power generation engineering and construction firms with international markets are briefly described in this article. Bibb and Associates and Black & Veatch, both Kansas-based companies, are discussed. Current projects and services provided by the companies are described.

  12. Fusion Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dingee, David A.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the extraordinary potential, the technical difficulties, and the financial problems that are associated with research and development of fusion power plants as a major source of energy. (GA)

  13. Power combiner

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Mobius; Ives, Robert Lawrence

    2006-09-05

    A power combiner for the combining of symmetric and asymmetric traveling wave energy comprises a feed waveguide having an input port and a launching port, a reflector for reflecting launched wave energy, and a final waveguide for the collection and transport of launched wave energy. The power combiner has a launching port for symmetrical waves which comprises a cylindrical section coaxial to the feed waveguide, and a launching port for asymmetric waves which comprises a sawtooth rotated about a central axis.

  14. Power inverters

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, David H; Korich, Mark D; Smith, Gregory S

    2011-11-15

    Power inverters include a frame and a power module. The frame has a sidewall including an opening and defining a fluid passageway. The power module is coupled to the frame over the opening and includes a substrate, die, and an encasement. The substrate includes a first side, a second side, a center, an outer periphery, and an outer edge, and the first side of the substrate comprises a first outer layer including a metal material. The die are positioned in the substrate center and are coupled to the substrate first side. The encasement is molded over the outer periphery on the substrate first side, the substrate second side, and the substrate outer edge and around the die. The encasement, coupled to the substrate, forms a seal with the metal material. The second side of the substrate is positioned to directly contact a fluid flowing through the fluid passageway.

  15. Power transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Yale, O.S.

    1989-12-12

    This patent describes a power transmission. It comprises: in combination, a master gear having at least one annular tooth set, means for drivingly engaging the master gear with a power source, driven shaft, a yoke member attached to the shaft and including a screw pump housing extending radially with respect to the shaft with a pair of ports in spaced relation, a pump screw rotatable in the housing and a pump gear attached to the screw and engaging the annular tooth set, and a casing for transmission fluid. The pump housing being located for immersion in the fluid.

  16. Power Struggle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Glenn

    2001-01-01

    California's "power struggle" will probably not be replicated in the other 23 states that have deregulated electricity, but costs are rising everywhere. The Environmental Protection Agency/Department of Energy's new Energy Star online rating system should help school officials measure their buildings' efficiency and remove barriers to…

  17. Stigma power.

    PubMed

    Link, Bruce G; Phelan, Jo

    2014-02-01

    When people have an interest in keeping other people down, in or away, stigma is a resource that allows them to obtain ends they desire. We call this resource "stigma power" and use the term to refer to instances in which stigma processes achieve the aims of stigmatizers with respect to the exploitation, control or exclusion of others. We draw on Bourdieu (1987, 1990) who notes that power is often most effectively deployed when it is hidden or "misrecognized." To explore the utility of the stigma-power concept we examine ways in which the goals of stigmatizers are achieved but hidden in the stigma coping efforts of people with mental illnesses. We developed new self-report measures and administered them to a sample of individuals who have experienced mental illness to test whether results are consistent with the possibility that, in response to negative societal conceptions, the attitudes, beliefs and behaviors of people with psychosis lead them to be concerned with staying in, propelled to stay away and induced to feel downwardly placed - precisely the outcomes stigmatizers might desire. Our introduction of the stigma-power concept carries the possibility of seeing stigmatizing circumstances in a new light.

  18. Power, Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roscigno, Vincent J.

    2011-01-01

    Power is a core theoretical construct in the field with amazing utility across substantive areas, levels of analysis and methodologies. Yet, its use along with associated assumptions--assumptions surrounding constraint vs. action and specifically organizational structure and rationality--remain problematic. In this article, and following an…

  19. Power Controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1983-01-01

    The power factor controller (PFC) senses shifts in the relationship between voltage and current, and matches them with a motor's need. This prevents waste as motors do not need a high voltage when they are not operating at full load conditions. PFC is manufactured by Nordic Controls Company, among others, and has proved extremely cost effective.

  20. Perpetual Power?

    SciTech Connect

    Madison, Alison L.

    2010-02-16

    This is a submission to Innovation Magazine for its January 2010 Clean-tech issue. The article discusses PNNL's award-winning Thermoelectric Ambient Energy Harvester technology, its license to Perpetua Power Source Technologies, Perpetua's subsequent product based on the PNNL technology, and where they're headed with it.

  1. Power Trains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kukuk, Marvin; Mathis, Joe

    This curriculum guide is part of a series designed to teach students about diesel engines. The materials in this power trains guide apply to both on-road and off-road vehicles and include information about chain and belt drives used in tractors and combines. These instructional materials, containing nine units, are written in terms of student…

  2. Star Power

    SciTech Connect

    2014-10-17

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory has released ''Star Power,'' a new informational video that uses dramatic and beautiful images and thought-provoking interviews to highlight the importance of the Laboratory's research into magnetic fusion.

  3. Star Power

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory has released ''Star Power,'' a new informational video that uses dramatic and beautiful images and thought-provoking interviews to highlight the importance of the Laboratory's research into magnetic fusion.

  4. High power continuous wave microwave system at 3.7 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bora, D.; Dani, S.; Gangopadhyay, S.; Jadav, B.; Jha, M.; Kadia, B. R.; Khilar, P. L.; Kulkarni, S. V.; Kushwah, M.; Patel, A. P.; Parmar, K. G.; Parmar, K. M.; Parmar, P.; Rajnish, K.; Raghuraj, S.; Rao, S. L.; Samanta, K. K.; Sathyanarayana, K.; Shah, P.; Sharma, P. K.; Srinivas, Y. S. S.; Trivedi, R. G.; Verghese, G.

    2001-03-01

    The lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) system is an important system in superconducting steady state tokamak (SST-1). It is used to drive and maintain the plasma current for 1000 s with a duty cycle of 17%. The LHCD system is being designed to launch 1 MW of radio frequency (rf) power at 3.7 GHz. The rf source is comprised of two high power klystron amplifiers, each capable of delivering 500 kW rf power. In this article, the results obtained during installation and commissioning of these klystrons are presented. Two klystrons (model TH2103D) have been successfully installed and commissioned on dummy loads, delivering ˜200 kW power for more than 1000 s. The maximum output power that could be obtained is limited due to the available direct current (dc) power supply. The test system is comprised of a TH2103D klystron, a low power rf (3.7 GHz/25 W) source, two high power four port circulators, two high power dual directional couplers, two arc detector systems, and two dummy water loads. To avoid rf breakdown in the rf components of the transmission line, the system has been pressurized with dry air to 3 bar. To energize and operate the klystron, a high voltage dc power supply, a magnet power supply, an ion pump power supply, a -65 kV floating anode modulator power supply, and a filament power supply are used. An arc detector unit has been installed to detect and initiate action within a few microseconds to protect the klystron, waveguides, and other rf passive components during arcing. To protect the klystron in the event of an arc, a fast responding (<10 μs), rail gap based pressurized crowbar unit has been used. The entire system is water cooled to avoid excess temperature rise during high power continuous wave operation of the klystron and other rf components. The tube requires initial conditioning. Thereafter, the output rf power is studied as a function of beam parameters such as cathode voltage and beam current.

  5. Power superconducting power transmission cable

    DOEpatents

    Ashworth, Stephen P.

    2003-06-10

    The present invention is for a compact superconducting power transmission cable operating at distribution level voltages. The superconducting cable is a conductor with a number of tapes assembled into a subconductor. These conductors are then mounted co-planarly in an elongated dielectric to produce a 3-phase cable. The arrangement increases the magnetic field parallel to the tapes thereby reducing ac losses.

  6. Power superconducting power transmission cable

    DOEpatents

    Ashworth, Stephen P.

    2003-01-01

    The present invention is for a compact superconducting power transmission cable operating at distribution level voltages. The superconducting cable is a conductor with a number of tapes assembled into a subconductor. These conductors are then mounted co-planarly in an elongated dielectric to produce a 3-phase cable. The arrangement increases the magnetic field parallel to the tapes thereby reducing ac losses.

  7. Automatic resonator alignment and power stabilization of high power C02 lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akitt, Dale Richard

    The high power carbon dioxide laser has become a very important tool in the area of industrial materials processing. This is due primarily to the enormous optical intensities which the device can attain. Unfortunately, it has proved increasingly difficult to construct machines capable of maintaining a consistently uniform output beam at elevated power levels, for extended periods. These difficulties are often attributed to thermal distortion of the resonator optics. Because of this fact, researchers have invested considerable effort in the construction of water cooled, thermally stable optical benches, upon which to mount the resonator components. This approach is very expensive, and has provided only a partial solution to the problem. A different approach, and the subject of this thesis, is to construct a feedback control system which actively repositions the optical elements, so as to maintain optimum resonator alignment. Preliminary experiments demonstrated that this concept was indeed feasible. In this first study, a circular array of small thermistors was utilized as the feedback element. Indicators of mode uniformity in the vertical and horizontal directions were extracted from the array using electronic techniques. A relay type controller monitored these error measures and subsequently activated a pair of motor-micrometers fitted to one of the primary resonator mirrors. Although this thermistor-based system demonstrated the viability of the concept, the sensor array's slow response limited its performance. Subsequent experiments utilizing high speed pyroelectric detectors in place of the thermistors solved the problem. The next series of experiments was dedicated to finding a method of simultaneously aligning both primary resonator mirrors. This was accomplished by configuring the sensor array to monitor not only beam uniformity, but also beam position. A new controller was then developed which adjusted one mirror based on the position of the output beam

  8. Automatic Resonator Alignment and Power Stabilization of High Power Carbon Dioxide Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akitt, Dale Richard

    1992-01-01

    The high power carbon dioxide laser has become a very important tool in the area of industrial materials processing. This is due primarily to the enormous optical intensities which the device can attain. Unfortunately, it has proved increasingly difficult to construct machines capable of maintaining a consistently uniform output beam at elevated power levels, for extended periods. These difficulties are often attributed to thermal distortion of the resonator optics. Because of this fact, researchers have invested considerable effort in the construction of water cooled, thermally stable optical benches, upon which to mount the resonator components. This approach is very expensive, and has provided only a partial solution to the problem. A different approach, and the subject of this thesis, is to construct a feedback control system which actively re-positions the optical elements, so as to maintain optimum resonator alignment. Preliminary experiments demonstrated that this concept was indeed feasible. In this first study, a circular array of small thermistors was utilized as the feedback element. Indicators of mode uniformity in the vertical and horizontal directions were extracted from the array using electronic techniques. A relay type controller monitored these error measures and subsequently activated a pair of motor-micrometers fitted to one of the primary resonator mirrors. Although this thermistor-based system demonstrated the viability of the concept, the sensor array's slow response limited its performance. Subsequent experiments utilizing high speed pyroelectric detectors in place of the thermistors solved the problem. The next series of experiments was dedicated to finding a method of simultaneously aligning both primary resonator mirrors. This was accomplished by configuring the sensor array to monitor not only beam uniformity, but also beam position. A new controller was then developed which adjusted one mirror based on the position of the output beam

  9. Power converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, J. M. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A dc-to-dc converter employs four transistor switches in a bridge to chop dc power from a source, and a voltage multiplying diode rectifying ladder network to rectify and filter the chopped dc power for delivery to a load. The bridge switches are cross coupled in order for diagonally opposite pairs to turn on and off together using RC networks for the cross coupling to achieve the mode of operation of a free running multivibrator, and the diode rectifying ladder is configured to operate in a push-pull mode driven from opposite sides of the multivibrator outputs of the ridge switches. The four transistor switches provide a square-wave output voltage which as a peak-to-peak amplitude that is twice the input dc voltage, and is thus useful as a dc-to-ac inverter.

  10. Power supply

    DOEpatents

    Hart, Edward J.; Leeman, James E.; MacDougall, Hugh R.; Marron, John J.; Smith, Calvin C.

    1976-01-01

    An electric power supply employs a striking means to initiate ferroelectric elements which provide electrical energy output which subsequently initiates an explosive charge which initiates a second ferroelectric current generator to deliver current to the coil of a magnetic field current generator, creating a magnetic field around the coil. Continued detonation effects compression of the magnetic field and subsequent generation and delivery of a large output current to appropriate output loads.

  11. A study of cathode erosion in high power arcjets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, William Jackson, III

    Cathode erosion continues to be one of the predominant technology concerns for high power arcjets. This study will show that cathode erosion in these devices is significantly affected by several mitigating factors, including propellant composition, propellant flowrate, current level, cathode material, and power supply current ripple. In a series of 50-hour and 100-hour long duration experiments, using a water-cooled 30 kilowatt laboratory arcjet, variations in the steady-state cathode erosion rate were characterized for each of these factors using nitrogen propellant at a fixed arc current of 250 Amperes. A complementary series of measurements was made using hydrogen propellant at an arc current of 100 Amperes. The cold cathode erosion rate was also differentiated from the steady-state cathode erosion rate in a series of multi-start cathode erosion experiments. Results of these measurements are presented, along with an analysis of the significant effects of current ripple on arcjet cathode erosion. As part of this study, over a dozen refractory cathode materials were evaluated to measure their resistance to arcjet cathode erosion. Among the materials tested were W-ThO2(1%, 2%, 4%), poly and mono-crystalline W, W-LaB6, W-La2O3, W-BaO2, W-BaCaAl2O4, W-Y2O3, and ZrB2. Based on these measurements, several critical material properties were identified, such work function, density, porosity, melting point, and evaporation rate. While the majority of the materials failed to outperform traditional W-ThO2, these experimental results are used to develop a parametric model of the arcjet cathode physics. The results of this model, and the results of a finite-element thermal analysis of the arcjet cathode, are presented to better explain the relative performance of the materials tested.

  12. 10 CFR 50.62 - Requirements for reduction of risk from anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) events for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... transients without scram (ATWS) events for light-water-cooled nuclear power plants. 50.62 Section 50.62... from anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) events for light-water-cooled nuclear power plants. (a) Applicability. The requirements of this section apply to all commercial light-water-cooled nuclear power...

  13. Field tests of a vertical-fluted-tube condenser in the prototype power plant at the Raft River Geothermal Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, R.W.

    1983-04-01

    A vertical-fluted-tube condenser was designed, fabricated, and tested with isobutane as the shell-side working fluid in a binary prototype power plant at the Raft River Geothermal Test Site. After shakedown and contamination removal operations were completed, the four-pass water-cooled unit (with 102 outside-fluted Admiralty tubes) achieved performance predictions while operating with the plant surface evaporator on-line. A sample comparison shows that use of this enhanced condenser concept offers the potential for a reduction of about 65% from the size suggested by corresponding designs using conventional horizontal-smooth-tube concepts. Subsequent substitution of a direct-contact evaporator for the surface evaporator brought drastic reductions in system performance, the apparent consequence of high concentrations of noncondensible gases introduced by the brine/working-fluid interaction.

  14. Fuel cell power source for a cold region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, B. K.; Velayutham, G.; Goud, A. Prasad

    Electric power generation at Maitri—the Indian Antarctic station is based on a conventional diesel generator. In spite of the high reliability and simplicity of operation, the main disadvantages of this kind of power source are its pollution potential and fuel transportation costs. In a place like Antarctica environmental protection requirements are of prime importance. Apart from gas pollution, they also suffer from various other problems such as degradation of performance due to sub-zero temperature of operation, noise pollution, solidification of lubricants and mechanical wear and tear. Fuel cells find an ideal application for alternate energy solution, and can maintain the pristine nature of Antarctica. With this objective in mind, Research & Development Establishment (Engineers), Pune, Defence Research & Development Organisation, Ministry of Defence, Government of India joined hands with Centre for Electro-Chemical & Energy Research, SPIC Science Foundation, Chennai and developed three prototype 500 W, 12 V, PEMFC fuel cell power sources for this application. PEMFC has been chosen for study and experimentation at Antarctica because the solid electrolyte Nafion-117 is used in this cell and the electro-chemical reaction is exothermic so that the fuel cell can be activated at low temperature. PEMFC was first installed and successfully demonstrated during the XVII Indian Antarctic Expedition. Further studies continued during the XVIII Indian Antarctic Expedition and a series of scientific experiments were conducted in the areas of optimisation of humidification, temperature for reactants (hydrogen and oxygen), elimination of existing humidification system, feasibility of provision of air-cooling system in lieu of water cooling system, humidifcation of gases using membrane as a medium, charging/discharging characteristics of a metal hydride container for hydrogen storage, and performance of a dc-dc converter and static inverter under sub-zero temperature of

  15. Investigation of a Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler with 100 W-class cooling power at 77 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L. M.; Hu, J. Y.; Chen, Y. Y.; Luo, E. C.; Dai, W.

    2014-01-01

    High power Stirling-type pulse tube cryocoolers are considered as one of the ideal candidates for cooling high temperature superconducting devices for its high reliability and high efficiency. The inhomogeneity of flow in a large-diameter pulse tube is one of the main obstacles to develop an efficient cryocooler. In this paper, a Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler with 100 W-class cooling power at 77 K was developed and tested. A screen-filled secondary water-cooled heat exchanger is used at the hot end of the pulse tube to suppress the jet steaming. Then, attentions were focused on the influence of the pulse tube configurations on the cooling performance. Pulse tubes with different size and taper angle were investigated. With a 100 mm-long cylindrical pulse tube, a cooling power of more than 100 W at 77 K was obtained, and with a 75 mm-long tapered pulse tube of 2.8°, the relative Carnot efficiency of the cryocooler from acoustic work to cooling power reached 29.8%. If the efficiency of the compressor is 80%, the relative Carnot efficiency of the whole system could reach about 24%, showing great attraction to HTS applications.

  16. Water-carbon trade-off in China's coal power industry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Anadon, Laura Diaz; Mo, Hongpin; Zhao, Zhongnan; Liu, Zhu

    2014-10-07

    The energy sector is increasingly facing water scarcity constraints in many regions around the globe, especially in China, where the unprecedented large-scale construction of coal-fired thermal power plants is taking place in its extremely arid northwest regions. As a response to water scarcity, air-cooled coal power plants have experienced dramatic diffusion in China since the middle 2000s. By the end of 2012, air-cooled coal-fired thermal power plants in China amounted to 112 GW, making up 14% of China's thermal power generation capacity. But the water conservation benefit of air-cooled units is achieved at the cost of lower thermal efficiency and consequently higher carbon emission intensity. We estimate that in 2012 the deployment of air-cooled units contributed an additional 24.3-31.9 million tonnes of CO2 emissions (equivalent to 0.7-1.0% of the total CO2 emissions by China's electric power sector), while saving 832-942 million m(3) of consumptive water use (about 60% of the total annual water use of Beijing) when compared to a scenario with water-cooled plants. Additional CO2 emissions from air-cooled plants largely offset the CO2 emissions reduction benefits from Chinese policies of retiring small and outdated coal plants. This water-carbon trade-off is poised to become even more significant by 2020, as air-cooled units are expected to grow by a factor of 2-260 GW, accounting for 22% of China's total coal-fired power generation capacity.

  17. Thermal, mechanical and fluid flow aspects of the high power beam dump for FRIB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avilov, Mikhail; Aaron, Adam; Amroussia, Aida; Bergez, Wladimir; Boehlert, Carl; Burgess, Thomas; Carroll, Adam; Colin, Catherine; Durantel, Florent; Ferrante, Paride; Fourmeau, Tiffany; Graves, Van; Grygiel, Clara; Kramer, Jacob; Mittig, Wolfgang; Monnet, Isabelle; Patel, Harsh; Pellemoine, Frederique; Ronningen, Reginald; Schein, Mike

    2016-06-01

    The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) under construction at Michigan State University is based on a 400 kW heavy ion accelerator and uses in-flight production and separation to generate rare isotope beams. The first section of the fragment separator houses the rare isotope production target, and the primary beam dump to stop the unreacted primary beam. The experimental program will use 400 kW ion beams from 16O to 238U. After interaction with the production target, over 300 kW in remaining beam power must be absorbed by the beam dump. A rotating water-cooled thin-shell metal drum was chosen as the basic concept for the beam dump. Extensive thermal, mechanical and fluid flow analyses were performed to evaluate the effects of the high power density in the beam dump shell and in the water. Many properties were optimized simultaneously, such as shell temperature, mechanical strength, fatigue strength, and radiation resistance. Results of the analyses of the beam dump performance with different design options will be discussed. For example, it was found that a design modification to the initial water flow pattern resulted in a substantial increase in the wall heat transfer coefficient. A detailed evaluation of materials for the shell is in progress. The widely used titanium alloy, Ti-6Al-4V (wt%), is presently considered as the best candidate, and is the subject of specific tests, such as studies of performance under heavy ion irradiation.

  18. Ion cyclotron resonance heating systems upgrade toward high power and CW operations in WEST

    SciTech Connect

    Hillairet, Julien Mollard, Patrick; Bernard, Jean-Michel; Argouarch, Arnaud; Berger-By, Gilles; Charabot, Nicolas; Colas, Laurent; Delaplanche, Jean-Marc; Ekedahl, Annika; Fedorczak, Nicolas; Ferlay, Fabien; Goniche, Marc; Hatchressian, Jean-Claude; Helou, Walid; Jacquot, Jonathan; Joffrin, Emmanuel; Litaudon, Xavier; Lombard, Gilles; Magne, Roland; Patterlini, Jean-Claude; and others

    2015-12-10

    The design of the WEST (Tungsten-W Environment in Steady-state Tokamak) Ion cyclotron resonance heating antennas is based on a previously tested conjugate-T Resonant Double Loops prototype equipped with internal vacuum matching capacitors. The design and construction of three new WEST ICRH antennas are being carried out in close collaboration with ASIPP, within the framework of the Associated Laboratory in the fusion field between IRFM and ASIPP. The coupling performance to the plasma and the load-tolerance have been improved, while adding Continuous Wave operation capability by introducing water cooling in the entire antenna. On the generator side, the operation class of the high power tetrodes is changed from AB to B in order to allow high power operation (up to 3 MW per antenna) under higher VSWR (up to 2:1). Reliability of the generators is also improved by increasing the cavity breakdown voltage. The control and data acquisition system is also upgraded in order to resolve and react on fast events, such as ELMs. A new optical arc detection system comes in reinforcement of the V{sub r}/V{sub f} and SHAD systems.

  19. High-power laser diodes at SCD: performance and reliability for defence and space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risemberg, Shlomo; Karni, Yoram; Klumel, Genadi; Levy, Moshe; Berk, Yuri; Rech, Markus; Becht, Hubert; Frei, Bruno

    2009-05-01

    High Power Laser Diode Arrays developed and produced at SCD-SemiConductor Devices support a number of advanced defence and space programs. High efficiency and unsurpassed reliability at high operating temperatures are mandatory features for those applications. We report lifetime results of high power bar stacks, operating in QCW mode that rely on a field-proven design comprising Al-free wafer material technology and hard soldering robust packaging. A variety of packaging platforms have been implemented and tested at very harsh environmental conditions. Results include a long operational lifetime study totaling 20 billion pulses monitored in the course of several years for 808 nm QCW bar stacks.. Additionally, we report results of demanding lifetime tests for space qualification performed on these stacks at different levels of current load in a unique combination with operational temperature cycles in the range of -10 ÷60 °C. Novel solutions for highly reliable water cooled devices designed for operation in long pulses at different levels of PRF, are also discussed. The cooling efficiency of microchannel coolers is preserved while reliability is improved.

  20. Ion cyclotron resonance heating systems upgrade toward high power and CW operations in WEST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillairet, Julien; Mollard, Patrick; Zhao, Yanping; Bernard, Jean-Michel; Song, Yuntao; Argouarch, Arnaud; Berger-By, Gilles; Charabot, Nicolas; Chen, Gen; Chen, Zhaoxi; Colas, Laurent; Delaplanche, Jean-Marc; Dumortier, Pierre; Durodié, Frédéric; Ekedahl, Annika; Fedorczak, Nicolas; Ferlay, Fabien; Goniche, Marc; Hatchressian, Jean-Claude; Helou, Walid; Jacquot, Jonathan; Joffrin, Emmanuel; Litaudon, Xavier; Lombard, Gilles; Maggiora, Riccardo; Magne, Roland; Milanesio, Daniele; Patterlini, Jean-Claude; Prou, Marc; Verger, Jean-Marc; Volpe, Robert; Vulliez, Karl; Wang, Yongsheng; Winkler, Konstantin; Yang, Qingxi; Yuan, Shuai

    2015-12-01

    The design of the WEST (Tungsten-W Environment in Steady-state Tokamak) Ion cyclotron resonance heating antennas is based on a previously tested conjugate-T Resonant Double Loops prototype equipped with internal vacuum matching capacitors. The design and construction of three new WEST ICRH antennas are being carried out in close collaboration with ASIPP, within the framework of the Associated Laboratory in the fusion field between IRFM and ASIPP. The coupling performance to the plasma and the load-tolerance have been improved, while adding Continuous Wave operation capability by introducing water cooling in the entire antenna. On the generator side, the operation class of the high power tetrodes is changed from AB to B in order to allow high power operation (up to 3 MW per antenna) under higher VSWR (up to 2:1). Reliability of the generators is also improved by increasing the cavity breakdown voltage. The control and data acquisition system is also upgraded in order to resolve and react on fast events, such as ELMs. A new optical arc detection system comes in reinforcement of the Vr/Vf and SHAD systems.

  1. Power optics

    SciTech Connect

    Apollonov, V V

    2014-02-28

    By using the theory we developed in the early 1970s, a broad range of phenomena is considered for an optical surface of a solid body that is exposed to radiation arbitrarily varying in time and producing temperature fields, thermoelastic stresses and thermal deformations on the surface layer. The examination is based on the relations (which are similar to Duhamel's integral formula from the theory of heat conduction) between the quantities characterising the thermal stress state in any nonstationary regimes of energy input into a solid. A peculiar feature of the analysis of the thermal stress state in this case consists in the fact that this relation comprises time as a parameter, which in turn is a consequence of incoherence of the quasi-stationary problem of thermoelasticity. This phenomenon is particularly important for the optics of high-power, high-pulse repetition rate lasers, which are being actively developed. In the review, we have recently published in Laser Physics, the thermal stress state of a solid is analysed. In this state, time is treated as an independent variable used in differentiation. Such an approach greatly reduces the applicability of the method. The review published contains data on the use of capillary porous structures made of various materials with different degrees of the surface development. Moreover, such structures can be efficiently employed to increase the heat exchange at a temperature below the boiling point of the coolant. In the present review we discuss the dependences of the limiting laser intensities on the duration of a pulse or a pulse train, corresponding to the three stages of the state of the reflecting surface and leading to unacceptable elastic deformations of the surface, to the plastic yield of the material accompanied by the formation of residual stresses and to the melting of the surface layer. We also analyse the problem of heat exchange in the surface layer with a liquid metal coolant pumped through it. The

  2. POWER REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Zinn, W.H.

    1958-07-01

    A fast nuclear reactor system ls described for producing power and radioactive isotopes. The reactor core is of the heterogeneous, fluid sealed type comprised of vertically arranged elongated tubular fuel elements having vertical coolant passages. The active portion is surrounded by a neutron reflector and a shield. The system includes pumps and heat exchangers for the primary and secondary coolant circuits. The core, primary coolant pump and primary heat exchanger are disposed within an irapenforate tank which is filled with the primary coolant, in this case a liquid metal such as Na or NaK, to completely submerge these elements. The tank is completely surrounded by a thick walled concrete shield. This reactor system utilizes enriched uranium or plutonium as the fissionable material, uranium or thorium as a diluent and thorium or uranium containing less than 0 7% of the U/sup 235/ isotope as a fertile material.

  3. Power oscillator

    DOEpatents

    Gitsevich, Aleksandr

    2001-01-01

    An oscillator includes an amplifier having an input and an output, and an impedance transformation network connected between the input of the amplifier and the output of the amplifier, wherein the impedance transformation network is configured to provide suitable positive feedback from the output of the amplifier to the input of the amplifier to initiate and sustain an oscillating condition, and wherein the impedance transformation network is configured to protect the input of the amplifier from a destructive feedback signal. One example of the oscillator is a single active element device capable of providing over 70 watts of power at over 70% efficiency. Various control circuits may be employed to match the driving frequency of the oscillator to a plurality of tuning states of the lamp.

  4. Power management system

    DOEpatents

    Algrain, Marcelo C.; Johnson, Kris W.; Akasam, Sivaprasad; Hoff, Brian D.

    2007-10-02

    A method of managing power resources for an electrical system of a vehicle may include identifying enabled power sources from among a plurality of power sources in electrical communication with the electrical system and calculating a threshold power value for the enabled power sources. A total power load placed on the electrical system by one or more power consumers may be measured. If the total power load exceeds the threshold power value, then a determination may be made as to whether one or more additional power sources is available from among the plurality of power sources. At least one of the one or more additional power sources may be enabled, if available.

  5. Green Power Partnership Videos

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Green Power Partnership develops videos on a regular basis that explore a variety of topics including, Green Power partnership, green power purchasing, Renewable energy certificates, among others.

  6. Wireless Power Transmission Technology State-Of-The-Art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickinson, R. M. T.

    2002-01-01

    This first Bill Brown SSP La Crescenta, CA 91214 technology , including microwave and laser systems for the transfer of electric , as related to eventually developing Space Solar Power (SSP) systems. Current and past technology accomplishments in ground based and air and space applied energy conversion devices, systems and modeling performance and cost information is presented, where such data are known to the author. The purpose of the presentation is to discuss and present data to encourage documenting and breaking the current technology records, so as to advance the SOA in WPT for SSP . For example, regarding DC to RF and laser converters, 83% efficient 2.45 GHz cooker-tube magnetrons with 800W CW output have been jointly developed by Russia and US. Over 50% wa11-plug efficient 1.5 kW/cm2 CW, water cooled, multibeam, solid state laser diode bar-arrays have been developed by LLNL at 808 nm wavelength. The Gennans have developed a 36% efficient, kW level, sing1e coherent beam, lateral pumped semiconductor laser. The record for end-to-end DC input to DC output power overall WPT link conversion efficiency is 54% during the Raytheon-JPL experiments in 1975 for 495.6 W recovered at 1.7-mrange at 2.4469 GAz. The record for usefully recovered electric power output ( as contrasted with thennally induced power in structures) is 34 kW OC output at a range of 1.55 km, using 2.388 GHz microwaves, during the JPL- Raytheon experiments by Bill Brown and the author at Goldstone, CA in 1975. The GaAs-diode rectenna array had an average collection-conversion efficiency of 82.5%. A single rectenna element operating a 6W RF input, developed by Bill Brown demonstrated 91.4% efficiency. The comparable record for laser light to OC output power conversion efficiency of photovoltaics is 590/0. for AlGaAs at 1.7 Wand 826nm wavelength. Russian cyclotron-wave converters have demonstrated 80% rectification efficiency at S-band. Concerning WPT technology equipment costs, magnetron conversion

  7. Women, Power, and Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuman, Patricia Glass

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the concept of power in the context of women and the library profession, citing views of power by Max Weber, John Kenneth Galbraith, Letty Cottin Pogrebin, and Rosabeth Moss Kantor. Male power and female submission, defining power, organizing for power, and sharing power are highlighted. A 12-item bibliography is included. (EJS)

  8. Dynamic power flow controllers

    DOEpatents

    Divan, Deepakraj M.; Prasai, Anish

    2017-03-07

    Dynamic power flow controllers are provided. A dynamic power flow controller may comprise a transformer and a power converter. The power converter is subject to low voltage stresses and not floated at line voltage. In addition, the power converter is rated at a fraction of the total power controlled. A dynamic power flow controller controls both the real and the reactive power flow between two AC sources having the same frequency. A dynamic power flow controller inserts a voltage with controllable magnitude and phase between two AC sources; thereby effecting control of active and reactive power flows between two AC sources.

  9. Reliability of High-Power Pulsed IMPATT Diodes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-01

    under test are nour.ted in a water cooled plate and contacted by beryllium - copper fingers. Device case temperature is controlled by varying coolant...beyond the inner mesa radius on one device (see Figure 3-11) indicated the presence of platinum. Possibly a platinum silicide metallization system was

  10. Application of evaporative cooling technology in super-high power density magnet.

    PubMed

    Xiong, B; Ruan, L; Gu, G B; Guo, S Q; Cao, R; Li, Z G; Lu, W; Zhang, X Z; Sun, L T; Zhao, H W

    2014-02-01

    Evaporative cooling technology utilizes phase-change heat transfer mode to achieve the cooling for heating equipment. The heat transfer capacity of evaporative cooling technology is far more than air or water cooling technology. The Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source magnet is a typical super-high power density magnet, and the evaporative cooling technology is an ideal cooling method for the coils of magnet. In this paper we show the structure and process of coils and the special design of flow channels of coolant for an experiment magnet model. Additionally, the heat transfer circulation is presented and analyzed. By the finite element method, the flow channels are optimized to rationally allocate coolant and to reduce the temperature of coils. For the experiment model, the current density of copper wire of coils is 19 A/mm(2), and the coil-windows current density is larger than 12 A/mm(2). The max temperature of coils is below 80 °C, and the total heat is about 200 kW.

  11. High power tests of an electroforming cavity operating at 11.424 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolgashev, V. A.; Gatti, G.; Higashi, Y.; Leonardi, O.; Lewandowski, J. R.; Marcelli, A.; Rosenzweig, J.; Spataro, B.; Tantawi, S. G.; Yeremian, D. A.

    2016-03-01

    The achievement of ultra high accelerating gradients is mandatory in order to fabricate compact accelerators at 11.424 GHz for scientific and industrial applications. An extensive experimental and theoretical program to determine a reliable ultra high gradient operation of the future linear accelerators is under way in many laboratories. In particular, systematic studies on the 11.424 GHz frequency accelerator structures, R&D on new materials and the associated microwave technology are in progress to achieve accelerating gradients well above 120 MeV/m. Among the many, the electroforming procedure is a promising approach to manufacture high performance RF devices in order to avoid the high temperature brazing and to produce precise RF structures. We report here the characterization of a hard high gradient RF accelerating structure at 11.424 GHz fabricated using the electroforming technique. Low-level RF measurements and high power RF tests carried out at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory on this prototype are presented and discussed. In addition, we present also a possible layout where the water-cooling of irises based on the electroforming process has been considered for the first time.

  12. Power electronics for low power arcjets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamley, John A.; Hill, Gerald M.

    1991-01-01

    In anticipation of the needs of future light-weight low-power spacecraft, arcjet power electronics in the 100- to 400-W operating range were developed. Power topologies similar to those in the higher 2-kW and 5- to 30-kW power range were implemented, including a four-transistor bridge-switching circuit, current-mode pulse-width modulated control, and an output current averaging inductor with an integral pulse generation winding. Reduction of switching transients was accomplished using a low inductance power distribution network, and no passive snubber circuits were necessary for power switch protection. Phase shift control of the power bridge was accomplished using an improved pulse width modulation to phase shift converter circuit. These features, along with conservative magnetics designs, allowed power conversion efficiencies of greater than 92.5 percent to be achieved into resistive loads over the entire operating range of the converter.

  13. Power Struggles. Beginnings Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neugebauer, Bonnie; Duffy, Roslyn; Garbarino, James; Gonzalez-Mena, Janet

    2001-01-01

    Presents four articles about children's power struggles: (1) "The Personal Side of Power" (Bonnie Neugebauer); (2) "Learning To Harness Human Power" (Roslyn Duffy); (3) "Power Struggles: Early Experiences Matter" (James Garbarino); and (4) "Personal Power: Creating New Realities" (Janet Gonzalez-Mena). (DLH)

  14. Infrared power cells for satellite power conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, Christopher J.

    1991-01-01

    An analytical investigation is performed to assess the feasibility of long-wavelength power converters for the direct conversion of IR radiation onto electrical power. Because theses devices need to operate between 5 and 30 um the only material system possible for this application is the HgCdTe system which is currently being developed for IR detectors. Thus solar cell and IR detector theories and technologies are combined. The following subject areas are covered: electronic and optical properties of HgCdTe alloys; optimum device geometry; junction theory; model calculation for homojunction power cell efficiency; and calculation for HgCdTe power cell and power beaming.

  15. Solar powered multipurpose remotely powered aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexandrou, A. N.; Durgin, W. W.; Cohn, R. F.; Olinger, D. J.; Cody, Charlotte K.; Chan, Agnes; Cheung, Kwok-Hung; Conley, Kristin; Crivelli, Paul M.; Javorski, Christian T.

    1992-01-01

    Increase in energy demands coupled with rapid depletion of natural energy resources have deemed solar energy as an attractive alternative source of power. The focus was to design and construct a solar powered, remotely piloted vehicle to demonstrate the feasibility of solar energy as an effective, alternate source of power. The final design included minimizing the power requirements and maximizing the strength-to-weight and lift-to-drag ratios. Given the design constraints, Surya (the code-name given to the aircraft), is a lightweight aircraft primarily built using composite materials and capable of achieving level flight powered entirely by solar energy.

  16. Green Power Partner Resources

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA Green Power Partners can access tools and resources to help promote their green power commitments. Partners use these tools to communicate the benefits of their green power use to their customers, stakeholders, and the general public.

  17. Green Power Community News

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page features news about EPA's Green Power Communities. GPCs are a subset of the Green Power Partnership; municipalities or tribal governments where government, businesses, and residents collectively use enough green power to meet GPP requirements.

  18. Power electronics for low power arcjets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamley, John A.; Hill, Gerald M.

    1991-01-01

    In anticipation of the needs of future light-weight, low-power spacecraft, arcjet power electronics in the 100 to 400 W operating range were developed. Limited spacecraft power and thermal control capacity of these small spacecraft emphasized the need for high efficiency. Power topologies similar to those in the higher 2 kW and 5 to 30 kW power range were implemented, including a four transistor bridge switching circuit, current mode pulse-width modulated control, and an output current averaging inductor with an integral pulse generation winding. Reduction of switching transients was accomplished using a low inductance power distribution network, and no passive snubber circuits were necessary for power switch protection. Phase shift control of the power bridge was accomplished using an improved pulse width modulation to phase shift converter circuit. These features, along with conservative magnetics designs allowed power conversion efficiencies of greater than 92.5 percent to be achieved into resistive loads over the entire operating range of the converter. Electromagnetic compatibility requirements were not considered in this work, and control power for the converter was derived from AC mains. Addition of input filters and control power converters would result in an efficiency of on the order of 90 percent for a flight unit. Due to the developmental nature of arcjet systems at this power level, the exact nature of the thruster/power processor interface was not quantified. Output regulation and current ripple requirements of 1 and 20 percent respectively, as well as starting techniques, were derived from the characteristics of the 2 kW system but an open circuit voltage in excess of 175 V was specified. Arcjet integration tests were performed, resulting in successful starts and stable arcjet operation at power levels as low as 240 W with simulated hydrazine propellants.

  19. Power and Control in Kathmandu: A Comparison of Attempted Power, Actual Power, and Achieved Power.

    PubMed

    Emery, Clifton R; Thapa, Sirjana; Wu, Shali

    2016-05-05

    We argue that the concept of power has been inadvertently sidelined in recent theory and research on husband violence. Three types of relationship power may matter with respect to husband violence: attempted power, actual power, and achieved power. Analyses of a randomly selected representative sample of 270 married or partnered women in Kathmandu showed that actual power was related to husband violence prevalence, severity, and injury. Achieved power was related to husband violence prevalence and severity, and attempted power was related to husband violence injury. Implications are discussed.

  20. Venus Exploration Power Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surampudi, R.; Bugga, K.; Grandidier, J.; Cutts, J. A.; Beauchamp, P. M.

    2017-02-01

    Venus with its severe temperatures and pressures presents formidable challenges for powering in situ exploration vehicles. This paper describes possible approaches for both power generation and energy storage.

  1. Military power requirements and backup power considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Botts, T.E.

    1986-01-01

    All US Air Force (USAF) facilities have certain critical power requirements that must be met in order to carry out their mission successfully. Internal USAF studies have shown that the mission can degrade precipitously as the available power decreases below the mission critical level. Now, more than ever before, the military and private industry are finding that certain functions, such as automated data processing and automated process control, respond catastrophically to power reductions. Furthermore, increased reliance on electrical power means, in the case of the Air Force, that critical power requirements are anticipated to increase by half over the next 15 yr. For these reasons and others, the USAF is investigating several means of improving the availability of electric power under adverse conditions above that which can be provided by an off-base supplier. Among the approaches to this problem being pursued at this time are a program to improve all sorts of generator sets on a service-wide basis and the Multimegawatt Terrestrial Power (MTP) Program, which is pursuing the design and testing of a small dedicated nuclear power source to provide critical mission power. The purpose of this paper is to provide some insight into some of the issues associated with USAF power programs.

  2. Closed Brayton cycle power conversion systems for nuclear reactors :

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Steven A.; Lipinski, Ronald J.; Vernon, Milton E.; Sanchez, Travis

    2006-04-01

    This report describes the results of a Sandia National Laboratories internally funded research program to study the coupling of nuclear reactors to gas dynamic Brayton power conversion systems. The research focused on developing integrated dynamic system models, fabricating a 10-30 kWe closed loop Brayton cycle, and validating these models by operating the Brayton test-loop. The work tasks were performed in three major areas. First, the system equations and dynamic models for reactors and Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) systems were developed and implemented in SIMULINKTM. Within this effort, both steady state and dynamic system models for all the components (turbines, compressors, reactors, ducting, alternators, heat exchangers, and space based radiators) were developed and assembled into complete systems for gas cooled reactors, liquid metal reactors, and electrically heated simulators. Various control modules that use proportional-integral-differential (PID) feedback loops for the reactor and the power-conversion shaft speed were also developed and implemented. The simulation code is called RPCSIM (Reactor Power and Control Simulator). In the second task an open cycle commercially available Capstone C30 micro-turbine power generator was modified to provide a small inexpensive closed Brayton cycle test loop called the Sandia Brayton test-Loop (SBL-30). The Capstone gas-turbine unit housing was modified to permit the attachment of an electrical heater and a water cooled chiller to form a closed loop. The Capstone turbine, compressor, and alternator were used without modification. The Capstone systems nominal operating point is 1150 K turbine inlet temperature at 96,000 rpm. The annular recuperator and portions of the Capstone control system (inverter) and starter system also were reused. The rotational speed of the turbo-machinery is controlled by adjusting the alternator load by using the electrical grid as the load bank. The SBL-30 test loop was operated at

  3. Power conditioning unit for photovoltaic power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beghin, G.; Nguyen Phuoc, V. T.

    Operational features and components of a power conditioning unit for interconnecting solar cell module powers with a utility grid are outlined. The two-stage unit first modifies the voltage to desired levels on an internal dc link, then inverts the current in 2 power transformers connected to a vector summation control to neutralize harmonic distortion up to the 11th harmonic. The system operates in parallel with the grid with extra inductors to absorb line-to-line voltage and phase differences, and permits peak power use from the PV array. Reactive power is gained internally, and a power system controller monitors voltages, frequencies, and currents. A booster preregulator adjusts the input voltage from the array to provide voltage regulation for the inverter, and can commutate 450 amps. A total harmonic distortion of less than 5 percent is claimed, with a rating of 5 kVA, 50/60 Hz, 3-phase, and 4-wire.

  4. Soft Power and Smart Power in Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    groups—are able to exercise power that was once the preserve of only states. Third, resurgent nationalism made it tougher to use military power. For...governments have been replaced.”[22] Wilson adds another factor reducing the salience of hard power—the “transformation from industrial to postindustrial...world behind a cause and set an example others want to follow. These factors , however, can also detract from soft power. In the wrong context, the same

  5. Tidal power in Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Aisiks, E.G.

    1993-03-01

    This presentation describes the tidal power potential of Argentina and the current status of its utilization. The topics of the presentation include tidal power potential, electric production of the region and the Argentine share of production and consumption, conventional hydroelectric potential, economic feasibility of tidal power production, and the general design and feasibility of a tidal power plant planned for the San Jose Gulf.

  6. Human Powered Centrifuge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulenburg, Gerald M. (Inventor); Vernikos, Joan (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A human powered centrifuge has independently established turntable angular velocity and human power input. A control system allows excess input power to be stored as electric energy in a battery or dissipated as heat through a resistors. In a mechanical embodiment, the excess power is dissipated in a friction brake.

  7. Ideological Power in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laursen, Per F.

    2006-01-01

    This article agues that ideological power plays an important role in education and that it is part of a general trend in policy and social sciences to underestimate ideological and overestimate the role of political and economic power. The article sketches a concept of power in general and especially of ideological power based primarily on the…

  8. Planning for Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Failla, Victor A.; Birk, Thomas A.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the electrical power problems that can arise when schools try to integrate educational technology components into an existing facility, and how to plan the electrical power design to avoid power failures. Examines setting objectives, evaluating current electrical conditions, and developing the technology power design. (GR)

  9. Power sector policy reforms

    SciTech Connect

    Moscote, R.A. . LAC Technical Dept.)

    1994-06-01

    This article discusses the changes in energy policy of most countries in the Latin American and the Caribbean region. The topics of the article include the new legal and regulatory frameworks being developed, investment, privatized power producers, government regulation, power distribution, power transmission, access to transmission lines, pricing regulations, and increasing capacity of the power systems.

  10. Power system restoration issues

    SciTech Connect

    Adibi, M.M. ); Kafka, R.J. )

    1991-04-01

    This article describes some of the problems encountered in the three phases of power system restoration (PSR). The three phases of PSR are: Planning for restart and reintegration of the bulk power supply; Actions during system degradation for saving and retaining critical sources of power; Restoration when the power system has stabilized at some degraded level.

  11. Wind Power Now!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inglis, David Rittenhouse

    1975-01-01

    The government promotes and heavily subsidizes research in nuclear power plants. Federal development of wind power is slow in comparison even though much research with large wind-electric machines has already been conducted. Unless wind power programs are accelerated it will not become a major energy alternative to nuclear power. (MR)

  12. Recent Power Quality Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okumura, Mutsumu; Kobayashi, Naoki

    With prevalence of high-specified equipment such as power electronics applied device, power quality problems are becoming concerned for both electric utilities and customers. This paper firstly describes what power quality problem is, and then, it outlines recent power quality technologies classified into those of immunity or emission side from the viewpoint of EMC concept, which is practical approach to consider these problems.

  13. Development of a kilowatt-class, joule-level ultrafast laser for driving compact high average power coherent EUV/soft x-ray sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reagan, Brendan A.; Baumgarten, Cory M.; Pedicone, Michael A.; Bravo, Herman; Yin, Liang; Woolston, Mark; Wang, Hanchen; Menoni, Carmen S.; Rocca, Jorge J.

    2016-03-01

    Our recent progress in the development of high energy / high average power, chirped pulse amplification laser systems based on diode-pumped, cryogenically-cooled Yb:YAG amplifiers is discussed, including the demonstration of a laser that produces 1 Joule, sub-10 picosecond duration, λ = 1.03μm pulses at 500 Hz repetition rate. This compact, all-diodepumped laser combines a mode-locked Yb:KYW oscillator and a water-cooled Yb:YAG preamplifer with two cryogenic power amplification stages to produce 1.5 Joule pulses with high beam quality which are subsequently compressed. This laser system occupies an optical table area of less than 1.5x3m2. This laser was employed to pump plasma-based soft x-ray lasers at λ = 10-20nm at repetition rates >=100 Hz. To accomplish this, temporally-shaped pulses were focused at grazing incidence into a high aspect ratio line focus using cylindrical optics on a high shot capacity rotating metal target. This results in an elongated plasma amplifier that produces microjoule pulses at several narrow-linewidth EUV wavelengths between λ = 109Å and 189Å. The resulting fraction of a milliwatt average powers are the highest reported to date for a compact, coherent source operating at these wavelengths, to the best of our knowledge.

  14. Power Plant Systems Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. R.; Yang, Y. Y.

    1973-01-01

    Three basic thermodynamic cycles of advanced nuclear MHD power plant systems are studied. The effect of reactor exit temperature and space radiator temperature on the overall thermal efficiency of a regenerative turbine compressor power plant system is shown. The effect of MHD pressure ratio on plant efficiency is also described, along with the dependence of MHD power output, compressor power requirement, turbine power output, mass flow rate of H2, and overall plant efficiency on the reactor exit temperature for a specific configuration.

  15. Powering Future Naval Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    Ground Renewable Expeditionary Energy System Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cell 9  Long endurance fuel cell power (26hr flight Nov 2009)  Low noise...Near Mid Long EMRG Solid State Lights for Submarines Power Node Switching Center Perovskite - based Pyroelectrics 3 Power & Energy Technologies...Fuel Power Generation Energy Storage Distribution& Control Power Loads Fuels Chemistry Alternative Fuels Gas Turbine Generators Fuel Cells Aircraft

  16. The power of PowerPoint.

    PubMed

    Niamtu, J

    2001-08-01

    Carousel slide presentations have been used for academic and clinical presentations since the late 1950s. However, advances in computer technology have caused a paradigm shift, and digital presentations are quickly becoming standard for clinical presentations. The advantages of digital presentations include cost savings; portability; easy updating capability; Internet access; multimedia functions, such as animation, pictures, video, and sound; and customization to augment audience interest and attention. Microsoft PowerPoint has emerged as the most popular digital presentation software and is currently used by many practitioners with and without significant computer expertise. The user-friendly platform of PowerPoint enables even the novice presenter to incorporate digital presentations into his or her profession. PowerPoint offers many advanced options that, with a minimal investment of time, can be used to create more interactive and professional presentations for lectures, patient education, and marketing. Examples of advanced PowerPoint applications are presented in a stepwise manner to unveil the full power of PowerPoint. By incorporating these techniques, medical practitioners can easily personalize, customize, and enhance their PowerPoint presentations. Complications, pitfalls, and caveats are discussed to detour and prevent misadventures in digital presentations. Relevant Web sites are listed to further update, customize, and communicate PowerPoint techniques.

  17. Green Power Partnership 100 Green Power Users

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. Partners on this list use green power to meet 100 of their U.S. organization-wide electricity use.

  18. Power and revenge.

    PubMed

    Strelan, Peter; Weick, Mario; Vasiljevic, Milica

    2014-09-01

    We took an individual differences approach to explain revenge tendencies in powerholders. Across four experimental studies, chronically powerless individuals sought more revenge than chronically powerful individuals following a high power episode (Studies 1 and 2), when striking a powerful pose (Study 3), and when making a powerful hand gesture (Study 4). This relationship vanished when participants were not exposed to incidental power. A meta-analysis revealed that, relative to a lack of power or a neutral context, exposure to incidental power increased vengeance among the chronically powerless and reduced vengeance among the chronically powerful. These findings add to previous research on relations between power and aggression, and underscore the role of individual differences as a determinant of powerholders' destructive responses.

  19. Synchronous Generator with HTS-2G field coils for Windmills with output power 1 MW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalev, K.; Kovalev, L.; Poltavets, V.; Samsonovich, S.; Ilyasov, R.; Levin, A.; Surin, M.

    2014-05-01

    Nowadays synchronous generators for wind-mills are developed worldwide. The cost of the generator is determined by its size and weight. In this deal the implementation of HTS-2G generators is very perspective. The application of HTS 2G field coils in the rotor allows to reduce the size of the generator is 1.75 times. In this work the design 1 MW HTS-2G generator is considered. The designed 1 MW HTS-2G generator has the following parameters: rotor diameter 800 mm, active length 400 mm, phase voltage 690V, rotor speed 600 min-1 rotor field coils with HTS-2G tapes. HTS-2G field coils located in the rotating cryostat and cooled by liquid nitrogen. The simulation and optimization of HTS-2G field coils geometry allowed to increase feed DC current up to 50A. Copper stator windings are water cooled. Magnetic and electrical losses in 1 MW HTS-2G generator do not exceed 1.6% of the nominal output power. In the construction of HTS-2G generator the wave multiplier with ratio 1:40 is used. The latter allows to reduce the total mass of HTS-2G generator down to 1.5 tons. The small-scale model of HTS-2G generator with output power 50 kW was designed, manufactured and tested. The test results showed good agreement with calculation results. The manufacturing of 1 MW HTS-2G generator is planned in 2014. This work is done under support of Rosatom within the frames of Russian Project "Superconducting Industry".

  20. Photovoltaic power systems workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killian, H. J.; Given, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    Discussions are presented on apparent deficiencies in NASA planning and technology development relating to a standard power module (25-35 kW) and to future photovoltaic power systems in general. Topics of discussion consider the following: (1) adequate studies on power systems; (2) whether a standard power system module should be developed from a standard spacecraft; (3) identification of proper approaches to cost reduction; (4) energy storage avoidance; (5) attitude control; (6) thermal effects of heat rejection on solar array configuration stability; (7) assembly of large power systems in space; and (8) factoring terrestrial photovoltaic work into space power systems for possible payoff.

  1. Flow Components in a NaK Test Loop Designed to Simulate Conditions in a Nuclear Surface Power Reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Godfroy, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    A test loop using NaK as the working fluid is presently in use to study material compatibility effects on various components that comprise a possible nuclear reactor design for use on the lunar surface. A DC electromagnetic (EM) pump has been designed and implemented as a means of actively controlling the NaK flow rate through the system and an EM flow sensor is employed to monitor the developed flow rate. These components allow for the matching of the flow rate conditions in test loops with those that would be found in a full-scale surface-power reactor. The design and operating characteristics of the EM pump and flow sensor are presented. In the EM pump, current is applied to a set of electrodes to produce a Lorentz body force in the fluid. A measurement of the induced voltage (back-EMF) in the flow sensor provides the means of monitoring flow rate. Both components are compact, employing high magnetic field strength neodymium magnets thermally coupled to a water-cooled housing. A vacuum gap limits the heat transferred from the high temperature NaK tube to the magnets and a magnetically-permeable material completes the magnetic circuit. The pump is designed to produce a pressure rise of 5 psi, and the flow sensor's predicted output is roughly 20 mV at the loop's nominal flow rate of 0.5 GPM.

  2. Offshore Floating Wind Turbine-driven Deep Sea Water Pumping for Combined Electrical Power and District Cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sant, T.; Buhagiar, D.; Farrugia, R. N.

    2014-06-01

    A new concept utilising floating wind turbines to exploit the low temperatures of deep sea water for space cooling in buildings is presented. The approach is based on offshore hydraulic wind turbines pumping pressurised deep sea water to a centralised plant consisting of a hydro-electric power system coupled to a large-scale sea water-cooled air conditioning (AC) unit of an urban district cooling network. In order to investigate the potential advantages of this new concept over conventional technologies, a simplified model for performance simulation of a vapour compression AC unit was applied independently to three different systems, with the AC unit operating with (1) a constant flow of sea surface water, (2) a constant flow of sea water consisting of a mixture of surface sea water and deep sea water delivered by a single offshore hydraulic wind turbine and (3) an intermittent flow of deep sea water pumped by a single offshore hydraulic wind turbine. The analysis was based on one year of wind and ambient temperature data for the Central Mediterranean that is known for its deep waters, warm climate and relatively low wind speeds. The study confirmed that while the present concept is less efficient than conventional turbines utilising grid-connected electrical generators, a significant portion of the losses associated with the hydraulic transmission through the pipeline are offset by the extraction of cool deep sea water which reduces the electricity consumption of urban air-conditioning units.

  3. Flow Components in a NaK Test Loop Designed to Simulate Conditions in a Nuclear Surface Power Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Godfroy, Thomas J.

    2008-01-21

    A test loop using NaK as the working fluid is presently in use to study material compatibility effects on various components that comprise a possible nuclear reactor design for use on the lunar surface. A DC electromagnetic (EM) pump has been designed and implemented as a means of actively controlling the NaK flow rate through the system and an EM flow sensor is employed to monitor the developed flow rate. These components allow for the matching of the flow rate conditions in test loops with those that would be found in a full-scale surface-power reactor. The design and operating characteristics of the EM pump and flow sensor are presented. In the EM pump, current is applied to a set of electrodes to produce a Lorentz body force in the fluid. A measurement of the induced voltage (back-EMF) in the flow sensor provides the means of monitoring flow rate. Both components are compact, employing high magnetic field strength neodymium magnets thermally coupled to a water-cooled housing. A vacuum gap limits the heat transferred from the high temperature NaK tube to the magnets and a magnetically-permeable material completes the magnetic circuit. The pump is designed to produce a pressure rise of 34.5 kPa, and the flow sensor's predicted output is roughly 20 mV at the loop's nominal flow rate of 0.114 m{sup 3}/hr.

  4. What Is Green Power?

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership defines Green power is a subset of renewable energy and represents those renewable energy resources and technologies that provide the highest environmental benefit.

  5. Green Power Markets

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership defines Green power is a subset of renewable energy and represents those renewable energy resources and technologies that provide the highest environmental benefit.

  6. Green Power Communities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    GPCs are towns, villages, cities, counties, or tribal governments in which the local government, businesses, and residents collectively use green power in amounts that meet or exceed EPA's Green Power Community purchase requirements.

  7. Green Power Community Benefits

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. Learn more about becoming a Green Power Community, including recognition opportunities.

  8. Technologies. [space power sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Energy technologies to meet the power requirements of future space missions are reviewed. Photovoltaic, solar dynamic, and solar thermal technologies are discussed along with techniques for energy storage and power management and distribution.

  9. Minnesota Power Settlement

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA and DOJ announced a Clean Air Act settlement with Minnesota Power, an ALLETE company based in Duluth, that will cover its three coal-fired power plants and one biomass-and-coal-fired steam and electricity cogeneration plan

  10. Green Power Partner List

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. There are thousands of Green Power Partners, all listed on this page.

  11. Wind power soars

    SciTech Connect

    Flavin, C.

    1996-12-31

    Opinions on the world market for wind power are presented in this paper. Some data for global wind power generating capacity are provided. European and other markets are discussed individually. Estimated potential for wind power is given for a number of countries. 3 figs.

  12. Aircraft Electric Secondary Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Technologies resulted to aircraft power systems and aircraft in which all secondary power is supplied electrically are discussed. A high-voltage dc power generating system for fighter aircraft, permanent magnet motors and generators for aircraft, lightweight transformers, and the installation of electric generators on turbine engines are among the topics discussed.

  13. The Administrative Power Grab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorenson, Richard D.

    2007-01-01

    Administrative power for some school teachers can be an aphrodisiac that can be applied negatively, especially when a leader has devastating instinct for the weaknesses of others. A leader's intellect and heart closes shop and ceases to function when drunk on power. In this article, the author describes how the use of administrative power can be…

  14. Power in everyday life

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Wilhelm

    2016-01-01

    How does power manifest itself in everyday life? Using experience-sampling methodology, we investigated the prevalence, sources, and correlates of power in people’s natural environments. Participants experienced power-relevant situations regularly, though not frequently. High power was not restricted to a limited few: almost half of the sample reported experiencing high-power positions. Positional power and subjective feelings of power were strongly related but had unique relations with several individual difference measures and independent effects on participants’ affect, cognition, and interpersonal relations. Subjective feelings of power resulted more from within-participant situational fluctuation, such as the social roles participants held at different times, than from stable differences between people. Our data supported some theoretical predictions about power’s effects on affect, cognition, and interpersonal relations, but qualified others, particularly highlighting the role of responsibility in power’s effects. Although the power literature has focused on high power, we found stronger effects of low power than high power. PMID:27551069

  15. Fluid Power Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Pam

    2008-01-01

    Fluid power technicians, sometimes called hydraulic and pneumatic technicians, work with equipment that utilizes the pressure of a liquid or gas in a closed container to transmit, multiply, or control power. Working under the supervision of an engineer or engineering staff, they assemble, install, maintain, and test fluid power equipment.…

  16. Solar lunar power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila G.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1994-01-01

    Current and projected technology is assessed for photovoltaic power for a lunar base. The following topics are discussed: requirements for power during the lunar day and night; solar cell efficiencies, specific power, temperature sensitivity, and availability; storage options for the lunar night; array and system integration; the potential for in situ production of photovoltaic arrays and storage medium.

  17. The Power of Powerlessness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeks, Gerald; Johnson, Jackie

    1980-01-01

    Power and the paradox of powerlessness are defined in terms of the resource exchange theory of Foa and Foa. Power is conceptualized as the possession of resources, e.g., love, status, and money. The Karpman triangle is used to illustrate the power behind the victim's powerlessness. (Author)

  18. Green Power Communities Brochure

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Green Power Communities Brochure provides basic information about GPP's Green Power Communities (GPCs). The four-page brochure includes information about how to become a GPC, the benefits of procuring green power, and examples of how current GPCs are u

  19. Power Plant Cycling Costs

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, N.; Besuner, P.; Lefton, S.; Agan, D.; Hilleman, D.

    2012-07-01

    This report provides a detailed review of the most up to date data available on power plant cycling costs. The primary objective of this report is to increase awareness of power plant cycling cost, the use of these costs in renewable integration studies and to stimulate debate between policymakers, system dispatchers, plant personnel and power utilities.

  20. Revealing power in truth

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kelley

    2015-01-01

    Jeremy Shiffman’s editorial appropriately calls on making all forms of power more apparent and accountable, notably productive power derived from expertise and claims to moral authority. This commentary argues that relationships based on productive power can be especially difficult to reveal in global health policy because of embedded notions about the nature of power and politics. Yet, it is essential to recognize that global health is shot through with power relationships, that they can take many forms, and that their explicit acknowledgement should be part of, rather than factored out of, any reform of global health governance. PMID:25844390

  1. Multimegawatt space power reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Dearien, J.A.; Whitbeck, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    In response to the need of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) and long range space exploration and extra-terrestrial basing by the National Air and Space Administration (NASA), concepts for nuclear power systems in the multi-megawatt levels are being designed and evaluated. The requirements for these power systems are being driven primarily by the need to minimize weight and maximize safety and reliability. This paper will discuss the present requirements for space based advanced power systems, technological issues associated with the development of these advanced nuclear power systems, and some of the concepts proposed for generating large amounts of power in space. 31 figs.

  2. Multimode power processor

    DOEpatents

    O'Sullivan, George A.; O'Sullivan, Joseph A.

    1999-01-01

    In one embodiment, a power processor which operates in three modes: an inverter mode wherein power is delivered from a battery to an AC power grid or load; a battery charger mode wherein the battery is charged by a generator; and a parallel mode wherein the generator supplies power to the AC power grid or load in parallel with the battery. In the parallel mode, the system adapts to arbitrary non-linear loads. The power processor may operate on a per-phase basis wherein the load may be synthetically transferred from one phase to another by way of a bumpless transfer which causes no interruption of power to the load when transferring energy sources. Voltage transients and frequency transients delivered to the load when switching between the generator and battery sources are minimized, thereby providing an uninterruptible power supply. The power processor may be used as part of a hybrid electrical power source system which may contain, in one embodiment, a photovoltaic array, diesel engine, and battery power sources.

  3. Multimode power processor

    DOEpatents

    O'Sullivan, G.A.; O'Sullivan, J.A.

    1999-07-27

    In one embodiment, a power processor which operates in three modes: an inverter mode wherein power is delivered from a battery to an AC power grid or load; a battery charger mode wherein the battery is charged by a generator; and a parallel mode wherein the generator supplies power to the AC power grid or load in parallel with the battery. In the parallel mode, the system adapts to arbitrary non-linear loads. The power processor may operate on a per-phase basis wherein the load may be synthetically transferred from one phase to another by way of a bumpless transfer which causes no interruption of power to the load when transferring energy sources. Voltage transients and frequency transients delivered to the load when switching between the generator and battery sources are minimized, thereby providing an uninterruptible power supply. The power processor may be used as part of a hybrid electrical power source system which may contain, in one embodiment, a photovoltaic array, diesel engine, and battery power sources. 31 figs.

  4. Strain powered antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domann, John P.; Carman, Greg P.

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes the creation of strain powered antennas that radiate electromagnetic energy by mechanically vibrating a piezoelectric or piezomagnetic material. A closed form analytic model of electromagnetic radiation from a strain powered electrically small antenna is derived and analyzed. Fundamental scaling laws and the frequency dependence of strain powered antennas are discussed. The radiation efficiency of strain powered electrically small antennas is contrasted with a conventional electric dipole. Analytical results show that operating at the first mechanical resonance produces the most efficient strain powered radiation relative to electric dipole antennas. A resonant analysis is exploited to determine the material property space that produces efficient strain powered antennas. These results show how a properly designed strain powered antenna can radiate more efficiently than an equally sized electric dipole antenna.

  5. Nuclear Power in Space

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    1994-01-01

    In the early years of the United States space program, lightweight batteries, fuel cells, and solar modules provided electric power for space missions. As missions became more ambitious and complex, power needs increased and scientists investigated various options to meet these challenging power requirements. One of the options was nuclear energy. By the mid-1950s, research had begun in earnest on ways to use nuclear power in space. These efforts resulted in the first radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs), which are nuclear power generators build specifically for space and special terrestrial uses. These RTGs convert the heat generated from the natural decay of their radioactive fuel into electricity. RTGs have powered many spacecraft used for exploring the outer planets of the solar system and orbiting the sun and Earth. They have also landed on Mars and the moon. They provide the power that enables us to see and learn about even the farthermost objects in our solar system.

  6. International Space Station Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Propp, Timothy William

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives a general overview of the International Space Station Power Systems. The topics include: 1) The Basics of Power; 2) Space Power Systems Design Constraints; 3) Solar Photovoltaic Power Systems; 4) Energy Storage for Space Power Systems; 5) Challenges of Operating Power Systems in Earth Orbit; 6) and International Space Station Electrical Power System.

  7. Next Generation Power and Energy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-02

    Cells Advanced Generators Direct Conversion Photovoltaics Future Fuels Energy Storage Batteries Capacitors Flywheels Motors & Actuators Motors Actuators...Generation Power Distribution Energy Storage Power Conversion Propulsion Ship’s Power Sources Mission Systems Industry Competes for Components; ‘Submit...Chiller Technologies / HVAC ONR Maintaining Robust S&T Investment Power LoadSystem Control Power Generation Power Distribution Energy Storage Power

  8. Discharge Characteristics of Large-Area High-Power RF Ion Source for Positive and Negative Neutral Beam Injectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doo-Hee, Chang; Seung, Ho Jeong; Min, Park; Tae-Seong, Kim; Bong-Ki, Jung; Kwang, Won Lee; Sang Ryul, In

    2016-12-01

    A large-area high-power radio-frequency (RF) driven ion source was developed for positive and negative neutral beam injectors at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). The RF ion source consists of a driver region, including a helical antenna and a discharge chamber, and an expansion region. RF power can be transferred at up to 10 kW with a fixed frequency of 2 MHz through an optimized RF matching system. An actively water-cooled Faraday shield is located inside the driver region of the ion source for the stable and steady-state operations of high-power RF discharge. Plasma ignition of the ion source is initiated by the injection of argon-gas without a starter-filament heating, and the argon-gas is then slowly exchanged by the injection of hydrogen-gas to produce pure hydrogen plasmas. The uniformities of the plasma parameter, such as a plasma density and an electron temperature, are measured at the lowest area of the driver region using two RF-compensated electrostatic probes along the direction of the short-and long-dimensions of the driver region. The plasma parameters will be compared with those obtained at the lowest area of the expansion bucket to analyze the plasma expansion properties from the driver region to the expansion region. supported by the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning of the Republic of Korea under the ITER Technology R&D Program, and National R&D Program Through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) Funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning (NRF-2014M1A7A1A03045372)

  9. On power and empowerment.

    PubMed

    Pratto, Felicia

    2016-03-01

    This study presents a conceptual analysis of social power. The most common theories of power are social-relational, an approach instantiated in a range of contemporary experiments that give participants the chance to control other people's outcomes. The relational approach is also reflected in various analyses of international relations. In comparing and contrasting relational theories of power, I identify logical inconsistencies and shortcomings in their ability to address empowerment and reductions in inequality. In turn, I propose a new ecological conceptualization of empowerment as the state of being able to achieve one's goals and of power as stemming from a combination of the capacity of the party and the affordances of the environment. I explain how this new conceptualization can describe the main kinds of power social relations, avoid logical contradictions, and moreover, distinguish power from agency and from control. This new conceptualization of power as the possibility of meeting goals, coupled with recognizing survival as the fundamental goal of all living things, implies an absolute and not relative or relational standard for power, namely well-being. It also allows us to conceive of power in ways that help address the many social concerns that have motivated research on power.

  10. Power-constrained supercomputing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Peter E.

    As we approach exascale systems, power is turning from an optimization goal to a critical operating constraint. With power bounds imposed by both stakeholders and the limitations of existing infrastructure, achieving practical exascale computing will therefore rely on optimizing performance subject to a power constraint. However, this requirement should not add to the burden of application developers; optimizing the runtime environment given restricted power will primarily be the job of high-performance system software. In this dissertation, we explore this area and develop new techniques that extract maximum performance subject to a particular power constraint. These techniques include a method to find theoretical optimal performance, a runtime system that shifts power in real time to improve performance, and a node-level prediction model for selecting power-efficient operating points. We use a linear programming (LP) formulation to optimize application schedules under various power constraints, where a schedule consists of a DVFS state and number of OpenMP threads for each section of computation between consecutive message passing events. We also provide a more flexible mixed integer-linear (ILP) formulation and show that the resulting schedules closely match schedules from the LP formulation. Across four applications, we use our LP-derived upper bounds to show that current approaches trail optimal, power-constrained performance by up to 41%. This demonstrates limitations of current systems, and our LP formulation provides future optimization approaches with a quantitative optimization target. We also introduce Conductor, a run-time system that intelligently distributes available power to nodes and cores to improve performance. The key techniques used are configuration space exploration and adaptive power balancing. Configuration exploration dynamically selects the optimal thread concurrency level and DVFS state subject to a hardware-enforced power bound

  11. Power Quality Aspects in a Wind Power Plant: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Muljadi, E.; Butterfield, C. P.; Chacon, J.; Romanowitz, H.

    2006-01-01

    Although many operational aspects affect wind power plant operation, this paper focuses on power quality. Because a wind power plant is connected to the grid, it is very important to understand the sources of disturbances that affect the power quality.

  12. Powerful Winds in Extreme RBS quasars (POWER)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piconcelli, Enrico

    2013-10-01

    This proposal aims at studying powerful outflows in ultra-luminous (log Lx >45) Radio-Quiet Quasars (RQQ). We propose to observe four objects extracted from a luminosity limited sample in the ROSAT Bright Survey for a full orbit (130 ks) each. Both models and observations suggest that the efficiency of driving energetic outflows increases with the AGN luminosity. Therefore, our targets are potentially the best objects to hunt for very powerful outflows expected in the AGN/galaxy feedback scenario. Our observations represent the first attempt ever to obtain deep, high-resolution-driven spectroscopy of a representative sample of RQQ in this high-luminosity regime.

  13. Peak power ratio generator

    DOEpatents

    Moyer, R.D.

    A peak power ratio generator is described for measuring, in combination with a conventional power meter, the peak power level of extremely narrow pulses in the gigahertz radio frequency bands. The present invention in a preferred embodiment utilizes a tunnel diode and a back diode combination in a detector circuit as the only high speed elements. The high speed tunnel diode provides a bistable signal and serves as a memory device of the input pulses for the remaining, slower components. A hybrid digital and analog loop maintains the peak power level of a reference channel at a known amount. Thus, by measuring the average power levels of the reference signal and the source signal, the peak power level of the source signal can be determined.

  14. Peak power ratio generator

    DOEpatents

    Moyer, Robert D.

    1985-01-01

    A peak power ratio generator is described for measuring, in combination with a conventional power meter, the peak power level of extremely narrow pulses in the gigahertz radio frequency bands. The present invention in a preferred embodiment utilizes a tunnel diode and a back diode combination in a detector circuit as the only high speed elements. The high speed tunnel diode provides a bistable signal and serves as a memory device of the input pulses for the remaining, slower components. A hybrid digital and analog loop maintains the peak power level of a reference channel at a known amount. Thus, by measuring the average power levels of the reference signal and the source signal, the peak power level of the source signal can be determined.

  15. Power Subscription Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1998-12-21

    This document lays out the Bonneville Power Administration`s Power Subscription Strategy, a process that will enable the people of the Pacific Northwest to share the benefits of the Federal Columbia river Power System after 2001 while retaining those benefits within the region for future generations. The strategy also addresses how those who receive the benefits of the region`s low-cost federal power should share a corresponding measure of the risks. This strategy seeks to implement the subscription concept created by the Comprehensive Review in 1996 through contracts for the sale of power and the distribution of federal power benefits in the deregulated wholesale electricity market. The success of the subscription process is fundamental to BPA`s overall business purpose to provide public benefits to the Northwest through commercially successful businesses.

  16. 100 most powerful.

    PubMed

    Romano, Michael

    2002-08-26

    Compiling a list of the 100 Most Powerful People in Healthcare requires some contemplation. Exactly what is power in this industry? C. Thomas Smith, president and CEO of VHA, calls power simply "the ability to make a difference." The influential figures chosen by Modern Healthcare readers represent a broadly varied and diverse group of movers and shakers. But they share the ability to change things.

  17. Power Systems integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brantley, L. W.

    1982-01-01

    Power systems integration in large flexible space structures is discussed with emphasis upon body control. A solar array is discussed as a typical example of spacecraft configuration problems. Information on how electric batteries dominate life-cycle costs is presented in chart form. Information is given on liquid metal droplet generators and collectors, hot spot analysis, power dissipation in solar arrays, solar array protection optimization, and electromagnetic compatibility for a power system platform.

  18. Interleaved power converter

    DOEpatents

    Zhu, Lizhi

    2007-11-13

    A power converter architecture interleaves full bridge converters to alleviate thermal management problems in high current applications, and may, for example, double the output power capability while reducing parts count and costs. For example, one phase of a three phase inverter is shared between two transformers, which provide power to a rectifier such as a current doubler rectifier to provide two full bridge DC/DC converters with three rather than four high voltage inverter legs.

  19. NEP power subsystem modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harty, Richard B.

    The Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) system optimization code consists of a master module and various submodules. Each of the submodules represents a subsystem within the total NEP power system. The master module sends commands and input data to each of the submodules and receives output data back. Rocketdyne was responsible for preparing submodules for the power conversion (both K-Rankine and Brayton), heat rejection, and power management and distribution.

  20. Electric power annual 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-08

    This report presents a summary of electric power industry statistics at national, regional, and state levels: generating capability and additions, net generation, fossil-fuel statistics, retail sales and revenue, finanical statistics, environmental statistics, power transactions, demand side management, nonutility power producers. Purpose is to provide industry decisionmakers, government policymakers, analysts, and the public with historical data that may be used in understanding US electricity markets.

  1. Power subsystem automation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tietz, J. C.; Sewy, D.; Pickering, C.; Sauers, R.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of the phase 2 of the power subsystem automation study was to demonstrate the feasibility of using computer software to manage an aspect of the electrical power subsystem on a space station. The state of the art in expert systems software was investigated in this study. This effort resulted in the demonstration of prototype expert system software for managing one aspect of a simulated space station power subsystem.

  2. Nuclear power browning out

    SciTech Connect

    Flavin, C.; Lenssen, N.

    1996-05-01

    When the sad history of nuclear power is written, April 26, 1986, will be recorded as the day the dream died. The explosion at the Chernobyl plant was a terrible human tragedy- and it delivered a stark verdict on the hope that nuclear power will one day replace fossil fuel-based energy systems. Nuclear advocates may soldier on, but a decade after Chernobyl it is clear that nuclear power is no longer a viable energy option for the twenty-first century.

  3. Space station power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baraona, Cosmo R.

    1987-01-01

    The major requirements and guidelines that affect the space station configuration and power system are explained. The evolution of the space station power system from the NASA program development-feasibility phase through the current preliminary design phase is described. Several early station concepts are described and linked to the present concept. Trade study selections of photovoltaic system technologies are described in detail. A summary of present solar dynamic and power management and distribution systems is also given.

  4. Unified powered flight guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brand, T. J.; Brown, D. W.; Higgins, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    A complete revision of the orbiter powered flight guidance scheme is presented. A unified approach to powered flight guidance was taken to accommodate all phases of exo-atmospheric orbiter powered flight, from ascent through deorbit. The guidance scheme was changed from the previous modified version of the Lambert Aim Point Maneuver Mode used in Apollo to one that employs linear tangent guidance concepts. This document replaces the previous ascent phase equation document.

  5. Hand and Power Tools

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    Hand and Power Tools U.S. Department of Labor Occupational Safety and Health Administration OSHA 3080 1998 (Revised) Report Documentation Page Report...Date 00001998 Report Type N/A Dates Covered (from... to) - Title and Subtitle Hand and Power Tools Contract Number Grant Number Program...basic safety procedures and safeguards associated with hand and portable power tools . Material in this booklet is based on the standards of the

  6. Application Power Signature Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Chung-Hsing; Combs, Jacob; Nazor, Jolie; Santiago, Fabian; Thysell, Rachelle; Rivoire, Suzanne; Poole, Stephen W

    2014-01-01

    The high-performance computing (HPC) community has been greatly concerned about energy efficiency. To address this concern, it is essential to understand and characterize the electrical loads of HPC applications. In this work, we study whether HPC applications can be distinguished by their power-consumption patterns using quantitative measures in an automatic manner. Using a collection of 88 power traces from 4 different systems, we find that basic statistical measures do a surprisingly good job of summarizing applications' distinctive power behavior. Moreover, this study opens up a new area of research in power-aware HPC that has a multitude of potential applications.

  7. A power fund focus

    SciTech Connect

    Hennagir, T.

    1996-04-01

    The Indeck North American Power Fund LP, which was formed for the purpose of purchasing established non-utility and utility power generating assets in the U.S. and Canada, is discussed in this article. Fund participants are listed, and the two acquisitions made to date are described. The 38 MW(e) Pepperell Power Project in Massachussets was acquired in August 1995 from Kenetech Energy Systems Inc. In October 1995, the Fund purchased the 76 MW(e) Harbor Cogeneration Project in California. The Fund will also consider purchasing equity interests in North American power projects.

  8. Power beaming options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rather, John D. G.

    1989-01-01

    Some large scale power beaming applications are proposed for the purpose of stimulating research. The first proposal is for a combination of large phased arrays on the ground near power stations and passive reflectors in geostationary orbit. The systems would beam excess electrical power in microwave form to areas in need of electrical power. Another proposal is to build solar arrays in deserts and beam the energy around the world. Another proposal is to use lasers to beam energy from earth to orbiting spacecraft.

  9. Can solar power deliver?

    PubMed

    Nelson, Jenny; Emmott, Christopher J M

    2013-08-13

    Solar power represents a vast resource which could, in principle, meet the world's needs for clean power generation. Recent growth in the use of photovoltaic (PV) technology has demonstrated the potential of solar power to deliver on a large scale. Whilst the dominant PV technology is based on crystalline silicon, a wide variety of alternative PV materials and device concepts have been explored in an attempt to decrease the cost of the photovoltaic electricity. This article explores the potential for such emerging technologies to deliver cost reductions, scalability of manufacture, rapid carbon mitigation and new science in order to accelerate the uptake of solar power technologies.

  10. Hybrid Power Management (HPM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center s Avionics, Power and Communications Branch of the Engineering and Systems Division initiated the Hybrid Power Management (HPM) Program for the GRC Technology Transfer and Partnership Office. HPM is the innovative integration of diverse, state-of-the-art power devices in an optimal configuration for space and terrestrial applications. The appropriate application and control of the various power devices significantly improves overall system performance and efficiency. The advanced power devices include ultracapacitors and fuel cells. HPM has extremely wide potential. Applications include power generation, transportation systems, biotechnology systems, and space power systems. HPM has the potential to significantly alleviate global energy concerns, improve the environment, and stimulate the economy. One of the unique power devices being utilized by HPM for energy storage is the ultracapacitor. An ultracapacitor is an electrochemical energy storage device, which has extremely high volumetric capacitance energy due to high surface area electrodes, and very small electrode separation. Ultracapacitors are a reliable, long life, maintenance free, energy storage system. This flexible operating system can be applied to all power systems to significantly improve system efficiency, reliability, and performance. There are many existing and conceptual applications of HPM.

  11. CSTI high capacity power

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, J.M.

    1994-09-01

    The SP-100 program was established in 1983 by DOD, DOE, and NASA as a joint program to develop the technology necessary for space nuclear power systems for military and civil application. During FY86 and 87, the NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology Program was devised to maintain the momentum of promising technology advancement efforts started during Phase I of SP-100 and to strengthen, in key areas, the chances for successful development and growth capability of space nuclear reactor power systems for future space applications. In FY88, the Advanced Technology Program was incorporated into NASA`s new Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The CSTI Program was established to provide the foundation for technology development in automation and robotics, information, propulsion, and power. The CSTI High Capacity Power Program builds on the technology efforts of the SP-100 program, incorporates the previous NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology project, and provides a bridge to NASA Project Pathfinder. The elements of CSTI High Capacity Power development include Conversion Systems, Thermal Management, Power Management, System Diagnostics, and Environmental Interactions. Technology advancement in all areas, including materials, is required to assure the high reliability and 7 to 10 year lifetime demanded for future space nuclear power systems. The overall program will develop and demonstrate the technology base required to provide a wide range of modular power systems as well as allowing mission independence from solar and orbital attitude requirements. Several recent advancements in CSTI High Capacity power development will be discussed.

  12. CSTI High Capacity Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winter, Jerry M.

    1989-01-01

    The SP-100 program was established in 1983 by DOD, DOE, and NASA as a joint program to develop the technology necessary for space nuclear power systems for military and civil application. During FY-86 and 87, the NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology Program was devised to maintain the momentum of promising technology advancement efforts started during Phase 1 of SP-100 and to strengthen, in key areas, the chances for successful development and growth capability of space nuclear reactor power systems for future space applications. In FY-88, the Advanced Technology Program was incorporated into NASA's new Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The CSTI Program was established to provide the foundation for technology development in automation and robotics, information, propulsion, and power. The CSTI High Capacity Power Program builds on the technology efforts of the SP-100 program, incorporates the previous NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology project, and provides a bridge to NASA Project Pathfinder. The elements of CSTI High Capacity Power development include Conversion Systems, Thermal Management, Power Management, System Diagnostics, and Environmental Interactions. Technology advancement in all areas, including materials, is required to assure the high reliability and 7 to 10 year lifetime demanded for future space nuclear power systems. The overall program will develop and demonstrate the technology base required to provide a wide range of modular power systems as well as allowing mission independence from solar and orbital attitude requirements. Several recent advancements in CSTI High Capacity power development will be discussed.

  13. Electrical Power Requirements.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    POWER SUPPLIES, TEST METHODS), ARMY EQUIPMENT, BATTERY COMPONENTS, ELECTRIC BATTERIES, VEHICLES, GENERATORS, FUEL CELLS, SEEBECK EFFECT , TEST EQUIPMENT, ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY, DATA PROCESSING

  14. ELECTROSTATIC POWER GENERATOR.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    ELECTROSTATIC GENERATORS , POWER EQUIPMENT, ELECTRIC GOVERNORS, CIRCUITS, VACUUM SEALS, ELECTRICAL INSULATION, VACUUM, ELECTRODES, FINISHES, SURFACE...FINISHING, SURFACE PROPERTIES, HARDNESS, PULSE GENERATORS , TRANSFORMERS, FIELD EMISSION.

  15. ELECTROSTATIC POWER GENERATOR.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    ELECTROSTATIC GENERATORS , POWER EQUIPMENT, ELECTRICAL INSULATION, FIELD EMISSION, ELECTRODES, VACUUM, SURFACE PROPERTIES, ANODES, CATHODES, POLISHES...DIELECTRICS, COATINGS, PRESSURE, HARDNESS, PULSE GENERATORS , TRANSFORMERS, VACUUM SEALS, EQUATIONS.

  16. Power conversion technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Haigh, R E

    1998-01-01

    The Power Conservation Technologies thrust area supports initiatives that enhance the core competencies of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Engineering Directorate in the area of solid-state power electronics. Through partnerships with LLNL programs, projects focus on the development of enabling technologies for existing and emerging programs that have unique power conversion requirements. This year, a multi-disciplinary effort was supported which demonstrated solid-state, high voltage generation by using a dense, monolithic photovoltaic array. This effort builds upon Engineering's strengths in the core technology areas of power conversion, photonics, and microtechnologies.

  17. Peak Power Markets for Satellite Solar Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper introduces first Indonesia, comprises 15,000 islands, has land area of two millions square kilometers. Extending from 95 to 141 degrees East longitude and from 6 degrees North to 11 degrees South latitude. Further the market of the Space Solar Power/SPS must be worldwide, including Indonesia. As we know, it can provide electricity anywhere in the world from the Earth's orbit, mostly Indonesia an equator country. We have to perform case studies of various countries to understand their benefits and disadvantages provided by the SSP, because each country has much different condition on energy from other countries. We are at the moment starting the international collaboration between Indonesia and Japan to carry out the case study for Indonesia. We understand that in Indonesia itself each province has much different micro-climate between one province compared to the other. In Japan, METI (Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry) has already organized a committee to investigate the feasibility of Space Solar Power and to make a plan to launch a space demonstration of the SPS. While, Indonesia is quickly developing economy and increasing their energy demand. We are investigating the detailed energy conditions of Indonesia, the benefits and disadvantages of the Space Solar Power for Indonesia. Especially, we will perform the investigation on the receiving system for the Japanese pilot Space Power Satellite.

  18. On the Powers of Powerful Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Michael; Muller, Johan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore and clarify the idea of "powerful knowledge" as a sociological concept and as a curriculum principle. The paper seeks to clarify its conceptual basis and to make its meaning and the arguments it implies, less ambiguous and less open to misunderstanding. This will enable us to suggest some of the…

  19. Industrial grade fiber-coupled laser systems delivering ultrashort high-power pulses for micromachining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pricking, Sebastian; Welp, Petra; Overbuschmann, Johannes; Nutsch, Sebastian; Gebs, Raphael; Fleischhaker, Robert; Kleinbauer, Jochen; Wolf, Martin; Budnicki, Aleksander; Sutter, Dirk H.; Killi, Alexander; Mielke, Michael

    2016-03-01

    We report on an industrial fiber-delivered laser system producing ultra-short pulses in the range of a few picoseconds down to a few hundred femtoseconds with high average power suitable for high-precision micromachining. The delivery fiber is a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber with a Kagomé shaped lattice and a hypocycloid core wall enabling the guiding of laser radiation over several meters with exceptionally low losses and preservation of high beam quality (M2<1.3). The mode-matching and coupling optics are integrated into the laser head providing a compact footprint without the need for external boxes. The laser head is carefully designed regarding its thermo-mechanical properties to allow a highly reliable coupling stability. The exchangeable delivery fiber is packaged using Trumpf's well established LLK-D connectors which offer a very high mechanical precision, the possibility to add water cooling, as well as full featured safety functions. The fiber is hermetically sealed and protected by a robust but flexible shield providing bend protection and break detection. We show the linear and nonlinear optical properties of the transported laser radiation and discuss its feasibility for pulse compression. Measurements are supported by simulation of pulse propagation by solving the nonlinear Schrödinger equation implementing the split-step Fourier method. In addition, mode properties are measured and confirmed by finite element method simulations. The presented industrial laser system offers the known advantages of ultra-short pulses combined with the flexibility of fiber delivery yielding a versatile tool perfectly suitable for all kinds of industrial micromachining applications.

  20. Stress-corrosion cracking issues related to a water-cooled ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, R. H.; Bruemmer, S. M.; Henager, C. H.

    1991-03-01

    A review of water impurity and temperature effects on stress-corrosion cracking of austenitic stainless steel is presented. These results demonstrate that stress-corrosion crack growth can occur at ITER relevant temperatures for certain water chemistries and material conditions. A model developed at PNL to calculate the degree of sensitization was used to estimate the potential for sensitization of Type 316 SS and US PCA. This analysis shows that both materials can be severely sensitized but, with proper processing and fabrication, sensitization should be avoidable.

  1. Oxidation of Zircaloy Fuel Cladding in Water-Cooled Nuclear Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Macdonald, Digby; Urquidi-Macdonald, Mirna; Chen, Yingzi; Ai, Jiahe; Park, Pilyeon; Kim, Han-Sang

    2006-12-12

    Our work involved the continued development of the theory of passivity and passivity breakdown, in the form of the Point Defect Model, with emphasis on zirconium and zirconium alloys in reactor coolant environments, the measurement of critically-important parameters, and the development of a code that can be used by reactor operators to actively manage the accumulation of corrosion damage to the fuel cladding and other components in the heat transport circuits in both BWRs and PWRs. In addition, the modified boiling crevice model has been further developed to describe the accumulation of solutes in porous deposits (CRUD) on fuel under boiling (BWRs) and nucleate boiling (PWRs) conditions, in order to accurately describe the environment that is contact with the Zircaloy cladding. In the current report, we have derived expressions for the total steady-state current density and the partial anodic and cathodic current densities to establish a deterministic basis for describing Zircaloy oxidation. The models are “deterministic” because the relevant natural laws are satisfied explicitly, most importantly the conversation of mass and charge and the equivalence of mass and charge (Faraday’s law). Cathodic reactions (oxygen reduction and hydrogen evolution) are also included in the models, because there is evidence that they control the rate of the overall passive film formation process. Under open circuit conditions, the cathodic reactions, which must occur at the same rate as the zirconium oxidation reaction, are instrumental in determining the corrosion potential and hence the thickness of the barrier and outer layers of the passive film. Controlled hydrodynamic methods have been used to measure important parameters in the modified Point Defect Model (PDM), which is now being used to describe the growth and breakdown of the passive film on zirconium and on Zircaloy fuel sheathing in BWRs and PWRs coolant environments. The modified PDMs recognize the existence of a thick oxide outer layer over a thin barrier layer. From thermodynamic analysis, it is postulated that a hydride barrier layer forms under PWR coolant conditions whereas an oxide barrier layer forms under BWR primary coolant conditions. Thus, the introduction of hydrogen into the solution lowers the corrosion potential of zirconium to the extent that the formation of ZrH2 is predicted to be spontaneous rather than the ZrO2. Mott-Schottky analysis shows that the passive film formed on zirconium is n-type, which is consistent with the PDM, corresponding to a preponderance of oxygen/hydrogen vacancies and/or zirconium interstitials in the barrier layer. The model parameter values were extracted from electrochemical impedance spectroscopic data for zirconium in high temperature, de-aerated and hydrogenated environments by optimization. The results indicate that the corrosion resistance of zirconium is dominated by the porosity and thickness of the outer layer for both cases. The impedance model based on the PDM provides a good account of the growth of the bi-layer passive films described above, and the extracted model parameter values might be used, for example, for predicting the accumulation of general corrosion damage to Zircaloy fuel sheath in BWR and PWR operating environments. Transients in current density and film thickness for passive film formation on zirconium in dearated and hydrogenated coolant conditions have confirmed that the rate law afforded by the Point Defect Model (PDM) adequately describes the growth and thinning of the passive film. The experimental results demonstrate that the kinetics of oxygen or hydrogen vacancy generation at the metal/film interface control the rate of film growth, when the potential is displaced in the positive direction, whereas the kinetics of dissolution of the barrier layer at the barrier layer/solution interface control the rate of passive film thinning when the potential is stepped in the negative direction. In addition, the effects of second phase particles (SPPs) on the electrochemistry of passive zirconium in the hydrogenated, high temperature aqueous solutions were examined by using different heat-treated Zircaloy-4 samples; i.e., as-received, -quenched, and -annealed. The average size of the second phase particles in the Zircaloy-4 samples was in the sequence of -quenched < -annealed < as-received, with the reverse sequence being observed in the areal density. Electrochemical studies show that the size and density of the second phase particles are the determining factors of the electrochemical properties of the passive films. The second phase particles may cause short circuits in the electrical path across the passive film, which would explain the effect of the size and the density of the SPPs, and hence heat treatment, on the corrosion properties of passive Zircaloy-4.

  2. Experiments on FTU with an actively water cooled liquid lithium limiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzitelli, G.; Apicella, M. L.; Apruzzese, G.; Crescenzi, F.; Iannone, F.; Maddaluno, G.; Pericoli-Ridolfini, V.; Roccella, S.; Reale, M.; Viola, B.; Lyublinski, I.; Vertkov, A.

    2015-08-01

    In order to prevent the overheating of the liquid Li surface and the consequent Li evaporation for T > 500 °C, an advanced version of the liquid lithium limiter has been realized and installed on FTU. This new system, named Cooled Lithium Limiter (CLL), has been optimized to demonstrate the lithium limiter capability to sustain thermal loads as high as 10 MW/m2 with up to 5 s of plasma pulse duration. The CLL operates with an actively cooled system with water circulation at the temperature of about 200 °C, for heating lithium up to the melting point and for the heat removal during the plasma discharges. To characterize CLL during discharges, a fast infrared camera and the spectroscopic signals from Li and D atom emission have been used. The experiments analyzed so far and simulated by ANSYS code, point out that heat loads as high as 2 MW/m2 for 1.5 s have been withstood without problems.

  3. Numerical Simulation of Macrosegregation in Water-Cooled Heavy Flat Ingot During Solidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Qingyong; Wang, Fuming; Li, Changrong; Li, Menglong; Zhang, Jing; Cui, Guanjun

    2014-07-01

    Based on a volume-averaged two-phase approach, a coupled concentration, temperature, and velocity fields model has been established to predict the formation of macrosegregation during solidification. Because of the significant influence of velocity field on solute transfer and distribution during solidification process, the density of liquid steel was set as a function of temperature and concentration to accurately calculate the velocity field. Therefore, the influence of gravity, temperature gradient, concentration gradient, and volume shrinkage on velocity field distribution was comprehensively considered. The calculation result showed good agreement with previous reports. Thereafter, the current model was applied to simulate the solidification of 12Cr2Mo1R (ASTM standard 2.25Cr1Mo) heavy ingot, and the influence of surface cooling intensity on the final carbon macrosegregation was investigated. The results showed that with the increase of cooling intensity, the solidification time, flow velocity, and mushy zone width decrease, and as a result, macrosegregation is alleviated. When the heat-transfer coefficient is less than 1000 W m-2 K-1, macrosegregation dramatically decreases with the rise of cooling intensity. In contrast, when heat-transfer coefficient is greater than 1000 W m-2 K-1, the effect of reducing the central carbon segregation by increasing cooling is weakened.

  4. Apparatus and method of direct water cooling several parallel circuit cards each containing several chip packages

    SciTech Connect

    Cipolla, Thomas M; Colgan, Evan George; Coteus, Paul W; Hall, Shawn Anthony; Tian, Shurong

    2011-12-20

    A cooling apparatus, system and like method for an electronic device includes a plurality of heat producing electronic devices affixed to a wiring substrate. A plurality of heat transfer assemblies each include heat spreaders and thermally communicate with the heat producing electronic devices for transferring heat from the heat producing electronic devices to the heat transfer assemblies. The plurality of heat producing electronic devices and respective heat transfer assemblies are positioned on the wiring substrate having the regions overlapping. A heat conduit thermally communicates with the heat transfer assemblies. The heat conduit circulates thermally conductive fluid therethrough in a closed loop for transferring heat to the fluid from the heat transfer assemblies via the heat spreader. A thermally conductive support structure supports the heat conduit and thermally communicates with the heat transfer assemblies via the heat spreader transferring heat to the fluid of the heat conduit from the support structure.

  5. Demonstration of Noncorrosive, Capacitance- Based Water-Treatment Technology for Chilled-Water Cooling Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    its ability to deliver documented water conservation results while providing corrosion , scaling, and biofouling protection in open-loop evaporative...water usage and 50% reduction in blow- down while meeting or exceeding criteria for protection of equipment from scale, corrosion , and biofouling...ER D C/ CE RL T R- 14 -1 5 DoD Corrosion Prevention and Control Program Demonstration of Noncorrosive, Capacitance- Based Water-Treatment

  6. Temperature-time distribution and thermal stresses on the RTG fins and shell during water cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, R. H.

    1983-01-01

    Radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) packages designed for space missions generally do not require active cooling. However, the heat they generate cannot remain inside of the launch vehicle bay and requires active removal. Therefore, before the Shuttle bay door is closed, the RTG coolant tubes attached to the heat rejection fins must be filled with water, which will circulate and remove most of the heat from the cargo bay. There is concern that charging a system at initial temperature around 200 C with water at 24 C can cause unacceptable thermal stresses in the RTG shell and fins. A computer model is developed to estimate the transient temperature distribution resulting from such charging. The thermal stresses resulting from the temperature gradients do not exceed the elastic deformation limit for the material. Since the simplified mathematical model for thermal stresses tends to overestimate stresses, it is concluded that the RTG can be cooled by introducing water at 24 C to the initially hot fin coolant tubes while the RTG is in the Shuttle cargo bay.

  7. Heat transfer characteristics for some coolant additives used for water cooled engines

    SciTech Connect

    Abou-Ziyan, H.Z.; Helali, A.H.B.

    1996-12-31

    Engine coolants contain certain additives to prevent engine overheating or coolant freezing in cold environments. Coolants, also, contain corrosion and rust inhibitors, among other additives. As most engines are using engine cooling solutions, it is of interest to evaluate the effect of engine coolants on the boiling heat transfer coefficient. This has its direct impact on radiator size and environment. This paper describes the apparatus and the measurement techniques. Also, it presents the obtained boiling heat transfer results at different parameters. Three types of engine coolants and their mixtures in distilled water are evaluated, under sub-cooled and saturated boiling conditions. A profound effect of the presence of additives in the coolant, on heat transfer, was clear since changes of heat transfer for different coolants were likely to occur. The results showed that up to 180% improvement of boiling heat transfer coefficient is experienced with some types of coolants. However, at certain concentrations other coolants provide deterioration or not enhancement in the boiling heat transfer characteristics. This investigation proved that there are limitations, which are to be taken into consideration, for the composition of engine coolants in different environments. In warm climates, ethylene glycol should be kept at the minimum concentration required for dissolving other components, whereas borax is beneficial to the enhancement of the heat transfer characteristics.

  8. Investigation of flow characteristics effects on heat transfer in water-cooled cylinder heads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, M. A. M.; Abd El-Hameed, H. M.; Mahmoud, Osama E.

    2016-08-01

    An experimental and theoretical study has been performed to investigate the effect of flow characteristics on heat-transfer in water impingement-cooled cylinder heads. Numerous investigations have been made using a three-dimensional model, which is designed and solved by FLUENT software using both realizable k-ɛ turbulent and heat transfer models. The simulation investigates a fully developed turbulent-water flow in asymmetric heated circular passage cooled by parallel flow or impingement of circular submerged confined liquid jet. The following parameters were investigated for both parallel flow and jet impingement flow: flow velocities (1, 2 and 3 m/s), bulk fluid temperatures (50, 70 and 90 °C), main duct diameters (6, 8, 10 and 12 mm). While the following parameters were investigated for jet impingement flow, jet diameter ratio (0.6, 0.8 and 1) and jet inclination angles as measured from horizontal (45°, 60° and 90°). Experimental results were used to verify the theoretical model. Results indicate that, the normal jet (90°) gives the maximum cooling effect in comparison to other angles while the maximum heat transfer coefficient is found at jet interface position.

  9. Design of 95 GHz gyrotron based on continuous operation copper solenoid with water cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Borodin, Dmitri; Ben-Moshe, Roey; Einat, Moshe

    2014-07-15

    The design work for 2nd harmonic 95 GHz, 50 kW gyrotron based on continuous operation copper solenoid is presented. Thermionic magnetron injection gun specifications were calculated according to the linear trade off equation, and simulated with CST program. Numerical code is used for cavity design using the non-uniform string equation as well as particle motion in the “cold” cavity field. The mode TE02 with low Ohmic losses in the cavity walls was chosen as the operating mode. The Solenoid is designed to induce magnetic field of 1.8 T over a length of 40 mm in the interaction region with homogeneity of ±0.34%. The solenoid has six concentric cylindrical segments (and two correction segments) of copper foil windings separated by water channels for cooling. The predicted temperature in continuous operation is below 93 °C. The parameters of the design together with simulation results of the electromagnetic cavity field, magnetic field, electron trajectories, and thermal analyses are presented.

  10. Topical report : NSTF facilities plan for water-cooled VHTR RCCS : normal operational tests.

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, M. T.; Kilsdonk, D. J.; Tzanos, C. P.; Lomperski, S.; Aeschlimann, R. W.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2006-09-01

    As part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Generation IV roadmapping activity, the gas-cooled Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) has been selected as the principal concept for hydrogen production and other process-heat applications such as district heating and potable water production. On this basis, the DOE has selected the VHTR for additional R&D with the ultimate goal of demonstrating emission-free electricity and hydrogen production with this advanced reactor concept.

  11. Thermal-hydraulic limitations on water-cooled fusion reactor components

    SciTech Connect

    Cha, Y.S.; Misra, B.

    1986-01-01

    An assessment of the cooling requirements for fusion reactor components, such as the first wall and limiter/divertor, was carried out using pressurized water as the coolant. In order to establish the coolant operating conditions, a survey of the literature on departure from nucleate boiling, critical heat flux, asymmetrical heating and heat transfer augmentation techniques was carried out. The experimental data and the empirical correlations indicate that thermal protection for the fusion reactor components based on conventional design concepts can be provided with an adequate margin of safety without resorting to either high coolant velocities, excessive coolant pressures, or heat transfer augmentation techniques. If, however, the future designs require unconventional shapes or heat transfer enhancement techniques, experimental verification would be necessary since no data on heat transfer augmentation techniques exist for complex geometries, especially under asymmetrically heated conditions. Since the data presented herein are concerned primarily with thermal protection of the reactor components, the final design should consider other factors such as thermal stresses, temperature limits, and fatigue.

  12. Zirconium carbide coating for corium experiments related to water-cooled and sodium-cooled reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plevacova, K.; Journeau, C.; Piluso, P.; Zhdanov, V.; Baklanov, V.; Poirier, J.

    2011-07-01

    Since the TMI and Chernobyl accidents the risk of nuclear severe accident is intensively studied for existing and future reactors. In case of a core melt-down accident in a nuclear reactor, a complex melt, called corium, forms. To be able to perform experiments with prototypic corium materials at high temperature, a coating which resists to different corium melts related to Generation I and II Water Reactors and Generation IV sodium fast reactor was researched in our experimental platforms both in IAE NNC in Kazakhstan and in CEA in France. Zirconium carbide was selected as protective coating for graphite crucibles used in our induction furnaces: VCG-135 and VITI. The method of coating application, called reactive wetting, was developed. Zirconium carbide revealed to resist well to the (U x, Zr y)O 2-z water reactor corium. It has also the advantage not to bring new elements to this chemical system. The coating was then tested with sodium fast reactor corium melts containing steel or absorbers. Undesirable interactions were observed between the coating and these materials, leading to the carburization of the corium ingots. Concerning the resistance of the coating to oxide melts without ZrO 2, the zirconium carbide coating keeps its role of protective barrier with UO 2-Al 2O 3 below 2000 °C but does not resist to a UO 2-Eu 2O 3 mixture.

  13. Experimental simulation of the water cooling of corium spread over the floor of a BWR containment

    SciTech Connect

    Morage, F.; Lahey, R.T. Jr.; Podowski, M.Z.

    1995-09-01

    This paper is concerned with an experimental investigation of the cooling effect of water collected on the surface of corium released onto the floor of a BWR drywell. In the present experiments, the actual reactor materials were replaced by simulant materials. Specifically, the results are shown for Freon-11 film boiling over liquid Wood`s metal spread above a solid porous surface through which argon gas was injected. An analysis of the obtained experimental data revealed that the actual film boiling heat transfer between a molten pool of corium and the water above the pool should be more efficient than predicted by using standard correlations for boiling over solid surfaces. This effect will be further augmented by the gas released due to the ablation of concrete floor beneath the corium and percolating towards its upper surface and into through the water layer above.

  14. Design of 95 GHz gyrotron based on continuous operation copper solenoid with water cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borodin, Dmitri; Ben-Moshe, Roey; Einat, Moshe

    2014-07-01

    The design work for 2nd harmonic 95 GHz, 50 kW gyrotron based on continuous operation copper solenoid is presented. Thermionic magnetron injection gun specifications were calculated according to the linear trade off equation, and simulated with CST program. Numerical code is used for cavity design using the non-uniform string equation as well as particle motion in the "cold" cavity field. The mode TE02 with low Ohmic losses in the cavity walls was chosen as the operating mode. The Solenoid is designed to induce magnetic field of 1.8 T over a length of 40 mm in the interaction region with homogeneity of ±0.34%. The solenoid has six concentric cylindrical segments (and two correction segments) of copper foil windings separated by water channels for cooling. The predicted temperature in continuous operation is below 93 °C. The parameters of the design together with simulation results of the electromagnetic cavity field, magnetic field, electron trajectories, and thermal analyses are presented.

  15. Power system commonality study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littman, Franklin D.

    1992-07-01

    A limited top level study was completed to determine the commonality of power system/subsystem concepts within potential lunar and Mars surface power system architectures. A list of power system concepts with high commonality was developed which can be used to synthesize power system architectures which minimize development cost. Examples of potential high commonality power system architectures are given in this report along with a mass comparison. Other criteria such as life cycle cost (which includes transportation cost), reliability, safety, risk, and operability should be used in future, more detailed studies to select optimum power system architectures. Nineteen potential power system concepts were identified and evaluated for planetary surface applications including photovoltaic arrays with energy storage, isotope, and nuclear power systems. A top level environmental factors study was completed to assess environmental impacts on the identified power system concepts for both lunar and Mars applications. Potential power system design solutions for commonality between Mars and lunar applications were identified. Isotope, photovoltaic array (PVA), regenerative fuel cell (RFC), stainless steel liquid-metal cooled reactors (less than 1033 K maximum) with dynamic converters, and in-core thermionic reactor systems were found suitable for both lunar and Mars environments. The use of SP-100 thermoelectric (TE) and SP-100 dynamic power systems in a vacuum enclosure may also be possible for Mars applications although several issues need to be investigated further (potential single point failure of enclosure, mass penalty of enclosure and active pumping system, additional installation time and complexity). There are also technical issues involved with development of thermionic reactors (life, serviceability, and adaptability to other power conversion units). Additional studies are required to determine the optimum reactor concept for Mars applications. Various screening

  16. Automated Power-Distribution System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashworth, Barry; Riedesel, Joel; Myers, Chris; Miller, William; Jones, Ellen F.; Freeman, Kenneth; Walsh, Richard; Walls, Bryan K.; Weeks, David J.; Bechtel, Robert T.

    1992-01-01

    Autonomous power-distribution system includes power-control equipment and automation equipment. System automatically schedules connection of power to loads and reconfigures itself when it detects fault. Potential terrestrial applications include optimization of consumption of power in homes, power supplies for autonomous land vehicles and vessels, and power supplies for automated industrial processes.

  17. Power from Ocean Waves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, J. N.

    1979-01-01

    Discussed is the utilization of surface ocean waves as a potential source of power. Simple and large-scale wave power devices and conversion systems are described. Alternative utilizations, environmental impacts, and future prospects of this alternative energy source are detailed. (BT)

  18. Explorations in Statistics: Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran-Everett, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This fifth installment of "Explorations in Statistics" revisits power, a concept fundamental to the test of a null hypothesis. Power is the probability that we reject the null hypothesis when it is false. Four…

  19. New microelectronic power amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    New, T. C.

    1968-01-01

    Integrated push-pull power amplifier fabricated on a chip of silicon has interdigitated power transistors and is hermetically encapsulated in a beryllia flat package. It provides current output greater than the nominal 10 amperes from an input current drive of 1 ampere.

  20. Power Station Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Kuljian Corporation provides design engineering and construction management services for power generating plants in more than 20 countries. They used WASP (Calculating Water and Steam Properties), a COSMIC program to optimize power station design. This enabled the company to substantially reduce lead time and software cost in a recent design project.

  1. Laser power transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conway, Edmund J.

    1992-01-01

    An overview of previous studies related to laser power transmission is presented. Particular attention is given to the use of solar pumped lasers for space power applications. Three general laser mechanisms are addressed: photodissociation lasing driven by sunlight, photoexcitation lasing driven directly by sunlight, and photoexcitation lasing driven by thermal radiation.

  2. New baseload power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    This is a listing of 221 baseload power plant units currently in the planning stage. The list shows the plant owner, capacity, fuel, engineering firm, constructor, major equipment suppliers (steam generator, turbogenerator, and flue gas desulfurization system), partner, and date the plant is to be online. This data is a result of a survey by the journal of power plant owners.

  3. Automotive Power Trains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This correspondence course, originally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to provide mechanics with an understanding of the operation, maintenance, and troubleshooting of automotive power trains and certain auxiliary equipment. The course contains six study units covering basic power trains; clutch principles and operations; conventional…

  4. NUCLEAR POWER PLANT

    DOEpatents

    Carter, J.C.; Armstrong, R.H.; Janicke, M.J.

    1963-05-14

    A nuclear power plant for use in an airless environment or other environment in which cooling is difficult is described. The power plant includes a boiling mercury reactor, a mercury--vapor turbine in direct cycle therewith, and a radiator for condensing mercury vapor. (AEC)

  5. Talk About Nuclear Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremlett, Lewis

    1976-01-01

    Presents an overview of the relation of nuclear power to human health and the environment, and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of nuclear power as an energy source urging technical educators to inculcate an awareness of the problems associated with the production of energy. Describes the fission reaction process, the hazards of…

  6. Economical space power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkholder, J. H.

    1980-01-01

    A commercial approach to design and fabrication of an economical space power system is investigated. Cost projections are based on a 2 kW space power system conceptual design taking into consideration the capability for serviceability, constraints of operation in space, and commercial production engineering approaches. A breakdown of the system design, documentation, fabrication, and reliability and quality assurance estimated costs are detailed.

  7. Power API Prototype

    SciTech Connect

    2014-12-04

    The software serves two purposes. The first purpose of the software is to prototype the Sandia High Performance Computing Power Application Programming Interface Specification effort. The specification can be found at http://powerapi.sandia.gov . Prototypes of the specification were developed in parallel with the development of the specification. Release of the prototype will be instructive to anyone who intends to implement the specification. More specifically, our vendor collaborators will benefit from the availability of the prototype. The second is in direct support of the PowerInsight power measurement device, which was co-developed with Penguin Computing. The software provides a cluster wide measurement capability enabled by the PowerInsight device. The software can be used by anyone who purchases a PowerInsight device. The software will allow the user to easily collect power and energy information of a node that is instrumented with PowerInsight. The software can also be used as an example prototype implementation of the High Performance Computing Power Application Programming Interface Specification.

  8. Separation of Powers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bill of Rights in Action, 1987

    1987-01-01

    The dimensions of the separation of powers principle are explored through three lessons in the subject areas of U.S. history, U.S. government, and world history. In 1748, a French nobleman, Baron de Montesquieu, wrote a book called "The Spirit of the Laws," in which he argued that there could be no liberty when all government power was…

  9. Nuclear Power Plants. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyerly, Ray L.; Mitchell, Walter, III

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Why Use Nuclear Power?; From Atoms to Electricity; Reactor Types; Typical Plant Design Features; The Cost of Nuclear Power; Plants in the United States; Developments in Foreign…

  10. A Balance of Power?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosey, Edward

    1991-01-01

    The booming economy of the Pacific Northwest region promotes the dilemma of balancing the need for increased electrical power with the desire to maintain that region's unspoiled natural environment. Pertinent factors discussed within the balance equation are population trends, economic considerations, industrial power requirements, and…

  11. Electrically powered hand tool

    DOEpatents

    Myers, Kurt S.; Reed, Teddy R.

    2007-01-16

    An electrically powered hand tool is described and which includes a three phase electrical motor having a plurality of poles; an electrical motor drive electrically coupled with the three phase electrical motor; and a source of electrical power which is converted to greater than about 208 volts three-phase and which is electrically coupled with the electrical motor drive.

  12. Cogeneration power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, H. S.

    1978-01-01

    Cogeneration is defined as the combination of electrical generation and process heat for more efficient use of fuel. Comparisons of energy utilization in conventional electric power plants and cogeneration electric power plants are presented. Characteristics of various cogeneration systems are also presented. Systems are analyzed for use in utility systems and industrial systems. Economic and cost analysis are reviewed.

  13. Power of a Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mineo, Ronald W.; Stehn, John L.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the effects of electric power deregulation on an educational facility's planning and purchasing for future power needs. Highlights ways schools can take advantage of deregulation. Examines various chiller technologies and economically assessing these technologies on a life-cycle cost basis. (GR)

  14. Playing with Powers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sriraman, Bharath; Strzelecki, Pawel

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores the wide range of pure mathematics that becomes accessible through the use of problems involving powers. In particular we stress the need to balance an applied and context based pedagogical and curricular approach to mathematics with the powerful pure mathematics beneath the simplicity of easily stated and understandable…

  15. Solar Powered Refrigeration System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewert, Michael K. (Inventor); Bergeron, David J., III (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A solar powered vapor compression refrigeration system is made practicable with thermal storage and novel control techniques. In one embodiment, the refrigeration system includes a photovoltaic panel, a variable speed compressor, an insulated enclosure, and a thermal reservoir. The photovoltaic (PV) panel converts sunlight into DC (direct current) electrical power. The DC electrical power drives a compressor that circulates refrigerant through a vapor compression refrigeration loop to extract heat from the insulated enclosure. The thermal reservoir is situated inside the insulated enclosure and includes a phase change material. As heat is extracted from the insulated enclosure, the phase change material is frozen, and thereafter is able to act as a heat sink to maintain the temperature of the insulated enclosure in the absence of sunlight. The conversion of solar power into stored thermal energy is optimized by a compressor control method that effectively maximizes the compressor's usage of available energy. A capacitor is provided to smooth the power voltage and to provide additional current during compressor start-up. A controller monitors the rate of change of the smoothed power voltage to determine if the compressor is operating below or above the available power maximum, and adjusts the compressor speed accordingly. In this manner, the compressor operation is adjusted to convert substantially all available solar power into stored thermal energy.

  16. Solar Powered Refrigeration System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewert, Michael K.; Bergeron, David J., III

    2002-09-01

    A solar powered vapor compression refrigeration system is made practicable with thermal storage and novel control techniques. In one embodiment, the refrigeration system includes a photovoltaic panel, a variable speed compressor, an insulated enclosure, and a thermal reservoir. The photovoltaic (PV) panel converts sunlight into DC (direct current) electrical power. The DC electrical power drives a compressor that circulates refrigerant through a vapor compression refrigeration loop to extract heat from the insulated enclosure. The thermal reservoir is situated inside the insulated enclosure and includes a phase change material. As heat is extracted from the insulated enclosure, the phase change material is frozen, and thereafter is able to act as a heat sink to maintain the temperature of the insulated enclosure in the absence of sunlight. The conversion of solar power into stored thermal energy is optimized by a compressor control method that effectively maximizes the compressor's usage of available energy. A capacitor is provided to smooth the power voltage and to provide additional current during compressor start-up. A controller monitors the rate of change of the smoothed power voltage to determine if the compressor is operating below or above the available power maximum, and adjusts the compressor speed accordingly. In this manner, the compressor operation is adjusted to convert substantially all available solar power into stored thermal energy.

  17. Fusion Power Deployment

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Schmidt; J.M. Ogden

    2002-02-06

    Fusion power plants could be part of a future portfolio of non-carbon dioxide producing energy supplies such as wind, solar, biomass, advanced fission power, and fossil energy with carbon dioxide sequestration. In this paper, we discuss key issues that could impact fusion energy deployment during the last half of this century. These include geographic issues such as resource availability, scale issues, energy storage requirements, and waste issues. The resource needs and waste production associated with fusion deployment in the U.S. should not pose serious problems. One important feature of fusion power is the fact that a fusion power plant should be locatable within most local or regional electrical distribution systems. For this reason, fusion power plants should not increase the burden of long distance power transmission to our distribution system. In contrast to fusion power, regional factors could play an important role in the deployment of renewable resources such as wind, solar and biomass or fossil energy with CO2 sequestration. We examine the role of these regional factors and their implications for fusion power deployment.

  18. Politics, power, and birth.

    PubMed

    Tillett, Jackie

    2011-01-01

    Politics is the process and method of decision making for individuals and groups. Politics may define the power relationships between women and their healthcare providers. Politics may shape the experience for the woman. Nurses and birthing women can learn to negotiate the politics and power relationships surrounding the birth experience.

  19. Language, Power and Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wodak, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    How are identities constructed in discourse? How are national and European identities tied to language and communication? And what role does power have--power in discourse, over discourse and of discourse? This paper seeks to identify and analyse processes of identity construction within Europe and at its boundaries, particularly the diversity of…

  20. Power module assembly

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, Jeremy B [Torrance, CA; Newson, Steve [Redondo Beach, CA

    2011-11-15

    A power module assembly of the type suitable for deployment in a vehicular power inverter, wherein the power inverter has a grounded chassis, is provided. The power module assembly comprises a conductive base layer electrically coupled to the chassis, an insulating layer disposed on the conductive base layer, a first conductive node disposed on the insulating layer, a second conductive node disposed on the insulating layer, wherein the first and second conductive nodes are electrically isolated from each other. The power module assembly also comprises a first capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the conductive base layer, and a second electrode electrically connected to the first conductive node, and further comprises a second capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the conductive base layer, and a second electrode electrically connected to the second conductive node.

  1. High Power Hall Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jankovsky, Robert; Tverdokhlebov, Sergery; Manzella, David

    1999-01-01

    The development of Hall thrusters with powers ranging from tens of kilowatts to in excess of one hundred kilowatts is considered based on renewed interest in high power. high thrust electric propulsion applications. An approach to develop such thrusters based on previous experience is discussed. It is shown that the previous experimental data taken with thrusters of 10 kW input power and less can be used. Potential mass savings due to the design of high power Hall thrusters are discussed. Both xenon and alternate thruster propellant are considered, as are technological issues that will challenge the design of high power Hall thrusters. Finally, the implications of such a development effort with regard to ground testing and spacecraft intecrati'on issues are discussed.

  2. Nuclear power plant maintainability.

    PubMed

    Seminara, J L; Parsons, S O

    1982-09-01

    In the mid-1970s a general awareness of human factors engineering deficiencies associated with power plant control rooms took shape and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) awarded the Lockheed Corporation a contract to review the human factors aspects of five representative operational control rooms and their associated simulators. This investigation revealed a host of major and minor deficiencies that assumed unforeseen dimensions in the post- Three Mile Island accident period. In the course of examining operational problems (Seminara et al, 1976) and subsequently the methods for overcoming such problems (Seminara et al, 1979, 1980) indications surfaced that power plants were far from ideal in meeting the needs of maintenance personnel. Accordingly, EPRI sponsored an investigation of the human factors aspects of power plant maintainability (Seminara, 1981). This paper provides an overview of the maintainability problems and issues encountered in the course of reviewing five nuclear power plants.

  3. Solar Power on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This chart illustrates the variation in available solar power for each of NASA's twin Mars Exploration Rovers over the course of approximately two Mars years. Two factors affect the amount of available power: the tilt of Mars' axis and the eccentricity of the Mars' orbit about the sun.

    The horizontal scale is the number of Martian days (sols) after the Jan. 4, 2004, (Universal Time) landing of Spirit at Mars' Gusev Crater. The vertical scale on the right indicates the amount of available solar power as a ratio of the amount available at the equator when Mars is closest to the sun (perihelion). The red line indicates power availability at Spirit's landing site (Gusev). The blue line indicates power availability at Opportunity's landing site (Meridiani).

    The vertical scale on the right applies to the dotted line, indicating the latitude north or south of Mars' equator where the noon sun is overhead at different times of the Martian year.

  4. Power supply conditioning circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Primas, L. E.; Loveland, R.

    1987-01-01

    A power supply conditioning circuit that can reduce Periodic and Random Deviations (PARD) on the output voltages of dc power supplies to -150 dBV from dc to several KHz with no measurable periodic deviations is described. The PARD for a typical commercial low noise power supply is -74 dBV for frequencies above 20 Hz and is often much worse at frequencies below 20 Hz. The power supply conditioning circuit described here relies on the large differences in the dynamic impedances of a constant current diode and a zener diode to establish a dc voltage with low PARD. Power supplies with low PARD are especially important in circuitry involving ultrastable frequencies for the Deep Space Network.

  5. Space Nuclear Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    Fission power and propulsion systems can enable exciting space exploration missions. These include bases on the moon and Mars; and the exploration, development, and utilization of the solar system. In the near-term, fission surface power systems could provide abundant, constant, cost-effective power anywhere on the surface of the Moon or Mars, independent of available sunlight. Affordable access to Mars, the asteroid belt, or other destinations could be provided by nuclear thermal rockets. In the further term, high performance fission power supplies could enable both extremely high power levels on planetary surfaces and fission electric propulsion vehicles for rapid, efficient cargo and crew transfer. Advanced fission propulsion systems could eventually allow routine access to the entire solar system. Fission systems could also enable the utilization of resources within the solar system.

  6. Power outages, power externalities, and baby booms.

    PubMed

    Burlando, Alfredo

    2014-08-01

    Determining whether power outages have significant fertility effects is an important policy question in developing countries, where blackouts are common and modern forms of family planning are scarce. Using birth records from Zanzibar, this study shows that a month-long blackout in 2008 caused a significant increase in the number of births 8 to 10 months later. The increase was similar across villages that had electricity, regardless of the level of electrification; villages with no electricity connections saw no changes in birth numbers. The large fertility increase in communities with very low levels of electricity suggests that the outage affected the fertility of households not connected to the grid through some spillover effect. Whether the baby boom is likely to translate to a permanent increase in the population remains unclear, but this article highlights an important hidden consequence of power instability in developing countries. It also suggests that electricity imposes significant externality effects on rural populations that have little exposure to it.

  7. TEP Power Partners Project [Tucson Electric Power

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2014-02-06

    The Arizona Governor’s Office of Energy Policy, in partnership with Tucson Electric Power (TEP), Tendril, and Next Phase Energy (NPE), formed the TEP Power Partners pilot project to demonstrate how residential customers could access their energy usage data and third party applications using data obtained from an Automatic Meter Reading (AMR) network. The project applied for and was awarded a Smart Grid Data Access grant through the U.S. Department of Energy. The project participants’ goal for Phase I is to actively engage 1,700 residential customers to demonstrate sustained participation, reduction in energy usage (kWh) and cost ($), and measure related aspects of customer satisfaction. This Demonstration report presents a summary of the findings, effectiveness, and customer satisfaction with the 15-month TEP Power Partners pilot project. The objective of the program is to provide residential customers with energy consumption data from AMR metering and empower these participants to better manage their electricity use. The pilot recruitment goals included migrating 700 existing customers from the completed Power Partners Demand Response Load Control Project (DRLC), and enrolling 1,000 new participants. Upon conclusion of the project on November 19, 2013; 1,390 Home Area Networks (HANs) were registered; 797 new participants installed a HAN; Survey respondents’ are satisfied with the program and found value with a variety of specific program components; Survey respondents report feeling greater control over their energy usage and report taking energy savings actions in their homes after participating in the program; On average, 43 % of the participants returned to the web portal monthly and 15% returned weekly; and An impact evaluation was completed by Opinion Dynamics and found average participant savings for the treatment period1 to be 2.3% of their household use during this period.2 In total, the program saved 163 MWh in the treatment period of 2013.

  8. Comparison and evaluation of power plant options for geosynchronous power stations. Part 1: Synchronous solar power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    The present state-of-the-art is described for the development of solar power generators in far out synchronous orbit for power generation. Concepts of geosynchronous solar power satellites are discussed including photovoltaic arrays for power satellites, solar-thermal power satellites, and power transmission to earth.

  9. Power for sensors; sensors for power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegel, Mel

    2016-10-01

    As sensors are increasingly deployed in locations removed from mains power and increasingly expected to operate for times that are long compared to battery lifetimes we look to means for "harvesting" or "scavenging" energy from the sensors' operating environments. Whereas many sensors are "parametric" - their interaction with the environment causes a change in one or more of their electrical parameters - many other are true transducers - they perform their sensing function by extracting energy from their environment. These kinds of sensors can thus serve - under suitable operating conditions - both as measuring devices and as power supplies. In this paper we review this background, review the fundamental restrictions on our ability to extract energy from the environment, enumerate and summarize sensing principles that are promising candidates to double as power supplies, and provide several examples that span the range from already off-the-shelf at low cost to in laboratory prototype stage to sufficiently speculative that there might be reasonable doubt regarding whether they can actually work even in principle. Possibilities examined across this spectrum include thermal noise, ambient RF scavenging (briefly), thermoelectricity, piezoelectricity, pyroelectricity, and electrochemistry, especially including electrochemistry facilitated by microorganisms.

  10. Inductive power transfer: Powering our future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covic, Grant A.

    2013-12-01

    The ability to provide power without wires was imagined over a century ago, but assumed commercially impractical and impossible to realise. However for more than two decades the University of Auckland has been at the forefront of developing and commercialising this technology alongside its industrial partners. This research has proven that significant wireless power can be transferred over relatively large air-gaps efficiently and robustly. Early solutions were applied in industrial applications to power moving vehicles in clean room systems, industrial plants, and in theme parks, but more recently this research has helped develop technology that has the ability to impact us directly at home. The seminar will describe some of the early motivations behind this research, and introduce some of the solutions which have been developed by the team of researchers at Auckland over two decades, many of which have found their way into the market. It will also describe how the technology has recently been re-developed to enable battery charging of electric vehicles without the need to plug in, and alongside this how it has the potential to change the way we drive in the future.

  11. Comparative Assessment of Gasification Based Coal Power Plants with Various CO2 Capture Technologies Producing Electricity and Hydrogen

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Seven different types of gasification-based coal conversion processes for producing mainly electricity and in some cases hydrogen (H2), with and without carbon dioxide (CO2) capture, were compared on a consistent basis through simulation studies. The flowsheet for each process was developed in a chemical process simulation tool “Aspen Plus”. The pressure swing adsorption (PSA), physical absorption (Selexol), and chemical looping combustion (CLC) technologies were separately analyzed for processes with CO2 capture. The performances of the above three capture technologies were compared with respect to energetic and exergetic efficiencies, and the level of CO2 emission. The effect of air separation unit (ASU) and gas turbine (GT) integration on the power output of all the CO2 capture cases is assessed. Sensitivity analysis was carried out for the CLC process (electricity-only case) to examine the effect of temperature and water-cooling of the air reactor on the overall efficiency of the process. The results show that, when only electricity production in considered, the case using CLC technology has an electrical efficiency 1.3% and 2.3% higher than the PSA and Selexol based cases, respectively. The CLC based process achieves an overall CO2 capture efficiency of 99.9% in contrast to 89.9% for PSA and 93.5% for Selexol based processes. The overall efficiency of the CLC case for combined electricity and H2 production is marginally higher (by 0.3%) than Selexol and lower (by 0.6%) than PSA cases. The integration between the ASU and GT units benefits all three technologies in terms of electrical efficiency. Furthermore, our results suggest that it is favorable to operate the air reactor of the CLC process at higher temperatures with excess air supply in order to achieve higher power efficiency. PMID:24578590

  12. Comparative Assessment of Gasification Based Coal Power Plants with Various CO2 Capture Technologies Producing Electricity and Hydrogen.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Sanjay; Kumar, Prashant; Hosseini, Ali; Yang, Aidong; Fennell, Paul

    2014-02-20

    Seven different types of gasification-based coal conversion processes for producing mainly electricity and in some cases hydrogen (H2), with and without carbon dioxide (CO2) capture, were compared on a consistent basis through simulation studies. The flowsheet for each process was developed in a chemical process simulation tool "Aspen Plus". The pressure swing adsorption (PSA), physical absorption (Selexol), and chemical looping combustion (CLC) technologies were separately analyzed for processes with CO2 capture. The performances of the above three capture technologies were compared with respect to energetic and exergetic efficiencies, and the level of CO2 emission. The effect of air separation unit (ASU) and gas turbine (GT) integration on the power output of all the CO2 capture cases is assessed. Sensitivity analysis was carried out for the CLC process (electricity-only case) to examine the effect of temperature and water-cooling of the air reactor on the overall efficiency of the process. The results show that, when only electricity production in considered, the case using CLC technology has an electrical efficiency 1.3% and 2.3% higher than the PSA and Selexol based cases, respectively. The CLC based process achieves an overall CO2 capture efficiency of 99.9% in contrast to 89.9% for PSA and 93.5% for Selexol based processes. The overall efficiency of the CLC case for combined electricity and H2 production is marginally higher (by 0.3%) than Selexol and lower (by 0.6%) than PSA cases. The integration between the ASU and GT units benefits all three technologies in terms of electrical efficiency. Furthermore, our results suggest that it is favorable to operate the air reactor of the CLC process at higher temperatures with excess air supply in order to achieve higher power efficiency.

  13. Electric power annual 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-06

    The Electric Power Annual presents a summary of electric utility statistics at national, regional and State levels. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decisionmakers, government policymakers, analysts and the general public with historical data that may be used in understanding US electricity markets. The Electric Power Annual is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. ``The US Electric Power Industry at a Glance`` section presents a profile of the electric power industry ownership and performance, and a review of key statistics for the year. Subsequent sections present data on generating capability, including proposed capability additions; net generation; fossil-fuel statistics; retail sales; revenue; financial statistics; environmental statistics; electric power transactions; demand-side management; and nonutility power producers. In addition, the appendices provide supplemental data on major disturbances and unusual occurrences in US electricity power systems. Each section contains related text and tables and refers the reader to the appropriate publication that contains more detailed data on the subject matter. Monetary values in this publication are expressed in nominal terms.

  14. Power without nukes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-03-01

    Nuclear power is good at producing large quantities of electricity. Barring a big change in the world's pattern of energy consumption, that is the kind of energy that will be most in demand if economic growth is to remain rapid. What are the options if we abandon nuclear power. By the year 2000, even on conservative estimates of economic growth, OECD countries would be generating 25% of their electricity from nuclear power. Total nuclear capacity would be about 400,000 MW. That is the size of the gap that would have to be filled. The rate of economic growth and the progress of conservation both depend partly on the price of energy - and the price of energy depends on the speed and extent of any nuclear phase-out. But if nuclear power stations were shut overnight, power cuts would be impossible to avoid in several countries, and electricity-generating costs would osar. Only oil, gas, and coal could fill the gap. Consumption of either oil or coal would have to rise by 10%. Replacing nuclear power over say 20 years would be less disruptive, but still costly. Some new sources - oil from tar sands and shale, more hydroelectric power, perhaps fuel cells - would fill the gap. But they would not prevent energy prices from rising to at least double their present levels in real terms. Indeed, they would require such a rise, because without it they would make no commercial sense.

  15. Thermoelectric power generator for variable thermal power source

    DOEpatents

    Bell, Lon E; Crane, Douglas Todd

    2015-04-14

    Traditional power generation systems using thermoelectric power generators are designed to operate most efficiently for a single operating condition. The present invention provides a power generation system in which the characteristics of the thermoelectrics, the flow of the thermal power, and the operational characteristics of the power generator are monitored and controlled such that higher operation efficiencies and/or higher output powers can be maintained with variably thermal power input. Such a system is particularly beneficial in variable thermal power source systems, such as recovering power from the waste heat generated in the exhaust of combustion engines.

  16. TROPIX power system architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manner, David B.; Hickman, J. Mark

    1995-09-01

    This document contains results obtained in the process of performing a power system definition study of the TROPIX power management and distribution system (PMAD). Requirements derived from the PMADs interaction with other spacecraft systems are discussed first. Since the design is dependent on the performance of the photovoltaics, there is a comprehensive discussion of the appropriate models for cells and arrays. A trade study of the array operating voltage and its effect on array bus mass is also presented. A system architecture is developed which makes use of a combination of high efficiency switching power convertors and analog regulators. Mass and volume estimates are presented for all subsystems.

  17. Nanosatellite Power System Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robyn, M.; Thaller, L.; Scott, D.

    1995-01-01

    The capability to build complex electronic functions into compact packages is opening the path to miniature satellites on the order of 1 kg mass, 10 cm across, packed with the computing processors, motion controllers, measurement sensors, and communications hardware necessary for operation. Power generation will be from short strings of silicon or gallium arsenide-based solar photovoltaic cells with the array power maximized by a peak power tracker (PPT). Energy storage will utilize a low voltage battery with nickel cadmium or lithium ion cells as the most likely selections for rechargeables and lithium (MnO2-Li) primary batteries for one shot short missions.

  18. AC power system breadboard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wappes, Loran J.; Sundberg, R.; Mildice, J.; Peterson, D.; Hushing, S.

    1987-01-01

    The object of this program was to design, build, test, and deliver a high-frequency (20-kHz) Power System Breadboard which would electrically approximate a pair of dual redundant power channels of an IOC Space Station. This report describes that program, including the technical background, and discusses the results, showing that the major assumptions about the characteristics of this class of hardware (size, mass, efficiency, control, etc.) were substantially correct. This testbed equipment has been completed and delivered to LeRC, where it is operating as a part of the Space Station Power System Test Facility.

  19. Rotorcraft contingency power study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirschkron, R.; Haynes, J. F.; Goldstein, D. N.; Davis, R. H.

    1984-01-01

    Twin helicopter engines are often sized by the power requirement of a safe mission completion after the failure of one of the two engines. This study was undertaken for NASA Lewis by General Electric Co. to evaluate the merits of special design features to provide a 2-1/2 Contingency Power rating, permitting an engine size reduction. The merits of water injection, turbine cooling airflow modulation, throttle push, and a propellant auxiliary power plant were evaluated using military Life Cycle Cost (LCC) and commercial helicopter Direct Operating Cost (DOC) merit factors in a rubber engine and a rubber aircraft scenario.

  20. Solar thermal power towers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreith, F.; Meyer, R. T.

    1984-07-01

    The solar thermal central receiver technology, known as solar power towers, is rapidly evolving to a state of near-term energy availability for electrical power generation and industrial process heat applications. The systems consist of field arrays of heliostat reflectors, a central receiver boiler, short term thermal storage devices, and either turbine-generators or heat exchangers. Fluid temperatures up to 550 C are currently achievable, and technology developments are underway to reach 1100 C. Six solar power towers are now under construction or in test operation in five countries around the world.

  1. Wind power prediction models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, R.; Mcginness, H.

    1976-01-01

    Investigations were performed to predict the power available from the wind at the Goldstone, California, antenna site complex. The background for power prediction was derived from a statistical evaluation of available wind speed data records at this location and at nearby locations similarly situated within the Mojave desert. In addition to a model for power prediction over relatively long periods of time, an interim simulation model that produces sample wind speeds is described. The interim model furnishes uncorrelated sample speeds at hourly intervals that reproduce the statistical wind distribution at Goldstone. A stochastic simulation model to provide speed samples representative of both the statistical speed distributions and correlations is also discussed.

  2. Solar power station

    SciTech Connect

    Wenzel, J.

    1982-11-30

    Solar power station with semiconductor solar cells for generating electric power is described, wherein the semiconductor solar cells are provided on a member such as a balloon or a kite which carries the solar cells into the air. The function of the balloon or kite can also be fulfilled by a glider or airship. The solar power station can be operated by allowing the system to ascend at sunrise and descend at sunset or when the wind is going to be too strong in order to avoid any demage.

  3. Power quality load management for large spacecraft electrical power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lollar, Louis F.

    1988-01-01

    In December, 1986, a Center Director's Discretionary Fund (CDDF) proposal was granted to study power system control techniques in large space electrical power systems. Presented are the accomplishments in the area of power system control by power quality load management. In addition, information concerning the distortion problems in a 20 kHz ac power system is presented.

  4. Solar power roof shingle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forestieri, A. F.; Ratajczak, A. F.; Sidorak, L. G.

    1975-01-01

    Silicon solar cell module provides both all-weather protection and electrical power. Module consists of array of circular silicon solar cells bonded to fiberglass substrate roof shingle with fluorinated ethylene propylene encapsulant.

  5. Water Power Program News

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-19

    News stories about conventional hydropower and marine and hydrokinetic technologies from the U.S. Department of Energy, the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, the Wind and Water Power Program, and other federal agencies.

  6. Developments in tidal power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlier, R. H.

    Successful, planned, and potential tidal power plants and sites are discussed. Units are in operation in France and Russia, with the French plant using reversible blade turbines being used as a design guide for plants in Argentina and Australia. The U.S. is studying the feasibility of a plant in Passamaquaddy Bay, and Canada is pursuing construction of a plant in the Bay of Fundy. The Severn River in Great Britain is receiving a site study, and over a hundred plants have been built as local power systems in China. Bulb-type turbines, which enhance the volume emptying and filling the retaining basin, are considered as the highest performing power unit. Simpler one-way flow turbines have been suggested as more economical to install. Governmental, institutional, and investor impediments to tidal power plant are explored.

  7. Power conditioning techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumann, E. D.

    1989-01-01

    The technological developments required to reduce the electrical power system component weights from the state-of-the-art 2.0 kg/kW to the range of 0.1 to 0.2 kg/kW are discussed. Power level requirements and their trends in aerospace applications are identified and presented. The projected weight and launch costs for a 1MW power converter built using state-of-the-art technology are established to illustrate the need for reliable, ultralightweight advanced power components. The key factors affecting converter weight are given and some of the tradeoffs between component ratings and circuit topology are identified. The weight and launch costs for a 1MW converter using 0.1 kg/kW technology are presented. Finally, the objectives and goals of the Multi-Megawatt Program at the NASA Lewis Research Center, which is funded by the SDIO through the Air Force, are given.

  8. Power-control switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessler, L. L.

    1976-01-01

    Constant-current source creates drive current independent of input-voltage variations, 50% reduction in power loss in base drive circuitry, maintains essentially constant charge rate, and improves rise-time consistency over input voltage range.

  9. Advanced stellarator power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.L.

    1994-07-01

    The stellarator is a class of helical/toroidal magnetic fusion devices. Recent international progress in stellarator power plant conceptual design is reviewed and comparisons in the areas of physics, engineering, and economics are made with recent tokamak design studies.

  10. Power conversion technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, M. A.

    1997-02-01

    The Power Conversion Technologies thrust area identifies and sponsors development activities that enhance the capabilities of engineering at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in the area of solid- state power electronics. Our primary objective is to be a resource to existing and emerging LLNL programs that require advanced solid-state power electronic technologies.. Our focus is on developing and integrating technologies that will significantly impact the capability, size, cost, and reliability of future power electronic systems. During FY-96, we concentrated our research efforts on the areas of (1) Micropower Impulse Radar (MIR); (2) novel solid-state opening switches; (3) advanced modulator technology for accelerators; (4) compact accelerators; and (5) compact pulse generators.

  11. Green Power Procurement Considerations

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Green power products are available from a variety of different vendors, including utilities, renewable energy certificate (REC) marketers, on-site system integrators, and non-profit organizations. This page lists considerations to evaluate during selection

  12. Power subsystem automation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imamura, M. S.; Moser, R. L.; Veatch, M.

    1983-01-01

    Generic power-system elements and their potential faults are identified. Automation functions and their resulting benefits are defined and automation functions between power subsystem, central spacecraft computer, and ground flight-support personnel are partitioned. All automation activities were categorized as data handling, monitoring, routine control, fault handling, planning and operations, or anomaly handling. Incorporation of all these classes of tasks, except for anomaly handling, in power subsystem hardware and software was concluded to be mandatory to meet the design and operational requirements of the space station. The key drivers are long mission lifetime, modular growth, high-performance flexibility, a need to accommodate different electrical user-load equipment, onorbit assembly/maintenance/servicing, and potentially large number of power subsystem components. A significant effort in algorithm development and validation is essential in meeting the 1987 technology readiness date for the space station.

  13. Power Harvesting from Rotation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicone, Carmen; Feng, Z. C.

    2008-01-01

    We show the impossibility of harvesting power from rotational motions by devices attached to the rotating object. The presentation is suitable for students who have studied Lagrangian mechanics. (Contains 2 figures.)

  14. Dynamic Power Grid Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Top, Philip; Woodward, Carol; Smith, Steve; Banks, Lawrence; Kelley, Brian

    2015-09-14

    GridDyn is a part of power grid simulation toolkit. The code is designed using modern object oriented C++ methods utilizing C++11 and recent Boost libraries to ensure compatibility with multiple operating systems and environments.

  15. Structural power flow measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Falter, K.J.; Keltie, R.F.

    1988-12-01

    Previous investigations of structural power flow through beam-like structures resulted in some unexplained anomalies in the calculated data. In order to develop structural power flow measurement as a viable technique for machine tool design, the causes of these anomalies needed to be found. Once found, techniques for eliminating the errors could be developed. Error sources were found in the experimental apparatus itself as well as in the instrumentation. Although flexural waves are the carriers of power in the experimental apparatus, at some frequencies longitudinal waves were excited which were picked up by the accelerometers and altered power measurements. Errors were found in the phase and gain response of the sensors and amplifiers used for measurement. A transfer function correction technique was employed to compensate for these instrumentation errors.

  16. MHD Power Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kantrowitz, Arthur; Rosa, Richard J.

    1975-01-01

    Explains the operation of the Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator and advantages of the system over coal, oil or nuclear powered generators. Details the development of MHD generators in the United States and Soviet Union. (CP)

  17. Clean Power Plan Toolbox

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These are resources to help states as they develop state implementation plans under section 111(d) of the Clean Air Act to meet EPA's carbon pollution standards for existing power plants. Supplements www2.epa.gov/carbon-pollution-standards.

  18. Magnetohydrodynamic power generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Power Generation is a concise summary of MHD theory, history, and future trends. Results of the major international MHD research projects are discussed. Data from MHD research is included. Economics of initial and operating costs are considered.

  19. Green Power Partnership Scope

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary partnership program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. Organizations can elect to join organization-wide or at the facility level.

  20. Space solar power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toliver, C.

    1977-01-01

    Studies were done on the feasibility of placing a solar power station called POwersat, in space. A general description of the engineering features are given as well as a brief discussion of the economic considerations.

  1. Green Power Partnership Requirements

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary partnership program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. To join, organizations must meet EPA's program requirements.

  2. Reactive Power Compensator.

    DOEpatents

    El-Sharkawi, M.A.; Venkata, S.S.; Chen, M.; Andexler, G.; Huang, T.

    1992-07-28

    A system and method for determining and providing reactive power compensation for an inductive load. A reactive power compensator (50,50') monitors the voltage and current flowing through each of three distribution lines (52a, 52b, 52c), which are supplying three-phase power to one or more inductive loads. Using signals indicative of the current on each of these lines when the voltage waveform on the line crosses zero, the reactive power compensator determines a reactive power compensator capacitance that must be connected to the lines to maintain a desired VAR level, power factor, or line voltage. Alternatively, an operator can manually select a specific capacitance for connection to each line, or the capacitance can be selected based on a time schedule. The reactive power compensator produces control signals, which are coupled through optical fibers (102/106) to a switch driver (110, 110') to select specific compensation capacitors (112) for connections to each line. The switch driver develops triggering signals that are supplied to a plurality of series-connected solid state switches (350), which control charge current in one direction in respect to ground for each compensation capacitor. During each cycle, current flows from ground to charge the capacitors as the voltage on the line begins to go negative from its positive peak value. The triggering signals are applied to gate the solid state switches into a conducting state when the potential on the lines and on the capacitors reaches a negative peak value, thereby minimizing both the potential difference and across the charge current through the switches when they begin to conduct. Any harmonic distortion on the potential and current carried by the lines is filtered out from the current and potential signals used by the reactive power compensator so that it does not affect the determination of the required reactive compensation. 26 figs.

  3. Reactive power compensator

    DOEpatents

    El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A.; Venkata, Subrahmanyam S.; Chen, Mingliang; Andexler, George; Huang, Tony

    1992-01-01

    A system and method for determining and providing reactive power compensation for an inductive load. A reactive power compensator (50,50') monitors the voltage and current flowing through each of three distribution lines (52a, 52b, 52c), which are supplying three-phase power to one or more inductive loads. Using signals indicative of the current on each of these lines when the voltage waveform on the line crosses zero, the reactive power compensator determines a reactive power compensator capacitance that must be connected to the lines to maintain a desired VAR level, power factor, or line voltage. Alternatively, an operator can manually select a specific capacitance for connection to each line, or the capacitance can be selected based on a time schedule. The reactive power compensator produces control signals, which are coupled through optical fibers (102/106) to a switch driver (110, 110') to select specific compensation capacitors (112) for connections to each line. The switch driver develops triggering signals that are supplied to a plurality of series-connected solid state switches (350), which control charge current in one direction in respect to ground for each compensation capacitor. During each cycle, current flows from ground to charge the capacitors as the voltage on the line begins to go negative from its positive peak value. The triggering signals are applied to gate the solid state switches into a conducting state when the potential on the lines and on the capacitors reaches a negative peak value, thereby minimizing both the potential difference and across the charge current through the switches when they begin to conduct. Any harmonic distortion on the potential and current carried by the lines is filtered out from the current and potential signals used by the reactive power compensator so that it does not affect the determination of the required reactive compensation.

  4. Space Power Engineering Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senkevich, V. P.

    2002-01-01

    Development of space power engineering in the first half of XXI century shall be aimed at preventing the forthcoming energy crisis and ecological catastrophes. The problem can be solved through using solar energy being perpetual, endless, and ecologically safe. As of now, issues on the development and employment of solar power stations and its beaming to the ground stations in the SHF band are put on the agenda. The most pressing problem is to develop orbital solar reflectors to illuminate towns in the polar regions, agricultural regions, and areas of processing sea products. Space-based technologies can be used to deal with typhoons, green house effects, and "ozone holes". Recently, large, frameless film structures formed by centrifugal forces offer the promise of structures for orbital power plants, reflectors, and solar sails. A big success is achieved in the development of power generating solar array elements of amorphous silicon. These innovations would make the development of orbital solar power plants dozens of times cheaper. Such solar arrays shall be used in the nearest future on heavy communication satellites and the Earth remote sensing platforms for generation of 140-160 kW at a specific power beyond 300 W/kg. The cargo traffic needed to develop and maintain the orbital power plants and reflector systems could be equipped with solar sails as the future low thrust propulsion. In 2000, the mankind witnessed an unexpected beginning of energy crisis along with strong hydro- meteorological events (typhoons, floods) that shocked the USA, the Western Europe, England, Japan, and other countries. The total damage is estimated as 90 billions of dollars. The mankind is approaching a boundary beyond which its further existence would depend on how people would learn to control weather and use ecologically safe power sources. Space technology base on the research potential accumulated in the previous century could serve for the solution of this problem.

  5. Village power in Thailand

    SciTech Connect

    Bergey, M.

    1997-12-01

    This paper presents an overview of the electric power system in Thailand. 99% of the country is electrified, but much of this is with diesel generators which leaves high costs but a high level of service. The paper discusses renewable energy projects which have been sited in the country, and examples of hybrid systems which have been retrofit into existing diesel generator systems. Photovoltaic and hydroelectric power projects are described. Dedicated systems have been installed for water pumping and battery charging applications.

  6. Unmanned powered balloons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korn, A. O.

    1975-01-01

    In the late 1960's several governmental agencies sponsored efforts to develop unmanned, powered balloon systems for scientific experimentation and military operations. Some of the programs resulted in hardware and limited flight tests; others, to date, have not progressed beyond the paper study stage. Balloon system designs, materials, propulsion units and capabilities are briefly described, and critical problem areas are pointed out which require further study in order to achieve operational powered balloon systems capable of long duration flight at high altitudes.

  7. Integrated Power Source Grant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Traditional spacecraft power systems incorporate a solar array energy source, an energy storage element (battery), and battery charge control and bus voltage regulation electronics to provide continuous electrical power for spacecraft systems and instruments. Dedicated power conditioning components provide limited fault isolation between systems and instruments, while a centralized power-switching unit provides spacecraft load control. Battery undervoltage conditions are detected by the spacecraft processor, which removes fault conditions and non-critical loads before permanent battery damage can occur. Cost effective operation of a micro-sat constellation requires a fault tolerant spacecraft architecture that minimizes on-orbit operational costs by permitting autonomous reconfiguration in response to unexpected fault conditions. A new micro-sat power system architecture that enhances spacecraft fault tolerance and improves power system survivability by continuously managing the battery charge and discharge processes on a cell-by-cell basis has been developed. This architecture is based on the Integrated Power Source (US patent 5644207), which integrates dual junction solar cells, Lithium Ion battery cells, and processor based charge control electronics into a structural panel that can be deployed or used to form a portion of the outer shell of a micro-spacecraft. The first generation Integrated Power Source is configured as a one inch thick panel in which prismatic Lithium Ion battery cells are arranged in a 3x7 matrix (26VDC) and a 3x1 matrix (3.7VDC) to provide the required output voltages and load currents. A multi-layer structure holds the battery cells, as well as the thermal insulators that are necessary to protect the Lithium Ion battery cells from the extreme temperatures of the solar cell layer. Independent thermal radiators, located on the back of the panel, are dedicated to the solar cell array, the electronics, and the battery cell array. In deployed

  8. Auxiliary Power Units

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-17

    Auxiliary Power Units Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to...information, including suggestions for reducing this burden, to Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports ...1. REPORT DATE 17 NOV 2010 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Auxiliary Power Units 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  9. Power Plant Construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Stone & Webster Engineering Corporation utilized TAP-A, a COSMIC program originally developed as part of a NASA investigation into the potential of nuclear power for space launch vehicles. It is useful in nuclear power plant design to qualify safety-related equipment at the temperatures it would experience should an accident occur. The program is easy to use, produces accurate results, and is inexpensive to run.

  10. Enabling Wind Power Nationwide

    SciTech Connect

    Jose, Zayas; Michael, Derby; Patrick, Gilman; Ananthan, Shreyas; Lantz, Eric; Cotrell, Jason; Beck, Fredic; Tusing, Richard

    2015-05-01

    Leveraging this experience, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Wind and Water Power Technologies Office has evaluated the potential for wind power to generate electricity in all 50 states. This report analyzes and quantifies the geographic expansion that could be enabled by accessing higher above ground heights for wind turbines and considers the means by which this new potential could be responsibly developed.

  11. Power control system and method

    DOEpatents

    Steigerwald, Robert Louis [Burnt Hills, NY; Anderson, Todd Alan [Niskayuna, NY

    2008-02-19

    A power system includes an energy harvesting device, a battery coupled to the energy harvesting device, and a circuit coupled to the energy harvesting device and the battery. The circuit is adapted to deliver power to a load by providing power generated by the energy harvesting device to the load without delivering excess power to the battery and to supplement the power generated by the energy harvesting device with power from the battery if the power generated by the energy harvesting device is insufficient to fully power the load. A method of operating the power system is also provided.

  12. Power control system and method

    DOEpatents

    Steigerwald, Robert Louis; Anderson, Todd Alan

    2006-11-07

    A power system includes an energy harvesting device, a battery coupled to the energy harvesting device, and a circuit coupled to the energy harvesting device and the battery. The circuit is adapted to deliver power to a load by providing power generated by the energy harvesting device to the load without delivering excess power to the battery and to supplement the power generated by the energy harvesting device with power from the battery if the power generated by the energy harvesting device is insufficient to fully power the load. A method of operating the power system is also provided.

  13. Power plants to go

    SciTech Connect

    Valenti, M.

    1996-05-01

    Simple-cycle portable power stations have been used to increase the electrical capacity in developing countries and in emergency situations. This article describes the first power barge using combined-cycle technology which has began operation in the Dominican Republic. The construction of a new mobile power plant in Puerto Plata, the Dominican Republic, marks the first time a power barge has been coupled with the efficiency of combined-cycle generation. The 185-megawatt plant, which became fully operational in January, provides 25% of the power required by the Dominican state-owned utility, the Corporacion Dominicana de Electricidad (CDE). The new plant is designed to end the power shortages and blackouts that have traditionally plagued the Caribbean nation. The Puerto Plata plant consists of two barges that were built in the US, transported to the Dominican Republic, installed, and backfilled into place. One barge, delivered in May 1994, contains a 76-megawatt gas turbine. The second barge, installed in April 1995, contains a 45-megawatt heat-recovery steam generator to recover heat energy from the turbine exhaust, two auxiliary boilers to produce additional steam, and a 118-megawatt steam-turbine generator.

  14. Powering the Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Stirling Technology Company (STC) developed the RG-350 convertor using components from separate Goddard Space Center and U.S. Army Natick SBIR contracts. Based on the RG-350, STC commercialized a product line of Stirling cycle generator sets, known as RemoteGen(TM), with power levels ranging from 10We to 3kWe. Under SBIR agreements with Glenn Research Center, the company refined and extended the capabilities of the RemoteGen convertors. They can provide power in remote locations by efficiently producing electricity from multiple-fuel sources, such as propane, alcohol, gasoline, diesel, coal, solar energy, or wood pellets. Utilizing any fuel source that can create heat, RemoteGen enables the choice of the most appropriate fuel source available. The engines operate without friction, wear, or maintenance. These abilities pave the way for self-powered appliances, such as refrigerators and furnaces. Numerous applications for RemoteGen include quiet, pollution-free generators for RVs and yachts, power for cell phone towers remote from the grid, and off-grid residential power variously using propane, ethanol, and solid biomass fuels. One utility and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory are evaluating a solar dish concentrator version with excellent potential for powering remote irrigation pumps.

  15. Distributed Space Solar Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fork, Richard L.

    2001-01-01

    The objective was to assess the feasibility of safely collecting solar power at geostationary orbit and delivering it to earth. A strategy which could harness a small fraction of the millions of gigawatts of sunlight passing near earth could adequately supply the power needs of earth and those of space exploration far into the future. Light collected and enhanced both spatially and temporally in space and beamed to earth provides probably the only practical means of safe and efficient delivery of this space solar power to earth. In particular, we analyzed the feasibility of delivering power to sites on earth at a comparable intensity, after conversion to a usable form, to existing power needs. Two major obstacles in the delivery of space solar power to earth are safety and the development of a source suitable for space. We focused our approach on: (1) identifying system requirements and designing a strategy satisfying current eye and skin safety requirements; and (2) identifying a concept for a potential space-based source for producing the enhanced light.

  16. Low power arcjet performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, Francis M.; Sarmiento, Charles J.

    1990-01-01

    An experimental investigation was performed to evaluate arc jet operation at low power. A standard, 1 kW, constricted arc jet was run using nozzles with three different constrictor diameters. Each nozzle was run over a range of current and mass flow rates to explore stability and performance in the low power engine. A standard pulse-width modulated power processor was modified to accommodate the high operating voltages required under certain conditions. Stable, reliable operation at power levels below 0.5 kW was obtained at efficiencies between 30 and 40 percent. The operating range was found to be somewhat dependent on constrictor geometry at low mass flow rates. Quasi-periodic voltage fluctuations were observed at the low power end of the operating envelope, The nozzle insert geometry was found to have little effect on the performance of the device. The observed performance levels show that specific impulse levels above 350 seconds can be obtained at the 0.5 kW power level.

  17. SSP Power Management and Distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynch, Thomas H.; Roth, A. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Space Solar Power is a NASA program sponsored by Marshall Space Flight Center. The Paper presented here represents the architectural study of a large power management and distribution (PMAD) system. The PMAD supplies power to a microwave array for power beaming to an earth rectenna (Rectifier Antenna). The power is in the GW level.

  18. Historical and projected power requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, M. G.

    1978-01-01

    Policy planning for projected space power requirements is discussed. Topics of discussion cover: (1) historical space power trends (prime power requirements and power system costs); and (2) two approaches to future space power requirements (mission/traffic model approach and advanced system scenario approach). Graphs, tables, and flow charts are presented.

  19. Electric power for space satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackenzie, C. M.

    1974-01-01

    The development of electric power systems for satellites is discussed as an evolutionary process requiring the integration of power generation, power storage, and power control and distribution. The growth of space electric power systems is traced. The capabilities and limitations of the various elements (i.e. silicon solar cells) are discussed together with their impact on future technological growth.

  20. Solar Power Satellite Microwave Power Transmission System Description Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodcock, G. R.

    1980-01-01

    The history of the concept of microwave power beaming to Earth is reviewed with emphasis on transmission frequency selection. Constraints on the system power level results from (1) required rejection of waste heat resulting from inefficiencies in the cover conversion of dc electric power to microwave power; (2) the rf power intensity in the ionosphere; and (3) the effect of sidelobe level on aperture illumination factors. Transmitter arrangement, the power distribution system, attitude control, subarrays, waveguides, and alignment are discussed.

  1. Autonomous power system brassboard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merolla, Anthony

    1992-01-01

    The Autonomous Power System (APS) brassboard is a 20 kHz power distribution system which has been developed at NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio. The brassboard exists to provide a realistic hardware platform capable of testing artificially intelligent (AI) software. The brassboard's power circuit topology is based upon a Power Distribution Control Unit (PDCU), which is a subset of an advanced development 20 kHz electrical power system (EPS) testbed, originally designed for Space Station Freedom (SSF). The APS program is designed to demonstrate the application of intelligent software as a fault detection, isolation, and recovery methodology for space power systems. This report discusses both the hardware and software elements used to construct the present configuration of the brassboard. The brassboard power components are described. These include the solid-state switches (herein referred to as switchgear), transformers, sources, and loads. Closely linked to this power portion of the brassboard is the first level of embedded control. Hardware used to implement this control and its associated software is discussed. An Ada software program, developed by Lewis Research Center's Space Station Freedom Directorate for their 20 kHz testbed, is used to control the brassboard's switchgear, as well as monitor key brassboard parameters through sensors located within these switches. The Ada code is downloaded from a PC/AT, and is resident within the 8086 microprocessor-based embedded controllers. The PC/AT is also used for smart terminal emulation, capable of controlling the switchgear as well as displaying data from them. Intelligent control is provided through use of a T1 Explorer and the Autonomous Power Expert (APEX) LISP software. Real-time load scheduling is implemented through use of a 'C' program-based scheduling engine. The methods of communication between these computers and the brassboard are explored. In order to evaluate the features of both the

  2. Recent Power Quality Technology Employing Power Electronics Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takasaki, Masahiro

    Power quality has become a common concern of customers and utilities in improving respective profits in the context of an open electricity market. Power electronics is the essential technology to control power quality in accordance with customer requirements and utility standards. This paper first summarizes power quality definitions and indices used in IEEE and IEC standards. It clarifies the problem to be solved and the role of power electronics devices. Then the overview of power quality control methods and equipments employing power electronics devices is explained. The control methodology discussed in this paper includes various schemes of future distribution and power supply system now under development.

  3. Wireless Power Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Fernando

    A new loop configuration capable of reducing power radiation magnitudes lower than conventional loops has been developed. This configuration is demonstrated for the case of two coaxial loops of 0.1 meter radius coupled via the magnetic reactive field. Utilizing electromagnetism theory, techniques from antenna design and a new near field design initiative, the ability to design a magnetic field has been investigated by using a full wave simulation tool. The method for realization is initiated from first order physics model, ADS and onto a full wave situation tool for the case of a non-radiating helical loop. The exploration into the design of a magnetic near field while mitigating radiation power is demonstrated using an real number of twists to form a helical wire loop while biasing the integer twisted loop in a non-conventional moebius termination. The helix loop setup as a moebius loop convention can also be expressed as a shorted antenna scheme. The 0.1 meter radius helix antenna is biased with a 1MHz frequency that categorized the antenna loop as electrically small. It is then demonstrated that helical configuration reduces the electric field and mitigates power radiation into the far field. In order to compare the radiated power reduction performance of the helical loop a shielded loop is used as a baseline for comparison. The shielded loop system of the same geometric size and frequency is shown to have power radiation expressed as -46.1 dBm. The power radiated mitigation method of the helix loop reduces the power radiated from the two loop system down to -98.72 dBm.

  4. Hybrid Power Management Program Continued

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2002-01-01

    Hybrid Power Management (HPM) is the innovative integration of diverse, state-of-the-art power devices in an optimal configuration for space and terrestrial applications. The appropriate application and control of the various power devices significantly improves overall system performance and efficiency. The advanced power devices include ultracapacitors and photovoltaics. HPM has extremely wide potential with applications including power-generation, transportation, biotechnology, and space power systems. It may significantly alleviate global energy concerns, improve the environment, and stimulate the economy.

  5. Captive Water Current Power System

    SciTech Connect

    Wuenscher, H. F.; Wuenscher, H. A.

    1984-01-31

    Current energy is converted into shaft power in two stages; First, buoyant power units with stationary hydrofoil wings reach faster than the current speed by sweeping out a captive path. Second, turbines at said power units convert the fast relative local current into shaft power. Power units sweeping along the water surface, using cycloidal turbine methods, as well as power units sweeping on a submerged path, using axial flow turbine methods, are described.

  6. Advanced Power Electronics Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarze, Gene E.

    2004-01-01

    This paper will give a description and status of the Advanced Power Electronics Materials and Components Technology program being conducted by the NASA Glenn Research Center for future aerospace power applications. The focus of this research program is on the following: 1) New and/or significantly improved dielectric materials for the development of power capacitors with increased volumetric efficiency, energy density, and operating temperature. Materials being investigated include nanocrystalline and composite ceramic dielectrics and diamond-like carbon films; 2) New and/or significantly improved high frequency, high temperature, low loss soft magnetic materials for the development of transformers/inductors with increased power/energy density, electrical efficiency, and operating temperature. Materials being investigated include nanocrystalline and nanocomposite soft magnetic materials; 3) Packaged high temperature, high power density, high voltage, and low loss SiC diodes and switches. Development of high quality 4H- and 6H- SiC atomically smooth substrates to significantly improve device performance is a major emphasis of the SiC materials program; 4) Demonstration of high temperature (> 200 C) circuits using the components developed above.

  7. Automating power supply checkout

    SciTech Connect

    Laster, J.; Bruno, D.; D'Ottavio, T.; Drozd, J.; Marr, G.; Mi, C.

    2011-03-28

    Power Supply checkout is a necessary, pre-beam, time-critical function. At odds are the desire to decrease the amount of time to perform the checkout while at the same time maximizing the number and types of checks that can be performed and analyzing the results quickly (in case any problems exist that must be addressed). Controls and Power Supply Group personnel have worked together to develop tools to accomplish these goals. Power Supply checkouts are now accomplished in a time-frame of hours rather than days, reducing the number of person-hours needed to accomplish the checkout and making the system available more quickly for beam development. The goal of the Collider-Accelerator Department (CAD) at Brookhaven National Laboratory is to provide experimenters with collisions of heavy-ions and polarized protons. The Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) magnets are controlled by 100's of varying types of power supplies. There is a concentrated effort to perform routine maintenance on the supplies during shutdown periods. There is an effort at RHIC to streamline the time needed for system checkout in order to quickly arrive at a period of beam operations for RHIC. This time-critical period is when the checkout of the power supplies is performed as the RHIC ring becomes cold and the supplies are connected to their physical magnets. The checkout process is used to identify problems in voltage and current regulation by examining data signals related to each for problems in settling and regulation (ripple).

  8. Solar photovoltaic power stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chowaniec, C. R.; Pittman, P. F.; Ferber, R. R.; Marshall, B. W.

    1977-01-01

    The subsystems of a solar photovoltaic central power system are identified and the cost of major components are estimated. The central power system, which would have a peak power capability in the range of 50 to 1000 MW, utilizes two types of subsystems - a power conditioner and a solar array. Despite differences in costs of inverters, the overall cost of the total power conditioning subsystem is about the same for all approaches considered. A combination of two inverters operating from balanced dc buses as a pair of 6-pulse groups is recommended. A number of different solar cell modules and tracking array structures were analyzed. It is concluded that when solar cell costs are high (greater than $500/kW), high concentration modules are more cost effective than those with low concentration. Vertical-axis tracking is the most effective of the studied tracking modes. For less expensive solar cells (less than $400/kW), fixed tilt collector/reflector modules are more cost effective than those which track.

  9. High power connection system

    DOEpatents

    Schaefer, Christopher E.; Beer, Robert C.; McCall, Mark D.

    2000-01-01

    A high power connection system adapted for automotive environments which provides environmental and EMI shielding includes a female connector, a male connector, and a panel mount. The female connector includes a female connector base and a snap fitted female connector cover. The male connector includes a male connector base and a snap fitted male connector cover. The female connector base has at least one female power terminal cavity for seatably receiving a respective female power terminal. The male connector base has at least one male power terminal cavity for seatably receiving a respective male power terminal. The female connector is covered by a cover seal and a conductive shroud. A pair of lock arms protrude outward from the front end of the male connector base, pass through the panel mount and interface with a lever of a lever rotatably connected to the shroud to thereby mechanically assist mating of the male and female connectors. Safety terminals in the male and female connectors provide a last-to-connect-first-to-break connection with an HVIL circuit.

  10. Nuclear Power - Post Fukushima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, Jose, Jr.

    2011-10-01

    The extreme events that led to the prolonged power outage at the Fukushima Daiicchi nuclear plant have highlighted the importance of assuring a means for stable long term cooling of the nuclear fuel and containment following a complete station blackout. Legislative bodies, regulatory agencies and industry are drawing lessons from those events and considering what changes, if any, are needed to nuclear power, post Fukushima. The enhanced safety of a new class of reactor designed by NuScale Power is drawing significant attention in light of the Fukushima events. During normal operation, each NuScale containment is fully immersed in a water-filled stainless steel lined concrete pool that resides underground. The pool, housed in a Seismic Category I building, is large enough to provided 30 days of core and containment cooling without adding water. After 30 days, the decay heat generations coupled with thermal radiation heat transfer is completely adequate to remove core decay heat for an unlimited period of time. These passive power systems can perform their function without requiring an external supply of water of power. An assessment of the NuScale passive systems is being performed through a comprehensive test program that includes the NuScale integral system test facility at Oregon State University

  11. The power relay satellite

    SciTech Connect

    Glaser, P.E.

    1994-12-31

    The availability and use of renewable energy sources compatible with reducing risks to the global environment are key to sustainable development. Large-scale, renewable energy resources at undeveloped or underutilized sites are potentially available on several continents. The Power Relay Satellite (PRS) concept has the potential to access these remote energy resources by coupling primary electricity generation from terrestrial transmission lines. A global PRS network can be envisioned to provide a high degree of flexibility for supplying energy demands worldwide with wireless power transmitted from sites on Earth to geosynchronous orbit and then reflected to receivers interfacing with terrestrial power transmision networks. Past developments in wireless power transmission (WPT) are reviewed and recent successful results are noted. The origins of the PRS concept, and a possible configuration are discussed, principles of WPT at microwave frequencies, functional requirements, and system design contraints are outlined, and space transportation concepts presented. PRS assessments including applicable technologies, economic projections, and societal issues are highlighted. It is concluded that the PRS provides a promising option to access renewable resources at great distances from major markets, and represents an important stage in the future development in the future of solar power satellites.

  12. The power relay satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaser, Peter E.

    The availability and use of renewable energy sources compatible with reducing risks to the global environment are key to sustainable development. Large-scale, renewable energy resources at undeveloped or underutilized sites are potentially available on several continents. The Power Relay Satellite (PRS) concept has the potential to access these remote energy resources by coupling primary electricity generation from terrestrial transmission lines. A global PRS network can be envisioned to provide a high degree of flexibility for supplying energy demands worldwide with wireless power transmitted from sites on Earth to geosynchronous orbit and then reflected to receivers interfacing with terrestrial power transmision networks. Past developments in wireless power transmission (WPT) are reviewed and recent successful results are noted. The origins of the PRS concept, and a possible configuration are discussed, principles of WPT at microwave frequencies, functional requirements, and system design contraints are outlined, and space transportation concepts presented. PRS assessments including applicable technologies, economic projections, and societal issues are highlighted. It is concluded that the PRS provides a promising option to access renewable resources at great distances from major markets, and represents an important stage in the future development in the future of solar power satellites.

  13. SATCOM constellation power simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Capulli, J.; Badke, B.; Davis, G.

    1995-12-31

    Three basic variables directly impact the power and energy generated by the SATCOM satellite constellation and its individual Space Vehicles (SVs). They are (1) telecommunications traffic patterns, (2) network resource management controllables, and (3) system hardware and software performance. This power simulation has verified the robustness of the telecommunications architecture. It has validated the onboard resource allocation process from an SV and network level power and energy perspective. The analyses have led to development of operational procedures that prevent SV node outages, and maximize network telecommunication traffic capacity. The program objective is to optimize overall system operation, availability and quality of service. Achieving this goal requires a thorough understanding of the Electrical Power Subsystem and its interfaces. The EPS simulation model analyzes network level performance by evaluating requirement compliance in the expected operating environments. Specifically, the simulation tool evaluates different design approaches and network operational strategies from a power and energy perspective. As a result, optimal load management solutions will be implemented both on-board the SV and via ground station directed resource allocation strategies.

  14. Laser satellite power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Walbridge, E.W.

    1980-01-01

    A laser satellite power system (SPS) converts solar power captured by earth-orbiting satellites into electrical power on the earth's surface, the satellite-to-ground transmission of power being effected by laser beam. The laser SPS may be an alternative to the microwave SPS. Microwaves easily penetrate clouds while laser radiation does not. Although there is this major disadvantage to a laser SPS, that system has four important advantages over the microwave alternative: (1) land requirements are much less, (2) radiation levels are low outside the laser ground stations, (3) laser beam sidelobes are not expected to interfere with electromagnetic systems, and (4) the laser system lends itself to small-scale demonstration. After describing lasers and how they work, the report discusses the five lasers that are candidates for application in a laser SPS: electric discharge lasers, direct and indirect solar pumped lasers, free electron lasers, and closed-cycle chemical lasers. The Lockheed laser SPS is examined in some detail. To determine whether a laser SPS will be worthy of future deployment, its capabilities need to be better understood and its attractiveness relative to other electric power options better assessed. First priority should be given to potential program stoppers, e.g., beam attenuation by clouds. If investigation shows these potential program stoppers to be resolvable, further research should investigate lasers that are particularly promising for SPS application.

  15. Power Without Wires (POWOW)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr.; Howell, Joe (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Electric propulsion has emerged as a cost-effective solution to a wide range of satellite applications. Deep Space 1 successfully demonstrated electric propulsion as the primary propulsion source for a satellite. The POWOW concept is a solar-electric propelled spacecraft capable of significant cargo and short trip times for traveling to Mars. There it would enter areosynchronous orbit (Mars GEO equivalent) and beam power to surface installations via lasers. The concept has been developed with industrial partner expertise in high efficiency solar cells, advanced concentrator modules, innovative arrays, and high power electric propulsion systems. The present baseline spacecraft design providing 898 kW using technologies expected to be available in 2003 will be described. Areal power densities approaching 350 W/sq m at 80 C operating temperatures and wing level specific powers of over 350 W/kg are projected. Details of trip times and payloads to Mars are presented. Electric propulsion options include Hall, MPD, and ion thrusters of various power levels and trade studies have been conducted to define the most advantageous options. Because the design is modular, learning curve methodology has been applied to determine expected cost reductions and is included.

  16. Beloyarsk Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    The Beloyarsk Nuclear Power Plant (BNPP) is located in Zarechny, approximately 60 km east of Ekaterinberg along the Trans-Siberian Highway. Zarechny, a small city of approximately 30,000 residents, was built to support BNPP operations. It is a closed city to unescorted visitors. Residents must show identification for entry. BNPP is one of the first and oldest commercial nuclear power plants in Russia and began operations in 1964. As for most nuclear power plants in the Russian Federation, BNPP is operated by Rosenergoatom, which is subordinated to the Ministry of Atomic Energy of the Russian Federation (Minatom). BNPP is the site of three nuclear reactors, Units 1, 2, and 3. Units 1 and 2, which have been shut-down and defueled, were graphite moderated reactors. The units were shut-down in 1981 and 1989. Unit 3, a BN-600 reactor, is a 600 MW(electric) sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor. Unit 3 went on-line in April 1980 and produces electric power which is fed into a distribution grid and thermal power which provides heat to Zarechny. The paper also discusses the SF NIKIET, the Sverdiovsk Branch of NIKIET, Moscow, which is the research and development branch of the parent NIKEIT and is primarily a design institute responsible for reactor design. Central to its operations is a 15 megawatt IVV research reactor. The paper discusses general security and fissile material control and accountability at these two facilities.

  17. Economics of nuclear power.

    PubMed

    Rossin, A D; Rieck, T A

    1978-08-18

    With 12 percent of U.S. electricity now being supplied by nuclear power, Commonwealth Edison has found nuclear plants to be good investments relative to other base load energy sources. The country's largest user of nuclear power, Commonwealth Edison, estimates that its commitment to nuclear saved its customers about 10 percent on their electric bills in 1977, compared to the cost with the next best alternative, coal. This advantage is seen as continuing, contrary to criticisms of the economics and reliability of nuclear power and claims that it has hidden subsidies. It is concluded that there is a need for both nuclear and coal and that government policy precluding or restricting either would be unwise.

  18. Unity power factor converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wester, Gene W. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A unity power factor converter capable of effecting either inversion (dc-to-dc) or rectification (ac-to-dc), and capable of providing bilateral power control from a DC source (or load) through an AC transmission line to a DC load (or source) for power flow in either direction, is comprised of comparators for comparing the AC current i with an AC signal i.sub.ref (or its phase inversion) derived from the AC ports to generate control signals to operate a switch control circuit for high speed switching to shape the AC current waveform to a sine waveform, and synchronize it in phase and frequency with the AC voltage at the AC ports, by selectively switching the connections to a series inductor as required to increase or decrease the current i.

  19. Power Systems Development Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Southern Company Services

    2009-01-31

    In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF), located in Wilsonville, Alabama, has routinely demonstrated gasification technologies using various types of coals. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device, advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high-pressure solids handling systems. This final report summarizes the results of the technology development work conducted at the PSDF through January 31, 2009. Twenty-one major gasification test campaigns were completed, for a total of more than 11,000 hours of gasification operation. This operational experience has led to significant advancements in gasification technologies.

  20. Mobile electric power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloomfield, Valerie J.; Bloomfield, David P.; Johnson, Bradley Q.

    1992-01-01

    Analytic Power has proven the feasibility of a mobile electric power unit in the form of a hydride fueled ion-exchange membrane (IEM) fuel cell stack. We have over 5 years experience building and testing IEM fuel cells. The power section of a 350 watt fuel cell stack weighs 4.65 pounds based on our five cell sub-stack component weights. The composite stack structure is fabricated from two components; a unitized flow field and catalyzed membrane. The lightweight unitized flow field concept was proven in the first three months of the contract. A single unit flow field weighs 0.155 pounds and can seal to 60 psi. The single cell catalyzed Nafion membrane exceeded our performance goal of 0.6 volts at 100 ASF. Stack performance points were 0.42 volts at 113 ASF and .75 volts at 96 ASF.

  1. Powered protrusion cutter

    DOEpatents

    Bzorgi, Fariborz M.

    2010-03-09

    An apparatus for clipping a protrusion of material is provided. The protrusion may, for example, be a bolt head, a nut, a rivet, a weld bead, or a temporary assembly alignment tab protruding from a substrate surface of assembled components. The apparatus typically includes a cleaver having a cleaving edge and a cutting blade having a cutting edge. Generally, a mounting structure configured to confine the cleaver and the cutting blade and permit a range of relative movement between the cleaving edge and the cutting edge is provided. Also typically included is a power device coupled to the cutting blade. The power device is configured to move the cutting edge toward the cleaving edge. In some embodiments the power device is activated by a momentary switch. A retraction device is also generally provided, where the retraction device is configured to move the cutting edge away from the cleaving edge.

  2. Discontinuous Mode Power Supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lagadinos, John; Poulos, Ethel

    2012-01-01

    A document discusses the changes made to a standard push-pull inverter circuit to avoid saturation effects in the main inverter power supply. Typically, in a standard push-pull arrangement, the unsymmetrical primary excitation causes variations in the volt second integral of each half of the excitation cycle that could lead to the establishment of DC flux density in the magnetic core, which could eventually cause saturation of the main inverter transformer. The relocation of the filter reactor normally placed across the output of the power supply solves this problem. The filter reactor was placed in series with the primary circuit of the main inverter transformer, and is presented as impedance against the sudden changes on the input current. The reactor averaged the input current in the primary circuit, avoiding saturation of the main inverter transformer. Since the implementation of the described change, the above problem has not reoccurred, and failures in the main power transistors have been avoided.

  3. Physics and nuclear power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buttery, N. E.

    2008-03-01

    Nuclear power owes its origin to physicists. Fission was demonstrated by physicists and chemists and the first nuclear reactor project was led by physicists. However as nuclear power was harnessed to produce electricity the role of the engineer became stronger. Modern nuclear power reactors bring together the skills of physicists, chemists, chemical engineers, electrical engineers, mechanical engineers and civil engineers. The paper illustrates this by considering the Sizewell B project and the role played by physicists in this. This covers not only the roles in design and analysis but in problem solving during the commissioning of first of a kind plant. Looking forward to the challenges to provide sustainable and environmentally acceptable energy sources for the future illustrates the need for a continuing synergy between physics and engineering. This will be discussed in the context of the challenges posed by Generation IV reactors.

  4. Power line detection system

    DOEpatents

    Latorre, Victor R.; Watwood, Donald B.

    1994-01-01

    A short-range, radio frequency (RF) transmitting-receiving system that provides both visual and audio warnings to the pilot of a helicopter or light aircraft of an up-coming power transmission line complex. Small, milliwatt-level narrowband transmitters, powered by the transmission line itself, are installed on top of selected transmission line support towers or within existing warning balls, and provide a continuous RF signal to approaching aircraft. The on-board receiver can be either a separate unit or a portion of the existing avionics, and can also share an existing antenna with another airborne system. Upon receipt of a warning signal, the receiver will trigger a visual and an audio alarm to alert the pilot to the potential power line hazard.

  5. Power line detection system

    DOEpatents

    Latorre, V.R.; Watwood, D.B.

    1994-09-27

    A short-range, radio frequency (RF) transmitting-receiving system that provides both visual and audio warnings to the pilot of a helicopter or light aircraft of an up-coming power transmission line complex. Small, milliwatt-level narrowband transmitters, powered by the transmission line itself, are installed on top of selected transmission line support towers or within existing warning balls, and provide a continuous RF signal to approaching aircraft. The on-board receiver can be either a separate unit or a portion of the existing avionics, and can also share an existing antenna with another airborne system. Upon receipt of a warning signal, the receiver will trigger a visual and an audio alarm to alert the pilot to the potential power line hazard. 4 figs.

  6. Mobile electric power

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomfield, V.J.; Bloomfield, D.P.; Johnson, B.Q.

    1992-01-30

    Analytic Power has proven the feasibility of a mobile electric power unit in the form of a hydride fueled ion-exchange membrane (IEM) fuel cell stack. We have over 5 years experience building and testing IEM fuel cells. The power section of a 350 watt fuel cell stack weighs 4.65 pounds based on our five cell sub-stack component weights. The composite stack structure is fabricated from two components; a unitized flow field and catalyzed membrane. The lightweight unitized flow field concept was proven in the first three months of the contract. A single unit flow field weighs 0.155 pounds and can seal to 60 psi. The single cell catalyzed Nafion membrane exceeded our performance goal of 0.6 volts at 100 ASF. Stack performance points were 0.42 volts at 113 ASF and .75 volts at 96 asf.

  7. Power Systems Control Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    James Davidson

    2005-01-01

    A diagram provided in the report depicts the complexity of the power systems control architecture used by the national power structure. It shows the structural hierarchy and the relationship of the each system to those other systems interconnected to it. Each of these levels provides a different focus for vulnerability testing and has its own weaknesses. In evaluating each level, of prime concern is what vulnerabilities exist that provide a path into the system, either to cause the system to malfunction or to take control of a field device. An additional vulnerability to consider is can the system be compromised in such a manner that the attacker can obtain critical information about the system and the portion of the national power structure that it controls.

  8. Power converter connection configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Beihoff, Bruce C.; Kehl, Dennis L.; Gettelfinger, Lee A.; Kaishian, Steven C.; Phillips, Mark G.; Radosevich, Lawrence D.

    2008-11-11

    EMI shielding is provided for power electronics circuits and the like via a direct-mount reference plane support and shielding structure. The thermal support may receive one or more power electronic circuits. The support may aid in removing heat from the circuits through fluid circulating through the support. The support forms a shield from both external EMI/RFI and from interference generated by operation of the power electronic circuits. Features may be provided to permit and enhance connection of the circuitry to external circuitry, such as improved terminal configurations. Modular units may be assembled that may be coupled to electronic circuitry via plug-in arrangements or through interface with a backplane or similar mounting and interconnecting structures.

  9. Power Quality Aspects in a Wind Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Muljadi, E.; Butterfield, C. P.; Chacon, J.; Romanowitz, H.

    2006-01-01

    Like conventional power plants, wind power plants must provide the power quality required to ensure the stability and reliability of the power system it is connected to and to satisfy the customers connected to the same grid. When wind energy development began, wind power plants were very small, ranging in size from under one megawatt to tens megawatts with less than 100 turbines in each plant. Thus, the impact of wind power plant on the grid was very small, and any disturbance within or created by the plant was considered to be in the noise level. In the past 30 years, the size of wind turbines and the size of wind power plants have increased significantly. Notably, in Tehachapi, California, the amount of wind power generation has surpassed the infrastructure for which it was designed. At the same time, the lack of rules, standards, and regulations during early wind development has proven to be an increasing threat to the stability and power quality of the grid connected to a wind power plant. Fortunately, many new wind power plants are equipped with state of the art technology, which enables them to provide good service while producing clean power for the grid. The advances in power electronics have allowed many power system applications to become more flexible and to accomplish smoother regulation. Applications such as reactive power compensation, static transfer switches, energy storage, and variable-speed generations are commonly found in modern wind power plants. Although many operational aspects affect wind power plant operation, this paper, focuses on power quality. Because a wind power plant is connected to the grid, it is very important to understand the sources of disturbances that affect the power quality. In general, the voltage and frequency must be kept as stable as possible. The voltage and current distortions created by harmonics will also be discussed in this paper as will self-excitation, which may occur in a wind power plant due to loss of line.

  10. Prognostics of Power MOSFET

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Celaya, Jose Ramon; Saxena, Abhinav; Vashchenko, Vladislay; Saha, Sankalita; Goebel, Kai Frank

    2011-01-01

    This paper demonstrates how to apply prognostics to power MOSFETs (metal oxide field effect transistor). The methodology uses thermal cycling to age devices and Gaussian process regression to perform prognostics. The approach is validated with experiments on 100V power MOSFETs. The failure mechanism for the stress conditions is determined to be die-attachment degradation. Change in ON-state resistance is used as a precursor of failure due to its dependence on junction temperature. The experimental data is augmented with a finite element analysis simulation that is based on a two-transistor model. The simulation assists in the interpretation of the degradation phenomena and SOA (safe operation area) change.

  11. Wind power today

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    This publication highlights initiatives of the US DOE`s Wind Energy Program. 1997 yearly activities are also very briefly summarized. The first article describes a 6-megawatt wind power plant installed in Vermont. Another article summarizes technical advances in wind turbine technology, and describes next-generation utility and small wind turbines in the planning stages. A village power project in Alaska using three 50-kilowatt turbines is described. Very brief summaries of the Federal Wind Energy Program and the National Wind Technology Center are also included in the publication.

  12. MOSFET Power Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, J.; Jones, K.

    1986-01-01

    High current and voltage controlled remotely. Remote Power Conroller includes two series-connected banks of parallel-connected MOSFET's to withstand high current and voltage. Voltage sharing between switch banks, low-impedance, gate-drive circuits used. Provided controlled range for turn on. Individually trimmable to insure simultaneous switching within few nanoseconds during both turn on and turn off. Control circuit for each switch bank and over-current trip circuit float independently and supplied power via transformer T1 from inverter. Control of floating stages by optocouplers.

  13. Hybrid Power Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis

    2005-01-01

    An engineering discipline denoted as hybrid power management (HPM) has emerged from continuing efforts to increase energy efficiency and reliability of hybrid power systems. HPM is oriented toward integration of diverse electric energy-generating, energy-storing, and energy-consuming devices in optimal configurations for both terrestrial and outer-space applications. The basic concepts of HPM are potentially applicable at power levels ranging from nanowatts to megawatts. Potential applications include terrestrial power-generation, terrestrial transportation, biotechnology, and outer-space power systems. Instances of this discipline at prior stages of development were reported (though not explicitly labeled as HPM) in three prior NASA Tech Briefs articles: "Ultracapacitors Store Energy in a Hybrid Electric Vehicle"(LEW-16876), Vol. 24, No. 4 (April 2000), page 63; "Photovoltaic Power Station With Ultracapacitors for Storage" (LEW-17177), Vol. 27, No. 8 (August 2003), page 38; and "Flasher Powered by Photovoltaic Cells and Ultracapacitors" (LEW-17246), Vol. 24, No. 10 (October 2003), page 37. As the titles of the cited articles indicate, the use of ultracapacitors as energy-storage devices lies at the heart of HPM. An ultracapacitor is an electrochemical energy-storage device, but unlike in a conventional rechargeable electrochemical cell or battery, chemical reactions do not take place during operation. Instead, energy is stored electrostatically at an electrode/electrolyte interface. The capacitance per unit volume of an ultracapacitor is much greater than that of a conventional capacitor because its electrodes have much greater surface area per unit volume and the separation between the electrodes is much smaller. Power-control circuits for ultracapacitors can be simpler than those for batteries, for two reasons: (1) Because of the absence of chemical reactions, charge and discharge currents can be greater than those in batteries, limited only by the electrical

  14. Power semiconductor controlled drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubey, Gopal K.

    This book presents power semiconductor controlled drives employing dc motors, induction motors, and synchronous motors. The dynamics of motor and load systems are covered. Open-loop and closed-loop drives are considered, and thyristor, power transistor, and GTO converters are discussed. In-depth coverage is given to ac drives, particularly those fed by voltage and current source inverters and cycloconverters. Full coverage is given to brushless and commutatorless dc drives, including load-commuted synchronous motor drives. Rectifier-controlled dc drives are presented in detail.

  15. Optimal Power Flow Pursuit

    SciTech Connect

    Dall'Anese, Emiliano

    2016-08-01

    Past works that focused on addressing power-quality and reliability concerns related to renewable energy resources (RESs) operating with business-as-usual practices have looked at the design of Volt/VAr and Volt/Watt strategies to regulate real or reactive powers based on local voltage measurements, so that terminal voltages are within acceptable levels. These control strategies have the potential of operating at the same time scale of distribution-system dynamics, and can therefore mitigate disturbances precipitated fast time-varying loads and ambient conditions; however, they do not necessarily guarantee system-level optimality, and stability claims are mainly based on empirical evidences. On a different time scale, centralized and distributed optimal power flow (OPF) algorithms have been proposed to compute optimal steady-state inverter setpoints, so that power losses and voltage deviations are minimized and economic benefits to end-users providing ancillary services are maximized. However, traditional OPF schemes may offer decision making capabilities that do not match the dynamics of distribution systems. Particularly, during the time required to collect data from all the nodes of the network (e.g., loads), solve the OPF, and subsequently dispatch setpoints, the underlying load, ambient, and network conditions may have already changed; in this case, the DER output powers would be consistently regulated around outdated setpoints, leading to suboptimal system operation and violation of relevant electrical limits. The present work focuses on the synthesis of distributed RES-inverter controllers that leverage the opportunities for fast feedback offered by power-electronics interfaced RESs. The overarching objective is to bridge the temporal gap between long-term system optimization and real-time control, to enable seamless RES integration in large scale with stability and efficiency guarantees, while congruently pursuing system-level optimization objectives. The

  16. Nanoconverters for Powering Nanodevices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Proposed integrated-circuit modules called "nanoconverters" would derive DC power from impinging electromagnetic beams having frequencies in the terahertz range. Nanoconverters are composed of microscopic antennas and diodes resembling rectennas that have been developed to perform the same function at frequencies in the gigahertz range. The submillimeter wavelength nanoconverters would make it possible to incorporate the antenna elements and diodes on structures much smaller than those of prior rectennas, thereby opening up opportunities for noncontact transmission of power to a variety of microelectronic devices, including surgically implanted medical devices and untethered microscopic robots.

  17. High power arcjet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goelz, T. M.; Auweter-Kurtz, M.; Kurtz, H. L.; Schrade, H. O.

    1991-01-01

    The activities of the High Power Arcjet Project (HIPARC) from August 1990 to January 1991 are discussed. In this period the HIPARC thruster was ignited for the first time. Power levels up to 140 kW with a mass flow rate of 300 mg/s hydrogen were reached. Specific impulse values of more than 1300 s were shown to be possible. Tests were performed with the baseline thruster version only, which has a 6 mm throat diameter and a conical nozzle with a 20 degree half angle. Measurement data summing up all tests carried out until now is included. All measuring methods are described, including a check on possible error sources.

  18. Power electronics cooling apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Sanger, Philip Albert; Lindberg, Frank A.; Garcen, Walter

    2000-01-01

    A semiconductor cooling arrangement wherein a semiconductor is affixed to a thermally and electrically conducting carrier such as by brazing. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the semiconductor and carrier are closely matched to one another so that during operation they will not be overstressed mechanically due to thermal cycling. Electrical connection is made to the semiconductor and carrier, and a porous metal heat exchanger is thermally connected to the carrier. The heat exchanger is positioned within an electrically insulating cooling assembly having cooling oil flowing therethrough. The arrangement is particularly well adapted for the cooling of high power switching elements in a power bridge.

  19. Culture and concepts of power.

    PubMed

    Torelli, Carlos J; Shavitt, Sharon

    2010-10-01

    Five studies indicate that conceptualizations of power are important elements of culture and serve culturally relevant goals. These studies provide converging evidence that cultures nurture different views of what is desirable and meaningful to do with power. Vertical individualism is associated with a conceptualization of power in personalized terms (i.e., power is for advancing one's personal status and prestige), whereas horizontal collectivism is associated with a conceptualization of power in socialized terms (i.e., power is for benefiting and helping others). Cultural variables are shown to predict beliefs about appropriate uses of power, episodic memories about power, attitudes in the service of power goals, and the contexts and ways in which power is used and defended. Evidence for the cultural patterning of power concepts is observed at both the individual level and the cultural-group level of analysis.

  20. Power optimization in logic isomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panwar, Ramesh; Rennels, David; Alkalaj, Leon

    1993-01-01

    Logic isomers are labeled, 2-isomorphic graphs that implement the same logic function. Logic isomers may have significantly different power requirements even though they have the same number of transistors in the implementation. The power requirements of the isomers depend on the transition activity of the input signals. The power requirements of isomorphic graph isomers of n-input NAND and NOR gates are shown. Choosing the less power-consuming isomer instead of the others can yield significant power savings. Experimental results on a ripple-carry adder are presented to show that the implementation using the least power-consuming isomers requires approximately 10 percent less power than the implementation using the most power-consuming isomers. Simulations of other random logic designs also confirm that designs using less power-consuming isomers can reduce the logic power demand by approximately 10 percent as compared to designs using more power-consuming isomers.

  1. Photonic-powered cable assembly

    DOEpatents

    Sanderson, Stephen N.; Appel, Titus James; Wrye, IV, Walter C.

    2013-01-22

    A photonic-cable assembly includes a power source cable connector ("PSCC") coupled to a power receive cable connector ("PRCC") via a fiber cable. The PSCC electrically connects to a first electronic device and houses a photonic power source and an optical data transmitter. The fiber cable includes an optical transmit data path coupled to the optical data transmitter, an optical power path coupled to the photonic power source, and an optical feedback path coupled to provide feedback control to the photonic power source. The PRCC electrically connects to a second electronic device and houses an optical data receiver coupled to the optical transmit data path, a feedback controller coupled to the optical feedback path to control the photonic power source, and a photonic power converter coupled to the optical power path to convert photonic energy received over the optical power path to electrical energy to power components of the PRCC.

  2. Photonic-powered cable assembly

    DOEpatents

    Sanderson, Stephen N; Appel, Titus James; Wrye, IV, Walter C

    2014-06-24

    A photonic-cable assembly includes a power source cable connector ("PSCC") coupled to a power receive cable connector ("PRCC") via a fiber cable. The PSCC electrically connects to a first electronic device and houses a photonic power source and an optical data transmitter. The fiber cable includes an optical transmit data path coupled to the optical data transmitter, an optical power path coupled to the photonic power source, and an optical feedback path coupled to provide feedback control to the photonic power source. The PRCC electrically connects to a second electronic device and houses an optical data receiver coupled to the optical transmit data path, a feedback controller coupled to the optical feedback path to control the photonic power source, and a photonic power converter coupled to the optical power path to convert photonic energy received over the optical power path to electrical energy to power components of the PRCC.

  3. Power Redesigned: Identification and Methodology for Constructive Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Robert E.

    Power, powerlessness, and empowerment have come under increasing scrutiny in recent years. Traditional applications of power tend to be autocratic and autocratic power continues to be accepted extensively in society. Increased use of alternative kinds of power is hindered by lack of skills, lack of opportunity for use, and inappropriate norms…

  4. Solar powered actuator with continuously variable auxiliary power control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A solar powered system is disclosed in which a load such as a compressor is driven by a main induction motor powered by a solar array. An auxiliary motor shares the load with the solar powered motor in proportion to the amount of sunlight available, is provided with a power factor controller for controlling voltage applied to the auxiliary motor in accordance with the loading on that motor. In one embodiment, when sufficient power is available from the solar cell, the auxiliary motor is driven as a generator by excess power from the main motor so as to return electrical energy to the power company utility lines.

  5. Novel Power Conditioning Circuits for Piezoelectric Micro Power Generators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-10-31

    heat engine power generator [14]….………………. 7 1.6. Block diagram of a linear regulator……………………………………………. 7 1.7. Block diagram of a PWM switch...October 31, 2003. Title: Novel Power Conditioning Circuits for Piezoelectric Micro Power Generators . Abstract Approved...von Jouanne Advanced low power devices promote the development of micro power generators (MPGs) to

  6. KiloPower Program

    SciTech Connect

    McClure, Patrick Ray

    2016-08-04

    These are the slides for a phone interview with Aerospace America magazine of the AIAA. It goes over the KiloPower Program at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and covers the following: 1 kWe Kilopower, 10 kWe Kilopower, Kilopower Reactor Using Stirling Technology (KRUSTY) Integration Test (DAF), Reactor Configuration, and Platen Positions.

  7. Lunar power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The findings of a study on the feasibility of several methods of providing electrical power for a permanently manned lunar base are provided. Two fundamentally different methods for lunar electrical power generation are considered. One is the use of a small nuclear reactor and the other is the conversion of solar energy to electricity. The baseline goal was to initially provide 300 kW of power with growth capability to one megawatt and eventually to 10 megawatts. A detailed, day by day scenario for the establishment, build-up, and operational activity of the lunar base is presented. Also presented is a conceptual approach to a supporting transportation system which identifies the number, type, and deployment of transportation vehicles required to support the base. An approach to the use of solar cells in the lunar environment was developed. There are a number of heat engines which are applicable to solar/electric conversions, and these are examined. Several approaches to energy storage which were used by the electric power utilities were examined and those which could be used at a lunar base were identified.

  8. Atomic Power Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogerton, John F.

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by The United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: What is Atomic Power?; What Does Safety Depend On?; Control of Radioactive Material During Operation; Accident Prevention; Containment in the Event of an Accident; Licensing and…

  9. Parceling the Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiatt, Blanchard; Gwynne, Peter

    1984-01-01

    To make computing power broadly available and truly friendly, both soft and hard meshing and synchronization problems will have to be solved. Possible solutions and research related to these problems are discussed. Topics considered include compilers, parallelism, networks, distributed sensors, dataflow, CEDAR system (using dataflow principles),…

  10. Integrated power system

    SciTech Connect

    Waddington, C.

    1987-10-13

    An integrated power system is described for transmitting power from a gas turbine engine, including a gas producer and a free turbine engine, to the driving elements of a vehicle comprising: a pair of independent output shafts; a pair of combining planetary gear systems, each being drivingly coupled to an associated one of the output shafts; a variable speed transmission drivingly coupled to the free power turbine; drive means operatively connecting the transmission and each of the combining planetary gear systems; steering means operatively coupled to each of the combining planetary gear systems for selectively driving at least one of the combining planetary gear systems; the steering means including a variable displacement hydraulic motor in driving engagement with the planetary gear systems and an hydraulic pump in driving engagement with the transmission for supplying fluid under pressure to the hydraulic motor to thereby effect steering of the vehicle; a fuel control for controlling the power output of the gas turbine engine; and an adjustable relief valve operatively interposed between the hydraulic motor and the hydraulic pump, the valve being responsive to the fuel control to establish a maximum fluid pressure imparted by the hydraulic pump to the hydraulic motor.

  11. Information Power Implementation Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of School Librarians, Chicago, IL.

    The materials in this collection were used at workshops designed to assist school library media specialists and learning resources center professionals in making effective use of "Information Power," a recent joint publication of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) and the American Association of School Librarians…

  12. Lightweight Regulated Power Supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, C. W.

    1985-01-01

    Power-supply circuit regulates output voltage by adjusting frequency of chopper circuit according to variations. Currently installed in battery charger for electric wheelchair, circuit is well suited to other uses in which light weight is important - for example, in portable computers, radios, and test instruments.

  13. The Power of Percent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jane; English, Lyn

    2013-01-01

    Jane Watson and Lyn English use a chance activity exploring expectation and variation with coin tossing to highlight the importance of understanding the part-whole relationship embodied in percentage and its power to measure and compare for different wholes, in this case different sample sizes. The purpose of this article is to raise awareness of…

  14. Wind power freshens water

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlor, V.; Sidorov, V.

    1981-01-01

    A wind-powered lighthouse water-freshening installation was installed at lighthouse locations along the Caspian Sea's coast and at one of the collective farms in the Moldavian SSR. From sea water containing up to 36 grams of salts per liter, fresh water with up to 1 gram per liter was produced. Output was 60 liters per hour.

  15. High Current Power Controller

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    AFWAL-TR-81- 2016 U iui.N HIGH CURRENT Ŕ POWER CONTROLLER P. E. McCOLLUM Audwo ROCKWELL INTERNATIONAL AUTONETICS STRATEGIC SYSTEMS DIVISION 3370...personnel. During norm3l operation, HCP \\.s pose no hazard, bLt unde- certain operating conditions potential noaza-ds do exist. They are: (1) During

  16. "Word Power" (Vocabulary Development).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voorhees, Roxy

    Containing numerous vocabulary-building activities and exercises, this guidebook is designed to help elementary students learn to manipulate language as they gain concrete experiences with words, increase their "word power," and have fun. The activities described involve dictionary games, synonyms, "saidonyms" (alternatives for…

  17. Power in a Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Pam

    2009-01-01

    The work unions do in providing and supporting learning for their members rarely makes the news headlines, but it will be essential if people are to engage those workers who most need to acquire new and better skills to cope in the economic downturn. In this article, the author talks about the power in a union and describes UNISON, a comparatively…

  18. Solar Sea Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zener, Clarence

    1976-01-01

    In their preoccupation with highly complex new energy systems, scientists and statesmen may be overlooking the possibilities of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC). That is the view of a Carnegie-Mellon University physicist who is in the forefront of solar sea power investigation. (Author/BT)

  19. High Power Cryogenic Targets

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory Smith

    2011-08-01

    The development of high power cryogenic targets for use in parity violating electron scattering has been a crucial ingredient in the success of those experiments. As we chase the precision frontier, the demands and requirements for these targets have grown accordingly. We discuss the state of the art, and describe recent developments and strategies in the design of the next generation of these targets.

  20. Reactive power compensating system

    DOEpatents

    Williams, Timothy J.; El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A.; Venkata, Subrahmanyam S.

    1987-01-01

    The reactive power of an induction machine is compensated by providing fixed capacitors on each phase line for the minimum compensation required, sensing the current on one line at the time its voltage crosses zero to determine the actual compensation required for each phase, and selecting switched capacitors on each line to provide the balance of the compensation required.