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Sample records for waterproofing

  1. Simplified Waterproofing of Aerogels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, Ming-Ta S.; Chen, Timothy S.; White, Susan; Rasky, Daniel J.

    2003-01-01

    A relatively simple silanization process has been developed for waterproofing or rewaterproofing aerogels, xerogels, and aerogel/tile composites, and other, similar low-density, highly microporous materials. Such materials are potentially attractive for a variety of applications especially for thermal-insulation panels that are required to be thin and lightweight. Unfortunately, such materials are also hydrophilic and tend to collapse after adsorbing water from the air. Hence, an effective means of waterproofing is necessary to enable practical exploitation of aerogels and the like. Older processes for waterproofing aerogels are time-consuming, labor-intensive, and expensive, relative to the present process. Each of the older processes includes a number of different chemical treatment steps, and some include the use of toxic halogenated surface-modifying compounds, pressures as high as hundreds of atmospheres, and/or temperatures as high as 1,000 C.

  2. Method for Waterproofing Ceramic Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cagliostro, Domenick E. (Inventor); Hsu, Ming-Ta S. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    Hygroscopic ceramic materials which are difficult to waterproof with a silane, substituted silane or silazane waterproofing agent, such as an alumina containing fibrous, flexible and porous, fibrous ceramic insulation used on a reentry space vehicle, are rendered easy to waterproof if the interior porous surface of the ceramic is first coated with a thin coating of silica. The silica coating is achieved by coating the interior surface of the ceramic with a silica precursor converting the precursor to silica either in-situ or by oxidative pyrolysis and then applying the waterproofing agent to the silica coated ceramic. The silica precursor comprises almost any suitable silicon containing material such as a silane, silicone, siloxane, silazane and the like applied by solution, vapor deposition and the like. If the waterproofing is removed by e.g., burning, the silica remains and the ceramic is easily rewaterproofed. An alumina containing TABI insulation which absorbs more that five times its weight of water, absorbs less than 10 wt. % water after being waterproofed according to the method of the invention.

  3. Concrete waterproofing in nuclear industry.

    PubMed

    Scherbyna, Alexander N; Urusov, Sergei V

    2005-01-01

    One of the main points of aggregate safety during the transportation and storage of radioactive materials is to supply waterproofing for all constructions having direct contact with radiating substances and providing strength, seismic shielding etc. This is the problem with all waterside structures in nuclear industry and concrete installations in the treatment and storage of radioactive materials. In this connection, the problem of developing efficient techniques both for the repair of operating constructions and the waterproofing of new objects of the specified assignment is genuine. Various techniques of concrete waterproofing are widely applied in the world today. However, in conditions of radiation many of these techniques can bring not a profit but irreparable damage of durability and reliability of a concrete construction; for instance, when waterproofing materials contain organic constituents, polymers etc. Application of new technology or materials in basic construction elements requires in-depth analysis and thorough testing. The price of an error might be very large. A comparative analysis shows that one of the most promising types of waterproofing materials for radiation loaded concrete constructions is "integral capillary systems" (ICS). The tests on radiation, thermal and strength stability of ICS and ICS-treated concrete samples were initiated and fulfilled in RFNC-VNIITF. The main result is--ICS applying is increasing of waterproofing and strength properties of concrete in conditions of readiation The paper is devoted to describing the research strategy, the tests and their results and also to planning of new tests.

  4. Aerogel Composites: Strong and Waterproof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Susan; Hsu, Ming-ta; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Aerogels are exotic materials having superior thermal and physical properties with great potential for both space and industrial uses. Although aerogels are excellent low-density insulators with unique acoustic and optical properties, their commercialization potential is currently limited by moisture absorption, fragility, and cost. This paper describes useful, easily scaled-up solutions to the first two of these three problems. The waterproofing and water-repellent method described here is a cheaper and simpler improvement over previous permanent methods.

  5. Organopolysiloxane Waterproofing Treatment for Porous Ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leiser, Daniel B. (Inventor); Cagliostro, Domenick E. (Inventor); Hsu, Ming-ta S. (Inventor); Chen, Timothy S. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    Rigid and flexible porous ceramics, including thermal insulation of a type used on space vehicles, are waterproofed by a treatment which comprises applying an aqueous solution of an organopolysiloxane water-proofing agent having reactive silanol groups to the surface of the ceramic and then heating the treated ceramic to form a waterproofed ceramic. The organopolysiloxane is formed by the hydrolysis and partial condensation of di- and trialkoxyfunctional alkylalkoxysilanes having 1-10 carbon atom hydrocarbyl groups.

  6. Rainbow Waterproofing and Restoration Co. Information Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Rainbow Waterproofing and Restoration Co. (the Company) is located in San Francisco, California. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at property constructed prior to 1978, located in San Francisco, California.

  7. A waterproof cast liner earns high marks.

    PubMed

    Selesnick, H; Griffiths, G

    1997-09-01

    Nondisplaced and stable fractures or severe sprains may be casted using fiberglass and a waterproof liner. Application of the liner is illustrated and described here. Allergic reactions, liner bulkiness, cast application and removal, and cost of materials have not proven to be problems. Among 337 patients fitted with this liner, odor, itching, and difficulties with drying were minimal, even though patients swam, bathed, or received hydrotherapy. Minor skin complications occurred in 5.9% of patients. Physician and patient satisfaction with the liner was high.

  8. Polypropylene - asphalt mixtures for waterproofing membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Italia, P.; Brandolese, E.

    1996-12-31

    In any field of polymer-asphalt mixtures application is extremely important to achieve a very good compatibility between the components in order to improve as much as possible the performances due to the polymer content. In the case of waterproofing membranes application this compatibility reduce, moreover, the amount of polymer required to obtain the best performances. Using the Colloidal Instability Index Ic, as measured by the Iatroscan device, we propose a correlation between asphalt`s chemical characteristics and the polymer minimum amount sufficient to disperse in a stable way the asphalt itself in the polymeric matrix. As a result, through the proposed correlation, with a simple asphalt composition analysis it is possible to predict its performance when mixed with polypropilene. In the paper, beside the description of the Iatroscan analytical technique, we also present a method for determining phase inversion based on optical fluorescence microscopy performed on about 30 different samples of asphalt. We also present the experimental correlation laws between the polymer amount at phase inversion and the asphalt single components content.

  9. Possible Concepts for Waterproofing of Norwegian TBM Railway Tunnels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dammyr, Øyvind; Nilsen, Bjørn; Thuro, Kurosch; Grøndal, Jørn

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate and compare the durability, life expectancy and maintenance needs of traditional Norwegian waterproofing concepts to the generally more rigid waterproofing concepts seen in other European countries. The focus will be on solutions for future Norwegian tunnel boring machine railway tunnels. Experiences from operation of newer and older tunnels with different waterproofing concepts have been gathered and analyzed. In the light of functional requirements for Norwegian rail tunnels, some preliminary conclusions about suitable concepts are drawn. Norwegian concepts such as polyethylene panels and lightweight concrete segments with membrane are ruled out. European concepts involving double shell draining systems (inner shell of cast concrete with membrane) and single shell undrained systems (waterproof concrete segments) are generally evaluated as favorable. Sprayable membranes and waterproof/insulating shotcrete are welcomed innovations, but more research is needed to verify their reliability and cost effectiveness compared to the typical European concepts. Increasing traffic and reliance on public transport systems in Norway result in high demand for durable and cost effective solutions.

  10. Waterproof Silicone Coatings of Thermal Insulation and Vaporization Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cagliostro, Domenick E. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    Thermal insulation composed of porous ceramic material can be waterproofed by producing a thin silicone film on the surface of the insulation by exposing it to volatile silicone precursors at ambient conditions. When the silicone precursor reactants are multi-functional siloxanes or silanes containing alkenes or alkynes carbon groups higher molecular weight films can be produced. Catalyst are usually required for the silicone precursors to react at room temperature to form the films. The catalyst are particularly useful in the single component system e.g. dimethylethoxysilane (DNMS) to accelerate the reaction and decrease the time to waterproof and protect the insulation. In comparison to other methods, the chemical vapor technique assures better control over the quantity and location of the film being deposited on the ceramic insulation to improve the waterproof coating.

  11. Waterproof casts for immobilization of children's fractures and sprains.

    PubMed

    Shannon, Elizabeth G; DiFazio, Rachel; Kasser, James; Karlin, Lawrence; Gerbino, Peter

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the efficacy of waterproof cast-lining materials in children with short-arm, long-arm, and short-leg casts. Eligible patients had healing fractures 2 weeks after reduction, stable fractures requiring no reduction, or sprains. A total of 165 waterproof-lined casts were applied and 124 children and parents completed a survey (76.9%) upon cast removal. Results revealed 79% very satisfied, 21% satisfied, and 0% dissatisfied. There were 16 (12.9%) minor skin integrity issues. Waterproof casts in stable fractures and sprains allow acceptable immobilization with no significant associated unusual risk and allow children to resume their usual recreational water activities and hygiene regimen without risk of adverse results.

  12. Development of Techniques for Separating Waterproof Layer from XLPE Cable Sheath by Hot Water Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okazaki, Masato; Nakade, Masahiko; Okashita, Minoru; Tanimoto, Mihoko

    Waterproof layer is used to prevent penetration of water which is one of the factors of dielectric breakdown in XLPE cables more than 66kV class. A XLPE cable sheath with waterproof layer is done landfill disposal as industrial waste because separation of waterproof layer is difficult for technology and cost. However, around 20 years passes after waterproof layer was introduced, and social consciousness for environment changes during these 20 years, and responsibility of company for environment of a society grows bigger. We report the result that examined techniques for separating waterproof layer.

  13. Entering the Roofing and Waterproofing Industry. Roofing Workbook and Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Bureau of Publications.

    This book is one of a series of 10 units of instruction for roofing apprenticeship classes in California. It covers the following 14 topics and provides tests for them: the nature of the roofing and waterproofing industry; the apprenticeship program; apprenticeship and the public schools; collective bargaining, wages, and benefits; safety in the…

  14. New Approaches to Waterproofing of Space Shuttle Insulating Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blum, Yigal D.; Johnson, Sylvia M.; Chen, Paul

    1997-01-01

    Future reusable space vehicles will be in service much more frequently than current space shuttles. Therefore, rapid reconditioning of spacecraft will be required. Currently, the waterproofing of space shuttles after each re-entry takes 72 hours and requires substantial labor. In addition, the currently used waterproofing reagent, DiMethylEthoxySilane (DMES), is considered toxic, and ethanol fumes are released during its hydrolytic activation. Consequently, a long time period, which is not acceptable for future operations, is needed to ensure that 0 the excess volatile compounds are removed before further maintenance of the space vehicle can be performed. The objective of this project was to assist NASA Ames in finding improved waterproofing systems by identifying suitable waterproofing agents that can be applied by vapor phase deposition and will be less toxic, bond more rapidly to the insulation material surface, and potentially have higher thermal stability than the DMES system. Several approaches to achieve faster waterproofing with less toxicity were assessed using the following alternatives: Reactive volatile compounds that are rapidly deposited by chemical bonding at the surface and leave no toxic volatiles. Reactive reagents that are the least toxic. Nonvolatile reagents that are very reactive and bond strongly to the insulating material surface. Three specific types of potential reagents were chosen for evaluation in this project: 1. Volatile reagents with Si-Cl functional groups for vapor deposition 2. Volatile reagents with Si-H functional groups for vapor deposition 3. Nonvolatile oligomeric or polymeric reactive siloxanes that are assumed to have higher thermal stability and/or strong bonding to the insulating material. The chemistry involved in the project was targeted at the generation of intermediates having reactive Si-OH bonds for the formation of either volatile species or polymeric species that bond rapidly to the surface and also cure rapidly

  15. Efficient, environmentally acceptable method for waterproofing insulation material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blohowiak, Kay Y. (Inventor); Krienke, Kenneth A. (Inventor); Olli, Larry K. (Inventor); Newquist, Charles W. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A process of waterproofing alumina-rich or silica-rich fibrous thermal insulation material, the process including the steps of: (a) providing an alumina-rich or a silica-rich fibrous material; (b) providing a waterproofing solution including: (1) a carrier solvent selected from the group consisting of aliphatic alcohols having from 1C to 6C, water, and mixtures thereof; and (2) an alkoxysilane defined by the formula R.sub.4-x -Si-(O-R').sub.x where x is 1-3 and R is selected from the group consisting of alkyl groups having from 1C to 10C, hydrogen, or fluorocarbon groups having from 1F to 15F; and where O-R' is an alkoxy group having from 1C to 5C, or a mixture of alkoxysilanes defined by the above formula R.sub.4-x -Si-(O-R').sub.x ; and optionally (3) modifiers including acids, such as acetic acid or nitric acid, or bases, such as ammonium hydroxide, RNH.sub.2, R.sub.2 NH, or R.sub.3 N, or MOH, where R is selected from the group consisting of alkyl groups having from 1C to 10C or hydrogen, and where M=Na, Li, or K; (c) contacting the fibrous material with the waterproofing solution for a sufficient amount of time to waterproof the fibrous material; and (d) curing the coated fibrous material to render it sufficiently waterproof. A chemical solution for waterproofing alumina-rich or silica-rich fibrous thermal insulation materials, the solution including: (a) a carrier solvent selected from the group consisting of aliphatic alcohols having from 1C to 6C, water, and mixtures thereof; and (b) an alkoxysilane defined by the formula R.sub.4-x -Si-(O-R').sub.x where x is 1-3 and R is selected from the group consisting of alkyl groups having from 1C to 10C, hydrogen, or fluorocarbon groups having from 1F to 15F; and where O-R' is an alkoxy group having from 1C to 5C, or a mixture of alkoxysilanes defined by the above formula R.sub.4-x -Si-(O-R').sub.x ; and optionally (c) modifiers including acids, such as acetic acid or nitric acid, or bases, such as ammonium hydroxide

  16. Impulse radar evaluation of concrete, asphalt and waterproofing membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, T.; Carter, C. R.; Masliwec, T.; Manning, D. G.

    1994-04-01

    Impulse radar has proved to be effective in the nondestructive testing of bridge decks composed of layers of dielectric materials such as asphalt, waterproofing membrane, and reinforced concrete. In this work, the waveforms reflected from these materials are modeled and analyzed theoretically. The relative dielectric constants are measured using sample blocks, and the reflected radar waveforms are related to the actual physical structures. It is found that asphalt thickness and cover over reinforcement can be accurately determined.

  17. Frost resistance of concrete surfaces coated with waterproofing materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klovas, A.; Dauksys, M.; Ciuprovaite, G.

    2015-03-01

    Present research lays emphasis on the problem of concrete surface exposed to aggressive surrounding quality. The test was conducted with concrete surfaces coated with different waterproofing materials exposed in solution of 3 % of sodium sulphate. Research was performed according to LST EN 1338:2003 standard requirements. Technological properties of concrete mixture as well as physical-mechanical properties of formed concrete specimens were established. The resistance of concrete to freezing - thawing cycles was prognosticated according to the porosity parameters established by the kinetic of water absorption. Five different waterproofing materials (coatings) such as liquid bitumen-rubber based, elastic fiber-strengthened, silane-siloxane based emulsion, mineral binder based and liquid rubber (caoutchouc) based coatings were used. Losses by mass of coating materials and specimens surface fractures were calculated based on the results of frost resistance test. Open code program "ImageJ" was used for visual analysis of concrete specimens. Based on the results, aggressive surrounding did not influence specimens coated with elastic, fibre-strengthened, mineral materials. On the other hand, specimens coated with liquid rubber (caoutchouc) based material were greatly influenced by aggressive surrounding. The biggest losses of specimen surface concrete (fractures) were obtained with silane-siloxane based emulsion coating. Generally, specimens coated with waterproofing materials were less influenced by aggressive surrounding compared with those without.

  18. FTIR instrumentation to monitor vapors from Shuttle tile waterproofing materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattson, C. B.; Schwindt, C. J.

    1995-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Thermal Protection System (TPS) tiles and blankets are waterproofed using DimethylEthoxySilane (DMEX) in the Orbiter Processing Facilities (OPF). DMES has a Threshold Limit Value (TLV) for exposure of personnel to vapor concentration in air of 0.5 ppm. The OPF high bay cannot be opened for normal work after a waterproofing operation until the DMES concentration is verified by measurement to be below the TLV. On several occasions the high bay has been kept closed for up to 8 hours following waterproofing operations due to high DMES measurements. In addition, the Miran 203 and Miran 1 BX infrared analyzers calibrated at different wavelengths gave different readings under the same conditions. There was reason to believe that some of the high DMES concentration readings were caused by interference form water and ethanol vapors. The Toxic Vapor Detection Laboratory (TVDL) was asked to test the existing DMES instruments and identify the best qualified instrument. In addition the TVDL was requested to develop instrumentation to ensure the OPF high bay could be opened safely as soon as possible after a waterproofing operation. A Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrophotometer instrument developed for an earlier project was reprogrammed to measure DMES vapor along with ethanol, water, and several common solvent vapors. The FTIR was then used to perform a series of laboratory and field tests to evaluate the performance of the single wavelength IR instruments in use. The results demonstrated that the single wavelength IR instruments did respond to ethanol and water vapors, more or less depending on the analytical IR wavelength selected. The FTIR was able to separate the responses to DMES, water and ethanol, and give consistent readings for the DMES vapor concentration. The FTIR was then deployed to the OPF to monitor real waterproofing operations. The FTIR was also used to measure the time for DMES to evaporate from TPS tile under a range of humidity

  19. Cold-Applied Roofing Systems and Waterproofing and Dampproofing. Roofing Workbook and Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Arthur

    This workbook for students in California roofing apprenticeship programs provides information for classroom work in the area of cold-applied roofing systems and waterproofing and dampproofing. Eight topics are covered: introduction to cold-applied roofing systems and waterproofing and dampproofing, tools and equipment used in cold-applied roofing,…

  20. A Prospective Randomized Crossover Study on the Comparison of Cotton Versus Waterproof Cast Liners

    PubMed Central

    Guillen, Philip T.; Fuller, Corey B.; Riedel, Barth B.; Wongworawat, Montri D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many fractures are treated with casting which can cause complications likely from inability to wash the extremity. Gore-Tex-based waterproof cast liner has been compared with cotton liner and shown to be superior in physician and patient scoring but also has high cost and difficult application. The purpose of this study is to compare newer generation waterproof liners with traditional cotton liner. It is the first study to compare this new waterproof liner and cotton liner in a crossover model, allowing patients to swim in the pool with the cast. Methods: Twenty patients (ages 3-30) with upper extremity injuries were randomized to waterproof-liner or cotton-liner casts made of fiberglass. Patients would switch cast liners halfway between their treatments to fulfill crossover criteria. All fractures were within a 2-week period from original incident. At each clinic visit, patients evaluated comfort parameters through questionnaires, and physicians rated skin condition. Patients were also asked which cast liner they preferred at the end of the study. Results: There were no unscheduled cast changes. The waterproof-liner group had better scores for odor (P = .041), sweat (P = .016), and overall physician-rated score (P = .038). There was no significant difference in other patient-rated parameters. Seventy-five percent of patients preferred waterproof casting to the cotton liner. Conclusions: This new waterproof cast liner, compared with cotton cast liner, had better odor, sweat, and overall physician scores. The waterproof liners allow patients to rinse casts daily, and the majority of patients prefer waterproof to cotton liner. PMID:27418889

  1. Waterproof, Ultrahigh Areal-Capacitance, Wearable Supercapacitor Fabrics.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu; Huang, Qiyao; Niu, Liyong; Wang, Dongrui; Yan, Casey; She, Yiyi; Zheng, Zijian

    2017-02-24

    High-performance supercapacitors (SCs) are promising energy storage devices to meet the pressing demand for future wearable applications. Because the surface area of a human body is limited to 2 m(2) , the key challenge in this field is how to realize a high areal capacitance for SCs, while achieving rapid charging, good capacitive retention, flexibility, and waterproofing. To address this challenge, low-cost materials are used including multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT), reduced graphene oxide (RGO), and metallic textiles to fabricate composite fabric electrodes, in which MWCNT and RGO are alternatively vacuum-filtrated directly onto Ni-coated cotton fabrics. The composite fabric electrodes display typical electrical double layer capacitor behavior, and reach an ultrahigh areal capacitance up to 6.2 F cm(-2) at a high areal current density of 20 mA cm(-2) . All-solid-state fabric-type SC devices made with the composite fabric electrodes and water-repellent treatment can reach record-breaking performance of 2.7 F cm(-2) at 20 mA cm(-2) at the first charge-discharge cycle, 3.2 F cm(-2) after 10 000 charge-discharge cycles, zero capacitive decay after 10 000 bending tests, and 10 h continuous underwater operation. The SC devices are easy to assemble into tandem structures and integrate into garments by simple sewing.

  2. Effect of Waterproofing Admixtures on the Flexural Strength and Corrosion Resistance of Concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geetha, A.; Perumal, P.

    2012-02-01

    This paper deals about the flexural strength and corrosion behaviour of concrete using waterproofing admixtures. The effect of waterproofing admixtures on the corrosion behaviour of RCC specimen has been studied by conducting accelerated corrosion test. To identify the effect of corrosion in pull out strength, corrosion process was induced by means of accelerated corrosion procedure. To accelerate the reinforcement corrosion, direct electric current was impressed on the rebar embedded in the specimen using a DC power supply system that has a facility to adjust voltage. The addition of waterproofing admixtures also shows the improvement in the flexural strength of concrete has been studied by conducting flexural strength tests on the concrete prism specimen of size 100 × 100 × 500 mm with and without admixtures for various dosages and various curing periods of 7 and 28 days. The results showed that the presence of waterproofing admixtures always improves the corrosion resistance and thus increases the strength of concrete due to the hydrophobic action of waterproofing admixtures.

  3. Waterproofing and Strengthening Volcanic Tuff in Waste Repositories

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, E.E.; Carter, P.E.; Cooper, D.C.

    2008-07-01

    Waste repositories from surface trenches and shafts at Los Alamos to drilled tunnels at Yucca Mountain are being built in volcanic Tuff, a soft compacted material that is permeable to water and air. US Department of Energy documents on repository design identify the primary design goal of 'preventing water from reaching the waste canisters, dissolving the canisters and carrying the radioactive waste particles away from the repository'. Designers expect to achieve this by use of multiple barriers along with careful placement of the repository both well above the water table and well above the ground level in a mountain. Though repositories are located in areas that have a historically dry climate to minimize the impact of rainfall infiltration, global warming phenomena may have the potential to alter regional climate patterns - potentially leading to higher infiltration rates. Conventional methods of sealing fractures within volcanic tuff may not be sufficiently robust or long lived to isolate a repository shaft from water for the required duration. A new grouting technology based on molten wax shows significant promise for producing the kind of long term sealing performance required. Molten wax is capable of permeating a significant distance through volcanic tuff, as well as sealing fractures by permeation that is thermally dependent instead of chemically or time dependent. The wax wicks into and saturates tuff even if no fractures are present, but penetrates and fills only the heated area. Heated portions of the rock fill like a vessel. The taffy-like wax has been shown to waterproof the tuff, and significantly increase its resistance to fracture. This wax was used in 2004 for grouting of buried radioactive beryllium waste at the Idaho National Laboratory, chiefly to stop the water based corrosion reactions of the waste. The thermoplastic material contains no water and does not dry out or change with age. Recent studies indicate that this kind of wax material may

  4. Survey of Cochlear Implant User Satisfaction with the Neptune™ Waterproof Sound Processor.

    PubMed

    Briaire, Jeroen J; Büchner, Andreas; Auletta, Gennaro; Arroyo, Helena; Zoilo, Carmen; Mancini, Patrizia; Buhagiar, Roberta; Vaid, Neelam; Mathias, Nathalie

    2016-04-20

    A multi-center self-assessment survey was conducted to evaluate patient satisfaction with the Advanced Bionics Neptune™ waterproof sound processor used with the AquaMic™ totally submersible microphone. Subjective satisfaction with the different Neptune™ wearing options, comfort, ease of use, sound quality and use of the processor in a range of active and water related situations were assessed for 23 adults and 73 children, using an online and paper based questionnaire. Upgraded subjects compared their previous processor to the Neptune™. The Neptune™ was most popular for use in general sports and in the pool. Subjects were satisfied with the sound quality of the sound processor outside and under water and following submersion. Seventy-eight percent of subjects rated waterproofness as being very useful and 83% of the newly implanted subjects selected waterproofness as one of the reasons why they chose the Neptune™ processor. Providing a waterproof sound processor is considered by cochlear implant recipients to be useful and important and is a factor in their processor choice. Subjects reported that they were satisfied with the Neptune™ sound quality, ease of use and different wearing options.

  5. Common Roofing and Waterproofing Materials and Equipment. Roofing Workbook and Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Bureau of Publications.

    This publication on common roofing and waterproofing materials and equipment is one of a series of units of instruction for roofing apprenticeship classes. The workbook portion is divided into eight topics: production of bitumens and asphalt roofing materials, built-up materials and adhesives, asphalt products and rigid roofing materials,…

  6. Survey of Cochlear Implant User Satisfaction with the Neptune™ Waterproof Sound Processor

    PubMed Central

    Briaire, Jeroen J.; Büchner, Andreas; Auletta, Gennaro; Arroyo, Helena; Zoilo, Carmen; Mancini, Patrizia; Buhagiar, Roberta; Vaid, Neelam; Mathias, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    A multi-center self-assessment survey was conducted to evaluate patient satisfaction with the Advanced Bionics Neptune™ waterproof sound processor used with the AquaMic™ totally submersible microphone. Subjective satisfaction with the different Neptune™ wearing options, comfort, ease of use, sound quality and use of the processor in a range of active and water related situations were assessed for 23 adults and 73 children, using an online and paper based questionnaire. Upgraded subjects compared their previous processor to the Neptune™. The Neptune™ was most popular for use in general sports and in the pool. Subjects were satisfied with the sound quality of the sound processor outside and under water and following submersion. Seventy-eight percent of subjects rated waterproofness as being very useful and 83% of the newly implanted subjects selected waterproofness as one of the reasons why they chose the Neptune™ processor. Providing a waterproof sound processor is considered by cochlear implant recipients to be useful and important and is a factor in their processor choice. Subjects reported that they were satisfied with the Neptune™ sound quality, ease of use and different wearing options. PMID:27588162

  7. Elevated waterproof access floor system and method of making the same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Marc M. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    An elevated waterproof access floor system having subfloor channels or compartments for power lines, gas lines or the like is adapted such that it can be opened and subsequently resealed without destroying the waterproofing and without destroying its aesthetic appearance. A multiplicity of tiles are supported on a support grid, and a flooring sheet is supported on the tiles. Attachment means are provided to prevent lateral but not vertical movement of the flooring sheet with respect to the tiles so that the flooring sheet can be lifted off the tiles, but when the flooring sheet is supported on the tiles, no lateral slipping will occur. The flooring sheet is made of a heat resealable material, so that it can be cut away in sections, and the tiles therebelow lifted off, to provide access to subfloor compartments.

  8. Loads on Sprayed Waterproof Tunnel Linings in Jointed Hard Rock: A Study Based on Norwegian Cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holter, Karl Gunnar

    2014-05-01

    A composite tunnel lining system based on a sprayed waterproofing membrane combined with sprayed concrete is currently being considered for future Norwegian rail and road tunnels. Possible loading of the tunnel linings caused by water pressure is being investigated. This tunnel lining system consists of a waterproof membrane which, during application on the sprayed concrete lining, bonds mechanically to the sprayed concrete on either side. Hence, a continuous, sealing, and non-draining structure from the rock mass to the interior tunnel surface is formed in the walls and crown. Experiences from some successful recent projects with this lining system in Europe are reviewed. However, these experiences are not directly comparable to the Scandinavian hard rock tunnel lining approach, which utilizes a relatively thin sprayed and irregular concrete layer for permanent lining. When considering the sprayed membrane and sprayed concrete composite lining concept, introducing a partially sealing and undrained element in the lining, the experiences with the traditionally used lining systems in Norway need to be reconsidered and fully understood. A review of several hard rock tunnels with adverse conditions, in which the tunnel lining has been subject to load monitoring, shows that only very small loads in the tunnel linings occur. Recent investigations with in situ water pressure testing, including two sites with the composite sprayed membrane in a partially drained waterproof tunnel lining, are discussed. In a case with a cavern located in a hydraulically saturated rock mass subjected to approximately 8 bar hydrostatic pressure, a negative pressure gradient towards the tunnel lining has been measured. The investigation results from the Norwegian test sites indicate that no significant loading of the tunnel lining takes place in a hydraulically saturated rock when applying this composite waterproof tunnel lining in parts of the tunnel perimeter.

  9. Waterproofing in Arabidopsis: Following phenolics and lipids in situ by Confocal Raman Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prats Mateu, Batirtze; Hauser, Marie-Theres; Heredia, Antonio; Gierlinger, Notburga

    2016-02-01

    Waterproofing of the aerial organs of plants imposed a big evolutionary step during the colonization of the terrestrial environment. The main plant polymers responsible of water repelling are lipids and lignin, which play also important roles in the protection against biotic/abiotic stresses, regulation of flux of gases and solutes and mechanical stability against negative pressure, among others. While the lipids, non-polymerized cuticular waxes together with the polymerized cutin, protect the outer surface, lignin is confined to the secondary cell wall within mechanical important tissues. In the present work a micro cross-section of the stem of Arabidopsis thaliana was used to track in situ the distribution of these non-carbohydrate polymers by Confocal Raman Microscopy. Raman hyperspectral imaging gives a molecular fingerprint of the native waterproofing tissues and cells with diffraction limited spatial resolution (~300 nm) at relatively high speed and without any tedious sample preparation. Lipids and lignified tissues as well as their effect on water content was directly visualized by integrating the 1299 cm-1, 1600 cm-1 and 3400 cm-1 band, respectively. For detailed insights into compositional changes of these polymers vertex component analysis was performed on selected sample positions. Changes have been elucidated in the composition of lignin within the lignified tissues and between interfascicular fibers and xylem vessels. Hydrophobising changes were revealed from the epidermal layer to the cuticle as well as a change in the aromatic composition within the cuticle of trichomes. To verify Raman signatures of different waterproofing polymers additionally Raman spectra of the cuticle and cutin monomer from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) as well as aromatic model polymers (milled wood lignin and dehydrogenation polymer of coniferyl alcohol) and phenolic acids were acquired. Keywords: Arabidopsis thaliana, lignin, cutin, wax, Raman, cuticle, waterproofing

  10. Flexible, Cuttable, and Self-Waterproof Bending Strain Sensors Using Microcracked Gold Nanofilms@Paper Substrate.

    PubMed

    Liao, Xinqin; Zhang, Zheng; Liang, Qijie; Liao, Qingliang; Zhang, Yue

    2017-02-01

    Rapid advances in functional sensing electronics place tremendous demands on innovation toward creative uses of versatile advanced materials and effective designs of device structures. Here, we first report a feasible and effective fabrication strategy to integrate commercial abrasive papers with microcracked gold (Au) nanofilms to construct cuttable and self-waterproof crack-based resistive bending strain sensors. Via introducing surface microstructures, the sensitivities of the bending strain sensors are greatly enhanced by 27 times than that of the sensors without surface microstructures, putting forward an alternative suggestion for other flexible electronics to improve their performances. Besides, the bending strain sensors also endow rapid response and relaxation time of 20 ms and ultrahigh stability of >18 000 strain loading-unloading cycles in conjunction with flexibility and robustness. In addition, the concepts of cuttability and self-waterproofness (attain and even surpass IPX-7) of the bending strain sensors have been demonstrated. Because of the distinctive sensing properties, flexibility, cuttability, and self-waterproofness, the bending strain sensors are attractive and promising for wearable electronic devices and smart health monitoring system.

  11. Highly Stretchable and Waterproof Electroluminescence Device Based on Superstable Stretchable Transparent Electrode.

    PubMed

    You, Banseok; Kim, Youngmin; Ju, Byeong-Kwon; Kim, Jong-Woong

    2017-02-15

    Realization of devices with enhanced stretchability and waterproof properties will significantly expand the reach of electronics. To this end, we herein fabricate an elastic transparent conductor that comprises silver nanowires (AgNWs) on a hydroxylated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate covered by polyurethane urea (PUU), which is fully compatible with both materials. Carboxylic acid groups of PUU was designed to form hydrogen bonds with the carbonyl groups of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) on the AgNW surface, resulting in an enhanced affinity of AgNWs for PUU. Exceptionally strong hydrogen bonds between PUU and the hydroxylated PDMS thus facilitate the achievement of water sealable, mechanically stable, and stretchable transparent electrodes. To fabricate stretchable electroluminescence (EL) devices, ZnS particles were mixed with PUU, and the mixture was coated onto the AgNWs/hydroxylated PDMS, followed by a face-to-face lamination with another identical electrode. The devices could be stretched up to 150% without a severe reduction in the emission intensity, and they survived 5000 cycles of 100% stretch-release testing. The high adhesion between PUU and PDMS even in water is responsible for the good waterproof characteristics of the EL devices. These results pave the way for realization of fully stretchable and waterproof electronic devices.

  12. Waterproof Anti-Explosive Powders for Coal Mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buczek, Bronisław; Vogt, Elżbieta

    2014-03-01

    Limestone powder characterized by hydrophobic properties is used as an anti-explosive agent in coal mining industry. Unfortunately, the standard method of producing such powder by milling limestone with stearic acid is practically unprofitable in many modernized quarries and plants, and sometimes literally impossible due to the introduction of technological changes and implementation of modern mills. Then new methods of hydrophobization of limestone surfaces ought be searched. In the work two methods hydrophobization: from the stearic acid vapour phase and from silicone solutions are proposed. Lime dust from the Czatkowice Quarry of Lime was used as a raw material during investigations. It is a good agent for research because it is possible to compare the properties of samples modified in this work to the properties of anti-explosive lime powder (Polish Standard, 1994) used in mining industry in Poland. The first technique of limestone powder hydrophobization was carried out in an apparatus of own design (Vogt, 2008, 2011), and it consisted in free sedimentation of the powder layer dispersed by stearic acid vapour in powder counter current flow. The second way of modification consisted in mixing in the evaporating dish substrates: limestone powder and dope - silicone solution - Sarsil® H-15 (Vogt & Opaliński, 2009; Vogt & Hołownia, 2010). Evaluation of properties so-obtained waterproof powders was carried out according to the Polish Standard, as well as using original powder determination ways, with the Powder Characteristic Tester (Index tables, Tablets & Capsules, 2005). Moreover water vapour adsorption isotherms were obtained and the thermal decomposition of powder was made. All modified samples acquired the hydrophobic character. Therefore we can state that the both proposed methods of hydrophobization of the limestone powder are useful. The parameters obtained with the use of Powder Characteristics Tester enable us to make a characterization of limestone

  13. Waterproofing in Arabidopsis: Following Phenolics and Lipids In situ by Confocal Raman Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Prats Mateu, Batirtze; Hauser, Marie Theres; Heredia, Antonio; Gierlinger, Notburga

    2016-01-01

    Waterproofing of the aerial organs of plants imposed a big evolutionary step during the colonization of the terrestrial environment. The main plant polymers responsible of water repelling are lipids and lignin, which play also important roles in the protection against biotic/abiotic stresses, regulation of flux of gases and solutes, and mechanical stability against negative pressure, among others. While the lipids, non-polymerized cuticular waxes together with the polymerized cutin, protect the outer surface, lignin is confined to the secondary cell wall within mechanical important tissues. In the present work a micro cross-section of the stem of Arabidopsis thaliana was used to track in situ the distribution of these non-carbohydrate polymers by Confocal Raman Microscopy. Raman hyperspectral imaging gives a molecular fingerprint of the native waterproofing tissues and cells with diffraction limited spatial resolution (~300 nm) at relatively high speed and without any tedious sample preparation. Lipids and lignified tissues as well as their effect on water content was directly visualized by integrating the 1299, 1600, and 3400 cm−1 band, respectively. For detailed insights into compositional changes of these polymers vertex component analysis was performed on selected sample positions. Changes have been elucidated in the composition of lignin within the lignified tissues and between interfascicular fibers and xylem vessels. Hydrophobizing changes were revealed from the epidermal layer to the cuticle as well as a change in the aromatic composition within the cuticle of trichomes. To verify Raman signatures of different waterproofing polymers additionally Raman spectra of the cuticle and cutin monomer from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) as well as aromatic model polymers (milled wood lignin and dehydrogenation polymer of coniferyl alcohol) and phenolic acids were acquired. PMID:26973831

  14. Hard protective waterproof coating for high-power laser optical elements.

    PubMed

    Murahara, Masataka; Sato, Nobuhiro; Ikadai, Akimitsu

    2005-12-15

    We developed a new method for making a waterproof coating by photooxidation of silicone oil. The silicone oil was spin coated onto the surfaces of optical elements, i.e., a plastic lens, a laser mirror, and a nonlinear optical crystal, and then irradiated with a xenon excimer lamp in air, which transformed the organic silicone oil into an amorphous glass film. This technique has enabled an optical thin film to transmit ultraviolet rays of wavelengths below 200 nm and to exhibit the characteristics of homogeneity, high density, and resistance to environmental effects and to corrosion by water, and a Mohs scale value of 5.

  15. Adapting the waterproof BMS-96 diode array for isodose determination of dynamic beams.

    PubMed

    Muren, L P; Hafslund, R; Valen, H; Schuster, G; Dahl, O

    2000-01-01

    We report the application of the Schuster BMS-96 waterproof linear diode array for isodose determination of dynamic beams. The array recorded beam profiles correctly, while depth dose distributions of dynamic beams with large variations in dose rate were registered erroneously. The deviations could be eliminated by appropriate software modifications. Until the software is revised, true isodoses can be obtained by rescaling each individual profile to the depth dose curve as measured with a single ionization chamber. After the corrections presented in the paper, isodoses interpolated from these corrected data sets agreed with ionization chamber measurements within 1-2%.

  16. Integrated Flexible, Waterproof, Transparent, and Self-Powered Tactile Sensing Panel.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xu-Zhou; Sun, Yi-Jing; Fan, Zhiyong; Zhang, Tong-Yi

    2016-08-23

    Portable and wearable electronic devices are human-centered devices; therefore, many unique attributes are highly desirable, such as flexibility, being self-powered, and waterproof. These properties render devices excellent adaptivity in harsh operation environments. In this work, we report an integrated triboelectric tactile sensor array with flexible, transparent, self-powered, and waterproof features. Each tactile sensor is a surface nano/microtexture enhanced triboelectric nanogenerator. The sensor array can serve as a touch panel for electronic devices. Owing to a unique design of a built-in triboelectric contact pair and an electrical shielding layer, an individual pixel of the fabricated tactile sensor array can generate an open circuit voltage up to 1.613 V and a short circuit current density of 47.308 mA/m(2) under 612.5 kPa. The tactile sensors can produce stable voltage signals regardless of the materials of the touching objects, and work stably both in ambient and aqueous environments. To examine the touch panel function of a sensor array, a matrix of 10 × 10 individually addressable 4 mm × 4 mm triboelectric sensors has been integrated into a thin, transparent, and flexible film, and the 2-D touch mapping has been successfully demonstrated. The unique triboelectric tactile sensor array reported here is robust and highly versatile, and it may find broad applications in display, wearable electronics, artificial skins, Internet of Things (IoT), etc.

  17. Toxicity study of dimethylethoxysilane (DMSES), the waterproofing agent for the Orbiter heat protective system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lam, Chiu-Wing; James, John T.; Dodd, Darol; Stuart, Bruce; Rothenberg, Simon; Kershaw, Mary Ann; Thilagar, A.

    1993-01-01

    DMES, a volatile liquid, is used by NASA to waterproof the Orbiter thermal protective system. During waterproofing operations at the Oribter Processing Facility at KSC, workers could be exposed to DMES vapor. To assess the toxicity of DMES, acute and subchronic (2-week and 13-week) inhalation studies were conducted with rats. Studies were also conducted to assess the potential of DMES. Inhalation exposure concentrations ranged from 40 ppm to 4000 ppm. No mortality was observed during the studies. Exposures to 2100 ppm produced narcosis and ataxia. Post-exposure recovery from these CNS effects was rapid (less than 1 hr). These effects were concentration-dependent and relatively independent of exposure length. Exposure to 3000 ppm for 2 weeks (5 h/d, 5 d/wk) produced testicular toxicity. The 13-week study yielded similar results. Results from the genotoxicity assays (in vivo/in vitro unscheduled DNA synthesis in rat primary heptaocytes, chromosomal aberrations in rat bone marrow cells; reverse gene mutation in Salmonella typhimurium; and forward mutation in Chinese hamster culture cells) were negative. These studies indicated that DMES is mildly to moderately toxic but not a multagen.

  18. FTIR Study of Vapor Offgassing from Orbiter Tile Re-Waterproofing Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattson, C. B.

    1999-01-01

    The work presented in this paper was performed to identify and quantify the offgassing behavior of alternative re-waterproofmg materials under investigation for application to Shuttle Orbiter Thermal Protection System (TPS) tile and blanket materials. The purpose was to determine whether the new materials would cause a problem with the operational analysis of residual vapors using the current portable vapor analyzer, a Miran 203. The materials investigated were limited to dimethylethoxysilane (DMES) and proposed solvent selected as suitable for use in re-waterproofing Orbiter TPS. The solvent was selected in another phase of the overall project. Obiter TPS tiles were injected with the re-waterproofing materials under constant conditions of temperature, relative humidity and air flow. The vapor concentrations of offgassing materials were monitored using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) multi-component analysis, and with the Miran 203 instruments. The procedure was to record the time dependent concentrations of offgassing materials as analyzed by the FTIR, and the time response of the Miran 203 to the materials under consideration. The FTIR was calibrated for vapor phase DMES, tetramethyldisiloxane (TMDS), ethanol and the hydrocarbon solvents to be used to dilute the DMES for application to the TPS tile. The Miran 203 was calibrated for the operational measurement of DMES airborne vapors. The FTIR data, shows for the first time that the principal product which offgases from the tile after the first hour is not DMES, but TMDS and ethanol. The Miran 203 response to TMDS is the primary reading after the re-waterproofing operation is completed. The operational use of the Miran 203 to measure DMES vapors after re-waterproofmg operations has been responding to TMDS. The results of this study suggest that the historical complaints that have contributed to the low threshold limit value (TLV) for DMES concentrations, as read with the Miran 203, are actually based on

  19. Waterproof and translucent wings at the same time: problems and solutions in butterflies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez Goodwyn, Pablo; Maezono, Yasunori; Hosoda, Naoe; Fujisaki, Kenji

    2009-07-01

    Although the colour of butterflies attracts the most attention, the waterproofing properties of their wings are also extremely interesting. Most butterfly wings are considered “super-hydrophobic” because the contact angle (CA) with a water drop exceeds 150°. Usually, butterfly wings are covered with strongly overlapping scales; however, in the case of transparent or translucent wings, scale cover is reduced; thus, the hydrophobicity could be affected. Here, we present a comparative analysis of wing hydrophobicity and its dependence on morphology for two species with translucent wings Parantica sita (Nymphalidae) and Parnassius glacialis (Papilionidae). These species have very different life histories: P. sita lives for up to 6 months as an adult and migrates over long distance, whereas P. glacialis lives for less than 1 month and does not migrate. We measured the water CA and analysed wing morphology with scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. P. sita has super-hydrophobic wing surfaces, with CA > 160°, whereas P. glacialis did not (CA = 100-135°). Specialised scales were found on the translucent portions of P. sita wings. These scales were ovoid and much thinner than common scales, erect at about 30°, and leaving up to 80% of the wing surface uncovered. The underlying bare wing surface had a remarkable pattern of ridges and knobs. P. glacialis also had over 80% of the wing surface uncovered, but the scales were either setae-like or spade-like. The bare surface of the wing had an irregular wavy smooth pattern. We suggest a mode of action that allows this super-hydrophobic effect with an incompletely covered wing surface. The scales bend, but do not collapse, under the pressure of a water droplet, and the elastic recovery of the structure at the borders of the droplet allows a high apparent CA. Thus, P. sita can be translucent without losing its waterproof properties. This characteristic is likely necessary for the long life and migration

  20. Waterproof and translucent wings at the same time: problems and solutions in butterflies.

    PubMed

    Goodwyn, Pablo Perez; Maezono, Yasunori; Hosoda, Naoe; Fujisaki, Kenji

    2009-07-01

    Although the colour of butterflies attracts the most attention, the waterproofing properties of their wings are also extremely interesting. Most butterfly wings are considered "super-hydrophobic" because the contact angle (CA) with a water drop exceeds 150 degrees. Usually, butterfly wings are covered with strongly overlapping scales; however, in the case of transparent or translucent wings, scale cover is reduced; thus, the hydrophobicity could be affected. Here, we present a comparative analysis of wing hydrophobicity and its dependence on morphology for two species with translucent wings Parantica sita (Nymphalidae) and Parnassius glacialis (Papilionidae). These species have very different life histories: P. sita lives for up to 6 months as an adult and migrates over long distance, whereas P. glacialis lives for less than 1 month and does not migrate. We measured the water CA and analysed wing morphology with scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. P. sita has super-hydrophobic wing surfaces, with CA > 160 degrees, whereas P. glacialis did not (CA = 100-135 degrees). Specialised scales were found on the translucent portions of P. sita wings. These scales were ovoid and much thinner than common scales, erect at about 30 degrees, and leaving up to 80% of the wing surface uncovered. The underlying bare wing surface had a remarkable pattern of ridges and knobs. P. glacialis also had over 80% of the wing surface uncovered, but the scales were either setae-like or spade-like. The bare surface of the wing had an irregular wavy smooth pattern. We suggest a mode of action that allows this super-hydrophobic effect with an incompletely covered wing surface. The scales bend, but do not collapse, under the pressure of a water droplet, and the elastic recovery of the structure at the borders of the droplet allows a high apparent CA. Thus, P. sita can be translucent without losing its waterproof properties. This characteristic is likely necessary for the long

  1. Electricity generation of microbial fuel cell with waterproof breathable membrane cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Defeng; Tang, Yu; Mei, Xiaoxue; Liu, Bingfeng

    2015-12-01

    Simplification of fabrication and reduction of capital cost are important for scale-up and application of microbial electrochemical systems (MES). A fast and inexpensive method of making cathode was developed via assembling stainless steel mesh (SSM) with waterproof breathable membrane (WBM). Three assemble types of cathodes were fabricated; Pt@SSM/WBM (SSM as cathode skeleton, WBM as diffusion layer, platinum (Pt) catalyst applied on SSM), SSM/Pt@WBM and Pt@WBM. SSM/Pt@WBM cathode showed relatively preferable with long-term stability and favorable power output (24.7 W/m3). Compared to conventional cathode fabrication, air-cathode was made for 0.5 h. The results indicated that the novel fabrication method could remarkably reduce capital cost and simplify fabrication procedures with a comparable power output, making MFC more prospective for future application.

  2. Waterproof AlInGaP optoelectronics on stretchable substrates with applications in biomedicine and robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Rak-Hwan; Kim, Dae-Hyeong; Xiao, Jianliang; Kim, Bong Hoon; Park, Sang-Il; Panilaitis, Bruce; Ghaffari, Roozbeh; Yao, Jimin; Li, Ming; Liu, Zhuangjian; Malyarchuk, Viktor; Kim, Dae Gon; Le, An-Phong; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Kaplan, David L.; Omenetto, Fiorenzo G.; Huang, Yonggang; Kang, Zhan; Rogers, John A.

    2010-11-01

    Inorganic light-emitting diodes and photodetectors represent important, established technologies for solid-state lighting, digital imaging and many other applications. Eliminating mechanical and geometrical design constraints imposed by the supporting semiconductor wafers can enable alternative uses in areas such as biomedicine and robotics. Here we describe systems that consist of arrays of interconnected, ultrathin inorganic light-emitting diodes and photodetectors configured in mechanically optimized layouts on unusual substrates. Light-emitting sutures, implantable sheets and illuminated plasmonic crystals that are compatible with complete immersion in biofluids illustrate the suitability of these technologies for use in biomedicine. Waterproof optical-proximity-sensor tapes capable of conformal integration on curved surfaces of gloves and thin, refractive-index monitors wrapped on tubing for intravenous delivery systems demonstrate possibilities in robotics and clinical medicine. These and related systems may create important, unconventional opportunities for optoelectronic devices.

  3. Environmentally Safe, Sprayable, Waterproof, Rapid Three Minute Room Temperature Cure Resin for the Manufacturing of Aerospace Composite Sealants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    asphalt laminated, aluminum foil roofing material has a permeance rating of 0.176 perms. IMP believes the reason the resin is highly waterproof is...number in the low tenths is very, very low. (Compare to Duplex sheet, asphalt laminated, aluminum foil, roofing material which equals 0.176 perms...in.Hg ASTM E 96 Water vapor permeance. Material does not absorb water. Duplex sheet, asphalt laminated, aluminum foil, roofing material 0.176

  4. Fast optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy using a 2-axis water-proofing MEMS scanner

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Young; Lee, Changho; Park, Kyungjin; Lim, Geunbae; Kim, Chulhong

    2015-01-01

    Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM) is a novel label-free microscopic imaging tool to provide in vivo optical absorbing contrasts. Specially, it is crucial to equip a real-time imaging capability without sacrificing high signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) for identifying and tracking specific diseases in OR-PAM. Herein we demonstrate a 2-axis water-proofing MEMS scanner made of flexible PDMS. This flexible scanner results in a wide scanning range (9 × 4 mm2 in a transverse plane) and a fast imaging speed (5 B-scan images per second). Further, the MEMS scanner is fabricated in a compact footprint with a size of 15 × 15 × 15 mm3. More importantly, the scanning ability in water makes the MEMS scanner possible to confocally and simultaneously reflect both ultrasound and laser, and consequently we can maintain high SNRs. The lateral and axial resolutions of the OR-PAM system are 3.6 and 27.7 μm, respectively. We have successfully monitored the flow of carbon particles in vitro with a volumetric display frame rate of 0.14 Hz. Finally, we have successfully obtained in vivo PA images of microvasculatures in a mouse ear. It is expected that our compact and fast OR-PAM system can be significantly useful in both preclinical and clinical applications. PMID:25604654

  5. Anti-Reflective and Waterproof Hard Coating for High Power Laser Optical Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murahara, Masataka; Yabe, Takashi; Uchida, Shigeaki; Yoshida, Kunio; Okamoto, Yoshiaki

    2006-05-01

    A hard coating method of single crystalline porous silica film is widely used for high power laser optical elements in the air. However, there is no protective hard coating method for the elements to survive high power laser irradiance while in the water. We, thus, developed a new method for a waterproof coating with photo-oxidation of silicone oil. The silicone oil was spin-coated onto the surface of optical elements, and then irradiated with a xenon excimer lamp in the air. In this treatment, a protective coating for plastic lenses, mirrors, and nonlinear optical crystals, which are highly deliquescent, was developed by taking advantage of the phenomenon in which organic silicone oil is transformed to inorganic amorphous glass by a process of photo-oxidation. This technique has enabled an optical thin coating film to transmit ultraviolet rays of wavelengths under 200 nm and possess the characteristics of homogeneity, high density, resistance to environment, anti-reflectiveness, resistance to water, and Mohs' scale of 5, which is comparable to apatite. This allows us to cool a slab laser head and use as a mirror for underwater laser welding.

  6. Ovarian dual oxidase (Duox) activity is essential for insect eggshell hardening and waterproofing.

    PubMed

    Dias, Felipe A; Gandara, Ana Caroline P; Queiroz-Barros, Fernanda G; Oliveira, Raquel L L; Sorgine, Marcos H F; Braz, Glória R C; Oliveira, Pedro L

    2013-12-06

    In insects, eggshell hardening involves cross-linking of chorion proteins via their tyrosine residues. This process is catalyzed by peroxidases at the expense of H2O2 and confers physical and biological protection to the developing embryo. Here, working with Rhodnius prolixus, the insect vector of Chagas disease, we show that an ovary dual oxidase (Duox), a NADPH oxidase, is the source of the H2O2 that supports dityrosine-mediated protein cross-linking and eggshell hardening. RNAi silencing of Duox activity decreased H2O2 generation followed by a failure in embryo development caused by a reduced resistance to water loss, which, in turn, caused embryos to dry out following oviposition. Phenotypes of Duox-silenced eggs were reversed by incubation in a water-saturated atmosphere, simultaneous silencing of the Duox and catalase genes, or H2O2 injection into the female hemocoel. Taken together, our results show that Duox-generated H2O2 fuels egg chorion hardening and that this process plays an essential role during eggshell waterproofing.

  7. Transparent, self-cleaning and waterproof surfaces with tunable micro/nano dual-scale structures.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yujin; You, Eun-Ah; Ha, Young-Geun

    2016-09-02

    The rational design and facile fabrication of optically transparent, superhydrophobic surfaces can advance their versatile applications, including optoelectronic devices. For the easily accessible and scalable preparation of transparent, superhydrophobic surfaces, various coating methods using a solution-process have been developed. However, obtaining highly transparent, non-wetting surfaces with excellent properties is challenging due to the difficulty in controlling surface roughness. Here, we report on a novel approach to control the surface roughness by fabricating tailorable micro/nano dual-scale surface structures via solution-processed nanoparticle coating. The surface roughness was able to be controlled by micro/nano dual-scale structures that can be manipulated by varying the mixture ratio of two different sizes of Al2O3 nanoparticles. The controllable micro/nano dual-scale structures were optimized to achieve the superior surface properties in both hydrophobicity and transparency, exhibiting a high water contact angle (>160°), low sliding angle (<2°) and high transmittance (>90%). These characteristics allowed an excellent transparency and self-cleaning capability as well as a superior waterproof ability even under applied voltage. Furthermore, we demonstrated the versatile applicability of the developed surface-coating method to a wide range of substrates including glass, paper, fabrics, and even flexible plastics.

  8. Transparent, self-cleaning and waterproof surfaces with tunable micro/nano dual-scale structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yujin; You, Eun-Ah; Ha, Young-Geun

    2016-09-01

    The rational design and facile fabrication of optically transparent, superhydrophobic surfaces can advance their versatile applications, including optoelectronic devices. For the easily accessible and scalable preparation of transparent, superhydrophobic surfaces, various coating methods using a solution-process have been developed. However, obtaining highly transparent, non-wetting surfaces with excellent properties is challenging due to the difficulty in controlling surface roughness. Here, we report on a novel approach to control the surface roughness by fabricating tailorable micro/nano dual-scale surface structures via solution-processed nanoparticle coating. The surface roughness was able to be controlled by micro/nano dual-scale structures that can be manipulated by varying the mixture ratio of two different sizes of Al2O3 nanoparticles. The controllable micro/nano dual-scale structures were optimized to achieve the superior surface properties in both hydrophobicity and transparency, exhibiting a high water contact angle (>160°), low sliding angle (<2°) and high transmittance (>90%). These characteristics allowed an excellent transparency and self-cleaning capability as well as a superior waterproof ability even under applied voltage. Furthermore, we demonstrated the versatile applicability of the developed surface-coating method to a wide range of substrates including glass, paper, fabrics, and even flexible plastics.

  9. Stretchable and Waterproof Self-Charging Power System for Harvesting Energy from Diverse Deformation and Powering Wearable Electronics.

    PubMed

    Yi, Fang; Wang, Jie; Wang, Xiaofeng; Niu, Simiao; Li, Shengming; Liao, Qingliang; Xu, Youlong; You, Zheng; Zhang, Yue; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-07-26

    A soft, stretchable, and fully enclosed self-charging power system is developed by seamlessly combining a stretchable triboelectric nanogenerator with stretchable supercapacitors, which can be subject to and harvest energy from almost all kinds of large-degree deformation due to its fully soft structure. The power system is washable and waterproof owing to its fully enclosed structure and hydrophobic property of its exterior surface. The power system can be worn on the human body to effectively scavenge energy from various kinds of human motion, and it is demonstrated that the wearable power source is able to drive an electronic watch. This work provides a feasible approach to design stretchable, wearable power sources and electronics.

  10. Preparation of waterproof OSL dosimeters from hygroscopic materials with a special reference to NaCl:Cu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    More, Y. K.; Wankhede, S. P.; Patil, R. R.; Kulkarni, M. S.; Kumar, Munish; Moharil, S. V.

    2016-05-01

    Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) originally developed for geological/archaeological dating, has been found very useful for diverse applications in the field of radiation dosimetry. There is still a scarcity of OSL materials with demonstrated properties suited to dosimetry applications. Progress on the development of OSL materials with engineered properties has been slow and most research has focused on the OSL characterization of existing materials. One of the reasons for availability of only a handful of OSL dosimetry materials with adequate properties is that they have to satisfy certain stringent conditions necessary for such applications. Especially, hygroscopic materials are considered totally unsuitable. The efforts were made in our laboratory to overcome this problem. It is shown here that "water-proof" dosimeters can be prepared from even hygroscopic materials such as NaCl.

  11. Flexible and waterproof micro-sensors to uncover zebrafish circadian rhythms: The next generation of cardiac monitoring for drug screening.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Beebe, Tyler; Jen, Nelson; Lee, Chia-An; Tai, Yuchong; Hsiai, Tzung K

    2015-09-15

    Flexible electronics are the next generation of sensors for mobile health and implantation. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an emergent strategy for pre-clinical drug development and toxicity testing. To address the confounding effects from sedation of fish and removal from the aquatic habitat for micro-electrocardiogram (µECG) measurements, we developed waterproof and wearable sensors to uncover the circadian variation in heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) (Massin et al., 2000). The parylene-C based ECG sensor consisted of an ultra-soft silicone integrated jacket designed to wrap around the fish during swimming. The Young's modulus of this silicone jacket matched with the fish surface, and an extended parylene cable connected the underwater chest electrodes with the out-of water electronics. In addition, embedded micro-glass spheres in the silicone effectively reduced the effective density of the jacket to ~1 g cm(-3). These innovations enabled physiological ECG telemetry in the fish's natural habitat without the need for sedation. Furthermore, a set of non-linear signal processing techniques filtered out the breathing and electromagnetic artifacts from the recorded signals. We observed a reduction in mean HR and an increase in HRV over 24h at 10 dpa, accompanied by QT prolongation as well as diurnal variations, followed by normalization in mean HR and QT intervals at 26 days post ventricular amputation (dpa). We revealed Amiodarone-mediated QTc prolongation, HR reduction and HRV increase otherwise masked by sedation. The novel features of the flexible silicon jacket for µECG telemetry unraveled the biological clock and normalization of QT intervals at 26 dpa, providing the first evidence of new physiological phenomena during cardiac injury and repair as well as cardiac drug-mediated aberrant rhythms. Thus, the light weight and waterproof design holds promise to advance the next generation of mobile health and drug discovery.

  12. Flexible and Waterproof Micro-Sensors to Uncover Zebrafish Circadian Rhythms: The Next Generation of Cardiac Monitoring for Drug Screening

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chia-An; Tai, Yuchong; Hsiai, Tzung K.

    2015-01-01

    Flexible electronics are the next generation of sensors for mobile health and implantation. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an emergent strategy for pre-clinical drug development and toxicity testing. To address the confounding effects from sedation of fish and removal from the aquatic habitat for micro-electrocardiogram (μECG) measurements, we developed waterproof and wearable sensors to uncover the circadian variation in heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV)[1]. The parylene-C based ECG sensor consisted of an ultra-soft silicone integrated jacket designed to wrap around the fish during swimming. The Young’s modulus of this silicone jacket matched with the fish surface, and an extended parylene cable connected the underwater chest electrodes with the out-of water electronics. In addition, embedded micro-glass spheres in the silicone effectively reduced the effective density of the jacket to ~ 1 g·cm−3. These innovations enabled physiological ECG telemetry in the fish’s natural habitat without the need for sedation. Furthermore, a set of non-linear signal processing techniques filtered out the breathing and electromagnetic artifacts from the recorded signals. We observed a reduction in mean HR and an increase in HRV over 24 hours at 10 dpa, accompanied by QT prolongation as well as diurnal variations, followed by normalization in mean HR and QT intervals at 26 days post ventricular amputation (dpa). We revealed Amiodarone-mediated QTc prolongation, HR reduction and HRV increase otherwise masked by sedation. The novel features of the flexible silicon jacket for μECG telemetry unraveled the biological clock and normalization of QT intervals at 26 dpa, providing the first evidence of new physiological phenomena during cardiac injury and repair as well as cardiac drug-mediated aberrant rhythms. Thus, the light weight and waterproof design holds promise to advance the next generation of mobile health and drug discovery. PMID:25909335

  13. Encapsulated, High-Performance, Stretchable Array of Stacked Planar Micro-Supercapacitors as Waterproof Wearable Energy Storage Devices.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyoungjun; Yoon, Jangyeol; Lee, Geumbee; Paik, Seung-Ho; Choi, Gukgwon; Kim, Daeil; Kim, Beop-Min; Zi, Goangseup; Ha, Jeong Sook

    2016-06-29

    We report the fabrication of an encapsulated, high-performance, stretchable array of stacked planar micro-supercapacitors (MSCs) as a wearable energy storage device for waterproof applications. A pair of planar all-solid-state MSCs with spray-coated multiwalled carbon nanotube electrodes and a drop-cast UV-patternable ion-gel electrolyte was fabricated on a polyethylene terephthalate film using serial connection to increase the operation voltage of the MSC. Additionally, multiple MSCs could be vertically stacked with parallel connections to increase both the total capacitance and the areal capacitance owing to the use of a solid-state patterned electrolyte. The overall device of five parallel-connected stacked MSCs, a microlight-emitting diode (μ-LED), and a switch was encapsulated in thin Ecoflex film so that the capacitance remained at 82% of its initial value even after 4 d in water; the μ-LED was lit without noticeable decrease in brightness under deformation including bending and stretching. Furthermore, an Ecoflex encapsulated oximeter wound around a finger was operated using the stored energy of the MSC array attached to the hand (even in water) to give information on arterial pulse rate and oxygen saturation in the blood. This study suggests potential applications of our encapsulated MSC array in wearable energy storage devices especially in water.

  14. Waterproofing Underground Concrete Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    for their patience, love and support while I dedicated myself to the task at hand. I would like to thank Dr. John Daugherty of the Owens Corning Fiberglass...6000 prefabricated drainage structure and the Owens Corning Warm-N-Dri drainage board. The Miradrain drainage structure consists of a light weight, 3...8217.; ; Fiiter "’" v -Fabric Perforated Disoharge ,, * Aggegate Drain Peiradrain System System The Owens Corning WARM-N-DRY drainage board is similar to the

  15. LmCYP4G102: An oenocyte-specific cytochrome P450 gene required for cuticular waterproofing in the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zhitao; Zhang, Xueyao; Wang, Yiwen; Moussian, Bernard; Zhu, Kun Yan; Li, Sheng; Ma, Enbo; Zhang, Jianzhen

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 superfamily proteins play important roles in detoxification of xenobiotics and during physiological and developmental processes. To contribute to our understanding of this large gene family in insects, we have investigated the function of the cytochrome P450 gene LmCYP4G102 in the migratory locust Locusta migratoria. Suppression of LmCYP4G102 expression by RNA interference (RNAi) does not interfere with moulting but causes rapid loss of body weight - probably due to massive loss of water, and death soon after moulting. Accordingly, maintaining these animals at 90% relative humidity prevented lethality. Consistently, RNAi against LmCYP4G102 provoked a decrease in the content of cuticular alkanes, which as an important fraction of cuticular hydrocarbons have been shown to confer desiccation resistance. In addition, the cuticle of LmCYP4G102-knockdown locusts was fragile and easier deformable than in control animals. Presumably, this phenotype is due to decreased amounts of cuticular water that is reported to modulate cuticle mechanics. Interestingly, LmCYP4G102 was not expressed in the epidermis that produces the cuticle but in the sub-epdiermal hepatocyte-like oenocytes. Together, our results suggest that the oenocyte-specific LmCYP4G102 plays a critical role in the synthesis of cuticular hydrocarbons, which are important for cuticle waterproofing and mechanical stability in L. migratoria PMID:27444410

  16. LmCYP4G102: An oenocyte-specific cytochrome P450 gene required for cuticular waterproofing in the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhitao; Zhang, Xueyao; Wang, Yiwen; Moussian, Bernard; Zhu, Kun Yan; Li, Sheng; Ma, Enbo; Zhang, Jianzhen

    2016-07-22

    Cytochrome P450 superfamily proteins play important roles in detoxification of xenobiotics and during physiological and developmental processes. To contribute to our understanding of this large gene family in insects, we have investigated the function of the cytochrome P450 gene LmCYP4G102 in the migratory locust Locusta migratoria. Suppression of LmCYP4G102 expression by RNA interference (RNAi) does not interfere with moulting but causes rapid loss of body weight - probably due to massive loss of water, and death soon after moulting. Accordingly, maintaining these animals at 90% relative humidity prevented lethality. Consistently, RNAi against LmCYP4G102 provoked a decrease in the content of cuticular alkanes, which as an important fraction of cuticular hydrocarbons have been shown to confer desiccation resistance. In addition, the cuticle of LmCYP4G102-knockdown locusts was fragile and easier deformable than in control animals. Presumably, this phenotype is due to decreased amounts of cuticular water that is reported to modulate cuticle mechanics. Interestingly, LmCYP4G102 was not expressed in the epidermis that produces the cuticle but in the sub-epdiermal hepatocyte-like oenocytes. Together, our results suggest that the oenocyte-specific LmCYP4G102 plays a critical role in the synthesis of cuticular hydrocarbons, which are important for cuticle waterproofing and mechanical stability in L. migratoria.

  17. Fast and compact optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy using a water-proofing two-axis MEMS scanner, and a step forward to clinical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin Young; Lee, Changho; Lim, Geunbae; Kim, Chulhong

    2016-03-01

    Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM) is a novel microscopic tool to provide in vivo optically sensitive images in biomedical research. Conventional OR-PAM systems are typically slow and bulky because of the linear scanning stages with stepping motors. For practical purposes, however, fast imaging speed and small footprint are crucial. To address these issues, we have developed a real-time compact OR-PAM system equipped with a waterproof two-axis MEMS scanner. The OR-PAM system consists of key components such as an ultrasonic transducer with a bandwidth of 50 MHz, an opto-acoustic beam combiner (BC), and an MEMS scanner. These are all installed inside a small water tank, with dimensions of 30 mm × 90 mm × 30 mm along the x-, y-, and z-axes, respectively. A pulsed laser with a repetition rate of 50 kHz is confocally aligned with the photoacoustic (PA) waves in the BC to maximize the SNRs. The fast scanning ability of the MEMS scanner fully utilizes the A-scan speed of 50 kHz. For instance, the B- and C-scan imaging speeds are 125 Hz and 0.625 Hz, respectively, when the acquired PA maximum amplitude projection image has 200 × 200 pixels along the x- and y-axes, respectively. The measured lateral resolution of 3.6 μm and axial resolution of 27 μm are sufficient to resolve the small capillaries. Finally, we have successfully obtained in vivo PA images of iris microvasculatures in mice. This real-time and compact OR-PAM system is optimized to examine small animals in clinical studies.

  18. High-power direct green laser oscillation of 598 mW in Pr(3+)-doped waterproof fluoroaluminate glass fiber excited by two-polarization-combined GaN laser diodes.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Jun; Horiuchi, Yuya; Yamada, Tsuyoshi; Ishii, Osamu; Yamazaki, Masaaki; Yoshida, Minoru; Fujimoto, Yasushi

    2011-05-15

    We demonstrated a high-power and highly efficient Pr-doped waterproof fluoride glass fiber laser at 522.2 nm excited by two-polarization-combined GaN laser diodes and achieved a subwatt output power of 598 mW and slope efficiency of 43.0%. This system will enable us to make a vivid laser display, a photocoagulation laser for eye surgery, a color confocal scanning laser microscope, and an effective laser for material processing. Direct visible ultrashort pulse generation is also expected.

  19. 49 CFR 192.189 - Vaults: Drainage and waterproofing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design of Pipeline... connection to any other underground structure. (c) Electrical equipment in vaults must conform to...

  20. Roofing Workbook and Tests: Entering the Roofing and Waterproofing Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Vocational Education Services.

    This document is one of a series of nine individual units of instruction for use in roofing apprenticeship classes in California. The unit consists of a workbook and test, perforated for student use. Fourteen topics are covered in the workbook and corresponding multiple-choice tests. For each topic, objectives, information sheets, and study…

  1. 49 CFR 192.189 - Vaults: Drainage and waterproofing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design of Pipeline... applicable requirements of Class 1, Group D, of the National Electrical Code, ANSI/NFPA 70....

  2. Fish oil disrupts seabird feather microstructure and waterproofing.

    PubMed

    Morandin, Lora A; O'Hara, Patrick D

    2014-10-15

    Seabirds and other aquatic avifauna are highly sensitive to exposure to petroleum oils. A small amount of oil is sufficient to break down the feather barrier that is necessary to prevent water penetration and hypothermia. Far less attention has been paid to potential effects on aquatic birds of so called 'edible oils', non-petroleum oils such as vegetable and fish oils. In response to a sardine oil discharge by a vessel off the coast of British Columbia, we conducted an experiment to assess if feather exposure to sheens of sardine oil (ranging from 0.04 to 3 μm in thickness) resulted in measurable oil and water uptake and significant feather microstructure disruption. We designed the experiment based on a previous experiment on effects of petroleum oils on seabird feathers. Feathers exposed to the thinnest fish oil sheens (0.04 μm) resulted in measurable feather weight gain (from oil and water uptake) and significant feather microstructure disruption. Both feather weight gain and microstructure disruption increased with increasing fish oil thickness. Because of the absence of primary research on effects of edible oils on sea birds, we conducted interviews with wildlife rehabilitation professionals with experience rehabilitating sea birds after edible oil exposure. The consensus from interviews and our experiment indicated that physical contact with fish and other 'edible oils' in the marine environment is at least as harmful to seabirds as petroleum oils.

  3. Waterproof, Breathable Fabrics for Military Clothing Systems: An Innovative Approach to Acquisition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-04-01

    extracting) and then dry bag in automatic tumble dryer set on permanent press cycle, 1501-1601 F for fifteen 20 (15) minutes (more than one bag can be...into the washer. The duration of each laundering cycle shall be 30 + 5 minutes. After laundering, place sample and ballast in an automatic tumble ... dryer set on permanent press cycle, 150’-1600 F, and dry for approximately 15 minutes. Conduct 20 laundering and drying cycles. After each drying cycle

  4. Fibers and fabrics with insulating, water-proofing, and flame-resistant properties

    DOEpatents

    Hrubesh, Lawrence W.; Poco, John F.; Coronado, Paul R.

    2004-04-20

    Fibers, and fabrics produced from the fibers, are made water repellent, fire-retardant and/or thermally insulating by filling void spaces in the fibers and/or fabrics with a powdered material. When the powder is sufficiently finely divided, it clings tenaciously to the fabric's fibers and to itself, resisting the tendency to be removed from the fabric.

  5. Roofing: Workbook and Tests. Common Roofing and Waterproofing Materials and Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Bureau of Publications.

    This workbook on materials and equipment is one of a series of nine individual units of instruction for roofing apprenticeship classes in California. The workbook covers eight topics: production of bitumens and asphaltic roofing materials; built-up roofing materials and adhesives; asphaltic products and rigid roofing materials; elastomeric and…

  6. Formation and dynamics of "waterproof" photoluminescent complexes of rare earth ions in crowded environment.

    PubMed

    Ignatova, Tetyana; Blades, Michael; Duque, Juan G; Doorn, Stephen K; Biaggio, Ivan; Rotkin, Slava V

    2014-12-28

    Understanding behavior of rare-earth ions (REI) in crowded environments is crucial for several nano- and bio-technological applications. Evolution of REI photoluminescence (PL) in small compartments inside a silica hydrogel, mimic to a soft matter bio-environment, has been studied and explained within a solvation model. The model uncovered the origin of high PL efficiency to be the formation of REI complexes, surrounded by bile salt (DOC) molecules. Comparative study of these REI-DOC complexes in bulk water solution and those enclosed inside the hydrogel revealed a strong correlation between an up to 5×-longer lifetime of REIs and appearance of the DOC ordered phase, further confirmed by dynamics of REI solvation shells, REI diffusion experiments and morphological characterization of microstructure of the hydrogel.

  7. Investigation of Materials for Waterproofing Leaky Corrugated Galvanized Steel-Arch Magazines from the Inside.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    Epoxidized Dymeric t 2 , 3-Component Tremco Polyurethane Terpolymer 12Use with 200 Cleaner and Primer No. 6. Table 3 Results of Adhesion-Peel Test Sample No...Library ATTM: Chief. SAlEN Ohio River 45201 Nashville 37202 ATT: Laboratory Comander (Code 2636) 93555 AIN: Chief. ORNED-F ATTN: Chief, Engr Div Naval

  8. Copolymer of methacrylic acid with its diethylammonium salt: Effective waterproofing agent for oil wells

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsova, O.N.; Avvakumova, N.I.

    1992-08-10

    In the development of technology for the copolymerization of methacrylic acid with its diethylammonium salt (MAA-MAA{center_dot}DEA), the polymer-like reaction of polymethacrylic acid (PMAA) with diethylamine (DEA) and the polymerization of MAA in the presence of DEA have been studied. 13 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Drosophila melanogaster Acetyl-CoA-carboxylase sustains a fatty acid-dependent remote signal to waterproof the respiratory system.

    PubMed

    Parvy, Jean-Philippe; Napal, Laura; Rubin, Thomas; Poidevin, Mickael; Perrin, Laurent; Wicker-Thomas, Claude; Montagne, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Fatty acid (FA) metabolism plays a central role in body homeostasis and related diseases. Thus, FA metabolic enzymes are attractive targets for drug therapy. Mouse studies on Acetyl-coenzymeA-carboxylase (ACC), the rate-limiting enzyme for FA synthesis, have highlighted its homeostatic role in liver and adipose tissue. We took advantage of the powerful genetics of Drosophila melanogaster to investigate the role of the unique Drosophila ACC homologue in the fat body and the oenocytes. The fat body accomplishes hepatic and storage functions, whereas the oenocytes are proposed to produce the cuticular lipids and to contribute to the hepatic function. RNA-interfering disruption of ACC in the fat body does not affect viability but does result in a dramatic reduction in triglyceride storage and a concurrent increase in glycogen accumulation. These metabolic perturbations further highlight the role of triglyceride and glycogen storage in controlling circulatory sugar levels, thereby validating Drosophila as a relevant model to explore the tissue-specific function of FA metabolic enzymes. In contrast, ACC disruption in the oenocytes through RNA-interference or tissue-targeted mutation induces lethality, as does oenocyte ablation. Surprisingly, this lethality is associated with a failure in the watertightness of the spiracles-the organs controlling the entry of air into the trachea. At the cellular level, we have observed that, in defective spiracles, lipids fail to transfer from the spiracular gland to the point of air entry. This phenotype is caused by disrupted synthesis of a putative very-long-chain-FA (VLCFA) within the oenocytes, which ultimately results in a lethal anoxic issue. Preventing liquid entry into respiratory systems is a universal issue for air-breathing animals. Here, we have shown that, in Drosophila, this process is controlled by a putative VLCFA produced within the oenocytes.

  10. Chemistry of natural fuel: Use of wastes of synthetic fatty acid production for obtaining water-bitumen emulsions

    SciTech Connect

    Syroezhko, A.M.; Antipova, E.I.; Paukku, A.N.

    1995-12-10

    The possibility of producing water-emulsion waterproofing mastic and waterproofing coating based on bitumen, rubber crumb, and bottoms from production of synthetic fatty acids was studied. The physicochemical properties (softening point, ductility, sorptive properties, and friability) of the waterproofing coating based on a water-emulsion mastic were measured.

  11. 46 CFR 160.066-12 - Operational tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Distress Signal for Boats, Red Aerial Pyrotechnic Flare § 160... water for 24 hours without any protection other than its waterproofing; or (2) If waterproofing is provided by a sealed plastic bag or other waterproof packaging, submersion under 25 mm (1 in.) of water...

  12. 46 CFR 160.066-12 - Operational tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Distress Signal for Boats, Red Aerial Pyrotechnic Flare § 160... water for 24 hours without any protection other than its waterproofing; or (2) If waterproofing is provided by a sealed plastic bag or other waterproof packaging, submersion under 25 mm (1 in.) of water...

  13. 46 CFR 160.050-4 - Construction and workmanship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Specification for a Buoy, Life Ring, Unicellular... the buoy with a suitable waterproof adhesive which is compatible with the unicellular plastic used...

  14. Rewaterproofing Silica Tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lleger, L. J.; Wade, D. C.

    1983-01-01

    Waterproofing agent, vaporized in bubbler transported by gas flowing in system and deposits in pores of tiles. Vapor carried through hole of approximately 1/16 inch (1.6.mm) diameter made in tile coating. Technique used to waterproof buildups (concrete and brick) and possibly fabrics.

  15. Water-Repellency Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, Charles D.; Mitchell, Shirley M.; Jolly, Stanley R.; Jackson, Richard G.; Fleming, Scott T.; Roberts, William J.; Bell, Daniel R., III

    1996-01-01

    Instrument yielding presence or absence of waterproofing agent at any given depth in blanket developed. In original application, blankets in question part of space shuttle thermal protection system. Instrument utilized to determine extent of waterproofing "burnout" due to re-entry heating and adverse environment exposure.

  16. Characteristics of a Maritime Interdiction Operations Unmanned Ground Vehicle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    the robots would have fallen a long distance to the concrete floor.) The team members then practiced throwing weights and the actual robots onto a...distance should be 5 m, with an objective distance of 10 m, onto a steel deck. 3.4 Waterproofing and Flotation Being a maritime system, the robot and its...OCU must possess some degree of waterproofing . At the minimum, the OCU should be splash proof (IP64), while the robot should be waterproof to 1 m

  17. Hemovac drain

    MedlinePlus

    ... 6 cotton swabs Gauze pads Clean soapy water Plastic trash bag Surgical tape Waterproof pad or bath towel To ... old bandage. Throw the old bandage into a plastic trash bag. Inspect your skin where the drainage tube comes ...

  18. 40 CFR 59.401 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for roofing, pavement sealing, or waterproofing that incorporates bitumens. Bitumens are black or... recommended to cover holes and minor cracks and to conceal surface irregularities, and is applied in a...

  19. 40 CFR 59.401 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for roofing, pavement sealing, or waterproofing that incorporates bitumens. Bitumens are black or... recommended to cover holes and minor cracks and to conceal surface irregularities, and is applied in a...

  20. 40 CFR 59.401 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for roofing, pavement sealing, or waterproofing that incorporates bitumens. Bitumens are black or... recommended to cover holes and minor cracks and to conceal surface irregularities, and is applied in a...

  1. 40 CFR 59.401 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for roofing, pavement sealing, or waterproofing that incorporates bitumens. Bitumens are black or... recommended to cover holes and minor cracks and to conceal surface irregularities, and is applied in a...

  2. 40 CFR 59.401 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for roofing, pavement sealing, or waterproofing that incorporates bitumens. Bitumens are black or... recommended to cover holes and minor cracks and to conceal surface irregularities, and is applied in a...

  3. Effect of dressing choice on outcomes after hip and knee arthroplasty: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Tustanowski, J

    2009-11-01

    Selecting the right dressing for these wounds can prevent blistering, maceration and the risk of infection. Ideally, the dressing should be permeable, waterproof, transparent, absorbent and flexible enough to withstand joint movement.

  4. Components of skin

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... skin layers from the outside environment and contains cells that make keratin, a substance that waterproofs and strengthens the skin. The epidermis also has cells that contain melanin, the dark pigment that gives ...

  5. Behind the Seams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, W. Bradford

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the use of seamless flooring in areas where cleanliness, waterproofing, and slip resistance is emphasized. Areas such as locker rooms, restrooms, kitchens and cafeterias, lobbies and hallways, multipurpose-rooms, and walkways are considered. (GR)

  6. Extent of Sorption and Biodegradability of Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Perfluorooctanesulfonic Acid (PFOS) in Aquifer Sediment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fluoropolymers such as Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) were used provide non-stick surfaces on cookware and waterproof, breathable clothing. PFOA is very persistent in the environment and is found at low concentrations in the environment and...

  7. Extent of Sorption and Biodegradability of Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) in Aquifer Sediment (Maryland)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fluoropolymers such as Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) were used provide non-stick surfaces on cookware and waterproof, breathable clothing. PFOA is very persistent in the environment and is found at low concentrations in the environment and...

  8. Extent of Sorption and Biodegradation of Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Perfluorooctanesulfonic Acid (PFOS) in Aquifer Sediment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fluoropolymers such as Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) were used provide non-stick surfaces on cookware and waterproof, breathable clothing. PFOA is very persistent in the environment and is found at low concentrations in the environment and...

  9. A Systematic Approach to Evaluating the Building Envelope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindberg, Jon F.; Stewart, Edward J.; Morand, David A.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a process for evaluating a building's envelope (roof, walls, windows, waterproofing, and structure). Steps are grouped into the following categories: building history, field inspection, access methods, identifying defects, testing methods, and engineering analysis. (EV)

  10. 46 CFR 160.050-5 - Sampling, tests, and inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... three times from a height of 6 feet onto concrete, and there shall be no breaks or cracks in the body... buoys meet the requirements of this subpart, they shall be plainly marked in waterproof ink with...

  11. 46 CFR 160.050-5 - Sampling, tests, and inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... three times from a height of 6 feet onto concrete, and there shall be no breaks or cracks in the body... buoys meet the requirements of this subpart, they shall be plainly marked in waterproof ink with...

  12. 46 CFR 160.171-15 - Instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... on the exterior of the storage case or printed on a waterproof card attached to the storage case or..., instructions for care and repair of the suit, and any additional necessary information concerning stowage...

  13. 46 CFR 160.050-4 - Construction and workmanship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Plastic § 160.050-4 Construction and workmanship. (a) General. This specification covers ring life buoys... the buoy with a suitable waterproof adhesive which is compatible with the unicellular plastic used...

  14. 46 CFR 160.176-9 - Construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the lifejacket or to cause injury to anyone using or maintaining the lifejacket; (9) Have a means for... inflation mechanism must be waterproof, permanent, and readable from a distance of 2.5 m (8 feet)....

  15. 46 CFR 160.047-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... buoyant vests shall be sufficiently waterproof so that after 72 hours submergence in water, it will... Note: By 79 FR 56499, Sept. 22, 2014, § 160.047-6(a) was amended by removing the words “Type...

  16. 46 CFR 160.053-5 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... there shall be stenciled in waterproof ink in letters not less than one inch in height, the words, “WORK... after 48 hours submergence in water, they will withstand rubbing by hand with moderate pressure...

  17. 46 CFR 160.053-5 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... there shall be stenciled in waterproof ink in letters not less than one inch in height, the words, “WORK... after 48 hours submergence in water, they will withstand rubbing by hand with moderate pressure...

  18. 40 CFR 264.1201 - Design and operating standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Earth-covered magazines. Earth-covered magazines must be: (i) Constructed of waterproofed, reinforced concrete or structural steel arches, with steel doors that are kept closed when not being accessed;...

  19. 40 CFR 264.1201 - Design and operating standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Earth-covered magazines. Earth-covered magazines must be: (i) Constructed of waterproofed, reinforced concrete or structural steel arches, with steel doors that are kept closed when not being accessed;...

  20. 40 CFR 264.1201 - Design and operating standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Earth-covered magazines. Earth-covered magazines must be: (i) Constructed of waterproofed, reinforced concrete or structural steel arches, with steel doors that are kept closed when not being accessed;...

  1. 40 CFR 264.1201 - Design and operating standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Earth-covered magazines. Earth-covered magazines must be: (i) Constructed of waterproofed, reinforced concrete or structural steel arches, with steel doors that are kept closed when not being accessed;...

  2. 40 CFR 264.1201 - Design and operating standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Earth-covered magazines. Earth-covered magazines must be: (i) Constructed of waterproofed, reinforced concrete or structural steel arches, with steel doors that are kept closed when not being accessed;...

  3. 46 CFR 161.013-9 - Independent power source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT Electric Distress Light for Boats § 161.013-9 Independent power... signal. (b) If the independent power source is rechargeable, it must have a waterproof recharger...

  4. Self-Sealing and Puncture Resistant Breathable Membranes for Water-Evaporation Applications.

    PubMed

    Rother, Martin; Barmettler, Jonas; Reichmuth, Andreas; Araujo, Jose V; Rytka, Christian; Glaied, Olfa; Pieles, Uwe; Bruns, Nico

    2015-11-01

    Breathable and waterproof membranes that self-seal damaged areas are prepared by modifying a poly(ether ester) membrane with an amphiphilic polymer co-network. The latter swells in water and the gel closes punctures. Damaged composite membranes remain water tight up to pressures of at least 1.6 bar. This material is useful for applications where water-vapor permeability, self-sealing properties, and waterproofness are desired, as demonstrated for a medical cooling device.

  5. Acoustic-Sensing Underwater Tow Cable

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    cable. The towed sensor system includes an array of hydrophones designed to sense a variety of underwater acoustic signals based on a particular...made from a flexible waterproof material such as polyurethane, nylon, or high-density polyethylene. The jacket 16 serves as the substrate for a...Encasing the regions 18, the conductors 20, as well as exposed portions of the jacket 16, is another waterproof jacket 22. The jacket 22 can be

  6. Epoxy coated reinforcement in bridge decks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wills, J.

    A review was conducted of methods relating to the use of epoxy coated reinforcing bars for bridge decks and their potential for use in the United Kingdom. A survey of work carried out in the USA was carried out and the analysis used in a preliminary cost study. The options of having either a hot rolled asphalt surfacing or a permanently exposed concrete wearing surface were considered. It was concluded that epoxy coating of the top steel in addition to current waterproofing practice would provide, at relatively little extra cost, additional assurance that the reinforcement would be adequately protected throughout the life of a bridge. Current design rules do not permit decks with permanently exposed concrete wearing surface without waterproofing. Epoxy coating may afford a means of introducing such decks but before a positive recommendation to delete waterproofing can be made further studies would have to be undertaken.

  7. Thermal insulation protection means

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dotts, R. L.; Smith, J. A.; Strouhal, G. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A system for providing thermal insulation for portions of a spacecraft which do not exceed 900 F during ascent or reentry relative to the earth's atmosphere is described. The thermal insulation is formed of relatively large flexible sheets of needled Nomex felt having a flexible waterproof coating. The thickness of the felt is sized to protect against projected temperatures and is attached to the structure by a resin adhesive. Vent holes in the sheets allow ventilation while maintaining waterproofing. The system is heat treated to provide thermal stability.

  8. Recent Advances in Protective Clothing Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-04-01

    compressible insulating medium packaged in waterproof bladders. Use of a compressible medium, allows one to significantly reduce suit volume via vacuum ... packaging . The prototype suit is configured into a wearable "fanny" package with a total volume and weight of 5.5 litres and 2.4 kg, respectively. Since the

  9. A Packaged Self-Powered System with Universal Connectors Based on Hybridized Nanogenerators.

    PubMed

    Shi, Bojing; Zheng, Qiang; Jiang, Wen; Yan, Ling; Wang, Xinxin; Liu, Hong; Yao, Yan; Li, Zhou; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-02-03

    A packaged self-powered system by hybridizing nanogenerators (PSNGS) is demonstrated. The performance of the PSNGS is tested in a biofluid and used for powering an electronic thermometer. Select waterproof universal connectors are designed and fabricated for energy and signal transmission. This PSNGS and the connectors can significantly advance the development of self-powered implanted medical devices and wearable/portable electronics.

  10. Underwater near-infrared spectroscopy measurements of muscle oxygenation: laboratory validation and preliminary observations in swimmers and triathletes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Ben; Dat, Marco; Cooper, Chris E.

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this research was to waterproof a near-infrared spectroscopy device (PortaMon, Artinis Medical Systems) to enable NIR measurement during swim exercise. Candidate materials were initially tested for waterproof suitability by comparing light intensity values during phantom-based tissue assessment. Secondary assessment involved repeated isokinetic exercises ensuring reliability of the results obtained from the modified device. Tertiary assessment required analysis of the effect of water immersion and temperature upon device function. Initial testing revealed that merely covering the PortaMon light sources with waterproof materials considerably affected the NIR light intensities. Modifying a commercially available silicone covering through the addition of a polyvinyl chloride material (impermeable to NIR light transmission) produces an acceptable compromise. Bland-Altman analysis indicated that exercise-induced changes in tissue saturation index (TSI %) were within acceptable limits during laboratory exercise. Although water immersion had a small but significant effect upon NIR light intensity, this resulted in a negligible change in the measured TSI (%). We then tested the waterproof device in vivo illustrating oxygenation changes during a 100 m freestyle swim case study. Finally, a full study compared club level swimmers and triathletes. Significant changes in oxygenation profiles when comparing upper and lower extremities for the two groups were revealed, reflecting differences in swim biomechanics.

  11. Asphalt and Wood Shingling. Roofing Workbook and Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Arthur

    This combination workbook and set of tests contains materials on asphalt and wood shingling that have been designed to be used by those studying to enter the roofing and waterproofing trade. It consists of seven instructional units and seven accompanying objective tests. Covered in the individual units are the following topics: shingling…

  12. An Evaluation of Vegetated Roofing Technology: Application at Air Force Plant Four, Building 15

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-01

    insulation. Both insulations were made by Johns Manville . Waterproofing membrane – Paradiene 20 covered in type IV asphalt and Teranap (a modified...up to standards. The estimate is to remove the existing roof system and replace it with a Johns - Manville 4 ply, type six, asphalt and gravel roof

  13. Plastic Coatings and Wraps for New Marine Timber Piling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    all fresh asphalt , resin-base curing compounds, or loose paint. Use compressed air to remove dust and dirt prior to applying the waterproofing...nonyellowing) isocyanate with a polycaprolactone backbone. The system is available in colors which are unaffected by solar radiation. Mechanical

  14. 46 CFR 160.021-4 - Approval and production tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (specimen) must be tested as follows: (i) Conditioning of test specimens—water resistance. Immerse specimen horizontally with uppermost portion of the signal approximately 25 mm (1 in.) below the surface of the water for a period of 24 hours. If the signal is protected by alternate waterproofing consisting of a...

  15. 46 CFR 160.037-4 - Approval and production tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...: (i) Conditioning of test specimens—water resistance. Immerse specimen horizontally with uppermost portion of the signal approximately 25 mm (1 in.) below the surface of the water for a period of 24 hours. If the signal is protected by alternate waterproofing consisting of a water-resistant coating on...

  16. 46 CFR 160.037-4 - Approval and production tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...: (i) Conditioning of test specimens—water resistance. Immerse specimen horizontally with uppermost portion of the signal approximately 25 mm (1 in.) below the surface of the water for a period of 24 hours. If the signal is protected by alternate waterproofing consisting of a water-resistant coating on...

  17. Making a Canoe-Paddle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Rob

    1996-01-01

    Instructions on making a canoe paddle include types of wood to consider, choices of tools, how to determine paddle length, various designs, blade dimensions, smoothing, waterproofing, and storage. Explains how every aspect of the design is influenced by upper body strength, paddling experience, and personal preference. (TD)

  18. ASTM and other specifications and classifications for petroleum products and lubricants. Fifth edition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This book includes specifications and classifications from ASTM committees on paint and related coatings and materials; road and paving materials; wood; roofing, waterproofing and bituminous materials; rubber; soaps and other detergents; aromatic hydrocarbons and related chemicals; and electrical insulating liquids and gases. Also included are several related, important specifications and classifications from other organizations.

  19. Shipboard Training and Maintenance for Merchant Vessel Survival Equipment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-10-01

    by 4-1/2 inches printed on parchment paper in waterproof ink , with printing on one side of the paper only, must be provided with the kit. The pamphlet...Oiler Engineroom - soot blowers & trim ventilators Assigned lifeboat Wiper Engineroom -closes W/T doors and reports as Assigned lifeboat messenger Pumpman

  20. A data acquisition system for water heating and cooling experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perea Martins, J. E. M.

    2017-01-01

    This work presents a simple analogue waterproof temperature probe design and its electronic interfacing with a computer to compose a data acquisition system for water temperature measurement. It also demonstrates the system usage through an experiment to verify the water heating period with an electric heater and another to verify the Newton’s law of cooling

  1. Measure Guideline. Water Management at Tub and Shower Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Dickson, Bruce

    2011-12-01

    Due to the high concentrations of water and the consequential risk of water damage to the home’s structure a comprehensive water management system is imperative to protect the building assemblies underlying the finish surround of tub and shower areas. This guide shows how to install fundamental waterproofing strategies to prevent water related issues at shower and tub areas.

  2. Experimental use of Evazote joint materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coley, J. O.

    1981-09-01

    The performance of Evazote joint material is discussed. Merits and shortcomings noted in evaluations are listed. This material is designed to be used in expansion joints in roadways, bridges, sidewalks, roofs and walls, as well as other areas requiring a waterproof filler. Evazote material has been placed in joints on one bridge and in a number of highly expansive joints in prestressed concrete pavement.

  3. Full Scale Measurements of Wave Impact on a Flat Plate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    University of California San Diego. The pier sits upon an array of 0.67 m diameter steel reinforced concrete pilings, supports a concrete deck 10.25 m...contained within each panel close to the sensors to reduce noise. Each module has a multi-pin underwater connector on the back and waterproof cables for

  4. Protected Membrane Roofs: A Sustainable Roofing Solution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roodvoets, David L.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the benefits of protected membrane roofing (PMR) for school buildings. PMR uses an upside-down approach, where the insulation is placed on top of the waterproofing membrane to improve membrane effectiveness, reduce ultraviolet degradation, and improve insulation efficiency. The article explains what makes PMR sustainable, focusing on…

  5. Defeating the Drips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Lincoln

    2000-01-01

    Discusses a holistic approach to preventing moisture penetration of exterior walls in modular school buildings. The problem of roof leaks in modular structures is examined as are approaches to water management, roof waterproofing, the problem of condensation, and the design of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems as it affects water…

  6. 49 CFR 178.521 - Standards for paper bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... identification codes for paper bags: (1) 5M1 for a multi-wall paper bag; and (2) 5M2 for a multi-wall water... more must be made waterproof by the use of either a water-resistant ply as one of the two outermost plies or a water-resistant barrier made of a suitable protective material between the two...

  7. 46 CFR 160.047-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Specification for a Buoyant Vest, Kapok or Fibrous Glass, Adult and Child § 160.047-6 Marking. (a) Each buoyant vest must have the following information clearly... buoyant vests shall be sufficiently waterproof so that after 72 hours submergence in water, it...

  8. 46 CFR 160.052-8 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Specification for a Buoyant Vest, Unicellular Plastic Foam, Adult and Child § 160.052-8 Marking. (a) Each buoyant vest must have the following information clearly... vests shall be sufficiently waterproof so that after 72 hours submergence in water it will...

  9. 3-D Wizardry: Design in Papier-Mache, Plaster, and Foam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, George

    Papier-mache, plaster, and foam are inexpensive and versatile media for 3-dimensional classroom and studio art experiences. They can be used equally well by elementary, high school, or college students. Each medium has its own characteristic. Papier-mache is pliable but dries into a hard, firm surface that can be waterproofed. Plaster can be…

  10. 46 CFR 42.15-25 - Hatchways closed by portable covers and secured weathertight by tarpaulins and battening devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... shall not exceed the minimum ultimate strength of the material. They shall be so designed as to limit... strength of the material. They shall be so designed as to limit the deflection to not more than 0.0022... tarpaulins shall be waterproof and of ample strength. They shall be of a material of at least a...

  11. Fluid-Injection Tool for Inaccessible Areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    New tool injects liquids or gases into narrow crevices. Can be used to apply caulking and waterproofing compounds, adhesives, detergent, undercoats and oil and to aerate hard-to-reach places. Nozzle can reach into opening 1/32 inch wide to depth of more than 4 inches. Although thin, device is rigid and strong.

  12. 50 CFR 14.106 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... quantity to absorb and cover excreta. This litter shall be safe and nontoxic and shall not resemble food normally consumed by the mammals. An enclosure used to transport marine mammals in water, in a waterproof... indicates the top of the enclosure. (h) Food and water instructions as specified in § 14.108,...

  13. 40 CFR 60.591 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... intermediates. A process unit can operate independently if supplied with sufficient feed or raw materials and... feed, intermediate and final product storage vessels (except as specified in § 60.482-1(g)), product... Bitumen) is a black or dark brown solid or semi-solid thermo-plastic material possessing waterproofing...

  14. 40 CFR 60.591 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... intermediates. A process unit can operate independently if supplied with sufficient feed or raw materials and... feed, intermediate and final product storage vessels (except as specified in § 60.482-1(g)), product... Bitumen) is a black or dark brown solid or semi-solid thermo-plastic material possessing waterproofing...

  15. 40 CFR 60.591a - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... operate independently if supplied with sufficient feed or raw materials and sufficient storage facilities... dark brown solid or semi-solid thermo-plastic material possessing waterproofing and adhesive properties... assembled and connected by pipes or ducts to process raw materials and to produce intermediate or...

  16. 40 CFR 60.591a - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... operate independently if supplied with sufficient feed or raw materials and sufficient storage facilities... dark brown solid or semi-solid thermo-plastic material possessing waterproofing and adhesive properties... assembled and connected by pipes or ducts to process raw materials and to produce intermediate or...

  17. 40 CFR 60.591 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... intermediates. A process unit can operate independently if supplied with sufficient feed or raw materials and... feed, intermediate and final product storage vessels (except as specified in § 60.482-1(g)), product... Bitumen) is a black or dark brown solid or semi-solid thermo-plastic material possessing waterproofing...

  18. 40 CFR 60.591a - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... operate independently if supplied with sufficient feed or raw materials and sufficient storage facilities... dark brown solid or semi-solid thermo-plastic material possessing waterproofing and adhesive properties... assembled and connected by pipes or ducts to process raw materials and to produce intermediate or...

  19. 40 CFR 60.591a - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... operate independently if supplied with sufficient feed or raw materials and sufficient storage facilities... dark brown solid or semi-solid thermo-plastic material possessing waterproofing and adhesive properties... assembled and connected by pipes or ducts to process raw materials and to produce intermediate or...

  20. 40 CFR 60.591 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... intermediates. A process unit can operate independently if supplied with sufficient feed or raw materials and... feed, intermediate and final product storage vessels (except as specified in § 60.482-1(g)), product... Bitumen) is a black or dark brown solid or semi-solid thermo-plastic material possessing waterproofing...

  1. 40 CFR 60.591a - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... operate independently if supplied with sufficient feed or raw materials and sufficient storage facilities... dark brown solid or semi-solid thermo-plastic material possessing waterproofing and adhesive properties... assembled and connected by pipes or ducts to process raw materials and to produce intermediate or...

  2. 40 CFR 60.591 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... intermediates. A process unit can operate independently if supplied with sufficient feed or raw materials and... feed, intermediate and final product storage vessels (except as specified in § 60.482-1(g)), product... Bitumen) is a black or dark brown solid or semi-solid thermo-plastic material possessing waterproofing...

  3. Skilled up and Having Fun

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsworthy, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Many teachers seem to have followed the "dunking theory." That is, they dunk their children in a variety of investigations and hope that through their practical work they will absorb a thorough understanding of enquiry skills. Children seem to have quite a good natural waterproof coating when it comes to absorbing scientific skills through…

  4. 46 CFR 160.064-4 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Marine Buoyant Devices § 160.064-4 Marking. (a) Each water safety buoyant device must have the following information clearly marked in waterproof lettering: (1) For... recreational boats and on uninspected commercial vessels less than 40 feet in length not carrying...

  5. 48 CFR 1852.246-72 - Material inspection and receiving report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Receiving Report (DD Form 250 series) prepared in __ copies, an original and __ copies . (b) The Contractor shall prepare the DD Form 250 in accordance with NASA FAR Supplement 1846.6. The Contractor shall enclose the copies of the DD Form 250 in the package or seal them in a waterproof envelope, which shall...

  6. Swim Free. A 10 Day Program of Aquatic Exercises Adapted from Life in the Waterworld.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eberhardt, Lorraine; Sanborn, Laura

    The completely waterproof book contains instructions for an alternative form of swimming exercises based on the movements of 19 water creatures. The exercises can be used by groups or individuals to enhance training programs, to serve as part of a structured synchronized swimming program, or to supplement recreational activities. The book provides…

  7. Hide And Seek GPS And Geocaching In The Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lary, Lynn M.

    2004-01-01

    In short, geocaching is a high-tech, worldwide treasure hunt (geocaches can now be found in more than 180 countries) where a person hides a cache for others to find. Generally, the cache is some type of waterproof container that contains a log book and an assortment of goodies, such as lottery tickets, toys, photo books for cachers to fill with…

  8. The behavior of pre-rusted steel in concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, J.A.; Bautista, A.; Feliu, S.; Ramirez, E.

    1996-03-01

    This paper explores the possibility of an effective protection for precorroded steel by effect of the high alkalinity of the encasing mortar (by itself or in combination with the action of sodium nitrite). Application of a waterproof coating on the mortar surface was evaluated for this purpose. The behavior of clean steel electrodes and in three different pre-corrosion grades was characterized from periodic measurements of the corrosion potential (E{sub corr}) and polarization resistance (R{sub p}). Neither mortar alkalinity alone nor in combination with the effect of nitride ions was found to passivate the reinforcements in the two higher corrosion grades over 2 years of exposure in an atmosphere of a high relative humidity. Also, immersion of the specimens in a 5% NaNO{sub 2} solution was found not to passivate steel undergoing active corrosion. The effectiveness of the waterproofing treatment for diminishing reinforcement corrosion was found to rely heavily on timely application.

  9. Photovoltaic Roofs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, R. W., Jr.; Shepard, N. F., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Solar cells perform two functions: waterproofing roof and generating electricity. Sections through horizontal and slanting joints show overlapping modules sealed by L-section rubber strips and side-by-side modules sealed by P-section strips. Water seeping through seals of slanting joints drains along channels. Rooftop photovoltaic array used watertight south facing roof, replacing shingles, tar, and gravel. Concept reduces cost of residential solar-cell array.

  10. Air-Activated Ration Heaters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    regulated. After use, the product of the heating reaction is zinc oxide, an inert chemical used in many different products such as sunscreen , creams...low cost, easy-to-use chemical heater called the Flameless Ration Heater (FRH). The FRH consists of a magnesium/iron mixture sealed in a waterproof...Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 2 1. HEATER DESIGN There is a narrow operating temperature range for chemical heaters for this specific

  11. The Design and Implementation of a Prototype Surf-Zone Robot for Waterborne Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    water mobility. Channels to direct water flow around the waterproof cylinder are implemented as a novel way to avoid a through hole for the...through hole for the vertical thruster. Modular design enables platform design modifications and sensors to be changed or added for different missions...tests with the liquid repellent showed that it could be used on solid FDM parts. Additional tests were performed by combining two coatings: a black

  12. Portable Spray Booth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Timothy D.; Bardwell, Micheal J.

    1996-01-01

    Portable spray booth provides for controlled application of coating materials with high solvent contents. Includes contoured shroud and carbon filter bed limiting concentration of fumes in vicinity. Designed to substitute spraying for brush application of solvent-based adhesive prior to installing rubber waterproof seals over joints between segments of solid-fuel rocket motor. With minor adjustments and modifications, used to apply other solvent-based adhesives, paints, and like.

  13. FRHAM-TEX{trademark} cool suit - OST reference No. 1854. Deactivation and decommissioning focus area

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    This paper describes a demonstration project for the FRHAM-TEX Cool Suit{trademark} manufactured by FRHAM Safety Products. It is a one-piece, disposable, breathable, waterproof coverall designed to permit moisture generated by the wearer to be transmitted outside the suit. The performance of this suit was compared to a Tyvek{reg_sign} suit as a baseline. The suit is proposed as safety ware for workers at decontamination and decommissioning projects.

  14. Mechanism of Action of Lung Damage Caused by a Nanofilm Spray Product

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Søren T.; Dallot, Constantin; Larsen, Susan W.; Rose, Fabrice; Poulsen, Steen S.; Nørgaard, Asger W.; Hansen, Jitka S.; Sørli, Jorid B.; Nielsen, Gunnar D.; Foged, Camilla

    2014-01-01

    Inhalation of waterproofing spray products has on several occasions caused lung damage, which in some cases was fatal. The present study aims to elucidate the mechanism of action of a nanofilm spray product, which has been shown to possess unusual toxic effects, including an extremely steep concentration-effect curve. The nanofilm product is intended for application on non-absorbing flooring materials and contains perfluorosiloxane as the active film-forming component. The toxicological effects and their underlying mechanisms of this product were studied using a mouse inhalation model, by in vitro techniques and by identification of the binding interaction. Inhalation of the aerosolized product gave rise to increased airway resistance in the mice, as evident from the decreased expiratory flow rate. The toxic effect of the waterproofing spray product included interaction with the pulmonary surfactants. More specifically, the active film-forming components in the spray product, perfluorinated siloxanes, inhibited the function of the lung surfactant due to non-covalent interaction with surfactant protein B, a component which is crucial for the stability and persistence of the lung surfactant film during respiration. The active film-forming component used in the present spray product is also found in several other products on the market. Hence, it may be expected that these products may have a toxicity similar to the waterproofing product studied here. Elucidation of the toxicological mechanism and identification of toxicological targets are important to perform rational and cost-effective toxicological studies. Thus, because the pulmonary surfactant system appears to be an important toxicological target for waterproofing spray products, study of surfactant inhibition could be included in toxicological assessment of this group of consumer products. PMID:24863969

  15. Monitoring Well Installation and Groundwater Sampling and Analysis Plan at the USARC Training Reserve, 84th Division, Milwaukee, Wisconsin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-01

    Sulfates Public Health Standards: Nitrate and Nitrite - Nitrogen Other Dissolved Metals to Include: Arsenic Barium Boron Cadmium Chromium Lead Mercury RP...including Xylene) by EPA Method 5030/8240; (3) Dissolved Metals including arsenic, barium, boron, cadmium , chromium, iron, lead, and mercury.; and (4) Primary...of 2, 2 of 2). It is important to use only indelible waterproof ink on labels and tags. "Magic" markers will not be used on or near volatile vial

  16. Rewaterproofing Chemical For Use With Silicones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, William L.; Mitchell, Shirley M.; Massey, Howard S.

    1990-01-01

    Agent restores impermeability without degrading silicone adhesives and substructures. Dimethylethoxysilane (DMES) found to rewaterproof tiles and composite panels internally without harming materials that underlie them. Replaces hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) as postmission rewaterproofing agent for tiles of thermal-protection system on Space Shuttle. Much of original waterproofing lost during rigors of launch and reentry. Potential terrestrial application includes composite materials in such structures as bridges and submarines.

  17. Cleaning Aged EPDM Rubber Roofing Membrane Material for Patching: Laboratory Investigations and Recommendations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-01

    membranes made from vulcanized cthylcne-propylenc-dienc terpolymer (EPDM) rubber as the waterproofing component of low-sloped roofing systems has...terpolymer). The use of vulcanized EPDM rubber for low-sloped roofing membranes has become common in the U.S. Current estimates indicate that more than 93...would provide a means for obtaining field data on this proposed tesi , which has not yet been investigated in the field. 45 5 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND

  18. Planning and Management of the Surplus Ammunition Disposal Process in the Bulgarian Armed Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    are used worldwide. Almost one half of them involve employing explosive substances. Many explosive materials are useful in the mining industry , petroleum...explosions on different materials. They are designed to solve special tasks in the mining industry , the metallurgical and petroleum processing industries...industrial applications. The water-proof and water emulsion explosive substances can have a wide application in the mining industry , in quarries, and for

  19. Minimum Thickness Requirements for Asphalt Surface Course and Base Layer in Airfield Pavements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    e.g., Donovan and Tutumluer 2008, 2009; Tao et al. 2010), a waterproof surface, protection from foreign object damage (FOD), and a durable surface...mechanisms for premature deterioration, and quantify the service life of thin asphalt concrete pavements. Six sections with different layer...32,500 7,794 The full-scale test data analysis led to a conclusion that the Department of Defense’s (DoD) minimum asphalt concrete thickness

  20. Design and Operation of the Forward Scattering Meter.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-10-16

    Metals Corp. and is constructed of 1/8 in. stainless steel . All seams are continuously welded to ensure a waterproof seal. The enclosure’s outer door...Line #6 Braided Stainless Steel Tubing 20 ft long AC Power Cable 3 Conductor 18 Gage 30 ft long GPIB Cable 24 Conductor 24 Gage 30 ft long 8...Weatherproofing Enclosure Solid Seam-Welded Stainless Steel Gasketed Cover White Polyurethane Based Paint Sensor Gasketed End Caps Gasketed Laser Tube Baffled

  1. Demonstration of Electro-Osmotic Pulse Technology in Earth-Covered Magazines at Fort A.P. Hill, VA

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-01

    The base and walls of the model were constructed from con- crete paving blocks, 1½ inches thick and the roof from galvanized roof flashing. To...simulate existing waterproofing, standard duct tape was ap- plied to the roof section with approximately 1/16 in. gap between strips. The roof was attached...for the lightning study. The copper wire in the soil forms the ground ring, the chicken wire represents the earth ground and the metal cylindric - al

  2. The Aerodynamics of a Maneuvering UCAV 1303 Aircraft Model and its Control through Leading Edge Curvature Change

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    14 Figure 9. UCAV 1303 Model with Dimensions (Inches). From [1]. ..............................15 Figure 10. A Small Rubber Tube Placed over the...DC motor. A third motor is enclosed in a waterproofed mechanism which supports roll motions. The model is supported in the inverted position in order...entire system, from tunnel velocity to model motion, is driven by a PC based LabVIEW software. B. THE UCAV 1303 MODEL In order to perform a flow

  3. International Conference on Snow Engineering (1st) Held in Santa Barbara, California on July 10-15 1988

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-01

    two slightly raised external wings. Roofing is made of corrugated sheet steel, insulated with mineral wool and waterproof plastic fail. The underroof...at the other side. Roofing is made of corrugated sheet steel, insulated with mineral wool and black roofing paper. Buildings were at final stage of...be 0.05 W/m-K or about the same as mineral wool . Higher density of the snow can appear with temperatures around the freezing point with a mixture of

  4. Strategy to Minimize Energetics Contamination at Military Testing/Training Ranges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    Hexanitrostilbene ( HNS ) used in other energetic transfer applications such B. Fuze 1. More environmentally as mild detonating fuze (MDF) transfer leadsacceptable...energetics - PBXN-301, a pentaerythritol tetranitrate ( PETN )-based plasticized and waterproof HE that resists erosion and migration in the environment...tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine HNS Hexanitrostilbene HQDA Headquarters Department of the Army HVAC Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning IMA

  5. Environmental Impact Research Program. Bicolor Lespedeza (Lespedeza Bicolor) . Section 7.3.2, US Army Corps of Engineers Wildlife Resources Management Manual.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-01

    seed coat resists deterioration, seeds do not germinate until the outer waterproof coating is disrupted by fire or scarification; therefore, bicolor...scarified seeds should be used, i.e., those which have had the seed coats treated to hasten germination (McConnell 1971, Allen and Waters 1972, Environmental...critical factor for seed germination is soil moisture; therefore, seeds should be planted before May 15 in most regions (Allen and S Waters 1972). 7

  6. Solar Heating Retrofit of Military Family Housing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-09-01

    pressboard sheathing and shingle surface in order to mak, them more wind resistant. These quarters have carports, basements, I hardwood floors and fireplaces...houses the supply and return line headers for the working fluid. A double layer of asphalt impregnated roofers felt serves as the waterproofing boundary...and shingle surface. The construction of the roof array consisted of stripping the sheathing and shingles from the upper portion of the south face 4

  7. The National Shipbuilding Research Program. Application of Industrial Engineering Techniques to Reduce Workers’ Compensation and Environmental Costs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-10-01

    NAME POSITION Eric Murray Controller (Risk Management & Workers’ Comp) Jim Paulson Manager Safety Brienn Woods Manager Training & Development Judie...making the distinction. Stretching is best done when the muscles, tendons, joints, etc. are warm and have good blood flow. These tissues are more pliable ...manufacturer, Safeguard technologies further assisted us in our efforts. I. Selection Criteria Waterproof Cold/Thermal insulation Long life Durability

  8. Condition Assessment Survey (CAS) Program. Deficiency standards and inspections methods manual: Volume 1, 0.01 Foundations and footings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    General information is presented for asset determinant factor/CAS repair codes/CAS cost factors; guide sheet tool & material listing; testing methods; inspection frequency; standard system design life tables; system work breakdown structure; and general system/material data. Deficiency standards and inspection methods are given for footings - spread/strip/grade beams; foundation walls; foundation dampproofing/waterproofing; excavation/backfill/ and piles & caissons.

  9. An Elastic Tube Gage for Measuring Static and Dynamic Pressures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1948-05-01

    25 grams of granulated celluloid No. 2346 dissolved ; on one pound of ethyl acetate. + For maximum stability of operation, gage current should be...Compounds such as beeswax or ceresin wax were first employed for waterproofing, but their brittleness at low temperatures was found to be ob- jectionable...Bitumastics such, as Qzite B Jhave sbeen superior in that respect, but are dissolved by hydraulic- fluids and oils, to which strain gages .may Be

  10. Corrosion Mitigation Strategies - an Introduction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-05

    Control Technology – Cathodic protection – Corrosion inhibitors – Combination of methods • Balance cost and other factors Candidate Materials - Metals...Technology -UV, ozone,solvents,oxygen • Concrete -acids, chlorides, sulfates • Vitreous Materials-solvents • Corrosion Control • Waterproofing • Weather...Tar Enamel Leaders in Corrosion Control Technology – Tape – Concrete (Weight) Coating • Make metal to be protected act as a cathode • Application of

  11. In-Situ Ultrasonic Characterization of Patterns of Sediment Surface Roughness and Subsurface Volume Inhomogeneities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    was successfully converted to ocean-going use . An aluminum pressure housing (sled-type) was created containing the ultrasound machine, VCR, battery ...successfully images surface and sub-surface biogenic structure non-invasively in the laboratory (ultrasound) and convert the technology for use in...pressure housing for it waterproof to 50 m water depth. We will deploy the unit in the field with the use of divers during the summer in the

  12. Nest paper absorbency, toughness, and protein concentration of a native vs. an invasive social wasp.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Tracy R; Aponte, Yaira; Stamp, Nancy E

    2005-05-01

    The amount of proteinaceous food that was allocated to nest construction by a native wasp (Polistes fuscatus) vs. an invasive wasp (Polistes dominulus) in North America was examined following a field experiment under natural and surplus prey foraging conditions. Wasps of the surplus prey foraging conditions were provided with prey ad libitum within an enclosed area, while wasps of the natural treatment foraged in an adjacent field-woodland site. At the end of the field experiment, each nest was tested for water absorbency, toughness, and protein concentration. The hypotheses were: (1) When all nests are equally sheltered, the invasive P. dominulus (PD) allocates less protein to nest paper construction (for waterproofing and strengthening) and more protein to developing larvae than the native P. fuscatus (PF). (2) Nests of P. dominulus are more absorbent (less waterproof) and less tough than nests of P. fuscatus. Results indicate that P. fuscatus nests from surplus prey foraging conditions were more absorbent (less waterproof) to artificial rain drops than P. dominulus nests. The toughness of nests was similar between wasp species. However, nests from the natural treatment were tougher than those from the surplus prey treatment. Nests from the natural foraging conditions had half as much protein as those from surplus prey foraging conditions. There was no correlation between nest protein concentration and the number of prey taken, the number of cells, the number of adult offspring produced, or the total wasp biomass produced per colony. For PF under surplus prey conditions, protein concentration and absorbency were negatively correlated, but for PD the correlation was positive. In conclusion, when prey were scarce, Polistes wasps allocated less protein to nest construction. Also, the introduced P. dominulus may increase production of offspring by allocating less to nest construction than that of the native P. fuscatus, and so more protein to offspring production.

  13. Detail view of the leading and top edge of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of the leading and top edge of the vertical stabilizer of the Orbiter Discovery showing the thermal protection system components with the white Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation (AFRSI) blanket and the black High-temperature Reusable Surface Insulation (HRSI) tiles along the outer edges. The marks seen on the HRSI tiles are injection point marks and holes for the application of waterproofing material. This view was taken from a service platform in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  14. Cloning and expression of recombinant adhesive protein Mefp-1 of the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis

    DOEpatents

    Silverman, Heather G.; Roberto, Francisco F.

    2006-01-17

    The present invention comprises a Mytilus edulis cDNA sequenc having a nucleotide sequence that encodes for the Mytilus edulis foot protein-1 (Mefp-1), an example of a mollusk foot protein. Mefp-1 is an integral component of the blue mussels' adhesive protein complex, which allows the mussel to attach to objects underwater. The isolation, purification and sequencing of the Mefp-1 gene will allow researchers to produce Mefp-1 protein using genetic engineering techniques. The discovery of Mefp-1 gene sequence will also allow scientists to better understand how the blue mussel creates its waterproof adhesive protein complex.

  15. Integrated residential photovoltaic array development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepard, N. F., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The design details of an optimized integrated residential photovoltaic module/array are presented. This selected design features a waterproofing and mounting scheme which was devised to simplify the installation procedures by the avoidance of complex gasketed or caulked joints, while still maintaining a high confidence that the watertight integrity of the integral roofing surface will be achieved for the design lifetime of the system. The production and installation costs for the selected module/array design are reported for a range of annual production rates as a function of the cost of solar cells.

  16. Encapsulation for smart textile electronics - humidity and temperature sensor.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Andreas; Tran, Thanh-Nam; Aasmundtveit, Knut E; Seeberg, Trine M

    2015-01-01

    A combined humidity and temperature sensor was packaged by vacuum casting onto three different types of textiles; cotton, nylon and a waterproof fabric. This was done in order to integrate the sensor in a jacket in a soft and reliable way without changing the sensor performance. A membrane was custom made and integrated into the device to protect the sensor from the environment. The packaged sensors performance was characterized in a climate chamber were the relative humidity and temperature ranged from 25 % to 95 % and -10 °C to 75 °C respectively. The packaged sensors showed insignificant to limited performance degradation.

  17. Cloning and expression of recombinant adhesive protein MEFP-2 of the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis

    DOEpatents

    Silverman, Heather G.; Roberto, Francisco F.

    2006-02-07

    The present invention includes a Mytilus edulis cDNA having a nucleotide sequence that encodes for the Mytilus edulis foot protein-2 (Mefp-2), an example of a mollusk foot protein. Mefp-2 is an integral component of the blue mussels' adhesive protein complex, which allows the mussel to attach to objects underwater. The isolation, purification and sequencing of the Mefp-2 gene will allow researchers to produce Mefp-2 protein using genetic engineering techniques. The discovery of Mefp-2 gene sequences will also allow scientists to better understand how the blue mussel creates its waterproof adhesive protein complex.

  18. Superhydrophobic Materials Technology-PVC Bonding Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, Scott R.; Efird, Marty

    2013-05-03

    The purpose of the technology maturation project was to develop an enhanced application technique for applying diatomaceous earth with pinned polysiloxane oil to PVC pipes and materials. The oil infiltration technique is applied as a spray of diluted oil in a solvent onto the superhydrophobic diatomaceous earth substrate. This makes the surface take on the following characteristics: wet-cleanable; anti-biofouling; waterproof; and anti-corrosion. The project involved obtaining input and supplies from VeloxFlow and the development of successful techniques that would quickly result in a commercial license agreement with VeloxFlow and other companies that use PVC materials in a variety of other fields of use.

  19. Moisture absorption characteristics of the Orbiter thermal protection system and methods used to prevent water ingestion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schomburg, C.; Dotts, R. L.; Tillian, D. J.

    1983-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Orbiter's silica tile Thermal Protection System (TPS) is beset by the moisture absorption problems inherently associated with low density, highly porous insulation systems. Attention is presently given to the comparative success of methods for the minimization and/or prevention of water ingestion by the TPS tiles, covering the development of water-repellent agents and their tile application techniques, flight test program results, and materials improvements. The use of external films for rewaterproofing of the TPS tiles after each mission have demonstrated marginal to unacceptable performance. By contrast, a tile interior waterproofing agent has shown promise.

  20. New treatments for restoring impaired epidermal barrier permeability: skin barrier repair creams.

    PubMed

    Draelos, Zoe Diana

    2012-01-01

    Skin health depends on an intact barrier composed of protein-rich corneocytes surrounded by the lamellar intercellular lipids. This barrier provides waterproof protection for the body, preventing infection, regulating electrolyte balance, maintaining body temperature, and providing a mechanism for sensation. Damage to the skin barrier results in skin disease that can be treated by a variety of externally applied substances, such as ceramides, hyaluronic acid, licorice extracts, dimethicone, petrolatum, and paraffin wax. These substances are found in moisturizers that are sold as cosmetics and in prescriptions as 510(k) devices. This contribution examines the formulation and effect of skin barrier creams.

  1. Sources and transport of silicone NVR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, Gale A.

    1992-01-01

    The retrieved LDEF had varying amounts of visible contamination films (brown stains) at many locations. FTIR spectra of heavy film deposits at vents and of optical windows from tray E5 indicated methyl silicone and silica in the contaminant films. Two possible sources of the methyl silicone are DC-710 phenyl methyl silicone in the shuttle-bay-liner beta cloth, and the shuttle tile waterproofing silane. It is concluded that much of the silicon and silica contamination came from ground operations and the orbiter.

  2. Internal strain, deformation, and failure of large scale pullout tests in concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, W. C.

    1982-05-01

    Detailed experimental data on crack propagation and internal strain distribution for the pullout test is presented. A 12:1 scaled-up pullout test was designed, using a commercial pullout insert for the prototype dimensions, and was instrumented with small waterproof embedment strain gages so as to obtain internal strain profiles at critical locations. Two large scale specimens were tested with apex angles falling at the upper and lower bounds currently recommended in ASTM C-900. Two dimensional axisymmetric finite element analyses were performed for the two experimental specimens and the results were compared with measured strains for load stages below the onset of internal cracking.

  3. Plasma technologies application for building materials surface modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volokitin, G. G.; Skripnikova, N. K.; Volokitin, O. G.; Shehovtzov, V. V.; Luchkin, A. G.; Kashapov, N. F.

    2016-01-01

    Low temperature arc plasma was used to process building surface materials, such as silicate brick, sand lime brick, concrete and wood. It was shown that building surface materials modification with low temperature plasma positively affects frost resistance, water permeability and chemical resistance with high adhesion strength. Short time plasma processing is rather economical than traditional processing thermic methods. Plasma processing makes wood surface uniquely waterproof and gives high operational properties, dimensional and geometrical stability. It also increases compression resistance and decreases inner tensions level in material.

  4. Fire Resistant, Moisture Barrier Membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.Clair, Terry L. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A waterproof and breathable, fire-resistant laminate is provided for use in tents, garments, shoes, and covers, especially in industrial, military and emergency situations. The laminate permits water vapor evaporation while simultaneously preventing liquid water penetration. Further, the laminate is fire-resistant and significantly reduces the danger of toxic compound production when exposed to flame or other high heat source. The laminate may be applied to a variety of substrates and is comprised of a silicone rubber and plurality of fire-resistant, inherently thermally-stable polyimide particles.

  5. Thermal Stress Analysis of RCG-Tempered TUFI Tile TPS for Hypersonic Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milos, Frank S.; Squire, Thomas H.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents detailed results from linear and nonlinear finite-element thermal stress analyses of a new tile, Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) concept. A very thin coating of Reaction Cured Glass (RCG) is used to "temper" the surface of Toughened Uni-Piece Fibrous Insulation (TUFI) tiles to improve resistance to thermal shock and thermal cycling effects. The coating also serves to reduce catalytic heating and may improve waterproofing. Calculations include trajectory-based aerothermal heating environments for X-34 wing leading edge TPS designs and arc jet environments for TPS test articles. The nonlinear analyses include the high temperature plasticity of RCG to demonstrate the reuseability of the material.

  6. Measure Guideline: Hybrid Foundation Insulation Retrofits

    SciTech Connect

    Ueno, K.; Lstiburek, J.

    2012-05-01

    This measure guideline provides recommendations for designs and variations for retrofit hybrid assemblies in improving interior foundation insulation and water management of basements. Variations include closed cell spray foam (ccSPF) with membrane waterproofing or air gap membrane drainage layers, rigid board foam insulation at flat walls (cast concrete or CMU block), a 'partial drainage' detail making use of the bulk water drainage that occurs through the field of a rubble stone wall, and non-drained spray foam assemblies (including slab insulation).

  7. Measure Guideline. Hybrid Foundation Insulation Retrofits

    SciTech Connect

    Ueno, K.; Lstiburek, J.

    2012-05-01

    This measure guideline provides recommendations for designs and variations for retrofit hybrid assemblies in improving interior foundation insulation and water management of basements. Variations include closed cell spray foam (ccSPF) with membrane waterproofing or air gap membrane drainage layers, rigid board foam insulation at flat walls (cast concrete or CMU block), a “partial drainage” detail making use of the bulk water drainage that occurs through the field of a rubble stone wall, and non-drained spray foam assemblies (including slab insulation).

  8. Calibration Techniques for Accurate Measurements by Underwater Camera Systems

    PubMed Central

    Shortis, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Calibration of a camera system is essential to ensure that image measurements result in accurate estimates of locations and dimensions within the object space. In the underwater environment, the calibration must implicitly or explicitly model and compensate for the refractive effects of waterproof housings and the water medium. This paper reviews the different approaches to the calibration of underwater camera systems in theoretical and practical terms. The accuracy, reliability, validation and stability of underwater camera system calibration are also discussed. Samples of results from published reports are provided to demonstrate the range of possible accuracies for the measurements produced by underwater camera systems. PMID:26690172

  9. Fire Resistant, Moisture Barrier Membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.Clair, Terry L. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A waterproof and breathable, fire-resistant laminate is provided for use in tents, garments, shoes, and covers, especially in industrial, military and emergency situations. The laminate permits water vapor evaporation while simultaneously preventing liquid water penetration. Further, the laminate is fire-resistant and significantly reduces the danger of toxic compound production when exposed to flame or other high heat source. The laminate may be applied to a variety of substrates and is comprised of a silicone rubber and plurality of fire-resistant, inherently thermally-stable polyimide particles.

  10. Permanent Deformation of Flexible Pavements.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    speeds actually used during testing are detailed in Chapters 3 and 4. Load range = 0-15 kN Tyre pressure = 530 kPa Contact area at 10 kN = 0.02 m 2...The difference between tyre pressure and contact stress is probably due to the stiffness of the side walls of the tyre . 2.2 PAVEMENT INSTRUMENTATION...of wet bricks in a waterproofed concrete lined pit 4.9 m long, 2.4 m wide and 1.5 m deep. A triple legged pneumatic tamper was used to compact each

  11. Silazine to silica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, Gale A.

    1993-01-01

    Thin film silica and/or methyl silicone were detected on most external surfaces of the retrieved LDEF. Both solar ultraviolet radiation and atomic oxygen can convert silicones to silica. Known sources of silicone in or on the LDEF appear inadequate to explain the ubiquitous presence of the silica and silicone films. Hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) was used as the Challenger tile waterproofing compound for the Challenger/LDEF deployment mission. HMDS is both volatile and chemically reactive at STP. In addition, HMDS releases NH3 which depolymerizes silicone RTV's. Polyurethanes are also depolymerized. Experiments are reported that indicate much of the silicone and silica contamination of LDEF resulted directly or indirectly from HMDS.

  12. Biophysical and biochemical characteristics of cutin, a plant barrier biopolymer.

    PubMed

    Heredia, Antonio

    2003-03-17

    Cutin is a support biopolyester involved in waterproofing the leaves and fruits of higher plants, regulating the flow of nutrients among various plant cells and organs, and minimizing the deleterious impact of pathogens. Despite the complexity and intractable nature of this biopolymer, significant progress in chemical composition, molecular architecture and, more recently, biosynthesis have been made in the past 10 years. This review is focused in the description of these advances and their physiological impacts to improve our knowledge on plant cutin, an unusual topic in most plant physiology and biochemistry books and reviews.

  13. Low-cost encapsulation materials for terrestrial solar cell modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuddihy, E. F.; Baum, B.; Willis, P.

    1979-01-01

    The paper presents the findings of material surveys intended to identify low cost materials which could be functional as encapsulants (by 1986) for terrestrial solar cell modules. Economic analyses have indicated that in order to meet the low cost goal of $2.70 per sq m, some or all of the following material technologies must be developed or advanced: (1) UV screening outer covers; (2) elastomeric acrylics; (3) weatherproofing and waterproofing of structural wood and paper products; (4) transparent UV stabilizers for the UV-sensitive transparent pottants; and (5) cost-effective utilization of silicone and fluorocarbon materials.

  14. Prefabricated brick wall panels: Economy or nightmare?

    SciTech Connect

    Louis, M.J.

    1999-07-01

    Prefabricated wall systems are becoming a popular element of building construction. Prefabricated systems lend themselves to streamlining construction schedules and reducing overall construction costs. They offer the potential for increased quality due to assembly in controlled factory environments. This paper reviews basic principles and concepts for the design of waterproofing systems for prefabricated brick wall panels. Using a project case study, the author will show that failure to adhere to certain proven conventional practices can have serious adverse consequences with respect to the performance of prefabricated brick wall panels.

  15. A Review of Footwear for Cold/Wet Scenarios. Part 1. The Boot

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    climates footwear must a. be insulated and protect insulation in case of puncture; b. be waterproof; c. be able to absorb and transmit sweat vapour (liquid...and treatment). This a good quality for heat removal, but makes leather a cccr insulator . Leather is readily wetted, becomes more permeable twhen...and pliable by repeated che;.’ing. A layer of K:ry grass or moss is often worn in the bottom of the boot. Caribou hide is warmer than seal or walrus

  16. Surface electromyographic electrode pair with built-in buffer-amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Fujisawa, M; Uchida, K; Yamada, Y; Ishibashi, K

    1990-03-01

    By means of a surface electrode with an operational amplifier, a new electrode unit suitable for an electromyographic-biofeedback apparatus and for portable electromyography used outside a Faraday cage was developed. The operational amplifier, which has an output impedance lower than 10 ohms, functions as an efficient buffer amplifier and is able to protect the EMG signals from background noises. This new electrode unit is small (32 x 12 x 5 mm), waterproof, and inexpensive. Because its structure is simple, it can be built in any laboratory.

  17. Developing and Maintaining a Useful Deployed/Contingency Operations Financial Management Guidebook for the United States Marine Corps

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    formats. It can remain as an 8.5” x 11” printable resource; be made smaller (5” x 7”) to laminate and fit into a cargo pocket; be made into an electronic...the guidebook should be completely reworked . The current structured chapters provide no logical step-by-step process for a Financial Management...multiple formats) 1= Small-Can fit into Cargo-Pocket 2= Small/Waterproof- laminated and Cargo-Pocket Size 3= Large-8.5 x 11 Pages in a Bound Book 4

  18. Development of Air Speed Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahm, A F

    1920-01-01

    Report describes the development of a suitable speed nozzle for the first few thousand airplanes made by the United States during the recent war in Europe, and to furnish a basis for more mature instruments in the future. Requirements for the project were to provide a suitable pressure collector for aircraft speed meters and to develop a speed nozzle which would be waterproof, powerful, unaffected by slight pitch and yaw, rugged and easy to manufacture, and uniform in structure and reading, so as not to require individual calibration.

  19. Calibration Techniques for Accurate Measurements by Underwater Camera Systems.

    PubMed

    Shortis, Mark

    2015-12-07

    Calibration of a camera system is essential to ensure that image measurements result in accurate estimates of locations and dimensions within the object space. In the underwater environment, the calibration must implicitly or explicitly model and compensate for the refractive effects of waterproof housings and the water medium. This paper reviews the different approaches to the calibration of underwater camera systems in theoretical and practical terms. The accuracy, reliability, validation and stability of underwater camera system calibration are also discussed. Samples of results from published reports are provided to demonstrate the range of possible accuracies for the measurements produced by underwater camera systems.

  20. A Wireless EEG Recording Method for Rat Use inside the Water Maze

    PubMed Central

    Pinnell, Richard C.; Almajidy, Rand K.; Kirch, Robert D.; Cassel, Jean C.; Hofmann, Ulrich G.

    2016-01-01

    With the continued miniaturisation of portable embedded systems, wireless EEG recording techniques are becoming increasingly prevalent in animal behavioural research. However, in spite of their versatility and portability, they have seldom been used inside water-maze tasks designed for rats. As such, a novel 3D printed implant and waterproof connector is presented, which can facilitate wireless water-maze EEG recordings in freely-moving rats, using a commercial wireless recording system (W32; Multichannel Systems). As well as waterproofing the wireless system, battery, and electrode connector, the implant serves to reduce movement-related artefacts by redistributing movement-related forces away from the electrode connector. This implant/connector was able to successfully record high-quality LFP in the hippocampo-striatal brain regions of rats as they undertook a procedural-learning variant of the double-H water-maze task. Notably, there were no significant performance deficits through its use when compared with a control group across a number of metrics including number of errors and speed of task completion. Taken together, this method can expand the range of measurements that are currently possible in this diverse area of behavioural neuroscience, whilst paving the way for integration with more complex behaviours. PMID:26828947

  1. Microfabricated environmental barrier using ZnO nanowire on metal mesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Young-Min; Lee, Seung-Ki; Lee, Joo-Yong; Kim, Jun-Ho; Park, Jae-Hyoung; Ji, Chang-Hyeon

    2013-12-01

    In this study, a waterproof environmental barrier for microsensor package has been developed using metal mesh covered with zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowire. A near superhydrophobic surface with two-dimensional array of holes has been fabricated by hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanowire on an off-the-shelf steel use stainless (SUS) mesh. For a twill-woven SUS wire mesh having wire thickness of 30 µm and gap of 33 µm, a maximum contact angle of 160.40° and a minimum contact angle hysteresis of 15.23° have been achieved using ZnO nanowire grown on the wire surface and further deposition of FC film. The mesh was able to withstand a maximum water pressure of 2,459.8 Pa. The measured height of ZnO nanowire was approximately 2-3 µm. The fabricated SUS mesh covered with ZnO nanowire has been assembled with a microphone package, and waterproof characteristics have been measured by cyclic dipping test at various water levels. For a microphone package having two acoustic ports on top and bottom covered with fabricated mesh, no visible change in acoustic characteristics has been observed up to 1,372.9 Pa of water pressure. Total volume of the package was 6.8 × 9.8 × 1.9 mm3.

  2. Analysis of yellow ``fat'' deposits on Inuit boots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Howell G. M.; Stern, Ben; Burgio, Lucia; Kite, Marion

    2009-08-01

    Irregular residues of a yellow deposit that was assumed to be seal fat used for waterproofing were observed in the creases of the outer surface of a pair of Inuit boots from Arctic Canada. A sample of this deposit detached from one of these areas on these boots was examined initially by FT-Raman microscopy, from which interesting and rather surprising results demanded further analysis using FT-IR and GC-MS. The non-destructive Raman spectroscopic analysis yielded spectra which indicated the presence of a tree resin from the Pinaceae sp. The Raman spectra were also characteristic of a well-preserved keratotic protein and indicative of adherent skin. Subsequent FT-IR spectroscopic analysis supported the attribution of a Pinaceae resin to the yellow deposit. GC-MS analysis of the same deposits identified the presence of pimaric, sandaracopimaric, dehydroabietic and abietic acids, all indicative of an aged Pinaceae resin. These results confirmed that the Inuit people had access to tree resins which they probably used as a waterproofing agent.

  3. A Wireless EEG Recording Method for Rat Use inside the Water Maze.

    PubMed

    Pinnell, Richard C; Almajidy, Rand K; Kirch, Robert D; Cassel, Jean C; Hofmann, Ulrich G

    2016-01-01

    With the continued miniaturisation of portable embedded systems, wireless EEG recording techniques are becoming increasingly prevalent in animal behavioural research. However, in spite of their versatility and portability, they have seldom been used inside water-maze tasks designed for rats. As such, a novel 3D printed implant and waterproof connector is presented, which can facilitate wireless water-maze EEG recordings in freely-moving rats, using a commercial wireless recording system (W32; Multichannel Systems). As well as waterproofing the wireless system, battery, and electrode connector, the implant serves to reduce movement-related artefacts by redistributing movement-related forces away from the electrode connector. This implant/connector was able to successfully record high-quality LFP in the hippocampo-striatal brain regions of rats as they undertook a procedural-learning variant of the double-H water-maze task. Notably, there were no significant performance deficits through its use when compared with a control group across a number of metrics including number of errors and speed of task completion. Taken together, this method can expand the range of measurements that are currently possible in this diverse area of behavioural neuroscience, whilst paving the way for integration with more complex behaviours.

  4. An instrument for measuring bacterial penetration through fabrics used for barrier clothing.

    PubMed Central

    Ransjö, U.; Hambraeus, A.

    1979-01-01

    A new instrument has been designed to measure the penetration by rubbing of bacteria from cloth contaminated in the nursing of burn patients through fabrics designed for barrier garments. Most fabrics tested dry reduced the transfer of bacteria from the source cloth to about 10%, irrespective of the results of air filter tests, which agrees with mock nursing results. When the fabrics were tested against a wet surface, the transfer of bacteria rapidly reached 100% if the fabrics had a high wettability, but was slower for fabrics with a low wettability. Through closely woven waterproofed cotton, transfer was 5--25%, but increased three- to four-fold after ten launderings, in line with the water absorption. Transfer through plastic-laminated material was less than 1%. The results suggest that barrier garments should be made either of plastic or of recently waterproofed closely woven cotton at points of contact between nurse and patient where the clothes may be wetted by bacteria-containing wound secretions. Images Plate 1 PMID:376694

  5. An instrument for measuring bacterial penetration through fabrics used for barrier clothing.

    PubMed

    Ransjö, U; Hambraeus, A

    1979-06-01

    A new instrument has been designed to measure the penetration by rubbing of bacteria from cloth contaminated in the nursing of burn patients through fabrics designed for barrier garments. Most fabrics tested dry reduced the transfer of bacteria from the source cloth to about 10%, irrespective of the results of air filter tests, which agrees with mock nursing results. When the fabrics were tested against a wet surface, the transfer of bacteria rapidly reached 100% if the fabrics had a high wettability, but was slower for fabrics with a low wettability. Through closely woven waterproofed cotton, transfer was 5--25%, but increased three- to four-fold after ten launderings, in line with the water absorption. Transfer through plastic-laminated material was less than 1%. The results suggest that barrier garments should be made either of plastic or of recently waterproofed closely woven cotton at points of contact between nurse and patient where the clothes may be wetted by bacteria-containing wound secretions.

  6. Radiation induced changes in the cuticular hydrocarbons of the granary weevil and their relationships to desiccation and adult mortality: Annual progress report, February 15, 1987 to February 14, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Sriharan, S.

    1988-03-14

    Sitophilus granarius (L) is a major pest of stroed grains and is prone to irradiation treatment. There is considerable scope for use of radiation like Cesium-137 (as a source) as an alternative to chemical treatment for pest control. Study with regard to radiation damage and the effect of environmental factors like temperature and humidity on adult weevil mortality due to radiation effect is limited. Stored-grain insects live in an enviroment where liquid water is seldom available. Waterproofing and conservation of water by the insects is a critical factor for weevil survival. In some insects it has been noted that the rate of water loss through the integument has been associated with changes in the hydrocarbon composition of the epicuticle. Epicuticular hydrocarbons play an important role in preventing desiccation. Information on the effects of irradiation on epicuticular hydrocarbon of the adult weevils is limited. The present investigation sudies the after effects of radiation damage to granary weevil (Sitophilus granarius (L.) in terms of causing increased water loss from the body, weevil nortality and concommitant changes, if any, in the cuticular hydrocarbons that waterproof the insect. 23 refs., 22 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. The Ancient Wood of the Acqualadrone Rostrum: A Materials History Through GC-MS and Sulfur X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Patrick; Caruso, Francesco; Caponetti, Eugenio

    2012-01-01

    In 2008 the rostrum from an ancient warship was recovered from the Mediterranean near Acqualadrone, Sicily. To establish its provenance and condition, samples of black and brown rostrum wood were examined using sulfur K-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and GC-MS. GC-MS of pyrolytic volatiles yielded only guaiacyl derivatives, indicating construction from pinewood. A derivatized extract of black wood yielded forms of abietic acid and sandaracopimaric acid consistent with pine pitch waterproofing. Numerical fits to the sulfur K-edge XAS spectra showed that about 65% of the endogenous sulfur consisted of thiols and disulfides. Elemental sulfur was about 2% and 7% in black and brown wood, respectively, while pyritic sulfur was about 12% and 6%. About 2% of the sulfur in both wood types was modeled as trimethylsulfonium, possibly reflecting biogenic dimethylsulfonio-propionate. High valent sulfur was exclusively represented by sulfate esters, consistent with bacterial sulfotransferase activity. Traces of chloride were detected, but no free sulfate ion. In summary, the rostrum was manufactured of pine wood and subsequently waterproofed with pine pitch. The subsequent 2300 years included battle, foundering, and marine burial followed by anoxia, bacterial colonization, sulfate reduction, and mobilization of transition metals, which produced pyrite and copious appended sulfur functionality. PMID:22545724

  8. Stability and reactivity of dimethylethoxysilane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Richard E.; Ford, Douglas I.

    1993-01-01

    The chemistry of the compound dimethylethoxysilane (DMES) is discussed especially as it relates to waterproofing silica surfaces. Some of the desirable properties of this compound are that it readily reacts with silica in the vapor phase, it is a low boiling point liquid (54 C), and the by-product of its reaction with silica is the rather inert substances ethanol. It is currently used by NASA to re-waterproof the HRSI shuttle tiles before relaunching the vehicle. Very little information is available on this particular compound in the literature or even on related silane compounds that have both a hydride group and an alkoxy group. Since the close proximity of two groups often drastically affects the chemical behavior of each group, chemical reactions were carried out in the laboratory with DMES to verify the expected behavior of these two functional groups located on DMES. Some of the reactions tested would be potentially useful for quantitative or qualitative measurements on DMES. To study the reactions of DMES with silica surfaces, cabosil was used as a silica substrate because of its high surface area and the ease of detection by infrared spectroscopy as well as other techniques.

  9. Particle size distribution of aerosols sprayed from household hand-pump sprays containing fluorine-based and silicone-based compounds.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Tsuyoshi; Isama, Kazuo; Ikarashi, Yoshiaki

    2015-01-01

    Japan has published safety guideline on waterproof aerosol sprays. Furthermore, the Aerosol Industry Association of Japan has adopted voluntary regulations on waterproof aerosol sprays. Aerosol particles of diameter less than 10 µm are considered as "fine particles". In order to avoid acute lung injury, this size fraction should account for less than 0.6% of the sprayed aerosol particles. In contrast, the particle size distribution of aerosols released by hand-pump sprays containing fluorine-based or silicone-based compounds have not been investigated in Japan. Thus, the present study investigated the aerosol particle size distribution of 16 household hand-pump sprays. In 4 samples, the ratio of fine particles in aerosols exceeded 0.6%. This study confirmed that several hand-pump sprays available in the Japanese market can spray fine particles. Since the hand-pump sprays use water as a solvent and their ingredients may be more hydrophilic than those of aerosol sprays, the concepts related to the safety of aerosol-sprays do not apply to the hand pump sprays. Therefore, it may be required for the hand-pump spray to develop a suitable method for evaluating the toxicity and to establish the safety guideline.

  10. Sealing ability of MTA used as a root end filling material: effect of the sonic and ultrasonic condensation.

    PubMed

    Bernabé, Pedro Felício Estrada; Gomes-Filho, João Eduardo; Bernabé, Daniel Galera; Nery, Mauro Juvenal; Otoboni-Filho, José Arlindo; Dezan-Jr, Eloi; Cintra, Luciano Tavares Angelo

    2013-01-01

    Despite the excellent properties of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), the condensation technique may have some influence in its sealing ability. The purpose of this study was to compare the sealing ability of sonic and ultrasonic setting of MTA. Thirty-four extracted human teeth had their canals prepared and filled with Sealapex sealer and gutta-percha using the active lateral condensation technique. The teeth were rendered waterproof and apicoectomy performed at 3 mm from the apex. Root-end cavities (3.0 mm deep and 1.4 mm diameter) were prepared with diamond ultrasonic tips. The root-end cavities were filled with Pro-Root MTA® with ultrasonic vibration, sonic vibration or no vibration. The positive control group did not receive any material while the negative control group was totally rendered waterproof. After material set, the specimens were immersed in Rodhamine B for 24 h, under vacuum in the first 15 min, then washed, dried and split longitudinally for evaluating the infiltration at the dentin/material interface. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's tests at 5% significance level. Sonic vibration promoted the lowest infiltration values (p<0.05). It was concluded that sonic vibration could be considered an efficient aid to improve the sealing ability of MTA when used as root-end filling material.

  11. A vision-based tool for the control of hydraulic structures in sewer systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, L.; Sage, D.; Kayal, S.; Jeanbourquin, D.; Rossi, L.

    2009-04-01

    During rain events, the total amount of the wastewater/storm-water mixture cannot be treated in the wastewater treatment plant; the overflowed water goes directly into the environment (lakes, rivers, streams) via devices called combined sewers overflows (CSOs). This water is untreated and is recognized as an important source of pollution. In most cases, the quantity of overflowed water is unknown due to high hydraulic turbulences during rain events; this quantity is often significant. For this reason, the monitoring of the water flow and the water level is of crucial environmental importance. Robust monitoring of sewer systems is a challenging task to achieve. Indeed, the environment inside sewers systems is inherently harsh and hostile: constant humidity of 100%, fast and large water level changes, corrosive atmosphere, presence of gas, difficult access, solid debris inside the flow. A flow monitoring based on traditional probes placed inside the water (such as Doppler flow meter) is difficult to conduct because of the solid material transported by the flow. Probes placed outside the flow such as ultrasonic water level probes are often used; however the measurement is generally done on only one particular point. Experience has shown that the water level in CSOs during rain events is far from being constant due to hydraulic turbulences. Thus, such probes output uncertain information. Moreover, a check of the data reliability is impossible to achieve. The HydroPix system proposes a novel approach to the monitoring of sewers based on video images, without contact with the water flow. The goal of this system is to provide a monitoring tool for wastewater system managers (end-users). The hardware was chosen in order to suit the harsh conditions of sewers system: Cameras are 100% waterproof and corrosion-resistant; Infra-red LED illumination systems are used (waterproof, low power consumption); A waterproof case contains the registration and communication system. The

  12. Moisture Transport Through Sprayed Concrete Tunnel Linings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holter, Karl Gunnar; Geving, Stig

    2016-01-01

    Waterproofing of permanent sprayed concrete tunnel linings with sprayed membranes in a continuous sandwich structure has been attempted since 2000 and has seen increased use in some countries. The main function of a sprayed membrane from a waterproofing perspective is to provide crack bridging and hence prevent flow of liquid water into the tunnel through cracks and imperfections in the concrete material. However, moisture can migrate through the concrete and EVA-based membrane materials by capillary and vapor diffusion mechanisms. These moisture transport mechanisms can have an influence on the degree of saturation, and may influence the pore pressures in the concrete material as well as risk of freeze-thaw damage of the concrete and membrane. The paper describes a detailed study of moisture transport material parameters, moisture condition in tunnel linings and climatic conditions tunnels in hard rock in Norway. These data have been included in a hygrothermal simulation model in the software WUFI for moisture transport to substantiate moisture transport and long-term effects on saturation of the concrete and membrane material. The findings suggest that EVA-based membranes exhibit significant water absorption and vapor transport properties although they are impermeable to liquid water flow. State-of-the-art sprayed concrete material applied with the wet mix method exhibits very low hydraulic conductivities, lower than 10-14 m/s, thus saturated conductive water flow is a very unlikely dominant transport mechanism. Moisture transport through the lining structure by capillary flow and vapor diffusion are calculated to approximately 3 cm3/m2 per day for lining thicknesses in the range of 25-35 cm and seasonal Nordic climate variations. The calculated moisture contents in the tunnel linings from the hygrothermal simulations are largely in agreement with the measured moisture contents in the tunnel linings. The findings also indicate that the concrete material exhibits

  13. Rad Pole Cam Development

    SciTech Connect

    Heckendorn, F. M.; Odell, D. M. C; Harpring, L. J.; Peterson, K. D.

    2005-10-05

    The RadPoleCam was developed to provide Department Of Energy (DOE) first responders the capability to assess the radiological and visual condition of remote or inaccessible locations. Real time gamma isotopic identification is provided to the first responder in the form of audio feedback (i.e. spoken through head phones) from a gamma detector mounted on a collapsible pole that can extend from 1 to 9 meters (6 to 29 feet). Simultaneously, selectable direct and side looking visual images are provided from the 5cm (2in) diameter, waterproof probe tip. The lightweight, self contained, ruggedized, system will provide a rapidly deployable field system for visual and radiological search and assessment of confined spaces and extended reach locations.

  14. Detail view of the vertical stabilizer of the Orbiter Discovery ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of the vertical stabilizer of the Orbiter Discovery Discovery showing the thermal protection system components with the white Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation (AFSI) Blanket and the black High-temperature Reusable Surface Insulation (HRSI) tiles along the outer edges . The marks seen on the HRSI tiles are injection point marks and holes for the application of waterproofing material. This view also a good detailed view of the two-piece rudder which is used to control the yaw position of orbiter on approach and landing in earth's atmosphere and upon landing the two-piece rudder splays open to both sides of the stabilizer to act as an air brake to help slow the craft to a stop. This view was taken from a service platform in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  15. Detail view of the vertical stabilizer of the Orbiter Discovery ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of the vertical stabilizer of the Orbiter Discovery looking at the two-piece rudder which is used to control the yaw position of orbiter on approach and landing in earth's atmosphere and upon landing the two-piece rudder splays open to both sides of the stabilizer to act as an air brake to help slow the craft to a stop. Note the thermal protection system components with the white Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation Blanket and the black High-temperature Reusable Surface Insulation tiles along the outer edges (HRSI tiles). The marks seen on the HRSI tiles are injection point marks and holes for the application of waterproofing material. This view was taken from a service platform in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  16. Wet-work Exposure: A Main Risk Factor for Occupational Hand Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Behroozy, Ali; Keegel, Tessa G.

    2014-01-01

    Wet-work can be defined as activities where workers have to immerse their hands in liquids for >2 hours per shift, or wear waterproof (occlusive) gloves for a corresponding amount of time, or wash their hands >20 times per shift. This review considers the recent literature on wet-work exposure, and examines wet-work as a main risk factor for developing irritant contact dermatitis of the hands. The aim of this paper is to provide a detailed description of wet-work exposure among specific occupational groups who extensively deal with water and other liquids in their occupations. Furthermore, it highlights the extent and importance of the subsequent adverse health effects caused by exposure to wet-work. PMID:25516808

  17. Method for constructing a lined underground cavity by underreaming, grouting, and boring through the grouting

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, W.H.

    1971-02-02

    A method is described for constructing a lined underground cavity. The process includes the steps of securing a casing in a borehole by grouting, underreaming the casing, filling the underreamed region with additional grouting, and then drilling through and underreaming the added grouting, thereby forming a room having a lining formed of the grouting. By using a structurally strong grouting that is impervious to water, the resulting room is waterproof and is suitable for on-site storage of an atomic device and its associated equipment prior to an underground atomic event. Such cavities also have other uses; for example, the cavities may be made very deep and used for storage of various fluids such as natural gas storage. (5 claims)

  18. Analysis of asphalt-based roof systems using thermal analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Paroli, R.M.; Delgado, A.H.

    1996-12-31

    Asphalt has been used in the construction of roads and houses for thousands of years. The properties of asphalt has rendered it quite useful in roofing and waterproofing applications. The most popular use of asphalt in industrial roofing is in the form of a built-up roof or modified-bituminous sheet. This type of roof consists of asphalt, reinforcement and aggregate which is used to protect the asphalt from ultraviolet rays. All materials have their weaknesses and asphalt is no exception. A good asphalt (e.g., low asphaltene content) must be used to ensure the quality and low-temperature performance of roofing asphalts. Polymer additives can be added. The objective of this work was to demonstrate the utility of termogravimetry and dynamic mechanical analysis in establishing the durability of modified bituminous membranes.

  19. Green Roofs: Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) Federal Technology Alert

    SciTech Connect

    Scholz-Barth, K.; Tanner, S.

    2004-09-01

    In a ''green roof,'' a layer of vegetation (e.g., a roof garden) covers the surface of a roof to provide shade, cooler indoor and outdoor temperatures, and effective storm-water management to reduce runoff. The main components are waterproofing, soil, and plants. There are two basic kinds: intensive and extensive. An intensive green roof often features large shrubs and trees, and it can be expensive to install and maintain. An extensive green roof features shallow soil and low-growing, horizontally spreading plants that can thrive in the alpine conditions of many rooftops. These plants do not require a lot of water or soil, and they can tolerate a significant amount of exposure to the sun and wind. This Federal Technology Alert focuses on the benefits, design, and implementation of extensive green roofs and includes criteria for their use on federal facilities.

  20. Closeup view of the exterior of the starboard side of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the exterior of the starboard side of the forward fuselage of the Orbiter Discovery looking at the forward facing observation windows of the flight deck. Note the High-temperature Reusable Surface Insulation (HRSI) surrounding the window openings, the Low-temperature Reusable Surface Insulation (LRSI) immediately beyond the HRSI tiles and the Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation blankets just beyond the LRSI tiles. The holes in the tiles are injection points for the application of waterproofing material. The windows are composed of redundant pressure window panes of thermal glass. This image was taken from a service platform in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  1. Thermal comfort of diving dry suit with the use of the warp-knitted fabric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenfeldova, I.; Hes, L.; Annayeva, M.

    2016-07-01

    Achievement of a good level of thermal comfort of under-suits for dry suit diving which enable also the required mobility of the diver in water is inevitable not only for the scuba sport and commercial diving people but also for safety and activities of people who make research under water. The aim of this work is to verify whether selected knitted structures (which are not waterproof) can substitute the currently used textile materials (nonwovens). This dry-suit innovation is intended to increase the properties which correspond to the perception of thermal comfort of the diver in water. To achieve this objective, the Alambeta thermal tester was used in the study for experimental determination of thermal resistance of spacer warp knitted fabric at varying contact pressure. The studied textiles were expected to be very suitable for the intended application due to their low compressibility which yields relatively high thickness a hence increased thermal insulation.

  2. A new method for obtaining electrocardiograms in unrestrained crocodilian reptiles.

    PubMed

    Phelps, R L; Gatten, R E; Mosberg, A T

    1992-02-01

    A new procedure is described for acquiring measurements of electrocardiographic parameters in unrestrained crocodilians. These measurements are difficult to obtain in freely moving animals; hence, electrocardiographic activity under natural conditions has not been previously quantified. In this investigation, twelve American alligators were equipped with subcutaneous electrodes. The lead wires were sutured to each animal's skin and the extracutaneous wires coiled and held in place against the animals' dorsal surfaces with waterproof elastic bandages. The electrodes were connected to an ECG analyzer only at the time of measurement. The presence of the leads and harness did not appear to interfere with the movements of the animals either in the animal room or during testing. This method allows for more precise measurements of cardiac activity under conditions which closely resemble those of crocodilians in their natural state.

  3. Director's Discretionary Fund Report for Fiscal Year 1996

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Topics covered include: Waterproofing the Space Shuttle tiles, thermal protection system for Reusable Launch Vehicles, computer modeling of the thermal conductivity of cometary ice, effects of ozone depletion and ultraviolet radiation on plants, a novel telemetric biosensor to monitor blood pH on-line, ion mobility in polymer electrolytes for lithium-polymer batteries, a microwave-pumped far infrared photoconductor, and a new method for measuring cloud liquid vapor using near infrared remote sensing. Also included: laser-spectroscopic instrument for turbulence measurement, remote sensing of aircraft contrails using a field portable imaging interferometer, development of a silicon-micromachined gas chromatography system for determination of planetary surface composition, planar Doppler velocimetry, chaos in interstellar chemistry, and a limited pressure cycle engine for high-speed output.

  4. Integrated residential photovoltaic array development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepard, N. F., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Three basic module design concepts were analyzed with respect to both production and installation costs. The results of this evaluation were used to synthesize a fourth design which incorporates the best features of these initial concepts to produce a module/array design approach which offers the promise of a substantial reduction in the installed cost of a residential array. A unique waterproofing and mounting scheme was used to reduce the cost of installing an integral array while still maintaining a high probability that the installed array will be watertight for the design lifetime of the system. This recommended concept will also permit the array to be mounted as a direct or stand-off installation with no changes to the module design.

  5. Thermotriggered Catalyst-Free Modification of a Glass Surface with an Orthogonal Agent Possessing Nitrile N-Oxide and Masked Ketene Functions.

    PubMed

    Cheawchan, Sumitra; Uchida, Satoshi; Sogawa, Hiromitsu; Koyama, Yasuhito; Takata, Toshikazu

    2016-01-12

    The thermotriggered modification of surfaces was performed under catalyst-free conditions using an orthogonal agent possessing both nitrile N-oxide and Meldrum's acid moieties. The nitrile N-oxide moiety of the orthogonal agent successfully underwent catalyst-free 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition to unsaturated bonds of glass surfaces to produce Meldrum's acid-functionalized surfaces. The subsequent thermal decomposition of Meldrum's acid moiety in the presence of nucleophiles afforded versatile nucleophile-modified surfaces (e.g., wet, waterproof, and photoactive surfaces). Surface characteristics were investigated with the water contact angle, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). In addition, the surface modification of silica nanoparticles using the orthogonal agent was also achieved to evaluate the density of the functional group concentration on the surface.

  6. Invisible photonic printing: computer designing graphics, UV printing and shown by a magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Hu, Haibo; Tang, Jian; Zhong, Hao; Xi, Zheng; Chen, Changle; Chen, Qianwang

    2013-01-01

    Invisible photonic printing, an emerging printing technique, is particularly useful for steganography and watermarking for anti-counterfeiting purposes. However, many challenges exist in order to realize this technique. Herein, we describe a novel photonic printing strategy targeting to overcome these challenges and realize fast and convenient fabrication of invisible photonic prints with good tenability and reproducibility. With this novel photonic printing technique, a variety of graphics with brilliant colors can be perfectly hidden in a soft and waterproof photonic-paper. The showing and hiding of the latent photonic prints are instantaneous with magnet as the only required instrument. In addition, this strategy has excellent practicality and allows end-user control of the structural design utilizing simple software on a PC.

  7. Fish-inspired robots: design, sensing, actuation, and autonomy--a review of research.

    PubMed

    Raj, Aditi; Thakur, Atul

    2016-04-13

    Underwater robot designs inspired by the behavior, physiology, and anatomy of fishes can provide enhanced maneuverability, stealth, and energy efficiency. Over the last two decades, robotics researchers have developed and reported a large variety of fish-inspired robot designs. The purpose of this review is to report different types of fish-inspired robot designs based upon their intended locomotion patterns. We present a detailed comparison of various design features like sensing, actuation, autonomy, waterproofing, and morphological structure of fish-inspired robots reported in the past decade. We believe that by studying the existing robots, future designers will be able to create new designs by adopting features from the successful robots. The review also summarizes the open research issues that need to be taken up for the further advancement of the field and also for the deployment of fish-inspired robots in practice.

  8. The NAVI-2: A ruggedized portable radiation analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, W.S.; Butterfield, K.B.; Frankle, C.M.

    1996-01-01

    The NAVI-2 is a rugged, lightweight, and waterproof portable radiation analyzer developed by the Advanced Nuclear Technology group at Los Alamos National Laboratory. It was originally developed for a specific application: performing confirmatory measurements on plutonium removed from dismantled nuclear weapons as part of the O`Leary-Mikhailov mutual reciprocal inspections agreement. Since that time the hardware has stabilized into a mature package while several additional software packages have been developed. Now, in addition to the original software for performing confirmatory measurements, software is available that will allow the NAVI-2 to be used for scanning of extended sources, searching for hidden sources, and monitoring of items in a portal monitoring sense. This report will provide hardware and software details for owners and users of the NAVI-2.

  9. Kitchen Physics: Lessons in Fluid Pressure and Error Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieyra, Rebecca Elizabeth; Vieyra, Chrystian; Macchia, Stefano

    2017-02-01

    Although the advent and popularization of the "flipped classroom" tends to center around at-home video lectures, teachers are increasingly turning to at-home labs for enhanced student engagement. This paper describes two simple at-home experiments that can be accomplished in the kitchen. The first experiment analyzes the density of four liquids using a waterproof case and a smartphone barometer in a container, sink, or tub. The second experiment determines the relationship between pressure and temperature of an ideal gas in a constant volume container placed momentarily in a refrigerator freezer. These experiences provide a ripe opportunity both for learning fundamental physics concepts as well as to investigate a variety of error analysis techniques that are frequently overlooked in introductory physics courses.

  10. Underwater manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Schrum, P.B.; Cohen, G.H.

    1993-04-20

    Self-contained, waterproof, water-submersible, remote-controlled apparatus is described for manipulating a device, such as an ultrasonic transducer for measuring crack propagation on an underwater specimen undergoing shock testing. The subject manipulator includes metal bellows for transmittal of angular motions without the use of rotating shaft seals or O-rings. Inside the manipulator, a first stepper motor controls angular movement. In the preferred embodiment, the bellows permit the first stepper motor to move an ultrasonic transducer [plus minus]45 degrees in a first plane and a second bellows permit a second stepper motor to move the transducer [plus minus]10 degrees in a second plane orthogonal to the first. In addition, an XY motor-driven table provides XY motion.

  11. Modular, multi-level groundwater sampler

    DOEpatents

    Nichols, Ralph L.; Widdowson, Mark A.; Mullinex, Harry; Orne, William H.; Looney, Brian B.

    1994-01-01

    Apparatus for taking a multiple of samples of groundwater or pressure measurements from a well simultaneously. The apparatus comprises a series of chambers arranged in an axial array, each of which is dimensioned to fit into a perforated well casing and leave a small gap between the well casing and the exterior of the chamber. Seals at each end of the container define the limits to the axial portion of the well to be sampled. A submersible pump in each chamber pumps the groundwater that passes through the well casing perforations into the gap from the gap to the surface for analysis. The power lines and hoses for the chambers farther down the array pass through each chamber above them in the array. The seals are solid, water-proof, non-reactive, resilient disks supported to engage the inside surface of the well casing. Because of the modular design, the apparatus provides flexibility for use in a variety of well configurations.

  12. Underwater manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Schrum, Phillip B.; Cohen, George H.

    1993-01-01

    Self-contained, waterproof, water-submersible, remote-controlled apparatus is provided for manipulating a device, such as an ultrasonic transducer for measuring crack propagation on an underwater specimen undergoing shock testing. The subject manipulator includes metal bellows for transmittal of angular motions without the use of rotating shaft seals or O-rings. Inside the manipulator, a first stepper motor controls angular movement. In the preferred embodiment, the bellows permit the first stepper motor to move an ultrasonic transducer .+-.45 degrees in a first plane and a second bellows permit a second stepper motor to move the transducer .+-.10 degrees in a second plane orthogonal to the first. In addition, an XY motor-driven table provides XY motion.

  13. Underwater manipulator

    SciTech Connect

    Schrum, P.B.; Cohen, G.H.

    1992-12-31

    This invention is comprised of a self-contained, waterproof, water-submersible, remote-controlled apparatus provided for manipulating a device, such as an ultrasonic transducer for measuring crack propagation on an underwater specimen undergoing shock testing. The subject manipulator includes metal bellows for transmittal of angular motions without the use of rotating shaft seals or O-rings. Inside the manipulator, a first stepper motor controls angular movement. In the preferred embodiment, the bellows permit the first stepper motor to move an ultrasonic transducer {plus_minus} 45 degrees in a first plane and a second bellows permit a second stepper motor to move the transducer {plus_minus} 10 degrees in a second plane orthogonal to the first. In addition, an XY motor-driven table provides XY motion.

  14. A novel wearable apnea dive computer for continuous plethysmographic monitoring of oxygen saturation and heart rate.

    PubMed

    Kuch, Benjamin; Koss, Bernhard; Dujic, Zeljko; Buttazzo, Giorgio; Sieber, Arne

    2010-03-01

    We describe the development of a novel wrist-mounted apnea dive computer. The device is able to measure and display transcutaneous oxygen saturation, heart rate, plethysmographic pulse waveform, depth, time and temperature during breath-hold dives. All measurements are stored in an external memory chip. The data-processing software reads from the chip and writes the processed data into a comma-separated values file which can be analysed by applications such as Microsoft Excel™ or Open Office™. The housing is waterproof and pressure-resistant to more than 20 bar (2.026 MPa) (breath-hold divers have already exceeded 200 metres' sea water depth). It is compact, lightweight, has low power requirements and is easy to use.

  15. Micro/Nanostructured Films and Adhesives for Biomedical Applications.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jungkyu K; Kang, Sung Min; Yang, Sung Ho; Cho, Woo Kyung

    2015-12-01

    The advanced technologies available for micro/nanofabrication have opened new avenues for interdisciplinary approaches to solve the unmet medical needs of regenerative medicine and biomedical devices. This review highlights the recent developments in micro/nanostructured adhesives and films for biomedical applications, including waterproof seals for wounds or surgery sites, drug delivery, sensing human body signals, and optical imaging of human tissues. We describe in detail the fabrication processes required to prepare the adhesives and films, such as tape-based adhesives, nanofilms, and flexible and stretchable film-based electronic devices. We also discuss their biomedical functions, performance in vitro and in vivo, and the future research needed to improve the current systems.

  16. NuFab{trademark} anti-contamination suit - OST reference No. 1855. Deactivation and decommissioning focus area

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    Radiation workers at all US Department of Energy (DOE) sites require some form of protective clothing when performing radiological work. A large number of contaminated facilities at DOE site are currently or will eventually undergo some form of decontamination and decommissioning (D&D), requiring some type of protective clothing, often in multiple layers. Protective clothing that does not allow perspiration to escape causes heat stress, which lowers worker comfort and productivity. This report describes the NuFab{trademark} anti-contamination. The suit is a one-piece, disposable, breathable, waterproof coverall with a single front zipper. Constructed of tri-laminated composite material using spun-bonded polypropylene and microporous film layers, the suit is certified as incineratorable.

  17. A Flexible Ultrasound Transducer Array with Micro-Machined Bulk PZT

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhe; Xue, Qing-Tang; Chen, Yuan-Quan; Shu, Yi; Tian, He; Yang, Yi; Xie, Dan; Luo, Jian-Wen; Ren, Tian-Ling

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel flexible piezoelectric micro-machined ultrasound transducer, which is based on PZT and a polyimide substrate. The transducer is made on the polyimide substrate and packaged with medical polydimethylsiloxane. Instead of etching the PZT ceramic, this paper proposes a method of putting diced PZT blocks into holes on the polyimide which are pre-etched. The device works in d31 mode and the electromechanical coupling factor is 22.25%. Its flexibility, good conformal contacting with skin surfaces and proper resonant frequency make the device suitable for heart imaging. The flexible packaging ultrasound transducer also has a good waterproof performance after hundreds of ultrasonic electric tests in water. It is a promising ultrasound transducer and will be an effective supplementary ultrasound imaging method in the practical applications. PMID:25625905

  18. The Use of Basalt, Basalt Fibers and Modified Graphite for Nuclear Waste Repository - 12150

    SciTech Connect

    Gulik, V.I.; Biland, A.B.

    2012-07-01

    New materials enhancing the isolation of radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel are continuously being developed.. Our research suggests that basalt-based materials, including basalt roving chopped basalt fiber strands, basalt composite rebar and materials based on modified graphite, could be used for enhancing radioactive waste isolation during the storage and disposal phases and maintaining it during a significant portion of the post-closure phase. The basalt vitrification process of nuclear waste is a viable alternative to glass vitrification. Basalt roving, chopped basalt fiber strands and basalt composite rebars can significantly increase the strength and safety characteristics of nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel storages. Materials based on MG are optimal waterproofing materials for nuclear waste containers. (authors)

  19. A new test method for measuring the water vapour permeability of fabrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jianhua; Qian, Xiaoming

    2007-09-01

    The water vapour permeability of textile fabrics is a critical determinant of wearer comfort. Existing test methods are either time consuming or require large amounts of material. A new test apparatus was developed for characterizing the water vapour permeability of fabrics. An aluminium cylinder covered with waterproof and vapour permeable PTFE laminate is used for generating water vapour source on one side of the sample. A dry nitrogen sweep gas stream is used to carry water vapour away. The calculation of the rate of water vapour transmission across the fabric is based on the measurement of the relative humidity of the outgoing nitrogen stream. This new measuring apparatus offers a short test time and calls for a small sample size. The comparison measurements show that the test results correlated well with those obtained from ISO 11092 and ASTM E96. Therefore, this test method provides a new technique to accurately and precisely characterize the water vapour transport properties of fabrics.

  20. Preparation and luminescent properties of lanthanide (Eu3+ and Tb3+) complexes grafted to 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane by covalent bonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenjun; Wang, Haiyan

    2015-12-01

    A novel precursor PMA-Si was synthesized by modifying 1,2,4,5-benzene-tetracarboxylic acid (PMA) with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES). Then the hybrids were prepared by PMA-Si coordinating to lanthanide ions (Eu3+ and Tb3+) in sol-gel process. In order to improve luminescent efficiency, 1,10-Phenanthroline (Phen) was introduced to the system as the second ligand. As-prepared compounds in sol condition were coated on quartz plates to form a layer of thin film, which was different from other similar hybrids. The properties of the hybrids were characterized by FT-IR, fluorescence spectra, TG and SEM. The results showed that the obtained materials enhanced thermal stability, mechanical resistances, waterproofness as well as machining properties.

  1. Inner and outer waste storage vaults with leak-testing accessibility

    SciTech Connect

    Splinter, B.C.

    1985-04-23

    A storage arrangement for waste materials of the type which tend to pollute the environment consists of a waterproof reinforced concrete vault, preferably located underground, and a permanent reinforced concrete storage vault within the underground vault and spaced from the walls thereof by a water lock. Sealed containers filled with chemical or nuclear waste are deposited in the permanent storage vault and sealed therein with bitumen. The underground vault is provided with an access opening to the water lock to enable testing of the water periodically for contamination due to leakage from the permanent storage vault. If no leakage is evident after a predetermined time period has elapsed, the permanent storage vault is removed from the underground vault and shipped to a permanent storage site.

  2. Modular hydrodam: concept definition study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to explore the potential for developing economical new ultra low-head (6 to 10 ft) sites using an innovative concept known as the Modular Hydrodam (MH). This concept combines the benefits of shop fabrication, installation of equipment in truck transportable, waterproof power modules, and prefabricated gate sections that can be located between the power modules. The size and weight of the power module permits it to be fully assembled and checked out in the manufacturer's shop. The module can then be broken down into four pieces and shipped by truck to the site. Once in place, concrete ballast will be added, as necessary, to prevent flotation. The following aspects were investigated: tubular and cross flow turbines; modularized components; the use of a cable support system for horizontal stability of the dam and powerhouse; and construction in the wet as well as in the dry.

  3. Overlays for plain jointed concrete pavements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulden, W.; Brown, D.

    1984-09-01

    This report describes the construction and performance of 4 concrete and 16 asphalt overlay test sections after nine years of traffic. The test sections were placed on I-85 which carries a substantial number of heavy trucks to determine what treatments and overlay type and thickness would give acceptable performance. The concrete overlay sections were placed in 1975 and consisted of 3 inch, 4 1/2 inch, and 6 inch CRC and 6 inch jointed PCC with 15 ft. and 30 ft. joint spacing. The asphalt sections were placed in 1976 with the variables being overlay thickness of 2 inches, 4 inches, and 6 inches and the placement of two geotextiles and strips of a waterproofing membrane for each overlay thickness. An Arkansas base test section was also included in the experiment.

  4. Low-Cost 3D Laser Scanning in Air or Water Using Self-Calibrating Structured Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleier, M.; Nüchter, A.

    2017-02-01

    In-situ calibration of structured light scanners in underwater environments is time-consuming and complicated. This paper presents a self-calibrating line laser scanning system, which enables the creation of dense 3D models with a single fixed camera and a freely moving hand-held cross line laser projector. The proposed approach exploits geometric constraints, such as coplanarities, to recover the depth information and is applicable without any prior knowledge of the position and orientation of the laser projector. By employing an off-the-shelf underwater camera and a waterproof housing with high power line lasers an affordable 3D scanning solution can be built. In experiments the performance of the proposed technique is studied and compared with 3D reconstruction using explicit calibration. We demonstrate that the scanning system can be applied to above-the-water as well as underwater scenes.

  5. Local drainage analyses of the Paducah and Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plants during an extreme storm

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.O.; Wang, J.C.; Lee, D.W.

    1993-11-01

    Local drainage analyses have been performed for the Paducah and Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plants during an extreme storm having an approximate 10,000-yr recurrence interval. This review discusses the methods utilized to accomplish the analyses in accordance with US Department of Energy (DOE) design and evaluation guidelines, and summarizes trends, results, generalizations, and uncertainties applicable to other DOE facilities. Results indicate that some culverts may be undersized, and that the storm sewer system cannot drain the influx of precipitation from the base of buildings. Roofs have not been designed to sustain ponding when the primary drainage system is clogged. Some underground tunnels, building entrances, and ground level air intakes may require waterproofing.

  6. Methods for characterizing subsurface volatile contaminants using in-situ sensors

    DOEpatents

    Ho, Clifford K.

    2006-02-21

    An inverse analysis method for characterizing diffusion of vapor from an underground source of volatile contaminant using data taken by an in-situ sensor. The method uses one-dimensional solutions to the diffusion equation in Cartesian, cylindrical, or spherical coordinates for isotropic and homogenous media. If the effective vapor diffusion coefficient is known, then the distance from the source to the in-situ sensor can be estimated by comparing the shape of the predicted time-dependent vapor concentration response curve to the measured response curve. Alternatively, if the source distance is known, then the effective vapor diffusion coefficient can be estimated using the same inverse analysis method. A triangulation technique can be used with multiple sensors to locate the source in two or three dimensions. The in-situ sensor can contain one or more chemiresistor elements housed in a waterproof enclosure with a gas permeable membrane.

  7. Invisible photonic printing: computer designing graphics, UV printing and shown by a magnetic field

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Haibo; Tang, Jian; Zhong, Hao; Xi, Zheng; Chen, Changle; Chen, Qianwang

    2013-01-01

    Invisible photonic printing, an emerging printing technique, is particularly useful for steganography and watermarking for anti-counterfeiting purposes. However, many challenges exist in order to realize this technique. Herein, we describe a novel photonic printing strategy targeting to overcome these challenges and realize fast and convenient fabrication of invisible photonic prints with good tenability and reproducibility. With this novel photonic printing technique, a variety of graphics with brilliant colors can be perfectly hidden in a soft and waterproof photonic-paper. The showing and hiding of the latent photonic prints are instantaneous with magnet as the only required instrument. In addition, this strategy has excellent practicality and allows end-user control of the structural design utilizing simple software on a PC. PMID:23508071

  8. Development of an outdoor MRI system for measuring flow in a living tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagata, Akiyoshi; Kose, Katsumi; Terada, Yasuhiko

    2016-04-01

    An outdoor MRI system for noninvasive, long-term measurements of sap flow in a living tree in its natural environment has been developed. An open-access, 0.2 T permanent magnet with a 160 mm gap was combined with a radiofrequency probe, planar gradient coils, electromagnetic shielding, several electrical units, and a waterproofing box. Two-dimensional cross-sectional images were acquired for a ring-porous tree, and the anatomical structures, including xylem and phloem, were identified. The MRI flow measurements demonstrated the diurnal changes in flow velocity in the stem on a per-pixel basis. These results demonstrate that our outdoor MRI system is a powerful tool for studies of water transport in outdoor trees.

  9. Wearable Health Monitoring Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, John

    2015-01-01

    The shrinking size and weight of electronic circuitry has given rise to a new generation of smart clothing that enables biological data to be measured and transmitted. As the variation in the number and type of deployable devices and sensors increases, technology must allow their seamless integration so they can be electrically powered, operated, and recharged over a digital pathway. Nyx Illuminated Clothing Company has developed a lightweight health monitoring system that integrates medical sensors, electrodes, electrical connections, circuits, and a power supply into a single wearable assembly. The system is comfortable, bendable in three dimensions, durable, waterproof, and washable. The innovation will allow astronaut health monitoring in a variety of real-time scenarios, with data stored in digital memory for later use in a medical database. Potential commercial uses are numerous, as the technology enables medical personnel to noninvasively monitor patient vital signs in a multitude of health care settings and applications.

  10. [Groundwater].

    PubMed

    González De Posada, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    From the perspective of Hydrogeology, the concept and an introductory general typology of groundwater are established. From the perspective of Geotechnical Engineering works, the physical and mathematical equations of the hydraulics of permeable materials, which are implemented, by electric analogical simulation, to two unique cases of global importance, are considered: the bailing during the construction of the dry dock of the "new shipyard of the Bahia de Cádiz" and the waterproofing of the "Hatillo dam" in the Dominican Republic. From a physical fundamental perspective, the theories which are the subset of "analogical physical theories of Fourier type transport" are related, among which the one constituted by the laws of Adolf Fick in physiology occupies a historic role of some relevance. And finally, as a philosophical abstraction of so much useful mathematical process, the one which is called "the Galilean principle of the mathematical design of the Nature" is dealt with.

  11. Characterization by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of diterpenoid resinous materials in Roman-age amphorae from northern Greece.

    PubMed

    Dimitrakoudi, Evagelia A; Mitkidou, Sofia A; Urem-Kotsou, Dushka; Kotsakis, Kostas; Stephanidou-Stephanatou, Julia; Stratis, John A

    2011-01-01

    A combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry approach has been used for the characterization of two lumps of resin and 17 adsorbed residues on Roman-age vessels, mainly amphorae, from northern Greece. The data show that a diterpenic resin from plants of the Pinacae family is the main component of the tarry material associated with the analyzed archaeological samples. The identification and mass spectrometric fragmentation of several characteristic diterpenoid biomarkers is discussed. The abundance of secondary products identified in the archaeological samples suggests that the oxidative degradation of abietic acid and dehydroabietic acid to aromatic products was the main pathway. Of particular interest is the presence of characteristic saturated abietane hydrocarbons in one sample, which indicate that a reductive process also occurred on a small scale. The overall similarity in the composition of the residues suggests the common use of pine tar as a waterproofing and sealing agent at different sites in northern Greece during the Roman period.

  12. Fabrication of cotton fabric with superhydrophobicity and flame retardancy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming; Wang, Chengyu

    2013-07-25

    A simple and facile method for fabricating the cotton fabric with superhydrophobicity and flame retardancy is described in the present work. The cotton fabric with the maximal WCA of 160° has been prepared by the covalent deposition of amino-silica nanospheres and the further graft with (heptadecafluoro-1,1,2,2-tetradecyl) trimethoxysilane. The geometric microstructure of silica spheres was measured by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The cotton textiles before and after treatment were characterized by using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The wetting behavior of cotton samples was investigated by water contact angle measurement. Moreover, diverse performances of superhydrophobic cotton textiles have been evaluated as well. The results exhibited the outstanding superhydrophobicity, excellent waterproofing durability and flame retardancy of the cotton fabric after treatment, offering a good opportunity to accelerate the large-scale production of superhydrophobic textiles materials for new industrial applications.

  13. Phosphor coated NiO-based planar inverted organometallic halide perovskite solar cells with enhanced efficiency and stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Jin; Li, Pengfei; Chen, Zhifan; Cao, Kun; Li, Dan; Han, Junbo; Shen, Yan; Peng, Mingying; Fu, Yong Qing; Wang, Mingkui

    2016-10-01

    This work investigates non-rare-earth phosphor (Sr4Al14O25:Mn4+, 0.5%Mg) with intensively red luminescence as a luminescent down-shifting layer for perovskite solar cells. The power conversion efficiency of the fabricated device with a structure of NiO/CH3NH3PbI3/[6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester/Au coated with phosphor layer shows a 10% increase as compared with that of the control devices. Importantly, the phosphor layer coating can realize UV-protection as well as waterproof capability, achieving a reduced moisture-degradation of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite upon applying an UV irradiation. Therefore, perovskite devices using this luminescent coating show a combined enhancement in both UV down-shifting conversion and long term stability. This can be expanded as a promising encapsulation technique in the perovskite solar cell community.

  14. Development of strain gages for use to 1311 K (1900 F)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemcoe, M. M.

    1974-01-01

    A high temperature electric resistance strain gage system was developed and evaluated to 1366 K (2000 F) for periods of at least one hour. Wire fabricated from a special high temperature strain gage alloy (BCL-3), was used to fabricate the gages. Various joining techniques (NASA butt welding, pulse arc, plasma needle arc, and dc parallel gap welding) were investigated for joining gage filaments to each other, gage filaments to lead-tab ribbons, and lead-tab ribbons to lead wires. The effectiveness of a clad-wire concept as a means of minimizing apparent strain of BCL-3 strain gages was investigated by sputtering platinum coatings of varying thicknesses on wire samples and establishing the optimum coating thickness--in terms of minimum resistivity changes with temperature. Finally, the moisture-proofing effectiveness of barrier coatings subjected to elevated temperatures was studied, and one commercial barrier coating (BLH Barrier H Waterproofing) was evaluated.

  15. Pelletizing/reslurrying as a means of distributing and firing clean coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Conkle, H.N.

    1992-09-29

    Battelle-Columbus and Amax Research & Development conducted a program to develop a process to transport, handle, store, and utilize ultra-fine, ultra-clean (UFUC) coals. The primary objective was to devise a cost-effective method, based on conventional pelletization techniques, to transform the sludge-like filter cake produced in advanced flotation cleaning processes into a product which could be used like lump coal. A secondary objective was the production of a pellet which could be readily converted into a coal water fuel (CWF) because the UFUC coal would ultimately be used as CWF. The resulting product would be a hard, waterproof pellet which could be easily reduced to small particle sizes and formulated with water into a liquid fuel.

  16. Pelletizing/reslurrying as a means of distributing and firing clean coal

    SciTech Connect

    Conkle, H.N.

    1992-09-29

    Battelle-Columbus and Amax Research Development conducted a program to develop a process to transport, handle, store, and utilize ultra-fine, ultra-clean (UFUC) coals. The primary objective was to devise a cost-effective method, based on conventional pelletization techniques, to transform the sludge-like filter cake produced in advanced flotation cleaning processes into a product which could be used like lump coal. A secondary objective was the production of a pellet which could be readily converted into a coal water fuel (CWF) because the UFUC coal would ultimately be used as CWF. The resulting product would be a hard, waterproof pellet which could be easily reduced to small particle sizes and formulated with water into a liquid fuel.

  17. Bioengineering a 3D integumentary organ system from iPS cells using an in vivo transplantation model.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Ryoji; Ishimaru, Junko; Sugawara, Ayaka; Toyoshima, Koh-Ei; Ishida, Kentaro; Ogawa, Miho; Sakakibara, Kei; Asakawa, Kyosuke; Kashiwakura, Akitoshi; Oshima, Masamitsu; Minamide, Ryohei; Sato, Akio; Yoshitake, Toshihiro; Takeda, Akira; Egusa, Hiroshi; Tsuji, Takashi

    2016-04-01

    The integumentary organ system is a complex system that plays important roles in waterproofing, cushioning, protecting deeper tissues, excreting waste, and thermoregulation. We developed a novel in vivo transplantation model designated as a clustering-dependent embryoid body transplantation method and generated a bioengineered three-dimensional (3D) integumentary organ system, including appendage organs such as hair follicles and sebaceous glands, from induced pluripotent stem cells. This bioengineered 3D integumentary organ system was fully functional following transplantation into nude mice and could be properly connected to surrounding host tissues, such as the epidermis, arrector pili muscles, and nerve fibers, without tumorigenesis. The bioengineered hair follicles in the 3D integumentary organ system also showed proper hair eruption and hair cycles, including the rearrangement of follicular stem cells and their niches. Potential applications of the 3D integumentary organ system include an in vitro assay system, an animal model alternative, and a bioengineered organ replacement therapy.

  18. Electrostatic Spraying With Conductive Liquids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosmo, Joseph J.; Dawn, Frederic S.; Erlandson, Robert E.; Atkins, Loren E.

    1989-01-01

    Thin, uniform polymer coatings applied in water base normally impossible to charge. Electrostatic sprayer modified so applies coatings suspended or dissolved in electrically conductive liquids. Nozzle and gun constructed of nonconductive molded plastic. Liquid passageway made long enough electrical leakage through it low. Coaxial hose for liquid built of polytetrafluoroethylene tube, insulating sleeve, and polyurethane jacket. Sprayer provided with insulated seal at gun-to-hose connection, nonconductive airhose, pressure tank electrically isolated from ground, and special nozzle electrode. Supply of atomizing air reduced so particle momentum controlled by electrostatic field more effectively. Developed to apply water-base polyurethane coating to woven, shaped polyester fabric. Coating provides pressure seal for fabric, which is part of spacesuit. Also useful for applying waterproof, decorative, or protective coatings to fabrics for use on Earth.

  19. Preparation of microstructure-controllable superhydrophobic polytetrafluoroethylene porous thin film by vacuum thermal-evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Na; Bao, Shanhu; Zhou, Huaijuan; Xin, Yunchuan; Huang, Aibin; Ma, Yining; Li, Rong; Jin, Ping

    2016-09-01

    The three-dimensional porous network polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) thin films were achieved by a vacuum technique through evaporating the pure PTFE powders. The surfaces of PTFE thin films showed various morphologies by adjusting the evaporation temperature and the corresponding contact angle ranging from 133° to 155°. Further analyses of surface chemical composition and morphology by FTIR and FE-SEM revealed that the origin of hydrophobicity for the PTFE thin films could be ascribed to the fluorine-containing groups and the surface morphologies, indicating that abundant -CF2 groups and network structures with appropriate pore sizes played a vital role in superhydrophobicity. By characterization of UV-Vis, the films also showed high transmittance and antireflection effect. The films prepared by this simple method have potential applications such as waterproof membrane and self-cleaning coating.

  20. Integrated residential photovoltaic array development. Quarterly report No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Shepard, N.F. Jr.

    1981-05-18

    The results of a selection process to define the conceptual design of an optimum integrated residential photovoltaic module array are discussed. Three basic module design concepts have been analyzed with respect to both production and installation costs. The results of this evaluation have been used to synthesize a fourth design which incorporates the best features of these initial concepts to produce a module/array design approach which offers the promise of a substantial reduction in the installed cost of a residential array. A unique waterproofing and mounting scheme has been used to reduce the cost of installing an integral array while still maintaining a high probability that the installed array will be watertight for the design lifetime of the system. This recommended concept will also permit the array to be mounted as a direct or stand-off installation with no changes to the module design.

  1. Development of Heat-resistant XLPE Cable and Accessories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Hiroyuki; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Murata, Yoshinao; Kishi, Kouji; Katakai, Shoshi

    We have developed heat-resistant XLPE cable and accessories that can be operated at 105°C as the maximum permissible conductor temperature in normal operation. Through this cable system, greater transmission capacity can be achieved using existing cable ducts and without increasing the conductor size of the cable. We have developed heat-resistant XLPE insulation material which has a higher melting point than that of conventional XLPE. The breakdown strength of heat-resistant XLPE cable at 105°C is almost the same as that of conventional XLPE cable at 90°C. The heat deformation of the new cable at 105°C is almost the same as that of conventional XLPE cable at 90°C. Conventional self-pressurized rubber joints can be applied to heat-resistant cable lines with the new waterproof joint compound with low heat resistivity.

  2. The testing of balloon fabrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Junius David; Moore, Irwin L

    1920-01-01

    Report describes methods and materials used in waterproofing and fireproofing airplane fabrics using dopes. The determination of the probable life of a balloon fabric in service by experimental means is of great value in choosing the most suitable fabrics for a given purpose and in pointing the way to improvements in compounding and construction. The usefulness of exposure to the weather for this purpose has been amply demonstrated. Various attempts have been made to reproduce by artificial means the conditions promoting deterioration in service, but without marked success. Exposure to the weather remains the most satisfactory method for this purpose, and a consideration of the characteristics of such tests is therefore important. This report presents the results of a typical series of exposure tests made in 1917.

  3. High-temperature-immersion ultrasonic probe without delay line using PbTiO3/Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 ultrasonic transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kibe, Taiga; Inoue, Takuo; Namihira, Takao; Kobayashi, Makiko

    2015-07-01

    The behavior of a high-temperature-immersion ultrasonic probe without a delay line using a PbTiO3/Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PT/PZT) ultrasonic transducer was investigated empirically. A ∼100-µm-thick PT/PZT film was fabricated on a 200-µm-thick stainless steel substrate. After PT/PZT film fabrication, the substrate was bonded to a stainless steel pipe using a high-temperature waterproof adhesive material. The probe was tested in a water bath from room temperature to 100 °C for system verification. During three thermal cycles, the ultrasonic echoes had a high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and reasonable repeatability. After that, the same probe was verified by testing it in the silicone oil from room temperature to 200 °C. The test was also repeated three times and the probe successfully demonstrated high-temperature durability, a high SNR, and repeatability throughout the experiments.

  4. Moist bacterial strike-through of surgical materials: confirmatory tests.

    PubMed Central

    Laufman, H; Siegal, J D; Edberg, S C

    1979-01-01

    New tests consisting of modifications of the inverted Mason jar test confirm our previously reported studies which showed that woven and nonwoven surgical materials vary greatly in their ability to serve as barriers against moist bacterial strike-through. Among the woven materials, only tightly woven Pima cloth or materials treated with Quarpel waterproofing process or with polythene layer lamination was invariably resistant. However, tight-woven Pima cloth, which had been treated with Quarpel became permeable after 100 washing-sterilizing cycles. Of the nonwoven materials, single-layer nonwoven materials tended to unevenly permeable to moist bacterial strike-through. Only the front and sleeves of nonwoven gowns reinforced with polyethelene layer were invariably resistant to moist contamination. PMID:758867

  5. Development of processing techniques for advanced thermal protection materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selvaduray, Guna S.

    1995-01-01

    The main purpose of this work has been in the development and characterization of materials for high temperature applications. Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) are constantly being tested, and evaluated for increased thermal shock resistance, high temperature dimensional stability, and tolerance to environmental effects. Materials development was carried out through the use of many different instruments and methods, ranging from extensive elemental analysis to physical attributes testing. The six main focus areas include: (1) protective coatings for carbon/carbon composites; (2) TPS material characterization; (3) improved waterproofing for TPS; (4) modified ceramic insulation for bone implants; (5) improved durability ceramic insulation blankets; and (6) ultra-high temperature ceramics. This report describes the progress made in these research areas during this contract period.

  6. Underground coal miners' foot and boot problems.

    PubMed

    Wood, G; Marr, S; Berry, G; Nubé, V; Cole, J

    1999-11-01

    The New South Wales (NSW) Joint Coal Board Health and Safety Trust funded an investigation into foot problems reported by 400 randomly selected underground coal miners from 15 mines in NSW. Miners were interviewed and their responses were entered directly into laptop computers. Digital cameras were also used to take pictures of skin conditions and miners' posture. Observations of the skin results indicate that miners find gumboots to be hot, sweaty and uncomfortable. Skin breakdown and tinea, is frequent and disabling and responsible for absences from the workforce that are costly for both miner and employer. A more comfortable and better designed boot is needed, fabricated in waterproof leather together with socks that 'wick' the moisture away from the foot. Socks worn were of varying components and washed at irregular intervals, indicating a need for regular changes of socks and improved hygiene.

  7. Development of a measurement system for the online inspection of microstructured surfaces in harsh industrial conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Thomas; Langmann, Benjamin; Reithmeier, Eduard

    2014-05-01

    Microscopic imaging techniques are usually applied for the inspection of microstructured surfaces. These techniques require clean measurement conditions. Soilings, e.g. dust or splashing liquids, can disturb the measurement process or even damage instruments. Since these soilings occur in the majority of manufacturing processes, microscopic inspection usually must be carried out in a separate laboratory. We present a measurement system which allows for a microscopic inspection and a 3D reconstruction of microstructured surfaces in harsh industrial conditions. The measurement system also enables precise positioning, e.g. of a grinding wheel, with an accuracy of 5 μm. The main component of the measurement system is a CCD camera with a high-magnification telecentric lens. By means of this camera it is even possible to measure structures with dimensions in the range of 30 to 50 μm. The camera and the lens are integrated into a waterproof and dustproof enclosure. The inspection window of the enclosure has an air curtain which serves as a splash guard. The workpiece illumination is crucial in order to obtain good measurement results. The measuring system includes high-power LEDs which are integrated in a waterproof enclosure. The measurement system also includes a laser with a specially designed lens system to form an extremely narrow light section on the workpiece surface. It is possible to obtain a line width of 25 μm. This line and the camera with the high-magnification telecentric lens are used to perform a laser triangulation of the microstructured surface. This paper describes the system as well as the development and evaluation of the software for the automatic positioning of the workpiece and the automatic three-dimensional surface analysis.

  8. Closed-Hub Systems with Protected Connections and the Reduction of Risk of Catheter-Related Bloodstream Infection in Pediatric Patients Receiving Intravenous Prostanoid Therapy for Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Ivy, D. Dunbar; Calderbank, Michelle; Wagner, Brandie D.; Dolan, Susan; Nyquist, Ann-Christine; Wade, Michael; Nickels, William M.; Doran, Aimee K.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Intravenous prostanoids (epoprostenol and treprostinil) are effective therapies for pulmonary arterial hypertension but carry a risk of catheter-related bloodstream infection (CR-BSI). Prevention of CR-BSI during long-term use of indwelling central venous catheters is important. OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether using a closed-hub system and waterproofing catheter hub connections reduces the rate of CR-BSI per 1,000 catheter-days. DESIGN Single-center open observational study (January 2003–December 2008). PATIENTS Pediatric patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension who received intravenous prostanoids. METHODS In July 2007, CR-BSI preventive measures were implemented, including the use of a closed-hub system and the waterproofing of catheter hub connections during showering. Rates of CR-BSI before and after implementing preventive measures were compared with respect to medication administered and type of bacterial infection. RESULTS Fifty patients received intravenous prostanoid therapy for a total of 41,840 catheter-days. The rate of CR-BSI during the study period was 0.51 infections per 1,000 catheter-days for epoprostenol and 1.38 infections per 1,000 catheter-days for treprostinil, which differed significantly (P < .01). CR-BSIs caused by gram-negative pathogens occurred more frequently with treprostinil than with epoprostenol (0.91 infections per 1,000 catheter-days vs 0.08 infections per 1,000 catheter-days; P < .01). Patients treated with treprostinil after the implemented changes had a significant decrease in CR-BSI rate (1.95 infections per 1,000 catheter-days vs 0.19 infections per 1,000 catheter-days; P < .01). CONCLUSION The closed-hub system and the maintenance of dry catheter hub connections significantly reduced the incidence of CR-BSI (particularly infections caused by gram-negative pathogens) in patients receiving intravenous treprostinil. PMID:19637961

  9. Airborne Nanoparticle Concentrations in the Manufacturing of Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) Apparel

    PubMed Central

    Vosburgh, Donna J.H.; Boysen, Dane A.; Oleson, Jacob J.; Peters, Thomas M.

    2016-01-01

    One form of waterproof, breathable apparel is manufactured from polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane laminated fabric, using a specific process to seal seams that have been sewn with traditional techniques. The sealing process involves applying waterproof tape to the seam by feeding the seam through two rollers while applying hot air (600°C). This study addressed the potential for exposure to particulate matter from this sealing process, by characterizing airborne particles in a facility that produces over 1,000 lightweight PTFE rain jackets per day. Aerosol concentrations throughout the facility were mapped, breathing zone concentrations were measured, and hoods used to ventilate the seam sealing operation were evaluated. The geometric mean (GM) particle number concentrations were substantially greater in the sewing and sealing areas (67,000 and 188,000 particles cm−3) compared to that measured in the office area (12,100 particles cm−3). Respirable mass concentrations were negligible throughout the facility (GM=0.002 mg m−3 in the sewing and sealing areas). The particles exiting the final discharge of the facility's ventilation system were dominated by nanoparticles (number median diameter = 25 nm; geometric standard deviation of 1.39). The breathing zone particle number concentrations of the workers who sealed the sewn seams were highly variable and significantly greater when sealing seams than when conducting other tasks (p<0.0001). The sealing workers’ breathing zone concentrations ranged from 147,000 particles cm−3 to 798,000 particles cm−3, and their seam responsibility significantly influenced their breathing zone concentrations (p=0.03). The finding that particle number concentrations were approximately equal outside the hood and inside the local exhaust duct indicated poor effectiveness of the canopy hoods used to ventilate sealing operations. PMID:21347955

  10. Airborne nanoparticle concentrations in the manufacturing of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) apparel.

    PubMed

    Vosburgh, Donna J H; Boysen, Dane A; Oleson, Jacob J; Peters, Thomas M

    2011-03-01

    One form of waterproof, breathable apparel is manufactured from polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane laminated fabric using a specific process to seal seams that have been sewn with traditional techniques. The sealing process involves applying waterproof tape to the seam by feeding the seam through two rollers while applying hot air (600 °C). This study addressed the potential for exposure to particulate matter from this sealing process by characterizing airborne particles in a facility that produces more than 1000 lightweight PTFE rain jackets per day. Aerosol concentrations throughout the facility were mapped, breathing zone concentrations were measured, and hoods used to ventilate the seam sealing operation were evaluated. The geometric mean (GM) particle number concentrations were substantially greater in the sewing and sealing areas (67,000 and 188,000 particles cm⁻³)) compared with that measured in the office area (12,100 particles cm⁻³). Respirable mass concentrations were negligible throughout the facility (GM = 0.002 mg m⁻³) in the sewing and sealing areas). The particles exiting the final discharge of the facility's ventilation system were dominated by nanoparticles (number median diameter = 25 nm; geometric standard deviation of 1.39). The breathing zone particle number concentrations of the workers who sealed the sewn seams were highly variable and significantly greater when sealing seams than when conducting other tasks (p < 0.0001). The sealing workers' breathing zone concentrations ranged from 147,000 particles cm⁻³ to 798,000 particles cm⁻³, and their seam responsibility significantly influenced their breathing zone concentrations (p = 0.03). The finding that particle number concentrations were approximately equal outside the hood and inside the local exhaust duct indicated poor effectiveness of the canopy hoods used to ventilate sealing operations.

  11. Waste drum refurbishment

    SciTech Connect

    Whitmill, L.J.

    1996-10-18

    Low-carbon steel, radioactive waste containers (55-gallon drums) are experiencing degradation due to moisture and temperature fluctuations. With thousands of these containers currently in use; drum refurbishment becomes a significant issue for the taxpayer and stockholders. This drum refurbishment is a non-intrusive, portable process costing between 1/2 and 1/25 the cost of repackaging, depending on the severity of degradation. At the INEL alone, there are an estimated 9,000 drums earmarked for repackaging. Refurbishing drums rather than repackaging can save up to $45,000,000 at the INEL. Based on current but ever changing WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC), this drum refurbishment process will restore drums to a WIPP acceptable condition plus; drums with up to 40% thinning o the wall can be refurbished to meet performance test requirements for DOT 7A Type A packaging. A refurbished drum provides a tough, corrosion resistant, waterproof container with longer storage life and an additional containment barrier. Drums are coated with a high-pressure spray copolymer material approximately .045 inches thick. Increase in internal drum temperature can be held to less than 15 F. Application can be performed hands-on or the equipment is readily adaptable and controllable for remote operations. The material dries to touch in seconds, is fully cured in 48 hours and has a service temperature of {minus}60 to 500 F. Drums can be coated with little or no surface preparation. This research was performed on drums however research results indicate the coating is very versatile and compatible with most any material and geometry. It could be used to provide abrasion resistance, corrosion protection and waterproofing to almost anything.

  12. Cytochrome P450 gene, CYP4G51, modulates hydrocarbon production in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum.

    PubMed

    Chen, Nan; Fan, Yong-Liang; Bai, Yu; Li, Xiang-Dong; Zhang, Zhan-Feng; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2016-09-01

    Terrestrial insects deposit a layer of hydrocarbons (HCs) as waterproofing agents on their epicuticle. The insect-specific CYP4G genes, subfamily members of P450, have been found in all insects with sequenced genomes to date. They are critical for HC biosynthesis in Drosophila; however, their functional roles in other insects including the piercing-sucking hemipterous aphids remain unknown. In this study, we presented the molecular characterization and a functional study of the CYP4G51 gene in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris). CYP4G51 transcript was detectable across the whole life cycle of A. pisum, and was prominently expressed in the aphid head and abdominal cuticle. Up-regulation of CYP4G51 under desiccation stress was more significant in the third instar nymphs compared with the adults. Also, up-regulation of CYP4G51 was observed when the aphids fed on an artificial diet compared with those fed on the broad bean plant, and was positively correlated with a high level of cuticular HCs (CHCs). RNAi knockdown of CYP4G51 significantly reduced its expression and caused reductions in both internal and external HCs. A deficiency in CHCs resulted in aphids being more susceptible to desiccation, with increased mortality under desiccation stress. The current results confirm that CYP4G51 modulates HC biosynthesis to protect aphids from desiccation. Moreover, our data also indicate that saturated and straight-chain HCs play a major role in cuticular waterproofing in the pea aphid. A. pisum CYP4G51 could be considered as a novel RNAi target in the field of insect pest management.

  13. Accuracy Assessment of GO Pro Hero 3 (black) Camera in Underwater Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmholz, , P.; Long, J.; Munsie, T.; Belton, D.

    2016-06-01

    Modern digital cameras are increasing in quality whilst decreasing in size. In the last decade, a number of waterproof consumer digital cameras (action cameras) have become available, which often cost less than 500. A possible application of such action cameras is in the field of Underwater Photogrammetry. Especially with respect to the fact that with the change of the medium to below water can in turn counteract the distortions present. The goal of this paper is to investigate the suitability of such action cameras for underwater photogrammetric applications focusing on the stability of the camera and the accuracy of the derived coordinates for possible photogrammetric applications. For this paper a series of image sequences was capture in a water tank. A calibration frame was placed in the water tank allowing the calibration of the camera and the validation of the measurements using check points. The accuracy assessment covered three test sets operating three GoPro sports cameras of the same model (Hero 3 black). The test set included the handling of the camera in a controlled manner where the camera was only dunked into the water tank using 7MP and 12MP resolution and a rough handling where the camera was shaken as well as being removed from the waterproof case using 12MP resolution. The tests showed that the camera stability was given with a maximum standard deviation of the camera constant σc of 0.0031mm for 7MB (for an average c of 2.720mm) and 0.0072 mm for 12MB (for an average c of 3.642mm). The residual test of the check points gave for the 7MB test series the largest rms value with only 0.450mm and the largest maximal residual of only 2.5 mm. For the 12MB test series the maximum rms value is 0. 653mm.

  14. Functional properties of whey protein and its application in nanocomposite materials and functional foods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Helen

    Whey is a byproduct of cheese making; whey proteins are globular proteins which can be modified and polymerized to add functional benefits, these benefits can be both nutritional and structural in foods. Modified proteins can be used in non-foods, being of particular interest in polymer films and coatings. Food packaging materials, including plastics, can linings, interior coatings of paper containers, and beverage cap sealing materials, are generally made of synthetic petroleum based compounds. These synthetic materials may pose a potential human health risk due to presence of certain chemicals such as Bisphenol A (BPA). They also add to environmental pollution, being difficult to degrade. Protein-based materials do not have the same issues as synthetics and so can be used as alternatives in many packaging types. As proteins are generally hydrophilic they must be modified structurally and their performance enhanced by the addition of waterproofing agents. Polymerization of whey proteins results in a network, adding both strength and flexibility. The most interesting of the food-safe waterproofing agents are the (large aspect ratio) nanoclays. Nanoclays are relatively inexpensive, widely available and have low environmental impact. The clay surface can be modified to make it organophilic and so compatible with organic polymers. The objective of this study is the use of polymerized whey protein (PWP), with reinforcing nanoclays, to produce flexible surface coatings which limit the transfer of contents while maintaining food safety. Four smectite and kaolin type clays, one treated and three natural were assessed for strengthening qualities and the potential waterproofing and plasticizing benefits of other additives were also analyzed. The nutritional benefits of whey proteins can also be used to enhance the protein content of various foodstuffs. Drinkable yogurt is a popular beverage in the US and other countries and is considered a functional food, especially when

  15. Gait Kinematic Analysis in Water Using Wearable Inertial Magnetic Sensors.

    PubMed

    Fantozzi, Silvia; Giovanardi, Andrea; Borra, Davide; Gatta, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    Walking is one of the fundamental motor tasks executed during aquatic therapy. Previous kinematics analyses conducted using waterproofed video cameras were limited to the sagittal plane and to only one or two consecutive steps. Furthermore, the set-up and post-processing are time-consuming and thus do not allow a prompt assessment of the correct execution of the movements during the aquatic session therapy. The aim of the present study was to estimate the 3D joint kinematics of the lower limbs and thorax-pelvis joints in sagittal and frontal planes during underwater walking using wearable inertial and magnetic sensors. Eleven healthy adults were measured during walking both in shallow water and in dry-land conditions. Eight wearable inertial and magnetic sensors were inserted in waterproofed boxes and fixed to the body segments by means of elastic modular bands. A validated protocol (Outwalk) was used. Gait cycles were automatically segmented and selected if relevant intraclass correlation coefficients values were higher than 0.75. A total of 704 gait cycles for the lower limb joints were normalized in time and averaged to obtain the mean cycle of each joint, among participants. The mean speed in water was 40% lower than that of the dry-land condition. Longer stride duration and shorter stride distance were found in the underwater walking. In the sagittal plane, the knee was more flexed (≈ 23°) and the ankle more dorsiflexed (≈ 9°) at heel strike, and the hip was more flexed at toe-off (≈ 13°) in water than on land. On the frontal plane in the underwater walking, smoother joint angle patterns were observed for thorax-pelvis and hip, and ankle was more inversed at toe-off (≈ 7°) and showed a more inversed mean value (≈ 7°). The results were mainly explained by the effect of the speed in the water as supported by the linear mixed models analysis performed. Thus, it seemed that the combination of speed and environment triggered modifications in the

  16. Measure Guideline: Water Management at Tub and Shower Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Dickson, B.

    2011-12-01

    Due to the high concentrations of water and the consequential risk of water damage to the home's structure a comprehensive water management system is imperative to protect the building assemblies underlying the finish surround of tub and shower areas. This guide shows how to install fundamental waterproofing strategies to prevent water related issues at shower and tub areas. When conducting a total gut rehab of a structure or constructing a new home, best practice installation and detailing for effective waterproofing are critically important at bathtub and shower assemblies. Water management issues in a structure may go unrecognized for long periods, so that when they are finally observed, the damage from long-term water exposure is extensive. A gut rehab is often undertaken when a home has experienced a natural disaster or when the homeowners are interested in converting an old, high-energy-use building into a high-quality, efficient structure that meets or exceeds one of the national energy standards, such as ENERGY STAR or LEED for homes. During a gut rehab, bath areas need to be replaced with diligent attention to detail. Employing effective water management practices in the installation and detailing of tub and shower assemblies will minimize or eliminate water issues within the building cavities and on the finished surfaces. A residential tub-and-shower surround or shower-stall assembly is designed to handle a high volume of water - 2.5 gallons per minute, with multiple baths occurring during a typical day. Transitions between dissimilar materials and connections between multiple planes must be installed with care to avoid creating a pathway for water to enter the building assemblies. Due to the high volume of water and the consequential risk of water damage to the home's structure, a comprehensive water management system is imperative to protect the building assemblies underlying the finish surround of tub and shower areas. At each stage of construction

  17. The case for using a sacrificial layer of absorbent insulation in the design of flat and low-sloped roofing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockton, Gregory R.

    2013-05-01

    Beginning about twenty-five years ago, there was a marked increase in the number of single-ply membrane roof designs used to cover and waterproof flat and low-sloped building roofs. Over the past ten years, there has been a substantial increase in the number of installations of white and more reflective single-ply roof systems, mostly using high density cellular foam insulation in the substrate for insulation. A major factor in the increase in the popularity of these highly insulated and more reflective roof systems is the fact that many governments began offering incentives for building owners to use reflective coverings and better insulated roofs. Now, owing to the energy efficient requirements for the design and construction of new buildings put forth in ASHRAE Standard 90.1, "Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings" and the world's apparent desire to be "green" (or at least appear to be), more and more roof designs will include these reflective single-ply membranes, which use the cellular foam insulation boards to meet these requirements. Using a lower density traditional insulation will mean that the roof will have to be very thick to comply, increasing the costs of installation. High density cellular foams do not absorb water until time, vapor pressure drive, UV and thermal shock break down the foam and it becomes more absorbent. This could be 5-7 years or longer, depending on the roof construction and other factors. This means that any water that enters the roof through a breach (leak) in the membrane goes straight into the building. This is not a good consequence since the failure mode of any roof is water entering the building. Keeping the water out of the building is the purpose of the waterproofing layer. This paper reviews the techniques of moisture testing on building roofs and infrared (IR) thermography, and puts forth the idea and reasoning behind having a sacrificial layer of very absorbent insulation installed in every

  18. Gait Kinematic Analysis in Water Using Wearable Inertial Magnetic Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Fantozzi, Silvia; Giovanardi, Andrea; Borra, Davide; Gatta, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    Walking is one of the fundamental motor tasks executed during aquatic therapy. Previous kinematics analyses conducted using waterproofed video cameras were limited to the sagittal plane and to only one or two consecutive steps. Furthermore, the set-up and post-processing are time-consuming and thus do not allow a prompt assessment of the correct execution of the movements during the aquatic session therapy. The aim of the present study was to estimate the 3D joint kinematics of the lower limbs and thorax-pelvis joints in sagittal and frontal planes during underwater walking using wearable inertial and magnetic sensors. Eleven healthy adults were measured during walking both in shallow water and in dry-land conditions. Eight wearable inertial and magnetic sensors were inserted in waterproofed boxes and fixed to the body segments by means of elastic modular bands. A validated protocol (Outwalk) was used. Gait cycles were automatically segmented and selected if relevant intraclass correlation coefficients values were higher than 0.75. A total of 704 gait cycles for the lower limb joints were normalized in time and averaged to obtain the mean cycle of each joint, among participants. The mean speed in water was 40% lower than that of the dry-land condition. Longer stride duration and shorter stride distance were found in the underwater walking. In the sagittal plane, the knee was more flexed (≈ 23°) and the ankle more dorsiflexed (≈ 9°) at heel strike, and the hip was more flexed at toe-off (≈ 13°) in water than on land. On the frontal plane in the underwater walking, smoother joint angle patterns were observed for thorax-pelvis and hip, and ankle was more inversed at toe-off (≈ 7°) and showed a more inversed mean value (≈ 7°). The results were mainly explained by the effect of the speed in the water as supported by the linear mixed models analysis performed. Thus, it seemed that the combination of speed and environment triggered modifications in the

  19. Exposure Characteristics of Construction Painters to Organic Solvents

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyunhee; Park, Hae Dong; Jang, Jae-Kil

    2015-01-01

    Background Construction painters have not been studied well in terms of their hazards exposure. The objective of this study was to evaluate the exposure levels of total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) for painters in the construction industry. Methods Activity-specific personal air samplings were carried out in three waterproofing activities [polyurethane (PU), asphalt, and cement mortar] and three painting activities (epoxy, oil based, and water based) by using organic-vapor-monitor passive-sampling devices. Gas chromatograph with flame ionization detector could be used for identifying and quantifying individual organic chemicals. The levels of TVOCs, by summing up 15 targeted substances, were expressed in exposure-index (EI) values. Results As arithmetic means in the order of concentration levels, the EIs of TVOCs in waterproofing works were 10.77, 2.42, 1.78, 1.68, 0.47, 0.07, and none detected (ND) for indoor PU-primer task, outdoor PU-primer task, outdoor PU-resin task, indoor PU-resin task, asphalt-primer task, asphalt-adhesive task, and cement-mortar task, respectively. The highest EI for painting works was 5.61 for indoor epoxy-primer task, followed by indoor epoxy-resin task (2.03), outdoor oil-based-spray-paint task (1.65), outdoor water-based-paint task (0.66), and indoor oil-based-paint task (0.15). Assuming that the operations were carried out continuously for 8 hours without breaks and by using the arithmetic means of EIs for each of the 12 tasks in this study, 58.3% (7 out of 12) exceeded the exposure limit of 100% (EI > 1.0), while 8.3% (1 out of 12) was in 50–100% of exposure limit (0.5 > EI > 1.0), and 4 tasks out of 12 were located in less than 50% of the limit range (EI < 0.5). Conclusion From this study, we recognized that construction painters are exposed to various solvents, including carcinogens and reproductive toxins, and the levels of TVOC concentration in many of the painting tasks exceeded the exposure limits. Construction

  20. From land to water: bringing dielectric elastomer sensing to the underwater realm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Christopher; Anderson, Iain

    2016-04-01

    Since the late 1990's dielectric elastomers (DEs) have been investigated for their use as sensors. To date, there have been some impressive developments: finger displacement controls for video games and integration with medical rehabilitation devices to aid patient recovery. It is clear DE sensing is well established for dry applications, the next frontier, however, is to adapt this technology for the other 71% of the Earth's surface. With proven and perhaps improved water resistance, many new applications could be developed in areas such as diver communication and control of underwater robotics; even wearable devices on land must withstand sweat, washing, and the rain. This study investigated the influence of fresh and salt water on DE sensing. In particular, sensors have been manufactured with waterproof connections and submersed in fresh and salt water baths. Temperature and resting capacitance were recorded. Issues with the basic DE sensor have been identified and compensated for with modifications to the sensor. The electrostatic field, prior and post modification, has been modeled with ANSYS Maxwell. The aim of this investigation was to identify issues, perform modifications and propose a new sensor design suited to wet and underwater applications.

  1. Development of the Valvo pump: an axial flow pump implanted at the heart valve position.

    PubMed

    Mitamura, Y; Nakamura, H; Okamoto, E; Yozu, R; Kawada, S; Kim, D W

    1999-06-01

    Pulsatile artificial hearts having a relatively large volume are difficult to implant in a small patient, but rotary blood pumps can be easily implanted. The objective of this study was to show the feasibility of using the Valvo pump, an axial flow pump implanted at the heart valve position, in such cases. The Valvo pump consists of an impeller and a motor. The motor is waterproofed with a ferrofluidic seal. A blood flow of 5 L/min was obtained at a pressure difference of 13.3 kPa (100 mm Hg) at 7,000 rpm. The normalized index of hemolysis (NIH) was 0.030 +/- 0.003 (n = 3) for a blood flow of 5 L/min at a pressure difference of 13.3 kPa. The pressure resistance of the ferrofluidic seal was 37.5 kPa in a static condition and 26.3 kPa at 10,000 rpm. The seal exhibited no leaks for 41+ days against 20.0 kPa. The results showed that the Valvo pump can maintain systemic circulation with an acceptable level of hemolysis.

  2. Development of an implantable centrifugal blood pump for circulatory assist.

    PubMed

    Wakisaka, Y; Taenaka, Y; Chikanari, K; Okuzono, Y; Endo, S; Takano, H

    1997-01-01

    An implantable centrifugal pump (ICP) for prolonged circulatory assist has been developed, at 320 ml and 830 g. A central balancing hole was made in its impeller for better antithrombogenicity. Waterproofing and histocompatibility were supported by a silicone seal and a casing made of titanium and acrylic resin. Overall efficiency was 30% and normalized index of homolysis was 0.003 mg/dl, the same value as the BP-80, at a flow rate of 5 L/min and a head of 100 mmHg. Antithrombogenicity and hemolytic properties of the ICP were investigated in paracorporeal implantation in three goats (61-71 kg). Exothermicity, anatomic fit, and water tightness of the ICP were evaluated in intrathoracic implantation in an adult goat (66 kg). The ICP could run paracorporeally for 50, 200, and 381 days. There was no thrombus in the ICP after 381 days' pumping, and the ICP could run in the chest cavity for 40 days. The temperature of the motor rose 1.8 +/- 0.3 degrees C from that of the pleura. Moisture content of the seal remained normal. The ICP was completely covered with smooth fibrous tissue. Although a small area of atelectasis was found in the lingula, neither lung adhesion nor necrosis of the chest wall was observed. The ICP has satisfactory antithrombogenicity, hemolytic property, water tightness, anatomic fit, and exothermicity for use as an implantable circulatory assist device.

  3. Experiments on the Thrust of a Synthetic Jet in Crossflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayers, Bradley; Henoch, Charles; Johari, Hamid

    2014-11-01

    A set of water tunnel experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of crossflow on the thrust of a synthetic jet. This research was motivated by the desire to generate significant turning moments on a fully-submerged, supercavitating vehicle without using control fins or canards. The water tunnel model was a sting-mounted, 3-inch diameter cylindrical body interfaced to a 6-axis waterproof load cell. The synthetic jet actuator was contained within the model and the jet orifice located near the aft end of the model was oriented perpendicular to the mean flow. The actuator consisted of an externally controlled solenoid driving a piston into the cavity. The jet thrust was measured over a broad range of synthetic jet operating parameters, including the actuation frequency and duty cycle, as well as the jet-to-crossflow velocity ratios. Previous work which is based on the slug flow model of an individual vortex ring predicts the time-averaged thrust scales with the square of actuation frequency and the stroke length. The measurements will be compared with the theoretical predictions, and the results will be used to assess the effect of crossflow on the thrust of synthetic jet. Sponsored by the ONR-ULI program.

  4. A Wireless Sensor Network Field Study: Network Development, Installation, and Measurement Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, T. W.; Kuo, C.; van Hemmen, H.; Aouni, A.; Ferriss, E.; Liang, Y.; Liang, X.

    2010-12-01

    The sustainable condition of our freshwater resources partially depends on our understanding of the natural system in which it is cycled. Exploring the status and trends of soil moisture and transpiration can help improve estimates (including flux and storage components) of water budgets on a regional-scale. As a part of this effort, a multi-node wireless network measuring sap flow, soil water content and soil water potential has been deployed in a forested and hill-sloped region in western Pennsylvania. The results of this study are presented in three components. The first is comprised of the issues faced with the development of the node mesh and its evolution to a stable network through the dense vegetation and variable topography. This component includes a comparison of mote battery life, especially over network bottlenecks, and signal transmission statistics, including parenting analysis and data packet loss. The second component examines the design and installation of the sensor nodes. Due to the frequent occurrences of precipitation, water intrusion was a major concern. This is exemplified in the water-proofing techniques used in the box design which enclosed sensors and other vulnerable electronics. The final component reviews the data collected from the network and the different techniques used for processing the measurements. A power saving scheme is tested for removing low mote battery power attenuation in the transmitted data. The results for the soil moisture and sap flow measurements are compared with data collected by a local weather station.

  5. Dynamics and shape of large fire ant rafts

    PubMed Central

    Mlot, Nathan J.; Tovey, Craig; Hu, David L.

    2012-01-01

    To survive floods, fire ants link their bodies together to build waterproof rafts. Such rafts can be quite large, exceeding 100,000 individuals in size. In this study, we make two improvements on a previously reported model on the construction rate of rafts numbering between 3,000 and 10,000 individuals. That model was based upon experimental observations of randomly-directed linear ant trajectories atop the raft. Here, we report anomalous behavior of ants atop larger rafts of up to 23,000 ants. As rafts increase in size, the behavior of ants approaches diffusion, which is in closer alignment with other studies on the foraging and scouting patterns of ants. We incorporate this ant behavior into the model. Our modified model predicts more accurately the growth of large rafts. Our previous model also relied on an assumption of raft circularity. We show that this assumption is not necessary for large rafts, because it follows from the random directionality of the ant trajectories. Our predicted relationship between raft size and circularity closely fits experimental data. PMID:23336030

  6. Lamb-wave (X, Y) giant tap screen panel with built-in microphone and loudspeaker.

    PubMed

    Nikolovski, Jean-Pierre

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents a passive (X, Y) giant tap screen panel (GTP). Based on the time difference of arrival principle (TDOA), the device localizes low-energy impacts of around 1 mJ generated by fingernail taps. Selective detection of A0 Lamb waves generated in the upper frequency spectrum, around 100 kHz, makes it possible to detect light to strong impacts with equal resolution or precision, close to 1 cm and 2 mm, respectively, for a 10-mm-thick and 1-m(2) glass plate. Additionally, with glass, symmetrical beveling of the edges is used to create a tsunami effect that reduces the minimum impacting speed for light taps by a factor of three. Response time is less than 1 ms. Maximum panel size is of the order of 10 m(2). A rugged integrated flat design with embedded transducers in an electrically shielding frame features waterproof and sticker/ tag proof operation. Sophisticated electronics with floating amplification maintains the panel at its maximum possible sensitivity according to the surrounding noise. Amplification and filtering turns the panel into a microphone and loudspeaker featuring 50 mV/Pa as a microphone and up to 80 dBlin between 500 Hz and 8 kHz as a loudspeaker.

  7. Coastal Changes in Temperature and Salinity Observed during Hurricane Isaac Recorded and Downloaded by NASA DRIFTERs Moored in Heron Bay and at Half Moon Island, Louisiana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalcic, Maria; Iturriaga, Rodolfo H.; Kuper, Philip D.; O'Neal, Stanford Duane; Underwood, Lauren; Fletcher, Rose

    2012-01-01

    Major changes in salinity (approx.14 ppt.) and temperature (approx.40C) were continuously registered by two prototype NASA DRIFTERs, surface moored floaters, that NASA's Applied Science and Technology Project Office (ASTPO) has developed. The DRIFTER floating sensor module is equipped with an Arduino open-source electronics prototyping platform and programming language (http://www.arduino.cc), a GPS (Global Positioning System) module with antenna, a cell phone SIM (Subscriber Identity Module) card and a cellular antenna which is used to transmit data, and a probe to measure temperature and conductivity (from which salinity can be derived). The DRIFTER is powered by a solar cell panel and all the electronic components are mounted and sealed in [ waterproof encasement. Position and measurement data are transmitted via short message service (SMS) messaging to a Twitter site (DRIFTER 002@NASADRIFTER_002 and DRIFTER 004@NASADRIFTER_004), which provides a live feed. These data are the imported into a Google spreadsheet where conductivity is converted to salinity, and graphed in real-time. The spreadsheet data will be imported into a webpage maintained by ASTPO, where it will be displayed available for dO\\\\1lload.

  8. Rugged target standards for HSI remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morey, Mark; O'Neill, Mary; Hahn, Mark; DiBenedetto, John

    2015-05-01

    There is a need for stable test standards for many remote sensing applications that can be used both in the laboratory and in rugged test environments. Ideally these standards would be stable over time such that the same standard could be used from year to year for comparison of system performance. While ink-jet and spray gun methods can disperse controlled doses of dissolved analytes, methods to maintain particle size spectral variations are lacking. In addition, standards that are environmentally robust and stable over time are limited. As part of the recent Lighthouse work toward a Hyperspectral Imagery (HSI) proximal handheld sensor, Special Technologies Laboratory (STL) was tasked to do preliminary work toward a rugged, transportable, waterproof target board. This involved developing test standards using minerals of known particle sizes that have spectrally relevant features. Mineral powders were dispersed in binders that did not change their spectral characteristics. These standards were packaged such that they could be transported and used repeatedly. This paper discusses the methodology for developing this preliminary set of targets. Target sizes were limited to the proximal case, and further work is required to finalize the optimum binder and examine other possible appropriate minerals.

  9. Physicochemical Process, Crustacean, and Microcystis Biomass Changes In Situ Enclosure after Introduction of Silver Carp at Meiliang Bay, Lake Taihu

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Chengjie; Yi, Chunlong; Luo, Congqiang; Ni, Leyi

    2017-01-01

    In order to control cyanobacteria blooms with silver carp in Lake Taihu, an in situ experiment was carried out by stocking silver carp at a biomass of 35, 70, and 150 g m−3 and no carp control in waterproof enclosures. Physicochemical water parameters and biomass of plankton were measured in enclosures to evaluate the suitable stocking density of silver carp for relieving internal nutrients and constraining cyanobacteria growth in Lake Taihu. It is found that the 35 g m−3 silver carp group and 70 g m−3 silver carp group presented lower total phosphorus, lower chlorophyll-a, and higher water transparency. Increased nitrogen to phosphorus ratio, which indicated the result of algae decline in fish presence enclosures, was attributed to decline of phosphorus. Phosphorus decline also exerted limitation on reestablish of cyanobacteria bloom. Crustacean zooplankton biomass and Microcystis biomass decreased significantly in fish presence enclosures. Silver carp could be more effective to regulate algae bloom in enclosures with dense cyanobacteria. Therefore, nonclassic manipulation is supposed to be appropriate method to get rid of cyanobacteria blooms in Lake Taihu by stocking 35 to 70 g m−3 silver carp in application. PMID:28154770

  10. [Usage of flocculation in emergent control of algal bloom in drinking water supplying reservoir].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Li-juan; Han, Bo-ping; Lin, Qiu-qi; Lei, La-mei

    2007-10-01

    An Anabaena circinalis bloom appeared in a reservoir for supplying drinking water in the south of China, in April 2006. Phytoplankton scums gathered and floated on the surface of the whole reservoir especially on the area of water intake, and the cell density of phytoplankton, cyanobacteria and Anabaena circinalis was as high as 7.3 x 10(7), 7.2 x 10(7), 4.1 x 10(7) cells x L(-1) respectively. To maintain drinking water supplying, an emergency program was initiated to control the cyanobacterial bloom. The zone immediately adjacent to the water intake was divided into two small zones by fishing nets and waterproof curtains to modify the water flow. Iron-based flocculants were then applied to control the algal bloom. As a result, the density of the phytoplankton decreased greatly, and at the first day the cell densities of phytoplankton, cyanobacterial, Anabaena circinalis decreased to 5.3 x 10(6), 4.7 x 10(6), 2 x 10(6) cells x L(-1) respectively, and the removal of them reached up to 93%, 94%, 95% respectively. The average of phytoplankton cell density was 1.2 x 10(7) cells x L(-1) and a highest density was 2.0 x 10(7) cells x L(-1) during the treatment from 22 to 30 April, while Chlorophyta and Bacillariophyta slightly increased. These encouraging results suggest that the flocculants used are efficient at removing Cyanobacteria.

  11. Exposure to and precautions for blood and body fluids among workers in the funeral home franchises of Fort Worth, Texas.

    PubMed

    Nwanyanwu, O C; Tabasuri, T H; Harris, G R

    1989-08-01

    In 1982 the Centers for Disease Control published a set of recommendations and measures to protect persons working in health care settings or performing mortician services from possible exposure to the human immunodeficiency virus. This study of a number of funeral homes in the Fort Worth area was designed to determine the level of exposure of funeral home workers to blood and other body fluids and also to assess existing protective measures and practices in the industry. Workers in 22 funeral home franchises were surveyed with a predesigned questionnaire. Eighty-five responses from 20 of the 22 establishments were received. All 85 respondents admitted exposure of varying degrees to blood and body fluids. Sixty persons (70%) admitted heavy exposure, that is, frequent splashes. Analysis of the responses showed that 81 of 85 (95.3%) persons consistently wore gloves while performing tasks that might expose them to blood or other body fluids. Of the 60 persons who were heavily exposed, 43 wore long-sleeved gowns, 27 wore waterproof aprons, 17 surgical masks, and 15 goggles. The study further revealed that 52.9% (45/85) of the respondents had sustained accidental cuts or puncture wounds on the job. In light of these findings it is important to target educational efforts to persons in this industry to help them minimize their risks of infection with blood and body fluid borne infections.

  12. A field trail for sealing abandoned mine shafts and adits with lightweight concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, E.H.; Beckett, L.A.

    1994-01-01

    An abandoned mine shaft near Omar, in Logan County, WV, was permanently sealed through a cooperative agreement between the West Virginia Department of Commerce, Labor, and Environmental Resources, Division of Environmental Protection, and the US Bureau of Mines (USBM), Abandoned Mine Lands (AML) Program. An engineered shaft seal design was developed and demonstrated that featured lightweight concrete as a key material component at a wet density of about 45 lb/ft[sup 3]. A reinforced concrete cap designed for 5 psi live load was placed over the shaft seal. Applicable new concrete technologies relating to a 100-yr design life were utilized to assure future integrity of the shaft seal. Waterproofing methods were included in the shaft seal design to provide protection from ambient moisture and corrosive mine waters and to increase the long-term durability of the shaft seal. All construction methods used in the field trial are fully adaptable for the mine-reclamation contractor. The USBM research objectives were to develop a broad generic design that will be widely applicable to other adit-sealing and shaft-sealing problems throughout the mining industry.

  13. The Polaris-H imaging spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahl, Christopher G.; Kaye, Willy R.; Wang, Weiyi; Zhang, Feng; Jaworski, Jason M.; King, Alexis; Boucher, Y. Andy; He, Zhong

    2015-06-01

    Recently, H3D has designed and introduced a gamma-ray imaging spectrometer system named Polaris-H. Polaris-H was designed to perform gamma spectroscopy and imaging throughout nuclear power plants. It integrates a 3D-position-sensitive pixelated CZT detector (20 mm×20 mm×15 mm), associated readout electronics, an embedded computer, a 5-h battery, and an optical camera in a portable water-proof enclosure. The total mass is about 4 kg, and the system startup time is 2 min. Additionally, it has a connection for a tablet, which displays a gamma-ray spectrum and isotope-specific images of the gamma-ray distribution in all directions in real time. List-mode data is saved to an external USB memory stick. Based on pixelated depth-sensing technology, spectroscopy is routinely better than 1.1% FWHM at 662 keV, and imaging efficiency at 662 keV varies less than a factor of two for all directions, except through the battery. Measurements have been performed in contaminated environments, in high radiation fields, and in cramped quarters.

  14. Modular, multi-level groundwater sampler

    DOEpatents

    Nichols, R.L.; Widdowson, M.A.; Mullinex, H.; Orne, W.H.; Looney, B.B.

    1994-03-15

    An apparatus is described for taking a multiple of samples of groundwater or pressure measurements from a well simultaneously. The apparatus comprises a series of chambers arranged in an axial array, each of which is dimensioned to fit into a perforated well casing and leave a small gap between the well casing and the exterior of the chamber. Seals at each end of the container define the limits to the axial portion of the well to be sampled. A submersible pump in each chamber pumps the groundwater that passes through the well casing perforations into the gap from the gap to the surface for analysis. The power lines and hoses for the chambers farther down the array pass through each chamber above them in the array. The seals are solid, water-proof, non-reactive, resilient disks supported to engage the inside surface of the well casing. Because of the modular design, the apparatus provides flexibility for use in a variety of well configurations. 3 figures.

  15. SU-E-T-172: Characterization of TLD-100 (LiF:Mg,Ti) Microcube Energy Response in a Cylindrical Chamber Phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Desai, V; Hammer, C; Kunugi, K; Culberson, W; DeWerd, L

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To characterize the energy response of TLD-100 microcubes inside a Virtual Water chamber phantom. Methods: Four TLD microcubes were placed inside a water-proof Virtual Water (VW) chamber phantom and irradiated to a known dose on a Varian linac in a 1D water tank. These chamber phantoms were then replaced by TLD-100 chips inside a separate VW paddle and irradiated to the same dose. Each energy response reading was calculated as light output per unit dose in nC/cGy and normalized to a calibration set irradiated to the same dose in 60Co. The differences in response between the TLD chips and microcubes were then analyzed. Results: Across all energies, the average microcube response was less sensitive to energy than the average chip response with both falling consistently within 2.8% of previously established values in the literature Conclusion: TLD microcubes showed a lower average sensitivity to energy than their TLD chip counterparts. The use of TLD-100 microcubes inside the chamber phantom was validated against TLD-100 chips inside of VW paddles.

  16. "Smart pebble" designs for sediment transport monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valyrakis, Manousos; Alexakis, Athanasios; Pavlovskis, Edgars

    2015-04-01

    Sediment transport, due to primarily the action of water, wind and ice, is one of the most significant geomorphic processes responsible for shaping Earth's surface. It involves entrainment of sediment grains in rivers and estuaries due to the violently fluctuating hydrodynamic forces near the bed. Here an instrumented particle, namely a "smart pebble", is developed to investigate the exact flow conditions under which individual grains may be entrained from the surface of a gravel bed. This could lead in developing a better understanding of the processes involved, focusing on the response of the particle during a variety of flow entrainment events. The "smart pebble" is a particle instrumented with MEMS sensors appropriate for capturing the hydrodynamic forces a coarse particle might experience during its entrainment from the river bed. A 3-axial gyroscope and accelerometer registers data to a memory card via a microcontroller, embedded in a 3D-printed waterproof hollow spherical particle. The instrumented board is appropriately fit and centred into the shell of the pebble, so as to achieve a nearly uniform distribution of the mass which could otherwise bias its motion. The "smart pebble" is powered by an independent power to ensure autonomy and sufficiently long periods of operation appropriate for deployment in the field. Post-processing and analysis of the acquired data is currently performed offline, using scientific programming software. The performance of the instrumented particle is validated, conducting a series of calibration experiments under well-controlled laboratory conditions.

  17. Preparation of hydrophobic organic aeorgels

    DOEpatents

    Baumann, Theodore F.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.; Gash, Alexander E.

    2007-11-06

    Synthetic methods for the preparation of hydrophobic organics aerogels. One method involves the sol-gel polymerization of 1,3-dimethoxybenzene or 1,3,5-trimethoxybenzene with formaldehyde in non-aqueous solvents. Using a procedure analogous to the preparation of resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) aerogels, this approach generates wet gels that can be dried using either supercritical solvent extraction to generate the new organic aerogels or air dried to produce an xerogel. Other methods involve the sol-gel polymerization of 1,3,5 trihydroxy benzene (phloroglucinol) or 1,3 dihydroxy benzene (resorcinol) and various aldehydes in non-aqueous solvents. These methods use a procedure analogous to the one-step base and two-step base/acid catalyzed polycondensation of phloroglucinol and formaldehyde, but the base catalyst used is triethylamine. These methods can be applied to a variety of other sol-gel precursors and solvent systems. These hydrophobic organics aerogels have numerous application potentials in the field of material absorbers and water-proof insulation.

  18. Preparation of hydrophobic organic aeorgels

    DOEpatents

    Baumann, Theodore F.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.; Gash, Alexander E.

    2004-10-19

    Synthetic methods for the preparation of hydrophobic organics aerogels. One method involves the sol-gel polymerization of 1,3-dimethoxybenzene or 1,3,5-trimethoxybenzene with formaldehyde in non-aqueous solvents. Using a procedure analogous to the preparation of resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) aerogels, this approach generates wet gels that can be dried using either supercritical solvent extraction to generate the new organic aerogels or air dried to produce an xerogel. Other methods involve the sol-gel polymerization of 1,3,5 trihydroxy benzene (phloroglucinol) or 1,3 dihydroxy benzene (resorcinol) and various aldehydes in non-aqueous solvents. These methods use a procedure analogous to the one-step base and two-step base/acid catalyzed polycondensation of phloroglucinol and formaldehyde, but the base catalyst used is triethylamine. These methods can be applied to a variety of other sol-gel precursors and solvent systems. These hydrophobic organics aerogels have numerous application potentials in the field of material absorbers and water-proof insulation.

  19. Breathable and Stretchable Temperature Sensors Inspired by Skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ying; Lu, Bingwei; Chen, Yihao; Feng, Xue

    2015-06-01

    Flexible electronics attached to skin for healthcare, such as epidermal electronics, has to struggle with biocompatibility and adapt to specified environment of skin with respect to breath and perspiration. Here, we report a strategy for biocompatible flexible temperature sensors, inspired by skin, possessing the excellent permeability of air and high quality of water-proof by using semipermeable film with porous structures as substrate. We attach such temperature sensors to underarm and forearm to measure the axillary temperature and body surface temperature respectively. The volunteer wears such sensors for 24 hours with two times of shower and the in vitro test shows no sign of maceration or stimulation to the skin. Especially, precise temperature changes on skin surface caused by flowing air and water dropping are also measured to validate the accuracy and dynamical response. The results show that the biocompatible temperature sensor is soft and breathable on the human skin and has the excellent accuracy compared to mercury thermometer. This demonstrates the possibility and feasibility of fully using the sensors in long term body temperature sensing for medical use as well as sensing function of artificial skin for robots or prosthesis.

  20. Design of Inorganic Water Repellent Coatings for Thermal Protection Insulation on an Aerospace Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuerstenau, D. W.; Ravikumar, R.

    1997-01-01

    In this report, thin film deposition of one of the model candidate materials for use as water repellent coating on the thermal protection systems (TPS) of an aerospace vehicle was investigated. The material tested was boron nitride (BN), the water-repellent properties of which was detailed in our other investigation. Two different methods, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and pulsed laser deposition (PLD), were used to prepare the BN films on a fused quartz substrate (one of the components of thermal protection systems on aerospace vehicles). The deposited films were characterized by a variety of techniques including X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The BN films were observed to be amorphous in nature, and a CVD-deposited film yielded a contact angle of 60 degrees with water, similar to the pellet BN samples investigated previously. This demonstrates that it is possible to use the bulk sample wetting properties as a guideline to determine the candidate waterproofing material for the TPS.

  1. Design and Performance Analysis of an Intrinsically Safe Ultrasonic Ranging Sensor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongjuan; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Xu; Wang, Dong; Jin, Baoquan

    2016-06-13

    In flammable or explosive environments, an ultrasonic sensor for distance measurement poses an important engineering safety challenge, because the driving circuit uses an intermediate frequency transformer as an impedance transformation element, in which the produced heat or spark is available for ignition. In this paper, an intrinsically safe ultrasonic ranging sensor is designed and implemented. The waterproof piezoelectric transducer with integrated transceiver is chosen as an energy transducing element. Then a novel transducer driving circuit is designed based on an impedance matching method considering safety spark parameters to replace an intermediate frequency transformer. Then, an energy limiting circuit is developed to achieve dual levels of over-voltage and over-current protection. The detail calculation and evaluation are executed and the electrical characteristics are analyzed to verify the intrinsic safety of the driving circuit. Finally, an experimental platform of the ultrasonic ranging sensor system is constructed, which involves short-circuit protection. Experimental results show that the proposed ultrasonic ranging sensor is excellent in both ranging performance and intrinsic safety.

  2. NASA Tech Briefs, September 2003

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Topics include: Oxygen-Partial-Pressure Sensor for Aircraft Oxygen Mask; Three-Dimensional Venturi Sensor for Measuring Extreme Winds; Swarms of Micron-Sized Sensors; Monitoring Volcanoes by Use of Air-Dropped Sensor Packages; Capacitive Sensors for Measuring Masses of Cryogenic Fluids; UHF Microstrip Antenna Array for Synthetic- Aperture Radar; Multimode Broad-Band Patch Antennas; 164-GHz MMIC HEMT Frequency Doubler; GPS Position and Heading Circuitry for Ships; Software for Managing Parametric Studies; Software Aids Visualization of Computed Unsteady Flow; Software for Testing Electroactive Structural Components; Advanced Software for Analysis of High-Speed Rolling-Element Bearings; Web Program for Development of GUIs for Cluster Computers; XML-Based Generator of C++ Code for Integration With GUIs; Oxide Protective Coats for Ir/Re Rocket Combustion Chambers; Simplified Waterproofing of Aerogels; Improved Thermal-Insulation Systems for Low Temperatures; Device for Automated Cutting and Transfer of Plant Shoots; Extension of Liouville Formalism to Postinstability Dynamics; Advances in Thrust-Based Emergency Control of an Airplane; Ultrasonic/Sonic Mechanisms for Drilling and Coring; Exercise Device Would Exert Selectable Constant Resistance; Improved Apparatus for Measuring Distance Between Axles; Six Classes of Diffraction-Based Optoelectronic Instruments; Modernizing Fortran 77 Legacy Codes; Active State Model for Autonomous Systems; Shields for Enhanced Protection Against High-Speed Debris; Scaling of Two-Phase Flows to Partial-Earth Gravity; Neutral-Axis Springs for Thin-Wall Integral Boom Hinges.

  3. Lightweight, Miniature Inertial Measurement System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Liang; Crassidis, Agamemnon

    2012-01-01

    A miniature, lighter-weight, and highly accurate inertial navigation system (INS) is coupled with GPS receivers to provide stable and highly accurate positioning, attitude, and inertial measurements while being subjected to highly dynamic maneuvers. In contrast to conventional methods that use extensive, groundbased, real-time tracking and control units that are expensive, large, and require excessive amounts of power to operate, this method focuses on the development of an estimator that makes use of a low-cost, miniature accelerometer array fused with traditional measurement systems and GPS. Through the use of a position tracking estimation algorithm, onboard accelerometers are numerically integrated and transformed using attitude information to obtain an estimate of position in the inertial frame. Position and velocity estimates are subject to drift due to accelerometer sensor bias and high vibration over time, and so require the integration with GPS information using a Kalman filter to provide highly accurate and reliable inertial tracking estimations. The method implemented here uses the local gravitational field vector. Upon determining the location of the local gravitational field vector relative to two consecutive sensors, the orientation of the device may then be estimated, and the attitude determined. Improved attitude estimates further enhance the inertial position estimates. The device can be powered either by batteries, or by the power source onboard its target platforms. A DB9 port provides the I/O to external systems, and the device is designed to be mounted in a waterproof case for all-weather conditions.

  4. Overexpression of Arabidopsis ECERIFERUM1 Promotes Wax Very-Long-Chain Alkane Biosynthesis and Influences Plant Response to Biotic and Abiotic Stresses1[W

    PubMed Central

    Bourdenx, Brice; Bernard, Amélie; Domergue, Frédéric; Pascal, Stéphanie; Léger, Amandine; Roby, Dominique; Pervent, Marjorie; Vile, Denis; Haslam, Richard P.; Napier, Johnathan A.; Lessire, René; Joubès, Jérôme

    2011-01-01

    Land plant aerial organs are covered by a hydrophobic layer called the cuticle that serves as a waterproof barrier protecting plants against desiccation, ultraviolet radiation, and pathogens. Cuticle consists of a cutin matrix as well as cuticular waxes in which very-long-chain (VLC) alkanes are the major components, representing up to 70% of the total wax content in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaves. However, despite its major involvement in cuticle formation, the alkane-forming pathway is still largely unknown. To address this deficiency, we report here the characterization of the Arabidopsis ECERIFERUM1 (CER1) gene predicted to encode an enzyme involved in alkane biosynthesis. Analysis of CER1 expression showed that CER1 is specifically expressed in the epidermis of aerial organs and coexpressed with other genes of the alkane-forming pathway. Modification of CER1 expression in transgenic plants specifically affects VLC alkane biosynthesis: waxes of TDNA insertional mutant alleles are devoid of VLC alkanes and derivatives, whereas CER1 overexpression dramatically increases the production of the odd-carbon-numbered alkanes together with a substantial accumulation of iso-branched alkanes. We also showed that CER1 expression is induced by osmotic stresses and regulated by abscisic acid. Furthermore, CER1-overexpressing plants showed reduced cuticle permeability together with reduced soil water deficit susceptibility. However, CER1 overexpression increased susceptibility to bacterial and fungal pathogens. Taken together, these results demonstrate that CER1 controls alkane biosynthesis and is highly linked to responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. PMID:21386033

  5. Overexpression of Arabidopsis ECERIFERUM1 promotes wax very-long-chain alkane biosynthesis and influences plant response to biotic and abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Bourdenx, Brice; Bernard, Amélie; Domergue, Frédéric; Pascal, Stéphanie; Léger, Amandine; Roby, Dominique; Pervent, Marjorie; Vile, Denis; Haslam, Richard P; Napier, Johnathan A; Lessire, René; Joubès, Jérôme

    2011-05-01

    Land plant aerial organs are covered by a hydrophobic layer called the cuticle that serves as a waterproof barrier protecting plants against desiccation, ultraviolet radiation, and pathogens. Cuticle consists of a cutin matrix as well as cuticular waxes in which very-long-chain (VLC) alkanes are the major components, representing up to 70% of the total wax content in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaves. However, despite its major involvement in cuticle formation, the alkane-forming pathway is still largely unknown. To address this deficiency, we report here the characterization of the Arabidopsis ECERIFERUM1 (CER1) gene predicted to encode an enzyme involved in alkane biosynthesis. Analysis of CER1 expression showed that CER1 is specifically expressed in the epidermis of aerial organs and coexpressed with other genes of the alkane-forming pathway. Modification of CER1 expression in transgenic plants specifically affects VLC alkane biosynthesis: waxes of TDNA insertional mutant alleles are devoid of VLC alkanes and derivatives, whereas CER1 overexpression dramatically increases the production of the odd-carbon-numbered alkanes together with a substantial accumulation of iso-branched alkanes. We also showed that CER1 expression is induced by osmotic stresses and regulated by abscisic acid. Furthermore, CER1-overexpressing plants showed reduced cuticle permeability together with reduced soil water deficit susceptibility. However, CER1 overexpression increased susceptibility to bacterial and fungal pathogens. Taken together, these results demonstrate that CER1 controls alkane biosynthesis and is highly linked to responses to biotic and abiotic stresses.

  6. Hydrokolloid occlusive dressings for photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cutaneous lesions with endogenous porphyrins induced by 5-aminolevulinic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gahlen, Johannes; Stern, Josef; Herfarth, Christian

    1995-03-01

    Protoporphyrin (Pp IX) is the final intermediate product before haem and can be stimulated to a phototoxic reaction with light. The presence of 5-aminolevulinic acid can increase the intracellular biosynthesis of Pp IX in certain types of tumor cells. The photosensitizing concentrations of Pp IX make laser light induced fluorescence diagnostics (LIFD) and photodynamic therapy possible. A topical application of a 5-aminolevulinic acid solution requires a waterproof occlusive dressing for several hours. We developed a simple technique for a practical preparation for PDT using a hydrocolloid dressing. The normal surrounding skin can be spared. We present our first therapeutic experience with a case of cutaneous breast cancer in a 65-year-old female patient. Six hours after topical application of 10% isotonic 5- aminolevulinic acid under the hydrocolloid dressing PDT was performed (Ar-Dye Laser, 630 nm wavelength). Twenty four hours after PDT a superficial tumor necrosis could be observed with a maximum depth of tumor necrosis of 2 - 3 mm. The surrounding normal skin was without any inflammation.

  7. The development and manufacture of coal briquettes

    SciTech Connect

    Li Xinshen; Wei Tingfu; Hao Aimin; Ning Weiyun; Liu Fuhua

    1997-12-31

    Three different kinds of coal briquettes, i.e., gasification briquette, boiler briquette and easy ignition roast briquette, have been developed and produced with the authors` patent binder. The gasification briquette is made from fines of anthracite or coke, hot stability agent and patent binder. It has been used as a substitute of anthracite lump in gasifiers to produce fuel gas and syngas. The three year`s performance of this briquettes in the TG-3MI gasifier has given good economic benefits. The boiler briquette is made from bituminous coal fines, sulphur-fixing agent, combustion-supporting agent, waterproofing agent and patent binder. It can keep its original shape in water for one month. The combustion results of the boiler briquette in a 4t/h coal-fired boiler have shown that heat efficiency increased by 20%, the total suspended particles decreased by 80%, and emission of both SO{sub 2} and Hap were reduced as compared with the raw coal. The easy ignition roast briquette is made from fines of charcoal, anthracite or coke, oxidant and binder. It is convenient and safe to use in that it can be lit with a match or a piece of paper easily and burn continuously for 90 minutes without smoke and odor. It can be used as a fuel for roasting food for a picnic.

  8. QSAR classification models for the screening of the endocrine-disrupting activity of perfluorinated compounds.

    PubMed

    Kovarich, S; Papa, E; Li, J; Gramatica, P

    2012-01-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are a class of emerging pollutants still widely used in different materials as non-adhesives, waterproof fabrics, fire-fighting foams, etc. Their toxic effects include potential for endocrine-disrupting activity, but the amount of experimental data available for these pollutants is limited. The use of predictive strategies such as quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) is recommended under the REACH regulation, to fill data gaps and to screen and prioritize chemicals for further experimentation, with a consequent reduction of costs and number of tested animals. In this study, local classification models for PFCs were developed to predict their T4-TTR (thyroxin-transthyretin) competing potency. The best models were selected by maximizing the sensitivity and external predictive ability. These models, characterized by robustness, good predictive power and a defined applicability domain, were applied to predict the activity of 33 other PFCs of environmental concern. Finally, classification models recently published by our research group for T4-TTR binding of brominated flame retardants and for estrogenic and anti-androgenic activity were applied to the studied perfluorinated chemicals to compare results and to further evaluate the potential for these PFCs to cause endocrine disruption.

  9. The cell biology of lignification in higher plants

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Jaime; Serk, Henrik; Granlund, Irene; Pesquet, Edouard

    2015-01-01

    Background Lignin is a polyphenolic polymer that strengthens and waterproofs the cell wall of specialized plant cell types. Lignification is part of the normal differentiation programme and functioning of specific cell types, but can also be triggered as a response to various biotic and abiotic stresses in cells that would not otherwise be lignifying. Scope Cell wall lignification exhibits specific characteristics depending on the cell type being considered. These characteristics include the timing of lignification during cell differentiation, the palette of associated enzymes and substrates, the sub-cellular deposition sites, the monomeric composition and the cellular autonomy for lignin monomer production. This review provides an overview of the current understanding of lignin biosynthesis and polymerization at the cell biology level. Conclusions The lignification process ranges from full autonomy to complete co-operation depending on the cell type. The different roles of lignin for the function of each specific plant cell type are clearly illustrated by the multiple phenotypic defects exhibited by knock-out mutants in lignin synthesis, which may explain why no general mechanism for lignification has yet been defined. The range of phenotypic effects observed include altered xylem sap transport, loss of mechanical support, reduced seed protection and dispersion, and/or increased pest and disease susceptibility. PMID:25878140

  10. Post-treatment Effect of Particleboard on Dimensional Stability and Durability Properties of Particleboard Made From Sorghum Bagasse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iswanto, A. H.; Sucipto, T.; Nadeak, S. S. D.; Fatriasari, W.

    2017-03-01

    In general, the weakness of particleboard using urea formaldehyde (UF) resin has a low dimensional stability. This reasearch intends to improve its properties by post-treatment technique using several water repellent materials. The post-treatment effect on dimensional stability and durability properties of particleboard against to subterranean and dry termites has been evaluated. Sample was dipped into water reppelent solution namely parafin, palm oil, silicon and water proof for 3 minutes. Furthermore, they were oven dried at 50°C for 24 hours. The results showed that the density varied of 0.60 to 0.74 g/cm3. The post-treatment of particleboard increases the density value. Water absorption and thickness swelling of board were varied of 29.35% to 114.99% and 13.23 to 37.31%, respectively. This treatment also improved up the thickness swelling to 65%. The best durability of board to subterranean and dry termite attack has found on silicon and waterproof treatment, respectively.

  11. Marker and pen graffiti cleaning on diverse calcareous stones by different laser techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriani, S. E.; Catalano, I. M.; Daurelio, G.; Albanese, A.

    2007-05-01

    Industries nowadays continuously produce new types of inks for markers and pens, so new different graffiti appear . In this paper laser cleaning tests on 41 new marker and pen types ( fluorescent, permanent, water-based, acrylic tempera, metallic paint, waterproof inks ), applied into laboratory on different litho- type samples (Chianca, Travertino di Roma, Tufo Carparo fine grain, Sabbie), typical stones employed in much more monuments in Puglia and Italian architectures were carried out. The same ones, were exposed for twelve months to outdoor ageing, subject to sunshine, rain, wind, IR and UV solar radiations. Ablation experiments and tests by using different cleaning techniques, each one in Dry and Wet condition (classic technique, Daurelio technique 1 and Daurelio technique 2 and others new techniques) and two different Nd:YAG laser systems (Palladio by QUANTA SYSTEM and SMART CLEAN II by EL.EN.), were adopted. The experimental modes, N-Mode (1064nm - 150, 300 and 500 μs pulse duration), Q-Switch (1064nm - 8 ns pulse duration) and SFR (Short Free Running - 1064 nm - 40 to 110μs pulse duration) were tested on each marked stones. It was found that according to the different ink types and stone substrate, Q-Switch laser cleaning ablation with optimized laser technique are the best solution to marker an pen graffiti removal. The work is still in progress.

  12. Underground water Cherenkov muon detector array with the Tibet air shower array for gamma-ray astronomy in the 100 TeV region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amenomori, M.; Ayabe, S.; Bi, X. J.; Chen, D.; Cui, S. W.; Danzengluobu; Ding, L. K.; Ding, X. H.; Feng, C. F.; Feng, Zhaoyang; Feng, Z. Y.; Gao, X. Y.; Geng, Q. X.; Guo, H. W.; He, H. H.; He, M.; Hibino, K.; Hotta, N.; Hu, Haibing; Hu, H. B.; Huang, J.; Huang, Q.; Jia, H. Y.; Kajino, F.; Kasahara, K.; Katayose, Y.; Kato, C.; Kawata, K.; Labaciren; Le, G. M.; Li, A. F.; Li, J. Y.; Lu, H.; Lu, S. L.; Meng, X. R.; Mizutani, K.; Mu, J.; Munakata, K.; Nagai, A.; Nanjo, H.; Nishizawa, M.; Ohnishi, M.; Ohta, I.; Onuma, H.; Ouchi, T.; Ozawa, S.; Ren, J. R.; Saito, T.; Saito, T. Y.; Sakata, M.; Sako, T. K.; Sasaki, T.; Shibata, M.; Shiomi, A.; Shirai, T.; Sugimoto, H.; Takita, M.; Tan, Y. H.; Tateyama, N.; Torii, S.; Tsuchiya, H.; Udo, S.; Wang, B.; Wang, H.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y. G.; Wu, H. R.; Xue, L.; Yamamoto, Y.; Yan, C. T.; Yang, X. C.; Yasue, S.; Ye, Z. H.; Yu, G. C.; Yuan, A. F.; Yuda, T.; Zhang, H. M.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, N. J.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Yi; Zhaxisangzhu; Zhou, X. X.

    2007-06-01

    We propose to build a large water-Cherenkov-type muon-detector array (Tibet MD array) around the 37 000 m2 Tibet air shower array (Tibet AS array) already constructed at 4300 m above sea level in Tibet, China. Each muon detector is a waterproof concrete pool, 6 m wide × 6 m long × 1.5 m deep in size, equipped with a 20 inch-in-diameter PMT. The Tibet MD array consists of 240 muon detectors set up 2.5 m underground. Its total effective area will be 8640 m2 for muon detection. The Tibet MD array will significantly improve gamma-ray sensitivity of the Tibet AS array in the 100 TeV region (10 1000 TeV) by means of gamma/hadron separation based on counting the number of muons accompanying an air shower. The Tibet AS+MD array will have the sensitivity to gamma rays in the 100 TeV region by an order of magnitude better than any other previous existing detectors in the world.

  13. PROVING EXPERIMENTS AND ANALYSIS OF ROOFTOP HEAT SHIELD EXPERIMENT WITH WATER CONTAIN CONCRETE BOAD THAT USES ELEMENTARY SCHOOL BUILDING

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Akinori; 日根, 隆夫; Okuda, Yoshio; Koyama, Hiroyuki; Hada, Yuuichi

    In this study, the reduction effect of the heat inflow on the rooftop and the indoor thermal environment was measured by using the elementary school building, the rooftop of the bilding was covered with the water contain concrete boards. And, conserve energy effect and effectiveness for the indoor thermal environment improvement were evaluated. The effect of the decrease of the surface temperature and the slab side temperature at water contain concrete boad plot remarkably from the measurement result during the July-September of 2010, the temperatures decrease 22°C at the surface, 15°C at the waterproof layer surface that was caused compared with the gravel covered roof. The water contain concrete boards plot always drove the ceiling side temperature and the indoor temperature low as a result of comparing with the indoor condition of the control plot. The temperature fluctuate was small at time that opened the window and ventilated, and ventilation was discontinued, it became big temperatures fluctuate. The effect of the decrease of 0.5°C in PMV and 0.5 in WBGT was caused while the room had sealed up, and the effect of the decrease of 0.3 in WBGT was caused while the ventilated state.

  14. Advanced piggyback water power generator

    SciTech Connect

    Wiggs, B.R.

    1988-02-16

    A power generating system is described including: a central boat containing gearing and electric and/or power generation equipment, with a forward angled-back deflection screen and a rear non-angled deflection screen, with a smaller outrigger pontoon on each respective side of the central boat, with closed cell, waterproof, plastic foam filling in the central boat and pontoons, and with the bow of the respective outrigger pontoons angled so as to completely turn water away from, and to the outside of, the space and/or incoming water area between each such respective pontooon and the central boat. There are legs with cone shaped bottoms and with wheels attached, with the wheels extending slightly below the cone shaped bottoms; paddle wheels on each side of the central boat, between the central boat, and respective outrigger pontoons, with 90 degree spaced, flat, paddle blades, and with a solid, disk division vertically dividing each respective side paddle wheel in half and extending at right angles to, and from, the central axle, to the outside extreme end of the paddle blades, with each such half of the equally divided paddle wheel being constructed so that the 90 degree spaced paddle blades in one half are offset by 45 degrees from the 90 degree space paddle blades in the other half, and with the extreme ends of each such set of divided paddle wheels being enclosed via a similar solid.

  15. Assessment of the state of urban ecosystems on the basis of remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorokhova, I. N.; Borisochkina, T. I.; Shishkonakova, E. A.

    2013-04-01

    The results of the soil-ecological monitoring of the Novovladykino (Moscow) key site are presented. The monitoring included the interpretation of aerospace information collected in 2000 and 2010, terrestrial route observations, and mapping of the key site. The data obtained confirm the possibility to use the remote sensing information in the investigation of urban ecosystems and to recognize the arboreal vegetation, shrubs, and lawn grass in images. The approximate identification of the tree species; the assessment of the state of the green belts and the natural, anthropogenic, and technogenic soils and their complexes; the identification of the overcompacted, mechanically destroyed, and sealed soils under the waterproof and permeable surface horizons are also possible. The determination of the species composition of the trees in small groups, the poor state of the individual trees and small groves, and the causes of the changes in the state of the green belts and polluted areas turned out to be impossible. Additional field and laboratory investigations were performed in order to verify and refine information obtained from the satellite images.

  16. Surprising high hydrophobicity of polymer networks from hydrophilic components.

    PubMed

    Attanasio, Agnese; Bayer, Ilker S; Ruffilli, Roberta; Ayadi, Farouk; Athanassiou, Athanassia

    2013-06-26

    We report a simple and inexpensive method of fabricating highly hydrophobic novel materials based on interpenetrating networks of polyamide and poly(ethyl cyanoacrylate) hydrophilic components. The process is a single-step solution casting from a common solvent, formic acid, of polyamide and ethyl cyanoacrylate monomers. After casting and subsequent solvent evaporation, the in situ polymerization of ethyl cyanoacrylate monomer forms polyamide-poly(ethyl cyanoacrylate) interpenetrating network films. The interpenetrating networks demonstrate remarkable waterproof properties allowing wettability control by modulating the concentration of the components. In contrast, pure polyamide and poly(ethyl cyanoacrylate) films obtained from formic acid solutions are highly hygroscopic and hydrophilic, respectively. The polymerization of ethyl cyanoacrylate in the presence of polyamide promotes molecular interactions between the components, which reduce the available hydrophilic moieties and render the final material hydrophobic. The wettability, morphology, and thermo-physical properties of the polymeric coatings were characterized. The materials developed in this work take advantage of the properties of both polymers in a single blend and above all, due to their hydrophobic nature and minimal water uptake, can extend the application range of the individual polymers where water repellency is required.

  17. In Situ Experiments To Reveal the Role of Surface Feature Sidewalls in the Cassie–Wenzel Transition

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Waterproof and self-cleaning surfaces continue to attract much attention as they can be instrumental in various different technologies. Such surfaces are typically rough, allowing liquids to contact only the outermost tops of their asperities, with air being entrapped underneath. The formed solid–liquid–air interface is metastable and, hence, can be forced into a completely wetted solid surface. A detailed understanding of the wetting barrier and the dynamics of this transition is critically important for the practical use of the related surfaces. Toward this aim, wetting transitions were studied in situ at a set of patterned perfluoropolyether dimethacrylate (PFPEdma) polymer surfaces exhibiting surface features with different types of sidewall profiles. PFPEdma is intrinsically hydrophobic and exhibits a refractive index very similar to water. Upon immersion of the patterned surfaces into water, incident light was differently scattered at the solid–liquid–air and solid–liquid interface, which allows for distinguishing between both wetting states by dark-field microscopy. The wetting transition observed with this methodology was found to be determined by the sidewall profiles of the patterned structures. Partial recovery of the wetting was demonstrated to be induced by abrupt and continuous pressure reductions. A theoretical model based on Laplace’s law was developed and applied, allowing for the analytical calculation of the transition barrier and the potential to revert the wetting upon pressure reduction. PMID:25496232

  18. Macrophyte monitoring along the Trentino side of the Lake Garda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellegrini, Giovanna; Monauni, Catia; Fedrizzi, Fabio; Laura, Fravezzi; Paola, Testa; Silvia, Costaraoss; Mario, Mazzurana; Gaetano, Patti; Barbara, Zennaro

    2013-04-01

    Macrophytes, that grow along the Trentino shorezone of the Lake Garda, were sampled and mapped during summer 2010. The sampling protocol foresees a lake bottom survey until the depth of 15 using GPS system, for identifying sampling sites and transects, waterproof camcorder, batiscope and a rake. The proof of 13/14 meters is the internal limit for macrophyte development. The area between 6 and 13/14 meters was surveyed with a robot camcorder placed on a boat of the fireworks brigade of Trento. This boat was used to track the 14 km of the shorezone of the Trentino part of the Lake Garda. The investigation result is a survey of a wide carex prairie that has no interruption all along the lake perimeter. An inflatable boat was used to inspect the shorezone using a batiscope. The macrophyte samples were collected using a rake. The number of mapped sites is 15, transects are 15 and identified 18 different species. During 2011, in conjunction with the flight MIVIS within the EULAKES project, the macrophyte distribution was confirmed and further inspection was carried out for sampling and classifying caracee. Among the species collected, Chara globularis was present in all sites sampled, while sites 0 and 12, corresponding respectively to local reserve Val Gola and the bay of Torbole, showed the highest biodiversity among sites, with 11 species collected of the 18 total. Within each site, higher number of species were collected between 2 and 5 meters depth's.

  19. A food contaminant detection system based on high-Tc SQUIDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Saburo; Fujita, H.; Hatsukade, Y.; Nagaishi, T.; Nishi, K.; Ota, H.; Otani, T.; Suzuki, S.

    2006-05-01

    We have designed and constructed a computer controlled food contaminant detection system for practical use, based on high-Tc SQUID detectors. The system, which features waterproof stainless steel construction, is acceptable under the HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point) programme guidelines. The outer dimensions of the system are 1500 mm length × 477 mm width × 1445 mm height, and it can accept objects up to 200 mm wide × 80 mm high. An automatic liquid nitrogen filling system was installed in the standard model. This system employed a double-layered permeable metallic shield with a thickness of 1 mm as a magnetically shielded box. The distribution of the magnetic field in the box was simulated by FEM; the gap between each shield layer was optimized before fabrication. A shielding factor of 732 in the Z-component was achieved. This value is high enough to safely operate the system in a non-laboratory environment, i.e., a factory. During testing, we successfully detected a steel contaminant as small as 0.3 mm in diameter at a distance of 75 mm.

  20. Thermal and mechanical properties of cellular polystyrene and polyurethane insulation materials aged on a flat roof in hot-dry climate

    SciTech Connect

    Ozkan, E. . Faculty of Architecture)

    1994-03-01

    Cellular polymers, which have been increasingly used for thermal insulation of external walls and roofs since the 1970s, degrade in some cases. The heat transmission of a cellular polymer insulator, the k value, is predominantly dependent on the heat conduction of the air or gas remaining in the cells. An insulator may be aged and start transmitting more energy due to replacement of cell content with different gases or moisture or both, changes in size, softening and creeping under pressure and heat, or penetration of water or mineral particles into cells, or a combination thereof. The solid face also degrades due to ultraviolet light, heat and atmospheric oxygen. A research project was carried out from January 1988 to December 1991 to investigate the performance of flat roofs, waterproofing, and thermal insulation materials in the hot-dry climatic region of Saudi Arabia. In this context a field station was built and operated for weathering of roofing and insulation materials and for monitoring the surface and the inner temperatures of the applied roof systems. Basically, two types of cellular polymer, expanded polystyrene and foamed polyurethane, were installed on the roof of the station for insulation. Specimens taken from the fresh, stored, and weathered polystyrene and polyurethane foams were tested to evaluate them according to the selected properties of thermal conductivity, compressive strength at relative deformation, and dimensional stability at elevated temperature. The test results were compared with the requirements presented in the literature and the standard specifications.

  1. A Kalman filter to estimate altitude change during a fall.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Michael C; Wei Lu; Changhong Wang; Redmond, Stephen J; Lovell, Nigel H

    2016-08-01

    Barometers have been incorporated into fall detectors in order to enhance the accuracy of fall detection algorithms, however they are power-hungry devices. We present an offline evaluation of a Kalman filter (KF) for estimating the pressure change during a fall that enables low-power operation of the barometer. The KF takes advantage of the fact that a semi-permeable air membrane on a waterproof fall detector enclosure causes a delay in the equilibrium between internal and external enclosure pressure, and this delay enables the barometer to be switched off until a free-fall is detected. We assessed the KF using data obtained from simulated falls and activities of daily living. The KF was able to differentiate between fall and non-fall activities, with the average measured pressure change during a fall of 8 Pa best determined using a delay in pressure equalization of 20 seconds. The KF detected a change in altitude faster than a simple moving average filter (MAF), reaching 66% of its final value before the MAF was able to initialize.

  2. Investigations of a large scale eared grebe (Podiceps nigricollis) die-off at the Salton Sea, California in 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meteyer, C.U.; Audet, D.J.; Rocke, T.E.; Radke, W.; Creekmore, L.H.; Duncan, R.

    2004-01-01

    An estimated 150,000 Eared Grebes (Podiceps nigricollis) died at the Salton Sea between 16 December 1991 and 21 April 1992. This represented the largest documented mortality event of Eared Grebes at the time and approximately 6% of the North American population. During the die-off, grebes exhibited several uncharacteristic behaviors, such as congregating at freshwater tributaries, repeatedly gulping freshwater, preening excessively, moving onto land, and allowing close approach and/or capture. Avian cholera was diagnosed in Eared Grebes collected along the north and west shoreline of the Sea late in the die-off but not from the majority of the Eared Grebes dying along the south shore. Gross and histological examinations and diagnostic testing for viruses, bacteria, and parasites did not identify the cause of mortality in the majority of Eared Grebes examined from the south shore of the Sea. Liver concentrations of arsenic, chromium, DDE, mercury, selenium, and zinc were elevated in some Eared Grebes, but none of those contaminants exceeded known thresholds for independent lethality. Poisoning by heavy metals, organochlorine, organophosphorus, or carbamate pesticides, avian botulism, and salt were ruled out as the cause of mortality. Hypotheses for the die-off are interactive effects of contaminants, immunosuppression, a yet unidentified biotoxin or pathogen present in the Salton Sea, impairment of feather waterproofing leading to hypothermia, or a unique manifestation of avian cholera that evades laboratory detection.

  3. Expression of a fungal sterol desaturase improves tomato drought tolerance, pathogen resistance and nutritional quality

    PubMed Central

    Kamthan, Ayushi; Kamthan, Mohan; Azam, Mohammad; Chakraborty, Niranjan; Chakraborty, Subhra; Datta, Asis

    2012-01-01

    Crop genetic engineering mostly aims at improving environmental stress (biotic and abiotic) tolerance as well as nutritional quality. Empowering a single crop with multiple traits is highly demanding and requires manipulation of more than one gene. However, we report improved drought tolerance and fungal resistance along with the increased iron and polyunsaturated fatty acid content in tomato by expressing a single gene encoding C-5 sterol desaturase (FvC5SD) from an edible fungus Flammulina velutipes. FvC5SD is an iron binding protein involved in ergosterol biosynthesis. Morphological and biochemical analyses indicated ≈23% more epicuticular wax deposition in leaves of transgenic plants that provides an effective waterproof barrier resulting in improved protection from drought and infection by phytopathogenic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Furthermore, the transgenic fruits have improved nutritional value attributed to enhanced level of beneficial PUFA and 2-3 fold increase in total iron content. This strategy can be extended to other economically important crops. PMID:23230516

  4. Mineral oil barrier sequential polymer treatment for recycled paper products in food packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Uttam C.; Fragouli, Despina; Bayer, Ilker S.; Mele, Elisa; Conchione, Chiara; Cingolani, Roberto; Moret, Sabrina; Athanassiou, Athanassia

    2017-01-01

    Recycled cellulosic paperboards may include mineral oils after the recycle process, which together with their poor water resistance limit their use as food packaging materials. In this work, we demonstrate that a proper functionalization of the recycled paper with two successive polymer treatments, imposes a mineral oil migration barrier and simultaneously renders it waterproof and grease resistant, making it an ideal material for food contact. The first poly (methyl methacrylate) treatment penetrates the paper network and creates a protective layer around every fiber, permitting thus the transformation of the paperboard to a hydrophobic material throughout its thickness, reducing at the same time the mineral oil migration. Subsequently, the second layer with a cyclic olefin copolymer fills the open pores of the surface, and reduces the mineral oil hydrocarbons migration at levels below those proposed by the BMEL. Online liquid chromatography-gas chromatography coupled with flame ionization detection quantitatively demonstrate that this dual functional treatment prevents the migration of both saturated (mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons) and aromatic hydrocarbon (mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons) mineral oils from the recycled paperboard to a dry food simulant.

  5. Evaluation of reusable surface insulation for space shuttle over a range of heat-transfer rate and surface temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, A. J.

    1973-01-01

    Reusable surface insulation materials, which were developed as heat shields for the space shuttle, were tested over a range of conditions including heat-transfer rates between 160 and 620 kW/sq m. The lowest of these heating rates was in a range predicted for the space shuttle during reentry, and the highest was more than twice the predicted entry heating on shuttle areas where reusable surface insulation would be used. Individual specimens were tested repeatedly at increasingly severe conditions to determine the maximum heating rate and temperature capability. A silica-base material experienced only minimal degradation during repeated tests which included conditions twice as severe as predicted shuttle entry and withstood cumulative exposures three times longer than the best mullite material. Mullite-base materials cracked and experienced incipient melting at conditions within the range predicted for shuttle entry. Neither silica nor mullite materials consistently survived the test series with unbroken waterproof surfaces. Surface temperatures for a silica and a mullite material followed a trend expected for noncatalytic surfaces, whereas surface temperatures for a second mullite material appeared to follow a trend expected for a catalytic surface.

  6. Measurement of characteristic impedance of silicon fiber sheet based readout strip panel for RPC detector in INO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, M. K.; Kumar, A.; Marimuthu, N.; Singh, V.; Subrahmanyam, V. S.

    2017-01-01

    The India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) is a mega science project of India, which is going to use about 30,000 Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) as active detector elements for the study of atmoshpheric neutrino oscillations. Each RPC detector will consist of two orthogonally placed readout strip panel for picking the signals generated in the gas chamber. The area of RPC detector in INO-ICAL (Iron Calorimeter) experiment will be 2 m × 2 m, therefore the dimensions of readout strip panel should also be 2 m × 2 m. To get undistorted signals pass through the readout strip panel to front-end electronics, their characteristic impedance should be matched with each other. In the present paper, we describe the need and search of new dielectric material for the fabrication of flame resistant, waterproof and flexible readout strip panel. We will also describe the measurement of characteristic impedance of Plastic Honeycomb (PH) based readout strip panel and Silicon Fiber Sheet (SFS) based readout strip panel in a comparative way, and its variation under loading and with time. Based on this study, we found that a 5 mm thick SFS-based readout strip panel has a minimum signal reflection at 49.5 ohm characteristic impedance value. Our study shows that SFS is a good dielectric material for the purpose.

  7. Design and Performance Analysis of an Intrinsically Safe Ultrasonic Ranging Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongjuan; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Xu; Wang, Dong; Jin, Baoquan

    2016-01-01

    In flammable or explosive environments, an ultrasonic sensor for distance measurement poses an important engineering safety challenge, because the driving circuit uses an intermediate frequency transformer as an impedance transformation element, in which the produced heat or spark is available for ignition. In this paper, an intrinsically safe ultrasonic ranging sensor is designed and implemented. The waterproof piezoelectric transducer with integrated transceiver is chosen as an energy transducing element. Then a novel transducer driving circuit is designed based on an impedance matching method considering safety spark parameters to replace an intermediate frequency transformer. Then, an energy limiting circuit is developed to achieve dual levels of over-voltage and over-current protection. The detail calculation and evaluation are executed and the electrical characteristics are analyzed to verify the intrinsic safety of the driving circuit. Finally, an experimental platform of the ultrasonic ranging sensor system is constructed, which involves short-circuit protection. Experimental results show that the proposed ultrasonic ranging sensor is excellent in both ranging performance and intrinsic safety. PMID:27304958

  8. Large thermal protection system panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Franklin K. (Inventor); Weinberg, David J. (Inventor); Tran, Tu T. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A protective panel for a reusable launch vehicle provides enhanced moisture protection, simplified maintenance, and increased temperature resistance. The protective panel includes an outer ceramic matrix composite (CMC) panel, and an insulative bag assembly coupled to the outer CMC panel for isolating the launch vehicle from elevated temperatures and moisture. A standoff attachment system attaches the outer CMC panel and the bag assembly to the primary structure of the launch vehicle. The insulative bag assembly includes a foil bag having a first opening shrink fitted to the outer CMC panel such that the first opening and the outer CMC panel form a water tight seal at temperatures below a desired temperature threshold. Fibrous insulation is contained within the foil bag for protecting the launch vehicle from elevated temperatures. The insulative bag assembly further includes a back panel coupled to a second opening of the foil bag such that the fibrous insulation is encapsulated by the back panel, the foil bag, and the outer CMC panel. The use of a CMC material for the outer panel in conjunction with the insulative bag assembly eliminates the need for waterproofing processes, and ultimately allows for more efficient reentry profiles.

  9. Facile fabrication of iron-based superhydrophobic surfaces via electric corrosion without bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qinghe; Liu, Hongtao; Chen, Tianchi; Wei, Yan; Wei, Zhu

    2016-04-01

    Superhydrophobic surface is of wide application in the field of catalysis, lubrication, waterproof, biomedical materials, etc. The superhydrophobic surface based on hard metal is worth further study due to its advantages of high strength and wear resistance. This paper investigates the fabrication techniques towards superhydrophobic surface on carbon steel substrate via electric corrosion and studies the properties of as-prepared superhydrophobic surface. The hydrophobic properties were characterized by a water sliding angle (SA) and a water contact angle (CA) measured by the Surface tension instrument. A Scanning electron microscope was used to analyze the structure of the corrosion surface. The surface compositions were characterized by an Energy Dispersive Spectrum. The Electrochemical workstation was used to measure its anti-corrosion property. The anti-icing performance was characterized by a steam-freezing test in Environmental testing chamber. The SiC sandpaper and 500 g weight were used to test the friction property. The research result shows that the superhydrophobic surface can be successfully fabricated by electrocorrosion on carbon steel substrate under appropriate process; the contact angle of the as-prepared superhydrophobic surface can be up to 152 ± 0.5°, and the sliding angle is 1-2°; its anti-corrosion property, anti-icing performance and the friction property all show an excellent level. This method provides the possibility of industrialization of superhydrophobic surface based on iron substrate as it can prepare massive superhydrophobic surface quickly.

  10. Cyanoacrylate glue burn in a child--lessons to be learned.

    PubMed

    Clarke, T F E

    2011-07-01

    Cyanoacrylate is the generic name for cyanoacrylate based 'fast-acting' adhesives such as methyl-2-cyanoacrylate and ethyl-2-cyanoacrylate(commonly sold under trade names like Super Glue and Krazy Glue). Other forms have been developed as medical grade glues to be non-toxic and less irritating to skin tissue. Cyanoacrylate has a multitude of uses, ranging from simple domestic applications, to those for industrial purposes. It is an acrylic resin which rapidly polymerises in the presence of water (specifically hydroxide ions), forming long, strong chains, joining the bonded surfaces together. Cyanoacrylate sets quickly, often in less than a minute and a normal bond reaches full strength in two hours and is waterproof. This case report outlines an interesting case of a full thickness burn resulting from skin in contact with cyanoacrylate glue, including highlighting several areas where the management was not appropriate. This was likely due to the novel presentation of this patient, and lack of education of staff. Although there have been cases of burns resulting from this type of glue documented in the literature, there are none of this exact nature and depth. [See figure in text]. Polymerization of methyl-2-cyanoacrylate.

  11. Occupational and environmental exposure to tribromophenol used for wood surface protection in sawmills.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Manuel; Becerra, José; Godoy, Juan; Barra, Ricardo

    2005-06-01

    This study analyses the occupational and environmental conditions of sawmills where the lumber is protected from microorganism action by dipping it in 2,4,6 tribromophenol (TBP). Three processes were evaluated: hydraulic immersion, chain conveyor system and manual immersion. The biggest occupational exposure to TBP was registered in manual and chain conveyor systems. The average values in the workers' urine for TBP were 6.9 and 5.7 mg/g creatinine, respectively. For environmental exposure, the highest value in well waters was 25.1 microg/L and in soil was 4,602 mg/kg. It could be established that the hydraulic immersion system presents less occupational TBP exposure. Nevertheless, the hydraulic system, as well as the other two anti-stain alternatives, requires the introduction of pollution prevention efforts. To reduce the environmental exposure to TBP, the lumber-dipping tank area, the forklift traffic areas, and the storage areas need to be waterproofed. It is also necessary to implement a TBP solution recovery system to eliminate dripping from the lumber once it is removed from the fungicide dipping tanks.

  12. Exposure factors for cleaning, automotive care, and surface protection products for exposure assessments.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji Young; Lim, Miyoung; Yang, Wonho; Lee, Kiyoung

    2017-01-01

    Accurately measuring the usage patterns of consumer products (CPs) is important to conduct realistic exposure assessments. We determined the exposure factors for 18 consumer products: household bleach, mold stain remover, all-purpose cleaner, washing machine cleaner, air conditioner cleaner, glass cleaner, drain cleaner, adhesive remover, liquid snow chain, tire shine spray, wheel cleaner, rain repellent, car wax spray, leather polish, furniture polish, anti-fog product, fabric waterproofing spray, and rust inhibitor. Field survey staff visited homes and collected product use information via face-to-face interviews. In total, 10,000 participants (5010 men and 4990 women) aged 15 years and older completed the questionnaire. Household bleach had the highest use rate of 47.4% and use rates for the other products ranged from 0.8 to 21.7%. The use rates of many CPs differed by age group and gender. Many household cleaning products were used regularly, but some products, such as air conditioner cleaner and liquid snow chain, were used in specific seasons or for specific purposes; therefore, they were used less frequently compared to cleaning products. These exposure factor data will be useful as input data for exposure and risk assessments and setting safety guidelines.

  13. Influence of the processed sunflower oil on the cement properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleysher, A. U.; Tokarchuk, V. V.; Sviderskiy, V. A.

    2015-01-01

    Used oils (vegetable oil, animal oil, engine oil, etc.), which are essentially industrial wastes, have found application as secondary raw materials in some braches of industry. In particular, the only well-known and commonly-used way of utilizing wastes of vegetable oils is to apply them as raw materials in the production of biodiesel. The goal of the present study is to develop a conceptually new way of vegetable oil wastes utilization in the building industry. The test admixture D-148 was obtained from the processing of wastes of sunflower oil and it mainly consists of fatty acid diethanolamide. The test admixture was added to the cement system for the purpose of studying its influence on water demand, flowability, setting times, compressive strength and moisture adsorption. The test admixture D-148 at the optimal content 0. 2 weight % causes 10% decrease in water demand, 1.7 time increase in flowability (namely spread diameter), 23% increase in grade strength and 34% decrease in moisture adsorption. The results of the present investigation make it possible to consider the final product of the waste sunflower oil processing as multifunctional plasticizing-waterproofing admixture.

  14. Fabrication and Characterization of a Conformal Skin-like Electronic System for Quantitative, Cutaneous Wound Management.

    PubMed

    Lee, Woosik; Kwon, Ohjin; Lee, Dong Sup; Yeo, Woon-Hong

    2015-09-02

    Recent advances in the development of electronic technologies and biomedical devices offer opportunities for non-invasive, quantitative assessment of cutaneous wound healing on the skin. Existing methods, however, still rely on visual inspections through various microscopic tools and devices that normally include high-cost, sophisticated systems and require well trained personnel for operation and data analysis. Here, we describe methods and protocols to fabricate a conformal, skin-like electronics system that enables conformal lamination to the skin surface near the wound tissues, which provides recording of high fidelity electrical signals such as skin temperature and thermal conductivity. The methods of device fabrication provide details of step-by-step preparation of the microelectronic system that is completely enclosed with elastomeric silicone materials to offer electrical isolation. The experimental study presents multifunctional, biocompatible, waterproof, reusable, and flexible/stretchable characteristics of the device for clinical applications. Protocols of clinical testing provide an overview and sequential process of cleaning, testing setup, system operation, and data acquisition with the skin-like electronics, gently mounted on hypersensitive, cutaneous wound and contralateral tissues on patients.

  15. SUPERVISORS' TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP AND BULLYING IN THE WORKPLACE.

    PubMed

    Dussault, Marc; Frenette, Éric

    2015-12-01

    The study tests the relationship between supervisors' transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership and perceived bullying in the workplace. Transformational and transactional leaders can create conditions that make bullying at work less frequent but laissez-faire leadership may cause conflict that can result in bullying. The participants were 288 adults (122 women, 164 men; M age = 38.9 yr., SD = 11.7; M tenure = 7.2 yr.) employed across several organizations. Of the participants, 53.2% were contacted during an evening class in organizational behavior, and the others were workers from a waterproofing company. Scales measuring perceived leadership of a supervisor and perceived bullying at work were administered. Supervisor's transformational and transactional leadership were negatively related to work-related bullying, person-related bullying, and physically intimidating bullying. Transactional leadership was also negatively related to Work-related bullying, perceived Person-related bullying, and perceived Physically intimidating bullying. Supervisor's laissez-faire leadership was positively related to Work-related bullying, perceived Person-related bullying, and perceived Physically intimidating bullying. The use of Bass's model of transformational leadership in relation with the three-factor structure of the Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised is unique in research on leadership and bullying. The relationship between laissez-faire leadership and leadership support results from previous studies: transactional or transformational leadership is likely to provide an environment that makes bullying more rare than under a negative or passive leadership.

  16. Shuttle antenna radome technology test program. Volume 2: Development of S-band antenna interface design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhlman, E. A.; Baranowski, L. C.

    1977-01-01

    The effects of the Thermal Protection Subsystem (TPS) contamination on the space shuttle orbiter S band quad antenna due to multiple mission buildup are discussed. A test fixture was designed, fabricated and exposed to ten cycles of simulated ground and flight environments. Radiation pattern and impedance tests were performed to measure the effects of the contaminates. The degradation in antenna performance was attributed to the silicone waterproofing in the TPS tiles rather than exposure to the contaminating sources used in the test program. Validation of the accuracy of an analytical thermal model is discussed. Thermal vacuum tests with a test fixture and a representative S band quad antenna were conducted to evaluate the predictions of the analytical thermal model for two orbital heating conditions and entry from each orbit. The results show that the accuracy of predicting the test fixture thermal responses is largely dependent on the ability to define the boundary and ambient conditions. When the test conditions were accurately included in the analytical model, the predictions were in excellent agreement with measurements.

  17. Use of admixtures in organic-contaminated cement-clay pastes.

    PubMed

    Gallo Stampino, Paola; Zampori, Luca; Dotelli, Giovanni; Meloni, Paola; Sora, Isabella Natali; Pelosato, Renato

    2009-01-30

    In this work microstructure, porosity and hydration degree of cement-based solidified/stabilized wasteforms were studied before assessing their leaching behaviour. 2-Chloroaniline was chosen as a model liquid organic pollutant and included into cement pastes, which were also modified with different admixtures for concrete: a superplasticizer based on acrylic-modified polymer, a synthetic rubber latex and a waterproofing agent. An organoclay, modified with an ammonium quaternary salt (benzyl-dimethyl-tallowammonium, BDMTA), was added to the pastes as pre-sorbent agent of the organic matter. All the samples were dried up to constant weight in order to stop the hydration process at different times during the first 28 days of curing, typically, after 1 day (1d), 7 days (7d) and 28 days. Then, the microstructure of the hardened cement-clay pastes was investigated by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). The hydration degree and porosity were studied by thermal analysis (TG/DTA) and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP), respectively. For samples cured for 28 days a short-term leach test set by Italian regulation for industrial waste recycling (D.M. 5 February 1998) was performed. The best results showed a 5% release of the total initial amount of organic pollutant.

  18. Design and Construction of a Cost Effective Headstage for Simultaneous Neural Stimulation and Recording in the Water Maze

    PubMed Central

    Shirvalkar, Prasad R.; Shapiro, Mathew L.

    2010-01-01

    Headstage preamplifiers and source followers are commonly used to study neural activity in behavioral neurophysiology experiments. Available commercial products are often expensive, not easily customized, and not submersible. Here we describe a method to design and build a customized, integrated circuit headstage for simultaneous 4-channel neural recording and 2-channel simulation in awake, behaving animals. The headstage is designed using a free, commercially available CAD-type design package, and can be modified easily to accommodate different scales (e.g. to add channels). A customized printed circuit board is built using surface mount resistors, capacitors and operational amplifiers to construct the unity gain source follower circuit. The headstage is made water-proof with a combination of epoxy, parafilm and a synthetic rubber putty. We have successfully used this device to record local field potentials and stimulate different brain regions simultaneously via independent channels in rats swimming in a water maze. The total cost is < $30/unit and can be manufactured readily. PMID:20972415

  19. Development of a high sensitive MEMS hydrophone using PVDF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varadan, Vijay K.; Zhu, Bei; K. A, Jose

    2002-05-01

    The design and experimental evaluation of a PVDF-based MEMS hydrophone is presented in this paper. The basic structure of the hydrophone was fabricated on a silicon wafer using standard NMOS process technology. A MOSFET with extended gate electrode was designed as the interface circuit to the sensing material, which is a piezoelectric polymer, polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF). Acoustic impedance possessed by this piezoelectric material provides a reasonable match to water, which makes it very attractive for underwater applications. The electrical signal generated by the PVDF film was directly coupled to the gate of the MOSFET. To minimize the parasitic capacitance underneath the PVDF film and hence improve the device sensitivity, a thick photoresist was first employed as the dielectric layer under the extended gate electrode. For underwater operation, a waterproof Rho-C rubber encapsulated the hydrophone. A silicon nitride layer passivated the active device, which is a good barrier material to most mobile ions and solvents. The device after passivation also shows a lower noise level. The theoretical model developed to predict the sensitivity of the hydrophone shows a reasonable agreement between the theory and the experiment.

  20. CFD Model of Water Droplet Transport for ISS Hygiene Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Son, Chang H.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the study is to assess the impacts of free water propagation in the Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC). Free water can be generated inside the WHC in small quantities due to crew hygiene activity. To mitigate potential impact of free water in Node 3 cabin the WHC doorway is enclosed by a waterproof bump-out, Kabin, with openings at the top and bottom. At the overhead side of the rack, there is a screen that prevents large drops of water from exiting. However, as the avionics fan in the WHC causes airflow toward the deck side of the rack, small quantities of free water may exit at the bottom of the Kabin. A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis of Node 3 cabin airflow made possible to identify the paths of water transport. The Node 3 airflow was computed for several ventilation scenarios. To simulate the droplet transport the Lagrangian discrete phase approach was used. Various initial droplet distributions were considered in the study. The droplet diameter was varied in the range of 2-20 mm. The results of the computations showed that most of the drops fall to the rack surface not far from the WHC curtain. The probability of the droplet transport to the adjacent rack surface with electronic equipment was predicted.

  1. Design and development of a new facility for teaching and research in clinical anatomy.

    PubMed

    Greene, John Richard T

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses factors in the design, commissioning, project management, and intellectual property protection of developments within a new clinical anatomy facility in the United Kingdom. The project was aimed at creating cost-effective facilities that would address widespread concerns over anatomy teaching, and support other activities central to the university mission-namely research and community interaction. The new facilities comprise an engaging learning environment and were designed to support a range of pedagogies appropriate to the needs of healthcare professionals at different stages of their careers. Specific innovations include integrated workstations each comprising of a dissection table, with removable top sections, an overhead operating light, and ceiling-mounted camera. The tables incorporate waterproof touch-screen monitors to display images from the camera, an endoscope or a database of images, videos, and tutorials. The screens work independently so that instructors can run different teaching sessions simultaneously and students can progress at different speeds to suit themselves. Further, database access is provided from within an integrated anatomy and pathology museum and display units dedicated to the correlation of cross-sectional anatomy with medical imaging. A new functional neuroanatomy modeling system, called the BrainTower, has been developed to aid integration of anatomy with physiology and clinical neurology. Many aspects of the new facility are reproduced within a Mobile Teaching Unit, which can be driven to hospitals, colleges, and schools to provide appropriate work-based education and community interaction.

  2. The physical action of three diatomaceous earths against the cuticle of the flour mite Acarus siro L. (Acari: Acaridae).

    PubMed

    Cook, Dean A; Wakefield, Maureen E; Bryning, Gareth P

    2008-02-01

    Experiments examined the accepted modes of action of the desiccant dust, diatomaceous earth (DE), against the flour mite, Acarus siro (L.) (Astigmata). Adult mites were exposed to three DE products for periods of 3, 18 and 72 h under conditions designed to allow partial desiccation of the mites without causing mortality. After exposure, the DE dust particles were washed off the mite bodies, and both the DE and the mites were examined for presence of cuticular hydrocarbons by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis. GC-MS identified seven major cuticular lipids of chain length C(13)--C(26) that may have a role in the waterproofing of A. siro. After 18 h exposure, n-tridecane and several different long-chain fatty acid ethyl esters were detected on one of the DE products. After 72 h, n-tridecane was detected on all three DE products. Mite samples retained after removal of the DEs were examined by microscopy. Tentative evidence was observed by conventional low-power microscopy that might indicate uniform removal of the epicuticle. However, a detailed examination by scanning electron microscopy showed no signs of abrasion.

  3. Digital reconstruction of the Song Dynasty Ganzhou drainage system based on AR technology and its’ application in the new urban area planning and revision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, H. L.; Chen, Y. L.; Tao, T. H.

    2017-02-01

    Water-logging problem is a common problem in modern city. The urban built-up area of Zhangjiang new district in Ganzhou has the same water-logging problem, however, the old urban area of Ganzhou was praised as “Millennium no flood”. The drainage system of the old urban area of Ganzhou—Fushougou, which is not flooded for hundreds years because of the perfect drainage system. It’s valuable to be referenced to the modern city drainage and waterproof comprehensive planning. In order to explore the mystery of “Millennium no flood” of old urban area of Ganzhou, at the same time to provide directive opinion to the sustainability of Zhangjiang new urban area drainage system, this paper attempts to digital reconstruct the drainage system in old urban area of Ganzhou by augmented reality(AR). It will provide a new technological means and ways to evaluate the sustainability of urban underground drainage system under the surface feature changes in the landscape. On the basis of digital reconstruction of the drainage system in the old urban area of Ganzhou, the sustainability evaluation index of drainage system is studied by analyzing and contrasting with Zhangjiang new urban area drainage system, to guide the revision of comprehensive planning about city drainage and water-logging in the new urban area of Zhangjiang.

  4. Radioactive contamination incidents involving protective clothing

    SciTech Connect

    Reichelt, R.; Clay, M.; Eichorst, J.

    1996-10-01

    The study focuses on incidents at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities involving the migration of radioactive contaminants through protective clothing. The authors analyzed 68 occurrence reports for the following factors: (1) type of work; (2) working conditions; (3) type of anti-contamination (anti-C) material; (4) area of body or clothing contaminated; and (5) nature of spread of contamination. A majority of reports identified strenuous work activities such as maintenance, construction, or decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) projects. The reports also indicated adverse working conditions that included hot and humid or cramped work environments. The type of anti-C clothing most often identified was cotton or water-resistant, disposable clothing. Most of the reports also indicated contaminants migrating through perspiration-soaked areas, typically in the knees and forearms. On the basis of their survey, the authors recommend the use of improved engineering controls and resilient, breathable, waterproof protective clothing for work in hot, humid, or damp areas where the possibility of prolonged contact with contamination cannot be easily avoided or controlled.

  5. CFD Lagrangian Modeling of Water Droplet Transport for ISS Hygiene Activity Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Son, Chang H.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the impacts of free water propagation in the Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC) installed in Node 3. Free water can be generated inside the WHC in small quantities due to crew hygiene activity. To mitigate potential impact of free water in Node 3 cabin the WHC doorway is enclosed by a waterproof bump-out, Kabin, with openings at the top and bottom. At the overhead side of the rack, there is a screen that prevents large drops of water from exiting. However, as the avionics fan in the WHC causes airflow toward the deck side of the rack, small quantities of free water may exit at the bottom of the Kabin. A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis of Node 3 cabin airflow enable identifying the paths of water transport. To simulate the droplet transport the Lagrangian discrete phase approach was used. Various initial droplet distributions were considered in the study. The droplet diameter was varied in the range of 5-20 mm. The results of the computations showed that most of the drops fall to the rack surface not far from the WHC curtain.

  6. Do Eurasian beavers smear their pelage with castoreum and anal gland secretion?

    PubMed

    Rosell, Frank

    2002-08-01

    The scent-matching hypothesis postulates that scent marks provide an olfactory link between a resident owner and his territory, and that this enables intruding animals to recognize the chance of escalated conflicts. However, it is unclear if Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber) mark their own pelage with castoreum from their castor sacs (i.e., the same material used in territorial marking); and/or if beavers mark their pelage with anal gland secretion (AGS) from the anal glands to waterproof the pelage and to act as a "living-scent mark." Chemical analysis (gas chromatography and mass spectrometry) of hair samples from 22 live-trapped beavers revealed that castoreum compounds were not present in any samples, AGS compounds were found from 3 animals (13.6%) around the cloaca, and the compound squalene was found in all the samples. Beavers may release castoreum directly into the water when it meets an intruder. Thereby, the "scent mark" in the water can provide an olfactory link between a resident owner and his territory. Squalene, in contrast to AGS, may be essential for keeping beaver pelts water-repellant.

  7. LWA demonstration applications using Illinois coal gasification slag: Phase 2. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Choudhry, V.; Steck, P.

    1993-12-31

    The objectives of this program are to demonstrate the feasibility of producing ultra-lightweight aggregates (ULWA) from solid residues (slag) generated during the gasification of Illinois coals, and to test the products as substitutes for conventional aggregates produced by pyroprocessing of perlite ores. In Phase 1 of this project, Praxis developed a pilotscale production technique and produced a large batch of expanded aggregates from an Illinois coal slag feed. The Phase 2 work focuses on characterization and applications-oriented testing of the expanded slag products as substitutes for conventional ULWAs. Target applications include high-volume uses such as loose fill insulation, insulating concrete, lightweight precast products (blocks), waterproof wallboard, rooftiles, and filtration media. The precast products will be subjected to performance and characterization testing in conjunction with a commercial manufacturer of such products in order to obtain input from a potential user. The production of value-added products from slag will eliminate a solid waste and possibly enhance the overall gasification process economics, especially when the avoided costs of disposal are taken into consideration.

  8. Simple battery armor to protect against gastrointestinal injury from accidental ingestion.

    PubMed

    Laulicht, Bryan; Traverso, Giovanni; Deshpande, Vikram; Langer, Robert; Karp, Jeffrey M

    2014-11-18

    Inadvertent battery ingestion in children and the associated morbidity and mortality results in thousands of emergency room visits every year. Given the risk for serious electrochemical burns within hours of ingestion, the current standard of care for the treatment of batteries in the esophagus is emergent endoscopic removal. Safety standards now regulate locked battery compartments in toys, which have resulted in a modest reduction in inadvertent battery ingestion; specifically, 3,461 ingestions were reported in 2009, and 3,366 in 2013. Aside from legislation, minimal technological development has taken place at the level of the battery to limit injury. We have constructed a waterproof, pressure-sensitive coating, harnessing a commercially available quantum tunneling composite. Quantum tunneling composite coated (QTCC) batteries are nonconductive in the low-pressure gastrointestinal environment yet conduct within the higher pressure of standard battery housings. Importantly, this coating technology enables most battery-operated equipment to be powered without modification. If these new batteries are swallowed, they limit the external electrolytic currents responsible for tissue injury. We demonstrate in a large-animal model a significant decrease in tissue injury with QTCC batteries compared with uncoated control batteries. In summary, here we describe a facile approach to increasing the safety of batteries by minimizing the risk for electrochemical burn if the batteries are inadvertently ingested, without the need for modification of most battery-powered devices.

  9. Intumescent flame-retardant and self-healing superhydrophobic coatings on cotton fabric.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shanshan; Li, Xiang; Li, Yang; Sun, Junqi

    2015-04-28

    Flame-retardant and self-healing superhydrophobic coatings are fabricated on cotton fabric by a convenient solution-dipping method, which involves the sequential deposition of a trilayer of branched poly(ethylenimine) (bPEI), ammonium polyphosphate (APP), and fluorinated-decyl polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (F-POSS). When directly exposed to flame, such a trilayer coating generates a porous char layer because of its intumescent effect, successfully giving the coated fabric a self-extinguishing property. Furthermore, the F-POSS embedded in cotton fabric and APP/bPEI coating produces a superhydrophobic surface with a self-healing function. The coating can repetitively and autonomically restore the superhydrophobicity when the superhydrophobicity is damaged. The resulting cotton fabric, which is flame-resistant, waterproof, and self-cleaning, can be easily cleaned by simple water rinsing. Thus, the integration of self-healing superhydrophobicity with flame retardancy provides a practical way to resolve the problem of washing durability of the flame-retardant coatings. The flame-retardant and superhydrophobic fabric can endure more than 1000 cycles of abrasion under a pressure of 44.8 kPa without losing its flame retardancy and self-healing superhydrophobicity, showing potential applications as multifunctional advanced textiles.

  10. Acetylation of cell wall is required for structural integrity of the leaf surface and exerts a global impact on plant stress responses

    SciTech Connect

    Nafisi, Majse; Stranne, Maria; Fimognari, Lorenzo; Atwell, Susanna; Martens, Helle J.; Pedas, Pai R.; Hansen, Sara F.; Nawrath, Christiane; Scheller, Henrik V.; Kliebenstein, Daniel J.; Sakuragi, Yumiko

    2015-07-22

    Here we report that the epidermis on leaves protects plants from pathogen invasion and provides a waterproof barrier. It consists of a layer of cells that is surrounded by thick cell walls, which are partially impregnated by highly hydrophobic cuticular components. We show that the Arabidopsis T-DNA insertion mutants of REDUCED WALL ACETYLATION 2 (rwa2), previously identified as having reduced O-acetylation of both pectins and hemicelluloses, exhibit pleiotrophic phenotype on the leaf surface. The cuticle layer appeared diffused and was significantly thicker and underneath cell wall layer was interspersed with electron-dense deposits. A large number of trichomes were collapsed and surface permeability of the leaves was enhanced in rwa2 as compared to the wild type. A massive reprogramming of the transcriptome was observed in rwa2 as compared to the wild type, including a coordinated up-regulation of genes involved in responses to abiotic stress, particularly detoxification of reactive oxygen species and defense against microbial pathogens (e.g., lipid transfer proteins, peroxidases). In accordance, peroxidase activities were found to be elevated in rwa2 as compared to the wild type. These results indicate that cell wall acetylation is essential for maintaining the structural integrity of leaf epidermis, and that reduction of cell wall acetylation leads to global stress responses in Arabidopsis.

  11. Acetylation of cell wall is required for structural integrity of the leaf surface and exerts a global impact on plant stress responses

    DOE PAGES

    Nafisi, Majse; Stranne, Maria; Fimognari, Lorenzo; ...

    2015-07-22

    Here we report that the epidermis on leaves protects plants from pathogen invasion and provides a waterproof barrier. It consists of a layer of cells that is surrounded by thick cell walls, which are partially impregnated by highly hydrophobic cuticular components. We show that the Arabidopsis T-DNA insertion mutants of REDUCED WALL ACETYLATION 2 (rwa2), previously identified as having reduced O-acetylation of both pectins and hemicelluloses, exhibit pleiotrophic phenotype on the leaf surface. The cuticle layer appeared diffused and was significantly thicker and underneath cell wall layer was interspersed with electron-dense deposits. A large number of trichomes were collapsed andmore » surface permeability of the leaves was enhanced in rwa2 as compared to the wild type. A massive reprogramming of the transcriptome was observed in rwa2 as compared to the wild type, including a coordinated up-regulation of genes involved in responses to abiotic stress, particularly detoxification of reactive oxygen species and defense against microbial pathogens (e.g., lipid transfer proteins, peroxidases). In accordance, peroxidase activities were found to be elevated in rwa2 as compared to the wild type. These results indicate that cell wall acetylation is essential for maintaining the structural integrity of leaf epidermis, and that reduction of cell wall acetylation leads to global stress responses in Arabidopsis.« less

  12. Breathable and Stretchable Temperature Sensors Inspired by Skin

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying; Lu, Bingwei; Chen, Yihao; Feng, Xue

    2015-01-01

    Flexible electronics attached to skin for healthcare, such as epidermal electronics, has to struggle with biocompatibility and adapt to specified environment of skin with respect to breath and perspiration. Here, we report a strategy for biocompatible flexible temperature sensors, inspired by skin, possessing the excellent permeability of air and high quality of water-proof by using semipermeable film with porous structures as substrate. We attach such temperature sensors to underarm and forearm to measure the axillary temperature and body surface temperature respectively. The volunteer wears such sensors for 24 hours with two times of shower and the in vitro test shows no sign of maceration or stimulation to the skin. Especially, precise temperature changes on skin surface caused by flowing air and water dropping are also measured to validate the accuracy and dynamical response. The results show that the biocompatible temperature sensor is soft and breathable on the human skin and has the excellent accuracy compared to mercury thermometer. This demonstrates the possibility and feasibility of fully using the sensors in long term body temperature sensing for medical use as well as sensing function of artificial skin for robots or prosthesis. PMID:26095941

  13. Novel Asymmetric Wettable AgNPs/Chitosan Wound Dressing: In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Liang, Donghui; Lu, Zhong; Yang, Hao; Gao, Jingting; Chen, Rong

    2016-02-17

    A novel silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)/chitosan composite dressing with asymmetric wettability surfaces was successfully prepared via a simple two-step method for biomedical applications as wound healing materials. First, AgNPs were assembled into the chitosan sponge which was prepared by lyophilization process. Then one side of the sponge was modified by a thin layer of stearic acid. The incorporation of AgNPs into chitosan dressing could enhance the antibacterial activity against drug-sensitive and drug-resistant pathogenic bacteria. The asymmetric surface modification endows the dressing with both highly hydrophobic property and inherent hydrophilic nature of chitosan. The hydrophobic surface of the dressing shows waterproof and antiadhesion for contaminant properties, whereas the hydrophilic surface preserves its water-absorbing capability and efficiently inhibits the growth of bacteria. Furthermore, the AgNPs/chitosan composite dressing displays improved moisture retention and blood clotting ability compared to the unmodified dressings. Cytocompatibility test evaluated in vitro and in a wound infection model illustrates the nontoxic nature of the composite dressing. More importantly, the in vivo wound healing model evaluation in mice reveals that the asymmetric AgNPs/chitosan dressing promotes the wound healing and accelerates the reepithelialization and collagen deposition. The silver accumulation in mice body treated by the composite dressing is far lower than that of the clinically used Acasin nanosilver dressing treated mice. This work indicates the huge potential of the novel AgNPs/chitosan wound dressing with asymmetrical wettability for clinical use.

  14. Exstrophy–Epispadias Complex in a Newborn: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Valerio, Enrico; Vanzo, Valentina; Zaramella, Patrizia; Salvadori, Sabrina; Castagnetti, Marco; Baraldi, Eugenio

    2015-01-01

    Aim The aim of this report is to present a brief review of the current literature on the management of EEC. Case Report A term male neonate presented at birth with classic bladder exstrophy, a variant of the exstrophy-epispadias complex (EEC). The defect was covered with sterile silicon gauzes and waterproof dressing; at 72 hours of life, primary closure without osteotomy of bladder, pelvis, and abdominal wall was successfully performed. Discussion EEC incidence is approximately 2.15 per 1,00,000 live births; several urological, musculocutaneous, spinal, orthopedic, gastrointestinal, and gynecological anomalies may be associated to EEC. Initial medical management includes use of occlusive dressings to prevent air contact and dehydration of the open bladder template. Umbilical catheters should not be positioned. Surgical repair stages include initial closure of the bladder and abdominal wall with or without osteotomy, followed by epispadias repair at 6 to 12 months, and bladder neck repair around 5 years of life. Those who fail to attain continence eventually undergo bladder augmentation and placement of a catheterizable conduit. Conclusion Modern-staged repair of EEC guarantees socially acceptable urinary continence in up to 80% of cases; sexual function can be an issue in the long term, but overall quality of life can be good. PMID:26495181

  15. Development and testing of bio-inspired microelectromechanical pressure sensor arrays for increased situational awareness for marine vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusek, J.; Kottapalli, A. G. P.; Woo, M. E.; Asadnia, M.; Miao, J.; Lang, J. H.; Triantafyllou, M. S.

    2013-01-01

    The lateral line found on most species of fish is a sensory organ without analog in humans. Using sensory feedback from the lateral line, fish are able to track prey, school, avoid obstacles, and detect vortical flow structures. Composed of both a superficial component, and a component contained within canals beneath the fish’s skin, the lateral line acts in a similar fashion to an array of differential pressure sensors. In an effort to enhance the situational and environmental awareness of marine vehicles, lateral-line-inspired pressure sensor arrays were developed to mimic the enhanced sensory capabilities observed in fish. Three flexible and waterproof pressure sensor arrays were fabricated for use as a surface-mounted ‘smart skin’ on marine vehicles. Two of the sensor arrays were based around the use of commercially available piezoresistive sensor dies, with innovative packaging schemes to allow for flexibility and underwater operation. The sensor arrays employed liquid crystal polymer and flexible printed circuit board substrates with metallic circuits and silicone encapsulation. The third sensor array employed a novel nanocomposite material set that allowed for the fabrication of a completely flexible sensor array. All three sensors were surface mounted on the curved hull of an autonomous kayak vehicle, and tested in both pool and reservoir environments. Results demonstrated that all three sensors were operational while deployed on the autonomous vehicle, and provided an accurate means for monitoring the vehicle dynamics.

  16. A hydrodynamically suspended, magnetically sealed mechanically noncontact axial flow blood pump: design of a hydrodynamic bearing.

    PubMed

    Mitamura, Yoshinori; Kido, Kazuyuki; Yano, Tetsuya; Sakota, Daisuke; Yambe, Tomoyuki; Sekine, Kazumitsu; OKamoto, Eiji

    2007-03-01

    To overcome the drive shaft seal and bearing problem in rotary blood pumps, a hydrodynamic bearing, a magnetic fluid seal, and a brushless direct current (DC) motor were employed in an axial flow pump. This enabled contact-free rotation of the impeller without material wear. The axial flow pump consisted of a brushless DC motor, an impeller, and a guide vane. The motor rotor was directly connected to the impeller by a motor shaft. A hydrodynamic bearing was installed on the motor shaft. The motor and the hydrodynamic bearing were housed in a cylindrical casing and were waterproofed by a magnetic fluid seal, a mechanically noncontact seal. Impeller shaft displacement was measured using a laser sensor. Axial and radial displacements of the shaft were only a few micrometers for motor speed up to 8500 rpm. The shaft did not make contact with the bearing housing. A flow of 5 L/min was obtained at 8000 rpm at a pressure difference of 100 mm Hg. In conclusion, the axial flow blood pump consisting of a hydrodynamic bearing, a magnetic fluid seal, and a brushless DC motor provided contact-free rotation of the impeller without material wear.

  17. Current progress in the development of a totally implantable Gyro centrifugal artificial heart.

    PubMed

    Takami, Y; Ohtsuka, G; Mueller, J; Ebner, M; Tayama, E; Ohashi, Y; Taylor, D; Fernandes, J; Schima, H; Schmallegger, H; Wolner, E; Nosé, Y

    1998-01-01

    A totally implantable centrifugal artificial heart has been developed using a miniaturized pivot bearing supported centrifugal pump (Gyro PI pump). The authors report current progress in its development. The Gyro PI-601 has a priming volume of 20 ml, weighs 100 g, has a height of 60 mm, and has a diameter of 65 mm. This pump can provide 8 L/min against 150 mmHg at 2,250 rpm. It is driven by an miniaturized DC brushless motor with the coils fixed in a plastic mold that is waterproof and made of titanium (weight, 204 g; height, 18 mm; diameter, 65 mm). In this centrifugal artificial heart, two Gyro PI pumps are implanted independently to replace cardiac function without resecting the native heart. Its anatomic and surgical feasibility were confirmed experimentally. The Gyro PI-601 was implanted as a right or left ventricular assist device in the preperitoneal space of five calves. All five tests proceeded without any thromboembolic symptoms. One of five tests was extended more than 1 month to confirm the long-term feasibility of the Gyro PI-601 pump system. Based on the satisfactory results of the in vivo tests, the material conversion of the Gyro PI from polycarbonate to titanium alloy (Ti-6A1-4V) was undertaken to improve its biocompatibility for long-term implantation.

  18. Roles of silica and lignin in horsetail (Equisetum hyemale), with special reference to mechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, Shigeru; Sato, Kanna; Ito, Fuyu; Komatsubara, Satoshi; Ohata, Hiroshi; Yoshino, Katsumi

    2012-02-01

    This research deals with detailed analyses of silica and lignin distribution in horsetail with special reference to mechanical strength. Scanning electron images of a cross-section of an internode showed silica deposited densely only around the outer epidermis. Detailed histochemical analyses of lignin showed no lignin deposition in the silica-rich outer internodes of horsetail, while a characteristic lignin deposition was noticed in the vascular bundle in inner side of internodes. To analyze the structure of horsetail from a mechanical viewpoint, we calculated the response of a model structure of horsetail to a mechanical force applied perpendicularly to the long axis by a finite element method. We found that silica distributed in the outer epidermis may play the major structural role, with lignin's role being limited ensuring that the vascular bundle keep waterproof. These results were in contrast to more modern tall trees like gymnosperms, for which lignin provides mechanical strength. Lignin has the advantage of sticking to cellulose, hemicellulose, and other materials. Such properties make it possible for plants containing lignin to branch. Branching of tree stems aids in competing for light and other atmospheric resources. This type of branching was impossible for ancient horsetails, which relied on the physical properties of silica. From the evolutional view points, over millennia in trees with high lignin content, true branching, and many chlorophyll-containing leaves developed.

  19. Biocides used in building materials and their leaching behavior to sewer systems.

    PubMed

    Burkhardt, M; Kupper, T; Hean, S; Haag, R; Schmid, P; Kohler, M; Boller, M

    2007-01-01

    There is increasing concern about diffuse pollution of aquatic systems by biocides used in urban areas. We investigated sources and pathways of biocides significant for the pollution of storm water runoff. Main sources seem to be building envelopes, i.e. facades (paints, plasters) and roof sealing membranes. First results from a defined urban catchment drained by a separated sewer system without any agricultural activities reveal a substantial occurrence. Even after the first flush, concentrations of terbutryn, carbendazim, mecoprop as well as Irgarol 1051 and its metabolite exceeded the Swiss water quality standard of 0.1 microg/L. In laboratory experiments, leaching of mecoprop used as a root protection agent in bitumen sheets for roof waterproofing was determined. The concentrations differed in 16 different sheets two orders of magnitude, depending on the product composition. Using optimized products, it is expected to be the most efficient and sustainable way to reduce the environmental impact. To understand transport dynamics and environmental risk, further storm water events will be analyzed. Based on the ongoing project URBIC, first measures will be proposed to limit the release to surface and ground water.

  20. A Robust Epoxy Resins @ Stearic Acid-Mg(OH)2 Micronanosheet Superhydrophobic Omnipotent Protective Coating for Real-Life Applications.

    PubMed

    Si, Yifan; Guo, Zhiguang; Liu, Weimin

    2016-06-29

    Superhydrophobic coating has extremely high application value and practicability. However, some difficult problems such as weak mechanical strength, the need for expensive toxic reagents, and a complex preparation process are all hard to avoid, and these problems have impeded the superhydrophobic coating's real-life application for a long time. Here, we demonstrate one kind of omnipotent epoxy resins @ stearic acid-Mg(OH)2 superhydrophobic coating via a simple antideposition route and one-step superhydrophobization process. The whole preparation process is facile, and expensive toxic reagents needed. This omnipotent coating can be applied on any solid substrate with great waterproof ability, excellent mechanical stability, and chemical durability, which can be stored in a realistic environment for more than 1 month. More significantly, this superhydrophobic coating also has four protective abilities, antifouling, anticorrosion, anti-icing, and flame-retardancy, to cope with a variety of possible extreme natural environments. Therefore, this omnipotent epoxy resins @ stearic acid-Mg(OH)2 superhydrophobic coating not only satisfies real-life need but also has great application potential in many respects.

  1. Possibility of using waste tire rubber and fly ash with Portland cement as construction materials.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Arin; Degirmenci, Nurhayat

    2009-05-01

    The growing amount of waste rubber produced from used tires has resulted in an environmental problem. Recycling waste tires has been widely studied for the last 20 years in applications such as asphalt pavement, waterproofing systems and membrane liners. The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing fly ash and rubber waste with Portland cement as a composite material for masonry applications. Class C fly ash and waste automobile tires in three different sizes were used with Portland cement. Compressive and flexural strength, dry unit weight and water absorption tests were performed on the composite specimens containing waste tire rubber. The compressive strength decreased by increasing the rubber content while increased by increasing the fly ash content for all curing periods. This trend is slightly influenced by particle size. For flexural strength, the specimens with waste tire rubber showed higher values than the control mix probably due to the effect of rubber fibers. The dry unit weight of all specimens decreased with increasing rubber content, which can be explained by the low specific gravity of rubber particles. Water absorption decreased slightly with the increase in rubber particles size. These composite materials containing 10% Portland cement, 70% and 60% fly ash and 20% and 30% tire rubber particles have sufficient strength for masonry applications.

  2. MEMS-based non-rotatory circumferential scanning optical probe for endoscopic optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yingshun; Singh, Janak; Siang, Teo Hui; Ramakrishna, Kotlanka; Premchandran, C. S.; Sheng, Chen Wei; Kuan, Chuah Tong; Chen, Nanguang; Olivo, Malini C.; Sheppard, Colin J. R.

    2007-07-01

    In this paper, we present a non-rotatory circumferential scanning optical probe integrated with a MEMS scanner for in vivo endoscopic optical coherence tomography (OCT). OCT is an emerging optical imaging technique that allows high resolution cross-sectional imaging of tissue microstructure. To extend its usage to endoscopic applications, a miniaturized optical probe based on Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) fabrication techniques is currently desired. A 3D electrothermally actuated micromirror realized using micromachining single crystal silicon (SCS) process highlights its very large angular deflection, about 45 degree, with low driving voltage for safety consideration. The micromirror is integrated with a GRIN lens into a waterproof package which is compatible with requirements for minimally invasive endoscopic procedures. To implement circumferential scanning substantially for diagnosis on certain pathological conditions, such as Barret's esophagus, the micromirror is mounted on 90 degree to optical axis of GRIN lens. 4 Bimorph actuators that are connected to the mirror on one end via supporting beams and springs are selected in this micromirror design. When actuators of the micromirror are driven by 4 channels of sinusoidal waveforms with 90 degree phase differences, beam focused by a GRIN is redirected out of the endoscope by 45 degree tilting mirror plate and achieve circumferential scanning pattern. This novel driving method making full use of very large angular deflection capability of our micromirror is totally different from previously developed or developing micromotor-like rotatory MEMS device for circumferential scanning.

  3. The Campaign GPS Component of the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO): New Tools, New Strategies and New Opportunities to Support EarthScope Investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, D. A.; Greenberg, J.; Sklar, J.; Meertens, C. M.; Andreatta, V.; Feaux, K.

    2004-12-01

    The UNAVCO Facility is charged with implementing the campaign GPS component of the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) to support EarthScope investigators through a pool of approximately one hundred mobile GPS systems. In contrast to the PBO continuous GPS network, the PBO campaign systems are designed for temporary deployments with periods ranging from several minutes to several months per site. This allows researchers to conduct spatially and temporally focused investigations into a wide range of phenomena, including volcano monitoring, post-seismic deformation monitoring, and ground control for airborne LIDAR surveys. A standard PBO campaign system consists of a Topcon GB-1000 dual-frequency GPS receiver, a Topcon PG-A1 compact GPS antenna, an 18 Ah battery, cabling, a portable and waterproof Pelican case enclosure, and a Tech 2000 GPS antenna mast or tripod and tribrach. Available ancillary equipment includes solar panels, additional batteries, enclosures and mounting hardware. Communications equipment such as radio modems and cellular modems are also available to allow remote data retrieval during longer term deployments. We present an overview of the PBO campaign equipment available to investigators, technical specifications of the system, examples of current and planned EarthScope research projects utilizing the campaign equipment, and a hands-on demonstration of a PBO campaign system.

  4. Integrated Microbatteries for Implantable Medical Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitacre, Jay; West, William

    2008-01-01

    Integrated microbatteries have been proposed to satisfy an anticipated need for long-life, low-rate primary batteries, having volumes less than 1 mm3, to power electronic circuitry in implantable medical devices. In one contemplated application, such a battery would be incorporated into a tubular hearing-aid device to be installed against an eardrum. This device is based on existing tube structures that have already been approved by the FDA for use in human ears. As shown in the figure, the battery would comprise a single cell at one end of the implantable tube. A small volume of Li-based primary battery cathode material would be compacted and inserted in the tube near one end, followed by a thin porous separator, followed by a pressed powder of a Li-containing alloy. Current-collecting wires would be inserted, with suitably positioned insulators to prevent a short circuit. The battery would contain a liquid electrolyte consisting of a Li-based salt in an appropriate solvent. Hermetic seals would be created by plugging both ends with a waterproof polymer followed by deposition of parylene.

  5. Automatic front-crawl temporal phase detection using adaptive filtering of inertial signals.

    PubMed

    Dadashi, Farzin; Crettenand, Florent; Millet, Grégoire P; Seifert, Ludovic; Komar, John; Aminian, Kamiar

    2013-01-01

    This study introduces a novel approach for automatic temporal phase detection and inter-arm coordination estimation in front-crawl swimming using inertial measurement units (IMUs). We examined the validity of our method by comparison against a video-based system. Three waterproofed IMUs (composed of 3D accelerometer, 3D gyroscope) were placed on both forearms and the sacrum of the swimmer. We used two underwater video cameras in side and frontal views as our reference system. Two independent operators performed the video analysis. To test our methodology, seven well-trained swimmers performed three 300 m trials in a 50 m indoor pool. Each trial was in a different coordination mode quantified by the index of coordination. We detected different phases of the arm stroke by employing orientation estimation techniques and a new adaptive change detection algorithm on inertial signals. The difference of 0.2 ± 3.9% between our estimation and video-based system in assessment of the index of coordination was comparable to experienced operators' difference (1.1 ± 3.6%). The 95% limits of agreement of the difference between the two systems in estimation of the temporal phases were always less than 7.9% of the cycle duration. The inertial system offers an automatic easy-to-use system with timely feedback for the study of swimming.

  6. Comparative Cuticle Development Reveals Taller Sporophytes Are Covered by Thicker Calyptra Cuticles in Mosses

    PubMed Central

    Budke, Jessica M.; Goffinet, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    The calyptra is a maternal structure that protects the sporophyte offspring from dehydration, and positively impacts sporophyte survival and fitness in mosses. We explore the relationship between cuticle protection and sporophyte height as a proxy for dehydration stress in Funariaceae species with sporophytes across a range of sizes. Calyptrae and sporophytes from four species were collected from laboratory-grown populations at two developmental stages. Tissues were embedded, sectioned, and examined using transmission electron microscopy. Cuticle thickness was measured from three epidermal cells per organ for each individual and compared statistically. All four species have cuticles consisting of a cuticle proper and a cuticular layer on the calyptra and sporophyte at both developmental stages. Across species, shorter sporophytes are associated with smaller calyptra and thinner calyptra cuticles, whereas taller sporophytes are associated with larger calyptra and thicker calyptra cuticles. Independent of size, young sporophytes have a thin cuticle that thickens later during development, while calyptrae have a mature cuticle produced early during development that persists throughout development. This study adds to our knowledge of maternal effects influencing offspring survival in plants. Released from the pressures to invest in protection for their sporophyte offspring, maternal resources can be allocated to other processes that support sporophyte reproductive success. Using a comparative developmental framework enables us to broaden our understanding of cuticle development across species and provides structural evidence supporting the waterproofing role of the moss calyptra. PMID:27379125

  7. Airplane dopes and doping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, W H

    1919-01-01

    Cellulose acetate and cellulose nitrate are the important constituents of airplane dopes in use at the present time, but planes were treated with other materials in the experimental stages of flying. The above compounds belong to the class of colloids and are of value because they produce a shrinking action on the fabric when drying out of solution, rendering it drum tight. Other colloids possessing the same property have been proposed and tried. In the first stages of the development of dope, however, shrinkage was not considered. The fabric was treated merely to render it waterproof. The first airplanes constructed were covered with cotton fabric stretched as tightly as possible over the winds, fuselage, etc., and flying was possible only in fine weather. The necessity of an airplane which would fly under all weather conditions at once became apparent. Then followed experiments with rubberized fabrics, fabrics treated with glue rendered insoluble by formaldehyde or bichromate, fabrics treated with drying and nondrying oils, shellac, casein, etc. It was found that fabrics treated as above lost their tension in damp weather, and the oil from the motor penetrated the proofing material and weakened the fabric. For the most part the film of material lacked durability. Cellulose nitrate lacquers, however were found to be more satisfactory under varying weather conditions, added less weight to the planes, and were easily applied. On the other hand, they were highly inflammable, and oil from the motor penetrated the film of cellulose nitrate, causing the tension of the fabric to be relaxed.

  8. Towards a Biosynthetic UAV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Block, Eli; Byemerwa, Jovita; Dispenza, Ross; Doughty, Benjamin; Gillyard, KaNesha; Godbole, Poorwa; Gonzales-Wright, Jeanette; Hull, Ian; Kannappan, Jotthe; Levine, Alexander; Nelakanti, Raman; Ruffner, Lydia; Shumate, Alaina; Sorayya, Aryo; Ugwu, Kyla

    2014-01-01

    We are currently working on a series of projects towards the construction of a fully biological unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) for use in scientific and humanitarian missions. The prospect of a biologically-produced UAV presents numerous advantages over the current manufacturing paradigm. First, a foundational architecture built by cells allows for construction or repair in locations where it would be difficult to bring traditional tools of production. Second, a major limitation of current research with UAVs is the size and high power consumption of analytical instruments, which require bulky electrical components and large fuselages to support their weight. By moving these functions into cells with biosensing capabilities - for example, a series of cells engineered to report GFP, green fluorescent protein, when conditions exceed a certain threshold concentration of a compound of interest, enabling their detection post-flight - these problems of scale can be avoided. To this end, we are working to engineer cells to synthesize cellulose acetate as a novel bioplastic, characterize biological methods of waterproofing the material, and program this material's systemic biodegradation. In addition, we aim to use an "amberless" system to prevent horizontal gene transfer from live cells on the material to microorganisms in the flight environment.

  9. Field studies on raw soil revegetation and effects of mycorrhizal soil pretreatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knauer, Daniel; Obriejetan, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Establishing vegetation on raw soil embankments demands specific needs regarding seeding techniques, planting material or additional soil treatment. Regarding the complex subsoil relations, in specific the connections between plants and fungi there is a great deal of uncertainty. Therefore an experimental setup was constructed within a research project which deals with revegetation measures on raw soil embankments at a compensation reservoir in Austria. The reservoir is based in Vandans/Vorarlberg and is part of a hydroelectric power station complex. In the course of the project, different substrates and methods of seeding are tested to set up protective vegetation cover at the reservoir-embankment consisting of concrete panels. The main objectives of these measures were specified as follows: waterproofing of the reservoir may not be damaged by the vegetation and maintenance should be conducted in a very extensive way. Especially the rapid fluctuations of water levels in the reservoir present a severe damage to the vegetation. Therefore, a series of tests were conducted in field and in the laboratory, to test the effects of Mycorrhiza regarding growing success rate of plants on raw soils using auxiliary greening material. Constructional issues regarding the field trials and results of aboveground and underground vegetation development are presented.

  10. A comparison of standard methods for measuring water vapour permeability of fabrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCullough, Elizabeth A.; Kwon, Myoungsook; Shim, Huensup

    2003-08-01

    It is difficult for outdoor apparel manufacturers to interpret the technical information provided by fabric suppliers concerning fabric 'breathability' properties because different methods and test conditions are used. In addition, fabrics with hydrophilic components change their properties under different humidity conditions. The purpose of this study was to measure the water vapour permeability and evaporative resistance of 26 different waterproof, windproof and breathable shell fabrics using five standard test methods. The water vapour transmission rate (WVTR) was measured using the ASTM E 96 upright and inverted cup tests with water, the JIS L 1099 desiccant inverted cup test and the new ASTM F 2298 standard using the dynamic moisture permeation cell (DMPC). The evaporative resistance was measured using the ISO 11092 sweating hot plate test. The WVTRs were consistently highest when measured with the desiccant inverted cup, followed by the inverted cup, DMPC and upright cup. The upright cup was significantly correlated with the DMPC (0.97), and the desiccant inverted cup was correlated to the sweating hot plate (-0.91).

  11. Comparative Cuticle Development Reveals Taller Sporophytes Are Covered by Thicker Calyptra Cuticles in Mosses.

    PubMed

    Budke, Jessica M; Goffinet, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    The calyptra is a maternal structure that protects the sporophyte offspring from dehydration, and positively impacts sporophyte survival and fitness in mosses. We explore the relationship between cuticle protection and sporophyte height as a proxy for dehydration stress in Funariaceae species with sporophytes across a range of sizes. Calyptrae and sporophytes from four species were collected from laboratory-grown populations at two developmental stages. Tissues were embedded, sectioned, and examined using transmission electron microscopy. Cuticle thickness was measured from three epidermal cells per organ for each individual and compared statistically. All four species have cuticles consisting of a cuticle proper and a cuticular layer on the calyptra and sporophyte at both developmental stages. Across species, shorter sporophytes are associated with smaller calyptra and thinner calyptra cuticles, whereas taller sporophytes are associated with larger calyptra and thicker calyptra cuticles. Independent of size, young sporophytes have a thin cuticle that thickens later during development, while calyptrae have a mature cuticle produced early during development that persists throughout development. This study adds to our knowledge of maternal effects influencing offspring survival in plants. Released from the pressures to invest in protection for their sporophyte offspring, maternal resources can be allocated to other processes that support sporophyte reproductive success. Using a comparative developmental framework enables us to broaden our understanding of cuticle development across species and provides structural evidence supporting the waterproofing role of the moss calyptra.

  12. Reconstitution of plant alkane biosynthesis in yeast demonstrates that Arabidopsis ECERIFERUM1 and ECERIFERUM3 are core components of a very-long-chain alkane synthesis complex.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Amélie; Domergue, Frédéric; Pascal, Stéphanie; Jetter, Reinhard; Renne, Charlotte; Faure, Jean-Denis; Haslam, Richard P; Napier, Johnathan A; Lessire, René; Joubès, Jérôme

    2012-07-01

    In land plants, very-long-chain (VLC) alkanes are major components of cuticular waxes that cover aerial organs, mainly acting as a waterproof barrier to prevent nonstomatal water loss. Although thoroughly investigated, plant alkane synthesis remains largely undiscovered. The Arabidopsis thaliana ECERIFERUM1 (CER1) protein has been recognized as an essential element of wax alkane synthesis; nevertheless, its function remains elusive. In this study, a screen for CER1 physical interaction partners was performed. The screen revealed that CER1 interacts with the wax-associated protein ECERIFERUM3 (CER3) and endoplasmic reticulum-localized cytochrome b5 isoforms (CYTB5s). The functional relevance of these interactions was assayed through an iterative approach using yeast as a heterologous expression system. In a yeast strain manipulated to produce VLC acyl-CoAs, a strict CER1 and CER3 coexpression resulted in VLC alkane synthesis. The additional presence of CYTB5s was found to enhance CER1/CER3 alkane production. Site-directed mutagenesis showed that CER1 His clusters are essential for alkane synthesis, whereas those of CER3 are not, suggesting that CYTB5s are specific CER1 cofactors. Collectively, our study reports the identification of plant alkane synthesis enzymatic components and supports a new model for alkane production in which CER1 interacts with both CER3 and CYTB5 to catalyze the redox-dependent synthesis of VLC alkanes from VLC acyl-CoAs.

  13. Monopolar electromyographic signals recorded by a current amplifier in air and under water without insulation.

    PubMed

    Whitting, John W; von Tscharner, Vinzenz

    2014-12-01

    It was recently proposed that one could use signal current instead of voltage to collect surface electromyography (EMG). With EMG-current, the electrodes remain at the ground potential, thereby eliminating lateral currents. The purpose of this study was to determine whether EMG-currents can be recorded in Tap and Salt water, as well as in air, without electrically shielding the electrodes. It was hypothesized that signals would display consistent information between experimental conditions regarding muscle responses to changes in contraction effort. EMG-currents were recorded from the flexor digitorum muscles as participant's squeezed a pre-inflated blood pressure cuff bladder in each experimental condition at standardized efforts. EMG-current measurements performed underwater showed no loss of signal amplitude when compared to measurements made in air, although some differences in amplitude and spectral components were observed between conditions. However, signal amplitudes and frequencies displayed consistent behavior across contraction effort levels, irrespective of the experimental condition. This new method demonstrates that information regarding muscle activity is comparable between wet and dry conditions when using EMG-current. Considering the difficulties imposed by the need to waterproof traditional bipolar EMG electrodes when underwater, this new methodology is tremendously promising for assessments of muscular function in aquatic environments.

  14. Facilitated embedding of silver nanowires into conformally-coated iCVD polymer films deposited on cloth for robust wearable electronics.

    PubMed

    Seo, Ji-Won; Joo, Munkyu; Ahn, Jaeho; Lee, Tae-Ik; Kim, Taek-Soo; Im, Sung Gap; Lee, Jung-Yong

    2017-03-09

    We propose that a silver nanowire (AgNW)-embedded conducting film can be monolithically applied onto an arbitrary cloth with strong adhesion and environmental stability. We employ a vapor-phase method, initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD), for conformal coating of a scaffold polymer film on the cloth. AgNWs are applied on the surface of iCVD polymer films, and the embedding of AgNWs is completed within only 20 s on heating the polymer-coated cloth to 70 °C. Crosslinking the copolymer at 120 °C renders the AgNW-embedded conducting films on the cloth not only thermally and chemically stable, but also mechanically robust. Moreover, when a hydrophobic encapsulating polymer layer is added on the AgNW-embedded film via iCVD, it substantially improves the stability of the cloth against thermal oxidation under hot and humid conditions, showing applicability of the technology to wearable electronics. With these robust conducting films, we demonstrate the fabrication of a waterproof cloth-based heater and circuit for a seven-segment display, thus, confirming the wide applicability of the technology developed in this study.

  15. Characterization of archaeological beeswax by electron ionization and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Garnier, Nicolas; Cren-Olivé, Cécile; Rolando, Christian; Regert, Martine

    2002-10-01

    To better detect and identify beeswax in ancient organic residues from archaeological remains, we developed a new analytical methodology consisting of the analysis of (i) the trimethylsilylated organic extract by GC/MS and (ii) the crude extract by ESI-MS. Selective scanning modes, such as SIM or MRM, permit separate quantification of each chemical family (fatty acids, monoesters, monohydroxyesters, and diesters) and allow an improvement in sensitivity and selectivity, allowing the crude extract to be treated without further purification. GC/MS (SIM) was revealed to be a powerful method for the detection of components, with a detection limit down to a total lipid extract in the range of approximately 50 ng in a complex matix, such as archaeological degraded material, whereas ESI-MS/MS is instead used for the detection of nonvolatile biomarkers. Identification by GC/MS (SIM) and ESI-MS/ MS (MRM) of more than 50 biomarkers of beeswax in an Etruscan cup at the parts-per-million level provides the first evidence for the use of this material by the Etruscans as fuel or as a waterproof coating for ceramics.

  16. Operating manual for the U.S. Geological Survey minimonitor, 1988 revised edition; punched-paper-tape model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ficken, James H.; Scott, Carl T.

    1988-01-01

    This manual describes the U.S. Geological Survey Minimonitor Water Quality Data Measuring and Recording System. Instructions for calibrating, servicing, maintaining, and operating the system are provided. The Survey Minimonitor is a battery-powered , multiparameter water quality monitoring instrument designed for field use. A watertight can containing signal conditioners is connected with cable and waterproof connectors to various water quality sensors. Data are recorded on a punched paper-tape recorder. An external battery is required. The operation and maintenance of various sensors and signal conditioners are discussed, for temperature, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, and pH. Calibration instructions are provided for each parameter, along with maintenance instructions. Sections of the report explain how to connect the Minimonitor to measure direct-current voltages, such as signal outputs from other instruments. Instructions for connecting a satellite data-collection platform or a solid-state data recorder to the Minimonitor are given also. Basic information is given for servicing the Minimonitor and trouble-shooting some of its electronic components. The use of test boxes to test sensors, isolate component problems, and verify calibration values is discussed. (USGS)

  17. Afocal viewport optics for underwater imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, Dan

    2014-09-01

    A conventional camera can be adapted for underwater use by enclosing it in a sealed waterproof pressure housing with a viewport. The viewport, as an optical interface between water and air needs to consider both the camera and water optical characteristics while also providing a high pressure water seal. Limited hydrospace visibility drives a need for wide angle viewports. Practical optical interfaces between seawater and air vary from simple flat plate windows to complex water contact lenses. This paper first provides a brief overview of the physical and optical properties of the ocean environment along with suitable optical materials. This is followed by a discussion of the characteristics of various afocal underwater viewport types including flat windows, domes and the Ivanoff corrector lens, a derivative of a Galilean wide angle camera adapter. Several new and interesting optical designs derived from the Ivanoff corrector lens are presented including a pair of very compact afocal viewport lenses that are compatible with both in water and in air environments and an afocal underwater hyper-hemispherical fisheye lens.

  18. Flow rate logging seepage meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reay, William G. (Inventor); Walthall, Harry G. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An apparatus for remotely measuring and logging the flow rate of groundwater seepage into surface water bodies. As groundwater seeps into a cavity created by a bottomless housing, it displaces water through an inlet and into a waterproof sealed upper compartment, at which point, the water is collected by a collection bag, which is contained in a bag chamber. A magnet on the collection bag approaches a proximity switch as the collection bag fills, and eventually enables the proximity switch to activate a control circuit. The control circuit then rotates a three-way valve from the collection path to a discharge path, enables a data logger to record the time, and enables a pump, which discharges the water from the collection bag, through the three-way valve and pump, and into the sea. As the collection bag empties, the magnet leaves the proximity of the proximity switch, and the control circuit turns off the pump, resets the valve to provide a collection path, and restarts the collection cycle.

  19. The Short-term Protective Effects of ‘Non-PPE’ Gloves Used by Greenhouse Workers

    PubMed Central

    Roff, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Task-based worker exposure assessments are used in regulatory product approval for pesticides. Some agricultural workers may be exposed to pesticide residues predominantly via transfer to the hands during plant tending or crop harvesting. They may use thin ‘splash-resistant single-use’ (SRSU) gloves or cotton gloves as good industry practice, for example, to protect a delicate crop from bruising, rather than specifically for chemical protection. These ‘non-personal protective equipment (PPE)’ gloves may or may not have been tested for chemical resistance, but can nevertheless give limited protection from chemicals. This paper reports experiments to assess the protection factors (PFs) of ‘non-PPE’ gloves against chemicals, to better inform the regulatory exposure assessments. One type of lightweight cotton and three types of 0.1 mm SRSU gloves 25cm long (latex, nitrile, and vinyl) that might be used as ‘non-PPE’ gloves and one type of 0.4 mm PPE nitrile gauntlet 33cm long were worn by 36 volunteers in greenhouses at four nurseries, handling plants sprayed with transferable but non-permeating strontium acetate in four consecutive 1-h sessions, including one session in which no gloves were worn. Dislodgeable foliar residues were measured by rinsing leaves in bags. Each subject carried out their task such as weeding or trimming, for their four sessions on their set of plants. Handwashes followed each session, and the washings were sampled and analysed for strontium. Unprotected hand contamination was taken to be the within-subject ‘challenge’ in the absence of gloves. It ranged from 166 to 4091 µg equivalent of strontium acetate on the hands and increased with increasing foliar residues. Geometric mean PFs were 60 (95% CI 38–87, n = 22) for PPE gauntlets, 32 (25–41, n = 65) for SRSU gloves and 5.3 (3.5–8, n = 21) for lightweight cotton. The PFs offered by the waterproof gloves (gauntlets and SRSU) increased with challenge, but for the

  20. The Short-term Protective Effects of 'Non-PPE' Gloves Used by Greenhouse Workers.

    PubMed

    Roff, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Task-based worker exposure assessments are used in regulatory product approval for pesticides. Some agricultural workers may be exposed to pesticide residues predominantly via transfer to the hands during plant tending or crop harvesting. They may use thin 'splash-resistant single-use' (SRSU) gloves or cotton gloves as good industry practice, for example, to protect a delicate crop from bruising, rather than specifically for chemical protection. These 'non-personal protective equipment (PPE)' gloves may or may not have been tested for chemical resistance, but can nevertheless give limited protection from chemicals. This paper reports experiments to assess the protection factors (PFs) of 'non-PPE' gloves against chemicals, to better inform the regulatory exposure assessments.One type of lightweight cotton and three types of 0.1 mm SRSU gloves 25cm long (latex, nitrile, and vinyl) that might be used as 'non-PPE' gloves and one type of 0.4 mm PPE nitrile gauntlet 33cm long were worn by 36 volunteers in greenhouses at four nurseries, handling plants sprayed with transferable but non-permeating strontium acetate in four consecutive 1-h sessions, including one session in which no gloves were worn. Dislodgeable foliar residues were measured by rinsing leaves in bags. Each subject carried out their task such as weeding or trimming, for their four sessions on their set of plants. Handwashes followed each session, and the washings were sampled and analysed for strontium. Unprotected hand contamination was taken to be the within-subject 'challenge' in the absence of gloves. It ranged from 166 to 4091 µg equivalent of strontium acetate on the hands and increased with increasing foliar residues. Geometric mean PFs were 60 (95% CI 38-87, n = 22) for PPE gauntlets, 32 (25-41, n = 65) for SRSU gloves and 5.3 (3.5-8, n = 21) for lightweight cotton. The PFs offered by the waterproof gloves (gauntlets and SRSU) increased with challenge, but for the absorbent cotton gloves it

  1. Development of LWR Fuels with Enhanced Accident Tolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Lahoda, Edward J.; Boylan, Frank A.

    2015-10-30

    Significant progress was made on the technical, licensing, and business aspects of the Westinghouse Electric Company’s Enhanced Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF) by the Westinghouse ATF team. The fuel pellet options included waterproofed U15N and U3Si2 and the cladding options SiC composites and zirconium alloys with surface treatments. Technology was developed that resulted in U3Si2 pellets with densities of >94% being achieved at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The use of U3Si2 will represent a 15% increase in U235 loadings over those in UO₂ fuel pellets. This technology was then applied to manufacture pellets for 6 test rodlets which were inserted in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) in early 2015 in zirconium alloy cladding. The first of these rodlets are expected to be removed in about 2017. Key characteristics to be determined include verification of the centerline temperature calculations, thermal conductivity, fission gas release, swelling and degree of amorphization. Waterproofed UN pellets have achieved >94% density for a 32% U3Si2/68% UN composite pellet at Texas A&M University. This represents a U235 increase of about 31% over current UO2 pellets. Pellets and powders of UO2, UN, and U3Si2the were tested by Westinghouse and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) using differential scanning calorimetry to determine what their steam and 20% oxygen corrosion temperatures were as compared to UO2. Cold spray application of either the amorphous steel or the Ti2AlC was successful in forming an adherent ~20 micron coating that remained after testing at 420°C in a steam autoclave. Tests at 1200°C in 100% steam on coatings for Zr alloy have not been successful, possibly due to the low density of the coatings which allowed steam transport to the base zirconium metal. Significant modeling and testing

  2. Residual sludge from dimensional stones: characterisation for their exploitation in civil and environmental applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonella Dino, Giovanna; Clemente, Paolo; De Luca, Domenico Antonio; Lasagna, Manuela

    2013-04-01

    Residual sludge coming from dimensional stones working plants (diamond framesaw and ganguesaw with abrasive shots processes) represents a problem for Stone Industries. In fact the cost connected to their landfilling amounts to more than 3% of operating costs of dimensional stone working plants. Furthermore their strict feature as waste to dump (CER code 010413) contrasts the EU principles of "resource preservation" and "waste recovery". The main problems related to their management are: size distribution (fine materials, potentially asphyxial), presence of heavy metals (due to the working processes) and TPH content (due to oil machines losses). Residual sludge, considered according to Italian Legislative Decree n.152/06, can be used, as waste, for environmental restoration of derelict land or in cement plants. It is also possible to think about their systematic treatment in consortium plats for the production of Secondary Raw Materials (SRM) or "New Products" (NP, eg. artificial loam, waterproofing materials, ....). The research evidences that, on the basis of a correct sludge management, treatment and characterization, economic and environmental benefits are possible (NP or SRM in spite of waste to dump). To individuate different applications of residual sludge in civil and environmental contexts, a geotechnical (size distribution, permeability, Atterberg limits, cohesion and friction angle evaluation, Proctor soil test) characterization was foreseen. The geotechnical tests were conducted on sludge as such and on three different mixes: - Mix 1 - Bentonite clay (5-10%) added to sludge a.s (90-95%); - Mix 2 - Sludge a.s. (90-80-70%) added to coarse materials coming from crushed dimensional stones (10-20-30%); - Mix 3 - Sludge a.s. (50-70%) mixed with sand, compost, natural loam (50-30% mixture of sand, compost, natural loam). The results obtained from the four sets of tests were fundamental to evaluate: - the characteristics of the original materials; - the chance

  3. Biochemical and clinical responses of Common Eiders to implanted satellite transmitters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Latty, Christopher J.; Hollmen, Tuula E.; Petersen, Margaret; Powell, Abby; Andrews, Russel D.

    2016-01-01

    Implanted biologging devices, such as satellite-linked platform transmitter terminals (PTTs), have been used widely to delineate populations and identify movement patterns of sea ducks. Although in some cases these ecological studies could reveal transmitter effects on behavior and mortality, experiments conducted under controlled conditions can provide valuable information to understand the influence of implanted tags on health and physiology. We report the clinical, mass, biochemical, and histological responses of captive Common Eiders (Somateria mollissima) implanted with PTTs with percutaneous antennas. We trained 6 individuals to dive 4.9 m for their food, allowed them to acclimate to this dive depth, and implanted them with PTTs. We collected data before surgery to establish baselines, and for 3.5 mo after surgery. The first feeding dive took place 22 hr after surgery, with 5 of 6 birds diving to the bottom within 35 hr of surgery. Plumage waterproofing around surgical sites was reduced ≤21 days after surgery. Mass; albumin; albumin:globulin ratio; aspartate aminotransferase; β1-, β2-, and γ-globulins; creatine kinase; fecal glucocorticoid metabolites; heterophil:lymphocyte ratio; and packed cell volume changed from baseline on one or more of the postsurgery sampling dates, and some changes were still evident 3.5 mo after surgery. Our findings show that Common Eiders physiologically responded for up to 3.5 mo after surgical implantation of a PTT, with the greatest response occurring within the first few weeks of implantation. These responses support the need for postsurgery censor periods for satellite telemetry data and should be considered when designing studies and analyzing information from PTTs in sea ducks.

  4. The Precise Structures and Stereochemistry of Trihydroxy-linoleates Esterified in Human and Porcine Epidermis and Their Significance in Skin Barrier Function

    PubMed Central

    Chiba, Takahito; Thomas, Christopher P.; Calcutt, M. Wade; Boeglin, William E.; O'Donnell, Valerie B.; Brash, Alan R.

    2016-01-01

    Creation of an intact skin water barrier, a prerequisite for life on dry land, requires the lipoxygenase-catalyzed oxidation of the essential fatty acid linoleate, which is esterified to the ω-hydroxyl of an epidermis-specific ceramide. Oxidation of the linoleate moiety by lipoxygenases is proposed to facilitate enzymatic cleavage of the ester bond, releasing free ω-hydroxyceramide for covalent binding to protein, thus forming the corneocyte lipid envelope, a key component of the epidermal barrier. Herein, we report the transformations of esterified linoleate proceed beyond the initial steps of oxidation and epoxyalcohol synthesis catalyzed by the consecutive actions of 12R-LOX and epidermal LOX3. The major end product in human and porcine epidermis is a trihydroxy derivative, formed with a specificity that implicates participation of an epoxide hydrolase in converting epoxyalcohol to triol. Of the 16 possible triols arising from hydrolysis of 9,10-epoxy-13-hydroxy-octadecenoates, using LC-MS and chiral analyses, we identify and quantify specifically 9R,10S,13R-trihydroxy-11E-octadecenoate as the single major triol esterified in porcine epidermis and the same isomer with lesser amounts of its 10R diastereomer in human epidermis. The 9R,10S,13R-triol is formed by SN2 hydrolysis of the 9R,10R-epoxy-13R-hydroxy-octadecenoate product of the LOX enzymes, a reaction specificity characteristic of epoxide hydrolase. The high polarity of triol over the primary linoleate products enhances the concept that the oxidations disrupt corneocyte membrane lipids, promoting release of free ω-hydroxyceramide for covalent binding to protein and sealing of the waterproof barrier. PMID:27151221

  5. Can Preening Contribute to Influenza A Virus Infection in Wild Waterbirds?

    PubMed Central

    Delogu, Mauro; De Marco, Maria A.; Di Trani, Livia; Raffini, Elisabetta; Cotti, Claudia; Puzelli, Simona; Ostanello, Fabio; Webster, Robert G.; Cassone, Antonio; Donatelli, Isabella

    2010-01-01

    Wild aquatic birds in the Orders Anseriformes and Charadriiformes are the main reservoir hosts perpetuating the genetic pool of all influenza A viruses, including pandemic viruses. High viral loads in feces of infected birds permit a fecal-oral route of transmission. Numerous studies have reported the isolation of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) from surface water at aquatic bird habitats. These isolations indicate aquatic environments have an important role in the transmission of AIV among wild aquatic birds. However, the progressive dilution of infectious feces in water could decrease the likelihood of virus/host interactions. To evaluate whether alternate mechanisms facilitate AIV transmission in aquatic bird populations, we investigated whether the preen oil gland secretions by which all aquatic birds make their feathers waterproof could support a natural mechanism that concentrates AIVs from water onto birds' bodies, thus, representing a possible source of infection by preening activity. We consistently detected both viral RNA and infectious AIVs on swabs of preened feathers of 345 wild mallards by using reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and virus-isolation (VI) assays. Additionally, in two laboratory experiments using a quantitative real-time (qR) RT-PCR assay, we demonstrated that feather samples (n = 5) and cotton swabs (n = 24) experimentally impregnated with preen oil, when soaked in AIV-contaminated waters, attracted and concentrated AIVs on their surfaces. The data presented herein provide information that expands our understanding of AIV ecology in the wild bird reservoir system. PMID:20593026

  6. An O2 smart plastic film for packaging.

    PubMed

    Mills, Andrew; Lawrie, Katherine; Bardin, Julie; Apedaile, Alistair; Skinner, Graham A; O'Rourke, Christopher

    2012-01-07

    The preparation and characterisation of a novel, water-proof, irreversible, reusable, UV-activated, O(2) sensitive, smart plastic film is described. A pigment, consisting of a redox dye, methylene blue (MB), and a sacrificial electron donor, DL-threitol, coated onto an inorganic support with semiconductor functionality, TiO(2), has been extruded in low-density polyethylene (LDPE). The blue-coloured indicator is readily photobleached in <90 s using UVA light (4 mW cm(-2)), whereby MB is converted to its colourless, leuco form, leuco-methylene blue (LMB). This form persists in the absence of oxygen, but is re-oxidised to MB in ~2.5 days in air under ambient conditions (∼21 °C, ~65% RH) within the O(2) smart plastic film. The rate of recovery is linearly dependent upon the ambient level of O(2). At the lower temperature of 5 °C, the kinetics of the photobleaching activation step is largely unchanged, whereas that of recovery is markedly reduced to t(1/2) = 36 h at 5 °C (cf. 9 h at 21 °C); the activation energy for the recovery step was calculated as 28 kJ mol(-1). The O(2)-sensitive recovery step was found to be moderately dependent upon humidity at 21 °C, but not significantly dependent upon humidity at 5 °C. The possible application of this type of indicator in food packaging is illustrated and discussed briefly.

  7. Electrospun Superhydrophobic Organic/Inorganic Composite Nanofibrous Membranes for Membrane Distillation.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiong; Yu, Xufeng; Cheng, Cheng; Deng, Li; Wang, Min; Wang, Xuefen

    2015-10-07

    Electrospun superhydrophobic organic/inorganic composite nanofibrous membranes exhibiting excellent direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) performance were fabricated by a facile route combining the hydrophobization of silica nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs) and colloid electrospinning of the hydrophobic silica/poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) matrix. Benefiting from the utilization of SiO2 NPs with three different particle sizes, the electrospun nanofibrous membranes (ENMs) were endowed with three different delicate nanofiber morphologies and fiber diameter distribution, high porosity, and superhydrophobic property, which resulted in excellent waterproofing and breathability. Significantly, structural attributes analyses have indicated the major contributing role of fiber diameter distribution on determining the augment of permeate vapor flux through regulating mean flow pore size (MFP). Meanwhile, the extremely high liquid entry pressure of water (LEPw, 2.40 ± 0.10 bar), robust nanofiber morphology of PVDF immobilized SiO2 NPs, remarkable mechanical properties, thermal stability, and corrosion resistance endowed the as-prepared membranes with prominent desalination capability and stability for long-term MD process. The resultant choreographed PVDF/silica ENMs with optimized MFP presented an outstanding permeate vapor flux of 41.1 kg/(m(2)·h) and stable low permeate conductivity (∼2.45 μs/cm) (3.5 wt % NaCl salt feed; ΔT = 40 °C) over a DCMD test period of 24 h without membrane pores wetting detected. This result was better than those of typical commercial PVDF membranes and PVDF and modified PVDF ENMs reported so far, suggesting them as promising alternatives for MD applications.

  8. Characterization of Fast-Scan Cyclic Voltammetric Electrodes Using Paraffin as an Effective Sealant with In Vitro and In Vivo Applications

    PubMed Central

    Ramsson, Eric S.; Cholger, Daniel; Dionise, Albert; Poirier, Nicholas; Andrus, Avery; Curtiss, Randi

    2015-01-01

    Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) is a powerful technique for measuring sub-second changes in neurotransmitter levels. A great time-limiting factor in the use of FSCV is the production of high-quality recording electrodes; common recording electrodes consist of cylindrical carbon fiber encased in borosilicate glass. When the borosilicate is heated and pulled, the molten glass ideally forms a tight seal around the carbon fiber cylinder. It is often difficult, however, to guarantee a perfect seal between the glass and carbon. Indeed, much of the time spent creating electrodes is in an effort to find a good seal. Even though epoxy resins can be useful in this regard, they are irreversible (seals are permanent), wasteful (epoxy cannot be reused once hardener is added), hazardous (hardeners are often caustic), and require curing. Herein we characterize paraffin as an electrode sealant for FSCV microelectrodes. Paraffin boasts the advantages of near-immediate curing times, simplicity in use, long shelf-life and stable waterproof seals capable of withstanding extended cycling. Borosilicate electrode tips were left intact or broken and dipped in paraffin embedding wax. Excess wax was removed from the carbon surface with xyelenes or by repeated cycling at an extended waveform (-0.4 to 1.4V, 400 V/s, 60 Hz). Then, the waveform was switched to a standard waveform (-0.4 to 1.3V, 400 V/s, 10 Hz) and cycled until stable. Wax-sealing does not inhibit electrode sensitivity, as electrodes detected linear changes in dopamine before and after wax (then xylenes) exposure. Paraffin seals are intact after 11 days of implantation in the mouse, and still capable of measuring transient changes in in vivo dopamine. From this it is clear that paraffin wax is an effective sealant for FSCV electrodes that provides a convenient substitute to epoxy sealants. PMID:26505195

  9. Development of a semi-permanent mascara technology.

    PubMed

    Dempsey, J H; Fabula, A M; Rabe, T E; Lubbers, J M; Ye, M

    2012-02-01

    Many women would like their mascara beauty benefits to be available all day, every day. One way to address this desire is through a semi-permanent mascara technology that provides full mascara benefits of long, dark beautiful lashes for multiple days. To date, products promising multi-day benefits have acted more as either 'lash dyes', providing a lash darkening benefit but failing to provide fullness and length, or waterproof mascaras that do not maintain the initial beauty look over multiple days. Here, a formulation approach is described for a mascara product that is designed to be abrasion resistant, flexible and insoluble in soap and water so that the initial beauty look is maintained for multiple days. The new semi-permanent formula technology uses rosinate polymers that have a superior combination of flexibility, abrasion resistance and water and surfactant resistance. Based on principles used by the paint industry for creating durable films, the levels of the polymers and other non-volatile ingredients are balanced such that the product forms a continuous polymer film on the eyelash. Cryo-SEM is used to demonstrate that the new semi-permanent formula technology forms a film different from those formed by current mascara products. A stretch test and rub test are used to demonstrate that the new semi-permanent formula technology has superior flexibility and abrasion resistance to current mascara products. Finally, a multi-day consumer study with daily imaging of the eyes is used to demonstrate the superior wear performance of the new semi-permanent formula technology in actual usage.

  10. Short-term survival and effects of transmitter implantation into western grebes using a modified surgical procedure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaydos, Joseph K.; Massey, J. Gregory; Mulcahy, Daniel M.; Gaskins, Lori A.; Nysewander, David; Evenson, Joseph; Siegel, Paul B.; Ziccardi, Michael H.

    2011-01-01

    Two pilot trials and one study in a closely related grebe species suggest that Western grebes (Aechmophorus occidentalis) will not tolerate intracoelomic transmitter implantation with percutaneous antennae and often die within days of surgery. Wild Western grebes (n = 21) were captured to evaluate a modified surgical technique. Seven birds were surgically implanted with intracoelomic transmitters with percutaneous antennae by using the modified technique (transmitter group), 7 received the same surgery without transmitter implantation (celiotomy group), and 7 served as controls (only undergoing anesthesia). Modifications included laterally offsetting the body wall incision from the skin incision, application of absorbable cyanoacrylate tissue glue to the subcutaneous space between the body wall and skin incisions, application of a waterproof sealant to the skin incision after suture closure, and application of a piece of porcine small intestine submucosa to the antenna egress. Survival did not differ among the 3 groups with 7 of 7 control, 6 of 7 celiotomy, and 6 of 7 transmitter birds surviving the 9-day study. Experimental birds were euthanized at the end of the study, and postmortem findings indicated normal healing. Significant differences in plasma chemistry or immune function were not detected among the 3 groups, and only minor differences were detected in red blood cell indices and plasma proteins. After surgery, the birds in the transmitter group spent more time preening tail feathers than those in the control and celiotomy groups. These results demonstrate that, in a captive situation, celiotomy and intracoelomic transmitter implantation caused minimal detectable homeostatic disturbance in this species and that Western grebes can survive implantation of intracoelomic transmitters with percutaneous antennae. It remains to be determined what potential this modified surgical procedure has to improve postoperative survival of Western grebes that are

  11. Experimental investigation of thermal effects in HIFU-based external valvuloplasty with a non-spherical transducer, using high-resolution MR thermometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrusca, Lorena; Salomir, Rares; Milleret, Réné; Pichot, Olivier; Rata, Mihaela; Cotton, François; Chapelon, Jean-Yves

    2009-09-01

    Real-time image-guided extracorporeal high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has been suggested for minimally invasive treatment of valvular dysfunction in the saphenous vein. Local application of heat on the perimeter of the valve zone was previously reported to induce a partial shrinkage of the collagen, which may correct valvular function. In our study, a novel MR compatible HIFU device has been investigated. This device is based on a non-spherical geometry, with two active elements that create a focusing line which is orthogonal to the beam main axis, aiming to cover the valve longitudinally. The prototype performance was characterized by electro-acoustical measurements of the pressure field and by high-resolution MR thermometry. Pressure and thermal fields were found in good agreement with the theoretical predictions. To investigate the therapeutic potential, fresh samples of excised human veins were filled with an agarose gel, embedded in porcine muscle and exposed to HIFU. The power level applied during a fixed duration of 30 s was varied such that the absolute temperature at focus ranged between 52 °C and 83 °C. Targeting was achieved under MR guidance using a MR compatible XZ positioning system. A dedicated waterproof miniature loop coil was specifically built to achieve high-resolution MRI image-based targeting (0.25 mm × 0.25 mm × 3 mm voxel) and thermometry (0.4 mm × 0.4 mm × 4 mm voxel). The vein wall was clearly identified on MR images before and after HIFU treatment. The thermal buildup created by the non-spherical transducer could be characterized from MR thermometry data. Shrinkage of the vein wall (above 65 °C) was determined by absolute temperature and was not a cumulative thermal dose effect.

  12. Rotating Balances Used for Fluid Pump Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skelley, Stephen; Mulder, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center has developed and demonstrated two direct read force and moment balances for sensing and resolving the hydrodynamic loads on rotating fluid machinery. These rotating balances consist of a series of stainless steel flexures instrumented with semiconductor type, unidirectional strain gauges arranged into six bridges, then sealed and waterproofed, for use fully submerged in degassed water at rotational speeds up to six thousand revolutions per minute. The balances are used to measure the forces and moments due to the onset and presence of cavitation or other hydrodynamic phenomena on subscale replicas of rocket engine turbomachinery, principally axial pumps (inducers) designed specifically to operate in a cavitating environment. The balances are inserted into the drive assembly with power to and signal from the sensors routed through the drive shaft and out through an air-cooled twenty-channel slip ring. High frequency data - balance forces and moments as well as extensive, flush-mounted pressures around the rotating component periphery - are acquired via a high-speed analog to digital data acquisition system while the test rig conditions are varied continuously. The data acquisition and correction process is described, including the in-situ verifications that are performed to quantify and correct for known system effects such as mechanical imbalance, "added mass," buoyancy, mechanical resonance, and electrical bias. Examples of four types of cavitation oscillations for two typical inducers are described in the laboratory (pressure) and rotating (force) frames: 1) attached, symmetric cavitation, 2) rotating cavitation, 3) attached, asymmetric cavitation, and 4) cavitation surge. Rotating and asymmetric cavitation generate a corresponding unbalanced radial force on the rotating assembly while cavitation surge generates an axial force. Attached, symmetric cavitation induces no measurable force. The frequency of the forces can be determined a

  13. Does the Heat Island Effect Affect Lake Chabot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, K. A.; Mock, Y.; Pun, C.

    2014-12-01

    Lake Chabot is a backup water supply source and it is important to know if the water is healthy because California is experiencing a drought. To check the quality of the water we used a submersible, waterproof thermometer to measure the temperature of the water at different depths. We hypothesized that the heat-island effect would cause the runoff from the surrounding developed areas to be warmer. This is because paving roads causes areas to become impermeable and absorb heat. Water runs off these impermeable surfaces, absorbing heat from the ground and enters larger bodies of water via stream. To locate streams we used a topography map. We located close lines followed by lines that were farther apart and then once again followed by close lines. This indicates that there is a concave area between two high points, allowing water to possibly flow through. We found that areas where the water came from highly populated areas were warmer. The increase in temperature was shown throughout all depths of the water at each site that was measured. The temperature throughout the lake was in between 19°C and 25°C. This warm temperature makes it hard for gases to mix. The lower the dissolved oxygen level, the less desirable it is for a variety of organisms to survive. Higher temperatures also increase bacterial growth and can causes water to be unhealthy. This indicates that the water at Lake Chabot is not suitable for human consumption and should not be considered a suitable backup water source for our area.

  14. "Smart pebble" design for environmental monitoring applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valyrakis, Manousos; Pavlovskis, Edgars

    2014-05-01

    Sediment transport, due to primarily the action of water, wind and ice, is one of the most significant geomorphic processes responsible for shaping Earth's surface. It involves entrainment of sediment grains in rivers and estuaries due to the violently fluctuating hydrodynamic forces near the bed. Here an instrumented particle, namely a "smart pebble", is developed to investigate the exact flow conditions under which individual grains may be entrained from the surface of a gravel bed. This could lead in developing a better understanding of the processes involved, while focusing on the response of the particle during a variety of flow entrainment events. The "smart pebble" is a particle instrumented with MEMS sensors appropriate for capturing the hydrodynamic forces a coarse particle might experience during its entrainment from the river bed. A 3-axial gyroscope and accelerometer registers data to a memory card via a microcontroller, embedded in a 3D-printed waterproof hollow spherical particle. The instrumented board is appropriately fit and centred into the shell of the pebble, so as to achieve a nearly uniform distribution of the mass which could otherwise bias its motion. The "smart pebble" is powered by an independent power to ensure autonomy and sufficiently long periods of operation appropriate for deployment in the field. Post-processing and analysis of the acquired data is currently performed offline, using scientific programming software. The performance of the instrumented particle is validated, conducting a series of calibration experiments under well-controlled laboratory conditions. "Smart pebble" allows for a wider range of environmental sensors (e.g. for environmental/pollutant monitoring) to be incorporated so as to extend the range of its application, enabling accurate environmental monitoring which is required to ensure infrastructure resilience and preservation of ecological health.

  15. Cost effective system for monitoring of fish migration with a camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sečnik, Matej; Brilly, Mitja; Vidmar, Andrej

    2016-04-01

    Within the European LIFE project Ljubljanica connects (LIFE10 NAT/SI/000142) we have developed a cost-effective solution for the monitoring of fish migration through the fish passes with the underwater camera. In the fish pass at Ambrožev trg and in the fish pass near the Fužine castle we installed a video camera called "Fishcam" to be able to monitor the migration of fish through the fish passes and success of its reconstruction. Live stream from fishcams installed in the fishpassesis available on our project website (http://ksh.fgg.uni-lj.si/ljubljanicaconnects/ang/12_camera). The system for the fish monitoring is made from two parts. First is the waterproof box for the computer with charger and the second part is the camera itself. We used a high sensitive Sony analogue camera. The advantage of this camera is that it has very good sensitivity in low light conditions, so it can take good quality pictures even at night with a minimum additional lighting. For the night recording we use additional IR reflector to illuminate passing fishes. The camera is connected to an 8-inch tablet PC. We decided to use a tablet PC because it is quite small, cheap, it is relatively fast and has a low power consumption. On the computer we use software which has advanced motion detection capabilities, so we can also detect the small fishes. When the fish is detected by a software, its photograph is automatically saved to local hard drive and for backup also on Google drive. The system for monitoring of fish migration has turned out to work very well. From the beginning of monitoring in June 2015 to end of the year there were more than 100.000 photographs produced. The first analysis of them was already prepared estimating fish species and their frequency in passing the fish pass.

  16. Development of a retrofit coal combustor for industrial applications, (Phase 1-A). Technical progress report, July--September 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-10-01

    During this past quarter, two tandem-fired pulse combustors were designed to fire at a nominal rate of 3.5 to 5.5 MMBtu/hr under continuation of Phase I work on DOE project DE-AC22-87PC79654. In prior work, MTCI demonstrated the operation of a 1--2 MMBtu/h coal-fired tandem pulse combustor that is intended for small industrial applications. These component tests emphasized verification of key design issues such as combustor coupling, slag rejection, and staged air addition. The current work, which represents an extension of the Phase I effort, focuses on integrated testing of the tandem pulse combustor with a fire-tube boiler, and the addition of a slag quench vessel. A tandem-fired pulse combustion unit designed to fire at a nominal rate of 3.5-5 MMBtu/hr was designed and fabricated. The configuration includes two combustion chambers cast in a single monolith, tailpipes cast separately with annular air preheating capability, and a cyclonic decoupler. Design analysis and evaluations were performed to optimize the system with respect to minimizing heat losses, size, and cost. Heat losses from the combustor and decoupler walls are predicted to be approximately 3 percent. The final designs for the ancillary items (slag quench, tertiary air addition, scrubber and sampling system) were completed and fabrication and installation initiated. A Cleaver-Brooks 150 hp-4 pass boiler was delivered and installed and modifications for interfacing with the retrofit pulse combustor unit completed. A below-ground slag collection pit was excavated to permit direct in-line coupling of the combustor to the boiler and to reduce head-room requirements. The pit is 30 inches deep and lined with waterproof and fireproof siding.

  17. Development of a retrofit coal combustor for industrial applications, (Phase 1-A)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-10-01

    During this past quarter, two tandem-fired pulse combustors were designed to fire at a nominal rate of 3.5 to 5.5 MMBtu/hr under continuation of Phase I work on DOE project DE-AC22-87PC79654. In prior work, MTCI demonstrated the operation of a 1--2 MMBtu/h coal-fired tandem pulse combustor that is intended for small industrial applications. These component tests emphasized verification of key design issues such as combustor coupling, slag rejection, and staged air addition. The current work, which represents an extension of the Phase I effort, focuses on integrated testing of the tandem pulse combustor with a fire-tube boiler, and the addition of a slag quench vessel. A tandem-fired pulse combustion unit designed to fire at a nominal rate of 3.5-5 MMBtu/hr was designed and fabricated. The configuration includes two combustion chambers cast in a single monolith, tailpipes cast separately with annular air preheating capability, and a cyclonic decoupler. Design analysis and evaluations were performed to optimize the system with respect to minimizing heat losses, size, and cost. Heat losses from the combustor and decoupler walls are predicted to be approximately 3 percent. The final designs for the ancillary items (slag quench, tertiary air addition, scrubber and sampling system) were completed and fabrication and installation initiated. A Cleaver-Brooks 150 hp-4 pass boiler was delivered and installed and modifications for interfacing with the retrofit pulse combustor unit completed. A below-ground slag collection pit was excavated to permit direct in-line coupling of the combustor to the boiler and to reduce head-room requirements. The pit is 30 inches deep and lined with waterproof and fireproof siding.

  18. An unusual case of organophosphate intoxication of a worker in a plastic bottle recycling plant: an important reminder.

    PubMed

    Wang, C L; Chuang, H Y; Chang, C Y; Liu, S T; Wu, M T; Ho, C K

    2000-11-01

    A young man was sent to our emergency unit because he had suffered from vomiting and cold sweating for 2 days. At the time he was admitted, he had no acute abdominal pains or gastrointestinal symptoms, and a physical examination revealed nothing but a faster heart rate and moist, flushing skin. The patient had worked for 6 years at a plastic bottle-recycling factory, but none of his co-workers had the same symptoms. Nevertheless, because the plant also recycled pesticide bottles, we suspected organophosphate pesticide intoxication. The patient's plasma acetylcholinesterase level was checked, revealing 1498.6 microU/L (normal range: 2,000-5, 000) on the first day and 1,379 microU/L on the second day. Upon questioning, the patient recalled that one of his shoe soles had been damaged and that his foot had been wet from walking all day in rain collected on the factory floor on the day that his symptoms first occurred. We conducted a study in the change of preshift and postshift acetylcholinesterase levels among six of his co-workers on a rainy day. We used the Wilcoxon signed rank test to compare the preshift and postshift plasma acetylcholinesterase levels; no significant difference was revealed (p = 0.600), leaving contamination via the damaged shoe sole suspect. We reviewed the literature on organophosphate intoxication; pesticide bottle-recycling factories were reported to be at a low risk of organophosphate toxicity in the working environment. However, because the potential risk of intoxication is still present, protective equipment such as clothing, gloves, and water-proof shoes should be worn, and employees should be educated on the potential risks.

  19. A bio-inspired real-time capable artificial lateral line system for freestream flow measurements.

    PubMed

    Abels, C; Qualtieri, A; De Vittorio, M; Megill, W M; Rizzi, F

    2016-06-03

    To enhance today's artificial flow sensing capabilities in aerial and underwater robotics, future robots could be equipped with a large number of miniaturized sensors distributed over the surface to provide high resolution measurement of the surrounding fluid flow. In this work we show a linear array of closely separated bio-inspired micro-electro-mechanical flow sensors whose sensing mechanism is based on a piezoresistive strain-gauge along a stress-driven cantilever beam, mimicking the biological superficial neuromasts found in the lateral line organ of fishes. Aiming to improve state-of-the-art flow sensing capability in autonomously flying and swimming robots, our artificial lateral line system was designed and developed to feature multi-parameter freestream flow measurements which provide information about (1) local flow velocities as measured by the signal amplitudes from the individual cantilevers as well as (2) propagation velocity, (3) linear forward/backward direction along the cantilever beam orientation and (4) periodicity of pulses or pulse trains determined by cross-correlating sensor signals. A real-time capable cross-correlation procedure was developed which makes it possible to extract freestream flow direction and velocity information from flow fluctuations. The computed flow velocities deviate from a commercial system by 0.09 m s(-1) at 0.5 m s(-1) and 0.15 m s(-1) at 1.0 m s(-1) flow velocity for a sampling rate of 240 Hz and a sensor distance of 38 mm. Although experiments were performed in air, the presented flow sensing system can be applied to underwater vehicles as well, once the sensors are embedded in a waterproof micro-electro-mechanical systems package.

  20. CubeSub - A CubeSat Based Submersible Testbed for Space Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slettebo, Christian

    2016-01-01

    This report is a Master's Thesis in Aerospace Engineering, performed at the NASA Ames Research Center. It describes the development of the CubeSub, a submersible testbed compatible with the CubeSat form factor. The CubeSub will be used to mature technology and operational procedures to be used in space exploration, and possibly also as a tool for exploration of Earthly environments. CubeSats are carried as payloads, either containing technology to be tested or experiments and sensors for scientific use. The CubeSub is designed to be built up by modules, which can be assembled in different configurations to fulfill different needs. Each module is powered individually and intermodular communication is wireless, reducing the need for wiring. The inside of the hull is flooded with ambient water to simplify the interaction between payloads and surrounding environment. The overall shape is similar to that of a conventional AUV, slender and smooth. This is to make for a low drag, reduce the risk of snagging on surrounding objects and make it possible to deploy through an ice sheet via a narrow borehole. Rapid prototyping is utilized to a large extent, with full-scale prototypes being constructed through 3D-printing and with COTS (Commercial Off-The-Shelf) components. Arduino boards are used for control and internal communication. Modules required for basic operation have been designed, manufactured and tested. Each module is described with regards to its function, design and manufacturability. By performing tests in a pool it was found that the basic concept is sound and that future improvements include better controllability, course stability and waterproofing of electrical components. Further development is needed to make the CubeSub usable for its intended purposes. The largest gains are expected to be found by developing the software and improving controllability.

  1. Comparison and reproducibility of sEMG during manual muscle testing on land and in water.

    PubMed

    Silvers, W Matthew; Dolny, Dennis G

    2011-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to: (1) compare the sEMG recordings from maximal voluntary contractions (MVC), and (2) examine the reproducibility of sEMG recordings from MVCs for selected lower extremity muscles derived from manual muscle testing (MMT) on dry land, and in water prior to and following aquatic treadmill running. Twelve healthy recreational male runners participated. The selected muscles were: M. quadriceps-vastus medialis (VM) and rectus femoris (RF), M. biceps femoris (BF), M. tibialis anterior (TA) and the M. gastrocnemius caput mediale (GAS) of the right leg. The MVC testing conditions were: dry land, underwater prior to (Water 1) and following an aquatic exercise trial (Water 2). For each muscle, a one-way analysis of variance with repeated measures was used to compare MVC scores between testing conditions, and the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and typical error (CV%) were calculated to determine the reproducibility and precision of MVC scores, respectively, between conditions. For all muscles, no significant differences were observed between land and water MVC scores (p=0.88-0.97), and high reliability (ICC=0.96-0.98) and precision (CV%=7.4-12.6%) were observed between MVC conditions. Under MMT conditions it appears that comparable MVC sEMG values were achieved on land and in water and the integrity of the EMG recordings were maintained during water immersion. Future studies using sEMG waterproofing procedures should conduct MVC testing in water for data normalization and perform post-exercise verification of sEMG signal integrity.

  2. Design and characterization of a piezoelectric sensor for monitoring scour hole evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azhari, Faezeh; Tom, Caroline; Benassini, Joseph; Loh, Kenneth J.; Bombardelli, Fabian A.

    2014-03-01

    Scour occurring near bridge piers and abutments jeopardizes the stability and safety of overwater bridges. In fact, bridge scour is responsible for a significant portion of overwater bridge failures in the United States and around the world. As a result, numerous methods have been developed for monitoring bridge scour by measuring scour depth at locations near bridge piers and foundations. Besides visual inspections conducted by trained divers, other technologies include sonar, float-out devices, magnetic sliding collars, tilt sensors, and fiber optics, to name a few. These systems each offer unique advantages, but most of them share fundamental limitations (e.g., high costs, low reliability, limited accuracy, low reliability, etc.) that have limited their implementation in practice. Thus, the goal of this study is to present a low-cost and simple scour depth sensor fabricated using piezoelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) polymer strips. Unlike current piezoelectric scour sensors that are based on mounting multiple and equidistantly spaced transducers on a rod, the proposed sensor is formed by coating one continuous PVDF film onto a substrate, followed by waterproofing the sensor. The PVDF-based sensor can then be buried in the streambed and at a location where scour depth measurements are desired. When scour occurs and exposes a portion of the PVDF sensor, water flow excites the sensor to cause the generation of a time-varying voltage signal. Since the dynamics of the voltage time history response is related to the exposed length of the sensor, scour depth can be determined. This work presents the design and fabrication of the sensor. Then, the sensor's performance and accuracy is characterized through extensive laboratory testing.

  3. SU-E-T-446: Evaluation of the Dosimetric Properties of a Diode Detector to Proton Radiosurgery

    SciTech Connect

    Teran, A; McAuley, G; Slater, J M; Slater, J D; Wroe, A

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To test the PTW PR60020 proton dosimetry diode in radiation fields relevant to proton radiosurgery applications and evaluate its suitability as a high resolution, real time dosimetry device. Methods: Data was collected using our standard nominal radiosurgery energies of 126 MeV and 155 MeV through a single stage scattering system, corresponding to a range of 9.7 and 15 cm in water respectively. Various beam modulations were tested as part of this study. Depth dose and beam profile measurements were completed with the PTW PR60020 dosimetry diode with comparative measurements using a PTW Markus ionization chamber and EBT2 Gafchromic film. Monte Carlo simulations were also completed for comparison. Results: The single 1 mm{sup 2} by 20 μm thick sensitive volume allowed for high spatial resolution measurements while maintaining sufficient sensitive volume to ensure that measurements could be completed without excessive beam delivery. Depth dose profiles exhibited negligible LET dependence which typically impacts film and other solid state dosimetry devices, while beam ranges measured with the PTW diode were within 1 mm of ion chamber data. In an edge on arrangement beam profiles were also measured within 0.5 mm full-width at half-maximum at various depths as compared to film and simulation data. Conclusion: The PTW PR60020 proved to be a very useful radiation metrology apparatus for proton radiosurgery applications. Its waterproof and rugged construction allowed for easy deployment in phantoms or water tanks that are commonly used in proton radiosurgery QA. Dosimetrically, the diode exhibited negligible LET dependence as a function of depth, while in edge on arrangement to the incident proton beam it facilitated the measurement of beam profiles with a spatial resolution comparable to both Monte Carlo and film measurements. This project was sponsored in part by funding from the Department of Defense (DOD# W81XWH-BAA-10-1)

  4. TOPICAL REVIEW: Smart aggregates: multi-functional sensors for concrete structures—a tutorial and a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Gangbing; Gu, Haichang; Mo, Yi-Lung

    2008-06-01

    This paper summarizes the authors' recent pioneering research work in piezoceramic-based smart aggregates and their innovative applications in concrete civil structures. The basic operating principle of smart aggregates is first introduced. The proposed smart aggregate is formed by embedding a waterproof piezoelectric patch with lead wires into a small concrete block. The proposed smart aggregates are multi-functional and can perform three major tasks: early-age concrete strength monitoring, impact detection and structural health monitoring. The proposed smart aggregates are embedded into the desired location before the casting of the concrete structure. The concrete strength development is monitored by observing the high frequency harmonic wave response of the smart aggregate. Impact on the concrete structure is detected by observing the open-circuit voltage of the piezoceramic patch in the smart aggregate. For structural health monitoring purposes, a smart aggregate-based active sensing system is designed for the concrete structure. Wavelet packet analysis is used as a signal-processing tool to analyze the sensor signal. A damage index based on the wavelet packet analysis is used to determine the structural health status. To better describe the time-history and location information of damage, two types of damage index matrices are proposed: a sensor-history damage index matrix and an actuator-sensor damage index matrix. To demonstrate the multi-functionality of the proposed smart aggregates, different types of concrete structures have been used as test objects, including concrete bridge bent-caps, concrete cylinders and a concrete frame. Experimental results have verified the effectiveness and the multi-functionality of the proposed smart aggregates. The multi-functional smart aggregates have the potential to be applied to the comprehensive monitoring of concrete structures from their earliest stages and throughout their lifetime.

  5. A New Standard Installation Method of the Offline Seismic Observation Station in Heavy Snowfall Area of Tohoku Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirahara, S.; Nakayama, T.; Hori, S.; Sato, T.; Chiba, Y.; Okada, T.; Matsuzawa, T.

    2015-12-01

    Soon after the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, seismic activity of Tohoku region, NE Japan is induced in the inland area of Akita prefecture and the border area between Fukushima and Yamagata prefectures. We plan to install a total of 80 offline seismic observation stations in these areas for studying the effect of megathrust earthquake on the activities of inland earthquakes. In our project, maintenance will be held twice-a-year for 4 years from 2015 by using 2.0Hz short-period 3-component seismometer, KVS-300 and ultra-low-power data logger, EDR-X7000 (DC12V 0.08W power supply). We installed seismometer on the rock surface or the slope of the natural ground at the possible sites confirmed with low noise level to obtain distinct seismic waveform data. We report an improvement in installation method of the offline seismic observation station in the heavy snowfall area of Tohoku region based on the retrieved data. In the conventional method, seismometer was installed in the hand-dug hole of a slope in case it is not waterproof. Data logger and battery were installed in the box container on the ground surface, and then, GPS antenna was installed on the pole fixed by stepladder. There are risks of the inclination of seismometer and the damage of equipment in heavy snowfall area. In the new method, seismometer is installed in the robust concrete box on the buried basement consists of precast concrete mass to keep its horizontality. Data logger, battery, and GPS antenna are installed on a high place by using a single pole with anchor bolt and a pole mount cabinet to enhance their safety. As a result, total costs of installation are kept down because most of the equipment is reusable. Furthermore, an environmental burden of waste products is reduced.

  6. Response of earth-covered slabs in clay and sand backfills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiger, S. A.; Eagles, P. S.; Baylot, J. T.

    1984-10-01

    Five tests were conducted, three static and two dynamic, on identical 2-foot-wide, one-way reinforced concrete slabs. Each slab was 2 feet long and had a span-to-effective-depth ratio of 10. Static test were conducted using water over a waterproof membrane to apply a uniform surface pressure with the test slabs surface flush, 1 foot deep in clay soil backfill, and 1 foot deep in a sand backfill. The clay and sand backfill conditions were repeated in the two dynamic tests. The reaction structure supporting the slabs was rigid enough to prevent any slab support rotation at the clamped edges. The rigid reaction structure also eliminated any inplane thrust generated by lateral earth pressures. Therefore, compressive membrane thrust was not a variable between the tests. The surface-flush static test slab failed at about 174 psi, failure in the static clay backfill test occurred at about 835-psi overpressure. The approximately fivefold increase in static capacity in the sand backfill was due to soil arching in the high-shear-strength sand backfill. Peak dynamic pressure in the dynamic sand backfill test was approximately 3,300 psi and in the dynamic clay backfill about 860 psi. These test results indicate that soil arching, both static and dynamic, is much more important than current calculations indicate at this very shallow burial depth. The dynamic tests approximately simulated 0.027- and 0.010-KT nuclear weapons at about 3,300- and 860-psi peak overpressures, respectively. Assuming a 16-foot prototype span, these weapons scale up to approximately 14 and 5 KT, respectively.

  7. An Endosperm-Associated Cuticle Is Required for Arabidopsis Seed Viability, Dormancy and Early Control of Germination

    PubMed Central

    Loubery, Sylvain; Utz-Pugin, Anne; Bailly, Christophe; Mène-Saffrané, Laurent; Lopez-Molina, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Cuticular layers and seeds are prominent plant adaptations to terrestrial life that appeared early and late during plant evolution, respectively. The cuticle is a waterproof film covering plant aerial organs preventing excessive water loss and protecting against biotic and abiotic stresses. Cutin, consisting of crosslinked fatty acid monomers, is the most abundant and studied cuticular component. Seeds are dry, metabolically inert structures promoting plant dispersal by keeping the plant embryo in an arrested protected state. In Arabidopsis thaliana seeds, the embryo is surrounded by a single cell endosperm layer itself surrounded by a seed coat layer, the testa. Whole genome analyses lead us to identify cutin biosynthesis genes as regulatory targets of the phytohormones gibberellins (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathways that control seed germination. Cutin-containing layers are present in seed coats of numerous species, including Arabidopsis, where they regulate permeability to outer compounds. However, the role of cutin in mature seed physiology and germination remains poorly understood. Here we identify in mature seeds a thick cuticular film covering the entire outer surface of the endosperm. This seed cuticle is defective in cutin-deficient bodyguard1 seeds, which is associated with alterations in endospermic permeability. Furthermore, mutants affected in cutin biosynthesis display low seed dormancy and viability levels, which correlates with higher levels of seed lipid oxidative stress. Upon seed imbibition cutin biosynthesis genes are essential to prevent endosperm cellular expansion and testa rupture in response to low GA synthesis. Taken together, our findings suggest that in the course of land plant evolution cuticular structures were co-opted to achieve key physiological seed properties. PMID:26681322

  8. Use of portable blood physiology point-of-care devices for basic and applied research on vertebrates: a review.

    PubMed

    Stoot, Lauren J; Cairns, Nicholas A; Cull, Felicia; Taylor, Jessica J; Jeffrey, Jennifer D; Morin, Félix; Mandelman, John W; Clark, Timothy D; Cooke, Steven J

    2014-01-01

    Non-human vertebrate blood is commonly collected and assayed for a variety of applications, including veterinary diagnostics and physiological research. Small, often non-lethal samples enable the assessment and monitoring of the physiological state and health of the individual. Traditionally, studies that rely on blood physiology have focused on captive animals or, in studies conducted in remote settings, have required the preservation and transport of samples for later analysis. In either situation, large, laboratory-bound equipment and traditional assays and analytical protocols are required. The use of point-of-care (POC) devices to measure various secondary blood physiological parameters, such as metabolites, blood gases and ions, has become increasingly popular recently, due to immediate results and their portability, which allows the freedom to study organisms in the wild. Here, we review the current uses of POC devices and their applicability to basic and applied studies on a variety of non-domesticated species. We located 79 individual studies that focused on non-domesticated vertebrates, including validation and application of POC tools. Studies focused on a wide spectrum of taxa, including mammals, birds and herptiles, although the majority of studies focused on fish, and typical variables measured included blood glucose, lactate and pH. We found that calibrations for species-specific blood physiology values are necessary, because ranges can vary within and among taxa and are sometimes outside the measurable range of the devices. In addition, although POC devices are portable and robust, most require durable cases, they are seldom waterproof/water-resistant, and factors such as humidity and temperature can affect the performance of the device. Overall, most studies concluded that POC devices are suitable alternatives to traditional laboratory devices and eliminate the need for transport of samples; however, there is a need for greater emphasis on rigorous

  9. Mid-infrared absorption-spectroscopy-based carbon dioxide sensor network in greenhouse agriculture: development and deployment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianing; Zheng, Lingjiao; Niu, Xintao; Zheng, Chuantao; Wang, Yiding; Tittel, Frank K

    2016-09-01

    A mid-infrared carbon dioxide (CO2) sensor was experimentally demonstrated for application in a greenhouse farm environment. An optical module was developed using a lamp source, a dual-channel pyre-electrical detector, and a spherical mirror. A multi-pass gas chamber and a dual-channel detection method were adopted to effectively enhance light collection efficiency and suppress environmental influences. The moisture-proof function realized by a breathable waterproof chamber was specially designed for the application of such a sensor in a greenhouse with high humidity. Sensor structure of the optical part and electrical part were described, respectively, and related experiments were carried out to evaluate the sensor performance on CO2 concentration. The limit of detection of the sensor is 30 ppm with an absorption length of 30 cm. The relative detection error is less than 5% within the measurement range of 30-5000 ppm. The fluctuations for the long-term (10 h) stability measurements on a 500 ppm CO2 sample and a 2000 ppm CO2 sample are 1.08% and 3.6%, respectively, indicating a good stability of the sensor. A wireless sensor network-based automatic monitoring system was implemented for greenhouse application using multiple mid-infrared CO2 sensor nodes. A monitor software based on LabVIEW was realized via a laptop for real-time environmental data display, storage, and website sharing capabilities. A field experiment of the sensor network was carried out in the town of Shelin in Jilin Province, China, which proved that the whole monitoring system possesses stable sensing performance for practical application under the circumstances of a greenhouse.

  10. Shear bond strength of composite resin to dentin after application of cavity disinfectants – SEM study

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vivek; Rampal, Poonam; Kumar, Sukesh

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to evaluate the effect of different cavity disinfectants on dentin bond strengths of composite resin applied with two different adhesive systems. Materials and Methods: Two-hundred mandibular molars were sectioned parallel to the occlusal surface to expose dentin in the midcoronal one-third. The dentinal surfaces were polished with waterproof-polishing papers. The specimens were randomly divided into five groups of 40 teeth each as follows: group 1(control) -- specimens were not treated with any cavity disinfectants. Groups 2--5 (experimental groups) -- dentin surfaces were treated with the following cavity disinfectants, respectively; 2% chlorhexidine solution, 0.1% benzalkonium chloride-based disinfectant, 1% chlorhexidine gel, and an iodine potassium iodide/copper sulfate-based disinfectant. The specimens were then randomly divided into two subgroups including 20 teeth each to evaluate the effect of different bonding systems. Dentin bonding systems were applied to the dentin surfaces and the composite buildups were done. After the specimens were stored in an incubator for 24 hours, the shear bond strength was measured at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. The specimens were then statistically analyzed. Statistical Analysis Used: One way analysis of variance and Tukey-HSD tests were used. Results: There was no significant difference between chlorhexidine gel and control groups regardless of the type of the bonding agent used (P>0.05). On the other hand, pretreatment with benzalkonium chloride-based, iodine potassium iodide/copper sulfate-based disinfectants or chlorhexidine solutions had a negative effect on the shear bond strength of self-etching bonding systems. Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest that when benzalkonium chloride-based, iodine potassium iodide/copper sulfate-based disinfectants or chlorhexidine solutions are used as a cavity disinfectant, an etch-and-rinse bonding system should be preferred. PMID:22090756

  11. A fibre optic scintillator dosemeter for absorbed dose measurements of low-energy X-ray-emitting brachytherapy sources.

    PubMed

    Sliski, Alan; Soares, Christopher; Mitch, Michael G

    2006-01-01

    A newly developed dosemeter using a 0.5 mm diameter x 0.5 mm thick cylindrical plastic scintillator coupled to the end of a fibre optic cable is capable of measuring the absorbed dose rate in water around low-activity, low-energy X-ray emitters typically used in prostate brachytherapy. Recent tests of this dosemeter showed that it is possible to measure the dose rate as a function of distance in water from 2 to 30 mm of a (103)Pd source of air-kerma strength 3.4 U (1 U = 1 microGy m(2) h(-1)), or 97 MBq (2.6 mCi) apparent activity, with good signal-to-noise ratio. The signal-to-noise ratio is only dependent on the integration time and background subtraction. The detector volume is enclosed in optically opaque, nearly water-equivalent materials so that there is no polar response other than that due to the shape of the scintillator volume chosen, in this case cylindrical. The absorbed dose rate very close to commercial brachytherapy sources can be mapped in an automated water phantom, providing a 3-D dose distribution with sub-millimeter spatial resolution. The sensitive volume of the detector is 0.5 mm from the end of the optically opaque waterproof housing, enabling measurements at very close distances to sources. The sensitive detector electronics allow the measurement of very low dose rates, as exist at centimeter distances from these sources. The detector is also applicable to mapping dose distributions from more complex source geometries such as eye applicators for treating macular degeneration.

  12. Involvement of the end user: exploration of older people’s needs and preferences for a wearable fall detection device – a qualitative descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Thilo, Friederike JS; Bilger, Selina; Halfens, Ruud JG; Schols, Jos MGA; Hahn, Sabine

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To explore the needs and preferences of community-dwelling older people, by involving them in the device design and mock-up development stage of a fall detection device, consisting of a body-worn sensor linked to a smartphone application. Patients and methods A total of 22 community-dwelling persons 75 years of age and older were involved in the development of a fall detection device. Three semistructured focus group interviews were conducted. The interview data were analyzed using qualitative descriptive analysis with deductive coding. Results The mock-up of a waterproof, body-worn, automatic and manual alerting device, which served both as a day-time wearable sensor and a night-time wearable sensor, was welcomed. Changes should be considered regarding shape, color and size along with alternate ways of integrating the sensor with items already in use in daily life, such as jewelry and personal watches. The reliability of the sensor is key for the participants. Issues important to the alerting process were discussed, for instance, who should be contacted and why. Several participants were concerned with the mandatory use of the smartphone and assumed that it would be difficult to use. They criticized the limited distance between the sensor and the smartphone for reliable fall detection, as it might restrict activity and negatively influence their degree of independence in daily life. Conclusion This study supports that involving end users in the design and mock-up development stage is welcomed by older people and allows their needs and preferences concerning the fall detection device to be explored. Based on these findings, the development of a “need-driven” prototype is possible. As participants are doubtful regarding smartphone usage, careful training and support of community-dwelling older people during real field testing will be crucial. PMID:28053509

  13. Variation in quantity and composition of cuticular hydrocarbons in the scorpion Buthus occitanus (Buthidae) in response to acute exposure to desiccation stress.

    PubMed

    Gefen, E; Talal, S; Brendzel, O; Dror, A; Fishman, A

    2015-04-01

    Scorpions exhibit some of the lowest recorded water loss rates among terrestrial arthropods. Evaporative water loss to the surrounding environment occurs mainly through the integument, and thus its resistance to water loss has paramount significance for the ability of scorpions to tolerate extremely dry habitats. Cuticular hydrocarbons (HCs) deposited on the outer epicuticle play an important role in determining cuticular waterproofing, and seasonal variation in both cuticular HC quantity and composition has been shown to correlate with water loss rates. Precursor incorporation rates into cuticle HCs have been observed to be extremely low in scorpions compared with insects. We therefore used adult male Buthus occitanus (Buthidae) in order to test HC profile plasticity during acute exposure to 14 d and 28 d of experimental desiccation. Cuticular HC profile of hydrated scorpions was similar to that reported for several other scorpion species, consisting of similar fractions of n-alkanes and branched alkanes, with no evidence for unsaturation. Most abundant of the n-alkanes were n-heptacosane (C27; 19±2% of total HCs), n-nonacosane (C29; 16±1%) and n-hentriacontane (C31; 11±1%). Exposure to desiccation stress resulted in a significant increase in the total amount of extracted HCs, and in the relative abundance of branched alkanes at the expense of n-alkanes. Together with an increase in HC chain lengths, these changes mimic previously-reported seasonal variation among freshly-collected specimens. This indicates that scorpions respond to water shortage by regulating the properties of their passive integumental barrier to water loss.

  14. Use of a novel two-dimensional ionization chamber array for pencil beam scanning proton therapy beam quality assurance.

    PubMed

    Lin, Liyong; Kang, Minglei; Solberg, Timothy D; Mertens, Thierry; Baeumer, Christian; Ainsley, Christopher G; McDonough, James E

    2015-05-08

    The need to accurately and efficiently verify both output and dose profiles creates significant challenges in quality assurance of pencil beam scanning (PBS) proton delivery. A system for PBS QA has been developed that combines a new two-dimensional ionization chamber array in a waterproof housing that is scanned in a water phantom. The MatriXX PT has the same detector array arrangement as the standard MatriXX(Evolution) but utilizes a smaller 2 mm plate spacing instead of 5mm. Because the bias voltage of the MatriXX PT and Evolution cannot be changed, PPC40 and FC65-G ionization chambers were used to assess recombination effects. The PPC40 is a parallel plate chamber with an electrode spacing of 2mm, while the FC65-G is a Farmer chamber FC65-G with an electrode spacing of 2.8 mm. Three bias voltages (500, 200, and 100 V) were used for both detectors to determine which radiation type (continuous, pulse or pulse-scanned beam) could closely estimate Pion from the ratios of charges collected. In comparison with the MatriXX(Evolution), a significant improvement in measurement of absolute dose with the MatriXX PT was observed. While dose uncertainty of the MatriXX(Evolution) can be up to 4%, it is < 1% for the MatriXX PT. Therefore the MatriXX(Evolution) should not be used for QA of PBS for conditions in which ion recombination is not negligible. Farmer chambers should be used with caution for measuring the absolute dose of PBS beams, as the uncertainty of Pion can be > 1%; chambers with an electrode spacing of 2 mm or smaller are recommended.

  15. Use of a novel two-dimensional ionization chamber array for pencil beam scanning proton therapy beam quality assurance.

    PubMed

    Lin, Liyong; Kang, Minglei; Solberg, Timothy D; Mertens, Thierry; Baumer, Christian; Ainsley, Christopher G; McDonough, James E

    2015-05-01

    The need to accurately and efficiently verify both output and dose profiles creates significant challenges in quality assurance of pencil beam scanning (PBS) proton delivery. A system for PBS QA has been developed that combines a new two-dimensional ionization chamber array in a waterproof housing that is scanned in a water phantom. The MatriXX PT has the same detector array arrangement as the standard MatriXXEvolution but utilizes a smaller 2 mm plate spacing instead of 5 mm. Because the bias voltage of the MatriXX PT and Evolution cannot be changed, PPC40 and FC65-G ionization chambers were used to assess recombination effects. The PPC40 is a parallel plate chamber with an electrode spacing of 2 mm, while the FC65-G is a Farmer chamber FC65-G with an electrode spacing of 2.8 mm. Three bias voltages (500, 200, and 100 V) were used for both detectors to determine which radiation type (continuous, pulse or pulse-scanned beam) could closely estimate Pion from the ratios of charges collected. In comparison with the MatriXXEvolution, a significant improvement in measurement of absolute dose with the MatriXX PT was observed. While dose uncertainty of the MatriXXEvolution can be up to 4%, it is <1% for the MatriXX PT. Therefore the MatriXXEvolution should not be used for QA of PBS for conditions in which ion recombination is not negligible. Farmer chambers should be used with caution for measuring the absolute dose of PBS beams, as the uncertainty of Pion can be <1%; chambers with an electrode spacing of 2 mm or smaller are recommended. PACS number: 87.53.Qc.

  16. A de-epithelialised 'turnover dartos flap' in the repair of urethral fistula.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Rajeev B

    2009-03-01

    We report our experience in the management of urethrocutaneous fistulae following hypospadias repair by using a turnover, de-epithelialiszed dartos flap. From May 2003 to June 2007 we operated on 10 patients with urethral fistulae following hypospadias repair. Their ages ranged from 4 to 25 years (mean: 7 years). Four of these patients had their urethroplasty done elsewhere and reported for fistula repair alone. These four patients had no record of the urethroplasty procedure that was used. A solitary fistula was located at the corona in two patients, on the mid-shaft in three patients, and proximal penile in one patient. Two patients had multiple fistulae on the shaft, one patient had two fistulae on the shaft, and one patient had a long fistula from the proximal penile to peno-scrotal region. The technique involves using a circumscribing incision around the fistula and closing the inner skin edges by an inverting subcuticular stitch to form the urethral layer. A flap is marked on the skin adjacent to the circumscribing incision and de-epithelialised. It is raised with underlying dartos fascia/muscle and turned over the first layer of closure and secured. The vascular supply to the flap is based on a hinge of tissue around the defect. A long skin flap developed from shaft or the scrotum is approximated over this layer to complete the repair. Alternatively, the skin is closed in a 'pants over vest' technique. An indwelling catheter is placed for 3-4 days. Nine patients healed without complications, and one patient with multiple fistulae on the shaft had a residual tiny pin-point fistula which closed spontaneously. Thus, the success rate with this technique was 100%. Although dartos flaps have been used for many years as a waterproofing layer in urethroplasties or while repairing urethrocutaneous fistulae, their use as a 'de-epithelialised turnover flap' provides another reliable tool in the surgical repertoire.

  17. Identification, Geochemical Characterisation and Significance of Bitumen among the Grave Goods of the 7th Century Mound 1 Ship-Burial at Sutton Hoo (Suffolk, UK)

    PubMed Central

    Bowden, Stephen A.; Hacke, Marei; Parnell, John

    2016-01-01

    The 7th century ship-burial at Sutton Hoo is famous for the spectacular treasure discovered when it was first excavated in 1939. The finds include gold and garnet jewellery, silverware, coins and ceremonial armour of broad geographical provenance which make a vital contribution to understanding the political landscape of early medieval Northern Europe. Fragments of black organic material found scattered within the burial were originally identified as ‘Stockholm Tar’ and linked to waterproofing and maintenance of the ship. Here we present new scientific analyses undertaken to re-evaluate the nature and origin of these materials, leading to the identification of a previously unrecognised prestige material among the treasure: bitumen from the Middle East. Whether the bitumen was gifted as diplomatic gesture or acquired through trading links, its presence in the burial attests to the far-reaching network within which the elite of the region operated at this time. If the bitumen was worked into objects, either alone or in composite with other materials, then their significance within the burial would certainly have been strongly linked to their form or purpose. But the novelty of the material itself may have added to the exotic appeal. Archaeological finds of bitumen from this and earlier periods in Britain are extremely rare, despite the abundance of natural sources of bitumen within Great Britain. This find provides the first material evidence indicating that the extensively exploited Middle Eastern bitumen sources were traded northward beyond the Mediterranean to reach northern Europe and the British Isles. PMID:27906999

  18. High-resolution ocean pH dynamics in four subtropical Atlantic benthic habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, C. A.; Clemente, S.; Sangil, C.; Hernández, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    Oscillations of ocean pH are largely unknown in coastal environments and ocean acidification studies often do not account for natural variability yet most of what is known about marine species and populations is found out via studies conducted in near shore environments. Most experiments designed to make predictions about future climate change scenarios are carried out in coastal environments with no research that takes into account the natural pH variability. In order to fill this knowledge gap and to provide reliable measures of pH oscillation, seawater pH was measured over time using moored pH sensors in four contrasting phytocenoses typical of the north Atlantic subtropical region. Each phytocenosis was characterized by its predominant engineer species: (1) Cystoseira abies-marina, (2) a mix of gelidiales and geniculate corallines, (3) Lobophora variegata, and (4) encrusting corallines. The autonomous pH measuring systems consisted of a pH sensor; a data logger and a battery encased in a waterproof container and allowed the acquisition of high-resolution continuous pH data at each of the study sites. The pH variation observed ranged by between 0.09 and 0.24 pHNBS units. A clear daily variation in seawater pH was detected at all the studied sites (0.04-0.12 pHNBS units). Significant differences in daily pH oscillations were also observed between phytocenoses, which shows that macroalgal communities influence the seawater pH in benthic habitats. Natural oscillations in pH must be taken into account in future ocean acidification studies to put findings in perspective and for any ecological recommendations to be realistic.

  19. Chemiresistor microsensors for in-situ monitoring of volatile organic compounds : final LDRD report.

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Michael Loren; Hughes, Robert Clark; Kooser, Ara S.; McGrath, Lucas K.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei; Wright, Jerome L.; Davis, Chad Edward

    2003-09-01

    This report provides a summary of the three-year LDRD (Laboratory Directed Research and Development) project aimed at developing microchemical sensors for continuous, in-situ monitoring of volatile organic compounds. A chemiresistor sensor array was integrated with a unique, waterproof housing that allows the sensors to be operated in a variety of media including air, soil, and water. Numerous tests were performed to evaluate and improve the sensitivity, stability, and discriminatory capabilities of the chemiresistors. Field tests were conducted in California, Nevada, and New Mexico to further test and develop the sensors in actual environments within integrated monitoring systems. The field tests addressed issues regarding data acquisition, telemetry, power requirements, data processing, and other engineering requirements. Significant advances were made in the areas of polymer optimization, packaging, data analysis, discrimination, design, and information dissemination (e.g., real-time web posting of data; see www.sandia.gov/sensor). This project has stimulated significant interest among commercial and academic institutions. A CRADA (Cooperative Research and Development Agreement) was initiated in FY03 to investigate manufacturing methods, and a Work for Others contract was established between Sandia and Edwards Air Force Base for FY02-FY04. Funding was also obtained from DOE as part of their Advanced Monitoring Systems Initiative program from FY01 to FY03, and a DOE EMSP contract was awarded jointly to Sandia and INEEL for FY04-FY06. Contracts were also established for collaborative research with Brigham Young University to further evaluate, understand, and improve the performance of the chemiresistor sensors.

  20. Contact angle measurement - a reliable supportive method for screening water-resistance of ultraviolet-protecting products in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hagens, R; Mann, T; Schreiner, V; Barlag, H G; Wenck, H; Wittern, K-P; Mei, W

    2007-08-01

    Substantivity of sunscreen formulations is affected by the wash-out rate of ultraviolet-absorber and -reflector compounds in water. Water-resistance of sunscreen formulations is currently determined according to a standardized European Cosmetic Toiletry and Perfumery Association (COLIPA) protocol, encompassing the determination of a minimal erythemal dose before and after a defined immersion step in water. It can be supposed that the higher the wettability of a treated skin area, the higher is the wash-out rate of sunscreen compounds. This present report addresses the validity of determining the wettability of treated skin alone as a measure for the water-resistance of sunscreen products. The report addresses the robustness, accuracy and congruence of a recently developed wettability test, based on the measurement of the contact angle (CA) of a sessile water drop on treated skin areas. Contact angle data of 66 sunscreen formulations are compared with the corresponding results of 81 water-resistance tests, using the sun protection factor (SPF)/immersion/SPF method. Sunscreen products tested by the CA method were applied to the skin of the volar forearm of test subjects at a defined dose and drying-time, using a standardized application and recording device. Contact angles between a sessile water drop and skin were recorded by a Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) camera and subjected to automatic contour analysis. Taking the SPF/immersion/SPF method as gold standard, accuracy parameters of the CA method were determined. By using an appropriate cut-off level of CAs, the CA method has a specificity and positive-predictive value of 100%, and turns out to be a reliable screening method to identify water-resistant formulations. Based on our findings, those formulations that give CAs above 30 degrees may be categorized water-proof without further testing by the COLIPA water-resistance method.

  1. Water conservation features of ova of Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Rigsby, Chad M; Cipollini, Don; Amstutz, Evan M; Smith, Terrance J; Yoder, Jay A

    2013-04-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, has destroyed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in North America since first identified in Detroit in 2002. With species of ash distributed throughout North America, it is easy to speculate the extinction of all susceptible species of ash on the continent given a lack of physical, environmental, or climactic barrier for dispersal of the insect. We investigated water balance characteristics of emerald ash borer ova by using gravimetric methods in an effort to measure their response to heat- and water-stress and explore possible influences this stress may have on the ecology and physiology of the ovum. We also explored the possible water balance benefit of a peculiar, "clustering," oviposition behavior, as well as the difference in responses to stress between ova from a laboratory colony and ova from two wild populations. We found no evidence of water vapor absorption as a water balance strategy; rather enhanced water retention, resistance to desiccation, and viability with low water content were important survival strategies for these ova. Surface lipids resist thermal breakdown as indicated by ova having no detectable critical transition temperature, maintaining their water-proofing function as temperature rises. The observed "clustering" behavior had no desiccation-avoidance benefit and ova from the wild populations behaved almost identically to the ova from the lab colony, although the lab ova were slightly larger and more sensitive to dehydration. Given this new information, there appears to be no heat- or water-stress barriers for the dispersal of this devastating pest at the ovum stage.

  2. A new RF package suitable for aeronautical commercial and DSCS satellite applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, Robert J., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Higher levels of integration through the use of GaAs and silicon MMIC devices, a die-cast housing, and the reduction of the number of subassemblies has enabled a large reduction of the size and weight of the electronics package for commercial and military satellite communications. This paper presents an electronics architecture and hardware that utilizes many new integrated circuits and design techniques, and allows flexibility for future satellite frequency changes and expansion. Key features of the radio are extended C-band, InSat, Defense Satellite Communications System (DSCS), and Ku-band coverage options; 70 (or 140) MHz transponder bandwidth or L-band block bandwidth IFs; integrated RS-232 control through local handheld terminal or remote computer; remote control of crystal reference oscillator for aging and temperature compensation; integrated 2 or 5 watt solid-state power amplifiers (SSPA); optional integrated solid-state booster amplifiers to 40 watts; optional external amplifiers to 100 watts; integral beacon tracking with second integrated downcoverter for antenna positioning; radio, including low-noise block converter (LNB) and SSPA, weighs 8.5 kg and measures 32 x 23 x 16.5 cm; environmentally ruggedized for -40 to +60 C; O-ring sealed for waterproofing; passive (convection) cooling; and simple cabling and installation, with a single cable between radio and LNB, and two cables between radio and IF interface. The small size and light weight of the radio make it ideal for mounting on stabilized antenna platforms (gyroscopic or servo). Several input power options (110 or 220 VAC; +48, +12, or -24 VDC) facilitate operation on multiple platforms.

  3. Design and development of PVDF-based MEMS hydrophone and accelerometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Bei

    It is always desirable to fabricate low-cost, highly sensitive and miniaturized sensors for various applications. In this thesis, the design and processing of PVDF-based MEMS hydrophones and accelerometers have been investigated. The basic structure of the hydrophone was fabricated on a silicon wafer using standard NMOS process technology. A MOSFET with extended gate electrode was designed as the interface circuit to a sensing material, which is a piezoelectric polymer, polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF). Acoustic impedance possessed by this piezoelectric material provides a reasonable match to that of water, which makes it very attractive for underwater applications. The electrical signal generated by the PVDF film was directly coupled to the gate of the MOSFET. In order to minimize the parasitic capacitance underneath the PVDF film and hence improve the device sensitivity, a thick photoresist, SU-8, was first employed as the dielectric layer under the extended gate electrode. For underwater operation, the hydrophone was encapsulated by a waterproof Rho-C rubber. However, it was found that the rubber induced the degradation of the MOSFET. To improve the reliability of the hydrophone, the active device was passivated by a silicon nitride layer, which is a good barrier material to most mobile ions and solvents. The device after passivation also shows a lower noise level. A theoretical model was developed to predict the sensitivity of the hydrophone. A reasonable agreement between the theoretical and experimental results was obtained. MEMS accelerometers based on the PVDF-MOSFET structure by attaching a seismic mass on top of the PVDF film were also fabricated. The accelerometer was calibrated using a comparison method and an average sensitivity of 0.28 mV/g was achieved. A dynamic model of the accelerometer was derived and the calculated results are in good agreement with the measured results.

  4. Experimental bladder regeneration using a poly-l-lactide/silk fibroin scaffold seeded with nanoparticle-labeled allogenic bone marrow stromal cells

    PubMed Central

    Yudintceva, Natalia M; Nashchekina, Yulia A; Blinova, Miralda I; Orlova, Nadezhda V; Muraviov, Alexandr N; Vinogradova, Tatiana I; Sheykhov, Magomed G; Shapkova, Elena Y; Emeljannikov, Dmitriy V; Yablonskii, Petr K; Samusenko, Igor A; Mikhrina, Anastasiya L; Pakhomov, Artem V; Shevtsov, Maxim A

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, a poly-l-lactide/silk fibroin (PL-SF) bilayer scaffold seeded with allogenic bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) was investigated as a potential approach for bladder tissue engineering in a model of partial bladder wall cystectomy in rabbits. The inner porous layer of the scaffold produced from silk fibroin was designed to promote cell proliferation and the outer layer produced from poly-l-lactic acid to serve as a waterproof barrier. To compare the feasibility and efficacy of BMSC application in the reconstruction of bladder defects, 12 adult male rabbits were divided into experimental and control groups (six animals each) that received a scaffold seeded with BMSCs or an acellular one, respectively. For BMSC tracking in the graft in in vivo studies using magnetic resonance imaging, cells were labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. In vitro studies demonstrated high intracellular incorporation of nanoparticles and the absence of a toxic influence on BMSC viability and proliferation. Following implantation of the graft with BMSCs into the bladder, we observed integration of the scaffold with surrounding bladder tissues (as detected by magnetic resonance imaging). During the follow-up period of 12 weeks, labeled BMSCs resided in the implanted scaffold. The functional activity of the reconstructed bladder was confirmed by electromyography. Subsequent histological assay demonstrated enhanced biointegrative properties of the PL-SF scaffold with cells in comparison to the control graft, as related to complete regeneration of the smooth muscle and urothelium tissues in the implant. Confocal microscopy studies confirmed the presence of the superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle-labeled BMSCs in newly formed bladder layers, thus indicating the role of stem cells in bladder regeneration. The results of this study demonstrate that application of a PL-SF scaffold seeded with allogenic BMSCs can enhance biointegration of the graft in

  5. General measures and quality of life issues in psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Rashmi; Chugh, Shikha; Bansal, Shivani

    2016-01-01

    Psoriasis generally does not affect survival but has significant detrimental effect on quality of life (QOL), which may be comparable to that of ischemic heart disease, diabetes, depression, and cancer. The foremost important thing in the management of psoriasis is counseling of the patient. The clinician needs to be empathetic and spend adequate time with the patient and educating the patient about psoriasis. Clinicians should make it clear to the patient that the primary goal of treatment is control of the disease rather than cure. Eating a balanced and low glycemic diet could be an important adjuvant factor in the prevention and treatment of moderate nonpustular psoriasis. Obese people are more likely to have severe psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis than people with an average body mass index. Dietary supplementation with oily fish, rich in n-3 fatty acids, in psoriasis had shown mixed results in trials. Promising results have been documented for parenteral application of n-3 fatty acid, but not with oral supplementation. Increased smoking or alcohol abuse increases the risk of developing psoriasis and may influence disease severity, and hence must be avoided. Soaking in warm water with bath oil can be done in extensive psoriasis for hydration and emollient effect, and bland soaps or soap substitutes should be used; antiseptics should be avoided as they may irritate the skin. Relatively small, localized patches of psoriasis may improve with occlusion, i.e., waterproof adhesive dressings. The use of emollients is an internationally accepted standard adjunctive to the treatment of psoriasis. Dermatology Life Quality Index is a psychometrically sound and responsive measure of psoriasis-specific outcomes and most comprehensively captures the impact of clinical signs and symptoms on patient's well-being. PMID:27990382

  6. Antimicrobial Capacity of Casein Phosphopeptide/Amorphous Calcium Phosphate and Enzymes in Glass Ionomer Cement in Dentin Carious Lesions

    PubMed Central

    PINHEIRO, SÉRGIO LUIZ; AZENHA, GIULIANA RODRIGUES; DE MILITO, FLÁVIA; DEMOCH, YASMIN MARIALVA

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the ability of casein phosphopeptide/amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP/ACP) and lysozyme, lactoferrin, and lactoperoxidase (LLL) added to glass ionomer cement (GIC) to inhibit the growth of S. mutans in a caries model. Material and methods Eighty permanent third molars were selected. The dentin of these teeth was exposed and flattened. Except for the coronal dentin, the specimens were waterproofed, autoclaved, and submitted to cariogenic challenge with standard strain of S. mutans. The carious lesions were sealed as follows: group 1 (n=20): GIC without additives; group 2 (n=20): GIC + CPP/ACP; group 3 (n=20): GIC + LLL; group 4 (n=20): GIC + CPP/ACP + LLL. S. mutans counts were performed before the caries were sealed (n=5), after 24 hours (n=5), at 1 month (n=5), and at 6 months (n=5). The results were analyzed using descriptive statistical analysis and the Kruskal-Wallis test (Student-Newman-Keuls test). Results GIC + LLL caused a significant reduction of S. mutans 1 month after sealing (p<0.01); however, there was a significant growth of S. mutans 6 months after sealing. GIC, GIC + CPP/ACP, and GIC + CPP/ACP + LLL showed similar behavior with significant reduction of S. mutans after 24 hours (p<0.05) and increase after 1 and 6 months. Conclusion The addition of LLL to GIC increases the antimicrobial action of GIC on S. mutans. This leads to control of bacterial biofilm for 1 month, thus stopping the progression of carious lesions. PMID:27688392

  7. Hazmat Cam Wireless Video System

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin L. Young

    2006-02-01

    This paper describes the Hazmat Cam Wireless Video System and its application to emergency response involving chemical, biological or radiological contamination. The Idaho National Laboratory designed the Hazmat Cam Wireless Video System to assist the National Guard Weapons of Mass Destruction - Civil Support Teams during their mission of emergency response to incidents involving weapons of mass destruction. The lightweight, handheld camera transmits encrypted, real-time video from inside a contaminated area, or hot-zone, to a command post located a safe distance away. The system includes a small wireless video camera, a true-diversity receiver, viewing console, and an optional extension link that allows the command post to be placed up to five miles from danger. It can be fully deployed by one person in a standalone configuration in less than 10 minutes. The complete system is battery powered. Each rechargeable camera battery powers the camera for 3 hours with the receiver and video monitor battery lasting 22 hours on a single charge. The camera transmits encrypted, low frequency analog video signals to a true-diversity receiver with three antennas. This unique combination of encryption and transmission technologies delivers encrypted, interference-free images to the command post under conditions where other wireless systems fail. The lightweight camera is completely waterproof for quick and easy decontamination after use. The Hazmat Cam Wireless Video System is currently being used by several National Guard Teams, the US Army, and by fire fighters. The system has been proven to greatly enhance situational awareness during the crucial, initial phase of a hazardous response allowing commanders to make better, faster, safer decisions.

  8. Characterization of Fast-Scan Cyclic Voltammetric Electrodes Using Paraffin as an Effective Sealant with In Vitro and In Vivo Applications.

    PubMed

    Ramsson, Eric S; Cholger, Daniel; Dionise, Albert; Poirier, Nicholas; Andrus, Avery; Curtiss, Randi

    2015-01-01

    Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) is a powerful technique for measuring sub-second changes in neurotransmitter levels. A great time-limiting factor in the use of FSCV is the production of high-quality recording electrodes; common recording electrodes consist of cylindrical carbon fiber encased in borosilicate glass. When the borosilicate is heated and pulled, the molten glass ideally forms a tight seal around the carbon fiber cylinder. It is often difficult, however, to guarantee a perfect seal between the glass and carbon. Indeed, much of the time spent creating electrodes is in an effort to find a good seal. Even though epoxy resins can be useful in this regard, they are irreversible (seals are permanent), wasteful (epoxy cannot be reused once hardener is added), hazardous (hardeners are often caustic), and require curing. Herein we characterize paraffin as an electrode sealant for FSCV microelectrodes. Paraffin boasts the advantages of near-immediate curing times, simplicity in use, long shelf-life and stable waterproof seals capable of withstanding extended cycling. Borosilicate electrode tips were left intact or broken and dipped in paraffin embedding wax. Excess wax was removed from the carbon surface with xyelenes or by repeated cycling at an extended waveform (-0.4 to 1.4V, 400 V/s, 60 Hz). Then, the waveform was switched to a standard waveform (-0.4 to 1.3V, 400 V/s, 10 Hz) and cycled until stable. Wax-sealing does not inhibit electrode sensitivity, as electrodes detected linear changes in dopamine before and after wax (then xylenes) exposure. Paraffin seals are intact after 11 days of implantation in the mouse, and still capable of measuring transient changes in in vivo dopamine. From this it is clear that paraffin wax is an effective sealant for FSCV electrodes that provides a convenient substitute to epoxy sealants.

  9. Use of portable blood physiology point-of-care devices for basic and applied research on vertebrates: a review

    PubMed Central

    Stoot, Lauren J.; Cairns, Nicholas A.; Cull, Felicia; Taylor, Jessica J.; Jeffrey, Jennifer D.; Morin, Félix; Mandelman, John W.; Clark, Timothy D.; Cooke, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Non-human vertebrate blood is commonly collected and assayed for a variety of applications, including veterinary diagnostics and physiological research. Small, often non-lethal samples enable the assessment and monitoring of the physiological state and health of the individual. Traditionally, studies that rely on blood physiology have focused on captive animals or, in studies conducted in remote settings, have required the preservation and transport of samples for later analysis. In either situation, large, laboratory-bound equipment and traditional assays and analytical protocols are required. The use of point-of-care (POC) devices to measure various secondary blood physiological parameters, such as metabolites, blood gases and ions, has become increasingly popular recently, due to immediate results and their portability, which allows the freedom to study organisms in the wild. Here, we review the current uses of POC devices and their applicability to basic and applied studies on a variety of non-domesticated species. We located 79 individual studies that focused on non-domesticated vertebrates, including validation and application of POC tools. Studies focused on a wide spectrum of taxa, including mammals, birds and herptiles, although the majority of studies focused on fish, and typical variables measured included blood glucose, lactate and pH. We found that calibrations for species-specific blood physiology values are necessary, because ranges can vary within and among taxa and are sometimes outside the measurable range of the devices. In addition, although POC devices are portable and robust, most require durable cases, they are seldom waterproof/water-resistant, and factors such as humidity and temperature can affect the performance of the device. Overall, most studies concluded that POC devices are suitable alternatives to traditional laboratory devices and eliminate the need for transport of samples; however, there is a need for greater emphasis on rigorous

  10. An Endosperm-Associated Cuticle Is Required for Arabidopsis Seed Viability, Dormancy and Early Control of Germination.

    PubMed

    De Giorgi, Julien; Piskurewicz, Urszula; Loubery, Sylvain; Utz-Pugin, Anne; Bailly, Christophe; Mène-Saffrané, Laurent; Lopez-Molina, Luis

    2015-12-01

    Cuticular layers and seeds are prominent plant adaptations to terrestrial life that appeared early and late during plant evolution, respectively. The cuticle is a waterproof film covering plant aerial organs preventing excessive water loss and protecting against biotic and abiotic stresses. Cutin, consisting of crosslinked fatty acid monomers, is the most abundant and studied cuticular component. Seeds are dry, metabolically inert structures promoting plant dispersal by keeping the plant embryo in an arrested protected state. In Arabidopsis thaliana seeds, the embryo is surrounded by a single cell endosperm layer itself surrounded by a seed coat layer, the testa. Whole genome analyses lead us to identify cutin biosynthesis genes as regulatory targets of the phytohormones gibberellins (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathways that control seed germination. Cutin-containing layers are present in seed coats of numerous species, including Arabidopsis, where they regulate permeability to outer compounds. However, the role of cutin in mature seed physiology and germination remains poorly understood. Here we identify in mature seeds a thick cuticular film covering the entire outer surface of the endosperm. This seed cuticle is defective in cutin-deficient bodyguard1 seeds, which is associated with alterations in endospermic permeability. Furthermore, mutants affected in cutin biosynthesis display low seed dormancy and viability levels, which correlates with higher levels of seed lipid oxidative stress. Upon seed imbibition cutin biosynthesis genes are essential to prevent endosperm cellular expansion and testa rupture in response to low GA synthesis. Taken together, our findings suggest that in the course of land plant evolution cuticular structures were co-opted to achieve key physiological seed properties.

  11. Facility design and associated services for the study of amphibians.

    PubMed

    Browne, Robert K; Odum, R Andrew; Herman, Timothy; Zippel, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    The role of facilities and associated services for amphibians has recently undergone diversification. Amphibians traditionally used as research models adjust well to captivity and thrive with established husbandry techniques. However, it is now necessary to maintain hundreds of novel amphibian species in captive breeding, conservation research, and biomedical research programs. These diverse species have a very wide range of husbandry requirements, and in many cases the ultimate survival of threatened species will depend on captive populations. Two critical factors have emerged in the maintenance of amphibians, stringent quarantine and high-quality water. Because exotic diseases such as chytridiomycosis have devastated both natural and captive populations of amphibians, facilities must provide stringent quarantine. The provision of high-quality water is also essential to maintain amphibian health and condition due to the intimate physiological relationship of amphibians to their aquatic environment. Fortunately, novel technologies backed by recent advances in the scientific knowledge of amphibian biology and disease management are available to overcome these challenges. For example, automation can increase the reliability of quarantine and maintain water quality, with a corresponding decrease in handling and the associated disease-transfer risk. It is essential to build facilities with appropriate nontoxic waterproof materials and to provide quarantined amphibian rooms for each population. Other spaces and services include live feed rooms, quarantine stations, isolation rooms, laboratory space, technical support systems, reliable energy and water supplies, high-quality feed, and security. Good husbandry techniques must include reliable and species-specific management by trained staff members who receive support from the administration. It is possible to improve husbandry techniques for many species by sharing knowledge through common information systems. Overall

  12. Irradiated lanoline as a prospective substance for biomedical applications: A spectroscopic and thermal study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanzlikova, Zuzana; Hybler, Peter; Fülop, Marko; Ondruska, Jan; Jomova, Klaudia; Porubska, Maria; Valko, Marian

    2015-08-01

    Refined wool wax products, such as lanoline and lanoline derivatives are key ingredients in some of the ointments, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, waterproof coatings and other products. Beneficial medicinal effects along with melting point near normal human body temperature designated lanoline to be used in pharmacotherapy and medical treatments. Since the general requirements for sterility of medicinal substances are very strict, especially in cases of skin contact, radiation technologies represent a valuable tool to sterilize the materials for medicinal purposes. In this work, lanoline was irradiated with accelerated electron beam in air within 0-400 kG dose to simulate sterilization for medical purposes. The irradiated lanoline showed considerable fluctuation of chemical structure. The most significant fluctuation was observed for etheric species, followed by ethylene sequences with n<4. While primary and secondary alcohols, as well as epoxides species, decreased below the initial concentration within whole range of the doses, aliphatic esters and ethylene sequences (CH2)n with n≥4 indicated the most stable species. A trace amount of organic-in origin radicals was observed and that increased slightly with dose. Depending on dose, the melting temperature varied from 39.7 to 45.7 °C and the highest values were reached for 25 kGy and 156 kGy. For these same doses the highest thermal stability was also observed and, simultaneously the thermal stability was related inversely to the destruction rate. We propose, that the chemical transformation of lanoline within 0-25 kGy dose should be tested for prospective medical purposes as well as for the need to eliminate remaining outlasting organic-in-origin radicals which were detected in the lanoline even one year after the irradiation.

  13. Three generations of wireless sensor networks to monitor the soil ecosystem (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szlavecz, K. A.

    2013-12-01

    Capturing soil spatio-temporal heterogeneity is a considerable challenge. We designed, built and deployed three generations of wireless sensor networks to measure soil temperature, moisture, CO2 concentration and efflux. In the past eight years the system was tested in a high altitude desert, tropical and temperate forests, and in croplands. We developed Grazor, a graphic web interface for visualizing, exploring, and downloading data. Since 2005, our first field deployment, we have collected over 160 million data points, all stored in our persistent database. Our largest and longest experiment took place in a residential neighborhood in Baltimore, MD. A total of 108 soil moisture sensors were installed in urban soils covered by forest and grass. The system successfully captured spatial heterogeneity, transient events, such as Hurricane Irene, and highlighted habitat differences. However, issues such as waterproofing, battery consumption, mote failure and scale of deployment still need to be addressed. Improvements in our third generation hardware and software are based upon lessons learned from earlier deployments. In the new hardware, rather than having a single device that does everything (analog sensing, data storage, and routing), we have developed an analog sensor board and a separate wireless sensor mote. The latter can be configured as a leaf (with an antenna printed directly on the circuit board) or as a router (with a power amplifier and an external antenna connector). Additional sensors with an industry standard I2C interface can also be connected to the mote. The cost of each unit is 20$, and the software is user friendly for the non-computer scientist. We are currently testing this system in the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, MD. Cumulative number of data collected in the Life Under Your Feet project. Major hardware changes are marked with vertical lines, while horizontal lines show the start and end of deployments.

  14. Low-cost and facile fabrication of a paper-based capillary electrophoresis microdevice for pathogen detection.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jee Won; Lee, Dohwan; Kim, Yong Tae; Lee, Eun Yeol; Kim, Do Hyun; Seo, Tae Seok

    2017-05-15

    This paper describes the development of a novel paper-based capillary electrophoresis (pCE) microdevice using mineral paper, which is durable, oil and tear resistant, and waterproof. The pCE device is inexpensive (~$1.6 per device for materials), simple to fabricate, lightweight, and disposable, so it is more adequate for point-of-care (POC) pathogen diagnostics than a conventional CE device made of glass, quartz, silicon or polymer. In addition, the entire fabrication process can be completed within 1h without using expensive clean room facilities and cumbersome photolithography procedures. A simple cross-designed pCE device was patterned on the mineral paper by using a plotter, and assembled with an OHP film via a double-sided adhesive film. After filling the microchannel with polyacrylamide gel, the injection, backbiasing, and separation steps were sequentially operated to differentiate single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) with 4 bp resolution in a 2.9cm-long CE separation channel. Furthermore, we successfully demonstrated the identification of the PCR amplicons of two target genes of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (rrsH gene, 121 bp) and Staphylococcus aureus (glnA gene, 225 bp). For accurate assignment of the peaks in the electropherogram, two bracket ladders (80 bp for the shortest and 326 bp for the longest) were employed, so the two amplicons of the pathogens were precisely identified on a pCE chip within 3min using the relative migration time ratio without effect of the CE environments. Thus, we believe that the pCE microdevice could be very useful for the separation of nucleic acids, amino acids, and ions as an analytical tool for use in the medical applications in the resource-limited environments as well as fundamental research fields.

  15. Selection and Suitability of an Artificial Diet for Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) Based on Physical and Chemical Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Bajonero, J. G.; Parra, J. R. P.

    2017-01-01

    Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917) is a key tomato pest in South America and, recently, in Europe and Africa. To develop efficient control methods for this pest, adequate rearing protocols are desirable. As an alternative to tomato leaves (natural diet), we evaluated four artificial diets. Biological traits including larval and pupal viability and development time, pupal weight and deformations were assessed. Additionally, the optimum container size and larval density were evaluated. The diet based on casein, wheat germ and cellulose allowed the best development of T. absoluta, showing higher viability and no negative effects on larval instars and pupal weight. The best container was a glass tube measuring Ø 1 × h 6 cm, topped with waterproof cotton, with a density of three larvae. To evaluate the suitability of this diet, T. absoluta was reared during eight generations and life-table parameters were estimated for the F1, F3, F6, and F8 generations. The total viability (egg–adult) increased over the generations, reaching 75% in the eighth generation. Based on life-table estimations no differences among generations were found. The net reproductive rate (Ro) was higher than 40, the intrinsic rate of increase (rm) ranged between 0.08 and 0.11, the finite rate of increase (λ) was 1.1, the mean generation time (T) have a maximum of 44 d and doubling time ranged from 5.89–8.32 generations. These results indicated that a diet based on casein, wheat germ and cellulose was suitable for T. absoluta rearing in laboratory conditions. PMID:28042106

  16. DUCKS: A continuous thermal presence on the rim of Pu'u 'O'o

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, A. J.; Pirie, D. J.; Horton, K.; Flynn, L. P.; Garbeil, H.; Johnson, J. B.; Ramm, H.; Pilger, E.

    2002-12-01

    For the past 2 years we have been monitoring the persistent activity at the Pu'u 'O'o crater (Kilauea, Hawaii) with a permanent system of infrared thermometers. Our intent has been to implement a cheap, robust, modular real-time thermal system capable of surviving the harshest of conditions. The system cost \\10,000 to construct and consists of three modules: field-based sensors, a repeater station and a reception site. The field-based component consists of three thermal infrared thermometers, housed in pelican cases with selenium-germanium-arsenic windows. Two 1 degree field of view (FOV) instruments allow specific but small areas to be monitored, and a 60 degree FOV provides an overview for all crater floor activity. A hard wire connection extends 25 m to a pelican-case-housed microprocessor, modem, and power module. From here, data are transmitted using Yagi antennas, via the repeater site, to a dedicated PC in the lobby of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory. Here, the three channels of data are displayed on-screen, with a delay of ~3 seconds between data acquisition and display. Data are also used to automatically update web-based plots for general access. Aside from some minor glitches, such has sensor damage during probable tampering and unresolved data stream failures, the system has been in continuous operation since March 2001. In this regard, careful waterproofing of connectors, cables and protective cases has kept out the extremely wet and acidic atmosphere encountered at the crater edge. We have also constructed self-contained versions with internal loggers for \\1500/unit. These have been deployed in a temporary fashion at Stromboli, Masaya and Erta Ale. Together these instruments have proved capable of detecting thermal signals associated with (1) gas puffing and jetting, (2) spattering, (3) lava effusion, (4) crater floor collapse, (5) vent blockage-and-clearing, and (6) lava lake overturn.

  17. Fiber optic system design for vehicle detection and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedoma, Jan; Zboril, Ondrej; Fajkus, Marcel; Zavodny, Petr; Kepak, Stanislav; Bednarek, Lukas; Martinek, Radek; Vasinek, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    Fiber optic interferometers belong to a group of highly sensitive and precise devices enabling to measure small changes in the deformation shapes, changes in pressure, temperature, vibration and so on. The basis of their activity is to evaluate the number of fringes over time, not changes in the intensity of the optical signal. The methodology described in the article is based on using the interferometer to monitor traffic density. The base of the solution is a Mach-Zehnder interferometer operating with single-mode G.652 optical fiber at the wavelength of 1550 nm excited by a DFB laser. The power distribution of the laser light into the individual arms of the interferometer is in the ratio 1:1. Realized measuring scheme was terminated by an optical receiver including InGaAs PIN photodiode. Registered signal from the photodetector was through 8 Hz high pass filter fed to the measuring card that captures the analog input voltage using an application written in LabView development environment. The interferometer was stored in a waterproof box and placed at the side of the road. Here panned individual transit of cars in his environs. Vertically across the road was placed in contact removable belt simulating a retarder, which was used when passing cars to create sufficient vibration response detecting interferometer. The results demonstrated that the individual vehicles passing around boxing showed characteristic amplitude spectra, which was unique for each object, and had sufficient value signal to noise ratio (SNR). The signal was processed by applications developed for the amplitude-frequency spectrum. Evaluated was the maximum amplitude of the signal and compared to the noise. The results were verified by repeated transit of the different types of cars.

  18. Keys to a successful project: Associated data and planning: Data standards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDiarmid, Roy W.; Heyer, W. Ronald; Donnelly, Maureen A.; McDiarmid, Roy W.; Hayek, Lee-Ann C.; Foster, Mercedes S.

    1994-01-01

    The many individual salamanders, frogs, caecilians, and their larvae encountered during the course of an inventory or monitoring project will have to be identified to species. Depending on the goals and sampling method(s) used, some individuals will be identified from a distance by their calls, others will be handled. At the same time, some will be marked for recapture, and others will be sampled as vouchers. For each, certain minimum data should be recorded. In this section, data pertaining to locality and sampling methodology are considered, information on microhabitats and specimen vouchers is covered in sections that follow. I feel strongly that the data outlined here should be the minimum for any project. Investigators with specific goals may require additional types of data as well.Standardized, printed sheets containing the required data categories provide a convenient, inexpensive, and effective way to ensure that all the desired information is recorded in a consistent format, Data sheets should be well organized, printed on good-quality paper (75%-100% cotton content) and include extra space (e.g., other side of sheet) for notes that do not fit preestablished categoriesData should be recorded in the field with permanent (waterproof) ink as simply and directly as possible. I strongly recommend against the use of data codes in the field; it is too easy to forget codes or to enter the wrong code. Original data sheets can be photocopied for security, but they should not be copied by hand. If data are to be coded for computer analysis, the original or photocopied sheets should be used for data entry to minimize transcription errors. Some workers prefer recording information on small tape recorders; this also works well if a list of the standard data categories is checked during taping to ensure that all required information is recorded. Information recorded on tapes should be transcribed to data sheets or into a computer within 24 hours of the sample.

  19. Latherin: A Surfactant Protein of Horse Sweat and Saliva

    PubMed Central

    Beeley, John G.; Bovell, Douglas L.; Lu, Jian R.; Zhao, Xiubo; Cooper, Alan; Kennedy, Malcolm W.

    2009-01-01

    Horses are unusual in producing protein-rich sweat for thermoregulation, a major component of which is latherin, a highly surface-active, non-glycosylated protein. The amino acid sequence of latherin, determined from cDNA analysis, is highly conserved across four geographically dispersed equid species (horse, zebra, onager, ass), and is similar to a family of proteins only found previously in the oral cavity and associated tissues of mammals. Latherin produces a significant reduction in water surface tension at low concentrations (≤1 mg ml−1), and therefore probably acts as a wetting agent to facilitate evaporative cooling through a waterproofed pelt. Neutron reflection experiments indicate that this detergent-like activity is associated with the formation of a dense protein layer, about 10 Å thick, at the air-water interface. However, biophysical characterization (circular dichroism, differential scanning calorimetry) in solution shows that latherin behaves like a typical globular protein, although with unusual intrinsic fluorescence characteristics, suggesting that significant conformational change or unfolding of the protein is required for assembly of the air-water interfacial layer. RT-PCR screening revealed latherin transcripts in horse skin and salivary gland but in no other tissues. Recombinant latherin produced in bacteria was also found to be the target of IgE antibody from horse-allergic subjects. Equids therefore may have adapted an oral/salivary mucosal protein for two purposes peculiar to their lifestyle, namely their need for rapid and efficient heat dissipation and their specialisation for masticating and processing large quantities of dry food material. PMID:19478940

  20. Design and performance of personal cooling garments based on three-layer laminates.

    PubMed

    Rothmaier, M; Weder, M; Meyer-Heim, A; Kesselring, J

    2008-08-01

    Personal cooling systems are mainly based on cold air or liquids circulating through a tubing system. They are weighty, bulky and depend on an external power source. In contrast, the laminate-based technology presented here offers new flexible and light weight cooling garments integrated into textiles. It is based on a three-layer composite assembled from two waterproof, but water vapor permeable membranes and a hydrophilic fabric in between. Water absorbed in the fabric will be evaporated by the body temperature resulting in cooling energy. The laminate's high adaptiveness makes it possible to produce cooling garments even for difficult anatomic topologies. The determined cooling energy of the laminate depends mainly on the environmental conditions (temperature, relative humidity, wind): heat flux at standard climatic conditions (20 degrees C, 65% R.H., wind 5 km/h) has measured 423.2 +/- 52.6 W/m(2), water vapor transmission resistance, R (et), 10.83 +/- 0.38 m(2) Pa/W and thermal resistance, R (ct), 0.010 +/- 0.002 m(2) K/W. Thermal conductivity, k, changed from 0.048 +/- 0.003 (dry) to 0.244 +/- 0.018 W/m K (water added). The maximum fall in skin temperature, Delta T (max), under the laminate was 5.7 +/- 1.2 degrees C, taken from a 12 subject study with a thigh cooling garment during treadmill walking (23 degrees C, 50% R.H., no wind) and a significant linear correlation (R = 0.85, P = 0.01) between body mass index and time to reach 67% of Delta T (max) could be determined.

  1. Development of polymer concrete vaults for natural gas regulator stations

    SciTech Connect

    Fontana, J.J.; Miller, C.A.; Reams, W.; Elling, D.

    1990-08-01

    Vaults for natural gas regulator stations have traditionally been fabricated with steel-reinforced portland cement concrete. Since these vaults are installed below ground level, they are usually coated with a water-proofing material to prevent the ingress of moisture into the vault. In some cases, penetrations for piping that are normally cast into the vault do not line up with the gas lines in the streets. This necessitates off-setting the lines to line up with the penetrations in the vault or breaking out new penetrations which could weaken the structure and/or allow water ingress. By casting the vaults using a new material of construction such as polymer concrete, a longer maintenance free service life is possible because the physical and durability properties of polymer concrete composites are much superior to those of portland cement concrete. The higher strengths of polymer concrete allow the design engineer to reduce the wall, floor, and ceiling thicknesses making the vaults lighter for easier transportation and installation. Penetrations can be cut after casting to match existing street lines, thus making the vault more universal and reducing the number of vaults that are normally in stock. The authors developed a steel-fiber reinforced polymer concrete composite that could be used for regulator vaults. Based on the physical properties of his new composite, vaults were designed to replace the BUG PV-008 and Con Ed GR-6 regulator vaults made of reinforced portland cement concrete. Quarter-scale models of the polymer concrete vaults were tested and the results reaffirmed the reduced wall thickness design. Two sets of vaults, cast by Hardinge Bros., were inspected by representatives of the utilities and BNL (Brookhaven National Laboratory), and were accepted for delivery. 6 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs.

  2. Genome investigation suggests MdSHN3, an APETALA2-domain transcription factor gene, to be a positive regulator of apple fruit cuticle formation and an inhibitor of russet development.

    PubMed

    Lashbrooke, Justin; Aharoni, Asaph; Costa, Fabrizio

    2015-11-01

    The outer epidermal layer of apple fruit is covered by a protective cuticle. Composed of a polymerized cutin matrix embedded with waxes, the cuticle is a natural waterproof barrier and protects against several abiotic and biotic stresses. In terms of apple production, the cuticle is essential to maintain long post-harvest storage, while severe failure of the cuticle can result in the formation of a disorder known as russet. Apple russet results from micro-cracking of the cuticle and the formation of a corky suberized layer. This is typically an undesirable consumer trait, and negatively impacts the post-harvest storage of apples. In order to identify genetic factors controlling cuticle biosynthesis (and thus preventing russet) in apple, a quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping survey was performed on a full-sib population. Two genomic regions located on chromosomes 2 and 15 that could be associated with russeting were identified. Apples with compromised cuticles were identified through a novel and high-throughput tensile analysis of the skin, while histological analysis confirmed cuticle failure in a subset of the progeny. Additional genomic investigation of the determined QTL regions identified a set of underlying genes involved in cuticle biosynthesis. Candidate gene expression profiling by quantitative real-time PCR on a subset of the progeny highlighted the specific expression pattern of a SHN1/WIN1 transcription factor gene (termed MdSHN3) on chromosome 15. Orthologues of SHN1/WIN1 have been previously shown to regulate cuticle formation in Arabidopsis, tomato, and barley. The MdSHN3 transcription factor gene displayed extremely low expression in lines with improper cuticle formation, suggesting it to be a fundamental regulator of cuticle biosynthesis in apple fruit.

  3. Thermal ecology on an exposed algal reef: infrared imagery a rapid tool to survey temperature at local spatial scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, T. E.; Smith, C. M.

    2011-12-01

    We tested the feasibility of infra-red (IR) thermography as a tool to survey in situ temperatures in intertidal habitats. We employed this method to describe aspects of thermal ecology for an exposed algal reef in the tropics (O`ahu, Hawai`i). In addition, we compared temperatures of the surrounding habitat as determined by IR thermography and traditional waterproof loggers. Images of reef organisms (6 macroalgae, 9 molluscs, 1 anthozoan, and 2 echinoderms), loggers, and landscapes were taken during two diurnal low tides. Analysis of IR thermographs revealed remarkable thermal complexity on a narrow tropical shore, as habitats ranged from 18.1 to 38.3°C and surfaces of organisms that ranged from 21.1 to 33.2°C. The near 20°C difference between abiotic habitats and the mosaic of temperatures experienced by reef organisms across the shore are similar to findings from temperate studies using specialized longterm loggers. Further, IR thermography captured rapid temperature fluctuations that were related to tidal height and cross-correlated to wave action. Finally, we gathered evidence that tidal species were associated with particular temperature ranges and that two species possess morphological characteristics that limit thermal stress. Loggers provided similar results as thermography but lack the ability to resolve variation in fine-scale spatial and temporal patterns. Our results support the utility of IR thermography in exploring thermal ecology, and demonstrate the steps needed to calibrate data leading to establishment of baseline conditions in a changing and heterogeneous environment.

  4. Identification of acyltransferases required for cutin biosynthesis and production of cutin with suberin-like monomers.

    PubMed

    Li, Yonghua; Beisson, Fred; Koo, Abraham J K; Molina, Isabel; Pollard, Mike; Ohlrogge, John

    2007-11-13

    Cutin and suberin are the two major lipid-based polymers of plants. Cutin is the structural polymer of the epidermal cuticle, the waterproof layer covering primary aerial organs and which is often the structure first encountered by phytopathogens. Suberin contributes to the control of diffusion of water and solutes across internal root tissues and in periderms. The enzymes responsible for assembly of the cutin polymer are largely unknown. We have identified two Arabidopsis acyltransferases essential for cutin biosynthesis, glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) 4 and GPAT8. Double knockouts gpat4/gpat8 were strongly reduced in cutin and were less resistant to desiccation and to infection by the fungus Alternaria brassicicola. They also showed striking defects in stomata structure including a lack of cuticular ledges between guard cells, highlighting the importance of cutin in stomatal biology. Overexpression of GPAT4 or GPAT8 in Arabidopsis increased the content of C16 and C18 cutin monomers in leaves and stems by 80%. In order to modify cutin composition, the acyltransferase GPAT5 and the cytochrome P450-dependent fatty acyl oxidase CYP86A1, two enzymes associated with suberin biosynthesis, were overexpressed. When both enzymes were overexpressed together the epidermal polyesters accumulated new C20 and C22 omega-hydroxyacids and alpha,omega-diacids typical of suberin, and the fine structure and water-barrier function of the cuticle were altered. These results identify GPATs as partners of fatty acyl oxidases in lipid polyester synthesis and indicate that their cooverexpression provides a strategy to probe the role of cutin composition and quantity in the function of plant cuticles.

  5. TPS Materials and Costs for Future Reusable Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasky, Dan J.; Milos, Frank S.; Squire, Tom H.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    and cons to their usage in terms of temperature capability, weight, initial cost, and maintenance. Carbon-carbon and C/SiC systems have the highest temperature capability but are relatively expensive and heavy, requiring significant time, expertise, and costly facilities and tools for design and fabrication. Second generation ceramic tiles are relatively light, durable, simple to fabricate and easy to install; however, waterproofing is a concern. Blankets and felts are light, simple, inexpensive, and easy to install over curved vehicle surfaces, but durability and waterproofing are concerns. Metallics are robust and appear to have eliminated waterproofing, but they tend to be heavy and relatively expensive, requiring costly facilities and tools. If thin metal sheets are used to reduce weights, then issues arise from possible metal fatigue and corrosion caused by thermal cycling, pressure oscillations, and environmental exposure. For application to future RLVs, system analyses show that a significant component of the vehicle life cycle cost is from the TPS; however, it is difficult to quantify and to compare the potential savings of advanced systems without performing full vehicle designs using each of the different options. Because this entails a considerable effort and also tends to submerge TPS cost impacts under unrelated vehicle design assumptions, there is a clear need for a simpler quantitative method to evaluate the cost impact of different TPS options. To this end, this work introduces a TPS life-cycle cost parameter which is easily computed and applicable to generic RLVs.

  6. Serum concentrations of perfluorinated compounds (PFC) among selected populations of children and Adults in California

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiangmei (May); Bennett, Deborah H.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Kato, Kayoko; Strynar, Mark; Andersen, Erik; Moran, Rebecca E.; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Tulve, Nicolle S.; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2016-01-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been widely used in industrial applications and consumer products. Their persistent nature and potential health impacts are of concern. Given the high cost of collecting serum samples, this study is to understand whether we can quantify PFC serum concentrations using factors extracted from questionnaire responses and indirect measurements, and whether a single serum measurement can be used to classify an individual’s exposure over a one-year period. The study population included three demographic groups: young children (2–8 years old) (N=67), parents of young children (<55 years old) (N=90), and older adults (>55 years old) (N=59). PFC serum concentrations, house dust concentrations, and questionnaires were collected. The geometric mean of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) was highest for the older adults. In contrast, the geometric mean of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was highest for children. Serum concentrations of the parent and the child from the same family were moderately correlated (Spearman correlation (r)=0.26–0.79, p<0.05), indicating common sources within a family. For adults, age, having occupational exposure or having used fire extinguisher, frequencies of consuming butter/margarine, pork, canned meat entrées, tuna and white fish, freshwater fish, and whether they ate microwave popcorn were significantly positively associated with serum concentrations of individual PFCs. For children, residential dust concentrations, frequency of wearing waterproof clothes, frequency of having canned fish, hotdogs, chicken nuggets, French fries, and chips, and whether they ate microwave popcorn were significant positive predictors of individual PFC serum concentrations. In addition, the serum concentrations collected in a subset of young children (N=20) and the parents (N=42) one year later were strongly correlated (r=0.68–0.98, p<0.001) with the levels measured at the first visits, but showed a decreasing trend

  7. Underwater characterization of control rods for waste disposal using SMOPY

    SciTech Connect

    Gallozzi-Ulmann, A.; Couturier, P.; Amgarou, K.; Rothan, D.; Menaa, N.; Chard, P.

    2015-07-01

    Storage of spent fuel assemblies in cooling ponds requires careful control of the geometry and proximity of adjacent assemblies. Measurement of the fuel burnup makes it possible to optimise the storage arrangement of assemblies taking into account the effect of the burnup on the criticality safety margins ('burnup credit'). Canberra has developed a measurement system for underwater measurement of spent fuel assemblies. This system, known as 'SMOPY', performs burnup measurements based on gamma spectroscopy (collimated CZT detector) and neutron counting (fission chamber). The SMOPY system offers a robust and waterproof detection system as well as the needed capability of performing radiometric measurements in the harsh high dose - rate environments of the cooling ponds. The gamma spectroscopy functionality allows powerful characterization measurements to be performed, in addition to burnup measurement. Canberra has recently performed waste characterisation measurements at a Nuclear Power Plant. Waste activity assessment is important to control costs and risks of shipment and storage, to ensure that the activity level remains in the range allowed by the facility, and to declare activity data to authorities. This paper describes the methodology used for the SMOPY measurements and some preliminary results of a radiological characterisation of AIC control rods. After describing the features and normal operation of the SMOPY system, we describe the approach used for establishing an optimum control rod geometric scanning approach (optimum count time and speed) and the method of the gamma spectrometry measurements as well as neutron check measurements used to verify the absence of neutron sources in the waste. We discuss the results obtained including {sup 60}Co, {sup 110m}Ag and {sup 108m}Ag activity profiles (along the length of the control rods) and neutron results including Total Measurement Uncertainty evaluations. Full self-consistency checks were performed and these

  8. Characterization of a new MOSFET detector configuration for in vivo skin dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Scalchi, Paolo; Francescon, Paolo; Rajaguru, Priyadarshini

    2005-06-15

    The dose released to the patient skin during a radiotherapy treatment is important when the skin is an organ at risk, or on the contrary, is included in the target volume. Since most treatment planning programs do not predict dose within several millimeters of the body surface, it is important to have a method to verify the skin dose for the patient who is undergoing radiotherapy. A special type of metal oxide semiconductors field-effect transistors (MOSFET) was developed to perform in vivo skin dosimetry for radiotherapy treatments. Water-equivalent depth (WED), both manufacturing and sensor reproducibility, dependence on both field size and angulation of the sensor were investigated using 6 MV photon beams. Patient skin dosimetries were performed during 6 MV total body irradiations (TBI). The resulting WEDs ranged from 0.04 and 0.15 mm (0.09 mm on average). The reproducibility of the sensor response, for doses of 50 cGy, was within {+-}2% (maximum deviation) and improves with increasing sensitivity or dose level. As to the manufacturing reproducibility, it was found to be {+-}0.055 mm. No WED dependence on the field size was verified, but possible variations of this quantity with the field size could be hidden by the assessment uncertainty. The angular dependence, for both phantom-surface and in-air setups, when referred to the mean response, is within {+-}27% until 80 deg. rotations. The results of the performed patient skin dosimetries showed that, normally, our TBI setup was suitable to give skin the prescribed dose, but, for some cases, interventions were necessary: as a consequence the TBI setup was corrected. The water-equivalent depth is, on average, less than the thinnest thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). In addition, when compared with TLDs, the skin MOSFETs have significant advantages, like immediate both readout and reuse, as well as the permanent storage of dose. These sensors are also waterproof. The in vivo dosimetries performed prove the

  9. Rainfall interception by the vegetation in a Mediterranean type climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno-Pérez, M. F.; Roldán-Cañas, J.; Cienfuegos, I.

    2012-04-01

    The study of rainfall interception by the canopy of the vegetation is of great importance in the basin water balance, because a large part returns to the atmosphere as evaporation. The presence or absence of vegetation not only affects the amount of rainfall that reaches the ground level also affects the moisture content in soil and surface runoff. In arid or semiarid regions there are few studies related to the Mediterranean vegetation and its relationship to hydrological processes. Furthermore, most studies have characterized the interception by rainfall simulators in the laboratory. The aim of this study was to evaluate in situ the amount and distribution of rainfall through the process of interception by the canopy of trees and shrubs present in the hydrologic watershed of "The Cabril" (Córdoba, southern Spain). The predominant vegetation is scrub, composed mostly of rockrose (Cistus ladanifer), and arboreal formations of tree pines (Pinus pinea). The record of precipitation was performed using a rain gauge tipping bowl Eijkelkamp mark during periods of rain occurred in 2010 and 2011. The amount of precipitation intercepted by the canopy has been determined indirectly from the difference between incident precipitation and rain that passes through the canopy of vegetation, which is divided into the flow of throughfall and cortical flow. To measure the throughfall the soil surface was waterproofed. Throughfall volume that is generated after each rain event is collected in four tanks of 200 liters capacity interconnected. For measurement of cortical flow a spiral hose previously cut lengthwise was placed around the trunk in the case of tree pines. In rockrose, a container was installed around it at its base. Monitoring soil moisture was determined by moisture probes 6 Delta-T SM200 randomly distributed, which records the water content of the topsoil. Compared with rockrose, there is a higher percentage of interception in pine and lowest percentage of cortical

  10. Energy balance measurements over a small reservoir in Ghana's Upper East Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Giesen, Nick; Ohene Annor, Frank

    2013-04-01

    Near the small village of Binaba (10.778927 deg N, 0.464859 deg E), a small irrigation reservoir has been instrumented to measure different parts of the energy balance of this water body. Instruments were placed on, or attached to, a spar platform. This platform consisted of a long PVC pipe, the spar, which is closed at the bottom. On the PVC pipe rests an aluminum frame platform that carries instrumentation and solar power panel. In turn, the platform rests partially on a large inflated tire. At the bottom of the PVC pipe, lead weights and batteries were placed to ensure a very low point of gravity to minimize wave impact on the platform movement. The tire ensures a large second moment of the water plane. The combination of large second momentum of the water plane and small displacement, ensures a high placement of the metacenter. The distance between the point of gravity and the metacenter is relatively long and the weight is large due to the weights and batteries. This ensures that the eigenfrequency of the platform is very low. On the platform, we fixed a WindMaster Pro (sonic anemometer for 3D wind speed and air temperature to perform eddy covariance measurements of sensible heat flux), a NR Lite (net radiometer), and air temperature and relative humidity sensors. Water temperature at different depths was measured with a string of TidbiT's (waterproof temperature sensors and loggers). The platform had a wind vane and the spar could turn freely around its anchor cable to ensure that the anemometer always faced upwind. A compass in the logger completed this setup. First results suggest, as expected, that the sensible heat flux is relatively small with on average 20 W/m2 over the course of a day. Sensible heat flux peaked around midnight at 35 W/m2, when the warm water warmed up the air from the colder surrounding land. The dynamics of heat storage during the daytime and longwave radiation during the night time, are important to calculate the latent heat flux.

  11. SU-E-T-207: Comparison of Integrated Tissue Air Ratio (ITAR) to Traditional TAR for Kilovoltage Pencil-Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Hanlon, J; Koruga, I; Chell, E; Pintaske, R

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Clinically viable depth dose determination in kilovoltage pencil-beams is a great challenge that resulted in a published dosimetry method called ITAR, which involves measurement of air kerma and attenuation with a detector in a low scatter environment coupled with MCNP scatter calculations. The objective of this work is to compare ITAR to traditional TAR using inherently water-proof microchambers that have only recently become commercially available. Methods: An Exradin A26 microchamber was centered 150 mm from a 100 kVp x-ray source with 2 mm aluminum HVL. Depth dose in water from 16 to 24 mm in 2 mm increments was determined by: (1) placing blocks of Plastic Water LR near the source to minimize scatter and using previously published conversion coefficients [ITAR method] and (2) submerging the detector in a water tank with 2 mm thick Plastic Water LR walls and jogging the tank with motor controllers while keeping the detector position fixed [traditional TAR method]. Each method was repeated four to five times. For each repetition, dose was measured free in-air to normalize the data for exponential regression. Results: Traditional TAR indicated higher depth dose than ITAR; differences ranged from 2.1% at 24 mm depth to 2.5% at 16 mm depth. However, the results of traditional TAR did not include a correction for Pq,cham because it is unknown for this detector type in these conditions. It is estimated that the component of Pq,cham due to the effect of water displacement alone is ∼0.94, but Pq,cham is likely several percent larger than 0.94 due to the energy dependency of the microchamber in the presence of low energy scatter that is not present during in-air calibration. Conclusion: The ITAR method remains preferable for clinical depth dose determination in kilovoltage pencil-beams due to Pq,cham being unknown for suitable detectors in relevant conditions. All four of the authors are either current full time employees, which include stock option grants, or

  12. Corrosion resistance and development length of steel reinforcement with cementitious coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Xiaofei

    This research program focused on the corrosion resistance and development length of reinforcing steel coated with Cementitious Capillary Crystalline Waterproofing (CCCW) materials. The first part of this research program involved using the half-cell potential method to evaluate the corrosion resistance of CCCW coating materials. One hundred and two steel bars were embedded in concrete cylinders and monitored. In total, 64 steel reinforcing bars were coated with CCCW prior to embedment, 16 mortar cylinders were externally coated with CCCW, and 22 control (uncoated) samples were tested. All the samples were immersed in a 3.5% concentration chloride solution for a period of one year. Three coating types were studied: CCCW-B, CCCW-B+ C and CCCW-C+D. The test results showed that the CCCW coating materials delayed the corrosion activity to varying degrees. In particular, CCCW-C+D applied on the reinforcing steel surface dramatically delayed the corrosion activity when compared to the control samples. After being exposed to the chloride solution for a period of one year, no sign of corrosion was observed for the cylinders where the concrete surface was coated. The second part of this research evaluated the bond strength and development length of reinforcing steel coated with two types of CCCW coating materials (CCCW-B+C and CCCW-C+D) using a modified pull-out test method. A self-reacting inverted T-shaped beam was designed to avoid compression in the concrete surrounding the reinforcing steel. Steel reinforcing bars were embedded along the web portion of the T-beam with various embedded lengths and were staggered side by side. In total, six T-beams were fabricated and each beam contained 8 samples. Both short-term (7 days) and long-term (3 months) effects of water curing were evaluated. The reinforcing steel bars coated with CCCW-B+C demonstrated a higher bond strength than did samples coated with CCCW-C+D. However, the bond strengths of samples with coating materials

  13. Corrosion Resistant Cladding by YAG Laser Welding in Underwater Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Tsutomi Kochi; Toshio Kojima; Suemi Hirata; Ichiro Morita; Katsura Ohwaki

    2002-07-01

    It is known that stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) will occur in nickel-base alloys used in Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) and Internals of nuclear power plants. A SCC sensitivity has been evaluated by IHI in each part of RPV and Internals. There are several water level instrumentation nozzles installed in domestic BWR RPV. In water level instrumentation nozzles, 182 type nickel-base alloys were used for the welding joint to RPV. It is estimated the SCC potential is high in this joint because of a higher residual stress than the yield strength (about 400 MPa). This report will describe a preventive maintenance method to these nozzles Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) and welds by a corrosion resistant cladding (CRC) by YAG Laser in underwater environment (without draining a reactor water). There are many kinds of countermeasures for SCC, for example, Induction Heating Stress Improvement (IHSI), Mechanical Stress Improvement Process (MSIP) and so on. A YAG laser CRC is one of them. In this technology a laser beam is used for heat source and irradiated through an optical fiber to a base metal and SCC resistant material is used for welding wires. After cladding the HAZ and welds are coated by the corrosion resistant materials so their surfaces are improved. A CRC by gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) in an air environment had been developed and already applied to a couple of operating plants (16 Nozzles). This method was of course good but it spent much time to perform because of an installation of some water-proof working boxes to make a TIG-weldability environment. CRC by YAG laser welding in underwater environment has superior features comparing to this conventional TIG method as follows. At the viewpoint of underwater environment, (1) an outage term reduction (no drainage water). (2) a radioactive exposure dose reduction for personnel. At that of YAG laser welding, (1) A narrower HAZ. (2) A smaller distortion. (3) A few cladding layers. A YAG laser CRC test in underwater

  14. Soil wettability, moisture status and CO2 flux in a long term drought and warming simulation experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbanek, Emilia; Bösken, Janina; Titema, Albert; Nunez Pastrana, David; Emmett, Bridget

    2014-05-01

    Current climatic predictions include altered rainfall patterns and increased temperatures which in consequence can enhance the development of soil water repellency (SWR; i.e. hydrophobicity). Soils may become more severely water-repellent or SWR may spread into the environments where it has not been observed before. As the soil moisture dynamics, including restricted infiltration and uneven distribution of water is severely altered in water-repellent soils, so might be the decomposition of organic matter and overall exchange of gases like CO2 between the soil and the atmosphere. Long-term climatic simulation study has been conducted for over a decade at upland heathland sites in Oldebroek (Netherlands) and in Clocaenog (UK) [1]. At each site nine 20 m2-large plots were selected and each three were subjected to: a drought effect created by a rainfall exclusion using an automatic self retracting waterproof curtains; a warming effect using a self retracting curtains reflecting infrared radiation overnight, and control plots. The soil at the sites was a peaty podzol and sandy podzol both highly prone to soil water repellency development. The sites were constantly monitored since the start of the experiment and the range of meteorological and environmental measurements included for example: soil moisture, temperature, vegetation and root zone changes, soil CO2 flux. The observations of soil moisture content have shown that the soil moisture did not recover to the original values in the drought system even after the rainfall exclusion has been stopped for winter time, suggesting the development of soil water repellency [2]. The severe changes in moisture dynamics have also significantly affected the soil CO2 flux. The aim of the study was to investigate whether the long-term drought and warming treatments have any effect on the severity and persistence of SWR and how far the moisture changes and the SWR altered the CO2 flux from these soils. The measurements of the SWR

  15. Characterization of antimicrobial substances produced by Enterococcus faecalis MRR 10-3, isolated from the uropygial gland of the hoopoe (Upupa epops).

    PubMed

    Martín-Platero, Antonio M; Valdivia, Eva; Ruíz-Rodríguez, Magdalena; Soler, Juan J; Martín-Vivaldi, Manuel; Maqueda, Mercedes; Martínez-Bueno, Manuel

    2006-06-01

    The uropygial gland (preen gland) is a holocrine secretory gland situated at the base of the tail in birds which produces a hydrophobic fatty secretion. In certain birds, such as the hoopoe, Upupa epops, the composition of this secretion is influenced by both seasonal and sexual factors, becoming darker and more malodorous in females and in their nestlings during the nesting phase. The secretion is spread throughout the plumage when the bird preens itself, leaving its feathers flexible and waterproof. It is also thought to play a role in defending the bird against predators and parasites. We have isolated from the uropygial secretion of a nestling a bacterium that grows in monospecific culture which we have identified unambiguously by phenotypic and genotypic means as Enterococcus faecalis. The strain in question produces antibacterial substances that are active against all gram-positive bacteria assayed and also against some gram-negative strains. Its peptide nature identifies it as a bacteriocin within the group known as enterocins. Two peptides were purified to homogeneity (MR10A and MR10B), and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (mass spectrometry) analysis showed masses of 5201.58 and 5207.7 Da, respectively. Amino acid sequencing of both peptides revealed high similarity with enterocin L50A and L50B (L. M. Cintas, P. Casaus, H. Holo, P. E. Hernández, I. F. Nes, and L. S. Håvarstein, J. Bacteriol. 180:1988-1994, 1998). PCR amplification of total DNA from strain MRR10-3 with primers for the L50A/B structural genes and sequencing of the amplified fragment revealed almost identical sequences, except for a single conservative change in residue 38 (Glu-->Asp) in MR10A and two changes in residues 9 (Thr-->Ala) and 15 (Leu-->Phe) in MR10B. This is the first time that the production of bacteriocins by a bacterium isolated from the uropygial gland has been described. The production of these broad-spectrum antibacterial substances by an

  16. Soils of the southwestern part of the Dzhulukul Depression in the Altai Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopp, N. V.

    2015-06-01

    Soils of the southwestern part of the Dzhulukul Depression in Ulagan district of the Altai Republic have been studied. They belong to two soil divisions: Al-Fe-humus soils (with various types of podburs) and iron-metamorphic soils (rzhavozems). The soils within the eluvial part of the studied catena—iron-illuvial soddy podburs—are developed from the residuum of magmatic and metamorphic rocks with high (up to 80 vol %) content of gravels and coarse rock fragments. Their high porosity favors downward migration and precipitation of humus-iron compounds on the surface of gravels and mineral grains in the illuvial horizon. The soils of the accumulative part of the catena—permafrost-affected raw-humus pod-burs and gleyic podburs)—are developed from moraine deposits of loamy-sandy texture with up to 30 vol % of gravels. In these soils, the features of the Al-Fe-humus migration are weakly pronounced; the soils are underlain by the waterproof frozen horizon (permafrost), have high humus content, and have thixotropic properties in the lower horizons. Their reaction is slightly acid to neutral, and their base saturation is up to 80%. These characteristics do not meet the criteria of podburs as defined in the new Russian soil classification system. Their origin may be related to the local mixing of weathering products of different bedrock materials, including magmatic, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks during the deposition of moraine sediments. Iron-metamorphic soils (rzhavozems) are formed on convex parts of slopes from the residuum and colluvial derivatives of magmatic and metamorphic rocks (granite, metamorphic slates, red-colored sandstone, etc.). A distinctive feature of these soils is their ocherous-brown color and a considerable content of gravels in the entire profile. The chemical properties of rzhavozems resemble those of the Al-Fe-humus soils of automorphic positions: acid and slightly acid reaction, low base saturation, and a relatively high content of

  17. The fur of mammals in exposed environments; do crypsis and thermal needs necessarily conflict? The polar bear and marsupial koala compared.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Terence J; Webster, Koa N; Maloney, Shane K

    2014-02-01

    The furs of mammals have varied and complex functions. Other than for thermoregulation, fur is involved in physical protection, sensory input, waterproofing and colouration, the latter being important for crypsis or camouflage. Some of these diverse functions potentially conflict. We have investigated how variation in cryptic colouration and thermal features may interact in the coats of mammals and influence potential heat inflows from solar radiation, much of which is outside the visible spectral range. The coats of the polar bear (Ursus maritimus) and the marsupial koala (Phascolarctus cinereus) have insulative similarities but, while they feature cryptic colouration, they are of contrasting colour, i.e. whitish and dark grey. The reflectance of solar radiation by coats was measured across the full solar spectrum using a spectroradiometer. The modulation of incident solar radiation and resultant heat flows in these coats were determined at a range of wind speeds by mounting them on a heat flux transducer/temperature-controlled plate apparatus in a wind tunnel. A lamp with a spectral distribution of radiation similar to the solar spectrum was used as a proxy for the sun. Crypsis by colour matching was apparent within the visible spectrum for the two species, U. maritimus being matched against snow and P. cinereus against Eucalyptus forest foliage. While reflectances across the full solar spectrum differed markedly, that of U. maritimus being 66 % as opposed to 10 % for P. cinereus, the heat influxes from solar radiation reaching the skin were similar. For both coats at low wind speed (1 m s(-1)), 19 % of incident solar radiation impacted as heat at the skin surface; at higher wind speed (10 m s(-1)) this decreased to approximately 10 %. Ursus maritimus and P. cinereus have high and comparable levels of fur insulation and although the patterns of reflectance and depths of penetrance of solar radiation differ for the coats, the considerable insulation limited the

  18. DUCKS: Low cost thermal monitoring units for near-vent deployment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, A.; Pirie, D.; Horton, K.; Garbeil, H.; Pilger, E.; Ramm, H.; Hoblitt, R.; Thornber, C.; Ripepe, M.; Marchetti, E.; Poggi, P.

    2005-01-01

    During 1999 we designed and tested a thermal monitoring system to provide a cheap, robust, modular, real-time system capable of surviving the hostile conditions encountered proximal to active volcanic vents. In November 2000 the first system was deployed at Pu'u 'O'o (Kilauea, Hawai'i) to target persistently active vents. Aside from some minor problems, such as sensor damage due to tampering, this system remained operational until January 2004. The success of the prototype system led us to use the blueprint for a second installation at Stromboli (Aeolian Islands, Italy). This was deployed, dug into a bomb-proof bunker, during May 2002 and survived the April 2003 paroxysmal eruption despite being located just 250 m from the vent. In both cases, careful waterproofing of connectors and selection of suitable protection has prevented water damage and corrosion in the harsh atmosphere encountered at the crater rim. The Pu'u 'O'o system cost ???US$10,000 and comprises four modules: sensors, transmission and power hub, repeater station and reception site. The sensor component consists of three thermal infrared thermometers housed in Pelican??? cases fitted with Germanium-Arsenide-Selenium windows. Two 1?? field of view (FOV) sensors allow specific vents to be targeted and a 60?? FOV sensor provides a crater floor overview. A hard wire connection links to a Pelican???-case-housed microprocessor, modem and power module. From here data are transmitted, via a repeater site, to a dedicated PC at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory. Here data are displayed with a delay of ???3 s between acquisition and display. The modular design allows for great flexibility. At Stromboli, 1?? and 15?? FOV sensor modules can be switched depending changes in activity style and crater geometry. In addition a direct line of site to the Stromboli reception center negates the repeater site requirement, reducing the cost to US$5500 for a single sensor system. We have also constructed self-contained units

  19. SoundProof: A Smartphone Platform for Wireless Monitoring of Wildlife and Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukac, M.; Monibi, M.; Lane, M. L.; Howell, L.; Ramanathan, N.; Borker, A.; McKown, M.; Croll, D.; Terschy, B.

    2011-12-01

    We are developing an open-source, low-cost wildlife and environmental monitoring solution based on Android smartphones. Using a smartphone instead of a traditional microcontroller or single board computer has several advantages: smartphones are single integrated devices with multiple radios and a battery; they have a robust software interface which enables customization; and are field-tested by millions of users daily. Consequently, smartphones can improve the cost, configurability, and real-time access to data for environmental monitoring, ultimately replacing existing monitoring solutions which are proprietary, difficult to customize, expensive, and require labor-intensive maintenance. While smartphones can radically change environmental and wildlife monitoring, there are a number of technical challenges to address. We present our smartphone-based platform, SoundProof, discuss the challenges of building an autonomous system based on Android phones, and our ongoing efforts to enable environmental monitoring. Our system is built using robust off-the-shelf hardware and mature open-source software where available, to increase scalability and ease of installation. Key features include: * High-quality acoustic signal collection from external microphones to monitor wildlife populations. * Real-time data access, remote programming, and configuration of the field sensor via wireless cellular or WiFi channels, accessible from a website. * Waterproof packaging and solar charger setup for long-term field deployments. * Rich instrumentation of the end-to-end system to quickly identify and debug problems. * Supplementary mesh networking system with long-range wireless antennae to provide coverage when no cell network is available. We have deployed this system to monitor Rufous Crowned Sparrows on Anacapa Island, Chinese Crested Turns on the Matsu Islands in Taiwan, and Ashy Storm Petrels on South East Farallon Island. We have testbeds at two UC Natural Reserves to field

  20. Behavioral Dynamics in Swimming: The Appropriate Use of Inertial Measurement Units

    PubMed Central

    Guignard, Brice; Rouard, Annie; Chollet, Didier; Seifert, Ludovic

    2017-01-01

    fundamental and mandatory steps to follow for accurate results with IMUs, from data acquisition (e.g., waterproofing procedures) to interpretation (e.g., drift correction). PMID:28352243

  1. A graphite calorimeter for absolute measurements of absorbed dose to water: application in medium-energy x-ray filtered beams.

    PubMed

    Pinto, M; Pimpinella, M; Quini, M; D'Arienzo, M; Astefanoaei, I; Loreti, S; Guerra, A S

    2016-02-21

    The Italian National Institute of Ionizing Radiation Metrology (ENEA-INMRI) has designed and built a graphite calorimeter that, in a water phantom, has allowed the determination of the absorbed dose to water in medium-energy x-rays with generating voltages from 180 to 250 kV. The new standard is a miniaturized three-bodies calorimeter, with a disc-shaped core of 21 mm diameter and 2 mm thickness weighing 1.134 g, sealed in a PMMA waterproof envelope with air-evacuated gaps. The measured absorbed dose to graphite is converted into absorbed dose to water by means of an energy-dependent conversion factor obtained from Monte Carlo simulations. Heat-transfer correction factors were determined by FEM calculations. At a source-to-detector distance of 100 cm, a depth in water of 2 g cm(-2), and at a dose rate of about 0.15 Gy min(-1), results of calorimetric measurements of absorbed dose to water, D(w), were compared to experimental determinations, D wK, obtained via an ionization chamber calibrated in terms of air kerma, according to established dosimetry protocols. The combined standard uncertainty of D(w) and D(wK) were estimated as 1.9% and 1.7%, respectively. The two absorbed dose to water determinations were in agreement within 1%, well below the stated measurement uncertainties. Advancements are in progress to extend the measurement capability of the new in-water-phantom graphite calorimeter to other filtered medium-energy x-ray qualities and to reduce the D(w) uncertainty to around 1%. The new calorimeter represents the first implementation of in-water-phantom graphite calorimetry in the kilovoltage range and, allowing independent determinations of D(w), it will contribute to establish a robust system of absorbed dose to water primary standards for medium-energy x-ray beams.

  2. Performance of EVA-Based Membranes for SCL in Hard Rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holter, Karl Gunnar

    2016-04-01

    The bonded property of multi-layered sprayed concrete tunnel linings (SCL) waterproofed with sprayed membranes means that the constituent materials will be exposed to the groundwater without any draining or mechanically separating measures. Moisture properties of the sprayed concrete and membrane materials are therefore important in order to establish the system properties of such linings. Ethyl-vinyl-acetate based sprayed membranes exhibit high water absorption potential under direct exposure to water, but are found to be significantly less hygroscopic and exhibit lower sorptivity (water absorption rate) than sprayed concrete. This material behavior explains the relatively dry in situ condition of the membrane that was observed. Measured in situ moisture content levels of the membrane material in tunnel linings have been found to vary within the range of 30-40 % of the maximum water absorption potential, and show a decreasing trend over the first 4 years after construction has been completed. A model for the mechanical loading, moisture condition and thermal exposure of the membrane and the resulting realistic parameters to be tested is presented. Laboratory testing methods for the membrane materials are evaluated considering possible loads, moisture and freezing exposure. Material testing of membrane materials was conducted with preconditioning to realistic moisture contents and under different temperature conditions including relevant freezing temperatures for tunnel linings. The main effects of the in situ moisture condition of the tested membrane materials are favorable tensile strengths in the range of 1.1-1.5 MPa and low risk of freeze-thaw damage. The crack bridging capacity of the tested membranes is found to be sensitive to temperature. With membrane thicknesses in the range of 3-4 mm, crack bridging capacity up to 4-6 mm opening of the crack width at 23 °C and approximately 1 mm opening at -3 °C was measured for the tested membranes. No significant

  3. The demographic impact of extreme events: stochastic weather drives survival and population dynamics in a long-lived seabird.

    PubMed

    Frederiksen, M; Daunt, F; Harris, M P; Wanless, S

    2008-09-01

    1. Most scenarios for future climate change predict increased variability and thus increased frequency of extreme weather events. To predict impacts of climate change on wild populations, we need to understand whether this translates into increased variability in demographic parameters, which would lead to reduced population growth rates even without a change in mean parameter values. This requires robust estimates of temporal process variance, for example in survival, and identification of weather covariates linked to interannual variability. 2. The European shag Phalacrocorax aristotelis (L.) shows unusually large variability in population size, and large-scale mortality events have been linked to winter gales. We estimated first-year, second-year and adult survival based on 43 years of ringing and dead recovery data from the Isle of May, Scotland, using recent methods to quantify temporal process variance and identify aspects of winter weather linked to survival. 3. Survival was highly variable for all age groups, and for second-year and adult birds process variance declined strongly when the most extreme year was excluded. Survival in these age groups was low in winters with strong onshore winds and high rainfall. Variation in first-year survival was not related to winter weather, and process variance, although high, was less affected by extreme years. A stochastic population model showed that increasing process variance in survival would lead to reduced population growth rate and increasing probability of extinction. 4. As in other cormorants, shag plumage is only partially waterproof, presumably an adaptation to highly efficient underwater foraging. We speculate that this adaptation may make individuals vulnerable to rough winter weather, leading to boom-and-bust dynamics, where rapid population growth under favourable conditions allows recovery from periodic large-scale weather-related mortality. 5. Given that extreme weather events are predicted to become

  4. Underwater Near-Infrared Spectroscopy: Muscle Oxygen Changes in the Upper and Lower Extremities in Club Level Swimmers and Triathletes.

    PubMed

    Jones, B; Cooper, C E

    2016-01-01

    To date, measurements of oxygen status during swim exercise have focused upon systemic aerobic capacity. The development of a portable, waterproof NIRS device makes possible a local measurement of muscle hemodynamics and oxygenation that could provide a novel insight into the physiological changes that occur during swim exercise. The purpose of this study was to observe changes in muscle oxygenation in the vastus lateralis (VL) and latissimus dorsi (LD) of club level swimmers and triathletes. Ten subjects, five club level swimmers and five club level triathletes (three men and seven women) were used for assessment. Swim group; mean±SD=age 21.2±1.6 years; height 170.6±7.5 cm; weight 62.8±6.9 kg; vastus lateralis skin fold 13.8±5.6 mm; latissimus dorsi skin fold 12.6±3.7. Triathlete group; mean±SD=age 44.0±10.5 years; height 171.6±7.0 cm; weight 68.6±12.7 kg; vastus lateralis skin fold 11.8±3.5 mm; latissimus dorsi skin fold 11.2±3.1. All subjects completed a maximal 200 m freestyle swim, with the PortaMon, a portable NIR device, attached to the subject's dominant side musculature. ΔTSI% between the vastus lateralis and latissimus dorsi were analysed using either paired (2-tailed) t-tests or Wilcoxon signed rank test. The level of significance for analysis was set at p<0.05. No significant difference (p=0.686) was found in ΔTSI (%) between the VL and LD in club level swimmers. A significant difference (p=0.043) was found in ΔTSI (%) between the VL and LD in club level triathletes. Club level swimmers completed the 200 m freestyle swim significantly faster (p=0.04) than club level triathletes. Club level swimmers use both the upper and lower muscles to a similar extent during a maximal 200 m swim. Club level triathletes predominately use the upper body for propulsion during the same exercise. The data produced by NIRS in this study are the first of their kind and provide insight into muscle oxygenation changes during swim exercise which can indicate the

  5. A novel Multi-Fiber Optode sensor system (MuFO) for monitoring oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koop-Jakobsen, K.; Fischer, J.; Wenzhöfer, F.

    2012-04-01

    In the marine environment, dissolved oxygen concentrations often vary significantly spatially as well as temporally. Monitoring these variations is essential for our understanding of the biological and chemical processes controlling the oxygen dynamics in water columns and sediments. Such investigations require a high number of measuring points and a high temporal resolution. A Multi-Fiber Optode sensor system (MuFO) was designed to assess these requirements. The MuFO system simultaneously controls 100 fiber optodes enabling continuous monitoring of oxygen in 100 positions within a 5-10m radius. The measurements are based on quenching of an oxygen sensitive luminophore, which is immobilised at the end of each fiber optode. The optical oxygen measurements are based on lifetime-imaging, which are converted into oxygen concentrations using a multipoint calibration. At a constant temperature of 21C, the system overall had a mean accuracy of 1.3%, a precision of 0.2% air saturation, the average 90% response time was 16 seconds and the detection limit was 0.1% air saturation. The MuFO set-up was build into a waterproof titanium casing for marine field applications. The system is battery-powered and has a maximum operational capacity of 15 hours for continuous measurements. The MuFO system was recently used for various research tasks in the marine environment: Mounted on a lander, the in situ MuFO system was used for investigations of oxygen dynamics in marine water columns placing the fiber optodes in a vertical line on a 7m high pole. For studies of oxygen dynamics in marine wetland rhizospheres, the sensing ends of the fiber optodes were covered with a 50cm protective sleeve made from stainless steel tubing, and the sensors were manually pushed into the rhizosphere. For laboratory measurements of sediment oxygen demand, the MuFO system was used to simultaneously monitor the oxygen consumption in multiple sediment slurry incubations. The MuFO system proved to be a

  6. LakeNet: An Integrated Sensor Network for Environmental Sensing in Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seders, L. A.; Shea, C. A.; Lemmon, M. D.; Maurice, P. A.; Talley, J. W.

    2005-12-01

    Collection of field samples is an integral part of hydrobiogeochemical research, but most researchers must rely upon manual sampling or expensive automated samplers, both of which limit spatial and temporal resolution of data. Recent development of relatively inexpensive in situ sensors is making it possible to monitor an increasingly wider set of parameters in the field, with the potential for wireless data transmission and `intelligent' network control. At the University of Notre Dame, hydrogeologists, environmental engineers, and electrical engineers are collaborating on LakeNet, an embedded wireless sensor network that is currently being tested on-campus at St. Mary's Lake. Off-the-shelf temperature, dissolved oxygen, and pH probes are suspended from floating, waterproof sensor nodes that protect the sensitive electrical components. The individual probes are less expensive than those used in many existing systems, making the cost per sensor node comparatively small. Wireless transmission to relay stations and an embedded PC gateway enable scientists to interact with the network remotely to alter sampling patterns, download data, and analyze data trends using the gateway's recursive processing of raw data. Also important is the capability of LakeNet to function as a `smart' network in which each node is aware of the others and in-network computation detects change points in the data stream, thus triggering an altered sampling strategy in response to sensed events. We are currently working to incorporate a light sensor built in-house that would allow quantification of subsurface light intensities and to develop a range of additional custom-built sensors both to save expense and to allow a broader range of chemical and microbiologic parameters to be measured. Our ultimate goal is to build and deploy a relatively inexpensive network of sensors in lakes and wetlands, which will make it possible to study such issues as diurnal fluctuations in various hydrological and

  7. Road runoff management using over-the-shoulder infiltration: real-scale experimentation.

    PubMed

    Piguet, P; Parriaux, A; Bensimon, M

    2009-01-01

    the bituminous coating was in fact rather permeable. The best results were exhibited by the shoulder waterproofed with bentonitic geotextile, which allowed no water to penetrate. This material already proved to be very powerful in groundwater catchments. The authors thus proposed a combination of sodic-bentonite geotextile covered by a gravel and clay mixture. This would be the most efficient shoulder: it will convey all the runoff to infiltration slopes, thereby optimising its filtration, which in turn will enhance environmental conditions in the vicinity of roads.

  8. Tribute to R. G. Boutilier: skin colour and body temperature changes in basking Bokermannohyla alvarengai (Bokermann 1956).

    PubMed

    Tattersall, Glenn J; Eterovick, Paula C; de Andrade, Denis V

    2006-04-01

    In amphibians solar basking far from water sources is relatively uncommon since the highly permeable amphibian skin does not represent a significant barrier to the accompanying risk of losing water by evaporation. A South American frog, Bokermannohyla alvarengai (Bokermann 1956), however, spends a significant amount of the day exposed to full sun and relatively high temperatures. The means by which this frog copes with potentially high rates of evaporative water loss and high body temperatures are unknown. Thus, in this study, skin colour changes, body surface temperature, and evaporative water loss rates were examined under a mixture of field and laboratory conditions to ascertain whether changes in skin reflectivity play an important role in this animal's thermal and hydric balance. Field data demonstrated a tight correlation between the lightness of skin colour and frog temperature, with lighter frogs being captured possessing higher body temperatures. Laboratory experiments supported this relationship, revealing that frogs kept in the dark or at lower temperatures (20 degrees C) had darker skin colours, whereas frogs kept in the light or higher temperatures (30 degrees C) had skin colours of a lighter hue. Light exhibited a stronger influence on skin colour than temperature alone, suggesting that colour change is triggered by the increase in incident solar energy and in anticipation of changes in body temperature. This conclusion is corroborated by the observation that cold, darkly coloured frogs placed in the sun rapidly became lighter in colour during the initial warming up period (over the first 5 min), after which they warmed up more slowly and underwent a further, albeit slower, lightening of skin colour. Surprisingly, despite its natural disposition to bask in the sun, this species does not possess a ;waterproof' skin, since its rates of evaporative water loss were not dissimilar from many hylid species that live in arboreal or semi-aquatic environments

  9. Preen oil and bird fitness: a critical review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Rueda, Gregorio

    2017-02-23

    The uropygial gland is a holocrine complex exclusive to birds that produces an oleaginous secretion (preen oil) whose function is still debated. Herein, I examine critically the evidence for the many hypotheses of potential functions of this gland. The main conclusion is that our understanding of this gland is still in its infancy. Even for functions that are considered valid by most researchers, real evidence is scarce. Although it seems clear that preen oil contributes to plumage maintenance, we do not know whether this is due to a role in reducing mechanical abrasion or in reducing feather degradation by keratinophilic organisms. Evidence for a function against pathogenic bacteria is mixed, as preen oil has been demonstrated to act against bacteria in vitro, but not in vivo. Nor is it clear whether preen oil can combat pathogenic bacteria on eggshells to improve hatching success. Studies on the effect of preen oil against dermatophytes are very scarce and there is no evidence of a function against chewing lice. It seems clear, however, that preen oil improves waterproofing, but it is unclear whether this acts by creating a hydrophobic layer or simply by improving plumage structure. Several hypotheses proposed for the function of preen oil have been poorly studied, such as reduction of drag in flight. Similarly, we do not know whether preen oil functions as repellent against predators or parasites, makes birds unpalatable, or functions to camouflage birds with ambient odours. On the other hand, a growing body of work shows the important implications of volatiles in preen oil with regard to social communication in birds. Moreover, preen oil clearly alters plumage colouration. Finally, studies examining the impact of preen oil on fitness are lacking, and the costs or limitations of preen-oil production also remain poorly known. The uropygial gland appears to have several non-mutually exclusive functions in birds, and thus is likely to be subject to several

  10. Real-time Remote Data Online For Norris Geyser Basin in Yellowstone National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, J. E.; Lowenstern, J. B.; Clor, L.; Cervelli, P. F.; Allen, S. T.; Heasler, H.; Moloney, T.

    2010-12-01

    Perry, John, Lowenstern, Jacob, Cervelli, Peter, Clor, Laura, Heasler, Henry, Allen, Scott, Moloney, Tim During June 2010, ten 900MHz wireless temperature data loggers (nodes) were installed around the Norris Geyser Basin to monitor geothermal features, streams and soil temperatures. The loggers can provide near real-time updates on temperature variations within 0.2 deg C due to hydrothermal discharges or subsurface fluid migration. Each sensor node is programmed to measure the temperature every two minutes and automatically upload data to the base station computer daily. The hardware consists of a waterproof case containing an M5 logger (made by Marathon Products, Inc.®) with internal memory, lithium D-cell batteries and a 900 MHz, 1-W-transceiver and 5 meter long Teflon-coated probe with a thermistor sensor. Tethered stub or panel antennas are oriented to optimize signal strength to the base station near the Norris Museum. A 0.61 meter-long base-station antenna located 10m high provides signal to the furthest node over 850 meters away with most being “line-of-sight”. A 20-meter coaxial cable and lightning grounding wire connects the base-station antenna to an Ethernet-radio connected to the YNP local-area network. A server located 26-km north at Mammoth Hot Springs requests data at regular intervals (normally daily), archives the information, and then sends it to the USGS for further archiving and internet distribution. During periods of unusual hydrothermal behavior, data can be requested as needed, and it is possible to set user-programmable alarm limits for notification. The RF network is designed to monitor changes from three different sub-basins at Norris (Gray Lakes, Steamboat-Echinus and Porcelain Basin), the main Tantalus Creek drainage, and five individual thermal features (Constant, Porkchop, Steamboat and Echinus Geysers, and Opalescent Spring). The logger installed in Nuphar Lake provides ambient temperatures controlled solely by local

  11. Pioneering a Biobased UAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Block, Eli; Byemerwa, Jovita; Dispenza, Ross; Doughty, Benjamin; Gillyard, KaNesha; Godbole, Poorwa; Gonzales-Wright, Jeanette; Hull, Ian; Kannappan, Jotthe; Levine, Alexander; Nelakanti, Raman; Ruffner, Lydia; Shumate, Alaina; Sorayya, Aryo; Ugwu, Kyla; Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2015-01-01

    With the exponential growth of interest in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and their vast array of applications in both space exploration and terrestrial uses such as the delivery of medicine and monitoring the environment, the 2014 Stanford-Brown-Spelman iGEM team is pioneering the development of a fully biological UAV for scientific and humanitarian missions. The prospect of a biologically-produced UAV presents numerous advantages over the current manufacturing paradigm. First, a foundational architecture built by cells allows for construction or repair in locations where it would be difficult to bring traditional tools of production. Second, a major limitation of current research with UAVs is the size and high power consumption of analytical instruments, which require bulky electrical components and large fuselages to support their weight. By moving these functions into cells with biosensing capabilities – for example, a series of cells engineered to report GFP, green fluorescent protein, when conditions exceed a certain threshold concentration of a compound of interest, enabling their detection post-flight – these problems of scale can be avoided. To this end, we are working to engineer cells to synthesize cellulose acetate as a novel bioplastic, characterize biological methods of waterproofing the material, and program this material’s systemic biodegradation. In addition, we aim to use an “amberless” system to prevent horizontal gene transfer from live cells on the material to microorganisms in the flight environment. So far, we have: successfully transformed Gluconacetobacter hansenii, a cellulose-producing bacterium, with a series of promoters to test transformation efficiency before adding the acetylation genes; isolated protein bands present in the wasp nest material; transformed the cellulose-degrading genes into Escherichia coli; and we have confirmed that the amberless construct prevents protein expression in wild-type cells. In addition, as

  12. Pioneering a Biobased UAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Block, Eli; Byemerwa, Jovita; Dispenza, Ross; Doughty, Benjamin; Gillyard, KaNesha; Godbole, Poorwa; Gonzalez-Wright, Jeanette; Hull, Ian; Kannappan, Jotthe; Levine, Alexander; Nelakanti, Raman; Ruffner, Lydia; Shumate, Alaina; Sorayya, Aryo; Ugwu, Kyla; Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2015-01-01

    With the exponential growth of interest in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and their vast array of applications in both space exploration and terrestrial uses such as the delivery of medicine and monitoring the environment, the 2014 Stanford-Brown-Spelman iGEM team is pioneering the development of a fully biological UAV for scientific and humanitarian missions. The prospect of a biologically-produced UAV presents numerous advantages over the current manufacturing paradigm. First, a foundational architecture built by cells allows for construction or repair in locations where it would be difficult to bring traditional tools of production. Second, a major limitation of current research with UAVs is the size and high power consumption of analytical instruments, which require bulky electrical components and large fuselages to support their weight. By moving these functions into cells with biosensing capabilities - for example, a series of cells engineered to report GFP, green fluorescent protein, when conditions exceed a certain threshold concentration of a compound of interest, enabling their detection post-flight - these problems of scale can be avoided. To this end, we are working to engineer cells to synthesize cellulose acetate as a novel bioplastic, characterize biological methods of waterproofing the material, and program this material's systemic biodegradation. In addition, we aim to use an "amberless" system to prevent horizontal gene transfer from live cells on the material to microorganisms in the flight environment. So far, we have: successfully transformed Gluconacetobacter hansenii, a cellulose-producing bacterium, with a series of promoters to test transformation efficiency before adding the acetylation genes; isolated protein bands present in the wasp nest material; transformed the cellulose-degrading genes into Escherichia coli; and we have confirmed that the amberless construct prevents protein expression in wild-type cells. In addition, as part of our

  13. A tactical, permanent telemetered volcano monitoring station design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockhart, A. B.; LaFevers, M.; Couchman, M. R.

    2012-12-01

    The USGS-USAID Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (VDAP) designs, constructs and installs telemetered volcano-monitoring stations for use in developing countries, at a wide range of latitudes and elevations, weather and environmental conditions. The stations typically house seismometers, GPS and webcams, singly or in combination. They are frequently installed quickly during a volcanic crisis, but are expected to function over the long term as permanent stations. The primary design goal is for a simple, highly portable station that can be installed in less than a day, but not require maintenance until the natural end of battery life, usually 2-5 years. The station consists of a pair of aluminum boxes (43x46x71cm, approx.) placed on the ground facing each other, 2-3m apart, forming the lower part of a metal framework made of 2" pipe to mount solar panels and antennae. Vertical sections of 2" pipe, 3-4m long, are clamped to each end of both the boxes, the lower ends buried into cement-filled holes. This makes 4 masts on a rectangular footprint of 1m X 3-4m. Two horizontal crosspieces of 2" pipe 3-4m long are clamped across the masts. Solar panels are laid across the crosspieces, mounted with 2" angle aluminum extending from the high crosspiece to the low one. Relative height of the crosspieces controls the angle of the solar panels. The crosspieces can be lengthened to increase mounting space for additional solar panels. Inside the aluminum boxes, the radios and electronics are housed in plastic boxes. All external cables are protected by flexible aluminum conduit. Important elements of the design include: -Redundant dual solar power supplies of expandable capacity for loads from 1W to 10W or more. -Robust lightning protection afforded by grounded metal footlockers and framework, and a built-in common grounding point. -Strongly resistant to ice loads. -Waterproof, insect-proof plastic boxes for radios and electronics. -Aluminum boxes are easily fabricated, fit within

  14. Genes involved in thoracic exoskeleton formation during the pupal-to-adult molt in a social insect model, Apis mellifera

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The insect exoskeleton provides shape, waterproofing, and locomotion via attached somatic muscles. The exoskeleton is renewed during molting, a process regulated by ecdysteroid hormones. The holometabolous pupa transforms into an adult during the imaginal molt, when the epidermis synthe3sizes the definitive exoskeleton that then differentiates progressively. An important issue in insect development concerns how the exoskeletal regions are constructed to provide their morphological, physiological and mechanical functions. We used whole-genome oligonucleotide microarrays to screen for genes involved in exoskeletal formation in the honeybee thoracic dorsum. Our analysis included three sampling times during the pupal-to-adult molt, i.e., before, during and after the ecdysteroid-induced apolysis that triggers synthesis of the adult exoskeleton. Results Gene ontology annotation based on orthologous relationships with Drosophila melanogaster genes placed the honeybee differentially expressed genes (DEGs) into distinct categories of Biological Process and Molecular Function, depending on developmental time, revealing the functional elements required for adult exoskeleton formation. Of the 1,253 unique DEGs, 547 were upregulated in the thoracic dorsum after apolysis, suggesting induction by the ecdysteroid pulse. The upregulated gene set included 20 of the 47 cuticular protein (CP) genes that were previously identified in the honeybee genome, and three novel putative CP genes that do not belong to a known CP family. In situ hybridization showed that two of the novel genes were abundantly expressed in the epidermis during adult exoskeleton formation, strongly implicating them as genuine CP genes. Conserved sequence motifs identified the CP genes as members of the CPR, Tweedle, Apidermin, CPF, CPLCP1 and Analogous-to-Peritrophins families. Furthermore, 28 of the 36 muscle-related DEGs were upregulated during the de novo formation of striated fibers attached to the

  15. Time-Dependent Wetting Behavior of PDMS Surfaces with Bioinspired, Hierarchical Structures.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Himanshu; Schrader, Alex M; Lee, Dong Woog; Gallo, Adair; Chen, Szu-Ying; Kaufman, Yair; Das, Saurabh; Israelachvili, Jacob N

    2016-03-01

    Wetting of rough surfaces involves time-dependent effects, such as surface deformations, nonuniform filling of surface pores within or outside the contact area, and surface chemistries, but the detailed impact of these phenomena on wetting is not entirely clear. Understanding these effects is crucial for designing coatings for a wide range of applications, such as membrane-based oil-water separation and desalination, waterproof linings/windows for automobiles, aircrafts, and naval vessels, and antibiofouling. Herein, we report on time-dependent contact angles of water droplets on a rough polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surface that cannot be completely described by the conventional Cassie-Baxter or Wenzel models or the recently proposed Cassie-impregnated model. Shells of sand dollars (Dendraster excentricus) were used as lithography-free, robust templates to produce rough PDMS surfaces with hierarchical, periodic features ranging from 1 × 10(-7) to 1 × 10(-4) m. Under saturated vapor conditions, we found that in the short term (<1 min), the contact angle of a sessile water droplet on the templated PDMS, θ(SDT) = 140 ± 3°, was accurately described by the Cassie-Baxter model (predicted θ(SDT) = 137°); however, after 90 min, θ(SDT) fell to 110°. Fluorescent confocal microscopy confirmed that the initial reduction in θ(SDT) to 110° (the Wenzel limit) was primarily a Cassie-Baxter to Wenzel transition during which pores within the contact area filled gradually, and more rapidly for ethanol-water mixtures. After 90 min, the contact line of the water droplet became pinned, perhaps caused by viscoelastic deformation of the PDMS around the contact line, and a significant volume of water began to flow from the droplet to pores outside the contact region, causing θ(SDT) to decrease to 65° over 48 h on the rough surface. The system we present here to explore the concept of contact angle time dependence (dynamics) and modeling of natural surfaces provides insights

  16. Cuticular differences associated with aridity acclimation in African malaria vectors carrying alternative arrangements of inversion 2La

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Principal malaria vectors in Africa, An. gambiae and An. coluzzii, share an inversion polymorphism on the left arm of chromosome 2 (2La/2L+a) that is distributed non-randomly in the environment. Genomic sequencing studies support the role of strong natural selection in maintaining steep clines in 2La inversion frequency along environmental gradients of aridity, and physiological studies have directly implicated 2La in heat and desiccation tolerance, but the precise genetic basis and the underlying behavioral and physiological mechanisms remain unknown. As the insect cuticle is the primary barrier to water loss, differences in cuticle thickness and/or epicuticular waterproofing associated with alternative 2La arrangements might help explain differences in desiccation resistance. Methods To test that hypothesis, two subcolonies of both An. gambiae and An. coluzzii were established that were fixed for alternative 2La arrangements (2La or 2L+a) on an otherwise homosequential and shared genetic background. Adult mosquitoes reared under controlled environmental conditions (benign or arid) for eight days post-eclosion were collected and analyzed. Measurements of cuticle thickness were made based on scanning electron microscopy, and cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) composition was evaluated by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Results After removing the allometric effects of body weight, differences in mean cuticle thickness were found between alternative 2La karyotypes, but not between alternative environments. Moreover, the thicker cuticle of the An. coluzzii 2La karyotype was contrary to the known higher rate of water loss of this karyotype relative to 2L+a. On the other hand, quantitative differences in individual CHCs and overall CHC profiles between alternative karyotypes and environmental conditions were consistent with expectation based on previous physiological studies. Conclusions Our results suggest that alternative arrangements of the 2La inversion

  17. Field tests of a chemiresistor sensor for in-situ monitoring of vapor-phase contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, C.; McGrath, L.; Wright, J.

    2003-04-01

    An in-situ chemiresistor sensor has been developed that can detect volatile organic compounds in subsurface environmental applications. Several field tests were conducted in 2001 and 2002 to test the reliability, operation, and performance of the in-situ chemiresistor sensor system. The chemiresistor consists of a carbon-loaded polymer deposited onto a microfabricated circuit. The polymer swells reversibly in the presence of volatile organic compounds as vapor-phase molecules absorb into the polymer, causing a change in the electrical resistance of the circuit. The change in resistance can be calibrated to known concentrations of analytes, and arrays of chemiresistors can be used on a single chip to aid in discrimination. A waterproof housing was constructed to allow the chemiresistor to be used in a variety of media including air, soil, and water. The integrated unit, which can be buried in soils or emplaced in wells, is connected via cable to a surface-based solar-powered data logger. A cell-phone modem is used to automatically download the data from the data logger on a periodic basis. The field tests were performed at three locations: (1) Edwards Air Force Base, CA; (2) Nevada Test Site; and (3) Sandia's Chemical Waste Landfill near Albuquerque, NM. The objectives of the tests were to evaluate the ruggedness, longevity, operation, performance, and engineering requirements of these sensors in actual field settings. Results showed that the sensors could be operated continuously for long periods of time (greater than a year) using remote solar-powered data-logging stations with wireless telemetry. The sensor housing, which was constructed of 304 stainless steel, showed some signs of corrosion when placed in contaminated water for several months, but the overall integrity was maintained. The detection limits of the chemiresistors were generally found to be near 0.1% of the saturated vapor pressure of the target analyte in controlled laboratory conditions (e

  18. An innovative method to evaluate the suture compliance in sealing the surgical wound lips

    PubMed Central

    Saleh, Farid; Palmieri, Beniamino; Lodi, Danielle; Al-Sebeih, Khalid

    2008-01-01

    Background and aim: The increasing number of surgical procedures performed with local anesthesia, followed by immediate patient discharge from the hospital, emphasizes the need for a tight waterproof suture that is capable of maintaining its tensile strength in the postoperative phase when the wound tumescence, edema due to the anesthetic drug, and surgical trauma disappear. Moreover, the issue of having an accurate surgical wound closure is very relevant in vivo in order to prevent hemorrhage and exogenous microbial infections. This study aimed at designing a new a lab technique that could be used for evaluating the best surgical material. Using such a technique, we compared the wound-lip-sealing properties of three commonly-used suture threads, namely polyurethane, polypropylene, and polyamide. Materials and methods: The mechanical properties of same-size suture threads made from polyurethane, polypropylene, and polyamide, were compared in order to define the one that possess the best elastic properties by being able to counteract the tension-relaxation process in the first 12 hours following surgery. The tension holding capacity of the suture materials was measured in both in vivo and in vitro experiments. The surface area of the scar associated with the three different suture threads was measured and compared, and the permeability of the three different suture threads was assessed at 0 minute, 2 minute, 4 minute, 6 minute, and 8 minute- interval. Results: Results showed that polyurethane suture threads had significantly (P < 0.05) better tensile strength, elongation endurance before breakage, and better elasticity coefficient as compared to polypropylene and polyamide suture threads. Moreover, polyurethane suture threads were significantly (P < 0.05) more impermeable as compared to the other two suture thread types (polypropylene and polyamide). This impermeability was also associated with a tighter wound-lip-sealing ability, and with significantly (P < 0

  19. Direct burial and vault emplacement data quality comparison at Dotson Ranch, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaudoin, B. C.; Aderhold, K.; Anderson, K.; Pfeifer, M.; Parker, T.; Miller, P. E.; Slad, G. W.; Reusch, A.

    2013-12-01

    We compare the data quality of two emplacement methods for portable broadband seismic stations, traditional vault and direct burial, using power spectral density analysis to examine temporal trends in noise, the ratio of signal-to-noise for local, regional and teleseismic earthquakes, coherence of both noise and earthquake signal recordings as well as overall data return. Sensor emplacement in the past has been overwhelmingly dominated by traditional vaults requiring more materials, manpower and time. A new technique of directly burying sensors drastically reduces the expense, personnel and time required to install a seismic station. Comparisons between the data quality of vault and direct buried sensors are needed to show that the time and money saved in emplacement does not downgrade the quality of the data collected. Two identical shallow vaults were installed adjacent to two identical direct burial sites at Dotson Ranch in San Antonio, New Mexico, in a deliberately-chosen noisy, wet and generally inhospitable location. These four sites each used a Guralp 3T sensor retrofitted with a waterproof lid and connector. Eight months of data recorded during 2012 from these four sensors are compared in order to determine if the emplacement method has a profound and systematic effect on data quality using several different metrics that mimic the actual use of seismic data in research. A posthole installation with a Nanometrics Trillium 120PH sensor was also installed at the site for a portion of the study and six months of data are included in the analysis. Overall the variability in data quality metrics used in this study is comparable between sites with differing emplacement method as it is between sites with the same emplacement method. Noise in the vaults is higher in amplitude during the transition from spring to summer as compared to the direct burials and is especially evident on the horizontal components at long periods between 20-170 seconds. Diurnal changes in

  20. Loss of function of the yellow-e gene causes dehydration-induced mortality of adult Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Noh, Mi Young; Kramer, Karl J; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam; Beeman, Richard W; Kanost, Michael R; Arakane, Yasuyuki

    2015-03-15

    control animals. These results support the hypothesis that TcY-e has a role not only in normal body pigmentation in T. castaneum adults but also has a vital waterproofing function.

  1. A Miniaturized Laser Heterodyne Radiometer for a Global Ground-Based Column Carbon Monitoring Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, E. L.; Melroy, H.; Miller, J. H.; McLinden, M. L.; Ott, L.; Holben, B. N.

    2012-12-01

    measurement. Aerosols induce a radiative effect that is an important modulator of regional carbon cycles. Changes in the diffuse radiative flux fraction (DRF) due to aerosol loading have the potential to alter the terrestrial carbon exchange.omponents of the mini-LHR. Clockwise from upper right: (1) collimation optics clamped to an AERONET sun tracker, (2) RF receiver box containing a bias-T, low pass filter, 4 RF amplifiers, an RF detector, and a printed circuit board (PCB) video amplifier, (3) mini-LHR housed in a waterproof case, (4) screen capture of the raw beat signal, (5) real-time scan of CO2 line.

  2. Design and fabrication of a 3-D printable counter-low/precipitation heat exchanger for use with a novel off-grid solid state refrigeration system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Sean Thomas

    Off-grid refrigeration technologies are currently limited to either vapor-compression cycles driven by photovoltaics or solar thermal absorption cycles. Rebound Technologies has recently developed a novel off-grid refrigeration system called Sunchill(TM) for agricultural applications in humid environments in the developing world. The Sunchill(TM) refrigeration system utilizes the daily high and low temperatures to drive a 24 hour refrigeration cycle. Cooling is provided by the dissolution of an endothermic salt, sodium carbonate decahydrate. Once the salt is solvated and cooling is delivered to freshly harvest crops, the system is "recharged" in a multi-step process that relies on a solar collector, an air-gap membrane unit and a heat exchanger. The heat exchanger, which is the focus of this thesis, is required to remove 36.6 MJ of heat over a twelve hour period in order to "recharge" the system. The heat exchanger is also required to transfer heat from a fresh water stream to a cold brine solution to generate the cold water necessary to submerse and cool harvested crops. To provide a sustainable technology to the target community, the feasibility of fabricating the heat exchanger via the low cost 3-D printing method of fused filament fabrication (FFF) was examined. This thesis presents the design, development, and manufacturing considerations that were performed in support of developing a waterproof, counter-flow, 3-D printable heat exchanger. Initial geometries and performance were modeled by constructing a linear thermal resistance network with truncating temperatures of 30°C (saturated brine temperature) and 18°C (average daily low temperature). The required surface area of the heat exchanger was found to be 20.46 m2 to remove the required 36.6 MJ of heat. Iterative print tests were conducted to arrive at the wall thickness, hexagon shape, and double wall structure of the heat exchanger. A laboratory-scale heat exchanger was fabricated using a Lulzbot Taz 4

  3. Management of long-term and reversible hysteroscopic sterilization: a novel device with nickel-titanium shape memory alloy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Female sterilization is the second most commonly used method of contraception in the United States. Female sterilization can now be performed through laparoscopic, abdominal, or hysteroscopic approaches. The hysteroscopic sterilization may be a safer option than sterilization through laparoscopy or laparotomy because it avoids invading the abdominal cavity and undergoing general anaesthesia. Hysteroscopic sterilization mainly includes chemical agents and mechanical devices. Common issues related to the toxicity of the chemical agents used have raised concerns regarding this kind of contraception. The difficulty of the transcervical insertion of such mechanical devices into the fallopian tubes has increased the high incidence of device displacement or dislodgment. At present, Essure® is the only commercially available hysteroscopic sterilization device being used clinically. The system is irreversible and is not effective immediately. Presentation of the hypothesis Our new hysteroscopic sterility system consists of nickel-titanium (NiTi) shape memory alloy and a waterproof membrane. The NiTi alloy is covered with two coatings to avoid toxic Ni release and to prevent stimulation of epithelial tissue growth around the oviducts. Because of the shape memory effect of the NiTi alloy, the device works like an umbrella: it stays collapsed at low temperature before placement and opens by the force of shape memory activated by the body temperature after it is inserted hysteroscopically into the interstitial tubal lumen. The rim of the open device will incise into interstitial myometrium during the process of unfolding. Once the device is fixed, it blocks the tube completely. When the patient no longer wishes for sterilization, the device can be closed by perfusing liquid with low temperature into the uterine cavity, followed by prospective hysteroscopic removal. After the device removal, the fallopian tube will revert to its physiological functions. Testing the

  4. DUCKS: Low cost thermal monitoring units for near-vent deployment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Andrew; Pirie, Dawn; Horton, Keith; Garbeil, Harold; Pilger, Eric; Ramm, Hans; Hoblitt, Rick; Thornber, Carl; Ripepe, Maurizio; Marchetti, Emanuele; Poggi, Pasquale

    2005-05-01

    During 1999 we designed and tested a thermal monitoring system to provide a cheap, robust, modular, real-time system capable of surviving the hostile conditions encountered proximal to active volcanic vents. In November 2000 the first system was deployed at Pu'u 'O'o (Kilauea, Hawai'i) to target persistently active vents. Aside from some minor problems, such as sensor damage due to tampering, this system remained operational until January 2004. The success of the prototype system led us to use the blueprint for a second installation at Stromboli (Aeolian Islands, Italy). This was deployed, dug into a bomb-proof bunker, during May 2002 and survived the April 2003 paroxysmal eruption despite being located just 250 m from the vent. In both cases, careful waterproofing of connectors and selection of suitable protection has prevented water damage and corrosion in the harsh atmosphere encountered at the crater rim. The Pu'u 'O'o system cost ˜US10,000 and comprises four modules: sensors, transmission and power hub, repeater station and reception site. The sensor component consists of three thermal infrared thermometers housed in Pelican™ cases fitted with Germanium-Arsenide-Selenium windows. Two 1° field of view (FOV) sensors allow specific vents to be targeted and a 60° FOV sensor provides a crater floor overview. A hard wire connection links to a Pelican™-case-housed microprocessor, modem and power module. From here data are transmitted, via a repeater site, to a dedicated PC at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory. Here data are displayed with a delay of ˜3 s between acquisition and display. The modular design allows for great flexibility. At Stromboli, 1° and 15° FOV sensor modules can be switched depending changes in activity style and crater geometry. In addition a direct line of site to the Stromboli reception center negates the repeater site requirement, reducing the cost to US5500 for a single sensor system. We have also constructed self-contained units

  5. Acute, 2-week, and 13-week inhalation toxicity studies on dimethylethoxysilane vapor in Fischer 344 rats.

    PubMed

    Dodd, D E; Stuart, B O; Rothenberg, S J; Kershaw, M; Mann, P C; James, J T; Lam, C W

    1994-01-01

    Dimethylethoxysilane (DMES), a volatile liquid, is used by NASA to waterproof the heat-protective silica tiles and blankets on the Space Shuttle. Acute, 2-wk, and 13-wk inhalation exposures to DMES vapor were conducted in male and female Fischer 344 rats. In the acute study, rats were exposed to 4000, 2000, 1000, 500, or 0 (control) ppm DMES for 4 h and observed for 14 days. There were no deaths. Narcosis and ataxia were observed in rats of the two highest concentrations only. These signs disappeared within 1 h following exposure. There were no DMES-related gross or microscopic tissue lesions in rats of all exposure groups. In the 2-wk study, rats were exposed for 6 h/day, 5 days/wk to 3000, 1000, 300, 100, or 0 ppm DMES. During exposure, narcosis was observed in rats of the 3000 and 1000 ppm groups. There was a mild decrease in body weight gain in rats of the 3000 ppm group. A decrease in platelet count, an increase in bile acids, and reduced weights of the thymus, testis, and liver were observed in rats of the 3000 ppm group. Microscopically, hypospermatogenesis and spermatid giant cells were observed in the seminiferous tubules of the testes of rats exposed to 3000 ppm DMES. In the 13-wk study, rats were exposed 6 h/day, 5 days/wk to 2000, 600, 160, 40, or 0 ppm DMES. During exposure, rats of the 2000 ppm group exhibited mild narcosis and loss of startle reflex. Recovery from these central nervous system signs was rapid. Body weights were mildly decreased for rats of the 2000 ppm group. There were no exposure-related effects in hematology, serum chemistry, or urinalysis. Female rats of the 2000 ppm group had delayed estrous cycles (6 days compared to 5 days in control rats). Noteworthy organ weight changes in rats of the 2000 ppm group included decreases in thymus, liver, and testicular weights; however, pathologic lesions were observed in the testes only. Sperm motility, epididymal sperm count, and testicular spermatid count were dramatically reduced

  6. Mathematical numeric models for assessing the groundwater pollution from Sanitary landfills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Vasil; Stoyanov, Nikolay; Sotinev, Petar

    2014-05-01

    Landfills are among the most common sources of pollution in ground water. Their widespread deployment, prolonged usage and the serious damage they cause to all of the elements of the environment are the reasons, which make the study of the problem particularly relevant. Most dangerous of all are the open dumps used until the middle of the twentieth century, from which large amounts of liquid emissions flowed freely (landfill infiltrate). In recent decades, the problem is solved by the construction of sanitary landfills in which they bury waste or solid residue from waste utilization plants. The bottom and the sides of the sanitary landfills are covered with a protective waterproof screen made of clay and polyethylene and the landfill infiltrate is led outside through a drainage system. This method of disposal severely limits any leakage of gas and liquid emissions into the environment and virtually eliminates the possibility of contamination. The main topic in the conducted hydrogeological study was a quantitative assessment of groundwater pollution and the environmental effects of re-landfilling of an old open dump into a new sanitary landfill, following the example of the municipal landfill of Asenovgrad, Bulgaria. The study includes: 1.A set of drilling, geophysical and hydrogeological field and laboratory studies on: -the definition and designation of the spatial limits of the main hydrogeological units; -identification of filtration parameters and migration characteristics of the main hydrogeological units; -clarifying the conditions for the sustentation and drainage of groundwater; -determininng the structure of the filtration field; -identifying and assessing the size and the extent of groundwater contamination from the old open dump . 2.Mathematical numeric models of migration and entry conditions of contaminants below the bottom of the landfill unit, with which the natural protection of the geological environment, the protective effect of the engineering

  7. Utilisation of X-Ray computed microtomography for evaluation of iron sulphide distribution in roofing slate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souček, Kamil; Daněk, Tomáš; Vavro, Martin; Botula, Jiří

    2016-04-01

    Roofing slate represents a traditional natural stone used for centuries for roofing and other construction applications in various types of buildings. Quality roofing slate must be primarily splittable into large, thin and waterproof tiles. In addition, it must be stable in colour and resistant against weathering. The abundance of mineral phases that weather easily or minerals that are long-term unstable has the effect of reducing the durability of slates in exterior conditions. One of the most problematic rock components, which are in a larger or smaller extent present in almost all slates, are iron sulphides, such as pyrite, marcasite or pyrrhotite. Under common atmospheric conditions, these minerals tend to oxidise, which leads to the formation of limonite and sulphuric acid. As a consequence of the origin of red-brown Fe oxyhydroxides, the undesirable colour changes of the slate may occur. But the most serious problem which occurs during this process is the changes in volume. This can cause disintegration of slate depending on the form of the iron sulphide occurrence. The content and size distribution of iron sulphides in roofing slate is normally determined using the microscopic analysis in transmitted light, combined with the observation in reflected light. For quantitative determination of iron sulphides in slate, the X-Ray powder diffraction is also often used. The results of the microscopic and X-Ray analyses need to be mutually compared and should not differ fundamentally. This paper is focused on the assessing the possibility of application of the X-Ray computed microtomography (CT) as a new complementary technique enabling the analysis of content and size (volume) distribution of iron sulphides in roofing slate. The X-Ray CT study was conducted using an XT H 225 ST industrial micro-tomographic system made by Nikon Metrology NV. Studied samples were reconstructed using the CT Pro 3D software (Nikon Metrology NV). The visualisation and analysis software

  8. Wetting, superhydrophobicity, and icephobicity in biomimetic composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hejazi, Vahid

    Recent developments in nano- and bio-technology require new materials. Among these new classes of materials which have emerged in the recent years are biomimetic materials, which mimic structure and properties of materials found in living nature. There are a large number of biological objects including bacteria, animals and plants with properties of interest for engineers. Among these properties is the ability of the lotus leaf and other natural materials to repel water, which has inspired researchers to prepare similar surfaces. The Lotus effect involving roughness-induced superhydrophobicity is a way to design nonwetting, self-cleaning, omniphobic, icephobic, and antifouling surfaces. The range of actual and potential applications of superhydrophobic surfaces is diverse including optical, building and architecture, textiles, solar panels, lab-on-a-chip, microfluidic devices, and applications requiring antifouling from biological and organic contaminants. In this thesis, in chapter one, we introduce the general concepts and definitions regarding the wetting properties of the surfaces. In chapter two, we develop novel models and conduct experiments on wetting of composite materials. To design sustainable superhydrophobic metal matrix composite (MMC) surfaces, we suggest using hydrophobic reinforcement in the bulk of the material, rather than only at its surface. We experimentally study the wetting properties of graphite-reinforced Al- and Cu-based composites and conclude that the Cu-based MMCs have the potential to be used in the future for the applications where the wear-resistant superhydrophobicity is required. In chapter three, we introduce hydrophobic coating at the surface of concrete materials making them waterproof to prevent material failure, because concretes and ceramics cannot stop water from seeping through them and forming cracks. We create water-repellant concretes with CA close to 160o using superhydrophobic coating. In chapter four, experimental

  9. Adaptive prosthetics for the lower extremity.

    PubMed

    Carroll, K

    2001-06-01

    consider the economic benefits of asking for a waterproof leg for an older adult that he or she can use for more stability in the shower and that can go a long way toward preventing fracture and other injuries. There are economic considerations for a younger amputee, asking for an energy-storing foot or an adjustable ankle so that he or she can be more active and independent and probably avoid the health risks associated with depression, inactivity, or obesity. If all patients received a contoured, flexible, dynamic socket from the beginning, years of medical problems and treatment for injury to the residual limb could be avoided. The initial prosthetic prescription is probably the best opportunity the patient ever will have to get the adaptive prosthetics that can meet his or her needs best. It also establishes a precedent with the payer for quality prosthetic care and begins educating all payers about what prosthetic patients can and should have. Insurance companies may resist the idea of a second prosthesis or of specialized components that increase the cost of the initial prosthesis. Physicians, patients, and the multidisciplinary team can work together, however, to pursue the most complete prosthetic coverage possible. For the prosthetic user, it is the difference between being restored to a full and active life or sitting back and becoming a spectator.

  10. PCB concentrations in Pere Marquette River and Muskegon River watersheds, 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fogarty, Lisa R.

    2005-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl compounds (PCBs) are a class of209 individual compounds (known as congeners) for which there are no known natural sources. PCBs are carcinogenic and bioaccumulative compounds. For over 40 years, PCBs were manufactured in the United States. The flame resistant property of PCBs made them ideal chemicals for use as flame-retardants, and as coolants and lubricants in transformers and other electrical equipment. PCBs were also used in heating coils, carbonless paper, degreasers, varnishes, lacquers, waterproofing material, and cereal boxes. In addition, they were frequently used in the manufacturing of plastics, adhesives, and paints.During the manufacturing period of PCBs, these chemicals entered the environment though atmospheric release during manufacturing and burning of PCB products, leaks and spills, and improper disposal. Although PCB manufacturing was banned over 20 years ago, PCBs still enter the environment from hazardous waste sites, improper disposals of PCB-containing products, weathering of asphalt and other substances containing PCBs, burning of PCB containing products, leakage from old equipment, leaching from landfills, and release from contaminated sediments. PCBs do not readily break down in the environment, thus remain there for long periods of time. A small amount may remain dissolved in water but most adhere to organic particles and bottom sediments.In sufficient concentrations, PCBs affect human, wildlife, and aquatic health. PCBs accumulate in fatty tissues of animals and fish and are passed on to those that eat them. PCBs are animal teratogens and potentially carcinogenic. They can cause death of animals, fish, and birds; death or low growth rate of plants; shortened lifespan; reproductive problems; and lower fertility. Women who are exposed to high levels of PCBs may have babies with slightly lower birth weights and transfer the PCBs through the breast milk, which may affect the immune system and motor development of

  11. Simulating Lahars Using A Rotating Drum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neather, Adam; Lube, Gert; Jones, Jim; Cronin, Shane

    2014-05-01

    A large (0.5 m in diameter, 0.15 m wide) rotating drum is used to investigate the erosion and deposition mechanics of lahars. To systematically simulate the conditions occurring in natural mass flows our experimental setup differs from the common rotating drum employed in industrial/engineering studies. Natural materials with their typical friction properties are used, as opposed to the frequently employed spherical glass beads; the drum is completely water-proof, so solid/air and solid/liquid mixtures can be investigated; the drum velocity and acceleration can be precisely controlled using a software interface to a micro-controller, allowing for the study of steady, unsteady and intermediate flow regimes. The drum has a toughened glass door, allowing high-resolution, high-speed video recording of the material inside. Vector maps of the velocities involved in the flows are obtained using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The changes in velocity direction and/or magnitude are used to locate the primary internal boundaries between layers of opposite flow direction, as well as secondary interfaces between shear layers. A range of variables can be measured: thickness and number of layers; the curvature of the free surface; frequency of avalanching; position of the centre of mass of the material; and the velocity profiles of the flowing material. Experiments to date have focussed on dry materials, and have had a fill factor of approximately 0.3. Combining these measured variables allows us to derive additional data of interest, such as mass and momentum flux. It is these fluxes that we propose will allow insight into the erosion/deposition mechanics of a lahar. A number of conclusions can be drawn to date. A primary interface separates flowing and passive region (this interface has been identified in previous studies). As well as the primary interface, the flowing layer separates into individual shear layers, with individual erosion/deposition and flow histories. This

  12. Quadrotor helicopter for surface hydrological measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagano, C.; Tauro, F.; Porfiri, M.; Grimaldi, S.

    2013-12-01

    Surface hydrological measurements are typically performed through user-assisted and intrusive field methodologies which can be inadequate to monitor remote and extended areas. In this poster, we present the design and development of a quadrotor helicopter equipped with digital acquisition system and image calibration units for surface flow measurements. This custom-built aerial vehicle is engineered to be lightweight, low-cost, highly customizable, and stable to guarantee optimal image quality. Quadricopter stability guarantees minimal vibrations during image acquisition and, therefore, improved accuracy in flow velocity estimation through large scale particle image velocimetry algorithms or particle tracking procedures. Stability during the vehicle pitching and rolling is achieved by adopting large arm span and high-wing configurations. Further, the vehicle framework is composed of lightweight aluminum and durable carbon fiber for optimal resilience. The open source Ardupilot microcontroller is used for remote control of the quadricopter. The microcontroller includes an inertial measurement unit (IMU) equipped with accelerometers and gyroscopes for stable flight through feedback control. The vehicle is powered by a 3 cell (11.1V) 3000 mAh Lithium-polymer battery. Electronic equipment and wiring are hosted into the hollow arms and on several carbon fiber platforms in the waterproof fuselage. Four 35A high-torque motors are supported at the far end of each arm with 10 × 4.7 inch propellers. Energy dissipation during landing is accomplished by four pivoting legs that, through the use of shock absorbers, prevent the impact energy from affecting the frame thus causing significant damage. The data capturing system consists of a GoPro Hero3 camera and in-house built camera gimbal and shock absorber damping device. The camera gimbal, hosted below the vehicle fuselage, is engineered to maintain the orthogonality of the camera axis with respect to the water surface by

  13. Inducer Hydrodynamic Forces in a Cavitating Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skelley, Stephen E.

    2004-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center has developed and demonstrated a measurement device for sensing and resolving the hydrodynamic loads on fluid machinery. The device - a derivative of the six-component wind tunnel balance - senses the forces and moments on the rotating device through a weakened shaft section instrumented with a series of strain gauges. This rotating balance was designed to directly measure the steady and unsteady hydrodynamic loads on an inducer, thereby defining the amplitude and frequency content associated with operating in various cavitation modes. The rotating balance was calibrated statically using a dead-weight load system in order to generate the 6 x 12 calibration matrix later used to convert measured voltages to engineering units. Structural modeling suggested that the rotating assembly first bending mode would be significantly reduced with the balance s inclusion. This reduction in structural stiffness was later confirmed experimentally with a hammer-impact test. This effect, coupled with the relatively large damping associated with the rotating balance waterproofing material, limited the device s bandwidth to approximately 50 Hertz Other pre-test validations included sensing the test article rotating assembly built-in imbalance for two configurations and directly measuring the assembly mass and buoyancy while submerged under water. Both tests matched predictions and confirmed the device s sensitivity while stationary and rotating. The rotating balance was then demonstrated in a water test of a full-scale Space Shuttle Main Engine high-pressure liquid oxygen pump inducer. Experimental data was collected a scaled operating conditions at three flow coefficients across a range of cavitation numbers for the single inducer geometry and radial clearance. Two distinct cavitation modes were observed symmetric tip vortex cavitation and alternate-blade cavitation. Although previous experimental tests on the same inducer demonstrated two additional

  14. Surface assessment and modification of concrete using abrasive blasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millman, Lauren R.

    Composite systems are applied to concrete substrates to strengthen and extend the service life. Successful restoration or rehabilitation requires surface preparation prior to the application of the overlay. Surface coatings, waterproofing systems, and other external surface applications also require surface preparation prior to application. Abrasive blast media is often used to clean and uniformly roughen the substrate. The appropriate surface roughness is necessary to facilitate a strong bond between the existing substrate and overlay. Thus, surface modification using abrasive blast media (sand and dry ice), their respective environmental effects, surface roughness characterization prior to and after blasting, and the adhesion between the substrate and overlay are the focus of this dissertation. This dissertation is comprised of an introduction, a literature review, and four chapters, the first of which addresses the environmental effects due to abrasive blasting using sand, water, and dry ice. The assessment considered four response variables: carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, fuel and energy consumption, and project duration. The results indicated that for sand blasting and water jetting, the primary factor contributing to environmental detriment was CO22 emissions from vehicular traffic near the construction site. The second chapter is an analysis of the International Concrete Repair Institute's (ICRI) concrete surface profiles (CSPs) using 3-D optical profilometry. The primary objective was to evaluate the suitability of approximating the 3-D surface (areal) parameters with those extracted from 2-D (linear) profiles. Four profile directions were considered: two diagonals, and lines parallel and transverse to the longitudinal direction of the mold. For any CSP mold, the estimation of the 3-D surface roughness using a 2-D linear profile resulted in underestimation and overestimation errors exceeding 50%, demonstrating the inadequacy of 2-D linear profiles to

  15. Acute, 2-week, and 13-week inhalation toxicity studies on dimethylethoxysilane vapor in Fischer 344 rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodd, D. E.; Stuart, B. O.; Rothenberg, S. J.; Kershaw, M.; Mann, P. C.; James, J. T.; Lam, C. W.

    1994-01-01

    Dimethylethoxysilane (DMES), a volatile liquid, is used by NASA to waterproof the heat-protective silica tiles and blankets on the Space Shuttle. Acute, 2-wk, and 13-wk inhalation exposures to DMES vapor were conducted in male and female Fischer 344 rats. In the acute study, rats were exposed to 4000, 2000, 1000, 500, or 0 (control) ppm DMES for 4 h and observed for 14 days. There were no deaths. Narcosis and ataxia were observed in rats of the two highest concentrations only. These signs disappeared within 1 h following exposure. There were no DMES-related gross or microscopic tissue lesions in rats of all exposure groups. In the 2-wk study, rats were exposed for 6 h/day, 5 days/wk to 3000, 1000, 300, 100, or 0 ppm DMES. During exposure, narcosis was observed in rats of the 3000 and 1000 ppm groups. There was a mild decrease in body weight gain in rats of the 3000 ppm group. A decrease in platelet count, an increase in bile acids, and reduced weights of the thymus, testis, and liver were observed in rats of the 3000 ppm group. Microscopically, hypospermatogenesis and spermatid giant cells were observed in the seminiferous tubules of the testes of rats exposed to 3000 ppm DMES. In the 13-wk study, rats were exposed 6 h/day, 5 days/wk to 2000, 600, 160, 40, or 0 ppm DMES. During exposure, rats of the 2000 ppm group exhibited mild narcosis and loss of startle reflex. Recovery from these central nervous system signs was rapid. Body weights were mildly decreased for rats of the 2000 ppm group. There were no exposure-related effects in hematology, serum chemistry, or urinalysis. Female rats of the 2000 ppm group had delayed estrous cycles (6 days compared to 5 days in control rats). Noteworthy organ weight changes in rats of the 2000 ppm group included decreases in thymus, liver, and testicular weights; however, pathologic lesions were observed in the testes only. Sperm motility, epididymal sperm count, and testicular spermatid count were dramatically reduced

  16. Modeling Leptospirosis in Trinidad, West Indies: A Waterborne Zoonosis of Increasing Public Health Importance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vega, M. C.; Opadeyi, J.

    2012-12-01

    draining soils, percentage of imperfectly draining soils, percentage of impeded draining soils and mean annual rainfall. These covariables together with socio-economic data were used to set up the GWR models. Local model correlation (R^{2}) was 0.78, higher than the global correlation of 0.58 and there was found to be a clear spatial correlation between covariables and leptospirosis cases. Percentage of draining soils and topography were found to be significant (p<0.01 and 0.00) indicating spatial variability in the influence of these factors on the occurrence of leptospirosis in Trinidad communities. Composition of the soils and their lack of drainage may be an important factor influencing leptospirosis occurrence. Leptospires do not have a waterproof membrane therefore for their survival they must remain submersed in water. Previous studies have found leptospires to be associated with soils of high moisture and organic matter content.

  17. Strain gage installation and survivability on geosynthetics used in flexible pavements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Jeremy A.

    determine the variability of the data collected from gages with noticeable installation errors as compared to properly installed gages. Induced errors varied based on the parent geosynthetics material, but included excessive and minimal waterproofing, gage rotation, gage shift, excessive and minimal adhesive, and excessive and minimal adhesive impregnation loads. The results of this work indicated that minor errors in geotextile gage installation that are noticeable and preventable by the experienced installer have no statistical significance on the data recorded during the life span of geotextile gages; however the lifespan of the gage may be noticeably shortened by such errors. Geogrid gage installation errors were found to cause statistically significant changes in the data recorded from improper installations. The issue of gage survivability was analyzed using small scale test sections instrumented and loaded similarly to field conditions anticipated during traditional roadway construction. Five methods of protection were tested for both geotextile and geogrid including a sand blanket, inversion, semi-hemispherical PCV sections, neoprene mats, and geosynthetic wick drain. Based on this testing neoprene mats were selected to protect geotextile installed gages, and wick drains were selected to protect geogrid installed gages. These methods resulted in survivability rates of 73% and 100% in the full scale installation respectively. This research and documentation may be used to train technicians to install and calibrate geosynthetic mounted foil type strain gages. In addition, technicians should be able to install gages in the field with a high probability of gage survivability using the protection methods recommended.

  18. Reuse of residual sludge from stone-processing: differences and similarities between sludge coming from carbonate and silicate stones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Careddu, Nicola; Antonella Dino, Giovanna

    2015-04-01

    its recovery, after a proper treatment, mainly as: landfill waterproofing material; filler material for civil works; artificial soil for land rehabilitation and high value added products from carbonate rocks. Such "new products", obtained from the treatment of residual sludge, have to be certified not only on the basis of their technical and physical characteristics but also by means of appropriate chemical analyses to guarantee that the products are not polluted. The research will show a comparison between the characteristics of the two main sludge categories (similarities and differences), the environmental problems connected to sludge management, the potential applications for both the categories (CS and SS), highlighting the most promising ones (e.g., SS: artificial soil for land rehabilitation and filler material for civil works; CS: filler in high value added products as paper, rubber and paints), the problems connected to "new products" certification and selling, and some suggestions for executive protocols to boost their systematic recovery.

  19. Transmediterranean flights,in the edge of two centuries.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosentino, O.; Caballero, F.; Ibba, R.; Gerardi, G.; Cecchini, G.; Fernandez Abad, A.; Vazquez, M.

    Transmediterranean flights program goal is to perform stratospheric balloons flights carrying scientific/technological payloads at 40 Km altitude and approximate 38°N latitude.ASI and INTA continued the early ASI-CNES-INTA program with several stratospheric flights since 1993.The network comprises three stations located at Trapani-Milo (Italy),Palma de Mallorca and El Arenosillo(Spain). Nine successful transmediterranean crossings were performed in this program stage. Four new transmediterranean flights are scheduled for summer 2002 .These include astronomical,biological and technological experiments .Beside , three local flights will be performed at Trapani-Milo next summer. Technical tracking that encompasses telemetry,telecommand and localization uses allocated UHF band,in the old classical and the new Mini Telemetry configurations. Flight qualification of a S-band TM/TC equipment was realised ,using local flights, in 1997 and 1998.In summer 2002,a S band flight will be realised over the Mediterranean with the UHF telemetry as a backup. A summary of system requirements , that would assure state-of-the-art open stratospheric balloons flights is presented . When flying over the Iberian Peninsula , the time of land overflight diminishes , in direct relationship , with the balloon drift toward the South.A latitude control , applied in our case , should enhance the flight feasibility. Trajectory predictions,must incorporate radiosoundings of more places,to take into account several possibilities of descent.Also El Arenosillo soundings ,usually three days a week,should be increased ,in order to validate the new atmospheric models. Beside altitude control handled mainly by the ballast , in the future "boomerang" flights of a transmediterranean scale,opening/closing of the valves will be used. Active floating system,comb ined with waterproof electronic and experiment boxes and a minimal time of arrival to the gondola , become critical points in case of an unplanned

  20. Use and trade of bitumen in antiquity and prehistory: molecular archaeology reveals secrets of past civilizations

    PubMed Central

    Connan, J.

    1999-01-01

    Natural asphalt (or bitumen) deposits, oil seepage and liquid oil shows are widespread in the Middle East, especially in the Zagros mountains of Iran. Ancient people from northern Iraq, south-west Iran and the Dead Sea area extensively used this ubiquitous natural resource until the Neolithic period (7000 to 6000 BC). Evidence of earlier use has been recently documented in the Syrian desert near El Kown, where bitumen-coated flint implements, dated to 40,000 BC (Mousterian period), have been unearthed. This discovery at least proves that bitumen was used by Neanderthal populations as hafting material to fix handles to their flint tools. Numerous testimonies, proving the importance of this petroleum-based material in Ancient civilizations, were brought to light by the excavations conducted in the Near East as of the beginning of the century. Bitumen remains show a wide range of uses that can be classified under several headings. First of all, bitumen was largely used in Mesopotamia and Elam as mortar in the construction of palaces (e.g. the Darius Palace in Susa), temples, ziggurats (e.g. the so-called 'Tower of Babel' in Babylon), terraces (e.g. the famous 'Hanging Gardens of Babylon') and exceptionally for roadway coating (e.g. the processional way of Babylon). Since the Neolithic, bitumen served to waterproof containers (baskets, earthenware jars, storage pits), wooden posts, palace grounds (e.g. in Mari and Haradum), reserves of lustral waters, bathrooms, palm roofs, etc. Mats, sarcophagi, coffins and jars, used for funeral practices, were often covered and sealed with bitumen. Reed and wood boats were also caulked with bitumen. Abundant lumps of bituminous mixtures used for that particular purpose have been found in storage rooms of houses at Ra's al-Junayz in Oman. Bitumen was also a widespread adhesive in antiquity and served to repair broken ceramics, fix eyes and horns on statues (e.g. at Tell al-Ubaid around 2500 BC). Beautiful decorations with stones